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HANDUOLND 
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L'NTNT.RSITY OF 
TORONTO PRUSS 



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University of Toronto 



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The Literary Digest 



OC II iL ijj^ 



A REPOSITORY OF ^ 
CONTEMPORANEOUS THOUGHT 

AND RESEARCH 




■:■ ■■■■ AS PRESENTED IN THE ■:■ <■ 



Periodical Literature of the World. 



VOLUME XVI. 



JANUARY, i898, TO JUNE, i898 



FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, - - - Publishers 

}0 LAFAYETTE PLACE, NEW YORK 



■■•V 



^\-» 



The Literary Digest. 




VOLUME XVI. 

(FOR SIX MONTHS ENDING JUNH 2=,, 1898.) 



OF PERIODICALS REPRESENTED. 



Me. 



Advance, Chicago. 

Advertiser. Boston. 

Advertiser, Portland 

Age, New York'. 

Age-Herald, Birmingham, Ala. 

Alien and Neurologist, St. Louis. 

American, Baltimore. 

American, Nashville. 

American, Waterbury, Conn. 

American Antiquarian and Oriental jour- 
nal. Good Hope, 111. 

American Catholic Quarterly Review, Phila- 
delphia, 

American Chess Magazine, New York. 

American Fabian, New York. 

American Hebrew, New York. 

American Journal of Science, New Haven. 

American Machinist, New York. 

American Manufacturer, Philadelphia. 

American Monthly Review of Reviews, 
New York. 

American Naturalist, Philadelphia. 

American Wool and Cotton Reporter, Bos- 
ton. 

Anthony's Bulletin, New York. 

Appleton's Popular Science Monthly, New 
York. 

Architectural Review, Boston. 

Arena, Boston. 

Argus, Portland, Me. 

Army and Navy Journal, New York. 

Army and Navy Register, Washington. 

Art Interchange, New York. 

Atlantic Monthly, Boston. 

Banner, Nashville. 

Baptist Outlook, Indianapolis. 

Blade, Toledo. Ohio. 

Bookman, New York. 

Bo(jk Reviews, New York. 

Bradstreet's, New York. 

Call, Lincoln, Nebr. 

Call, Newark. 

Call, San Francisco. 

Capital, Topeka. 

Cassier's Magazine, New York. 

Catholic Citizen, Milwaukee. 

Catholic Mirror, Baltimore. 

Catholic Review. New York. 

Catholic Universe, Cleveland. 

Catholic World Magazine. New York. 

Caucasian, Raleigh, N. C. 

Central Christian Advocate, St. Louis. 

Central Presbyterian, Richmond. 

Chap- Book, Chicago. 

Christian Advocate, New York. 

Christian Advocate, Nashville. 

Christian Advocate, Pittsburg. 

Christian Advocate, Richmond. 

Christian Endeavor World, Boston. 

Christian Intelligencer, New York. 

Christian Observer. Louisville. 

Christian Register, Boston. 

Christian Work, New York. 

Chronicle, Augusta, Ga. 

Chrf»nicle. Chicago. 

Chrf)nicle, San Francisco. 

Chroniclc-Telegrai)h. Pittsburg. 

Church Economist, New York. 



Churchman, New York. 

Church Standard, Philadelphia. 

Church Union. New York. 

Citizen, Brooklyn. 

City and State, Philadelphia. 

Commercial, Louisville. 

Commercial Advertiser, New York. 

Coming Nation, Ruskin, Tenn. 

Congregationalist, Boston. 

Constitution, Atlanta. 

Cosmopolitan, New York. 

Courant, Hartford. 

Courier, Buffalo. 

Courier-Journal, Louisville. 

Criterion, New York. 

Critic, New York. 

Democrat and Chronicle, Rochester, N. Y. 

Dial, Chicago. 

Dispatch, Pittsburg. 

Dispatch, Richmond. 

Dispatch, St. Paul. 

Dixie, Atlanta. 

Dun's Review, New York. 

Eagle, Brooklyn. 

Electrical Engineer, New York. 

Electrical Review. New York. 

Electrical World, New York. 

Electricit}-, New York. 

Engineering and Mining Journal, New 

York. 
Engineering Magazine, New York. 
Engineering News, New York. 
Enquirer. Cincinnati. 
Episcopal Recorder, Philadelphia. 
Evangelical Messenger, Cleveland. 
Evangelist. New York. 
Evening Journal, New York. 
Evening Post, Chicago. 
Evening Post, New York. 
Evening Wisconsin, Milwaukee. 
Evening World, New York. 
Examiner, New York. 
Farmer's Sentinel, Chicago. 
Financier, New York. 
Fordham Monthly, Fordham, N. Y. 
Forum, New York. 
Fourth Estate, New York. 
Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly, New York. 
Freeman's Journal, New York. 
Free Press. Detroit. 
Friends' Intelligencer, Philadelphia. 
Globe, Atchison, Kans. 
(ilobe, Boston. 
Globe, St. Paul. 
Globe -Democrat, St. Louis. 
Harper's Magazine, New York. 
Harper's Weekly, New York. 
Hawkeye, Burlington, Iowa. 
Health Culture, New York. 
Health Magazine, New York. 
Hebrew Standard, New York. 
Herald, Baltimore. 
Herald, Boston. 
Herald, New York. 
Herald. Salt Lake City. 
Herald, Utica, N. Y. 
Herald and Presbyter, Cincinnati. 
Home Journal, New York. 
Home Magazine, Binghamton. 
Homiletic Review, New York. 



Humanitarian, New York. 

Independent, New York. 

Independent, Helena, Mont. 

Industrial World, Chicago. 

Inquirer, Philadelphia. 

Interior, Chicago. 

Inter Ocean, Chicago. 

International Evangel, St. Louis. 

International Journal of Ethics, Philadel- 
phia. 

Irish World. New York. 

Iron Trade Review. Cleveland. 

Jewish Chronicle, Boston. 

Jewish Messenger, New York. 

Journal. Boston. 

Journal, Chicago. 

Journal, Detroit. 

Journal, Indianapolis. 

Journal, Kansas City. 

Journal, Lansing. 

Journal, Lewiston, Me. 

Journal, Milwaukee. 

Journal, Minneapolis. 

Journal, New York. 

Journal, Providence. 

Journal, Syracuse. 

Journal and Messenger, Cincinnati. 

Journal of Commerce, New York. 

Journal of the American Society of Naval 
Engineers, 

Judge, New York. 

Justice, Wilmington, Del. 

Juvenile Instructor, Salt Lake City. 

Kingdom, Minneapolis. 

Kinsman, Salt Lake City. 

Ladies' Home Journal, Philadelphia. 

Leader, Cleveland. 

Ledger, Philadelphia. 

Ledger. Tacoma. 

Life, New York. 

Literary World, Boston. 

Literature, New York. 

Living Church, Chicago. 

Lutheran, Philadelphia. 

Lutheran World, York, Pa. 

Magazine of Art, New York. 

Mail and Express, New York. 

Manufacturer, Philadelphia. 

Manufacturers' Record, Baltimore. 

McClure's Magazine, New York. 

Medical News, Philadelphia. 

Medical Record, New York. 

Medical Times, New York. 

Medical World, Philadelphia. 

Menorah, New York. 

Merck's Report, New York. 

Methodist Protestant, Baltimore. 

Methodist Recorder, Pittsburg. 

Michigan Christian Advocate, Detroit. 

Missionary Review of the World, New York. 

Missouri World, Chillicothe. 

Modern Medicine, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Monist, Chicago. 

Monitor. San Francisco. 

Music. Chicago. 

Musical Record. Boston. 

Musician, Philadelphia. 

Nation, New York. 

National Druggist, St. Louis. 

National Single-Taxer. Minneapolis. 



I 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



8 



News. Baltimore. 
News, Buffalo. 
News, Chicago. 
News, Denver. 
News, Detroit. 
News, Indianapolis. 
News, Mobile. 
News, Newark. 

News and Courier, Charleston, S. C. 
News and Observer, Raleigh, N. C. 
News-Tribune, Detroit. 
Nonpareil, Council Bluffs, Iowa. 
North American, Philadelphia. 
North American Review, New York. 
North and West. Minneapolis. 
Northern Christian Advocate, Syracuse. 
Northwestern Christian Advocate, Chicago. 
Observer, New York. 
Ohio State Journal, Columbus. 
Open Court, Chicago. 
Oregonian, Portland. 
Osteopath, New York. 
Our Animal Friends, New York. 
Outlook, New York. 
Overland Monthly, San Francisco. 
People, New York. 
People's Health Journal, Chicago. 
Pharmaceutical Era, New York. 
Physical Review, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Picayune, New Orleans. 
Pilot, Boston. 
Plain Dealer, Cleveland. 
Poet Lore, Boston. 

Popular Astronomy, Northfield, Minn. 
Popular Science News, New York. 
Post, Charleston. 
Post, Cincinnati. 
Post, Denver. 
Post. Hartford. 
Post, Pittsburg. 
Post, San Francisco. 
Post, Washington. 
Post-Dispatch, St. Louis. 
Post-Express, Rochester. 
Post-Intelligencer, Seattle. Wash. 
Practical Process Worker, New York. 
Presbyterian and Reformed Review, Phila- 
delphia. 
Presbyterian Banner, Pittsburg. 
Presbyterian Journal, Philadelphia. 
Press, New York. 
Press. Philadelphia. 
Progressive Age, Minneapolis. 
Puck, New York. 
Railroad Gazette, New York. 
Railway and Engineering Review, Chicago. 
Railway World, New York. 
Ram's Horn, Chicago. 
Record, Chicago. 
Record, Philadelphia. 
Reform Advocate. Topeka. 
Register, Columbia, S. C. 
Register, Mobile. 
Republic. St. Louis. 
Republican, Denver. 
Republican, Springfield, Mass. 
Science, New York. 
Scientific American, New York. 
Scientific American Supplement, New York. 
Scimitar, Memphis. 
Scribner's Magazine. New York. 
Seminary Record. Hartford. 
Sentinel, Indianapolis. 
Sentinel, Milwaukee. 

Silver Knight and Watchman, Washington. 
Standard, Chicago. 
Standard-Union, Brookljm. 
Star, Washington. 
State, Columbia, S. C. 
Success, New York. 
Sun, Baltimore. 
Sun, New York. 
Textile World, Boston. 
Tid-Bits. New York. 
Times, Brooklyn. 
Times, Denver. 
Times, Kansas City. 
Times, Leavenworth, Kans. 
Times, Los Angeles. 
Times, New York. 
Times, Philadelphia. 
Times, Pittsburg. 



Times, Richmond. 

Times, Washington. 

Times-Democrat, New Orleans. 

Times-Herald, Chicago. 

Times-Union, Jacksonville. 

Tradesman, Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Transcript, Boston. 

Tribune, Chicago. 

Tribune, Detroit. 

Tribune, Minneapolis. 

Tribune, New York. 

Tribune, Salt Lake City. 

Tribune, Scranton. 

Twentieth Century, New York. 

Union Signal, Chicago. 

United Presbyterian, Pittsburg. 

Voice, New York. 

Watchman, Boston. 

Western Christian Advocate, Cincinnati. 

Western Electrician, Chicago. 

World, New York. 

World Herald, Omaha. 

Yale Review, New Haven. 

Yale Scientific Monthly, New Haven. 

Youth's Companion, Boston. 

Zion's Herald, Boston. 

ENGLISH. 
In the United Kingdom and Ireland. 

Academy, London. 

Admiralty and Horse Guards Gazette, Lon- 
don. 

Athenaeum, London. 

Author, London. 

Authors' Circular, London. 

Baptist, London. 

Black and White, London. 

Blackwood's Magazine, London. 

British Medical and Surgical Journal, Lon- 
don. 

British Medical Journal, i^.'>ndon. 

Catholic Weekly Register, London. 

Chapman's Magazine, London. 

Chess-Players' Chronicle, London. 

Christian Leader, Glasgow. 

Christian World, London. 

Chronicle, London. 

Chronicle, Newcastle. 

Civil and Military Gazette, London. 

Clarion, London. 

Contemporary^ Review, London. 

Cosmopolis, London. 

Echo, London. 

Economist, London. 

Edinburgh Review, Edinburgh. 

Electrical Engineer, London. 

Electrical Review. London. 

Engineering, London. 

Eureka, London. 

Evening News, Glasgow. 

Express, Nottingham. 

Factory Times, Huddersfield. 

Financial News, London. 

Fortnightly Review, London. 

Freeman's Journal, Dublin. 

Friendly Greetings, London. 

Gazette. Birmingham. 

Globe. London. 

Graphic, London. 

Guardian. Manchester. 

Home News, London. 

Hospital, London. 

Humanitarian, London. 

Illustrated Weekly News, Edinburgh. 

Industries and Iron, London. 

Inquirer, London. 

Investors' Review, London. 

Irish Catholic, Dublin. 

Iron and Coal Trades' Review, London. 

Journal of Commerce, Liverpool. 

Justice, London. 

Lady's Realm, London. 

Lancet, London. 

Leader, London. 

Life. London. 

Light, London. 

Literature, London. 

Lloyd's. London. 

Mail, Dublin. 

Mail, London. 



Mercury. Liverpool. 

Methodist Times, London. 

Money, London. 

Morning Advertiser, London. 

Morning Leader, London. 

Nation, Dublin. 

National Review, London. 

Natural Science, London. 

Nature, London. 

Navy League Journal, London. 

News, Edinburgh. . 

News, London. # 

New Century, London. 

New Review, »ondon. 

Nineteenth Century, London. 

North British Baily Mail, Glasgow. 

Outlook, London. 

Pall Mall Gazette, London. 

Philosophical Magazine. London. 

Pick-Me-Up, London. 

Post, London. 

Punch, London. 

Quarterly Review, London. 

Review of Reviews, London. 

St. George. Birmingham. 

St. James's Gazette, London. 

Saturday Review, London. 

Science Progress. London. 

Scotsman, Edinburgh. 

Secular Thought. Toronto. 

South Africa, London. 

South American Journal, London. 

Speaker, London. 

Spectator, London. 

Standard, London. 

Strand Magazine, London. 

Telegraph. London. 

Telegraph, Sheffield. 

Times, London. 

To-day, London. 

Truth, London. 

United Ireland, Dublin. 

Weekly Chronicle, Newcastle. 

Weekly Post. Birmingham. 

Weekly Register, London. 

Weekly Scotsman. Edinburgh. . 

Westminster Gazette. London. 

Wesminster Review, London. 

Woman at Home, London. 

In the British Colonies. 

Advertiser, London, Ontario. 

Banner, Chatham, Ontario. 

Canada Lancet, Toronto. 

Catholic Register, Toronto. 

Colonist, Victoria. B.C. 

Evening Telegram, Toronto. 

Free Press, Ottawa. 

Free Pi^ess, Winnipeg. 

Frient', of India, Calcutta. 

Gazette. St. John, N. B. 

Gazette, Bombay. 

Globe, Toronto. 

Herald, Fredericton. 

Herald, Halifax. 

Herald, Montreal. 

Indian Daily News, Calcutta. 

Intelligencer. Belleville. 

Journal. St. Thomas. Ontario. 

Monetary Times. Toronto. 

Nor'wester, Winnipeg. 

Planet, Chatham. 

Post. Jamaica. 

Saturday Night, Toronto 

Star. Montreal. 

Sun. Aylmer. 

Telegram. Toronto. 

Times, Victoria. B. C. 

Times. Winnipeg. 

Tribune, Winnipeg. 

Weekly Sun, Toronto. 

Western Advertiser, London, Ontario. 

Witness, Montreal. 

Worker, Sydney. 

World, Toronto. 

In Various Countries. 

Celestial Empire. Shanghai. 
Chilian Times. Valparaiso. 
China Mail, Hongkong. 
Free Press, Singapore. 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



Gazette, Yokohama. 
Hawaiian Gazette. Honolulu. 
Japan Mail, Yokohama. 
Korean Repository. Seoul. 
Mercury. Shanghai. 
Overland China Mail, Hongkong. 
Star, Honolulu. 
Telegraph, Hongkong. 



GERMA^. 

In the German E%ipire. 

Abend-Zeitung, Augsburg. * 

AUgemeine Zeitung, Munich. 

Boersen Courier, Berlin. 

Boersen Zeitung. Berlin. 

Centralblatt fur Gyniikologie, Leipsic. 

Christliche Welt. Leipsic. 

Chronik, Leipsic. 

Correspondenz, Berlin. 

Daheim, Leipsic. 

Deutsche Revue, Stuttgart. 

Deutsche Rundschau, Berlin. 

Deutsche Wochenschau, Berlin 

Echo, Berlin. 

Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift. Berlin. 

Frankfurter Zeitung. Frankfurt. 

Freisinnige Zeitung, Berlin. 

Gaea, Leipsic. 

Gegenwart, Berlin. 

General Anzeiger, Frankfurt. 

Globus. Gotha. 

Hamburger Nachrichten, Hamburg. 

Illustrirte Zeitung, Leipsic. 

Jahrbiicher, Heidelberg. 

Kieler Zeitung, Kiel. 

Kladderadatsch, Berlin. 

Kleine Journal, Berlin. 

Kolnische Zeitung, Cologne. 

Korrespondent, Hamburg. 

Kreuz Zeitung, Berlin. 

Lokal Anzeiger, Berlin. 

Luthardt's Kirchenzeitung, Leipsic. 

Marine Rundschau, Berlin. 

Militar Wochenblatt, Berlin. 

Monatsschrift fiir praktische Dermatologie, 

Berlin. 
Nation, Berlin. 
Natur, Berlin. 
National Zeitung, Berlin. 
Neuesten Nachrichten, Berlin. 
Neuesten Nachrichten, Munich. 
Norddeutsche AUgemeine Zeitung, Berlin. 
Ost-Asiatische Korrespondenz, Berlin. 
Post, Berlin. 
Post, Munich. 
Post, Strassburg. 
Preussische Jahrbiicher, Berlin. 
Reichs Anzeiger, Berlin. 
Reich Christi. Berlin. 
Rundschau, Berlin. 
Schachfreund. Berlin. 
Staatsblirger Zeitung, Berlin. 
Tageblatt, Berlin. 
Tages Zeitung, Berlin. 
Tligliche Rundschau, Berlin. 
Theologische Literaturzeitung. Leipsic. 
Theologische Rundschau, Berlin. 
Theologisches Literaturblatt, Leipsic. 
Volks-Zeitung, Cologne. 
Vorwarts^ Berlin. 
Vossische Zeitung. Berlin. 
Weser Zeitung, Bremen. 
Westphalische Merkur, Miinster. 
Zeitschrift far Krankenpflege, Berlin. 
Zeitschrift flir 'i'heologie und Kirche, Berlin. 
Zukunft, Berlin. 

In Austria. 

Deutsche Zeitung, Vienna. 

Freie Presse, Vienna. 

Fremdenblalt, Vienna. 

Mittheihingen aus dem Gebiete des See- 

weseiis. Vienna. 
Neue Freie Presse. Vienna. 
Pester Llovd Budapest 
Poliiische Corresp(,i)denz Vienna. 
Politischen Nachrichten, Vienna 



Stein der Weisen, Vienna. 
Tages Zeitung, Vienna. 
Teplitzer Zeitung, Teplitz. 
Welt, Vienna. 

In the United States. 

Abend Post, Chicago. 

Abendpost, Detroit. 

Amerika, St. Louis. 

Anzeiger, Louisville. 

Anzeiger des Westens, St. Louis. 

Correspondent, Baltimore. 

Deutsche Zeitung. Charleston. 

Deutsche Zeitung. New^ Orleans. 

Freie Presse, Chicago. 

Freie Presse, Cincinnati. 

Freiheit, Buffalo. 

Gross New Yorker Zeitung, New York. 

Illinois Staats-Zeitung, Chicago. 

Morgen Journal, New York. 

Rundschau, Chicago. 

Seebote, Milwaukee. 

Staats-Zeitung, New York. 

Tageblatt, Philadelphia. 

Tribune, St. Louis. 

Volksblatt, Cincinnati. 

Volksfreund, Chicago. 

Volks-Zeitung, New York. 

Wachter und Anzeiger, Cleveland. 

Westliche Post. St. Louis. 

In Various Countries. 

Bote aus Zion, Jerusalem. 

Neue Zuricher Zeitung, Zurich. 

Ost-Asiatische Lloyd, Shanghai. 

St. Petersburg Zeitung. St. Petersburg. 

Vorwarts, Buenos Ayres. 



FRENCH. 

In the French Republic. 

Aurore. Paris. 

Annales de I'lnstitut Pasteur, Paris. 
Annales Medico- Psychologiques, Paris. 
Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes. Par ^. 
Bulletin de la Societe Astronomique, Pans. 
Ciel et Terre, Paris. 
Chretien Frangais. Paris. 
Chronique Industrielle. Paris. 
Correspondant, Paris. 
Cosmos, Paris. 

Courier de Bruxelles, Brussels. 
Echo, Paris. 
Echo de Paris, Paris. 
Echo des Mines, Paris. 
Eclair, Paris. 

Economiste Frangaise, Paris. 
Figaro, Pans. 
Genie Civil, Paris. 
Gaulois, Paris. 

Gazette des Beaux-Arts, Paris. 
Gazette des Hopitaux, Paris. 
Ingenieurs Civils. Paris. 
Iiitransigeant, Paris. 
Jour, Paris. 
Journal, Paris. 
Journal des Debats, Paris. 
Lanterne, Paris. 
Libre Parole, Paris. 
I Matin. Paris. 
j Mcdecine Moderne. Pari^. 
I Monde Moderne, Paris. 
Museon, Paris. 
Nature, Paris. 
Patrie. Paris. 
Petit Journal, Paris. 
Petit Bleu, Brussels. 
Petite Republique, Paris. 
Presse Medicale, Paris. 
Republique Franqaise, Paris. 
Revue Bleuc. Paris. 
Revue Coloniale, Paris. 
Revue Critique. Paris. 
Revue de Droit International, Brussels. 
Revue de I'Ecole d'Anthrojjologie, Paris. 
Revue de I'Histoire des Religions, Paris. 
Reportoire de I'Pharmacie, Paris. 
Revue de Paris, Paris. 



Revue des Deux Mondes, Paris. 

Revue des Religions, Paris. 

Revue des Revues, Paris. 

Revue des Questions Scientifique. Paris. 

Revue Encyclopedique, Paris. 

Revue Generale, Paris. 

Revue Pedagogique, Paris. 

Revue Scientifique, Paris. 

Revue Universelle, Paris. 

Revue Viticole, Paris. 

Siecle, Paris. 

Soir, Paris. 

Tem.ps, Paris. 

Univers, Paris. 

Verite, Paris. 

In Various Countries, 

Echo d'Oran, Algeria. 

Independance Beige, Brussels. 

Journal de St. Petersbourg, St. Petersburg. 

Patrie, Montreal. 

Temps, Ottawa. 



SPANISH. 

In Spain. 

Correo Espaiiol. Barcelona. 

Correspondencia, Madrid. 

Correspondencia Militar, Madrid. 

Dia, Madrid. 

Diario, Barcelona. 

Epoca, Madrid. 

Espaiia Moderna, Madrid. 

Gaceta Oficial, Madrid. 

Globo. Madrid. 

Heraldo, Madrid. 

Imparcial, Madrid. 

Liberal, Madrid. 

Mundo Naval. Madrid. 

Nacional. Madrid. 

Pais, Madrid. 

In America. 

Biblioteca, Buenos Ayres. 

Comercio. Havana. 
^ Correo, Mexico. 
j Diario de la Marina, Havana. 
; Diario del Ejercito, Havana. 

Discussion, Havana. 

Heraldo, San Juan, Porto Rico. 

Lei, Santiago de Chile. 

Lucha, Havana. 

Nacional, Lima. 

Pegonera, Caracas. 

Pregoneo, Buenos Ayres. 

Tiempo, Caracas. 

Tiempo, Lima. 

Union Constitutionnel, Havana. 



ITALIAN. 

Civilta Cattolica, Rome. 
Corriere della Sera, Milan. 
Corriere della Sera, Rome. 
Illustrazione Italiana, Rome. 
Mattino. Rome. 
Nuova Antologia, Rome. 
Nuova Roma, Rome. 
Osservatore Romano, Rome. 
Riforma Sociale, Rome. 
Seculo, Milan. 
Stampa, Rome. 



RUSSIAN. 

Grashdanin, St. Petersburg. 
Juridetchekaja Gaseta, St. Petersburg. 
Mirowiya Otgoloski. St. Petersburg. 
Novosti, St. Petersburg. 
Novoye Vremya, St. Petersburg. 
Russkiya Viedomosti, Moscow. 
Syn Otetchestwa, St. Petersburg. 
Vestnik Europy, St. Petersburg. 
Viedomosti, Moscow. 
Viedomosti, St. Petersburg. 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



JAPANESE. 

Asahi Shimbun, Osaka. 
Chuo Shimbun, Tokyo. 
Hyogo News. Kobe. 
Jiji Shimpo, Tokyo. 
Mainichi Shimbun, Tokyo. 
Niehi Nichi Shimbun. Tokyo. 
Nippon. Tokyo. 
Shogyo Shimpo, Tokyo. 



Tokyo Shimpo, Tokyo. 
Yorodzu Chuo, Tokyo. 
Yovviuri, Tokyo. 

DUTCH. 

Courant, Haarlem. 
Handelsblad, Amsterdam. 
Nieuvvs van den Da.g. Amsterdam. 
Volksstem. Pretoria. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Asty (Greek), Athens. 
Cosmopolis (Trilingual), London. 
Ghairet (Turkish), Constantinople. 
Journal do Comercio (Port. ),Riode Janeiro. 
Naturen (Norwegian), Christiania. 
Pesti Hirlap (Magyar), Budapest. 
Poliliken (Danish), Copenhagen. 
Proia (Greek), Atht ns. 



INDEX OF AUTHORS. 



Abbott, Dr. Lyman, 411 
Abhedananda, Swami, 80 
Acloque, A., 374. 765 
Adams, Prof. Henry C, 577 
Adickes. Dr. Erich, 230 
Adler, Prof. Felix. 470 
Alger, Gen. Russell A., 722, 753 
Allen, Grant, 2S9 
AUin. Arthur, 314 
Anthony, Dr., 47 
Argyll, Duke of, 635 
Armand. Emile, 713 
Armengaud, M., 706 
Arthur, Prof. J. C, 588 
Atwood, President, no 

B 

Backe, Dr. Maurice, 107 

Bailey. Representative J. W., 549 

Balfico, Giuseppe, 280 

Balfour, Arthur J., 631 

Barine. Arvede, 39 

Barker, Consul W. B., 4S8 

Barnaby, Sydney W., 78 

Barr, Amelia E., 130 

Barr, J. Miller, 136 

Barth, Theodor, 25 

Bastide, Charles, 433 

Battandier, Dr. Albert, 44, 591 

Beaton, Rev. David, i8 

Beauregard. Dr. H., 45 

Bell, A. Morton, 437 

Bell, Mackenzie. 188 

Benjamin, Park, 565 

Berenger, Henry, 205 

Beresford. Lord Charles, 511 

Bergen, Abram, 326 

Bertillon, Alphonse, 196 

Besant, Sir Walter, 73 

Bigelow, Poultney. 721 

Bishop, Isabella Bird, 385 

Bismarck, Prince, 169. 594 

"Blanc, Mme." (Th. Bentzon), 341 

Blind. Karl, 652 

Bogert. Dr. E. S., 674 

Bok, Edward W.. 350 

Booth, Ballington, no 

Bounier, Pierre, 225 

Bournelli. Dr. . 527 

Brackett, Professor, 197 

Bradford, Rev. Amory H., 440 

Branly, Dr. E., 764 

Breal, Michel, 489 

Brice, Consul Alexander C, 487 

Briggs, Prof. Charles A.. 558 768 

Brinton, D. G., 437 

Brocchi, Dr. Andre. 587 

Brown, Rev. T. E.. 613 

Bruhl, Louis H., 17 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, 129, 37S, 399 

Bryan. William J.. 29 

Bryce, James, 511,' 631, 632 

Buckman, James, 313 

Burr, Dr. E. Fitch, 320 

Burrell. Rev. Dr. Joseph D.. 80 

Butler, Senator Marion. 245, 396 

Butler, Samuel, 129 



Cairns, Dr. William B.. 580 
Campbell, Rev. William R., 381 
Cannon, George Q., 381 



Capitan, Dr., 675 

Carman, Bliss, 459 

Carnegie, Andrew, 308 

Carry, Fran§ois, 371 

Carson, Major J. M., 32 

Carter, Brudenell, 436 

Casslant, M., 315 

Casson, Rev. Herbert N., 694 

Castelar, Emilio, 413, 442 

Castells, Rev. F. de P., 768 

Chamberlain, Right Hon. Joseph. 634 

Chamberlain, Joseph Edgar, 698 

Chapman, John Jay, 245 

Charlton, George I., 616 

Charmes, Francis, 382 

Chase, William M., 43 

Cheney, John Vance, 493 

Childe, Cromwell, 553 

Cipriani, Dr., 436 

Clark, Rev. Francis E., 500 

Clark. William J., 497 

Claude, Georges, 254 

Ciemenceau, Eugene. 69, 473 

Clemenson, Rev. N. E.. 380 

Cligny, A., 14 

Clinton, Henry L., 236 

Cohn, Morris W.. 501 

Connors, Michael, 93 

Conti, Angelo, 251 

Corbin, John, 56 

Coudert, Frederic R., 573 

Coupin, Henri, 254, 375 

Cowles, James L., 364 

Cramp, Charles H., 734 

Crawford, F. Marion, 339 

Crawford, Virginia M., 370 

Cross, Judson N., 322 

Cruppi, Jean. 205 

Cuyler, Dr. Theodore L., 410 



Dana, Charles A., 319 

Dastre, A., 316. 675 

Daudet, Alphonse (see Subjects). 

Daudet. Leon, 610, 641, 670 

Davidson, Thomas, 762 

Davis, Senator Cushman K.. 485 

Davis, Richard Harding, 721 

Davitt. Michael, 635, 752 

Delbriick, Prof. Hans, 20 

Denby, Charles, Jr., 3 

"De Stendhal" (Marie Henri Beyle), 132 

Deutsch, Prof. G., 501 

Diblee, Sir Charles, 322 

Dilke, Sir Charles, 635 

Dingley, Representative Nelson, 5, 548 

Dodge, Rufus B.. 93 

Dolbear, A. E. (Prof.), 105 

Dowden. Edward (Prof.), 100 

Dowie, Rev. John A. , 109 

Doumic, Rene, 220 

Dowden, Edward (Prof.), 190 

Drouot. E. (Prof.), 136 

Dubartin, L., 314 

Duclaux, M., 555 

Du Pont. Vice-Admiral, 503 

Durant, George F., 255 

Duval, Dr. Mathias, 523 

Dyche, John A., 294 



Eastman, Barrett, 760 
Echegaray, Jos6, 581 



Eckels, Controller James H.. 33, 38 

Eddy, Mrs. Mary Baker, 589 

Edison, Thomas A., 166, 617 

Egan, Patrick, 753 

Ehrenreich, Dr., 437 

Elson. Dr. Louis, 133 

Enjoy, Paul d', 626 

Escombe, F.. 17 

Estes. Prof. F. D., 410 

Evans, H. Clay (Com. of Pensions), 34 

Ewald. Dr. C. A., 705 



Faguet, Emile, 132, 356, 619 

Faunce. Rev. W. H. P., 469 

Felsenthal, Rev. B. , 501 

Fernald. James C, 664 

Field, Henry M., 499 

Fields, Annie, 41 

Filon, Augustin, 12 

Finck, Henry T., 610 

Finot, Jean, 685 

Fiore. Dr. Pasquale, 574 

Fitzgerald, S. J. Adair, 223, 312, 342 

Flammarion, Camille, 197, 435 

Flint, Grover, 575 

Foraker, Senator Joseph B., 697 

Ford, Paul Leicester, 9 

Forman, Allan. 679 

Forsyth, Gen. George A., 565 

France, Anatole, 309 

Eraser, Prof. Alexander C, 379 

Funck-Brentano. M., 686 



Gage, Lyman J., 396, 549 

Gallienne, Richard Le, 39 

Galton, Francis, 557 

Gardner. Lieutenant. 146 

Gaster, Dr. Moses. 709 

Gates, Prof. Elmer, 104 

Garcia, Telesforo, 441 

George, Henry, 457 

Gibbons, Cardinal, 411 

Giddons, Rev. George H. , 738 

Gladstone, William E., 161, 612 

Godkin, E. L., 153 (see Subjects) 

Goron, M., 353 

Gosse, Edmund, 309 

Gotch, Prof. Francis, 15 

Graf, Arturo, 10 

Grasset, Dr., 26 

Gray, Prof. Elisha, 434 

Gregory, Rev. Dr. D. S., 584 

Groff, Alice, 704 

Guinness, Lucy E., 438 

H 

Hadow, Mr., 12 

Hale, Rev. William Bayard, 363 

Hall. Bolton. 398 

Hall, Rev. Charles Cuthbert. 498, 708 

Hall. Francis G.. Jr.. 467 

Hallock, Prof. William. 376 

Hannay, David. 54 

Harden. Maximilian, 563 

Harlan. Justice J. M., 333 

Harnack, Professor. 108 

Harris, Frank. 519 

Harrison. Ex-President Benjamin, 275 

Hart, Charles Henry, 309 

Hart, Mrs. Ernest. 445 

Hartman, John H., 167 



6 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



Hausser, J., 525 

Haussonville. M. de, 472 

Hawkes. Rev. W. S.. 3S1 

Hay, Ambassador John. 39, 512 

Heath, Richard. 679 

Heinigke. Otto, 133 

Henderson, C. Hanford, 672 

Henderson. W. J., 339 

Henley, William Ernest, i6o 

Henry, Josephine K., 70S 

Hermann. Professor, 408 

Hewitt. William. 556 

Higginson. Thomas Wentworth, 160, 580 

Hiiher, Walter, 385 

Hime. Dr. T. W., 733 

Hincks. Edward Y. (Prof.), 140 

Hinsdale, B. A.. 190 

Hobson, Richmond P., 727 

Hoensbruch, Graf, 20 

Hofmann. Dr. Rudolf, 559 

Hogan, Very Rev. John B., 710 

Hoilis, Prof. Ira N., 758 

Hoist, Prof. H. E. von, 271 

Howells, W. D., 115, 133 

Hudson, J. H. (Judge). 124 

Hugo. Victor, 5S2 (see Subjects) 

Hulbert. Homer B.. 640 

Hyatt. Consul Pulaski F., 488 



"Ian Maclaren" (see Subjects) 
Ibsen. Henrik (see Subjects) 
Ilifif. Rev. T. C. 381 
Irwin, Elder George A., log 
Ivanoff (M.) . 159 



J 



James, Henry, 12 
Jaques, Capt. W. H.. 524 
Jastrow, Prof. Morris, 501 
Joffroy, M., 224 
Johnson, Dr. Herrick, 6ig 
Johnson, William Henry, 770 
Jones, James K., 395 
Jones, Prof. Marcus E., 380 
Jordan, Prof. David Starr, 226 
Jova, Consul John F., 4S8 



K 



318 



no 



Keane, Archbishop J. J. 

KeK-in, Lord, 286 

Kemsies, Dr., 315 

Kenyon. F. G., 189 

Keppel, J. J. (Col.), 

Kester. Paul. 265 

King, Dr. E. A., 526 

King. James L. , 326 

Kipling. Rudyard (see Subjects) 

Kirwan, M. de. 439 

Knight. Prof. William, 250 

Kobbe, Gustave. 72 

Kbnig (Professor) , 141 

Koven, Reginald de, 70 



Labriola (Professor), 198 
Laguna, Theodore de. ^^42 
Lamon, Col. Ward Hill, 744 
Lamperti, Mme. , 251 
Landry, Marc. 593 
Lane-Poole, Stanley. 221 
Lankester, Prof. E. Ray. 227 
Lansdosvne, Lord, 54, 322 
Laumonier, J. (Dr.). 77 
Lee, Fitzhugh. 487, 698 
Lee. Gerald Stanley. 41 
Leedy. Gov. W. J.. 426 
Lemailre, Jules, 251, 373. 700 
L'.-roy. L.. n7, 766 
Lcroy-Beaulieu, Anatole, 204 
Leroy-lieaulieu. Paid. 593 
Lescfxs-.ir. Father, 4'^/) 
Letoiirneau. Ciiarle->, 317 
Levi. Leo N.. 501 



Lincoln, Robert T.. 271 
Liversidge. Prof. A.. 286 
Lloyd, Representative J. T., 364 
Lockroy, M., 564 
LoUis, Professor de, 685 
Lombroso, Prof. Cesare. 124, 496 
Loth, Arthur, 381 
Low. Sidney, 593. 774 
Lowenthal, Dr. F. von, 258, 624 

M 

MacCloskie, Prof. George, in. 165 

Mach, Prof. Ernst. 404 

Macray, James, 70 

Mahan, Capt. A. T., 757 (see Subjects) 

Malo, M., 564 

Malster, W. T., 93 

Mannix, Joseph T., 768 

Marches!, Mathilde, 161 

Marconi, Signor, 193 

Martel, Charles, 69. 250 

McCutcheon, John T. , 607 

McFarland, Prof. Joseph, 227 

McGee. W. J., 506 

McGiffert, Prof. A. C, 259 (see Subjects) 

McNiece, Rev. R. G., 381 

McQuirk, Kate, 589 

Migeod, F. W. H., 173 

Miller, Bernard, 86 

Miller, Joaquin, 461 

Minsky, H., 643 

Mitchell, S. Weir, 130, 168 

Mivart, St. George. 256 

Modjeska, Mme., 493 

Molloy, Fitzgerald, 401 

Moore, J. H., 109 

Moreux, AbbeTh., 555 

Morgan, Senator John T., 696 

Morse, Prof. Edward S.. 707 

Miiller, Max, 260 

Muller, Prof. Nikolaus, in 

Mun, Count de. 472 

Musick, John R., 175 



N 



Nadaillac, Marquis de, 197 
Nattan-Larrier, M., 76 
Negri, Gaetano, 310 
Nerval, Gerard de, 74 
Newcombe Prof. Simon, 166 
Norman, Henry, 113, 414, 562, 652 



"Lewis Carroll, 
Lidy. iM.. 62G 
Lilly, W. S., 529 



163 (see Subjects) 



Obolenski, M., 159 
Olney, Richard, 454 
Osman, Prof. Ali, 469 
Oswald, Dr. Felix L., 45 



Paret, Bishop, 438 
Paris, Gaston. 489 
Parker. Capt. James, 758 
Parkhurst. Dr. Charles H., 589 
Parsons, Prof. Frank, 364 
Pasadowsky (Germany'sSec'y of State). 292 
Patton, Francis L., 199 
Peary, Lieut. R. E., 744 
Perpigna, Count de, 5S5 
Phelps, E. J., 424, 512 
Phelps, W. L., 311 

Phelps- Ward, Elizabeth Stuart (see Sub- 
jects) 
Phillips, Stephen, 160, 251 
Phisalix (M.), 46 
Pick, Rev. Dr. Bernhard, 230 
Pickering, Percival, 776 
Pierson, Rev. Dr. A. T., 407 
Pingree. Hazen S., 151 
Pitres. Professor, 346 
Pliiddemann. Admiral, 713 
Porter. Robert P.. 94 
Powell, Caroline A.. 400 
Powell. Major John W.. 347 
Poynter, E J.. 283 
Pressense, Francis de, 113 
Pulitzer, Walter, 188 



Quincy, Josiah, 93 



Raleigh, Prof. Walter, 491 
Ramsdell, Waler. 93 
Raspail, Xavier, 647 
Ray, Mr. (Anglo-Indian), 322 
Reid, G. Archdall, 105 
Reid, Wemyss, 13 
Renard, George, 205 
Reville, Albert, 169 
Rice, Wallace, 760 
Richards, Frank, 706 
Richards, F. D., 109 
Richardson (Judge), 186 
Ridpath, Dr. John Clark, 7 
Ripley, Prof. William Z. , 344 
Robson, John, 649 
Rochas, Albert de, 466 
Rochefort, Henri, 719 
Rod, Edourrd, 100 
Rodney, Maud, 193 
Rosebery, Lord, 631 
Russell, William Howard, 204 
Ryal, F. E., 282 
Rzyszczewski, Adam, 615 



Sabatier, Auguste, 169 

Saenz-Pena, Dr.. 264 

Sagasta, Premier, 604 

Salisbury, Lord, 631, 634 

Sanbon, Dr. L., 495 

Sargeant, Lewis, 66g 

Savage, Rev. Minot J., 737 

Schellendorf. Brousartv., 444 

Schlatter, Carl (Dr.), 75 

Schmidt. Carl. 108 

Schmidt-Mounard, Dr.. 435 

Schmoller. Professor, 36 

Schenk. Dr., 137, 165 

Schneider, Dr. G. W.. lofS 

Schofield, William Henry, 430 

Sedgwick, Henry D., Jr., 311 

Sedgwick. Prof. W. T. , 376 

Seeliger, Prof. H., 44 

Sembrich, Mme., 74 

Shaw, Dr. Albert, 245 

Sherard, Robert, 99, 232 

Sichel, Edith, 295 

Singer, Dr. Isidore, 138 

Smalley, George W., 36 

Smith, Prof. Goldwin, 596 

Smith, Laura A., 193 

Sohnke, Herr, 526 

Sortwell, Alvin F., 93 

Speed, John Gilmer, 730 

Spencer, Herbert, 635 

Spratling, Dr. W. P., 266 

Standing, Percy Cross, 43 

Stanoievitch, G. M., 494 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 535, 708 

Stead, William T., 198, 551, 560, 593, 618, 

632 
Stein, Robert, 14 
Sterne, George E., 744 
Stevenson, E. Irenseus, 460 
Stickney, J. L., 606 
Stieda, Professor, 36 
Stinde, Dr. Julius, 164 
Stocker, Richard Dimsdale, 56 
Stoney, Dr. G. Johnstone, 134 
Sudduth, H. T., 491 
Sulzberger, David, 98 
Symons, Arthur, 702 



Tarde, M., 134 
Taylor, I Iannis, 699 
Tcheraz, Minas, 79 
Tesla, Nikola, 104 
Thauzies, A.. 645 
Thompson, Prof. Ellis, 752 
Tiele, Professor, 348 
Tillet, M., du, 251 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



Tolstoi, Count Leo, 219, 279 (see Subjects) 
Tomasoli, Dr., 197 
Tooley, Sarah A., 102 
Toulouse, Edward, 12 
Tree, H. Beerbohm, 43 

U 

Uchtomsky, Prince, 68i 

V 

Vachon, Marius, gg 
Van Wyck. Robert A., 38 
Varney, George J., 646 
Vaughan, Cardinal, 79 
Vere. Aubrey de, 71 
Verestchagin, 11 
Vivekananda, Swami, 18 
Voltaire. F. M. A. de, 253 

W 

Wagner, John Jacob, 15 
Waldstein, Dr. Louis, 586 



Walker, Williston, 410 
Walsh, Patrick, 93 
Wanamaker, John, 397 
Watson, William, 281, 463 
Weaver, Charles P., 93 
Webster, Henry, 406 
Webster, Hosea, 344 
Wendell, Barrett, 9 
Wendt, Dr. E. C, 75 
Whitney, Caspar, 721 
Whitney, Milton, 47 
Whiton, Rev. James M., 139 
Wickersham, James, 231 
Wilder, Prof. Burt G., 47 
Willard, Frances E., 708 
Williams, Prof. H. S., 617 
Wilson, Dr. Andrew, 525, 705 
Wilson, Francis, 521 
Wilson, James Grant, 206 
Wines, Frederick H., 152 
Winslow, Arthur, 616 
Winslow, Rev. W. C, 103 
Winter, William, 219 



Wolcott, Senator E. O., 37, 12b 
Wolf, Simon, 501 
Woodbury, C. J. H., 287 
Woodruff, Wilford, 380 
Woodward, Judge, 335 
Woolsey, Prof. Theodore S., 392 
Worcester, Professor, 768 
Wyndham, George, 702 
Wyzewa, T. de, 189, 401 



Yarros, Victor S., 550 
Yriarte, Charles, 731 



Zahn, Professor, 108 

Zangwill, L, loi 

Zimmern, Helen, 588 

Zola, Emile, 13, 73, gg, 171, 204, 232 (see 

Subjects). 
Zurcher, Rev. George, 740 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS. 



Aaron, Identity of, 501 
Abstainers by Denominations, 440 
"Academy," London, Prize Awards by, 159 
Acquired Characters, What are? 105 
Acts of St. Paul — New Literary Find, 108 
Adam and Eve, Ancient Legends of, 709 
Addington Park Sold, in 
Advertising Peril to Art and Literature, 41 
Africa, French Development in, 174 

Matrimony in, 534 

Presence of War Correspondents Pre- 
vented, 204 
African Dispute, English and French Press 
on, 382 

Slavery, 621 
Afridi Campaign. 264 
Air, Analysis of, by Musical Tones. 765 

Another New Element in. 735 
Air, Liquefied, by Gallon, 284 

Power from, 706 

Power, Storage of, 648 

Properties of, 465 

To Make Explosives, 677 
Alcohol and Long Life, 266 

Effect of, on Animals, 167 

Everywhere, 767 
Alcoholism, New Study of, 224 
Allen, Charles H., 688 
Allen, William H. (Girard College), 62S 
Ambulance-Ship, The New, 674 
America, Is It a Fallen Nation? 363 

Toscanelli's Share in Discovering, 685 
American Character in American Novels, 
761 

Girl, Ideal Training for, 762 

Machine Shops, French Engineer on, 
226 

Temperament, British View of, 716 

Trade with China, 154 
Anarchist Club in London, 294 
Andorra, Law Court of, 325 
Andres, Fate of, 403 
Anesthetizing of Plants, 78 
Anger a Disease, 588 
Anglo-German Rapprochement? 594 
Anglo-Saxon Alliance, 511, 635 

Foreign Comments on, 652, 774 

Irish-American Opposition to, 752 
Animals, Attitude of Christianity toward, 
769 

Education of, 317 

Effect of Alcohol on, 167 

Hospital for, in Bombay, 141 

in Famine, 137 

Morality in, 76 

Tractive Power of, Compared to Men, 

377 
Annunzio, Gabrielle d". Tragedy by, 133 
Analyzed, 371, 401 
as Politician, 644 
Daring Play by, 250 



Antarctic Explorations, 106 
Anti-Christ in Russia, 81 
Antisemitism (see "Jews"), Bismarck on, 
169 

Censure of, 294 

Zola on, 232 
Antitoxin, After-Effects of, 226 
Ants and the Plague, 736 
Appomattox, Lee and Grant at, 565 
Arabia, Anglo-Russian Rivalry in, 533 
Arabs, Greatest Literary Treasure of, 221 
Arbitration Law, Railway, 63S 
Arc Lamp, Did Jules Verne Invent? 377 
Arctic Exploration, Does It Pay? 14 
Argentina and Chile, 441 
Arithmetical Prodigy, Greek, 375 
Armenia, Dr. Hepworth's Investigation in, 
288 

Church and People of, 79 
Armor- Plate, New Process, 404 
Army, Charges of Incompetence in, 721, 753 

and Navy, Increase of, 601 

Officering Volunteers, 758 

Problems in United States, 661 

Standards of Height in, 743 
Arnold, Matthew, and Great Prose Writers, 

223 
Art, Genius, and Morality, 339, 399 

Influence of, on Dress, 553 

Peril to, 41 

Requirements in South Africa, 614 

Rules of, for Critics, 313 

Tolstoi on (see "Tolstoi") 

Turkish Spoliation of, 192 

Verestchagin on Modern, 11 
Artists and Specialties, 43 
•Athens, American School, Scholarships, 763 
Atmospheres of Planets, 134 
Austin, Alfred, Defense of, 70 

Retires from The Standard, 343 
"Authors on Exhibition," 644 

Timidity of, 733 

B 

Bacchylides, Odes of. Discovered and Re- 
viewed, 189 
Bacilli, Omnipresent, 78 
Bacteria vs. Phagocytes, 77 

Structure of, 555 
Bacteriological Mares'-Nests, 227 
Bagley, Ensign Worth, 719 
Bank Failures, Statistics of, 33 
Baptism, Danger in, 201 
Baptists and Baptist Congresses, 51 
Bats, Pollination by, 227 
Beans, Disease from, 436 
Beardsley, Aubrey, Art of, 702 

Death of, 463 
Beechers, Early Home Life of, 41 
Benevolences, Methodist, i 
Bernhardt, Sarah, in Socialistic Drama, 69 
Bessemer, Henry, Death of, 405 



Bible, A New and Revised Version of, 139 
Bible, Polychrome, 229 

"Wom'an's," Part II., 708 
Bimetalism, International, Wolcott on, 126 
Biography, All Fiction? 640 
Bird, Sitting, Instinct in, 647 
Birds' Flight, Speed of, 526 
Bismarck's Earldom, and Superstition, 85 

How He Selected One Minister of Fi- 
nance, 178 
Blind, Number of, in Russia, 625 
Boat, A Gliding, 137 
Body Growth Like Crystal Growth? 497 
Bombardments, Usage Regarding, 593 
Bonds, Revenue Law, 723 
Books, "Fifty Best," 493 
Booth, Maud B., Illness and Work of, 50 
"Borderland," Stead's Letters from, 560 
Brain, By-Ways of, 525, 705 

Fatigue in School Work, 315 
Brazil, Condition of, 53 

Running a Railroad in, 171 
Bridge, Replacing, in 2^ Minutes, 587 
Bridges, Natural, in Utah, 616. 766 
Briggs, Professor, Becomes an Episcopa- 
lian, 499, 528 

on the Lord's Supper, 558 
Bronte, Charlotte. 13 
Brooks, Phillips. Estate of, 440 
Brown, the Manx Poet, 613. 716 
Browning, Mrs.. Preeminence of, 553 
Brunettes, Are They Stronger than Blondes ? 

344 
Buddhism in America, 291, 356 
in India, 626 

Ramakrishna and His Sayings, 408 
Bullets, New Form of, 114 
Burma — Land and People, 445 
Business Situation, 27. 57, 87. 117, 147, 177. 

207. 237. 267. 297, 327. 357. 387. 417. 447. 

477. 507. 537. 567. 597. 627, 657, 687, 717. 

747. 777 
Byron, Revival of, 163, 763 



Cable, Peril of, in War, 775 
Cannon Shot, Photographed, 404 
Chamberlain, Joseph, Wife of, 658 
Chamberlain's Speech (see Anglo-Saxon 

Alliance) 
Calvinism, Is It Dead? 80 
Camera, A Monster. 764 
Campanini's Debut. 251 
Canada, Colonial Defense of, 322 

Joint Commission with United States. 
694 

on Results of War (see "War," Foreign 
Comments), 595 

Prohibition Plebiscite in, 715 

Yukon Railway. 234. 414 
Cannibal, Reasons for Being a, 2S7 
Cannibalism in Human Body, 736 



8 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



Cannon, How Report of, Trave.s, 404 

Car Buildino", Reform in. 616 
Carrier-Pigeons. How They Find Their 

Way, 225, 645 
Cartoons, 5, 7, 31, 38, 65, 68, 92, 98, 123, 
128, 152, 153, 154, 158, 187. 216, 218, 243, 
272. 278. 293, 302, 303, 308. 337. 366, 394, 
413, 429, 456, 485, 502, 513, 517, 518, 548, 
549. 563. 572, 579. 592. 607, 609, 636, 639, 
662, 664, 667, 692. 695, 729, 759 
Catholic Authors' Guild, 440 

Celebration of Close of the Century, 22 

Church, How to Break Power of, 20 

Church in Alaska, 680 

Ideas of Americanism Abroad, 318 

Missionaries, Why Germany Favors, 170 

Monks, Catholic Arraignment of, 740 

Scholars, Biblical Research by, 141 

Schools and Missions, 411 

View of Miracles, 710 

What Can He Read? 21 
Catholics and Jews, 230 

American, Loyally of, 650, 771 

Polish, III 

What Liberal, Want, 49 
Catholicism, Effect of Political Freedom on, 

472 
Character Reading in the Face, 56 
Cheese -Making with Bacteria, 735 
Chestnut as Food, 17 

Chess, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 
300, 330, 360, 390, 420, 450, 480, 510, 540, 
570, 600, 630, 660, 6go, 720, 750, 780 
Chile's Trouble with Argentina, 441 
"Chillon, Prisoner of," 163 
China, American Director-General of Rail- 
ways in, 208, 298 

American Interests in, 31, 154 

and European Powers, 112 

Anglo-German Loan to, 383 

Cartoon and Quip on, 65 

Emperor William's Policy in, 2 

Far-Eastern Press on, 83 

Germany's Policy in, 52 

Partitioning of, 533 

Prince Henry in, 743 

Proposed Loan to, 202 

Russian and English Policy in, 205 
Chinese Etiquette, 234 

Opinion of Civilization, 142 

Reckoning of Time, 626 

Typewriter, 347 

University, 264 

War-God, Another Trial of, 355 
Chloroform, Danger of, 526 
Christian Endeavor Societies, Defense of, 

560 
"Christian Science," Claims of, 469 

Temple in Chicago, 8r 

The Fou'uler of, 589 
"Chris^tian, The," French Critic on, 189 
Christianity, What Distinguishes, from 
Other Religions? 649 

and Life on Other Planets, 439 
Christ's Belief that He Was the Messiah, 169 
Church, Congregational Offerings, 530 

English Offerings in 1896, 530 

Entertainments and Licenses, 381 

Have Congregationalists a Creed? 710 

Largest Congregation, 141 

The Endowed, 711 

Use of Buildings, 108 
Church Federation in Colorado, 201 

in Pittsburg, 351 
Churchgoers in Boston, 260 
Churches, Reports of, in 1897, 109 

in Chicago, iii 
Church Union in Home Fields, Montana 

Synod on, 51 
Cisneros, Evangelina, Marriage of, 778 
Clairvoyance, Well-Authenticated Case of, 

26 
Cloth from Pineapple Fiber, 194 
Clubs and Infidelity, 141 
"Coal, King, "in War, O25 
Coast-Defense, Gun for, 146 
Cold as Curative Agent, 707 
Colors, How Do We See? 587 

Without Coloring Matter, 466 
Commercialism anfl Government, 245 
Communion-Cups, Individual, 266, 350, 44(1 

and Disease, 356 



Connecticut Subterranean Noises, 195 
Consciousness of " Having Been There Be- 
fore, " 525 
Copyright, International, and Originality, 

159 
Corelli, Marie, and Tennyson, 223 

Corrigan, Archbishop, Jubilee of, 711 

Cosmopolitan University, 402 

Cotton-Mill Trouble in New England, 305 

Creed, Congregational? 710 

Creeds, Borderland of, 411 

Cricket as a Thermometer, 105 

Criminal, Psychic Peculiarities of the, 588, 

617 

Criticism, Higher, Anecdote of, 201 

Conservative Tendencies of German, 168 

Endanger Faith? 408 

"The Blass Hypothesis," 620 
Crucifixion, Alleged Picture of, 378, 591 
Crystal and Body Growth, 497 
Cuba, Spain, and the United States, 143, 
301 (see "War") 

Consular Reports on, 486 

De Lome Incident, 211 

Distance Map of, 545 

Fitzhugh Lee on, 698 

House and Senate Resolutions on, 488 

Justification of American Policy, 82 

McKinley's Message on, 24, 481 

Map of, 514 

Papal Mediation in, 558, 590 

Senate Report on, 485 

Senator Proctor on, 361 
Cud-Chewing Human Beings, 76 
Currency Fight, Maneuvers in, 359 

McCleary Bill, 453 

Report of Indianapolis Commission, 62 
Current Events, 28, 58, 88, 118, 148, 178, 
208, 238. 268, 298, 398, 358, 388, 418, 448, 
478, 508, 538, 568, 598, 628. 659, 688, 718, 
748. 779 
Czar, Views of Punishment of London Edi- 
tors' Inciting to Assassinate, 335 
Czech Riots, 264 

D 

"Dark Da3's," Explanation of, 615 
Daudet, Alphonse, 12 

Described by His Son, 610, 641, 670 

Gift and Defect of, 370 

Italian View of, 280 

Latest Story by, "Soutien de Famille," 

99 

Zola's Account of Last Years of, 99 
Deaf-Mutes, Teaching to Hear and Speak, 

136 
Death and Future Life, Briggs on, 768 

Time of, by Biology, 586 
Deficit, Treasury, and What to Do, 5 
De Lome Incident, Foreign Views of, 323 
Denominationalism, Is It Wrong? 589 
Detaille, Edouard, War Painter, 99 
Dewey, Rear-Admiral George, 571, 597 
Diamonds, Artificial, 254 
Diaz, President, 269 
Dimension, Is There a Fourth? 166 
Discrimination, by Dutch Government, 145 
Disease, Conflict of, 77 
Dissection of Cats and Dogs, 47 
Dog, How Understand Speech ? 765 
Domine Distinguished from Dominie, 170 
Drama, American and English Military, 763 

American in London, 550 
Dramatic Success of the Year, Edmond 

Rostand's, 373 
Dreyfus Case, American Views of, 121 

Features of, 17: 

Foreign Comment on, 415 

Political Aspects of, 203 

(See "Zola Trial") 
Drink, Shall We, at Meals? 705 
Drug-Store Spelling, 566 
Duffy, Sir Charles G., 644 
Dumas 's Play on Ibsen Lines, 583 
Dustless Buildings, 287 
Dust-Protectors for Factory Workmen, -('() 
Dutch, Temperance of the, 52 
Dynamite, New Method of Exploding, 497 



Edison, Story of. 598 

Editors, vSalary of, in Germany, 476 



Editors, Trials of Early American, 580 
Education, and Subconscious Self, 586 

Ideal for American Girl, 762 

Proposed Revolution in, 672 
Egypt, France, and England on the Nile, 112 
Eight- Hour Law, Validity of, 338 
Electric Circuit, New Breaking Method, 648 

Currents at Large, 255 

Floor-Scrubber, 257 

Fluid? 588 

Ice-Boat, 255 

Light Baths, 767 

Motors in Germany, 325 

Railways, Suspended, 468 

Roads for the Klondike, 434 
Electrical Engines of War, 554 

Gun, 167 

Wind, 648 
Electricity, Arc-Light as Telephone, 523 

Conduction of, 617 

Growing Use of Alternating Current. 76 

in Lion-Taming, 167 

Motor-Carriages vs. Street Railways, 
464 

Similar to Nervous Current, 764 

Telectroscope, 495, 677, 706 

Test of Moisture in Soils by, 47 

Vacuum-Tube Lighting, 104 
Element, Possible New, 257 
Elephant, Age of, 403 
English as Against French Literature, 311 

in Advertisements, 522 
Engraving, Linton's Theory of, 400 
Epileptics, Education of, 266 
Episcopal Church, Proposed Change of 

Name, 527 
Epworth League, Arraignment of, 349, 569 
Europeanization of United States, 7 
Evolution of Idea of God, 289 

of Mind, 226 

of Religion, Consists of What? 348 

Outside the Body, 314 

Reconciling with Theology, in 

Through Degeneration, 496 

Unknown Cause of, 617 
Evangelicalism, Waning of, 679 
Evangelists, Methodist Opinions of, 31S, 771 
Explosives, Modern High, 464 



Faith and Knowledge, 230 

Does Criticism Endanger? 408 
Far East, American Interests in, 412 

Russia's Policy in, 564 (see "Great 
Britain," "Russia," "China") 
" Far-Seer, " 495, 677, 706 
Feeling, Sense of, in Lost Limb, 346, 536 
Fever, Curative Power of, 736 
Fiction and Morals, Tolstoi on, 279 

and Religion, 18 

Increase of, 192 
Field, Eugene, Wilson on, 521 
Filtration, Removal of Germs by, 5?? 
Fire-Extinguisher, Ammonia, 257 
Floor, Hygienic, 166 
Flying-Machine, Dangers of, 468 

Inventions, 406 
Football Four Hundred Years Ago, 56 
Foreign Trade, Our Phenomenal, 122 
France, Anatole, Latest Works of. 309 
France, Army and Republic, 262 

Cause Celebre : Is Theft Legal? 473 

Elections in, 712 

Indemnity to Germany, 743 

Press Law on Criticism, 129 

Reciprocity with, 6gi 

Rostand's Drama for Coquelin, 373 
French Literature, Dowden's History of, 190 

vs. English. 311 
French Press, How to Reform, 204 

Indictment of, 114 

Law on, 129 
Frey, Ex-President of Switzerland, 298 
Friction, Danger of, 286 
Fruit, Shall We Live on? 316 
Funeral Usages, Injurious, 296 

Reform in, 411 
Fusion, Bryan on, 429 



Gage, Secretary, Rumors of Resignation of, 
64 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



9 



"Galeoto, the Great. " Echegaray's Play, 58 1 

Galilee, Location of, 559 

Gas, Natural, Past, Present, Future of, 344, 
588 

George, Henry, "Science of Political Econ- 
omy," by, 457 

German-American Trade Relations, 54, 692 

Germany. Cable Connection with United 
Stales. 442 
Effects of Industrialism in, 232 
Exclusion of American Fruit by, 215, 

292 
Foreigners in, 476 
German-American Press on Relations 

with. 692 
Increase of Navy, 24, 532 
Pan-Germanic Movement, 143 
Travesty on Opposition Leader, 142 
Why Favors Catholic Missionaries. 170 

Gerrymandering in Baltimore, 218 

Ghosts, Are There? 25S 

Glaciers, Utilization of. 735 

Gladstone. William E., Anecdotes about, 
656. 719 
as a Christian. 678 
Death of, 631 
European Press on, 712 
Literary Style of, 732 
on a Famous Italian Author. 372 
Only Published Poem of, 612 
Tribute to Arthur Hallam by, 161 

God, Belief in, a Scientific Necessity. 379 
Evolution of Idea of, 289 

Godowsky, Leopold, 520 

Goethe's "The Natural Daughter," 4S9 

Gold from Sea Water. 468 
Nugget. Structure of, 286 

"Gomez. Marching with," 575 

Grant (Gen.), Letters by, to E. B. Wash- 
burne, 206 

Gravitation, Is Newton's Law of. Exact? 

Gray, Prof. Elisha, 225, 434 

Great Britain, American Approbation of 

Chinese Policy, 158 
and Russia, 412 
Chinese Trade Demands and Isolation, 

292 
Detects m Policy of, 322 
Discontent with Eastern Policy of, 655 
Explanation of Criticism of America, 

624 
Isolation and Alliances, 68: 
Land Defenses of, 54 
Reverses and Alliance Hunting. 144, 

475 

Victory in the Sudan, 595 
Greece, Attack on King George, 384 

Developments Regarding, 233 
Greek Literature, Position of, 669 

Prisoners at Constantinople, 145 
Growth Force Like Magnetic Force, 494 
Gun, Alleged Electric, 167 

Larger than the Krupp Gun, 146 

Multicharge, Rejected by Government, 

197 
Gun-cotton, etc., 464 

Gunpowder, Photographic Analysis of, 585 
"Gypsy, Tales of the Real," 265 

H 

"Hale, Nathan," Fitch's Play, 431 
Ha. f- Breed, The Zebroid, 75 
Hall, Dr. John, Resignation of, 138 
Hamlet, Forbes Robinson's Hundred Nights 
of, lOI 
Victim of Neurasthenia? 733 
Handy, Moses P., 237 
Handwriting, Scientific Study of, 196 
Hanna, Marcus A., Election of, to Senator- 

stiip, 91 
Hariri, Arab Writer, 221 
Harmsworth's Journalistic Creed, 283 
Hauptmann, Gerhardt, 72 
Hawaii, Another Step toward Annexing, 

751 

Church Statistics of, 51 

Musick's Description of, 175 
Hawaiian Hopes and Fears, 261 

Women, 175, 176 
Haydn Not a German, 192 



Heart, Changes in Form and Size of, 675 
Hebrew Population of United States, 9S 

(see "Jews") 
Heine, Heinrich, Genius of, 100 
Hell, Max Miiller on, 260 
Henry, Prince, in China, 743 
Higginson, T. W., London Reminiscences 

by, 160 
Hindu, Christian Lectures to, 321 

Deities, Minor, 21 

Dread of Existence. 43S 

Hill Tribes. 23 

View of Christ, So 
Hobson's Exploit at Santiago, 727 
Hofmann, Joseph, JIusical Prodigy, 103 

Reappearance of, 339 
Holland, Model Colonial Administration of , 

773 

View of Asiatics. 85 
Holland Submarine Boat, 523 
"Holy Man," The Real, of India. 679 
Homestead Lands in United States, 626 
Homicide and Murder Trials, 216 
Homicides, Increase of, in America, 125 
Hooley, Ernest T.. 74S 
Hornet's Sting, an Antidote for Snake-Bite, 

46 
Horns, Men and Women with, 685 
Horse, and Smell of Bear and Camel. 736 
Hubbard, Gardiner G., 119 
"Hugh Wynne," by S. Weir Mitchell. 130 

Quaker Protest Against, 168 
Hugo. Victor. Letters of, 582 
Humor, English and American. 673 
Huxley, Mivart's Tribute to, 256 
Howells as a Socialist, 340 

Praise of, 733 
Hydrogen. Liquefaction of. 677 
Hymns, Favorite, of Great Men, 283 
Hypnotism and Allied Phenomena, 44 

Physiology of, 15, 705 

I 

"Ian Maclaren," as Editor, 493 

Theology of, 48, 440 
Ibsen, Henrik, and Bjornson, 430 

and Dumas's Play, 5S3 

at Seventy, 519 
Ice-Boat, Electric, 255 

Immigration, German American Press on, 
66 

German View of United States Oppo- 
sition to, 476 
Immortality, in Thought To-day, 770 
Incandescent Lamp, New Form of, 286 
Incubators, Infant, 193, 345, 437 
India, Close of British Campaign in. 173 

The Real "Holy Man," 679 
Indianapolis Monetary Commission. Report 

of, 62 
Indians, American, Origin of, 347 
India-Rubber Plant, New, 526 
Industrialism in Germany, 232 
Inheritance Tax, Progressive, Constitu- 
tional, 574 
Injunction, Federal, Against Tennessee 

Officers, 96 
Inoculation Against Plague, 135 
Inquisition in Italy, 529 
Insane Poet, Gerard de Nerval, 39 
Insanity, Marriage as Preventive of, 167 
Insurance, Accident, for German Students, 

137 
Interstate Commerce Commission, Professor 

Adams on, 577 
Intervention, The Right of, 391 

Ex-Minister Phelps on, 424 

McKinley's Message on, 481 

(See "Maine Disaster" and "War") 
Inventions that Reappear, 78 
Inventors and "Yellow Journalism," 166 
Irish Life and English Letters, 71 

Stage, Romance of, 401, 431 
Iron, Edison's Tough Pig, 256 

Mask, Man in the. Identifying, 686 

Role of, in Living Body, 316 
Isolation, International, of the United 

States, 454 
Italian Brigandage, 202 

Humorist (>Ianzoni), le 

Literature, Poverty of, 4»i 



Italy, Bread Riots in, 261, 608 
Clergy in, 561 
Condition of, 743 



Jameson, How Life of. Was Saved, S3 
Japan, Death of Artist Natsuo, 553 

Misinformation about. 266 
Japanese, Business Ways of, 32; 

Shrines, 440 
Jesuit Membership, 711 
Jews and Catholics, 230 

Crisis in Judaism, 138 

Flocking to Jerusalem, 651 

New Hymnal, 321 

Position of, in United States, 501 

Religious Liberty of, in United States, 
141 

Why Russia Suppresses, 650 
Jewish Rabbis and Marriage, 472 
"Jingoism," German View of American, 113 
John the Baptist on the Stage, 399 

K 

"Kathleen Mavourneen," Authorship of, 566 

Keifer. Gen. J. W., 77S 

Kiao-Chou, Value of, 294 

Kinetoscope Study of Plant-Growth, 136 

Kipling, Adverse View of, 311, 553 

and Emerson, 26 

and His Message, 9 

An Imitation of, 373 

Expunged Verse of, 763 

What He Lacks as a Poet. 222 
Kitchener, Sir Herbert, 628 
Kite-Flying Up to Date, 646 
Klondike, Across Chilkoot Pass by Aerial 

Cable, 557 

Electric Roads, 434 

Railway, 414 

Salvation Army in, 621 
Korea and Russia, 504 

Art in, 640 

as Seen by an Englishwoman, 385 

Russians in, 171 
Koven, Reginald de, as Balladist, 188 
Kriiger, Paul, and the British Press, 324 



Labor Commission. A New. 759 

Famous English Trades-Union Case, 65 
Hebrew Compared to English, 294 
Richardson Decision Against Contract 

for Union, Onlj-. 1S6 
Validity of Utah's Eight-Hour Law, 338 

Labor-Organizations, Union of, in Den- 
mark, 266 

Lafayette in Court and Camp, 295 

Lakes, Blue Color of, 107 

Lanier, Sidney, French Discovery of, 341 

Lathrop, George Parsons, 644 

Laughers, Holy, 22 

Law, State vs. Interstate, 665 

International, and Alante Disaster. 271 
(See "Maine Disaster" and "War") 
International, Can It Be Enforced? 574 

Lee, Fitzhugh, 627, 658 

Legs, Bad Effects of Crossing, 377 

Leo, Pope, Mediation by (see "Cuba") 
Protestant Tribute to, 1 10 

Leopardi, Gladstone on, 372 

Leprosy Congress, 164 

Le.se >Iajeste, Pardon of Editor of Klad- 
deradatsch for, 325 

"Lewis Carroll" (C. L. Dodgson). "Alice 
in Wonderland's" Charm, 192 
Hospital Bed, 463 
Work of, 163, 223 

Libraries, Public, Are They Demoralizing ? 

313 
Life After Death, Briggs on, 768 

"Vital Principle," Study of, 675 
Light, Colored, and Plant Growth, 284 

Penetrative Power of, 468 
Lighting a Buoy by Wave-Power, 377 
Lightning-Rods, Edison on, 617 
Lilioukalani, Character of, 174 
Lincoln as a Lawyer. 326. 566 

Gettysburg Speech by. Contemporary 
Opinion of, 744 

Unspotted Manhood 446 



10 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



Lindsay, Senator, Refusal of to Resign, 214 

Lipton, Sir Thomas, 62S 

Liquor. Effect of, on Parentage, 47 

Fight Against, in Germany, 55 
Literary Criticism, Biological. 12 

Genits and National Progress, 433 

Laurels, Robbing America of, 69 

Thieving, 5S4 
Literature and War, 730 

as a Disease, 2S3 

by the Wholesale, 279 

English, as Against French, 311 

Rapid Writing, 402 

Style and Grammar, 644 

"Subterranean," 282 

Two Centenaries in 1S9S, 192 
Locomotive-Building, Phenomenal Speed 

in, 64S 
Longfellow, Bliss Carmen on, 459 
Louisiana, Suffrage in, 42S 
Lowell M imorial, 2S3 
Lutherans on Theological Liberalism, 680 

M 

Machinery, Bicycle-Chain for, 257 
Madagascar, Condition of Natives in, 355 
Magnetic Alteration of Iron, 197 

Force and Growth Force, 494 

Island, 617 
Magnets, Raising a Wreck with. 107 
Mahan, Captain, and American Destiny, 546 
Maine Disaster, 241, 271, 421 

Foreign Views of. 352, 503 

(See "War") 
Man, Growth of, 436 
Manila, Battle of, 571, 606 (see "War") 
Mauzoni, Alessandro. 10 
Marble, Artificial Black, 17 
Marchesi's Reminiscences, 161 
"Mark Twain" as Word-Painter, 642 

Debts Paid, 463 

"Following the Equator" by, 115 

Under Methodist Patronage, 163 
Marriage as Preventive of Insanity, 167 

Episcopal Canon on, 499 

Jewish Rabbis on, 472 
Mars, Are There Seas on? 197 

Doubling of Canals an Illusion? 555 
Marseillaise, How Written, 223 
Martin, Sheriff, and Deputies' Trial of, 
186, 335 

German-American Press on, 394 
Marx's Evolutionary Theory Attacked, 198 
Matthew, Gospel of. Found, 51 
Maupassant, Tolstoi on, 279 
Maxim, Two Inventors, 736 
Mayors of American Cities (Portraits), 93 
McGiffen, Hero of Yalu, 416 
McGiffert, Professor, Defense of, 619 

Dr. Charles C. Hall's Address, 708 

"History of Christianity" by, 410 

Presbyterian General Assembly on, 737 

Theology of, 259 
McKenna (Att'y-Gen.), Nomination of, for 

Supreme Court Justice, i 
McKinley's Message, Foreign Comments 
on, 24 (see "Cuba") 

to Manufacturers' Association, T55 

Use of Pardoning Power by, 61 
Measles Three Times, 26 
Meissonier, Recollections of, 731 
Melba's First Public Appearance, 343 
Merritt, Maj.-Gen. Wesley, 688 
Metals, Another Transmutation Theory of, 

15 
Effect of Sea- Water on, 626 
Methodist Bishop's Robes, 411 
Federation, Proposed, 201 
Vote on Lay and Ministerial Represen- 
tation, 651, 680 
War Claim, 288, 348 
Metric Svstem, Government Adojjtion of, 

586 
Mexican and Chinese Religion Compared, 

231 
Microbes and Man, Warfare Between, 45 
Middle Class, Is It Holding Its Own? 36 
Militarism, Effect of, on a Nation, 666 
Miller Joaquin, Poetical Works of, 461 

Merits and Demerits of, 493 
Mills, B. Fay, and Presbytery 620 



of Woman's 



Mind Cure, A Scientific, 104 
Mind, Evolution of, 226 

Novel Views of Phenomena of, 107 
Mine-Shaft, Deepest in the World, 767 
Ministry not Overcrowded, 291 

" Dead Line" in, 411 

Oversupply of, in Canada, 711 
Miracles, Roman Catholic View of, 710 
Missionaries to China, 141 
Missions, Chapel Cars, 51 

English Society for Promoting Chris- 
tian Knowledge, 260 

Foreign, Material Benefit of, 500 

in China, 411 

Moravian, W^aldenses, etc., 170 

Presbyterian Board of, 711 
Modjeska's Reappearance as Mary Stuart, 

219 
Mohammed Ali, Prince, 85 
Mohammed as Champion 

Rights, 469 
Mohammedan Increase, 530 
Mold in Cellars, To Remove, 736 
Monkey or Man? 14 
"Monkeys and Asses," Parable of, 398 
Monolith, Wisconsin Sandstone, 347 
Monroe Doctrine, Bismarck's Paper on, 534 

English View of, 623 
Monte Carlo, 415 
Moon, An Artificial, 376 
Moore, John Bassett, 78 
Morality and Art (see "Art") 

in Animals, 76 
Moravian Church in United States, 561 
Mormon Propaganda in the East, 229 
IMormonism, Present and Future of, 380 
Morocco, Filibustering in, 325 
Morrill, Senator Justin S., 658 
Mosquitoes and Malaria, 497 
Moths, Tandem, 406 
Mugwump, Prize Definition of, 38 
Miiller, George, Life and Work of, 407 

Immoral Youth of, 618 
Municipal Ownership, Massachusetts Re- 
port on Street Railways, 213 
Muscular Work, Favorable Conditions for, 

376 
Mushroom, Huge, 526 

Food Value of, 345 
Music, American Natural, 133 

in War, 610, 672 
Musical Tones, Chemical Analysis by, 765 

N 

Napoleon, Another Memoir of, 132 

Youth of, 356 
Naval Warfare, Battle - Ships, Modern 
Machines, 615 

Dangers of, 565 

Popular Fallacies, 757 

Role of Mechanism in, 734 

the 13-Inch Guns, 736 

Uncertain Factors in, 758 
Navy, Increase of, 601 

Songs for American, 760 
Nazarenes, Sect f)f, 530 
Nebraska Freight-Rate Case, 333, 426 

(See " Railroads") 
Negroes and Disfranchisement, 67 
Negro Murder and Politics, 273 
Nerval, Gerard de. Insane Poet, 39 

Letter of, 74 
Nervous Current Similar to Electricity, 764 
New England Society Speeches, 36 
Newfoundland Mineral Monopoly, 497 
Newspapers, How to Reform French, 114, 
204 

War Correspondents and British Army, 
204 

Trust? 181 
Nicaragua Canal, 667 
Nickel Steel and Water, 377 
Niger Conference Decision, 773 
Novel, American Historical, 9 

Disease in Modern, 280 

Three Tests of, 584 
Novelists, News from, 133 
Novels, American Character in, 761 



Occultism and Scientists, 7*7 



Occultism and Scientists (see "Spiritual- 
ism") 
Odyssey, Written by Young Woman? 129 
"Old Pew" on the Stage, 221 
Oleomargarine Cases, 665 
Omar Khayyam, Mathematician and Poet, 

39 
"Onward, Christian Soldiers," Origin of, 

530 
Opera, How Sullivan Writes, 222 
Opposition Leader, Travesty on, 142 
Oreg07i, Battle-Ship, Trip of, 667 
Oregon Election, 756 
"Original Package" Decisions, 665 
Orthographic Curiosities of the Drug-Store, 

566 
Oyster, Enemies of the, 254 



Pacific Railroad, Sale of Kansas, 274 
Painter, French Master, Ingres, 283 

of War Scenes, Training of, 99 

The First, in America, 309 
Papyri Found in Egypt, 103 
Parable, " Monkeys and Asses, " 398 
Pauncefote, Sir Julian, 688 
Payn, James, Character of, 669 

Junior Partner's Suicide, 626 
Pean, Dr. Jules Emile, Death of, 347 
Peary, Lieut., "Northward Over the Great 

Ice, " by, 744 
Pensions, Number of, and Survivors, 93 
Pension Payments, 34 
Persia, and Reforms, 325 
Peter the Great, Literary Boom, 192 
Petroleum as Railway Fuel, 107, 437 

Solidified. 347 
Phelps-Ward's (Mrs.) "Story of Jesus," 10 
Philippines, Dewey's Victory in, 571 

Disposition of, 696 

Gold in ? 676 

Map of, 542 

Religious Conditions in, 768 

Revolution, End of, 145 

(See "War") 
Phillips, Stephen, Poems of, 251 

Watson on, 463 . 
Photography, Blue Prints, to Turn Brown, 

437 

Chassagne Process of Color, 176 

of Cannon Shot, 404 

of Gunpowder, 585 

of Vital Emanations, 314 
Pictures that Talk, 137 
Pineapple Fiber for Cloth, 194 
Pipe Trust, Decision Against, 304 
Plague, Inoculation Against, 135 

Monkeys Affected by, 137 
Planets, Atmosphere of, 134 

Life on, and Christianity, 439 
Plant-Growth and Colored Light, 284 

Study by Kinetoscope, 136 
Plants, Artificial Food for, 107 

Effect of Cold on, 588 

Why They Grow Upward, 164 
Pneumonia Infection, 437 

Serum Treatment of, 648 
Poet, Another "Immortal," 613, 716 

Two Things That Make a, 551 
Poetry, Decline of, 463 

Politics, American Conditions and Tenden- 
cies, 151 
Pope, Can Temporal Power of. Be Re- 
stored? 228 
Portugal's Colonial Policy, 294 
Postal Service, Frauds in, 363 

Incomes in Various Countries, 85 
Postmaster- General, A New, 518 
Prague, Riots in, 82 
Prayer in War Time, 651 
Presbyterian Church, Decay in, 621 

Canadian, Five-Year Term for Minis- 
ters, 561 
Presidents, Mothers of, 298 
Press Law in France, 129 
Primary, Reform of, 157 
Princeton University and "The Hand of 

Ecclesiasticism, " 199 
Privateering and Neutral Rights, 544 
Prohibition Question in Canada, 715 
Prussia and Polish Immigration, 294 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



11 



Psychic Phenomena, Investigation of, by 

W. T. Stead, 198 
Pulpit, Proper Attitude toward War, 438, 

618 
Punctuation, Amusing Mistake in, 771 
Purvis, Robert, 720 
Pyramids, Electric Lighting of, 588 



Quarantine, Is It of Any Use? 165 



Rainbow, New Theory of, 437 

Railroads and Postal Service, 363 
Arbitration Law, 638 
Automatic Collision-Preventer, 526 
Decade of Federal Regulation of, 577 
Government Profit to Prussia, 174 
Management of, in Brazil, 171 
Nebraska Freight-Rate Case, 333, 426 
Sale of Kansas Pacific, 274 
State Power over Rates, Michigan 

Case, 307 
Swiss Purchase of, 476 
Trans-Missouri Freight Case, 304 

Rails, Felt Mat for, 197 

Railway, A Submerged, 736 

Railways, Street, Massachusetts Commis 
sion on, 213 
vs. Motor Carriages, 464 

Ramakrishna, Sayings of, 408 

Ramsden, Consul F. W.. 628 

Readings by Authors. 433 

Realistic School, Secret Defect of, 220 

Reciprocity with France, 691 

Referendum in San Francisco Charter, 726 

Religion and Fiction, 18 

Chinese and Mexican Compared. 231 
Denominations in British Empire, 81 
Evangelical Movement in Catholic 

France, 381 
Evolution of, 348 
Influence of, on Social and Political 

Change, 198 
Mexican and Chinese, 231 
or Science Bankrupt? 6ig 
Persecution in Russia, 258 
Stead's Search for Scientific Founda- 
tions, 198 
Vivekananda on Hindu and Western, 18 

Religions in British Empire, 81 

Religiojs Literature, Proposed Censorship, 

651 
Reaction in France, 378 
Situation, Unitarian View of. 737 

Resurrection of Christ a Myth? 498 

Revivals, Dark Side of, 48 

Rich (Capt.), Chinese Director-General of 
Railways. 208. 298 

Riddle of the Rommany, 265 

Roentgen Rays, Absorption of, 17 
New Observations on, 616 
to Treat Diseases. 677 

Rosenthal. Morris, 614 

Rossetti, Christina. Review of. 188 

Russia and Alliances, 681 

Decline of German Influence in, 624 

in Korea, 171 

Kalnoky, Count, Death of, 269 

Persecution of Dissenters, 258 

the Famine and Its Causes. 293 

Victims of Chodynsky Fields Stampede, 

85 
Why Suppress Jews? 650 
Russian Ambassador, The New. at Wash- 
ington, 774 
Russians, Two Great — Delyauow and 

Wanouski, 235 
Russo-German- French Alliance, 564 
Russo-Japanese Alliance? 654 



Sagasta, Premier, 658 

Salon, French, Number of Submissions to, 

673 
Salvation Army, Archbishop Kain to, 351 
Sardou's Play, "Pamela," 700 
Saussier. General, 415 
Savonarola, Downfall and Death of, 738 



School, Physical Effects of, 435 
Schools, Public, Are They Safe ? 140 
School-teachers, Salaries of, in Berlin. 114 
Science and "Spiritual" Phenomena, 466 

Progress of, in Last Decade, 645 

What It Has Done, 146 
Scientific Amateurs, 227 

Departments, Government, Politics in, 
182 
Scientists, Credulity of, 707 
Screw-Propeller, Is Speed of. Limited? 78 
Seal Question, Latest Phases of, 94 
Sea-Serpent, Original of, 285 
Seaweed to Paint Ships, 377 
Seeds, Longevity of, 17 
Seidl, Anton, 460 

Senator's Responsibility to His State, 214 
Sensation of "Having Been There Before," 

525 
Senses, How Far Trustworthy? 315 
Serum Treatment of Burns, 197 

of Pneumonia, 648 
Sex, Determination of, 137, 165, 224 
Shadows, Hand, Fortunes from, 86 
Shakespeare as Macbeth and Hamlet, 519 

Day, 644 

Poems as Works of Art, 702 

Popularity of Plays, 733 
Sherman, John, Resignation of, 542 
Shields, Prof. Charles W., an Episcopalian, 

591 
Ship-Building, American, Carnegie on, 30S 
Sick, Incurably, Should They Be Helped to 

Die? 776 
Sight at a Distance, 495, 677, 706 

Training the, 436 
Sigsbee, Capt. Charles D., 567, 720 
Silence, Moral Value of, 470 
Silk, Artificial, 406 

from Cotton, 197 
Silver Coinage, Revenue Law, 723 
Skeptics, Credulity of, 320 
Slav and Teuton, 143 
Slavism, Pan-, 415 
Sleep, Curative Power of, 45 

Recent Theory of, 523 
Smithsonian Institution, The Story of, 194 
Smoke, Prevention or Abatement of, 47 
Smokeless Powder, How Burns. 135 
Smokers, Hints to, 588 
Socialism, Howells's Services to, 340 
Soils, Electrical Measurement of Moisture 

in. 47 
Songs, Famous, Fitzgerald's Stories of, 312. 

342 
for the American Navy, 760 
South American Views of the United States, 

264 
South America's Attitude toward the War, 

625 
Spain, Home Troubles of, 603 
Political Future of, 699 
Resources of, 655 
Temper of, 382 

Three Spanish Statesmen, Death Sen- 
tence of, 506 
(See "War") 
"Spaniard in History," 664 
Spanish Pride, 685 
Species, Unity of Human, 197 
Spiritualism and the Devil, 79 

Society Against, 351 
Spiritualistic Phenomena and Science, 466, 

707 
Springer, Cuban Vice-Consul-General, 719 

Spurgeon, Knowles on, 170 
Stage as an Ethical Force, 43 
Modjeska on Evils of, 493 
Standard Oil Company Abroad, 55 
Stanton, Edwin M., Religion of, 319 
Stars, Double, 435 
Stevenson, Autograph Sale, 644 

Letter to Barrie, 433 
Stewart Sale of Paintings, 192 
Stockton, Frank R., Method of, 553 
Stomach, Life Without a, 75 
Stone Age in Nineteenth Century, 436 
Stove-Pipe Radiator, 497 
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, Life and Letters 

of, 41 
Strike of Engineers in England, 84, 263 
Student Volunteer Convention, 349 



St. Vincent De Paul, Society of, 651 
Style, Literary, Magic and Mystery of, 491 
Subconscious Self and Education, 586 
Submarine Mines, Operation of, 374 
Sudermann's "Johannes," 399 
Suffrage Clause in Louisiana, 428 
Suicide, Is It Contagious? 134 
Sulfur, Waste of, from Copper Ore, 406 
Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour, 222 

and De Koven, 402 
Sunday-School, Is It Decaying? 350, 379 

World's Convention, 411 
Sunday Theater, Actor's Protest, 228 
Sunstroke, Is It Infectious? 495 
Swinburne and Albert Pike, 236, 386 



Telegraph Operators in Military Service, 

617 
Telegraphy, Wireless, Range of, 167 

Marconi on, 193 
Telephone, Arc-Light as, 525 

German Government, 415 

Improvements in, 467 

Inventor in Want, 225, 434 

Longest Line of, 167 
Teller Resolution, 154, 184 
Temperance Drinks, Alcohol in, 167 
Temperature, Measurement of Very High, 

347 * 
Tennyson, Anecdote of, 223 

Copyrights, 584 

Did He Pose? ii 

Not Pestered by Americans. 283 

Use of "s's" by, 74. 313 
Tennyson, Frederick. Poetry of. 491 
Theft. Legal in France? 473 
Theology, and Church Part Company? 527 

Reconciling, with Evolution, in 
"Thirst in the Desert," 506 
Thucydides, and Other Papyri, 103 
Thunder. Audibility of, 377 
Tibet, 411 

Tires and Pavements, Comparison of, 4- 
Tobacco, Effect of, on Eyesight. 767 
Tolstoi on Inadequacy of Science, 528 

on Fiction, 279 

on Wagner Opera, 700 

on Maupassant, 279 

Philosophy of Art, 219, 550, 643 
I Topics in Brief, 8, 38, 68, 98, 128, 158, 187, 
I 218, 249. 278, 308, 338, 368, 398, 429, 458, 
' 518, 549, 579, 609, 639, 699, 729, 759 
i Train, Moving, Effect of, on Air, 317 
Transvaal Predominance in South Africa. 

505 
Trepanning. Prehistoric, 707 
"Trials, Celebrated," 236 
Trolley-Wheel Inventor, 497 
Trolley System in Dresden, 617 
Trotting Records and Heredity, 557 
Truffle, How It Germinates, 374 
Trusts, Decisions Against, 304 
Tuberculosis, People Immune from, 107 
Turkey and Greece, Peace Treaty Signed, 

23 
Turkey, New United States Minister to, 693 

U 

Underground Trolley, 287 
Unitarian Monks, 680 

Opposition to Denominational Name, 
680 

View of Religious Situation, 737 

V 

Vaccination, Compulsory in Afghanistan, 

236 
"Vanity Fair" Dramatized, 614 
Vaughan, Dean, 22 
Vedanta (see Buddhism) 
Veils, How they Affect Eyesight, 707 
Ventilation, French Plan of, 227 
Vere, Aubrey de, "Recollections" by. 71 
Vespucci. Amerigo, Portrait of. Found, 521 
Victoria, Queen, Good Sense of, 568 
Villiers, Charles Pelham, Humor of, 297 
Voltaire's Parallel Role to Zola, 252 
Voodooisra and Southern Negroes, 206, 326 



12 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



w 



Wagner, Origin of Legends Used by, 489 

Tolstoi on, 700 
Wagnerisin, Baleful Influence of, 70 
Wanamaker and Pennsylvania Politics, 397 
War, Army and Navy View of, 451 

Calendar of, 66S 

Department (see Army) 

(See "Cuba") 

European Press on, 443, 502, 592 

Explanations of European Press, 714 

Far-Eastern Press on, 740 

Foreign Press on. Chances of, 352 

Foreign Views of, 473, 531, 562, 622, 623, 
652, 6S2. 713, 741, 772 

German-American Press on, 277, 452, 
63S 

German- American Press on Germany's 
Attitude, 692 

How Declared, 541 

(See "Intervention") 

in the Magazines, 697, 757 

Joint Note of the Powers. 511 

(See "Law, International") 

(See ''Maine Disaster") 

(See "Manila." battle of) 

News in Europe. 622, 654, 683, 714 

(See "Philippines") 

Preparations for, in United States, 331 

Preparations, Foreign Views of, 413 

Queen Regent's Speech, 517 

Reform Press on, 693 

Religious Press on, 471 

Revenue Measure, 547, 725 

South American Press on, 772 

(See "Spain") 

Spanish Press on Attitude of the 
United States, 441 



War Taxes, 725 

Ultimatum to Spain. 515 
"War of the Worlds," Wells's, 460. 
"War and Production of Literature," 730 
"War with Spain and A.fter, " 695 
War-ships, Fighting Capacity of, 444 
Water-Drinking as a Stimulant, 257 
Water-Supplies, Pure, Modern Views on, 

376 
Watson, William. Poems of, 281 
Wealth, Harrison on Obligations of, 275 
Wealthy, Gospel for the, 440 
Wesley, House of, 141 

Benevolence of, 679 
Weyler (Gen.), Political Future of, 23 
Wheat, Price of, 605 

Breadstuffs, Scarcity of, in Europe, 684 

Leiter's Deal, Collapse of, 755 
Whistler Anecdote, 208 

Influence of, as Painter, 369 
Whitman, Walt. War Letters of, 730 
Willard, Frances E., Death of, 248, 440 

Canadian Views of, 355 

Religious Press on, 319 
William, Emperor, Through American 
Eyes, 2 

Speech of, at Kiel, 52 
Window Shades. Automatic, 197 
Windows, Painted, New Gospel on, 133 
Wine, Sterilized, for Mussulmans, 257 
Winsor, Justin, Last Work of, 190 
Wolcott Commission, Foreign Comments 

on, 173 
Woman, Ascent of, in Colorado, 97 

as Portrayed in English Literature, 

703 
Novelists' Phenomenal Success (Mrs. 

Barr), 130 
The New, and the Old Bible, 708 



Woman's Newspaper in France, 326 

Rights, Mohammed as Champion of, 
469 
Women Novelists, Leading English, 102 

"The Four Greatest," 370 
Wool from Limestone, 497 
Wordsworth's Debt to His Sister, 250 
Workmen, English and American, 317 
Wound, The Healing of a, 347 
Wounds in Modern Warfare, 647 
Wright, Carroll D., Personal. 297 



Yalu, American Hero of, 416 
Yellow Fever, Serum Treatment of, 554 
"Yellow Journalism," German-American 
Press on. 277 

in China, 534 

Newspaper War Over, 367 
Yukon Railway, Canadian Press on, 235 



Zakharin, Dr., 778 

Zebroid, New Half-Breed, 75 

Zoar Colony Disbands, 472 

Zola, Novel on the DreyJEus Case by, 73 

"Paris," by, 551 

"Paris" Criticized, 619 

Praise of, 220 

Sale of Books by, 463 

Voltaire's Parallel to, 252 
Zola Trial, After-Effects of, in Europe, 476 

Conviction, 354 

Lessons of, 244, 262 

Letter of Accusation, 171 

(See "Dreyfus Case") 
Zionism as Viewed from Jerusalem, 321 



PORTRAITS. 

Alger, Gen. Russell A., 515 

Alphonso XIII.. King, 483 

Barr, Amelia E., 130 

Belasco. David, 550 

Bessemer, Sir Henry. 405 

Blanco. Capt. -Gen. Raymon, 487 

Booth, ^laud B. . 50 

Bowers, George M., 247 

Brewer. M. S.. 247 

Bruce, Blanche K., 125 

Butler, Maj.-Gen. M. C, 697 

Calhoun, William J., 365 

Carman. Bliss, 459 

Castelar. Emilio. 442 

Cervera y Topete, Admiral, 637 

Chamberlain. Joseph, 635 

Christma, Queen Regent Maria. 482 

Clive. Kitty, 432 

Conger, Edwin H., 125 

Crawford. F. Marion, 340 

Daudel, Alphonse. 13. 610 

Dawes, Charles G., 125 

Day, William R. (Sec'y of State) , 392 

Dewey, Rear-Admiral George, 541 

Diamandi, M., 375 

Duell, C. H., 183 

Echegaray, Jose. 5S1 

Eddy, Mrs. Mary Baker. 590 

Elliott, Maxine, 431 

Field, Eugene, 521 

Fitch. Clyde. 431 

France, Anatole. 309 

Gallinger, Senator Jacob H., 393 

Gladstone, William E., 632 

Gladstone and Mrs. Gladstone, 633 

Goethe, Johann W. von, 489 

Gomez, Maximo, 576 



PORTRAITS. 

Goodwin, Nat, 430 
Graham, Gen. William M., 603 
Gray, Elisha. 434 
Gridley. Capt. Charles V., 754 
Griggs, John W. , 183 
Hall, Rev. Charles Cuthbert, 498 
Hall, (Rev. Dr.) John, 138 
Hauptmann. Gerhardt. 73 
Heine. Heinrich. 100 
Henley, William Ernest, 159 
Hepworth, Rev. Dr. George H., 288 
Higginson. Thomas Wentworth, 160 
"Hobbes, John Oliver," 370 
Hobson, Asst. Naval Constructor Rich- 
mond P., 754 
Hofmann, Joseph, 339 
Ibsen, Henrik. 520 
King, Hamilton, 125 
Langley. (Prof.), S. P.. 194 
Lanier, Sidney, 341 
Leo XIII., Pope. 559 
Linton, William J., 400 
Lome. Enrique Dupuy de, 211 
Longstreet, Gen. James, 247 
Lyall, Edna, 102 
Mahan, Capt. Alfred T., 547 
"Mark Twain," 115 
McComas, Senator Louis E.. 215 
McGiffen. Capt. Philo Norton, 416 
McKenna, Joseph 183 
Meissonier, Jean Louis Ernest, 731 
Merritt, Gen. Wesley. 603 
Miller, Joaquin, 461 
Miles, Maj.-Gen. Nelson A., 423 
Mitchell, S. Weir. 131 
Modjeska, Mme. Helena. 219 
Montojo y Parason. Admiral. 637 
Moore, John Bassett, 543 
Miiller, George, 407 



Patton. (Dr.), Francis L., 200 

Payn, James. 669 

Peary, Lieut. R. E., 745 

Peary, Mrs. R. E., 745 

Phillips, Stephen, 252 

Polo y Bernabe, Minister. 453 

Powderly, Terence V.. 365 

Proctor, Senator Redfield. 393 

Remey, Commodore George C, 602 

Roberts, George E. , 183 

Rossetti, Christina G., 188 

Sampson, Rear Admiral William T., 422 

Sardou, Victorien, 700 

Savonarola, Girolamo, 739 

Schley, Commodore Winfield S. , 452 

Schreiner. Olive, 102 

Scott, Nathan B. , 125 

Seidl, Anton, 460 

Sigsbee. Capt. Charles D., 332 

Smith, Charles Emory, 518 

Smith, Owen L. W. , 247 

Straus. Oscar S. , 693 

Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour, 222 

Swami Abhekananda, 80 

Thomas, William W. , 125 

Thurston, Senator John M., 393 

Tree, H. Beerbohm. 43 

Turley. Thomas B. . 215 

Watson, Commodore J. Crittenden, 602 

Weyler. Capt. -Gen. Valeriano. 486 

Wheeler, Maj.-Gen. Joseph. 697 

Whistler. James Abbott McNeill. 369 

Wilkins, Mary E., 761 

Willard. Frances E.. 248 

Wilson. Maj.-Gen. James H., 697 

Winsor. Justin, igo 

Woodford, Stewart L., 516 

Woffington. Peg, 401 

Zola, Emile, 232 " 



The Literary Digest 



Vol. XVI., No. i 



New York, January i, 1898. 



Whole Number, 402 



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TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



JUDGE McKENNA AS SUPREME COURT 

JUSTICE. 

PRESIDENT McKINLEY has sent to the Senate the nomi- 
nation of Attorney-General McKenna for Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States, to fill the vacancy occasioned 
by the retirement of Justice Field. 

The exceptional nature of the opposition to this appointment has 
become a matter of public comment. A number of members of 
the legal profession on the Pacific coast, including several judges, 
have made open protest against the appointment on the plain 
ground of incompetency. The protest from Oregon says, in so 
many words, while disavowing any intention to question the 
honesty or character of Judge McKenna, "we believe that Judge 
McKenna is deficient in the essentials of legal learning, natural 
ability, and judicial aptitude, for the great office of Jur.tice of the 
Supreme Court of the United States." 

A number of important Republican papers join with the edi- 
torial critics of the opposition and of the independent press in 
opposing the confirmation of this appointment. The judiciary 
committee of the Senate, before whom the nomination comes, 
postponed action upon it until afterthe holiday recess. We quote 
below several editorials dealing with Mr. McKenna's record and 
his elevation to the Supreme Bench by the President. 

The Protest from Oregon.— "Speaking of the protest from 
Oregon against the appointment of McKenna to the Supreme 
Bench, the Boston Transcript asks : 

"' Is it honest and genuine? Can these gentlemen of the far Northwest 
demonstrate that Judge McKenna does not answer the requirements tea 
reasonable degree? If he does not, then their protest is suspiciously late. 
If he is not competent to sit on the Supreme Bench, he is not competent to 
be the legal adviser of the Administration, and the objections should have 
been urged when his appointment to that responsible position was under 
advisement ? ' 



"There is a great difference. A seat on the Supreme Bench is 
a seat for life. Not so with the appointment to the office of 
Attorney-General. It will terminate with the present Adminis- 
tration, if not sooner. Moreover, it is a position of far inferior 
importance ; for the Supreme Court, in nearly all important mat- 
ters, interprets and gives permanent direction to the laws and 
policy of the country. To the question whether the effort was 
honest and genuine, the only answer necessary is found in the 
protest itself. It was said that a seat on the Supreme Bench 
'ought to be held only by one who in learning, intellectual abil- 
ity, and determined character has shown himself to be among the 
few most eminent of the legal profession, and capable of execu- 
ting the great trust placed upon him, and of maintaining the 
character for ability and independence which has made the Su- 
preme Court of the United States one of the first, if not the very 
first, of the tribunals of the world. ' 

"Is not that a perfectly sound contention? Who will question 
it? Well, that was the sole basis of the protest from Oregon. It 
was the expression of an opinion widely entertained, that 
McKenna's talents and acquirements are not equal to the posi- 
tion ; but politicians and Senators who are suitors for favors at 
the hands of the President, and others who lack the habit of plain 
speech and feel that protest would do no good, think prudence 
requires silence." — The Orei^onian {Rep.), Portland. 

Reasons for Investigation. — "This appointment has been fore- 
shadowed for some time. The custom of the Senate to confirm 
immediately the appointment of a cabinet officer when trans- 
ferred to some other position has been, in this case, suspended, 
and the nomination goes to the judiciary committee with the 
statement that it will not be reported back until after the holidaj- 
recess. This, it is said in explanation, is because nominations to 
the Supreme Bench need more careful investigation than do 
others. 

