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THE 

LITERARY DIGEST 






VOLUME XXXI 



JULY, 1905 — DECEMBER, 1905 



/ 



n 







FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, Publishers 

44 TO 60 EAST 23D STREET, NEW YORK 



The Literary Digest 

VOLUME XXXI 

(FOR SIX MONTHS hNDlNG DECEMBER 51, 1905) 




Absent-minded man, The, 573 
Acting, art of, A dramatist on the, 243 
Adam, A monument to, 191 
Addicks, J. Edward, Passing of, 296 
Adulterated foods. Analysis of, 81 
Affection, maternal, Origin of, 244 
Africa, Central, The drying of, 148 
After-dinner oratory in America, 10 
Agnostic, An, who is not miserable, 180 
Agnosticism's responsibility for social 

evils, S3 
Agricultural department, more scandals 

in, 202 
Air, Fresh, for firemen, 457 

Radioactive matter in the, 573 
upper, Climate of the, 988 
Airship in New York, A successful, 296 
Airships, An advance in, 700 
Albright Art Gallery, Dedication of, 11 
Alcohol in propritary medicines, 824 

Medical profession and, 175 
Alcoholic patent medicines. Decision 

against, 446 
Allais, Alphonse, Death of, 849 
Alliance, Anglo-Japanese, A new, 370; 
foreign views of, 495 
of England and Russia, Proposed, 
662 
Alliances, France and the new, 539 
Allies, Russia's need of, 218 
Amateurishness of Lowell, 781 • 

Amateurs, "Professional," in athletics, 39 
America, Artistic photography in, 411 
churches in. New attitude of the, 87 
Hostility in Cuba against, 522 
in the new grouping of Powers, 124 
Jewish celebration in, 789 
political corruption irt, A French 

\iew of, 220, 795 
Religious tendencies in, 87 
Russian Jews in, 375 
short story in. Beginning of the, 240 
American aid to the suffering Jews of 
Russia, "JTZ 
art. An academic movement in, 911 
breed. The, 275 

historians compared. Four, 143 
immigration, Canada's growth and, 

464 
immigration into Canada, A Cana- 
dian on, 884 
imperialism, French encouragement 

to, 542 
institutions, Is Catholic education a 

menace to? 578 
laborers deported from Canada, 57 
literature, Rogers's service to, 160 
museums, German praise for, 821 
navy, Italian view of, 391 
painting and American history, 302 
paintings, Collection of, 142 
political conceptions, Atheism in, 992 
politics in quip and cartoon, 982 
popular magazine, Superiority of the, , 
520 I 

scholarship, A British thrust at, 141 
science, German view of, 454 
temperament in painting, 171 
virtue and French virtue, 90 
woman, The French novel and the, 



INDEX OF SUBJECTS 

America's danger from cholera, 404 

Ancient attempts at anatomical repairs, 

954 
civilizations died out. Why, 702 
Andrews, W. H., and his enterprises, 724 
Anesthetic, A new, 47 

Blue light as an, 174 
Angels, Men or women? 565 
Anglican clergyman. The new, 18 
Anglo-Cuban treaty. Opposing the, 568 
Anglo-French peril to Germany, 662 
Anglo-Japanese alliance, A new, 370; 

foreign views of, 495 
Animal forms as breeders of disease, 384 

wild. The, in art, 483 
Animals and plants. Radioactive, 383 
Behavior of, during an eclipse, 788 
Double, 827 
Mind in man and, 953 
Plants that hide from, 49 
sleep. How, 576 
Annapolis, Fatal fist fight at, 736 

Hazing at, 979 
Annapolis code. Defense of the, 979 

Meriwether sentence. Disappoint- 
ment over the, 946 
Anti-Union agitation. An, 993 
"Apostle" the, A new political play in St. 

Petersburg, "^j,! 
Apostles, teachings of the, Ignoring the, 

619 
Arbitration movement. Progress of the, 

266 
Arcti;, The, as a health resort, 419 
Architecture, church. New influences in, 
180 
National expression in, 304 
Armies of Europe, A propaganda of 

mutiny in the, 749 
Army, British, Scandals in the, 88; the 
newspaper peril to the, 963 
canteen, Trj-ing to restore, 521 
German, French arraignment of the, 

254 
Our under-officered, 863 
Social conditions in the, 692 
Art, American, An academic movement 
in, 911 
An art that photography has degrad- 
ed, 9 
as an aid to religion, 280 
Dedication of Albright Gallery, 11 
Dramatic, and the masses, 142 
Finland's national, A loss to, 528 
lialo in, Origin of the, 792 
Hypnotism of, 783 
Japanese, Disappearance of, 780 
Japanese, How civilization is killing, 

449 
Japanese, lU<iyo-ye, the popular 

school of, 240 
Jast great racial. Disappearance of, 

780 
modern, Biblical influences in, 380 
Relation of, to reason and morals, 
■ 606 

religious work of, A great, 182 
Society versus, 112 
Theology and, 249 
versus the picture, 697 
Wagner's idea of, 413 
wild animal in. The, 483 



Artistic event, A significant, 11 

failure, Bouguereau's, The lesson of, 

871 
pathfinder, Lanier as an, 868 
photography, A new method in, 385 
situation. The present, 414 
Arts, fine, school of. The church as, 150 
Asphyxiation, Warnings of, 117 
Assembly, legislative, for Russia, 217, 268 
Association, Young Alen's Christian, The 

founder of the, 829 
Atheism in American political concep- 
I tions, 992 

Athletics, "Professional amateurs" in, 39 
Atkinson, Edward, Death of, 970 
Atmosphere, Height of the, 788 

of two distant planets, 488 
Attitude toward the President, South's 

changed, 646 
Audience, The telephone in the, 574 
Austen, Jane, and her English sisterhood, 

952 
Australia, Animal pests in, 788 

Booth's scheme to transport Eng- 
land's poor to, 663 
Austria-Hungary, Universal suffrage in, 

, 492. 539. 581, 796 
Automobile dust, To reduce, 616 

law-n-mowers, 175 
Automobiles in Death Valley, 655 
Autumn leaves. Colors of, 826 

B 

Babylonian sources of the Bible, 310 
'' Bacon, Robert, appointed to succeed 
Francis B. Loomis, ZIZ 
Initiation of, 675 
Balfour, British Premier, resigns, 881 
Plight of, as view^ed by the French, 

315 
Speech of, to the unemployed, 835 
Balkans, The threatened outbreak in the, 

709 
Baltic scare, The German, 283 
Balzac, Notable tribute to, 274 
Bank, Enterprise National, Failure of the, 

645 
Baptist and Free Baptist, Toward the 
union of, 994 
apologetic, new, Sugestions toward a, 

i 537 

I World Congress, meeting of, 312 

! Barnardo's experiences, Some of, 675 
Barrie's fairyland drama, 43 
Battle, Winning a, by telephone, 146 

of the Sea of Japan, and "Nelson's 

year," 284; Naval authorities on, 40 

Battle-ship possible, Is a perfect? 916 

Bed of Niagara River, The, 872 

Beef trust, More indictments of the, 42, 

970; fined, 444; plea of immunity of, 

'"Bennington" disaster, Ihe, 138; augur- 
ies of the, 167 
Negligence on the, 297 
findings, dissatisfaction over, 340 
Berlin, Theodore Roosevelt professorship 

in, 780 
Bernhardt and antisemitisni in Canada, 

961 
Bernhardt's art in its meridian, 951 
Berry. William H., Pennsylvania's new 
treasurer, 848 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Beveridge's timely laugh, 470 
Bible as a model of style. Inadequacy of 
the, 79 
Babylonian sources of the, 311 
Communism and the, 922 
Conscience or the? 747 
First lawcase in the, 387 
New York Bible Society's distribu- 
tion of the, 959 
Biblical influences in modern art, 381 
Birth-rate, The declining, 294 
Bjoerkoc, Mystery of, 253 
Black, Why negroes arc? 485 
Blackmail, Insurance legislation as, 525 
Blood in different races. Differences of, 

876 
Body as a source of electric light. The, 

453. 656 
Bonaparte, Secretary, and the Constitu- 
tion, 941 
Bond, universal. Poetry as a, 482 
Book, The greatest, written by a woman, 

820 
Books, Fear and distrust of, in Russia, 12 
F'oreign, in Russia, 44 
Shaw's, banished from libraries, 481 
Useful, on Japan, 625 
Useful, on Russia, 344 
Books, Reviews and notices of: 

Adventures Among Books (Lang), 

89 
Alaska and the Klondike (JMcLain), 

428 
America, The Italian in (Lord), 666 
Annonciatcur dc Ja Tempete (Gor- 
ky), 965 
Antarctica (Nordenskjcild), 427 
Application, Essays in (Van Dyke), 

957 
Art, Reason in (Santayana), 696 
Austin, Jane, and Her Times (Mit- 
' ton), 952 
Autogiography of Andrew D. White, 

187 
Balzac, Aspects of (Helm), 838 
Beautiful Lady, The (Tarkington), 

93 
Beauty, The Psychology of, (Puffer), 

983 

Belted Seas, The (Colton), 318 

Benton, Thomas Hart, Life of (Car- 
negie), 94 

Bible, Leading Cases of the (Am- 
ranj), 387 

Books and Personalities (Ncvinson), 

341 
Boss of Little Arcady, The (Wilson), 

586 
Boys, Real, (Shute), 754 
Bronte, Charlotte (Shorter), 820 
Bushido, the Soul of Japan (Nitobe), 

252, 625 
Cambridge Sketches (Stearns), 413 
Campaign with Kuropatkin, The 

(Story), 344 
Case of Russia, The (Rambaud), 344 
Celibates Club, The (Zangwill), 498 
Ceux de la Mer (Lemonnier), 965 
Cherry Ribband, The (Crockett), 838 
Child and Religion, 458 
Children of the Night, The (Robin- 
son), 271 
Christian Religion, The . Universal 

Elements of the (Hall), 619 
Christianity in Modern Japan (Clem- 
ent), 625 
Churches and the State, The Separa- 
tion of the (Briand), 89 
Cincinnati, Bossism in, 641 
Combats (Adam), 585 
Constitutional History of the United 

States (Thorpe), 93 
Corporations (Davis), 798 
Dai Nippon (Dyer), 625 
Day, The Long (Richardson), 837 
Delegate, The Walking (Scott), 428 
Discord, Apple of. The, 310 
Diseases, Immunity in Infective (Met- 

chinikoff), 966 
Divine Fire, The, (Sinclair), 317 



Books, Reviews and notices of: 

Dovvson, Ernest Christopher (Sy- 

nions), 343 
Edge of Circumstance, The (Noble), 

754 . 
Essays in Application (Van- Dyke), 

922 
h-thics of Force, The (Warner), 20 
h'ar East, The (Little), 625 
I'iction, English, The Makers of 

(Dawson), 619 
F'itzgerald, Edward (Benson), 45 
F'ranklin, Benjamin (Smyth), 913 
F'rench Profiles (Gosse), 611 
Glcnanaar (Shechan), 585 
God's Choice of Men (Richards), 791 
Grapple, The (Cooke), 837 
He and Hecuba (Hutten), 965 
Heretics (Chesterton), 2,TJ 
Home, Back (Wood), 798 
House of Mirth, The (Wharton), 886 
How to Write (Baldwin), 79 
Hugo, Victor, at Guernsey (Stepfer), 

958 
Hymnal, Methodist, The, 489 
Idolatry, The New (Gladden), 992 
Impresisons of Ukiyo-ye (Amsden), 

240 
Isolee (Bazin), 585 
Italy (Deecke), 498 
Italy and Sicily, Southern (Craw- 
ford), 753 
Jack-o'-Lantern, At the Sign of the 