"There is good reason in this case for the suspension and for 
unusual investigation. There are, in fact, two good reasons. 
The first is the remarkable course of the nominee as Attorney- 
General in his official treatment of the notorious section 22 of the 
Dingley act. We have shown heretofore how, within a month, 
he completely reversed himself in his official interpretation of this 
provision. On August 11 he approved of the opinion of his sub- 
ordinate that the act covered and subjected to the additional ten- 
per-cent. duty $90,000 worth of diamonds imported from Europe 
through Canada; and, a month later, September 21, he held that 
the act did not apply to goods so imported 

"Another reason, secondary, and important only as it confirms 
the first, is the protest sent to the President from the Pacific coast 
against the nomination of Mr. McKenna. Whatever may be the 
personal motives inspiring it. whether, as Mr. McKenna says, it 
is because of unpleasant personal relations with the protesters or, 
as is intimated, because he is a Roman Catholic, and the attack 
is inspired by the A. P. A., it is remarkable in the character of 
the men making it. The protest is signed by Judge Gilbert, of 
the United States Circuit Court of Appeals, and Judge Bellinger, 
of the district court, the former a member of the bench of that 
court with Mr. McKenna when the latter was appointed to the 
cabinet, together with judges of the state courts of the coast and 
a large number of attorneys 

"The compulsion of duty must have been very strong to induce 
his associates on the bench to violate the canons of judicial cour- 
tesy. But Mr. McKenna, in the section 22 case, has furnished 
the strongest corroboration of their judgment of hisqualifications. 
It showed his lack of 'decision of character,' it revealed a lack of 
clearness of mind, and it betrayed a willingness to bend the judi- 
cial function to partizan necessities that unfitted him for the posi- 
tion of law adviser, to say nothing of a judicial place. We had, 
in the income-tax case, one instance of this "pliability of a justice 
of that court, and he should not be reinforced by another equally 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan, 1, 1898 



lacking in decision of character. Of his confirmation, however, 
there seems to be little doubt. The popular respect for that 
bench will not be heightened by the accession of Mr. McKenna." 
— The Globe {Nat. Dem.), Si. Paul. 

Democratic Opposition. — "The able Democratic editors who 
are opposing the confirmation of the appointment of Attorney- 
General McKenna as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court 
seem to forget that Grover Cleveland, when President, selected a 
comparatively unknown lawyer for the position of Chief Justice, 
and that Melville W. Fuller is still occupying the high position to 
which he was then appointed. Nobody ever suspected Justice 
Fuller of the possession of the profound legal ability and deep 
learning that the Democrats are now requiring of Mr. McKenna. 
All this opposition is based, of course, upon prejudice and upon 
the protest which came from the Oregon bar, and which was 
doubtless inspired very largely by jealousy. President McKinley 
has sent Judge McKenna's name to the Senate and will insist 
upon his confirmation. That ought to be accepted as evidence of 
his fitness for the place. Mr. McKinley has made few if any mis- 
takes in his appointments thus far." — The Leader {Rep.), Cleve- 
land. 

A Specific Attack. — "The attack upon Mr. McKenna is not 
lacking in specific statements. It is charged that 'he is not, either 
by natural gifts, acquired learning, or decision of character, qual- 
ified for any judicial place of importance, much less for the high- 
est honors of the land.' Before his appointment to the United 
States circuit bench in California, his legal work ' was confined 
to his efforts as a practitioner in the little town of Suisun, . . . 
he never had a case in any of the federal courts, and not more 
than one or two, if any, in the supreme court of California. ' 
While on the circuit bench [five years] Mr. McKenna is charged 
with unusual inactivity. The protest says that during the last 
year of his service, he had 'three jury trials and decided six cases 
and twenty-seven demurrers and motions. Thirty-five demurrers 
and motions were submitted, of which eight were left undecided. 
On his retirement, he turned back to be retried thirty-one cases, 
demurrers, and motions. ' 

"If The Argonaut, published in San Francisco, where Mr. 
McKenna is best known and where he has held court, has no views 
on this question of competency, people thousands of miles away 
may well hesitate to pass judgment in the matter. Yet the fact 
remains that it is a very curious case. The 'strange silence' of 
which The Argonaut speaks is extraordinary. One would sup- 
pose that if Mr. McKenna were manifestly fit for the highest court 
in the land, such unusual charges as have been preferred against 
him would at once arouse an anti-protest from those who know 
his worth. The mystery involved is not lessened by the fact that 
A. P. A. influences are at work against Mr. McKenna because he 
is a Roman Catholic, for an organization so decrepit and so low 
in public estimation could hardly have created the remarkable 
signed protest against his nomination and have kept closed the 
mouths of fair-minded lawyers in California and Oregon who 
realized and appreciated Mr. McKenna's fitness for the great 
honor the President has bestowed upon him." — The Republican 
{/nd.), Springfield. 

May Laugh at His Detractors. — "In all respects it [the ap- 
pointment] is admirable. The new justice comes from the same 
State that gave his distinguished predecessor to the bench. He 
is a thoroughly equipped lawyer, well trained by long experience 
for the highest judicial station in the land. 

"The President thus sharply rebukes the impudence of the 
Oregon judges and lawyers who petitioned against Judge 
McKenna's appointment. The petition was an unheard-of dis- 
courtesy, a piece of contemptible intermeddling that has made 
more friends than enemies for the Attorney-General. The 
charges — if charges they could be called— were general in their 
nature and unsupported even by the appearance of facts. They 
were at best merely the expression of the opinion of the signers, 
and it has turned out since that they arose from Judge McKenna's 
refusal to hold court in Portland while he was United States cir- 
cuit judge. The appointment should be confirmed. In the 
mean time Mr. McKenna can afford to laugh at his detractors." — 
The Ttmes-Uerald {McKin. Jnd.), Chicago, 

Betrayal of Trust. — "No such protest has ever been filed 
against any other nominee for the bench of the Supreme Court. 
"But Mr. McKenna is equally unfit for this place by reason of 



his affiliations and his actions as a lawyer and a judge. He has 
been the tool of corporations and the pet of plutocrats. His ad- 
vancement has been due entirely to the favor of Stanford, Hun- 
tington, and other multi-millionaires of his section. Every im- 
portant decision that he made in corporation cases was clearly in 
the interests of his former clients. He represents in a peculiar 
degree that perversion of the judicial power to the service of 
plutocracy against which 6,500,000 voters protested in the Presi- 
dential election. 

"Even the Republican leaders said after that election that 
something must be done to remove the just causes of discontent 
and even of anger as manifested in the surprising popular vote. 
But instead of this nearly everything that the party in power has 
done has been calculated to continue and to aggravate this dis- 
content. 

"The appointment of McKenna, a former corporation lawyer 
and a plutocrat's judge, to enforce the anti-trust and anti- 
monopoly laws as Attorney-General was an affront to popular 
sentiment. To confirm him in a seat on the bench of the Supreme 
Court would be an infamous betrayal of the people's trust. 

"The nomination of Mr. McKenna should be rejected." — The 
J V or Id {/jtd. Dem.), New York. 

Ability and Fidelity. — "In appointing Attorney- General 
McKenna to the place on the Supreme Court Bench vacated by 
Justice Field, the President has the satisfaction of honoring a 
member of his official family whose management of the legal busi- 
ness of the Government since March 4 has abundantly confirmed 
his reputation for ability and fidelity. Especially in his conduct 
of the difficult negotiations which resulted in the settlement of 
the Union Pacific controversy the Attorney-General evinced a. 
high degree of professional skill and much practical sagacity, 
while the general administration of his department has been effi- 
cient and satisfactory. The President made no mistake in trans- 
ferring Judge McKenna from the circuit bench to the cabinet, 
and it may fairly be assumed that, with a more thorough knowl- 
edge of his character and capacity than he then possessed, he has 
made no mistake in nominating him to the highest federal tri- 
bunal. Judge McKenna is in the prime of his mature powers, with 
a reasonable expectation of long and useful service in the great 
office for which he has been designated." — The Tribune (Rep.). 
New York. 

"Cabinet appointment is for four years only ; a Supreme Court 
appointment is for life. The President chose Judge McKenna 
for one place, and now chooses him for the other because he likes 
the man. Doubtless the man is likable, but the lawyer is not 
admirable. Men responsible for filling high public place should 
not indulge their personal likings to excess." — The Commerciaf 
Advertiser {Rep.), New York. 



EMPEROR WILLIAM THROUGH AMERICAN 

EYES. 

AMERICAN newspapers take a lively interest in the vigorous 
foreign policy to which Emperor William is committing the 
German Empire. The important features of this policy have 
been set forth, from time to time, in the Foreign department of 
The Literary Digest. There has been a disposition to make fun 
of him, and to treat his public statements as containing more 
pretension than serious purpose. But events connected with the 
inauguration of a "forward policy" in China, as revealed by the 
German occupation of Port Kiao-Chou, and the ceremonies which 
marked the departure of Prince Henry of Prussia on war- ships 
bound for China, strike the public imagination and induce re- 
newed study by American editors of the Emperor's plans and 
their effect on the world at large. Reference to the called 
"Haitian incident" constitutes a small part of a voluminous dis- 
cussion. 

Rumors of War. — "Emperor William of Germany is probably 
not responsible for all the wild rumors set afloat regarding his 
intentions, tho it must be admitted they would receive no cre- 
dence but for his own wild and threatening talk. It is incredible, 
however, that even the War Lord of Germany would contemplate 
warfare with Christendom. Among the various projects with 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



which he is now credited is war with China, involving Great 
Britain and Russia, the seizure of Norway and Sweden to settle a 
family dispute, the destruction of the Monroe doctrine resulting 
from the conquest of Argentina, the seizure of Hawaii, and war 
with the United States in conjunction with Spain. The Haitian 
affair, it is explained, was only 
a 'feeler' to test the temper of 
the United States. As we did not 
show fight, it is assumed that we 
need much greater provocation, 
and that, the war having been in- 
augurated, this country will be at 
the mercy of the navies of Spain 
and Germany. 

"It is explained that Prince 
Henry's fleet has been sent to the 
Pacific to inaugurate hostilities 
against this country, and that his 
first move will be to seize Samoa 
and Hawaii. For this he might 
properly receive the thanks of the 
American nation, as it would save 
■us from the setting up of a rotten 
borough system far out in the 
Pacific Ocean. But the purpose 
of the seizure is to inaugurate a 
war, which is to end in the con- 
quest of America by the German 
nation, and to this end Argentina 
has been settled by Germans, act- 
ing as the agents of the Kaiser, 
who has also tens of thousands of 
emissaries in this country. 

"No wonder the Emperor wants 
to materially strengthen his navy. 
He will need all the ships his most 
extravagant estimates call for if he 
undertakes even a small portion of 
this plan of conquest. He can 
begin with the Chinese with com- 
parative safety, for by making rea- 
sonable concessions to Great Brit- 
ain and Russia he will probably be 
allowed to do pretty much as he 
pleases in China, but if he knows 
when he is well off he will let the 
continent of America alone. The 
rumors would be considered wholly 
idle and unworthy even of men- 
tion were it not for the erratic 
character of the Kaiser, who seems 
to be capable of concocting such 
visionary ideas, and may be mad 
enough some day to undertake 
their realization." — The Ledger 
{hid. Rep.), Philadelphia. 



Ex-Minster Denby on the Par- 
tition of China. — "At the termi- 
nation of the war in 1895 it was 
apprehended that the seizure of 
Chinese territory by Japan was 
the prelude to the dismemberment 
of China. This apprehension be- 
came certainty to all observers of 
China's supine acceptance of her 
humiliation, for no statesman rose 
to grapple with the difficulties of 
his country ; no popular outcry 
denounced the corruption and in- 
efficiency which had led to her 
downfall. The action of Ger- 
many, however, has brought 
things to a crisis sooner than was 
foreseen. There is no uncertainty 
now about the future. Germany 
is at Kiao-Chou, and will remain 
there. Manchuria was already in 



Russian hands, and Port Arthur and the Liao Tung Peninsula 
fall to her only a little sooner than expected. 

"England will probably seize Chusan, an island near Shanghai, 
suitably located to control the trade of that great market, an al- 
most English city, while France may take Hainan and territory 




ONE THOUSAND MILES C 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



on the mainland adjoining Tonking. The now inevitable failure 
to pay the war indemnity will leave Japan in possession of Wei- 
Hai-Wei [on Shang-tung promontory]. 

"To the well-informed at Peking it was known in 1895 that Rus- 
sia had promised the reigning family in China to maintain them 
on the throne and to preserve their empire. The most ominous 
feature of the present crisis for China is that this engagement 
seems to have been repudiated, and Germany must have acted 
with the assured consent of Russia and France. England will 
not interfere in the program of these three powers. In China she 
has receded before French and Russian aggression from every 
stand that the English press has asserted that she would take. It 
has always been China, never the aggressor, that has been called 
to indemnify when some fresh encroachment has seemed to 
menace British interests, and in every case Great Britain has been 
content to accept some grant to herself to balance the grants to 
others. The effect of this movement on China is not difficult to 
state. Her autonomy is gravely menaced, perhaps lost forever. 

"It is not too late, however, to do something for the United 
States, whose trade interests there are second to those of England 
only. China is our natural market. The Chinese tariff treats all 
alike, and China is the only great field where the American man- 
ufacturers meet all rivals on equal terras. The treaties of the 
United States with China provide that American goods shall not 
be discriminated against and that no monopoly shall be granted 
to any one. With the seizure of territory these treaties fall to the 
ground, and spheres of influence hostile to American commerce 
spring into existence before the European aggressors have time 
to raise the cry of vested interests. 

"Let the American Government demand that whoever may be- 
come the masters of the soil, equality of tariff shall be maintained 
and the American manufacturer shall not bear the burden of a tax 
imposed by his competitors. 

" Looked at from a broader view the action of the powers can 
not but cause regret to every friend of China in America. It in- 
cludes among its possible consequences the division of China, the 
fall of the Manchu dynasty, the introduction of European quarrels 
into an Asiatic state always friendly to us. During the past three 
years the great powers have had an opportunity for the exercise 
of a beneficent and civilizing influence in China, which they have 
thrown away. By joining together and inducing the imperial 
Government, which was favorable to foreign ideas after the 
Japanese war, to reform its fiscal system and its internal tariff and 
to throw open the development of its resources to the enterprise 
and capital of the West, they could have created a great market 
and a vast field of industry impartially open to all. They could 
have raised up and reformed an ancient government and led a 
great people undivided into the path of progress. The American 
merchant and the American missionary would have asked no 
more than this. 

"Selfishness, however, has carried the day. A field which 
could not be monopolized by commercial methods is being seized 
by force of arms, and instead of the spectacle of China being 
lifted up, civilized, and developed by the wholesome process of 
peaceful competition, we are to see her ports turned into mutually 
hostile fortresses and her provinces become the camping-ground 
of alien soldiery." — Charles Detiby, Jr., ex-United States Min- 
ister to China, in The Herald, New York. 

May Not be a Laughing Matter.— "They are laughing im- 
moderately in Europe about the speeches of Emperor William 
and Prince Henry at Kiel. But it has begun to dawn on some of 
the newspapers that the adoption of medieval forms of speech 
by the Emperor and his brother may cover a serious intention 
which will not be at all amusing. 

"There is now no doubt anywhere of the careful preparation of 
the two remarkable addresses, under the eye of the Emperor. It 
is said to be an invariable rule on such occasions for the Emperor 
to know in advance exactly what is to be said to him. So he 
knew that his brother would address him as 'most serene Em- 
peror, most powerful lord, king and master,' and propose to 
spread 'the gospel of your majesty's hallowed person.' What 
attracts most attention is the reported remark of the Emperor to 
Count Zichy. The Emperor said to him: 'You should visit 
China ; by the time you get there you will find Prince Henry 
Emperor of China. ' 

"The London Spectator discusses seriously the possibilities of 
an enterprise that would render the Germans masters of China as 



the English are masters of India. It would be more comfortable 
to have the Queen's grandson ruling at Peking than to see the 
Russian there. If the Emperor halts for a time to master the 
province he has seized, he will still have acquired a goodly bit of 
land. The country back of Kiao-Chou is said to be as large as 
Wales, well-peopled and good for revenue. Well-disciplined 
German troops can accomplish much, unless they are hunted as 
the French were in Tongking by free-fighters." — Democrat and 
Chronicle {Rep.), Rochester. 

Promoting Commerce by Navy. — "The Emperor explains that 
the decay of a once considerable German trade with the far East 
was due to the lack of imperial power to support the merchants, 
but now that has been remedied;' there is plenty of imperial 
power, and in consequence of the killing of two missionaries thi& 
imperial power will be increased by the passage of the Govern- 
ment's naval estimates, and then wo be to the heathen who does 
not buy cotton cloth and iron jackknives made in Germany. 
Navies have often been invoked for the protection of an existing 
commerce ; the Emperor believes they can be employed to create 
a commerce. An imperial decree to Asiatics or Africans to buy 
German goods, with the alternative of having their towns blown 
up by a German fleet, will do wonders, in his opinion, for the ex- 
port trade of his country, and while he desires his people to im- 
agine that the navy exists for the protection of commerce, he will 
see to it that commerce exists for the support of the navy, and 
not only commerce but foreign missions also. Nothing could 
have been more convenient than to have those two missionaries 
killed. But while the clergy are assured that the navy shall 
protect every missionary, William will see to it that the mission- 
aries are made the means of getting his naval bill through the 
Reichstag. William's idea of promoting commerce by armed 
vessels is very similar to the commercial policy of the fine old 
buccaneers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. " — Joiir- 
?ial 0/ Commerce {Fin.), New York. 

Unmistakable Challenge. — "Reduced to its final analysis, 
the Emperor's speech means that Germany is at Kiao-Chou Bay 
to stay, and that the words 'made in Germany' are to confront 
other European nations in China as they have been recently doing 
in other quarters of the globe. In declaring that in the astonish- 
ing development of the commercial interests of the empire it was 
his duty to follow the new German Hansa, and to afford it the 
protection it is entitled to demand from the empire and the Em- 
peror, William uttered to Great Britain, France, and Russia a 
challenge to a trade struggle in the far East that can not be mis- 
taken. It is true that Emperor William is not a prudent speaker. 
But it is also true that he knows what he wants; that before he 
finishes speaking he always manages to tell what he wants, and 
that he generally gets what he wants in the long run." — The 
Dispatch {De7n.), Richtnojid. 

European Patrimony. — "Russia, England, and France may be 
expected to join in this game of grab, and continue it until the 
whole of Asia is brought under Occidental sway. 

" From a sentimental point of view, it appears a most arbitrary, 
high-handed proceeding for cultured nations to divide among 
themselves what belongs to others. But when we disregard the 
long lapse of time, which, after all, is simply a short span in the 
existence of the world, we must admit that Europeans are merely 
coming into their patrimony. So far as we know, the cradle of 
the human race stood in the highlands of Asia. From there the 
Aryans took up the migration westward, conquering not only the 
whole of Europe, but sweeping irresistibly on across the Atlantic 
to America. 

"These migrating tribes have steadily advanced, while the stay- 
at-homes retrograded. The former represent refinement, cul- 
ture, civilization, and physical superiority. In the hands of the 
latter the heritage bequeathed to them has suffered sad deteriora- 
tion. What is there so unjust in the demand for an accounting 
and in the removal of a faithless steward? Assuredly he must 
have a peculiar sense of morality who feels impelled to condemn 
the conquest of Asia as a flagrant violation of the rights of na- 
tions. " — The Herald {Ind. ) , Haltimore. 

What the United States Must Decide. — "It is never wise to 
laugh too heartily when a conceited young man with unlimited 
command of a powerful people is the butt of the jest. The al- 
leged crazy sovereign may turn a point before he finishes, and 
probably will, which will hardly be humorous. Germany and 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



Russia are establishing themselves on the Pacific Ocean, where 
Great Britain is tolerably secure already. Japan is building a 
new empire and a new navy there. The powers of the world are 
concentrating their latest efforts in the Orient. 

"Half of the United States fronts on the Pacific Ocean. Here- 
tofore the isolation of that section of the republic constituted its 
chief element of safety. Now. with the foremost nations obtain- 
ing a substantial hold ■ in the Western waters, the situation 
changes. The west coast of the republic is too far away from 
the Atlantic fleet to depend upon the resources of the East. Other 
nations recognize that they must be in touch with the onward 
march of civilization, or be lost in the struggle. It is with na- 
tions as with men. Unless the opportunities are accepted they 
are soon beyond reach. The United States must decide upon one 
of two things. We must confine ourselves to our present boun- 
daries and depend upon our internal resources to hold those lines 
against all comers ; or we must strengthen the outposts, and 
improve the facilities for protection against an enemy, as would 
be possible with a stronghold in the Sandwich Islands and a 
canal through the mountains of Nicaragua. Europe may laugh 
at the young Emperor of Germany, but it is not the time to laugh. 
All nations are too much concerned just now," — The Times 
{Rep.), Pittsburg. 

"American Arrogance." — '"American arrogance' is a phrase 
which has recently been hurled at us by Germans of high and low 
degree, from Prince Bismarck down to the penny-a-liners of the 
Berlin Post. It might be worth while for these our accusers to 
compare the conduct of the United States toward Haiti in the case 
of Bernard Campbell, an American citizen, with the high-handed 
proceedings of the German authorities at Port-au-Prince. Camp- 
bell was induced to go to Haiti under contract to serve as an en- 
gineer on a steamer, and when he discovered that the vessel on 
which he was to be employed was a Haitian man-of-war he re- 
fused to serve ; subsequently he was assaulted, threatened with 
death, held in durance, beaten, and finally thrown into the sea. 
He made his escape from Haiti with great difficulty, and after 
enduring many indignities. These events occurred in 1S89 ; and 
altho the claim has since been the subject of active negotiations 
between the two governments, it has not yet been settled. It is 
now proposed by Haiti to submit the case to arbitration. If 
American 'arrogance' had been at all comparable with the Ger- 
man variety we should long ere now have harried the coast of 
Haiti and slaughtered tens of thousands of Haitians in our efforts 
to compel satisfaction by bombardments." — The Record {Jnd.), 
Phil a de I phi a . 

"The fact that the German Government sent two gunboats to 
Port-au-Prince and enforced its demands, outside the channels of 
diplomacy, detracts nothing whatever, in the estimation of man- 
kind, from the dignified position taken by President Sam in re- 
senting the undiplomatic conduct of the German Ambassador at 
Port-au-Prince in the Liiders matter. All the world understands 
that the German Emperor acted the part of a bully and braggart 
in his publish,ed utterances in relation to the incident. He must 
inevitably suffer, as the strong fellow does always who jumps on 
a small fellow and then blows about it. All honor to President 
Sara." — The Age {A/ro-Americatt) , New York. 




HOW IT IS DONE ^O^.— The Herald, New York. 



THE DEFICIT, AND WHAT TO DO ABOUT IT. 

A STIRRING battle with figures is being waged over the 
•^*- Dingley bill and its results. The revenue of the Treasury 
Department for the first five months of the present fiscal year, 
beginning July i, is less than the expenditures by S46, 581,120. 
The deficit by months is as follows : 

J"^>' $",073-545 

August 14.564,432 

September 3,435,718 

October 9,310,097 

November 8,572,109 

The President's message laid much stress upon the alleged fact 
that our recent embarrassments with the gold reserve and the 
sales of bonds were due to a deficient revenue, and his recom- 
mendation concerning the greenbacks is conditioned on the res- 
toration of a revenue at least equal to expenditures. Under the 
circumstances, the continued deficit becomes a bone of very ani- 
mated contention, and a number of interviews have been pub- 
lished on the subject. Senator Allison is reported as follows : 

"The present tariff act certainly does not seem to be producing 
revenue enough thus far, but I should be in favor of giving it 
another month or two trial. By that time we can measure better 
the effect of the anticipatory importations and see where we are 
coming out. I do not regard the present prospect of adequate 
revenue from the act as very bright." 

Senator Piatt (New York) also counsels patience : 

"We have tried the Dingley law only five months, and during 
that time the importations of wool and sugar have amounted to 
nothing. They are bound to be larger later." 

The Secretary of the Treasury, in his annual report, has the fol- 
lowing touching probable revenues : 

"The tariff act of July 24, 1897, entitled 'An Act to provide 
revenue for the Government and to encourage the industries of 
the United States, ' has not been in force long enough to deter- 
mine fully its merits, but it is confidently believed that when in 
full operation it will afford ample revenue for the ordinary needs 
of the Government, while adequately protecting our manufactur- 
ing and agricultural interests. 

"Owing to the heavy importations which were made in antici- 
pation of the passage of the measure, the customs revenues re- 
ceived during the first three months of the operation of the act 
have been diminished and are not an indication of the revenue 
which the law will produce when importations are normal. 

"Our home industries have already felt the stimulating effect 
of the law." 

The Secretary, however, in his estimates, makes allowance for 
a deficit, under the present law, of $28,000,000 at the end of the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1898, and a deficit of 121,647,885 at the 
close of the following year. 

Congressman Walker (Mass.), chairman of the banking and 
currency committee, is reported to have commented on these esti- 
mates as follows : 

"I fear that Mr. Gage's estimate of a $28,000,000 deficit will be 
approximately as far out of the way as that of Secretary' Carlisle 
on the Wilson bill. I notice that Secretaries of the Treasury 
are prone to take a favorable view of the tariffs they approve of. 

"The expenses of this Government five years hence, with any 
adequate attempt to keep up with the development of the coun- 
try, will be in the vicinity of $1,100,000,000 for each Congress. 
The expenditures by the present Congress ought to be $25,000,000 
to $30,000,000 more than those of the past Congress, if the Gov- 
ernment treats its creditors decently by paying their honest 
claims." 

One of the most important interviews that has appeared is that 
with Congressman Dingley appear in the New York Evening 
Post, December 6. Mr. Dingley said : 

"The importations made in anticipation of the increased rates 
of duty paid $32,314,000 into the Treasury. Had they waited till 
after the new law became operative they would have paid $83,- 
252,198. So we have more than $32,000,000 of actual receipts to 
add to those which are credited to the act even by its enemies, 
and more than $51,000,000 actual and ascertained loss which must 
be taken into account in any fair judgment of the act as far as it 
has been tried. The equivalent of both these items, under nor- 



6 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



nial conditions, may be expected to appear to the credit of the 
act in the Treasury books for the next year, so that, unless the 
deficit this year is very much heavier than it now threatens to 
be, this extra $83,000,000 will make up for it and a good deal 
more 

"Must not the Dingley act be considered a disappointment, 
however, up to the present time ?" 

"On the contrary, look at the steady and healthy increase in 
the revenues from month to month: August, $18,000,000; Sep- 
tember, $21,000,000; October, $23,000,000; November, a short 
month, which means a good deal when the receipts are climbing 
at the rate of about a million for every working day— $24,000,000 ! 
And all this before the two great sources of revenue have begun 
to do anvthing. In wools and woolens the markets have been 
substantially stocked for a year ahead. The sugar importations 
can not be looked for in any great quantity before the opening of 
the spring. When they do begin, they will bring in, under the 
present tariff, $4, 500,000 a month. Altho November and December 
are notoriouslj'^ lean revenue months, you will see the revenues 
in December $1,000,000 higher than those of November ; January 
Avill show an increase of $2,000,000 over December, and by March 
we shall be about up to the mark of $30,000,000 a month. Sup- 
posing that the average monthly revenue stood still at that point, 
twelve times thirty gives you $360,000,000 a year, which is very 
close to the needed sum. even were you to cut oft all miscellane- 
ous receipts. But the conditions, as I have already shown you, 
are favorable to improvement in business, and, incidentally, in 
revenues ; so that we may fairly count upon a progressive income 
which will presently carry us ahead of our positive needs." 

In a later statement to the House of Representatives Mr. Ding- 
ley predicted an actual surplus of $10,000,000 for the next fiscal 
year. He explained that the Secretary of the Treasury, in esti- 
mating a deficit of $21,000,000 for that year, had been obliged by 
a new provision of law to include estimates of expenditures of 
$73,000,000 for public works, — War Department, etc., — when the 
actual expenditures were not expected to exceed $30,000,000. At 
the present time actual government expenditures are slightly 
in excess of $5 per capita, and the ways and means committee had 
estimated that all receipts would provide an income of $5 12 }4 
per capita. When expenditures were brought within that limit 
Mr. Dingley said there would be no difficulty. The estimated 
deficit for the present year, not counting the money from the sale 
of the Pacific railroads, is $28,000,000. Inasmuch as anticipatory 
importations had placed $38,000,000 in the Treasury before July 
I, he contends that in equity that sum should be charged as 
receipts of the current year, making a surplus of $10,000,000 this 
year. He predicted that by the end of the present fiscal year 
revenues would exceed expenditures. 

In harmony with this view the Republicans are said to have 
decided to leave the tariflf law alone for this session. 

The Deficit Nearly Fifty Millions. — "The subjoined remark 
is from the New York Tribune : 

"'Not often is a more impudent falsehood uttered than the 
assertion by The Sun that "the tariff is piling up the deficit 
higher and higher every month. " ' 

"The fical year ending June 30, 1897. ended with a deficit of 
$22,036,526. The schedules of the new tariff went into operation 
on July 24. 

"The Government's expenditures for July were $49,893,000. 
and the receipts from customs, internal revenue, and miscellane- 
ous sources were $39,027,364. At the end of the first month of 
the present fiscal year the deficit was $10,865,635, disregarding 
the cents. 

"The Government's expenditures for August were $33,295,000. 
The receipts were $18,943,205. At the end of the second month 
of the present fiscal year, the first full month of the new tariff's 
operations, the deficit had grown from $10,865,635 to $25,425,338. 

"The Government's expenditures for September were $24,752,- 
361. The receipts were $21,319,644. At the end of the third 
month of the present fiscal year, and the second full month of the 
present tariff's operations, the deficit had grown from $25,425,338 
to $29,012,954. 

"The expenditures for October were $33,713,000. The receipts 
were $24,390,347. At the end of the fourth month of the fiscal 
year, and the third month of the present tariff, the deficit had 
grown from $29,012,954 to $38,338,607. 

"The expenditures for November were $33,146,000. The re- 
ceipts were $25,168,987. At the end of the fifth month of the 



fiscal year, and the fourth month of the present tariff, the deficit 
had grown from $38,338,607 to $45,986,023. 

"These figures are taken from the Treasury statements. The 
slight discrepancies in the footings which will be noted by any 
one who follows arithmetically the steady growth of the deficit, 
month by month, from $11,000,000 at the end of July to $46,000,- 
000 at the end of November, are due to the circumstances that the 
Treasury statement records expenditures in round numbers, 
while recording receipts to the dollar and cent. 

"For the first seventeen days of December the Treasury state- 
ment for December 17 shows an apparent decrease in the accu- 
mulated deficit for the fiscal year, namely, a decrease during the 
first half of December from $45,986,023 to $19,280,923. This is a 
mere trick of bookkeeping, not particularly creditable to the De- 
partment. The apparent reduction in the deficit is obtained by 
including as income of the Government $28,000,000 refunded to 
the Treasury for advances heretofore made to the Pacific rail- 
roads. Correcting this misstatement of the Government's cur- 
rent revenues, the deficit has grown during the first seventeen 
days of December from $45,986,023 to about $47,250,000." — T/te 
Sun {Rep.), New York. 

Revenues Improving. — "A careful study of the reports issued 
from week to week shows conclusively that the condition of the 
United States Treasury is gradually improving. 

"The monthly deficit is growing less, and the figures issued at 
regular intervals hold out the hope that the governmental income 
will equal expenses within a few months. 

"The total deficit for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897, was 
$22,036,000, or $1,836,000 a month. But this deficit was im- 
mensely cut down by the increased income arising from anticipa- 
tory importations during the last four months in which the* 
Wilson-Gorman law was in operation. These importations in 
advance amounted to many millions of dollars in value, and the 
revenue arising from them was in the neighborhood of $10,000,- 
000 a month in excess of regular importations. 

"The extent of this movement of merchandise into the United 
States and its effect upon the revenues can be appreciated when 
it is taken into account that the declared value of imports in April 
last was $101,322,000. against $58,649,000 in the same month of 
1S96; and that the importations of May and June for this year 
were valued at $79,358,000 and $85,183,000 respectively, against 
$57,260,000 and $56,163,000 during the same months of 1896. 

"The Dingley law went into operation on July 24, and in 
August imports dropped to $39. 847. 000 in value, from which figure 
they have been gradually and slowly rising. 

" In August the government payments were heavy and the rev- 
enues light, and the monthly deficit was $14,000,000. September 
saw it whittled down to $3,432,000; iti October it arose to $9,403, - 
000, but in November it fell to $7,978,000. And for the first eigh- 
teen days of the present month $17,360,000 has been received, 
from which it is estimated that the December deficit will be some- 
thing less than $5,000,000. 

"These figures, of course, do not indicate that the average 
monthly deficit for the fiscal year will fall below $1,836,000. 
However, imports are not only bound to increase in all lines, but 
the bringing in of sugar during the spring months will do pre- 
cisely what the bringing in of everything else did last summer in 
the way of increasing the revenues and wiping out the deficit. It 
is confidently expected that a balance between receipts and ex- 
penditures will be struck in March, and that the showing for the 
fiscal year will be no less encouraging than that of last year, with 
the added assurance that the Government is finally on a paying 
basis." — The Herald {Ind.), Baltimore. 

A Demonstration of Republican Insincerity. — "The same 
party which had told the nation that a deficiency tariff was so 
much the source of its woes that the most extraordinary efforts 
must be resorted to for its removal, and that haste in legislation 
and the concentration of effort to that end were indispensable 
necessities, has itself actually created a deficiency tariff ! As an 
incident of their action they have demonstrated alike the untruth 
and the insincerity of what they said. It is proved to be untrue 
because, if we take their own word for it, prosperity has returned 
while a deficiency tariff is still in existence, and they have aban- 
doned their claim in this respect. It is shown to be insincere 
because, when they had opportunity to make a tariff which should 
save the nation from a deficiency, they declined to do so. 

"There is still left to these men to contend that their tariff may 



Vol. XVI.; No. 11 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



bring an adequate remedy in process of time, and they will doubt- 
less make the most of this pretext ; but it must be remembered 
that their original assertion was that adequate revenue was 
needed immediately. The nation was suffering every day for 
lack of this, it was said, and nothing else would be adequate to 
relieve business from its depression. They called Congress into 
session at the earliest moment it could be got together, not to put 
into operation a tariff that would make receipts meet expenditures 
next spring or next summer. Any suggestion that their purpose 
went no further than this would have been scoffed at by them- 
selves. Their avowed object was to aid a presently suffering 
country. So far from doing this, they have put upon the nation 
a tariff which in less than a third of a year has brought to it a 
deficiency of nearly $35,000,000, with an amount constantly in- 
creasing." — The Herald {Ltd.), Boston, 

Stop the Deficit ! — "Secretary Gage is the first Republican 
head of the Treasury who ever laid before Congress — doubtless 
unwillingly, for Mr. Gage is sound in this — estimates for expen- 
diture greater than his estimates of revenue. This must stop. It 
is fatal to national credit, to national honesty, and to national 
honor. Deficits accepted as a matter of course, as they were by 
President Cleveland and the Democratic majorities of the past 
four years, are utterly demoralizing. They sap the very founda- 
tions of national solvency. No party can permit them and expect 
to retain popular confidence, nor ought it. The American people 
is honest to the core, and wilful, premeditated deficits are incar- 
nate dishonesty. 

"A deficit for two years to come is now universally accepted. 
Mr. Cannon's elaborate explanation that if this, that, or the other 
thing had not happened the deficit for 1S99 would be smaller has 
nothing to do with the matter. It is mere bookkeeping. It 
twists figures. It does not provide revenue. For raising revenue 
Mr. Cannon is not responsible, but he speaks as chairman of the 
appropriations committee for the Republican majority, which is 
responsible for raising revenue. 

"The country expects, and it ought to have a frank, explicit, 
resolute declaration from the leaders of the Republican majority, 
that the deficit will be met by levying new taxes to raise sufficient 
revenue. Such a declaration would meet an instant public re- 
sponse and would create a public confidence nothing else can. 
More revenue is to-day the first duty of the Republican majority 
of the House. The precise method by which the revenue shall be 
provided is a subject for consideration. The vote itself is a mat- 




A CHRISTMAS GIFT FOR THE PRESIDENT. 

— The Record, Chicago. 



ter for the future. But the determination to levy all the taxes 
needed to meet the expenses of the Government economically 
administered ought to be reached, made, and announced now." 
— The Press {Rep.), Philadelphia. 

Fallacious Argument from Anticipatory Importations. — "A 

person might assume that a falling-off of importations during the 
year 1897 would show that Mr. Dingley's contention of a great 
trade to come was sound, and he would apparently be justified. 
But the fallacy is readily detected. There were some anticipatory- 
importations, especially in wool and sugar. These stocks of mer- 
chandise, however, replenished supplies reduced to narrow pro- 
portions. But Mr. Dingley entertains the notion that as soon as 
this merchandise is used up other stocks of it will have to be im- 
ported. Now recognizing that the quantities were not large to 
begin with, it is necessary to ask whether they are to be as heavy 
as in the years referred to. The state of our industrial conditions 
puts a negative on this interrogation. The anticipatory imports 
were not excessive, and they were not for a very good reason, 
that American industry is gradually denying a market to foreign 
goods formerly imported in large quantities. The conclusion 
follows that as the anticipatory supplies were comparatively lim- 
ited except in two cases, the expectation of heavy invoices of 
goods hereafter, founded on the theory that they were extraordi- 
narily extensive, is ill-substantiated, the same fact acting against 
foreign trade in both instances." — The Journal {Ind.) , Provi- 
dence, R. I. 

Prosperity and Deficits. — "If the Dingley tariff shall fail of 
sufficient revenue it will not fail of restoration of prosperity ; if 
there be a deficit it will be one that quickly can be remedied by a 
prosperous people. The Wilson deficit fell heavily on an impov- 
erished people. 

"But we do not admit the probability of more than a temporary 
deficit. Of course until the vast stocks imported in anticipation 
of the higher duties of the Wilson law are depleted there will be 
a shortage of tariff revenue. But the Dingley law is very like to 
the McKinley law, and under the operation of that we had a com- 
fortable surplus of millions. The immense exports of the McKin- 
ley era were accompanied by a large volume of imports. It is 
true that we did not import so raanj'of the necessaries of life that 
can be produced in the United States under the McKinley tariff 
as under the Wilson tariff, but the unprecedented prosperity of 
the country begot a generous scale of expenditure and our im- 
ports of luxuries increased. There are signs of a return to this 
desirable condition, our exports are immense, and as the stock of 
imports in bond decreases our factories and mills grow busier, 
money becomes more generally circulated, and while most of it 
will stay at home it is more than probable that enough of it will 
go abroad to raise our duties on imports to a sum commensurate 
with the needs of the Government. 

"This view is taken by the appraiser of customs for New York 
and by other experts. But if the worst come to the worst, there 
will be this difference between 1S97 and the years immediately 
preceding it : Then we sent most of our money abroad, and had 
a deficit, with no home funds to abolish it ; now if we have a defi- 
cit we shall have kept most of our money at home and be in 
good shape to take up a temporary domestic loan. But we ap- 
prehend no permanent deficit. Indeed, we confidently anticipate 
a comfortable surplus at the expiration of the second year of the 
operation of the new tariff, and quite possibly at the end of the 
first." — The Inter Ocean {Rep.), Chicago. 



DANGER OF BECOMING EU ROPEAN IZED ? 

DOWN with the ill-disguised purpose of a half-foreign 
minority to Europeanize the United States!" exclaims 
Dr. John Clark Ridpath in the December Arena. Dr. Ridpath 
makes the term Europeanize cover certain antidemocratic ten- 
dencies which he deems dangerously existent, notably influences 
of commerce, accumulated wealth, "society," and Government 
with a capital G. In the twentieth century, be says, we shall 
either be Europeanized or democratized ; there is no place of 
stable equilibrium between the two. "This is true for the reason 
that there can be no such thing as a democratic monarchy ; no 
such thing as a monarchical republic ; no such thing as a popular 
aristocracy ; no such thing as a democracy of nabobs. The 
twentieth century will bring us either to democracy unequivocal 
or to empire absolute. . . . The democratic republic which we 
thought we had, and which we so greatly prized and fought for, 



8 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan, 1, 1898 



must uow sheer oK Jro»i Europe altogether, or else sail quietly 
back /o Europe and come to anchor. Shall we or shall we not go 
thither?" 

Of the circumstances bringing us to this alternative. Dr. Rid- 
path takes up first, commerce, which, while it civilizes and en- 
riches, tends to make alike ; 

"Commerce may be good, but it has its drawbacks and its dan- 
gers. Commerce does not desire liberty, but it desires stability. 
It does not want change and progress, but fixedness and conser- 
vatism. When the people of two nations trade, the people of the 
free nation, the progressive nation, the changing nation, get in 
love with the nation that is not free, that does not progress, that 
does not change. For this reason the seaboard interests of 
America have become interwoven in a plexus of foreign relations. 
That which we hoped to avoid politically has come to pass com- 
mercially. The commercial parts of the United States are already 
bound in a great web to the corresponding interests of Europe. 
So far as the threads of this web extend in America, to that limit 
the preference for Europe and the tolerance of European condi- 
tions have extended. Since the rise of the great commercial 
epoch, the sea-bordering emporia of the United States have been 
each year bound more and more to the European marts. To this 
extent interest has supplanted patriotism. As between the ship 
on the one hand and the republic on the other — well, the repub- 
lic may take care of itself! That is, democracy is good enough, 
but trade is better !" 

Then there is the influence of "society," so-called. "Society, 
that is, the sham of society, is getting interlocked across the At- 
lantic." "Society, as soon as it emancipates itself from the con- 
ditions of production and finds the means of independent support 
in revenues drawn from funds, takes refuge, not under the flag 
of the nation, but under the flag of power. . . . Society considers 
the opera-house and the arsenal more attractive than the school- 
house and the fair. " 

"American society on its Eastern selvage strives to get itself 
interwoven more and more with those aristocratic forms and fic- 
tions which are the peculiar social products of Europe. On both 
sides of the sea society tends to a common form and substance. 
The intervention of the Atlantic, shrunken to a pond, is no longer 
an obstacle to social intercourse. Along a great part of the 
American seaboard the motive of a foreign connection is to-day 
stronger than any remaining motive of public liberty. The social 
influence of the whole United States west of the Alleghanies is 
not as strong in New York as the single influence of the Prince of 
Wales ! Under such conditions the notion of Europeanizing 
America is not only entertained, but is regarded with compla- 
cency and undisguised favor." 

The influences of accumulated wealth are said to be of the same 
kind; "wealth has no country — and never had"; the stock ex- 
changes and the banks of the world are literally ifnperium in 
imperio : 

•'The bourse considers government as an instrument, not for 
the enlargement of human liberty, not for the promotion of man, 
not for the extension of civilization, not for invention and letters 
and art, but for the protection of the bourse. The bourse in all 
nations is common ; it is a unit. It is founded on thrones and 
dynasties ; on kingdoms and empires and republics, and on man I 
The bourse says that the United States is a part of the European 
system — or must be ; that our institutions in the old democratical 
form are too weak for safety ; that the American republic must 
be conformed with all expedient haste to the gainful standards 
and substantial methods of Europe ; that our democratic ship 
must be drawn up to the harbor and anchored under the guns of 
the old fort, where the dangerous rights of man may be carefully 
regulated by the triumphant rights of property." 

Again, the great fact called government drifts strongly toward 
the European side. 

"It is a tendency in all government to make itself great and 
glorious. Government is never modest, never humble. It al- 
ways encroaches, and enlarges itself at the expense of those in- 
terests which it is designed to conserve. Government does not 
look affectionately toward man, but always affectionately toward 
the organic form and splendor of things 



"The American republic is tinder this law. As a result, it has 
drifted toward the very condition which was renounced by our 
fathers. This republic is not any longer Jeffersonian. There is 
hardly a ti'ace of the Jeffersonian philosophy and intent left in it. 
The name of Jefferson is still used to conjure with, but it is 
used by those who are innocent of Jeffersonian principles. Each 
succeeding administration approximates the European style. 
Strange paradox this, but true, that the Republican Lincoln was 
the last Jeffersonian to occupy the Presidential chair ; he who re- 
cently claimed to wear the panoply of Jefferson was furthest of 
all from the type which he falsified." 

Are there counteracting forces in American life? Dr. Ridpath 
believes that the great majority of the people hold back from the 
European drift. "The belief of many and the hope of not a few 
that we shall be restored to the European fold are mere rot and 
reaction !" 

" Probably four citizens out of five iB this republic are at heart 
still sincerely devoted to free institutions. Four out of five be- 
lieve with might and soul in the righteousness of our colonial 
rebellion against Great Britain, and the goodness of absolute 
independence. Four out of five think human liberty something, 
and not nothing. Four out of five consider our democratic insti- 
tutions to be — as they are — the most advanced and satisfactory 
forms of civil society ever created by man. Four out of five re- 
gard the Government of the United States as a simple agent for 
the expression of the will and hope of the people. Four out of 
five share not at all in the rising distrust which wealth and com- 
merce and society and power cherish against the masses in their 
plan of governing themselves by the freely expressed will of the 
majority 

"This question is the essence of the current commotion in our 
country. On the one hand wealth, organization, commerce, 
'society,' all the prevailing forces in our public life, are on the 
alert, buzzing like Athenians about 'the foreign affairs of the 
United States' ; this when we should have no foreign affairs, or 
only a few. Our political powers are as deep as their elbows in 
every complication of the world. American newspapers are at a 
white heat — over what? Over nothing — unless we are to become 
a part of Europe. In that event, we are already in the swiftest 
swim. In that event, we have not far to go until we shall be 
even as the rest. But if, on the other hand, America suffices for 
herself — as she does — and for the future of mankind ; if our re- 
public is to continue as the one singular example of public liberty 
under law, showing forth the freedom of man in its highest and 
best civil and social manifestations, then shall we be. not Euro- 
peanized, but democratized more than ever. And that is the one 
desideratum that now presents itself as a supreme motive in our 
destiny." 

TOPICS IN BRIEF. 



Secretary Gage's 
financial plan looks 
beautiful now ; but 
wait until the United 
States Senate is 
through \vith it. — Tfie 
North American, Phil- 
adelphia. 

Apropos of the me- 
teorites, the following 
amusing story is told 
by Sir Robert Ball re- 
specting one of these 
celestial visitors. A 
meteorite which fell on 
a farm in America was 
claimed by the ground 
landlord, as his lease 
reserved all minerals 
and metals. The ten- 
ant objected on the 
score that the article 
was not on the prop- 
erty when the lease 
was executed. The 
landlord then claimed 
it as flying game, but 
the lessee pleaded that 
the thing had neither 
feathers nor wings, and 
claimed it as ground 
game. But while the 
dispute was going on 
the customs ofificers 
seized the meteorite, 
on the ground that the 
revenue had been de- 
frauded by its intro- 
duction into the coun- 
try without payment 
of'duty.— y/t^ Industri- 
al World, Chicago. 




THE DRAMA IN POLITICS. 

Hamlet Parkhurst: "Alas, poor New Yorick!" 
— The Journal, New York. 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



LETTERS AND ART. 



THE AMERICAN HISTORICAL NOVEL. 

WHAT is an historical novel? Paul Leicester Ford wrestles 
with this question in the first three pages of the leading 
article in The Atlantic Monthly (December), and reaches this 
conclusion: that "a novel is historical or unhistorical because it 
embodies or does not embody the real feelings and tendencies of 
the age or generation it attempts to depict, and in no sense be- 
cause the events it records have happened or the people it de- 
scribes have lived." The fact that the colonial laws of Massa- 
chusetts decreed a very different story from that in "The Scarlet 
Letter" ; that the Pretender never came in disguise to England, 
as Thackeray in "Henry Esmond" represents him as doing ; that 
the Indian of real life and the Indian of Cooper's tales were very 
dissimilar creatures; that "Westward Ho" is animated by a 
narrow-minded and irritating anti-Romanism, does not destroy 
the rightful claim of such works to be known as historical novels. 
It is not the dealing with well-known historical characters, not 
historical accuracy, not even the treatment of past times that 
makes a novel historical ; but it is the use of an historical atmos- 
phere, as in "Ivanhoe" and "Henry Esmond," and the accurate 
representation of the feelings of the generation depicted. 

In maintaining his argument that a novel dealing with con- 
temporaneous life is apt to be better history than one treating of 
a former generation, Mr. Ford says : 

"Nor is party feeling avoided by lapse of years, tradition being 
as partizan as the men who transmit it. Save in one or two of 
Cooper's novels, it would be wellnigh impossible to find a 
romance dealing with Revolutionary history which does not make 
the Whig of that war the patriot, and the Tory the disloyal and, 
usually, evil-acting man. Yet the student of history knows that 
the loyalists, if a minority, were largely composed of the gentry 
and educated classes of the country ; that they were the equiva- 
lent of what to-day are termed the 'better element,' and were 
superior in character to many of the men who opposed them. No 
American novelist has ventured to write of John Hancock and 
Jonathan Trumbull as men suspected of smuggling, or of Samuel 
Adams as a public man who sought, as other officials have done 
more recently, to vindicate himself from the charge of defalca- 
tion by an appeal to the ballots of the masses. Would any Amer- 
ican author, striving to write popular fiction, dare to picture one 
signer of the Declaration as selling the secrets of his country to 
the French Ministry for a paltry pension, or another taking ad- 
vantage of information of the need of the Continental cause for 
wheat to corner the supply at once so far as he was able? In one 
case alone have our writers dared to draw an approximately 
faithful portrait of a man who came to the front in early Revolu- 
tionary days; to describe the bounty-jumper, deserter, smuggler, 
and drunkard, who, nevertheless, rose to high honor in the Amer- 
ican cause, and the reason for this exception is explained when 
the name of the man is given as Benedict Arnold." 

Proceeding, Mr. Ford speaks of the historical novel's advan- 
tages (its convincingness and its instructive value), and disad- 
vantages ; and, chief among these latter, he mentions the rigidity 
of the events and conditions with which it generally deals, and the 
very great difficulty in delineating the character of an historical 
personage. On this point he writes : 

"As an example, take the idea of Washington as presented in 
'The Virginians. ' How shadowy the drawing is, how absolutely 
weak the personality, as compared with those of George and 
Harry Warrington ! Thackeray had studied the conventional 
historical portrait of the man and then transferred it as well as 
could be to new surroundings. But just because the man was so 
well known, the author was all the more hampered in his treat- 
ment of him. and painstai<ingly as he soughtto vivify him the por- 
trait is at once colorless through its attempted accuracy, yet de- 
fective in its truth. Who in reading of the prim, formal, sensible 
man of twenty-six in the novel could infer from his reading the 



reality? — the gay young officer who was overfond of 'fashionable' 
clothes ; who held a good cue at billiards ; who passed whole days 
winning or losing money at cards ; who loved the theater and the 
cockpit ; who could brew bowls of arrack punch, and do his share 
in drinking them ; who could dance for three hours without once 
resting ; and who fell in and out of love so fiercely and so easily. 
Nor is this artificiality due to a transatlantic point of view of our 
great American. The portrait of Washington as given by Cooper 
in 'The Spy' is equally absurd, tho drawn by an American writer 
who could have talked with many who knew Washington person- 
ally. In each case the attempt is made to give us, not Major 
Washington of the Virginia regiment, or General Washington of 
the Continental army, but the sobered and aged President Wash- 
ington of tradition." 

In fact, so we are told, there can not be found, in all American 
historical fiction, a celebrated character who was as well a real 
character ; and the same assertion may be extended to English 
literature also. Nevertheless, American historical fiction has 
given us its full share of people who have passed into literature 
as types ; it has created for us, through the pens of Mrs. Stowe 
and Cooper, "our idea concerning two great races which, it is 
probable, will remain through all time." It has done more than 
this : it has given us our two most famous novelists — Cooper and 
Hawthorne ; and in their best work, and in "Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
and "Ben Hur," we have what are to this day the most positive 
successes of American fiction. 

Speaking of the recent revival of interest in American history, 
and of fiction dealing with it, Mr. Ford criticizes the latter for its 
"entire disregard of the big elements of American life and an 
overaccentuation of the untypical." We quote again : 

"Who in reading American fiction has ever brought away a 
sense of real glory in his own country'? We are told that our 
people are hopelessly occupied in money-making, and that our 
politics are shamefully corrupt. Yet the joint product of these 
forces has won, or is winning, equalit}' of man, religious liberty, 
the right of asylum, freedom of the ocean, arbitration of inter- 
national disputes, and universal education ; and this, too, while 
these people were fighting a threefold struggle with man, beast, 
and nature across a vast continent. 

"Disregarding all this, the novelist has turned to the petty in 
American life. With the most homogeneous people in both 
thought and language in the world, American literature is over- 
burdened with dialect stories ; with no true class distinctions, and 
with an essential resemblance in American life from the Atlantic 
to the Pacific, the novel of locality has been accepted as typical 
and not exceptional ; with a people less absorbed in and less in- 
fluenced by so-called society than any other great nation, we are 
almost submerged with what may be styled the Afternoon Tea 
Novel." 

KIPLING AND HIS MESSAGE. 

IN reviewing the new edition, in twelve volumes, of Rudyard 
Kipling's works, Barrett Wendell, assistant professor of 
English at Harvard, endeavors to state the message which, as he 
conceives, Kipling is more or less consciously conveying to us in 
his prose and his poetry alike. Professor Wendell writes for the 
literary supplement of The Times (New York), and begins as 
follows ; 

"Ten years ago the name of Rudyard Kipling was supposed, 
by anybody that knew it at all, to be the improbable pseudonym 
of some clever person who had begun to write dashing, ephemeral 
stories and stray verses about the English in India. To-day his 
fame is recognized as the true one of the man who, if any, has 
attained by common consent the chief position in contemporary 
English literature. Already, too, people, perhaps, grow tired of 
hearing that he is not yet thirty-two years old. When one re- 
members, however, that he has already been at least a popular 
writer for fully ten years, one begins to see what his age signi- 
fies. When he wrote the tales and the poems which we used to 
think a bit impudent in their crudity, he was well under twenty — 
no older than the average junior in a New England college. 

"These early works of his, besides, we have known long enough. 



10 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



to be assured that w^ were wrong in thinking them ephemeral. 
Certainly the verses, and to no small degree the stories, bear the 
test of repeated reading. What he has written since, to be sure, 
has been, on the whole, increasingly stronger and better; but if 
there be one trait which more than another forces itself on who- 
ever ponders over Kipling's collected works, it is that the better 
one knows them the better they prove worth knowing. His 
stories, everybody can feel, have tended, without losing a bit of 
their spirit, to grow firmer and more pregnant. His poems, 
meanwhile, at least to some of us, have not quite preserved the 
lucidity which at first marked them. Ten years ago, for exam- 
ple, nobody would have dreamed that the author of ' Barrack- 
Room Ballads' would ever give us some stirring stanzas about 
White Horses, which should leave more than one reasonably in- 
telligent reader in doubt as to what he meant the animals to sig- 
nify. One thing, however, remains true of Kipling's poetry from 
the beginning. Whatever it be meant to mean, it is always 
hauntingly, indefinably suggestive." 

What phase of the protean meaning of life has Kipling ex- 
pressed? In answering this. Professor Wendell refers to the 
racial struggles, especially those between Europe and Asia, which 
seem to be drawing near. He says : 

" When history, past or present, takes on such aspects as this, 
human affairs suddenly assume a new, startling, bewildering 
guise. At comfortable moments we are accustomed to assume 
that men of various ability control, first themselves, then one 
another, and finally the course of things on earth. At critical 
moments we are beginning to know with tragic certainty that 
men, like other earthly things, are to an incalculable degree the 
sentient victims of forces, or, if you prefer, of powers utterly be- 
yond human control." 

A thoughtful man who, like Kipling, has passed his early life 
in British India, must realize the foregoing; but a stranger to 
Kipling may not even guess whether he has consciously set before 
us the tremendously significant aspects of life that must have 
been thus revealed to him. To Mr. Wendell, however, this great 
truth of racial struggle seems to underlie both his tales and his 
poems. 

Speaking of the vigorous individuality of Kipling's characters, 
Professor Wendell says further : 

"As you grow by repeated reading, however, to feel thoroughly 
acquainted with the characters of Kipling, you grow more and 
more certain that somehow these differ from any others. And 
slowly you begin to realize how. One and all, high and low, 
brute and human, these individuals, for all their sentient indi- 
viduality, are living in the presence and in the power of a force 
utterly beyond human control. Unlike the fate of classic tragedy 
as it is unlike the mysterious and unseen something which hovers 
unphrased behind the tragedy of Shakespeare, this strangely 
modern, inexorable immensity grows sometimes more startlingly 
significant than either. For, unlike them, it is a growing cer- 
tainty of our modern life. We men of this closing century have 
had a way of deeming ourselves conquerors of nature ; can it be 
that we are only her sport? 

"And if so, how does that pitiless force reveal itself to our 
opening eyes? Not, we begin to see, as a steady, unyielding 
weight of pressure, but rather as a stormy, fluctuating ebb and 
flow. This struggle of ours is with the rising tide of an oceanic 
eternity. Far enough from Kipling such metaphor may have 
seemed to lead us; and yet if we have understood ourselves it 
has brought us back to him again. For if there be one fact in 
nature which more than another symbolizes such emotion as we 
have just tried to realize, it is the rhythmical surge of a tempestu- 
ous sea. And if in all modern literature there be poetry whose 
deeper power lies not in its phrase, not in its melody, but in the 
resistless surge of its almost colossal rhythm, it is this growingly 
inarticulate, endlessly haunting poetry of Kipling. 

"In his tales and in his poems alike, then, this youngest and 
most surely notable of contemporary English writers has wittingly 
or not phrased the deepest facts of the life which reveals itself to 
our time — the struggle, on the one hand, of humanity with the 
forces which would crush it; and the struggle, within the bounds 
of humanity, for racial survival." 



A GREAT ITALIAN HUMORIST. 

THE most celebrated writer of modern Italian literature is 
Alessandro Mazzoni, the founder of the romantic school in 
Italy. This writer was born at Milan on the 7th of March, 1785. 
Unlike many other poets, Mazzoni was so slow in developing that 
he ranked among the dunces in the various schools to which be 
was sent. At the age of fifteen, however, he wrote a couple of 
sonnets which were not without merit. After the death of his 
father, in 1S05, he joined his mother at Auteuil and spent two 
years there with the literary set called the " Idealogues" ; at this 
time, also, he took up the creed of Voltaire, which he afterward, 
under the influence of his first wife, exchanged for that of the 
most ardent Catholicism. His first appearance before the public 
was in 1806-7, in a poem entitled "Urania" and in a eulogy on 
Count Carlo Imbonati, who had left him considerable property. 
He survived not only his first and second wives, but seven of his 
nine children. He died of spinal meningitis May 22, 1S73. So 
greatly was he loved that after his remains had lain in state in 
Milan for several days, they were followed to the cemetery by a 
vast throng, including all the great officers of state. 

It is probable that no man of genius ever had a finer tribute 
than did Mazzoni in Verdi's "Requiem," which was written espe- 
cially to honor his memory. Mazzoni is best known by his great 
romance, "The Betrothed," which has passed through one hun- 
dred and eighteen editions in Italian, nineteen in French, seven- 
teen in German, and ten in English. 

From Signor Arturo Graf's article {Nuova Aniologia, Rome, 
November i) on Don Abbondio, the priest in "The Betrothed," we 
take the following extracts : 

"In addition to his other characteristics Mazzoni was a great 
humorist, the greatest that Italy has produced, and one of the 
greatest the world has ever seen. Everything in him cooperates 
to render him one : the goodness of his spirit and the acuteness 
of his mind, the vivacity of sentiment and the lack of sentimen- 
tality, the clear vision of the things of this world and their in- 
effectiveness, the skepticism which does not exclude faith and the 
faith which does not become credulity. Mazzoni is a great 
humorist because he is a realist and an idealist at the same time ; 
that is to say, he has a quick sense of the real and a clear notion 
of the ideal. Humor springs directly at the head of the real and 
the ideal, when it is found in a well-balanced and serene mind, 
because no one possesses pure realism or pure idealism. It has 
been said by someone that humor is irreconcilable with the Chris- 
tian sentiment ; but if humor arises from the contrast between the 
real and the ideal, and takes cognizance of a certain knowledge 
of the necessary imperfection of human nature, and, moreover, 
of the universal vanity of finite things, it is impossible to see the 
reason of this incompatibility ; and if it is remembered that humor 
is composed of sympathy and piety, it would seem that the Chris- 
tian sentiment would favor it rather than otherwise. It is cer- 
tainly true that humor is more generally frequent among the 
moderns than the ancients; Cervantes, Swift, and Sterne were 
good Christians (the last two being ministers), and Gian Paola. 
who expressly defines humor as being comic romanticism, says 
that no one can possess humor without an idea of the infinite." 

Professor Graf proceeds with an analysis of Don Abbondio 's 
character, and finds excuses for his lies, his egotism, his cow- 
ardice, his groans and complaints. American readers, however, 
will be more interested in the following passage, in which Don 
Abbondio and Don Quixote are compared : 

"But of all the characters in 'The Betrothed' the most humor- 
ous is certainly Don Abbondio; so that, after the unrivaled and 
unique Don Quixote, now become a sort of moral entity necessary 
to the human mind and human conversation, it is probable that 
Don Abbondio is the most profoundly humorous person of all lit- 
erature. Don Abbondio is in many respects the reverse of Don 
Quixote. Don Quixote is always ready to attempt the most 
chimerical duties. Don Abbondio flees from the most real duties 
at the first glimpse of danger. Don Quixote, having too much 
soul, goes beyond the mark. Don Abbondio, for want of soul, 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



11 



never reaches it. Don Quixote is imprisoned in the ideal, and 
no longer sees the real. Don Abbondio is shut up in the real, 
and no longer sees the ideal. But Don Quixote and Don Ab- 
bondio have two points in common : they both live in a world for 
which they were not made and which makes sport of them. 
With both everything goes contrary to their intentions." — Trans- 
lated Jor The Literary Digest. 



VERESTCHAGIN ON THE ART OF THE DAY. 

THRESH from a triumphant series of exhibitions in the Euro- 
-*- pean capitals, the great Russian painter, Verestchagin, has 

given his impressions and ideas on modern art and artists to a 

representative of the St. Petersburg Novosti. We translate the 

more interesting portions of the interview. 

Questioned in regard to the tendencies of the jounger schools 

of painters, Verestchagin said : 

"It has become the fashion to paint pictures absolutely without 
meaning and purpose, but the cultivated portion of the European 
public has no sympathy with this form of decadence in art. It 
responds more quickly to such paintings as appeal both to the 
sense of beauty and the reflective faculties. Thus in Vienna my 
exhibition coincided with another one, representing the fin-de- 
siecle productions of local artists. While they could hardly at- 
tract one hundred visitors a day, my exhibition was daily at- 
tended by five thousand persons. Even more significant is the 
fact that while my pictures of southern and northern Russia in- 
spired some interest and sj'mpathy, the attention was generally 
centered on the campaign of 1812, in which Napoleon is depicted by 
me not only as a captain and military leader, but also as a man, 
hero, and sufferer. It is, after all, humanity that interests men. 

"Not that I place meaning above execution and form. No, 
both are entitled to the same degree of concern and care. I as- 
sume that the artist who lacks technic is a mere tyro, an aspi- 
rant, one who can lay no claim to the name artist ; but it is 
equally true that the artist who lacks pregnant ideas is like a 
bouquet without fragrance, like fruit without taste. It seems 
self-evident that the more educated and broad-minded the artist 
is, the more valuable and profitable are the creations emanating 
from his enlightened mind. Take those who teach the doctrine 
of art for art's sake, the decadents, and examine their works. 
Truly, fruit without tools. They suggest the work of literary 
decadents — phrases, blank forms, without content. " 

According to Verestchagin, the trouble is that artists are not 
sufficiently trained and educated, in a general sense, for their 
life-work. He would educate artists as those aiming at profes- 
sional careers are educated. To-day, he remarks, the means and 
resources of modern governments are wasted on warlike prepara- 
tions, and art is of necessity neglected. In the future, he hopes, 
the social mission of art will be better appreciated, and proper 
education will be provided for aspiring artists. 

Verestchagin gives a striking illustration of the danger of in- 
sincerity and ignorance in art from a political and social stand- 
point. He has been challenged, he says, for representing Napo- 
leon, in the 1812 campaign, as wrapped up in a great fur top-coat 
and as wearing an enormous fur hat which left only his nose ex- 
posed to the frost. He not only has found incontestable evidence 
of this, but he has further found that Napoleon was similarly 
protected during the battle of Eilau. Now the famous paintings 
at the Louvre of Napoleon at this battle represent him as neatly 
and coquettishly attired in a short velvet jacket, exposing the 
lower part of his body to bitter cold. "Now," says Verestchagin, 
"had these artists shown more regard for truth and less for flat- 
tering and French vanity, they would in their picture, painted 
after the peace of Tilsit, have unconsciously warned the French 
against a frivolous and light-hearted entrance upon the disastrous 
campaign of 1812. They would have shown the necessity of ta- 
king proper precautions in regard to winter clothing, etc., and the 
outcome might have been entirely different." This is no far- 
fetched notion, insists the painter ; it proves the danger of super- 
ficiality and carelessness of fact. 



DID TENNYSON POSE? 

A T least one "plain reader" of the Tennyson "Memoirs" has 
•^^- failed to be properly impressed by the many protests which 
the great bard is represented to have made against notoriety and 
press personalities. This particular "plain reader" expresses his 
or her incredulity on the subject in the London Saturday Review 
(November 27). What arouses suspicion at the outset, so this 
writer thinks, is Hallam Tennyson's apology for the publication 
of the "Memoirs," which, he tells us, are published only to keep 
out anj' other biography. "You are not to have a common 'Life' 
it seems ; but you get one all the same ; it is a sort of conceal- 
ment of birth of a biography." The Saturday Review writer 
continues : 

"The most cursory examination would have shown the biog- 
rapher the impossibility of the pose and the repeated inconsisV 
encies of any attempt to maintain it. But he goes on bravely to 
give us the cross-fire of theory and practise, and he gives it with- 
out a ghost of a smile. The laureate, after declaring to Mr. 
Palgrave that, had he an unpublished autobiography of Horace 
in MS. in his hand, he would burn it. because a poet's life is to 
be found in his work alone, did himself arrange with his son to 
have this prolonged biography produced, and to include in it. to 
the great increase of its bulk and its price as literary merchan- 
dise, the second and third-rate poems his finer taste suppressed 
during his lifetime. Without any fear of the " ghouls, ' there could 
have been a bonfire of these. The 'resurrectionists' were they of 
the poet's own household ; and when they invoke his authority 
for the deed, they invite us to deny the sincerity of his constant 
protest against the publication of inferiorities, and to impugn for 
the first time the critical judgment hitherto held to be in him all 
but unerring. Again, with the suggestion of a pose, the poet 
writes to Mr. Gladstone : ' I heard of an old lady the other day 
to whom all the great men of her time had written. When 
Fronde's "Carlyle" came out, she rushed up to her room, and to 
an old chest there in which she kept their letters, and flung them 
into the fire. "They were written to me," she said, "not to the 
public!" And she set her chimney on fire, and her children and 
grandchildren ran in — "The chimney's on fire !" "Never mind," 
she said, and went on burning. I should like to raise an altar to 
that old lady, and burn incense upon it.' Yet Tennyson, at this 
very time and always, had the habit of keeping nearly all the 
letters he received, including mere invitations to dinner; so that 
when they came to be turned to the purpose of a biography, two 
devoted friends of the Tennysons had to wade through over forty 
thousand of these human or inhuman documents. The smoke of 
their burning had made a fit incense indeed to offer to the 'old 
lady' ; but to her the poor honor of lip-service alone was ren- 
dered. Some Tennyson letters indeed were burned ; but the fact 
is not remarked with the exultation the reader might expect : 'All 
the letters from my father to Arthur Hallam were destroyed by 
his father after Arthur's death — a great loss.' The same confu- 
sion of pose and of practise confronts the reader again and again. 
The biographer has a partiality for letters addressed to dukes, 
and a preference — perhaps still more subtly mundane — for those 
addressed to workmen. . . . More allusions are made to the 
craving of the age for personalities ; and then the eye lights on a 
passage which records that Mr. Ruskin has been to lunch and 
that he wore his accustomed blue tie. 'This horrible age of blab' 
is thrown at us once more, and then we hear that the poet's own 
'anecdotes and sayings were taken down as soon as spoken, ' and 
that, for instance, 'he admired much Miss Mary Anderson, and 
held her to be the flower of girlhood.' 'Confound the publicities 
and gabblements of the nineteenth century I' again he cries, when 
an Edinburgh paper has unblushingly announced a new poem of 
his as in the press. But turn the pages, and you are fully in- 
formed by his official biographer that he liked a dinner of 'beef- 
steak and potato, a cut of cheese, a pint of port, and afterward 
a pipe (never a cigar) ' ; and that, to take a random illustration, 
he once stopped reading to Joachim because the cook was in bed 
in the next room. By all means tell it; but do not interlard the 
recital with denunciations of other reciters. This 'gabblenient' 
about 'gabblement' goes on until it is tiresome even as a study of 
human inconsistency. There is a Nemesis that awaits it too at 
the end of the Memoir. In the closing scene of his father's life 
the son records; 'At three o'clock he was pleased with the tele- 



12 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



gram about him from the Queen, but he muttered, "Ohl that 
press will get hold of me now!"' The day after that he died; 
and the day after that his own medical attendant published to the 
press what the biographer still calls 'the medical bulletin' as fol- 
lows : ' On the bed a figure of breathing marble, flooded and 
bathed in the light of the full moon streaming through the oriel 
window ; his hand clasping the Shakespeare which he had asked 
for but recently and which he had kept by him to the end ; the 
moonlight, the majestic figure, as he lay there "drawing thicker 
breath," irresistibly brought to our minds his own "Passing of 
Arthur."' Surely the irony of history could not further go, nor 
retribution be more complete. 

"Again, it was a way with the bard to resent a stare. The 
New Englanders who came, lightheartedly certain of a welcome, 
to look over the wall at Farringford, and the British tourist who 
made picnic at Alum Bay in the hope of at least a distant glimpse 
of him, became the dearest object of his dread. Yet one must 
be forgiven the suspicion that he missed the tourists if they were 
not there. Readers of Sir Henry Taylor's 'Autobiography' will 
remember the diatribe uttered by Tennyson to Mrs. Cameron 
against the persecutions of autograph collectors : a diatribe which 
ended with the quite contrary lament that he had received no 
letters for three days, and that he feared there was an atrophy in 
the world about him and his fame. In that anecdote you have 
the man for whom, as Mr. A. C. Benson rightly says, you seek 
in vain in the Memoir. The mood was so variable that if one 
day he met in the lanes two girls who did not turn round to look 
after him, he would growl, 'They don't know who I am' ; and 
the next, if they did look round, would cry, 'Americans!' His 
costume bore out the same delightful contrariness. The wnde- 
awake. that Mr. Gladstone really did shy at when it threatened 
the House of Lords, he wore not as one who hates to be regarded 
by the curious eye. And there was one occasion when a little 
boy proved as frank as another of his age and sex in Hans An- 
dersen's story. He had been out with the bard, who, returning, 
complained in deep tones of the intrusive ej'es of man and wo- 
man. 'Then why do you wear that blue cloak?' was the home 
question that came back in a treble tone ; and then all was still." 



BIOLOGICAL LITERARY CRITICISM. 

TWO eminent French literary critics, Sainte-Beuveand Taine, 
propounded the theory that, in order to be able to deter- 
mine the value of a work of art, literary or other, a critic must be 
acquainted with the mental organization and environment of the 
artist. According to them, the work is the expression of a psy- 
chological individuality, and they used every means to know 
thoroughly the producer, in order to understand the product. A 
very long step in advance of this theory has been taken by Dr. 
Edward Toulouse in the Revue Scientifique (Paris, November 27), 
who maintains that no one is competent to criticize a work of art 
unless he is a physician and a physiologist. The completely 
equipped critic should be, besides, an alienist. In order to sum 
up these qualifications in one convenient word. Dr. Toulouse has 
chosen the word biologist. It is pointed out that psychological 
conditions are intimately connected with physiological conditions. 
So that no critic can accurately estimate the value of a novel, for 
instance, unless he has ascertained the physical organization and 
condition of the novelist, his circulation, respiration, and temper- 
ature, the state of his liver and digestive organs, the soundness 
or unsoundness of his ganglions and entire nervous system ! 

In order to justify the assumption that a critic of literature or 
art should be a thorough alienist, it is declared that, during the 
composition or construction of a work at all worthy of criticism, 
the writer or artist is in a state of temporary delirium : 

"When an alienist is called in to a patient out of his mind, the 
physician often finds that the sick man is interested in questions 
of an historical or political nature, which at first sight would 
seem to be wholly out of the field of his customary thought. Why 
the ideas of the sick man run in this channel must be determined 
more or less accurately by the alienist. Either the patient has a 
certain natural tendency to trouble him.-ielf about these ideas, or 



there is something in his past or present environment to account 
for them. Just so with a novel-writer. The reasons for his 
selecting a certain kind of subject, for his treating that subject 
in a certain way, for his drawing or allowing his readers to draw 
a certain moral, can be ascertained solely by the experienced 
alienist, who can determine the psychological states which have 
produced such results and from, what physical conditions these 
psychological states ensue. Thus, every one has observed the 
abundance of olfactory images in the works of Zola. The con- 
stant recurrence of these can be explained by those only who 
know that Zola has an unusually fine sense of smell. The way in 
which an author describes the physical personality of his heroes 
and the mode in which he makes them think and act, are ques- 
tions which every critic should study, and it is the alienist alone 
who can determine how far these imaginary beings are reproduc- 
tions of the personality of the author." 

Dr. Toulouse proceeds to apply these principles to criticisms of 
the works of the sculptor, the painter, the actor, the musician, 
and, in fact, of all those whose productions deal with artistic 
taste. He recognizes that there are numerous cases in which a 
critic can not study an artist personally and determine the condi- 
tion of his bile and digestive organs and nervous system. In 
these cases, of course, the study must be confined to the work 
produced. It is, however, the biologist alone who can detect the 
subtle relations between the work and the workman, and declare 
what parts of it are due to the personality of the artist and how 
that personality has colored the work. — Translated for The 
Literary Digest. 



ALPHONSE DAUDET. 

ALPHONSE DAUDET, who died suddenly at his home in 
Paris December 16, was probably known and appreciated 
by a larger circle of American and British readers than any other 
French writer since Victor Hugo. There is little doubt that this 
remarkable popularity was due largely to his humor, which was 
of the American flavor. His style had an added charm, too, in 
its poetical vein. His first published w^ritings were poetry, and 
altho he wrote no verse after he was twenty-five, he was still 
poetic in temper. Daudet belonged to the romantic school. 
Augustin Filon, writing in Charles Dudley Warner's " Library of 
the World's Best Literature," says of this : 

"Daudet is an artist, not a scientist. He is a poet in the prim- 
itive sense of the word, or, as he styled himself in one of his - 
books, a ' trouvere. ' He has creative power, but he has at the 
same time his share of the minor gift of observation. He had to 
write for a public of strongly realistic tendencies, who understood 
and desired nothing better than the faithful, accurate, and most 
scientific description of life. Daudet could supply the demand, 
but as he was not born a realist, whatever social influence he had 
been subjected to, he remained free from the faults and excesses 
of the school. He borrowed from it all that was good and sound ; 
he accepted realism as a practical method, not as an ultimate 
result and a consummation. Again, he was preserved from the 
danger of going down too deep and too low into the unclean 
mysteries of modern humanity, not so much perhaps by moral 
delicacy as by an artistic distaste for all that is repulsive and 
unseemly." 

Henry James wrote of him, in 1882, as follows: 

" Daudet is a passionate observer — an observer not perhaps of 
the deepest things in life, but of the whole realm of the imme- 
diate, the expressive, the actual. This faculty, enriched by the 
most abundant exercise and united with the feeling of the poet 
who sees all the finer relations of things and never relinquishes 
the attempt to charm, is what we look for in the happiest novelist 
of our days. Ah, the things he sees — the various, fleeting, lurk- 
ing, delicate, nameless, human things! This beautiful vivacity 
finds itself most complete in ' Les Rois en Exil, ' a book that could , 
have been produced only in one of these later j'ears of grace. 
Such a book is intensely modern, and the author is in every way 
an essentially modern genius. With the light, warm, frank 
Provensal element in him, he is, in his completeness, a product 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



13 



of the great French citj'. He has the nervous tension, the intel- 
"lectual eagerness, the quick and exaggerated sensibility, the 
complicated, sophisticated judgment, which the friction, the con- 
tagion, the emulation, the whole spectacle, at once exciting and 
depressing, of our civilization a.t its highest, produces in suscepti- 
ble natures. There are tears in his laughter, and there is a strain 
of laughter in his tears ; and in both there is a note of music." 

Daudet's obligation to Dickens has been the subject o{ much 
comment. Daudet denied that he was influenced by the English 
novelist, and, indeed, fought a harmless duel over the accusation. 
Most of his critics, however, find a resemblance, altho few of 
them go so far as to call it imitation. Daudet himself said of 
this: 

"I feel in my heart Dickens's love for the lowly, for the un- 
happy childhood of little ones reared in the squalor and misery 




ALPHONSE D.^UDET. 

of a great city ; I too had a heartrending struggle for existence, 
and earned my bread before I was sixteen ; therein lies, I fancy, 
our greatest resemblance. " 

The Boston Transcript says ; 

"That he was influenced by Dickens can not be denied. ... In 
fact, no denials are of any avail in the face of many pages of 
'Fromont Jeune et Risler Ain6.' where one sees the younger 
writer following the older, not blindly, but very clearly, tho he 
makes no sacrifice of his originality." 

Daudet was not a member of the French Academy, altho often 
spoken of as a candidate. The Springfield Republican says that 
he refused to become a candidate for a chair in the Academy. 
Augustin Filon says, however, that the Academy repulsed him. 
His feeling toward the Academy is not in doubt, for in "L'lm- 
mortel" he satirized that dignified body so cuttingly that all his 
chances of becoming an " Immortal" were destroyed. The Brook- 
lyn Eagle says of this : 

"There is a saying in Paris that there is always a forty-first 
member of the French Academy— whose membership, it will be 
remembered, is limited to forty. By the ' forty-first' member, the 
wits of the capital designate the man whose commanding abilities 
overshadow very often those of any member of the Academy and 
entitle him without question to membership, but who, by reason- 
of some personal quality, or the active jealousy of those who are 
among the Immortals, and wh(j are angered at his fame, never 
succeeds in an election to fill a vacancy. Not in the last twenty 



years has France produced a man whose achievements in the 
world of letters gave to him a stronger title to a seat in that 
august body, yet Daudet was never chosen a member." 

Zola was Daudet's greatest rival for the favor of the American 
public, altho his readers are of a different class, and it is interest- 
ing to note what Zola, who was inclined to deprecate the romantic 
quality, has to say of "Numa Roumestan," one of Daudet's 
most popular productions. Zola says of this romantic quality.: 

"This, moreover, is a very slight blemish in a work which I 
regard as one of those, of all Daudet's productions, that is most 
personal to himself. He has put his whole nature into it. helped 
by his Southern temperament, having only to make large drafts 
upon his most intimate recollections and sensations. I do not 
think that he has hitherto reached such an intensity either of 
irony or of geniality. . . . Happy the books which arrive in this 
way, at the hour of the complete maturity of a talent 1 They are 
simply the widest tmfolding of an artist's nature; they have in 
happy equilibrium the qualities of observation and the qualities 
of style. For Alphonse Daudet 'Numa Roumestan' will mark 
this interfusion of a temperament and a subject that are made for 
each other, the perfect plenitude of a work which the writer ex- 
actly fills." 

Daudet was born of poor parents at Nimes, a Provengal city of 
southeastern France, May 13, 1S40. He went to Paris at the age 
of seventeen, with his brother, and for a time the two had a hard 
struggle for existence. In 1S58 he brought out his first publica- 
tion, a volunle of poems, called "Les Amoureuses," which gave 
him a reputation and led to his connection with several news- 
papers. He soon published in Figaro his account of the hard- 
ships of the life of an usher in a provincial school, with the title, 
" Le Gueux de Provence." A second collection of poems, "La 
Double Conversion," followed, and in 1861 a series of papers 
which he contributed to Figaro was brought out in book fom 
as "Le Chaperon Rouge." For five years, from 1S61 to 1S65. 
Daudet was private secretary to the Due de Morny, president of 
the Corps Legislatif . He wrote his " Lettres sur Paris" for Le 
Petit Moniteur in 1865, under the name of Jehan de I'lsle, and 
in the succeeding year his "Lettres de Mon Moulin," signed with 
the name Gaston Marie, were addressed to L' Evenement. 
Daudet's publications include "Le Petit Chose" (1868), "Lettres 
a un Absent" (1S71), "Les Aventures Prodigieuses de Tartarin 
de Tarascon" (1872), "Les Petits Robinsons de Caves" (1872), 
"Contes du Lundi" (1873), "Contes et Recits" (1873) "Robert 
Helmont" (1874), "Les Fenmies d'Artistes" (1S74), "Fromont 
Jeune et Risler Aine (1874), "Jack" (1876), "Le Nabab" (1877). 
"Les Rois en Exil" (1879). "Contes Choisis, la Fantasie et 
I'Histoire" (1879), "Numa Roumestan" (iSSi), "Les Cigognes" 
(1883), "L'Evangeliste" (1883). "Sappho" (1884), "Tartarin sur 
les Alpes" (1885). "La Belle Nivernaise" (1886), "Trente Ans 
de Paris" (18S7), "L'Immortel" (1888), and "Port Tarascon" 
(1890). __ 

NOTES. 

SOME interesting facts about Charlotte Bronte appear in The Speaker, 
from the pen of Wemyss Reid. Among other things he writes: "The 
world has often busied itself with the identity of Rochester in 'Jane Eyre.' 
Most of us remember how the critics of fifty years ago believed that Thack- 
eray had furnished the model for that immortal character. The real origi- 
nal was the brother of Ellen Nussey— a West Riding merchant who had all 
the unpolished force and dogged egotism which sometimes marked the 
Yorkshire magnate m those days. Charlotte idealized him into Rochester, 
and planted him in the midst of circumstances of which his own life knew 
nothing." 

Mr. Reid tells, also, the following story as told him by Miss Nussey. The 
latter was visiting Charlotte Bronte after her marriage to Mr. NichoUs, a 
clergyman. 

''Charlotte and her husband went for a walk on the moors with their 
guest. ' Are you not going to write anything more?' asked Miss Nussey 
of Charlotte. ' Oh,' was the reply, ' I have got a story in my head, but Ar- 
thur does not wish me to write it. He thinks I should attend to other 
things now.' Then, according to her statement. Ellen Nussey waxed val- 
iant on her friend's behalf, and contended with Mr. Nicholls against his 
idea that a clergyman's wife ought not to engage in literary work. ' I mar- 
ried Charlotte Bronte, not Currer Bell," was the husband's rejoinder.'' 



14 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION. 



DOES ARCTIC EXPLORATION PAY? 

ROBERT STEIN, of the United States Geological Survey, 
has a good word to say for Lieutenant Peary and of the 
value of Arctic exploration in general. Mr. Stein was a member 
of Peary's seventh expedition, his personal object being to pre- 
pare himself for the carrying out of a scheme of systematic and 
continuous exploration of Ellesmere Land and the study of the 
ancient Eskimo settlements in Hubbard Bay. He does not intend 
to try for the Pole, but does not hesitate to say that Peary will 
"almost certainly" reach the Pole in igoo. Asked about there- 
ported dissatisfaction of some of the members of Peary's expedi- 
tion with the management of their leader, Mr. Stein said ( The 
Voice, New York, December 6) : 

"None of his critics that I know are worthy to tie his shoe- 
strings. Certain persons try to show their strength of mind by 
barking at the heels of a distinguished man. To me that seems 
a very sorry business. To overlook the unprecedented record of 
seven Arctic expeditions without mishap, and to grumble about 
food and other trifles, seems to me to be the earmark of the 
incorrigible kicker. So far as I was able to observe, Mr. Peary's 
management was a model of foresight, readiness, energy, fair- 
ness, patience, and consideration." 

Of the value of Arctic exploration, Mr. Stein had this to say : 

"I can only repeat the old arguments. I find that likes and 
dislikes on this subject are more a matter of sentiment than of 
argument. The friends of polar exploration are so by instinct, 
and do not ask for argument; its opponents are generally encased 
in an argument-proof armor of prejudice. The latter generally 
impute to Arctic explorers as the only motive an unquenchable 
thirst after fame — as if that were a reproach. If ma- 
terial interests are to decide the matter, it must be 
remembered that the whaling industry has contributed 
over $6So. 000,000 to the wealth of England, Holland, 
and the United States. Klondike is under the Arctic 
circle. The whalers now caught in Alaskan 'ice are 
not blamed for thus risking their lives. But the Arctic 
explorer's real grounds of justification are scientific. 
To study the laws of magnetism, so important to navi- 
gation, we must know their operation all over the 
earth, especially near the magnetic poles. The same 
is true of winds and currents. To ascertain the size 
and density of the earth, the astronomer's base of 
measures, ten pendulum observations near the un- 
known end of the arc are worth a hundred else- 
where. All branches of natural history may expect new light 
from observations on living beings under the unique condi- 
tions of polar climate. That all our advances in material well- 
being are due to the progress of science, is a phrase so hack- 
neyed that one hesitates to repeat it. If it be objected that we 
ought to postpone such studies till a time when they can be car- 
ried out safely and economically, the answer is that that time has 
arrived. Thanks to the labors of previous explorers, especially 
Peary, Arctic travel has been freed from most of its danger and 
hardship, on condition, of course, that ordinary caution be used. 
The main requisite is a secure base, always accessible to a supply- 
ship, and yet near the field of exploration." 

Of the country to which Peary has been devoting especial at- 
tention, Mr. Stein observes : 

"I have little doubt that Greenland will eventually become a 
health resort, at least in summer. Whether it be that the intense 
cold of winter destroys the microbes, or that the excess of ozone 
is fatal to them even in summer, the fact is that no zymotic dis- 
eases, such as consumption, fevers, influenza, are found there. 
The air is so bracing that one can do an enormous amount of work 
without getting tired. I repeatedly started at nine in the morn- 
ing, and after the hardest climbing over the rocks would return 
at nine in the evening as fresh as when I started." 

The big meteorite which Peary brought back on his last trip 



has had its genuineness called in question by Dr. Nansen, the 
Norwegian explorer. The following extract from The Scientific 
American indicates that the American has scored a point over 
the Norwegian in this matter : 

"Speaking of the doubt that Nansen had thrown upon the gen- 
uineness of the meteorite which Mr. Peary recently brought from 
the Arctic region, the lieutenant said : 'Nansen spoke hastily on 
his arrival, but when he found he was wrong he frankly and cour- 
teously admitted his error. The impression has gone abroad that 
there is some feeling over the matter between Nansen and myself, 
but that is not true. I have the utmost admiration for Nansen 
and the magnificent work he has done. ' On the afternoon of 
December 8 Lieutenant and Mrs. Peary paid a visit to the British 
Museum, where they were met by the Director Sir William 
Fowler and Curator Fletcher, of the Mineralogical Department. 
Mr. Fletcher examined a specimen of the Cape York meteorite 
discovered and brought to New York by Lieutenant Peary, and 
unhesitatingly declared it was certainly of meteoric origin. He 
added that no specimen in the British Museum had meteoric 
characteristics more sharply or more clearly shown than those of 
the Cape York meteorite. The opinion of Mr. Fletcher, who is 
an expert, has so thoroughly convinced Dr. J. Scott Keltie, secre- 
tary of the Royal Geographical Society, that it is considered by 
him to have settled the controversy as to the Cape York mete- 
orite." 

MONKEY OR MAN ? 

' I "'HE discovery in the island of Java, in 1892, by Dr. Dubois, 
■*- a Dutch army surgeon, of fossil fragments ascribed by him 
to a creature higher than the ape and yet lower than man, has 
been fully discussed in these pages at various times. At present 
some critics seem to be inclined to agree with the discoverer that 
the fossils are those of an ape-like ancestor of man, while others 
think they belong to an extinct species of ape, and others that 






Fig. I. — Caucasian. 



Kl(.. 2. — Xegro. 



Fig. 3. — Ape. 



(The facial angle is determined by two lines, of which one, a b, joiils the ear and nose, and the other, 
c d, is tangent to the forehead and the front teeth . 



they were parts of a malformed or idiotic man. In the Revue 
Encyc/opedigue (Paris), M. A. Cligny gives an exhaustive review 
of the evidence that bears on the question, together with photo- 
graphs that constitute important evidence in the case. Says M. 
Cligny : 

"That we may be competent to form an opinion it is well to 
recall at the outset the characteristics that distinguish man from 
the monkey, or more simply from the higher monkeys — the an- 
thropoids. We shall pass in silence over the psychic and physi- 
ologic divergences, which are sufficiently well known to every- 
body and are without interest in a case where the evidence is 
entirely anatomical. We shall dwell particularly on the skulls." 

The chief point of differences, as brought out by M. Cligny, 
are the prominent face and small skull of the monkey as com- 
pared with man's smaller face and larger skull. These points are 
brought out by measurements of the facial angles (see Figs, i to 
3) and of the cranial capacity. Notwithstanding these great differ- 
ences, scientists have yet quarreled not only over the Java skull 
now under consideration, but over others. M. Cligny reminds us 
particularly of the remains found in the Neanderthal in 1856 (see 
Fig. 4). Study of this latter and of other similar remains have 
now, he believes, established the fact that there once existed in 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



15 



Europe a human race differing from all present races and ethni- 
cally inferior to the most degraded tribes of Africa or Australia. 
The Java skull apparently was that of a creature still lower in the 




Says M. Cligny, 



FIG. 4- 

■ethnical scale. Was it a monkey or a man? 
summing up the evidence : 

"The skull is that of a primate ; no doubt on this point is possi- 
ble. It was surely an adult. The skull is extraordinarily large 

for that of a monkey 
and extraordinarily small 
for that of a man. . . . 
We seem to have struck 
a mean between the two 
limits that we have 
drawn between ape and 

man 

"In a word, the Java 
fossil resembles in form 
a pithecoid [ape-like] 
human skull, but it dif- 
fers from this by the sur- 
prising intensity of its 




Fig. 5. — M. ilanouvier's Restoration of the 
Java skull. 



simian characteristics, especially by its height 

"If this primate was a man, it was a man of bestial appearance ; 
as to the cranial capacity, it obliges us to choose between three 
hypotheses : 

"Either the pithecanthropus, to give it its name, was a creature 
•of little height, a dwarf ; ... or it was microcephalous [small- 




PlG. 6.— Profiles— Of the Java skull (i) ; a chimpanzee's skull (a); and that 

of an orang-utan (3). 

headed], an abnormal instance of a race having the ordinary 
height ; or it was the average type of its race." 

The first hypothesis, the author points out, would force us to 




Orthognathous Skull (Caucasian). Slightly Prognathous Skull (Negro). 
FIG. 7.— Modern Skulls. 

suppose that the creature was very small, for no existing dwarfs 
have nearly so small skulls. The second (that of malformation) 



is irrefutable, but Cligny regards it as unscientific to suppose that 
the only known specimen of the race should happen to be such a 
monstrosity. We are thus forced to adopt the third hypothesis — 
that this was the skull of a representative of a race intermediate 
between ape and man — in other words, the long-sought "missing 
link." Whether all men of science agree with him or not, the 
photographs with which he illustrates his points are certainly of 
the highest interest, and we take pleasure in reproducing them 
here. — Translated for The Literary Digest. 



ANOTHER TRANSMUTATION THEORY. 

'"P'HE latest theory on the subject of the transmutation of baser 
■*■ into precious metals goes a little farther than any hitherto 
propounded. According to it, not only can silver be changed 
into gold, but we can not help its being so changed, for the proc- 
ess is going on continually. In other words, silver naturally 
"grows" into gold. This is the assertion of John Jacob Wagner 
in a pamphlet entitled "Gold Growth" (Cincinnati, 1897). Says 
Science, in describing this work : 

"The basis of the author's argument is that gold in nature is 
always found associated with silver, and the ratio of gold to silver 
is not uniform. If silver never occurs without some gold, it fol- 
lows that the gold has grown from the silver, and the varying 
proportions found in different mines are due to the length of time 
the growth has been going on. Hence in the older rocks the pro- 
portion of gold to silver is greater than in the later rocks. Pure 
gold can be separated from silver alloy; but the 'fine silver' re- 
sulting invariably contains gold. The inference is that the silver 
is 'growing' into gold. This pamphlet belongs to a class of 
writings by no means rare, the efforts of laymen to clear up facts 
and theories which are far from clear to specialists who have de- 
voted their lives to them. Granted that the premises of the writer 
are true, his deductions would have no weight to a chemist. He 
finds not merely silver and gold occurring together, but many 
other elements always associated with each other. If gold 
'grows' from silver, why not potassium from sodium, or bromin 
from chlorin, etc. ? The only difficulty with the theory is that at 
present there is absolutely no evidence of facts to support it, and 
the wisest chemists hesitate to philosophize on the problem of the 
genesis of the elements. 

" It may be questioned if books such as that before us have any 
value ; certainly they have not from a scientific standpoint. " 



THE PHYSIOLOGY OF HYPNOTISM. 

THE subject of hypnotism, so we are told by Prof. Francis 
Gotch, in a lecture delivered at Magdalen College, Oxford, 
has been greatly cleared up by modern views of the construction 
of the nervous system ; at least, such views assist us in forming a 
clearer mental picture of hypnotic processes than we were for- 
merly able to obtain. Professor Gotch publishes his lecture in 
Science Progress (October). The successive stages of the hyp- 
notic state are described by him. First we have the "initial 
sleep," which, however, we are told, is unlike ordinary sleep, 
since in the latter the whole nervous system is in a state of sub- 
dued activity, while in the hypnotic sleep the involuntary move- 
ments determined by the lower portions of the nervous system 
are exaggerated. Referring further to this difference the pro- 
fessor says : 

"The distinction between hypnotic and ordinary sleep is fur- 
ther accentuated by the circumstance that the former change is 
one which may develop into other striking manifestations of nerv- 
ous activity. If the closed eyes of a guinea-pig, appropriately 
hypnotized, are opened and a bright light allowed to flash upon 
them, the animal does not necessarily wake up and behave like a 
reasonable guinea-pig. Instead of doing so it may become cata- 
leptic ; all the muscles suddenly stiffen, owing to an uncontrolla- 
ble rush of energy from the abnormally excitable nervous system. 



16 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



Similar phases of hypnotic existence may occur in man ; the 
resulting muscular contractions being so pronounced that the in- 
dividual may lie stiff, with merely the head and feet on two 
chairs, not yielding even when the stoutest member of the audi- 
ence at the hypnotic seance is called up, and seats himself, at 
the request of the operator, upon the hypnotic's abdomen. 

"It is interesting to note that cataleptic reflexes can be pro- 
duced in response to skin stimulation in unhypnotized animals 
after the separation of the portions of the brain above the cere- 
bellum and spinal cord. 

"A predominant characteristic of both these phases of the hyp- 
notic state is evidently the paralysis of volitional power, and, as 
the state progresses, this is succeeded by a remarkable augmen- 
tation of other nervous functions. . . . The subject does what he 
is commanded to do ; for the nerve-processes aroused in ear and 
eye by the sound of the words and the gestures of the operator 
dominate the whole brain machinery of the subject, and a throng 
of impulses pour out to the appropriate muscles, without the 
subject being conscious of any stage in the process. It may even 
happen that the subject does actually remain conscious but impo- 
tent ; powerless to modify the domineering activity of the nerve 
mechanism ; his actions thus remain automatic althd conscious- 
ness is present. So, too, in ordinary sleep we may be conscious, 
for we may dream and often remember our dreams when we 
wake, and yet we have been powerless to control our actions or to 
modif}^ the ideas called up by the nerve processes." 

This stage the professor terms the somnambulistic stage of 
hypnotism. He then goes on to refer to another stage, that of 
hypnotic sleep : 

"The physiological derangement, which is the basis of the 
volitional abeyance and of the exalted nervous activities just 
described, may, if hypnotism is profound, pass into a more wide- 
spread derangement exhibiting itself as deep hypnotic sleep. It 
is now associated not only with paralysis of will but with profound 
anesthesia, and the subject gives all the physiological evidences 
of lowered vitality of the whole central nervous system. If the 
state is prolonged it may become dangerous to life by lowering 
the activities of those lower centers upon the vitality of which 
such essential processes as respiration, etc., depend. It may, for 
convenience, be distinguished as the condition of lethargy and 
resembles that produced by chloroform inhalation. " 

The four states thus described — hypnotic sleep, catalepsy, 
somnambulism, and lethargy — Professor Gotch thinks are un- 
doubtedly due to "an abnormal condition of the physiological 
activities of the central nervous system," and in order to explain 
what this abnormal condition is. Professor Gotch proceeds to de- 
scribe what, according to the latest views of physiologists, the 
normal condition may be. We here quote from an abstract of 
the article in The Hospital : 

"The essence of these modern views lies in the non-continuity 
of nervous tissue. There are gaps between the different neurons 
[nerve-cells with their branches], and the direction in which nerv- 
ous impulses flow depends largely upon the ever-varying resist- 
ance which is offered by these gaps. That does not, perhaps, 
take us far; but if we recognize that all our activities are the 
result of a form of reflex action, inhibited or accelerated by im- 
pulses from that portion of the nervous system which are more 
especially connected with the consciousness, and that the nerve- 
processes whence the impulses by which this inhibition is main- 
tained must 'jump the gap' are capable of fatigue, we seem to 
see, in a fashion, how it is possible, as the result of strained at- 
tention, to weary out the link with consciousness, and leave the 
body an automaton, subject to the uncontrolled dominion of 
reflex action and suggestion." 

Togo back to Professor Gotch's own words, he says that he 
believes that "the increased activity of all nervous processes, ex- 
cept those underlying volition, may be attributed to the dimin- 
ished resistance of what are here termed the gaps." This resist- 
ance may be produced, " not only by the cessation of the inhibitory 
influences just described, but by the unrestrained and unmodified 
flow of such impulses as, by their play, directly diminish the 
gap-resistance, and thus augment the activity of lower centers." 



That is to say, the reins having been cut, the influence of the 
whip has full play. 

Passing then to the part taken in hypnotism by what is known 
as suggestion. Professor Gotch says: 

"We are aware that one idea suggests another, and that voli- 
tional movements are the outcome of such suggested ideation. 
The physiological basis for this is decidedly obscure, but modern 
neurology has comparatively recently brought into prominence 
one feature which is pertinent to the present inquiry. Functional 
activity is undoubtedly associated with structural growth, func- 
tional inactivity with actual dwindling or atrophy. It is only in 
the last few years that this has been extended to the processes of 
the central nervous system. The passage of nervous impulses 
across gaps is the functional activity of the terminal nerve-fiber 
branches ; if persistently repeated these branches may be con- 
ceived as being brought into conditions favorable for their 
growth, tending to approach one another, thus diminishing the 
actual extent of the gap resistance. With opposite conditions of 
prolonged inactivity they may tend to recede from each other. 
Hence the repeated storming of the gaps by nervous impulses 
would diminish the extent of the gaps and thus facilitate passage 
across them, provided that such repeated storming is not so per- 
sistent as to cause the deleterious changes which constitute 
fatigue. 

"The result is that a nerve change of similar type to one which 
has previously occurred finds its easiest path if it runs along all 
the old lines; every repetition thus sets up further alterations in 
localities which are already the seat of similar changes." 

Movements may thus be evoked, says the professor, of precisely 
similar character to those determined by volition, altho both con- 
sciousness and volition are absent. If consciousness is present 
we describe the action by the term "suggested." In the hypnotic 
state, "suggestion" is used to denote the same state of affairs, 
altho both volition and consciousness are absent. Such sugges- 
tion, Professor Gotch reminds us, is not limited to the hypnotic 
state. How many of us, he says, thinking of something else, 
take out and involuntarily wind up our watches? The physician 
utilizes this power of suggestion when he says to his patient, 
"You will be better soon." The reaction of the nervous system, 
in consequence of the suggestion, is one of the most potent of all 
remedies. In hypnotism, however, suggestion becomes abnor- 
mal, and, the nervous system being deranged, the abnormal state 
may be started simply by arresting the subject's attention. 
Thus, to quote again : 

"A subject maybe hypnotized by a verbal command, a gesture, 
or a written line, even where this is to take effect the next day, 
or the next week; any one of these initial phases suggests the 
whole sequence. The hypnotization of Trilby by the picture of 
Svengali, described in Du Manner's novel, is founded on fact. 
Further, the awakening may be achieved in a similar way by 
suggestion. 

"It is no wonder, therefore, that such hypnotic subjects should 
readily respond to sensory impressions, even tho these may be 
far too slight to awaken consciousness in the volitional onlooker. 
The unconscious subject is an exquisitively sensitive machine 
with a nervous system tuned to react to impressions of peripheral 
sense organs, which, acting on the ordinary volitional mortal, 
awaken no consciousness, and what is more, they probably never 
can awaken the consciousness of such a normal individual, since 
unconsciousness and volitional paralysis are essential factors in 
making the nervous machinery sufficiently sensitive to respond to 
the feeble stimuli." 

The Hospital comments on Professor Gotch's physiological ex- 
planation as follows : 

"This explanation is one of the very greatest interest, and all 
the more so from the fact that it seems to explain on the one hand 
how by repetition self-control may come to be the dominant 
factor' in a man's actions, and how, in another case, by the re- 
peated abolition of the control of the higher centers, such as oc- 
curs in those who are again and again subjected to hypnotic in- 
fluence, it may no longer be necessary to fatigue the will by 
concentrated attention in order to produce the hypnotic state." 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



17 



LONGEVITY OF SEEDS. 

HOW long can a seed retain life? The most extraordinary 
stories were once believed regarding the power of seeds to 
germinate centuries after the parent plant had produced them. 
F. Escombe, who contributes to Science Progress (October) an 
exhaustive essay on this subject, embodying the results of the 
latest research, tells us that such stories are unworthy of cre- 
dence. Says Mr. Escombe : 

"Numerous statements have been periodically made about the 
' longevity' of seeds ; the majority are of little value from lack of 
detail or of sufficient positive proof. The most notorious are 
those concerning seeds from sarcophagi of Egyptian mummies. 
It is now generally acknowledged that no adequate proof of their 
germination has been produced, the reputed success of some 
authors having been rather due to duplicity of Arab vendors than 
genuineness of the seeds. Burgerstein quotes experiments of 
Unger with indubitably genuine seeds. Corns from the ruins of 
Thebes were tested ; not one germinated. The same result was 
obtained with corns out of tiles made of Nile-mud and straw from 
the Darfur pyramid near Kairo. There is nothing extravagant 
in the idea that mummy-seeds may retain potential life, but there 
is no proof that this is so ; indeed, C. de Candolle states that the 
wheat was always sterilized apparently before introduction into 
sarcophagi, tho no authority is given for this statement. 

"That the treatment of this subject is not wanting in humor is 
evident from that which follows : A well was once sunk in the 
Lias of Shipston-on-Stour ; the next year Glaucium luteum ap- 
peared on the rubbish from the shaft, 'iio glaucium had previ- 
ously grown in the neighborhood. White suggests 'that they 
(the seeds) had possibly remained inert from the time when the 
deposition of the Lias took place, and upon their exposure to the 
atmosphere were recalled to life.' This is not only extravagant, 
but transcends imagination 

" Experiments of Peter support the view that the sudden ap- 
pearance of species hitherto unknown, when soil has been dis- 
turbed, is due to persistence of seeds of one vegetation dormant 
in the earth while later vegetations succeed, and to their subse- 
quent germination when conditions changed. He tried to find if 
soil holds seeds, if it be able to preserve their 'vitality,' as well 
as which species have seeds capable of remaining thus unputre- 
fied. Soils were tested on the surfaces of which vegetation had 
not existed for a long time ; present covering with wood was dis- 
regarded, since tree-seedlings admit of easy distinction and could 
be eliminated. Soils were chosen concerning which it was accu- 
rately known whether considerable alteration in constitution of 
the vegetation had ever occurred. Samples of earth were so 
taken as to diminish as far as possible the chance of introduction 
of seeds by various agents. For collecting earth spots in dense 
forests devoid of vegetation were chosen, chiefly in such as were 
known to have formerly been fields or meadows. For compari- 
son samples were taken from primeval forests. Layers 8 centi- 
meters [3 inches] deep were removed ; this was done twice, and 
sometimes thrice, at the same spot. The cultures agreed well. 
In every test of soil formerly field-soil, the majority of seeds that 
germinated, at times all, were those of field-plants. The results 
with earth from forests previously meadows, or perennially forests 
were analogous. The woods, primeval ones naturally excepted, 
had been planted twenty to forty-six years back ; Peter concludes 
hence that the seeds had remained dormant, retaining 'vitality, ' 
throughout these periods. This conclusion is as reliable as any 
deducible from experiments of this type, which are permeated 
with uncertainty 

"Arthur states that seeds of Pyrus coronaria can germinate 
after dormancy of twenty-three years. The evidence for this is 
as follows: A barn was built in 1859, the foundation of which 
was limestone laid on soil. In 1882 the barn was removed, and 
after twenty days the foundation also. When the bottom stone 
was raised, two small plants were found near the center of the 
stone. He says that there seems no doubt that the seeds had 
been protected by the building for the twenty-three years, ger- 
mination having been stimulated after removal of the barn by 
penetration of warmth and moisture beneath the foundation. No 
evidence is adduced that the seeds were not introduced by animals 
or otherwise, for which reason the statement is practically value- 
less. " 



After quoting a number of other recorded observations, all of 
which are practically of no value for the same reason as that 
given just above, Mr. Escombe goes on to say : 

"The experiments that tend most strongly to prove 'longevity' 
in certain seeds are those of Girardin and of Brown. The seeds 
tested had in each case been part of a collection which there was 
every reason to suppose had not been disturbed, and the age of 
which was known. But there is no absolute certainty that the 
seeds had not been interfered with, and this doubt weakens the 
evidence. There is only one method for settling the question 
beyond contradiction ; large quantities of selected seeds of many 
species should be collected at some recognized institute after care- 
ful previous treatment, and allowed to remain quiescent in a suit- 
able place, to which no one could get access without being known 
to have done so. These seeds should be periodically tested and 
the results recorded. The research of Peter, altho admirably 
conducted, only supports strongly the idea of 'longevity' of 
seeds. 

"That this 'longevity' is a function varying with the specie, 
and even individual seeds, admits of no doubt. Burgerstein 
found that deviations due to individual differences in seeds of 
cereals amounted to from i to 16 per cent. Moreover, the degree 
of maturity at harvest-time and the aqueous content at the time 
of preservation are factors that influence considerably the ' vital- 
ity' of seeds." 

Artificial Blacl< Marble. — Louis H. Bruhl, United 
States Consul at Catania, Italy, reports to the State Department 
that the manufacture of artificial black marble is carried on by 
the owners of the local gas-works, who also manufacture various 
by-products. " In this process," says Mr. Bruhl as quoted b^- The 
Engineering and Mining Journal, "common white sandstone 
is first cut into the desired shapes ; then the pieces are placed in a 
large iron tank, upon a heavy wire grating, the latter resting a 
few inches above the bottom of the tank, in order to keep the 
stone from touching the bottom and to permit the fluid to pene- 
trate freely everywhere. The stones must not touch each other. 
Then, through an iron pipe, a molten mass of volcanic asphalt 
and coal-tar pitch, mixed, in equal parts, is let into the tank from 
an adjoining boiler until the molten mass fully covers the pieces 
of sandstone. This liquid is kept boiling in the tank for thirty- 
six hours ; then the stones are taken out, placed upon a brick floor 
to cool off and dry, and are afterward polished in the same man- 
ner as other marble. The artificial product is said to resist 
acids, is not damaged by atmospheric action, moisture, heat or 
cold, and is claimed to be aseptic. In the same manner the firm 
also prepares pressed tilings for flooring, roofing, etc., which are 
are said to be perfectly water-tight and aseptic. A mass of sand, 
cement, and water, after having been thoroughly kneaded, is put 
into forms, put under a press, taken out and dried, and then 
placed in the tank-boiler for thirty-six hours, as in the manufac- 
ture of the artificial black marble, and, after being cooled off, 
placed in a rotary grinding or polishing machine." 



SCIENCE BREVITIES. 

A French chemist, De Hemptinne, has succeeded in showing, accordingr 
to 7V;e American Journal 0/ Science, December, that electrical oscillations- 
have a marked effect in modifying chemical processes. 

The absorption of Roentgen rays by various substances has been inves- 
tigated by W. J. Humphreys, of the University of Virginia, who states ia 
The Philosophical Magazine, London, November, his conclusion that it de 
pends on the atomic weight of the substance, tho not in any very sim- 
ple manner. 

"While the use of the chestnut as an article of food is very limited in 
this country," says The National Druggist, "there are portions of Europe 
where the nut plays an important role in the diet of the poorer classes, be- 
ing used as a substitute for the grains (wheat, rye, barley, etc.) in bread- 
making, and furnishing a very nourishing and palatable drink as well. It 
is also largely used as a dressing for game, meats, and fowls, among the 
better classes. The writer well remembers two or three repasts, or lunches, 
obtained at the cottages of the native mountaineers, while traveling on foot 
in the Apennines, in which stale chestnut bread and a cup of goat's milk 
furnished the sole comestibles; but. with hunger as a sauce, and the moun- 
tain air as a sharpener of the appetite, these were wonderfully satisfying. 
A Frenchman, M. Ballard, has recently published a study of the economic 
value of the chestnut in France, and from it we learn that the dry nut con- 
tains nearly as much nitrogenous matter as barley, with more fatty, but a 
trifle less phosphatic matter. France produces annually about 3,000,000 
quintals (about 300,000 tons) of the nuts, and in times of scarcity of grain 
this fact must play no unimportant part in the alimentation of the masses.** 



18 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



THE RELIGIOUS WORLD. 



FICTION AND RELIGION. 

REV. DAVID BEATON enters into a somewhat protracted 
discussion of the important question whether or not recent 
fiction is serving the interests of religion. Mr. Beaton has some 
positive views to express, but is not inclined to be dogmatic. 
Full recognition is given to fiction as a powerful factor on almost 
€very side of modern civilized life, for good or for ill. People 
who have social, moral, or religious theories or discoveries to 
promulgate feel that the surest and most direct way to reach the 
people and make an impression is to put forth their ideas in the 
guise of fiction. Thus we have "Equality, " "The Woman Who 
Did," "Marcella," and the "Story of an African Farm." But Mr. 
Beaton frankly admits that he has a prejudice against "a novel 
with a purpose" even in the hands of such masters as Hall Caine 
and Amelia Barr, and he does not think highly of "The Chris- 
tian" nor of "The King's Highway." After speaking of "The 
'Choir Invisible," and recent stories of Tolstoi, Hardy, and Grant 
Allen, Mr. Beaton says {The Cojigregationalist): 

"A wholesome story of pure love between a manly fellow and 
a modest girl is, to my thinking, a healthier diet for the imagina- 
tion of our Christian youth, and a far nobler sign of our civiliza- 
tion, than the hysterics of reform, the indelicacies of the woman 
question, and the theological gush which makes vicious charac- 
ters fehining saints at their last gasp. Novels of this sort, fever- 
ish, restless, gloomy, and morbid, are the Dead Sea fruit of lit- 
erature. This literary pessimism is an evidence of low vitality, 
of want of faith, barrenness of ideas, and decadent art. As 
teachers of religion we have no petty one-sided interest in the 
novel ; we do not value it as a medium of homiletical material, 
nor condemn it because wanting in the preachers' lessons 

"We do not ask of the novel pious instruction, but we do claim 
of it, as of all literature and art, 'the sense that life is good'; 
without this sense literature as religion is but dust and ashes." 

But after all, in the opinion of our author, the outlook is far 
from being dark or unpromising. "There are bright spots, nay 
large sunlight areas of meadow, lake, and wood, in the landscape 
of recent fiction." Special commendation is given to Dr. S. Weir 
Mitchell's recent novel of Quaker life. Says Mr. Beaton : 

"One rises from reading 'Hugh Wynne' with an accession of 
"mental vitality, a larger hope, and a sweet sense of the love of 
life. The same perception of the moral excellence of great 
thoughts, even on the most humble and obscure lives, is seen in 
'Through Lattice Windows. ' Solomon Gill is a Christian hero 
because even the workhouse can not separate him from Christ, 
nay, not even degrade him — 'The dear Lord went lower nor that 
to save me. ' On all that rich vein of Drumtochty and Thrums 
gold of Maclaren's and Barrie's the thoughtful public has already 
set its broad seal of approval, and the characters have become our 
friends, while their experiences are a vital part of our religious 
life. The source of their power lies far back in race heritage and 
national character, for they picture the life of a race, furnishing 
that unfailing interest felt always by the common people in the 
tears and laughter of men of flesh and blood. It is not merely 
that they are racy of the soil, that the local color is correct, that 
humor and pathos are, as in real life, close together, and that the 
intellectual and moral ideas of the people are akin to the progres- 
sive thought of Europe and America ; but the authors have seen 
that spiritual ideals of life alone dignify human nature, and thus 
they touched those perennial fountains of faith and hope which 
spring up in the bosom of man with the joy and strength of eter- 
nal life." 

Our author also finds much to commend in "The Summer in 
Arcady," and "A Singular Life," and as for another popular 
work of the day. he has this to say 

"'Quo Vadis' strikes a clear, commandmg nov.e and its influ- 
ence is all for the spiritual conception of life. It has done noble 
service already among the more thoughtful people in presenting. 



in such telling contrast, the hard, cruel, even fiendish spirit of 
pagan Rome to the grace, love, and purity of Christianity. It 
incidentally contrasts also the simplicity of the faith and the un- 
selfishness of the lives of the early believers with the self-indul- 
gence and worldly ideals of modern Christianity ; but in this too 
it will do much good. In this age of criticism of the church and 
creeds, no literature is of more value than that which gives the 
long historical perspective of life and shows us the dark, ignoble 
picture of the pagan world without Christ and His church." 

In conclusion Mr. Beaton says : 

"The trend of recent fiction shows clearly that the problems of 
the age, in spite of the discoveries of science and the exaltation 
of material comfort, are all spiritual ; and there is a growing con- 
viction that they must be spiritually solved. But the best service 
of recent fiction is the creation of a few splendid characters, who 
must long remain a spiritual heritage of the race, such as Marget, 
the sainted mother ; Dr. Maclure, the hero ; Lady Maxwell, the 
calm, sufficient worker; Leeby, the devoted sister and delightful 
gossip ; Jack Warder, the trusty and tender friend ; and Hope 
Langham, the sweet and sympathetic ladylove; for, after all, it 
is the physical and spiritual sanity of such genuine creations that 
permanently influence the religious life of the people." 



VIVEKANANDA'S RETURN TO INDIA. 

THE Swami Vivekananda's return to India, which we have 
already noted (Literary Digest, December ii), seems to 
have been attended with a degree of interest in that country which 
no political event, even the most important, would have excited. 
His tour through India was marked by a series of great ovations 
on the part of the Hindu population and a number of eloquent 
and plain-spoken addresses on his part. These addresses have 
been issued in book form and sent to America under the title, 
"From Colombo to Almora. " 

Peculiar interest attaches to these lectures for more than one 
reason. This Swami had brought back a distinctly Western 
manner of talking to his people. In India all instruction is given 
in the form of questions and answers, the instructor occupying a 
seat in the midst of the people. But here was a returned native 
who had learned in the West to stand up before the people and 
deliver a moving oration, with something of the fire and vehe- 
mence of some great Western politician. 

To show how completely absorbed in religion the Hindus are, 
the whole of India's 300,000,000 population, very many of them 
illiterate, seem to have known of Vivekananda's mission to Chi- 
cago to attend the World's Parliament of Religions. From the 
way even the coolies came to hear him, it seems to have been a 
subject of daily conversation throughout India, and in the ad- 
dresses of welcome to him from the different towns and cities on 
his journey, his mission to the West was mentioned with great 
pride and patriotism. It was manifested that the Hindus had 
become conscious that the West is ready to hear what they had to 
say on religion, and Vivekananda himself emphasized this idea 
throughout his addresses. He noted the fact that while such an 
event as the war between China and Japan was news to the peo- 
ple, scarcely any of them ever having so much as heard of it, yet 
they all knew that there was a Parliament of Religions in Amer- 
ica, and that one of their own sannj'asin had attended it and 
made a favorable impression in the West. 

"Go to an American plowman," says Vivekananda, "and ask 
him his religion. He will tell you he goes to church, but doesn't 
know anything about religion. Ask him about politics, and he 
will talk with you for hours about Democracy and Republicanism 
and silver. Go to an Indian plowman, ask him for his politics, 
and he will tell you he does not know anything about it ; he pays 
his taxes. But you mention religion to him, and his countenance 
will light up and his being will become vibrant with the expres- 
sion of the most profound philosophical and religious ideas." 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



19 



"Look here, my friend," says the Hindu, "I have marked my 
religion on my forehead." "That," says the Swami, "is our 
nation's life." And he continues : 

"To-day I stand herewith the conviction of truth, if there is 
any land on this earth that can lay claim to be the blessed land 
to which all souls on this earth must come to account for Karma, 
the land where every soul wending its way Godward must come 
to attain its last home, that land where humanity has attained its 
highest toward gentleness, toward generosity, toward purity, 
toward calmness, the land above all of introspection and of spirit- 
uality, it is India. Hence have started the founders of religions 
of most ancient times, deluging the earth again and again with 
the pure and perennial waters of spiritual truth. Hence have 
proceeded the tidal waves of philosophy that have covered the 
earth, east or west, north or south, and hence again must start 
the wave that is going to spiritualize the material civilization of 
the world. Here is the life-giving water with which must be 
quenched the burning fires of materialism burning the core of the 
hearts of millions in other lands. Believe me, my friends, this is 
going to be 

"The debt which the world owes to this our motherland is im- 
mense. Taking country for country, there is not one race on this 
earth to which the world owes so much as to the patient Hindu, 
the mild Hindu. In ancient or modern times seeds of great truth 
and power have been cast abroad by advancing tides of national 
life ; but mark, my friends, it has always been with the blast of 
war-trumpets and with the march of embattled cohorts. Each 
idea had to be soaked in deluges of blood ; each idea had to ad- 
vance on the blood of millions of our fellow beings ; each word of 
power had to be followed by groans of millions, by the wails of 
orphans, by the tears of widows." 

And he adds that from the gloom of that intense past until 
now, ideas after ideas have marched out from India, "but every 
word has been spoken with blessing behind it and peace before 
it ; we of all nations of the world have never been a conquering 
race. And that blessing is on our head ; therefore we live." We 
quote further : 

"The same laws are here, laws adjusted, thought out through 
thousands and thousands of years, customs the outcome of the 
acumen of ages and the experience of centuries that seemed to be 
eternal ; and as the days go by, as blow upon blow of misfortune 
has been delivered upon them, they seem to have served our pur- 
pose, making them stronger and more constant. And to find the 
center of all that, the heart from which the blood flows, the 
mainspring of the national life, believe me, after my little expe- 
rience of the world, it is here. To other nations of the world 
religion is one among the many occupations of life. There is 
politics, there are enjoyments of social life, there is all that wealth 
can buy or power can bring, there is all that the senses can enjoy ; 
and among all these various occupations of life and all this 
searching after something, .something which can give a little more 
whetting to the cloyed senses — among all these there is a little 
bit of religion. But here in India religion is the one and only 
occupation of life." 

Vivekananda quotes Schopenhauer's splendid tribute to the 
Upanishads, a part of the Hindu Scriptures. Schopenhauer, in 
speaking of these writings and their future influence, said : "The 
world is about to see a revolution in thought more extensive and 
more powerful than that which was witnessed by the Renaissance 
of Greek literature." And, Vivekananda says: "To-day his pre- 
diction is coming to pass. Those who keep their eyes open, those 
who understand the workings in the minds of the different nations 
of the West, those who are thinkers and study the different 
nations, will find the immense change that has been produced in 
the tone, the procedure, in the methods and in the literature of 
the world, by this slow, never-ceasing permeation ©f Indian 
thought." 

He reminds his people of the well-known fascination of Indian 
thought to all outsiders, after they have become familiar with it. 
He proceeds then to discuss the religious conditions of the West : 

"Once more history is going to repeat itself, for to-day, under 
the blasting light of modern science, when old and apparently 



strong and invulnerable beliefs have been shattered to their very 
foundations, when special claims laid upon the allegiance of man- 
kind by the different sects have been all blown into atoms and 
have vanished into air, when the sledge-hammer blows of modern 
antiquarian research are pulverizing like masses of porcelain all 
sorts of antiquated orthodoxies, when religion in the West is only 
in the hands of the ignorant, and the knowing ones look down 
with scorn upon anything belonging to religion, here comes the 
philosophy of India." 

But he expects other nations to receive only the background, 
the principles, the foundation upon which that religion is built. 
He denies that India's social customs rightly belong to that re- 
ligion. But in India and in India alone man did not stand up 
and fight for a little tribe God. "My God is true and yours is 
not true ; let us have a good fight over it." It was only here that 
such ideas did not have fruition. But in the growth and develop- 
ment of religion among all the other races, each tribe at the be- 
ginning had a god of its own. Baal represented the Babylonians, 
and Moloch the Jews ; but all these gods had to be decided on by 
battle. In India the people were confronted with this same con- 
flict of who should be their chief god, when, fortunately for her 
and now for the world, out of the din and confusion was heard 
the voice which declared : " Ekamsat vipra bahnndha vadanti" 
(He is One whom the sages declared by various names). "The 
whole history of India you may read in these few words." This 
central doctrine was repeated till it entered the blood of the peo- 
ple. And this is the explanation of the numerous sects, appar- 
ently hopelessly contradictory, living with each other in harmony. 
This, above all, is what India has to teach the world. "Even the 
most educated of the other countries tuck up their noses at an 
angle of 45° and call our religion idolatry, and they never stop to 
think what a mass of superstition there is in their own heads. 
There is tremendous religious persecution yet in every country in 
which I have been, and the same old objections are raised against 
learning anything new." All the little toleration that is in the 
world practically is in the land of the Aryans and nowhere else. 
It is here that Indians come and build temples for Mohammedans 
and Christians, and nowhere else. In other countries each sect 
is ready to pull the other's temple down. This is the great lesson 
that the world wants most and has yet to learn from India : 

"This, then, this spirituality, is what you have to teach the 
world. Have we got to learn anything else, have we to learn 
anything from the world? We have perhaps a little in material 
knowledge, in the power of organization, in the ability to handle 
powers, organizing powers and bringing the best results out of 
the smallest causes. This perhaps to a certain extent we may 
learn from the West, and so long as all men in a country can not 
give up entirely, altho that is our ideal, if any one in India 
preaches the ideal of eating and drinking and making merry, if 
any one wants to apotheosize the material world into 'God for 
India,' that man is a liar; he has no place in this holy land, the 
Indian mind does not want to hear him. Ay, in spite of the 
sparkle and glitter of Western civilization, in spite of all its polish 
and marvelous manifestations of power, I tell them, standing upon 
this platform, to their teeth, it is all vain. It is vanity of vani- 
ties. God alone lives. The soul alone lives. Spirituality alone 
lives. Hold on to that ; yet some sort of materialism toned down 
to our own use perhaps would be a blessing to many of our 
brothers who are not yet ripe for the higher truths. This is the 
one mistake made in every country and in every society. And it 
is a greatly regrettable thing that in India, where it was always 
understood, the same mistake, of late, has been made." 

"Another mistake," the speaker continued, "is this: What is 
my method need not be yours. The sannyasin, as you all know, 
is the ideal of the Hindu's life. Every Hindu who has tasted the 
fruits of this world must give up in the latter part of his life. 
We know this is the ideal, to give up after seeing and experien- 
cing the vanity of things. . . . But they require a certain amount 
of experience, of enjoyment, to see through the vanity of it and 
then renunciation will come to hem." "But unfortunately, in 



20 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



these later times, there is a tendency to bind every one down by 
the same laws as those by which the sannyasi is bound, and that 
is a great mistake. A good deal of the poverty and misery you 
see in India need not be but for that. A poor man's life is 
hemmed in and bound down by tremendous spiritual and ethical 
laws." "Let the poor fellow enjoy a little, . . . and then re- 
nunciation will come. In this line, gentlemen, perhaps we can 
learn something from the Western people ; but we must be very 
cautious in learning these things." "Of these I vote for the 
old orthodox and not for the Europeanized system ; for the old 
orthodox man may be ignorant, he may be crude, but he is a 
man, he has faith, he has strength, he stands on his own feet, 
while the Europeanized man has no backbone. . . . Why are 
some of our customs called evils? Because the Europeans say 
so. That is about the reason he gives." 

Vivekananda asks his people why there are 3,000,000 Moham- 
medans and 1. 000.000 Christians in India, and why the complaint 
is made nowadays that European materialism has wellnigh 
swamped them. It is not at all the fault of Europeans, he tells 
his people, but mainly their own. He continues : 

"And yet there is time. Give up all these old discussions, old 
Ughts about things which are meaningless, which are nonsensical 
in their very nature. Think of the last six hundred or seven hun- 
dred years of degradation, when grown-up men by hundreds have 
been discussing whether we should drink a glass of water with 
the right hand or the left, whether the hand should be washed 
three times or four times, whether five times we should gurgle or 
six times. What can you expect from men who pass their lives 
in discussing such momentous questions as these ! . . . There is 
danger of our religion getting into the kitchen. We are neither 
Vedantists, most of us now, nor Pauranics, nor Tantries. We are 
just ' Don't-touchists. ' Our religion is the kitchen. Our God is 
the cooking-pot, and our religion is 'Don't touch me, I am holy!' 
. . . This has first to be thrown overboard and you must stand 
up, be active and strong, and then there is yet an infinite treasure, 
the treasure our forefathers have left for you, a treasure that the 
whole world requires to-day. The world will die if this treasure 
is not distributed." 

Vivekananda has little faith in the permanency and universal- 
ity of Christianity. He says : 

"You have also heard, quite within recent times, claims put 
forward by a great friend of mine. Dr. Barrows, that Christianity 
is the only universal religion. Let me consider this question 
awhile and lay before you my reasons why I think it is the 
Vedanta, and the Vedanta alone, that can become the universal 
religion of man, and that none else is fitted for that role. Excep- 
ting our own, almost all the other great religions of the world are 
inevitably connected with the life or lives of one or more found- 
ers. All their theories, their teachings, their doctrines, and 
their ethics are built around the life of a personal founder, from 
whom they get their sanction, their authority, and their power; 
and, strangely enough, upon the historicality of the founder's life 
is built, as it were, all the fabric of such religions. If there is 
one blow dealt to the historicality of that life, as has been the 
case in modern times with the lives of almost all the so-called 
founders of religion — we know that half the details of such lives 
is not now seriously believed in, and- that the other half is seri- 
ously doubted — if this becomes the case, if that rock of histori- 
cality, as they intend to call it, is shaken and shivered, the whole 
building tumbles down, broken absolutely, never to regain its 
lost status. Every one of the great religions in the world excep- 
ting our own is built upon such historical characters ; but ours 
rest upon principles. There is no man or woman who can claim 
to have created the Vedas. They are the embodiment of eternal 
principles; sages discovered them ; and now and then the names 
of these sages are mentioned, just their names; we do not even 
know who or what they were 

"The second claim of the Vedanta upon the attention of the 
world is that, of all the Scriptures in the world, it is the one 
Scripture the teaching of which is in entire harmony with the 
results that have been attained by the modern scientific investi- 
gation of external nature. ... I have myself been told by some 
of the best scientific minds in the West how wonderfully rational 



the conclusions of the Vedanta are. I know one of them person- 
ally who scarcely had time to eat his meals or to go out of his 
laboratory, and who yet would stand by the hour to attend my 
lectures on the Vedanta, for, as he expresses it, they are so 
scientific, they so exactly harmonize with the aspirations of the 
age and with the conclusions which modern science is coming to 
at the present time. ... I need not tell you to-day, men from 
this Madras University, how the modern researches of Europe 
have demonstrated through physical means the oneness and the 
solidarity of the whole universe, how, physically speaking, you 
and I, the sun and the moon and the stars, are but little waves or 
wavelets in the midst of an infinite ocean of matter, and how 
Indian psychology has demonstrated ages ago that, similarly, 
both body and mind are mere names or little wavelets in the 
ocean of matter. . . . And going behind the idea of the unity of 
the whole show, the real soul is also one. There is but one soul 
throughout the universe. . . . That makes us all brothers in fact 
as well as in name." 

Vivekananda expresses himself orthodoxically on the subject 
of idolatry. He says that it is condemned, but nobody knows 
why. The only reason, he says, is because, some hundreds of 
years ago, some man of Jewish blood happened to condemn it, 
that is, happened to condemn everybody else's idols except his 
own. He continues : 

"'If God is represented in beautiful form or any symbolic 
form,' said the Jew, 'it is awfully bad; it is sin.' But if he is 
represented in the form of a chest, with two angels sitting on each 
side and a cloud hanging over it, it is the Holy of Holies. If God 
comes in the form of a dove it is the Holy of Holies. But if he 
comes in the form of a cow, it is heathen superstition ; condemn 
it. That is how the world goes." 



HOW TO BREAK THE POWER OF THE 
CATHOLIC CHURCH. 

' I ''HE Center Party, that strongest and best disciplined of 
-'■ parties in the German Parliament, which enables the sev- 
enteen million Catholics to exercise more influence than the 
thirty-two million Protestants, and compels the German Govern- 
ment to treat the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope as an in- 
ternational power, is continually agitating for the reintroduction 
of the Jesuits and the extension of separate schools. The Protes- 
tant parties, that do not underrate the power of the church, 
refuse to grant concessions, even if the help of the Center is 
needed sorely for political purposes. It is therefore all the more 
remarkable that a recent convert to Protestantism, who claims 
that he left the Roman Catholic Church solely because her rules 
do not permit patriotism, advises the Government to accede to 
the most important demands of the church. Graf Hoensbruch, 
the ex-Jesuit Superior, believes that liberty will destroy the 
power of the church. In his book " Der Ultramontanismus," 
reviewed by Prof. Hans Delbriick in the Pretissische Jahrbiicher, 
the Bavarian aristocrat expresses himself to the following effect : 

What is often forgotten, but should never be lost sight of, is 
that the church claims authority so absolute that no state could 
remain independent, no legislation could be valid, if the church 
had the power to enforce her demands. Graf Hoensbruch has 
filled his book with many verbatitn extracts from the Pope's say- 
ings to prove this conclusively. Luckily, practise is far from 
precept in this case, and the church is forced to permit all sorts 
of "heresies" in its supporters. Peter Reichensperger and Graf 
Landsberg-Vehlen do not know what papal condemnation of civil 
laws really means ; Windhorst does not know that he utters a 
most grave heresy by calling a Protestant organization a "sister 
church" ; Freiherr v. Loe does not know that the church to this 
day threatens all "heretics" with rigorous punishment, including 
the most cruel death ; Dr. Dittrich does not know that the church 
claims absolute control over all schools ; Chaplain Dasbach does 
not know that the church still reserves to itself the right to de- 
throne all princes. Rome winks at all these "heresies" in her 
children ; but put Rome in power, and she will soon prove that 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



21 



she has not given up one iota of her claims, and that her adher- 
ents are allowed to deny these claims only under special dispen- 
sation. The day will come, sooner or later, when the church 
must throw off her mask, and when her power will have grown 
much greater than that of Socialism — unless something is done to 
cripple the church. 

To fight the church successfully, a system is needed. This 
system should be based upon two important aims : undermining 
the social position of the priesthood, and their education. The 
state should cease to recognize rank in the clergy, to confer honors 
upon the Pope, to accept from him or to give him decorations, 
orders, titles, etc., nor should the Pope ever be asked to act as 
arbitrator in any international affair. He is a private individual, 
and should be treated as such. But the most effective way to 
combat the clergy is to let them have their own way in the matter 
of education of their own members. 

Why is it that the Roman Catholic clergy have so remarkably 
little influence over the population at large in France, Italy, 
Spain, or Portugal? It is their isolated education. In Germany 
Catholic theologians are made to visit the colleges (gymnasia) 
and to obtain benefits of the education given to others. Tho 
they are afterward, at the iiniversity, secluded very much, a 
great many outside connections that have been formed remain. 
In the Latin countries the young priest lives in seminaries from 
a tender age, he loses all touch with the outer world, and does 
not learn to handle it. Germany, with her compulsory educa- 
tion, forges herself the weapons w-hich are turned against her. 
We must give up the idea that the Catholic clergy can ever be 
educated as patriotic men. We must hand them over freely to 
their bishops. This may breed fanatics — perhaps ; but it will 
breed priests who will not be in touch with the people and can 
not influence them. Besides, it will be exactly what the Catholic 
Church has wished for all this time. 

Professor Delbriick adds to this : 

"Graf Hoensbroech's argument seems reasonable enough. 
Catholics themselves acknowledge the inferiority of their educa- 
tion, even to-day. A Catholic paper only recently admitted that 
it is an advantage to be a Catholic if one is looking for a position 
under the Government ; but the Catholics as a whole do not profit 
by this, as there are not enough academically trained men among 
them to compete with Protestants. In the Bavarian Reichsrath, 
the Government, being questioned why so comparatively few 
Catholics receive professorships, had to admit that there are not 
enough Catholic men of learning to go around. Let us. there- 
fore, leave the Catholics in their intellectual poverty, and our 
people's instincts will lead them to rebel against the rule of the 
priest. The paucity of 'Catholic science' is already so great that 
it can not even bring forth fruit in theology. It is continually at 
war with natural science. In the department of history it is 
compelled to fall back upon lawyer's tricks, holy waters, mira- 
cles, etc. As regards philosophy, I was, even as long as twenty- 
five years ago, examined by a Catholic man of learning who 
proved the infallibility of the Pope on metaphysical grounds ! 

"A few names still bridge the chasm between science and 
Catholic science : Willmann, Denifle, Pasteur. It can not hurt 
us if the bridge vanishes altogether. In science as well as in 
religion the saying holds good that God may not be mocked. The 
curse which the Roman Church took upon herself when she forced 
Galileo to recant, still rests upon her and will never be removed 
from her." — Jrafislations made J or The Literary Digest. 



Minor Hindu Deities.— "The godlings or inferior deities 
commonly worshiped by the masses of the Hindus, and described 
in Mr. W. Crooke's book on the 'Popular Religion and Folklore 
of Northern India, ' are of very different character from the ex- 
alted conceptions of divinity described in the Vedas and known 
to the select among high-caste Brahmans," says Appleton' s Pop- 
ular Science Monthly, December. "They are very numerous, 
and are described under the five headings of the godlings of 
nature, heroic and village godlings, the godlings of disease, the 
sainted dead, and the malevolent dead. The godlings of nature 
include the sun, the moon, the demon of the moon's eclipse, the 
rainbow, the Milky Way — known also as the pathway of the 
snake or the course of the heavenly Ganges — Mother Earth, 
thunder and lightning, the sacred junctions of rivers, sacred wells 



and lakes, hot springs, waterfalls, sacred mountains, hail and 
whirlwind, aerolites, etc. The great rivers, especially the 
Jumna and the Ganges, stand very high in the list of benevolent 
nature godlings. The heroic village godlings form a numerous 
class ; and there seems to be confusion between some of them and 
some Mohammedan saints in high repute. The current from a 
ventilator placed at the tomb of one of these saints to furnish fresh 
air to the pilgrims was believed by them to be his holy breath, 
and they went round to worship it. The godlings of disease are 
mostly goddesses, and are forms of Kali, the goddess of death. 
There is a goddess of cholera, and one of smallpox, but none of 
the plague ; whence it is inferred that that disease is new to India. 
The belief in the good luck of horseshoes is common in India, 
and so is the custom of throwing rice after brides." 



T 



WHAT CAN A CATHOLIC READ? 

HE General Decrees of the Roman Catholic Church condemn 
the reading of the following four classes of books : 



"i. All books condemned before the year 1600, either by the sovereign 
pontiffs or ecumenical councils, and not mentioned in the new Index [to 
be published hereafter!, are to be considered as condemned in the same 
manner as formerly, excepting such as are permitted by these General De- 
crees. 

"2. Books of apostates, heretics, schismatics, and all writers whatsoever 
which champion the cause of error, or which in any way undermine the 
foundations of religion, are absolutely forbidden. 

"3. Books of non-Catholics, treating ex professo of religion, are likewise 
forbidden, unless it is certain that they contain nothing contrary to Cath- 
olic faith. 

"4. Books of the aforesaid authors which do not treat ex professo of re- 
ligion, but touch only, in passing, upon truths of faith, are not to be con- 
sidered as forbidden by ecclesiastical law until they are condemned by a 
special decree." 

Formerly all books written by heretics were condemned, whether 
dealing professedly with religion or not. The fourth rule above 
specifically repeals the old law, and leaves a certain latitude of 
choice among non-Catholic writers. In the leading article of 
The Amerz'can Catholic Quarterly Review (October), R. J. M. 
reviews the general character of English literature, in its relation 
to Roman Catholics, and endeavors to answer in some measure 
the question in our title. At the outset, R. J. M. points out that, 
in a certain sense, the English language and the English litera- 
ture are anti-Catholic. He says : 

"The Protestant character of the language shows itself both 
negatively and positively. Negatively it shows itself in the 
absence of appropriate words to express, with precision, the ideas 
that we mean to convey, when writing on Catholic subjects. A 
language, like a people, is not Christianized or Catholicized at 
once. Only after a long and gradual absorption and assimilation 
of Catholic thought is it fully adapted and consecrated to the ser- 
vice of God and of the church. How slow and tedious this proc- 
ess is will be readily understood by any one who reflects how 
many centuries it took before Latin became, in the hands of the 
fathers and theologians of the church, the vehicle that it now is 
of Catholic doctrine and devotion. The same thing may be said 
of English; our philosophical and ascetical writers have onl)' just 
begun to build up a terminology which is both English and Cath- 
olic." 

Positively, the Protestant character of the language appears in 

the presence of many words, such as "Romanist" and "Papist," 

designedly offensive to Catholic feeling. What is true of the 

English language is still truer of English literature. Cardinal 

Newman is quoted ; 

"We [Catholics] are but a portion of the vast English-speaking, world- 
wide race, and are but striving to create a current in the direction of 
Catholic truth when the waters are rapidly flowing the other way. In no 
case can we, strictly speaking, form an English literature; for by the lit- 
erature of a nation is meant its classics, and its classics have been given to 
England, and have been recognized as such long since. . . . We must take 
things as they are, if we take them at all. . . . We Catholics, without con- 
sciousness and without offense, are ever repeating the half-sentences of 
dissolute play writers and heretical partizans and preachers. So tj'rannous 
is the literature of a nation ; it is too much for us." 

The Quarterly Review writer goes on to comment on this : 

"An ancient general is .said to have conquered and almost an- 
nihilated a nation by poisoning the wells and water-courses of 



22 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



the country; so that, while the men fell upon the battle-field, the 
women and children wasted away with disease in their homes. In 
civilized warfare such a practise has long since been abandoned. 
But in English literature it has been systematically pursued up to 
a recent date. From the very beginning of the so-called Refor- 
mation, the English press and pulpit became the ready tools of 
royalty, and overflowed with falsehood, calumny, and ridicule of 
everything that was most sacred to Catholics. They represented 
belief in the papal supremacy as treason to the country, construed 
recusancy into idolatry, and spiced their denunciations with blas- 
phemous attacks upon the doctrine of transsubstantiation, the 
'worship' of the saints, the 'adoration' of relics and images, the 
sale of indulgences carried on by the 'Popish' priests, and the 
license to commit sin granted by the 'Romish' Church. Mean- 
while Catholic works were excluded from the English realm by 
royal order. An especial license of the pseudo-Archbishop of 
Canterbury was necessary in order to import any ' Popish book or 
pamphlet published beyond the seas' ; and such license was 
granted 'upon this condition only, that any of them be not dis- 
persed or showed abroad, but first brought to him [the intruded 
archbishop] or to some of . . . [the] privy council, that so they 
may be delivered, or directed to be delivered, forth unto such 
persons only as by them or some of them shall be thought most 
meet persons, upon good considerations and purposes, to have 
the reading of them. ' 

"In this manner English literature, during the period of its 
formation and development, was placed under exclusively Protes- 
tant influence. The 'well of English undefiled' was poisoned, 
and its waters have come down to us impregnated with Protestant 
thought, Protestant views, and Protestant principles of action. 
History, works of general information and education, philosophy 
and physical science, light literature and the newspaper, have all 
been enlisted in the service of error, and made to do battle against 
the church." 

The writer then proceeds to a more specific examination of the 
classes of literature enumerated in the last sentence of the above 
quotation. He finds a great improvement of late years, from the 
Catholic point of view, in historj', works of general information, 
and the press (of America) , but in the realms of natural science 
and philosophy, especially as taught in our high schools and col- 
leges, and in our light literature (fiction and works of travel), 
the anti-Catholic bias is "as strong and unreasonable as ever. " 
Among the works of various kinds cited as illustrative of this 
bias, in greater or less degree, are the works of Hume and Gib- 
bon, Hallam's "Constitutional History," Dissraeli's "Curiosities 
of Literature," "Chambers's Encyclopedia," the "British Ency- 
clopedia," Campbell's "Rhetoric," Whately's "Rhetoric" and 
"Logic," Blackstone's "Commentaries," the historical compen- 
diums of Myers and Freeman, Coffin's "Story of Liberty," 
Draper's "Conflict Between Religion and Science," Andrew 
White's "Warfare of Science and Theology, " the philosophy of 
Locke, Hume. Berkeley, Kant, Fichte, Hegel, Schelling, and 
Schopenhauer, the novels of Charles Dickens, and, among "nom- 
inally Catholic" novels, those of Marion Crawford. 

Of the improvement in history, the writer speaks as follows : 

"Since the state archives have been thrown open and state 
papers have become public property, history is being rewritten, 
and the unjust verdict of the past is being reversed. German 
Protestant historians like Hurter, whose researches led him into 
the bosom of the Catholic Church, Voigt. and others, gave the 
death-blow to romancing in history. A German Protestant his- 
torian has vindicated the church in the Galileo question, and an 
English clergyman of the Established Church has painted the 
characters of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth in darker colors than 
Catholic writers had ventured to do. But even before their day 
our own Catholic Lingard had led the way and partly disarmed 
prejudice by his publication of original documents. Within the 
last few years the learned Catholic historian, Janssen, and his 
continualor. Dr. Pastor, have shaken Protestantism, and espe- 
cially Lutheranism, to its foundations in its very stronghold, by 
bringing to light the hidden things of darkness, hitherto care- 
fully kept from the public gaze. In brief, the new critical school 
of historians, who are ransacking all the libraries and archives of 



Europe in search of original manuscripts, comparing texts, weigh- 
ing authorities, and sifting evidence, has already rendered great 
service to Catholic truth, and the probability is that it will render 
still greater service in future. Who now would picture the Mid- 
dle Ages as an unbroken night of ignorance and corruption ? 
Who would represent the 'Sicilian Vespers' and 'St. Bartholo- 
mew's Day' as instances of wholesale butchery instigated by the 
sanguinary policy of Rome ^ Who would refer to the Inquisition 
as to a tribunal of horrors,' in w-hich the cruel church authorities 
condemned and wantonly tortured innocent men for maintaining 
their right to worship God according to the dictates of conscience? 
Who would write a book on the 'Alliance of Popery and Heathen- 
ism, ' or on the 'Apostasy of the Pope, the Man of Sin and the 
Child of Perdition'? Who would call the Popes 'pageants or 
monsters that commonly owed their rise or downfall to crime, ' 
or represent St. Gregory VII. as the heartless Hildebrand, who 
made a great emperor go to Canossa and shiver in the cold of 
winter, for courageously defending his civil independence? Who 
would describe Henry VIII. as the 'bluflf and honest Hal,' or 
Queen Elizabeth as the 'good Virgin-Queen Bess,' or Mary Tudor 
as 'Bloody Mary,' or Mary Queen of Scots as a 'fiend in human 
flesh'? None but history-mongers, who make up by unblushing 
effrontery for want of research, and by a flippant style for want 
of fairness." 

In answer to the question, what are Catholic readers to do, 
since so much of English literature is at variance with their re- 
ligion, the writer says that they can not confine themselves to 
translations from the French, Italian, and German, for in that 
case they would fare no better and might fare worse; they can 
not refrain from reading anything but a few pious ascetical works, 
for it is their duty not to be outdone by Protestants in the acquisi- 
tion of information. What they are to do is first to ground them- 
selves, by the study of Catholic authors, such as Newman and 
Brownson, in Catholic thought and history so that they can detect 
the true from the false whenever they are encountered : 

"We say, therefore, in the first place, that we should cultivate 
Catholic instincts and Catholic habits of thought, which will en- 
able us to discern almost spontaneously what is conformably or 
opposed to the spirit of the church, to the dogmas of Catholic 
faith and the laws of Catholic morality. We say, in the second 
place, that from the mass of non-Catholic publications we should 
select the least objectionable, and read even these with much 
caution and discernment." 



RELIGIOUS NOTES. 

A NEWS item in the New York Tribune tells of a traveling Georgia evan- 
gelist who is engaged in the conversion of sinners to a new faith, the out- 
ward manifestation of which is laughter. His devotees are called the Holy 
Laughers. 

The Christian Register (Unitarian, Boston) has secured an endowment of 
$50,000, and Rev. George Batchelor has resigned the secretaryship of the 
Unitarian Association in order to accept the position of editor, succeeding 
Rev. Samuel J. Barrows. The latter resigned when he was elected to 
Congress a year ago. 

Pope Leo XIIL has expressed his desire that the whole Roman Catholic 
world should celebrate the close of the nineteenth century with thanksgiv- 
ing and prayer. It is proposed in accordance with this idea to inaugurate 
a great spiritual retreat, a religious awakening or revival, to continue 
through the entire period of the year iSgg. 

A WRITER in The Outlook protests against the -nultiplication of appeals 
to churches to set apart special days for the observation of special causes. 
"If all the Sundays asked for by the various societies were set apart by 
the churches," it is said, "there would be few if any Sundays left for the 
regular preaching of the Gospel. Is it not time that the asking for special 
Sundays for special causes was entirely given up? Let the various so- 
cieties in which all Christian people are interested present their claims and 
leave to the local churches the question of determining the times and the 
seasons." 

The late Dean Vaughan of the English Church prefaced his will with 
these words : "In the prospect of death, a little nearer or further off, I 
wish to state explicitly that I have put my whole trust in the revelation 
of the Gospel as made in the Gospel of St. John and in the Epistles of St. 
John and St. Paul. I believe in the forgiveness of sins as the foundation- 
stone of the Gospel, and commit myself humbly and hopefully to God in 
this faith, for life, death, and eternity," and the will ends: "And it is my 
special desire that no memoir or other permanent record of my life be 
either printed or published. I desire no other memorial than the kind 
thoughts of my former pupils at Harrow, Doncaster, the Temple, and 
Llandaff." 



7ol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



23 



FOREIGN TOPICS. 



GENERAL WEYLER'S POLITICAL FUTURE. 

""T" HERE has been a great deal of speculation regarding the 
•^ future of the ex-Governor-General of Cuba, General Weyler. 
He has been accused of revolutionary tendencies, and even his most 
]oyal remarks have been dissected in the hope of discovering 
some reason for an attack upon his character. So far these en- 
deavors have been unsuccessful, but there is no doubt that many 
dissatisfied parties and factions would gladly avail themselves of 
his popularity, prestige, and knowledge, in order to overthrow 
the Liberal regime in Spain. Especially do the Carlists make 
advances to him. The Post, Munich, sketches the situation as 
I'ollows : 

"The Carlists are moving, and only waiting for a favorable 
■nhance to rebel. All those who, under the Conservative regime, 
':ould plunder the colonies without hindrance, now turn to the 
Carlists and already regard Weyler as their leader. But it is 
doubtful that he will prove himself a capable leader. Carlism 
aims at the reestablishment of the narrow. Catholic rule of the 
Bourbons, and all the plunderers of the country support it. If 
the Government is strong enough, Weyler will be treated as a 
•common criminal ; but is it strong enough? It would not be the 
first time that Spain would be under the rule of a military dicta- 
tor, if the Carlists win the day. The Republican elements should 
therefore hasten to disarm the generals who may be planning a 
coup d'etat, else the most brutal reaction will triumph." 

The Correo Espafiol, Barcelona, thinks the Carlists are the 
only party with whom he can wish to ally himself, considering 
the treatment accorded him by the present Government. It says : 

"General Weyler is at least a firm friend of the church, the 
ecclesiastical orders, and Catholic influence in the Philippines. 
It is due to his influence that the beneficial work of the monks in 
that distant colony has not been destroyed. General Weyler can 
not ally himself with the Liberals or the Conservatives of Sil- 
vela's following. Will he be with us? Well, we flatter no one 
and run after no one. We are too strong to beg for anybody's 
support. General Weyler knows well enough that all parties seek 
his support, and that we only do not need it. Carlism is an im- 
mense power in the nation, and General Weyler does not care 
about weak things, for he is himself a strong character." 

The Imparcial, Madrid, wishes the Government had been a 
little more energetic in its treatment of Weyler, whom it regards 
as a kind of Spanish Boulanger. It fears also that people abroad 
may fancy that Cuban autonomy is very weakly supported in 
Spain. The Independance Beige, Brussels, thinks this fear is 
not altogether unfounded. It adds : 

"The truth is that few people in Spain are as yet convinced 
that it is necessary to abandon the ancient regime in Cuba. The 
Spaniards fear that the competition of the United States and 
other countries will not permit them to retain the lion's share of 
Cuban trade if the Cubans are allowed to make their own tariffs. 
It is upon this ground that General Weyler and the opposition 
unite against the Government. Considering the delicate relations 
between Spain and the United States, this is much to be de- 
plored." 

The Journal des Dibats, Paris, believes it is too early to ac- 
cuse General Weyler of revolutionary intentions. That paper 
says : 

"We must distinguish between the general and the many mal- 
contents who seek to exploit his popularity in their own interest. 
So far the general's attitude has been correct enough. He was 
sent to Cuba to combat the insurrection with the utmost rigor by 
a Government which would not hear of autonomy. He has been 
recalled by a Government which entertains entirely different 
views. He is bitterly attacked for doing his duty, and can not be 
blamed for defending himself. No doubt he will play a part in 
Spanish politics, like other Spanish generals, and his sympathies 
are probably with the Conservatives, who sent him to Cuba. But 



there is no reason to suppose that he meditates anythifig illegal. 
His expressions so far have been perfectly loyal." 

The Speaker, London, also thinks that Weyler, if he espouses 
any party, will go with the Conservatives. Commenting upon 
the fact that the general disembarked at Barcelona upon his re- 
turn home, and that Barcelona is the principal outlet of Spanish 
trade with Cuba, the paper continues : 

"Indeed, the trade of Barcelona with Cuba is stated to exceed 
five millions sterling in annual value ; but it is certain that, if the 
Cubans can so adjust their customs duties as to buy where they 
please, they will buy chiefly in the United States. General 
Weyler, therefore, is coming forward as the vehement opponent 
of Cuban autonomy in the interest of Spanish trade and industry ; 
and his aim is to reorganize the Conservative Party round a 
nucleus composed of himself and itsother irreconcilable elements, 
with M. Romero Robledo as his lieutenant. . . . Should they be 
able to attract any considerable following — especially in the army 
— Spain may at any moment find herself on the brink both of a 
war with the United States and of a revolution — or rather a series 
of revolutions." — Translations made for The Literary Digest. 



TURKEY AND GREECE. 

THE treaty of peace between Turkey and Greece has at last 
been signed, and it is expected that the Greek Chamber 
will ratify it without further ado. The event has not been 
noticed very much in the European press, which are occupied 
with matters of more immediate interest, and tired of these end- 
less Eastern negotiations. Moreover, the evacuation of Thessaly 
is still a long way off. The Times, London, says, in effect : 

A consular convention has still to be concluded between the 
two powers, and measures have to be taken to insure the payment 
of the debt incurred by Greece, while at the same time the rights 
of Greece's older creditors must be safeguarded. And this is not 
an easy task. We are certain that the forming of an inter- 
national committee for the control of Greek finances is not 
enough. Greece's attitude has been such that she has lost the 
confidence of European capitalists, and she will not find the neces- 
sary money unless the powers are willing to guarantee its repay- 
ment. 

The St. James' s Gazette says : 

"The whole business has lasted seven months, which seems 
quite time enough to arrange a treaty between governments of 
whom one was utterly beaten ; but the faculty of the Oriental for 
prolonging a good haggle is nearly boundless — particularly when 
the side which will in the long run have to pay knows that on- 
lookers are standing by to protect it from a renewed whacking. 
It is the third parties — to wit, the ambassadors of the powers — 
who have most occasion to rejoice. When they went to 'present 
their congratulations to Tewfik Pasha, ' they must have felt that 
it was a case of one for the Turkish foreign minister and two 
for themselves 

"Yet, alter all, it is only a holiday, which the ambassadors 
will enjoy — not a release for ever and ever from the Greco- 
Turkish question. Nothing has been done, so far, except the 
signing of the bill at six months. What has to be transacted now 
is the dull practical business of finding money to meet the prom- 
ise to pay when it falls due. Besides, there are some details 
touching navigation and commerce still to be settled. These will 
probably be managed ; but the raising of the wind is another 
story. The Greeks are known to be expert in the best devices for 
performing this magic operation, but to doit this time will tax 
their skill. They are bankrupt, they are very anarchical, and 
their Government is the sport of politicians who for fluency of 
showy, meaningless gabble, want of scruple, intensity of selfish- 
ness, impudence of face, and absence of patriotism, are without 
superiors in the world, and have hardly a second outside the Cen- 
tral American republics. " 

The Journal des Dibats hopes the Greeks will not persist in 
further obstruction, as they can not possibly hope to obtain money 



24 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



unless they are willing to accept the advantageous terms arranged 
for them. The Kolnische Zeitung, Cologne, says: 

"The treaty is in accordance with the terms suggested by the 
powers, and if we needs must hold to the doctrine that Greece 
must retain the territor}- she possessed before the war — with the 
exception of a few strategic points — then the treaty is fairly just. 
Greece has come off cheaply enough considering the magnitude 
of the adventure into which she has been led by unprincipled 
ministers and demagogs. But the ambassadors at Constantino- 
ple have only half finished their work. The specter of the Cretan 
question still remains." 

The Independance Beige, Brussels, fears that the Eastern 
question is likely to be reopened at any moment unless Crete is 
pacified, and urges the powers to insist upon the speedy appoint- 
ment of a governor acceptable to all parlies. As a matter of fact 
the fighting has been resumed in Crete. The Christians do not 
seem to be the only aggressors now, tho, for the Moslems have 
managed to obtain arms in some way, and are turning the tables 
upon them. — Translations made Jor The Literary Digest. 



FOREIGN COMMENTS ON THE PRESIDENT'S 

MESSAGE. 

THE President's message has not produced as favorable an 
effect abroad as the cabled comments would indicate. The 
English papers are inclined to think that he is beating about the 
bush and talks a great deal about Cuba in order to divert atten- 
tion from more important internal matters. The tone of the Pres- 
ident's remarks regarding Spanish affairs is looked upon as one 
of half censure, half patronizing encouragement. The Spaniards 
themselves are not at all satisfied with it. On the whole, the 
European press conclude, the President devotes too much atten- 
tion to matters which do not directly concern the United States. 
The St. James's Gazette, London, thinks the currency problem 
remains the most important for our Administration to solve : 

" During the Bryan campaign the McKinleyites gave their op- 
ponents the ironical motto of ' In God we trust — for the other 
forty-seven cents. ' That expresses the difficulty of the Treasury 
in meeting the greenback question. Gold is naturally withdrawn 
from the vaults whenever the great bankers find it necessary. 
Then a bond issue is decreed, and again the bankers have the 
Government under their thumbs. And still the greenbacks con- 
tinue in a vicious circle of inevitable attacks on national security. 
Mr. Gage's recommendations are not easy reading, tho some at- 
tempt to get at the root of the evil is manifest. But Mr. Gage 
will fail. The day is past when, like Alexander Hamilton, the 
Secretary of the Treasury can smite the rock of national resources 
with any expectation of success." 

The Home News, London, says : 

"The message describes the Cuban question as the most impor- 
tant problem confronting the republic, but this is little better 
than an attempt to divert attention from the problem which 
should be so designated. The message shows that the question 
of the hour in the United States is, as ever, the currency. The 
difficulties of the republic in this respect do not diminish, and 
President McKinleydoes not belong to a school of economy which 
affords any hope of better things. He still hopes that some ar- 
rangement of a bimetallic nature may be effected with certain 
European powers. Under a vicious tariff system the United 
States revenue is rapidly declining and the deficits become more 
and more alarming. When revenue and expenditure have been 
made to balance each other. President McKinley is prepared to 
do something to place the currency on a sound basis. That is a 
rather roundabout way of adjourning the question sine die." 

In the main, however, the President's remarks with regard to 
Cuba are viewed as the most interesting, if not the most impor- 
tant, part of the message. The Spaniards regard the tone of the 
message as too patronizing, and do not place as high a valuation 
upon the unselfish humanity of our people as does the President. 



The Correspondencia, the official mouthpiece of the Sagasta 
Government, replies at length as follows : 

"To talk of international morality and the high value of reforms 
in Cuba, when you secretly hope to oppose these reforms as much 
as possible, is a manifest piece of hypocrisy, especially when you 
promise to abstain from intervention because there is no chance 
to intervene. This ignoring of all principles of justice may be in 
keeping with the line of conduct the United States has mapped 
out for herself with regard to foreign relations ; but it will not 
suit European countries, whose sensitiveness is much greater in 
such matters than that of the United States of North America. 
The same may be said with regard to the President's remarks 
about the Spanish authorities in Cuba — representatives of a 
friendly nation — and the judgment passed upon the Conservative 
Ministry. These remarks have been discussed in the cabinet, in 
the presence of Sr. Sagasta. We must not, however, forget that 
the message is addressed to the American chambers. Spain has 
many enemies there, and many others are moved by considera- 
tions not at all akin to the compassion and unselfishness which 
they parade." 

The Handelsblad, Amsterdam, believes that the United States 
Government really means to keep the peace, and believes that 
the ill-feeling between Spaniards and Americans will gradually 
subside. The Hamburger Nachrichten pretty generally voices 
German sentiment by saying that McKinley is playing to the gal- 
leries, and by asserting that the mistaken idea which the Ameri- 
cans have of their own international importance will some day 
get us into serious trouble. The Journal des Ddbats, Paris,, 
says : 

"No doubt the President finds it necessary to bow to public 
opinion. Does he not have to take it into consideration in the 
money problem ? Willy-nilly, McKinley has to count with passions- 
which do not personally move him. And these passions are dan- 
gerous enough for Spain to busy herself with them, to disarm, 
them as much as is compatible with her interests and her dignity. 
Canovas solved the problem in one way, Sagasta tries to solve it 
in another. But these questions do not concern any one except 
Spain. We can only extend our sympathies to her, for we can 
not perceive any reason to say that she is not in the right. " — 
Translations made Jor The Literary Digest. 



THE GERMAN NAVAL PROGRAM. 

IT is getting more and more evident that the German Emperor 
will get all the ships he asks for from his Parliament, and 
that he will not even be forced to make concessions to the Cath- 
olic Party for their vote. All the opposition parties dread an. 
appeal to the country while the German people are in their pres- 
ent temper, especially as such an appeal has generally ended in 
a verdict for the crown and defeat for the Parliament. No Euro- 
pean nation is more interested in this parliamentary struggle in 
Germany than the English, whose papers heartily sympathize 
with the German people over their increased expense for arma- 
ments. The majority of English papers confine themselves to- 
remarks uncomplimentary to Emperor William, of whose sanity 
they express doubt, and whose speeches they regard as mere 
bombastic phraseology. The Morning Advertiser, London, 
translates the term Kriegsherr, i.e., commander-in-chief, into 
"War Lord,"* and hopes the German people will not be caught 
by his ability to make use of theatrical effect. The Morning 
Post is sorry that the head of the German people "is not endowed 
with tact." The Daily News wants to know what is the use of 
a German Parliament if such a man is allowed to have his way. 
The St. James' s Gazette pities the ministers who have to stand 
by and see their master disgrace himself and his country by his 
untimely pathos, "which is enough to make any one who has the 



* "Z>^r Kaiser ist der oberste Kriegsherr" ("The Emperor is Comman- 
der-in-Chief in time of war") explains in the German constitution that the 
Emperor assumes only in times of war command over the allied forces of 
the United German states.— i5'a';'/'or o/ THE LlTEKARV DIGEST. 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



25 



honor of the speaker at heart cry for very shame. " This paper 
nevertheless fears that the Germans will give way to the Em- 
peror's demands, and declares that the naval program "is worth 
the serious consideration of Englishmen." It continues: 

"It will do something else besides making of Germany a naval 
power of the very first rank. The new ships will be built in 
German shipyards by German mechanics ; and the result will be 
to give a great impetus to that German shipbuilding industry 
which is growing steadily and rather faster than suits our own 
builders on the Clyde and the Tyne, hampered as they are by 
high wages and obstructive unions. And the ships made in Ger- 
many are not all cheap and nasty. It is stated that the new 
North German Lloyd liner, the Kaiser Wilhehn der Grosse, 
averaged a speed of 22.35 knots per hour during her recent home- 
ward run. This is well ahead of the best performance of the 
Lucania, which so far has held the Atlantic record. From which 
it would seem that the Germans have nothing to learn from us in 
the building or the working of fast steamers of the largest size." 

The Spectator also is sorry tbet fate has not permitted the Ger- 
mans to be led by a more sensible person than the Emperor, and 
addresses a friendly warning to them in the following words : 

"If the German dream of a mighty world power is really a 
widely held national ideal, and if the German people are pre- 
pared to make sacrifices for the attainment of such an ideal, which 
would be as heroic as they would be insane, they will support 
proposals even more far-reaching than these. But this dream can 
not, of course, be realized without a tremendous collision with 
other powers — a collision in which the German Empire would 
run the risk of being smashed and pulverized. . . . Germany 
must be content with expansion through other territorial powers, 
or she must, if possessed by this idea of a world-empire, run the 
risk of annihilation 

"If there is to be a race of economic ruin. Germany will arrive 
at the goal long before we do, and on her head will be the main 
disaster. We write in the conditional mood, for it remains to be 
seen whether the Kaiser's megalomania is shared by a majority 
of the German people. There is much good sense and a vigorous 
logical judgment in Germany, to which one may confidently 
appeal." 

The Weekly Scotsman, Edinburgh, is displeased because the 
French and German naval programs "derange our calculations of 
what is requisite for upholding our supremacy at sea," but is 
confident that England can provide a navy large enough to meet 
all comers, and regards the whole matter as a question of the 
longest purse only. The Daily Mail, London, thinks the un- 
justifiable and unprecedented aggression of Germany will estrange 
her friends from her. The paper says : 

"The Kaiser is plainly over-modest when he says 'it is not our 
object to vie with maritime powers of the first rank. ' If this bill 
be passed Germany instantly becomes a maritime power of the 
first rank. How will this power be used? You may get some 
idea of the martinet methods Germany would apply to weaker 
powers by the demands which she has just made on China. . . . 
If these are to be German methods when she gets her strong 
navy, the world at large will hardly bless the day she gets it." 

But the Germans seem to believe that they can, however late, 
create an empire in which their emigrants will preserve their 
nationality, and they pay no attention to the counsel of their 
cousins across the Channel. Dr. Lieber, the leader of the Cath- 
olics, declares that his party is not against "the principle of in- 
creased sea power." The Vorwdrts, the organ of the Socialists, 
fears that the people are infatuated with the idea of a great Ger- 
man Empire, deplores that patriotism, an altogether unprogres- 
sive and anti-Socialistic sentiment, is gaining strength, and 
thinks its party can not afford to lose popularity by opposing alto- 
gether the increase of the navy. The Socialists, therefore, will 
oppose the naval program solely on technical grounds. "We do 
not want to order a large number of ships now," argues the 
paper, "because they maybe antiquated in pattern before they 
are launched. Let the Government ask for a slight increase each 



year." This is also the position taken by the moderate Radicals, 
whose spokesman, Theodor Barth, writes in the Nation, Berlin, 
as follows : 

" It will do the Government no good to force this program upon 
the Reichstag. It is much better to leave the question open for 
debate each year. Let the Government be satisfied with a begin- 
ning of a new navy, and appeal to the country for the rest during 
the next elections. ... It is quite possible that the Government 
would get its way if the Reichstag is dismissed now and a new 
election is ordered immediately, and that the representatives of 
the people will suffer a signal defeat. But such measures are not 
good for the empire at large. We have enough division in our 
political organism already, and if this naval program is obtained 
by such violent means, there will be still more. Agrarian dema- 
gogs and Socialists may profit ; the empire as a whole certainly 
not." 

The Correspondenz, Berlin, voices the opinion of most sup- 
porters of the naval bill by its assertion that the whole increase 
of the fleet — which is acknowledged to be fairly moderate — must 
be granted now. The paper expresses itself to the following 
effect : 

The Government has shown that the fleet can be built without 
increase of taxation. The principal objection to the naval pro- 
gram is therefore overcome. The want of ships is pressing, im- 
mediate, and should be remedied at once. Whoever really wishes 
to see Germany strong at sea must also be willing to guaranty 
that the navy will remain strong in future. Germany absolutely 
needs a navy unless she is willing to sink into insignificance, and 
such a navy can not be allowed to lead a hand-to-mouth exist- 
ence. This is no party question, nor a question of constitutional 
rights, but one of national defense and economic development. 
It is, therefore, to be expected that the representatives of the 
people will for once forget their individual party interests and 
think of the welfare of the entire nation. The Government does 
not intend to assault the rights and privileges of Parliament, but 
the Government must at all cost guard the interests of the empire. 

The French press does not think France is menaced by an in- 
crease of the German navy, as Germany has been very pacific 
since 1S70. Nor does the Russian press seem to be alarmed. 
The German papers in Austria delight in a possible increase of 
German prestige. We have also discovered an Irish paper which 
sympathizes with the Emperor. Hugh O'Donnell, the Prohibi- 
tionist, Catholic, Nationalist, and, above all, fiercely anti-English 
reviewer of foreign events for United Ireland, Dublin, asks 
"What about the 'Mad Emperor' now ?" and continues : 

" I beg to present the expression of my respectful condolence 
to all those Dublin retailers of English opinion who have dis- 
graced the patriotism of the Irish metropolis by their servile im- 
itation of London libelers of the German Emperor. The 'Mad 
Emperor' is going to have his big fleet in spite of all the tender- 
hearted Englishman's sorrow for 'the crushing militarism which 
oppresses the German people. ' etc. At the opening of the new 
century, there will be thirty German ironclads and double that 
number of cruiser craft flying about the ocean where Britannia 
used to rule the waves, and the dear old pirate does not like it at 
all." — Translations made J or The Literary Digest. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

Pick-Me-Up, London, comes to the conclusion that it is more dangerous 
to be innocent in the United States than to be a convicted murderer. 
There were, argues the paper, forty per cent, fewer legal executions in the 
United States last year than lynchings. Of the men lynched, a much 
larger proportion than one in fifty was innocent, while not one convicted 
murderer in fifty was executed. 

The following is related in the Indian papers as typical of the character 
of the Hill tribes of that country : The load of a camel had slipped off, and 
an English soldier, whose kit was there no doubt, was trying to refix it. 
The poor fellow did not show much skill at the work, and he was hot, tired, 
irritable. A tall Pathan of the baggage guard stood by leaning on his 
rifle. The Englishman asked him to help, and presently in feverish vexa- 
tion struck him. The Afridi remained quiet a moment, then knocked the 
soldier down fiat. Macleod galloped up and stopped the row. tho " only a 
passenger." He asked the Afridi why he had waited so long before stri- 
king back. " I was thinking, sahib," he said, " whether the soldier had a 
right to strike me." 



26 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



A WELL-AUTHENTICATED CASE OF 
CLAIRVOYANCE. 

A MEDICAL journal called The Medical Week is published 
in Paris in the English language. In its issue of December 
3 it contains an article by Dr. Grasset, professor of clinical medi- 
cine in the medical faculty of Montpellier, France. Dr. Grasset 
writes about a case in which a careful test was made of a clair- 
voyant's ability to read the contents of a letter without breaking 
the seal, and the result of the test was even more remarkable 
than he had been led to expect. He was persuaded to make the 
test by a colleague, Dr. Ferroul, of Narbonne, the letter telling 
of some remarkable results he himself had had from the clair- 
voyant. Dr. Grasset's experiment is described by him in the 
following language : 

"After my return to Montpellier from Narbonne, without giv- 
ing the least indication of the details of what I proposed to do to 
Dr. Ferroul, who remained at Narbonne with his subject, I wrote 
on half a sheet of letter-paper the sentences reproduced below : 

^ Ujl hhrfay^ l^f^ ^ ^kii^ has ^Mgs^- 

"This paper was folded with the writing inside and wrapped 
in a sheet of tinfoil, such as is employed around chocolate, with 
the edges turned up. The whole was enclosed in an ordinary 
mourning envelope, which was closed with gum-arabic. 

"Dr. Ferroul having informed me that a string sometimes in- 
terfered with the reading, I put through the flaps of the envelope 
a safety-pin, which served as a kind of bolt, after having covered 
it with a thick layer of sealing-wax, which I sealed with my per- 
sonal seal. 

"The envelope thus arranged was enclosed, together with a 
visiting-card containing a few lines of explanation, in a large 
outer envelope, which I mailed to Dr. Ferroul at Narbonne on 
October 28. 

"In the morning of the 30th, I received the following reply : 

" ' My dear Masier : 

"'When your missile arrived this morning, my subject was not 
present. I opened the first cover, containing the sealed envelope 
and your card. 

"'Being then obliged to make my morning rounds, I intended 
to ask my subject to come to my house at four in the afternoon, 
and called on her on my way to arrange the matter. 

"'When she heard what I wanted, she proposed to me to read 
the letter immediately. 

"'Your envelope with the black seal, in the large outer en- 
velope, was lying on my desk at home, at least 300 meters distant 
from the house of my subject. 

"'Both of us leaning on the edge of a table, I passed my hand 
over the eyes of my subject, after which she said to me without 
having even seen your letter or envelope : 

"'"You have torn the envelope." 

"'"Yes; but the letter to be read is inside, in another, sealed 
envelope." 

'""The one with the large black seal?" 

"'"Yes, read that." 

"'"There is silver paper around it. . . . This is what it says : 
' Le del projond rejiete eti ctoiles nos I amies, carnous pleurons, 
ie soir, de nous seniir vivre.' Then there are letters like this 
(she marked them with the tip of her finger, about a centimeter in 
height) : D. E. K. . . . Then a small word which I do not know 
(what is the meaning of the word small?). . . . Then: Mont- 
pellier, 28 octobre iSgj." 

'"This, my dear master, is the result of the experiment which 
I had promised you. 

"'It was done in a minute and a half at the most. 

"'I return your envelope with this letter. 

"' Very sincerely, yours. 

'"(Signed) Dr. Ferroul. 

"'Narbon.nk, October 29, iSg-.' 



"My astonishment on reading this letter may be easily im- 
agined. 

"My sealed envelope came back without having been opened; 
it appeared to be absolutely impossible that it could have been 
tampered with, and yet the subject had read the contents, as if 
there had been neither sealing-wax, safety-pin, envelope, nor tin- 
foil. 

"She had seen the tinfoil, altho I had not mentioned this pre- 
caution in my conversation with Dr. Ferroul ; she had read the 
two verses, without recognizing them as verses, putting le soir, 
instead of ce soir, and passing over the word Irop, but these di- 
vergences are insignificant. 

"She had read the Russian characters, indicating that they 
were larger than the rest, and had drawn three of them to the 
best of her ability ; she had seen the German or the Greek word 
(one of them only) , without understanding it, and stated that it 
was small (the characters being small in comparison with the 
Russian word) ; lastly, she had read the date. 

"The success of the experiment was complete. It appears cer- 
tainly to be a case of reading through opaque bodies, giving the 
word opaque not only its original and common meaning, but also 
the new scientific sense which it has acquired since the discovery 
of the X rays. 

"The reading, however, was not only done through opaque 
bodies, but also at a distance, seeing that the letter was read 
while at the house of Dr. Ferroul, at least 300 meters away from 
the residence of the subject. 

"It must be admitted, nevertheless, that this part is less firmly 
established than the rest, inasmuch as the only proof of the fact 
is the assertion of Dr. Ferroul, of which I personally have no 
doubt whatever, but it lacks the force of a scientific demonstra- 
tion, seeing that he requested me himself to act as if I mistrusted 
him, and as I should treat any ordinary juggler. 

"On the other hand, no objection of this kind can be raised on 
the subject of the reading through opaque bodies, Dr. Ferroul's 
role in the experiment being simply that of a letter-carrier ; at 
any rate he had no knowledge of the contents of the sealed en- 
velope. There can therefore be no question whatever of any 
carelessness on his part, of unconscious communication, or even 
of mental suggestion or mind-reading. The contents of the sealed 
envelope were known to no one except myself, and I was at Mont- 
pellier, 100 kilometers from Narbonne, where the experiment was 
made. 

"All that this experiment does, therefore, is to show the possi- 
bility of reading through opaque bodies ; but of this kind of 
'clairvoyance' it appears to me to furnish a scientific proof. 

On November 29, Dr. Grasset laid the letter, still unopened, 
before the Academy of Sciences and Letters in Montpellier, and, 
after narrating the facts above, opened the letter in the presence 
of the members of the Academy. A committee was appointed to 
make further experiments. 



CORRESPONDENTS' CORNER. 



Emerson, Longfellow, and Kipling. 

Editor of The Literary Digest: — 

In recent numbers of The Digest mention has been made of Emerson's 
verses, "Brahma," and Longfellow's parody thereon, with a versified com- 
ment by John G. Saxe. This is interesting, but I wonder whether your 
correspondents and readers have noticed how Kipling has evidently based 
bis address by the "American Spirit," printed in "The Seven Seas," on 
Emerson's poem. I quote the first verse from memory : 

"If the led striker call it a strike 
Or the papers call it a war, 
They know not yet what I am like, 
fJor what is lie, my Avator." 

In the opinion of one of our foremost thinkers, this work of Kipling's is 
unmatched as an exposition of American national tendencies. 
Denver, Colo. George Eaves. 

Measles Three Times. 

Editor cj/The Literary Digest:— 

Referring to an article in Vol. XV., No. 34, of The LITERARY Digest on 
"Immunity from Infection," I state what occurred in our family. At the 
birth of our voungest daughter the mother was suffering with measles. 
One week after birth the baby had measles. A few years after when 
measles were prevalent in our neighborhood she again had a clearly defined 
attack of the same disease, of usual severity. Several years after the same 
disease recurred with her, but in a mild form. Of course, never having 
heard of such recurrences we considered it wonderful. Your article en- 
lightens us. E. A. B. 



Vol. XVI., No. 1] 

BUSINESS SITUATION. 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



a? 



The trade reports for the week ending Decem- 
ber 25 show an encouraging holiday business, the 
retail trade being particularly active. The move- 
ment in prices is an upward one. Speculation at 
Chicago is the feature in the wheat market. Com- 
mercial failures remain about normal. The stock 
market is erratic within narrow li:nits ; railway 
earnings maintain a high level ; the bond market 
is strong, the traction and coal stocks furnishing 
the bullish features of the market. 

Encouraging Heavy Holiday Trade.— " Quiet- 
ness in wholesale lines, but pronounced and nota- 
ble activity in retail trade, have been the salient 
features in this week's trade situation. Price 
changes, which are numerous, are largely in an 
upward direction, and the year draws to a close 
with results as a whole fully equaling, and in 
many instances surpassing, early expectations. 
Perhaps the most notable featur* has been the 
unanimity with which the trade reports from all 
parts of the country, with some few exceptions, 
point to a very heavy holiday trade, in nearly all 
cases coiuparing favorably with recent preceding 
years. Reports are that stocks of these goods 
have been heavily reduced. Particularly promi- 
nent in reporting a good retail trade in the West 
are Chicago, St. Louis, and Kansas City. At the 
South New Orleans reports retailers reaping a 
harvest and December trade larger than usual. 
Similarly good reports come from Nashville, 
Savannah, and Memphis, but collections and busi- 
ness would be larger were it not for the low price 
of cotton. 

" In the Northwest colder weather has improved 
the demand for seasonable goods, and this com- 
bined with the usual holiday business has resulted 
in a good total trade, with specially good reports 
from Milwaukee, St. Paul, and Omaha. At the 
East 'seasonable conditions prevail, wholesale 
trade being quiet and holiday business active. 
Jewelry salesmen have sold their samples more 
generally this year than is usual. No improve- 
ment is noted in the cotton-goods situation, and 
wages reductions seem imminent. A good busi- 
ness has been done in boots and shoes, and ship- 
ments are far ahead of last year. Pacific-coast 
retail trade is active, and Klondike boomers are 
gathering in the cities of Washington and Oregon. 




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Readers of The Litera 




As above intimated, the price situation is a favor- 
able one. Two decreases, one in lead and the 
other in Southern pig-iron, holders of which are 
more willing to do business at concessions, are to 
be noted against gains in value on the part of 
wheat, corn, oats, lard, coffee, molasses, cotton, 
and last but not least, Bessemer pig-iron and steel 
billets, which are in active demand in the central 
West. The unchanged list includes flour, pork, 
beef, sugar, print-cloths, copper, and ■wool." — Brad- 
street's, December sj. 

Features of the Season. — "The weekly reports 
show a rerr^arkably large holiday trade, at many 
points the largest for five years. Moreover, at the 
season when wholesale business usually shrinks, 
the pressure of demands for immediate deliveries, 
which results from unprecedented distribution 
to consumers, keeps many establishments at work 
that usually begin their yearly resting-spell some- 
what earlier. Instead of decreasing, the demand 
for products shows an unexpected increase in sev- 
eral important branches. Foreign trade continues 
satisfactory, even in comparison with the remark- 
able record of a year ago when exports exceeded 
$117,000,000 in December. At New York the move- 
ment in three weeks has been not $2,000,000, or 7 
per cent, smaller, while from cotton and Pacific 
ports it has been larger this year. Imports [at 
New York, over $i,qoo,ooo less than last year, indi- 
cate an excess of exports approaching $60,000,000 
for the month. Foreign exchange has broken, 
and gold imports begin again with $1,000,000. 
Government revenues increase, for the month 
thus far exceeding those of October or November 
by more than $2,000,000. Bank failures at Phila- 
delphia, due to individual operations, cause no 
disturbance, and commercial failures for the 
month have been less than half last year's to the 
same date." — Dun's Review, December zj. 

The V^heat Situation. — "The outgoing flood of 
grain is not checked by Chicago speculation, the 
more corn than wheat has been moving. Wheat 
e.xports, flour included, have been 3,698,321 bushels 
for the week, against 3,568.805 the previous week, 
and 1,546,443 a year ago, and in four weeks 15,766,- 
8g5 bushels against 9,039.587 last year, while corn 
exports for the week, 4,540,828 bushels against 
1.751,740 last year, have been in four weeks 14,420,- 
151 against 8,176,073 last year. Last year's com 
RY Digest are asked to mention the pubhcation when 



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Good News for Asthma Sufferers. 

We are glad to announce that the Kola Plant, 
recently discovered on the Kongo River, West 
Africa, has proved itself a sure cure for Asthma, 
as claimed at the time. We have the testimony 
of ministers of the gospel, doctors, business 
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curative p)ower of this new discovery. Hon. 
L. G. Clute, of Greeley, Iowa, writes that he 
could not lie down night or day from Asthma, 
and the Kola Plant cured him at once. Rev. G. 
Ellsworth Stump, pastor of the Congregational 
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Asthma of twenty years' standing, and many 
others give similar testimony. To prove to you 
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Kola Importing Company, No. 1164 Broadway, 
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Literary Digest who suffers from any form 
of Asthma. In return they only ask that you 
tell your neighbors of it when cured yourself. 
This is very fair, and we advise all sufferers 
from Asthma to send for the case. It costs you 
nothing. 

writing to advertisers. 



28 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



movement was by far the greatest ever known, 
and this year's wheat movement for the half year 
nearly ended has been close to the maximum 
reached in 1891. Wheat has varied little, closing 
three cents higher for the week, after deliveries 
of surprising magnitude at Chicago, and corn 
closes nearly a cent higher. Cotton has also been 
moving largely, and has risen a sixteenth."— 
Dun's Review. December 25. 

Proof that the unsettled condition of the wheat 
situation affects the export business in that cereal 
is furnished by the figures of shipments this week 
from both coasts of the United States and Canada 
The total exports reported to Bradstreefs aggre- 
gate (flour as wheat) 4,757,559 bushels, as against 
4,604,000 bushels last week and 6,266,000 bushels two 
weeks ago. They also compare with exports of 
2,111,000 bushels in this week last year, 3,457,000 
bushels in 1895, and 1,814 bushels in 1894. Indian- 
corn exports for the week are 4,879,011 bushels, 
against 4,129,878 bushels last week, 2,468,000 this 
week a year ago, 1,839,000 bushels in 1895."— ^raa'- 
street's. December 2f. 

Cotton and Wool.— "Cotton goods have further 
declined in prices of bleached which meet active 
Southern competition, and the Fall River spinners 
insist upon a reduction of one-ninth in wages, 
other New England mills joining. Out of loi New 
Kngland works 45 have passed dividends, 14 at 
Fall River, with 15 others paying i per cent, for 
the last quarter. The fall in the price of cotton, 
when mills were holding heavy stocks of goods, 
placed this industry in a most embarrassing posi- 
tion. Woolen mills have begun buying domestic 
wool heavily, especially Montana and Territory, 
as if assured of large business for the season about 
to open. Contracts of unknown magnitude have 
been made, it is said, many at previous prices, but 
others at a moderate advance. Wool is more firm, 
traders having disposed of 3,300,000 lbs. territory 
and 1,500,000 other domestic at Boston, and sales at 
three cities reached 7,809,100 lbs. — "Dun's Review, 
December pj. 

Canadian Improvement. — "Improved weather 
conditions in Canada have exercised a beneficial 
effect upon general distributive trade. Good roads 
and a cheerful outlook are reported from Montreal, 

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and an active grain movement is reported from 
Toronto, with predictions of a good business for 
the opening months of 1898. Seasonable trade is 
better at Halifax, but wholesale business is not up 
to expectations. Snow is wanted in New Bruns- 
wick to help lumbering operations. Salmon can- 
ning promises to become a feature of Prince 
Edward Island trade next year. Bank clearings 
for the Dominion of Canada this week amount to 
$24,993,000, which is a decrease of 6 per cent, from 
that of last week, but an increase of 10. 8 per cent, 
over the same week of i8g6. There are 30 business 
failures reported in the Dominion this week, 
against 43 last week [Dun's Review, 33 to 44 last 
year]. — Bradstreefs, December 2f. 



Current Events. 



Monday, December zo. 

Commissioners on Bering: Sea damage claims 

complete their work. . . . The Supreme Court 
of the United States postpones the joint trafiic 
case to February 21. . . . Fall River manufac- 
turers and operatives confer on proposed reduc- 
tions. . . . The Travelers Insurance Com- 
pany withdraws its business from Kansas. . . . 
Judge Charles Daniels, of Buffalo, dies. . . . 
Pension Commissioner Evans testifies before a 
Senate investigating committee. 

The French Chamber of Deputies passes a bill 
increasing the duties on hoes and hog prod- 
ucts. . . . The London Pall Mall Gazette says 
that the partition of the Chinese coast, which is 
bound to come, will not be confined to Russia 
and Germany : that every naval power, inclu- 
ding the United States, is concerned. 

Tuesday, December zr. 

The Cabinet discusses the civil-service law. 
. . . Josiah <Jiiinoy is reelected mayor of Bos- 
ton. . . . Fall Klver mill-owners reject the 
propositions regarding a shut-down. . . . Miss 
Leila Herbert, second daughter of ex-Secre- 
tary of the Navy Herbert, commits suicide in 
Washington. . . . The Illinois Republican cau- 
cus indorses an apportionment bill. . . . Judge 
Lochran, United States court, St, Paul, decides 
that the Minnesota law requiring oleomarga- 
rln to be colored pink is constitutional. 

It is reported that the United States steamer 
Bancroft was flred on when entering the port of 
Smyrna, on the night of December 4, contrary to 



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Vol. XVI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



29 



regulations ; an apology has been made by Tur- 
key. ... A German-Chinese commission on 

boundaries of the occupied district of Kiao-Chou 
is reported ; the Cologne Gazette reiterates its 
statement that the Russian occupation of Port 
Arthur is a sequel to the visit of the British 
war-ship Daphne to that port. ... At a meeting 
of the Conservative party in Havana autonomy 
is opposed, and a message sent to Weyler in- 
dorsing his policy. ... A son of the late Dr. 
Helmbold, of New York, is arrested in London 
for threatening to kill Consul-General Osborne. 

IVednesday, December 22. 

The Canadian Government receives the award 
of arbitrators on the claims of Bering Sea seal- 
ers against the United States Government, 
amounting to $464,000. . . . The supreme court of 
Illinois decides that all Chicago officials, except 
for four departments, are amenable to the civil 
service law. . . . Details of the killing of two 
American sailors in Japan are received at the 
State Department. . . . A three-days' sleet storm 
in Texas causes many cattle to perish; frosts 
injure the orange and lemon crops in southern 
California. . . . The supreme court of Illinois 
decides that the jury commission la'w is consti- 
tutional. 

Russia is granted permission by the Chinese 
Government to winter a squadron at Port Ar- 
thur ; China accepts 120,000 rifles from Russia, 
and will reconstruct the forts. . . . It is suggested 
that Japan and Great Britain occupy Wei-Hai- 
Wei jointly. . . . General Weyler declares that 
if the Spanish Government persists in its policy 
of autonomy for Cuba, the island will be lost. . . . 
Reports from Havana show that Colonel Ruiz, 
who w.is sent to the insurgents and killed, 
carried no flag of truce. 



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Thursday, December 23. 

The Chestnut Street National Bank, and 

the Chestnut Street Trust and Savings Fund 
Company, Fliiladelpliia, close their doors. . . . 
The Illinois house of representatives passes the 
Republican senatorial apportionment bill. . . . 
A. S. Warner, the Albany kidnaper, is sen- 
tenced to fifteen years' imprisonment. . . . John 
Anderson is convicted at Norfolk, Va., of mur- 
dering the cook on the schooner Olive Pecker. 
. . . The Mutual Life Insurance Company of 
New York decides to withdraw business from 
Kansas. ... A heavy snow-storm prevails in 
northern and western New York. 

It is reported that a Portuguese force has 
been massacred by natives in southern Africa. 
. . . Renewed fighting takes place between 
Mussulmans and Christians in Crete. 

Friday, December z^. 

The Cabinet discusses the protective attitude 
of this Government toward the proposed parti- 
tion of China. . . . Secretary of State Sherman 
issues an appeal in behalf of Cuban sufferers. 
. . . The Interstate Commerce Commission orders 
two years extension of time within which rail- 
roads shall equip their cars with safety appli- 
ances. . . . Receivers are appointed for the 
Herriiig-Hall-BIarvin Safe and Lock Com- 
pany, in several cities, including New York. . . . 
Three Chicago aldermen are among those 
indicted as proprietors of an alleged gambling 
resort, by the grand jurj'. ... A cold wave 
sweeps over New England. . . . The Coliseum, 
Chicago, where the last Democratic national con- 
vention was held, is completely destroyed by 
fire. 

It is said that England and Japan will make 
a joint demonstra ion in Chinese waters ; quar- 
ters for ten thousand troops are being prepared 
at Port Arthur. . . . President Kruger, in a 
speech, says the Transvaal must keep Delagoa 
Bay from Cecil Rhodes. . . . The Pope issues an 
encyclical on the Manitoba school question. 

Saturday, December zj. 

About thirty persons are injured in Asheville, 
N. C, from the explosion of a can of powder, 
while a Christmas salute is being fired. . . . 
Merchants of Portland, Ore., offer to equip a 
Klondike relief expedition. . . . The plant of 
the Standard Oil Company, San Jose, Cal., is 
burned. . . . Fifteen thousand glass-workers in 
Indiana returned to work. 

Germany refuses the request of the United 

States for lower duties on animal products 

The Turks flre upon a Grecian gunboat in the 
Gulf of Ambracia. 

Sunday, December 26. 

The llritish Consul protests against the gov- 
ernment of Korea being given over to Russia. 
. . . The Japanese Diet is dissolved ; the pre- 
mier and ministers of marine resign ; the Govern- 
ment is said to have offered assistance to Chinese 
officers in drilling the army, and consented to 
postponing the payment of the war indemnity. 
. . . The Chinese Government intimates that a 
Russian loan may be preferred to placing Li-kin 
under foreign control. 



For Nervons M'omen 
Horsford's Acid Phosphate. 

Dr. J. B. Alexander, Charlotte, N. C, says: " It is 
not only pleasant to the taste, hut ranks among the best 
of nerve tonics for nervous females." 



Bronchial Asthma. 

From Dr. Hunter's Lectures on the 

Progress of Medical Science in 

Lung Diseases. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

4 L.iberty Square, cor. Water Street 

Readers of The Literary Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers 



Bronchial asthma is the chronic con- 
dition in which nervous asthma usually 
ends. As the bronchial mucous mem- 
brane becomes altered in structure by 
the repetition of the asthmatic attacks, 
it pours forth a thick and tenacious 
sputum which has all the characteristics 
of chronic bronchial disease, Avhich may 
merge into any of the forms of chronic, 
dry, or consumptive bronchitis. In 
other words, we have the same va- 
rieties of asthma that we have of bron- 
chitis. 

The treatment necessary to cure ner- 
vous and bronchial asthma must be 
applied directly to the inflamed linings 
of the bronchial tubes. AVe must act 
on the air, and through the air, which 
the patient breathes. It must be made 
the carrier of healing remedies directly 
into the sore lungs and wounded bron- 
chial tubes. 

The cure of asthma by my medicated 
air treatment is rapid and permanent. 
The spasmodic attacks are quickly ar- 
rested by it, the inflammation of the 
bronchial tubes subdued, and their 
abrasions and ulcerations healed. Im- 
mediate relief results in all purely 
nervous cases, and radical cure by per- 
severance in almost every case of bron- 
chial asthma. No other treatment 
known to medical science has ever been 
attended with such success, and it is 
not possible for me to conceive that any 
other is rational or can succeed. 

There are hundreds of thousands of 
people in this country afflicted with 
asthmatic and bronchial disease, and 
threatened with consumption because 
of it, who can be saved from that dan- 
ger and restored to health by antiseptic 
air treatment, who are surely doomed 
without it. 

Robert Hunter, M.D., 

117 West 45th Street. 



30 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 1, 1898 



CHESS. 

All communications for this Department should 

be addressed : "Chess Editor, Literary 

Digest."] 



Our New Year's Problems. 
No. 249. 

"Composed for THE Literary Digest, and Dedi- 
cated to Its Brilliant Chess-Editor and His Very 
Clever Corps of Solvers," 

By Walter Pulitzer, author of Chess Har- 
monies. 

Black — Ten Pieces. 




White— Twelve Pieces. 
White mates in two moves, 
IS i 

\ No. 250. 

Composed for The Literary Digest, and Dedi- 
cated to A. H. Robbins, St. Louis, 
Bv Dr. W. r. I. Dalton, New York City. 
Black— Seven Pieces. 




White— Eight Pieces. 
White mates in three moves. 

Solution of Problems. 

No. 243. 



Q— R6 
Kx Kt 



B X Kt 



Q— Kt 7, mate 



Q— K 2, mate 



Q X B, mate 



B-B 



B-Kt6 



Kt X Q B P, mate 



Q— K 6, mate 



Kt (Kt 2) moves 



Kt (B 7> moves 



Rx Q 



Q-Q 3. mate 



Kt X Q B P, mate 



Q— B 4, mate 



R-Kt 6 

Correct solution received from M. W. H., Uni- 
versity of Virginia; the Rev. L W. Rieber, Beth- 
lehem, Pa.; C. F. Putney, Independence, Iowa; F. 
H. Johnston, Elizabeth City, N. C. ; F. S. Fergu- 
bon, Birmingham, Ala.; H. W. Harry, Boston ; the 



Rev. H. Rembe, Desboro, Ont.; G. Patterson, Win- 
nipeg, Ont.; "Ramus," Carbondale, Pa.; C. Q. De 
France, Lincoln, Neb. ; J. M. Greer, Memphis ; Mrs. 
S. H. Wright, Tate, Ga. 

Very many of our solvers were caught by the 
two traps Herr Karstedt had set for the unwary. 
The first is Kt x K P. This won't do, because B— 
B 2 ch. The other is P x P. It is strange that one 
of our solvers found the reply to it, but, nothing 
daunted, worked out, to his satisfaction, a mate 
next move. Here is his solution (?): 



Px P 



Q X B, mate 



B-B 5 

Oh, no ! When you took the Pawn from Kt 2, 
the Black King quietly goes to B 6. 

No. 244. 

R— Kt 2 R— Kt 4 ch R X B, mate 



Thirty-Second Game. 



QxQ 



QxB 



P X R must 

Q X R ch R— Kt 4, mate 

3. 

Kx Q 



R X B, mate 



B— K4 



EitherKtxKt P x R 



PxQ 

R— K B 6 R— Kt 4, mate 

Any 

R— Kt 4 ch R X B, mate 
3- 



Kt— B 3, mate 



K-K 4 



Other variations depend on those given above. 

Correct solution received from M. W. H., the 
Rev. I. W. Bieber, C. F. Putney, F. S. Ferguson, 
H. W. Barry, J. M. Greer, Mrs. S. H. Wright, F. 
H. Johnston; W. G. Donnan, Independence, Iowa ; 
J. G. O'Callaghan, Low Moor, Va.; J. C. Eppers, 
Canal Dover, Ohio. 

Comments: "A fine, intricate problem"— M. W. 
H. "A splendid capstone by the captain of 400" — 
I. W. B. "As near my idea of a perfect problem 
as anything I ever saw"— C. F. P. "Superb ! charm- 
ing ! not a flaw in it"— F. S. F. "It is by far the 
best the Doctor has given us "— F. H. J. "A fine 
study in Chess"— W. G. D. 

The reason that so few persons got this problem 
is that Dr. Dalton left a great big hole at R 3 into 
which the large majority of our solvers fell. R— R 
3 is answered by Kt (R 4) x Kt. 

W. R. Coumbe, Lakeland, Fla., and C. A. F., 
Omro, Wis., were successful with 241. J. C. Ep- 
pers, F. C. Jordan, Marietta, Ohio, and C. E. Hol- 
brook, Watertown, N. Y., got 242. 

The Correspondence Tourney. 

Thirty-First Game. 
Ruy Lopez. 



J. B. TROW- 
BRIDGE, 

Hayward,Wis 
White. 

1 P-K4 

2 Kt-K B 3 
SB-Kts 

4 Castles 

SP-Q4 
6 B X Kt 
7P xP 
8 R— K sq 

9Q-Q3 

10 P X P e.p. 

11 Kt-Q 4 



F. B. OSGOOD, 

North Con- 
. way, N. H. 

black. 
P-K4 
Kt-Q B 3 
Kt— B3 
Kt X P 
Kt-Q 3 
Kt Px B 
Kt— B 4 (a) 
B— K 2 
P-Q4 
P X P (b) 
Kt X Kt 



J. B. TROW 
BRIDGE. 

White. 
12 Qx Kt 

:3Q-K4 

14 B— Kt 5 

15 B X B 

16 Q X B P 

17 Kt— B 3 

18 Q-R 6 
iQ Q^B sq 

20 P— B 4 

21 Kt X P 

22 K— R sq 



- F. B. OSGOOD. 

Black. 
Castles (c) 
R-K sq 
B— K 3 
QxB 
P-Q 4 (d) 
Q-Kt4 
B— R6 
P-B 4 (e) 
Q-Kt5 (0 
R— K 5 
Resigns. 



Notes by One of the Judges. 

(a) The Kt is badly placed at B 4. It accom- 
plishes nothing, and is, in fact, out of play for 
several moves. The better play is Kt — Kt 2. 

(b) Black is already in trouble. If the Kt were 
posted at Kt 2 he could come out with an equal 
game. 

(c) Things look a little dangerous, so Black runs 
to cover, but he loses a P in doing so. It strikes 
us that B— K 3 would neutralize the attack and 
save the P. 

(d) An attempt to cut off the Q, but it doesn't 
work. Takes too many chances. The move is 
good enough, if there is" none better, but it looks 
to us like a sort of a cart-before-the-horse jnove. 
^ — Q ^^ should go first. 

fe) The giving up of Q P is of the nature of sui- 
cide. That P is not only of value as a piece, but, 
if it can be maintained, it holds a strong defensive 
position. 

(f) After this, further comment unnecessary. He 
loses a piece, and, very sensibly, resigns. 



H. ketcham, 

Vergennes,Vt, 

White. 

1 P-K4 

2 Kt-K B 3 

3 B-B 4 

4 Kt— B 3 

5 P-Q 3 (b) 

6 P— K R 3 

7 B— KKt5 

8 Kt-Q s 

9 B X B 

10 BxKtP(c) 



J. M. LEW, 

Baltimore. 
Black. 
P— K 4 
Kt-Q B 3 
B-B4 

P-Q 3 (a) 
Kt— B3 
Castles 
B— K 3 
Bx Kt 
Kt-Q 5 
R— Kt sq 



H. KETCHAM. 

White. 

I1B-Q5 

12 B-Kt 3 

13 Q X Kt 

14 Castles 

15 B X Kt 

16 R— B sq 

17 P-Q R 4 

18 Q— H 5 

19 Q-Kt 4 ch 



J. M. LEW. 

Black. 
R X P (d) 
Kt X Kt (e) 

B-Qs 

P— K R 3. 
Px B 
P-QR4 
B-B 6 
K— Kt2 
Game aban- 
doned. 



Notes by One of the Judges. 

(a) Kt — B 3 should have been played. 

fb) Did not take advantage of Black's 4th. B— 
Kt 5 would resolve this into a Ruy Lopez, with 
White having the best of it. 

(c) White jeopardizes his game for a P. 

(d) And the R gets bottled up the next move. 

(e) No further comments necessary. Black has 
a bad game. 

The following table shows the standing of the 
players up to date : 

Won. Lost. Draws. 

Lemon 3 2 

Jones 2 

Smith 2 

Quintaiia i i 

Raymond 2 i i 

Bullard 2 2 

Humpert 2 i 

Van de Grift i 

A. Taylor i 

Wiggers i 

Temple i 

Brent i 

Mockett I 

Bond I 

Patterson i 

Osgood I 

Hitchcock I 

Gordon i 

De Arman i 

Ketcham 2 

Escott I 

Ultimo I 

More I 

Hald I 

Knief i 

Royce 

Hazeltine 

Fannin 

Younkins 

Van Agnew i 

Butzell a- 

Munford ? 

A. R. Taylor 3; 

Levy s 

Love and Chess. 

By Walter Pulitzer. 

From The American Chess Magazine.^ 

I. 

Come, glance o'er my shoulder with me,. 

As on the night silently steals. 
And take in the charm of this scene, 

Which the mystic fire-glow reveals.. 

II. 

The dearest of fair, dimpled maids. 

Ensconced in a chair a l^ Antique : 
A table that stands just in front ; 

A lover this side that can speak. 

III. 

Yet, now he speaks not — while his love 
Doth play with the folds of her dress.. 

The cause of this strange state of things?- 
They're playing together at Chess ! 

IV. 

Yes, grave is his strong, handsome face, 

But she — with a rose in her hair- 
Is pouting and fretting and shows 
* Quite a pretty, indiff'rent air ! 



Ah ! weighty the battle he fights. 
Or "battles" I rather should say : 

The conquest of love — which is life ; 

The clash of these crowns=-which is play.. 

VI. 

"You feel not much interest ?" he asks, 
While idly she moves with her Rook, 
Which causes a blush, and "Perhaps," 
She sighs, as she gives him a look ! 

V,II. 

He muses— and then exclaims "Check ! " 

"Oh ! dear," she says, "what have I done? 
And then he peers into her eyes 

That are love-lit, and asks ; "Have I won? 

VIIL 

"My monarch is lost," murmurs she, 

As sweetly she hangs her fair head ; 
He catches her hand— whispers low : 
"Then let me your King be instead ?" 

Come, glance o'er my shoulder with me. 

As on the night silently steals, 
And sip of the bliss of this scene. 

Which the mystic fire-glow reveals! 



The Literary Digest 



Vol. XVL, No. 2 



New York, January 8, 1898. 



Whole Number, 403 



Published Weekly by 

Funk & Wagnalls Company, 
30 Lafayette Place, New York. 44 Fleet Street, London 

Entered at New York Post-Offlce as Second-Class Matter. 



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Correction: The interview on the partition of China credited by the 
press and THE Literary Digest last week to Minister Denby should have 
been credited to Mr. Denby's son, who bears his father's name and has 
been a secretary of the American Legation at Pekin.— Editor of THE LIT- 
ERARY Digest. 



TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



AMERICAN INTERESTS IN CHINA. 

THE idea that the apparent scramble among European powers 
for pieces of the Chinese Empire has in it something more 
than trade competition, seems to be gaining ground in the Amer- 
ican press. A number of important journals profess to find in the 
developments in the far East a conscious or an instinctive move 
of all Europe against all America, in competition for the markets 
of the world. American interests in Asia are held to be, under 
the Monroe doctrine, not political, but commercial. In accord- 
ance with this view, it is announced that the Administration, hav- 
ing considered the situation, will confine itself strictly to protec- 
tion of American interests already existing under treaties with 
China. What do these interests amount to? 