(Reed), 966 
James, Henry, The Novels of (Gary), 

912 
Japan, All About (Brain), 625 
Japan, Great (Stead), 625 
Japan-Russian War, The (Tyler), 344 
Japan To-day (Scherer), 625 
Japan, Young, (Scherer), 625 
Japanese Architecture, Impressions 

of (Cram), 780 
Japanese Spirit, The (Yoshisaburo), 

625 
Jardin de la Mort (Bertrand), 1000 
Jesus Christ and the Christian Char- 
acter (Peabody), 959 
Jorn Uhl (Frensen), 318 
Journal of the House of Burgesses of 

Virginia, 1773-1776 (Kennedy), 585 
Jungle Trails and Jungle People 

(Whitney), 846 
Land of the Rising Sun, The (Wol- 

lant), 625 
Lanier, Sidney, Life of (Minis), 868 
Latins and Anglo-Saxons (Cola- 

janni), 786 
Law and Public Opinion in England 

During the Nineteenth Century 

(Dicey), 626 
Lectures and Essays (Aingee), 984 
Lhasa and its Mysteries (Waddell), 

762 
Life, The Endless (Crothers), 957 
Light, The Inward (Bradford), 747 
Log-Book, A Levantine (Hart), 1000 
Love Alone is Lord (Moore), 754 
Love Triumphant (Knowles), 188 
Love's Cross-Currents (Swinburne), 

449 
Lowell, James Russell (Greenslet), 

7S1 
Man from Red-Keg, The (Thwing), 

798 

Man of the Hour, The (Thanet), 837 

Man's Life, Part of a (Higginson), 
1000 

May Margaret (Crockett), 666 

Men, White, Effects of Tropical 
Light on (Woodruff), 702 

Minerva's Maneuvers (Loomis), 797 

Miniatures (Heath), 9 

Mirabeau and the F'rench Revolu- 
tion (Warwick), 498 

Miss Ballard's Inspiration (Howells), 

187 

Missourian. The (Lyle), 586 
Moon, A Digit of the (Bain), 1000 
Mother, The (Duncan) 753 
Mountain of Fears, The (Rowland), 
1000 



Books, Reviews and notices of: 

Musical Studies (Newman), 208 

Nedra (McCutcheon), 855 

Nervous and Mental Affections, 

Writing and Drawing in (Fursac), 

617 
Nervous Disorders, The Psychic 

Treatment of (Dubois), 497 
New Testament, l)abylonian Ele- 
ments in the (Jeremias) 745 
New Testament, The Messianic 

Hope in the (Mathews), 351 
Nineteenth Century Literature, Main 

Currents of (Brandes), 450 
Odes from the Divan of Hafiz (Gal- 

lienne), 665 
Old Masters and New (Cox), 482 
Old Testament in the Light of the 

Old Orient (Jeremias), 745 
Parisians Out of Doors (Smith), 317 
Paroles, Dernieres (Tolstoy), 965 
Philippine Problem, Our (W^illis), 

263 
Plant Life, New Creations in (Har- 

wood), 699 
Plunkitt of Tammany Hall, 895 
Poems, Selected (Swinburne), 650 
Policy, The Best (Flower), 966 
Port Arthur, F"rom the Yalu to 

(Wood), 625 
Prcscott, William Hickling (Peck), 

143 
Prison, En (Gorky), 965 
Religion, a Criticism and a Forecast 

(Dickinson), 280 
Religion and Art (Spalding), 281 
Religion and Politics (Crapscy), 491 
Religion, Evolution of (Farnell), 878 
Religion of Duty, The (Adler), 122 
Rose o' the River (Wiggin), 797 
Russia (Gautier), 344 
Russia (Wallace), 344 
Russia as it Really is (Joubert), 344 
Russia from Within (Ular), 344 
Russia in Revolution (Perris), 344 
Russia, The Land of the Great White 

Czar (Philips), 344 
Russian Jew in America, The (Bcrn- 

heimer), 375 
Russian Literature (Kropotkin), 344 
Russian Peasantry, The (Stcpniak), 

344, 536 
Science and a Future Life (Ilyslop), 

179 
Science et Libre Pensee (Berthelot), 

665 
Sea Power in its Relations to the 

War of 1812 (Mahan), 999 
Servant of the Public, A (Hope), 

886 
Seventeenth Century in English Lit- 
erature, Temper of (Wendell), 141 
Shakespearean Tragedy (Bradley), 

249 
Shelburne Essays (More), 530 
Shining Ferry (Quiller-Couch), 93 
Singing of the Future, The (Davies), 

782 
Siberia, Sixteen Years in (Deutsch), 

344 

Slavery, Aftermath of. The (Sin- 
clair), 267 

Smoke-eaters, The (O'Higgins), 224 

Sociology, Foundations of. The 
(Ross). 275 

Spanish Settlements in the United 
States (Lowery), 797 

St. Lawrence River, The (Browne), 

497 
St. Patrick. The Life of (Bury), 657 
Stars, System of the (Gierke), 1000 
Sun, The Risen (Suyematsu), 625 
Sunny Side of the Street, The (Wil- 
der), 188 
Taine, IL, Flis Life and Letters, 885 
Tennyson, The House of (Patter- 
son), 1000 
Thought-forms (Besand and Lead- 
beater), 422 
Tokyo through Manchuria with the 

Japanese, From (Seaman), 625 
Torch, The (Woodberry), 651 



THE J.ITERARV DIGEST 



Books, Reviews and notices of: j 

Torry and Alexander: The story of a 
world-wide revival (Davis), 920 ' 
Tree's Will, Mrs. (Richards), 753 ' 
United States as a Christian Nation, 
The (Brewer), 657 { 

United States in the Twentieth Cen- 
tury. The ( Leroy-Beaulieu), 999 
Utopia. A Modern (Wells), 427 
Watt, James (Carnej^ie), 94 
Watts, G. R (Barrington), 571 
Yellow War. The ("O"). 3-14 
Bosses, political, Slaughter of the, 734 
Bottle-washer, An automatic, 50, 213 
Bouguercau. William. Death of, 30 

French depreciation of, 527 
Bougucreau's artistic failure. The lesson 

of, 871 
Bowen-Loomis case. End of the, 3 
Bowl, tide in a, A, 278 
Br)wne. Sir Thomas, Tricentcnnial cele- 
bration of the birth of. 914 
Box, fire-alarm, a new, 385 
Boycott. Chinese. A French justification 
of the, 285 
Alarm over, 203 

Chinese, Results of the, 3^, 293, (193 
Boycotting the new Russian Douma, 426 
Brain, Amount of water in the, 788 

disease. Laziness as a, 175 
Brains and teeth. 213 

Singers and their. 782 
Bravery in the Philippines, 290 
Brazil, Root's proposed trip to, 909 
Brazza, Count Savorgnan, Sketch of, 509 
Breathing device for firemen, 57 
iireed, American. The. 273 
Bridge monopoly, St. Louis, Investigat- 
ing the, 562 
Natural, The making of a, 276 
Bridge-span, Longest, in the world, 615 
liritish Army contract scandal, 88 

army. The newspaper peril to the, 963 
cabinet crisis, 881; the new, 960 
criticism of American scholarship, 

journalism, A revolution in, 379 
politics, American view of, 910 
treaty with Cuba, Opposing the, 568 
Bronte, Emily, and her greatest book. 

820 
Brotherhood, The church as a, 123 
I'.rowning as "the preacher's poet," 536 
Brownings' romance as reflected in their 

I)octry, 609 
Brunetiere's conversion. An analysis of, 

54 
Bryan, W. J., his defense of women as 

humorists, 808 
Bubble, military. A. pricked. 531 
Buddhism, a religion for lapsed Chris- 
tians, 350 
and Christianity, An attempt to re- 
concile, 580 
of Tibet, 311 
I'uelow, von, on the future relations of 

(lermany and hVance, 621 
Buffalo, Oi)ening of a new art-gallery in, 

II 
Bulbs. Incandescent, as foot-warmers, 178 
r.uUet-proof cuirass, I'"ailure of the, 531 
r>urbaiik. Is he overrated? 953 
Business, Inventir)n a part of, 47 

interests and the Bacon appointment, 

373 
Literature as an aid to, 173 
negro in. The, 266 



Cabinet, Muzzling the, 645 

new Russian. Planning the. 494 
Calhoun, William J., sent to Venezuela. 

4.V 
California. s<»utluTn. Oil-field as the sal- 
vation of. 275 
Calvinism, Twentieth-century, 791 
Campaign contribution, New York 
Life's. 441 
New York City. Aspects of the, 563 
Canada. American immigration into. A 
Canadian on. 884 
American laborers deported from. 57 



Canada: I 

Bernhardt and antisemitism in, 961 
Insanity in, 419 
Religious conditions in, 312 

Canada's growth and American immigra- 
tion, 464 
war on the fishermen, 492 

Canal, A sea-level, 817 

commission. Troubles of the, 168, 445 
pay-rolls. Investigating the, 942 

Canals of Mars, Photographing the, 824 

Canards, Foreign, of the silly season, 
390 

Canteen, army, Trying to restore the, 521 

Car and locomotive, steam. Combination, 

-'47 

blocks, street. Mathematics and, 989 

railroad. Sterilizing, 990 
Card, postal, A phonographic, 416 
Carelessness, Our national, 415 
Caricature, Frencii, The social note in, 

914 
Carleton, Henry Guy, Anecdote of, 593 
Carnegie, Andrew, A joke on, 673 
Cars, Steel, for the railroads, 744 

wooden, Passing of the, 744 
Case, law. First, 387 
Castro in a warlike mood again, 298 
Casualties in the United States, 415 
Catechism, Undenominational, in use in 

Jamaica, 660 
Cathay, The French of, 664 
Catholic education a menace to Ameri- 
can institutions, Is? 578 

indictment of temporal power, 310 
Catholicism, Human clement as a cause 

of strength in. 216 
Caucasus. Outbreak in the, 409 

Trying to conciliate the, 584 
Cavaignac, Godefroi, Death of, 722 
Cavendish, Henry, and his achievements, 

Censorshij) in Russia, The drama and, 

172 
Chapelle, Archbishop, and his service to 

the United States, 290 
Character of Christian creeds, The pro- 
visional, 490 
Revelation of, in Sargent's portraits, 
482 
Chattanooga conference, Significance of 

the, 646 
Chemistry in gold-extraction, 384 
"Chcrubin," new opera by T^Iassenet, 172 
Chesapeake, Shanghaing on the, 866 
Chew, How to, 347 
Chicago bank failures, 676 

teamsters' strike, Losses in, 166 
Traction troubles in, 604 
Child's, The, capacitj' for religion, 458 
China, federation of Christian missions 
in. The proposed. 959 
Hankow railroad. Sale of the, 336 
Massacre of Missionaries in, 730 
New troubles in, 693 
Chinese arrogance over Japanese vic- 
tories. 997 
phJ^sicians, 144 
Sacred literature of the, 182 
Chinese boycott, A French justification 
of the. 285 
.M.'irni o\er, 203 
Latest .aspects of. 38, 293 
Choate, Joseph H., Some stories by, 322, 

507 
ChoK-ra. Anirrica's danger from. 404 

I'assing of. in Germany. 750 
Christ and the Oriental mind, 388 
and the sense of justice, 52 
Patriotism of, 121 
poetry of. The, 919 
Christendom, Is the moral supreniacj^ of, 

in danger? 830 
Christian citizenship. 34() 

creeds. Provisi(tnal character of, 490 
I'.ndeavor Convention, Meeting of 

the, 152 
martyrdoms. An opera dealing with. 