The most exhaustive review of our interests, present and pros- 
pective, at hand, comes from the New York Journal 0/ Com- 
merce, which discovers considerable commercial anxiety in this 
country over recent developments across the Pacific. It is as- 
serted that the number of Americans in business in China is not 
more than eight hundred, altho some of them are important in- 
vestors. The present Chinese tariff is a low one, and the Imperial 
Government has been trying to obtain consent from the treaty 
powers to increase it. If assertion of European sovereignty on 
Chinese soil should result in an effort to enforce higher tariff 
rates, restrict American rights in the treaty ports, or change coin- 
age, prompt protest by this Government might be expected 
against the discrimination. Quoting one authority on trade with 
China, The Journal says that people are beginning to recognize 



the fact that statistics do not give a correct idea of the extent of 
our trade with Eastern Asia, because nearly half of it is credited 
to England and Hongkong. At present we are free to compete 
in China on even terms with other trading nations, and the amount 
of trade depends on commercial enterprise and activity. But 
the erection of artificial barriers there would be a serious matter 
to us. 

Our trade with China, it should be said, is smaller than it was 
twenty years ago, perhaps owing to our legislation against Chinese 
immigration. Furthermore, the great discrepancy in figures 
quoted by different reliable journals indicates that accurate 
knowledge of the real amount of our trade with China is not read- 
ily available. Estimates run from sixteen to sixty millions of 
dollars per year ; it is evident that considerable confusion in sta- 
tistics exists by reason of accrediting shipments to the flags under 
which merchandise carriers sail — part of our trade with Japan 
seems to have been included in estimates of our "Asiatic trade" 
which are current. 

The Journal oj Commerce, however, takes up the general 
aspects of the situation from the viewpoint of the changing rela- 
tions of this country to the world's commerce: "With our agri- 
cultural interest relatively stationary and an increase of one and 
one-half millions yearly in our population, our mining and man- 
ufacturing industries are inevitably drifting rapidly toward a vast 
expansion ; in no other direction can we find employment for our 
teeming new population." Probably "fifteen years hence, there 
will be no nation, possibly no two nations, that will have an ex- 
tent of population dependent upon the manufacturing industries 
equal to that of the LTnited States." We have the capital, skill, 
raw materials, educated labor, cheap transportation, and natural 
advantages to make us the foremost industrial nation of the 
world. 

" In view of these tendencies, it becomes a matter of the utmost 
importance to this country that certain of the European powers 
are simultaneously preparing to force the gates by which China 
has shut out commerce from her four hundred millions of people. 
If we can gain access to that vast source of consumption, the seri- 
ous problem where can we find markets for our prospective sur- 
plus of manufacture? — would be in no small measure solved. 
But, for that very reason, it behooves us to see to it promptly 
that, by no act of omission or commission of ours, we become 




NOW, ALL together V'—From The Republican, Denver. 



32 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



parties to the mere transfer of the key to China to a powerful 
monopoly that is already jealous of our competitive prowess, and 
from which we should have nothing to expect but much to fear. 
No one doubts that the seizure of Kiao-Chou by Germany and of 
Port Arthur by Russia means an attempt at the acquisition of the 
future exclusive control over the trade and territory of the Celes- 
tial Empire. Russia's protest against England occupying Wei- 
Hai-Wei means precisely that. There is much reason to suspect 
that the two emperors are acting in concert upon a previously 
well-considered understanding. Whether France or any other 
power is in the concert, is not yet evident. But it may safely be 
taken for granted that a scheme concocted by the two most abso- 
lute and unscrupulous of the world's monarchswill show the least 
possible consideration for nations outside their program. What 
is the real attitude of Russia and Germany toward the United 
States admits of no doubt in the face of Count Goluchowski's 
almost belligerent threat against America, uttered undoubtedly 
under Russian inspiration, and also in view of like sentiments 
openly avowed by German statesmen. At every point our lead- 
ing industries stand in direct conflict with the Czar's schemes of 
development in Siberia as well as in the more central provinces 
of his empire. We, more even than Great Britain, seem to be 
regarded by Nicholas II. and Emperor William as the future 
competitors of their industries ; and this fact is the more impor- 
tant because it is based upon solid economic reasons 

"We can have neither interest nor sympathy in such a scheme 
as the emperors have undertaken. The forcing of commerce by 
the sword ; the taxing of commerce for military establishments 
and expeditions ; the exclusion of trade competition from the 
points occupied or controlled ; the enforcement of preferential 
tariffs as a means of getting their own goods into China; the 
encouragement of railroad construction under which the traders 
of the invading powers will enjoy special privileges; and the oc- 
cupation of strategic positions which will disable competing 
nations from protecting their respective interests or their already 
acquired treaty rights — these are things to be expected as a mat- 
ter of course from such an invasion, from such invaders and for 
such ends as they may be fairly expected to contemplate. For 
such a scheme, the people of the United States can have no toler- 
ance. When they come to distinctly comprehend it, they are not 
likely to lose much time in putting themselves on effective guard 
against it." 

The Journal says that neither a share of the territory nor tra- 
ditional friendship with any of the conquering powers should de- 
termine our attitude : 

"Our true position, for the moment, is that of vigilant watch- 
fulness, lest our future access to the markets of China be unjustly 
obstructed. A clear and positive affirmation must be made of our 
equal rights with every other nation to the commerce of that vast 
population. Judicious encouragement should be given to what- 
ever offers of cooperation may be made by other nations who may 
desire to broaden their relations with China upon a fair and 
pacific basis — and there are more governments than one so dis- 
posed. Especially should such relations be cultivated with Japan ; 
and with the power that is our nearest of kin in blood, liberty, 
commerce, and civilization. These events conclusively silence 
the objections that have hitherto been well taken against con- 
necting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans and annexing Hawaii. 
Both achievements have now become inevitable ; the only ques- 
tion being as to whether Panama or Nicaragua would be the 
better route for a canal. In the presence of such possibilities as 
now threaten our Asiatic trade, there should also be no needless 
delay in making a further material increase of our navy. All 
this preparedness is the more necessary because such an attitude 
would hold the military powers in check and probably prevent a 
great and beneficent expansion of commerce from becoming the 
occasion of a destructive war." 

If Treaty Rights be Involved. — "There is nothing in the pres- 
ent situation to warrant the United States in greatly strengthen- 
ing its Asiatic squadrons. Its only interest at present, as it has 
been in the past, is in seeing thaf .^merican property rights are 
protected as against possible int«Tn.a.)r trouble with China. Even 
should Russia permanently occupy Port Arthur, and Germany 
remain at Kiao-Chou, this country would not feel called upon to 
protest against such occupation, or demand for itself compensa- 
ting advantages in the way of a naval station. The interests of 



the United States, beyond those which it now has, would force 
themselves upon Congress for consideration only in case of a par- 
tition of China affecting the treaty rights which the United States 
has at more than twenty ports in that country. 

"An eminent authority on international affairs said to-day 
[December 29] that a situation might develop when the United 
States would be called upon to go much farther than protect 
American interests at the treaty ports. This situation would 
come if the scramble for Chinese territory went to the extent of 
the extinction of China and the complete absorption of the old 
empire by foreign nations. Such was the apparent drift of the 
present movement, and if it became a reality then a condition 
would arise similar to the extermination of Poland. Poland had 
established a precedent in international affairs, said the gentle- 
man alluded to, and, following that precedent, if China was to 
be absorbed, then it was a question of which the United States, in 
common with all the nations of the world, must take cognizance. 
Until this final movement occurred, however, it was plain that 
the United States had no interest in the fencing of European 
nations and Japan for coaling-stations and ports on the Asiatic 
coast." — Maj.J. M. Carson, Washington Corrrespondent of 
The Ledger, Philadelphia. 

Diplomacy and Events. — "The [reported] advances made by 
the British Government to our own on this subject [of joint 
action] constitute an illustration of the development of the influ- 
ence of institutions on diplomacy, which events will not permit 
this country to ignore much longer. In the Eastern question, 
the powers were separated into two groups by the influence of 
their own domestic political institutions. The powers absolutist 
and those approximating absolutism, Russia, Germany, and 
Austria, were in one group, with France dependent, more or less, 
by reason of its alliance with Russia; while the other group was 
made up of England and Italy. Occasionally both France and 
Austria drifted toward the second group, and it must be said of 
them that, while they went with Russia and Germany, they did 
not go either so far or so fast as the Czar and the Kaiser desired. 

"We see a similar reflection of governmental ideas in the devel- 
opments in the far East. On the continent of Europe, too, there 
is a manifest lining up of the absolutist and quasi-absolutist 
powers against the United States. In Germany and Austria there 
is more or less talk in high official circles about concerted action 
against the United States to stand off its industrial competition. 
From an industrial compact to a political compact would be but a 
step, and with such an absolutist as the Kaiser on the throne of 
Germany, whose dislike of our institutions is scarcely less dis- 
guised than his hatred of England, the advance would always 
be threatening 

"Our policy should be a frank and friendly understanding with 
England, as a power that is naturally in racial and political sym- 
pathy with us. That understanding may come more quickly than 
most people realize, for events are no respecters of precedents 
or personalities." — The Transcript {Ind. Rep.), Boston. 

America Can Beat Competitors. — "If, as seems to be written 
in the book of national fate, the Celestial but unprogressive em- 
pire is to be opened up to civilization, gridironed with railroads, 
and made a great center of modern industry and progress, we will 
take a hand in the struggle for commercial supremacy with great 
pleasure, and with every prospect of success. We can meet this 
sort of competition without difficulty if we will properly utilize 
our natural resources and advantages. A few months ago an 
American firm underbid all competitors, and furnished the ma- 
terial for a railway in India, and it can repeat this performance 
indefinitely in China and every other quarter of the world. 
American-made machinery and inventions, as well as American 
agricultural products, are finding a wider market every year, and 
when our European friends have obligingly developed a new 
commercial field in China, American enterprise will be on hand 
there, too. We are building several war-ships for Japan just now, 
and we will be happy to build any other vessels that may be 
needed by foreign powers. . . . Let Europeans delight to bark 
and bite, for it is their misfortune to be obliged to do so, or, at 
least, they labor under that impression. But our mission is that 
of peaceful development, and if they must quarrel, we should see 
to it that we piously refrain from wicked war and devote our 
energies to obtaining a full share of the trade and commerce 
created by new conditions in the East and elsewhere. Of course. 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



.33 



if American interests or American citizens are threatened by com- 
plications in the East, this country will know how to protect 
them and maintain its own dignity." — The Suti {Ind.), Balti- 
more. 

Non-interference. — "The Japs wanted us to help them at a 
pinch, but we kept out. China begged our help, but we remained 
neutral. The result is that we have the highest confidence of 
both nations, and our good counsel is listened to as that of no 
other nation. Other nations resort to compulsion, while we rely 
on friendship and fair dealing. We have good-will where others 
have enmity. Our trade goes by favor where that of others goes 
by force. What do we care who owns China ? They are all one 
as friendly as another and we shall gain nothing by taking sides. 
What we might get on one side, we should lose on the other. 
Our reliance must be ever on fair dealing, good products, and 
reasonable prices. With these we have nothing to fear, but all to 
gain. 

" But the general foreign policy of the nation has been modified 
in one direction. Monroe announced the amendment embodying 
the doctrine called by his name, tho originated in England and 
formulated by Jefferson, that as to the territory of this Continent 
it is for our interest that there be permitted no more colonization 
or territorial appropriation by European governments. Our in- 
terference in foreign affairs goes no further than that. As to the 
rest of the world, they can fight it out as they please ; we are 
content. How it would tickle those old codgers, the crowned 
heads of Europe, if they could break through these two rules 
governing our policy and embroil us in wars on their shores ! 
How they would like to pounce upon us, if we would only give 
them a chancel" — The Journal {Rep.), Kansas City. 

"Great Britain is the foremost customer of the United States, 
and anything that affects her prosperity must affect ours. Any- 
thing that interferes w'ith her commerce or her foreign influence 
endangers American welfare, because it endangers the resources 
of a patron of American institutions. This country can look with 
confidence upon English loss of trade only on one condition, and 
that is that we get it ourselves. Russia is destined to be a for- 
midable rival of the United States. Russia is the only other 
nation on the globe capable of sustaining herself and supplying 
other nations from her resources. Our commerce with Russia 
can not be great, as it is with England, for Russia is a creator, 
not a buyer or trader. There is but one course open. If Great 
Britain is to lose her prestige to any extent, her place in the com- 
mercial world must be appropriated by the American, who from 
his situation, with his seaports on both oceans, can whiten the 
seas with his sails and fill every market with his products of mine, 
mill, and farm."— T^^ Times {Rep.), Pittsburg. 

"Our ships will look to it that American citizens are not inter- 
fered with, and we will probably refuse to recognize British, 
■German, or Russian occupation of Chinese territory for a long 
time after such occupation is an accomplished fact ; but beyond 
that we will do nothing. The attention of our legislators is too 
absorbed in scheming for the liberation of Cuba, for the annexa- 
tion of Hawaii, to care anything about the dismemberment of 
•China, altho the dividing up of that vast region by the powers of 
Europe means that our trade with that far East will soon be at an 
end. France has set the example in Madagascar, which will be 
followed in China, and when Russia, Germ.any, France, and 
England have annexed all the territory of that effete empire, 
American goods will be refused admission by a system of pro- 
hibitive tariffs." — The Picayune {Dem.), New Orleans. 

"The time has passed when we could boast of having no for- 
eign policy. While the national land-grabbers are abroad and 
the great powers of Europe use their strength to bulldoze the 
weaker nations, and political and commercial schemes are unfold- 
ing on such a gigantic scale, the United States is bound to have 
a foreign policy. She must be heard on many of the questions 
daily arising, and she has interests that Europe can not despise. 
The importance of the Panama or Nicaragua canal, which will 
add almost beyond calculation to the activity in the Pacific 
Ocean, becomes apparent at once, and the reasons for European 
interest in the construction and control of such a waterway from 
the Atlantic to the Pacific are evident. The Hawaiian question 
also assumes new interest, and is lifted to greater importance by 
these sudden developments in the East. We are bound to have 
distinctively American policies in both these matters, and are 
hound to vigilant observation of events in the farther East." — 
The Commercial Advertiser (Rep.), New York. 



STATISTICS CONCERNING BANK FAILURES. 

T X all the financial discussion of recent years little information 
*■ of value concerning failures of banks has been forthcoming. 
From a study of recent reports by Controller Eckels, the Chicago 
Record hr\n%s, out the important fact that savings-banks lead all 
the rest in the percentage of failures. The losses from bank fail- 
ures up to 1896 and 1897 had been largely a matter of conjecture, 
figures having been obtained only from the national banks. 
Controller Eckels, however, made use of the fifty-eight national 
bank examiners for collecting some information about state banks 
and trust companies, savings-banks and private banks and bankers. 
Comparisons indicate that the institutions under national super- 
vision are much safer places of deposit than the state and private 
banks, as is shown by the following tables from Controller 
Eckels 's report : 

No. in existence Failures. 

Class. Oct. 31, 1896. No. Per ct. 

National banks 5,679 27 .73 

State banks and trust companies. . . 4.944 59 i 01 

Savings-banks 764 9 ,18 

Private banks 3,552 42 nS 

Totals 12,939 137 1.06 

No. of banks in 

existence Failures. 

Class. July i, 1897. No. Per ct. 

National banks 3,619 38 1.05 

State banks and trust companies. .. 4,099 56 1.36 

Savings-banks 1,273 19 1.40 

Private banks and bankers 3,826 47 1.23 

Totals 12,817 160 1.25 

The Record says that the figures as to the percentage of failures 
do not tell the whole story about them : 

"Since 1863 330 national banks, or about t>% per cent, of all 
created, have failed. The average percentage of dividends paid 
to creditors of national banks whose affairs are entirely closed is 
about 75 per cent. The reports of state banks failed since 1S63. 
so far as information concerning them could be secured by the 
controller, show that 192 such insolvent banks paid dividends to 
creditors of less than 25 per cent. ; 203 paid 25 per cent, and over, 
but less than 50 per cent. ; 184 paid 50 per cent, and over, but less 
than 75 per cent. ; 128 paid 75 per cent, and over, but less than 
100 per cent., and 158 banks paid loo per cent. While the aver- 
age dividend payment of insolvent national banks, therefore, was 
75 per cent., nearly as many insolvent state banks paid less than 
50 per cent, dividends as paid that amount or over. The dividend 
payments of insolvent private banking institutions are smaller 
yet, but the figures can not be given with accuracy. In many 
such cases the creditors have received nothing whatever. Not 
only, therefore, are there fewer failures of national banks than of 
other banking institutions, but the percentage of loss to creditors 
is smaller in the case of national-bank failures than in the case of 
insolvency of state or private banks. " 

Reviewing the incomplete figures that have been obtained con- 
cerning failures of national banks since they were first established. 
The Record finds a basis for estimating the losses from failures 
of banks of all kinds : 

"Of the 330 national banks that have failed since the beginning 
of the system the accounts of 142 had been closed on October 31, 
1896, for which the controller of the currency gives the following 
figures : 

"Total claims proved, $41,593,669; total dividends paid, $30,- 
933,694; total losses, $10,659,969. At the same ratio the total 
losses for the entire 330 national banks failed between 1863 and 
i8g6 probably would approximate $25,000,000. 

"It is diflticult to estimate what may have been the losses from 
failures of other than national banks for the same period, but the 
amount very greatly exceeds the losses by national-bank failures. 
For the year closed August 31, 1896, there were failures of no 
state banks and trust companies, savings-banks and private 
banks, with assets of $7,447,546 and liabilities of $9, 174. 102. On 
the face of the figures this statement shows a loss for the single 
year of nearly $2,000,000, which in reality will be greater, as the 
assets probably will shrink before final settlement is made. For 
the panic year of 1893 the number of failures reported to the con- 
troller was 261 banks with nominal assets of $54,828,690. and lia- 



34 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



bilities of $46,766,818, upon which dividends had been paid in 

1S96 to the amount of $17,912,270 

"In his report for 1896 Controller Eckels publishes figures giv- 
ing failures as reported to him for the years 1864-96, of which the 
totals are as follows : Number of failures, 1,234; nominal assets, 
$214,312,190; liabilities, $'220,629,988, dividends paid at time of 
making reports, $100,088,726. It is probably fair to estimate that 
when the accounts of such of these failed banks as are still open 
are finally closed the diflference between liabilities and dividends 
paid will still be $100,000,000. This represents the losses from 
failures from 1S63 to 1896 of banks other than national of which 
the controller has been able to secure definite information, but 
necessarily the figures are far from complete." 

These statistics are used by The Record to sustain its advocacy 
of postal savings-banks : 

"The percentage of failures of national banks, which for the 
most part are for the exclusive use of the larger depositors, is 
seen to be considerably smaller than for any other class. The 
percentage of failures is highest for savings and private banks, 
the class of institutions with which persons of small means are 
most likely to come in contact. These figures, therefore, give 
direct force to the statement commonly heard that the Govern- 
ment does more for the rich than it does for the poor. In a meas- 
ure it throws the mantle of paternalism over the large deposits of 
the wealthy and leaves the poor to safeguard their own scanty 
savings as best they can 

"It is inevitable that there should be some bank failures. But 
every consideration of prudence and statesmanship demands the 
strictest government supervision in order to make the losses from 
such failures as small as possible. For the savings of the poor 
the Government should make provision for absolute safety by 
establishing postal banks. The small depositor is entitled to 
better protection than the record of failures shows he has received 
during the last thirty years. " 



PENSION PAYMENTS. 

ACCORDING to Mr. Dingley, the pension bill of the Govern- 
ment amounts to two fifths of the entire expense of running 
it ; others say one half. Instead of a decrease in the appropria- 
tion for pensions at this session of Congress, a slight increase 
over the last fiscal year is provided for, altho the amount (about 
$141,000,000) is not the largest pension appropriation on record, 
the sum in 1893 amounting to over $159,000,000 (see The Liter- 
ary Digest, August 28). The New York Sun, which has declared 
itself to be a thoroughgoing Republican newspaper, has taken 
the lead this year in insisting that the pension rolls are padded 
almost beyond belief, and that they ought to be purged forthwith 
for the sake both of honor and economy. The issue of December 
20 contains over nine columns of matter concerning pension busi- 
ness to sustain the position which it takes. The practise of pass- 
ing private pension bills, which is said to preclude anything like 
a careful examination of the merits of the claims, comes in for a 
share of the current criticism directed against our pension policj'. 
From The Sun's article the following statements of facts and 
figures are taken in condensed form : 

"The total of pensioners on account of the War of the Rebellion 
is, according to the report of the pension commissioner, 947,542, 
of which 65.869 are children, and 27,559 ^''^ dependent fathers, 
mothers, sisters, or brothers. Deducting these from the total 
there remain 854,114 survivors and widows drawing pensions, or 
40.745 more 'survivors' and 'widows' than there are actual sur- 
vivors and widows who under any circumstances could legally 
draw pensions. 

"The pension rolls show that 733,527 persons are drawing pen- 
sions from the Government as survivors of the War of the Rebel- 
lion. That is. 6,405 more 'survivors' are drawing pensions than 
there are actual survivors ; a fraud on its face. 

"Besides the 6.405 more 'survivors' drawing pensions than 
there are actual survivors, 187,500 more 'survivors' are clamoring, 
at the doors of the Treasury for their share of the plunder. In 



1S73 the nation's bounty to pensioners of the War of the Rebel- 
lion was $26,502,528.96. Last year it was $139,949,717.35. 

" Here is a little table compiled from the pension rolls that may 
be studied with profit : 

Actual survivors of the war 727,122 

" Survivors " drawing pensions 733.527 

Survivors demanding pensions 187,500 

Widows drawing pensions 213,352 

Widows demanding pensions 104,938 

Pensioners demanding increase 255,849 

Total Rebellion pensioners on rolls 947,526 

Total survivors or widows getting or demanding pen- 
sions 1,139,317 

"The record of the Pension Bureau is a record of constantly 
increasing rolls. Look at these figures since 1883 : 

1891 676,160 

1892 876,068 

1893 966,012 

1894 969,544 

1895 970.524 

1896 970,675 

1897 976,014 



1883 303,658 

•884 322,756 

1885 — 345.125 

1886 365,783 

1887 406,007 

'888 452,557 

1889 489,725 

1890 537,944 



"Pension Commissioner Green B. Raum, in his report for the 
year ending June 30, 1891, computed the average deaths per 1,000 
of soldiers at 17 and the average deaths per i.ooo of widows of 
soldiers at 35. The rate, of course, is much higher now. By the 
law of nature it increases annually. 

" The actual estimated cost of the pension system the coming 
year, exclusive of any new schemes that Congress may be induced 
to adopt, is $141,263,880. Compare that item with the cost of 
standing armies of the Old World this year. Here are the 
figures : 



Great Britain $87,408,944 

Germany 110,187,020 

France 118,291,430 

Italy 51,778,04c 



Russia $176,942,600 

Austria 67,286,255 

Pensions in the United 
States 141,263,880 



" Russia alone of all the countries of the world pays more for 
her immense standing army than the United States pays in pen- 
sions." 

H. Clay Evans (Republican, ex-governor of Tennessee) , United 
States Commissioner of Pensions, is reported to be an advocate of 
the policy of publishing the pension-list. Commissioner Evans 
has also stated in an interview for the New York Press (Rep.) 
that, while newspaper exhibits of alleged frauds on the pension- 
rolls are not to be depended upon, the greatest difficulty en- 
countered by the pension -bureau arises from the army of pension 
attorneys. He says that the Government ought to stop paying 
pension attorney's for soliciting business. This practise has 
lasted for thirty years, and in his opinion "a law should be passed 
that in the future no fee should be paid to any attorney or claim 
agent, for any claim filed for pensions ; that would put an end to 
pension scandals" : 

"The most demoralizing feature of the pension system is the 
existence of 50,000 pension attorneys. The ordinary pension at- 
torney is worse than the most pestiferous 'varmint' that ever in- 
vaded a hen-roost. 

" If there are frauds on the pension-rolls they have been planted 
there by the pension attorneys. He it is that persuades the ap- 
plicant to file a claim, leads him to believe that the Government 
has his name on the roll and only awaits his application ; gives 
him to understand that the attorney is regularly commissioned 
and authorized and especially empowered to hunt up this particu- 
lar missing soldier ; tells him that all other soldiers have applied 
and obtained their money, and adds that, 'if you don't get yours, 
you are to blame. ' 

"Pension attorneys have been known to draft the laws which 
Congress passes for the pensioner. Fortunes have been made 
and are being made by tliis army of so-called attorneys. They 
practically are so many drummers — soliciting agents — that do 
nothing but hunt up claims and claimants for the Pension Bureau. 

"The Government has seen fit to take them into partnership in 
the pension business. It practically pays them a bounty (a fee 
of twenty-five dollars) for every pensioner that can be induced to 
file a claim which they can prove up and have admitted. The 
laws are amended from lime to time for the benefit of this army 
of pension solicitors, so that they can get more fees." 

The New York World quotes Commissioner Evans as follows : 

"Pension attorneys should rever have been admitted to prac- 



Vol. XVI., No. 21 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



35 



tise. The Government should have kept that matter in its own 
hands. " 

" Why does not the Government take charge of the matter now 
and do away with the pension attorneys?" 

"I do not know. In the past seven years, from 1891 to 1897, 
there has been paid to pension attorneys $10, no, 000. There are 
45,000 such attorneys entitled to practise before this bureau now. " 

"How many have been disbarred?" 

"Last year only twenty-eight. About three hundred have been 
disbarred in the last ten years. " 

We reproduce a number of criticisms on the pension system, 
the significance of which is somewhat enhanced from the fact 
that thej' are all taken from Republican journals : 

Breaking Party Pledges. — "If an applicant has had the shadow 
of a just claim to a pension the Pension Bureau has never hesi- 
tated to grant it. Indeed, the Bureau has been commonly 
thought to be overanxious to accommodate applicants with certifi- 
cates. Claims made to Congress are, as a rule, having few ex- 
ceptions, such as have been examined and rejected by the regular 
pension authorities, or such as the makers of them know they 
could not successfully sustain if they should subject them to a 
careful examination. Congress is the last resort chiefly of those 
who have no just or defensible claim to pensions. It is claims of 
such sort that Congress approves at the rate of 400 in a single 
week — a week after it had assured the country that thirty-two 
years following the close of the war, when the appropriation for 
the general pension roll is $141,000,000, or $7,000,000 less than 
will be required for 1898, the list has reached the limit, and that 
it will not be further extended except after full examination and 
deliberate consideration of all claims presented. How this pledge 
is being kept is shown by the fact that on the last day of its meet- 
ing the Senate passed 138 private pension bills in 60 minutes, or 
at the rate of nearly two and a half a minute. What examination 
or consideration could a single one of those bills have possibly 
received from the Senate ? The truth is made manifest by the dis- 
graceful record that there was no examination, no consideration 
of any one of the 138 claims approved by the Senators in the brief 
space of an hour." — The Ledger {Ind. Rep.) , Philadelphia. 

Pensions and Life Insurance. — " A point was raised in the 
discussion over the pension bill in the House of Representatives, 
which is likely to open up a field for official investigation. It 
was asserted that there are on the pension rolls a large number of 
veterans drawing pensions on the ground that they are disabled 
and physically unsound, who are at the same time carrying life 
insurance policies. 

"Now, no life insurance company will insure a man who is phys- 
ically unsound. All applicants have to undergo a searching 
medical examination, and the company holds the certification of 
their soundness of body. 

"Now, if there are pensioners who are carrying life insurance 
policies, they must have been sound men when they were insured. 
If at that time they had obtained pensions, which they still draw, 
they are certainly not entitled to the latter. It is proposed to in- 
troduce a bill directing the commissioner of pensions to ascertain 
to what extent this charge is true, and to drop from the pension 
rolls all persons who are found to be carrying life insurance." — 
The Blade {Rep.), Toledo. Ohio. 

Private Pension Speed Record.— "Just before adjourning for 
the holidays the Senate devoted an hour to passing private pen- 
sion bills, and ran 138 of them right off the reel. 

"It was a great performance, easily beating two a minute, but 
it was not a record-breaker either as to speed or as to total diurnal 
output. 

"The annals of the Senate show that on one occasion that body 
passed 114 bills in 45 minutes, the average time per bill being 
23.68 seconds. This beat a previous record of 24X seconds. But 
even that performance was outdone by one of 130 bills in 50 min- 
utes, making the splendid time oi 23.07 seconds. The merit of 
this last performance is sometimes impugned on the ground that 
14 out of the 130 bills were vetoed, in one of them, for example, 
the Senate overlooking the fact that the would-be pensioner had 
twice deserted, the second time not returning. But it is hardly 
fair to expect attention to details in turning off twelve dozen bills 
an hour. The highest claim, however, we have ever seen made 
for the Senate by those on whose figures the records rest, is that 
of 80 bills in 30 minutes, bringing the time down to 22^^ seconds. 

"In volume of output there has been nothing of late, so far as 



we know, to equal the Senate's performance a few days ago of 
passing over 400 special pensions in one week, out of which the 
House passed and sent to the President 240 in one day. While, 
therefore, the Senate's current batch of 138 bills is a fair example 
of the rapid whirling of the legislative mill, yet if previous efforts 
were correctly reported, it does not hold the speed record." — The 
Sun {Rep.), New York. 

Government Generosity Imposed Upon. — "Gen. H. V. Boyn- 

ton, whose friendship for the veterans can not be denied, has 
called attention to the remarkable fact that altho thirty-two years 
have elapsed since the close of the war, the number of names now 
borne on the pension rolls is more than double the membership of 
all the patriotic societies of veterans to which the war gave rise, 
including the Grand Army of the Republic. Union Veteran 
Legion, Union Veterans' Union, Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion, Society of the Army of the Potomac. Society of the Army 
of the James, Society of the Army of the Tennessee, Society of 
the Army of West Virginia, and the Society of the Army of the 
Cumberland. 

"While it will not be claimed that the membership of these 
bodies is any criterion for judging of the number of persons con- 
nected with the late war entitled to pensions, the fact that, ac- 
cording to the last report of the Commissioner of Pensions, the 
names on the rolls now aggregate more than 976,000 — of which 
over ninety per cent, appear as soldiers of the late war or their 
widows — shows how liberal has been the policy of the Govern- 
ment in this direction. 

"Every patriotic citizen believes in the payment of liberal pen- 
sions to deserving Union veterans, but there is every reason to 
believe that the generosity of the Government has been imposed 
upon. It is estimated that there are now not less than 3,000 pri- 
vate pension claims pending in Congress, the most of which are 
being pushed on the part of men whose application for a pension 
in a regular way has been rejected. " — Ohio State Journal {Rep.) , 
Cohimbjts. 

Three Needed Pension Reforms, — "Under the present law it 
is possible for the widow of a veteran who has married again to 
procure a pension, even tho she now is supported by a second 
husband. She may never have applied for a pension during her 
widowhood, but at the instigation of her new husband she may 
now legally collect from the Government as back pay the sum 
that she might have i-eceived. One instance of this nature is 
cited which cost the Government $3,800 — a pleasant plum for the 
second husband. It has been stated that pensions of this class, 
paid to former widows, are now costing the Treasury $10,000 a 
day. 

"Again, it is now possible for a minor child of a deceased sol- 
dier, who never applied for a pension during the term of his 
minority, to file a claim for the money that he would have re- 
ceived from the Government up to the age of sixteen. Such an 
applicant may be forty years old to-day, and yet when some one 
of the 80, 000 pension attorneys in the country discovers that he 
was entitled to a pension twenty-five years ago, he can file a claim 
at the Pension Bureau that must be allowed under the law. 

"These are two defects in the pension system that are gro- 
tesquely absurd, and that tend to discredit the rolls that should 
be kept lustrous with honor. Another abuse is the business of 
young women marrying old veterans, on the verge of the grave, 
in order to acquire widows' pensions on the decease of their hus- 
bands. The correction of these three wrongs will surely not be 
opposed by any organization of veterans. It will not only save 
the Government millions of dollars, but it will aid to keep credit- 
able that scroll of patriotic names which a grateful nation de- 
lights to honor." — The Mail and Express {Rep.), New York. 

Burden Willingly Borne. — "It seems singular that thirty-two 
years after the close of the Civil War the pension roll should be 
increasing, but such is the fact. Secretary Bliss reports the total 
payments for the last fiscal year to be $1,584,480 in excess of those 
for the fiscal 5'ear ending in 1896. Moreover, there are now pend- 
ing, he says, about 200,000 claims awaiting adjudication, and of 
these it is estimated that 4 oor 50 per cent, will be allowed. The 
rapid adjudication of the claims will swell the pension roll from 
five to seven millions of dollars the first year. 

" But this is very likely to be the maximum. The estimated 
increase will meet the first year's payments of the new claims, 
including arrears, and thereafter, the Secretary thinks, the pen- 



36 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



sion roll will decrease very rapidly from the death-rate. This 
decrease is likely to amount to from ten to fifteen millions annu- 
ally for the next few years, unless increased by new pensions and 
allowed, and it can not be that there are a very large number to 
come forward beyond the 200,000 now awaiting the adjudication 
of their claims. 

"The pension roll is a severe burden to the national revenues, 
but it is one that the loyal and patriotic people of the country 
have willingly borne. They are willing to provide for the main- 
tenance of the men who risked their lives to save the nation when 
they are disabled by wounds or disease incurred in the service, or 
are rendered unfit for manual labor by sickness or advancing age. 
All the people ask is that abuses shall, so far as possible, be kept 
from creeping in." — The Tribune {Rep.), Minneapolis. 

Practical Economy. — The best reason for reducing the pension- 
list is entirely one of practical economy. We can well understand 
the feeling of Congressmen who resented Mr. Cleveland's unsym- 
pathetic attempts at cutting down the expenditure. No one likes 
to see the claims of veterans of the war or of their widows and 
orphans treated purely as a matter of dollars and cents. 

"But in the present emergency, thirty years after the war, amid 
financial conditions that puzzle the most patriotic and thoughtful, 
we are brought face to face with the fact that the pension-list is 
the most exhausting of all drains on the national treasury. More- 
over, it is increasing, and it will continue to increase until the 
public and the representatives of the public become convinced of 
the financial danger of neglecting this break in the dike of sound 
finances, and the moral danger of making a large part of the pop- 
ulation dependent on government bounty. How strong the ten- 
dency is to 'give everybody a pension' is shown by Senator 
Thurston's bill providing for the payment of $500 outright and 
$15 per month to freed slaves over seventy years of age, and a 
smaller sum to freedmen between sixty and seventy years of age. 

"Something must be done to prevent the growth of this craze. 
Otherwise what will avail the eflEorts to keep the national receipts 
and expenditures safely balanced? We can not go on saving at 
bung and wasting at spigot without inviting disastrous conse- 
quences. The pension-list should be purged. It should be freed 
of frauds and cheats. It should only be extended with great cau- 
tion. It should be made again what it was once, a real roll of 
honor." — The Times-Herald {McKinley Ind.) , Chicago. 



IS THE MIDDLE CLASS HOLDING ITS OWN? 

'"P'HE middle class is not likely to be exterminated as soon as 
-*• many political economists have been expecting. This, at 
least, is now the opinion of Professor SchmoUer, one of the most 
brilliant of the German social economists, after studying the in- 
dustrial conditions of Germany. Indeed, the middle class has 
held its own during the last few decades and shows indications of 
increasing vitality. This statement comes with added force from 
the fact that Professor SchmoUer and his fellow economists have 
been inclined to the opposite view. In a paper which he read 
before the Protestant Social Congress in Leipsic several months 
ago. he said : 

"Twenty-five years ago, as a result of the statistical material 
which was then available and of the economic and social condi- 
tions then in existence, partly also in consequence of my more 
limited studies, I saw only one movement, the increasing differ- 
entiation of society, a dangerous menace to the middle class. 
Between 1850 and 1875 the German peasantry did undoubtedly 
lose ground. To-day I see a very complicated development. By 
the side of the still existing and increasing differentiation, I see 
the rising of all the strong and energetic elements of the lower 
classes and of the middle class, and I say it is a question of fact 
which predominates." 

The Yale Review summarizes the remainder of Professor 
SchmoUer's paper as follows : 

"This general thesis is proved by Professor SchmoUer in a 
painstaking and careful statistical study of the various elements 
which go to make up what is called the middle class in Germany. 
The peasantry, the smaller independent tradesmen, are carefully 
e«amined, and the same surprising result is reached that on the 



whole they have held their own. From 1700 to 1850 it seems to 
be evident that the peasants and mechanics increased in Germany 
and improved their condition ; that from 1850 to 1897 the middle 
class in agriculture did not decrease. In industry and trade the 
number of independent business men did not, it is true, increase 
in proportion to the population, and did in some cases diminish, 
and the number of dependents increased very much indeed ; but 
if we take into account the higher positions in the staff, the super- 
intendents, the highly paid workmen, and the liberal professions, 
the weakening of the middle class does not seem material ; indeed 
it may have already been overcome, and there are tendencies 
toward the formation of a new middle class." 

Professor SchmoUer's conclusions find confirmation as regards 
one branch of business in the inaugural address of Professor Stieda 
on assuming the position of rector of the University of Rostock. 
His subject was, "The Vitality of the Handicrafts in Germany," 
and The Yale Review summarizes the address as follows : 

"The handicraftsman of the Middle Ages, that is the mechanic, 
not working for wages nor for a capitalist, but directly for his 
customers, is a figure whose decadence has often been laid at the 
door of the factory system, and on whose behalf the sympathy of 
the historical student has often been elicited. Undoubtedly many 
trades which were formerly carried on in the household and on a 
small scale are now located in large factories under superintend- 
ents and foremen, and the workers have lost a great deal of their 
former independence as a consequence of the wage system ; but 
here too, there seem to be counter currents, and Professor Stieda 
shows very clearly that while many articles formerly produced 
by the handicraftsmen have ceased to be used, and many others 
are now produced more cheaply by means of machines, on the 
other hand new demands have arisen for new trades which have 
to be carried on on a small scale. The tinsmith and the plumber 
no longer make kitchen utensils, yet find occupation in the laying 
of gas and water-pipes, in making ornamental work for buildings, 
etc. The locksmith, too, no longer makes by hand complete 
locks, but finds occupation in the making of objects of household 
art, in electrical work, etc. 'The handicraft,' says Professor 
Stieda. 'still supports him who understands it quite well, and 
what it has lost in one field it has gained in another. '" 



THREE NOTABLE SPEECHES. 

MANY societies and lodges have on their order of business 
the elastic topic "Good of the Club," under which past, 
present, and future one or all may come in for occasional review. 
Our holiday season is usually taken by orators as a fitting one for 
discussing the "Good of the Country" on broad lines ; and partic- 
ularly is this the case at the various New England dinners held 
in commemoration of the arrival of the Mayflower. Three such 
speeches, dealing with the signs of the times, have excited un- 
usual interest, and we reproduce portions of them as published at 
length in the daily press. 

At the dinner of the New England Society of Brooklyn, Mr. 
George W. Smalley (formerly of the New York Tribune, now 
American correspondent of the London Times') emphasized the 
idea that what has become known as jingoism, is likely to bring 
on among foreign nations- an undesirable policy of cooperation 
against the United States, whereas a policy looking to closer re- 
lations between the United States and her mother country would 
be likely to result to better advantge. His statements called 
forth a brief retort from Senator Hawley, expressing regret "that 
Mr. Smalley so little understands his own country." 

"Now we are told sometimes in these days that it is not patri- 
otic to be too friendly to the old country. Well, ladies and gen- 
tlemen, I do not agree with that. There are 35,000,000 or 40,000,- 
000 people in the islands that Hawthorne called our old home, the 
majority of whom are filled with friendship and kindliness to this 
country. I do not say all. Yet, the immense preponderance of 
feeling in England is the feeling of friendship for America and 
for the American people. Why should we reject it? What have 
we to gain by a spurious patriotism, which tells us we are to 



Vol. XVL, No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



37 



accept nothing that is not American, and we are able to face the 
world without a friend? If you reject the sentimental view, if 
you do not care for the good- will, let us look at it on the practical 
side. The proof of the good-will we have seen in the last two 
years in a very striking way. 

"What happened two years ago this month when President 
Cleveland launched his message of war across the Atlantic? It 
had only to be taken up in the spirit in which it was delivered to 
have made a conflict inevitable. It was received in the first 
place with incredulity. The Englishmen said: 'No, it is impos- 
sible he should mean it. It is impossible that the chief magis- 
trate of the people who are our cousins should mean to provoke 
hostilities. ' The press treated it with a moderation which it is 
impossible to praise too much — I mean the English press. The 
people of England abated not a jot of their kindliness to the peo- 
ple of this country. Some of our friends here said: 'Oh. the 
English no longer care to fight. ' They waited a month, and then 
came the telegram of the German Emperor to the President of 
the Transvaal, and then you saw whether the English under a 
provocation that they cared to accept were ready to fight or not. 
The name of the German Emperor was hooted and hissed where- 
ever mentioned, in the streets of London, in the music-halls, or at 
public gatherings. You never heard the name of President 
Cleveland hooted or hissed. Yet he had given far more provoca- 
tion. It was put aside in a spirit which can only be called the 
spirit of brotherly love. 

"Since the Venezuelan trouble — I suppose it may be thought 
too frank to say it — we have said and done so much as to convince 
continental Europe that we are a menace to the peace of the 
world. I do not say they are right. I say that is the state of 
feeling which exists among the statesmen and rulers of the great 
powers of the continent of Europe, Venezuela, the resolutions 
and speeches in Congress, and especially in the Senate, if my 
friend. Senator Hawley, will permit me to say so . . . our ser- 
monizing to the allied powers about Armenia, about Greece, our 
continual provocation to Spain about Cuba, the new version and 
perversion of the Monroe doctrine, which of itself is not aggres- 
sive, but defensive and American, and finally our annexation or 
proposal to annex Hawaii ; all these have convinced Continental 
powers that their best policy is to unite against this country. 
The Prime Minister, or rather the Chancellor of Austria, has 
announced, from a different point of view, his belief that an 
economic war is yet to be waged against transoceanic competition. 
For their own safety they have ultimately to adopt the policy of 
cooperation against this country. If we were to war to-morrow 
with any European country, Spain or another, there is very slight 
possibility that we should go to war with one power only. Now 
I ask you, in those circumstances, is the friendship of England 
worth having or not. She is the greatest financial power in the 
world. She is the greatest naval power in the world. Her fleet 
— which she can mobilize in a week — is a match for the combined 
fleets of any two European powers and probably a match for the 
combined fleets of any three European powers, that under any 
conceivable circumstances, could be allied against her. 

"Is it worth our while with the prospect of the hostility of the 
continent of Europe before us to accept the friendship she offers 
or does patriotism require us to reject it? But these perliaps are 
too serious considerations for our dinner. I would rather go back 
to sentiment after all. I like to think of the English, if I may 
repeat what I have said elsewhere, as a company, wise, kindly, 
and an admirable people. The lesson of life they have been 
learning for centuries we have acquired in one hundred years. It 
would be strange indeed if we had nothing to learn from them. 
Strange it would be, too, if they had nothing to learn from us. 
Strangest of all if the world had not a great deal to learn from 
both." 

Another speech attracting special attention was that delivered 
by Senator Edward O. Wolcott. of Colorado, in response to the 
toast, "The Union, One and Indivisible," at the dinner of the 
New England Society of the city of New York. Senator Wolcott 
said in part : 

" In certain directions our domestic differences are crystallizing 
and not disintegrating. For more than a generation we have 
waited for the day when parties would divide solely on national 
questions, and when the old sectional issues growing out of the 
war and the race problem would be buried. The time came. 
The parties met on a broad economic question, and lo ! we 



emerge from the contest threatened with another bitter sectional 
division. The far West, largely the child of the East, and pulsing 
with its blood, joins hands with the South. The new alinement 
is not only debtor against creditor, class against class; but in a 
land pervaded with equal devotion to what its people believe is 
the truest welfare of the whole country, great majorities in one 
section face equally great majorities in another. 

"This is the season of good cheer, when kindly thoughts hold 
sway, the close of the year when old differences are forgotten, 
while we join in commemorating the advent of Him who taught 
peace on earth and good-will, and on this anniversary as we recall 
those early New England days when, with the fear of God always 
before them, our fathers gradually grew from stern, unbending 
insistence to a broad recognition of the right of individual judg- 
ment, there should be left no room for rancor. Sons of the Pil- 
grims, we remember to-night only our common mother and our 
common destiny, and may the hour lend its benediction to a plea 
for a greater tolerance. 

"The West is not decadent , its views are of men virile, indus- 
trious, and genuine, and their beliefs are honest. They would 
scorn any sort of evasion of an obligation. They are patriotic 
men. There is in the whole far West hardly a Northerner born 
who was old enough to go to the war whom you will not see on 
Decoration Day wearing proudly the badge of his old corps. 
They are Americans ; to a proportion greater, far greater, than 
in the East — native-born American citizens. The views they 
cherish are held with practical unanimity. The beliefs of the 
clergyman, the lawyer, the farmer, and the storekeeper are alike. 
You swell their ranks every year from New England colleges. 
The young fellows graduate and go West, grateful that you have 
developed their ability to reason, and they rapidly assimilate 
their views with those of the people among whom they cast their 
lot. 

" A distinguished New Englander wrote the other day that the 
differences between the sections of our country are really differ- 
ences in civilization. No man familiar with the whole country 
would, in my opinion, share this view. Our people would accept 
the statement as too complimentary to them, and if they thought 
you cherished the same view would desire me in courtesy to as- 
sure you that this very assemblage, in apparent intelligence and 
general respectability, would compare creditably if not favorably 
with any similar gathering at Creede, Bull Mountain, or Cripple 
Creek. 

"So universal a feeling as that which pervades the great West 
can not be all wrong. You can not dispose of a conviction held 
by millions of intelligent people by calling it a craze, and some 
day you may find it worth your while to look for the truth where 
it is usually hidden — somewhere between extremes. The con- 
tinued friction is largely generated both East and West by a cer- 
tain modern type of newspaper. The plague may have started 
here, but it has spread and sprouted like the Canada thistle, until 
it is a blight in Colorado as it is a curse here and wherever it 
plants itself. Wherever there is a cause to misrepresent, a hate 
to be fanned, a slander to utter, a reputation to besmirch, it ex- 
hales its foul breath. It knows no party, no honor, no virtue. It 
stirs only strife and hatred, and appeals only to the low and the 
base. It calls itself journalism, but its name is Pander and its 
color is yellow. 

" DiflSculties also arise because of differences in the point of 
view. There is everywhere in the West the most cordial appre- 
ciation of the wisdom of Eastern men and the value of Eastern 
cooperation ; but somehow it isn't really recognized out there that 
ability to reorganize a Western railroad and swell its stock and 
securities several millions every time it is foreclosed, necessarily 
indicates an equal ability to determine the wisest economic policy 
for the farmer who lives along the right of way. And men who 
would no more dream of entrusting their banker with the duty of 
formulating their financial views than they would of entrusting 
the man of whom they bought a shotgun with the command of 
the armies of their country are naturally inclined to fear that in 
this part of the moral vineyard there is a tendency to assume that 
the possession of great wealth means necessarily the possession 
of great wisdom. It may be, however, that we go to the other 
extreme and assume that a minimum of wealth naturally carries 
with it a maximum of wisdom ; and this suggests a possible com- 
promise whereby we might spare you some of our wisdom in ex- 
change for some of your wealth. 

"It is only a few years ago that New England was 'uncommon 



38 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



proud' of that West which her sons had so largely peopled, and 
her resources, lavishly ventured, had done so much to develop. 
Perhaps there are only supersensitive Westerners who fancy that 
luey see in certain quarters a subtle change, an inclination to 
criticize, an inability to find much to commend and a tendency to 
look still further to the Eastward for methods and ideals fit to 
follow. I hope it is all a mistake. Fellow pilgrims, we mustn't 
turn away from each other. We must never forget, even in Pres- 
idential campaigns and after, that we are one people, and that as 
associates in adversity, as well as companions in prosperity, we 
must ever sit at the same table and take potluck together. Our 
form of government does not work automatically. It will be 
strong and will receive the world's respect to the extent that the 
people act wisely and intelligently. But good or bad, with high 
deals or low ones. Republican institutions on this continent are 
here to stay. It is more than a century since, for all time so far 
as these States are concerned, God said, 'I am tired of kings.' 
No other form of government is possible tons. It is this or chaos. 
"If then we are harnessed together, destined to follow the road 
the greater numerical half shall point, we can only reach that fair 
day's journey, that stage in human progress, which this genera- 
tion owes to the fathers of the past and the children of the future 
by adjusting our burdens equitably and moving evenly and pull- 
ing the load together." 

The third of the speeches to which we have made reference 
was one on the subject, "The Business Man's Political Obliga- 
tions," delivered to business men of Philadelphia by Mr. James 
H. Eckels, the retiring Controller of the Currency. In it he in- 
timated that if property rights are in danger business men them- 
seWes are to blame : 

"It is both a curious and unnatural condition of public senti- 
ment which makes it a difficult thing in American political life 
for the successful business man to enter into its activities without 
subjecting himself to suspicion as to the honesty of his purpose or 
doubt as to the possibility of his benefiting his fellows. And yet 
it is not inexplainable. The reason lies in the long neglect by 
bim of political action during the years of his accumulations and 
his sudden awakening to gratify an ambition which lies beyond 
the domain of mere wealth. The business man can not afford to 
Test content with simply voting on returning election days and be 
careless as to the men selected for public positions or the acts per- 
formed by them. 

"If he does he must expect, when, after years of such indiffer- 
-ence, he, of his own volition, thrusts himself into the arena of 
strife for place and power, that his sincerity will be inquired into 
and his motives doubted. In no other country, even of less lib- 
eral laws and restricted field of action, is wealth considered even 
a hindrance, much less a complete bar to a full and direct partici- 
pation in legislation and the conduct of governmental affairs. It 
was not so with the American elector in that earlier day, when no 
one was too absorbed in matters of private gain to neglect the 
things which were essential to the public good. The strength of 
such a view of duty on the part of the citizen was manifest in that 
high esteem in which official place was held by all the people, no 
matter in what walk of life or the extent of their interests. No 
one aspired to position without acknowledged qualifications, and 
the interrogatory as to his capabilites and honesty meant more 
than idle questioning. Even under an intense and unreasoning 
partizanism fitness was still made the test, and the needs of the 
public service made him prominent. 

" Within the decades which have witnessed the business man 
withdrawing himself from a continuing interest in political affairs, 
in order to devote his talents to the acquisition of wealth, the 
public has lost its high esteem for the office itself, and with that 
want of respect more than one position of trust, of great and far- 
reaching importance, has been permitted to fall into unworthy- 
hands. The taxing power in States and municipalities in now 
more often under the control of those who are without any direct 
personal interest in the rate of tax to be imposed than of those 
whose property must bear its burdens. Not infrequently the 
prosperity of the practical politician finds its source in following 
a line of action which, through a city council or a state legisla- 
ture, either increases taxation by means of extravagant appropri- 
ations to aid private undertakings, or lays blackmail upon busi- 
ness interests to curtail the same. 

"The business men who neglect their political duties to simply 



gain wealth pay for their folly by finding themselves without the 
power to protect it from public assault, unless through either 
direct or indirect purchase of that right. I have no sympathy 
with those who, having entered into a conspiracy against good 
morals and the public well-being by making possible, for the sake 
of individual comfort, the robberies of the political highwayman, 
are at last driven to complain, on finding their property rights 
jeopardized and their accumulations threatened. The purchase 
of immunity from legislative attack may at the outset be less ex- 
pensive and easier of method than a manly defense of guaranteed 
rights and active participation in political strife, but in the end 
there comes the immeasurably greater evil of a debauched citi- 
zenship and a corrupted law-making power." 



TOPICS IN BRIEF. 

As a last resort Mr. Dingley might lay it to the sun-spots. — T'Ae- News, 
Detroit. 

The concert of Europe is now being given in the Asiatic backyard. — Tke 
Leader, Cleveland. 

Europe finds China a foeman worthy of her steal. — The Chronicle- Tele- 
graph, Pittsburg. 

The situation in China seems to be one of Confucian worse confotinded. — 
The Flaindealer, Cleveland. 

It is much easier to collect apologies than cash from the Sultan. — TVif 
Chronicle- Telegraph, Pittsburg. 

China evidently wonders these days why on earth she ever invented gun- 
powder.— The Times, Richmond. 

The natural question to ask about any piece of latter-day legislation is : 
"Was it jammed or did it slip?" — The World, New York. 

Chaff. — The story of the great Armour-Leiter wheat deal will even- 
tually be published in cereal form. — The Inter Ocean, Chicago. 

The Administration has finally agreed upon a financial policy. It is 
bimetalism abroad and monometalism at home. — The Republic, St. Louis. 

It looks a little as if each member of the Cabinet favored the application 
of strict civil-service principles to all the other departments.- 77/^ Ledger, 
Philadelphia. 

Robert A. Van Wyck, in assuming the office of mayor of Greater New 
York, made this speech of acceptance : " I received this office from the 
people. I accept it from them, and to them I will answer." 

The New York JournaVs prize of $50 for the best definition of a Mugwump 
was awarded to a gentleman who said : "A Mugwump is like a ferryboat — 
he wears out his life by crossing from one side to the other." 

Persons desiring to starve to death can take their choice between Cuba 
and the Klondike. While the process is quicker in the latter place, the tem- 
perature makes it more comfortable in the former. — The Tribune, Minne- 
apolis. 

Hum ! Let us see : If China is divided up among the European powers, 
then its inhabitants will become British, Germans, Russians, etc., accord- 
ing to their territory. In that case it would seem that we can no longer 
exclude them from the United States, but must admit them on equal terms 
with their fellow subjects. How is that }—The Ledger, Philadelphia. 




WHAT A DIFFERENCE HETWEEN BEING APl'OINTEU AND BEING ELECTED 

TO THE SENATE. — The Journal, New Yorl:. 



Tol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



39 



LETTERS AND ART. 



OMAR KHAYYAM, MATHEMATICIAN AND 

POET. 

ONE finds nowadays a constant flow of talk, in the literary 
journals, about Omar Khayyam (Ghias ud-din Abul Fath 
Omar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam was the full name of him), who 
rested from his labors nearly eight hundred years ago. He has 
been known to English readers during the present generation only 
through the translations by Edward Fitzgerald, Justin Huntley 
McCarthy, and E. H. Whinfield, and the illustrations of Elihu 
Vedder. And now comes Le Gallienne with another metrical 
translation, while Heron-Allen, the erstwhile palmist, announces 
that he is engaged on a prose translation. 

There is an Omar Khayyam Club in London, and a few days 
ago Colonel Hay, the American Ambassador to the Court of St. 
James, being a guest at its first dinner for the season, was called 
on for an address. He spoke in part as follows : 

"Certainly, our poet can never be numbered among the great 
popular writers of all time. He has told no storj' ; he has never 
unpacked his heart in public ; he has never thrown the reins on 
the neck of the winged horse, and let his imagination carry him 
Avhere it listed. 'Ah! the crowd must have emphatic warrant,' 
as Browning sang. Its suffrages are not for the cool, collected 
observer, whose eye no glitter can dazzle, no mist suffuse. The 
many can not but resent that air of lofty intelligence, that pale 
and subtle smile. But he will hold a place forever among that 
limited number who, like Lucretius and Epicurus — without rage 
or defiance, even without unbecoming mirth — look deep into the 
tangled mysteries of things ; refuse credence to the absurd, and 
allegiance to arrogant authority ; sufficiently conscious of falli- 
bility to be tolerant of all opinions ; with a faith too wide for doc- 
trine and a benevolence untrammeled by creed ; too wise to be 
wholly poets, and yet too surely poets to be implacably wise." 

In a review of Le Gallienne' s version (which is ranked, in order 
of merit, as below both the Fitzgerald and the Whinfield versions) 
the London Academy discourses as follows : 

" Early in the eleventh century of our era a rather curious com- 
pact was entered into by three youths who were attending lec- 
tures at the famous school of Nishapur in Khorasan. Their un- 
derstanding was that whichever of them attained to fortune 
should share it with the other two, and not preserve it for himself. 
This arrangement, in which the flippant will perceive only a kind 
of Persian edition of 'The Three Musketeers,' was destined to 
have far-reaching consequences. These three schoolmates curi- 
ously enough were all fated to make a noise in the world ; but the 
first of them to do so was Nizam ul Mulk, who became vizier to Sul- 
tan Alp Arslan. He kept his part of the agreement, and the two 
whom he assisted to name and fame are even better known, at 
any rate in Europe, than himself. One of them was Hasan bin 
Sabbdh, the founder of the sect of the Assassins. Nizdm ul Mulk 
himself eventually fell a victim to a dagger directed by this terri- 
ble Old Man of the Mountain. The other was the subject of this 
article, the Hakim Omar Khayyan, more correctly Abul Fath 
Omar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam. The last part of his name (M. 
Le Gallienne. by the way, invariably accents it upon the wrong 
syllable) indicates his father's profession as having been that of 
a tent-maker, and Omar has more than one allusion to it in his 
poems — e.g. , 

" Khayydmi ki khdimahayi hikmat midukht "; 

or, as M. Le Gallienne has it : 

" Khayydm who long at learning's tents hath sewn." 

"Until recently Omar's reputation in the West depended mainly 
upon his revision of the Persian Calendar — in the words of Gib- 
bon, 'a computation of time which surpasses the Julian and ap- 
proaches the accuracy of the Gregorian style. ' We remember 
once seeing a German encyclopedia of fifty years ago or there- 
abouts, which, after devoting two long columns to an account of 
this feat, wound up with the remark: '1st auch als Dichter be- 



kannt. ' The whirligig of time has brought round its revenges, 
and nowadays, like Lewis Carroll, it is not for his works on alge- 
bra that Omar is known. They exist, nevertheless, and were 
published at Paris in 1851. In 1859 Edward Fitzgerald gave the 
world his translation or paraphrase of the quatrains, a book which 
at first fell flat, but ultimately, by its four editions during the 
lifetime of its author, showed that the tide had turned. Hence- 
forth Omar the mathematician and astronomer is swallowed up 
by Omar the pessimist, philosopher, and poet." 

The quatrain (rubdi, or rubdi y) in which Khayydm expressed 
himself, was not, we are further told, an invention of Khayydm's, 
but was almost a national Persian meter. The first, second, 
and fourth lines are, in the conventional form, made to rime, the 
third being left blank. 



THE STRANGE CAREER OF AN INSANE 

POET. 

STEVENSON'S harrowing tale of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde 
seems to be matched by the veritable life of a famous 
French writer, Gerard de Nerval, with this difference : When 
Dr. Jekyll turned into his other self, he became fiendish ; when 
de Nerval changed into his abnormal self he became a poet. 
Then and only then was he capable of writing those lines of 
ravishing beauty which at one time captivated all France. Such 
is the strange story which M. Arvede Barine retells in the Revue 
des Deux Mondes (Paris, November i). 

M. Barine has been for several months occupying himself with 
a series of articles on pathological literature. He has treated at 
length of de Quincey, Hoffman (Ernst Theodor Wilhelm),and 
Poe as illustrating various forms of this literature, and he now 
treats of de Nerval, whose career, in some respects, was the 
strangest and most pathetic of all. We quote from M. Barine : 

"The first time that Gerard de Nerval saw his double he re- 
membered that such a visitation, according to the old German 
legend, is a sign of death, and he was seized with fear and 
anguish. Nevertheless he continues to live ; and when the ap- 
parition next appeared, it occurred to him that possibly it was 
not the menacing specter for which he had mistaken it, but rather 
the 'mystic brother' of Oriental traditions. Precisely what he 
meant by this phrase is not clear, but he could not have found a 
better one to account for his peculiar experiences. 

"Gerard's normal self was tranquil and serene; opposed to 
vehement excitements of every kind, and a master of the pure, 
limpid style that led to his being called the French Sterne. It 
was to his second ego that must be attributed his eccentricities 
and mental aberrations — his 'mystic brother' it was who sent 
him wandering over Germany without money or baggage ; who 
planted him at the street corners in Paris in ecstatic attitudes, 
and finally drove him to insanity and suicide. Nevertheless, but 
for this mysterious shadowy second self, we should lack the high- 
est manifestations of his genius ; he would not have felt two or 
three times in his life the veritable poetic frenzy ; nor would he 
have written 'Sylvie,' one of the masterpieces of French prose. 
So much the worse for those who never become aware of their 
' mystic brother' ; it is safe to assume that they will not rank 
among the ilite of mankind. Wo to those who become his 
slave. " 

As an author, Gerard was a sort of phantom, we are told, from 
the mere fact that so many of his works have disappeared. He 
would read his manuscripts to his friends, who were loud in ad- 
miration of their power and genius, then stuff them into his 
pockets, carry them hither and thither, and lose them. Some he 
never finished ; others were written with collaborators, and it is 
impossible now to say what was his part in them. Only one of 
his surviving plays, in which he was assisted by Alexandre 
Dumas, bears the mark of his hand from beginning to end. This 
is a drama in five acts, "Leo Burckart," that was performed at 
the Porte Saint-Martin, in 1839, to fill a vacancy. Harel, the 
manager, said to Gerard : " I am expecting an elephant. Until 



40 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



it comes we will have your piece." Thanks to some delay in the 
arrival of the elephant. Nerval's "piece" had thirty representa- 
tions. 

His miscellaneous pieces, critical and imaginative, often anony- 
mous, or signed by a 7iotn de plutne , soon became the prey of ob- 
livion. Of those that he signed, the imaginative are by all odds 
the best ; they reecho the dreams and fancies whispered to him 
by his "mystic brother" in their solitary promenades, and are 
exquisite. His novels are merely varying reflections of his own 
life ; he had no power to project himself into other personalities. 
Most of his poetry is valueless. A few gems, and the short series 
called "Les Chimeres, " written during or immediately after his 
insane attacks, alone give him the right to be classed among 
lyrical masters. Says M. Barine : 

"I do not wish to be accused of identifying madness with 
genius, but facts are facts and dates dates. We know when and 
how often Gerard de Nerval was sequestered in des tnazsons de 
santS, and are compelled to acknowledge, however reluctantly, 
that his best verses were written when he was quite out of his 
mind, and that at no other time did he possess the gift of poetic 
expression. It was this consciousness, no doubt, that led him to 
inquire, on emerging from these attacks, with that fine literary 
sense that never abandoned him, whether he had not suffered a 
certain loss on recovering ' what is vulgarly known as reason. '" 

Love played an important part in the life of Gerard de Nerval, 
as can readily be imagined ; but like everything else about him 
his passion was fantastic and illusory. He sought with devout 
faith the one beloved, whom he named Aurelia ; the divine fem- 
inine soul to whom he was persuaded that he had been united in 
former incarnations. At last he imagined that he had recognized 
his ideal in Mile. Jenny Colon, an actress, and for years she be- 
came the object of his idolatry. But he was far too poetic to suit 
the unhappy comedienne, who persisted that she had never been 
either a vestal virgin or the Queen of Sheba in former existences. 
Worn out with being treated like a superior and almost a super- 
natural being, she finally quarreled with him, married another, 
and left Paris. 

To Gerard this was a terrible blow, and his reason tottered ; 
but this mental disturbance saved him at least from misery and 
despair. In the words of M. Barine : 

" Dream overflowed and completely displaced reality ; but his 
condition at first was a sort of radiant intoxication, a striking 
victory of spirit over matter. His malady had transformed him 
into a clairvoyant, his visions were all radiant and joyous, and 
he found such glowing language in which to describe them that 
his friends, listening amazed to these apocalyptic dreams, knew 
not whether he was to be pitied or envied. Can it be, they in- 
quired, that what men call madness is a state in which the soul 
discerns relations and enjoys spectacles that escape the material 
eye? Some years before, another poet, Charles Lamb, had ex- 
tolled the days that he passed in an asylum. To his friend Coler- 
idge he wrote : 'Never believe, Coleridge, that you have enjoyed 
all the grandeur and exaltation of fantasy unless you have been 
mad. To me now everything else seems insipid in comparison. ' 
It was the same with Gferard. When his frenzy passed — moods in 
which, according to his auditors, he poured forth what seemed 
rather the cosmic dreams of a god drunken with nectar than the 
ravings of delirium — he could scarcely endure its deprivation." 

Before long his mental excitement began to show itself in his 
conduct. One day he appeared in the Palais Royal, dragging 
after him a lobster attached to a blue ribbon, and he was greatly 
incensed by the expostulations of his friends. Why should it be 
any more ridiculous, he argued, to be followed by a lobster than 
by a dog or cat, a gazelle or lion? For his part he had a predi- 
lection for lobster, a tranquil, serious animal that knew the 
secrets of the sea and did not bark or play tricks like dogs, that 
Goethe disliked, and yet Goethe was not a fool. Unconvinced, 
his friends placed him in the excellent asylum of De Esprit 
Blanche, at Montmartre. 



The insane poet remained in this retreat for eight months, a 
period to him of rest and happiness. He received the most de- 
voted care, and when spring came, in the large gardens that 
surrounded the house, abandoned himself to his second life of 
dream and vision, with a joyous and terrible intensity. All 
secrets of the universe were open to him. He was surrounded 
by spirits wit"h whom he held ecstatic communion, in a way not 
to be described. They carried him to other worlds where beau- 
tiful maidens welcomed him with blissful smiles. Ravished, he 
saw among them the divine Aurelia. "It is true then," he cried, 
"we are immortal and retain on this petty globe a recollection of 
the glorious spheres which we once inhabited !" Occasionally he 
was disturbed by violent and frightful visions of the earth's early 
ages ; but these lightning flashes of suffering were compensated 
by long hours and days of superhuman rapture. 

In due time he was pronounced cured, and returned to the 
world. Soon after he went on a journey to the East in the hopes 
of completely reestablishing his health. Here he occupied him- 
self with the early religions, of which he had already made a pro- 
found study, and absorbed eagerly all the cabalistic ideas and 
supernatural traditions in which the Orient is so rich. In Syria 
he studied the religion of the Druses, of which so little is known, 
and here met with a romantic adventure ; for he imagined that 
he again recognized Aurelia incarnated now in Salema, the beau- 
tiful daughter of the Sheik. He demanded her hand in marriage, 
and finally gained the consent of the high priest ; but before the 
wedding day arrived he had begun to doubt his intuition and 
freed himself from his engagement. We quote again : 

" On his return to Paris he was more charming and more bizarre 
than ever. 'His appearance at this time,' according to one of 
his contemporaries, 'was striking and infinitely attractive. His 
expression was sweet and intellectual, his forehead seemed lumi- 
nous, and, amid all his trials and distractions, he had never lost 
his grace and eloquence of manner.' But, also, in his dual per- 
sonality the 'mystic brother' had now gained complete ascend- 
ency. The vivid flash of his gray eyes, his continual excitements 
and extravagances, showed too plainly that his relapse into mad- 
ness was only a question of time." 

His second sojourn in the asylum lasted only a month, and 
during that time he composed "Sylvie," his masterpiece. When 
incarcerated for the third time, his terrible malady had passed 
through the stage of glowing rapture, and became somber and 
terrible ; the fruit of this attack was " Dream and Reality — 
Aurelia," the last effort of his expiring genius. 

During the closing years of his life Gerard's eccentricities be- 
came more and more violent and alarming. But while his 
"mystic brother" was leading a life of folly and delirium, his 
other self, his normal ego, remained as peaceful and reasonable 
as ever, and never lost control in his own intellectual domain. 
This it is that renders his case so remarkable and so full of in- 
terest. In his relations with his friends and with the world, his 
judgment was as sound as ever. He has left quantities of letters 
on all sorts of subjects tha*- give no hint of mental aberration; 
many of them are marvels of grace, tenderness, and touching 
emotion. Nor did his literary talent suffer any discrimination. 
His reviews and miscellaneous articles were never more abun- 
dant, and never more enjoyed by the public than during those 
critical periods when the follies that he was continually commit- 
ting, and his restless wanderings through the streets of Paris, 
showed too plainly that one part of his brain was completely dis- 
organized. 

Restoring him to the world after his third incarceration was a 
mistake. It might well have been admitted at that time that his 
disease was incurable. His father had abandoned him, and his 
friends could not induce him to change his vagabond existence, 
or keep track of him in his vagaries. The winter was terribly 
severe. One morning at two or three o'clock, in a vile street, la 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



41 



-vtelle Lanterne, after wandering about all night, he knocked at 
the door of a wretched inn where lodging can be had for two 
sous. Afraid of the cold, the landlord would not get up to open 
the door ; and in the morning the unfortunate poet was found 
dead. He had hung himself from the bar of the closed window. 
His biographer writes : 

" His funeral was followed by a multitude dissolved in tears. 
It was a curious spectacle to see all the most distinguished men 
of Paris weeping like children, and refusing to be comforted, be- 
cause they had not been able to save their good Gerard, whom all 
had loved. The thought that he had died in misery and poverty 
added to the poignancy of their regrets. Paul de Saint-Victor 
wrote: 'He died homesick for the invisible. Open, ye eternal 
gates, and give admittance to him who passed his earthly pil- 
grimage in languishing upon your threshold. ' This may be true ; 
but poor Gerard, if in his senses, would not have chosen to perish 
in la vielle Lanterne, so sadly and ignominiously ; the manner of 
his death was due merely to the fact that he was mad." 

In summing up, M. Barine refers to his preceding studies as 
follows : 

"In Hoffman, Thomas de Quincey, and Edgar Poe, we have 
seen that brilliant literary gifts may be allied with profound de- 
terioration of the intelligence. But the case of Gerard de Nerval 
is altogether different from theirs. By excesses in opium, wine, 
or alcohol, they themselves were instrumental in extinguishing 
their genius. Gerard was born with a defective organization pre- 
destined to madness, and to his affliction the development of his 
genius appears to have been due. He was only really a poet 
when, no longer having the control of his own faculties, he wrote 
under the dictation of his 'mystic brother.'" 



A PERIL TO AMERICAN ART AND LITERA- 
TURE. 

SEVERAL critical journals, notably The C/iap-Book, have 
raised a protest against the advertising methods adopted by 
certain American publishers, the extensive use made of Charles 
Dudley Warner's photograph in advertising the literary cyclo- 
pedia of which he is editor being the particular cause of dis- 
pleasure. In an article in The Critic (November 20) on "The 
Dignity of Letters," Gerald Stanley Lee finds in this subject the 
cause of profound apprehension. He expresses his view in the 
following words : 

"It maybe scarce worthy of comment, this particular use of 
personal prestige for business purposes, but the fact that it ex- 
cites no comment, except under the breath, perhaps ; the fact that 
we take it for granted, strikes at the existence of any great art or 
literature we can ever hope to claim. The assumption that 
everything has its price, that every reputation can be traded on. 
that every glory and beauty of the soul and every grace of the 
mind can be turned to commercial enterprise — if it once get pos- 
session of our national life will honeycomb every ideal and un- 
dermine every temple of beauty that we have. The wife of the 
President of the United States has been utilized to advertise a 
particular brand of tobacco. Our greatest preacher has been 
paraded across the nation in the name of a famous soap. The 
dead face of a martyred President looks out from a thousand 
bill-boards, to spread the fame of a kidney and liver cure. Ade- 
lina Patti belongs to something — we have forgotten what, and 
Calve smiles malt extract around the world. Ex-President Har- 
rison is employed by The Ladies' Home Journal ; Gladstone is 
an advertising agency for books ; and the Prime Minister of 
China, not to be outdone by civilization, has put the serene Mon- 
golian seal of his Oriental face upon a pill. . . . To do our read- 
ing everywhere, to do our very thinking from day to day under 
the oligarchy of advertising that rules the world, to have the 
books we read determined for us by the subtle or furtive or 
flagrant advertising in the very news that is placed before our 
eyes — to know that many of our writers are the most insidious 
advertisers of all, to feel the advertiser's undertow in every 
conceit that greets us — to have our very nonsense for sale — to 
know that whichever way we turn, for pleasure or profit, or in- 



spiration or knowledge or wisdom unde- the sun, there is some 
business interest at stake — this is to strike at the very soul of 
literature, at every latent possibility for creative or beautiful 
thought. Every idea we have shall break faith with us. Noth- 
ing shall be said for the love of the thing itself. Our very Bibles 
shall make men rich. The master-spirits of the human race shall 
be summoned from stately Greece and imperial Rome and the 
isles of the sea, to work the will of syndicates, advertising 
Homer with chromos, dealing in books like coal and wood. The 
soul of beauty shall depart from us. It can not be otherwise. It 
shall leave us bare and pitiful before the world, in the clatter of 
a garrulous printing-press, but with no literature of our own to 
read, alone with our great encyclopedias of the masters who are 
dead." 



EARLY HOME-LIFE OF THE BEECHERS. 

"P IGHTEEN years after the arrival of the Mayflower (so 
-*— ' Annie Fields tells us in her "Life and Letters of Harriet 
Beecher Stowe," just published) came John Beecher and his 
mother, in that company of rich and able men and women who 
"took shipping" under the leadership of the clergyman Daven- 
port to found a colony in New England. Because Mrs. Beecher 
was "a good woman and useful to the company," they gave her 
land in New Haven, andthere they built "the old Beecher house." 
This was the beginning of the breed of the Beechers in America 
— a breed hard-headed and aggressive, impatient of any stand- 
still ; the men strong in spirit as in body, always readers and 
thinkers, and steady, bustling citizens — such stuff as went to the 
making of a Lyman Beecher, stanch Calvinist, tugging to bring 
Massachusetts back to the faith of the Puritans ; the women good 
wives, mothers, and housekeepers, accomplished in all the house- 
hold arts and crafts of their time, abounding in little handiworks 
of ingenuity, skill, and taste in needlework, embroidery, with 
variety of lace and cobweb stitch, wonderful pictures of birds and 
flowers — phenomenal pursuit of art and learning under the diflB- 
culties of eight children with inquiring minds and husbands rest- 
less and exacting. And yet we are told that when Dr. Beecher 
brought home his second wife — Harriet Porter, sister of the first 
governor of Maine — "never did stepmother make a prettier or 
greater impression" ; her facility, gracefulness, amenity, and dig- 
nity were proverbial, in spite of the eight young Beechers with 
inquiring minds, and the irrepressible Dr. Lyman, of whom it 
might be said with formidable truth that one never knew what he 
would do next. But the Beecher women were not "nervous. " 

Dr. Lyman Beecher came naturally by his grit and his grip. 
and his choice variety of very trying gifts. His father was not a 
college-bred man or a preacher, only a farmer, blacksmith, and 
tool-maker, but he had a famous fund of intellectual curiosity, 
absent-mindedness, despondency, and fun. To quote from Mrs. 
Fields 's book : 

"'Your Aunt Esther,' says Dr. Beecher, 'has known him at 
least twelve times to come in from the barn and sit down on a 
coat-pocket full of eggs, and jump up and say, "Oh, wife!" 
"Why, ray dear," she would reply, "I do wonder you can put 
eggs in your pocket after you have broken them so once." 
"Well," he would say, "I thought I should remember this time."'" 

His wife died of consumption two days after the child Lyman 
was born — a seven-months child. When the nurse saw what a 
puny thing the babe was, and that the mother could not live, she 
just wrapped up the creature and laid it aside for future consider- 
ation. Another of the women in the intervals of business 
"thought she would look," says Dr. Beecher, "and see if I was 
living, and, finding I was, concluded to wash and dress me." 
And so the champion of New England Calvinism got his foothold 
in the world by the chance thought of a homespun angel who did 
not happen at the moment to have anything else to do. Here is 
a boyhood incident : 

"'They say everybody knows about God naturally,' continued 



42 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



the old man [Lyman Beecher]. 'A lie. All such ideas are by 
teaching. One Sunday evening I was out playing. They kept 
Saturday evening, and children might play on Sunday evening as 
soon as they could see three stars. But I was so impatient I did 
not wait for that. Bill H. saw me and said : 

'""That's wicked ; there ain't three stars." 

Don't care." 

'""God says you mustn't." 

•""Don't care." 

""'He'll punish you." 

'""Well, if He does. I'll tell Aunt Benton." 

""'Well. He's bigger than Aunt Benton, and He'll put you in 
the fire and burn you forever and ever." 

"'That took hold. I understood what fire was and what for- 
ever was. What emotion I had thinking. No end ! no end ! It 
has been a sort of mainspring ever since. '" 

But the wonder of it was the continuation of this eccentric 
identity in Harriet Beecher and her brother, Henry Ward, who, 
when a boy, being very angry, was wont to run behind the barn, 
draw a long breath, and say "Damn it !" on scientific principles, 
followed by a wholesome remorse. 

We have a quaint picture of Roxana, Dr. Beecher's first wife, 
reading "Sir Charles Grandison" and Miss Burney's "Evelina" in 
the house at "Nutplains," and afterward discussing them in "the 
old spinning-mill." Roxana "vowed" she would never marry 
until she met a Grandison, and being a young woman of lively 
imagination, she presently discovered that superfine ideal in the 
person of Lyman Beecher, who, having caught a robber in his 
room one night, made the fellow lie on the floor at his bedside 
until morning, and then haled him before a magistrate. 

In 1799, when he was twenty-four years old, Dr. Beecher mar- 
ried Roxana, and was settled at East Hampton, where one fourth 
of the whales stranded on the beach were reserved for the minis- 
ter, as part of his salary. 

When their mother died, the children were told that she was 
laid in the ground, and had gone to heaven, whereupon Henry 
Ward was presently found digging under his sister Catherine's 
window with zeal and a small spade. Catherine called to him to 
know what he was doing. "Why, I'm going to heaven to find 
ma," said he. 

After the death of her mother, little Harriet was taken to visit 
her grandmother at Nutplains, where she and her small cousin 
Mary endured much catechism at the pious hands of "Aunt Har- 
riet," a stanch churchwoman who seems to have found a certain 
Beecherian consistency in honoring the King and the Declaration 
of Independence at the same time. 

The children read the Bible to their grandmother, who had a 
way of commenting upon the Apostles in the manner of an inti- 
mate and friendly acquaintance to whom frankness was quite 
allowable. She was smilingly indulgent toward the well-meant 
"freshness" of Peter: "There he is again, now; that's just like 
Peter. He's always so ready to put in." 

As for "grandma," in her secret heart she was always a Tory. 
When some patriotic American roundly abused King George in 
her presence, she took the first opportunity to tell her grandchild 
that she did not believe the King was to blame ; and then she 
opened her old English prayer-book and read in a trembling voice 
the prayers for the King and Queen and all the royal family, and 
told how it grieved her when they stopped reading them in the 
churches. She "supposed it was all right, but she couldn't bear 
to give it up," they might have some other way to settle it. 

The earliest poetry that the little Harriet ever heard were the 
ballads of Sir Walter Scott ; but for graver reading she turned to 
Rees's Cyclopedia, in which her Uncle George had read almost 
every article : 

" In those days there were few books for children. Harriet used 
to go searching hungrily through barrels of old sermons and 
pamphlets stored in a corner of the garret, looking for something 
'good to read,' 



"It seemed to her there were thousands of the most unintelli- 
gible things. An appeal' on the unlawfulness of a man marrying 
his wife's sister' turned up as she investigated, 'by twos, or 
threes, or dozens, ' till her soul despaired of finding an end. At 
last her patient search was rewarded, for at the very bottom of a 
barrel of musty sermons she discovered an ancient volume of 
' The Arabian Nights. ' With this her fortune was made, for in 
these most fascinating of fairy tales the imaginative child discov- 
ered a well-spring of joy that was all her own. 

"When things went astray with her, when her brothers started 
off on long excursions, refusing to take her with them, or in any 
other childish sorrow, she had only to curl herself up in some cor- 
ner and sail forth on her bit of enchanted carpet into fairyland to 
forget all her griefs 

"'But there was one of my father's books [said Harriet] that 
proved a mine of wealth to me. It was a happy hour when he 
brought home and set up in his bookcase Cotton Mather's "Mag- 
nalia," in a new edition of two volumes. What wonderful stories 
those ! Stories, too, about my own country. Stories that made 
me feel the very ground I trod on to be consecrated by some 
special dealing of God's providence. ' " 

And then we read of the coming of the stepmother, "so fair, so 
delicate, so elegant, that we were almost afraid to go near her." 
She graceful, dainty, and neat; they rough, red-cheeked, hearty, 
and breezy. 

When the "Waverley" novels appeared, novel-reading was re- 
garded by many respectable people as more or less disreputable, 
if not positively diabolic. A novel was not to be found in the 
Beecher house, and the girls, slyly curious, were confronted in 
their lawless excursions in pursuit of literary game by such grim 
sentinels as Law's "Serious Call" and Toplady "On Predestina- 
tion." But it was a comfort to get by heart Harmer on '"Solo- 
mon's Song," "because it told about the same sort of things I 
had once read of in the 'Arabian Nights' ; and there was the 
'State of the Clergy during the French Revolution,' full of nice 
horrible stories." Then they dug through a side closet, "a wel- 
tering ocean of pamphlets, " to find a delicious "Don Quixote," 
buried under Calls, Appeals, Sermons, Replies, and Rejoinders : 

"Great was the light and joy, therefore, when father spoke ex 
cat/tedta : 'George, you may read Scott's novels. I have always 
disapproved of novels as trash, but in these is real genius and real 
culture, and you may read them.' And we did read them ; for 
in one summer we went through 'Ivanhoe' seven times, and were 
both of us able to recite many of its scenes, from beginning to 
end, verbatim." 

Dr. Beecher often wished he could have known Byron, and 
presented to his mind his verses of religious truth. He was sure 
that if Byron could only have talked with Taylor and Beecher, 
"it might have got him out of his troubles." He openly admired 
Napoleon, and used to say he was a glorious fellow ; as for the 
Bourbons, they were "not a whit better, and imbecile to boot." 
When Napoleon was at St. Helena, the doctor was painfully ex- 
ercised concerning the state of his soul. 

In her thirteenth year the young Harriet was sent to her sister's 
school in Hartford. The school was over a harness store, and a 
nice young man worked there who had a lovely tenor voice. 
Harriet found a tender, fond delight in hearing him sing : 

"When in cold oblivion's shade 
Beauty, wealth, and power are laid, 
When, around the sculptured shrine, 
Moss shall cling and ivy twine, 
Where immortal spirits reign, 
There shall we all meet again." 

Naturally, under such inspiration she made a metrical trans- 
lation of Ovid, which was read at a school exhibition ; also, she 
began a drama called "Cleon" — scene laid in the court of Nero. 
She filled "blank-book after blank-book" with this ambitious effu- 
sion, until her sister Catherine pounced down upon her, and set 
her to digging in Butler's " Analogy" and Baxter's " Saint's Rest. " 

Then she was converted, and had an awful time of it among 
her pious kinsfolk, who would not let her alone. Her sister 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



43 



Catherine feared there might be something wrong in the case of 
a lamb that had come into the fold without being chased all over 
the lot. "Harriet, do you feel that if the universe should be de- 
stroyed [awful pause!] you could be happy with God alone?" 
"Yes, sir." 

Dr. Beecher could ask such questions as that, but it is difficult 
to imagine how he could have been happy without his ladder and 
his woodsaw, and somebody to tie his cravat ; 

" Jf he was to preach in the evening he was to be seen all day 
talking with whoever would talk, accessible to all, full of every- 
body's aflfairs, business, and burdens, till an hour or two before 
the time, when he would rush up into his study (which he always 
preferred should be the topmost room of the house), and, throw- 
ing off his coat, after a swing or two with the dumbbells to settle 
the balance of his muscles, he would sit down and dash ahead, 
making quantities of hieroglyphic notes on small stubbed bits of 
paper, about as big as the palm of his hand. The bells would 
begin to ring and still he would write. They would toll loud and 
long, and his wife would say, ' He will certainly be late, and then 
would be running up- and down-stairs of messengers to see that 
he was finished, till, just as the last stroke of the bell was dying 
away, he would emerge from the study with his coat very much 
awry, and come down the stairs like a hurricane, stand impa- 
tiently, protesting while female hands that ever lay in wait ad- 
justed his cravat and settled his coat-collar, calling loudly the 
while for a pin to fasten together the stubbed little bits of paper 
aforesaid, which being duly dropped into the crown of his hat, 
and hooking wife or daughter like a satchel on his arm, away he 
would start on such a race through the streets as left neither brain 
nor breath till the church was gained. Then came the process of 
getting in through crowded aisles wedged up with heads, the 
bustle, and stir, and hush to look at him, as, with a matter-of-fact, 
business-like push, he elbowed his way through them and up the 
pulpit stairs." 

As to that excellent and terrible sister Catharine, a distin- 
guished theologian said to a German professor, concerning one of 
her pamphlets : "The ablest refutation of Edwards on 'The Will' 
that was ever written is the work of a woman, the daughter of 
Dr. Lyman Beecher." "God forgive Christopher Columbus for 
his discovering America," said the professor. 

In their removal to Cincinnati the family found no relief to 
their perplexities and cares ; every Beecher of them remained 
just as peculiar as ever. 

During the long summer and autumn of her husband's absence, 
Mrs. Stowe lived at her father's home in Cincinnati, busy with 
writing for a local paper, of which her brother, Henry Ward, w-as 
temporary editor, as well as for other journals in New York and 
the West. Andshekeptadaily journal for her husband : "Where- 
in we see, as in a glass, the crumbling and upheaving, here and 
there, of the great earthquake of war for slavery, which was still 
to wait a quarter of a century for its awful development." 

"Uncle Tom's Cabin" was published March 20, 1852. Ten 
thousand copies were sold in a few days; three hundred thousand 
within a year ; and eight power-presses were strained day and 
night to keep pace with the demand for it. The story of its 
production, as told by Mrs. Field, has already been given in our 
columns. 



THE STAGE AS AN ETHICAL FORCE. 

SOME one once charged Henry Arthur Jones, the English 
dramatist, who, above all others at present, insists on the 
power which religion ougjit to wield in the drama, with ranking 
the ethical influence of the stage next to that of the church. He 
quietly replied : " Why put the stage second ?" Mr. Beerbohm 
Tree, the actor and manager of Her Majesty's Theater in Lon- 
don, sympathizes to a considerable degree with Mr. Jones's view. 
He was recently interviewed by Percy Cross Standing for The 
Humanitarian, and expressed himself in part as follows : 

"As an actor-manager of a dozen years' standing I can not. for 



instance, bring myself to favor the idea of a state-aided theater, 
however much, as an artist, I might approve it. Without wishing 
in the least to dogmatize, it seems to me that the stage can be 
made almost as great a power for good as the church itself. Was 
it not 5'our Ibsen who once publicly said that he wanted to create 
an aristocracy of thought in which every man and woman might 
join? And I firmly believe that the mission of the theater is to 
contribute, by every means within the power of art, toward the 

creation of that ideal condition 

''I know that there still exists a class who maintain through 
thick and thin, in and out of season, that the theater is a curse 
and not a blessing, an incentive to vice rather than to virtue. In 
such a matter I would prefer to go with Sir Edward Russell w; en 
he claims, on behalf of such an author for the stage as Ibsen, mat 





m ^^f '^' ^^^^^^^^^H 






^^iHl^^l 



H. BEERBOHM TREE. 

writings belonging to this vogue make, the strongest possible ap- 
peal on behalf of prenuptial morality and its corollary. Sir 
Edward, I observe, goes even further than this, maintaining that 
within his knowledge young couples have been brought to a 
stronger and truer realization of their duties and responsibilities 
to each other, by the mere study of the truths sought to be incul- 
cated by the Norwegian dramatist. For my own part, I would 
point with pride to the example of health and strength set by many 
of our English writers for the theater, from Addison and Con- 
greve to Charles Reade and Boucicault, not to mention that 
greatest of all great intellects, Shakespeare." 



William M. Chase, in a recent talk to his art class, as reported in The 
Art Interchange, disapproves of the idea that every artist must have a 
specialty. He says : " When a youngster I was oppressed by the feeling 
that I had no leaning toward any special line of painting. I saw other 
painters— all apparently with their specialty — one painting marines, an- 
other portraits, another cattle or sheep, and it worried me that there was 
no one thing that I felt called to do. It seemed to me as if something must 
be wrong. I am glad of it to-day. I pity the painter who has to wait for 
the time when he can go to the seashore and sit on the sand and paint his 
marines, and I pity the man who thinks about nothing but cattle, who 
dreams about cattle, and can think of nothing else. Most of them decided 
upon their specialty when they were too young and have consequently 
made a failure of it. I get the same sort of pleasure from my work when 
the mercury falls below zero as in the heat of suminer. It is gratifying to 
think that the master whose work I admire above all others had no spe- 
cialty — that he was equally interested in portraits, landscapes, cattle, still 
life, and everything else. Velasquez painted a cat, a dog. and a horse. 
The white-headed horse which hangs in the Madrid gallery was fine enough 
for him to have rested his reputation upon." 



u 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION. 



SOME EXPLANATIONS OF HYPNOTISM AND 
ALLIED PHENOMENA. 

IN an interesting article in Cosmos (Paris, December 4) M. 
Albert Battandier brings together and compares the different 
current explanations of the class of phenomena that have hypno- 
tism as their type. His article is primarily a review of a recent 
French work in which all these phenomena are explained on the 
old mesmeric hypothesis of a vital or animal "magnetism" ; but 
its scientific value lies rather in the introduction, in which he 
makes the comparison of which we have just spoken, and from 
which we shall quote principally. Says M. Battandier: 

"There now exists a series of facts that are consistent with each 
other, while they seem completely outside of what are called the 
laws of nature. Such is hypnosis, or provoked sleep, and every- 
thing which is related, directly or indirectly, to this class of phe- 
nomena. To deny these facts would be now impossible, so 
numerous are they, and so easily verifiable. They have also at 
their service a considerable literature, of which we have only to 
run over a publisher's catalog to get an idea. The fact being 
established, one's instinctive desire is to get at its cause, that is, 
to find the scientific theory of the fact— and here is where the 
reader's troubles begin. 

"Fine theories distract scientific men, and each has its ardent 
defenders 

"We find at the outset that the explanations can be divided into 
two distinct groups or families : the first can be called the 'Be- 
lievers' Group,' the second the 'Scientists' Group.' 

"The former is composed in the first place of those orthodox 
Catholics who, examining the question superficially, see only the 
work of the Devil. It is the Devil who effects the hypnotic sleep. 
He it is who produces the phenomena of 'exteriorization of sensi- 
bility' ; he is the efficient cause of table-turning, telepathy, etc. 
In a word, there is but one explanation of all these facts — the act 
of a demon seeking to deceive us." 

A somewhat similar explanation, we are told, is that of Sir 
William Crookes, who in well-known experiments has recorded 
movements produced without human contact, by what he calls 
'psychic force.' This force is received by the mediums and 
transmitted by them to material objects. This explanation har- 
monizes with the preceding and, indeed, differs from it only in 
being less clear. We quote again : 

"We come now to the scientific group. Here we find three 
hypotheses. The first connects all these facts to hypnotism and 
its results. It is well known that hypnotism may be produced by 
fixing the attention on a bright point (' Braidism') . Here is the 
starting-point of the theory of Charcot and the Salpetriere, which 
has become the ' Parisian School. ' Owing to the nervous fatigue 
that this fixation of the attention produces, the subjects fall into 
a special state analogous to normal sleep, whose three phases are 
lethargy, catalepsy, and somnambulism 

"The success of this explanation is due to the fact that it ex- 
cludes all outside intervention whatever; it is particularly agree- 
able to certain persons who do not like to have their quiet dis- 
turbed, or their preconceived theories overthrown, and who prefer 
to see nothing rather than to see what might overturn their 
cherished hypotheses. Again, this explanation offers another 
advantage. Hypnosis being nothing but a vulgar malady, a 
morbid affection of the nervous system, the physician becomes its 
sole judge, which puts him in a privileged situation. Thus this 
theory, both by its own advantages and by the names of those 
who have advocated it, has had and yet has much success. 

"The second is that of Bernheim of Nancy, and is based on the 
phenomena of suggestion. . . . We have seen that with Charcot 
hypnotism has three states ; here these do not exist, or at least are 
only different degrees of an exclusively mental fact — namely, 
suggestion, which gives to an idea once formed an omnipotent 
influence over the nervous system. . . . M. Nizet, in summing 
up the principles of the Nancy School, says: 'It is suggestion, 
the action of the idea on the body, that determines all these 



phenomena; they are not of a pathologic, but of a psychologic 
character. Hypnotism exaggerates, in favor of a special psychic 
concentration, the suggestibility that we all possess in a certain 
degree. That is to say, the subject accomplishes passively, 
docilely, the acts suggested to him, because of an irresistible 
tendency to realize images formed in his mind. ' 

" There is a third hypothesis that may at least serve, together 
with the two preceding, to explain these phenomena. It is set 
forth by M. E. Gasc-Desfosses in a volume entitled 'Vital Mag- 
netism : Recent Experiments followed by Scientific and Philo- 
sophic Inductions. ' Here we at once leave the domain of facts 
to which we are accustomed 

" What is vital magnetism ? No clear definition exists. . . . 
We may say that it is a fluid possessed, in greater or less abun- 
dance, by every human organism that is capable of being directed 
by the sole action of the will and of then producing effects anal- 
ogous to or greater than those of Braidism or suggestion." 

The next question that arises regards the existence of this fluid, 
and we are told that the author of the book to which reference is 
made strongly believes in it. His proofs, which we will not de- 
tail here, depend largely on facts that have not been accepted as 
such by the scientific world at large, such as the movement of a 
galvanometer-needle by the act of the will alone, the action of a 
human body as a magnet, the phenomena of the so-called "odic 
force, " first brought to notice bj' Dr. Reichenbach, and the whole 
series of phenomena known as telepathy or thought-transference. 
M. Battandier thinks that we may perhaps accept part of M. 
Desfosses's theory without giving up the others. He says : 

" It is always rare to see a hypnotic effect produced by a single 
cause. These phenomena are susceptible, for the most part, of 
being produced indifferently by one or another of several distinct 
causes. Thus, it is rare to find a subject who is not a neurotic, 
and consequently a debilitated person — an invalid. It is rare to 
employ vital magnetism without bringing in suggestion, and 
7n'ce versa. But without denying the influence of neuropathy or 
suggestion, and while recognizing the part that they play in the 
production of these facts, we need not be exclusive, and the 
proofs of vital magnetism are now numerous enough and solid 
enough to convince us of their reality." — Translated for The 
Literary Digest. 



IS NEWTON'S LAW OF GRAVITATION 
EXACT ? 

THE law of gravitation as laid down by Sir Isaac Newton has 
been doubted or criticized from time to time, but usually 
on grounds that men of science have been unable to accept. 
While, therefore, students have always acknowledged that it is 
purely experimental and may not hold at all in regions of space 
to which our observations and measurements can not penetrate, 
they have held that we have no direct evidence that it is not, as 
its discoverer termed it, "universal." But now a German astron- 
omer, Prof. H. Seeliger, of Munich, casts doubts on its exactness 
for reasons that admit of statement in exact mathematics and de- 
serve a respectful hearing from all scientific men. Professor See- 
liger's article, which appeared originally in the Proceedings of 
the Bavarian Academy, November, is translated in Popular 
Astronomy, January. His contention, briefly stated, is that if 
finite bodies are scattered uniformly over infinite space, then the 
quantity of matter that exists is infinite and the attraction of this 
infinite tho scattered mass should be, if Newton's law is true^ 
much greater than it actually is. The law under fire is, as will 
be remembered, that every body in the universe attracts every 
other body with a force that varies directly as the mass and in- 
versely as the square of the distance. That is, if the mass is 
doubled the attraction is doubled, but if the body is moved twice 
as far away the attraction is divided by four. Professor Seeliger 
himself expresses his idea as follows : 

" About two years ago I drew attention to certain difficulties 
arising out of the attempt to extend Newton's law of gravitation 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



45 



to infinite space. The considerations then adduced showed the 
necessity of choosing between two hypotheses ; viz. : i. The sum- 
total of the masses of the universe is infinitely great, in which 
case Newton's law can not be regarded as a mathematically exact 
expression for the attractive forces in operation. 2. The New- 
tonian law is rigorously exact, in which case the infinite spaces 
of the universe can not be filled with matter of finite density, 
inasmuch as I am wholly unable to find adequate reasons for the 
second of these assumptions, I have, in another place, decided in 

lavor of the first 

"The problem under treatment has some points of resemblance 
toanother well-known question. Cheseaux and, after him, Olbers 
propounded the question as to why the average brightness of the 
celestial vault is so very small, whereas it should be comparable 
with solar brightness, if the number of luminous bodies in the 
universe be assumed as infinitely large." 

It is of course impossible to quote here the purely mathematical 
demonstration given by Professor Seeliger. It follows the lines 
indicated above, and appears conclusive. It by no means fol- 
lows, however, that all who accept it would necessarily agree 
with the author in his choice of alternatives. Many would doubt- 
less prefer to consider space as limited, and Newton's law as 
holding with exactness in every part of it. 



CURATIVE POWER OF SLEEP. 

IN an article entitled "The Slumber Cure," contributed to 
Health Culture, New York, November, by Dr. Felix L. 
Oswald, the author asserts the sovereign efficacy of sleep in a 
great variety of complaints. He says : 

"Brain-work succeeds best while the activity of the animal 
organism is reduced to an indispensable minimum. The mind is 
never clearer than early in the morning, when the work of diges- 
tion is finished ; and for similar reasons digestion proceeds most 
prosperously while the brain is at rest. Mental distress almost 
paralyzes the bowels of sensitive individuals, and a business man 
of my acquaintance denies himself to all comers for the first three 
hours after dinner to lessen the risk of his dyspepsia being aggra- 
vated by unwelcome news. . . . The healing and soothing fac- 
ulty of nature can work to best advantage while the meddlesome 
mind not only forbears interference, but ignores her proceedings 
altogether, and consents to undergo the temporary eclipse of 
slumber or of a deep fainting fit. 'We owe that victory to the 
snow-storms of the last week,' said General Traun, of the Aus- 
trian army; 'there was a messenger on the way with the usual 
budget of crazy instructions from the Kriegs-Hofrath (the chief 
war-office), but the snow stopped him, and being once left to 
ourselves we rushed in and routed the enemy, ' 

"Even thus the 'animal soul' avails itself of blest periods of 
non-interference, and it is a suggestive fact that in emergencies 
of mortal danger the healing All-mother begins her work by 
knocking the meddler silly in order to get her hands wholly free. 
An overdose of stimulants, a fearful fright, act like a blow on the 
bead, and bring on fainting fits that often defy restoratives, but 
subside of their own accord as soon as the crisis has been 
weakened and the risk of interference has become less fatally 
serious 

"Sleep, the twin brother of syncope, gives the mystic healing 
power a similar opportunity, and it is almost incredible how short 
an interval of 'conscious cerebration' may often suffice to effect a 
favorable decision in the crisis of an organic disorder. . Does the 
animal soul, like the healers of the Parsee sanctuaries, try to 
<;onceal its procedures, or shall we assume that the activity of the 
mind is so serious a drain upon the resources of the organism that 
it prevents the success of the briefest remedial ministrations? A 
correspondent of mine, who is subject to attacks of spasmodic 
asthma, often passes a whole afternoon on suburban trolley-cars, 
knowing from experience that the rocking motion and the sight 
of monotonous streets are apt to result in cat-naps, and that the 
shortest nap of that sort is sufficient to break the spell of the 
dyspnoea — the distressing difficulty to draw a full breath of life- 
air 

"A mere cat-nap is also sufficient to relieve sick headaches, 
dizziness, spasms of colic and neuralgia ; and protracted slumber — 



five or six hours of dreamless sleep — has saved more than one life 
that could not have been as much as respited by all the drugs 
mentioned in Bartholomew's 'Handbook of Therapeutics.' 
Chronic diarrhoea has been known to yield to that specific, and 
in many kinds of fevers, too, everything is gained if the patient 
can be helped to a few hours of deep slumber without the use of 
narcotics. Monotonous work, purposely continued to the verge 
of fatigue, may help to relieve insomnia, and in obstinate cases 
the application of warm winding sheets to the feet and of cool 
cataplasms to the head will promote the same purpose by allevi- 
ating the engorgement of the cerebral blood-vessels. 

"Opiates only mock the patient with the appearance of relief, 
and, like brandy in the role of a dyspepsia cure, frequently result 
in an aggravation of the trouble. Laudanum paralyzes the diges- 
tive organs, and not only fails to reproduce the conditions of nat- 
ural slumber, but goads the brain into fever-dreams, more per- 
manently injurious than sleeplessness. " 



THE 



WARFARE BETWEEN MICROBES AND 
MAN. 



WHEN microbes began to be written about, people were 
much afraid of them. But so many varieties and such an 
immense number of them have now been described, and the mor- 
bid manifestations attributed to these little beings have been so 
varied, that, in the opinion of Dr. H. Beauregard, an eminent 
physician of Paris, this fear has been succeeded in the public 
mind by indifference and even skepticism. It has been perceived, 
observes the doctor, that all have not died who were threatened, 
and the vast number of persons who get their ideas from the daily 
press reason that, if these microscopic creatures have the destruc- 
tive power which is attributed to them, we have been their prey 
for a long time, and yet are we still alive. This consoling 
thought is sufficient to calm apprehensions. 

Dr. Beauregard, therefore, in the Revue Pedagogique (Paris, 
October), discusses what should be our mental attitude toward 
microbes, in the form of three questions : 

1. Do microbes deserve all the noise which has been made 
about them, and are they as dangerous and as universal as has 
been said ? 

2. How can we resist them ? 

3. How can we prevent their attacks on us from being fatal? 
He says on these points : 

" Microbes are entitled to their sad notoriety. They are every- 
where, in the air that we breathe, in the water that we drink, in 
the food which we swallow for nourishment ; dust contains in- 
numerable quantities of them, our garments are covered with 
them, our hair affords an asylum for legions of these tiny crea- 
tures. It is idle to say that among the countless variety of mi- 
crobes there are some good ones which are not harmful and do 
not engender maladies, for the most recent researches have de- 
monstrated that there are some inoffensive microbes which can 
become very dangerous if they can manage to traverse several 
times in succession the animal organism. That is the truth. 
What is true, moreover, is that it has been proved beyond con- 
tradiction that microbes cause the most terrible maladies, those 
which decimate populations, like phthisis, the plague, cholera, 
typhoid fever, typhus, yellow fever, scarlatina, to mention only 
the best-known and most murderous diseases. 

"When the part played by microbes began to be recognized, it 
was asked how organized form, of dimensions so small that it 
requires great enlargements of the microscope (enlargements of 
a thousand and fifteen hundred diameters) to distinguish their 
morphological characteristics, can get the better of individuals of 
a height which, in comparison with the attacking force, is enor- 
mous. This question was answered by pointing out the incalcu- 
lable number of the microbes and by recalling that the human 
body is but a considerable collection of microscopic elements, the 
cells, so that what was at first thought to be a war between a 
pigmy and a giant, is, in fact, one between individuals of about 
the same sizp. By reason also of the extremely rapid multiplica- 
tion of microbes they soon find themselves sufficiently numerous 



46 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



to win the battle. This point of view has not lost its value, but 
to-day we know something more. It is not only and especially in 
the place where they are present that microbes exercise a melan- 
choly influence over the organisms they invade. The principal 
cause of their harmfulness is in the products of their life in the 
midst of the tissues. These products, excreted by the microbes, 
are, in truth, energetic poisons which, physicallj' or chemically, 
provoke reactions in their surroundings and which can cause pro- 
found alterations in the organ. It is not essentially necessary 
for the microbes to invade the entire organism and multiply 
there with rapidity in order that the poisonous manifestations 
due to their excretions shall be felt. Thus it is that the microbe 
of diphtheria, often localized on the tonsils and throat, produces 
in the organism grave disorders in the veins, the joints, and other 
parts, far away from the place where the microbe is encamped. 
There is, in a word, poisoning at a distance, which proves suffi- 
ciently the preponderating part played by the poisons excreted 
by the microbes. This fact, of course, does not weaken the effect 
of their number, since it is very evident that the more abundant 
the producers of poisons are the greater the quantity of poison 
which will be produced. 

"All this being so, let us see how it comes about that we are 
able to resist the attacks of so many enemies, apart, that is, from 
all medical treatment. It is my duty, alongside of the very dis- 
couraging picture I have just sketched, without exaggerating 
anything, to place, with the same care to keep within the absolute 
limits of truth, a more comforting picture, pointing out the means 
with which we are naturally provided to repel invasion. 

"Suppose a legion of microbes which, coming from the outside, 
attacks us. Some fasten on the skin, others penetrate by the 
mouth or the nose. Before reaching us, they have already en- 
countered conditions which put them, in a certain measure, in a 
state of inferiority. The oxygen of the air and light are agents 
which injure the vitality of the microbes. From this fact results 
the elementary principle of hygiene to keep the apartments in 
which we live well aired, and to admit into them floods of light. 
Having reached the skin, microbes find an efficacious barrier in 
the cells of the epidermis, of which those directly on the outside 
are horny and thus in the best condition for not being traversed 
easily, and are, moreover, in a continual state of desquamation 
or scaling off. This may be called the physical defense of the 
epidermis. That is not all. The skin contains glands, produc- 
ing sweat and oily matter. These matters are eminently un- 
favorable for keeping up life in microbes. If some of them, 
however, availmg themselves of the openings of these glands, 
get within and think that they have overcome the obstacles which 
prevent them from reaching the internal tissues which are the 
object of their travels, they are mistaken, for so soon as the 
glands work a little actively, in consequence of labor-provoking 
perspiration or the active secretion of the oily matter, the mi- 
crobes, borne on this current of secretion, find themselves 
promptly turned out of doors. Hence the efficaciousness, from 
an hygienic point of view, of care of the skin, of active perspira- 
tion, and the like. 

" Returning now to the microbes which have entered the open 
cavities, the mouth and nostrils (I do not speak of the ears, which 
can defend themselves by their epidermis and the secretion of 
wax), there also the surfaces are clothed with a membrane formed 
of little cells not unlike the cells of the epidermis of the skin, and 
this membrane is constantly moistened with liquids (nasal 
mucus, saliva) which are not at all favorable to the development 
of the assailant. If he, continuing his march, manages to get 
into the oesophagus and so reach the stomach, he finds there 
conditions which are not good for his health, in the shape of 
gastric secretions, such as chlorhydric, lactic, and other acids. 
This is so true that many microbes are absolutely incapable of 
getting through the stomach and penetrating the intestines, for 
they have been so battered and knocked about and their vitality 
has been so much lowered by their troubles on the road, that they 
end by being destroyed and even digested in the stomach. 

"It has been proved, however, that mucous surfaces are not 
always an obstacle to the penetration of the microbes, even when 
these surfaces are intact. Supposing the microbes manage to 
penetrate the tissues, there they meet with new obstacles ; there 
they find, in the first place, what are called phagocytes, that is. 
cells which are eaters, or elements of the lymph, which show sur- 
prising activity, swallowing the microbes and digesting them. 
It should be remarked that these phagocytes are most abundant 



at threatened points. If, in spite of phagocytes, the microbes get 
into the blood, they have not won the battle. The serum of the 
blood has microbe-killing properties ; the oxygen that is carried 
into the blood disagrees with many of the microbes, as carbonic 
acid does with others, and thus it is that the blood is rarely in- 
vaded by microbes in the course of the maladies they engender. 
Driven then from vessels which do not offer them a satisfactory 
field of culture, they can only take up their residence in the heart 
of the organs, and even there they meet with elements of resist- 
ance which are often efficacious, such as defensive proteins and 
other antitoxic substances produced by these organs. 

"To sum up, the human body is perfectly organized to resist 
the different phases of the attack of the microbes. This explains 
how it is that, in spite of their multitude and their bad temper, 
microbes have not yet annihilated the human race. 

"It must be kept in mind, nevertheless, that the success of the 
resistance depends upon the quality of the tissue into which the 
vigilant and ill-tempered microbe strives to penetrate. I have 
told how things go on when the organism is healthy. If, how- 
ever, before the microbe reaches the haven where he would be, 
the general functions of the system are troubled, either heredi- 
tarily or by reason of an acquired abnormal state, such as gout, 
diabetes, visceral, pulmonary, or hepatic inflammations (to speak 
of a few states only), the conditions of resistance are changed, 
for these, by vitiating the regular functions of the organs, affect 
the vitality of the tissues and particularly the phagocytic ele- 
ments. The microbes are destroyed in much smaller quantities, 
and they no longer find antitoxic products which ought normally 
to oppose their development and neutralize the effects of their 
own poisons. In a word, they find a field of culture in which 
they can not fail to flourish and multiply. 

"The consequences are immediate and fatal. The infection of 
the tissues begins; the poisons produced by the microbes are 
spread through the organism. Such is the mechanism of the 
origin of diseases called infectious. 

" From all this it is plain that everything which enfeebles our 
vitality is a dangerous condition and exposes us to invasion. For 
that, it is not necessary that there be deep injuries, affecting this 
or that organ. The most varied influences can come in play to 
create in us a state of inferiority, which will oblige us to surren- 
der to our foe. Privations, great fatigue, the ingestion into the 
system of toxic substances, intoxication by lead or alcohol, at- 
mospheric conditions, excessive heat, intense cold, are so many 
elements which must be reckoned with. 

"There is no warrant, then, for neglecting microbes and con- 
sidering them as an enemy of slight importance. It would be 
folly to think that we may fold our arms, and trust to our natural 
powers of resistance. On the contrary, we should always keep' 
in mind that we have in microbes terrible adversaries, always on 
the alert to surprise us, and against which we are bound to main- 
tain as intact as possible the national defenses with which our 
organism can oppose them." — Translated J or The Literary 
Digest. 

HORNET'S STING AN ANTIDOTE FOR SNAKE 

BITE. 

MPHISALIX, the French authority on the venoms of in- 
• sects and reptiles, has established beyond a doubt that 
the poison of the hornet in sufficient quantity renders one immune 
to that of the viper. This interesting and unexpected fact, and 
the manner in which it was established, are set forth in the fol- 
lowing note, which we translate from the Revue Scientifique 
(Paris, December i8) : 

"The poison of the hymenoptera has been studied by various 
observers, among others by Paul Bert. According to him and to 
M. Cloez, the poison of the carpenter-bee owes its activity to the 
presence of an organic base in union with an unknown fixed acid. 
According to M. Langer, in the venom of the bee there is found 
a small quantity of formic acid, but the toxic substance is an 
alkaloid that resists heat and cold as well as the action of acids. 

"But altho there is thus disagreement on the subject of the 
chemical composition of this poison, it is not the same with its 
physiologic action. P. Bert, having caused the carpenter-bee te- 
sting sparrows, saw them die from stoppage of respiration, in 
complete paralysis; and recently M. Langer has killed rabbits. 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



47 



and dogs by inoculating them with bee-poison, their symptoms 
being similar to those of poisoning by the bite of the viper. 

"Now, in experiments whose results we are about to describe, 
M. Phisalix has investigated the relation of the poison of the 
hornet to that of the viper, and he first tried to see whether the 
former did not possess immunizing qualities against the latter. 
The results fully confirmed his expectations. 

"The poison extracted from the stings of fifteen hornets, in- 
jected into the leg of a guinea-pig, caused a lowering of tempera- 
ture by 4°, which lasted thirty-six hours. At the point of inocu- 
lation were produced redness and swelling which finally reached 
the abdomen and ended in mortification of the skin. In a similar 
experiment, where the same dose of poison was heated to 8o° for 
twenty minutes, there was no general injury and the local action 
was confined to a slight temporary swelling. 

"Likewise the inoculation of a glycerinated maceration of 
hornets caused only slight local troubles. But the organism of 
the animals that received this poison underwent such modifica- 
tions that they became able to resist a subsequent inoculation 
with viper's poison. 

"This resistance is such that a guinea-pig thus immunized can 
support, without the least danger, a dose of viper's poison capa- 
ble of killing him ordinarily in four to five hours. The duration 
of this immunity varies from five to eleven days. Thus the poison 
of the hornet possesses a slight antitoxic action against that of 
the viper ; while, when inoculated at the same time as the latter, 
it retards death considerably. 

"M. Phisalix, who has investigated the nature of the substance 
which in the complex mixture that he employed effects the im- 
munization against the viper's venom, finds that this substance 
is not destroyed by heating to 120°, that it is in part retained by 
a filter, that it is soluble in alcohol, and that it is neither an albu- 
minoid substance nor an alkaloid. 

"In fine, a full acquaintance with the nature of this substance 
will necessitate further research." — Translated for The Liter- 
ary Digest. 

THE PREVENTION OR ABATEMENT OF 

SMOKE. 

THE recent failure of the attempt to show manufacturers that 
they are wasting fuel by not consuming their smoke does 
not seem to have dampened the ardor of those who are trying to 
abate the smoke-nuisance. Discussing the efforts of these re- 
formers. Gassier' s Magazine says editorially : 

"The simple theory in the whole matter of smoke always has 
been that the best way to prevent it is not to make it, and it is 
along this line that intelligent inventive effort has, of late years, 
been expended. The fireman, too, as a smoke-preventer or a 
smoke-making nuisance, has attracted attention, and the impor- 
tance of his function is to-day tolerably well appreciated by most 
boiler-owners. But, after all, there are in every manufacturing 
district furnaces which owners will not provide, except under 
compulsion, with possibly expensive smoke-preventing equip- 
ment, in the shape of mechanical stokers, for example, however 
economical in final results, and to these the simple smoke-washer, 
or absorber, did they but know of it, would be an acceptable 
means of helping to suppress the objectionable chimney dis- 
charges. " 

A good type of such an apparatus, the invention of Colonel 
Duller, has recently been installed at South Kensington Museum 
(London). To quote again : 

"With this apparatus the products of combustion, before being 
permitted to enter the chimney, are taken up one leg of an in- 
verted U-shaped flue, made of galvanized sheet iron, being as- 
sisted in their upward course by a steam jet. The latter assists 
also in the condensation of the tarry hydrocarbon products and 
saturates the dust with water vapor. In descending the second 
leg of the flue, the products of combustion are brought in contact 
with a large number of upwardly inclined water sprays which are 
intended to thoroughly wash the smoke, moistening all the parti- 
cles of dust. The smoke and water next pass through a chamber 
containing a helical passage in which they are made to still fur- 
ther commingle, and after all this the gases are allowed to pass 
into the chimney proper, while the now sulfurous wash-water is 



drained off. The draft in the flue and chimney, measured with 
a water gage, is said to have shown no diminution after the 
direction of the apparatus. . . . Tests with a similar equipment 
at Glasgow showed in one case a reduction of the soot in the 
gases from 73jJ^ grains per 100 cubic feet before treatment to 2 
grains after treatment; and in a second case, from 23.3 to 1.5 
grains." 

A Comparison of Tires and of Pavements.— Some 

French experiments on resistance to traction with various tires 
and on various pavements — a subject of growing interest now 
that the horseless carriage has come among us — are described by 
M. Hospitaller in a paper presented to the Societedes Electriciens. 
The trials were carried on, as we learn from Electricity, by M. 
Fonvieille under the supervision of M. Michelin with a view to 
comparing the coefBcients of traction of vehicles fitted with iron, 
solid rubber, and pneumatic tires on various kinds of pavements 
and at different speeds. The figures below give the tractive force 
in pounds per ton and the speed in miles per hour : 

ist. Boulevard de la Seine — Macadam in good condition, hard, dry, and 
dustv : 

Tractive Force in Lbs. 
Speed, per Ton. 

per hour, Solid Pneu- 

miles. Iron. rubber. matic 

Wind from ahead 7.2 59-97 54-oi 49-16 

" " behind 7.2 55-78 50.26 45-86 

" " ahead 12.05 75-84 65.92 54-67 

" " behind 12.05 60.85 S5-56 52.47 

2d. Same boulevard — Macadam in good condition, hard but slightly 
muddy : 

6.7 60.42 58.43 52.92 

12.2 87.98 78.50 70.12 

3d. Same boulevard— Macadam in good condition, but very wet : 

1Z.8 100.55 93.93 77.18 

Trials on other boulevards developed much the same results, 
showing the pneumatic tire to be never less than 10 per cent, 
better than the iron tire, and at times as high as 30 to 35 per 
cent, better over bad pavements. 



SCIENCE BREVITIES. 

The dissection of cats and dogs is recommended as a leg^itimate school 
exercise for young children by Prof. Burt G. Wilder, in Science, December 
17. He says : "Children are spontaneously interested in natural objects. 
Like the terror of dogs, the squeamishness that would induce reluctance to 
handle a ' specimen ' is commonly an artificial condition induced by the ig- 
norant or thoughtless interference of parents or teachers. Left to itself the 
healthy child sucks in knowledge through its finger-tips. ... If it be 
legitimate to slaughter animals for food, it is even more so to kill them hu- 
manely (as with chloroform) in order to gain information. This is par- 
ticularly true of the superfluous cats and dogs that lead miserable lives in 
most cities. Children should be taught that the greatest kindness toward 
such is a speedy and painless death." 

In proof of his assertion that the children of a drunken father suffer for 
his sins. Dr. Anthony, writing in the Centralblatt fiir Gynakologie, October 
16, tells of a healthy woman who was married at the age of seventeen to a 
notorious drunkard, and who had by him, in her nine years of married life, 
five miserable little children, of whom four died within the first ten days 
after birth. "The fifth one, by great care, was raised to the fourth year, 
when it also died. After this the woman was separated from her husband. 
She then married a healthy man, and had by him two children. The elder 
g^rew to be four years old, and the younger, at the time of writing, was 
fourteen days old. Both were in perfect health. This great contrast be- 
tween the children of different fathers plainly shows . . . that the alco- 
holism of the father of the first children destroyed their vitality." 

A METHOD of determining moisture in soils by measurements of their 
electrical resistance is described by Milton Whitney, chief of the Division 
of Soils of the Department of Agriculture, in his annual report to the secre- 
tary. As quoted by The Western Electrician, Mr. Whitney says: "Sixteen 
stations have been equipped with electrical instruments in various parts of 
the country, and in several important types of soil. Records have been 
kept at these stations for periods varying from two to four months, and it 
has been found that the method can be used by any one with ordinary care. 
.•\s a result of these field records I feel perfectly satisfied with the operations 
of the method, and equally satisfied that it will prove of great value in soil 
investigations, as well as of practical and commercial value. One great 
value of the method is that the electrodes are permanently buried in the 
field at any depth desired, and the field can be cultivated or cropped as 
usual. The electrical resistance between the electrodes is read from a 
scale, and this resistance varies according to the square of the water con- 
tents. By once thoroughly standardizing the electrodes and by the use of 
tables furnished by the division, the moisture contents of the soil can be 
determined at any time from the electrical resistance of the soil." 



48 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 18y8 



THE RELIGIOUS WORLD. 



THE THEOLOGY OF DR. WATSON. 

IN view of the call extended by a Presbyterian church at 
Kensington, England, to Rev. Dr. John Watson ("Ian 
Maclaren") — a call which has been declined — The Christian 
Leader (Scotch Presbyterian, Glasgow) gives editorial expression 
to its opinion of the theology of the gentleman under considera- 
tion, and of the action of the church in inviting him to its pulpit. 
The editorial is interesting as it shows how this popular preacher 
and story-writer is regarded by some of his own denomination 
in his own country, for The Christian Leader is one of the lead- 
ing religious papers in Scotland and speaks for a large constit- 
uency. It says that the "country generally" will be astonished 
that "in the face of the opinions with which Dr. Watson has made 
the whole world acquainted, a majority could be found in a loyal 
Presbyterian congregation who could deliberately make a selec- 
tion of the kind and further resolve to proceed with it in the face 
of protest." 

It raises the question whether the Kensington church is igno- 
rant of Dr. Watson's views, or whether it has desired him that 
it may have a popular attraction in its pulpit. Dr. Watson's 
preaching is declared to be in direct conflict with "the foundation 
truths of the Christian faith." He is an open advocate, it is said, 
of the "new theology, " with all that it implies. The Leader then 
proceeds to propound these questions to the Presbyterians of 
Kensington : 

"Are they ready to condemn Dr. Watson's predecessors as 
preachers of error? Have they decided to reject the Standards of 
their church as libeling God and man, and as proclaiming for 
Gospel that in which there lies no salvation ? Have they deter- 
mined for themselves and their children to make ' the great re- 
fusal, ■ and to despise the Word of God and the doctrines that 
have been its power for eighteen centuries? But to resolve upon 
the abandonment of the old theories, and the substitution of the 
new, under the leadership of 'Ian Maclaren' or any other, is to 
make this very resolve and this very refusal." 

To substantiate its view of Dr. Watson and his theology, The 
Leader refers to the book "The Mind of the Master," and says : 

"Let us ask them whether they have marked that the whole 
aim of that book is to show that the mind of the Master is entirely 
different from the mind of their own church in regard to the way 
of salvation! It is to set aside 'the old' conception of Christ's 
propitiatory sacrifice for sin and to substitute 'the new' notion 
that no such sacrifice was ever made or intended. The purpose 
of Christ. Dr. Watson tells us, was to kill selfishness in us, and 
His death was the last and highest enforcement of the teaching 
by which selfishness is to be slain. 'According to Jesus, ' he says, 
'the selfish man was lost ; the unselfish was saved, and so He was 
ever impressing on His disciples that they must not strive, but 
serve. He Himself had come to serve, and He declared that His 
sacrifice of Himself would be the redemption of the world. This 
is Jesus's explanation of the virtue of His death. . . . Jesus pro- 
posed to ransom the race, not by paying a price to the devil or to 
God, but by loosening the grip of sin on the heart and reinforcing 
the will' (pp. 103, 104). 

"No man would have written these last words who had any 
belief in the substitutionary aspect of Christ's death. It may be 
added that no man could have penned them who ever knew the 
doctrine or felt the pathos of the prophetic words : ' We have 
turned every one to his own way, and the Lord hath laid upon 
Him the iniquity of us all.' It is quite in keeping with this that 
Dr. Watson should see in the parable of the Prodigal Son only 
these four things : 'He plays the fool in the far country — this is 
the fulfilling of his bent. He is sent out to feed swine — this is 
the punishment of sin. He awakes to a bitter contrast — this is 
repentance. He returns to obedience — this is salvation" (p. 102) . 

Where is the place for the father's mercy, the robing with un- 
merited splendor, the restoration not only to a son's place but to 
the place of one brought back from the dead ? It was that which 



killed the old and established the new in this man's life. It was 
that which made him a son in spirit and in truth who had hitherto 
been only a son in name. But how is it that this supreme touch 
in the picture has nothing answering to it, and is entirely un- 
noticed, in Dr. Watson's scheme of the way of salvation ? Is ' Ian 
Maclaren 's ' mind, on this great and eternally momentous matter, 
'The Mind of the Master' ? 

"The suggestion is unfortunately inadmissible that we have 
misunderstood Dr. Watson's book. He denies that there is in 
the Gospels any doctrine of the Cross. We, in common it seems 
with Paul and Peter and the rest of the Apostles, have misunder- 
stood matters, and so Dr. Watson parts with us and cleaves to the 
Gospels. 'The Gospels, ' he says, 'do not represent the Cross as 
a judicial transaction between Jesus and God, on which he throws 
not the slightest light, but as a new force which Jesus has intro- 
duced into life, and which He prophesies will be its redemption. 
The Cross maybe made into a doctrine; it was prepared by Jesus 
as a discipline' (p. 120). 

"This is not the place for any proof of the scripturalness or of 
the verity of the doctrine of the Atonement. It is enough for our 
present purpose that the congregation of Kensington Presbyterian 
church should realize plainly that in placing Dr. Watson in the 
pulpit they thrust out from it the one great saving truth of the 
Bible. It is scarcely the exchange which we think them capable 
of making. And they will not be reattracted by the substitutes 
which he puts in the place of the Cross of Jesus. They will 
hardly vote for the preaching of purgatory ; but if not they ought 
to suspend all action till they have inquired of Dr. Watson what 
he means by 'the cleansing fires of Gehenna' (p. 267), and by this 
other statement that 'the object of punishment' is not 'retribution 
but regeneration' (p. 269). We shall only remind them that for 
them 'The Mind of the Master' is everything. To be satisfied as 
to what Christ wants them to do at the present juncture, and to 
do it as manfully as their fathers did when they counted not their 
lives dear to them, is the one great duty to which God now calls 
them. Their fathers' chance came yesterday ; theirs comes to- 
day. " 

THE DARK SIDE OF GREAT REVIVALS. 

WITH the opening of the year comes the week of prayer, 
which in many denominations is made the beginning of 
protracted revival efforts. The hiterior (Chicago. Presbyterian) 
comes to hand with some editorial reflections entitled "Revivals 
Pro and Ctf«," but we find the reflections to be chiefly "f<7«." 
It refers to the laments uttered from time to time for the disap- 
pearance of the days of great revivals, such as took place under 
Finney and Knapp, and then gives the following reasons for fail- 
ing to join in these lamentings : 

"We are not so youthful but that we remember the fervid ex- 
hortations, the tumultuous cries, the physical prostrations, the 
exuberant shouts which marked those scenes. Personally we do 
not care to look upon them again. They were not biblical, they 
were not necessary, they were not defensible. Many in recalling 
the 'old-fashioned' conversions forget more than they remember, 
and time has softened many a ragged edge and jagged point. 
Even during the prevalence of these revivals the discreet mourned 
their excesses, and it was because they could not be freed from 
their excesses that the church by a strong public sentiment re- 
pressed them. Any one will be benefited spiritually by reading 
the biography of Charles G. Finney, or by studying his volume 
on revivals, but the statistical history of these periods is darkened 
by shadows. From city to city the excitement swept with in- 
creasing momentum, and in 1832 more than 34,000 were added to 
the Presbyterian Church upon confession. In the next four years 
over 53,000 were received upon profession of faith, besides all 
that came in from other denominations by letter; and yet the 
total number of communicants had increased but about 2,000. It 
should not be inferred that all the products of these revivals were 
so evanescent. The church was approaching the disruption of 
'37, and doubtless the causes which sent the total of communi- 
cants down in '38 to the point occupied in '32 were already at 
work retarding advance; but even making all possible allowances 
for outside and unusual disturbances, it is evident that the 'old- 
fashioned conversion' was not always a genuine work of grace. 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



49 



It was showy and grateful to the spiritual emotions, but it did not 
result in such permanent gains to the church as our more quiet 
methods. Our older brethren lament the absence of revival tides 
to-day, and yet during the last four years the Presbyterian 
Church (North) has increased in its total communicants ii per 
cent. At the close of the four years' revival excitement (ending 
1836) the same church had added 25 per cent., and yet only in- 
creased I per cent. No such terrible reactions have followed the 
labors of Mr. Moody or Dr. Chapman, or their colleagues. We 
have, to be sure, in other denominations some of the old order of 
revivalists left, but they seldom affect our church. We know one 
church in a suburban neighborhood which has in a single revival 
season received more members than the entire membership of the 
Presbyterian church near it. And to-day the Presbyterian 
church in that place is three times stronger than it was twenty 
years ago, while its rival is weaker than ever. These are facts 
which careful observers know and which all ought to realize." 



WHAT LIBERAL CATHOLICS WANT. 

THE "Old-Catholic" revolt in Europe has become "so power- 
less as to be beneath contempt." A great calm seems to 
have spread over the sea whereon rides the bark of Peter — a calm 
due in large measure to the present gentle, cultured, conciliatory 
and relatively liberal pontiff. Nevertheless, some men deemed 
exceptionally clearsighted agree that there are breakers ahead. 

These are the opening thoughts in an article signed "Roma- 
nus,"in The Contemporary Review (Decern ber), in which the 
writer endeavors to point out what the breakers are and how to 
avoid them. He writes from the standpoint of a Liberal Catholic, 
and is very emphatic in asserting that, despite the apparent calm, 
the "Liberal Catholicism" of former days has ceased to exist only 
because it has been transformed, by the advances of science, into 
a much more formidable and radical movement. In the brooding 
discontent of these Liberal Catholics are to be found the breakers 
referred to. The causes for this discontent lie, we are told, in 
the relations of the church to physical science and biblical criti- 
cism. The position occupied by these Liberals toward the Cath- 
olic Church itself is thus outlined : 

"'Liberal Catholics' are not ignorant of what the essential con- 
stitution of the church has come to be. They fully appreciate 
that process of centralization which has gone on, more or less 
continuously, since the second century, developing a spiritual 
kingdom — a monarchy like none other that the world has seen. 
'Liberal Catholics' are well aware that the church's enormous 
power for good would be fatally impaired by injury to its organi- 
zation, and regard any attempt to reverse the process of develop- 
ment as an act intrinsically absurd and unscientific. Their desire, 
therefore, is to strengthen, not to destroy, authority. They de- 
sire especially to strengthen it by diverting it from proceedings 
detrimental to its own welfare. Nothing is more distressing to 
them than to see authority degrade itself, now through the dis- 
astrous influence of this or that eminent personality, and now 
through that of some powerful religious order. They mourn over 
the results of such influences in the south of Europe, and over 
that general estrangement from Chris'aanity which is so wide- 
spread among educated men in the so-called Catholic countries. 
They are profoundly convinced that the Catholic Church is the 
one great influence for promoting the spiritual welfare of human- 
ity. They believe that there exists no power comparable to it for 
the promotion of virtue and of all that is highest, noblest, purest, 
and most self-denying and generous among mankind. They are 
convinced that it is the most complete— the only complete— organ- 
ization for bringing about among all classes, all nations, and all 
races, obedience to and fulfilment of Christ's two great command- 
ments wherein lay all the law and the prophets — namely, love of 
God and of our neighbor. " 

They admire, also, the church's forms of worship as "tradi- 
tional, majestic, soul-satisfying, and, above all, profoundly 
spiritual"; its sacraments as elevating, comforting, strengthen- 
ing ; its spirit as one of charity and willing self-sacrifice ; its in- 
fluence as making for beauty and the culture of art, and its philo- 



sophical influence as of priceless value. But the church has had 
to undergo great changes in the past, to keep in touch with the 
advances made in human knowledge and thought, and it must 
keep itself in an attitude wherein such changes may be possible 
in the future. " Romanus" says : 

"No reasonable person can suppose that any men of the 
Apostolic age used the language of later times in their teaching 
about the nature of Christ, or even understood the doctrine of the 
Trinity as expressed in the Athanasian Creed. Neither could 
they have spoken, or even thought, about Transsubstantiation, 
any more than it is credible that devotion to Our Lady had a 
place in the religion of St. Paul. Do these facts constitute valid 
arguments against such things? By no means. They only show 
that the church, like everything which possesses healthy life, has 
undergone, and will have to undergo, a continuous process of 
development. Such being the case, it would be calamitous indeed 
if she should ever continue to be imbued with, and to give forth, 
the spirit of an age which is forever dead and gone, when the 
world has entered upon a new period, the mind of which has 
become alien from such earlier sentiments and beliefs. To keep 
itself in touch with what is best and highest in each succeeding 
lustrum is, in the opinion of ' Liberal Catholics, ' an articulus 
stantis vel cadentis ecclestCB. And there can be no question that 
the intellectual progress of mankind invcives a wider and surer 
grasp of truth. Every man of common sense must know that it 
is to the advance of scientific knowledge we owe all that has im- 
proved the material conditions of life ; that has brought better 
food and clothing within the reach of multitudes ; that averts 
sickness, heals the diseased, and produces unconsciousness of 
pain. How can it be expected that men will ever endure with 
patience, on the part of ecclesiastics, an attitude of opposition to 
that science to which all, even those ecclesiastics themselves, are 
so deeply indebted?" 

But Liberal Catholics are not blind to the fact that such a vast 
and complex structure as the Catholic Church must move slowly. 
They recognize the need of a certain amount of reticence and a 
scrupulous care in dealing with novel truths that affect religion : 

"But what it [Liberal Catholicism] does not understand, what 
it vehemently protests against and deems fatal to the church's 
well-being, is not reticence, but declarations hostile to and con- 
demnatory of ascertained scientific truth. It bitterly regrets the 
loss by the church ot opportunities, and again and again allowed 
to slip by, of welcoming such truths and so making them her own, 
instead of driving them into a hostile camp. ' Liberal Catholi- 
cism' blames and regrets, not scrupulous care, but unscrupulous 
carelessness in dissociating the church from scientific progress 
and identifying it with stupid, ignorant obscurantism. This re- 
gret has just now been plainly, if somewhat timidly, displayed at 
the Congress at Fribourg. May it bear good fruit ! 

"Much, indeed, remains to be done — a very Augean stable of 
theological filth and rubbish to clear away ! For altho the most 
arriere ecclesiastic would not regard it as blameworthy to be- 
lieve that the earth annually revolves round the sun, there are 
many who would make difficulties in allowing a few hundreds of 
thousands of years as possible for the duration of man's past 
existence. No one in authority would, probably, now venture to 
affirm, in so many words, that Catholics must regard as historical 
facts such matters as the legend of the serpent and the tree, 
that of the formation of Eve, Noah's Ark. the destruction of 
Sodom, the transformation of Lot's wife, the talking ass, or Jonah 
and his whale ; nevertheless (not only from what is popularly 
taught, but from what has been put forth in the name of the 
Supreme Pontiff), it would seem as if Reuss, Welhausen, and 
Keunen had never written at all, instead of having transformed 
our whole conception of the Hexateuch !" 

No expectation, however, is indulged that the past decrees of 
the church on such subjects can be retracted. The dexterity of 
theologians, however, is amply sufficient to explain away obnox- 
ious dicta and effete dogmata without the need of formal dis- 
avowals. But there should be no new and needless declarations 
hostile to scientific and historical revelations. Such needless 
declarations were the well-known Syllabus of Pope Pius IX. ; the 
recent encyclical of the present Pontiff on the Bible, broadly de- 



50 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



daring that the Bible contains no error ; and the recent course 
in regard to the Index : 

"The old Index was never supposed to be binding on English 
Catholics, and, indeed, its provisions were such that it was prac- 
tically almost a dead letter on the Continent also. It was in- 
tended that the Vatican Council should reform it, but for such 
matters there was no time. It has now, quite recently, been 
withdrawn, and a less unreasonable law substituted for it. At 
the same time, however, the new Index was formally declared to 
be applicable to all countries. Much to the annoyance of the 
English Catholic bishops, its text was published in English in 
The Tablet and Weekly Register. Great was the distress which 
arose in a multitude of worthy, but timid and scrupulous, minds 
from this publication, and great was the trouble brought upon the 
bishops by shoals of letters begging for guidance and advice. 
Very quickly the bishops began to instruct their clergy to be quite 
silent about the Index whenever possible, and, when too much 
pressed about it, to give the most indulgent replies to those who 
would not go unanswered. This, however, was not enough. 
Pressure was brought to bear upon Rome, which was forced at 
last to learn something of the condition of affairs in England, and 
finally supreme authority has had to draw in its horns and suffer 
it to be spread about in England that the new reformed Index 
does not apply here, and that in this happy country every con- 
demned publication can be read, and any work on morals or 
religion published and circulated, without ecclesiastics having 
power to prevent it. " 

A still more monstrous act, the writer thinks, is the reply from 
Rome to the effect that the text in the Epistle of St. John about 
"the three witnesses" ("there is not a single competent scholar in 
Europe or America who does not know that the text in question 
forms no part of the Epistle, but has been subsequently inserted") 
may not be called in question. 

The rest of the article is an exposition of the changes that have 
been effected in the Catholic Church in past centuries. The early 
teaching about the speedy approach of Christ's kingdom on earth 
has been by degrees entirely dropped. How different are our 
modern conceptions and sentiments with respect to the Supreme 
Being from those of St. Augustine, St. Thomas, or even St. 
Alphonsus Liguori ! The declaration "extra ecclesiam nulla 
salus " (no salvation outside the church) has been practically 
abrogated by interpreting " the church" to mean the soul, not the 
body, of the church. The monstrous command, "Thou shalt not 
suffer a witch to live," has been quietly modified in practise. 
The ascetic practises of modern religious orders are very different 
from those of the Carthusians and Cistercians. And, the writer 
concludes, "the increasingly rapid advance of knowledge warns 
us that such accommodations will be even more needed in the 
future than they have been in the past. " 



MRS. BOOTH'S WORK SUSPENDED. 

•" I ""HE work which Mrs. Ballington Booth, of the Volunteers of 
•^ America, has been ardently prosecuting among the inmates 
of jails and penitentiaries has been brought to a close for an in- 
definite length of time by her serious sickness. The bulletin 
issued December 27, by the physicians of the Presbyterian Hos- 
pital who have her case in hand, was as follows: 

"Mrs. Ballington Booth is suffering from an aneurism of the aorta (disease 
of the heart), and we consider that her condition has been and is serious. 
She is confined to bed, not allowed to see any visitors except her husband 
and her secretary, and is absolutely forbidden to do any work. Rest and 
treatment have made some improvement in her condition, and she is still 
improving." 

The relations between Mrs. Booth and the Salvation Army, of 
which she and her husband were until a short time ago the lead- 
ers in this country, have given credence to the report that her 
breakdown is due to attacks made upon her, by letter and in other 
ways, by her former associates. An alleged interview with Com- 
mander Booth-Tucker was published in Chicago, December 30, in 



which Mrs. Booth was accused of shamming illness to create 
sympathy for herself and for the Volunteers. Altho the Com- 
mander promptly denied making any such charge, the interview 
has been the subject of some very vigorous editorial comments 
in the daily press. The Sun (New York) goes to the length of 
comparing Booth-Tucker to the actor Radcliffe, who was recently 
sentenced to the penitentiary for beating his wife, and advises 
him to "go back where he came from." 

In regard to Mrs. Booth's character and work The Congrega- 
ti07talist has this to say : 

"Whatever her fate, it will always be true that in her Ameri- 
cans have seen one of the finest reincarnations of the Christ spirit 
ever vouchsafed to them. As an orator there are few, if anj', 
among women who equal her in beauty of diction, depth of feel- 
ing, and power to play 
on all the strings of 
the human heart. As 
a laborer in the vine- 
yard she has endured 
contumely and be- 
come the friend of 
criminals and harlots 
if thereby she might 
lead them to Christ. 
To-day from the cells 
of many a prison 
there are prayers ris- 
ing to heaven that her 
life- may be spared, 
and if perchance she 
is soon to die her most 
genuine mourners will 
be people at the poles 
of society — the idle, 
wealthy society wo- 
men whom she has 
taught to live for 
others as well as 
themselves, and the 
prisoners in our peni- 
tentiaries and prisons 
whom she has loved 
disinterested love for 
Gospel of Christ." 



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into the kingdom by the contagion of her 
them and her simple exposition of the 



The Christian Advocate (New York, Meth. Episc.) makes 
reference to the reported cause of her sickness : 

"It is said that members of the Volunteers are talking against 
the Salvation Army, and declaring that she is dying of a broken 
heart ; and it is said that some of the members of the Salvation 
Array are talking against the Volunteers. If either of these 
statements is true, the persons who are talking are operating in 
an army whose commander it would not be polite to name. They 
are in the wrong place where they are now. Mrs. Booth is 
greatly beloved, and her recovery is hoped for by all Christian 
people. That the circumstances of the last few years liave been 
trying to her there can be no doubt, but whether they have had 
any direct relation to the very peculiar attack which she now has 
no human being can state." 

The Voice (New York, undenom.) says: 

"The report concerning Mrs. Ballington Booth is incredibly 
distressing. She is lying critically ill in a hospital in this city, 
and it is stated that her illness is due to the anguish inflicted upon 
her by the abuse she has received since leaving the Salvation 
Army. She has been assailed as the cause of her husband's de- 
fection, and of the division between him and his father and the 
rest of the family. She received a short time ago a letter from 
her elder sister, saying, so it is said, ' I shall never soil ink again 
by using it in writing to you.' She has even been assailed by 
letter-writers as a woman of no character, and her husband has 
been urged to leave her ! All this while she has been striving to 
do God's work among the outcast in the jails and penitentiaries, 
and, so far as the world has any knowledge on the subject, re- 
fraining from abuse of anybody. The leaders of the Salvation 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



61 



Army in this country, Mr. and Mrs. Booth-Tucker, seem to have 
been entirely guiltless of any harsh treatment; but their course 
has not, apparently, been followed as closely as it should have 
been. Is it not an awful commentary on the weaknesses of 
human nature that a woman like Mrs. Booth, whose whole life 
has been devoted to the rescue of the needy, who has every charm 
of person, of mind, and of soul, should be the recipient of such 
abuse as to have almost, if not quite, broken her heart? And, 
strangest fact of all, it is very probable that those who have 
abused her have been as assured that they were doing God's work 
as she was herself, and have been, we do not doubt, thoroughly 
sincere even in their abuse. It is simply another evidence of the 
strange cruelties that have been practised in the supposed service 
of One who was never cruel even to those who spat in His face 
and buflEeted Him and hung Him upon a cross." 



BAPTISTS AND BAPTIST CONGRESSES. 

AMONG the Baptist papers continuing the discussion of the 
questions raised at the Baptist Congress in Chicago (see 
The Literary Digest, December i8 and 25), there is an apparent 
disposition to insist more and more strongly on the statement 
that the views expressed by Drs. Gifford and Conwell at that 
time on the subject of communion are in no degree representative 
of the views held by the vast majority of Baptists at the present 
time. It is insisted also that there is no such tendency toward 
open communion in the Baptist denomination as is now alleged 
by many of the pedobaptists on evidence adduced by the Chicago 
Congress. 

The Jotirnal and Messenger (Baptist, Cincinnati) refers to 
the discussion in these words : 

" Our numerous pedobaptist contemporaries which have snatched 
the little scrimmage at Chicago as a club with which to beat at 
the head of Baptists seem to be particularly taken with the argu- 
ment forged by Dr. Gifford, as tho it were also, beyond a per- 
adventure, the best and most effective possible for the demolition 
of the Baptist door which shuts out the non-baptized from the 
Lord's Supper. The language of Dr. Gifford. as reported, was 
as follows : ' We are told in the Acts that after immersion the 
members of the early church continued stedfastly in the Apos- 
tles' doctrine and fellowship and prayers. If immersion is a pre- 
requisite to one, it is a prerequisite to all. The essence of the 
Lord's Supper is the "discernment of the Lord's body." The 
Corinthian Christians, failing in this, failed to observe the Sup- 
per. If such discernment is granted to any body of unimmersed 
men and women, if such men and women develop the fruit of the 
Spirit, evidently they observe the Lord's Supper.' Now, it is 
quite certain that the idea of the Supper, whatever its essence 
may be, is not met by simply the discernment of the Lord's body. 
It is freely admitted that every fit participant in the Supper should 
be able to discern the Lord's body in the elements with which it 
is celebrated ; but that is not all of it. Which of all the Christian 
denominations believes or holds that such ability to discern is all 
that is required? Which of all the periodicals which are quoting 
Dr. Gifford on this point is willing to accept the view thus pre- 
sented as its view, and stand to it? Which of all the denomina- 
tions is willing to spread the table of the Lord in the street, or in 
a public hall, and say to the wayfarer, 'Let every one who thinks 
that he can discern the Lord's body help himself and get "the 
essence" of the Lord's Supper' ? We know of no such denomina- 
tion, and we know of no paper that advocates such a practise. 
But, until they do, they ought not to swing Dr. Gifford's sen- 
tences as a club over the heads of Baptists. " 

The Watchman (Baptist, Boston) finds a text in the contro- 
versy for an editorial discussion of the question whether such 
gatherings as that at Chicago, where so much freedom of discus- 
sion is accorded, ought to be recognized or encouraged by the 
denomination at large. The Watchman, however, is not in 
favor of any restriction. It thinks that such congresses, with all 
the latitude accorded them in debate, are a good thing for the 
denomination. It says : 

"The truth is that the meetings of the congress have simply 



furnished an arena for discussion. Such an arena is provided in 
part by the denominational press ; tho we are sorry to say that 
some editors are far too stringent in ruling out of their columns 
articles with which they do not personally agree. But it is a 
great advantage for men of different temper, who have reached 
different conclusions, to meet face to face, and, in the free give- 
and-take of animated discussion, have their opinions weighed 
and sifted. As often as not, in the course of these debates, the 
advanced men have been brought to confront difficulties of which 
they had not taken proper account, and their conclusions have 
been modified thereby. 

"The question, then, comes back to this : Is the public discus- 
sion of the matters that are uppermost in the thought and work of 
the denomination a good thing ? If each party has a fair repre- 
sentation in the discussion, the reply must be an unequivocal 
affirmative. It is not possible for a Baptist, who believes that 
religious convictions should be reached by the free action of the 
intelligent personality, and in no case imposed from without by 
external authority, to take any other position. Baptists believe 
in free discussion. They do not wish to hold doctrines that can 
not be rigorously defended. They have no room for a debate 
conducted on the principle of the Roman Catholic Congress, 
which submits in advance all its papers and discussions to the 
archbishop, but they give the amplest welcome, within reasonable 
limits, to the untrammeled and reverent discussion of religious 
questions." 



RELIGIOUS NOTES. 

In Hawaii, it is stated, there are 23,273 Protestants, 26,863 Catholics, 4,868 
Mormons (polygamy is forbidden), 44,806 of Eastern creeds, and 20,192 who 
declined to state their faith or possessed none. 

The English Wesleyans are discussing a great connectional proposal for 
the new century. Mr. R. W. Perks has outlined a scheme to raise a million 
guineas by January i, 1901, as a special fund for aggressive Methodism. 

The Old Catholic bishops of Holland, Germany, and Switzerland, at a 
meeting in Bonn, November g last, decided to give episcopal consecration 
to the Rev. Anton Stanislaus Kozlowski, an Old Catholic bishop for the 
United States. 

"A Christian lady of culture, a minister's daughter and a minister's 
wife, wrote hundreds of letters seeking information as to the religious 
standing of religiously reared people who were led into skepticism, and she 
learned that eighty-five per cent, of them eventually returned to the true 
faith, which," says Zion's Herald., "is not only a very encouraging, but a 
very significant fact." 

According to The Watchman (Baptist, Boston), the plan of using "chapel- 
cars" in the mission work of that denomination was a happy thought suc- 
cessfully carried out. In the five years since these cars were instituted 
they have traveled 75,000 miles, 6,000 meetings have been held, a great 
amount of denominational literature has been circulated, about sixty Bap- 
tist churches have been started, and fifty meeting-houses secured. 

The New York correspondent of The Episcopal Recorder says that the 
American Bible Society, which has aided the St. Petersburg Society for the 
Propagation of the Holy Scriptures in Russia, has received a special report, 
expressing its high appreciation of the generous help which the American 
society has accorded during the last sixteen years. This help has enabled 
the Russian Bible Society to extend considerably its sphere of action. 

The London Inquirer prints a letter from the venerable Dr. James Mar- 
tineau in answer to an invitation to be present at the dedication of a church 
in Northampton, in which he said : "If you dedicate your place of meeting 
to a questioned variety of human beliefs instead of to an unquestioned 
realization of filial life unto God, you will supersede the affections which 
unite you by the disputations which break up churches and multiply 
creeds." 

In a recent issue of The Northwestern Christian Advocate., an article from 
Rev. C. M. Cobern, a secretary of the Egyptian and Palestine exploration 
fund, gives the first account of a recent find in Egypt. At the same time 
when the much-discussed "Sayings of our Lord" was found at Oxyrhyn- 
chus, there was found a page of the Gospel of Matthew, which has not yet 
been given to the public. The chief librarian of the British Museum gives 
it as his opinion that the writing belongs to about 150 A.D. Professor 
Petrie adds the information that it corresponds exactly with our copy of 
Matthew. 

At a recent meeting of the Presbyterian synod of Montana, the question 
of entering new fields was discussed, and the following resolution adopted : 
"Never to enter a field in which any evangelical branch of the church of 
Christ is already supplying the religious needs of the people until, after a 
careful investigation, there is reason to believe that there is both a demand 
and a need for our work." In an editorial comment on this resolution, The 
Methodist Protestant says: "If evei;y denomination decided in the same 
way we would see no w^asted talent nor misused missionary money in all 
the land. There would not be two churches where one can not be ade- 
quately supported. There would be no overlapping of territory, nor 
heartless competition in building up religious clubs, which we, more or less 
innocently, call churches." 



52 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



FOREIGN TOPICS. 



GERMANY'S FAR EASTERN POLICY. 

THE time is past when ope nation could say, 'I'll take the 
earth' ; and another, 'I'll rule the sea' ; and the Germans 
were satisfied to earn heaven." This remark, uttered by the new 
German Minister of Foreign Affairs, v. Biilow, during some re- 
cent debates on the navy bill, is the key to the extraordinary im- 
portance attached by Germans of all ranks to the departure of a 
squadron, under Prince Henry of Prussia, for service in the far 
East. Emperor William went in person to Kiel to see his brother 
off. He addressed his brother in a lengthy speech upon the oc- 
casion, from which we quote the following passages : 

" The task which you are sent to fulfil is the logical consequence 
of what our grandfather and his great Chancellor began, and 
what our father won with the sword. It is nothing more than 
the first result of the remarkable dimensions assumed by the com- 
mercial interests of the newly created German Empire. I simply 
have to follow the new German Hansa and give it the protection 
to which it is entitled from the empire and the Kaiser. Our re- 
ligious brothers have placed themselves under my protection ; we 
must give it to them. Your duties will be those of defense rather 
than attack. German merchants and ships must have their rights 
guaranteed by our flag ; we must not be behind other nations in 
this. ... It shall be your duty to remain on terms of friendship 
with your comrades of the fleets of other nations, while yet you 
defend German interests with a firm hand. Make it known to 
every European out there, to the German merchant, and, above 
all, to the foreigner on whose soil we land, that 'Dutch Mike'* 
has planted his palladium with a firm hand, and will grant pro- 
tection to all who ask him. ... If it does happen that any one 
undertakes to infringe our just rights, then use your mailed fist." 

Prince Henry replied : 

"Since the somewhat thorny crown of the empire came to your 
majesty I have tried to assist you. to the best of my limited abil- 
ity, as a man, a soldier, and a citizen. . . . Your majesty has 
made a great sacriuce by entrusting this command to me. ... I 
understand your feelings as a brother and thank you for the honor 
conferred upon me. . . . Fame and laurels have no attraction for 
me; only one thing has : to make known abroad the gospel pro- 
mulgated by your majesty's inviolable person ; to tell it to every 
one who is willing to accept it, and also to those who are not." 

There can be no doubt that the Germans no longer think 
Schiller's advice to live as a kind of Levites among the nations of 
the earth good advice. They are determined to strike out for 
themselvca, difficult as the task has become. From all parts of 
the world voluntary contributions are sent by Germans for the 
increase of the German fleet, and during the Christmas holidays 
collections were made for this purpose even by the pupils of the 
schools. The English press, however, still predict a rising of the 
oppressed German people against their autocratic ruler. Thus 
The Saturday Review, London, says ■ 

"When the German Emperor dismissed Bismarck and so con- 
ducted himself that he brought about the alliance between France 
and Russia, while alienating the sympathies of Great Britain, we 
called him 'William the Witless.' And the nickname seems to 
have stuck ; but it is inadequate, for the man is mad — stark, 
staring mad. . . . The German.-: are a patient and disciplined 
people. As long as their ruler was merely witless they bore with 
him in silence ; but now that he seems bent upon turning the ele- 
phant into the rival of the whale they are beginning to speak out. 
. . . The German Emperor has not only managed to get the 
newspapers and the professors against him, but also the sturdiest 
supporters of his throne, the Prussian nobility. From the time 
of his accession William has treated every one who differed from 
him in opinion as a personal enemy. He has insulted the great- 
est nobles as soon as they have ventured to disagree with him in 
any phase of his extraordinary activity, and consequently his 



♦ Der deutsche Michel^ allejjorical figure representinjf Germany as "Uncle 
Sam" represents the United States.— Zfrf/Zor of Thk Literary Digest. 



court is now deserted. It is known, indeed, throughout Ger- 
many as the court of the parvenus. In spite of all these ominous 
facts, the poor creature continues to take himself seriously as a 
sort of drill-sergeant Providence." 

The same sentiment is echoed in the colonies, at least in Can- 
ada. Saturday Night, Toronto, remarks that "the modern 
Nero, who draws if he does not write poems, seems to have got 
to the stage where he broods over the fact that he never saw a 
great city on fire." In Germany and in other European countries 
such utterances are attributed to English jealousy of Germany as 
a future colonial power and industrial competitor. "For heaven's 
sake, let them howl," says the Berlin Neuesten Nachrichten ; 
"it seems to relieve their feelings, and it doesn't hurt us." The 
Independance Beige, Brussels, says : 

"We must pay due regard to one symptom. This German ex- 
pedition to China is the first act of a grand and tedious struggle 
between England and Germany for the rule of the sea and the 
supremacy of the world. We have seen its beginning ; we will 
probably not live to see its end. The emphasis of the Emperor 
in all his speeches indicates clearly enough the magnitude of his 
projects. ... It would be childish to think that the whole thing 
is only intended to obtain the passage of the naval bill. Ger- 
many has obtained all she can get in Europe, and exercises her 
expansive energies elsewhere." 

The Journal des Ddbats, Paris, says : 

"It is not likely that a difference of opinion exists among the 
powers that worked for the revision of the Shimonoseki treaty : 
Russia has received her reward in Manchuria, France in the 
provinces near Tonking, Germany alone had remained unrecom- 
pensed. . . . Nobody could expect that so ambitious a power as 
Germany, whose trade holds second place in China, would stand 
aside when the possibility of the partitioning looms up. . . . 
French interests have nothing to fear." 

The papers all over the world are full of sensational specula- 
tions upon the supposed speedy partitioning of China. Remarks 
in the Russian press charge that England, rather than Russia or 
Germany, is in undue haste for Chinese territory. The Mirowiya 
Otgoloski, St. Petersburg, expresses itself to the following effect: 

English appetite for the territory of others astonishes the world 
by its magnitude and the suddenness with which it appears. The 
English already talk of a partitioning of China, reserving, of 
course, the most toothsome morsel for themselves — just because 
Germany has occupied a small territory, about 480 kilometers 
square. . . . England knows moaeration only in her concessions 
to others. Already her nationals in the far East agitate for the 
annexation of the Yang-tse-kiang Valley, that is, the entire south 
of China, as they interpret it, about 1,870,000 kilometers square 
She could then, with the help of cheap Chinese labor and Chinese 
resources, crush all industrial competition in the world. Luckily 
she has not got further than to open her capacious maw for the 
fat titbit, and it shall be the business of the Continental powers 
to keep her from it. — Translations made for The Literary 
Digest. 

TEMPERANCE OF THE DUTCH. 

THERE is probably no subject of greater interest to the social 
economist than the drink question, and on no problem is 
opinion more divided. Nor is it possible to form an accurate 
conception of the needs of one country by the experience of an- 
other. Among ourselves many earnest men are convinced that 
total abstinence is absolutely necessary for the Americans as a 
nation. On the other hand, the Dutch, who bore an evil reputa- 
tion for drunkenness in former generations, seem to have become 
very moderate in their habits. The Dutch Minister of War, in 
his report upon the sale of liquor, declares that a few sensible 
restrictions only are needed, that the use of intoxicants is de- 
creasing in Holland, at least so far as the army is concerned, and 
that there is a corresponding increase in the consumption of tea 
and coffee. The consumption of beer he does not regard as suffi- 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



53 



ciently great to increase drunkenness, but then the beer in Hol- 
land is not very alcoholic. We quote the following from his 
report on observations taken in the camp at Reijen, as given in 
the Handelsblad, Amsterdam : 

"There were three military canteens, where beer, coffee, milk, 
and spirits could be purchased. Strong drink was sold between 
8 and g p.m. ; also one hour before dinner to non-commissioned 
officers, and three quarters of an hour before dinner to privates. 
The commanders, considering good beer a better beverage than 
gin. made special arrangements with the contractor as regards 
quality. This was done not only with a view to the men, but 
also to the women attached to cantonments, washerwomen, 
etc. In the camp at Reijen, where special investigations were 
made, beer was preferred to such an extent that only one out of 
nine persons took a drink of gin, on an average, per day. The 
men were not allowed to leave camp ; it was therefore possible 
to make reliable calculations. During eleven days 133 liters of 
strong drink were consumed by 2,ioS rank and file. Beer was 
consumed to the extent of % liter per head per day (little more 
than half a pint). There was not a single case of drunkenness, 
altho the sale of beer was not restricted." 

The officers attach much value to a good supply of pure water 
for drinking. The Minister believes that, in view of the above 
facts, the inherent temperance of the Dutch people should be 
trusted, their moderation should be encouraged by sensible re- 
strictions, but total prohibition of the sale of strong drink is not 
to be recommended, as it does not produce as good effects as 
moderate restriction. — Translated Jor The Literary Digest. 



CONDITION OF BRAZIL. 

TO prevent further ill effects upon its much-shaken credit, the 
Brazilian Government exercises strict censorship over all 
telegrams in which the world is informed with regard to the late 
attempt upon President Moraes's life. Gradually, however, the 
mails bring light. It appears that Brazil has entered upon the 
career of the other South American countries, in which military 
dictatorship never ends, tho one clique pushes out another in 
rapid succession. The Norddeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung, Ber- 
lin, sketches the situation to the following effect : 

Since November, 1889, when Pedro II., the bourgeois em- 
peror, as he was nicknamed, renounced the throne without a 
struggle, there has never been peace between the civilian and 
military parties. The militarj' men have nearly always been in 
power. Prudente Moraes is the first president who is not a sol- 
dier, and his position is not at all strong. He was, however, ably 
seconded by his Minister of War, Marshal Bittencourt, who was 
willing to reduce the army, and endeavored to introduce proper 
discipline, and who inquired into the doings of the officers and 
army contractors during the Canudos rebellion. On March i will 
take place the nsxt Brazilian election. With President Moraes 
out of the way. the Vice-President, General Peixoto, who belongs 
to the Jacobin or military party, would have a free hand. Hence 
the attack upon Moraes's life, during which the assassin soldier, 
foiled in his attempt, wounded the President's nephew and 
stabbed Marshal Bittencourt to death. The "Civilian" party now 
hopes to hold its own, but it is forced to drive out the devil with 
the help of King Beelzebub, for it has to rely upon the provincial 
troops (the police of Rio Janeiro, which are organized in a mili- 
tary manner) and the navy to oust the federal troops. 

The Temps, Paris, says : 

"The Jacobins had made up their mind to rid themselves of 
Bittencourt as early as April last, for he was unceasing in his 
efforts to create order in the army and to stop needless expense. 
It was he who forced General Oscar and his assistants to end the 
war against Conselheiro, which had cost the country over 25,000,- 
000 milreis, officers and contractors combining to make money 
out of it." 

What the military dictatorship really means to Brazil may be 
gathered from an account in the Journal do Comerct'o, Rio de 
Janeiro, from which we take the following : 



"Brazil has not had a foreign war since the republican form of 
government was established ; but her naval and military budgets 
have increased enormously. For 1890 the navy estimates were 
8,800,000 milreis, with a total of 11,427 officers, officials, and men. 
For 1897 the estimates had risen to 23,100,000 milreis for 14,286 
persons. The army was 22,843 strong in 1890 and cost 12,500,000 
milreis. It cost 47,100,000 in 1897 for 32,570 men. Yet every 
officer, official, and soldier was really to be found during the 
empire. To-day many of the officials, carried on the lists with 
double the former pay, and many of the officers, whose pay is 
four to five times as high, do not serve at all, or only three or 
four months a year, and the rank and file are largely on paper. " 

These accounts of the condition of Brazil have called forth a 
large number of comments upon the republican form of govern- 
ment as carried on in South America. The Post, Kingston, 
Jamaica, thinks Brazil furnishes an object-lesson much more than 
the Spanish-American republics, which have always been rest- 
less. The paper proceeds as follows : 

"Of Brazil, history tells another tale : a tale of unbroken peace 
and prosperity shattered at one fell blow by the ruthless hand of 
— republicanism. . . . And the deplorable spectacle naturally 
brings to the front the problem : Haw to reconcile republicanism 
in South and Central America with peaceful progress? It has 
been solved in North America, indeed ; but it can scarcely be said 
to have been solved anywhere else — even in France as yet. And 
certainly the countries of Latin America are far from its solution. 
. . . The Spanish colonies broke away from the mother country 
in a universal revolutionary outburst, they adopted republican- 
ism, and have been more or less in political turmoil ever since. 
But Brazil became an empire with the free-will of Portugal, and 
a Braganza ruled it wisely and well. Under the Pedros it be- 
came one of the most peaceful, prosperous, and cultured countries 
in the world. As Clement Markham (we think) says of it, it 
possessed the unique distinction of being a country 'without a 
history' — using the word in its strictly political application, of 
course — in contradistinction to its neighbors. . . . Dom Pedro 
preserved perfect peace among a quiet and orderly people with 
an army and navy so small as not to be worth mentioning. Some 
ardent and ambitious generals bethought them to make a change, 
and it was effected. The emperor was quietly dethroned and 
expelled, and a republican government organized. Not a shot 
was fired, scarcely an angry word was uttered, and 'all the world 
wondered' — wondered at so much being achieved with so little 
waste of energy. . . . But whether it be the people of Brazil or 
the system of republicanism that was at fault, certain it is that 
from the day the rule 'of the people, by the people, for the peo- 
ple' was inaugurated, those erstwhile peaceful, contented, and 
happy 'people' have had what the Americans call 'a bad time of 
it.' Their new Government certainly has proved a dismal, a 
disastrous and a costly failure. Ambitions have encountered 
ambitions ; revolutions have led to and followed revolutions. 
Universal distrust has dethroned confidence, and the people do 
not know where they are." 

The same opinion is expressed everywhere throughout the Brit- 
ish Empire and in Europe. The only exception we could discover 
is a trade paper published in London, The South American 
Journal , which says : 

" It goes without saying that the assailants of Brazilian credit 
have not been remiss in making capital of these untoward hap- 
penings to assist them in their crusade for the spoliation of the 
holders of Brazilian securities, which have in consequence depre- 
ciated ; and others have been equally prompt to draw unfavorable 
comparisons between Brazil under the rule of the late Dom Pedro 
II. and Brazil under its democratic institutions. It is a pity that 
violent and unscrupulous politicians, by their conduct, should 
thus have done so much to bring republicanism, as a form of gov- 
ernment, into question, if not into absolute contempt." 

This continued restlessness of Brazil has caused the rumor that 
Germany. France, and Italy may combine to protect their na- 
tionals in Brazil. 

The Tdglichc Rundschau, Berlin, speaks of a possible seces- 
sion of the Southern provinces, where most of the German emi- 
grants have settled. These emigrants complain that they are no 



54 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898; 



longer protected in their peaceful occupations since the republic 
has been established, and they clamor for help in the German 
papers. — Translations made J or 'Ywy. Literary Digest. 



THE BRITISH LAND DEFENSES. 

GERMANY wants a navy. She has plenty of men to man it. 
but finds it difficult to convince her bourgeoisie that they 
must open the purse-strings for the building of ships. England 
wants an arm)'. Her bourgeoisie are willing to pay, and to pay 
handsomely for it, but they will not don uniforms and fight them- 
selves. Consequently the army is not much respected, and it is 
difficult to find the men. The German Government, in order to 
gain its point, has cut down its demands to the lowest figure. A 
similar proceeding has taken place in England. It remains to 
be seen whether either Government will get what it asks for. 
Lord Lansdowne, the British Minister of War, in describing the 
immediate needs of England for land defenses, expressed him- 
self in the main as follows : 

England needs : i. Three army corps to beat off an enemy im- 
mediately upon his landing on the coast. 2. Two army corps in 
complete readiness for transportation abroad, to defeat enemies 
of Great Britain on territory outside the British Empire. 3. Suf- 
ficient troops on hand to send small detachments without mobili- 
zation of the army. 4. Enough men to keep the garrisons in 
India and other British possessions up to their standard strength. 
The Government will endeavor to provide these troops without 
abandoning voluntary service, assisted, perhaps, by some militia 
system ; for the Government is fully convinced that the British 
people are radically opposed to a system which compels every 
man to serve, except in the case of attacks upon the British Isles. 
To provide an efficient reserve men should be engaged for a term 
of three years, with the choice of remaining in the army or going 
into the reserve at the expiration of their term. The reserves 
will be liable to serve in wars which do not necessitate the mobi- 
lization of the whole army, such as colonial wars. 

In The St. James' s Gazette David Hannay asserts that the 
British public must give up the idea that their empire is insular. 
We quote as follows : 

"In Africa we have extensive frontiers, and are busy in adding 
to them. The difficulty there would be of the minor order, since 
none of our possible opponents have at once great power and their 
communications wholly by land. Yet even there the work would 
not be so easy if the Boer thought fit, as seeing us in trouble he 
well might, to draw the sword of the Lord and of Gideon. In 
America the gravity of the case is undeniable. We can shut our 
eyes to it, of course, and go on talking about 'crimes against 
humanity' and the 'unity of the Anglo-Saxon race.' There are 
people, and many of them, whose minds seem to be just shaped 
to hold a sentimental phrase and to be incapable of taking in any- 
thing else. But there are the facts, that we have had a violent 
quarrel with the United States within the last two years — arising, 
by the way, out of a dispute on a minor American frontier; that 
there is a party in the States as well disposed to fight us as any 
Anglophobe in France ; that a great deal of cold dislike of the 
'British Government' exists in America; and that we have a 
frontier there stretching from ocean to ocean which we are as 
much bound to defend as we are to guard the Isle of Wight. 
Moreover, the navy could no more defend it than stop the transit 
of Venus. The Canadians are on our side, and the States are ill- 
prepared for war. It would be a year before they were able to 
send anything deserving to be called an army forward. We 
should be able to be on the field in time — the navy seeing to the 
transport; but, of course, on the condition that we had the forces 
to send. And it is not two army corps that would do the work — 
not perhaps even the five of which Lord Lansdowne spoke the 
other day. ... If the whole British navy were in the Baltic and 
the Persian Gulf, it could not delay a Russian army marching by 
Herat on Cabul for twenty-four minutes. When Russia has a 
quarrel with us her course is easy. She has only to treat the 
Ameer as our vassal, for which she has good excuse, to call on 
him to revolt over to her, or to fight and stand the consequence. 



If he consents, there goes the buffer State like a ghost at cock- 
crow ; and who knows how much of our prestige with it ? . . . 
The moral would seem to be that we would do well to modify our 
view of ourselves as an insular power. That we have had no 
choice but to do as we have done ; that we have been wise in the 
circumstances; or that we have been foolishly ambitious, are 
good texts for debate, but of no practical importance." 

The Friend of India also points out that an increase of the 
army is absolutely necessary, and its demands are extremely 
moderate. Ten thousand men more than at present, the paper 
thinks, would make an appreciable difference. It further main- 
tains that the British people must defend every inch of ground 
they have annexed in the interest of civilization, and says : 

"National annexation necessitates increased national insurance,. 
if only for the active malevolence it provokes among foreign 
powers. The facts, we think, make out a strong case for the 
addition of ten thousand men, or more, to the effective strength: 
of the army. The nation at large has at length accepted the. 
position that the navy is our first line of defense, and has hec- 
tored the Admiralty into something like working order .... 
The nation, having now got a navy worth its cost, may well set 
about getting value for the money it spends on the army. 
Roughy speaking, we pay yearly about the same sum — twenty 
millions sterling — for each branch of the fighting services. For 
this sum we get the best and strongest navy in the world ; the 
smallest and not the best-equipped army of the great powers. 
Clearly, then, now that the Admiralty has shaken off the effete 
traditions of a century of sloth, the next step should be to arouse 
the War Office from its lethargy. . . . But the first line of de- 
fense is incomplete without an adequate army in the second. 
Coaling-stations, docks, and arsenals, and all the other adjuncts 
on land of fleets in home or foreign waters have to be garrisoned 
and defended." 

On the Continent these proposed armaments are looked upon 
as half measures. The Handelsblad, Amsterdam, a paper which, 
as mouthpiece of a people not engaged in the race for empire 
ought to view the situation calmly, says : 

"The program of the English is solely fitted for colonial strife. 
Should England ever clash with one of the European powers- 
whose army is formed according to the universal service sj^stem 
and possesses a well-organized reserve, then she will find how 
inadequate her army organization is." — Translations tnade for 
The Literary Digest. 



GERMAN-AMERICAN TRADE RELATIONS. 

THE Kolnische Zeitung, Cologne, in a long article urges the 
German Government to conclude a commercial treaty with 
the United States. The article will be read with interest on this 
side for several reasons. The Kolnische admits without further 
ado that Germany must not, if she can possibly help it, begin a 
tariff war with the United States, as the advantage would be very 
much on our side. On the other hand, its figures show that the 
trade between the two countries is pretty evenly balanced. As 
regards breadstuffs, Germany is rather independent of American 
supplies, but raw material for her industries is very much in de- 
mand. We quote as follows : 

"There can be no reasonable protest against the Dingley tariff, 
for every country has a right to fix its duties according to its own 
interests, unless it is tied by treaties. German industries must 
try to extend their activity in spite of the tariff, just as during 
the period of the McKinley tariff, which, after all, was not so 
very destructive in its results. Germany, nevertheless, must .see 
that she is not treated worse than other countries .so long as she 
herself grants to the Union all rights of the most favored nation 
clause. That is the case with our export of sugar. No other 
country can justly claim the right to put a special duty on goods 
whose export we seek to facilitate. What would become of inter- 
national commerce if every country were given the right to ex- 
amine into the industrial condition of another people ! A lower- 
ing of the tax rate, guaranty of interest on capital invested, cheap- 
freight, etc., would have to be included as well as direct bountiesi. 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



55 



The American Government and the House of Representatives 
have acknowledged the justice of our claims, but the Senate, in- 
fluenced by the sugar magnates, has consented to additional 
violation of our rights. This proves that it is high time to con- 
clude a satisfactory commercial treaty with the United States. 
Our Agrarian hot-heads shout for ' repressive measures' against 
the United States, and do not even fear a tariff war. But such a 
step should be contemplated ten times ere it is taken. " 

The paper then quotes some interesting statistics, from which 
we take the following : 

German}' exports to the United States goods valued at nearly 
$94,250,000. Of this over $12, 500, 000 is for sugar, the rest chiefly 
for manufactures such as cottons, woolens, silks, leather, steel, 
paints, paper, etc. The United States sends to Germany $96, 000,- 
000 worth ; of which nearly $42,000,000 is for cotton and $7,500,- 
000 for oil. Copper, skins, seed-cakes, tobacco, and wood are 
also important articles. All these Germany does not produce at 
all or in insufficient quantities ; and it is not easy to exclude them. 
American wheat and flour exports to Germany are comparatively 
insignificant : $608,000 for the former, and $632,000 for the latter. 
There are, however, $8,000,000 for lard, $5,000,000 for Indian 
corn, and $1,700,000 for oleomargarin. These articles could be 
taxed to enforce better treatment of German sugar. 

The paper then proceeds to comment as follows : 

"If the above is examined without prejudice, it will be seen 
that Germany could not wish for a better commercial friend than 
the United States, since America takes our manufactures and 
sends us the raw material we need. Who would suffer most by a 
tariff war? The answer is easy to find. Yet Germany can not 
afford to see one of her principal articles of export treated worse 
than that of other countries, and a new regulation of our commer- 
cial treaties is therefore very necessary. Thus far the old treaty 
with Prussia — concluded in 1828 — has been made to do duty for 
all Germany, but its legality in this respect has often been 
doubted. As the Dingley law enables the President to conclude 
treaties, it is worth our while to take advantage of this clause." — 
Translated for The Literary Digest. 



The Echo, Berlin, contains a typical article on the subject of 
Prohibition. The writer does not deny that the aims of the Pro- 
hibitionists are excellent, but he fears that Prohibition does not 
produce the important results aimed at. Moreover, he believes 
that a nation which takes the women into its councils finds that 
they turn instinctively to a policy of moderation, assisted by 
moral suasion. He quotes the case of New Zealand and gives the 
following lists of arguments for and against Prohibition : 



FOR PROHIBITION: 

Prohibition is synonymous 
with personal welfare of the 
people. 

It increases the blessings of 
home. 

It strengthens men for their 
battle of life. 

The deposits in savings-banks 
increase. 



Virtue and piety are fostered. 

No drunkards in the streets. 
The saloons are closed. 

National wealth increases. 

Total abstinence alone 
strengthens a nation. 

Don't think of what you wish 
to do, but of what your duty is 
in this matter. 



AGAINST PROHIBITION. 

Prohibition undermines per- 
sonal freedom. 



Home is endangered by secret 
drinking. 

Good stimulants are condu- 
cive to health. 

Where a penny had been 
spent before, a shilling is spent, 
the liquor being purchased iu 
larger quantities. 

Men are educated to become 
liars and simulators. 

More drunkenness at home. 

"Speak-easies" and "moon- 
shine distilleries" arise. 

No laws can enforce the in- 
crease of national wealth. 

Does it ? Look at Turkey ! 

Preserve your liberty to drink 
or not, just as you please. 



The writer believes that there is, at least, too much diversity 
of opinion to recommend Prohibition for general adoption among 
the nations. — Translations made for The Literary Digest. 



THE FIGHT AGAINST LIQUOR IN GERMANY. 

LIKE most Germanic races, the Germans are compelled to 
keep a strict watch over the drink evil. Some of their 
methods of combating it are, however, slightly different from 
ours. Thus temperance is advocated on the score of patriotism, 
since a nation of drunkards can not possibly be energetic enough 
to show a bold front to the enemies which surround it. We take 
the following from the Kolnische Zeitung, Cologne : 

"Attentive people can not fail to notice that drunkenness is 
increasing in Germany, in the country as well as in the cities. 
Medical men, political economists, and clergymen appreciate and 
record the fact with much sorrow on account of its deplorable 
results. That the use of spirituous liquors is equally increasing 
in the countries around us, that some nations are even worse off 
in this respect, can not comfort us. Drunkenness is an inherited 
evil with us, and we must not mince matters in combating it. 
Hence we should appreciate the endeavors of our societies for the 
promotion of temperance, such as the Blue Cross Society, the 
societies of Catholic Journeymen, and the Evangelical lodging 
houses, all of which have done good work. The Catholic socie- 
ties were founded by Kolping of Cologne in 1853, the Evangelical 
homes were introduced by Professor Perthes, of Bonn. Renewed 
activity in the battle for temperance is shown in such works as 
Erich Flade's 'Temperance Movement in Germany,' which 
should be widely circulated. The author points out that drunk- 
enness is an enemy which may in time reduce our military 
strength. The excellence of our troops depends much more upon 
the quality of our men than the pattern of our arms. We need 
sober, healthy, strong, and steady men, men who can be enthu- 
siastic without stimulants. Alcohol destroys these properties and 
increases our death-rate more than war and epidemics. Temper- 
ance, in conjunction with its natural ally, thriftiness, will lead to 
the solution of the social question by the creation of happy homes 
instead of a short-lived and disgusting drunken fit." 



An American Trust Abroad.— Slowly but surely the 
Standard Oil Company is silencing competition abroad and rais- 
ing itself to an industrial monopoly of such magnitude that few 
similar enterprises in the past or present can compare with it. 
The National Zeitung, Berlin, says: 

" For a long time a Mannheim and a Bremen firm held out 
against the trust. They have now been convinced that it is best 
for them to join Mr. Rockefeller's big combine. They formed 
the Mannheim-Bremen Oil Company, which is but a part of the 
great Standard Oil Company. The evidences of the trust's influ- 
ences soon showed themselves. According to the Frankjtirter 
Zeitung, the wholesale dealers in western and southern Germany 
have been asked to sign an agreement containing the following 
clauses : they must not purchase from any one except the Stan- 
dard Oil Company. They may not sell beyond a certain district. 
They may not sell more than they have sold on an average for 
the past three years, must not speculate in oil, must keep their 
books in the manner prescribed by the trust, and allow their 
books to be investigated by the trust at any time. They may not 
attempt to obtain their supply at cheaper rates from the trust. 

"That the Standard Oil Company proceeds in this way just now 
is easily explained. Pennsylvania produced about 91,000 barrels 
per day in i8g6, of which 70,000 went to the 'outsiders, ' i.e., firms 
not included in the trust. But the trust for a long time had all 
the transportation lines and pipes, and the outsiders were forced 
to sell at trust prices. Lately the outsiders have established 
their own communications and obtained tank ships ; they have 
also obtained tank room in Germany. They further intend to 
build tank steamers for the Rhine. To prevent the wholesalers 
from dealing with the Pure Oil Company, the Standard Oil Com- 
pany seeks to force the wholesalers into signing the above- 
mentioned agreement, which is to hold good for three years. So 
far the wholesalers have refused to do so." — Translated/or The 
Literary Digest. 



56 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



MISCELLANEOUS. 



READING CHARACTER IN THE FACE. 

HOWEVER dishonest a person may be and however clever 
in concealing his character, his face will throw out a warn- 
ing for those who know how to interpret it; "either his round, 
smooth features, or his oblique glance, eyebrows, eyes, nose, and 
mouth and pointed chin will reveal him in his true colors." This 
sweeping statement may be called in question, but Mr. Richard 
Dimsdale Stocker is very positive that it is well-founded, and in 
The Hutnanitariati he tells how the facial indexes to character 
may be read. If the face be divided by two imaginary horizontal 
lines, that division including the forehead and eyes indicates the 
extent of intellectual capacity, that including the nose and cheek 
bones indicates will power, that including cheeks, lips, jaws, and 
chin indicates the feelings. So much for the general indications. 
Mr. Stocker then proceeds to more specific information. First 
as to the forehead, the seat of the intellect : 

" If the lower part of the forehead be the fullest, so that it ad- 
vances over the eyes, it indicates that the observing powers and 
practical faculties are in the ascendency ; should the upper sec- 
tion be prominent or bulge forward, it shows that the reasoning 
powers and theoretical side of the individual are strongly repre- 
sented ; while, if it be filled out in the middle, and fullest in the 
center, it then denotes that the comparative faculties are in evi- 
dence, and that the person possessed of it has the ability to classify, 
to arrange his ideas, to criticize, and reason by analogy, and rec- 
ollect what has taken place. 

"Viewed full-face : A wide forehead shows a broader mind than 
does a narrow one ; and a high forehead indicates more intuition 
and altogether loftier characteristics than a low one. 

"A forehead greatly developed above, which sinks in near the 
eyes, indicates an infantile, crude personality." 

Next as to eyebrows, the contour, position, and extent of which 
show the development of the perceptive organs : 

"Straight eyebrows show orderly habits, a methodical turn of 
mind ; arched or pointed ones, perception of color, taste in the 
arrangement of tints, and the ability to match shades and hues; 
while such as are set far apart from each other show the capacity 
for judging of sizes and proportions with a greater or less 
amount of accuracy. 

"If the eyebrows bend down in the middle toward the eyes, so 
that they appear indented, as it were, they show a nature that is 
disposed neither to forgive nor forget, and that is resentful, or 
apt to give ' tit for tat. ' 

"According to the greater amount of space between the ridge 
of the eyebrow at its outer terminus and the corner of the eye, 
can be accurately determined the calculative powers of a person. 

"When the outline of the eyebrows is straight it indicates sin- 
cerity and frankness — if, however, it should be oblique, and the 
hairs spring from the root of the nose, it shows elusive and de- 
ceptive tendencies." 

The eye, we are told, shows by its fulness and convexity the 
power of speech. The size of the eye shows the degree of senti- 
ment, fancy, regard for the opposite sex. The distance between 
the eyes indicates power of remembering forms and outlines. 
The color indicates the temperament, but on this point we get no 
particulars. 

No other feature is so pregnant with meaning as the nose. The 
mere size counts for little ; but its height above the cheeks unerr- 
ingly indicates mental capacity and elevation of character. A 
pug or snub indicates either immaturity or arrested development; 
a Roman arch, love of power; a Greek straight nose, refinement, 
artistic taste, love of peace; the turn -up means vivacity and 
cheerfulness; the drooping-down nose, prudence, reflection, and, 
usually, melancholy ; the hooked or beak-like nose, love of gain. 

The lips are the signs of passion and appetite. The upper lip, 
according to its fulness and redness, shows the extent of the 
social attributes; the lower, the domestic traits. 



"Thick lips denote sensuality and love of the good things of 
life; thin ones, oppositely, indicate a want of vitality, and but 
little capacity either for enjoyment or affording pleasure toothers. 
The 'happy medium' — the 'proper mean' — is the best; such lips 
indicating a full share of the milk of human kindness, and a lov- 
ing, sympathetic, feeling nature. 

"Up-turned lips indicate a witty, mirthful nature ; but such as 
descend at the angles of the mouth denote a gloomy, unhopeful 
temperament. 

"When the space from the nose to the opening of the mouth 
{i.e., that part of the face which is often spoken of as the 'upper 
lip'), is long, stiff, and full, it shows self-reliance and confidence 
in one's own opinions and ideas — pride. 

"If this portion of the face is short and concave, when looked 
at in profile, so that the upper lip rises and exposes the teeth to 
view, the exact opposite state of affairs exists, viz., love of com- 
mendation and the desire to be thought well of by others — vanity. " 

A chin projecting downward and forward indicates firmness ; a 
short and retreating chin shows instability ; a narrow chin shows 
an unscrupulous, cunning nature ; a wide chin, a well-developed 
sense of honor and duty. 



Football Four Hundred Years Ago.— The prevail- 
ing notion is that "flying wedges," "tandems," and other massed 
plays in football are modern devices. Perhaps they are, but it 
seems that as early as 1583, in ye Realme of England, an outcry 
was raised against the game as "a bloody and murthering prac- 
tise. " One Philip Stubbes published in that year an "Anatomic" 
of the abuses current in the realm, and here is what he had to 
say of football : 

"Now who is so grosly blinde that seeth not that these afore- 
said exercises not only withdraw us from godliness and virtue, 
but also haile and allure us to wickednesse and sins. For as con- 
cerning football-playing I protest unto you that it may rather be 
called a friendlie kinde of fyghte than a play or recreation — a 
bloody and murthering practise than a felowly sport or pastime. 
For dooth not everyone lye in waight for his adversarie, seeking 
to overthrow him and picke him on his nose, tho it be on hard 
stones, on ditch or dale, or valley or hill, or whatever place so- 
ever it be he careth not, so he have him downe ; and he that can 
serve the most of this fashion he is counted the only fellow, and 
who but he? ... So that by this means sometimes their necks 
are broken, sometimes their backs, sometimes their legs, some- 
times their armes, sometimes their noses gush out with blood, 
sometimes their eyes start out, and sometimes hurte in one place, 
sometimes in another. But whosoever scapeth away the best 
goeth not scot-free, but is either forewounded, craised, or bruised, 
so as he dyeth of it or else scapeth very hardlie ; and nomervaile, 
for they have the sleights to meet one betwixt two, to dash him 
against the hart with their elbowes, to butt him under the short 
ribs with their griped fists and with their knees to catch him on 
the hip and pick him on his neck, with a hundred such murther- 
ing devices. And hereof groweth envy, rancour, and malice, and 
sometimes brawling, murther, homicide, and great effusion of 
blood, as experience daily teacheth." 

This extract from Goodman Stubbes His Book is used by John 
Corbin in an article in T/ie Independent (December 16) for the 
purpose of showing that all the modern objections were used by 
the Puritans four hundred years ago, and that football has, never- 
theless, survived because the objections were then, as they are 
now, he thinks, without any sufficient basis in fact. 



CORRESPONDENTS' CORNER. 



An Echo from Thanksgiving, 

Editor c>/The Literary Digest:— 

At this season we are prone to count our beads of thankfulness. I was 
thinking to-day, as I spent an hour with the last issue of The Literary 
Digest, that surely one thing I was thankful for was your excellent com- 
pendium of world's thought. It is a Klondike in itself, and is the most 
helpful periodical that comes to my table. I want to say this much, that 
you may know how warm a place your publication has in the hearts of 
hundreds like mvself. REV. James M. Belding, 

Presbyterian Pastor. 



Vol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



57 



BUSINESS SITUATION. 



The trade journals, in reviewing the year 1897, 
find numerous signs of encouragement for the com- 
ing year. Business failures have been smaller 
than in any year since 1892. Bank clearings show 
the heaviest business, both speculative and com- 
mercial, done since the record year 1892, the gain 
in 1897 being concentrated in the last six months, 
heaviest in the Northw^est, the Middle and the New 
England States. Shipments of boots and shoes 
surpass those of any other year in history. Rail- 
way earnings for December have been 4.7 per cent 
larger than last year, and 4. 7 per cent, smaller than 
in 1892. Railway receiverships during the year 
covered only 1,07s miles ($162,707,262) against 4,459 
($226,657,524) last year. 

Cheerful Outlook. — " Following a series of years 
of alternate panic, stagnation, and slow and even 
painful revival, 1897 presented a large volume of 
business done as a whole at prices which, while 
not altogether satisfactory, resulted in a total of 
trade larger than in any previous year since 1892. 
Tariff changes restricted demand but encouraged 
speculation, and heavy imports in the first part 
of 1897, •while the enlarged foreign demand for 
American breadstuffs and for some varieties of 
manufactured articles bettered the condition of the 
American farmer and, therefore, business men, 
quite materially, in the latter part of the year. 
Price conditions have not favored the Southern 
producer of cotton nor the Northern manufacturer 
of cotton goods. The best reports come from the 
West, Northwest, and from the Pacific coast. Prices 
at the close of the year are as a whole on a higher 
range than at the opening, advances being most 
numerous in food products, raw silk, and wool, 
while decreases are to be reported in raw cotton 
and cotton goods, nearly all metals, anthracite 
coal, and petroleum. Railroad interests share in 
the revival of prosperity, with grross and net earn- 
ings larger than any year since 1893, and the year 
1838 opens with the business community, with the 
few exceptions noted, in a very cheerful frame of 
mind."— Bradstreet' S.January i. 

Falling-Off of Failures. — " A heavy falling-off in 
number and in liabilities of individuals, firms, or 
corporations failing was shown in 1897 from 1896 
and the four preceding years. A partial return 
to more or less normal conditions is further in- 
dicated by a drop in the percentage of assets to 
liabilities, and by a reduction in the commercial 
death-rate as compared with every year since and 
including 1893. The total number of failures re- 
ported to Bradstreet's for the year just closed was 
13.0991 a- decrease of 2,000 failures and of over 13 per 
cent, from 1896, a falling-oflf of 15 per cent, from 

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the panic year of 1893, and a decrease of more than 
2 per cent, from 1891, a j'ear of prosperous business, 
but of numerous business embarrassments. Com- 
pared with 1895, there was a gain in the number of 
failures shown of about half of i per cent., while 
compared with 1892 there was an increase of 27 per 
cent. Liabilities of those failing constituted one 
of the smallest totals of recent years, amounting 
to only $156,166,000, a decrease of 37 per cent, from 
1896, of 60 per cent, from 1893, and of ig per cent, 
from 1891, but a gain of 47 per cent, over 1892. The 
least favorable showing is made by the Eastern 
States, which report increases in number and liabil- 
ities over 1896. In spite of depression in cotton 
prices. Southern failures and liabilities are smaller 
than a year ago, while the greatest falling-off is re- 
ported in the West and in the Northwest. The per- 
centage of assets to liabilities of those failing in 
1897 was 54.4 per cent., the smallest percentage 
since 1893 and only slightly above the normal. The 
commercial death-rate, that is, the percentage of 
those in business failing in 1897, was 1.20 as com- 
pared with 1.40 in t886 and 1.50 in 1893."— i?ra</- 
slreei's, January i. 

Wheat, Corn, Cotton. — " After the great excite- 
ment at Chicago, wheat still goes out of the country 
as largely as before, from Atlantic ports 3,570,783 
bushels, flour included, against 1,542,540 last year 
and from Pacific ports 1,712,625 bushels.and in four 
weeks the Atlantic exports, flour included, have 
been 15,060,047 bushels against 8,500,161 last year. 
Heavy Western receipts are only reflecting tempo- 
rary conditions in the Chicago market But the ex- 
traordinary exports of corn, 14,404,905 bushels, 
against 9,444,853 bushels in the four weeks last 
year, shows how sorely foreign markets are pushed 
by the increasing demand for breadstuffs. Wheat 
has declined >^ of a cent with the Chicago market, 
and corn has meanwhile advanced K of a cent. 
The cotton movement continues remarkably 




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Readers of The Literary Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



58 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



TO CURE NERVOUS DYSPEPSIA. 



To Gain Flesh, to Sleep Well, to Know "W'hat 
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Make a Test of Stuart's Dys- 
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Nervous dyspeptics often do not have any 
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heavy, and yet the slight advance last week is 
maintained. The movement to date, altho more 
than seven million bales have come into sight, 
scarcely supports the largest current estimates. . .. 
The cotton industry is halted by the question of 
wages, altho a general reduction now seems 
probable. The manufacturers have been buying 
largely of material for worsted goods, and their 
purchases have stimulated buying by wool manu- 
facturers, so that the wool markets are stronger, 
tho without changes in quotations." — Dun's Re- 
view, January I. 

Canadian Improvement. — " The prosperity of the 
agricultural communitj' was at the base of the im- 
provement in trade for 1897 reported from the 
Dominion of Canada. The increased prices of 
nearly all Canadian agricultural products and the 
enlarged demand for export, particularly in the 
lasthalf of 1897, helped distributive trade through- 
out Canada. Business failures for the Dominion 
of Canada and Newfoundland for the calendar 
year 1897 amounted to 1,927, with total liabilities of 
$13,219,000, a falling-oflf of 13 per cent, in number 
and of T9 per cent, in liabilities from a year ago. 
Canadian bank clearings for the year, one week 
estimated, were the largest on record, aggregating 
$1,143,000,000, a gain of n per cent, over 1896. 
YDun's Review, 21 to 39 last year.Y'—Bradstreet's, 
January j. 



Current Events. 



Monday, December 2-j. 

The State Department makes another plea for 
the relief of the Cuban sufferers. . . . The Over- 
man Wheel Company, Chicopee Falls, Mass.. 
assigns . . . The Fall River mauufacturerg 
decline to change the proposed reduction of 
wages. ... It is announced that Horace G. 
Burt, third vice-president of the Chicago and 
Northwestern Railroad, has been chosen for the 
presidency of the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company. ...CM. Charnley, ex-treasurer of 
the Presbyterian Board of Aid for Colleges and 
Academies, is indicted in Chicago for embezzle- 
ment. 

Kin-Chau, north of Port Arthur, is occupied 
by the Russians. . . . Great Britain declines 
to enter into an agreement with the United 
States, Russia, and Japan, to stop sealing in 
Bering Sea. . . . The striking engineers reject 
the proposals of employers in London. . . . The 
public prosecutor in Paris asks that adequate 
sentences be imposed upon Messrs. Arton, St. 
Martin, Maret, and Planteau, for connection with 
the Panama canal intrigues. . . . The Spanish 
Government issues a note regarding the latest 
note from this Government ; General Ruiz 
Riviera, the captured Cuban leader, arrives in 
Spain, and will be imprisoned indefinitely. 

Tuesday, December 28. 

A rumor that Secretary Gage had offered his 
resignation as Secretary of the Treasury, is de- 
nied. . . . The Cabinet discusses relief measures 
for Cubans. . . . Republicans of Indiana hold 
a conference at Indianapolis. . . . The appellate 
division of the supreme court, Brooklyn, affirms 
the injunction to prevent the granting of a 
franchise to a street railway company, in per- 
petuity. . . . Persons arriving at Seattle, from 
Dawson City, say that the government relief ex- 
pedition to the Klon<llke is unnecessary. 

China is becoming alarmed over the uncer- 
tainty of the attitude of the powers ; British and 
.Japanese war-ships arrive at Port Hamilton, 
south of Korea. . . . The Japanese Cabinet re- 
signs, owing to the war spirit. ... It is denied 
that tariff negotiations between the United 
States and Germany have been broken off. . . . 
The late Dr. Thomas AV. Kvans, American 
dentist, who recently died in Paris, leaving an 
estate of four million dollars, made two wills, 
which will be contested. 

Wednesday, December zg. 

The President signs the bill prohibiting 
pelagic sealing and also the importation of 



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knows it. 

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22i X 36 inches, at $1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 2.00, 
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25 x36 " at $1.50, 1.75, 2.25, 2.75, 
3.00, 4.00 per pair. 

27 x36 " at $1.50, 1.75, 2.00, 2.50, 
3.00, 3.50, 4.50 i)er pair. 

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Our readers wiil be glad to know that the 
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discovery, with a record of 1,200 hospital cures 
in 30 days. It acts directly upon the blood and 
kidneys, and is a true specific, just as quinine 
is in malaria. Rev. W. 13. Moore, D.D., of 
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Witness that Alkavis completely cured him of 
Kidney and Bladder disease of many years' stand- 
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lieailcrs of Thk. Litkrarv Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



Tol. XVI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



59 



sealskins. . . . Assets of the defunct Maverick 
National Bank, of Boston, amounting to $1,0^5,- 
Sgo, are sold at auction for $429,000. . . . The 
Fall Kiver operatives decide to accept reduc- 
tion of wages ; miners are on strike in Tennes- 
see, and propose a strike in northern Colorado ; 
miners along the line of the Cincinnati Southern 
Railway end a strike by accepting 5 per cent, re- 
duction. . . . William J. Linton, engraver and 
writer, dies in New Haven. 

The French seize the island of Hai-Nan, off 
the south coast of China. . . . Captain-General 
Blanco issues a decree concerning the home- 
rule government in Cuba. . . . Fire in Port-au- 
Prince, Haiti, leaves three thousand people 
homeless. . . . The Anglo-Egyptian forces cap- 
ture Osobri, the last Dervish post between Kas- 
salaand Khartoum. . . . Leon Carvalho, direc- 
tor of the Opera Comique, dies in Paris. . . . 
France grants a subsidy of 500,000 francs for a 
steamship line betweea France and Canada. 

Thursday^ December 30. 

Arrangements are completed at Washington 
for a jomt conduct of a Klondike relief expe- 
dition by the United States army, and Canadian 
police. . . . The Treasury Department issues 
regulations to effect prohibition of pelagic 
sealing. . . . It isreported that insurance com- 
missioners in ten States west of the Mississippi 
have agreed to compel insurance companies to 
submit to the publication of an audit of their ac- 
counts. . . . The governor of Tennessee called 
an extra session of the legislature for January 
17. ... A memorial to Congress, asking for an 
improvement of the Chicago Kiver, is adopted 
by representatives of the municipal government 
and commercial organizations of Chicago. 

A semi-official denial is made in France re- 
garding the occupation of Hai-Nan. . . . Mar- 
quis Ito is forming a Cabinet in Japan. ... It is 
stated that the British squadron has assembled 
at Chemulpo in support of a protest against the 
dismissal of McLeavy Brown, superintendent of 
Korean customs. . . . The cost of the famine in 
India, according to official reports, was nearly 
$15,000,000. . . . French deputies and others are 
acquitted of connection with the Panama canal 
scandal. . . . Emperor Francis Joseph orders 



Small Mail Remittances 

and larger expenses can be equally 

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CHECKS of the Cheque Bank, 

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UNFOUNDED RUMORS 

of imminent war in the East. The concentrating in 
the Eastern seas of so many war-vessels of the great Euro- 
pean powers has given rise to much speculation as to the 
future of pleasure-travel 'round the world, and for that 
matter to Europe and the Orient. 

We understand that Henry Gaze & Sons, Ltd., the 
Universal Tourist agents, are not disturbed by the out- 
look — on the contrary, they have .i,;ot out quite a large 
volume of interesting illustrated printed programs of tours 
to Europe, Egypt, Palestine, Greece, and an exceptionally 
attractive program for a conducted party 'round the world. 

The current number of Gaze's Tourist Gazette contains 
page after page of interesting information about travel in 
all countries , at rates so low as to prove very attractive. 

Any Digest readers contemplating a tour to the Medi- 
terranean or Egypt, the West Indies or Venezuela, should 
send a postal to General Manager Crunden, 113 Broad- 
way, who will be pleased to mail free all the requisite 
information and printed matter. 



the Austrian Reichsrath to be closed. . . . 
Captain-General Blanco issues an edict permit- 
ting the importation of tobacco from Cuba. 

Friday, December 31. 

Government receipts for December show a 
surplus of $1,735,494 ; Mr. Dingley makes a 
statement in regard to revenue. . . . The direc- 
tor of the mint estimates the world's product 
of gold for i8g7 at $240,000,000, an increase of 
nearly 20 per cent, over i8g6. . . . New Bedford 
and Rhode Island cotton manufacturers an- 
nounce a reduction of wages, affecting forty- 
five thousand hands. . . . The birthday of 
Greater New York is celebrated. 

A compromise between the British and Russian 
agents in Korea is said to have been effected. 
. . . Further missionary trouble is reported in 
Shan-Tung province, which may delay negotia- 
tions with Germany. . . . The French expedi- 
tion occupies Fashoda on the Nile, four liundred 
miles south of Khartoum. . . . Captain-General 
Blanco signs the appointments of ne-w Cuban 
officers. . . . The Rothschilds are said to be 
financiering a Russian oil company to compete 
with the Standard Oil Company in Great 
Britain. 

Saturday, January r. 

Mayor Van TVyck assumes office in Greater 



New York, and announces his appointments. . . . 
County Judge Clearwater is appointed to suc- 
ceed, in the New York supreme court, Alton B. 
Parker, who was elected justice of the court of 
appeals. ... J. Hoge Tyler is inaugurated gov- 
ernor of Virginia. ... A Cleveland, Ohio, firm 
receives an order for four million tons of iron 
ore from Cardiff, Wales. 

The provisional government of Cuba is for- 
mally inaugurated in Havana. ... It is said 
that the Russian agent in Korea has been in- 
vested with power to antagonize the British and 
Japanese influences in commercial relations. . . . 
Sir Henry Irving's new play "Peter the Great," 
written by his son Laurence, is successfully pro- 
duced in London. 



Sunday, January ^. 

Governor Bushnell, of Ohio, openly declares 
himself candidate for United States Senator 
against Senator Hanna. . . . The report of 
the Indianapolis monetary commission is 
made public. 

A local Chinese commandant, who had 
threatened missionaries, is dismissed at the de- 
mand of the German ambassador at Peking. . . . 
It is rumored that the English admiral fired 
on a Russian man-of-war in Chinese waters. 
. . . Bread riots occur in Sicily. 



pnvincing ^ Letters 

In our booklet of testimonials regarding 
the Electropoise appeared the following: 

CATARRH OF STOMACH 

68 Gardner Ave., Jer.sev City, N. J., May 15, 1897. 
I have suffered with catarrh of the stomach and dyspepsia for fourteen years and 
the Electropoise has entirely cured me. If I were able I would see that every poor 
person had one of these life-savers. ARTHUR C. GILLETTE. 

Under date of December 23 Inst. T\r. Qil = 



lette received a letter of enquiry, in reply 
to which he wrote the following, under 
date of December 28th : ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

68 Gardner Ave., Jersey City, N. J., Dec. 28th, 1897. 
Mr. F. H. B., 590 Melrose Ave., West, Chicago, 111. 

Dear Sir : — Your favor of the 23d inst. to hand, and contents fully noted. In reply 
I will say, first, that I have forwarded your letter to Mr. DuBois of New York City. He 
is the president of the company, and patentee of the Electropoise, and may possibly 
let you have one on trial. If not, the price is only Sio.oo. I assure you I would not 
take $10,000.00 for mine, provided I could not secure another. As far as my sending 
my Electropoise, I do not wish to part with it, for I have a wife and three children, and 
the Electropoise is my safeguard against disease of all kinds. I would purchase one for 
you, but cannot afford it. Yours very truly, ARTHUR C. GILLETTE. 

And also on same date the following let= 



ter to the Electrolibration Company ; ^ 

68 Gardner Ave., Jersey City, N. L, Dec. 28, 1897. 
Dr. DuBOLS, New York. 

Dear Sir: — I enclose you letter received by me ; also my answer to same. I will say 
one time more: the Electropoise has done wonders for me; I heartily recommend it to 
any one suffering with anv kind of stomach trouble. 

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Readers of The Literary Dioest are asked tu mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



60 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 8, 1898 



CHESS. 

A U communications for this Department should 

be addressed : "Chess Editor, LITERARY 

Digest."] 



Problem 251. 

Bv M. Fraisse. 
Black — Five Pieces. 




White — Four Pieces. 
White mates in two moves. 

Problem 252. 

By the Rev. J. Jesperson. 
Black — Seven Pieces. 




White— Fourteen Pieces. 
White mates in three moves. 

Solution of Problems. 

No. 245. 



R— B8 
Bx R 



K— B 6, mate 



K X B, mate 



B— B3 



B (K 2) any other 



B (Kt 8; Q 6 



B (Kt 8)— B 7 



B (Kt 8)-R 7 



K— B 6, mate 
Q— B 3, mate 
Q X B, mate 
Q — B 2, mate 
P X Q, mate 



Q-Bs 



K X Q, mate 



Q - R 4 ch 



Kt-B 2, mate 



g- R 6. 7, 8 



Q-Kt 6 
B7 

K8 



K— R 5, mate 










Q-Kt 5 




Kt (R 5), 




Kt (Q sq) 




P-K4 




Px P 




P-Q5 



Kt— B 2, mate 
Kt— B 3, mate 



K — B 7, mate 



K— Kt 7, mate 



Q X P, mate 
P X P, mate 
R — B 4, mate 



P-Kt5 

Correct solution received from M. W. H., Uni- 
versity of Virginia; "Spifflicator," New York City; 
the Rev. I. W. Bieber, Bethlehem, Pa.; F. S. Fer- 
guson, Birmingham, Ala.; W. G. Donnan, Inde- 
pendence, Iowa ; F. H. Johnston, Elizabeth City, 
N. C. ; C. F. Putney, Independence, Iowa ; C. Q. De 
France, Lincoln, Neb.; R. J. Moore, Riverton, Ala.; 
B. B. W., Macalester College, St. Paul ; J. C. Ep- 
pers. 

Comments : "One of the most beautiful and diffi- 
cult problems I have seen" — M. W. H. "Good" 
— S. "A merry mystifier "— I. W. B. "I have 
never seen a more beautiful two-mover " — F. S. F. 
"Splendid composition "—W. S. D. "An admir- 
able two-mover "— F. H. J. "An A No. i problem " 
— C. F. P. "Very ingenious "-C. Q. De F. " It's a 
sapsucker "— R. J. JI. 

No. 246. 