950 
missions in Japan, Japanese view of, 

nation, Is the United States a? 657 



note in the Thanksgiving proclama- 
tion, 790 
tenets the Jews may adopt, 420 

Christianity and Buddhism, An attempt 
to reconcile, 580 
Effect of foreign missions upon, 120 
German efforts to revise, 87 
Hindu influence on, 279 
illustrated by a contrast, 282 
Influence of revivals on, 461 
"rational," Goldwin Smith on, 538 
Relation of, to citizenship, 349 
Scotch and English, compared, 52 
Should it countenance war? 20 
The final test of, 921 
the most inclusive of all religions, 
460 

Christianity's dependence upon literature, 

957 . 
Christians, lapsed. Buddhism a religion 

for, 350 
Christmas season. Cruelties of the, 944 

story. Best of the month, 927 
Church and labor. Recent approaches be- 
tween. 386 
and State in France, Separation of, 
89. 249. 658; An Irish attack on, 
121; Premier Combes on, 463 
and tainted labor, The. 745 
architecture. New influences in, 180 
as a brotherhood. The, 123 
as a school of fine arts, 150 
Congregational, Liturgical U*nrest in 

the, 151 
federation, A conference for, 458 
Laughing in, 421 
Roman Catholic, Radical forces in 

the, 53; Reform in, 120 
thought deflected from dogmatic to 

social questions, 279 
union, A barrier to, 215; suggestion, 
A remarkable, 920; Agitation 
against, 993 
Churches, Aloofness of, from the modern 
spirit, 491 
in America, New attitude of the, 87 
Too many, 705 
Cities, Movement of the people to the, 

689 
Citizenship. Christian, 349 
City and country, Men and women in, 876 
Civil-service rule. The new, 644 
Civilization killing art in Japan, 449 
Civilizations, ancient. Why they died out, 

702 
Clay as a medicine, 956 
Clergy and commercial morality, 829 
Clergymen, Anglican, The new, 18 

Honor among, 421 
Cleveland, Grover, admires his portrait, 
22s ; Income of, 508 ; on woman suf- 
frage, 476; Stories about. 636 
Climate, Effect of, on health., 784 

of the upper air, 988 
Clothes, woman's. The male novelist and, 

S22 
Clouds, Power from the, 653 
Coal-miners, Roosevelt and the, 238 

strike, new, Mutterings of a, 338 
Cold storage. Some evils of the, 788 
College invitations. 818 

papers on football reform, 980 
pranks and homicide. 735 
Collins, Patrick A.. Traits of, 468 
Colors of autumn leaves. The. 826 
Comic opera. Philosophj- of, 740 
Commercial morality. The clergy and, 829 
Commission, canal. Charges of extrava- 
gance against. 942: Troubles of the, 168 
Commission's report on the Kongo 

atrocities, 833 
Comnuuiism .and the Bible. 922 
Comi)ass, m:iriner's, Substitute for the, 

454 
points. I'uiversal symbols for, 176 
Conductor, electrical. Flame as an, 17 
Conference, Cli:ittanooga. Significance 

of the. 64() 
ConfiTcnce on federation. Intcrchurch. 
831; Unitarians barred from the. 618; 
Comment of the excluded denomina- 
tions on the, 95S 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Congregational Churcli, liturgical un- 
rest in the, 151 
Congress, Cutting out work for, 237, 819; 
Roosevelt's message to, 903; For- 
eign views of, 995 
of Esperantists, The first, 412 
Zemstvo, Meeting of the, 137 
Conscience or the Bible? 747 
"Constitution," Secretary Bonaparte sug- 
gests that it be used as a target, 941 
Consumption, A new treatment for, 656 

Vegetable juices and, 418 
Contests in weather prediction, 787 
Controversy, Pauline, Present tendency 
of the, 182 
Religious, The decay of, 149 
Conventions, Three international, 152 
Conversion of M. Brunetiere, Analysis 

of, 54 
Conviction of Senator Mitchell, 75 
Convict labor. How to employ, 371 
Cooking without fire, 532 
Coolie plague in South Africa, 582 
Cooperation, religious, A conference for, 

458 
Copper, iron and, Exhaustion of our sup- 
ply of, 115 
Corey case. Moral sentiment aroused by 

the, 944 
Corn crop, A record, 264 

loss to, due to insects, 488 
Corporations, Peopleization of, 865 
Corruption in America, French view of, 
220 
in Milwaukee, 165 
Costa Rica and Panama, Projected union 

of, 478 
Cotton report scandal, The, 103, 202 
Country, Men and women in, 876 
Cranes, Magnetic, 83 
Creations in plant life. New, 699 
Creatures, double. Some, 827 
Creeds, Christian, Provisional character 

of, 480 
Criticism, higher, The gospel message 

not affected by the, 746 
Critics on current literature, 273 
Cronje's defense. General, 61 
Crops, Promise of record, 264 

Value of the, 862 
Cruelties of the Christmas season, 945 
Crystal or Organism? 84 
Cuba, British treaty with. Opposing the, 
568 
Diplomatic troubles with, 908 
Gomez dies in, 4 

Hostility toward America in, 522 
Uneasiness over the methods of, 374 
Cuba's governing ability, Doubting, 374 
Cuirass, bullet-proof. Failure of the, 531 
Cures, Ray-, 115 

Curves, Railway traffic shown in, 307 
Curzon, Lord, and England's new Indian 
policy, 354; what caused his resigna- 
tion, 295 
Custom and racial differences, 487 
Czar and Kaiser, Conference between, 

253 
Stead's scheme to emancipate the, 

661 
The, baffles the reformers, 355 
Czarism in quip and cartoon, Jt,}, 
Czar's Polish reforms, German objec- 
tions to, 426 
second call for a peace conference, 
443 



Dam on end, Building a, 703 
D'Annunzio's unsuccessful drama, 46 
Davidson, John, first realist in English 

poetry, 208 
Decadence in Scotland, Literary, 302 
Deficit, the treasury, 76 
Delaware, Passing of Addicks in, 296 
Depew, Senator, and the Equitable, 106; 

Demand for his resignation, 981 
Desert, Farming in the, 210 
Destruction of products by insects, 176 
Device for measuring the internal or- 
gans of the body, 455 

for warning trains, A new, 743 



Dial, Sun, for standard time, 485 
Diamonds, paste, The making of, 82 
Dijjlomac}', Russian, 423 
Diplomatic support, Russia's appeal for, 

21 
Disaster, "Bennington," The, 138 
Discoveries are named, How, 741 
Disease benevolent, Is? 785 
brain. Laziness as a, 175 
breeders and agents, Animal forms as, 

384 
Handwriting as an indication of, 617 
Disfranchisement, Negro, in Maryland, 

235 
Dispensary scandal. South Carolina, 406 
Divorce in France, Two views of the 
great (Separation of Church and State), 
658 
Doctors and alcohol, 175 
Dodge, Mary Mapes, Death of, 341 
Douma in Russia, The new, 268, 355; 

opposition to the, 426, 540 
Dowson, Earnest C, A revival of, 343 
Drainage six thousand years old, 306 
Drama and censorship in Russia, 172 
Barrie's fairyland, 43 
Commercialization of the, 911 
Electricity and the, 488 
Gorky's symbolical, 304 
music, on an unusual theme, 950 
religious, A plea for, 790 
versus the novel. The, 868 
Dramatic Art and the Masses, 142 
problem. An interesting, 114 
"salon" suggested, A, 380 
season in J^^rance, 651 
Dramatist on acting. A, 243 
Dramaturgy, A professor of, 612 
Dreams, Hereditary memory in, 876 
Dredger, Gold, and its work, 211 
Dunne, Mayor, and municipal owner- 
ship, 105 
Dust, automobile. To reduce, 616 
Dustless highways, 742 



E 



Earth drying up. Is the? 381 

Lunar landscapes on the, 614 
Eat, queer things to, 16 
Ecclesiastes and the Rubaiyat, 868 
Eclipse, sun's, Studying the, 340 
Edelfelt, Albert, Death of, 528 
Education, A new method of instruction. 

Catholic, Is it a menace to Ameri- 
canism? 578 
Scientific basis in, A plea for the, 

378 
sex in, A Platonist on, 245 
Eggs of mollusks. Fertilization of, 956 
Eighteenth Century, humorist of the, A 

neglected, 80 
Elections, Crumbling of party lines at 
the, 815 
in various states. Outcome of the, 

734. 
Electric light. The body as a source of, 

453, 656 

shock, Does it kill? 613 

subm.arine. The, 211 

system, Advantages and disadvan- 
tages of the, 828 
Electricity and the drama, 488 

and odors, 875 

Efifect of, on patients, 248 

from thunder-clouds, 653 

on the farm, 917 

Spiritualism and, 174 

Steel-making by, 308 
Electrocution kill. Does? 613 
Elevated, New York's, First big wreck 

on, 405 
Elkins law, Beef men indicted under the, 

979 
Emanation, A new, 248 
Emotions, The Englishman and his, ^,77 
Emperor William's influence in Euro- 
pean affairs, 539 . 
Employment for all, Is there? 480 
Empress Dowager of China, A view of, 
592 



Engine, rotary. Problem of the, 17 
i'jigineer. The spider as an, 346 
luigineers. Lack of naval, yjy 
England and Germany, As to war be- 
tween, 353 
and Italy, What Japan has taught, 

255 
and Russia, Proposed alliance of, 

662 
Balfour's plight, as viewed by the 

French, 314 
Campbell-Banncrman and the Irish, 

961 
conventual and monastic institu- 
tions in, 54 
French navy's invasion of, 313 
poor of, General Booth's plan to 

transport the, to Australia, 663 
poor in, Plight of the, 794 
Religious equality in, 312 
England's cabinet crisis, 881 

new alliance with Japan, 370 

new Indian policy and Lord Curzon, 

354 
English language. Slang as a vitalizing 
element of our, 952 
literature. An invasicm of virility in, 

452, 609 
Newspapers, 113 
poetry. First realist in, 208 
thrust at American scholarship, 141 
Englishman, The, and his emotions, 2>77 
Epidemic, Suicide, on the French stage, 

870 
Epworth League, Convention of, 152 
Equality, Religious, growing in Eng- 
land, 312 
Equitable Life Assurance Society, In- 
vestigation of the, I 
finance. Senator Depew and, 106 
Erie, Lake, fisheries war, 492 
Esperantists, First congress of, 412 
Essay, discursive, A plea for the, 173 
Ether, universal, Theories of the, 418 
Ethical culture. Religious destiny of, 959 
Ethics, business. Rockefeller's, ^7 
Europe, armies of, A propaganda of mu- 
tiny in the, 749 
Russia's menace to, 286, 495 
European complications. The Kaiser's 
influence in, 539 
monarchy, A new, 70S 
Europe's view of the President's inter- 
vention, 21 
Euthanasia, Renewed discussion of, 743, 

918 
EvM)lution, A new law of, 382 
and temperature, 307 
Geography and, 744 
Exhaustion of our supply of metals, 115 
Exhibition of flying-machines. An, 82 

of safety appliances, 308 
Experiment, naval, A costly. 562 
Explosion, "Bennington," 167 
Exposition, successful, Portland, 602 
Exposure, literature of, Protest against, 