Q— Q 2 R— Q 5 ch Q X P, mate 

1. 2. 3. 

B mov«s P X R must 

R x'P ch Q— Q 6, mate 



Kt— B 6 B X R 



Kt-K 5 
Kt-R4 



P X Q or K 7 Anv 
Q-R 



R X Kt, mate 
Kt— Kt 6, mate 



Kt— Kt 6, mate 



P-B6 



Any 
Q X Kt P 

P— Kt 5 ''' B X P 



Q X B, mate 



Q— Kt 8, mate 



Any other 



Correct solution received from M. W. H.;J. G. 
O'Callaghan, Low Moor, Va.; "Spifflicator," F. S. 
Ferguson, J. C. Eppers, R. J. Moore. 

Comments: "Beautiful and intricate" — M. W. 
H. "Grand! A worthy prize-winner " — S. This 
is an unusually difficult problem "— F. S. F. "Cer- 
tainly, a fine one "—J. C. E. " Like the traditional 
hog on ice" — R. J. M. 

W. R. Coumbe, Lakeland, Fla., and F. B. Osgood, 
North Conway, N. H.. got Problem 243. C. Q. De 
France was successful with 244. 

Concerning Problem 247. 

The little South American has proved itself to be 
a puzzler, indeed. We have received very many 
solutions (?), but only three of our solvers have 
sent the correct solution. Several of those who 
did not get it assure us that the problem is un- 
sound — having several key-moves ; that it is the 
work of a tyro, and that it is too simple to have 
any merit Now, w« assure our friends that it is 
as sound as a nut, has only one key-move, and is, as 
one of those who got it remarks, " A veritable gem 
of Chess." 

Inter-Collegiate Tourney. 

The sixth annual Cliess-Tournamenl between 
Columbia, Harvard, Yale and Princeton began on 
Monday, December 27, in New York City. 

The players were as follows: Columbia— Arthur 
S. Meyer and (JeorgeO. Seward ; Harvard — James 
Hewins and Elmer Southard ; Yale- Lewis A. 



Cook and W. M. Murdock ; Princeton- David T- 
Dana and William T. Young. 
The full score is as follows : 

Wo?i. Lost. 

Harvard 10 2 

Columbia 6K sW 

Yale 4H 7M 

Princeton 3 9 

The individual scores are : 

Won. Lost. 

Southard 6 o 

Meyer ^y^ i]4 

Hewins 4 2 

Young 3 3 

Cook 3 3 

Seward 2 4 

Murdock 1% ^% 

Dana o 6 



The following is the summary of the games won 
from the beginning of the tournaments to date: 

Years. Harvard. Columbia. Yale. Princeton. 

i8q2 7K g 5 2j^ 

1893 7 8M 5 3K 

1894 9 3 6 6 

1895 8K 8 3}^ 4 

1896 10 4}^ 4 sJ^ 

1897 10 6J^ i,% 3 

Total.... 52 39K 28 24^^ 



The Correspondence Tourney. 

In the thirtieth game, as published, there was no 
reason for Black to resign. But his 7th move was 
B^K 3, and as he lost a piece the next move, with 
a bad position, he thought it best to give it up. 



Thirty-Third Game. 



J. S. SMITH, 


K. R. TAYLOR, 


J. S. SMITH. 


R. R. TAYLOR. 


Linneus, Mo 


Miami, Fla. 


White. 


Black. 


White. 


Black. 


4P-Q3 


B— B 4 


I P-K 4 


P-K 4 


sBx Kt 


Game aban- 


2 Kt-K B3 


Kt-K B3 




doned. 


3B-Kt5 


Kt-B 3 








Thirtv-Fourth Game 






Center Gambit. 




H.N.BLI.LARD 


. A. L. JONES, 


H.N.BULLARD 


. A. L. TONES. 




Montgomery. 


White. 


Black. 




Ala. 


8Q-K4 


Q-B3 


White. 


Black. 


9 B-Q Kt s 


B-QB4 


1 P-K4 


P-K 4 


10 Kt-K B 3 


Castles 


2 P-Q4 


Px P 


II Castles 


Q Kt-K 2 


3QxP 


Kt-Q P. 3 


12 Kt-KKt5 


B-K B4 


4 Q-Q 5 (a) 


Kt-B 3 


13Q-KR4 
14P-QB4 


P-K B 3 


5Q-B4 


P-Q4 


Kt-Kt 3 


6 P X P 


Kt xP 


Resigns. 




7 B-K2 


B— K3 







Notes by One of the Judges. 

(a) Better retire the Q to Q sq. The Q is kept 
popping about while Black is getting his pieces into 
play. There is no need for comment on this game. 
White got himself in trouble on his fourth move, 
and never got out of it. It is noticeable that when 
White resigned he had not moved his Q Kt and O B. 



The Chess-Board. 

[ Written by Owen Meredith., for 
Chronicle., iSsg.'\ 



Chess-Plav!*- s 



My little love, do you remember 

Ere we were grown so sadly wise, 
Those evenings in the bleak December, 
Curtained warm from the snowy weather. 
When you and I played Chess together. 
Checkmated by each other's eyes ? 

Ah, still I see your soft, white hand 
Hovering warm o'er Queen and Knight. 

Brave Pawns in valiant battle stand; 
The double Castles guard the wings ; 
The Bishop, bent on distant things, 
Moves, sidling, through the fight. 

Our fingers touch; our glances meetj 

And falter ; falls your golden hair 
Against my cheek ; your bosom sweet 
Is heaving. Down the field, your Queen 
Rides slow her soldiery all between. 
And checks me unaware. 

Ah me ! the little battle's done, 
Disperst is all its chivalry; 
Full many a move since then have we 
'Mid life's perplexing checkers made. 
And many a game with Fortune played 

What is it we have won ? 

This, this at least— if this alone- 
That never, never, never more, 
As in those old still nights of yore 

(Ere we were grown so sadly wise) 

Can you and I shut out the skies, 
.Shut out the world and wintry weather, 

And, eyes exchanging warmth with eyes, 
Play Chess, as then we play'd together. 



The Literary Digest 



Vol. XVI. , No. 3 



New York, January 15, 1898. 



Whole Number, 404 



Published Weekly by 

Punk & Wagnalls Company, 
30 Lafayette Place, New York. 44 Fleet Street, London 

Entered at New York Post-OfBce as Second-Class Matter. 



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TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



PRESIDENT MCKINLEY'S USE OF THE 
PARDONING POWER. 

CONSIDERABLE criticism of President McKinley's use of 
the pardoning power has arisen on account of the large 
number of financial offenders whose punishment has been cur- 
tailed by him. Nor is the criticism confined to the "free-silver" 
press. The number of these pardons, and their significance, both 
political and ethical, appear in the following representative quo- 
tations : 

"Is Bank-Wrecking Crime?" — "The peculiar sympathy ex- 
hibited by President McKinley for bank-wreckers sentenced to 
terms of imprisonment for violations of the United States laws is 
giving rise to a great deal of adverse comment among bankers 
and others who believe that integrity is protected and promoted 
by making crime as odious as possible. During the past few 
months The Fiiiaticier has called attention several times to the 
remarkable frequency with which pardons are being granted to 
men whose offenses against the banking laws were notoriously 
flagrant. Another instance of misdirected clemency occurred a 
few days since when the ex-cashier of a St. Louis bank, sentenced 
to five years' imprisonment for embezzlement, was pardoned, 
altho there was nothing to show that sentence had been wrong- 
fully passed upon him. The record of pardons granted by Presi- 
dent McKinley to bank embezzlers, and others of that ilk during 
the year 1897 is as follows : 

Harry L. Martin, convicted February 10, 1896, embezzlement ; sentence, 
five years ; pardoned April z. 

Alonzo B. Cranford, convicted of violation United States banking laws in 
Missouri ; sentenced October 8, 1894, five years ; pardoned May 8. 

Henry H. Kennedy, convicted in Pennsylvania of violating National 
banking laws; sentenced September 16, i8<)i, ten years ; pardoned May 21. 

John M. Wall, convicted in Ohio for violating the United States banking 
laws ; sentenced April 27, iSqy, to five years ; pardoned October g. 

Frederick E. Edgar, convicted in New York May g, i8g4, of violating 
national banking laws; sentenced five years; pardoned jfune i. 

Charles R. Fleischman, convicted in Illinois of violating banking laws ; 
sentenced December 8, i8g6, five years; pardoned June 28. 



Frederick L. Kent, convicted in Missouri of embezzlement ; sentenced 
September 7, iSga, ten years ; pardoned July 7. 

Edward R. Carter, convicted in New York of violating national banking 
laws ; sentencedjanuary g, 1895, six years and six months ; pardoned July g. 

Francis A. Coffin, convicted in Indiana of violating Unitea States banking 
laws ; sentenced October 26, 1895, eight years ; pardoned September g. 

Lewis Redwine, convicted in Georgia of violating L'nited States banking 
laws ; sentenced January 12, 1894, six years ; pardoned October 26 

Stephen M. Folsom, convicted in New Mexico, April 17, 1894, of falsifying 
books National bank ; sentenced five years; pardoned November 16. 

Frederick W. Griffin, convicted in Illinois of embezzling national bank 
funds ; sentenced May 24, i8g5, five years ; pardoned November 22. 

Wm. E. Burr, Jr., Missouri, sentenced January 27, i8g6, to five years im- 
prisonment for embezzlement, pardoned December 23, 1897. 

" It appears from the above that the convicted persons served 
on an average less than one fourth their terms, and several were 
in prison for a few months only. Now, there are but two con- 
clusions to be drawn from the President's action in these cases. 
One is that the evidence did not warrant conviction, and the other 
is that the laws relating to the punishment of bank criminals are 
too stringent. It is charitable to assume that the Executive was 
influenced by the latter consideration. To impugn the convicting 
magistrates on the score of partiality or wrong construction of 
law would be, manifestly, both improper and absurd. The Pres- 
ident, of course, having full power to pardon, can set aside the 
verdicts, but it is a questionable policy that dictates leniency in 
offenses as grave as the ones cited. If bank-wrecking, or embez- 
zlement of funds, is a crime, it deserves punishment just as much 
as petty larceny, or other criminal breaches ; but if it is not so 
considered, the sooner the laws are amended to cover the new 
interpretation, the better it will be for innocent stockholders and 
depositors whose money is stolen. Forearmed with the knowl- 
edge that dishonesty need not apprehend quick and certain pun- 
ishment, they could at least take strict measures of prevention. 
That is more than they have been moved to do up to the present 
time. 

"It is time, however, that some protest was made against these 
wholesale pardons, unless the fact can be clearly established that 
the convictions were improper. And the attempt to defend clem- 
ency on that score will utterly fail." — The Financier , Neio ]'ork. 

The Weakest Spot in Presidential the Armor. — "This is rather 
a surprising list, and it is difficult to understand why this class of 
offenders shoulcf appeal so strongly to the President. The banker 
is removed from the temptations to which distress and penury 
subject other classes. He has, in almost all cases, an environ- 
ment especially designed to keep him from going astray. And, 
moreover, he almost invariably has the advantage of the best 
legal talent and the highest social influence to keep him out of 
the penitentiary or to secure the lightest possible sentence if there 
is no loophole of escape. There is, too, the strongest reason to 
be found in considerations of public safety against too great len- 
iency in the treatment of criminals of this class. They are en- 
trusted with the savings of so many, their looseness of conduct 
inflicts such widespread sufferings and imparts such lasting de- 
moralization to the business of a community, that the nation can 
ill afford to treat them with undue clemency. Why, then, should 
the President make such a conspicuous record in freeing this class 
of law-breakers from the penalties of the law ? We have seen no 
explanation ; but we surmise that his course is an indication of 
the weakest spot in the President's armor — an insufficient amount 
of resisting power. That was Garfield's weakness, and, unless 
we are mistaken, will prove to be President McKinley's." — The 
Voice {Proh.), i\e7V York. 

Unjustifiable Attitude. — "It seems as if President McKinley 
had a special fondness for pardoning bank-wreckers and em- 
bezzlers, the very class of all others that ought to be the last to 
receive clemency. Their crimes are especially disturbing to soci- 
ety, and especially blameworthy in that they constitute violations 
of sacred trusts. Of course criminals of high standing, like those 
holding positions of responsibility in great banking institutions, 
can bring to bear in their behalf more pressure, political and 



62 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



otherwise, than ordinary offenders. In the face of the long par- 
don list and the facts as reported in some cases, one can not for- 
bear thinking that influence is the chief factor in securing clemencj'. 
"In the interest of depositors and shareholders alike subverters 
of trust funds should not be allowed to go unpunished when con- 
victed of crime. How can a President elected on the issue of 
sound currency and sound banking justify this attitude of leniency 
toward dishonest bankers?" — The Record {hid.), Chicago. 

Righteous Indignation. — "No President for many years, if 
indeed any in the list, has incurred so much just criticism for 
undeserved clemency to men who have been guilty of breaches of 
trust as has been visited upon Mr. McKinleyfor his many pardons 
of embezzlers and bank-wreckers. The announcement made on 
the eve of Christmas that, after already releasing twelve criminals 
of this class, he had that day pardoned eight more of the same 
stripe, made a most painful impression upon the public mind. 
We are glad to observe that the religious press is taking up this 
matter. The Boston Congregationalist recently blamed the 
President for his abuse of the pardoning power. The Vermont 
Chronicle attempted to defend the Executive by advancing the 
absurd plea that ' there is no class of law-breakers who deserve 
more sympathy than those who have been betraj'ed into wrong 
under the intense pressure of commercial excitement.' The 
Congregationalist quotes this extraordinary claim of The Chron- 
icle' s. and says with righteous indignation : 

"' Has it no sympathy for those whose savings are stolen, whose 
property is pilfered? We persist in expressing our amazement at 
the record which the President has made during the nine months 
that he has been in office, and we agree with other journals of the 
country in demanding that a halt be declared.'" — The Evening 
Post {Ind.), New York. 

McKinley Compared to Cleveland. — How little basis there is 
for this criticism is shown by the Washington correspondent of 
the Chicago Record, an independent newspaper. In a published 
letter he gives a compilation of the pardons granted by President 
McKinley and compares it with the pardon record of President 
Cleveland. President McKinley has been in office almost exactly 
ten months. In that time he has granted ninety-seven pardons, 
eleven of which were to counterfeiters, twenty-two to violators 
of the postal laws, fourteen to violators of national banking laws, 
and eight to violators of the revenue laws. During the last ten 
months of his term President Cleveland granted two hundred 
and twenty pardons, or more than twice as many as President 
McKinley, twenty-one of which were to counterfeiters, twenty- 
five to violators of postal laws, nineteen to violators of banking 
laws, and nineteen to violators of revenue laws. 

"Another comparison which gives the number of pardons 

granted to embezzlers and violators of the national banking act 

during the last three fiscal years, and during the ten months of 

1897 in which Mr. McKinley was President, brings out his conduct 

in this matter in a still more favorable light. It is contained in 

the following table : 

Total Embezzle- 

Years. Pardons. ments, etc. 

•895 149 2^ 

184^ 15Q 21 

'8<37 224 32 

Ten months 1897 97 14 

"It will thus be seen that President McKinley has been far less 
lenient to men convicted of crime than his predecessor, and instead 
of being criticized 'justly' for undeserved clemency he deserves 
credit for his moderation. But it is not alone for the small num- 
ber of men he has pardoned that the President merits praise. He 
deserves commendation for the manner in which he has dis- 
charged this delicate duty. The Washington correspondent of 
the Chicago Record claims that President McKinley has never 
granted a pardon if it was objected to by the district attorney 
who tried the case and the judge who passed sentence, to whom 
the petition for clemency is referred. It is Mr. McKinley's habit 
also to go over all pardon cases with his Attorney-General, while 
it was Mr. Cleveland's custom to examine such applications and 
take action without the advice of the law member of his Cabinet." 
— The Press {Rep.), Philadelphia. 



Any appreciable reforms in the pension system, however, would add 
about two thirds of the Congressmen to the great army of the unemployed. 
— The 'tribune, Detroit. 



REPORT OF THE INDIANAPOLIS MONETARY 

COM MISSION. 

I'' HE committee selected by order of the executive committee 
of the Indianapolis convention of business men which met 
a year ago, has made public its plan for currency reform . The 
plan has been already embodied in a bill introduced in the House 
of Representatives, altho another meeting of the Indianapolis or- 
ganization has been called for January 25 to pass upon it. The 
Indianapolis convention was made up of representatives from 
many city boards of trade and commerce, delegates being present 
from twenty-six out of forty-five States. The executive com- 
mittee of fifteen, of which H. H. Hanna, of Indianapolis, is chair- 
man, was authorized to carry on the work of the convention, and 
the chairman announced a commission of eleven members after it 
was seen that President McKinley did not intend to appoint a 
special currency commission. This commission, which has just 
made public its report, consists of ex-Senator George F. Edmunds, 
of Vermont, chairman ; Charles S. Fairchild, New York ; Stuy- 
vesant Fish, New York; C. Stuart Patterson, Pennsylvania; T. 
G. Bush, Louisiana; J. W. Fries, North Carolina ; W. B. Dean, 
Minnesota; George E. Leighton, Missouri; Robert S. Taylor, 
Indiana; Prof. J. Lawrence Laughlin, Illinois, and L. A. Gar- 
nett, San Francisco. By resolution of the Indianapolis conven- 
tion, the objects to be secured by the plan to be formulated by the 
commission were a monetary system based on the maintenance of 
the present gold standard ; the ultimate retirement of all classes 
of United States notes, together with the separation of the revenue 
and note-issue departments of the Treasury ; and the extension of 
banking facilities to provide a safe and elastic circulation. The 
report of the commission recommends an explicit definition of the 
gold standard and a pledge that it shall be maintained ; a require- 
ment that all obligations, when not otherwise stipulated in the 
contract, shall be payable in conformity with that standard ; 
the creation of a separate division of issue and redemption ; 
outstanding note-issues of the Government to be gradually re- 
tired and their place taken by issues of bank-notes, altho it is 
suggested that silver certificates be not now disturbed and that no 
bank-notes of a denomination less than $10 be issued. Mr. Gar- 
nett and Professor Laughlin dissent from the report only on dif- 
ferent features of the provisions relating to currency issues under 
the proposed plan. 

Besides giving space to abstracts of the report, the "sound- 
money" press speak of it favorably, tho in some cases the praise 
is restricted to the effect the bill will have as part of a continued 
campaign of education. 

Much of the discussion in journals of all kinds turns upon the 
probability of securing legislation to obtain the ends proposed by 
the commission. This plan has to take its chances along with 
others in the House of Representatives and the Senate ; in this 
connection it is urged that the action of the reconvened conven- 
tion at Indianapolis be made so representative and unanimous 
that members of Congress shall be impressed with the force of 
sentiment prevailing among the business interests of the country. 

The Most Radical Plan Offered.— "The propo.sed scheme of 
monetary reconstruction is the most radical yet suggested. It 
provides for the extinguishment of the United States and treas- 
ury notes within ten years, through the issue of three-per-cent. 
gold bonds and the application of any surplus revenues available. 
It provides further for the gradual sale for gold of silver bullion 
held by the Treasury against the treasury notes of 1890, and for 
the redemption of silver dollars in gold as presented. It finally 
sweeps away the bond basis for bank circulation and permits the 
banks to issue notes to the amount of their paid-up and unim- 
paired capital, .such notes to be a prior lien upon all bank assets. 
Five per cent, of this circulation is to be held in the Treasury in 
gold as a guaranty fund. Bank-notes issued within 60 per cent, 
of the bank capital will be free of tax ; issued above 60 per cent, 
and below 80 per cent., the tax on the excess will be 2 per cent., 



Vol. X\l., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



63 



and on the excess above 80 per cent, the tax will be 6 per cent. 
State banks will be admitted to the scheme presumably by merely 
submitting to government examination and the other conditions. 
"This is the plan in brief. It differs materially from the Gage 
plan, which continues the bond basis of bank circulation to a 
large degree, and which takes up some portion of the United 
States and Treasury notes on an issue of gold bonds, but does 
not provide for the cancelation of the notes. It is preferable to 
the Gage plan in respect to the abolition of the bond basis of 
bank circulation, but as a whole the scheme is more far-reaching 
probably than Congress is prepared to entertain. Expediency 
has not been consulted in its preparation, as Mr. Gage felt bound 
to consult it in preparing a practicable measure of reform. 
Therein lies the great difference. Both plans have the same end 
in view, but one recognizes the political difficulties in the way 
while the other pays no attention to them." — 7/te Republka)i 
{'hid. ) , Springfield. 

Keynote of the Report, — "The keynote of the report is the 
clear and even solemn recognition of the fact that the great trou- 
ble under which we are laboring is uncertainty as to the mone- 
tary standard of the nation. In the whole of what relates to the 
Government's dealings with the currency, this is the predominant 
thought. 'The most serious evil affecting our present monetary 
system,' says the commission in an early portion of the report, 
'is the threatened degradation of the standard.' Far from say- 
ing, as did President McKinley in his message, that there is no 
doubt now that our currency is all as good as gold — crying peace, 
peace, when there is no peace — the thing insisted on throughout 
is that the maintenance of the gold standard is uncertain, and 
that this uncertainty is disastrous. One of the strongest state- 
ments on this head is contained in this passage : 

" ' The uncertainty of this situation is increased by the fact that the issue 
of bonds rests with the executive department, and whether it will be re- 
sorted to ornot will depend upon the personal views and discretion of the 
officials at the head of the department. More serious still is the fact that it 
is in the power of the executive department, as the law now stands, to de- 
cide absolutely whether the government notes shall be paid in gold or in 
silver. An end ought to be put to this anomalous and hazardous situation 
by making specific and adequate provision for the payment of the demand 
obi gations, and directing in the law that such payment shall te in gold at 
the demand of the holder.' 

"This is the very antipodes of that way of talking about the 
subject which tries to veil the real evil under misleading talk 
about the mere expense of redemption. And if action is ever to 
be taken, it must be based upon a recognition of the vital neces- 
sity for a remedy. The nation can no more be brought around to 
a great measure of currency reform by representations as to the 
mere trouble and expense of the present system, than a patient 
can be got to submit to a heroic surgical operation on the plea 
that he will feel just a trifle better after it is over. We need cur- 
rency reform because the country is in vital danger under the 
present system ; and we shall never get it until that fact is made 
central in the discussion." — The News (Ind.), Baltimore. 

Plan of Greenback Retirement. — "No new bond issue is rec- 
ommended, and in this respect there is an important difference 
between methods suggested before and the commission's scheme. 

"To the 'greenbacks' proper the commission adds the sum of 
$109,313,280. representing the treasury notes issued under the 
law of 1890. The note obligations payable in gold on demand 
under the parity requirement are thus reckoned at the sum of the 
greenback and coin notes, $455,994,296. What are the measures 
recommended in relation to these obligations, with a view to 
their withdrawal and cancelation ? They are four in number. 

" I. The creation of a separate issue and redemption division in 
the Treasury, and the transfer to it of the gold reserve and other 
resources, the notes to be redeemed in gold on demand. 

"2. The reserve to be maintained from revenue when adequate, 
and by sale of bonds when strictly necessary, the proceeds of 
bond issues to be used for no other purpose. 

" 3. Notes once redeemed to be canceled up to the amount of 
$50,000,000, and the cancelation to continue thereafter for five 
years, but not in excess of the increase of bank paper. After five 
years the notes paid in gold to be retired at a rate not exceeding 
20 per cent, per anrfum of the amount then outstanding ; but at 
the end of ten years the legal-tender quality of outstanding notes 
is to cease. 

"4. No note once redeemed to be reissued otherwise than in 
exchange for gold, except that in case of excessive accumulation 



of redeemed but uncanceled notes bonds may be purchased with 
them by the Treasury. 

"The last measure is, and with perfect justice it seems to 
many, criticized by Professor Laughlin as inconsistent with the 
spirit and principle of the plan in its entirety. He says that the 
increase of circulation should not be left to the decision of offi- 
cials ; that they would be exposed to great political pressure and 
urged to reissure the notes regardless of business conditions ; and 
that government notes should not be reissued when bank issues 
can be easily and safely provided to meet emergencies. 

"Be this as it may, the course favored is certainly not a radical 
one. Contraction is guarded against by the provisions for an 
increase in bank circulation, and the sentimental friends of the 
greenback have a long period in which to reconcile themselves to 
the change. The objectors against new bond issues have no 
grievance against the commission's plan, and the only argument 
left is that based on a frank preference for government paper 
issues; a preference not shared by many, since it means green- 
backism in the original sense — irredeemable notes." — T/ie Eve- 
ning Post {Ind.), Chicago. 

To Increase Bank-Note Circulation. — "The changes in the 
national bank law are designed to increase the bank-note circula- 
tion, and to make it more sensitive to business conditions. Banks 
are to be allowed to issue notes up to the full amount of their 
paid-up capital. Up to 25 per cent, of the capital stock the notes 
issues must not exceed the value of the United States bonds re- 
quired to be deposited with the Treasury, tho after five years 
the amount of these bonds shall be reduced each year by one fifth, 
the purpose being to base circulation on assets. From the very 
beginning, however, banks are to be allowed to issue 75 per cent, 
of their notes without a deposit of bonds. The present tax on 
circulation is done away with, and in lieu thereof there is a tax of 
2 per cent, a year on the notes outstanding in excess of 60 per 
cent, and not in excess of 80 per cent, of the bank's capital, and 
one of 6 per cent, on the notes in excess of So per cent, of the cap- 
ital. The notes up to 60 per cent, of the capital are untaxed. 
The result of this plan would be expected to be that banks ordi- 
narily' would not issue circulating notes in excess of 80 per cent, 
of their capital, as they would seldom find it profitable to issue 
notes on which they were taxed 6 per cent. They would only 
issue notes in excess of 80 per cent, of their capital in periods of 
great financial stress, as in 1893, when clearing-house certificates 
were issued. Indeed, the 2-per-cent. tax would often be suffi- 
cient to prevent an issue of notes above 60 per cent. Thus the 
bank currency would expand automatically to meet the demands 
of the business world. 

"A guaranty fund is provided of 5 per cent, on all the notes 
issued, and all the banks are made responsible for the notes of 
each bank. This is in addition to the present redemption fund. 
The tax on circulation, too, is to be held in gold coin, and shall 
be supplementary to the guaranty fund. The notes are made a 
first lien on all the assets of the banks, and the stockholders are 
made liable for their redemption up to the full value of their 
stock. Provision is made for the organization of banks with a 
capital of $25,000 in places of 4,000 population or less, and also 
for the establishment of branch banks. Tho it is proposed to es- 
tablish the gold standard, it is nowhere provided in express terms 
that national banks shall be required to redeem their notes in 
gold. This, it seems to us, is too important a matter to be let to 
mere inference. The redemption fund, the guaranty fund, and 
the tax on circulation must be held in the Treasury in gold coin, 
but the bank reserves may be held in 'lawful money,' one fourth 
of which must be 'coin. ' There ought to be no doubt on this 
point." — The Ne-iVS {Ind.), Indianapolis. 

The Indianapolis Currency Scheme. — "After three months of 
deliberation, the monetary commission appointed under the reso- 
lutions adopted by the Indianapolis convention of Jantiary 15, 
1897, has made, in a pamphlet of forty-tw^o octavo pages, a pre- 
liminary report of a scheme for the reformation of the currency. 
It presents a mass of arguments and of suggestions the substan- 
tial points of which are these : 

"The standard of monetary values should be gold and gold 
only. 

"The government notes now used as currency should be retired 
gradually, but as soon as possible. 

"The banks should be allowed to issue notes to serve as cur- 



64 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



reucy, up to the limit of their paid-up and unimpaired capitals, 

exclusive of so much thereof as is invested in real estate 

"The first principle has the cordial support of The Sun, but to 
the other two it is inflexibly opposed. Meanwhile, we can only 
express our regret that a commission composed of so respectable 
citizens should have repeated the stale and often refuted asser- 
tions that the debt incurred by the Cleveland Administration was 
'incurred chiefly if not wholly in consequence of the existence of 
the government notes,' and that the redeemed notes jmisi be 
paid out again and again under any conditions of the national 
revenue. Assertions so groundless as these suggest a conscious- 
ness of a lack of sound arguments, and weaken the cause they are 
used to support." — The Sun {Rep.), New York. 

Government in Banking Business More than Ever. — "The 
commission would create a department of issue and redemption 
in the Treasury Department, and the Secretary would have ex- 
traordinary powers under the proposed plan. This department 
would have charge of all government coin and bullion and a 
complete control over the government reserve. The Secretary of 
the Treasury would have authority to issue and sell 3-per-cent 
gold bonds running twenty years, redeemable in gold at the 
option of the Government after one year, and he could sell them 
at 95 per cent, of their face value. He might issue certificates of 
indebtedness in denominations of §50 or multiples thereof, paya- 
ble to the bearer in from one to five 5-ears and drawing interest at 
3 per cent., such certificates being subject to the exemptions pro- 
vided in the refunding act of 1870. 

"A novel feature is that which would make the national Treas- 
ury a general savings-bank. Whenever money is to be borrowed 
on the credit of the United States the Secretary of the Treasury 
might receive deposits of not less than $50, record the depositor's 
name in the books, but issue no bond or certificate. On such 
deposits the plan provides that the depositor shall draw interest 
in gold coin at the rate of 3 per cent., and the principal is to be 
paid through money-order post-offices at the termination of the 
period of the loan. To preserve the integrity of the silver coin- 
age already in circulation the Treasurer would be authorized to 
pay out on demand gold coin for gold certificates, silver dollars 
for silver certificates, silver dollars in exchange for gold coin or 
gold coin in exchange for silver dollars. This measure is de- 
signed to hold the silver dollar above prejudice, but so far as ap- 
pears there is nothing to prevent a syndicate of financiers from 
taking a carload of silver dollars to the United States Treasury or 
to any of the sub-treasuries and demanding gold coin in exchange. 
In time of peace and prosperity there would be little danger of 
such a raid, but business depression or a menace of war would 
apparently precipitate the speculators upon the gold reserve and 
the Treasurer would have no authority to prevent them from 
withdrawing the gold 

"Such is the sublimated opinion of the uncompromising element 
in the gold party. It dishonors the silver dollar and then incon- 
sistently puts it on the same plane with gold. It gives the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury absolute control over the finances of the 
country. It bestows upon him some of the functions of Congress 
and it plunges the Government into the banking business more 
than Q\ev."—7 he Tribune {Szl. Rep.), Detroit. 

State Bank Issues and Safety-Fund Plan. — "The main thing 
contended for by the Atlanta convention [of bankers last month] 
was the right of state banks to issue notes subject to federal 
supervision and control. Now it happens that this very privilege 
is embraced in the report of the monetary commission, the last 
paragraph of which makes provision for admitting 'any bank or 
banking association incorporated by special law of any State, or 
organized under the general laws of any State' to become a na- 
tional bank under the system proposed, 'with the same powers 
and privileges, and subject to the same duties, liabilities, and 
regulations in all respects, as shall have been prescribed for asso- 
ciations originally organized as national banking associations 
under the proposed act. ' 

"The monetary commission makes the point that if the banks 
of the United States are not generally sound, nothing is sound, 
and that government bonds are in that case worthless. This is 
manifestly true. The Government derives its sustenance from 
the surplus of goods produced by the people. This surplus is to 
a very large extent lodged in the banks. The latter hold the sub- 
stance of what the Government lives on, and if they fail the Gov- 
ernment must fail at the same instant of time. Hence it is 



argued that any system of bank-note issues which provides fully 
for accidental and occasional failures will be as safe as govern- 
ment-bond security. 

"It is said, however, that if government-bond security's not 
required, banks will be started expressly to swindle the public 
by their note issues — that designing rascals will go into the busi- 
ness in order to put out notes, get value for them, and then ab- 
scond. This objection overlooks the fact that no bank can be 
organized without a certificate from the Controller of the Cur- 
rency. The discretion has been wisely left to him to grant the 
certificate or not. ... Of course, there will be occasional bank 
failures, but the plan provides for the protection of note-holders 
in such cases. There is no reason why the system should not 
work as well here as it does in Canada, where the notes of a failed 
bank are secured by a common guaranty fund and a first lien on 
the assets, and where no losses to note-holders ever occur. On 
the contrary, the notes of failed banks in Canada generally com- 
mand a small premium because they draw interest from the day 
of the failure. 

" It is quite easy to engraft this system upon the state banks of 
the South. If it is good for the national banks, it is good for 
them also. We believe with Mr. De Saussure that the adoption 
of it by Congress would detach so large a support from the 
Bryanites that their control of the Democratic Party would be 
severely shaken if not lost in the next Presidential campaign." 
— The Evening Post {Ind.), New York. 



RUMORS OF SECRETARY CAGE'S RESICNA- 

TION. 

WASHINGTON correspondents are responsible for the story 
that differences between Secretary Gage and the Presi- 
dent regarding measures of currency reform which ought to be 
pushed by the Administration, caused the Secretary to tell the 
President that if his policy did not meet the approval of the Ad- 
ministration he would tender his resignation. If any such an 
intimation were made in conversation with the President, it is 
emphatically asserted that the President did not desire it. The 
declaration of Secretary Gage, to the effect that the object of 
currency reform should be to place this country more firmly on 
the gold standard, excited the opposition of Senator Wolcott and 
other Republican advocates of bimetalism, and it is supposed that 
their criticisms gave rise to the story that Mr. Gage had said he 
would not stand in the way of the President's policy. The 
Hartford Evening Post, owned by the President's private secre- 
tary, Mr. Porter, says of the relations between the President and 
Secretary in part : 

"There is no truth in the assertions or insinuations that Presi- 
dent McKinley desires that Secretary Gage retire from the Cabi- 
net. The Secretary's financial views are excellent and just what 
ought to be expected from an expert, who doubtless would prefer 
a purely financial position to one that must carry with it some 
political astuteness, some statesmanship. Against his bill, which 
is radical, nothing can be said from the radical standpoint. It 
ought to be, and will be, considered as embodying the views of 
the extreme gold wing of the party. The other bills before the 
committee indicate other views. The President's recommenda- 
tions are of the same nature as some of Secretary Gage's. And 
when the monetary commission finally reports, its views will be 
found somewhat different from the others 

"The President favors doing that which is for the best interest 
of the people. The great mass must always be taken into consid- 
eration. Their prejudices to a degree must be consulted. ... If 
there is a safe middle way between what the bankers, business 
men, and other people want, that is the course to pursue. Presi- 
dent McKinley can be depended upon to support the Republican 
platform. At a Republican conference in Indianapolis yesterday. 
Senator Fairbanks quoted the President as saying to him : 'I am 
going to keep the bond. I am going to vindicate the sound- 
money plank in the St. Louis platform.' How absurd to say, as 
anti-Republicans are saying, that Secretary Gage is to be forced 
from the Cabinet. If he goes it will be of his own free will, be- 
cause he prefers private to public life." 



Vol. XVI., No. 3J 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



65 



CARTOON 



AND QUIP ON THE 
SITUATION. 



CHINESE 



THE situation in China opens up a fresh field for the cartoon- 
iscs and paragraphers, which they are not slow in cultiva- 
ting. The artists .portray some grotesque features of the devel- 
opments, while the funny men seem to find texts bearing on 
almost every other question under the sun as well as on the 
Chinese Empire itself. An idea of the productive capacity of 
the Chinese soil under American cultivation may be obtained 
from a grouping of cartoons and paragraphs. 

The partition of China 
has not yet reached the 
arbitration stage. — The 
Ledger^ Philadelphia. 

There is a palpable 
straining for high-sea ef- 
fects in the latest Euro- 
pean concert. — The Tri- 
bune, Detroit. 

China is in a way to 
become recognized as 
the resort of the oppres- 
sors of all nations. — 77/^ 
Sentinel, Milwaukee. 

In Wei-Hai-Wei the 
Japs have captured one 
of the finest college yells 
on the map. — The Times- 
Herald, Chicago. 

All Europe appears to 
have agreed upon a pol- 
icy cl international spoli- 
ation for plunder only. — 
The Inter Ocean, Chi- 
cago. 

The Emperor of Korea 
devoutly hopes that com- 
merce will not require 
his annihilation along 
with that of the seals. — 
The Star, Washington. 

The incidental troubles 
which will follow the in- 
troduction of war into 
China are most apparent 
to the proofreaders. — The 
Post, San Francisco. 



their c'.othes to suit their nationalities. To remain a citizen of China 
a man has to keep on a dead run toward Peking.— The Journal, Indian- 
apolis. 

CHINA still has the satisfaction of knowing that there isn't one of the na- 
tions threatening her that would trust the others as far as a man could 
throw a boulder with a broken arm, and there is some hope in that. — 

The Evening Post, Chi- 
cago. 

'.^fOtSOKY ^Vfc,, "<X "PEACE hath her victo- 




In justice to themselves the powers should require China to pay an in- 
demnity to cover the costs of dividing the empire. — TV/t Sentinel. Indian- 
apolis. 

The natives of the outlying provinces of China are kept busy changing 



ries no less renowned 
than war." quotes Ent;- 
land as she winks the 
other eye and guaran- 
tees the Chinese debt.— 
The News, Indianapolis. 

Japan is so busj^ re- 
taining its grip upon Wei- 
Hai-Wei these days that 
it has given up its former 
deep interest in Ha- Wa- 
ll.— Ty/i- Tribune, Minne- 
apolis. 

A FEW hundred years 
from now, perhaps, a 
mixed population of Rus- 
sians, French, Germans, 
English, and other na- 
tionalities will be rally- 
ing to the battle-cry, 
"China for Chinese!" 
And the original Mon- 
golian will be on a reser- 
vation, supported by the 
Government. — The 
Times, Washington. 

The concert of Europe 
would do something to 
justify its existence if it 
were to bring the career 
of Monte Carlo as an 
international gambling 
"l-.ell" to a close. The 
Prince of Monaco, the 
ruler of the tiny state, is 
about to renew the con- 
cession of the gaming 
tables to the Casino 
company for about two 
and one ha^^ millions of 
dollars,spot cash, a prom- 
ise by the company to 
build a new theater, and 
pay about four millions 
of dollars more in 1913. 
Some time this thing will 
end, but not until after 
China has been divided 
and the pagan world re- 
deemed by Christian 
E u r o p e.'— The Republi- 
can, Springfield. 



A FAMOUS TRADES-UNION CASE. 

T F a representative of a trades-union, by threatening a strike, 
-*• be instrumental in securing the discharge of employees ob- 
jectionable to the union, is the union representative liable for 
damages? This is a question, after years of consideration and 
reconsideration by various judicial tribunals in England, to which 
the court of the House of Lords finally answers, No. 

An Important Case. — "The facts were as follows: Two ship- 
wrights. Flood and Taylor, were employed by the Glengall Iron 
Company to repair a ship, then lying in one of their docks. The 
Boilermakers' Union thereupon objected, claiming that ship- 
wrights must not work at iron works on an iron ship, and that 
such work could only be done by members of their union. The 
union sent Allen, its delegate, to the Glengall Company, who told 
the manager that unless Flood and Taylor were discharged all 
the members of the Boilermakers' Union in the employ of the 
company would be called out. The result was that Flood and 
Taylor were discharged, and they then brought suit for damages 
against Allen for maliciously procuring their dismissal. 

"The case was tried before a court and jury, and the latter 
awarded ;,^20 damages to the plaintiffs, finding that the defendant 
had maliciously induced the Glengall Company to discharge 
them. The case was carried through the various courts of law, 



Lord Chief Justice Russell himself deciding in the high court of 
appeals in favor of the plaintiffs, until finally it was brought be- 
fore the House of Lords. 

"That tribunal now reverses the decision of the lower courts, 
Ihe majority of the lords holding that Allen's conduct did not 
amount to legal coercion and intimidation, and that the Glengall 
Company in discharging Flood and Taylor followed the course 
most conducive to their own interest. Consequently Allen was 
not liable for damages to the plaintiffs. 

"The case has been pending for several years, and, owing to 
the fact that it raised a question never before determined by the 
courts, has excited more than usual interest among labor organi- 
zations. It apparently makes the walking delegate a more im- 
portant personage than ever." — T/ie Times- Herald {Rep.), 
Chicago. 

Minority Judges Were Right. — "It was taken from the Court 
of Appeals to the House of Lords and heard there before seven 
law lords— all most eminent judges. When it had been argued 
there was much differences of opinion among the judges, and they 
therefore called in the judges of the lower courts to hear another 
argument of the case with them and give them the benefit of their 
advice. At this second hearing ten additional judges were added 
to the court. 

" When the case came to be decided it was found that there was 
a great divergence of opinion among the judges. The judges 



CG 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. lo, 1898 



who were called in had no vote in rendering the decision. They 
could only express their opinions in the way of advice. The case 
was actually decided by what are called the law lords — that is, the 
judges who have seats in the House of Lords. Of these, six were 
for reversing the decisions of the lower courts and three were for 
maintaining them, and among the judges who were called in there 
was a great variety of opinion. The net result was that thirteen 
judges who heard the case thought that Flood and Taylor had a 
right of action against Allen, while eight judges thought they had 
none. But a majority of these eight were law lords and they 
decided the case, so that the case now makes it law that men in 
the situation of Flood and Taylor have no right to sue a man in 
the situation of Allen. 

"We have thought of the case a good deal and are inclined to 
the opinion that the minority of the judges — those who made the 
law of the case, are right. 

"The case amounts to no more than this • Some of the workmen 
were willing to work with others. They had a perfect right to 
make this choice if they chose to. Having come to this conclu- 
sion, they had a perfect right to notify their employer that they 
would not remain in his employment if he retained the objection- 
able ones. Having the right to notify him themselves, they had 
an equal right to send their agent Allen, with their message to 
him. Allen did, therefore, no more than what the workmen them- 
selves might have done, and as they would not have been liable! 
neither was he liable. 

"There is a good deal in the very elaborate opinions of some 
of the judges to which we are not able to give our assent. But as 
for the particular point decided, we think the minority was right 
and that the majority would have imposed an intolerable restric- 
tion upon the liberty of the citizen." — The Times, Rich7nond. 

Personal Liberty and Malice. — "The question which really 
caused most trouble in the case may be stated thus: A, for ob- 
jects of his own, persuades B to discharge C, as B has a right to 
do. Can C sue A, and if he shows that some improper {i.e., self- 
ish) motive operated on A's mind, recover damages? This and 
all the questions presented were fully disposed of by Lord Her- 
schell's judgment, and his exposition of the law is so luminous 
that we can not do better than follow it. It should be said in 
advance that the trial judge, Mr. Justice Kennedy, held that no 
case of conspiracy, coercion, or intimidation had been made out, 
but left two questions to the jury: (i) Did Allen maliciously 
induce the company to discharge the plaintiff? (2) Did Allen 
maliciously induce the company not to engage the plaintiff ? Both 
these questions were answered in favor of the plaintiff, and dam- 
ages were awarded. The question on which the judges were 
asked to advise was : 'Assuming the evidence given by the plain- 
tiff's witnesses to be correct, was there any evidence of a cause of 
action fit to be left to the jury?' 

"Lord Herschell, after stating the facts, said that the question 
before the court was whether the findings of the jury entitled the 
plaintiff to a judgment. This question, he said, must be an- 
swered in the negative (because the defendant had done nothing 
unlawful) unless the finding that his behavior was 'malicious' 
made him liable. This made it essential to determine what 
'malice' meant, because there could be no greater danger to a 
community than that a jury should be 'at liberty to impose the 
penalty of paying damages for acts which are otherwise lawful 
because they choose' to call them malicious. He then showed 
that the judges who took the opposite view from him, in attempt- 
ing to define malice, had got no further than making it equivalent 
to some sort of bad motive, or 'such a disregard of his neighbor 
as no honest and fair-minded man ought to resort to.' But this 
is no legal test, because it 'makes men's responsibility for their 
actions depend on the fluctuating opinions of the tribunal before 
whom the case may chance to come, as to what a right-minded 
man ought or ought not to do in pursuing his own interests. ' 

" He then cites some cases in which it seems to have been sug- 
gested that legal malice includes persuasion where the object is to 
benefit the person who uses the persuasion at the expense of an- 
other, and points out that numberless instances maybe put where 
such persuasion, 'which is of constant occurrence in the affairs of 
life,' is not considered even reprehensible. One of the common- 
est illustrations would Ije persuading a workman to strike, but 
Lord Herschell puts his whole reasoning in a nutshell, and en- 
forces it by a homely illustration, easily understood by every one, 
man or master, employer or employed. Every one, he says, has 
a right to pursue his employment without molestation or obstruc- 
tion, but this is only a deduction from a wider right to do what 



we please generally, and this wider liberty includes the right to 
say what we please (the right of free speech) — i.e., to exhort, 
command, advise, and induce, provided we do not slander, or 
deceive, or commit any other legal wrong. Unless one is shown 
thus to have abused his right, he can not be called upon to justify 
himself because his words may interfere with some one else in 
his calling. If the butler, says Lord Herschell, quarrels with the 
cook, and tells his master that they can not remain under the 
same roof, and thus induces him to discharge the cook, must the 
butler pay the cook damages? 

" While finding the decision entirely in accord with the general 
drift of American authority, we should be inclined to suggest that 
in this class of cases another principle, which for some reason 
judges and counsel of great eminence often fail to notice, has an 
important bearing on the true conclusion. This is the principle 
that, as a rule, legal liability only exists when the efficient cause 
of the damage complained of is found in the defendant's act. 
When it is found in the voluntary act of a third person, the de- 
fendant is not liable, because he is not. in fact, as men look at 
such matters, responsible. In Allen lis. Flood the act which 
caused the damage was the act of the master and not of Allen. 
He had a perfect liberty of choice to discharge or not to dis- 
charge, and the discharge was consequently his individual act. 
But for this principle, legal responsibility, as we know it, would 
cease to exist, and a new system would be introduced, under 
which a man could not open his mouth in any matter in which he 
had an interest, without running great risk of an action for dam- 
ages. The Lord Chancellor, in his opinion, actually goes so far 
as to suggest that the lawfulness of what we say or do depends 
on there being no 'indirect motive' present ; the prevailing opin- 
ion is founded on what we believe to be the sound and ancient 
principle, that civil liability has no necessary connection with 
motive, but is closely and inevitably related to that notion of re- 
sponsibility which we apply every day to one another, in our ordi- 
nary dealings and judgments." — The Evening Post, New York. 



THE 



GERMAN-AMERICAN PRESS ON IMMI- 
GRATION. 



THE German-American press shows unusual interest in the 
immigration question coincident with the reappearance of 
proposed legislation in Congress. Its sympathies are exclusively 
on the side of the immigrant, and no distinction as to nationality 
is made. The educational test is rejected on the ground that 
every immigrant able and willing to work increases the national 
wealth of America, and that our own masses are not sufficiently 
educated to apply the test to themselves which the foreigner is to 
be made to undergo. The Abend Post, Chicago, is very wroth 
with Professor Lombroso, of Italy, for lending his name to the 
Nativists by contributing an article some time ago to The North 
American Review which is not very flattering to the immigrants. 
The Abend Post goes so far as to express doubt that Lombroso 
wrote the article himself, and adds that "if he did, it is proof 
how advantageous it is to have a name. The North American 
Review would hardly have taken such stuff from an unknown 
writer. " The paper then proceeds to cut up the article in a 
lengthy review to the following effect : 

There is no excuse for the statement that crime is more fre- 
quent whenever immigration is very strong, for a close examina- 
tion of the statistics on the subject dispels that idea. Massachu- 
.setts, the State which Lombroso regards as the best behaved, has 
no less than 42.2 per cent, of immigrants among its inhabitants. 
Wyoming, supposed to be very wicked because of its immigrants, 
has only 32.5 per cent, of them. There were in jail in 1S90 — the 
census year which Lombroso uses for his calculations — 3,045 per- 
sons of native birth convicted of murder or manslaughter, and 
only 1,163 of foreign birth, and neither the colored population nor 
the women are included. The percentage of criminals is there- 
fore nearly the same for natives and foreigners. Lombroso ac- 
cepts the statement that the Italians furnish a large percentage of 
criminals as correct; but he refuses to make allowances for them. 
He attributes the frequency of crime in our Southern States to 
the warmer climate. As if Italy and Spain were not warm ! It 
is true enough that the children of the immigrants furnish a large 
percentage of criminals, but a glance at the criminal list shows 
chiefly Irish, not Italian or Hungarian names. Yet the writer of 
the article seems to be entirely ignorant of the fact that we have 
Irish criminals. 

The Amerika, St Louis, points to the fact that foreign nations 
are not at all willing to let us have immigrants, and wants to 
know where America's phenomenal progress would be without 



YoL xiki:, :x<o, 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



67 



them. The WcstLiche Post, St. Louis, thinks the President him- 
self is no longer for the restriction of immigration, but the Louis- 
ville Aiizeiger doubts that McKinley "has changed into a lamb- 
like Paulus from a raving Saulus" in this matter. The Staats- 
Zeitung, New York, makes fun of the pretensions of the anti- 
immigration element on the score of education, while our own 
perc£ntage of analphabets is so large. ^Moreover, if we examine 
into the actual knowledge of the people who have been educated 
at our country schools, we will come off still worse in comparison. 
The same journal proceeds as follows : 

"We need the strong hands of the immigrants for work which 
people like Gompers and Powderly, who are always wagging 
their jaws, will not do. We need not go far for an example. In 
Long Island there are large numbers of Italians employed in 
making wild land habitable. That is hard work, and hard work 
our native-born young men shun as the devil shuns holy water. 
The work is badly paid, and, if the industrious and frugal Italians 
did not do it, nobody would do it. They have increased the 
prosperity of the district, and have pushed out nobody. Suppose 
a large percentage of them can not read, does that make any dif- 
ference? . . . The immigrant has substituted rational agricul- 
ture for lie senseless exploitation of the soil which has forced the 
New England people to go westward in search of virgin soil. 
They have built roads, and helped to maintain the Union ; they 
have, to make it short, created the prosperity of America. We 
suppose that is the reason why miserable souls of the Gompers 
and Powderly type are against them." 

The Atizedger lies Westcns, St. Louis, is tired of the assertion 
tliat the immigrants, tho they do not belong to the highest type 
of Europeans, compare unfavorably with average Americans in 
morality. "To produce an unfavorable effect," says the paper, 
"statisticians fail to mention that the immigrants are nearly all 
adults and chiefly males. In calculating the percentage of crim- 
inals among the native-born population minors are included. If 
the percentage of the adult natives were compared with that of 
the adult immigrants, it would be found that the natives furnish 
a much larger contingent of criminals than the foreigners. " The 
Correspoiideul^ Baltimore, says: 

"The following case illustrates better than anything else how 
void of sense many of our laws are : Some years ago an American 
diplomat made the acquaintance of a Vienna firm dealing in 
barrel-staves, which they received chiefly from Grain, Croatia, 
Slavonia. and the southwest of Hungary, where the material is 
good and the people trained in cutting the staves. He convinced 
them that America could furnish better and cheaper material. 
The firm purchased tracts of forest land in Mississippi, and hun- 
dreds of men were set to work in a part of the country where 
formerly no one lived. Thousands of dollars were paid in taxes, 
the transportation companies profited, and a new industry had 
been created in America. Yet because the stave-cutters who 
know best how to work for the Austrian customer are chosen 
among the men who did such work in Austria they are treated as 
contract laborers ; for our Nativists regard as a criminal every 
man who only seeks to do useful work here, but does not care to 
stay in the country." 

The Tageblatt, Philadelphia, saj's : 

"The politicians fancy that the workingmen are solid for the 
exclusion of immigrants. They ought to be enlightened. We 
are not for a German agitation, such as Dr. Senner wishes to 
create in New York. Such an agitation would do more harm 
than good. But the workingmen must reject anti-immigration 
legislation when it is based upon the assumption that the laboring- 
classes will profit by it. The counter movement must, therefore. 
be taken in hand by the Socialists. Demonstrations should be 
organized throughout the country, and the resolutions adopted in 
mass-meetings should be sent to Congress." 

The Volksjreuiid, Chicago, says : 

"It would be very foolish for the Democrats to support any bill 
which still further hampers immigration. Whetner the immi- 
grant can read a few lines or not is a matter of small importance. 
The main question is whether he is able to maintain himself and 
his family. If an educational test is to be made at all, it should 
be extended to citizens born here as well. That the Republicans 
will not agree to, for they know that the ignorance of their own 
supporters is colossal. There is still time to protest, and it 
should be used in demonstrating to Senators and Representatives 
that further restriction is not advisable." 

German-American papers think it passing strange that only the 
Italians, Hungarians, and Poles are mentioned as samples of un- 
desirable immigrants, tho the educational standard of immigrants 
from English-speaking countries is very low, and their contingent 
of criminals exceptionally \i\%\\. — Translations made for The 
Literary Digest. 



NEGROES AND DISFRANCHISEMENT. 

THE means by which it is sought to accomplish the practical 
disfranchisement of negroes in Southern States are called 
to public attention again by reason of a clause of the new consti- 
tution in South Carolina, which did not take effect until January 
I, 189S. This clause provides that a person, otherwise qualified, 
shall be registered, if he can read and write any part of the con- 
stitution submitted to him, or can show that he has paid taxes on 
property amounting to S300. Under the new constitution, sev- 
eral years have elapsed during which, to be registered, it was 
necessary for a person to understand and explain any article of 
the constitution, if read to him. Mississippi requires ability to 
read or understand the constitution, and the call for a constitu- 
tional convention to be held soon in Louisiana has the enactment 
of a similar provi.sion in view. 

Tests for Citizenship Should be Increased. — "There are a 
great many more negroes than white people in South Carolina, 
but as a consequence of this registration system the electorate of 
the State now consists of about ninety thousand white voters, and 
only ten or twelve thousand colored voters. Those persons now 
on the rolls will be entitled to vote as long as they live. The 
great mass of illiterate colored voters is thus completely disfran- 
chised. From the beginning of iSgS no man can be enrolled un- 
less he is assessed upon three hundred dollars' worth of property, 
or is able to read and write. The understanding clause has so 
worked as to place most of the white voters on the rolls regardless 
of illiteracy, while the black illiterates are nearly all excluded. 
Henceforth, however, the blacks and whites will have to meet 
the same tests. Many well-informed friends of the colored race 
are firmly of the opinion that the new South Carolina arrange- 
ments are to be welcomed rather than condemned. The coming 
generation will value citizenship the more highly because the 
exercise of full political rights can only be gained by resolute 
effort to advance in the scale of intelligence and prosperity. 

"The South Carolina and Mississippi provisions which discrim- 
inate against illiteracy have something in common with the pend- 
ing immigration bill that Senator Lodge advocates so strongly, 
which applies the reading and writing test to new arrivals from 
other countries. . . . The cement that holds together our great 
nation is the widely diffused knowledge of the English language. 
There would be no hardship whatever in requiring that no natu- 
ralized citizen should be allowed to vote until he was able to 
speak, read, and write the English language, and could pass a 
creditable examination in the American system of government. 
The proposed immigration measure simply requires the reading 
test, and gives no preference to the English language over any 
other. But the subsequent tests for full citizenship should be 
made far more severe. " — The Review 0/ Reviews, AVw York. 

Process of Disfranchisement. — "The constitution framed in 
1875, modeled on that of Missouri adopted five years earlier, re- 
quired that an applicant for registration as a voter should be able 
to read any section of the state constitution 'or understand and 
explain it when read to him.' It was clearly seen at the outset 
that this 'understanding' provision could be manipulated by elec- 
tion ofificials in a way to bar out few whites and let in few blacks. 
The event has fully corroborated this forecast. 

"The registration books of the State have just been closed, and 
we are informed that they contain the names of about go, 000 
whites out of the 99,334 of those entitled by age to claim the right 
of voting, and only about 12,000 blacks out of the 132,949 men of 
that color above twenty-one years of age. It is not believed for 
a moment that a really honest application of the reading and un- 
derstanding test would have resulted in any such wholesale ex- 
clusion of the blacks. But even this condition does not satisfy 
the white voters. After the ist of January, 1S9S, according to the 
same constitution, an applicant for the suffrage will be required 
to read and write any section of the constitution, or to show that 
he owns and has paid taxes on property assessed as worth at least 
$300. 

"Even the 12,000 blacks now admitted may find themselves 
disfranchised at the end of ten years — the period during which 
the present registration will stand. Good care will doubtless be 
taken to shut out few whites. The right of a State to adopt a 
severe test for suffrage is indisputable, but how is an unfair and 



68 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



one-sided enforcement of the law to be prevented? It is signifi- 
cant that South Carolina is the first State to return to a property 
qualification. The last States to abandon it were Rhode Island 
and Delaware." — The Evening Post {Ind.) , Chicago. 

Louisiana and Connecticut. — "The assumption on the part of 
Thd Inquirer [Philadelphia] that the constitutional provisions to 
be created in Louisiana will be enforced against the negro and 
not against the illiterate pauper white, is purely gratuitous, with 
no facts to support it. The law will be as fair a one as that 
which exists in Connecticut and not so stringent. The Connecti- 
cut law has plainly been framed to get rid of the naturalized for- 
eigners who have become so numerous in that State. It not only 
provides that voters shall be able to read and understand the 
state constitution, but that they must be able to read it in Eng- 
lish.* The great bulk of the negroes in Louisiana are illiterate 
and irresponsible. The purpose of providing an educational and 
property qualification for suffrage will be to get rid of them. 
There is no disguise of that fact any more than there is on the 
part of the people of Connecticut that they seek to get rid of the 
foreign vote. 

" The admission made b}-^ The Inquirer that the portion of the 
Fourteenth Amendment which it quotes was intended solely for 
application in the Southern States was superfluous. It has al- 
ways been well understood that the ultra acts of the reconstruc- 
tion period were both sectional and partizan. They came of the 
great animosity toward the South existing at that period, and were 
further intended to strengthen the Republican Party in its hold 
on power. The enfranchisement of the horde of untutored and 
impoverished blacks was one of the most flagrant political crimes 
that history records. The fact that the negroes were not able to 
liold the supremacy granted them by law any longer than it was 
•enforced by Federal bayonets was clear proof of their incom- 
petency to govern." — The Atnerican (Dem.), Nashville. 

Why the North is Indifferent. — "The Providence (R. I.) 
Journal saj's that the people of the North look complacently on 
the 'schemes that are being carried on in the South to disfranchise 
the negro, ' and that many Northerners express their approval of 
these changes because they realize that negro suffrage has not 
been the success that was noped. 

"This being interpreted means that the Rejiublicans of the 
North have learned that the negro 
vote in the South, instead of being 
a benefit to the party, has had the 
effect to keep the entire South in 
the Democratic column. But for 
the negro vote, the whites of the 



South would long ago have divided on economic questions, and 
there would have been in every Southern State at least a respect- 
able Republican minority with chances in some of the States, 
every now and then, of a Republican victory. 

"This would have been better for all concerned, for if there is 
one thing that the South needs to-day, it is a prudent, respecta- 
ble, and honest opposition in each and every State to the domi- 
nant party." — The Times {De?n.), Richmond. 

Negro-Suffrage Wrong Must be Remedied. — "To accept as 

political equals a multiiude of freed slaves who were scarcely 
more than savages, and at the best barbarians, was in the begin- 
ning a sheer necessity, impose by overwhelming force; but that 
the evil was allowed to continue after the force was removed can 
only be explained by the fact that politicians had learned to wield 
the masses of the ignorant and degraded voters in forwarding 
private and personal interests and ambitions, and altho the entire 
body politic was made the victim of unutterable political corrup- 
tion, the political bosses w-ere able to count on the supine inaction 
or indifference of the so-called good citizens, and so enormous 
evils have been endured and perpetuated until Louisiana politics 

have become a byword 

"The people of this State can not neglect the approaching op- 
portunity to purify their political methods and to insure honest 
government in their state, parish, and municipal governments, 
without covering themselves with lasting disgrace." — 7 he Pica- 
yune (Don.), A'eiv Or leaf. s. 

The Danger in the Plan. — " In brief, the danger of the whole 
Southern process of negro disfranchisement is that it closes the 
approved modern vent to popular humors. There are lesser evils. 
For instance, the South Carolina Democrats have got so used to 
cheating the negroes illegally at the polls that now that they have 
made the process legal they can not get rid of the habit, and so 
cheat each other. At least this is the plaint of the Columbia 
S/a/e, a journal representative of the dominant faction. But the 
chief disadvantage is as we have put it. To withdraw from half 
the male adult.citizenshipof any State all legal means of express- 
ing its opinions or its prejudies, however unenlightened, in pub- 
lic affairs is to prepare that much of social dynamite for the torch 
of the fanatic and demagog. When the explosion comes the 
black-belt States of the South can look nowhere for sympathy. 
They have laid the train." — The Press [Rep.), New York. 



TOPICS IN BRiEF. 

T r is believed tliat General Blanco's autonomy policy has e.xpired and 
that the underwriters will not renew it. — The Times-He7-ald, Chicago. 

The farther he gets from Cuba the bolder General Wey- 
ler becomes. — The Sews^ Detroit. 

Can it be possible that the Republican legislature in 




Stn^TOR M^HK HAKUK— '■ H[Ji^} 



[* The World Altnanac for i8q8, in its table, said to 
have been corrected to date by state attorney-gen- 
erals, says that the Connecticut requirement is, "Citi- 
zen of tile United States who can read English lan- 
guage." The Massachusetts provision is, "Citizen who 
can read and write." California excludes from suf- 
frage "a person unable to read the Constitution 
in Knglish and to write his name. 

PlGESl.] 



-Ed. Literary 



Olilo will go Democratic at this stage of the game ? 
— I he Times-Herald, Chicago. 

"BlLI.INGER is going to lecture on the Klondike." 
'Tudgo, he has never been there." 
"Well, neither have the people who will hear him 
lecture."- 7Va'-/i'//j-. 

"Of course," observed Xer.xes the King, "my will 
is law." "Doubtless," answered the wise man of the 
court, after consulting a few authorities. "That is 
to say, if your Majesty doesn't leave too large an 
I state."— 7'//t' Record, Chicago. 



Yol. XYI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



69 



LETTERS AND ART. 



SARAH BERNHARDT'S NEW SOCIALISTIC 

DRAMA. 

"|\ /rUCH curiosity and expectancy had been excited in Paris 
■*■»-*' and elsewhere by the announcement of the production of 
a revolutionary play, turning upon the conflict between capital 
and labor, at the Renaissance, Sarah Bernhardt 's theater. The 
dramatist was a new man to the stage, Octave Mirbeau, one of 
the younger journalists, radicals, and novelists. The title of the 
play, " Les Mauvais Bergers" (Bad Shepherds) was rather indefi- 
nite, but Mirbeau was suspected of strong socialist sympathies. 

The first production was attended by stormy scenes. The gal- 
leries noisily applauded certain portions of the drama, while the 
"boxes and stalls cheered very different portions. There were 
threats of collision between these representatives of the several 
social classes. As a whole, however, the play is not entirely sat- 
isfactory either to the conservatives or to the radicals. The plot 
is as follows — the account being taken from the Paris L' Aurore, 
edited by Clemenceau : 

Hargand is an ironmaster and large employer of labor. When 
the play opens, his five thousand men are on the eve of a great 
strike. The first act introduces the audience to the family of an 
old, wretched workman, Thietit, whose wife is dying in the next 
room and whose daughter, Madeleuie [Bernhardt's role], a pale, 
intense, courageous work-girl, tends two infants in dirty cradles. 
The surroundings are squalid and mean beyond description. 
The old man bows to the inevitable, but he feels that "it is not 
just. " and he continually repeats this phrase without, however, 
encouraging any active resistance. Jean Rattle, a young and 
intelligent anarchist, who has worked and agitated against "cap- 
ital" in many countries, is also an employee of Hargand. He 
almost despairs of success in arousing his fellow workers, but he 
falls in love with Madeleine, and his faith in the future is 
strengthened by his love. He asks Madeleine to aid him in 
bringing about a strike, but she hesitates. The act closes with 
the death of T/iient's wife, Madeleine weeping bitterly and the 
throbbing of the machines in the adjoining works distinctly 
heard. 

Hargand has a son, Robert, who is a Christian Socialist and 
who has espoused the cause of his father's employees. This son 
is at first regarded with suspicion by Raule as a demagog seeking 
political elevation, but he soon becomes convinced of his sincerity 
and humanity. Harga7id\i\vc\%Q\i is no overbearing tyrant, no 
cruel slave-driver, but a rather benevolent capitalist who has tried 
to improve the condition of his men. 

The situation develops ; a strike is brought about ; the luxuri- 
ous mansion of the employer is threatened by a mob of enraged 
and disorderly strikers. Hargand, against his own inclinations, 
appeals for military aid. He reproaches his son for having en- 
couraged the strikers, but he is persuaded by the latter to receive 
a deputation and discuss the strikers' grievances. Jean Raule 
is naturally the spokesmen, and his insolent tone and extravagant 
demands are resented by Hargand. The demands are an eight- 
hour workday, "security of work, " a popular library for the em- 
ployees, and some minor things. The discussion becomes violent 
and personal, and Hargand drives the deputation, together with 
his son, from his presence. The arrival of the troops is then 
announced. 

At the end of a five-months' struggle, involving terrible suffer- 
ing, the men begin to entertain the idea of surrender. Confi- 
dence in Raule is shaken, and at a mass-meeting in an adjoining 
forest the discord becomes so acute that Raule is in danger of 
being torn to pieces. Then Madeleine, in a passionate harangue, 
vindicates her lover and changes the attitude of the men by her 
fiery eloquence. Force is decided on, and an attack is made on 
the works. The final act shows the works destroyed, houses 
wrecked and burned, and scores of strikers dead — killed by the 
troops. Shrieking women search for their near and dear ones, 
and the principal actors are brought upon the stage dead or dying. 
Raule is dead, Hargand' s son dead, and Hargand, in despair. 



confesses that he has been in the wrong. Madeleine falls dead 
on her lover's body. 

In pointing the moral of this play, which is admitted to be 
thrilling and effective, critics differ widely. Clemenceau him- 
self defends Mirbeau in a vigorous editorial against the charge 
of advancing no solution of the problem presented by him. He 
also pays his respects to those who demand the suppression of the 
last act as prejudicial to public peace. We translate freely a por- 
tion of his remarks : 

"The social question on the stage! I watched the sad life of 
men. employers and laborers, arrayed against each other in a 
tragic struggle of infuriated egoism, and the words of Gambetta 
occurred to me — 'There is no social question.' What is it that 
overwhelms us in this simple and strong play of Mirbeau, if not 
the consciousness that the scenes witnessed are from actual, liv- 
ing reality. What do these people want? To live ! 

"In this drama the whole social question is embodied, presented 
by art so complete and puissant that the author effaces himself 
and we see nothing but real figures from life. Here we have 
man in his benevolence, ferocity, verity ; the pitiless, implacable, 
tortured, and torturing, marching with bandaged eyes toward 
better things. 

"I see that Mirbeau is criticized for having shown no way out, 
for having reached no conclusion. Showing us life, he has con- 
cluded as life itself does, in the terrible fecundity of sorrow. I 
agree that the wholesale condemnation of politicians and parlia- 
mentarians hy Jean Raule as 'bad shepherds' can not remain 
without appeal. It is somewhat too sweeping an anarchistic 
judgment. I know something of the crimes and faults of public 
men in authority, but there are none the less among the leaders 
of the multitude true, elevated men who will make the progress 
of the future. And you, too, Jean Raule, what do you do, in 
your turn, besides leading men to their death? 

"The slaughter in which the strike ends has offended the sensi- 
tive Parisians. But they can not deny the truth of the scenes. 
It seems to me they have better opportunities to protest against 
such things when the sanguinary reality is spread before them. 
'Suppress the last act,' they say. Suppress, too, the same scenes 
in real life ! 

" Doubtless the time will come when our barbarous indifference 
will give place to grand, human compassion, of which we can 
only sing to-day, but which we dare not act upon. For having 
appealed to that time, which will make an epoch in history. Mir- 
beau and his interpreters should receive the applause of all men 
who hope for the happy justice of the human spirit delivered and 
rendered serene." 

Charles Mastel, the critic of L' Aurore, says that for a long 
time the stage has not heard such a cry of alarm, such an appeal 
to justice. He differs from Clemenceau as regards the "moral" 
of the play. Instead of leaving the problem without a solution, 
Mirbeau, he thinks, has had the courage to vindicate the work- 
man. "We see the striker," he says, "propose reasonable terms, 
the acceptance of which would obviate the catastrophe. We see 
these terms refused. If the striker kills, if he gets himself killed, 
it is because life is denied him. The employer himself is finally 
made to say : It is my fault." — Translations made Jor The Lit- 
erary Digest. 



Robbing America of Her Literary Laurels.— r^*? 

Bookman (January) charges the English publishers with a sup- 
pression of truth in the case of meritorious works by American 
authors. Here is the charge, the evidence in support of it. and 
The Book7nan' s comments: 

"The English have a pleasant little way, whenever they reprint 
an American book, of removing from its title-page all possible 
indications of its source. We said something about this two 
years ago, and several English publishers at once took umbrage 
at our remarks, and the ubiquitous Mr. Andrew Lang rushed into 
print to defend his employers. But here are two recent instances 
of how the thing works. A new edition of the Latin -French 
Dictionary of Quicherat has just appeared, and in it the Latin 



70 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



lication, is credited to 'two English scholars.' This is because 
the Clarendon Press, which reprinted the book, after Oxford had 
adopted it as a standard, let it go forth as a purely British publi- 
cation. Much the same thing happened in the case of one of 
Captain Mahan's works last summer. The English published it, 
suppressing the fact that its author was an officer of the United 
States navy. Consequently, the Temps of Paris spoke of Captain 
Mahan as an English naval officer, and Lieutenant Fitch, the 
American naval aiiachd at the embassay in Paris, had to write a 
letter to the Temps in order to make it correct this false ascrip- 
tion. As we said about two years ago, this sort of thing is neither 
just nor even honest, and we hope that American authors whose 
books find favor in English eyes will insist upon appearing as 
Americans, and thus gain for their country a credit which the 
English invariably begrudge it." 



fallen short of theirs there might be some ground for complaint. 
As it is, from Sir Edwin Arnold to the youngest of the tribe, Mr. 
Austin has placed all competitors, even in respect of actual per- 
formance, at a distance from himself." 



A DEFENSE OF THE POET-LAUREATE. 

THE appointment of Alfred Austin as England's poet-laureate 
was, we are now told, "a foregone conclusion," and the 
flings that have been made at his expense since then and which 
continue to the present are the result of ill-conditioned journal- 
istic jealousy. The writer who takes up the cudgels in Mr. 
Austin's defense is James Macray. Every London newspaper, he 
tells us, has on its staff or among its casual contributors at least 
one writer preeminently qualified, in his own judgment and that of 
his newspaper associates, for the post of poet-laureate. The fact 
that Mr. Austin, on the staff of The Standard, received the ap- 
pointment, aroused the ill temper of all the other aspirants, and, 
with the single exception of Mr. Kipling, who has expressed his 
disgust over the abuse of Mr. Austin, they have set upon him 
with a "chorus of howls. " Such is Mr. Macray's interpretation, 
in The New Century, of the attacks upon the successful poet. 
We give also what he says in accounting for the appointment: 

"Mr. Austin's training and performances in the classical, only 
another name for the British or orthodox, school of poetry ; his 
recent compositions of this sort on the death of the Duke of 
Clarence and the marriage of the Duke of York ; his party ser- 
vices as journalist and pamphleteer ; the valuable work done by 
him during thirty years as a principal writer for The Standard 
newspaper; his aptitude for a court position; h\s savoir/ai're ; 
his knowledge of the world ; his acceptability to the sovereign — 
these things conspired to make Mr. Austin's appointment a fore- 
gone conclusion. Those who had at all been behind the scenes 
remembered, too, that Mr. Austin was, except perhaps Mr. 
Frederick Greenwood, the only periodical writer who had been 
on really intimate terms with Lord Beaconsfield. That states- 
man had publicly congratulated Mr. Austin on furnishing, like 
Byron, another illustration of the truth that there is no such 
school as poetry for the writing of prose. Through her former 
Minister, the sovereign had become acquainted with Mr. Austin's 
' Human Tragedy. ' 

"Under these circumstances, what was Lord Beaconsfield 's 
successor to have done? . . . The simple truth, of course, is that 
unless a Conservative Premier had been prepared to snub, on 
principle, talent and service of any kind among his followers, and 
so to have made himself obnoxious to a charge of ingratitude 
equally impolitic and unjust, he could not have ignored Mr. 
Austin's claims. These were not approached by any other writer 
for the press. . . . No kind of obligation, official or traditional, 
rests upon the Crown or its advisers to select absolutely the fore- 
most singer of his day. What is now generally expected by the 
public, who. after all, have as much right to a voice in the mat- 
ter as the journalists, is that the laureate should combine estab- 
lished distinction in his craft with tolerable certainty of perform- 
ance ; that as a writer he should have made his mark ; that as a 
poet he should have enough of inspiration at his command to turn 
off a respectable copy of verses on any subject such as that which, 
even in this prosaic age, sometimes presents itself, and appeals 
for commemoration in rime. Judged by these canons, Mr. Alfred 
Austin as laureate, so far from having failed, has been a distinct 
success. All the subjects officially eligible for his pen have been 
written also upon by his defeated rivals. If his performance had 



THE BALEFUL INFLUENCE OF WAGNERISM. 

T T is generally accepted as one of the facts beyond dispute that 
-■• AVagner established a new school in operatic music. Regi- 
nald de Koven says he did not succeed in doing any such thing. 
He has left followers and imitators; but no successor has ap- 
peared, and it is improbable, if not impossible, that one should 
appear in the future. Nor has Wagner succeeded in his attempt 
to found a new art-form in the music drama and force the public, 
to accept it in lieu of the previous form. 

From this it must not be supposed that Mr. de Koven is decry- 
ing the fame of Wagner ; but he is very positive that Wagner- 
ism — Wagner at second-hand — has for the time being practically 
killed opera as a form of art. We quote a part of what he has ta 
say on the subject in Scribner' s Magazine (December) ; 

"More than a dozen years ago an eminent English critic, com- 
menting on the signs of that imitation, that plagiarism of the 
Wagner manner already then evident among composers, pointed 
out the danger that would exist if Wagner's most enthusiastic 
supporters should attempt — as they certainly have done — to carry 
his views and theories even farther than he carried them himself. 
He says : 'This warns us of serious danger, danger that the free 
course of art may be paralyzed by a soulless mannerism worthy 
only of the meanest copyist ; danger, on the other hand, of a 
reaction which will be all the more violent and unreasoning in 
proportion to the amount of provocation needed to excite it. ' He 
remarks further, and with truth : ' It would take us a long day to 
tire of Wagner, but we can not take him at second-hand. "Wag- 
nerism," nor gods nor men can tolerate.' 

"Does not this warning seem almost prophetic? Are not the 
operatic composers of the day imitators almost to the extent of 
plagiarism? Are we not, indeed, getting ' Wagnerism' Wagner 
at second-hand usgue ad nauseam ? Are there not two perils, 
stagnation and reaction, which lie in wait for us? and does it not 
appear more than probable that between the two opera is likely 
to come to a considerable amount of grief? There is certainly 
stagnation in opera at the present day. Operatic managers all 
over the world are looking for operatic novelties and find none. 
Within the last decade the operas written which have any artistic 
significance, or even the slightest element of enduring merit and 
lasting popularity, might be counted on the fingers of one hand, 
and as a result of this undoubted stagnation are we not more than 
likely to get a reaction which may well be in the direction of sim- 
pler forms, and a more euphonious, less pedantic and involved 
expression of musical thought? As the future that lies before us, 
whatever it may be, must be prepared by a careful and unremit- 
ting study of the past, so the leader of the new period of operatic 
writing, who is certainly yet to appear, must look to the past for 
the model and the basis of his future work, just as Wagner looked 
back to Jacopo Peri. But how far is he to look back? In what 
mold will his work be cast? After what model shall he build? 
On the lines of the dramas of the 'Niebelungen Ring' or of an 
earlier work ? 

"The world's history and development has been always carried 
along by great men, but it is quite possible, and history ha^ 
shown, that sometimes the greatness of a man may be so intense, 
so overpowering, as to impede and even arrest the development 
which he himself inaugurated. It may seem both heretical and 
paradoxical to say so, but, while exalting opera as an art-form to 
a position that it had never held before, Wagner, for the time 
being at least, practically killed opera as a form of art. 

"With all his genius, with all his overwhelming individuality 
and influence, Wagner did not succeed in founding a school." 

In destroying our operatic theories and pushing his own theo- 
ries to an extreme of development— -in "The Niebelungen Ring'" 
— Wagner set up an impossible and impracticable standard of 
operatic construction. The public have been willing to accept 
his theories so long as they do not change, past recognition, opera 



Vol. XYI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



71 



as they have known it; but they will not permit the music-drama, 
however they may admire it, to supersede entirely that variety of 
art that has been the world's delight for two centuries and a half. 
Such is the attitude of the public, and if we could eliminate Wag- 
nerism from among the composers we now have, we might have 
hopes of a reasonable and logical development in opera. The 
prevailing tendency of the age is individualism. Granting this, 
the future success of an opera must depend upon the forcibleness 
with w'hich the characters are developed. The leitmotiv which 
Wagner invented is a stumbling-block to composers in this direc- 
tion. What can be done without it has been shown by Verdi in 
his " Falstaff," of which de Koven says further : 

"By discarding the leitmotiv entirely Verdi has attained a 
facility and diversity of musical expression, a power of faithful 
musical characterization, pictorial effect, and dramatic truth 
which has not been excelled, if equaled, by Wagner in his most 
transcendent flights. Here is a work which future operatic com- 
posers can study page by page, almost note by note, with ad- 
vantage, for it contains the germ, at any rate, of a suggestion for 
a union of text and music quite other than that which Wagner 
■outlined, and none the less admirable, which may well prove a 
guide and vade inectnn to the opera-builders of the twentieth 
■century." 



IRISH LIFE AND ENGLISH LETTERS. 

AUBREY DE VERE, who edifies and entertains us with his 
"Recollections" of a long life irradiated with fine scholar- 
ship, exalted ideals, and the intimate intercourse of famous men 
and women, among them being Wordsworth, Hartley Coleridge, 
Newman, Manning, and Carlyle, derived from his distinguished 
father. Sir Aubrey de Vere. the qualities of mind and heart which 
we find so admirable in his reminiscences. These begin in the 
Ireland of George HI., at "Curragh Chase," the ancestral seat of 
the de Veres — the Norman name so proudly borne by the earls of 
Oxford. With the ardor and buoyancy of a fine poetic tempera- 
ment surviving in old age, he tells us charming stories of his 
■dear old home, beautified and hallowed by historic associations. 
He fondly pictures that stately dame, his grandmother, driving 
in the park with her four grays and an outrider, while his father, 
■with whom she lived, had his four blacks, and took the road like 
a prince. Yet the poor adored them, and the intercourse of 
•classes was familiar and kindly. There was the gathering of the 
humbler tenants on Sunday evenings at the gates of the long ash 
avenue for their rural dance, when some rosy peasant girl, half 
■coquettish, half bashful, dropped a curtsey oefore one or another 
•of the gallant visitors at the big house, challenging him to dance 
with her. The coach-and-four was not an ostentation, but a ne- 
•cessity, for the roads were rough and the hills were high. 

De Vere's recollections of the Ireland of his youth are rich in 
incidents of the national recklessness, generous impulsiveness, 
and roystering hospitality. "In the last century," he says, 
"nearly every gentleman was put to bed drunk" ; he had either to 
■drink or fight. The hall door of a country house was left open 
all night ; and he relates with disgust his later experience at a 
manor house near Bath, where, after strolling on the lawn in the 
moonlight when all the inmates were in bed, he tugged at the 
lock of the door and set a hundred bells clanging, high and low. 
Ladies and servants shouted "Fire I" and " Robbers !" and there 
was much display of night apparel and the views of remembered 
•charms. " It was an awful sight I" 

Most delightful is Sir Edward O'Brien, friend of the De Veres, 
who was regarded as an Irish chieftain by the masses in Old 
Thomond, for he was the direct descendant of Brian the Great, 
King of all Ireland, who at the battle of Clontarf put down for- 
•ever the dominion of the Danes in Erin. 

Sir Edward's tenants adored him, and no daughter of theirs 
was ever married without his consent, which was always be- 



stowed, together with a pretty gown for the bride. He was full 
of wilfulnesses and quaint oddities : 

"One day, as we sat after dinner over the wine and walnuts, 
he remarked, 'I have just been thinking that this is the year I 
have to die in.' My father replied: 'Nothing of the kind. Sir 
Edward; I never saw you better. You will probably live another 
dozen years.' Sir Edward was highly provoked. 'Do not say 
that. Sir Aubrey,' he rejoined; 'the head of our family always 
dies at the age I have now reached. It is our way ; and I don't 
want to change it. ' Soon afterward he spoke with more interest 
on some trivial topic of the day. His death occurred that year 
as he had predicted." 

Sir Edward had the virtue of princes : he spoke his mind to 
every one, high or low. When the lord-lieutenant paid him a 
visit, he read him a lecture on his blunders of government; and 
to Aubrey de Vere he said, "I suppose you are Aubrey. I am 
told you write poetry. Is that a fact?" Aubrey confessed the 
soft impeachment, whereupon the O'Brien remarked : "I have no 
opinion of you minor poets. I respect Pope and Dryden and 
Milton, but that is because they have received the sanction of 
public opinion. I think very little of you minor poets." 

One of the most delightful of Mr. de Vere's stories concerns an 
Irish priest who cultivated peculiar notions of conscience and 
duty. There was a boy whom the priest had taught to shoot, 
and as soon as he was big enough he bettered his instructions by 
shooting an agent. Then came remorse : "I'm tired out. I can't 
bear the pain in my heart any longer" ; so he came to give him- 
self up : 

" ' Is it to be hanged you have come here ?' said the priest. ' It 
is, then, to be hanged, your reverence.' The priest replied: 
'My boy, it is a very serious thing to die, and meet one's God. 
I'm afraid it's a long time since you were at mass and that you 
have forgotten your religion. Let me hear now if you can say 
the Apostles' Creed.' The youth strove to recite it, but failed. 
'This is a strange thing,' the priest rejoined. 'Here is a man 
who does not know a B from a bull's foot, and yet he thinks he 
is fit to be hanged ! Where are you living, my boy ?' ' I am living 
down there, your reverence, about a mile to the west." The 
priest answered, 'I will go to you every night about ten o'clock; 
I'd be afraid of going before it is dark, for I might be hanged 
myself as an accomplice ; and as it is, that's likely enough, if they 
come upon us. ' Every night the priest visited the self-condemned 
youth, and taught him the fundamental truths of the Christian 
faith, adding this promise : 'As soon as ever I find you are fit to 
be hanged, I will tell you so. Till then, don't dare to do any- 
thing of the kind.'" 

Many nights, at the risk of his own life, the priest made his 
way to the boy and taught him — until that spurious repentance 
which is only remorse passed into that truer repentance which is 
of love, and is consoled by love : 

"One night, however, before giving the youth his usual parting 
blessing, he said: 'I promised, my boy, to let you know when I 
considered you fit to be hanged ; and now I have the satisfaction 
of assuring you that I never knew a man fitter to be hanged than 
yourself. '" 

The lad informed against himself, and was transported — not 
hanged, as he and his priestly friend expected he would be. 

In the spring of 1841 de Vere returned to England by way of 
Waterford and Wicklow. On the steamer at Kingston we are 
introduced to Daniel O'Connell, a big strong man — the eyes 
potent but crafty, the large mouth expressing humor and good- 
humor, the broad, strong forehead well built for butting his way 
through opposition. His language, tho abounding in drollery 
and "figure," was marked by force and precision. 

De Vere passed several days, at this time, under Wordsworth's 
roof, and took long strolls with that devotee of nature. Subse- 
quently, in an interesting letter to him, the poet writes : "Certain 
it is that old men's literarj' pleasures lie chiefly among the books 
they were familiar with in their youth ; and this is still more 



72 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jau. 15, 1898 



pointedly true of men who have practised composition them- 
selves." 

And again: "Publication was ever to me most irksome; so 
that, if I had been rich, I question whether I should ever have 
published at all, tho I believe I should have written." 

Conducted by Miss Fenwick to a cottage under Rydal Mount, 
Mr. de Vere found Hartley Coleridge at home — a white-haired 
apparition, wearing the semblance of youth, with delicate skin 
and vividly bright eyes — saying things strange and quaint — per- 
fectly unaffected, always amusing, yet revealing a mind whose 
thoughts abode in regions as remote as the antipodes : 

"It was a strange thing to see Hartley Coleridge fluctuating 
about the room, now with one hand on his head, now with both 
arms expanded like a swimmer's. There was some element 
wanting in his being. He could do everything but keep his foot- 
ing, and doubtless in his inner world of thought it was easier for 
him to fly than to walk, and to walk than to stand. There seemed 
to be no gravitating principle in him. One might have thought 
he needed stones in his pockets to prevent his being blown away. 
But he is said to have always lived 'an innocent life, tho far 
astray,' and he might, perhaps, have been more easily changed 
into an angel than into a simply strong man. He was touch- 
ingly reverent when referring to religious subjects, and in read- 
ing aloud his father's hymn on Mont Blanc, whenever he came to 
the name of God it seemed as if he could hardly pronounce it." 

De Vere says : "I threw off Byron early, as a vicious young 
horse throws off a bad rider ; and I have outgrown Shelley, tho 
not all my admiration for his wonderful genius." Sir William 
Hamilton used to tell him that the shallow views of most of the 
scientific men he met at the British Association made him melan- 
choly ; and that almost the only Englishman of that time whom 
he regarded as a philosopher was Coleridge. 

De Vere's account of the great Irish famine is most interesting, 
and in his relation of striking incidents he blends the practical 
with the picturesque, and the pathetic with the humorous, in ad- 
mired disorder. He tells us of the helpless suffering in all classes, 
worst among the poor and lowly, but not confined to them nor to 
the men. He tells us of ladies who succumbed under the labors 
and the concealed privations of those days, over whom came a 
change which did not pass away for years. "The eyes that had 
witnessed what theirs had witnessed never wholly lost the look 
which then came into them, and youth had gone by before their 
voices recovered their earlier tone." 

And then he describes the machinery of relief committees : 

"Here are the dramatis personcE of one : (ist) A man of high 
principles, but so modest that he can seldom get in a word ; (2d) 
a man who seconds every motion; (3d) a wrong-headed man 
who contradicts every one, and does not know what he himself 
wants ; (4th) a quiet, dry official, who, when questioned, an- 
swers that he is there to execute orders, and, when threatened, 
replies that if his career should be suddenly closed by assassina- 
tion, he supposes that some other official gentleman will receive 
orders and execute them ; (5th) (outside) a gloomy-looking 
crowd staring in through the windows with sharp, wolfish eyes, 
a clasped fist, and the other hand clutching a neighbor's shoulder ; 
(6th) a few little boys waiting for the 'scrimmage'; (7th) a 
frantic old woman screaming like a Banshee ; (8th) a big man 
who lives on whisky and snuff, with great staring eyes, a gaping 
mouth wide open, and dilated nostrils as black as if the jackdaws 
had built their nests in them ; (9th) a smiling young girl pushing 
through the crowd to sell her cakes, and civilly requesting a 
policeman to stand out of her way; and (loth) an angry multi- 
tude blowing horns in the distance. Perhaps, however, you will 
say that we must not pity ourselves (and self-pity is certainly one 
especial source of Irish weakness), merely because gentlemen 
who choose to boat on Bantry Bay, and measure their strength 
against the Atlantic waves, do not find the water as smooth as 
the Thames just above." 

De Vere's relations with the Cardinals Newman and Manning 
were intimate and memorable. He met Newman in Oxford — a 



singularly graceful figure in cap and gown ; the slight form and 
the gracious address might have belonged either to a j'outhful 
ascetic of the Middle Ages, or to a graceful and high-bred lady of 
his own day : 

" He was pale and thin almost to emaciation, swift of pace, 
but, when not -walking, intensel}' still, with a voice sweet and 
pathetic both, but so distinct that you could count each vowel and 
consonant in every word. When touching upon subjects which 
interested him much, he used gestures rapid and decisive, tho 
not vehement ; and while in the expression of thoughts on impor- 
tant subjects there was often a restrained ardor about him, yet if 
individuals were in question he spoke severely of none, however 
widely their opinions might differ from his. As we parted, I 
asked him why the cathedral bells rang so loud at so late an hour. 
'Only some young men keeping themselves warm, ' he answered." 

The intense personality of Newman was curiously illustrated 
by the remark of Woolner, the sculptor, as he contemplated in 
his studio the plastic cast he had made of the cardinal's bust. 
"Those marble busts around us represent some of the most emi- 
nent men of our time, and I used to look on them with pride. 
Something seems the matter with them now. When I turn from^ 
Newman's head to them, they look like vegetables !" 

Then Mr. de Vere expatiates on the extreme intellectual self- 
possession of Cardinal Manning — "a quality in which he was in. 
signal contrast to Carlyle, who seemed to me unable to do his. 
thinking until he had worked himself up into an intellectual pas- 
sion, as the lion is said to prepare himself for action of another 
sort by first lashing himself into a rage" : 

"The intensity of his nature, however, could not be doubted by 
anyone who had seen him in church and at prayer. His stillness 
was one that seemed as if it could not have been shaken if the 
church had caught fire. Some human affections had also, it is 
said, acquired with him a character not less intense and indelible ; 
but of these I had not been a witness, and never heard him speak. 
One of them was directed to his father. Every evening at Lav- 
ington he used to walk up to say his vespers in a little church 
where there were then few or no worshipers, wearing a cloak 
much the worse for the wear. It had been his father's." 

Mr. de Vere is solicitous to impress upon his readers the signifi- 
cant fact that he is writing his "Recollections" and not his auto- 
biography, for which he seems to entertain a wholesome scorn, 
as being a form of egotistical presentment with which the world 
has small concern. "Self," he says, "is a dangerous personage 
to let into one's book. " 



"THE GREATEST FIGURE IN GERMAN 
LITERATURE TO-DAY." 

THIS superlative praise is awarded by Gustave Kobbe to the 
dramatist, Gerhardt Hauptmann : " He is the greatest 
figure in German literature — perhaps in all literature — to-day. 
He is the one living poet who is also a born writer of plays, the 
one living master of realism who is also a master of idealism." 
And yet there is, as yet, no published English translation of any 
of Hauptmann's plays, of which, tho he is but thirty-five, there 
are nine. While he is an exponent and leader of the new 
literary movement that sprang up in Germany about ten years 
after the Franco-Prussian war, he is not a "decadent." His plays 
are analytical ; but they also have the throb of poetry, the warm 
glow of passion. He is no more to be classed with Ibsen or 
Maeterlinck than Goethe is. In one of his plays "Vor Sonnenauf- 
gang" ("Before Sunrise") one of his characters speaks of Ibsen 
and Zola as follows: "They are not poets, they are necessary 
evils. What they offer us is medicine." "Hauptmann," observes 
Mr. Kobbe, "offers us drama, not physic; poetry, not pathology." 
Hauptmann's latest drama, "Die Versunkene Glocke" ("The 
Sunken Bell"), has been described in these columns (May 22, 
1897). His first drama, "Vor Sonnenaufgang" (1889) is described 



Vol. XVI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



73 



by Mr. Kobbe. We quote his description from The forum (De- 
cember) as follows : 

"' Vor Sonnenaufgang' might be classed b)'^ some critics as an 
Ibsen play ; for it deals in a strong and almost brutal manner 
with the curse of heredity. But thus early Hauptmann proves 
that, while he is a physiological expert, he is not a physician. 
He treats the subject — a family steeped in the curse of alcoholism 
— with the hand of a master who has studied the soul as well as 
the body; who knows his psychology as well as his physiology. 
The family which he holds up to our view is as thoroughly repul- 
sive as any of the figures in Zola's ' L'Assommoir. ' He shows us 
the household of a rich peasant, a household in which drunken- 
ness and its attendant vices are rampant. 

"In this loathsome household there blooms, like a flower be- 
tween the crevices of a moldering wall, a pure and exquisite 
young girl, a daughter who has happily been brought up beyond 




GERH.\RDT HAUPTM.^NN. 

the contaminating influences of the corrupt life of this den of 
iniquity. It strikes terror to her innermost fiber; but, in what 
seems to be her darkest moment, there comes to her a promise of 
release. A social agitator, named Loth, whose special enthusi- 
asm is temperance reform, arrives in the village. He meets 
Helene ; and a mutual love soon ripens between them. To her, 
he seems a savior. But he has the weakness of his type : he has 
not mastered his principles; they have mastered him. Instead 
of controlling them, he is their slave; and, when he discovers 
that the curse of alcoholism rests upon Heleiie' s famil}*. he de- 
serts her and leaves her to her fate, even tho he realizes the dan- 
ger that she may, in despair, sink into the loathsome morals which 
forms her social environment. But the girl has a terrible cour- 
age with which to offset his weakness ; and the climax which 
Hauptmann works out at the end of this play is one of the most 
awful, as well as one of the most powerfully constructed, trage- 
dies that dramatic literature can offer. 

" The girl, deserted by her lover, hears her drunken father 
approaching. Seizing his hunting-knife, she goes into an adjoin- 
ing room. A servant, who is looking for her, enters the room 
into which she has just disappeared. A moment later, this ser- 
vant, almost crazed with terror, rushes out. and, with piercing 
cries, dashes past the father, who utters a few thick, drunken 
exclamations as the curtain falls. 

"It is interesting to note that in this, his very first drama 
Hauptmann shows, in the contrast between the exquisite and 



highly poetic character of Helc7ie and the brutal realism of the 
dramatic milieu, that characteristic which gives him a unique 
place among modern dramatists — the impulse and ability to unite 
realism and idealism in one and the same play." 

Mr. Koppe takes up the nine plays, one after another, and 
briefly describes the central motive of each ; " Das Friedenfest" 

("The Peace Festival"), " Einsame Menschen" ("Lonely Be- 
ings"), "Die Weber" ("The Weavers"), "KoUege Crampton" 

("Colleague Crampton"), "Hannele's Himmelfahrt" ("Hannele's 
Ascension"), "Der Biberpelz" ("The Beaverpelt"). "Florian 
Geyer," "Die Versunkene Glocke" ("The Sunken Bell"). Of 
these, "Florian Geyer" (1895) is described as a failure, and "Der 
Biberpelz" (1S93) as "a curiously contrived thieves' comedy of 
questionable value." The play just preceding this, "Hannele's 
Himmelfahrt," displays Hauptmann 's power in blending realism 
and idealism as fully and effectively as anything he has written. 
We quote the description of this also ; 

"A young girl, a mere child, horribly bruised and beaten by a 
brutal father, seeks release from her sufferings by attempting to 
drown herself. She is saved, almost at the point of death, by a 
young schoolmaster, who, on a bitter winter's night, tenderly 
carries her in his arms to the poorhouse — the only place in the 
village district where he knows she can be cared for, the villagers 
themselves being too poor to undertake such a burden. The real- 
ism of the play lies in the wonderful reproduction of the atmos- 
phere of the poorhouse, the sordid jealousies and bickerings of 
its inmates, and the fidelity to life with which their various repul- 
sive characteristics are drawn. It is only too apparent that the 
child will soon succumb to the shock that her system has sus- 
tained. Her poor little body shows the marks of the brutal treat- 
ment to which she has been subjected ; and all the pathos, not to 
say horror, of a child half- beaten to death, half -dying by her own 
act, are portrayed with the keenest appreciation for dramatic 
effect. Equally effective, however, are the supernatural elements 
in the climax, which is a triumph of spirituality and idealism in 
drama. In her dying moments, the child has a vision, in which 
her dead mother appears to her as an angel ; she sees the Savior ; 
and all the beauties of heaven are disclosed to her. She herself 
dreams that she is ascending to Christ ; and, when the apparitions 
have faded away and we see the dead body of the poor, bruised 
child lying upon the pallet, we feel that, for her soul at least, her 
vision has become a reality. Wonderfully subtle and poetic are 
the touches, throughout the drama, by which the schoolmaster, 
Goitivald — young, faithful, tender, and self-sacrificing — becomes, 
in a way, symbolic of the Savior, a symbolism that, in the per- 
formance, should be heightened by the actor's make-up, which 
must resemble the Christ apparition in the 'Vision' scene. 

" It is impossible in any written description to give an impres- 
sion of the beauty of this play, either as an imaginative work of 
art or as an acting drama. In the performances, the mistake is 
usually made of having the apparitions in the 'Vision' scene w^alk 
upon the stage or come up through trap-doors and then pose or 
group themselves. The effect is immeasurably heightened when 
they are thrown, by the reflection of mirrors, directly upon the 
spot on which they are finally to stand. 

"This 'Vision' scene gave Hauptmann an opportunity to de- 
monstrate the value of the psychological effects in the drama. It 
enabled him to show the working of a child's soul — its secret 
longings, dreams, and motives. It was a daring experiment; 
but it was wholly successful." 



ZOLA TO WRITE A NOVEL ON THE DREYFUS 

CASE. 

TRUTH is again proved to be stranger than fiction, for it 
seems that Emile Zola has determined to write another 
novel of Parisian life and manners, based not on the imaginary 
experiences of a socialistic priest, but on the facts of the sensa- 
tional Dreyfus case. M. Zola has been savagely assailed from 
many directions for his bold championship of Dreyfus and his 
emphatic declaration that the captain is innocent. He contem- 



74 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



plates a literary revenge. His intentions have not been disclosed 
to Parisian journals, but here is what he said "in confidence" to 
a representative of the St. Petersburg Novosti. The interviewer 
asked the realist whether, having idealized Paris in his latest 
book, he was not going to avail himself of the intensely dramatic 
Dreyfus situation to give a realistic picture of the politics and 
government of Paris. He answered as follows : 

"Yes, as soon as 1 really became acquainted, thoroughly ac- 
quainted, with this case, I decided to make literary use of it. 
What passions we have in this extraordinary case, what material 
for studying human psychology, what a conflict of interests ! To 
give it the form of a dialog — not for the stage, not to make 
money, not to exploit a scandal, not to entice the agitated crowds, 
but to create a work in which the whole matter should appear to 
be — as it is — a desperate .struggle between justice and selfishness 
— seemed at first desirable ; but I have abandoned that idea. 
There is nothing so appropriate, so adequate, so instructive, as 
the form of a historical romance in the present instance. Yes, I 
shall write a history of the entire case. I know the truth, and I 
assure you there is nothing more shocking and oppressive in the 
political annals. I had contemplated using the Panama scandals ; 
but in them I find much petty rascality, dirt, and meanness. 
Here we are confronted by mighty and unusual factors. Here 
then figure rare beauty, an extraordinary crime, to say nothing 
about the treachery of the spy, which is not specially novel in in- 
ternational relations. And the characters of the chief personages, 
the central types whose like it is difficult to find ! There is the 
innocent victim Dreyfus, the real criminal, the man who is 
working might and main to bring the truth to light. And what 
richer field is there for the imaginative historical delineator than 
that of a fierce encounter of right and wrong ? There are as many 
enlisted on the side of justice as there are on the side of injustice. 
I do not share the general belief that the truth will speedily tri- 
umph ; the interests opposed to it are too mighty and influential. 
In the end justice will be done, but it will cost much effort and 
trouble. 

"Of course, I shall await the end of this drama. The story 
would not be complete without it. The most startling and revolt- 
ing thing about the whole matter is the attitude of the pr;ss — the 
prostituted and riotous press. It has trampled human sentiment 
under foot, perverted every right feeling, and deliberately ob- 
scured and befogged everything that could have unraveled the 
mystery. What will Russia think about this Homeric injustice, 
about this terrible tragedy revealing so much rottenness in polit- 
ical and military life !" 

Several of the younger writers and radicals are supporting Zola 
and repelling the assaults upon him. They insist that a novelist 
has as much right, and is as bound morally, to take a stand on 
great public questions as any other citizen. A Russian writer 
remarks that the Dreyfus novel will be a curious sequel to "Paris," 
rather inconsistent with the hopefulness and optimism and ideal- 
ism of the apotheosis of the French capital. — Translated for 
The Literary Digest. 



ONE OF GERARD DE NERVAL'S LETTERS. 

THP^ interesting account of de Nerval's pathetic career, which 
appeared in our issue of January 8, taken from the Revue 
des Deux Mondes, contained also a letter written by the poet to 
Mme. de Sohns just before his second incarceration in an asylum. 
It is a letter not only worth reading, but, in the light of the poet's 
history, worth weeping over, even now, forty-three years after 
the writer went to his tragic death. It is a marvel of grace and 
tenderness : 

"You must not give me, dear beneficent fay, the beautiful book 
that you promised for my Christmas. I have wished for it long — 
those beautiful volumes with gilt edges, that unique edition ! 
But it will cost a great deal, and I have something better to pro- 
pose to you — a good deed. You are trembling with joy, I feel it ; 
you whose heart is seeking ever to do good. Ah well, my beau- 
tiful friend, here is something to keep you busy for the whole 
week ! Rue .Saint Jacques, number 7, the fifth story, a father 
and mother, seven little ones, sunk in frightful, hopeless misery 



— without work, without fire, without bread — without light. 
Two of the children are half dead with hunger. Chance, that 
leads me often haphazard, led me yesterday to that door. I gave 
them all that I possessed — my cloak and f<jrty centimes. O 
misery ! Then I told them that a great lady, a queen of seven- 
teen years, would come to their kennel with her hands full of 
loui's d'or, fine clothes, coverings, and bread for the children. 
They looked as if they thought me crazy — but no matter. I really 
believe that I promised them rubies and diamonds. And the poor 
people — they didn't understand it at all — but they began to laugh 
and weep. 

"Ah, could you have seen it ! Quick then — run, fly, with those 
large sweet eyes that seem those of an angel, haste to make good 
what your poor poet has promised in your name. Let the price 
of my Christmas gift (for I absolutely must have a part in it), 

go for this good work ; or rather, return to D the 25 francs 

which the c/tcf d' anivre, that I shall never think of again, would 
cost ; and I will run to the Temple, and buy from Father Ver- 
dureau a whole Santa Claus out of it for them, for the holidays. 

"That will be fine, don't you think? You will be dazzled. I 
shall go to Beranger to make a collection. A u revoir, little queen, 
a bientot, at the garret of our poor. Our poor ! I feel proud as 
I write that. Is there any one then anywhere in the world 
poorer than I am myself? Don't forget the number, on the fifth 
floor, second passage, the door on the left. 

"Adieu, Mignon, dear Mignon, sweet Mignon. providence of 
the afflicted, viignonne Mignon, so sweet, so rare, so modest, and 
so gentille. Put on your robe with the long trail, and your high- 
heeled boots. I have promised them a princess, more powerful 
than the grandest crowned head on earth. They will wonder 
when they see your seventeen years, and your childlike smile. 
But I prattle — I prattle. Adieu, Mignojine — again adieu. 

"Madame, pardon! 

"To give these poor people bread, you understand, will not be 
enough. The thing is to give them poetry as well. That may 
be the idea of a fool, but it is jolie." — Tratislated Jor The 
Literary Digest. 



NOTES. 

Mme. Sembrich is quoted in The Musical Record as sayinpf that the old 
Italian music is the best training for the voice, especially in developing it 
for such mu.sic as Leoncavallo, Mascagni, or Wagner. She says : " It is 
such music as 'La Sonnanibula,' 'Lucia,' "Linda de Chamounix,' and 'II 
Barbiere ' that trains one to sing well. Learn that thoroughly and let the 
modern composers alone for a while. If there was anything needed to 
prove the truth of my theory, one would only have to look at Mme. Patti. 
She is over fifty now, and yet she sings remarkably, and she has her voice 
left still. Of what other women can the same thing be said ? Look, too, at 
Lilli Lehmann, who began her career as a singer of the Italian music and is 
to-day another great exa:nple of what that training will do. It was not 
until she had learned thoroughly the Italian repertoire that she began to 
sing Wagner. She and Mme. Patti are two of the last great singers. No 
young ones are coining up to take their places, and the reason is that the 
old music which trained the voices best is no longer taught to-da)-." 

Tennyson has been criticized recently by W. W. Ward. It will be re- 
membered that Tennyson said that he never put two " s's" together. Mr. 
Ward took the trouble to search the poems of the great master of musical 
verse to see if this was true ; and it is not surprising that he should rush 
into print upon finding several apparent contradictions of the statement. 
Mr. Ward, in turn, is now corrected b)- W. T. Malleson, who writes to 
The Spectator that Mr. Ward should distinguish between the printed and 
tlie sounded or sibilant " s." Speaking of the sibilant or hissing " s," Mr. 
Malleson says : " The instances of two ' s's ' together which Mr. Ward mar- 
shals from Tennyson's poems are not of this kind. In ' hii' i'ong,' ' hi.? .fons,' 
' h\s 5ide,' in ' a.s ihe ' and ' waj jeen,' the first ' s ' has the ' z ' sound, and 
phonetically the words would be written ' hiz song,' ' az she,' ' waz seen.' 
In the Highlands, indeed, the 's' in ' was' is sibilant, and Mr. Black and 
others, to mark this, write the word ' wass.' Were this the English pro- 
nunciation, Tennyson in accord with his rule, or rather his perfect ear, 
would certainly not have written — 

" She in her poor attire wass seen ; " 

but by ' was seen,' as we pronounce the words, the rule is not violated. 
To take another of Mr. Ward's examples— 

" No more by thee my step^ shaXX be." 

Here the ' sh ' has not the hissing, but the hushing, sound ;— make it, in- 
deed, sibilant; read it, 'my steps s'all be,' and one is reminded of the 
grinding of scissors ! One quotation of Mr. Ward's remains which seems 
to prove (or test) the rule rather sharply— 

" She seemed a part of joyou.f spring ; " 

but let any one read this line aloud, and he will find that he blends the two 
' s's ' into one. Tennyson's verse is not for the eye but the ear." 



Yol. XYI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DICzEST. 



75 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION. 



LIVING WITHOUT A STOMACH. 

THE opinions of physiologists regarding the functions of the 
stomach have been somewhat altered by the success of a 
recent rather sensational surgical operation in which the entire 
stomach of the patient was removed. The subject, a Swiss wo- 
man, is still alive and well, and naturally her condition has ex- 
cited wide interest. A brief note of the operation has already 
appeared in these columns, but we are now enabled to lay before 
-our readers more particulars from an accurate account of the case 
^contributed by the operator. Dr. Carl Schlatter, of Zurich, Switz- 




STOM.^CH. 

Preparatory Steps for Operation, a, Oesophageal cut ; d, duodenum ; c, 
• duodenal slit ; d, stomach ; e, slit closed by suture ; /", jejunum. 

erland, to TAe Medical Record (New York, December 25). In 
an introductory note. Dr. E. C. Wendt, of New York, says of 
the case, which he terms "remarkable and unique" : 

"At the date of the present writing, December 9, 1897, over 
three months since the operation of total ablation of the stomach, 
the woman is still under observation at the county hospital ; but 
she is to all intents and purposes a well woman, and does her full 
share of the daily work of the ward. On the date of my first visit 
I found her in a yeiy cheerful frame of mind, and quite loqua- 
cious. She is already beginning to realize the interest and im- 
portance attaching to her case, as she has had medical visitors 
from many quarters of the globe. The lay press of all Europe 
has got wind of this extraordinary instance of a 'live woman 

without a stomach. ' 

"On my several examinations of the patient I was particularly 

■struck by her ruddy complexion, fair general appearance, clean, 
moist tongue, absence of all Jcetor ex ore, moderately full and 
vigorous pulse, and general alacrity. She informed me that her 
appetite was good, but that she was never allowed to feel really 
hungry. She relished her meals and her taste was unimpaired. 
The bowels acted naturally once in twenty-four hours. Her sleep 

was normal. She complained of no pain. 

"In a word, save for some degree of emaciation, a noticeably 

■dry skin, and her abdominal cicatrix, the woman at present offers 
no apparent departure from ordinary average health. How long 
can she survive the non-existence of gastric digestion? Who can 
tell? Clinical observation sometimes rudely disturbs our most 
cherished school-taught physiological dogmas." 

Dr. Wendt tells us that altho several surgeons have recently 
reported cases of total removal of the stomach, these operators 
have always allowed some small part to remain, so that this is the 
first real case of the kind on record. Animals have survived 
■complete destruction of the stomach, however, so that there was 
reason to suppose that it might not be fatal to a human being. 

Dr. Schlatter's technical account of the case can not, of course, 
be reproduced here at length. The patient, Anna Landis, was a 
sufferer from a tumor that involved nearly the whole stomach. 
After the removal of the organ, the oesophagus was joined directly 
to the intestine (see illustration) so that food would pass into it 
as before. Nine days after the operation the patient was eating 



milk, eggs, meat, gruel, tea, and wine, and she steadily improved. 
An interesting feature was the occurrence of vomiting, which 
most physiologists have regarded as proceeding only from action 
of the stomach. Saj-s Dr. Schlatter : 

" How can a person vomit without a stomach ? No matter what 
theoretical physiological notions we may have imbibed from lec- 
tures and text-books, the woman under observation had repeated 
attacks of ordinary nausea, retching, and vomiting. We must 
needs conclude, therefore, that the r&le of the stomach (/.£., its 
antiperistaltic efficacy) in this direction has been very much over- 
rated 

" In view of the fact that the patient ejected as much as thirty 
ounces at one time, it seems reasonable to suppose that the re- 
maining portion of the duodenum may have already begun to 
show distention sufficient to" produce a sort of compensatory recep- 
tacle for food — perhaps nature's attempt in the direction of the 
new formation of a stomach. 

"In endeavoring to explain vomiting without a stomach, we 
should remember that the act itself is far from being a simple 
process. It is due to nervous action on a complex motor appa- 
ratus, consisting of pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, diaphragm, 
and abdominal muscles." 

Dr. Wendt draws the following conclusions from the results of 
Dr. Schlatter's interesting operation : 

" I. The human stomach is not a vital organ. 

"2. The digestive capacity of the human stoinach has been 
considerably overrated. 

"3. The fluids and solids constituting an ordinary mixed diet 
are capable of complete digestion and assimilation without the 
aid of the human stomach. 

"4. A gain in the weight of the body may take place in spite of 
the total absence of gastric activity. 

" 5. Typical vomiting may occur without a stomach. 

"6. The general health of a person need not immediately de- 
teriorate on account of removal of the stomach. 

"7. The most important office of the human stomach is to act 
as a reservoir for the reception, preliminary preparation, and pro- 
pulsion of food and fluids. It also fulfils a useful purpose in reg- 
ulating the temperature of swallowed solids and liquids. 

"8. The chemical functions of the human stomach maybe com- 
pletely and satisfactorily performed by the other divisions of the 
alimentary canal." 

In commenting on the case, The Medical Record speaks edi- 
torially as follows : 

"It is rather an unexpected slight to what has always been con- 
sidered one of the essential organs of the body, and one govern- 
ing all others with undisputed sway and unquestioned autocracy, 
to imagine that it may not be of much use after all. Its fabled 
quarrel with the other parts of the body, in the story of ^sop, 
would appear in the present light as scarcely more than the myth- 
ical hypothesis of a wild and unreasonable fabrication. What- 
ever we may venture pro or con on the question at issue, the fact 
appears to be proven that the human subject can live and be rea- 
sonably active for months at a time without any stomach what- 
ever, and obtain all the necessary digestion and nourishment from 
what remains of the intestinal tract. Is it possible that the lattei 
may have a new set of functions not yet understood, or has the 
importance of stomach digestion been misapprehended and over- 
rated? In any event we are now brought face to face with a very 
curious demonstration, which destroys the validity of many pre- 
conceived opinions and in a great measure nullifies the results of 
many previous experiments. 

"In the matter of a brilliant achievement the operation takes 
first rank, and the daring and brilliant surgeon will receive the 
well-deserved congratulations of his peers throughout the world. 
He has opened the first chapter in a new history of surgical tri- 
umphs." 

A New Half-Breed : the Zebroid.— "The mule," says 
Casinos (December iS), "partakes of the qualities of the ass and 
the horse. The zebra having now been domesticated, it has been 
asked whether we can not obtain from it an analogous half-breed. 
The Baron de Parana has obtained one and calls it the 'zebroid.' 
The young animal is now six months old ; it is a male of a bay 



76 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



color with stripes similar to those of the zebra. These stripes are 
well marked on the neck, the head, and the legs; those of the 
body are not visible, because of the thick winter coat. The 
mane is black and resembles that of the zebra ; the tail looks like 
a mule's, but has longer hair. The ears are small with rounded 
points like the zebra's. The haunch is well formed, rounded, and 
quite large ; the chest is long and high, which makes the animal 
hold its head high and consequently gives it a good carriage. 
The eyes are large and full of feeling ; the nostrils large ; the lips 
small and much like those of Arab horses (the mare, the mother 
of this zebroid, was one-quarter Arab) ; the head is small ; the 
legs muscular, but delicate, showing that he will be very agile ; 
the hoofs small, black, and very hard. • He is very lively, but 
very gentle, and loves to be caressed. He eats very well, not 
only in the stall, but in pasture." These facts, we are told, are 
from a communication made by the breeder to the National Ac- 
climation Society, which is shortly to be presented with a set of 
photographs of the new creature. — Translated Jor The Liter- 
ary Digest. 



GROWING USE OF THE ALTERNATING 
ELECTRIC CURRENT. 

THE most conspicuous modern tendency in electrical practise, 
according to The Electrical World (January i), is the 
substitution of the alternating for the direct electric current. It 
makes this a text for a brief historical review of the dynamo : 

" When the first dynamos were built it was found necessary to 
introduce a device for straightening the pulses of current that 
flowed from their armatures first in one way and then in the 
other, into an orderly current, something like that given by 
Volta's pile or Galvani's 'crown of cups.' The commutatorwas 
invented, elaborated, and, after much travail, perfected so far as 
such a thing could be perfected. Electricians viewed the chaotic 
currents emanating from the whirling wire with disfavor. They 
would not energize an electromagnet, they would not work a tel- 
egraph, so the commutator was called into being to rectify them. 
Later, when motors had progressed beyond the stage of scientific 
curiosities, commutators were used upon them to again distribute 
the straightened current into its elements." 

Now, however, we are going back to first principles, according 
to the writer. To quote another paragraph : 

"To-day the commutator is sinking slowly into comparative 
obscurity. A new race of dynamo mechanisms has grown up 
commutatorless, of the original simplicity of the sine wave cur- 
rent. It is a return to first principles, a going back to the cur- 
rent conditions that puzzled and appalled the early experimenters 
and caused them to devise the rectifying sliding-contact machine 
that has given such a world of trouble ever since. Who is there 
to-day who shall say that the direct current is the normal variety 
or deny the alternating its claim at least to priority of origin ? At 
best turning it into direct current was a makeshift resorted to in 
the early days, because it was not then known how to utilize it in 
its original simplicity. Happily we are now learning how, and 
the obvious and manifold advantages of the alternating current 
are beginning to be appreciated. 

"It is in this direction that one of the most evident tendencies 
cf present progress is directed. The great lighting-stations are 
changing over from the complex methods formerly in vogue, to 
the simple and satisfactory polyphase system of generation and 
supply. Long-distance power transmission is a commercial pos- 
sibility only for the alternating current. The last stronghold of 
the direct current, the railway, is now being invaded by its rival, 
and before many more years shall have passed the applications 
of direct current will be restricted to those uses for which it alone 
i= fit. Even the one advantage of the direct current, long con- 
tended for, the possibility of its use in connection with accumula- 
tors, is nullified by the rotatory converter. 

"There is no other tendency so conspicuous as this. The sub- 
stitution of alternating for direct-current methods is becoming 
more and more widespread. The great installations now under 
construction are practically all of the alternating type. In rail- 
way work the day can not be far distant when the commutator 
motor will be regarded only as an evil memory. Even in teleg- 
raphy and telephony the alternating current is coming into use. 



Such, to-day, seems the most marked direction of advance in the 
electrical field, and no doubt ensuing years will see the practical 
disappearance of much of the direct-current apparatus now used 
for many purposes. " 

CUD-CHEWING HUMAN BEINGS. 

CERTAIN human beings ruminate or chew the cud like cattle. 
This curious condition or habit is of course abnormal and is 
called by physicians "merycism." An article on the subject has 
been published by M. Nattan-Larrier, a French authority, in the 
Gazette des Hopitaux, Paris. We make the following extracts 
from a brief notice in The British Medical Journal (December 
i8): 

"There is no certain evidence as to the influence of sex ; certain 
authorities make out that merycism is most prevalent in the 
male, but since that opinion has been repeatedly copied in text- 
books, Ludwig and several other observers have recorded numer- 
ous cases where it occurred in women. According to five inde- 
pendent reports, merycism may be hereditary. Bouchard, of 
Ghent, has published the clinical history of a ruminating family. 
Out of ten living members eight ruminated — namely, two brothers 
and an aunt, the grandfather and four grandchildren. Close- 
scrutiny into individual cases, however, tends to show that mery- 
cism may represent an extreme form of eructation, or else be evi- 
dence of mental disease. It may be voluntary or involuntary, the 
latter type often representing the first stage of what becomes the 
former. No special change in the chemistry of the saliva and 
gastric juice has been proved to be associated with merj-cism, but. 
human ruminants are often dyspeptics with sensory-motor phe- 
nomena. Involuntary merycism, at least in its earlier stages, 
is specially prevalent among dyspeptics troubled with neuroses. 
Voluntary rumination, as a bad habit, is a practise observed 
most frequently among idiots, lunatics, and 'degenerates, ' a true 
intellectual perversion, in fact, where a man wishes to be like a 
cow. Yet voluntary rumination, on the other hand, may be the 
result of imitation in fairly sane subjects; on that account it is- 
relatively common among children. The mechanism of rumina- 
tion is the same in man as in animals that naturally ruminate. 
No malformation or lesion of the stomach or oesophagus has been 
detected in any case. ... In children the condition is often 
traceable to imitation. M. Nattan-Larrier holds that the rumi- 
nating child must not be spoiled by the sparing of discipline, but 
believes that suggestion might prove a quicker and more thor- 
ough therapeutic agent. It is certain that it would be preferred 
by the patient. When distinct mental disease is present attempts- 
at cure are seldom successful, and some idiots are very clever at 
bringing up their food the moment they are no longer watched ;. 
they can retain it for hours till they desire its return to the mouth.'" 



MORALITY IN ANIMALS. 

THAT moral feeling exists in animals, and even that its basis 
is found in the very lowest organisms, is maintained in an 
unsigned leading article in Our Animal Friends (January). 
The writer regards such feeling as a direct result of the develop- 
ment of energy due to the struggle of life, and he looks upon, 
hunger as the first manifestations of the "force which in its nature 
tends to virtue and withovit which virtue could not exist." He 
says : 

" It is not necessary to our purpose to dwell on the struggle of 
the individual for the food by which it is sustained, further than 
to note that, without some other necessity than that of nutrition, 
there could be no moral relation between individuals. But even, 
in the lowest life of the protoplasmic cell, side by side with the 
necessity of nutrition, we find another imperious force in the- 
necessity of reproduction. The rudimentary creature draws in 
food enough for its own subsistence through the surrounding tis- 
sue within which it is contained ; by the abundance of nutrition it 
enlarges itself; and, strange to say. by that very act it increases 
its own hunger. For its bulk increases as the cube of its diam- 
eter, while the surface increases only as the square ; and if the 
diameter of this living stomach is doubled, the demand for sus- 



Yol. XYI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



77 



tenance is multiplied eightfold, while the mouth by which it is to 
be supplied is increased only fourfold. At that rate the creature 
rnust speedily die of hunger simply because it has consumed more 
food than enough ! How, then, does nature provide for this con- 
tingency? Very simply. The cell which can no longer sustain 
itself divides into two, and so saves itself by giving life to an- 
other. Thus the self-regarding instinct of nutrition leads on- 
ward to what we might call the other-producing instinct of re- 
production ; and still we have here no moral element, because the 
separated cells which were once one have no longer any relation 
to each other, and are therefore destitute of that other-regarding 
principle which is essential to morality. 

"It is only in the rudimentary protoplasmic cell, however, that 
we find this other-producing necessity apart from the other- 
regarding principle in which the foundation of morals is laid. 
The moment we examine any living creature, however little ad- 
vanced above the rudimentary form of the individual cell, we 
find ourselves in the presence of the mystery of sex. How that 
mystery begins we know not. What we do know is that it pre- 
vails alike in the vegetable and in the animal kingdom, and we 
also know that its essential characteristic consists in what Haeckel 
calls 'the elective affinity of two different cells" as the condition 
of reproduction. Here, then, we have the physical basis of some- 
thing different from the purely selfish struggle for life ; in the 
relation of sex we have not only the rudiment of an other-regard- 
ing principle, but the beginning of a struggle Jor the life of 
others, purely instinctive, doubtless, at first, but capftble of devel- 
opment into the highest characteristics of morality." 

The altruism of the mother is of course not developed at once. 
In the lower animals it is quite absent. To quote again : 

" Mr. Drummond says that ' it is doubtful whether in the inver- 
tebrate half of nature it exists at all ; if it does, it is very rare ; 
in the vertebrates it is met with only exceptionally till we reach 
the two higher classes' ; and even there we first find it in a rudi- 
mentary form, in the preparation of the nest and in the care for 
eggs. In the lower forms of nature, when the eggs are laid, often 
with an appearance of extreme solicitude for their safety and an 
almost prophetic outlook for their future sustenance, the mother's 
work is done, and so she leaves them. Only a step higher brings 
us to the mother brooding on her nest and caring for her young 
more devotedly than for herself, until they need her care no 
longer. It is at this point, too, that we begin to find the function 
of fatherhood approaching moral conditions, in the male bird, 
joining in the preparation of the nest, nourishing his mate, reliev- 
ing her from time to time in her function of brooding over the 
eggs, and at last uniting with her in the joyous care of the young 
ones. " 

So far the author has followed pretty closely the line of thought 
of the late Henry Drummond. But Mr. Drummond, he thinks, 
makes too little of the moral influence of association between the 
sexes in higher animals. He says of this influence : 

"In some species, perhaps in many, it is so strong that it lasts 
for life, or, in other words, monogamy prevails, and so the be- 
ginnings of a true family relation are laid, with all the subtle 
moral influences which that relation implies, and includes and 
fosters. Mr. Darwin has truly said that, in the course of evolu- 
tion, 'those communities which included the greatest number of 
the most sympathetic members would flourish best. '" 

Prince Kropotkin is here called in as an additional witness. 
He is quoted as follows : 

"As soon as we study animals — not in laboratories and mu- 
seums only, but in the forest and the prairie, in the steppes and 
the mountains — we at once perceive that tho there is an immense 
amount of warfare and extermination going on amidst various 
species, and especially amidst various classes of animals, there 
is, at the same time, as much, or perhaps more, of mutual sup- 
port, mutual aid, and mutual defense, amidst animals belonging 
to the same species or, at least, to the same society. Sociability 
is as much a law of nature as mutual struggle. ... If the num- 
berless facts which can be brought forward to support this view 
are taken into account, we may safely say that mutual aid is as 
much a law of animal life as mutual struggle; but that, as a 
factor of evolution, it most probably has a far greater importance. 



inasmuch as it favors the development of such habits and charac- 
ter as insure the maintenance and further development of the 
species, together with the greatest amount of welfare and enjoy- 
ment of life for the individual, with the least waste of energy." 

The writer concludes as follows : 

"At this point, in our opinion, Mr. Drummond's vision is ob- 
scure. He does not see the full significance of the facts. He 
does indeed admit and assert that the other-regarding principle, 
which he calls Altruism, exists in the lower animals; he says: 
'At what precise stage of the Ascent, in association with what 
class of animals, Otherism began to shade into Altruism in the 
ethical sense, is immaterial. Whether the Altruism in the early 
stages is real or apparent, profound or superficial, voluntary or 
automatic, does not concern us. VV hat concerns us is that the 
Altruism is there ; that the day came when, even tho a rudiment, 
it was a reality ; above all that the arrangements for introducing 
and perfecting it were realities. ' That suffices for our own con- 
tention, which is this : that the foundations of human morality 
are laid in the very nature of the animal life which we share with 
all our humble fellow creatures, and consequently, that the 
highest ethical attainments and aspirations of man as a social 
being are only developments of a principle which exists and 
operates, often in a most wonderful and admirable way, in them 
as well as in mankind." 



THE CONFLICT OF DISEASE. 

WE have long been accustomed to speak of disease as a bat- 
tle ; we say that the sufferer is "making a splendid up- 
hill fight," and that he has "subdued" the disease or that the dis- 
ease has "vanquished" him. It is only recently, however, that 
physicians have had grounds for the belief that the patient is 






PHAGOCYTES AND BACTERIA. 

I, 2. The phagocyte or leucocyte approaches a bacterium and extends its 
pseudopods toward it to envelop it. 3. The bacterium, surrounded by the 
pseudopods, penetrates into the protoplasm of the leucocyte, or is envacuo- 
lated. 4. The bacterium is digested by the phagocyte. 

rather the battle-field than an active contestant. The real battle 
is fought out within him between the attacking germs armed with 
their deadly poisons or "toxins." and the white blood-cells, "leu- 
cocytes" or " phagocytes, " which strive to overcome them and thus 
save his life. In an article on "The Blood" in La Monde Mod- 
erne, Paris, November, Dr. J. Laumonier describes the process 
graphically. He says : 

" Besides the red globules there are in the blood white globules 
or leucocytes. These are colorless cellules without membrane, 
mobile, and of changing form, whose constituent matter, or pro- 
toplasm, is granular and contractile. They are much less numer- 
ous than the red globules, and there is only one of them to every 
350 or 400 of the red globules; but to make up for this they are 
found elsewhere than in the blood, notably in the conjunctival tis- 
sue, the glands, the lymph, etc. This ubiquitj' of the leucocytes 
is due to their mobility, to the plasticity of their protoplasm, 
which enables them to slip into the smallest intercellular spaces 



78 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



and thus to migrate from tissue to tissue. This journeying about 
is called 'diapedesis. ' 

"We may ask, 'What is this diapedesis for?' Like all cellules 
the leucocytes are very sensitive to the action, even at a distance, 
of certain reagents, certain chemical substances, which, for this 
reason, attract or repel them. Among the substances that attract 
the leucocytes most energetically are the 'toxins' or substances 
secreted within our organism by pathogenic microbes such as the 
charbon bacillus or the staphylococcus of pus. When such mi- 
crobes exist in any part, and their presence is revealed by the 
presence of toxins carried by the blood, the leucocytes move 
toward the contaminated point and proceed to devour, by envel- 
oping them in their protoplasm, the bacteria that they meet (see 
figure). For this reason the leucocytes are called also 'phago- 
cytes' or devouring cells. But all the leucocytes do not succeed 
in thus devouring their prey ; a certain number die, poisoned by 
the microbian toxins, and their accumulated bodies form pus. 
When the leucocytes finally succeed in destroying the pathogenic 
bacteria, the contagious'or virulent malady is stayed, the invalid 
is cured; when, on the contrary, the leucocj'tes are vanquished 
by the number of their adversaries or the virulence of their secre- 
tions, the malady spreads and the patient is in peril of death. 
This process of 'phagocytosis,' which was discovered only a short 
time ago, is one of the most curious processes of defense in our 
organism, and the vaccinations so widely employed in our day 
have for their object, bj^ the previous attenuation of the inocu- 
lated virus, to habituate the phagocytes progressively to the 
poisons against which they would not be able to struggle were 
they introduced all at once and with no opportunity for adapta- 
tion." — Translated for Thv. Literary Digest. 



IS THE SPEED OF THE SCREW-PROPELLER 
REACHING A LIMIT? 

THE recent phenomenal speeds attained by small boats driven 
by propellers, especially when, as in the case of the Tur- 
binta, rotary engines are used, has led some to expect still more 
wonderful results in the future. But there is a limit to all things, 
and in the case of the propeller recent experiment seems to show 
that we are already near it and that it will be caused by a phe- 
nomenon named "cavitation," which is the formation of hollow 
spaces in the water behind the swiftly moving propeller-blades. 
The subject is discussed in a paper read by Sydney W. Barnaby 
before the recent Congress of Naval Architects in London and 
printed in The Journal of the A77ierican Society of Naval En- 
gineers (November), from which we quote the following extracts. 
Says Mr. Barnaby : 

" In a paper upon torpedo-boat destroyers, read before the In- 
stitution of Civil Engineers in 1895 by Mr. Thornycroft and my- 
self, we gave some particulars of the screw trials of the Daring, 
and described briefly the reasons which led us to conclude that a 
new phenomenon was manifesting itself. This phenomenon 
seemingly pointed to the probability that the speed of vessels was 
approaching a stage at which propulsion by screws would become 
less efficient, and we said that it appeared inevitable that reduced 
efficiency must be submitted to as the speed of vessels increased. 

"If a cavity be formed in any manner in the interior of a mass 
of water it will tend to become filled with water vapor and with 
any air which might be in solution, since ebullition takes place at 
ordinary temperatures in a vacuum. We believed that at the 
speed at which the screws of the Daring began to give trouble 
such cavities were being formed, and were the source of the great 
waste of power and of other difficulties which were experienced. 

"This view met with not a little incredulity at the time, but I 
believe it to have been perfectly correct. The trials of the Tur- 
binia and the experiments made by Mr. Charles Parsons, . . . 
afford very strong, if not complete, confirmation of our conten- 
tion." 

After a discussion of the experimental facts that seem to him 
to uphold his views, Mr. Barnaby thus describes exactly what he 
believes takes place with a very rapidly revolving screw- 
propeller ; 

" A screw propels by putting water in motion sternward. It 



effects its object partly by pushing the water with the after face 
of the blades, and partly by pulling it with the forward face. I 
will ask you to imagine that we have replaced the screw of a ship 
by a disk of rather less diameter than the screw, and that, instead 
of revolving the screw-shaft, we push the shaft and disk stern- 
ward at such a speed that the momentum of the water moved by 
the disk is equal to the sternward momentum of the water put in 
motion by the screw. The propelling effect would be the same 
as that of the screw, and so far as the action between the forward 
face of the screw-blades and the contiguous water is concerned, 
which is what I wish to illustrate, the action of the disk affords a 
sufficiently close analogy. As the disk moves sternward, it puts 
water in motion not only astern of it, but also ahead of it. There 
being no air between the water and the front face of the disk, a 
pull can be exerted upon the water, which is forcfed to follow the 
disk in the same manner that water is forced to follow the plunger 
of a pump. 

" But the pull which can be thus exerted by the disk is limited. 
At a little depth beneath the surface of the water, if the tension 
exceeds 15 pounds per square inch (one atmosphere) , the surfaces 
of the disk and adjacent water are torn asunder, and a cavity is 
formed between them." 

Mr. Barnaby believes that this effect is certainly making swift 
propellers less efficient than they ought theoretically to be. He 
says in closing : 

"That cavitation will be the cau.se of trouble in the future is, I 
think, certain. Already it is becoming difficult to obtain the re- 
quisite area in screws of destroyers without either resorting to an 
abnormal width of blade, or to a larger diameter and pitch ratio 
than would otherwise have been preferable. The one expedient 
gives undue surface friction, and the other necessitates a reduc- 
tion in the rate of revolution, and therefore a heavier engine. 
The fact that the designer of the Turbinia has been forced, 
doubtless against his will, to employ nine screws in order to avoid 
cavitation, is an evidence of its influence." 



SCIENCE BREVITIES. 

The Omnipresent Germ. — "A new and startling discoverj' ha.s recently- 
been made that threatens the lives 01 school children, authors, and printers," 
says Modern Medicine. "Leading bacteriologists of Berlin and Leipsic 
have discovered by investigations that our ordinary inks 'literally teem 
with bacilli of a dangerous character, the bacteria taken therefrom sufficing 
to kill mice and rabbits inoculated therewith in the space of from one to 
three days.' The germ seems to be no respecter of persons or things." 

"A German chemist," says Merck's Report., "has prepared a fluid that has 
the power, when injected into the tissue of a plant near its roots, of anes- 
thetizing the plant. The plant does not die, but stops growing, maintaining 
its fresh, green appearence, tho its vitality is apparently suspended. It is 
also independent of the changes in temperature, the most delicate hothouse 
plants continuing to bloom in the open. The composition of the fluid is 
shrouded in the greatest secrecy, but it is said to have a pungent odor and 
to be colorless." 

"Practically all the results of experiments," says The Electrical World., 
December 18, "have so far pointed to the truth of the hypothesis that 
Roentgen rays differ from ordinary light rays and other manifestations of 
radiant energy only in the item of wave-length. The supposition that they 
are radiations of almost inconceivable frequency of vibration, and having a 
wave-length many times less than that of violet light, is a competent ex- 
planation of most of the phenomena due to them, leaving their remarkable 
action in discharging electrified bodies and certain other as yet dimly com- 
prehended actions for further explanation." 

"It is curious to reflect," says The Electrical Engineer, \sonAox\, "that 

many of our so-called modern inventions have been invented long before 
and forgotten, but that this is so many authorities can vouch. We are so 
constantly hearing of them that they pass almost unnoticed, and our rev- 
elry in the newness of them remains undisturbed. An author writing on 
this subject in an evening contemporary a short time ago referred to an 
early discovery of the electric telegraph, which may have escaped the no- 
tice of many of our readers. Arthur Young was on a visit to Mr. Lomond, 
at Pans, in October, 1787, when he saw what he describes as something 
very remarkable. He says: ' You write two or three words— Mr. Lomond 
takes them with him to his room and turns a machine which is enclosed in 
a cylindrical case. A wire connects it with a similar cylinder and electrom- 
eter in a distant apartment. His wife stationed there, by remarking the 
corresponding motions of a ball, writes down the words they indicate. 
Length of wire makes no difference in the effect.' Mr. Young does not go 
into details, probably for the very reason that they were beyond him, but 
it is somewhat remarkable that, considering how much we know of Mr. 
Lomond as a savant of his time, we have no other record of his discovery. 
The Revolution was responsible for a good many things, and perhaps the 
forgetfulness of this invention must be attributed to the same disturbing 
element." 



Vol. XVI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



79 



THE RELIGIOUS WORLD. 



THE ARMENIAN PEOPLE AND CHURCH. 

1 T is not as well known as it might be how entirely the contin- 
■'- ued existence of the Armenian people depends upon the con- 
tinuance of the Armenian Church. If the Armenian Church 
should cease to exist, the Armenians, as a separate people, would 
cease to exist also. This, at least, is the explanation made by a 
native Armenian, Mr. Minas Tcheraz, professor at King's Col- 
lege, London, in Le Museoji (Paris, October) . The professor 
also describes at some detail what the Armenian Church is and 
in what respects it differs from other Christian churches. After 
pointing out the excellence of the Armenian version of the Bible, 
which has been called by competent critics "the queen of all ver- 
sions," the admirable liturgy of that church, the fine poetical 
quality and spirituality of its hymns, he proceeds thus : 

"It is Christianity, become the national church, which has pre- 
served the Armenian nationality. Without that, the Armenians' 
would have been absorbed in Mazdeism, or Zoroastrianism, and 
later on in Islamism, for, in that nest of religions which is called 
the Orient, it is religion which produces nationality, and the 
various peoples are only religious communities. This is why the 
Armenians, especially since they have lost their political inde- 
pendence, are displeased by attempts to detach the faithful from 
their church. Surrounded at the present time by orthodoxy. 
Catholic and Protestant, each of which wishes to draw within its 
fold this martyr church, they think it their duty to preserve 
strictly the status quo, because tbey would be unable to satisfy 
the three churches at once, and because their church is the last 
asylum of their nationality. They possess a national church, just 
as they possess a national language and literature and alphabet, 
a national era and history, a national music and architecture, and 
they do not wish to sacrifice all these to the national characteris- 
tics of more numerous peoples. For them number does not con- 
stitute merit and human civilization owes more to microscopic 
Greece than to colossal China. They have a high idea of their 
mission in Asia, and M. Felix Neue did not in the least exagger- 
ate when he wrote these lines : ' By a double phenomenon which 
is rare in history, the Armenian people, strong by an admirable 
fidelity to their character and to their faith, have survived wars 
and revolutions which have decimated them : they possess in 
their literary and liturgical idiom a sign of their vitality and a 
pledge of their perpetuity. It is not difficult to believe that they 
will be called on some day to take part in the regeneration of 
Asia. ' 

"The foreign missionaries who find it convenient to preach 
Christianity to the faithful of a church almost contemporaneous 
with Christ, should not forget that their first duty is not to weaken 
in any respect the position of a church which is carrying on a 
daily warfare with the powerful religion of Islam. Blessed be 
the church which will undertake to propagate among the Chris- 
tians of Armenia, not this or that form of Christianity, but that 
instruction and that education which render a people capable of 
reconciling respect for the past with the demands of the spirit of 
the age. From this point of view the American College at Con- 
stantinople does better service than those who lose their time in 
preaching Puritan simplicity to the brilliant imagination of our 
Oriental people. 

"The Armenian Church belongs to the Church of the Orient 
and its rites do not differ much from those of the Greek Church ; 
but it is completely autonomous and is governed by its own 
deacons, priests, and bishops, whose sacerdotal vestments are 
like those of the Greeks and Latins. It has a special hagiography . 
which covers the entire ecclesiastical year. It has a special 
ritual, a special missal, a special breviary, a special hymnal. It 
admits seven sacraments, but administers extreme unction to 
ecclesiastics only. It recognizes neither penance nor indulgences, 
and administers the communion with unleavened bread and wine 
without water. It celebrates Easter at the time fixed by Chris- 
tians before the Council of Nice, and the Nativity and Epiphany 
on the 6th of January. It prescribes fasting on Wednesdays and 
Fridays and has a period of Lent and a series of saints which are 
all its own. It believes that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the 



Father. It is not Eutychian, because it professes explicitly the 
dogma of two natures, two wills, and two operations in Jesus 
Christ. It rejects the Council of Chalcedon, which declared the 
Patriarch of Constantinople and the Bishop of Rome the heads of 
the Christian Church. This is not a question of dogma, but a 
question of jurisdiction. Its conduct in this respect is guided 
by a feeling of personal preservation and is dictated by the ne- 
cessities of its situation. As long as Armenia has no political in- 
dependence, the Armenians can not, without danger, recognize 
the Council of Chalcedon. That is a rampart which separates the 
Armenians from the Greek or Russian Church. If they abandon 
it, nearly half of the Armenian nation, which lives under the 
Muscovite rule, would easily be absorbed in the Russian Church 
and nationality. The condition of servitude in which the Arme- 
nians are equally prevents them from introducing reforms into 
their church, the popular character of which allows them to ac- 
cept without opposition improvements desired by the faithful. 

"These are nearly all the differences which separate the Arme- 
nian Church from other churches. It has its reasons for maintain- 
ing these differences, and it hopes that other churches will be as 
tolerant of it as it is tolerant of its sisters. 

"Another glory of the Armenian Church is its democratic spirit. 
It puts no obstacle in the way of the faithful reading and studying 
of the Bible. It employs in the mass the ceremony of cordial salu- 
tation, which the faithful render to each other 'with the kiss of 
holiness. ' 

"Its deacons and its priests, who are allowed to marry, live by 
the voluntary offerings of their flocks, and the high clergy, who 
alone are required to be celibate, receive a salary which is a very 
modest sum. No one has to pay a certain rent, as in some civil- 
ized churches, for a seat in church ; every Christian is received 
there gratuitously, and rich and poor kneel side by side before 
the Eternal. The clergy, from the humblest deacon to the su- 
preme Patriarch, are chosen by the free-will of the ecclesiastics 
and the laity. In the middle of the consecration of a candidate 
the bishop stops to ask the congregation if the candidate is worthy 
to receive orders. If a single individual declares that the candi- 
date is not worthy, the consecration is suspended, and if the ob- 
jector proves his assertion to the bishop, the candidate is set aside 
on the spot. It may be said in all conscience that the Armenian 
clergy are the servants and not the masters of the church. 

"Such is the Armenian Church, venerable by its antiquity, 
proud of its orthodoxy, and glorious in the purple mantle of its 
martyrdom. Every stone of this sanctuary is cemented by the 
tears and the blood of its persecuted children. The sentinel of 
civilization and the advance guard of Christianity, the Armenian. 
Church has bravely done iits duty on the confines of the Oriental 
world. It has survived the attacks of Mazdeism and Islamism, 
as it has survived the attacks of Christians who do not understand 
liberty of conscience, and, in the midst of the sorrowful and pain- 
ful crisis it is passing through at this moment, it sends a paternal 
salutation to all pious souls." — Translated Jor The Literary 
Digest. 



SPIRITUALISM AND THE DEVIL. 

A RECENT French writer on hypnotism and allied phenom- 
ena, in enumerating the various explanations of these 
phenomena in general vogue, found it necessary to include prom- 
inently what he called the orthodox Catholic theory that they 
were due to the direct agency of the devil. That this belief is a 
real one and must be reckoned with, is shown by the following 
passage from a recent sermon by Cardinal Vaughan in London. 
Said the cardinal : 

"You are present, we will suppose, at some seance, where 
table-turning and table-rapping is going on. You ask a number 
of questions, the table replies. It raps three times for 'Yes' and 
twice for 'No. 'and follows a regular code of signals. Now, 
either the whole thing is a delusion and a snare — a piece of trick- 
ery and humbug — and then, if it professes to be anything else, 
no one should encourage it — or else the answers are sensible, true, 
and according to fact, and then we can not attribute them to a 
lifeless object such as a table, which has no sense nor intelligence; 
but must put it down to spirits, to disembodied and invisible in- 
telligences — in a word, to the agency of Satan." 

Li^ht, a London spiritualistic newspaper, which quotes this 



80 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jau. 15, 1898 



passage (December iS), does not object to the cardinal's ascrip- 
tion of the phenomena to the agency of "disembodied and invisi- 
ble intelligences," but it regards him as taking a very illogical 
leap when he says that these must be diabolical. Not that there 
are no evil spirits at all : 

"Let us assure him at once that we are not among the unbe- 
lievers [in the devil or devils]. Our difficulty is that we know 
not where to stop. We agree with the preacher that their name 
is Legion, and we should perhaps find some where he would 
never think of looking for them ; for we should not confine our 
gaze to the spirit-world. But, on the other hand, we should not 
look in directions that seem familiar to him. His devils, he says, 
'are made up of those rebel angels who were hurled out of heaven 
for refusing to obey God. ' 

"These rebels, he says, were 'hurled out of heaven,' we pre- 
sume into hell, 'prepared for the devil and his angels,' we are 
told. And yet these 'malicious spirits' seem to be always here. 
'They retain their spiritual form ; they are still clever, intelligent, 
subtle, and by nature more than a match for the wisest and clev- 
erest man' ; moreover, 'they are ever seeking, by every means in 
their power, to gain an influence over us, to drag us into sin, and 
to plunge us finally into hell.' This is all very difficult. Have 
these fallen angels escaped from hell ? If so, why does not God 
capture and confine them? It all seems amazingly chaotic. In 
truth, we are driven to ask : And what is our Heavenly Father 
doing all this while? Why does He permit only devils to get at 
us? Why does He expose us to such a horribly unfair conflict 
with unseen antagonists ? 

"The real truth is that beneath all this belief in the omnipres- 
ence and activity of the devil there is a latent unbelief in God. 
This priest sees the devil everywhere ; we see God. We see, 
indeed, also a perilous array of evil forces and evil beings ; but it 
is rank infidelity to say that they are dominant, that they press 
upon us to the exclusion of the forces of God. It may seem 
strange to this preacher to tell him that his unbelief in God 
shocks us ; but it is true." 



is a giant task which may well challenge and inspire some of our 
younger theologians. This broad-minded age welcomes every- 
thing new in thought which justifies itself; but its breadth surely 
will be found to cover also the old truths when they are set in 
new lights. There is something in Calvinism which is true and 
must be potent of good." 



IS CALVINISM DEAD? 

REV. DR. JOSEPH D. BURRELL, of Brooklyn, finds oc- 
casion for an argument on this subject in a recent statement 
made by a minister of Boston to the effect that the chief doctrines 
taught by the great Genevan are no longer held except in a formal 
way by any body of Christian believers. Dr. Burrell contends 
that, in all its essential principles, Calvinism is as much a living 
force now as at any time in the past. He says ( The Observer, 
New York) : 

"It is true that ministers no longer preach the doctrine of the 
damnation of infants, if they ever did, which is doubtful. Nor 
does reprobation appear in modern sermons. But these are not 
essential Calvinism. Its constructive principle, the sovereign 
grace of God, is the presupposition of every sermon. 'Every 
man is a Calvinist when he prays. ' 

"The mystery of divine election, which is an unescapable corol- 
lary of the truth of God's sovereignty, can not be utterly obsolete 
while Paul's interpretation of Christianity has force. The en- 
deavor to make all of Paul's words refer to national rather than 
individual election, is not considered successful bj' Sanday and 
Headlam, the latest commentators on Romans. 

"Moreover, men will theologize to the end of time, and it is 
inconceivable how any one can construct a system of thought 
concerning the universe of which we are a part, without having 
as a foundation the truth of the sovereignty of God. President 
Roswell Hitchcock said : ' As long as there are thinking men there 
will be Calvinists. ' 

"This is strikingly corroborated by the modern philosophies. 
The cosmology of Huxley, Spencer, and John Fiske is nothing 
else than a Calvinistic interpretation of the world and its life in 
terms of science. 

"No. Calvinism is not dead. Its constructive ])rinciple is 
worked into all our thought. It is only the form in which the 
truth has been stated in the past that needs readjustment. As 
President Patton said in his Pittsburg address, we want an inter- 
pretation of Calvinism in terms of the thought of to-dav. That 



A HINDU'S VIEW OF CHRIST. 

"T^HE Swami Vivekananda has been succeeded in America as 
■*• lecturer on Vedanta philosophy by the Swami Abheda- 
nanda. The latter's views concerning Christ are given at some 
length in the form of an interview in The Sun (New York, De- 
cember 26) . Incidentally, in maintaining the theory that Christ 
was a yogi, and that any one of us may become such as He was. 




SWAMI ABHEDANANDA. 

the Swami advances the thought that Abraham Lincoln also 
was, "to a considerable extent," a yogi. We quote from the in- 
terview : 

"To understand Christ one must understand the Hindu concep- 
tion of the soul and the universe, for Christ, altho a Jew by race, 
was in every fiber of His character a Hindu or Vedantist, and 
when the Christian looks at his Savior from the Hindu jjoint of 
view he will not only get a more beautiful and sublime conception 
of Christ, but he will receive a much better opinion of himself 
and his fellow men. All that Christ did and said will become 
vastly more interesting to him, for he can himself confidently 
hope some day to become a Christ. The beauty of the Vedanta 
view of Christ is to be able to realize from experience that you 
and I and all of us will some day, on this very earth, clothed in 
blood and flesh, l)ecome Christ, for in every one of us is the pure 
and sublime soul that shows forth from Him on the Mount of 
Transfiguration. It needs only to be set free, to connect itself 
with this cosmic intelligence that stands behind and directs, 
evolves, and projects all these gross forms of matter that we see. 
In every one of us is a spark of this universal intelligent energy 
that is moving toward freedom. In Christ, in Buddha, and in 
many of our Hindu sages this cosmic energy was set free. 

"What do we see in ourselves? First, the body, then behind it 



Yol. XVI., No. 3J 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



81 



the mind, and behind that something that is conscious of them 
both. One can by effort separate all three of them in such a 
manner as to see their difference. The mind is tied to the body 
and the soul or self to the mind. The body dies, for all forms of 
matter are changing. The soul departs and takes the mind with 
it, and again they incarnate themselves. This goes on till some 
day the mind is able to renounce its passions and desires for the 
world, and the soul is free to direct it. 

"This soul, or cosmic consciousness behind everything, is able 
to manifest itself in man more freely than in anything else, be- 
cause of the more nearly perfect form of his mind and body. It 
is all along the line evolving toward him and through him to 
freedom. But not in the sense of changing its nature; it never 
does that. Hence the reason for the evolution of all animal life, 
and the Vedanta philosophy has been sustained or confirmed by 
the system of evolution. Every law and fact yet embodied in 
material science corroborates Vedanta. 

"In a perfect man like Christ the mind stuff has been purified, 
culminated in the absolute renunciation of all earthly desires. 
He was able to connect his own soul with the cosmic soul or God, 
and he then exclaimed: 'I and my father are one.' When a 
Vedantist reaches that state he says : '1 am Brahman ' ; when a 
Mohammedan Sufi reaches that state he says : 'I am He. ' Every 
perfect man realizes that he is a part of this universal intelligence 
which we call God or Brahman, and when he is able to make the 
connection with it through his purified mind he partakes of its 
omnipresence, omniscience, and omnipotence." 

If a minute history of India for the last six thousand years could 
be written, we are assured that" there would be descriptions of 
many miracles performed by the sages as remarkable as any cred- 
ited to Christ. After laying some stress on the dissimilarity be- 
tween the Old and New Testaments, a dissimilarity amounting 
to antagonism at many points, the Swami continues : 

"Schopenhauer says the New Testament must be traced in a 
certain way to Indian sources, and the connection can be shown. 
Asoka. the Buddhist Emperor of India, some 260 n.c, sent Bud- 
dhist missionaries to every part of the known world, as stone 
tablets still testify. These missionaries preached in Palestine on 
down till near the birth of Christ. They left their impress upon 
the countr3\ 

" It is most probable that Jesus got His inspiration to begin 
with from this source. We know but little of Him until He was 
thirty years of age. Not till then did He realize His own true 
nature, else He would have been heard of sooner 

"The New Testament is full of suggestions of practises by 
which Hindus have become sages. Witness the long meditations 
of Christ, His prayers. His long fasts, and those of His disciples. 
His sufferings and resignation at His death are conclusive testi- 
mony that He was a human being with a soul, as you and I are, 
but whose soul was laboring and succeeded in throwing off His 
mind and body and joining itself to that larger soul that is mani- 
festing itself so grandly throughout the universe. 

" In the last hours of His life he retired and prayed three times : 
'If it be thy will. Father, remove this cup.' He saw with all the 
terrors His approaching ignominious death, to be inflicted in the 
most cruel manner. From His first prayer He could not sum- 
mon the couralge to face such a painful death. Why? Because 
He could not control His mind. He could not entirely withdraw 
the senses from the body. He could not detach His soul from 
His mind. In the second prayer he failed. But after the third 
prayer He became resigned. 'It is thy will.' He had now 
reached the state of mind known to Hindus as samahdi or super- 
consciousness, and there was no pain for Him on the cross. The 
nails driven into His hands and feet excited no more sensi- 
bility than they would if driven into so much wood. Painters 
have sometimes painted His face on the cross as showing 
great anguish, but the life and resignation of the Man deny this 
idea. 

" It is well to explain briefly what is meant by the control of the 
senses as illustrated in the case of Christ. A friend of mine in 
London not long since went to see a Spaniard who claimed to 
have mastered the control of his senses. The Spaniard agreed to 
submit himself to a thorough scientific test. A doctor drove a 
needle between the nail and flesh of his thumb. The Spaniard 
did not wince, but went on laughing and talking to his friends. 
After some minutes he was requested to relax his mind. Of 



course when he did so he was seized with the most excruciating 
pain and blood began to run from the wound. 

"In India one of our great sages, Chaitanga, went to another 
sage for instruction. 'Canyon control your senses?' Chaitanga 
was asked. 'Test me,' he replied. The sage then put some 
powdered sugar upon Chaitanga's tongue. 'Hold it there for 
five minutes and I will believe you.' Chaitanga held it ten min- 
utes and blew it off as dry as ever. 

" But this is only the first step to the state of the mind of Christ 
reached when crucified. An incident in the life of one of our 
great sages in India is a parallel case. This sage, when walking 
along the road outside of a city, fell into the hands of a band of 
robbers. The robbers took the sage for a spy and chopped off 
his right arm with a sword. He quickly walked back toward the 
city, the blood pouring from the stub. He met a kind-hearted 
Brahmin on the way, who recognized him at a glance, and fell at 
his feet and bandaged the wound. But the sage was hardly 
aware that he had been wounded. His countenance glowed with 
deep calmness and tranquillity. He had not only withdrawn his 
senses, but he had shut his soul entirely in from his mind. Other 
sages have been chopped to pieces uttering the declaration all the 
while that they could not be killed." 

What, then, is the significance of Christ's death? Christ fore- 
saw, we are told, that Plis life and death would fix the minds of 
other men upon Him, and this act of concentration would help 
them to realize, as He realized, the divine nature within us all — 
our oneness with God. It is by such concentration of the mind 
that one is able to separate the soul from the mind and free it 
from the bondage of matter. Christ again and again enjoined 
upon His disciples prayer and meditation, and the fact that some 
of them saw Closes and the prophets in the scene of transfigura- 
tion shows that they also had learned to realize the divine in their 
natures. The interview closes as follows : 

"All the great spiritual leaders and all the great geniuses have 
to a certain extent been yogis, and many of them without know- 
ing the fact. From what I have heard, I believe your own great 
President Lincoln was to a considerable extent a yogi. He acted 
very much at times like an inspired man, and has been called so. 
He must have known how to commune with the cosmic spirit. 
And so there have been many others, and so many of us can 
become to-day with practise." 



RELIGIOUS NOTES. 

The Independent gives a table of the benevolent contributions of th«, 
Methodist body from 184010 1890, showing that the annual average for each 
of the five decades has advanced from 8io8,2go to $2,304,900; and the average 
per member, from 13 cents to $1.04. 

A SPE.\KER at a recent missionary convention held in Exeter Hall, Lon- 
don, said that less than one seventh part of Her Majesty's 350,000,000 sub- 
jects are Christians; 240,000,000 are in the darkness of heathenism, and 60,000,- 
000 in the partially lighted darkness of Mohammedanism. 

The Zionist journal. Die Welt, published at Vienna, announces that the 
scheme proposed ac Basle to establish a bank to assist Jews to emigrate to 
Palestine is to be put into effect, and that the seat of the bank will be in 
London. The capital of $10,000,000 is to be divided into shares of five dol- 
lars each. 

A Christian Science Temple was dedicated in Chicago November 14. 
Its cost, with the land, was $to8,ooo. and it is free from debt. At four suc- 
cessive meetings the same service was repeated, the audiences crowding 
the great auditorium. A dedicatory address was read at each service, 
written by the high priestess of the denomination, Mrs. Mary Baker Eddy. 
The substance of the address was that the e.xistence of evil is impossible, 
for God made all things, and all that He has made is gooii. Therefore sin. 
sickness, disease, and death are imaginary, and Christian Science frees 
those who believe in it from the delusion that these things exist. 

The Russian peasants settled along the Volga in the province of Astra- 
khan are in a state of intense excitement over the appearance of "Antichrist" 
in their midst. In a village near the mouth of the Volga a girl gave birth to 
an illegitimate son. The child was one of exceeding beauty, and at the 
time of his birth there raged a terrible thunder-storm the like of which the 
oldest inhabitant had never before experienced. In some unaccountable 
way the report got abroad that the child was "Antichrist." His entrance 
into the world was accompanied with all the manifestations which the Rus- 
sian peasants have been taught to look for at his coming. The girl had to 
fly with her child from the village, and has sought refuge somewhere on 
the pathless steppe. 



82 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



FOREIGN TOPICS. 



THE RIOTS IN PRAGUE. 

PRAGUE, the ancient capital of Bohemia, has been, as the 
cable has informed the world, the scene of serious riots. 
The Czechs, embittered by the partial success of the Germans, 
attacked the latter throughout the city, plundering stores and 
houses until the military forces cleared the streets. The consen- 
sus of opinion of Europe seems to be that the Czechs have as 
much right to agitate for national independence as any other 
race ; but that they estrange many of their friends by lawless 
actions. Women were beaten in the streets for the crime of 
speaking German, over eight hundred houses were plundered, 
hospitals attacked, and even the baby hospital was not excepted 
— tho most of its inmates are Czechs — because it is an adjunct to 
the German university. The Slavonian races are much dissatis- 
fied with the behavior of the Czechs, and disclaim all kinship. 
The Novosti, St. Petersburg, says ; 

''Moved by hatred against everything German, the mob did not 
attempt to repress its wild instincts. They did not act as mere 
rioters or mere plunderers; they became wild beasts. ... In 
vain the mob was told that the baby hospital contained chiefly 
infants of their own race. Its staff was German, that was enough. 
... At a private hospital an invalid seeking to propitiate the 
mob, appeared at a window. A volley of stones was hurled at 
him. . . . This mob has long been the recipient of Austrian char- 
ity and civilization, and its deeds appear all the worse when we 
remember thatit was led and managed by well-dressed agitators, 
who claim to be the representatives of Czech civilization." 

Much harm was averted by the timely discovery of a bomb 
placed in a German theater. The Prussian papers are not aston- 
ished at these excesses, which only remind them of the barbarities 
committed upon the Prussian wounded in i866. But, on the 
whole, there is an ardent desire in Germany to smooth over mat- 
ters. The Lokal Anzeiger, Berlin, says : 

"Altho the Czech races in the Dual Monarchy number only 
about 8,000,000, including the Bohemian Czechs, the Hannakes, 
Moravians, and Slovakians, they are numerically stronger than 
the Germans in Bohemia proper, and it can not but increase their 
national fanaticism that science, industry, trade, and capital are 
mostly in German hands. Moreover, Bohemia is surrounded by 
German territory, and is a favorable subject for Germanization. 
This must naturally rouse opposition in the Slavic race. In the 
battles of 1866 many Czechs lost their lives, which fact further 
increases Czech nervousness and suspicion. The Franco-German 
war aroused sympathies between the French and Czechs, which 
have been encouraged by the former. The House of Austria has 
often treated the Czechs with draconic rigor, confiscating their 
property, as in the rebellion of 1618-20. when many Bohemians 
emigrated to Brandenburg. The year 1848, with its revolution- 
ary upheavals, could not but raise the hopes of the Czechs. They 
opposed a Slavic movement to the German Nationalist movement, 
and Prague was the scene of bloody riots. 

" But the Czech movement is unable to preserve the sympathies 
of fair-minded persons, for their national aspirations are always 
subordinated to the desire for plunder. The. Russians regard this 
branch of their family with undisguised contempt, and the Poles, 
too, look upon them as inferiors. Since the Old Czech party has 
lost all influence, and the Radical Young Czechs lead the move- 
ment, all moderation has been thrown aside." 

The National Zeitung points out that the Czechs are continu- 
ally emigrating to Germany and the German provinces of Austria. 
Czechs who are possessed of energy, admits the paper, are thereby 
lost to their nationality ; but the absorption carried on in this 
way by the Germans is a peaceful and perfectly legitimate one, 
while the Czechs endeavor to strengthen the Slavic element by 
the wholesale annexation of districts inhabited by Germans. 

The Teplitzer Zeitung thinks the most disquieting phase of 



the riots was that the rioters ignored utterly the imperial author- 
ity. It says : 

"That excesses have taken place in Prague, that the mob plun- 
dered the Germans and the Jews— the latter without distinction 
of nationality— is not sufficiently unusual to cause comment. 
We are used to such things in Bohemia, altho it is going from 
bad to worse, and only Turkey reveals as great an insecurity of life 
and property." 

The Hungarians, who have jealously guarded their independ- 
ence since it has been obtained, and who talk occasionally of 
complete separation, nevertheless draw back a little now that in- 
ternal troubles seriously threaten the strength of Austria. The 
Pesti Hirlap, Budapest, says : 

"From Andrassy to Bauffy, influential Hungarian statesmen 
have always regarded the federalistic movement in Austria as 
dangerous. Badeni's experiments can not change this opinion, 
as the dissatisfaction of Hungary with the recent treatment of the 
Austrian Germans, and the pleasure at Badeni's fall, conclusively 
prove. Hungarian public opinion is now, as in 1867, that of 
Francis Deak and his brilliant group, who believed that dualism, 
founded upon German hegemony in Austria and Magyar hege- 
mony in Hungary, must be preserved. To-day as ever Hungary 
hopes that the Ausgleich [arrangement of the mutual expenses 
of both countries] will be settled under the auspices of the Ger- 
mans in Austria. " — Translations made J or The Literary Digest. 



A JUSTIFICATION OF OUR CUBAN POLICY. 

AS a rule, the Cuban policy of the United States is looked 
upon abroad as inspired by jingoism, unjustifiable desire 
for aggrandizement, and a want of knowledge of the condition of 
the island. Occasionally, however, we run across an article in 
which our attitude is explained satisfactorily. 

The Boer sen Zeitung, Berlin, explains that we could not, from 
a strictly business point of view, preserve strict neutrality. Our 
industry, our trade, our shipping are too closely bound up with 
the Pearl of the Antilles. The paper says : 

"Next to Spain and Great Britain, the United States is most 
interested in Cuban trade. Before the insurrection, the Ameri- 
cans used to send more than one thousand ships annually to Cuba. 
But more than 75 per cent, of the imports and 45 per cent, of 
the exports are sent via Havana, which is held by the Span- 
iards ; and the insurgents, who wish to ruin the port by prevent- 
ing its trade, and who have destroyed a large part of the plan- 
tations, have ruined also the trade of the Americans. At a time 
like the present, when it is difficult to open new markets, this 
must necessarily irritate the people of the United States. More- 
over, many Americans are interested in the telegraph lines, rail- 
roads, and other industrial enterprises of the island. Hence all 
ranks of the Americans are anxious for its welfare. The island 
also commands the Bahama channel, the Straits of Florida, 
the Straits of Yucatan, and the Windward Passage, the Gulf of 
Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, and the whole communication be- 
tween Europe, Mexico, and the Mississippi Valley. There is 
no reason to doubt that the American coasting trade would im- 
mensely benefit and that the trade with Cuba would increase 
enormously if the island belonged to the United States. The 
present high tariff in Cuba would certainly be abolished." 

The paper does not think that Spanish military ardor and abil- 
ity are as much at fault in Cuba as is generally supposed, for the 
following reasons : 

"Traversed through its entire length by a chain of mountains, 
the island has on each slope large tracts full of caves. The cli- 
mate being tropical, the entrance to these caves is generally hid- 
den by lianas and vines. Often they contain good water, and are 
connected with each other. People living in the neighborhood 
of these caves can easily hide in them and continue to harass the 
troops. Nor is the task of the troops easier in the lowlands. 
Here the ground is swampy and covered with creepers, many of 
which are poisonous. The stagnant waters of the swamps often 
look like meadows, but they are a delusion and a snare, fit only 



Vol. XYI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



83 



to breed fever and mosquitoes. Paths lead through the thickets 
and the swamp, but only the natives know where they end. A 
few hours in the swamp is often sufficient to cause death, just as 
in German East Africa. The insurgents, when retreating, cover 
their trails and are safe. In the healthy parts of the_ island they 
never attempt to attack the Spaniards." — Translated for The 
Literary Digest. 



HOW THE LIVES OF JAMESON AND HIS 
MEN WERE SAVED. 

WE find in the Ah'euius van den Dag. Amsterdam, a graphic 
description of one of the scenes resulting from the Jame- 
son raid, when the stern old Boers, discussing calmly the fate of 
Jameson and his band, determined to execute the leaders of the 
gay band at daybreak. Thej' were induced to change their mind 
only when their own leaders resorted to a parable in order to save 
the prisoners. We quote as follows : 

"When Jameson and his fellow officers had been forced to sur- 
render, a meeting of the Boer commanders took place in Presi- 
dent Kriiger's house. Some twenty were present, and the great 
majority, wild with indignation at the sudden inroad into their 
territory and the manifest attempt to rob them of their independ- 
ence, were for shooting the British officers right off, if not the 
men under their command. This, they thought, would be a 
wholesome warning to others. President Kriiger opposed this 
summary plan, and used all his eloquence, all his influence, to 
save the prisoners. For a long time his efforts were useless. At 
last General Joubert, one of the few who agreed with the Presi- 
dent, had recourse to the old-time Boer method of convincing his 
hearers: he made use of a parable. It was then four o'clock in 
the morning, the President's opponents were still for execution, 
and the life of the filibusters hung by a thread. General Joubert, 
however, said : ' Friends, will you not listen to my voice once 
more? Suppose that close to my farm lives a bad neighbor who 
keepeth fierce hounds in his house, worrying my sheep exceed- 
ingly, also killing some. What, then, would you have me do? 
Should I kill the hounds to be free of this worry? Truly, my 
neighbor would say unto me : 'Thou hast killed my hounds, yet 
their value is greater than the value of the sheep. Pay thou me ! ' 
Is it not better that I should take the hounds, and, going unto my 
neighbor's house, say: 'These are thine, now pay thou me for 
the harm they have done to my flock ?' There was silence and 
General Joubert continued : ' We have caught the pack. Is it not 
better to send them to the British Government with demands for 
reparation, lest the British send more hounds to worry us 
anew!'" And once more the Puritan mode of arguing was suc- 
cessful. The council of war accepted the advice of their chiefs." 
— Translated Jor The Literary Digest. 



THE FAR-EASTERN PRESS ON DEVELOP- 
MENT IN THE FAR EAST. 

LATEST advices are to the effect that the Son of Heaven has 
graciously consented to lease Kiao-Chau and adjacent ter- 
ritory to the ruler of the Teutons for a term of fifty years. A 
legal reason for the presence of the Germans has, therefore, been 
established. But that does not free Germany from the censure of 
the other nations. This censure is especially strong in Japan. 
Some people living in the far East nevertheless consider that 
Germany is justified in her course by the examples set by other 
nations. Some English papers published in China even welcome 
the Germans. 

The Ost-Asiatische Lloyd, Shanghai, declares that Germany 
has simply done on a very moderate scale what England, France, 
and Japan have done before, and Holland, Spain, and Portugal 
had done before them, that is, taken care that her industrial prod- 
uce shall not be shut out from the Asiatic markets altogether. 
The Celestial Empire, Shanghai, is not at all displeased. It 
says : 

"We are not averse to seeing the occupation of Kiao-Chau by 



Germany lead to the development of the natural resources of the 
great province of Shantung. This has generally been regarded 
as a poor province, and, indeed, there is much poverty in some 
parts of it, notably the regions bordering the Yellow River, which 
have suffered from flood and famine. Under a good government, 
however, the province might well prove a source of great wealth. 
. . . The people, altho nicknamed Kiva-tze, i.e.. 'Bumptious,' 
by their countrymen of other provinces, are admitted to be much 
more straightforward and honorable than most Chinese, as is 
becoming in the fellow provincials of Confucius and Mencius, 
whose ancient homes and whose graves are found within the 
borders of this province. . . . It is in the nature of poetic justice 
that such an anti-foreign governor as Li Pingheng should have 
been caught by this incident, and made the scapegoat of Imperial 
wrath. Had he been ever so friendly to foreign methods, he 
would hardly have been able in his time to have worked any such 
radical change as to have averted the attack and murder of the 
unfortunate priests, or prevented the landing of the Germans ; 
but, after his recent tirade against foreign schools, it is but just 
he should be made to note the superiority of the learning he 
despises." 

In Japan many people are deeply shocked at the proceeding of 
Germany, whose integrity was supposed to be too great to expect 
such a flagrant violation of international rights on her part. T/ie 
Japan Gazette. Yokohama, thought it probable, however, that 
England, France, Germany, and Russia had come to some un- 
derstanding in the matter, in view of the partitioning of Africa. 
But The Japan iJ^az'/ defends England against such imputations, 
and declares that such robbery is entirely foreign to British char- 
acter. "It is wearisome," adds Captain Brinkley, 

"to have to deal with a proposition so strangely lacking in dis- 
crimination. Africa's case is in no sense parallel with China's. 
In Africa the various powers already possessed colonies which 
were gradually expanding, and their mutual expansions threat- 
ened to result in collisions." 

The Japanese papers nearly all censure Germany's action as 
entirely unjust and unwarrantable. The Yorodzu Chuo, Tokyo, 
points to the annexation of Kiao-Chau as a "fine illustration of 
Christian principle. " The Jiji Shimpo compares Germany to a 
big bully coming to the bedside of his debtor, sword in hand, to 
demand payment of a small debt. The Nichi Nichi Shimbun 
fears Germany represents pretty much the entire West in her lack 
of morality. The M aitiic hi Shimbun Q2Xi'i,vi.'^ii^ Japan to increase 
her navy to be ready for possible future complications. There 
are, however, some Japanese papers that find explanation, if not 
excuse, for the action of Emperor William. The Nippon (we 
summarize from translations in The Mail), thinks Japan has 
sometimes acted in a similar tho not quite so gross a manner. 
The Chuo Shimbun says : 

" Four reasons combine to show that this is no sudden step on 
the part of Germany. She is anxious to cut into the trade monop- 
olized by England. She is trying to provide in the Orient diver- 
sions which will occupy the attention of rival states in Europe. 
She is weary of waiting for her share in the action regarding the 
Liao-Tung peninsula, in which she assisted France and Russia. 
Finally, the Emperor of Germany believes in the 'Yellow Dan- 
ger, ' and he is anxious to strike the first blow. Japan certainly 
is threatened as well as China, and she must join hands with 
England to protect herself." 

The Osaka Asahi t\\\viks it quite natural that Germany, in view 
of her rapidly increasing commerce, should desire a basis of oper- 
ations such as England, France, Russia, Spain, and even Portu- 
gal have, and that she should seize the present pretext to obtain 
such a base. The Tokyo Shimpo thinks nothing can ever wipe 
away Germany's disgrace, and calls upon the Japanese Govern- 
ment to defend China against the bullying Kaiser, as she de- 
fended Korea against China. The Shogyo Shimpo, however, 
forms a notable exception. It says in effect : 

The Japanese, in commenting upon the affair, should remember 
the heavy debt they owe Germany. From Germany Japan has 



84 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



borrowed her military organization, her medical system, a great 
part of her constitution, and her local government. When she 
conquered China her victory was largely due to German instruc- 
tion, and when she hears of the fame won by her medical men. 
her local government getting into satisfactory condition, and her 
representative institutions working well, this debt is continually 
recalled. Japan can only congratulate Germany, especially as 
the seizure of Kiao-Chau furnishes reasons for the permanent 
occupation of Wei-hai-Wei by the Japanese. 

The Hongkong China Mail \% disgusted that England should 
permit "a fledgling like Germany to reap benefits she has sown," 
and is confident that civilization in general and the progress of 
China in particular must be retarded if the Teuton is allowed to 
have his way. It adds : 

"The question now arises. Is Great Britain to be quietly 'left,' 
while youthful interlopers come in and take the cream of influence 
and strategic positions in the far East? . . . (ireat Britain has 
for many years treated China too much as a civilized nation, and 
the Chinese Government as a civilized factor in international poli- 
tics. Certain persons are of opinion that our leniency and fair 
dealing have placed us upon a plane much higher than that of 
any other nation. . . . Let us suppose for a moment that Hong- 
kong has passed from the control of Great Britain into that of 
Russia, France, or Germany. Would not the Chinese people and 
the Chinese Government soon discover the difference? This con- 
sideration does not appear to have occurred to the high authori- 
ties of Peking, nor to the British Minister. But it is one which 
might be more carefully considered than it has j-et been, both in 
connection with the concession on the Kowloon side, and as bear- 
ing upon any similar concession of territory or other privileges 
from the Chinese Government to China's best friend." 



INDUSTRIAL STRIFE IN ENGLAND. 

THE engineers' strike has not yet been settled in England. 
The railroad employees were prevented with difficulty 
from beginning a general strike just before Christmas. And if 
the cotton-spinners make good their threat to stop working rather 
than accept a reduction of five per cent. , their struggle may put 
all previous strikes in the shade. Meanwhile Germany, Belgium, 
and other Continental nations reap the benefits of British in- 
action, and American enterprise is laying the foundation for a 
competition which, tho comparatively small as yet, promises to 
become the most dangerous rival not only of English but of all 
European industries. 

The St. James' s Gazette puts the case in the main as follows : 

The unions concede graciously the right of the masters to em- 
ploy any man, whether he is a merpber of a union or not; but 
they decline to permit their members to work with non-union 
men. They further agree to allow their men to do piecework; 
but they decline to make allowances for efficiency. .Compare the 
two proposals side by side : 

Masters' Terms. Trade-Union's Terms. 

The prices to be paid for The prices, etc. , shall be fixed 

piecework shall be fixed by by mutual arrangement be- 

mutual arrangement between tween the employer and the 

the employer and the work- workmen who are to perform 

man who is to perjorm the the work. The Federation will 

work. The Federation will not countenance, etc., which 

not countenance any piecework will not allow their workmen. 

conditions which will not allow etc. 
an efficient workman to earn at 
least the wage at which he is 
rated. 

The masters will not demand more than forty hours overtime, 
at usual rates, during every four weeks. The union will not 
grant more than eighteen hours — a difference between a possible 
one and one-third hours a day and a possible three quarters of an 
hour — stupendous energy, this, at extra pay I The union insists 
that every man must be paid alike, if he is employed at all. The 
employers do not want to cast off their older servants, but keep 
them on at what their work may be worth. The employers wish 
to put their machines into the hands of the best men, and pay 



them accordingly. The union wants the masters to employ men 
for what they are called rather than for what they are. If we 
prefer efficiency in work and consideration for fellow workmen, it 
seems to us our support must go to the employers. The cham- 
pions of thamen are much readier to fight for generalities, like 
the "right of combination"; but the time has passed for these 
generalities. British law no longer allows British capitalists to 
tyrannize over British labor. 

As instances of the immense power exercised by the trades- 
unions in England we quote the following instances among many 
that are given : 

Two shipwrights, Flood and Taylor, did some work as iron- 
workers. This offended the boiler-makers, and they have been 
expelled from the shipyards — are not, in fact, permitted to obtain 
work, because any firm employing them risks a strike of its 
union men. 

A London firm had an apprentice working between two union 
men, all on similar machine tools. The apprentice was "inter- 
viewed" by these two men because he finished three heads (part 
of a stamp mill) in his day against their two each day. The lad, 
threatened with a broken head, consulted his father, who reported 
to the firm. The firm did not dare to proceed against the union 
men, but left them to do their minimum of work, and put the 
youngster, who was too honest to cheat them, on some other 
work. 

A heavy sole plate was being lowered through a narrow casing 
on board a vessel on the Clyde. The job could only be done at 
high water. It was begun an hour before stopping-time, but 
some hitch occurred, and it was but three fourths down when the 
5 : 30 whistle blew. A few more minutes would have completed 
the job, and the fitters were quite willing to finish it ; but the 
orders of the union were imperative, and they left, leaving the 
vessel in a precarious situation. 

It is recognized by most papers in England that such a condi- 
tion of affairs must necessarily affect the welfare of the empire. 
7 he Weekly Chronicle, Newcastle, a paper read chiefly by the 
middle classes in the north of England, reechoes the sentiments 
of hundreds of its contemporaries in the following : 

"Even the stern realities and still sterner future possibilities of 
foreign competition, however, have been unable to prevent the 
British workman from adopting a policy that is calculated to drive 
the trade of the country to foreign lands. . . . The modern 
trades-union ideal is a dead-level of uniformity, this level being 
computed and fixed, not by the skill and attainments of the high- 
est workman, but by the deficient acquirements and qualities of 
the lowest. The clever and the clumsy, the industrious and the 
idle, are mated by the new unionists, and the smart man must 
not do more work or earn more wages than the stupid and slip- 
shod, while the amount of industrial output is measured, not by 
the standard of the superior workman, but by that of the slowest 
and idlest. . . . 'One man, one machine,' is the cry in England 
now. But in America one man minds three or four machines. 
Here it is the boasted policy of the men to produce as little as 
possible; in America, Belgium, Germany, and France, it is rec- 
ognized that low production means low wages, and in their laud- 
able desire to improve their own condition the foreign workmen 
are wresting from us our old industrial and commercial suprem- 
acy. . . . Soon the Orientals of India, China, and Japan will 
enter the field against us; and, as the Chinese and Japanese par- 
ticularly are the most industrious and patient peoples under the 
sun, and can live for a year on what would be in the case of an 
English artisan a 'living wage' for a month, it is probable that 
before the new century is very old the British workman will find 
that in the struggle for existence he is neither the best nor the 
fittest to survive. . . . It is to be feared that the preparations we 
in England are now making for this contest are not such as to 
give us the best chance of success." 

The British public would view the struggle between employers 
and employed with greater equanimity if it were certain that the 
most deficient Briton is still superior to the average or even un- 
usually efficient foreigner. But the faith in this ancient English 
doctrine appears to be somewhat shaken. The Manchester com- 
mittee recently sent on a tour through the other countries of 



Vol. XVI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



85 



Europe to investigate industrial progress there, reported, accord- 
ing to the Manchester Guardian, to the following effect in the 
Municipal Council : 

The members of the committee, most of whom had never left 
their native shores before, were inclined to believe that industrial 
competition with England exists chiefly in the minds of alarmists. 
Alderman Higginbottom informed his hearers that, incredible as 
it may seem, forty-nine of the fifty electric stations they visited 
in France, Italy, Germany, and Austria had been built by people 
of these countries, yet they were the best he had ever seen. An- 
other alderman declared it was high time for Englishmen to im- 
prove their professional and general knowledge. He went so far 
as to say that an English workman stood, on the average, as far 
beneath his German comrade as a painted savage beneath civi- 
lized man. Another declared that Englishindustrials would willy- 
nilly be forced to follow their despised German competitors in the 
practise of educating their sons for real work. At present the 
young Englishman is satisfied with football honors, while such 
technical schools as exist in England can not obtain suflficient 
pupils. 

The defenders of the trades-unions offer no new arguments. 
Competition for first place in efficiency can not well be granted 
by the unions, they think. The IVesttnznster Gazette says : 

"It is very easy to say that 'no employer shall be restricted in 
employing any workman at any rate of wages mutually satisfac- 
tory to them both,' or that alterations, restrictions, and exten- 
sions of the rules governing employment shall be by 'mutual 
agreement between the employer and the individual workman. ' 
' I don't compel him to take what I offer, ' says the employer. ' If 
he does not like my terms he is not bound to take the job. As 
for the conditions on which I choose to work my machines, they 
are my business and nobody else's. ' . . . Yet how does it look to 
the individual workman? Why, that the entire principle of sell- 
ing his labor, for which he has been contending since the begin- 
ning of the century, upon which he has relied to render his posi- 
tion tolerable in dealing with the power of capital, and which by 
painful steps he has caused to be recognized in law — is at one 
stroke cut from under his feet, while the employer remains with 
a powerful combination at his back. 'How,' argues the work- 
man, 'can I, as an individual, deal on tolerable terms with my 
employer, while I stake the whole of the wages which support 
wife and child on the refusal ... of his terms, whereas he stakes 
nothing, or something infinitesimal, by my refusal to work for 
him?' When he reads the 'absolutely final' terms of the master- 
engineers it seems to him that he is being sent back sixty years — 
to the day before trades-unions, when the right of the master to 
do what he would with his own was tempered chiefly by the power 
of the workman to wreck his factory or assault his person." 



HOW ASIATICS SHOULD BE TREATED. 

OF all the nations possessing Asiatic colonies, none have been 
more successful in establishing order and insuring peace 
than the Dutch. Wherever the natives have been subjugated 
under the rule of Holland, remarkably cordial relations exist be- 
tween the conquerors and the conquered. This is said to be 
largely due to the efforts of the Dutch press, which ceaselessly 
preach that natives must be judged by their individual merit 
rather than by their rank and the ancient customs of their race. 
The Handelsblad, Amsterdam, acknowledges that this is up-hill 
work, for the European conqueror is much inclined to be arro- 
gant. But the work is progressing sufficiently to warrant the 
hope that race prejudice will vanish under the Dutch tricolor. 
We quote as follows : 

"Private persons and officials regard the native in a manner 
very different to-day from their attitude of thirty or forty years ago. 
Then corporal punishment was ordered for ever so slight a mis- 
demeanor, and the European residents followed the example of 
the administration. Scolding, swearing, and beating were re- 
garded as the best means to keep the 'lazy niggers' in order. 
That sort of thing is no longer countenanced, just as the use of 
tho cane in our schools has been abandoned since the teachers 



have discovered better method to stimulate their pupils. Our 
officials in India have not all learned to treat the natives justly, 
any more than all our teachers know how to exercise moral sua- 
sion. But rude officials are certainly not encouraged, and they 
are censured strongly by public opinion even in the colonies." 

The paper then quotes a case in point from its numerous corre- 
spondence on the subject to the following effect : 

"The son of a native regent, educated at a Dutch high school, 
was at home during his vacation. At school he did not in any 
way stand below his European competitors, and his behavior was 
excellent. During the vacation his father was visited by a Euro- 
pean merchant, who did not fail to inquire after the health of the 
son. The latter, being called, approached the visitor in Javanese 
fashion — on his knees. But the Hollander said laughingly: 
'Come, come, boy, surely you don't have to act that way to me. 
We know each other too well ! ' He insisted upon the j-oung man 's 
taking a seat at his side after the European fashion. A little 
while after a Dutch high official appeared, shook hands with all 
present, and entered into conversation. A little later an official 
of much lower rank appeared, and he, imbued with an enormous 
sense of his own importance, treated the young Javanese with 
contempt. He took care, however, to wait until the other two 
gentlemen had departed. What a funnj- idea this official must 
have of 'prestige' and how it is to be gained ! Mei> who thus at- 
tempt to raise themselves make themselves ridiculous in the eyes 
of their superiors as well as the natives, and we fully agree with 
our Indian correspondents who think 'such behavior is unsuited 
to the spirit of the times.' Sensible, well-bred officials do not act 
in this way. and we wish that, for the sake of our prestige, they 
were all sensible and well-bred." — Translated Jor The Liter- 
ary Digest. 



FOREIGN NOTES. 

Somewhat late, the Russian government organs publish the number of 
persons who lost their lives during the stampede on the Chodynsky Fields, 
at the time of the coronation of Czar Nicholas II. There were i,42g vic- 
tims, according to official count. 

The Paris police have informed their Berlin colleagues of the discovery 
of an "export business" in German babies. An agent obtains the children 
in Berlin and sells them to childless Parisian couples. The fellow escaped 
arrest in Paris, but his description has been furnished to the Berlin au- 
tliorities, who are on the lookout for him. 

Prince Mohammed Ali, brother of the Khedive of Egypt, is said to be 
in love with an American. He will be permitted to marry the girl of his 
choice if the Khedive has a son born to him. Otherwise Prince Ali must 
choose a partner among the ladies of his own rank for the sake of the suc- 
cession. The fact that princes who are willing to become commoners are 
getting so numerous seems to indicate that the king business isn't what it 
used to be. 

There is an ancient superstition among the nobles of the Alt-Mark, in 
Prussia, that if any of them is raised to an earldom, his family dies out in 
the next generation. Bismarck feared for a long time that this would hap- 
pen in his case About two years ago, however, his second son, Wilhelm, 
became the father of a boy. Since then Graf Herbert, the old Chancellor's 
eldest son, has also had a son, and so the direct succession of the earldom 
seems to be assured beyond the second generation. 

The death otthe Duchess of Teck leaves the Duke with a very small in- 
come, for the $2o,ooo granted to the Duchess as a princess royal reverts to 
the state. A grant will probably be asked for, and the English press will 
probably complain that the British people are made to keep a German 
"pauper prince." The Duke's epidermis is said to be rather thick in this 
respect. Henry of Battenberg was much more thin-skinned. It is said 
that the taunts hurled at him killed him. 

The craxe for mementos, so aptly ridiculed by Mark Twain in his "In- 
nocents Abroad," sometimes is attended by disagreeable consequences. 
An English doctor was recently sentenced to two weeks' imprisonment for 
cutting off a tassel in the palace of Herrenchiemsee. The Abend-Zeitung, 
Augsburg, remarks on this: "The culprit did not at all make a bad im- 
pression ; but the people of Prieu can not be blamed for enforcing the law 
when any one is caught red-handed despoiling the palace. Only recently 
a golden lilj' was cut from a valuable piece of tapestry by some person 
who did not mind ruining the property for the sake of a memt nto." 

The International Ilureau of the Postal Union in Paris has published the 
income and expenses of the different postal services for 1896. The United 
States, it appears, still has to pay out more than it receives on this account. 
The income was about $80,000,000, the e.xpenses $90,000,000. All other 
countries profit. The German post-office netted $97,000,000, and expended 
$94,000,000. Great Britain fared still better. Her post-offices took in $57,- 
000,000, and the expenses were only $40,000,000. For France the figures were 
$45,000,000 and $37,000,000 ; in Russia $32,000,000 and $23,000,000; in Austria 
$23,000,000 and $21,000,000. The enormous extent of the United States and 
the low rate for second-class matter are thought to be responsible for her 
postal deficit. 



86 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



MISCELLANEOUS. 




THE G. O M. 



MAKING FORTUNES OUT OF HAND- 
SHADOWS. 

ANEW profession, or "art," has just been developed in Eng- 
land. The hand-shadows so often used to quiet and enter- 
tain restless children on a stormy day are now making fortunes 
for two professional entertainers in London, one at Egyptian 
Hall, Piccadilly, the other at the Crystal Palace. Bernard Miller 

tells us about them 
in The Stratid 
Magazine (Jan- 
uary) , and numer- 
ous illustrations are 
given, some of 
which we repro- 
duce. These illus- 
trations are from 
the first photographs 
of shadow - pictures 
that have been suc- 
cessfully made, as 
"the entertainment is one that does not favor the camera." 

Most of the shadow pictures are in continual motion, a feature 
-which appeals strongly to Piccadilly and Crystal Palace audi- 
ences. The operator first displays the simple shadow of a pair of 
hands and the spectator then sees every movement in the opera- 
tion of making dogs, birds, prominent people, and funny situa- 
tions. Some of the scenes are progressive, and it is really no 
small task for the operator to keep two dogs fighting, or represent 
a young lady before the glass, or picture an interrupted serenade, 
without making some false move that will destroy the illusion. 
Many of the portraits, also, are transformation portraits, one 
changing into another in sight of the audience, but so slowly that 
the various motions are distinct and can be followed easily by 
the keen-eyed. "There is a certain appropriateness, " says Mr. 
Miller, "in the G. O. M. swiftly giving place to Lord Salisbury. 
Only, in this case, one can see at a glance how it is all done ; 
there is no diplomatic concealment." Mr. Miller describes the 
paraphernalia as follows : 

" The apparatus is not elaborate — merely a powerful arc light of 
2, oofj candle-power, whose beam passes through a small circular 
opening on to a sheet of ticket-writer's holland. Occasionally 
some little property — a pipe, a piece of cardboard, or what-not — 
is used for adventitious effect ; but for the most part the 'artist' 
uses his hands simply and solely. What is more, the arc lamp 
can be dispensed with, and almost equally amusing results pro- 
duced by the aid of a clothes-horse, a sheet, and a candle. If an 
oil lamp is used, care must be taken to turn it so that the edge of 
the flame is toward 
the sheet ; otherwise 
the shadow will lie 
blurred and hazy." 

These shadow- 
artists actually make 
their preliminary 
studies from living 
models and practise 
patiently and per- 
sistently to bring 
out the fine points 
that make the shad- 
ow characteristic. On one occasion, M. Trewey was observing 
a handsome bull. "The bull resented the whole business." says 
Mr. Miller, "and charged. lie charged far more heavily than 
an ordinary human model would, so that what with damaged 




1,01<U ^^Al.ISIiUKY UN llIK Al.KKl. 



clothes and person, and shattered camera, M. Trewey found the 
bull a costly sitter." Mr. Miller continues : 

" These shadowgraphists have pupils. Fathers of large families 
pay Mr. Uevant eight guineas for a course of ten lessons in the 
art, that they may amuse their wives and offspring during the 
long winter evenings. Mamma cuts out and hems the sheet, 
while daddy gesticulates strangely in the endeavor to portray 
new figures of his own invention. M. Trewey 's most interesting 
pupil was an enterprising dentist, who wanted to learn shadow- 
graphy in order to beguile timid children while he removed their 
offending molars. Then clergymen take a few lessons that they 
may not be outshadowed, as it were, at parochial tea-parties by 
the efforts of amateur entertainers. Even lunatic asylum officials 
have been among Mr. Devant's pupils 

"Mr. Devant was on one occasion giving his shadowgraphic 
performance in the famous subterranean saloons at Welbeck 
Abbey [continues the writer] . and the Duchess of Portland was 
present with her pet dog on her knee. Now, one of the funniest 
of Mr. Devant's scenes depicts a quarrel between two big dogs, 
which are portrayed solely by the operator's own two palms. 
When at length these shadowy animals were depicted at it tooth 
and nail on the sheet. Her Grace's pet could no longer resist join- 
ing in the excitement. 'That little dog, ' remarked Mr. Devant, 
'howled and barked with all the vigor it could muster. Evidently 
it was backing one or other of the combatants, or perhaps it 
wanted to have a hand — or rather a tooth — in the fight. At any 
rate,' added the popular entertainer, 'I considered the incident 
one of the sincerest and most imique compliments 1 ever re- 
ceived." 

The young lady dressing for a party is one of the most laugha- 
ble of the shadow scenes. Mr. Miller says : 

"The lady is very much in earnest; evidently it is a toilet with 




DRESSING FOR A PARTY. 

a purpose. The hair is gradually curled, the hairpins placed in 
position one by one, so as to support an artificial dab of wool, 
which represents, we believe, a 'bun' unknown to confectioners. 
All this, with many delicate, inimitable touches; a look in the 
glass now and then ; expressions of alternate disappointment and 
delight, and final movements of triumph that are simply irresist- 
ible. . . . Now and again during this wonderfully funny dumb 
pantomime the lady's enormous hand is seen busily at work pla- 
cing the hairpins. Finally the exit of the 'belle' causes roars of 
laughter, her mincing gait and languishing mien being repro- 
duced with overwhelming comicality." 

The "interrupted serenade" is Mr. Devant's masterpiece. 
Considerable "property" is u.sed in the shape of cardboard; but 
the injured air on the musician's face when ordered to stop, the 
defiant way in which he proceeds, and the climax in the "retribu- 
tion" scene must be credited to clever fingers. As the water 
(sand really) teems down, amid shouts of laughter from the 
audience, the musician collapses, sadder and perhaps wiser, while 
the triumphant householder shuts down the window with a self- 
satisfied bang. A moment later Mr. Devant's flexible hands 
loom large upon the illuminated disk, and the performance is at 
an end. 



Vol. XVI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



87 



BUSINESS SITUATION. 



Trade reports continue to emphasize the encour- 
aging features of 1897, particularly the reduced 
volume of business failures. The new year begins 
with some disappointment for speculators in stocks 
and grain. Wage reductions in New England are 
offset to a degree by the resumption of work in 
the glass industry and activity in iron manufac- 
tures. The last Union Pacific payment was made 
without embarrassment, and balances in favor of 
this country seem to be on the increase. Bank 
clearings for the week reflect annual settlements, 
but even then the total has been exceeded only 
four or five times in the history of the country. 

Confidence and Activity. — " The year opens with 
a tone of quiet confidence pervading nearly all 
branches of business, with encouraging activity in 
the iron trade, a resumption of work bj' many 
thousands of industrial employees in the Western 
glass industry, a largely reduced volume of busi- 
ness failures as compared with corresponding 
periods in preceding years, and a general outlook 
certainly not inferior to any previous year at this 
time. Distributive trade has naturally been 
rather slow pending stock-taking and the return of 
salesmen to the field. While the volume of dis- 
tributive business is no larger, industrial activity 
is a special feature unconfined to any one section, 
but specially notable in the West. Resumption of 

work after the holidays has been general and en- 
couraging in that section. Autumn weather in the 
Northwest checks distribution, but collections are 
reported good. Sales of Southern iron are large. 
Louisana sugar-crop returns have been very satis- 
factory. Nine tenths of Florida's orange crop was 
gathered before the late freeze, and cotton is steady 
on good export demand. Wool has opened up 
actively at some Eastern markets, and lower prices 
for cotton goods have stimulated some demand. 
Wafife reductions at New England cotton mills 
have been very generally accepted. The jewelry 



A Lot of 

500 Tea Cloths 

(Hemstitched Damask.) 

36 inches square, §1.00 1.25 1.75 2.00 2.25 
2.50 2.75 3.00 4.00 ea. 

45 " " $1.50 2.00 2.50 2.75 3.00 

3.75 4.50 5.50 ea. 

54 " " $2.00 2.50 3.50 4.00 4.75 

5.00 7.00 ea. 



Annual Sale 


Bed my/^^ ^^•''^ 


Linen, <^ttjr Cloths, 


Towels, _ 


^^^ Napkins 


Registered Trade Mark. 

"The Linen Store." 



A Lot of 375 Doz. 

Tray and Carving Cloths 

(Hemstitched Damask.) 

17x23 inches 25c. and 50c. each 

20x29 inches.. 50c. 75c. 8bc. $1.00 1.50 2.00 

24x32 inches .$1.00 2.00 

30x3G inches $1.50 2.00 2.25 

Send for 24 page Booklet describing all 
goods offered in this sale. 

JamesMcCutclieon&Co. 

14 West 23d Street, N. Y. 



Who Has the Oldest 
Sewing 

Machine ? 



A new ** Singer^ given 
in exchange for it* 



IVe will give one hundred latest improved Singer Sewing Machines 
in even exchange for an equal number of the oldest sewing machines of 
any make, now in family use. Awards to be decided from applications 
sent to us before March i , 1 898. The new machines will be delivered with- 
in 30 days thereafter. 

All you have to do is to send this information o7i a postal card .• ( i ) your name ; 
(2) location of your residence; (3) post-oflfice address ; (4) name of your machine'; 
(5) its factory number; (6) length of time in use ; (7) paper in which vou saw this. 
Send details in this exact order on a postal card — don't send a letter — aiid put 
nothing else on the postal card but the information desired. 

This is no guessin-j contest requiring a payment, a subscription, 
cr a personal service of any sort. If you own an old seuing machine, 
you have only to send the requisite information in order to compete for a 
prize worth having. It costs absolutely nothing but a postal card, which 
may bring to your door the beet sewing machine in the world in exchange 
for your old one. 

THE SINGER MANUFACTURING CO^ 

p. O. Box 1814, New York City. 



trade has been encouraged by the small number of 
failures occurring' in that line. Preparations for 
an active Alaskan trade are making on the Pacific 
coast, and needed rains are reported in California. 
Prices have shown few important changes and 
steadiness is a leading iea.x.nve.'"—Bradstreei'Sy 
Jan uary 8. 

Business Failures. — " In failures 1897 was not 
only the best year since 1892 but on the w.hole the 
best ever definitely known. With 13,522 failures, 
in number 11 5 per cent, less than 1896, and $182,- 
581,771 defaulted liabilities, 34 per cent, less than 
in 1896, the year's banking failures counted for $28,- 
249,700, and the commercial failures were but 13,^51, 
with liabilities of $154,332,071, the average per fail- 
ure being only Sii,559, the lowest ever known ex- 
cept in 1892. But even in that year the failures 
during the last half averaged liabilities of $10,477 
per failure, while in the last half of 1897 the average 
was only $9,593. The returns by branches of busi- 
ness show that in 15 out of 28 classes the failures 
were lower than in any previous year of which 
there is a record, with especially large decrease in 
tlie great number of unclassified manufacturing 
and trading failures. Moreover, the year showed 
remarkable decrease, as some other prosperous 
years have shown increase, comparing the second 
with the first half." — Dun's Review, January S. 

"Naturally enough there is a slight gain in the 
number of failures reported this week over last, 
the total aggregating 333 against 1-97 last week, but 
a heavy falling-off troin 1897, when the total was 
488. The total in this week of 1896 was 446, in 1895 
405, and in 1894 484, thus showing a falling-off from 
this week in recent preceding years of from 
one quarter to one third. [Dun's Review: 322 to 471 
last year.]" — Bradstreet's, January S. 

Wheat and Corn. — "Wheat declined iK cts. , ow- 
ing to the termination of the corner at Chicago, and 
Western receipts were about double last year's, 
with Atlantic exports 2,840,318 bushels, flour in- 
cluded, against 2,150,909 last year. A speculative 
estimate makes the quantity still in farmer's 
hands 40 jer cent, of the crop, which is quite pos- 
sible, but the consumption and e.\ports in half the 
year ought to take more than 40 per cent, of the 
vear's supply. A fleet of vessels is reported at 
Baltimore or on the way thither for wheat. Ex- 
ports of corn for the week fell below last year's, 
altho Western receipts are unusually large, and 
the price fell about ^ of a c^nx.."— Dun's Review, 
January 8. 

Canadian Trade Improvement.— " Favorable 
weather is reported from the Dominion of Canada 
this week, and the outlook for spring trade is re- 
garded as one of the best for years past. .American 
prints are reported selling freely at low prices. A 
large immigration is expected in the Dominion 
during the ensuing year. The returns from the 
Newfoundland fishery are expected to show better 
than anv previous record. There were48 business 
failures' in the Dominion of Canada this week, 
against 22 last week and 65 in this week a year ago. 
Bank clearings of six Canadian cities for the first 
week in January amount to $27,822,000, a gain of 
31 per cent, over last week and nearly 10 per cent, 
increase over this week a year ago. [Dun's Re- 
view: 32 to 62 last yezr.T—Bradstreet's, January S. 




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88 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 15, 1898 



Current Events. 



PROFIT-SHARINGTIFE INSURANCE. 



Monday ^January j. 

An anti-Hanna combination controls the 

organization of both branches of the Ohio legis- 
lature ; Mason, Republican, defeats Boxwell, 
regular Republican, for speaker of the House, by 
a vote of 56 to 53. . . . Secretary Gage decides to 
call in all 8100 silver certificates outstanding, 
amounting to $26,000,000, on account of the dis- 
covery of a dangerous counterfeit. . . . The 
corrected surplus of the Treasury for December 
is $1,714,831 ; the public debt decreased $10,114,- 
89Q during the month. 

The British Government declares that any 
Chinese port open to one power must be open 
to all. . . . Li Hung Chang is recalled to power 
at Peking. . . . The British cruiser /'(7a'<'r/«/ ar- 
rives at Hongkong. ... By the collapse of a 
floor and gallery in a London, Ontario, hall a 
number of persons are killed. 

Tuesday , January 4 

James M. E. O'Grady is nominated for speaker 
of the New York Assemblvbv Republicans. . . . 
John D. Rockefeller gives another «aoO,000 
to the Chicago University. . . . The American 
Steel and Wire Company, of Chicago, is incor- 
porated with a capitalization of $87,000,000. 

It is said that China is seeking a loan of 
£80,000,000 in London. 

iVednesdav, January 5. 

Congress reassembles. ... In the Senate re- 
plies from the members of the Cabinet regard- 

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declaring bonds of the United States payable in 
silver dollars. ... In the House debate begins 
upon an appropriation for the maintenance of 
the civil-service commission. . . . The Presi- 
dent makes a long list of consular and minor ap- 
pointments. . . . The New York and Massa- 
chusetts legislatures assemble; Governor 
Black's annual message is given out. . . . The 
refusal of eleven members of the Maryland legis- 
lature to enter the Republican caucus prevents 
organization. . . . More New Kngland cotton 
mills reduce wages, and emplovees vote to 
strike, at New Bedford, Mass. . . . The Nebraska 
supreme court affirms the sentence of twenty 
years in the penitentiary for ex-Treasurer Bart- 
ley, convicted of embezzling $735,000. 

Cliina cedes Kiao-Chou IJay to Germany for 
an indefinite period. . . . The public prose- 
cutor at Madrid decides that there are no 
grounds for the prosecution of General Weyler. 
. . . Spain revokes an embargo on exports of 
tobacco on Cuba, to take effect January 15. . . . 
Edward Harford, one of the British delegates 
to the American Federation of Labor convention 
at Nashville, dies on tlie steamer St. Paul on 
his voyage home. 

Thursday., January 6. 

The Senate passes public building and other 
minor bills. ... In the House debate continues 
on the civil-service law ; the bill adopted by 
Republican opponents of the existing system is 
introduced ; a bill embodying the plan of the In- 
dianapolis monetary commission for currency 
reform is introduced. . . . Governor Wolcott, 
of Massachusetts, is sworn in for bis second term. 

It is reported that the British Government will 
guarantee a Chinese loan of $80,000,000, at 3 
per cent., the price of issue to be no, if the open- 
ing of new treaty ports to all nations be con- 
ceded. . . . Germany is said to have secured a 
lease of Kiao-Chou for ninety-nine years, in 
return for a nominal rental ; Russia is trying to 
secure similar terms for Port Arthur and other 
territory. . . . Owing to the plague, a general 
exodus from Bombay is taking place. 

Pri'day, January 7. 

In the Senate Mr. Allen introduces a free- 
silver ••oinage resolution ; Mr. Teller speaks of 
the attitude of the Administration. ... In the 
House debate continues on the civil-service 
law. . . . Louis Schaefer, of Baltimore, is elected 
speaker of the Maryland tlouse of Delegates 
bv votes of Democrats and Republicans. . . . 
The Colorado populist state e.xecutive commit- 
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Tol. XVI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



89 



Great Biblical Library. 




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and a strike is imminent at New Bedford, ilass. 
.... The e.xecutive committee of the American 
Federation of L.abor appeals to Congress tor 
an eight-hour day, against abuse of injunction, 
against the transportation of prison-made goods 
from one State to another, and asking for the 
restriction of immigration. . . . The final pay- 
ment for the Union Pacific road is made to the 
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China is sadtohnve rejected proposals for a 
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forniaUy recognize the imperial title ot the Em- 
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. . . Lady Henry Somerset tenders her resig- 
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perance Association. 

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The House, alone i:i session, continues debate 
on the civil-service law. . . . Secretary Sher- 
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Sunday. January q. 

The Rev. I>r. John Hall resigns as pastor of 
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The first distribution of American supplies 
for suffering Cubans is made at Havana. 



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STORY-WRITERS, "^^^.^Tv. 



Headers of The LrrERARY Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



90 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jau. 15, 1898 



CHESS. 

All communications for this Department should 

be addressed : "Chess Editor, LITERARY 

Digest."] 



Problem 253. 

By Sam Loyd. 

Black — Two Pieces. 




White— Seven Pieces. 
White mates in two moves. 