207 
Express train, The coming, 48 
Expression, National, in architecture, 304 
Eyes (_)f plants, 614 



Faces and occupations, 419 
F"actory, gas. An arctic, 306 
Famine, Meat, in Germany, 623 
Fairyland drama of J. M. Barrie, 43 
Faith, A returning age of, 151 
Farm, Electricity on the, 917 
Farmers, L^nprecedented year for, 862 
Farming in the desert, 210 
Fat men should swim. Why, 177 
Federal authority, Opposing the exten- 
sion of, 975 
Federal control in yellow-fever out- 
breaks, 236, yyy 
Federation, Interchurch Conference on, 
458, 831; Unitarians barred from 
the. 659 ; Comment of the exclu- 
ded denominations on the, 958 
Protestant, Catholic view of, 54 
Feminism in modern music, 303 



u^mj^im^smsE^i^mm^imm 



u 



TllK LiTJiRARY DJul^^i 



Feminized, Is the public library? lo 
Fever fight, New Orleans', 642 

yelU>\v, Federal control of, 777 
Fevers, Imitation, 212 
Fiction, Englishmen in, 377 

Italian, Women in modern, 112 

Religion in, 619 

Tendencies of modern, 206 

The coming thing in, 206 
Fight, Fatal fist, at Annapolis, 736 
h'inance. Equitable methods of, i 
Finger-prints, Identification by, 741 
I'inland's national art, A loss to, 528 
Fire, Cooking without, 532 

for theaters, Protection from, 990 
Fire-alarm box, A new, 385 
Firemen, Fresh air for, 457 
Fish, The taming of, 456, 577 
I'ishcrmen, American, Canada's war on, 

492 
Fitzgerald classed as an amateur, 45 
Flame as an electrical conductor, 17 
Flippancy of modern humor, 984 
Flying-machines, An advance in, 700 

An exhibition (jf, 82 
Food, Wholesome, and tuberculosis, 918 

fake. Plain talk about, 81 
Football reform by abolition, 566, 861; 

College papers on, 980 
Foot-warmers, Incandescent lights as, 

178 
I-'orecasts, weather. Contests in, 787 
Foreign canards of the silly season, 390 
comment on Paul Jones, 143 
missions, Modern ideal of, 792 
trade, Doubts about our, 134 
h'orms, thought, The thcosophical tlie- 

ory of, 422 
I'"ourth of July, How to live through, 

19 
I'rame house, Passing of the, 119 
l-'rance, Anatole. The irony of, 611 
l""rance. Dramatic season in, 651 
not irreligious, 386 
Protestant uneasiness in, 18 
Russia forsakes, 539 
Separation of church and state in, 
89, 244, 463, 658, 995; An Irish at- 
tack on, 121 
will check United States imperial- 
ism. How, 153 
France and Germany, Quarrel between, 
over Morocco, 541 
Von Buelow (jn the future relations 
of, 621 
I'Vance's unreadiness, Germany's threats 

and, 710 
l-'rankenstein, Gibson as, 737 
I'Vanklin, our premier man of letters, 913 
French army superior to the German 
army, 464 
caricature, modern, The social note 

in, 914 
defiance to Germany, A, 998 
minister of war resigns, 836 
music, new, A propagandist of the, 

986 
navy's invasion of England, 313 
novel and the American woman, 77 
of Cathay, The, 664 
presidency, The change in the, 924 
stage. Suicide epidemic on the, 870 
view of corruption in America, 220, 

.795 
virtue and y\merican virtue, 90 
h'renzicd science, 244 
I'ruits, Photography on, 381 
l''uel, Oil, as tiie salvation of soutiiern 

California, 275 
I'usion, I'ailure of, in New York, 473 
Future life, Changing ideas of the, 309 
Hyslop on the, 179 



Gaelic language, hight for the preserva- 
tion of the, 94<> 
Gallienne. Richard le, and his check, 806 
Galveston's great sea-wall, 375 
Game herds, big. Last of the, 337 
Garbage disi)osal and city politics, 51 



Gas, Acetylene, as an explosive, 84 
illuminating. Dangers of, 14 
factory. An arctic, 306 

Geography and evolution, 744 

George IV.'s marriage, 849 

Georgia lynching. Southern press on, 71 

German arm)-, h'rench criticism of the, 

-54 . . 

army inferior to the trench, 464 

lialtic scare. The, 283 
efforts to revise Christianity, 87 
objections to the Czar's Polish re- 
forms, 426 
peril, P>ritish fright at the, 584 
praise for American museums, 821 
press. Mentality of the, 612 
South Africa, revolt in, British con- 
cern over the, 794 
view of American science, 454 
Germany, .V I'Vench defiance to, 998 
and England, As to war between, 

353 
.\nglo-French peril to, 662 
Anxious Parliamentary session in, 

751 
Cholera in, Tiie passing of, 750 
Meat famine in, 623 
Germany's threats and h'rance's unreadi- 
ness, 710 
"unjust foes," Who are? 996 
Gibson, Charles Dana, as Frankenstein, 

Gibson's desertion of black and white, 

649 
Glass a liquid, Is? 51 
Godless theology, A, 151 
Gold-extraction, Chemistry and, 3S5 
in sea-water, 700 
-sliii) and its work, 21 r 
Gomez, Maximo, Death of, 4 
Gorky, Maxim, on the Baku massacres, 

750 _ 
Gorky's symbolical drama, 304 
Gosi)el message, The. not affected by the 

higher criticism, 746 
Government printing-office scandal, 371 
Governments, Tolstoy denounces all the, 

Graft in Milwaukee, 165 

Grain rates. New, 337 

Grammar, tyranny of, Scott's freedom 

from the, 913 
Grand Army oi the Republic and its new 

commander, 407 
Grant's faith in Sherman, 160 
Gravel, Pumping, like water, 213 
Great Lakes, Is the level of the, falling? 

84 
Greek for the scientific student, 572 
Green. Jacob L., Death of, 299 
Growth, I'our periods of, and their 

meaning. 956 

H 

Hall of h'ame, Poe's exclusion from the, 

5^H 
Halo in art, Origin of the, 792 
Hamlet, Japanese players in a Japanese 
version of, 821 
religious interpretation of. A, 249 
I iamlin's client. 160 
1 laiidwriting as ai. indication of disease, 

617 
Hardy, Thomas, as an optimist, 170 
Hardy's novels. Nature and man in, 341 
Hat-i)iii, The dangers of th.e, 51 
Hay, John, a member of "The Church 
without a Church," 459 
as a man of letters, 1 1 1 
Death of, 35 
literary pf)ssibilities of, Mr. Ilowells 

on the, 378 
Little stories of, 191 
Health, ICffect of climate on, 7S4 

public. Public schools and tlie. 788 
resort. The arctic as a, 419 
Hearst, William R., as a national figure. 

774 

The vote ot, in New ^ ork City. 7J<) 

Herds, big-game. Last of the. 337 j 

Heredity a delusion, Is? 825 



Heresy trials. Growing distaste for, 877 
Highest points of the world, 13 
Highways, Dustless, 742 
Hindu influence on Christianity, 279 
Historians, Four American, compared. 

History, American, and American Paint- 
ing, 302 
Holmes, the "American Sterne," 413 
Home, Outdoor life at, 915 
Home-work, Evils of excessive, 535 
Honor among clerg^MTien, 421 
Hooker, Judge, Trying to remove, 6 

Acquittal of, 139 
Hot wave, The, 138 
House, frame. Passing of the, 119 
Hughes, Charles E., and his methods, 

851 . 
Hugo, Victor, Religious side of, 958 

Human elements in the Catholic Church, 

216 
Humor, l-'lippancy of modern, 984 
Humorist of the eighteenth century, A 

neglected, 80 
Hungary, Boulangism in, 926 
Crisis in. 156, 581 
follow tiie example of Norway, Will? 

219 
Universal suffrage in, 492 
Hungary, Universal suffrage in, 796 
Hymnal, New Methodist, 489 
Hypnotism of art, 783 



Immigraticni and (|uarantiiK' conference, 
Significance of the, 646 
American, Canada's growtii and. 464 
American, into Canada, A Canadian 

on, 884 
Improvements in, 316 
"Immortal," Death of an, 177 
Imniortalitj- as a doctrine of the Septua- 
gint, 252 
Maeterlinck on, 877 
Professor Hyslop on, 179 
The simple man's view of. 957 
Imperialism. American, French encour- 
agement of, 542 
Our, How France will check, 153 
Impressionism, After, what? 414 
Inauguration day. Plans to change, 336 
Incandescent light bulbs as foot-w^arm- 

ers, 178 
Independence I^a}', How to live through, 

religious, A longing for, in .Japan, 490 
India, England's new policy in, 354 
Lord Curzon resigns. 295 
plague in. Ravages of the. 220 
Indictments against the Beef Trust, 42 
Indoor life. Some perils of the, 653 
Indulgences, The Pope abolishes the 

sale of, 491 
Industrial supremacy of women, 299 
Tndustrj-, Literature as an aid to, 173 
Inorganic world. Natural selection in 

the, 346 
Insanity in Canada, 419 

Touches of. in "sensitive" or "erratic" 
people, 7S8 
Insects. Loss of corn due to, 17O, 488 
Origin of instinct in, 51 
that bore through lead. 146 
Instinct in insects. Origin of, 51 
liislruiiieiit for measuring tlie internal 

organs of tlie body, 455 
Insurance companies, I.ooking into the 
aflfairs of, i. 403. 477, 525, 567, 606, 
694, 813, 804 
"Doctored" news reports of, 694 
Life, cheaper, 477 

Mutual Life, Reorganizing the, 864 
President who died poor, An, 299 
scand.als in quip and cartoon, 691; 
the press of the country on, 606 
Intellect. S])eecli and, 955 
Interchurch Conference on Federation, 

I'nitarians barred from the, 659 
lnter\ eiition. the President's, Europe on, 
21 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Invasion of England, French navy's, 313 
Invention as a dci)artment of business, 47 
Inventions, Worthless, and patents, 177 
Inventive progress shown in charts, 702 
Investigating the St. Lf)uis bridge mo- 
nopoly, 562 
Ireland and the struggle for the preser- 
vation of its language, 949 

in Parliament, 184 
Irish attack upon disestablishment in 
France, 121 

The new British Premier and the, 
961 
Irishman, The resourceful, 807 
Iron and steel, Kxhaustion of our sup- 
ply of, 115 
Irony of Anatole P'rance, The, 611 
Irreligious, France not, 386 
Irrigators, Automatic, 826 
Irving, Sir Henry, Death of, 561 

Absent-mindedness of, 808 

Intimate memories of, 633 

Remarkable personality of, 738 

Trapping, 591 
Islands as weather stations, 14 
Isle of Pines, Rebellion in the, 779 
Italian fiction, modern. Women in, 112 

operas on Oriental - American 
themes, 610 

politics. The Pope and, 91 

view of y\merican naval develop- 
ment, 391 
Italy, A warning to Russia from, 494 

Economic progress in, 126 

The modern woman in, 752 



Jamaica, Undenominational catechism in, 

661 
James, Henry, "the diligent recorder of 

a leisure class," 912 
Japan, art in, How civilization is killing, 

449 ... . 