Problem 254. 

By Rudolf Weixheimer. 
Black— Kight Pieces. 





White— Seven Pieces. 
White mates in three moves. 

Solution of Problems. 



Kt— B. 



P Queens 
or Knights 



No. 247. 

Kt-Qs 
Any 

Kt— R 5 



Kt— B 3, mate 



P— B 3, mate 



P Bishops P X Kt 



Correct solution received from M. W. H., Uni- 
versity of Virginia; "Spifflicator," and Courtenay 
Lemon, New York City; C. F. Putney, Indepen- 
dence, Iowa;R. J. Moore, Riverton, Ala.; F. S. 
Ferguson, Birmingham, Ala. 

Comments: "A charming composition but for 
the double after l> Knighls"--M. W. H. "A 
beauty"— S. "One of the gems of Chess"— C. F. P. 
"A luminous novelty"— R. J. M. " I thought 247 too 
simple to notice, but a close study shows it to be a 
masterpiece"--F. S. F. 

The reason that so many of our solvers were 
vanquished by the little .South American is that 
they did not see that in all their varied solutions 
P— R 8 becoming a Bishop resulted in a stale- 
mate. One of our solvers who sent us the solution 
B X P, etc., sagely remarks: "P— R 8 (Bishop), 
White can not mate in three moves." It is a little 
problem, and is not, by any means, a perfect work, 
but it has vanquished more of the boys than al- 
most any other problem we have published. 



No. 24S. 



K— B 4 



Kt— K 4, mate 
Kt— Q s, mate 



B— K 5 ch 



Q— K B 2, mate 



B any other 



Kt— K 6, mate 



Kt-Bs 



Q— Kt 4, mate 



Kt any other 



Kt— B 6, mate 



B-QB4 



Q X B, mate 



B-Q Kt 3 



Q— Kt 6, mate 



B— Kt sq 



Kt — R 4, mate 



P-K5 



Correct solution received from M. W. H., "Spif- 
flicator," Courtenay Lemon, C. F. Putney, R. J. 
Moore, F. S. Ferguson; the Rev. J. A. Younkins, 
Natrona, Pa.; F. H. Johnston, Elizabeth City, N. 
C.;C. Q. De France, Lincoln, Neb.; Walter R. 
Coumbe, Lakeland, Fla.; J. G. O'Callaghan, Low 

Moor, Va.j "Ramus," Carbondale, Pa.; Dr. W. S. 
Frick, Pliiladelpliia ; Nelson Hald, Donnebrog, 
Neb.; the Rev. H. Rembe, Desboro, Ont. ; R. N. 
Brvant, Newcastle, Me. ; the Revs. I. W. Bieber, 
Bethlehem, Pa., C. T. Ohlinger, Pawtucket, R. I.; 

E. E. Armstrong, Parry Sound. Can.; W. K. Gree- 
ly, Boston; K. S. Howard, Webster, N. Y.; the 
Rev. W. W. Faris, Miami, Fla.; George Patterson, 
Winnipeg, Man. 

Comments: "The more you look at this compo- 
sition, the more beautiful it appears. Such com- 
positions make Chess seem like a product of na- 
ture or a branch of pure mathematics"— M. W. H. 
"Elegant"— S. "Neat and economical"— C. L. 
"Not as much of a problem as No. 245, but a fine 
one for the number of pieces"— C. F. P. "This 
problem is perfect in every respect. A brilliant 
work and very difficult"— F S. F. "An excep- 
tionally fine problem"— J. A. Y. "A very perfect 
two-mover"— W. R. C. "Easy but interesting"— 
J. G. O'C. "Beautifully designed"— C. Q. De F. 
"Deserves 100 points from my point of view" — 

F. S.J. "A queenly quickstep"-!. W. B. "The 
combinations that follow a somewhat weak key 
are beautiful" — C. T. O. "Howprettily Black gets 
in his own way!"— E E. A. "As good as one of 
Sam Loyd's"— W. K. G. "The construction is fine, 
altho easy to solve"— K. S. H. 

The Rev. C. T. Ohlinger, and Dr. J. P. Rice. San 
Antonio, Tex., were successful with 245. 

The Correspondence Tourney. 

Thirty-Fifth Game. 



F. M. OSTER- 


H.N. HULLARD, 


F. M. OSTER 


H.N.BULLAR 


HOIT, 




HOl'T. 




Factoryville 


Parkville,Mo. 


White. 


Black. 


Pa. 




8 Q X Q ch 
gSx P 


Kt X g 


White. 


Black. 


R-Q sq 


I P— K4 


P— K 4 


10 P— Q 3 


Kt-K B , 


2 B— K 2 


P-Q4 


II B-B4 


Q Kl-Kt5 


3 P X P 


Qx P 


12 B X P 


K— Q s 


4B-B3 


P-K5 


13 P-Q R 3 


B-K 2 


5 Kt-B 3 


9-K4 

Kt-y B 3 


14 Kt— B 3 


B-Q 3 


6 (,)— K 2 


15 Kt .X R 


Resigns 


7Qx P 


B— K B 4 







The only thing that can be said about this game 
is that Black played White's game, and did not 
seem to have any game of his own. 

Thirty-Sixth Game. 



Scotch Gambit. 



J. H.MOCKEl"r. 

. JR., 
Lincoln, Neb. 
White. 

1 P-K 4 

2 Kt-K B 3 

3 P-Q 4 

4 Kt X P 
5B K3 
6 P-Q 15 3 



I'l.TIMO, ' 



7Q-Q2(a) 



Black. 
P— K 4 
Kt-Q B 3 
P X P 
B— B 4 
O-B3 
K Kt-K 2 
P-Q 4 (b) 



J.H.MOCKETT, 

W^hi'te. 

8 Kt X Kt 

9 B X B 
10 P X P 



,3(e) 



Black. 
Q X Kt (c) 
Q X B 
Kt X P (d) 
Q-K 2 ch (f) 
Q-K.5(g) 
Kt-Bs (h) 



11 B-Q : 

12 B-K 

13 Castles 

14 B-Kt s ch Resigns, (i) 



Notes by One of the Judges. 

(a) Here, B — Q B 4, or B— K 2 is u-^ually 
played. The text-move delays the development. 

(b) Castles, or P— Q 3 gives Black a good posi- 
tion. 

(c) P X Kt is better. The Q is well posted on 
the Kt's side. Doubling the Ps is of no disad- 
vantage. 



(d) Q X P gives an exactly even game, 
fe) A lost move ; B— K 2 is indicated. 

(f) Useless. Why not B—K 3 or Castles .> Black 
misses his opportunity to more than even up. 

(g) B—K 3, followed bv Castles on Q side, would 
have given Black the better game. 

(h) This move is not onlv a blunder, but it is 
difficult to find anv reason for it. If White did not 
have the crushing' blow B— Kt 5 ch, he has B— B 3, 
and at once Black is in trouble. 

(i) Must lose his Q. 

Thirty-Seventh Game. 
Vienna Game. 



M.P.QUINTAN.A 

Albany. 
White. 

1 P-K 4 

2 Kt-Q B 3 

3 P-B 4 

4 Kt-B 3 

5 P-KR3(b) 

6 Q X B 

7 B-Kt 5 (c) 

8 Kt-Q 5(d) 

9 P-Q 3 

10 B—K 3 

11 B X Kt(e) 

12 P X P (f) 

13 P X Kt 

14 Castles (g) 
isQR-Ktsq 

16 P X P (h) 

17 R-Kt4(i) 

18 R— KR4 

1QP-Q4 
20 R-B 4 (k) 



H.KETCHA- 

Verjrennes,Vi 

Black. 
P-K 4 
Kt-K B 3 

P-Q 3 (a) 
B-Kt 5 
B X Kt 
Kt-B 3 
Q-Q2 
B—K 2 
P-KR3 
P-Q R"3 
P X B 
Px Kt 
R X P 
B X P 
B-K 4 
Castles 
P— KB. 
Q-B2 
B— B 3 
B-Kt 4 



(J) 



I'.QUINTANA. H.KETCHAM. 

White. Black. 

2! P-B 4 (1) BxR 



22 B X B 

23 B-Q 2 

24 B— B 3 

25 P-Q R 3 

26 Q— Q 3 
27QXQ 
28 R— B 3 
2g K— B2 

30 Kx R 

31 B— Q2 

32 B-Kt 4 

33 B-Q 2 

34 B-R 5 

35 B-Q 2 

36 B— R 5 

37 P-Kt 4 ch 

38 K X P 

39 B X P 



Q R-Ksq 
R— K 5 

Q-Kt 3 (m) 

P-B 5 
R— K 3 
R X Q 
R— Kt6 
R X R 
P— Kt 4 
R— Ktsq 
R-K sq 
K-R 2 
R-K 2 
K-Kt 3 
K-B4 
P X P e./i. 
R-K 5 
R X P 



40 Game abandoned. 



Notes by One of the Judges. 

(a) P-Q 4 is best, as it forces White's center, 
and retards his development. The text-move has, 
also, the disadvantage of getting in the way of the 
K B. 

(b) We prefer, in every way, P— Q 3 or P— B 5. 

(c) Kt-Q 5 is threatening. 

(d) Fine move. 

(e) Poorly played. B-R 4 is best. If P— Kt 4, 
B — Kt 3, with a very good game. 

(0 It is qu te evident that this wholesale ex- 
change results disastrously for White. Kt x B is 
in every way stronger, followed by P— B 5. 

(g) Why give up the P? There was nothing 
threatening. P — Q 4, followed by Castles, gives 
White the better game. 

(h) P — Q 4 is clearly indicated, with the prefer- 
able game. 

(i) White didn't see P— Q 4, B-B 3 ; B x P, P x B; 
Q X B. If Black refuses P x B, White has an over- 
whelming attack. 

(j) A very risky move, 
(k) A blunder. R— R 5 is the move. 
(!) Why give the exchange ? R— Q B 4 is good 
enough. 

(m) Well played. 

Pillsbury and Showalter. 

The Philadelphia Ledger is authority for the 
statement that Pillsbury and Showalter will begin 
their second match for the Championship of the 
United States on February i. 



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The Literary Digest 



Vol. XVL, No. 4 



New York, January 22, 1898. 



Whole Number, 405 



Published Weekly by 

Funk & Wagnalls Company, 
30 Lafayette Place, New York. 44 Fleet Street, London 

Entered at New York Post-OfiBce as Second-Class Matter. 



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TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



THE FIGHT FOR A SENATORSHIP IN OHIO. 

ONE of the most exciting contests for the election of a mem- 
ber of the United States Senate closed last week in Ohio, 
with a victory for Marcus A. Hanna. This carries into effect the 
indorsement of Senator Hanna as his own successor made by the 
Republican state convention held last summer. The remarkable 
feature of the fight was the organization of opposition to Mr. 
Hanna, which resulted in a Democratic organization of the legis- 
lature, altho the body is Republican, and which obtained for a 
Republican, Mayor McKisson of Cleveland, the votes of the Dem- 
ocrats and of enough Republicans to leave Mr. Hanna only the 
absolutely necessary majority of one on joint ballot. Besides 
commenting on the personal elements of this struggle, many 
newspapers find reasons for advocating a change in the method 
of electing United States Senators, and other lessons from the 
fight. Mr. Hanna's term of office will expire in March. 1905. 

Two telegrams concerning the result have been given wide 
publicity by the newspapers : 

President McKinley to Mr. Hanna : 

" The result now plainly forecasted is one in which our best citizenship, 
irrespective of party, will profoundly rejoice. I congratulate you heartily, 
not only upon a victory beneficial to the country, but upon your leadership 
in a contest worthily won under the most trying circumstances." 

Mr. Hanna to President McKinley : 

"God reigns, and the Republican Party still lives." 

Representative System Sustained. — "We speak in no parti- 
zan sense when we say that the defeat of Mr. Hanna in the cir- 
cumstances would have been a great public misfortune. The at- 
tack on his candidacy was in form and essence an attack on the 
principles of representative government. 

"His enemies could only have triumphed through violation of 
their pledges and direct disobedience of the mandate of the peo- 
ple on the part of members of the legislature. As The Times- 



Herald was first to point out, the very principles that control our 
system of Presidential elections were on trial in Ohio, and if the 
Foraker-Kurtz-Bushnell conspiracy had succeeded no man could 
foretell the consequences in the impairment of the confidence of 
the people in their representatives. 

"The most distressing phase of the struggle was its closeness. 
Mr. Hanna's margin was perilously small. Another vote against 
him would have beaten him. He won, but even in the presence 
of a most satisfactory victory — a victory that pleases honorable 
men of every party and has given new courage to public spirit in 
all parts of the Union — we can not forget that the result was in 
doubt to the last moment from the fear that considerations of the 
most objectionable nature might outweigh all obligations to peo- 
ple and party in the minds of one or more small politicians. 

" In the bitterness of defeat without honor. Senator Foraker, if 
he were a philosopher, might be able to extract some comfort 
from the knowledge that his conspiracy has turned the attention 
of thousands of conservative men to the advisability of choosing 
United States Senators by direct vote of the people instead of 
relying upon the essential hone.sty andhonor of a few men who 
may be besieged, in a case like the present one, by Foraker 
and such 'small deer.'" — The Titnes-Herald {McKinley Tfid.), 
Chicago. 

Mr. Hanna's Victory. — "Senator Hanna's victory was antici- 
pated from the beginning ; indeed, the circumstances made it 
seem inevitable. And yet it was achieved not by the highest skill 
in the employment of superior resources, but through the blunders 
of his adversaries after they had virtually won. All the advan- 
tages of position were on his side. His nomination by the state 
convention of his party was ratified by all but four of its county 
conventions; his election to the office which he had received by 
appointment from the governor was made a controlling issue of 
the legislative campaign, and was deemed a chief feature of the 
Republican victory in November. Thus he had throughout the 
contest which he almost lost the immense benefit of the prevalent 
feeling and indisputable fact that the Republican majority of the 
legislature was under an obligation of good faith to respect the 
verdict of the polls. Furthermore, it was thoroughly understood 
that Mr. Hanna's defeat would be proclaimed, and to some ex- 
tent construed, as a condemnation of the national Administration, 
and it was felt that President McKinley had every claim to be 
exempted from such a penalty. And, finally, aversion to giving 
Senator Foraker a free-silver colleague was a potent factor in Mr. 
Hanna's favor. 

"Nevertheless, with all these advantages, and with the prestige 
derived from his invaluable services and triumphant leadership in 
1S96, Senator Hanna barely escaped defeat. His experience 
should teach all who aspire to the control of political forces that 
the people of this country demand, and in the long run will insist 
on having, a free voice in the management of their own affairs. 
. . . Appreciation of what he has done for the party and the 
nation and confidence in his devotion to the principles which were 
vindicated under his leadership are still the prevailing sentiments 
of his countrymen. We do not need to say that they are ours. 
But it has seemed proper, at the close of a contest which has 
aroused universal interest, to review the facts with perfect candor 
in the hope that they may convey a useful lesson to all observers. 
There is every reason to believe that so sagacious a man as Sen- 
ator Hanna will not miss their significance." — The Tribune 
{Rep.), New York. 

Senator Hanna's Career. — "Senator Hanna's career is a stri- 
king illustration of the quick transitions in politics. Two years 
ago, the general public did not know his name. He began to 
organize in favor of the nomination of William McKinley for 
President, and succeeded despite the opposition of the most pow- 
erful bosses in the party, such as Piatt and Quay, and, probably, 
Foraker. He became chairman of the Republican national com- 



92 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 22, 1898 



mittee, and a rousing big majority in the electoral college was 
secured for McKinley. Hanna then bestrode the nation like a 
colossus. He was the biggest frog in the political pond. He was 
appointed to the United States Senate by Governor Bushnell to 
fill Senator Sherman's unexpired term. A year passes, and now 
we see him forced to fight for his political life at Columbus. . . . 
By the rules of the game of politics he is entitled to win. And 
despite the outcry against him in many journals, as a boss, his 
career is a signal illustration of what one man without any polit- 
ical patronage to distribute, without political experience or repu- 
tation, can nevertheless do, when he sets about it with determi- 
nation to break the power of bosses. All the same, we hazard 
the opinion that he has very few of the qualifications that go to 
make the ideal Senator." — The Voice {Pro/i.) , New York. 

Protection to Blame. — "Since there is no difference whatever, 
morally, between voting and asking others to vote for a bill which 
will bring in $5,000 additional business profits next year and ac- 
cepting a money bribe for the same amount or offering it to 
others, the ethics of the [protective] system lead inevitably to 
the establishment of the general rule of bargain and sale in polit- 
ical transactions. 

"The next great State to Pennsylvania to seize upon the pro- 
tective system and turn it to its uses is Ohio. Similar causes 
have produced similar results there. It is no injustice to say that 
political contests in Ohio are to-day almost wholly a matter of 
money. Mr. Hanna has set an example of the unstinted use of 
money in elections, and we can not be surprised that there should 
be a combination against him. This is curiously composed of 
two elements that are utterly antagonistic and as far removed as 
the poles from each other. The body of it consists of men who 
loathe and repudiate the use of money in politics, and oppose Mr. 
Hanna because he is at once a boss and a corrupter. To these is 
added a small number of men, probably constituting the balance 
of power, who are out for the cash. ... So the details of the 
struggle down at Columbus reveal with unerring certainty a con- 
flict of unworthy agencies and motives that is sickening to every 
decent American. It is as clear as daylight that there was a plan 
to bleed Mr. Hanna ; that a large number of the members of the 
legislature are thoroughly corrupt, and that they are playing the 
situation for all the money that there is in it." — The Globe (Nai. 
Dent), St. Paul. 

One Redeeming Feature. — "None will mistake the methods by 
which Senator Hanna 's election has been accomplished. There 
was no popular tide that called either for his appointment or his 
election to the United States Senate. He is a great politician but 
not in any sense a statesman, and he is a conspicuous representa- 
tive of the worst methods of modern politics as illustrated by all 
the movements which have made him a central figure in the polit- 
ical struggles of the nation during the last few years. He has 
won because political organization wielded in desperation, and 
debauchery employed without limit, have forced discordant ele- 
ments into submission, and it will leave gaping wounds in the 
Republican organization of Ohio which are likely to fester and 
sadly impair the vitality of the party in Ohio. The one redeem- 
ing feature of Hanna 's victory is that it was secured by the de- 
feat of a Republican who pledged himself to the Democratic 
Senatorial caucus to accept the Chicago .platform, including free 
coinage, denunciation of the Supreme Court, and all its other 
heresies as the price of his election." — The Times {hid. Dent.), 
Phi I a lie Ip hi a . 

Dangerous Corruption. — "There is a great lesson being taught 
to-day to the people of Ohio. There is a man that has put up a 
large amount of money on the one side, who is known to be a 
candidate for the United States Senate; there is a man on the 
other side who has put up a large amount of money for the same 
purpose ancl his friends have put up for him. It is that corrup- 
tion fund which has made the disaffection that is in the Ohio leg- 
islature this day. Last spring a large amount of money was used 
in the city of Cleveland in the election of mayor. On account of 
that fact hatreds were engendered and now those curses are com- 
ing home to roost. In the Presidential election millions on mil- 
lions of money were used, and the party which spent the most 
money won the day. Napoleon said, that ' Providence is on the 
side of the heaviest battalions. ' One may say, ' The jjolitical suc- 
cess is on the side of the largest barrel. ' No man can tell the 
woes that are being generated for the future by this abominable 



practise of the use of money in elections. If we ever have a civil 
war, and it is not improbable that such a calamity will come over 
this country, it will come because of the corrupt use of money in 
elections and the enactment of laws that give special privileges 
to the few against the many." — The Plain Dealer {De7n.) , 
Cleveland. 

Direct Election Desirable. — "No one imagines that the direct 
election of Senators will effect a miraculous improvement in our 
politics. About the only thing said against the change by those 
who oppose it is that the evils of politics are too deep-seated to be 
removed by a mere change of procedure. This is true enough ; 
but it is no reason for continuing to leave a substance in the body 
politic which is evidently an active poison, intensifying the evils 
that are organic, and serving no good purpose whatsoever. This 
question of the Senator, a question with which the business of the 
legislature has no natural connection, constitutes a wholly unnec- 
essary aggravation of the difficulty of getting a decent session of 
the legislature. At the most critical time of all, the time when 
the members might be getting a better understanding of each 
other and of the business before them, and when public opinion 
also might be brought to bear upon them with most chance of 
good results, everything else is overshadowed in the intensity of 
the Senatorial struggle. The trouble, indeed, begins even before 
this stage ; for the election itself is made to turn largely on the 
Senatorial succession, so that state affairs and the merits of the 
individual candidates are almost lost sight of. And all this for 
no earthly purpose, except that the Senator be chosen through 
the hole-and-corner combinations of a legislature instead of an 
open contest before the people. The agitation for an amendment 
of the Constitution providing for the direct election of Senators 
should be kept up persistently until the object is accomplished." 
— The News {Lnd. Dem.) , Baltimore. 

"Mark A. Hanna is now the duly elected, by a bare majority. 
Senator from Ohio, to serve until 1905. The struggle for his seat 
was a fierce one, and charges of bribery were freely made. They 
are believed by many, but were not proved, and there is no talk 
of an investigation of them. Nevertheless, the contest has not 
bettered the reputation of Ohio politics and politicians, which 
was rather shady before, and that State will be hereafter, more 
than ever, the butt of jokers and the despair of patriots. Mr. 
Hanna is a man of. great force of character, and may be an unob- 
jectionable Senator, but he will not represent, in the true sense, 
either the State or the people of Ohio. He will represent merely 
a partizan faction, of which he is himself the most conspicuous 
part. Still, that will not give him a singular distinction in the 
Senate of the United States. " — The Ledger (lnd. Hep.) , Phila- 
delphia. 

"'The courtesy of the Senate' has become a safeguard against 
mutual exposures. Hanna will not only be admitted, he will 




IIIK OHIO WOMAN IN I'OLll ics.— /'A^ Times, Pittsbuts ■ 



Vol. X^T:., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



93 



be welcomed and acclaimed for his success in 'stamping out 
Brj-anisni.' Infatuated Senators, Hanna has made a hundred 
times more Bryanites by his successful canvass for a Senatorship 
than his check-book will ever enable him to 'stamp out.'" — The 
Times {Ind.) , Neiv York. 

"Among the amusing features of the contest the speech of Hon. 
Robert McKisson, of Cleveland, an anti-Hanna Republican, be- 
fore the Democratic caucus should not be overlooked. Mr. 
McKisson declared that 'publicly and before the people I am and 
must be a Republican. But I assure you and pledge you that if 
elected to the United States Senate by this fusion, I will stand 
upon the Chicago platform.' A Republican standing upon the 
Chicago platform is a very peculiar spectacle, but the declaration 
shows the remarkable lengths to which the average Ohio politi- 
cian will go to get office. Never before was political nomencla- 
ture more misleading than now." — T/ie Sufi- {htd.), Baltimore. 

"It is fortunate for good government that Mr. Hanna has won. 
It is a victory for the Administration, for the cause of sound 
money, and for good faith in politics rather than for the candidate 
personally." — The Star {hid.), Washington. 



PENSIONERS AND SURVIVORS OF THE 
CIVIL WAR. 

THE correctness of the table of figures printed by the New 
York Sun, showing that the number of those drawing pen- 
sions as survivors of the Civil War is greater than the total num- 
ber of actual survivors (see The Literary Digest, January 8), 
has been challenged by numerous critics, some of whom are none 
the less anxious to secure whatever purging of the pension -roll is 
aecessary and who favor the publishing of the pension "roll of 
honor." An editorial in The Outlook, New York, representing 
this class of criticism, says in part : 
"The now Republican New York Sun published a startling and 



doubtless honest broadside to the effect that the number of pen- 
sioners now on the rolls because of services they rendered during 
the Civil War exceeds the whole number of survivors. The Sun 
reached this conclusion by assuming the correctness of the returns 
published in the last census that there were in iSgo 1,034,000 sur- 
vivors, and estimating that nearly 200,000 must have died since 
that date, and that a further reduction of over 100.000 must be 
made for deserters and for men who had been enlisted less than 
ninety days. In this way it reached its estimate that there are 
to-day but 727,000 survivors of the war who could possibly be en- 
titled to pensions, while 733,000 are already drawing them, and 
187,000 more are on the list of applicants. To this wholesale 
arraignment of the honesty of the veterans, of the pension offi- 
cials, and of the medical profession, a clerk in the Pension De- 
partment made the reply that the enumeration of veterans in the 
census of 1S90 was confessedly incomplete, and that the number 
of survivors in 1890. according to the 'ablest of actuaries and 
statisticians commanding all the data in the War Department.' 
was 1,355,000, or nearly one third more than was returned by the 
census enumeration and assumed by The Sic?i to be correct. 

" To this reply The Sun retorts in a contemptuous editorial 
ridiculing the statements of the '$1,200 clerk.' The Outlook, 
after examining the records in the case, after consulting the 
English death-rates, and finally after securing from President 
Jacob L. Greene, of the Connecticut Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany, the results of American experience, finds that the state- 
ments of the Washington clerk are entirely accurate. Tho the 
number of soldiers in our armies during the war began at less 
than 100,000, and was barely a million at the close, the total num- 
ber enrolled was 2,100,000. If from these we deduct the 300,000 
who died during the war and the 200,000 who deserted, the num- 
ber of honorably discharged survivors at the close of the war was 
about 1.600.000. If these men, whose constitutions had been 
strong enough to stand the 'make-or-break' ordeals of army life, 
came out of the war as vigorous as the average of men, the death- 
rate among them during the thirty-two years that have since 
elapsed would but slightly exceed thirty per cent. The number 
of survivors at this time would therefore be about 1.100,000 — or 





W. T. MALSTER (REP.), 
BALTIMORE, MD. 



CHARLES P. WEAVER (DEM.), 
LOUISVILLE, KY. 



JOSIAH QUINCY, (DEM.), 
BOSTON, MASS. 



PATRICK WALSH (CITIZENS), 
AUGUSTA, GA. 





RUFUS B. DODGE, JR. (REP), 
WORCESTER, MASS. 



MICH.'^EL CONNORS (DEM.), 
HOLYOKE, MASS 



AI.VIN F. SORTWELL (CITIZENS), 
CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



WALTER RAMSDELL (BRYAN DEM), 
LYNN, MASS. 



EIGHT RECENTLY ELECTED MAYORS OF AMERICAN CITIES. 



94 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 22, 1898 



at least 300,000 more than The Sun estimated. Even this record, 
however, is startling enough, for, out of the 1,100,000, 910,000, 
or over eighty per cent., are either drawing pensions or are ap- 
plicants for pensions on the ground that they were either disabled 
in some way during the war or are physically or mentally in- 
capacitated for self-support." 

The Sun, in its issue of January 12. prints the following letter 
from Robert P. Porter, superintendent of the last census, con- 
cerning the census enumeration of the veterans and the probable 
number of survivors at present : 

" The Sun is undoubtedly right in basing its estimate of the 
survivors of the Civil War on the returns of the Census Office. 
The reasons for not publishing the list of veterans as originally 
contemplated was not because the enumeration was defective, 
but because of the difficulty and enormous expense involved in 
securing the data relating to the military history of each one of 
the million or more enumerated. The enumerator had no diffi- 
culty in finding out whether the head of the household was a vet- 
eran or not, and whether he fought on the Union or Confederate 
side. These facts were no more difficult to obtain than national- 
ity or occupation. The difficulty presented itself when the sup- 
plemental schedule for veterans was produced. No one could fill 
this out but the man himself, and, as only five cents extra was 
paid for it, many of the enumerators would not return to the 
houses for the information. An effort was made to secure the 
information through other channels, but the task was too great 
and the publication of the names was abandoned, not because 
the totals were wrong, but for the reasons above given. 

"With this explanation permit me to submit an estimate based 
on these figures of the number of survivors at the present time. 
My estimate is much nearer that of The Sun than some of the 
so-called estimates going the rounds, tho I believe it safer than 
the 727,122 as given by The Sun. If my reasons are not good, I 
am willing to be corrected. The census, fortunately, besides 
giving the total number of survivors June i, 1890 (1,034,073), dis- 
tributes these according to age periods. 

"From Humphrey's Life Table we obtain the fact, for exam- 
ple, that for every 2.432 persons living at 50 years of age, 2,059 
will survive to 57 years of age, and 1,998 to 58 years of age. 
Taking the average age of those from 45 to 54 years of age to be 
50 years, we find that out of the surviving 575,746 there would be 
surviving June i, 1897, some 487,500, while there would be sur- 
viving June I, 1898, 473.000. If we apply the ratios of survivors 
according to Humphrey's tables to these different age periods, 
we would obtain a table approximately as follows : 

Survivors Survivors Estimated Accord- 
Enumerated ing to Hutnphrey's Life 

Eleventh Census. , Table. > 

Age. June i, i8go. June t, 1897. June i, 1898. 

Under 45 139,438 115,000 112,800 

From 45 to 54 575. 746 487, 5°° 473.000 

From 55 to 64 238,489 175,500 166,200 

From 65 to 74 75,214 40,000 25,400 

75 and over 11,149 3,100 2,270 

Unknown 4.037 3,000 3,000 

Totals 1,034,073 824, 100 792,670 

"From this it would appear that on June i, 1897, there would 
be surviving about 824,000 veterans, and on June i, 1S98, there 
ought to be surviving about 793,000. This is greater than the 
figures which The Sun gives, but it takes all elements of the cal- 
culation into account. 

"It must be remembered further that Humphrey's table was 
compiled from experience during recent years in England and 
Wales as a unit, and while these figures taken from Humphrey's 
tables were based on the average condition of health of the entire 
population, the soldiers who left their homes and went to the war 
were probably a selected population. By that I mean that any 
one suffering from consumption or any other chronic disease 
probably stayed at home and only healthy males went to the war, 
and the very fact that they survived the hardships of a campaign 
would indicate that they were of good, robust pnysical condition. 
The effect of this would be that instead of only about 800.000 sur- 
viving at the present time, as indicated by the ratios of Hum- 
phrey's tables, as applied to the survivors enumerated at the 
census, there might be a larger number still living. Of course, 
this latter is simply my own opinion, but I think it is perfectly 
sound, and the chances are that if the survivors are enumerated 
at the twelfth census there will be a considerably larger number 
surviving thaa if we applied Humphrey's ratios, as I have done." 



LATEST PHASES OF THE SEAL QUESTION. 

THE British Government, in deference to the attitude of 
Canada, declined to put a stop to pelagic sealing, and 
President McKinley followed this action by signing a bill 
(December 29) to prohibit the killing of seals in open waters by 
American citizens, and further to prohibit the importation into 
this country of all sealskins taken in North Pacific waters. On 
January 14, President McKinley submitted the report of the com- 
mission appointed under the treaty of 1896 to fix the amount of 
damages which this country is called upon to pay for seizures of 
British sealing vessels, according to the decision of the Paris 
tribunal. The total amount is $473,151.26, the principal being 
$264,188.91; interest and personal claims making up the total. 
The President recommends a prompt appropriation to pay the 
claims. 

These events mark the important features of the recurring topic 
of the relations between Canada and the United States. The seal 
question is interwoven with reciprocity, boundary disputes, and 
other questions concerning which Canada and the United States 
have differences, and it will be remembered that the outcome of 
a visit of Sir Wilfrid Laurier to Washington was a proposal to- 
cover all these subjects by means of international negotiations. 
The counterproposal of the United States was that Canada should 
cease pelagic sealing pending negotiations on all matters in con- 
troversy. A treaty to stop pelagic sealing, formulated by the 
Washington conference representing Russia, Japan, and the 
United States, was to be effected through the attitude of Great 
Britain (Canada). Great Britain's refusal to grant this modus 
vzvendzma.Y render futile a long line of international efforts to 
settle the seal question. 

The effect of the new act of Congress on an ultimate settlement 
of the seal problem is a matter of considerable discussion. While 
the law prohibits the killing of fur seals in open waters, it does 
not stop the killing of seals on land by the American company 
which has a monopoly of the sealing industry on the Pribyloff 
Islands. The clause of the law prohibiting the importation of 
sealskins taken in open waters is calculated to take away the 
market for the skins secured by the Canadian sealers. These 
skins are sent to London to be dressed, and it is supposed that 
this country furnishes the biggest market for them. The skins 
taken by the American company on land, however, are also sent 
to London, where the preparation and dyeing of them is a trade 
secret. Such skins can be imported under the law, and success 
in enforcing it will depend on distinguishing between the pre- 
pared sealskins which have been obtained from seals killed in the 
open sea and those killed on land. 

No Agreement as to Sealing. — "Lord Salisbury's formal dec- 
lination of the proposal inviting Great Britain to join with the 
United States, Russia, and Japan in concerted measures to pro- 
tect the seal herds of Bering Sea was clearly foreshadowed in Sir 
Wilfrid Laurier's reply to the final overture from the American 
Government, and will, therefore, cause no surprise whatever. 
He dismisses the subject with the statement that as Canada re- 
fuses to sanction any such arrangement, England would not be 
justified in disregarding the policy of the colonial government. 

"The British attitude with regard to the seal question is now 
perfectly clear, and it is one of stubborn opposition to all measures 
against pelagic fishing. The proposition recently offered in be- 
half of the United States, that Canada should prohibit pelagic 
sealing for one year as a condition precedent to the formation of 
a joint commission to pass upon all questions in dispute between 
the two governments, has been curtly declined. In this position 
Sir Wilfrid Laurier is now .supported by the direct approval of the 
British Premier, and the negotiations instituted at Washington 
not long ago with so much encouraging horn-blowing have come 
to nothing 

"By prohibiting American citizens from pelagic sealing our 
Government will prove its own good faith in dealing with the 
case, and by excluding from our markets the skins taken by law- 



Yol. XVI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



95 



less fishermen from other countries it will merely declare that for- 
eigners shall not profit in the United States from a business in 
which our own people are forbidden to engage. This course is 
just and consistent, and has been made necessary solely by the 
stubborn refusal of the Canadians to join in less drastic measures 
to protect the mutual interests of the two countries in an industry 
which is sure to be utterly destroyed if present methods are per- 
mitted to continue." — The Mail and Express {Rep.), New Yo7-k. 

What is Canada ?— " Now Lord Salisbury deliberately decides 
that he will keep the matter a cause of irritation. If England 
herself had a great interest at stake in sealing, his position could 
be readily understood, but she has not. In his letter to Ambas- 
sador Hay Lord Salisbury frankly admits that the interests of 
England in the matter are 'slight, ' but makes the statement that 
it is not his policy to interfere with the foreign relations of 
Canada. 

"This declaration raises the very interesting question — What is 
Canada? If Canada is a dependency of the British Crown how 
can her foreign relations be separated from those of the empire? 
If a treaty or agreement made with Great Britain is not binding 
throughout the extent of the empire, of what value is such an in- 
strument? Plainly Canada can not be a colony and a nation too. 
The value of a treaty with a colony depends upon its approval by 
the suzerain. Lord Salisbury himself took that position and lived 
up to it when he disallowed the reciprocity treaty which Secretary 
Blaine negotiated with Newfoundland. If Canada has the treaty- 
making power to such an extent as to settle her foreign relations 
for herself without reference to London, then Canada, possessing 
the great attribute of sovereignty, is a nation with which we can 
deal as such. Lord Salisbury knows as well as any man living 
that Canada is not a nation, for she lacks that completion of 
judicature which is essential to sovereignty. An appeal from the 
highest tribunal in Canada may be taken to the Privy Council in 
London, which would not be the case were Canada independent. 

"The truth is that Lord Salisbury in his game of chess with 
diplomacy seeks to play Canada as independent in one move and 
as dependent at another. When it serves one purpose she is a 
nation, when it serves another she is a colony. That this game 
can not be continued indefinitely, the United States may yet im- 
press upon the English mind, recurring to our old-time position, 
that treaties with sovereign powers are not subject to colonial 
legislation. Should our Government point out to Lord Salisbury 
'the grave inconvenience' occasioned by his reference to the 'for- 
eign relations' of Canada, it might quote the recent opinion of 
Goldwin Smith that one thing that endangered the relations of 
the United States and Great Britain was the latter's policy of 
maintaining Canada as a political and military dependency on our 
border." — The Transcript (Ind. Rep.), Boston. 

Congress and Sealskins. — "The ninth section of the bill which 
passed Congress, prohibiting citizens of the United States enga- 
ging in pelagic sealing, provides that 

"the importation into the United States by anj' person whatsoever of 
fur sealskins taken in the waters mentioned in this act, whether raw, 
dressed, dyed, or manufactured, is hereby prohibited, and all such articles 
imported after this act shall take effect shall not be permitted to be ex- 
ported, but shall be seized and destroyed by the proper officers of the 
United States. 

"We have carefully gone over the debates in the Senate and 
House on the bill and can not find that this section attracted the 
attention of either the advocates or opponents of the bill 

"Last year there were, in round numbers, 20,000 skins taken on 
the islands and 30,000 taken in the water. Every one of the 50,- 
000 skins was sold in London, as all the skins taken in previous 
years had been. In England they are placed in the hands of ex- 
pert workmen, dressed, dehaired. and dyed. The skin is shaved 
down to the requisite thinness for working into garments, and in 
this state they are 'manufactured skins,' ready for sale to furriers 
and cloakmakers. . . . Not over 10 per cent, of the whole number 
comes to the United States in this state. . . . But the pelagic 
skins will not be sent over in this state of 'manufacture. ' They 
will be made up into garments, sewn on silk and other materials, 
when they are no longer 'skins,' according to the language of 
the trade or of the law. ... If an attempt should be made to 
apply the prohibition to sealskin garments — which is scarcely 
imaginable — every such garment will be vouched for by the im- 
porter as made from land skins, and how can the Government get 
behind the statement? 



"Here, then, is the effect of the bill, if enforced. American 
citizens will be prevented engaging in pelagic sealing, while 
Canadians can continue in it without check. American furriers 
and makers of sealskin garments will be thrown out of employ- 
ment, and importations of English-made sealskin garments will 
be considerably increased. A remarkable achievement, truly." — 
The Plaitt Dealer {Dem.), Cleveland. 

An Inevitable Reprisal. — "The far-reaching consequences of 
the pelagic-sealing bill . . . are the result of obstructiveness that 
has taken a British imperial form under pressure of Canadian 
policy. If the bill have the effect of law the British industry of 
dyeing sealskins will become obsolete. The loss to the United 
States will be small when compared to that entailed upon British 
merchants and manufacturers. The bill not only prohibits 
American citizens from pelagic sealing, but also makes contra- 
band the importation of any sealskins, raw, dressed, dyed, or 
manufactured. Now, the United States is far and away the best 
market for sealskins. Thus by terms of the pelagic-sealing bill 
Great Britain and Canada will be made the chief sufferers from 
the results of their selfish policy. 

"It has been pretended rather than argued by Great Britain, as 
the spokesman of Canada, that the United States has not lived up 
to the award made by the Paris convention of arbitration upon 
the seal fisheries. We have lived up to the latter, as well as in 
conformity to the spirit, of that award. The convention expressly 
refused to consider the issue of damages due from the United 
States to Canada for seizure of vessels engaged in supprisiti- 
tiously illegal sealing. All justly claimed damages we have been 
willing to pay ; but we have objected to paying damages to 
United States citizens who have violated a United States law 
while sailing under a Canadian flag, and who now claim recom- 
pense for the losses that they have incurred by their wanton 
breaches of law. We have done justly ; Canada has appeared in 
too many instances as a pettifogging prosecutor of illegal claims. 
We have exhausted the resources of diplomacy, we have accepted 
the results of arbitration, we have sought grounds of new adjust- 
ment, and we have been repulsed and politely insulted. 

"The pelagic-sealing bill is in the nature of reprisal, but of an 
inevitable reprisal." — The Inter Ocean {Rep.), Chicago. 

Canada Hard Hit. — "Canada, which will be hard hit by the 
branding of female seals on Pribyloff Island and the corraling of 
the 'bachelors,' can hardly make headway against this new meas- 
ure if it becomes a law. The chief market for sealskins is the 
United States. They are not supremely fashionable as articles 
of dress in any other country, particularly in the European capi- 
tals where styles in feminine garb originate. Thus if the Ameri- 
can trade is shut off the sealers can not count upon a profitable 
business anywhere. Between the protective measures in Bering 
Sea and the other protective measures at every American custom- 
house, what is there but large risk for small prizes in any sealing 
venture ? 

"Tho the new law might work a hardship to a select and ex- 
clusive circle, it seems to be the only one to fit the emergency. 
The letters which have passed between Sir Wilfrid Laurier and 
Gen. John W. Foster reveal the utter impossibility of getting 
Canada to agree to the conference proposals of the United States 
except by granting her bonding and other privileges, worth a 
hundred times more to Canada than the seals are to us. There 
seems to be no way to bridge this impasse, a fact which leaves 
America with no remedial alternative except that which Congress 
has chosen." — The Chronicle {Rep.), San Francisco, Cal. 

International Boycott. — "To prevent the importation of the 
pelts into this country will be to reduce the demand for skins. If 
the American purchasers do not stop buying under the law, they 
may not be able to smuggle in enough of the commodity to fill 
the regular demand. When such a measure of exclusion from a 
great market has been adopted, it will of course be necessary for 
the United States to justify its action. The importation of 
Japanese and Russian skins will be permitted, and the production 
of the Pribyloff Islands will also find its way to this market. But 
the Canadian sealers will find themselves barred out of a large 
income-earning trade formerly open to them. The people of this 
country will probably, in that case, witness the furriers over the 
borders adopting all sorts of measures in order to secure a chance 
in this business field. But the Government will oppose the efforts 
which they make so far as possible. To refuse absolutely to buy 



96 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 22, 1898 



any form of merchandise of another country is a policy accepted, 
as a rule, only in war time. . . . What will Canada and England 
think when, if this bill becomes a law, a legislative resolve as 
menacing in regard to one article of merchandise as Napoleon's 
Berlin Decrees were to all British products, is enforced by the 

United States? 

" It makes no difference that the interests involved in the seal- 
ing dispute are not so valuable as those affected by section 22. 
Or rather the feeling especially aroused by the whole dispute as 
to seals will probably so much more jealously inflame Canadian 
and British sentiment. The public of both countries knows now 
that the United States will not consent to a commission for the 
settlement of all disagreements, and also that Canada will not 
suspend sealing for a year. Matters are ripe for new excitement 
on this old subject, therefore, and it seems to be in the Presi- 
dent's power to give the signal for the outbreak." — The /ourttal 
{Ind.), Providence, R. I. 

The Bering-Sea Damage Case.— "While the Canadian Gov- 
ernment and the friends of ex-President Cleveland are trying to 
make the people believe that the award in the Bering Sea sealing 
case amounts to a victory for the Canadian poachers, such is not 
the fact. 

"The amount of the award is $464,000 [$473,000], while Secre- 
tary Gresham offered to compromise for $425,000 in 1895 and Con- 
gress refused to ratify his proposition. On the face of it, there- 
fore, this country will have to pay more than it would have paid 
if the proposition made by the Cleveland Administration had 
been accepted. 

" It must be remembered, however, that Great Britain origin- 
ally demanded $700,000, which amount was afterward reduced to 
$542,000. The only actual damages claimed amounted to $259,- 
000, the remainder of the amount claimed being speculative and 
intended to cover the prospective catch of seals which the poachers 
would be deprived of. That was why Congress refused to accept 
the Gresham compromise. A principle established by the Ge- 
neva conference on the Alabama case to the effect that pros- 
pective damages can not be made the subject of compensation 
was involved, and Congress saw that the allowance of the 
claim of the Canadian sealers would establish a dangerous 
precedent. 

"The award just made by the commissioners covers actual 
damages to the amount of $264,181, and the interest on these 
claims, some of which have been pending for twenty years, 
brings the total up to $464,000 [$473,000]. This is larger than 
the amount offered by the Gresham compromise, but the principle 
established by the Geneva conference has been maintained, and 
that is worth much more than the difference." — The Leader 
{Rep.), Cleveland. 

Hovy the Claims Arose. — "The claims for damages arose out 
of the seizure by the United States Government of British vessels 
engaged in sealing in Bering Sea, these seizures dating back as 
far as 1886. Our Government claimed that it had acquired with 
its purchase of Alaska from Russia exclusive rights to the seal 
fisheries in Bering Sea, and at one time even set up the doctrine 
that that sea was 'mare claiisutn, ' that is, one over which we had 
entire jurisdiction. It was on the basis of these doctrines that 
the seizures were made. The question, along with others, was 
referred to an international tribunal which met in Paris in 1893, 
and which decided that our claim to exclusive jurisdiction or to 
exclusive rights to the fisheries was unfounded, and that we were 
therefore under obligation to pay damages for the seizures. The 
amount of these damages was not assessed, however, and when 
the Cleveland Administration, in 1894, undertook to settle them 
by agreement with the British authorities for $425,000, Congress 
refused to appropriate the amount. Thereupon a British-Amer- 
ican commission was appointed [Judge Putnam, United States 
circuit court, New England, and Judge King, of the Supreme 
Court of Canada] ."— 7"//^ Ae^us {Ind.), Balthnore. 

" Under the terms of the treaty the damages awarded must be 
paid within six months after the award, so this session of Con- 
gress will be asked to include this sum in its appropriations. We 
trust there will be none of the horse-play of 1894 repeated, but 
that the money will be appropriated and the incident closed. It 
has lasted long enough and brought this country nothing but 
humiliation."— 77/^ 6^^^^ {Nat. Detn.) , St. Paul. 



FEDERAL INJUNCTION AGA! NST TENN ESSEE 

OFFICERS. 

' I ^O the writs of injunction recently issued by federal courts 
-■■ against state oflficers, in one case to prevent the enforce- 
ment of the three-cent car-fare law in Indianapolis, in another to 
prevent the enforcement of features of the South Carolina dis- 
pensary law, and in still another to restrain the Kansas state 
superintendent of insurance from interference with the business 
of Eastern insurance companies, has now been added an injunc- 
tion by Judge Clark, of Chattanooga, against the collection of 
taxes under an assessment by officers of the State of Tennessee. 
The state board of assessors is said to have increased the assess- 
ment of interstate corporations about 75 per cent., the increase on 
railroads being about $32,000,000. Judge Clark holds that the 
board has not equalized the assessments on different forms of 
property, and that the railroads have been assessed "out of pro- 
portion to anj'thing in past history in Tennessee or adjoining 
States." It is said, in reply, that real estate is assessed at about 
three fourths of its true value, while the railroad assessment is 
not half value. Judge Clark, in his opinion, takes exception to 
the justice of the attempt of the state board to base their assess- 
ments on stock and bond quotations, saying that "no more uncer- 
tain and delusive element in the attempt to fix values was ever 
resorted to than this stock and bond basis. To the person of 
average intelligence, it is well known that the stocks and bonds 
do not, as a rule, represent the money actually invested." 

Governor Taylor has called a special session of the legislature, 
which will consider this condition of affairs, and has sent the 
following message to The Outlook, New York, which that paper 
prints in connection with a statement of some of the facts spoken 
of above. Governor Taylor says : 

"The assessment of railroad, telegraph, and telephone proper- 
ties was increased by the board of assessors after six months of 
thorough investigation as to the values of these properties, and 
this assessment was confirmed by the governor, secretary of 
state, and treasurer after a thorough review of the assessment. 
This assessment increased the valuation of these properties about 
twenty-eight millions. The federal judge stepped in and arbi- 
trarily' set aside the assessment, and made an argument against 
the State. Our own state courts were open, and we think they 
are thoroughly competent to settle questions involving the assess- 
ment and collection of our own state revenues, without the inter- 
ference of the federal court. That judge set aside our assess- 
ments, and in effect made one of his own. Local self-government 
of the States is destroyed when the federal courts assume control 
of state affairs." 

Effect of the Injunction. — "Judge Clark's decision has made 
it necessary for the State to borrow money with which to meet 
the January interest on the state debt. Fortunately for the State. 
Governor Taylor had delayed calling a necessary extra session of 
the legislature until after the decision of Judge Clark was made 
public, and has now included the subject of railroad taxation in 
his call for the extra session. In the mean time the State is out 
the $225,000 railroad taxes, and there maybe retaliatory measures 
against the railroads, as well as a fight between the federal and 
state authorities. 

" The question at issue is whether the federal courts can revise 
the State's assessment of property for taxation. The case, of 
course, will be taken to the Supreme Court of the United States 
for final decision. The trouble all comes about from the estab- 
lishing of a railroad commission in Tennessee by the legislature 
which met last January. Politics had a great deal to do with its 
creation. The power was conferred on the railroad commission- 
ers to assess the railroads for taxation. This bill was only passed 
after a bitter fight. Governor Taylor named E. L. Bullock, 
Frank Thompson, and Newton White railroad commissioners, 
and they spent six months gathering statistics as to the value of 
the railroad property in the State. They then assessed the prop- 
erty at something near its cash value, the total aggregating $73.- 
500,000. an increase over former assessments of $32,000,000, which 
meant an increase of $100,000 in state taxes and a similar amount 



Yol. XYI., Xo. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



97 



in county taxes. The railroads filed exceptions and argued the 
cases thoroughly, but the commissioners stood firm. The rail- 
roads then appealed to the board of examiners, composed of the 
governor, secretary of state, and treasurer, but thej' reduced 
the assessments only a million and a half, leaving the net increase 
above thirty-one million dollars. The railroads then appealed to 
the courts. The Nashville, Chattanooga, and St. Louis, being a 
state corporation, filed its bill in the circuit court, but the Louis- 
ville and Nashville, the Southern and several other railways filed 
bills in the federal court, enjoining the board of examiners from 
certifying the approved assessments to the state controller. The 
railroads attacked the constitutionality of the acts, and charged 
that the assessment of railroad property was out of all proportion 
to the other property in the State. 

"Judge Charles D. Clark, of the United States District Court, 
heard the cases, and granted an injunction on the condition that 
the railroads pay to the State the amount that would be due under 
the assessment of last year. He said in his opinion that be felt a 
delicacy about declaring himself on the constitutionality of the 
act before the state supreme court had passed upon that question. 
He decided the case in favor of the railroads because he held that 
as county and district assessors had not assessed realty and per- 
sonal property over the State at its full value, but only at 60 or 70 
per cent, of what it is worth, it was manifestly unjust to assess 
railroad property at its full value. He gives the railroads until 
February i to pay taxes under the old rate, amounting to $125,- 
000, while under the new assessment they would reach $225,000. 
The railroad commissioners in the mean time will probably back 
assess the railroads, as they have power to do, for the diflference 
between this year's assessments and those of former years. The 
decision of the Supreme Court as to the assessment for this year 
will probably dispose of the back-assessment issue if it is made." 
— The Railway World, JSeiu York. 

A Case for Courts, Not the Legislature. — "We can't con- 
ceive of such a thing in a State ordered like this one as a punitive 
exercise of the taxing power, and it is almost equally as absurd 
that a state legislature should begin a war with the federal courts, 
which seems in a manner contemplated in this call for an extra 
session. Whether or not Judge Clark improperly entertained 
jurisdiction of the assessment case that was taken before him on 
an injunction process is not a proper matter for the Tennessee 
legislature to determine or even consider, The Supreme Court 
of the United States is the final arbiter in a matter of that kind, 
and if we cast aside its decisions we must alter the laws and the 
Constitution. It is idle to attack the courts, either state or na- 
tional. No civilized government can exist without courts, and a 
free people like those of the United States should abide by the 
institutions of their own creation until they see fit to change them. 

"In considering what is necessary to replenish the revenues of 
the State there should be no vindictive spirit toward railroads or 
other corporations. They are not responsible for the deficit. 
They have in the most part paid their taxes promptly and without 
grumbling. It was not unnatural that they should object to a 
doubling of their assessments when there was no such doubling 
on other property. The proper thing for the legislature to do is 
to provide for the raising of sufficient revenue by equitable as- 
sessment of all kinds of property. 

"If the railroads should pay taxes on the assessment as fixed by 
the railroad commission, the difference between that and the 
amount they will pay under Judge Clark's decision into the state 
treasury is not more than §100,000, not by any means an adequate 
sum to stop the present deficiency. A larger sum than this may 
be easily expended in court costs and attorneys' fees if more liti- 
gation is brought on by attempts at invidious taxation that will 
prove provocative of more contests. 

"If the State is to fight Judge Clark's decision, let the fight be 
made in the Supreme Court of the United States. That is the 
only proper and dignified way to proceed. If the matter had 
been decided in the state courts in favor of the State, the rail- 
roads, being non-residents, would have had the right to appeal to 
the federal Supreme Court. That tribunal would, therefore, be 
in any event the final arbiter. Judge Clark's decision provides 
for the collection of taxes on the basis of the assessment of 1896 
until a final adjudication is reached." — T/i£ A7nerzcan {Detn.), 
Nashville. 

The Rate of Taxation. — "In Tennessee — as nearly every- 



where except Indiana and Connecticut — the property of railroads 
and other interstate corporations has been paying a much lower 
rate of taxation than is paid by the great body of individual 
property-owners. A long struggle secured a revision of the tax 
laws about two years ago, and under this revision the state board 
of Assessors has increased the assessment of the interstate cor- 
porations about three fourths. The new assessment of railroads 
is about $72,000,000, and the railroads claim that it is unjust. To 
determine whether it is or not we naturally turned to the esti- 
mates of the last census. The figures for Tennessee are as fol- 
lows : 

True Value. Assessed Value. 

Real estate $484,000,000 $383,000,000 

Railroads 153,000,000 

Unless, therefore, railroads have declined in value more than real 
estate since 1890, this new assessment of railroads, $72,000,000, 
will be only half of their estimated true value, while the assess- 
ment of real estate has been more than three quarters of its true 
value. Against the new assessment the railroads, like resident 
property-owners, had the right of appealing to the state courts, 
but, being owned almost entirely outside the State, they had the 
privilege of going to the federal courts. This they exercised, 
and District Judge Clark granted an injunction. . . . The legis- 
lature of Tennessee has been called together in special session, 
and this conflict between the federal judiciary and the state gov- 
ernment is certain to be the subject of spirited discussion. It is 
possible that the outcome will be a law similar to that passed last 
year in South Carolina, requiring foreign corporations doing bus- 
iness in the State to subject themselves to the jurisdiction of the 
state courts. " — The Outlook {/nd.) , New York. 

The Commission and the State Constitution. — "When it is 
remembered that in the decision in the injunction case the main 
and essential point determined was the fact that the assessments 
levied by the railroad commission were unconstitutional because 
they were palpably out of proportion with the assessments upon 
other properties, and therefore in conflict with the requirement of 
the Constitution that 'all property shall be taxed according to its 
value, that value to be ascertained so that taxes shall be equal 
and uniform throughout the State,' we do not see where there is 
any present need of inviting a general and perhaps radical revi- 
sion of laws in regard to such assessments. If the assessments 
made by the railroad commission are inequitable, as they cer- 
tainly are, and in violation of the Constitution, as they certainly 
seem to be, there is no kind of legislation that can m»ke them 
constitutional. There is certainly no need of extending the 
powers of the commission when it has already exceeded its 
powers, and the legislature can not be expected to pass any laws 
that will be effective in defiance of constitutional limitations. 
The common-sense policy would be for the commission and the 
equalization board to correct the assessments, and if this can not 
be done without special legislation, that is about all that should 
be done by the General Assembly under this head." — The Ban- 
ner {Devi.), Nashville. 

"This Chattanooga injunction is the country's affair. Judge 
Clark's attitude invites consideration. He says, virtually, that 
he will permit Tennessee to collect certain state taxes when he — 
a federal judge — has satisfied himself that the state's assessing 
officers have performed their work properly, and not before. If 
one federal judge can call a halt of this kind in Tennessee, an- 
other could do the same thing in Connecticut. This Chattanooga 
injunction touches the taxing power of every State in the Union." 
— The Courani {Rep.). Hartjord. 

"Won't the legislature have a happy old time contriving to 
prevent taxpayers from seeking redress in the courts when their 
equities are invaded by politicians in office ! And what a lovely 
recourse it is proposed to give those mulcted in the name of Ten- 
nessee — the privilege of suing somebody for recovery of the 
money unjustly paid over, or appealing to the legislature for 
relief by a special act 1 Wouldn't they get their coin back in a 
hurry, tho!" — The Scimitar {Dent.), Memphis. 



The Ascent of Woman in Colorado.— Colorado is 
rising into prominence as a State where woman has equal rights 
with man. It is interesting, in this connection, to note the fol- 
lowing resolution, presented at the closing session of the State 
Teachers' Association : 

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this association that better 
educational results would be obtained if beginning with the fifth 



98 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 22, 1898 



grade some of the teachers employed in the grammar schools 
should be males." i 

The News, Denver, under the caption : "The Passing of the 
Sterner Sex, " makes the following comment : 

"The exquisite pathos of this modest suggestion is not apparent 
until one reflects that it is the last, expiring struggle for recogni- 
tion of a sex which once boasted of being lord of creation ; that it 
was offered in an assemblage of teachers ; that 'teacher' is inva- 
riably parsed in Colorado schools as a noun of feminine gender. 
Observe the humble deference with which the suggestion is ad- 
vanced. Note that nowhere does the resolution arrogate to itself 
the positive terms of the indicative mood, but is couched in the 
meek indecision of the subjunctive. 

"Alas, how have the mighty fallen ! Time was when the male 
teacher alone occupied the throne of power in the schoolroom. 
At his frown children tremble. But now he stands on the outer- 
most edge of the threshold while he humbly begs for an odd job 
in an occasional school to earn the price of a meal ticket. The 
pity of it is, the male teacher who has been deprived of his means 
of livelihood has no other field open to him. Wherever he turns 
he sees an impenetrable phalanx of petticoats between him and 
his daily bread. In common with some others of the male sex in 
Colorado, he has been put aside with the relics of a bygone age. 

"This progressive Centennial State is run by women. They 
teach the schools, keep the books, sell the goods. There are 
women doctors, lawyers, mine superintendents, deputy sheriffs, 
special policemen, and inspectors of all kinds. Elective and ap- 
pointive offices, state, county, and municipal, are filled by women. 
There are women undertakers and women pugilists. Women do 
the voting, women have ten times as many clubs as men. And 
they are still the best and truest of home-makers." 



HEBREW POPULATION OF THE UNITED 

STATES. 

IN an article on "The Growth of the Jewish Population in the 
United States," published for the American Jewish Histori- 
cal Society, David Sulzberger, of Philadelphia, has given figures 
by States to show the distribution and the increase of the race in 
this country. According to this writer, our Jewish population 
has increased from 230,000 in 1880 to nearly 938,000 in 1897. The 
most striking features of the statistics gathered by this writer are 
stated by the Utica Herald as follows : 

"The first estimate, made about 1S12, gave New York State a 
Jewish population of 400. Pennsylvania about 300, South Carolina 
about 1,000, and Virginia about 100, or a total in the United 
States of 1,800. By 181 8 the total had risen to 3,000. In 1826 it 
was estimated at 6,000, divided as follows : New England, be- 
tween 300 and 400 ; Pennsylvania, about the same ; New York, 
950; Virginia, 400 ; North Carolina, 1,200 , Georgia, 400 ; Florida, 
40; Louisiana, 100; the remainder scattered or unknown. By 
1840 the total had reached 15,000, while eight years later it was 
fully 50,000, New York alone having one fourth of this number. 

"Twenty years ago the first systematic attempt to obtain defi- 
nite statistical information was made by the board of delegates of 
American Israelites with the assistance of the union of American 
Hebrew congregations. Incomplete reports secured showed a 
Jewish population of 189,756. By 1880 these figures had increased 
to 230,257. The total population of the country in that year was 
50,155.783. It is calculated that since 1880 something over 485,- 
o<jo Jews have immigrated to the United States. This addition, 
together with the increase through births, gives at a conservative 
estimate a present Jewish population of 938,000, the total popula- 
tion of the country is now estimated to be 75,000,000. In other 
words, it is one half larger than it was seventeen years ago, while 
the Jewish population is more than four times larger. 

"The smallest Jewish population in any State or Territory is 
1,000, that being the number in each of the States of Maine, New 
Hampshire, ^'■ermont, and Wyoming. The Jews are not numer- 
ous in other agricultural States. Their greatest populations are 
in States having large cities, as for instance : New York, 350,000; 
Pennsylvania, 85,(Xjo; Illinois, 85.000; Ohio, 50,000; California, 
35,000; Maryland, 35,fXJO ; Missouri, 25,000; New Jersey, 25,000; 
Louisiana, 24,000; Massachusetts, 20,000." 



The New Orleans Times-Democrat says 
that Mr. Sulzberger's figures are only es- 
timates, but they are probably near the 
truth ; they are slightly high for the South, 
and too low for the West. The Times- 
Democrat proceeds : 

"There are, of course, no absolutely 
true figures obtainable for the reason that 
we do not take the census by religions or 
by races, but by countries. The Hebrews 
are enumerated as Germans, Russians, or 
Austrians. There is, it is true, a religious 
enumeration made of churches and church- 
membership, which shows the number of 
congregations, synagogs. etc., but this 
merely gives a hint at the number of He- 
brews in the country, for all are not 
church-members, and the race is much 
scattered in the interior towns, where it is 
impossible to organize congregations. 

"The increase in the number of Hebrews 
in the United States is extraordinary, 
nearly half of them having come here in 
the last twenty years. The Russian im- 
migration, which has been very large for 
years, is composed almost entirely of He- 
brews fleeing to this country from the 
persecution of the Russian Government, 
and nearly every country of Europe has 
sent us a considerable number. 

"In i3i8 there were only 3,000 Hebrews 
in the United States, as Mr. Mordecai M. 
Noah estimated, the bulk of them being 
in New York, New Orleans, and one or 
two other cities. There has been a steady 
increase since then, but it was about 1S81, 
when the anti-Semitic movement, directed 
against the Hebrews, showed great vigor 
in nearly all countries of Europe, that the 
tide of Jewish immigration was turned in 
this direction. It has grown steadily 
since then, until the United States to- 
day contains one seventh of all the He- 
brews in the world, and stands fourth 
in the number of Hebrews it contains, 
being exceeded only by Russia, Austria, 
and Germany ; and if the present Jewish 
immigration to this country continues at 
as rapid a rate as lately, it will not be 
long before it stands second, if not first." 



HOW WILHELM MIGHT 
WIN. 



TOPICS IN BRIEF. 

The wearer of the sealskin sacqiie is becom- 
ing interested in the sack of the sealskin. — The 
Transcript, Boston. 

England lends China money, China pays it 
to Japan as war indemnity, Japan uses it to 
strengthen her navy, and places her navy at 
the disposal of Great Britain. What could be 
nicer for John 'RwW'. — The Xervs, Jndianapolis. 

Couldn't Get Our.— "My wife was lost all 
day yesterday." 

"Lost? Where?" 

"She went shopping in a big deparlment-store 
and forgot to take her map."— The Record, 
Chicago. 

An Allukinc Idea.— " What I want to see," 
exclaimed Senator Sorgliain, "is the anne.xation 
of Hawaii. I envy the men who will one day 
come to this Capitol to represent the interests 
of that far-distant State." "Yes," rejoined tlie 
enthusiastic young friend, "they will loom up 
as giant reminders of the progress of civiliza- 
tion and of the increasing power of this young 
republic." ".So they will," answered the Sen- 
ator ; "so they will. And, in addition to all that, 
just think of the mileage."— 7'//^ Star, ll'ash- 
ingtO)i . 




Might show him one of 
his original paintings. 




Then an exhibition of his 
power as an actor. 



^ 


Mk 




^W 


^ c 


^<^^^ 



Or perform one of his 
original compositions on 
the Pretzelette. 




These failing, to war- 
ble a few ballads from 
his original opera. 




Might secure a groggy 

condition thus. 




But 



the 



this would be 
knockout blow. 
The Chronicle, Chicago. 



Yol. XVI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



99 



LETTERS AND ART. 



THE TRAINING OF A GREAT PAINTER OF 
WAR SCENES. 

EDOUARD DETAILLE, the French painter, has reached 
the eminence at which one becomes a subject for biog- 
raphers. He is already more or less well known in the United 
States. In not a few private galleries are admirable specimens 
of his art, and one of the treasures of the Metropolitan Museum 
of Art is a canvas of some size, depicting the defense of a French 
country-house during the Franco-German war. As a military 
painter he is thought by some not to have an equal living. M. 
Marius Vachon, who has in press a book on Detaille, furnishes 
an abstract of it to the Gazette des Beaux-Arts (Paris, Novem- 
ber) from which are made the following extracts : 

" In one of his salons Diderot thus wrote : ' You must have seen, 
whether you paint or whether you write. Tell me, M. Casanova, 
have 3'on ever been present at a battle? No. Well! no matter 
how much imagination you have, you will never be anything but 
mediocre. Follow the armies, go, see. and paint. ' 

"The contemporary school of military painting has realized, 
and even more than realized, the ideal of Diderot. It has painted 
war as it is, because it has seen war ; and. into this exact repre- 
sentation, besides life, it has put soul, because it has taken part 
in war. All our contemporary military painters have belonged 
to the army ; all have lived the life of the soldier, have known its 
sufferings and its miseries, its lighter hours and its gayety. As 
to Edouard Detaille, as soon as war was declared with Germany 
he obtained from General Pajol the favor of being attached to 
his staff in a civil capacity, in order to be near the scene of oper- 
ations ; he was doubly exempt from military service, as the son 
of a widow, and as having a brother in the ranks. After the 
foolish marches from Metz to Thionville, to Keydange, and other 
points on the frontier, and the frightful disorder which marked so 
sadly the beginning of the campaign — where he did not fail to 
observe every gaiter-button of our soldiers — despairing of being 
able to find his commander, he returned to Paris and enlisted in 
the Eighth Battalion of the Gardes Mobiles. Many times he was 
sentinel at an outpost. One day, with a reconnoitring party in 
the village of Bondy, he was caught between two fires. His little 
band barely escaped, leaving one dead comrade and bringing in 
a wounded one. 

"Everywhere Detaille recollected the saying of Chariot: 'The 
true military painter ought always to sketch under fire. ' At the 
height of the battle of December 30, he sketched on his notebook 
with charcoal some Prussian soldiers of the Saxon corps against 
whom he had just fought. By the advice and after the example 
of his master, it is thus that he put life into his work, realizing. 
so to speak, the dream of Meissonier, which had been 'to make 
sketches, to take here and there living notes and put them on 
canvas, just as Pascal was wont to put his notes on paper. ' 

"In 1884, continuing the rigorous application of his system of 
studies after nature, of impressions felt by direct contact with 
men, things, and events, Detaille asked permission of the Minis- 
ter of War to take part in the campaign of Tunis, and he was at- 
tached as officer of the staff to the expeditionary corps. And 
when he wanted to paint the soldiers of England and of Russia, 
it was on the field of maneuvers, at Aldershot and at Krasnoe- 
Seh, while living among the soldiers for weeks, that he studied 
the uniforms, the equipments, and the manners of the troops. 

"It would not be easy to find, in the history of art, a painter, 
either ancient, modern, or contemporary, whose biography can 
be used to demonstrate more thoroughly the theory of Taine as to 
the influence of race, of the times, and environment on an artistic 
personality. Detaille belongs to an old family of Picard origin, 
which became Parisian in the beginning of this city at a time 
when Paris had been transformed, so to speak, into an immense 
camp. His grandfather was contractor for the army under the 
republic and the empire ; it was he to whom Napoleon entrusted 
the task of assuring the transfer post-haste of the Imperial 
Guard from the camp at Boulogne to Germany. . . . Every one 
is the son of some one, said Alexandre Dumas. Detaille, in art, 
is the son of Meissonier, but bearing no more resemblance to him 



than there is physically and intellectually between two genera- 
tions. Detaille has written to me : ' The influence of Meissonier 
over my career and my work has consisted in the artistic con- 
scientiousness, in which he set me a daily example ; and I have 
never dreamed of ceasing to follow his marvelous lessons, which 
he always ended by telling me to go to nature, always nature. I 
have tried to avoid composing pictures of the epochs and subjects 
of which he was fond ; but I have never wished to forget his 
example, the cleverness and simplicity of his instruction, which 
was never complicated. I learned painting a little after the fash- 
ion of the conscripts of 1813, who got their education while on the 
march. '"—Translated Jor The Literary Digest. 



DAUDET'S LATEST STORY. 

JUST as death came to Alphonse Daudet, his new story, 
"Soutien de Famille" ("The Prop of the Family"), made 
its first appearance as a serial '\n L' Illustration (Paris). Con- 
versing about the story with Robert Sherard only a few days be- 
fore, Daudet remarked: "Not a soul knows of its existence." 
Mr. Sherard gives the following interesting account of the genesis 
of the story : 

" In 1884 there lived in the Marais quarter an excellent lady, of 
charitable disposition, who had as one of her tenants a worthy 
dealer in bronzes, whose affairs were in a very bad way — so bad, 
indeed, that he could not pay any rent. The landlady bore with 
him because she knew that he was a man of excellent intentions, 
and because she had a real attachment for his wife and children. 
When she died, in the same year — 1S84 — the house went by her 
will to her nephew, who was one of the under secretaries of 
state. This under secretary of state was preeminently a busi- 
ness man, and wished to hear nothmg about worthy tenants who 
had excellent intentions but did not pay their rent. So the dealer 
in bronzes received peremptory notice to quit. He quitted in the 
most effective fashion that he could devise ; that is to say, he 
went and drowned himself in the neighboring Canal Saint-Martin. 
He, too, left a will, by which he bequeathed his two children to 
a friend of his, a novelist, who lived in the same Marais quarter, 
and whose name was Alphonse Daudet. On receipt of his 
friend's letter Daudet rushed off to his house, found that the 
wretched man had carried out his intention of committing suicide, 
took the two orphans by the hand and hurried to the house of the 
under secretary of state, M. Felix Faure. M. Faure was dining 
peacefully when the fiery Meridional arrived, and was terribly 
distressed at the news of what his late tenant had done and at 
the way in which it was imparted. There was a scene in the full 
acceptance of the word. ■ M. Faure promised that everything that 
was in his power should be done for the unfortunate children, 
and very loyally kept his word, for they were educated at his 
cost. And Alphonse Daudet also kept his word, the word which 
was '' le mot de la fin' of the scene in M. Faure's hall : 'Z<f ro- 
mancier n' oubliera jainais.'' The novelist has not forgotten, 
and the opening chapters of 'Soutien de Famille.' which nobody 
is reading [because of the public absorption in the Dreyfus mat- 
ter] except perhaps the people at the Elysee, contain the story o^ 
M. Faure's unfortunate tenant and his children." 



Zola's Account of Daudet's Last Years.— What we 

take to have been a letter from Zola to the family of Daudet on 
being informed of the latter's death, appears, in English, in The 
Home Journal (New York, January 5). From it we extract the 
following passage : 

"Even the atrocious and continuous suffering of the last ten 
years did not weaken the activity of this mind, so potent in its 
charm. A frightful malady invaded his person, virtually depri- 
ving of the power of movement one who was free caprice itself; 
yet before the threat of the ever-approaching stroke he was 
superb, showing a firmness and serenity that filled us all with 
admiration. Reflect upon the cruelty of this fate, in the height 
of his energy and glory. What a frightful ruih of the future, of 
the hope of long life, of the works to finish, of the rest to enjoy, 



100 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 22, 1898 



after the triumphant harvest. And he had the great courage to 
still work, to still live. 

"Goncourt said with truth that his intelligence seemed to en- 
large. This lover of the sun, of long, wandering strolls, re- 
mained alone, face to face with his own heart and his own brain, 
when disease tied him to his study-table. And there he freed 
himself from many miseries ; he liberated his ideas ; so severely 
did he suffer that he learned to know and pity suffering. Every 
time that I saw him I found him more tolerant, more human, 
reading others with a pitying clairvoyance, gained at last to 
divine forgiveness. Thus we have talked for hours, I watching 
his thin hands tremble, his emaciated face — the face of Christ — 
pale with emotion ; and I always went away shuddering and 
upset to think that this man in pain could speak so tenderly of 
human suffering. 

"Think of what he had conquered, of what he leaves, at the 
age of fifty-seven, when still producing with the same fertility. 
Still, it is nothing that his literary work is interrupted ; it is suf- 
ficiently complete, sufficiently lofty, to be beyond the reach of 
destruction." 



THE GENIUS OF HEINE. 

ALL the authorities that we have immediately at hand give 
the date of Heinrich Heine's birth as December 13, 1799, 
agreeing in this with the date adhered to by Heine's own family. 
The Cosmopolis, however, accepts the conclusion reached by Dr. 
Ernst Elster, of Leipsic, that the proper date is 1797, and in 




HEINKICH HEINE. 

commemoration of the hundredth anniversary has, in its Decem- 
ber issue, three articles on the poet-satirist-philosopher. 

In the F'rench section of the magazine, Edouard Rod happily 
illustrates the peculiar nature of Heine's genius by a story of 
gifts bestowed by fairies on the child of the Jewish merchant of 
Diisseldorf. The good fairies gave, the infant imagination, sensi- 
bility, great talent, and, finally, genius. Then a wicked fairy 
approached the cradle, saying : 

"I can not take away anything that my sisters have given. 
But listen : each one of these gifts they have made, you shall 
possess in the highest degree. They have given you imagina- 
tion. You will have too much. Sensibility— again, you will 
have too much. These qualities will be always manifested with 



equal force, and since no one has given you moderation — a medi- 
ocre quality which is little thought of by elves dancing in the 
moonlight on the banks of the Rhine — I declare that you will 
never acquire it. Thus the precious gifts which have been given 
you, instead of being a source of joy, will cause you infinite 
torments, and because of your great endowments you will be 
more unhappy than those whom the fairies have altogether 
ignored." 

To Heine on his death-bed came again the wicked fairy, and 
confessing that all the poet's sufferings were the results of her 
gifts of excessive imagination and sensibility, begged his forgive- 
ness. His response was : 

"The gifts of thy good companions would have made of me 
only a stupid blunderer, a frivolous being, happy but insignifi- 
cant. Thy malediction alone gave to those gifts their meaning ; 
in condemning me to suffer thou madest my greatness. Without 
thee I would not have been a poet, my useless imagination would 
not have run through the gamut of the emotions ; mj' vain sensi- 
bility would not have extracted the harmonious essence of love 
and life — I should never have written my little songs. Now I 
am about to die, but my songs will live, they are there, around 
me — like a flight of singing birds. Do you not hear them? To 
many young men they reveal things unknown ; many young 
women will love from age to age to listen to their music ; and 
even those of mature years can not hear them without reviving 
their dearest memories. Is not this immortality well worth the 
suffering which thou hast imposed on me ? Once again there has 
come out of much evil some good. And because of that I pardon 
thee." 

Prof. Edward Dowden writes of Heine's Jewish parentage, his 
militant Hellenism, his radical sympathies, his protests against 
German feudalism, his beautiful love lyrics, and all the strange 
diversities and tendencies of his rebellious nature. Of his atti- 
tude on the political movements of his time. Professor Dowden 
says : 

" For the people Heine had the sympathy, the pity of an aris- 
tocrat ; and he had at the same time an aristocrat's alienation, an 
aristocrat's alarms. 'I love the people,' he wrote in the 'Confes- 
sion,' 'but I love them at a distance; I have always fought for 
their emancipation ; it was the great affair of my life ; yet in the 
most ardent moments of the strife I avoided the slightest contact 
with the masses.' He was never, he declares, the sycophant of 
his Majesty, King Mob. How beautiful is the People ! how good 
is the People ! how intelligent is this good and beautiful People ! 
— so cry the foot-lickers of the royal Caliban. No — Heine replies- 
— the poor sovereign People is not beautiful ; on the contrary, it 
is very ugly ; but the day may come when his Majesty will wash 
himself gratis in the public baths. The People is not good ; it is 
often as wicked as other potentates; but the sovereign People is. 
hungry, and one day it may have wherewithal to eat. The Peo- 
ple is certainly not very intelligent ; perhaps it is even less intel- 
ligent than other monarchs ; it would now, as eighteen hundred, 
years ago, cry 'Give us not Christ, but Barabbas' ; but one day 
it may attend free schools and get bread and butter free along 
with schooling." 

Heine was fond of calling himself a Don Quixote and Sancho- 
Panza in one. While he had much of Cervantes's irony. Profes- 
sor Dowden points out these deficiencies : 

" Heine had neither the nobility of character nor the moral 
sanity of the great epic inventor of pain. Some of the disso- 
nances which his poetry expresses were not those abiding incon- 
gruities of human nature which form the basis of Cervantes's 
humor; they were dissonances of the time, or dissonances which 
arose from his own infirmities of character; yet even these are 
delivered from much of their baser matter by the imagination, 
and find what we may term their 'catharsis' in irony. His purest 
joy conceals a pain ; his passion of love is half despair; his intox- 
ication of life ends in a galliard of skeleton dancers; his jests are- 
keenest when the jester lies stretched upon the rack; his tears are 
repressed with bitter laughter ; beauty weds grotesqueness in his 
verse ; what is noble holds hands with what is mean ; the flesh 
and the spirit encounter or embrace ; faith and unfaith interpene- 
trate each the other; he leans toward the future while he turns 



Vol. XVI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



101 



and gazes at the past. Nothing is concluded, no complete solu- 
tion is attained ; but it is something to state facts and to raise 
■questions; it is something to be discontented with shallow or 
partial solutions ; it is something to disturb a demure self-com- 
placency ; it is something to delay the answers to our problems 
until the conditions of an adequate answer have been considered. 
"Thus out of the diversities which lay in Heine's nature there 
rises at last a certain unity, and the conciliation of his contend- 
ing powers and tendencies is effected by an irony which detaches 
him from each of his inward moods and from each of his views of 
things external. He belongs to the race of skeptics, but he is a 
sceptic who inquires, a skeptic who hopes. He felt the need of 
a religion of joy, and also of a religion of sorrow, and he states 
the case on behalf of each." 

Perhaps the most striking article that has appeared on Heine 
is that of I. Zangwill, entitled " From a Mattress Grave." In this 
story — half true and half fiction — of the last year of Heine's life, 
there is given an analysis of the subtle, powerful, inconsistent, 
and perplexing genius, that could only be written by a wit, a 
satirist, a poet, and a Jew. To the dying poet's fifth-story room 
has come an Englishwoman whom Heine had known when she 
was a child at Boulogne. He talks to her of his youth, his 
studies, his work, and his dreams. Of religion Heine is repre- 
sented as speaking in the following strain : 

"And where, indeed — if not in Judaism, broadened by Hellen- 
ism — shall one find the religion of the future ? Be sure of this, 
anyhow, that only a Jew will find it. We have the gift of relig- 
ion, the wisdom of the ages. You others — young races fresh from 
staining your bodies with woad — have never yet got as far as 
Moses. Moses — that giant figure— who dwarfs Sinai when he 
stands upon it, the great artist in life, who, as I point out in mj- 
'Confessions,' built human pyramids; who created Israel ; who 
took a poor shepherd family and created a nation from it — a 
great, eternal, holy people, a people of God, destined to outlive 
the centuries, and to serve as a pattern to all other nations — a 
statesman, not a dreamer, who did not deny the world and the 
flesh, but sanctified it. Happiness, is it not implied in the very 
aspiration of the Christian for postmundane bliss? And 3'et, 'the 
man Moses was very meek' ; the most humble and lovable of 
men. He too — tho it is ahvays ignored — was ready to die for the 
sins of others, praying, when his people had sinned, that his 
name might be blotted out instead ; and tho God offered to make 
of him a great nation, yet did he prefer the greatness of his peo- 
ple. He led them to Palestine, but his own foot never touched 
the promised land. What a glorious, God-like figure, and yet so 
prone to wrath and error, so lovably human ! How he is modeled 
all round like a Rembrandt — while your starveling monks have 
made your Christ a mere decorative figure with a gold halo. O 
Moshe Rabbenu, Moses our teacher indeed ! No, Christ was not 
the first nor the last of our race to wear a crown of thorns." 

Acknowledging his own self-contradictions and inconsistencies, 
Heine is represented as thus describing himself : 

"Yes, I was born for paradox. A German Parisian, a Jewish 
German, a hated political exile who yearns for dear homely old 
Germany, a skeptical sufferer with a Christian patience, a roman- 
tic poet expressing in classic form the modern spirit, a Jew and 
poor — think you I do not see myself as lucidly as I see the world? 
'My mind to me a kingdom is,' sang your old poet. Mine is a 
republic, and all moods are free, equal, and fraternal, as befits 
a child of light. Or, if there is a despot, 'tis the king's jester, 
who laughs at the king as well as all his subjects. But am I not 
nearer truth for not being caged in a creed or a clan ? Who dares 
to think Truth frozen — on this phantasmagorical planet, that 
whirls in beginningless time through endless space ! Let us trust, 
for the honor of God, that the contradictory creeds for which men 
have died are all true. Perhaps humor — your right Hegelian 
touchstone to which everything yields up its latest negation, 
passing on to its own contradiction — gives truer lights and shades 
than your pedantic Philistinism. Is truth really in the cold white 
light, or in the shimmering interplay of the rainbow tints that 
fuse in it? Bah! Your Philistine critic will sum me up after I 
am dead in a phrase ; or he will take my character to pieces and 
show how they contradict each other, and adjudge me. like a 
schoolmaster, so many good marks for this quality, and so many 



bad marks for that. Biographers will weigh me grocer-wise, as 
Kant weighed the Deity. Ugh ! You can only be judged by 
your peers or by your superiors, by the minds that circumscribe 
yours, not by those that are smaller than yours. I tell you that 
when they have written three tons about me, they shall as little 
understand me as the Cosmos I reflect. Does the pine contradict 
the rose or the lotusland the iceberg? I am Spain, I am Persia, 
I am the North Sea, I am the beautiful gods of old Greece, I am 
Brahma brooding over the sunlands, I am Egypt, I am the 
Sphinx. But oh, dear Lucy, the tragedy of the modern, all- 
mirroring consciousness that dares to look on God face to face, 
not content, with Moses, to see the back parts; nor, with the 
Israelites, to gaze on Moses. Ach, why was I not made four- 
square like Moses Mendelssohn or sublimely one-sided like Savon- 
arola ; I, too, could have died to save humanity if I did not at 
the same time suspect humanity was not worth saving. To be 
Don Quixote and Sancho Panza in one, what a tragedy ! No, 
your limited intellects are happier ; those that see life in some one 
noble way, and in unity find strength." — Translation made /or 
The Literary Digest. 



ONE HUNDRED NIGHTS OF HAMLET. 

MR. FORBES ROBERTSON'S Hamlet, the flattering re- 
views of which were reproduced in our columns last sum- 
mer, has had a hundred nights' run ; and the effect upon the 
actors is compared by The Saturday Review to the effects of 
the six days' bicycle race upon the riders therein participating : 

"On Monday last I went, in my private capacity, to witness 
the last lap but five of the Lyceum trial of endurance. The per- 
formers had passed through the stage of acute mania, and were 
for the most part sleep-walking in a sort of dazed blank-verse 
dream. Mr. Barnes raved of some New England maiden named 
Affection Poo; the subtle distinctions made by Mrs. Patrick 
Campbell between madness and sanity had blurred off into a 
placid idiocy turned to favor and to prettiness ; Mr. Forbes Rob- 
ertson, his lightness of heart all gone, wandered into another 
play at the words 'Sleep? No more!' which he delivered as, 
'Sleep no more.' Fortunately, before he could add 'Macbeth 
does murder sleep, ' he relapsed into Hamlet and saved the situ- 
ation. And yet some of the company seemed all the better for 
their unnatural exercise. The King was in uproarious spirits; 
and the Ghost, always comfortable, was now positively pampered, 
his indifference to the inconveniences of purgatory having devel- 
oped into a bean-fed enjoyment of them. Fortinbras, as I 
judged, had sought consolation in religion ; he was anxious con- 
cerning Hamlet' s eternal welfare ; but his general health seemed 
excellent. As Mr. Gould did not play on the occasion of my first 
visit, I could not compare him with his former self; but his con- 
dition was sufficiently grave. His attitude was that of a castaway 
mariner Who has no longer hope enough to scan the horizon for 
a sail ; yet even in this extremity his unconquerable generosity 
of temperament had not deserted him. Wlien his cue came, he 
would jump up and lend a hand with all his old alacrity and 
resolution." 

The writer then proceeds to compare the old system of a stock- 
company playing two or three different pieces every night with 
the long-run system. He says: 

"The truth is, it is just as impossible for a human being to 
study and perform a new part of any magnitude every day as to 
play 'Hamlet' for a hundred consecutive nights. Nevertheless, 
if an actor is required to do these things, he will find some way 
out of the difficulty without refusing. The stock actor solved the 
problem by adopting a 'line' : for example, if his 'line' was old 
age, he acquired a trick of doddering and speaking in a cracked 
voice: if juvenility, he swaggered and effervesced. With these 
accomplishments, eked out by a few rules of thumb as to wigs 
and face-painting, one deplorable step dance, and one still more 
deplorable 'combat,' he 'swallowed' every part given to him in a 
couple of hours, and regurgitated it in the evening over the foot- 
lights, always in the same manner, however finely the dramatist 
might have individualized it. His infamous incompetence at last 
swept him from the reputable theaters into the barns and booths ; 
and it was then that he became canonized, in the imagination of 



102 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[JaQ. 22, 1898 



a posterity that had never suffered from him, and tlie incarnation 
of the one quality in which he was quite damnably deficient: to 
wit, versatility. His great contribution to dramatic art was the 
knack of earning a living for fifty years on the stage without 
ever really acting, or either knowing or caring for the difference 
between the 'Comedj- of Errors' and ' Box and Cox. ' 

"A moment's consideration will show that the results of the 
long-run system at its worst are more bearable than the horrors 
of the past. ... The best system, of course, lies between these 
extremes. Take the case of the great Italian actors who have 
visited us, and whose acting is of an excellence apparently quite 
beyond the reach of our best English performers. We find them 
extremely chary of playing every night. They have a repertory 
containing plays which count as resting-places for them. For 
example, Duse relieves Ma^da with M i ran do I inajwstSiSOMV own 
Shakespearian star actors used to relieve Richard the T/u'rd a.n^ 
Othello with Charles Surface and Don Feli.x. But even with this 
mitigation no actor can possibly play leading parts of the first 
order six nights a week all the year round unless he underplays 
them, or routines them mechanically in the old stock manner, or 
faces a terrible risk of disablement by paralysis, or, finally, re- 
sorts to alcohol or morphine, with the usual penalties. What we 
want in order to get the best work is a repertory theater with 
alternative casts." 



LEADING ENGLISH WOMEN NOVELISTS. 

" I ""HE reader of English fiction hardly suspects that the array 
■'■ of women novelists is a very formidable one. A few are 
being written about, but very little is known about the career 
and personal characteristics of the majority, in which are found 
names not unknown to fame and distinction. In The Woman at 
Home, a London magazine, Mrs. Sarah A. Tooley gives sketches 
of twenty-three English women novelists, and she has by no 
means exhausted the list. Without quoting from her remarks 
about such writers as Mrs. Humphry Ward, Ouida, Sarah Grand, 
Mrs. Hodgson-Burnett, and others, sketches of whom have ap- 




EONA l.YAl.l.. 



peared in The Litkkary Digest from time to time, we extract por- 
tions from the remaining pages of the elaborate essay. 

Miss Braddon, who appeals to the lovers of exciting and sensa- 
tional fiction of the higher order, and who writes to amuse and 
interest, is the subject of the first sketch. She is the daughter of 
a London solicitor and was born in the year which saw the Queen 
come to the throne. In her early teens she began to model her 
stories upon tho.se of Charlotte Bronte, but they appeared only in 
obscure newspapers. Mrs. Tooley proceeds as follows : 

"A printer at Beverley commissioned the young novelist to 
write, for ten pounds, a story which was to combine the humor 
of Dickens with the plot construction of G. W. M. Reynolds. 
Had she been told to combine the qualities of all the masters of 



fiction put together, .she would probably have set to work to ac- 
complish the task, being brimful of literary enthusiasm, and per- 
fectly reckless so long as she succeeded in making a sensation. 
The story born of this travail was her first novel, 'The Trail of 
the Serpent, ' originally published under the stirring title 'Three 
Times Dead.' The story was written in some farmhouse lodg- 
ings at Beverley, Yorkshire, where the budding novelist, accom- 
panied by her watchful mother, spent several months in rustic 
quietude, riding about the green lanes on a farm horse, desper- 
ately weaving plots and drawing characters, and returning home 
to fill sheets of foolscap with lightning-like rapidity, while the 




OI.IVE SCHKEINER. 

boy from the Beverley printer's waited in the farmhouse kitchen 
for the week's instalment of the story. It was a period of tre- 
mendous excitement, for the young author had likewise been 
commissioned to write a poem in the Spenserian meter, in which 
Garibaldi was to be the hero. But Miss Braddon was not meant 
for an heroic poet, and she grew to hate the Italian hero and his 
wonderful achievements, and loved far better to write prose about 
villains and fine London houses and ladies with hair like 'molten 
gold.' 

"Miss Braddon was about twenty-four when she published 
'Lady Audley's Secret,' which made her name as a novelist. 
This brilliant success was quickly followed by the equally popu- 
lar 'Aurora Floyd' and 'Eleanor's Victory' and 'Henry Dunbar.* 
By the year 1864 her writings had attained ajurore, for, despite 
some extravaganza, there was action and drama in the stories 
which held the reader's attention to the last page. There was 
always a well-conceived plot and a good supply of villainy, secret 
intrigues, murders, forging of wills, and the whole stock-in-trade 
of high melodrama skilfully handled. More than fifty novels 
have succeeded these first successes, and Miss Braddon still re- 
mains one of the most popular story-writers of the day." 

A most interesting story is that of Mrs. W. K. Clifford, who 
has been gaining fame since the premature death of her husband, 
the great mathematician and philosopher. She made three of her 
successes with anonymous works, "Mrs. Keith's Crime," "Love 
Letters of a Worldly Woman," and "Aunt Anne. " She belongs, 
to a West Indian family, iho she was born in London. She was. 
married in 1875, and in 1879 her husband died. To quote from 
the sketch ; 

"Speaking of the manner in which her first story was written, 



Vol. XTI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



103 



Mrs. Clifford said : 'I wrote so swiftly that my hand often ached, 
but with a certainty of what must be told that made the conclud- 
ing chapter an agony. It was done on my knees. When it was 
over, the awful stillness and the empty room appalled me. As 
for the story being painful, human life is often an agony borne 
in silence, and because of the silence, it does not occur to us to 
give the sympathy and the help that might leaven it. Besides, 
it is surely the business of fiction to make us familiar with the 
joys and sorrows of life. ' " 

Miss Bethara- Ed wards is usually spoken of in connection with 
moral and serious topics. She is an advocate of higher education 
for women, an antivivisectionist, and a stanch supporter of the 
Salvation Army : She is not a voluminous writer, and among the 
novels which she has produced the charming story of " Kitty" is 
the most popular. It was a favorite book with Mr. Coventry 
Patmore, and, Lord Houghton said " Kitty" was the best novel he 
had ever read. She was born in Epswich, and her mother's 
family were the great friends of Charles Lamb. 

"Edna Lyall" (Miss Ellen Bayly) is an established favorite, yet 
little is known about her. She was born at Brighton, and edu- 
cated at home by her father, a barrister. Her first novel, "Won 
by Waiting," lifted her into the front rank. The second novel, 
"We Two," deals with a persecuted atheist (supposed to be 
Bradlaugh). She has written sympathetically about the Irish 
and likes historical novels. Mrs. Tooley writes : 

"Music occupies some of her leisure, but her great delight is in 
seeing a good plaj', one of Shakespeare's by preference, and she 
often takes a flying journey to London for this purpose. It will 
be remembered that her own story, 'In the Golden Days,' has 
been dramatized. There is about Edna Lyall a beautiful charity 
which thinketh and speaketh no evil, and in these days when 
fierce competition for public favor induces a spirit of rivalry 
among most writers, one never hears from Edna Lyall one word 
of carping criticism about her fellow workers, even of those whose 
books you instinctively feel are not to her taste. She is content 
to do her own work steadily and quietly, and to leave the verdict 
to the public. That she suffers when adverse criticism comes 
seems natural, but she is one of those who make no sign. The 
dominant note of her writing is sympathy with the oppressed. 
We have seen it in the sympathetic portrayal of the persecuted 
for conscience's sake in her early books, and in the fair treatment 
©f Irish questions in ' Doreen' ; and it has been yet more recently 
•xemplified in 'The Autobiography of a Truth,' a slight story in 
itself, but written for the purpose of showing the wrongs of the 
Armenians, and the proceeds of which have been devoted to the 
Armenian Fund." 

It is not generally known that Meredith "discovered" Olive 
Schreiner. Her early history has often been told, but her social 
and philosophical views have received but vague reference. 
Touching these we read : 

"Olive Schreiner is one of the most consistent advocates for the 
emancipation of woman. She throws the responsibility on the 
shoulders of the women themselves, and thinks it beside the mark 
to demand the franchise from men. It is women who must en- 
franchise themselves by rising above that which is paltry and 
trivial, and I am afraid that she does not consider the general 
tone of women's magazine literature as giving a very encouraging 
indication that women are on the high road toward emancipation. 
It is only justice to her to say that she hates the personal sketch 
like poison. Much as we honor the earnestness of Olive Schreiner's 
character, it becomes at times a little morbid. She lacks the sa- 
ving quality of humor and the capacity to see more than one side 
to an argument. The latter is, perhaps, her great strength as a 
teacher of lofty morality 

"The building up of a great literary fortune is remote from 
Olive Schreiner's mind. She has always been a poor woman and 
is likely to die one. The hoarding of money and the accumula- 
tion of interest is against her socialistic ideas. It is the duty of 
each one to work that he may eat, she would tell us, but not to 
work for the sole aim of money-making. This may account for 
the fact that so little has come from her pen since her first bril- 
liant success. When she has published it has been in the hope 



of conveying some of the writer's joy to the reader or of righting 
a wrong. Her publications by no means represent the number 
of her compositions. Writing is with her a religion, and it is 
only now and again that she lifts the veil for others to read. She 
writes very little, if at all, when in this country ; its luxuriant 
scenery does not stir her imagination like the lone expanse of the 
Karroo, amid which she has placed her home at Metjisfontein. 
She dislikes the vicinity of crowds, and sighs for the solitariness 
of the veldt. Altho she is a bright and entertaining talker, full 
of interest in the people whom she meets, hers is essentially a 
soul which loves self-communion." 



ANOTHER VISIT FROM JOSEF HOFMANN. 

NEXT March we shall have another visit from Josef Hof- 
mann, the musical prodigy who ten years ago (being then 
but ten years of age) kindled enthusiasm among music-lovers of 
America with his precocious recitals. He will come under the 
auspices of the Orchestral Association of Chicago, and will play 
a number of concerts with Theodore Thomas in New York, Bos- 
ton, Philadelphia, Chicago, and other cities. The prediction was 
freely made ten years ago that Hofmann was one of the child- 
prodigies that never amount to anything more ; and since that 
time he has done little to attract public applause. This has not 
been due, however, to any lack of ability. We quote what The 
Musician has to say about him : 

"Ten years ago a little fellow in knee trousers stepped out into 
the musical arena of New York City. His primary purpose was to 
make money enough to enable him to complete a perfect musical 
education, while of course he was willing to carry away any 
honors which might be bestowed upon him. His public career 
at that time was, however, of short duration, for, after he had 
succeeded in arousing the greatest enthusiasm, and while his name 
and fame were being flashed over the wires from one end of the 
country to the other, the New York Society of Prevention of 
Cruelty to Children stepped in and cut short a tour which, had 
it been permitted to continue, would have eclipsed everything of 
its kind the country had ever seen. He was deprived of his only 
means of support, but he had some good friends, for they came 
to his assistance with abundant finances, and enabled him to re■^ 
turn to Europe and pursue a course of study with the best mas- 
ters, the foremost of which was the great Rubinstein. So pleased 
was the great master with his ward that he is said. to have often 
expressed his greatest satisfaction at having' found a person 
worthy to inherit from him his own incomparable ' art. EVen 
stern St. Petersburg, exacting more from a German than from 
another nationality, gave him the warmest reception, and. in 
Paris, Berlin, Vienna, and other great' musical centers press 
joined with public in giving him a place with the greatest piaur 
ists. As we have already said. Hofmann is only twenty years of 
age, but tho a boy in years, in his art he is a man, fully mature 
in his understanding of the different composers, and said' to be 
able to give unusually clear and sound readings of their works." 



NOTES. 

Professor Huxley's son Leonard is following the example of the sec- 
ond Lord Tennyson in writing a biography of his father. 

The latest discovery among the thousands of papyri found by the Egypt 
Exploration Fund at Behnesa, according to a letter to The Nation from Rev. 
W. C. Winslow, is a portion of Thucydides of the first century a.d. The 
society is now to publish the more important of these literary and histori- 
cal treasures. The first volume, a quarto of three hundred pages, with fac- 
simile plates, will include : A fragment of the second or third century, 
containing most of the fir.st chapter of St. Matthew's gospel ; a leaf con- 
taining the Acts of St. Paul and Thecla ; portions of a Sapphic poem, prob- 
ably by Sappho ; fragments of Sophocles's "CEdipus Tyrannus," of Plato's 
" Republic," of Xenophon's " Hellenica," of Isocrates and Demosthenes, 
and of a lost comedy— about fifty lines ; a part of an important treatise on 
meter— perhaps by Aristoxenus, the chief early authority on meter; much 
of a chronological work, with dates from 356 to 316 B.C. ; a lengthy proc- 
lamation by Flavianus Titianus, Prefect of Egypt under Hadrian ; an 
interview between the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and a magistrate of 
Alexandria ; a roll giving a list of the quarters and streets of Oxyrhyncus, 
and of their guards, in the fourth century .A.D., and perhaps the portion of 
Thucydides, of the first century, just found. 



104 



THE LITERARY DIGEST. 



[Jan. 22, 1898 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION. 



A SCIENTIFIC MIND CURE. 

THE interdependence of mind and body have long been rec- 
ognized ; but it has remained for the patient investigators 
of the last quarter of the nineteenth century to place upon a gen- 
uinely scientific basis investigations of this relationship which 
promise to have an important influence upon human welfare and 
upon the practise of medicine. 

Wide publicity has been given to the experiments made by 
Prof. Elmer Gates, of Washington, on the effect of the emotions 
upon the excretions and secretions ; and on dirigation — the power 
of the individual to confine his consciousness exclusively to the 
sensations of any selected part of the body and by practise to send 
more blood to that part and to alter therein the lymphatic and 
thermic functions. In the December Medical Times Professor 
Gates has a highly interesting paper giving the results of certain 
experimental researches into cause and cure of disease along new 
lines and by new methods. 

These researches, he says, originated in the observation, made 
many years ago, that during certain days or hours his mind 
worked with greater facility and originality than during certain 
other days and hours. Experiment showed him that certain 
bodily and environmental conditions invariably j^roduced certain 
mental states. He expresses the conviction that we will be able 
finally to predict the precise mental change which will result from 
any given environment or bodily change. 

He alluded to his well-known experiments upon groups of ani- 
mals, giving certain ones excessive training in the use of some 
one definite mental function, depriving others of the chance to 
use this function, and then making chemical and microscopical 
comparisons of those cortical areas of the brain where the given 
function is located, to see if there would be structural differences. 
His emphatic conclusion is that such conscious mental experience 
creates in some parts of the brain definite chemical change and 
structural embodiment of that experience, the refunctioning of 
that structure being essential to the remembering of that expe- 
rience. This led to the beginning of the art of brain-building for 
the purpose of embodying more mind. He continues : 

" Mind is life. Life is not something different from mind. The 
life of a cell is its mind. The activities of a cell are psychologi- 
cal activities, and therefore the regulation of the psychological 
activities of cells and multicells is the basis of the long-looked-for 
fundamental laws of cure ; therein lies the key to the mystery of 
disease and pain and evil, and therefore also lies the Ariadne's 
clew to health and happiness and success. I think no impartial 
mind can review with me the evidence upon which these conclu- 
sions are based and doubt for a moment that life and vitality and 
psychic processes are solely mental processes. If so, then we are 
in sight of the law of health and disease and crime, and we see it 
not by faith or through mysticism or symbolism, but through the 
medium of verified facts which are conquerors of scientific knowl- 
edge, and the study of this law comes within the province of 
strictest scientific research. If we can know how to regulate mind 
processes then we can cure disea.se — all disease. There are two 
methods of regulating the mind in an organism — first by varying 
the environment conditions and the bodily conditions of the 
organism, and thus bringing about modifications of the mental 
activities; and, second, by causing the organism voluntarily to 
vary its own mental activities, and thus change its bodily struc- 
tures and its chemisms and environments. " 

Under the fascinating topic of man's <jrganic relations to the 
sum total of living things upon the earth. Professor Gates asserts 
that in proportion to the degree of the mentation every living 
thing gives off electric waves and other kinds of waves, and these 
forms of radiant energy falling upon other living things at once 
modify their mental processes. This constitutes a physiological 
oneness between all living things. In this larger cosmic organ- 



ism each living thing is an organ — a theory strongly reminding 
one of Sweden borg's doctrine of grand man. 

Discussing brain-building as a means of c