Christian missions in, Japanese view 

of, 252 
missions in. Influence of, 309 
religious independence in, A longing 

for, 490 
Revolutionary results of victory, 

upon, 424 
Useful books on, 625 
Japanese adaptation of Hamlet, 821 

Alliance, Anglo-, Foreign views of, 

495 . 
ambition. Menace of, 352 
art. Disappearance of, 780 
art. The popular school of, 240 
as dictionary-makers, 652 
Literary tastes of, 114 
press agent, 204 
riots, Meaning of the, 408 
Japan's alliance with England, 370 

example to England and Italy, 255 
imperial verse-writers, 209 
most famous ship, Loss of, 409 
naval rank, before an^ after, 265 
victories, Chinese arrogance over, 

997 
Jerome, William T., A lawyer's view of, 
846 
candidacy in New York, 119, 6or 
Some stories about, 593 
Jerome's attack on New York judges, 

907 
Jesus and the Oriental mind, 388 
Patriotism of, 121 
The poetry of, 919 
Jewish massacres with official approval, 

problem, Russian, Tolstoy on the, 

186 
race prejudice in politics, 448 
Jews in America, Celebratirni of the 
landing of, 789 
and the Christian tenets, 420 
massacred. Why are the? 832 
Russian, in America, 375 
suffering, of Russia, American aid 
to the, T]Z 
Jim-Crowism in Nashville, Fighting, 474 
Jones, Paul, Discovery of the body of, 
133; Foreign comment on, 153 



Journalism, British, A revolution in, 379 
Judaism, revived. Is a, possible? 349 
Judaism's proposed synod, 19 
Judge, Impeachment of a New York, 6 
Judges, New York, Jerome's attack on 
the, 907 
trained in science, Need of, 535 
Justice, sense of, Christ and the, 52 
Juvenile literature, A gracious influence 
ill, 341 

K 

Kaiser as Cupid, The, 553 

at close range, 507 
Kansas, State, oil-refining in, No, 108 
Kenyon initiation tragedy. 818 
Kongo, Administrative scandals in the, 
622 

atrocities, Leopold's commission on 
the, 833 

pygmies in London, 989 
Korea, Blending the sects in, 705 



Labor and result in painting, 241 

church and. Recent approaches be- 
tween, 386 
convict, IIow to employ, 372 
tainted. The church and, 745 
unions, A defense of restriction of 
output by, 690 
Laborers, American, deported from Can- 
ada, 57 
Labrador, Wallace succeeds in, 896 
Lake Erie lisheries war, 492 
Lakes, Great, level of the, falling, 84 
Lamp to give ultraviolet light. A, 533 
Land frauds. Conviction of Mitcliell in 

the, 75 
Landscapes, Lunar, on the earth, 614 
Lanier as an artistic pathfinder, 868 
Laughing in church, 421 
Laundries, French, under government 

control, 617 
Law-case, The first, 387 
Law of evolution, A new, 382 
Lawn-mowers, Automobile, 175 
Lawson's campaign. Futility of, 977 
Laziness as a brain disease, 175 
Lead-boring insects, 146 
Leaves, autumn, Colors of, 826 
Legs, Relation of, to literature, 484 
Leisure class, The diligent recorder of a 

(Henry James), 912 
Leopold's administration in the Kongo, 
622 
commission on the Kongo atroci- 
ties, 833 
Letters, man of. Our premier man of 

(Franklin), 913 
Lewis and Clark Exposition, The suc- 
cessful, 602 
Library, public, Is it feminized? 10 

Science in the, 247 
Liberty in Russia, 707 

Lurid dawn of, in Russia, 687 
Libraries, public. Enormous growth of. 

Life, future. Changing ideas of the, 309 
indoor. Some perils of, 653 
plant. New creations in, 699 
Shall we cut short the, of the mor- 
tally wounded? 743 
The problem of, 656 
Life insurance companies. Investigation 
of the, 403, 525, 567, 813 
Cheaper life insurance, 477 
presidents are corrupted. How, 525 
scandals, WHiat the press of the 
country thinks of the, 606 
Light. Blue, as an anesthetic, 174 

electric. The body as a source of. 

453, 656 
Plants that give, 118 
ultraviolet, A lamp to give, 533 
"Light Beneath the Bushel," tragedy by 

D'Annunzio. 46 
Lighting plant, [Municipal, New York's, 

872 
Lightning rods up-to-date, 348 
Lincoln saved two innocent men. How. 
765 



Lines, party. Crumbling of, 815 
Liquors, alcoholic. Doctors and, 175 
Literary decadence in Scotland, 302 
mystery solved, A, 983 
possibilities of John Hay, 378 
type. The vagabond as a, 342 
Literature, American, Rogers' service to, 
160 
as an aid to industry, 173 
as a profession, A brief for, 271 
Christianity's dependence upon, 957 
Commercialization of. 695 
current. Some critics on, 273 
Dependence of, upon the supcrnatu- 
, ral, 823 
English, An invasion of virility in, 

609 
ICnglish, Three styles in, 452 
Expression of the "race-mind" in, 

651 
Insincere moral in. The, 170 
juvenile, A gracious influence in, 341 
mob spirit in. The, "/"j 
of exposure. Protest against, 207 
Relation of legs to, 484 
The Russian officer in Russian, 652 
western. Glamour of the East upon, 
450 
Liturgical unrest in the Congregational 

Church, 151 
Living, Wages and the cost of, 648 
Locomotive and Car, steam. Combina- 
tion, 247 
Loeb, Professor, and his discoveries, 1 16 
Loftiest points of the world, 13 
London, The unemployed in, Balfour's 

speech to, 835 
London's poor. Plight of, 794 
Longworch, Nicholas, becomes engaged 

to Miss Alice Roosevelt, 971 
Loomis, Francis B., Resignation of, 373 
Loomis-Bowen case. End of the, 3 
Loubet, Emile, popular in France, 635 
Louis, Prince, Resentment over the visit 

of, T7>i 
Lowell, Amateurishness of, 781 
Lunar landscapes on the earth, 614 
Lynching, Georgia, Southern press on, 

71 

M 

Macedonia, finances of. The Powers' de- 
mand for control of, 830 
Machinery, Teaching pronunciation by, 

987 
Machines, flying, An advance in, 700 
Macleod, I'iona (William Sharp), Death 

of, 983 
Magazine, American popular. Superior- 
ity of, 529 
nnillustrated, Fate of the, 570 
Magnetic cranes, 83 
Mahwa. The, a valuable tree. 874 
Man and animals, Mind in. 953 

and nature in Hardy's novels, 341 
fails as a novelist, Where, 822 
The absent-minded, 573 
without i)hysical defects, Can we 
breed a? 305 
Mariner's compass, A substitute for the, 

454 . , o 

Mars, canals of. Photographing the, 824 

Maryland, Negro disfranchisement in, 

23s 
Massacres at Baku, Gorky on the, 750 

Jewish, with oflncial approval, 732 
Masses. Dramatic Art and the. 142 
Maternal affection. Origin of, 244 
Mathematical verse. Some. 696 
Mathematics and street-car blocks, 9S9 
Matter, live and dead, Distinctions be- 
tween. 701 
Radioactive, in the air, 573 
McCall, John A., The rise of, 676 
McClellan, Mayor, of New York, Anec- 
dote of, 131 
McCurdy. Richard A., resigns from the 

Mutual. 864 
Meat famine in Germany. 623 

packers fined under the Elkins law, 

444 
Medals, anticpie. Making, 918 



8 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Medical supervision of schools, 535 

Medicine, Clay as a, 956 

Medicines, Alcohol iiT proprietary, 824 

alcoholic patent, Decision against, 446 
Memory, Hereditary, in dreams, 876 
Men and women in city and country, 876 
Mental phenomena, Method of measur- 
ing, 117 
Meredith, George, Religious ideas of, 214 
Meriwether, Minor, Pluck of, 896 

sentence. Disappointment over, 946 1 
Message, President's, The, 903 

wireless. Trying to aim a, 245 
Metal, Weather-proof, 146 
Methodist comment on the Mitchell 
case, 992 
tendencies seen in the new hymnal, 
489 
Miles, General, gets rid of an inventor, 

406 
Milk in solid form, 785 
Milton as a religious radical, 123 
Milwaukee, Graft in, 165 
Mind in man and animals, 954 
Miners, coal, Roosevelt and the, 238 
Miniature-painting, Decadence of, 9 
Minister of war, hVance's, resigns, 836 
Ministers, Honor among, 421 
Mission, Torrey-Alexander, Criticism of 

the, 920 
.Missionaries, Massacre of, in China, 730 
Missions, American Board of, accepts 
"tainted money," 446 
Christian, in Japan. Japanese views 

of, 252 
Foreign, and the war, 19 
foreign, Effect of, on Christianity, 

120 
foreign. Modern ideal of, 792 
in Japan, Inlluence of, 309 
"Mississippi," l-'ailure of the, 562 
Missouri, Sunday closing in, ' Governor 

Folk and, no 
Mitchell, heresy case, Methodist com- 
ment on the, 992 
Mitchell, Senator John H., Conviction of. 

75 
Mob spirit in literature. The, '/■j 
Monarchy, A new European, 708 
Money, High rate for. in New York, 775 
tainted, acceptance of. Religious 
press on the, 57(S 
Montaigne, Self-revelation of, 450 
Moon, Volcanoes of the, 15 
Moral in literature. The insincere, 170 
Morality, commercial, The clergy and 
829 
have a religious basis. Must? 879 
Morals, Relation of art to, 696 
Moran, John B., Boston's graft-fighter, 

804 
Mormon defense, The, 704 
Mormonism, The menace of, 388 
Moroccan crisis, Possibilities of the, 23 
policy, The Kaiser's failure of pre- 
dicted, 57 
Morocc<-» dispute, German press on the 
88 
(urmany, l-'rance and, 185, 464 
negotiations. The tangle in, 541 
Xevv ferment in, 392 
(|uestion, and war between England 
and Germany, 353 
Morton, Paul, as a railroad diplomat, 595 

Roosevelt's exoneration of, 5 
Mos(|uil<)es. Species of, 703 
"Mozartian" opera, Massenet's new, 172 
Municipal ownership. Mayor Dunne and, 

105 
Museums. American, German praise for, 

821 
Music, niodrin. I'eminism in, 303 

new l-rench, A propagandist of the, 
986 
Musical interi)retation of pictures, 820 

par.isite. The, 140 
Mutiny, A i)ropagand;i of, in the armies 
of luiroi)e, 749 
at Sebaslopol, Significance of the. 

S67 
Russian naval, 42 



Mutual Life Insurance Company, Reor- 
ganizing the, 864 



N 



Name, What is in a, 148 
Nashville, Jim-Crowism in, h'ighting, 474 
Nation, Christian, Is the United States 
^a? 657 
National carelessness, Our, 415 
Natural selection in the inorganic world, 

34(' 
Nature and man in Hardy's novels, 341 

study in the Sunday-school, 149 
Naval authorities on the naval battle, 40 
development, American, Italian view 

of, 391 
experiment, A costly, 562 
Lack of experienced engineers in, 
177 
Navies of the world, 265 
Nebogatoff's dilemma, 804 
Negro and his religion. The, 620 
as a business man. The, 266 
disfranchisement in Maryland, 235 
Maryland Republicans abandon the, 

407 
Religious lite of the, 152 
Republican thrust at the, 407 
Negroes are black. Why, 485 
Nelson, Admiral. New view of the death 

of, 764 
Nevada stage-line. Automobiles for the, 

Newberry's opportunity, 805 

New England's patriotism, Secretary ' 

Bonaparte's collision with, 941 
New Orleans, Federal control over the 
fever situation, 236 

President's trip to, 475 

Yellow fever in, 163, 642 
New Testament, New light on the, 745 
New York campaign. Aspects of the, 563 

election. The, 734 

"elevated," First big wreck on the, 
40s 

Hearst vote. The, 729 

Jerome wins in, 734 

judge. Efforts to remove a, 6 

Life's campaign contribution, 441 

Municipal lighting plant in, 872 

National theater for, 740 

political bosses, Jerome's defiance 
to, 199 

Polyglot drama of, 46 

Race riots in. Lessons of, 136 

Rapid growth of, 688 

Shaw's play suppressed in, 698 

State, Republican fight for leader 
in, 813 

Subway tavern, l-2nd of the, 338 

Successful airship in, 296 

Tammany in, Break-up of the oppo- 
sition to, 473 

The Jerome issue in, 601 
New York's smart set, "Fads and Fan- 
cies" of, 200 
Newspaper, luiglish. The. 113 
News. Rate of travel of. among savages, 
385 

reports "doctored," Insurance, 694 
Niagara, Another way to save, 148 

River, The bed of, 873 
Nicholas II., A bonniot by, 879 
Nobel prizes for 1905, 985 
Nogi, General, and his senior, 2,22 
North Pole, Perry's new dash for the, 109 
Norway and Sweden, Dark predictions for, 

, 4';3 

I'll tine of, 154 

The new monarchy of, 708 

Throne of, Oscar and the, 55 

Will Hungary follow the example 
of, 219 
Norway's quandary, 256 
Novel, erotic. Increasing popularity of 
the, 451 

I'Vench, .\nuMic;ui woman and the, 

n 

of a great poet, 449 

The drama versus the, 869 



Novelist, male, and woman's clothes, 822 
real school of. Lack of, in England, 

452 
Novels, Nature and man in, Hardy's, 341 



Objection, Puritan, to Walt Whitman, 

242 
Occupations, Faces and, 419 
Ocean-waves, Shape and height of, 486 
Odors, Electricity and, 875 
Office, the sin of holding, Tolstoy on, 

425 
Officers, Russian, in Russian literature, 

Ohio, Taft s war on machine politics in, 
641 
The Democrats win in, 734 
Oil-refining in Kansas unconstitutional, 

108 
Opera, comic, Ph!l >sophy of, 741 

dealing with the Christian martyr- 
doms, 950 
"Mozartian," Massenet's new, 172 
Operas, Italian, on Oriental-American 

themes, 610 
Optimist, Thomas Hard_v as an, 170 
Oratory, After dinner, in America, 10 
Organs of the body, A device for meas- 
uring the, 455 
Oriental mind, Jesus and the, 388 
Oscar, King, a genial host, 806 

and the throne of Norway, 55 
Osteopathy, The claims of, 873 
Outdoor life at home, 915 
Outlines in Religion, Blurred, 122 
Output by labor unions, A defense of 

restriction of, 690 
Oxford, University of, and its injurious 
influence on education, 148 



Painting. American, and American history, 
302 
America's temperament in, 171 
Miniature, Decadence of, 9 
Paintings, American, Collecting, 142 

909 
Panama and Costa Rica, Policy of sanita- 
tion at, 531 
Projected union of, 473 
The Straits of, 817 
Panama Canal, A sea-level, 817 
Panama Canal Commission, Troubles of, 
168, 445; Wallace resigns from the, 36 
Pan-American Congress, Root and the. 
Panic, How Chicago bankers averted a. 

Panic, "rich man's," Another, 775 

Parasite, The nntsical, 141 

Parliament, British, Balfour's plight in the, 

314 
Irish representation in, 184 
Partizanship, End of, 815 
Party lines. Crumbling of, 815 
Passes, railroad. Abolition of, 943 
Paste diamonds, The making of, 82 
Patented, Should worthless inventions 

be? 177 
Patent medicines. Decision against, 446 
Pathlinder, artistic, Lanier as an, 868 
Patriotism, Jesus Christ's, 121 
Pauline controversy, Present tendency of 

tlie, 182 
Peace advocate, Reappearance of the 
Czar as a, 443 
and one of its sequels, 125 
envoys and the reporters, 164 
envoys. The President's work with 

the, 300 
negotiations. Predicticjns of a dead- 
lock in the. 253 
inttlook at Portsmouth, 233 
prospects, Russian press on, 124 
referee, Roosevelt as, 270 
Russian press on, 462 
Terms of, 333 

Treaty of, Effects of the, 369 
Peanut crop. Our, 784 



THE LITERARY DIGP:ST 



Peary's new dash for the pole, 109 
Peasantry religious, Russian, Is the? 536 
Peckham, Judge Wheeler H., Death of, 

553 
Pennsylvania, Another treasury scandal 

in, 645 
Peril, Social, of Zionism, 748 
Perils of indoor life, Some, 653 
Periodical, unillustrated. Fate of the, 570 
Peter, King, Popularity of, 895 
Phenomena, mental, Alethod of measur- 
ing, 117 
Philadelphia, Choosing a leader for, 74 

What "reform" has done in, 447 
Philanthropic side of life insurance, 567 
Philippines, Bravery in the, 290 
Conditions in the, 605 
Governor Wright's resignation, 605 
Philippine trip, Taft's, Some fruits of the, 

263, 478 
Phonograph, Some tricks with a, 918 
Phonographic postal card, A, 416 
Photograph of a spider's web. A, 246 
Photographing the canals of Mars, 824 
Photographs on fruits, 381 
Photography, artistic, A new method in, 

385 

Artistic, in America, 411 

under difficulties, 787 
Physicians, Chinese, 144 
Picture, Art versus the, 697 
Pictures, Musical interpretation of, 820 
Pines, Isle of. Rebellion in the, 779 
Pius, Pope, and a tainted-money prob- 
lem, 391 
Plague in India, Ravages of the, 220 
Planets, Atmosphere of two distinct, 488 
Plant life, New creations in, 699 
Plants and animals. Radioactive, 383 

Automatic watering of, 826 

Eyes of, 614 

that give light, 118 

that hide from animals, 49 

Twining, Why they twine, 616 
Play, A new political', in Russia, T^)! 
Plunkett, George W., An apostle of "hon- 
est graft," 894 
Poem, A significant, 951 
Poe's exclusion from the "Hall of Fame," 

564 

Poet, preacher's, Browning as the, 539 
The novel of a, 449 

Poetry as a universal bond, 482 
English, First realist in, 208 
Japan's imperial, 209 
of Jesus, The, 919 

The Brownings' romance as re- 
jected in their, 609 

Poetry: 

Age of the Year, In the (ScoUard), 

888 
Along the Way (Kirk), 128 
Angelina (Dunbar), 632 
Arcady, At the End of (Garrison), 

890 
Arrow, The (Gibson), 590 
"As the Loving Are" (Dunbar), 670 
Azrael (Welch), 225 
Ballad of the Road, A (Mackay), 671 
Bethlehem, In (Garrison), 969 
Bird Lover, The (Bangs), 844 
Bloods, Young (Housman), 802 
Bread upon the Waters (Gilder), 630 
Builders, The (Binyon), 225 
Cambridge, England (Humphrey), 

190 
Camping Out (Carman), 320 
Candle, The (Barker), 669 
Childless, The (Pottle), 552 
Christ, The Little (Proctor), 935 
Christ With Us (Markham), 934 
Christmas (Tabb), 935 
Christmas-Tide (Allen), 935 
Christmastide (Dangerfield), 969 
Compensation (Lawless), 761 
Comrades (Housman), 551 
Comrades, The Gray ( Fox-Smitli"). 

758 
Conqueror, The (Hammond), 550 
Coquette (Carmen), 800 
Cradle Song (Naidu), 190 
Crankidoxology (Irwin), 672 



Poetry : 

Dream, The Captive's (Watson). 766 
Dreamer, The (Coventry), 842 
Earth-Born (Driscoll), 547 
Edaine, Queen (Yeats), 670 
Enfoldings (Dodge), 670 
Essays in Puritanism (Macphails), 

242 
Eve's Return, Ballad or (Garrison), 

890 
Ex Libris (Upson), 803 
Faith in Doubt, Tlie (Harris), 226 
Fire, The Lodging-House (Davics), 

801 
Fisherman, The, S04 
Flight, The (Mifflin), 550 
Flower, Fairy, The (Carman). 720 
Flower Maiden, The (Rys), 159 
Fools, Feast of the (Bayne), 803 
For Me, Romance (Burgess), 159 
Friend Soul (Schauffler), 888 
Friends of Me, Ah (Goodale), 633 
Fugitives, The (Wilkinson), 671 
Gentleman Knocking at the Door, To 

the (Davidson), 842 
Ghosts (Salmon.', 589 
Ghosts, Reproachful (Mifflin'), 551 
Gifts of the Gold, 'J'lu'. (Garrison), 

128 
Grace, My (Buckton), 759 
Grave's Edge, At the (Han is), 2^8 
Haste, Let Us Take I-eave of (Scol- 

lard), 502 
Hay, John (Coatcs^, 501 
Home (Roberts), 842 
Hope Prayer, A fConrard), 25S 
House With the Green Door, The 

(MacManusy. 190 
Ideal, The (Guraey), 841 
If Thou Lovest Mc Not (Cloud), 841 
Immortality (Adcock), 760 
Irving, Sir Henry (Sheard), 717 
Irving, Sir Henry 1 Strint^er ), O29 
Jefferson, Josep.a (Gilder), 32'i 
Jesus the Na-:areno, To (Knnw'cs), 

968 
Jongleur, The (Cawein), 590 
Joy of Man, The (Pancoast), 842 
Killer, The (Sabin), 548 
King, Servants of the (Barker), 430 
Kwang Tsze and the Skull (Kwang 

Tsze), 238 
Labor, Street, A Song of (Lord), 505 
Land, Back to the (Jacob), 718 
Laus Mortis (Knowles), 468 
Leavetaking (Watson), 61 
Leopold (Cooke), 631 
Let Something Good be Said (Riley), 

590 
Lines (hairless), 719 
Locomotive (TvlcMuHen), 32.? 
Longing (Goates), 503 
Lost One, The (Wilson), 549 
Love, The Autumn of (Stevens), 891 
Lover's Note-Book, From a (Le Gal- 

lienne), 159 
Love's Sailing, 761 
Marching Days, How Barely Now 

I Face the (Towne), 630 
Mary (Trumbull), 27 
Masker, The (Thompson), 589 
Meek, The Kingdom of the (Leon- 
ard), 431 
Meenaneary (Gwynn), 28 
Midsummer Song (Scollard), 159 
Mighty, Seats of the (Cooke), 760 
Miracle of Dawn, The (Cawein), 27 
Mountain, Song of the (Carman), 803 
Music in Darkness (Gilder), 548 
Mutation (Tabb), 632 
Mystic and Cavalier (Johnson), 258 
Mystic's Prayer, The (Macleod), 190 
Nature, Amends to (Symons), 758 
Nature's Solace (Stringer), 1003 
Night (Scott), 630 
October (Brownell), 591 
Open Sea, Call of the (Rinehart). S48 
Open, The (Thomas), 129 
Oracle, The (Fiske), 504 
Other-Worldling (Ashton), 549 
Pain, To (Salmon), 888 
Patch, A (Nesbit), 757 



Poetry : 

Pigeons out Walking (Peabody), 845 
Poppjxock, The Cult of the (John- 
son), 844 
Porch, The Old (Mifflin), 550 
Portsmouth, The Peace of (Irving), 

431 
Praj'cr, A (Garrison), 630 
Prayer to Love, A (Garrison), 129 
Princess of the Tower, The (Car- 
man), 892 
Questions (Lodge), 761 
Refuge, The Last (Ficke), 891 
Respite (Miles), 889 
Respite (Munier), 843 
Return, The (Wilson), 551 
Return to the Sea, The (Pollack), 60 
Rome, From Romany to (Irwin), 759 
Seasons, The (Cheney), 802 
Shakespeare to His Mirror (Burton), 

801 
Shore, On the (Wyatt), 505 
Silence of the Dark, The (Going), 27 
Singers, The Wandering (Naidu), 

761 
Singing-book, 1 he Green (Peabody), 

845 
Skipper and the Cabin Boy, The 

(Irwin), 1003 
Sleeper, The (Roberts), 718 
Song, A (Whitney), 842 
Song of Out of Doors (Bashford), 

550 
Song, River (Bashford), 502 
Song, The (Sherman), 502 
Stark, Aaron (Robinson), 719 
Strolling Minstrel, The (Cloud), 843 
Summer, Indian (Sherwood), 671 
Summer, Indian (Mitchell), 800 
Summer's End (Gale), 431 
Summer's Night, A, 289 
Sunrise (Elliott), 841 
Temple of Art, A (Gilder), 12 
Thames, Up (Binyon), 631 
Thanksgiving (Riley), 800 
"There's no Place Like the Old 

Place" (Gilder), 967 
" Thou Thinkest Thou Hast 

Lived" (Gilder), 365 
To Orient Oneself, 61 
Tree Tavern, The (Sherman), 394 
Two Sorrows (Towne), 27 
Unexpressed (Sill), 396 
Unrest (Pottle), 721 
Upland Meadow, The (Robinson), 

289 
Valley, A Conncmara (L), 503 
Virgilia (Markham), 320 
Wanderer's Song (Scollard), 258 
Wander Song (Winslow), 551 
Wave, Wardens of the (Austin), 673 
Way, There Lies the (Stringer), 550 
Wharf End, At the (Stringer). 892 
Wind and Lyre (Markham), 760 
Wise Men from the East, The (Car- 
man), 934 
Wish, A (Garrison), 842 
Woman, A (Garrison). 503 
Wood, In a Winter (Scollard), 889 
Wooing, At the End of the (String- 
er), 844 
Worlds, Song of the I' our (Carman), 

719 
Year, The Changing (Roberts), 670 
Poets. Japan's imperial, 209 
Poland, Russian, Revolt in, 8; Polish 
press on the, 218 
The fate of, 926 
Pole, north. Peary's new dash for, 109 
Polish press on Poland's uprisings, 218 
reforms, German objections to the 
Czar's. 426 
Political bosses. Slaughter of the, 734 
Conceptions, American, Atheism in, 

992 
contribution, New York Life's, 441 
corruption in America, A French 
view of, 795 
Politics, city, Garbage disposal and, 51 
Jewish race prejudice in, 448 
machine, in Ohio, Taft's war on, 641 
Polyglot drama of New York, 46 



lO 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Poor, London's, Plight of, 794 
Pope and Italian politics, The, 91 

"tainted money " problem for the, A, 

391 
Pope's telephone. The, 385 
Popularity of the erotic novel. Increas- 
ing, 45' 
Pcjpiilar magazine, American, Superiority 

of, 5-^9 
Pfjrtland, Thi' successful exposition in, 

G02 
Porto Rico, demand for self-government, 
169 
Hurting, with our kindness, 374 
P<jrtrait of SpiiKjza, A newly discovered, 

verbal, Identification by, 576 
Portraits, Sargent's, Revelation of char- 
acter in, 482 
Portsmouth, Peace outlook at, 233 

Treaty signed at, ^;^:^; Effects of the, 
369; Russian press on the, 462 
Postal card, A phonographic, 416 
Posts that will last, VVooden, 617 
Poultry, undrawn. The storage of, 988 
Powers, new grouping of, America in the, 

124 
Pranks, College, and homicide, 735 
i'rayer, Kaddish, The, 706 

The evolution of, 878 

Therapeutic value of, 456 
Preacher's poet, Browning as the, 536 
Prejudice, Jewish race, in politics, 448 
1 'resents. Miss Roosevelt's embarrassing, 

(>4.} 
Presidenc}-, French, The change in the, 924 
President and railroad passes. The, 521 
insurance. An, who died i)oor, 299 
Southern tri]) of, ()0,5 
South's changed allitude toward the, 
647 
Presidential power. Opposing the exten- 
sion of, 975 
President's message is regarded, How 

the, 903; Foreign views of, 995 
Press agent, Japanese, The, 204 

Cierman, Mentality of the, 612 
Prince Louis of Battenberg, Resentment 

over the visit of, 731 
Printing-office scandal, 371 
Prints, finger-. Identification by, 741 
Prizes, Nobel, for 1905, 905 
Problem, dramatic. An interesting, 114 
Profession, literature as a, A brief for, 271 
"Profession, Mrs. Warren's," suppressed 

in New York, 698 
"Professional amateurs" in athletics, 39 
Professorship of Theology and Practise 

of Missions added to the Yale faculty, 

792 

Theodore Roosevelt, in l?erlin, 780 
Pronunciation by machinery. Teaching, 

(j,S7 
Protestant federation, A Catholic view of, 

uneasiness in I'rance, i<S 
Pr<jtestantism, genius of, ()rtli()(loxy for- 
eign to the, 993 
Public library feminized. Is the? 10 

libraries. Growth of, 78 
Puritan objection to Wait Whitman, 242 
I'yg'ii'es, Kongo, in London, ()Hi) 



Race beantifier, A, 130 

human, Will it die of thirst? 381 
riols in New York, Lessons of the, 
I3^< 
"Race-Mind" in lileratm-e, I-'xpression of 

the, r,5i 
Races, different. Differences of blood in, 

876 
Races, Superior and inferior. 786 

vanishing. A study of, 248 
Racial differences. Custom and, 487 

supi'riorily .and inferiority, 78f) 
R.idical forces in tlu' Roman Catholic 
C luircli, 53 
religious, Milton ;is :i, 123 
Radio.active animals and i)lants, 383 
matter in the air, 573 



"Radiobe," A posible explanation of the, 

453 
'Radiobes," and their discoverer, 147 
Are they crystals? 84, 246 
before Burke, 348 
Radium, Recent study of, 742 
Raft, A dangerous, 382 
Rail, third, made innocuous, 411 
Railroad cars. New device for sterilizing. 
991 
emploj'ecs. The President's reply to 

the, 814 
pass, The President and the, 521 
passes, Abolition of the, 943 
Railroads, American, Secret of success in, 

24 
Railway, Hankow, Sale of the, ^^G 

rate legislation, Rei)ublican opposi- 
tion to, 519; Railway employees' 
objection to, 814 
traffic shown in curves, 307 
Rain-storm, b'eeling the pulse of a, 212 
Rapid transit, Sociology of, 15 
Rates, New grain, 3:^7 
Ray-cures, 115 

Read, Opie. Having fun with, 676 
Realist in h^nglish poetry. The hrst, 208 
Reason and morals, Art's relation to, 696 
Rebates, Santa h'e and. Report on, 5 
Rebellion in the Isle of Pines, 779 
Reconstruction, theological, Suggestions 

toward a method of, 351 
Referee, peace. President Roosevelt as, 

270 
Reform in the Roman Catholic Church, 

120 
Religion a dangerous topic. Is? 215 
Blurred outlines in, 122 
How art may aid, 280 
Imagination in, 86 
in fiction, 619 
Surplus churches and, 705 
The child's capacity for, 450 
Wealth of new, 250 
What the negro calls, 620 
Religions, Christianity the most inclusive 

of all, 460 
Religious basis. Must morality have a? 

879 
controversy. The decay of, 149 
destiny of ethical culture, 959 
<lrama, A plea for, 790 
emphasis, A new, 279 
ideas of Meredith, 214 
indei)endence, A longing for, in Ja- 
pan, 480 
interpretation of "Hamlet." A, 249 
Is the Russian? 536 
life of the negro, 152 
radical, Milton as a, 123 
reformation, Russian, Beginning of a, 

86 
side of Victor lingo. 958 
work of art. A great, 182 
Rei)airs, an;itomical. Ancient attemi)ts at. 

954 
Re])()rter. sermon, as some preachers 

strike him. 21 f) 
Reporters .-md the i)eace envoj's, 164 
Republic in Russia, The first. 997 
Republican campaign fund. New York 
Life's contribution to the, 41 
light for leader in New \'ork State, 

^'-^ . . 
opposition to President Roosevelt, 

5.19 
Rei)ublicans. M.'iryland. decry negro- 
domination, 407 
Respiratory :ipi);iratus for lireiiun, 457 
Revival, A decadent, 343 
Revivals, The inlluence of, 4()r 
Revolt in Russian Poland, 8 

in .South Africa, British concern over 
the, 794 . 
Re\'olution. A new weapon of. 71)3 

in Russia. 72; Impossibility of, 623 
Rev(dutionists. Russian, War-cry of the, 

882 
Riots, Japanese. Meaning of the, 408 
Race, in New York, Lessons of the, 
136 
"Rip V.in Winkle," The passing of, 569 



Rockefeller, John D., Change of senti- 
ment toward, 523 
Rockefeller's gifts and business ethics, 37 
remarkable welcome, 723 
"tainted money," Acceptance of, 446 
Rods, Lightning, up-to-date, 348 
Rogers' service to American literature, 

160 
Roman Catholic Church, Human element 
as a source of strength in the, 216; 
Radical forces in the, 53; Reform in 
the, 120 
Roman Catholic indictment of temporal 

power, 310 
Romance, popular. Veering weathercock 
of, 272 
The Brownings', as reflected in their 
poetry, 609 
Roosevelt, Miss Alice, and her presents, 

643 
Roosevelt, Theodore, Ancestry of, 634 
and Mrs. Jackson, 674 
as a reviewer of verse, 271 
as peace referee, 270 
Bear hunt of, 506 
Reply of, to the railroad employees, 

814 
Republican opposition to, 519 
Self-possession of, 763 
Southern trip of. Result of, 603 
South's changed attitude toward, 647 
takes a submarine trip, 339 
to the coal-miners, 238 
Trip of, to New Orleans, 475 
viewed as an American C;esar, 995 
Root appointed Secretary of State, 69 
told to "move on," 432 
will go to Brazil, Why, 909 
Rotary engines, Problem of the, 17 
Fiubaiyat, Ecclesiastes and the, 868 
Rubber stamp. How to make a, 487 

Supply of, 308 
Rubbish, Making good use of, 872 
Run about too much. Do we? 488 
Russia, A strike for universal suffrage in, 

645 
A warning to, from Italy, 494 
An attempt to conciliate the revolu- 
tionists in. 584 
and England, Proposed alliance of, 

662 
appeals for diplomatic support, 22 
Boycotting the new Douma in, 426 
condition of, Trepoff's views of the, 

462 
Czarism in quip and cartoon, ~;i3 
Fear and distrust of books in, 12 
L'irst republic in, 997 
Foreign books in, 44 
Gorky on the Baku massacres, 750 
Imi)ossibility of revolution in, 623 
Is it revolution in? 7 
Is there any hope for? 183 
Jews in, American aid to the, 77^ 
Jewish problem in, Tolstoy on the, 

186 
Legislative assembly for, 217 
Liberty in, 707 
Lurid dawn of liberty in, 687 
Massacre of Jews in, 732 
Menace of, to Europe, 286, 495 
Naval mutiny in, 42 
New DouiiKi in, 268; Criticism of 

the. 540 
New outbreak in the Caucasus, 409 
Poland. The fate of, 926 
Polish uprising in. 218 
Radical opi)osition to the Douma in, 

540 
Reformers in, batlled bj' the Czar, 

355. 
Russian press and the Revolution, 

062 
Sebastopol, Mutiny at, 867 
Stead's scheme to emancipate the 

Czar. ()(u 
Strikes as a re\olution;iry weapon 

i". 793 
tariff war with. End of our, 405 
"The .\postle," a new political play 

>". 7.U 
The Drama and Censorship in, 172 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



1 1 



Russia: 

Useful books on, 344 
War-cry of the revolutionists in, 882 
Why are the Jews massacred in? 832 
Will Witte succeed in? 923 
Zemstvo Congress and the Russian 

police, 137 
Russian autocracy and party spirit, 315 
cabinet, Planning the, 494 
diplomacy, 423 

domestic affairs, TrepofT on, 462 
Douma, Russian criticism of the, 540 
Jews in America, 375 
literature, The Russian officer in, 652 
officers. Expert criticism of, 389 
peasantry religious. Is the? 536 
people. What the Douma means for 

the, 268 
Poland, Revolt in, 8 
press, The revolution and the, 962 
religious reformation, Beginning of 

a, 86 
republic, The first, 997 
revolutionists. War-cry of the, 882 
strike for universal suffrage. A, 645 
Russia's future, Tolstoy on, 962 

naval rank, before and after, 265 
need of new allies, 218 
new menace to Europe, 495 
Russo-Japanese War; 

diplomacy, Russian, 423 

Effect of, on foreign missions, 19 

envoys, peace, Roosevelt's work with 

the, 300 
Europe's view of the President's 

intervention, 21 
Features of the, 335 
Japanese ambition. Menace of, 352 
Japanese riots. Meaning of the, 408 
"Mikasa," Loss of the, 409 
Mukden, Battle of, won by telephone, 

146 
Nebogatoff's dilemma, 804 
officers, Russian, Expert criticism of, 

389 
Peace and one of its sequels, 125 
peace conference. The Czar's second 

call for a, 443 
Peace envoys and the reporters, 164 
Peace outlook at Portsmouth, 233 
peace prospects, Russian press on, 

124 
peace referee, Roosevelt as, 270 
peace, Russian press on, 462 
Portsmouth, Predictions of a dead- 
lock at, 253 
press-agent. The Japanese, 204 
Revolutionary results of victory up- 
on Japan, 424 
Russia's appeal for diplomatic sup- 
port, 22 
Saghalien, Seizure of, 104 
Sea of Japan, battle of the, Naval au- 
thorities on the, 40 
Story that ended the, 554 
Terms of peace, 333 
Treaty of peace. Effect of the,, 369 
Tshushima, Echoes of, and "Nel- 
son's Year," 284 



Sage, Russell, a man of dollars, 259 

His perspicuous mind, 260 
Saghalien, Seizure of, 104 
Sailors, Lack of, for our navy, 7 
Salon, dramatic, A suggested, 380 
Sanitation, Policy of, at Panama, 531 
Santa Fe and rebates. Report on, 5 
Sap in trees. Ascent of, 178 
Sargent's portraits, Revelation of char- 
acter in, 482 
Satire, A professorship of, suggested, 

871 
Savages, Speed of news among, 385 
Scandal, Army contract, British, 88 
cotton report. The, 103 
department graft. Another, 299 
dispensary. South Carolina's, 406 
in the Government printing-office, 
371 



Scandals in the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, 202 
Insurance, The press of the country 
on the, 606 
Scandinavia, Dark predictions for Nor- 
way, 493 
Scandinavia's future, 154 
Schism, Benefits of, 123 
Scholarship, American, British thrust at, 

141 
School of fine arts. The Church as a, 150 
Schools, Medical supervision of, 535 

Public, and the public health, 788 
Science, American, German view of, 454 
and the soul, 828 
Frenzied, 243 
in the library, 247 
judges trained in. Need of, 535 
Undermining the foundations of, 915 
Scientific names. Misunderstanding in, 
148 
basis in education, A plea for the, 

378 
student, Greek for the, 572 
Scotland, Literary decadence in, 302 
Scott's freedom from the tyranny of 

grammar, 913 
Scriptures, Distribution of, in New York, 

. 959 , 
Sea, Fresh water at, 955 

"habit" dying out. Is our? 7 

of Japan, Battle of, and "Nelson's 

Year," 284 
of Japan, Battle of. Naval authori- 
ties on the, 40 
-sickness. How to relieve, 17 
wall, Galveston's great, 575 
Seamen, Lack of, for our ships, 7 
Sebastopol, Mutiny at, 867 
Secretary of State, Mr. Root appointed, 

69 
Sects in Korea, Blending the, 705 
"Seedless man," Can we breed a? 305 
Selection, Natural, in the inorganic 

world, 346 
Self-government, Porto Rico's demand 

for, 169 
Senate, Opposition in the, to President 

Roosevelt, 519 
Septuagint, Immortality as a doctrine of 

the, 252 
Sepulture, A new method of, 308 . 
Sermon reporters' view of preachers, 216 
Sewerage six thousand years old, 306 
Sex in education, A Platonist on, 245 
Shakespeare, How the Japanese "adapt," 

821 
Shakespearean revival. Interesting fea- 
ture of the, 871 
Shanghaing on the "Chesapeake," 866 
Sharp, William (Fiona Macleod), Death 

of, 983 
Shaw, George Bernard, accused of dul- 
ness, 572 
books of, banished from New York's 

libraries, 481 
play suppressed in New York, 698 
The nemesis of, 612 
Trying to "place," 140 
Shaw, Leslie M., retires from the Cabi- 
net, 526 
Ship, Gold-, and its work, 211 
Ship-detector, A wireless, 875 
Shorthand typewriter, A new, 119 
Short stories. Is there a standard for? 45 
Sickness benevolent. Is? 785 
Schemes to feign, 212 
sleeping. The mystery of, solved, 613 
Simplon tunnel, I'-xtraordinary survey- 
ing in the, 655 
Simpson, Jerry, Death of, 721 
Singers and their brains. 782 / 

Sky-scraper, Stability of the, 118 
Slang, Value of, 952 
Sleep. Cause of. 248 

How animals, 576 
Sleeping sickness solved. The mystery 

of the, 613 
Smart Set, New York's, "Fads and Fan- 
cies" of, 200 
Smollett, Tobias, an essay on, 80 



Social evils, Agnosticism's responsibility 

for, 53 
Society, New York's, "Fads and Fancies" 
of, 200 
versus art, 112 
Sociology of rapid transit, 15 
Soul, Science and the, 828 
South, President Roosevelt's trip to the, 

603 
South Africa, Coolie plague in, 582 

German, ICnglish concern over the 
revolt in, 794 
South America, By wireless across, 415 
South Car(,)lina's dispensary scandal, 406 
Southern immigration and quarantine 
conference, 777 
press on the Georgia lynching, 71 
tour, The President's, 647 
South's changed feeling toward the 

President, 647 
Space telegraphy. International aspects 

of, 178 
Spain, Prosperity of, 92 
Speech and intellect, 955 
Spider as an engineer. The, 346 
Spider's web. Photograph of a, 246 
Spinoza, A newly discovered portrait 

<>f, 527 
Spirit, modern. Aloofness of the churches 

from the, 491 
Spiritualism, Electricity and, 174 
Spiritual side of Swinburne's genius, 650 
Sports, College, and homicide, 818 
"Squaw-talk," A protest against, 207 
S<]uires, II. G., resigns as Minister to 

Cuba, 908 
Stage, Bernhardt's farewell tour from 
the, 951 

French, A suicide epidemic on the, 

870 
training, Yiddish, Bertha Kalisch on, 
528 
Stamp, rubber. How to make a, 487 
Stars, variable. Discovery of, 654 
State, Assistant Secretary of. The new 

(Robert Bacon), 373 
Statehood question,. Territorial senti- 
ment on the, 947 
Steamers, To lessen vibration in, 954 

turbine. Transatlantic, 991 
Steam locomotive and car, (Combination, 

247 
Steel and iron. Exhaustion of our sup- 
ply of, 115 
making by electricity, 308 
Sterne, A good word for, 530 

the American, Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, 413 
Stevens, John F., Chief Engineer of the 

Canal, 724 
Stone and Metal, To weather-proof, 146 
Storage, cold. Some evils of, 788 
Stories, short. Is there a standard for? 

45 
Storm. Rain-, Feeling the Pulse of a, 212 
movement. A new method of fore- 
telling, 145 
Story, short, Beginning of the, in Amer- 
ica, 240 
short. Best, of the month, 221, 356, 

543. 711. 727 
St. Louis bridge monopoly. Investiga- 
ting the, 562 
St. Patrick. The real, 657 
St. Petersburg. "The Apostle," a new 

political play in. 737 
Street-car blocks. Mathematics and. 987 
Strike, Chicago teamsters'. End of. 166 
new coal, Mutterings of a. 338 
The, a new weapon of revolution, 

793 
Student, scientific. Greek for the. 572 
Style, model of. The Bible as a, 79 
Subject, Wandering from the, recom- 
mended, 173 
Submarine, electrical. The. 211 

trip. The President's. 339 
Submarines. Accidents to, 534 

Detection of, 144 

Limitations of, 148 
Substance. A new emanative, 248 
Subway tavern. End of the, 338 



I 2 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Siififrage, female, Cleveland's attack on, 
476 

Universal, in Hungary, 492 
Suicide epidemic on the French stage, 

A. 870 
Sultan of Turkey, Sketch of, 324 
Summarj- dismissal order, The new, 644 
Sun, Children of the, Xevv drama by 
Gorky. 304 

and the weather. The, 213 

dial for standard time, 485 
Sunday closing in Missouri, no 
Sundiiy-School con\ention, Meeting of 
the, 152 

Nature study in tiic, 149 
Sun's eclipse. Studying the, 340 

lifting power. The, 456 
Sunstroke, Cause of, 248 
Supernatural, Dependence of literature 

upon the, 823 
Surveying extraordinary, 655 
Swallow, Mow to, 347 
Sweden, Women's rights in, 965 
Swim, Why fat men should, 177 
Swinburne's genius. Spiritual side of, 650 

novel, 449 
Symbols, Universal, for the compass, 176 
Synod, Judaism's proposed, 19 



Taft, Secretary, Philippine trip of, 478; 
suits of the, 263 
War of, on machine politics in Ohio, 
641 
Tainted labor. The church and, 745 

money, Acceptance of, 446; Re- 
ligions on the, 579 
Results of the, 263 
money problem for the Pope, 391 
Talk, children's. Protest against, 207 
Taming of lish. The, 456, 577 
Tammany Hail, oppnsition to, Break-up 

of the, 473 
Tariff war. Preparing for a, 269 

with Russia, End of our, 405 
Tavern, subway. End of the, 338 
Tea, milk with. Using, 213 
Teamsters' strike in Chicago, End of, 

166 
Teeth, Brains and, 213 

Effect of, upon eating, 956 
Telegraphing to Timbuctoo, 654 
Telegraphs, i)rinting. Construction and 
m;iiinen;ince of, 419 
[printing. Money-saving possibilities 
ties for, 457 
Telegraphy, space. International as- 
pects of, 178 
Telephone in the audience. The, 574 
Pf)pe's, The, 385 
Time-transmission by, 278 
Winning a battle by, 146 
Temper, bad, A cure for, 786 
Tcni()erature, Involution and, 307 
Temporal power. Catholic indictment 

of. 310 
Tendencies, Methodist, seen in the new 

hymnal, 489 
Tenets, Christi:in, the Jews ni.iv ;i(lopt. 

Territorial sentiment on tlie statehood 

(|uesti(jn, 947 
Testament, new. New light on the, 745 
Thanksgiving proclamation. The Chris- 
tian note in the, 790 
'riuater, A national, in New York, 740 
'heaters, Protection from fire for, 910 
Theological reconstruction. Suggestions 

toward a method of, 351 
Theology, .Advanced. ila-~ it passed its 
zenith? 578 
and art, 24(} 

conservative :ind advanced. Widen- 
ing breach between, 359 
dogmatic, I'etrifying intUience of, 

706 
godless, .\, 151 
Theosoi)hical theory of thought-forms, 

Thera|)cutic value of |)rayer, 456 
Third rail made innocuous, 4t7 



Thought-forms, The theosophical theory 

of, 422 
Thunder-clouds, Power from the, 653 
Tibet, The Buddhism of, 311 
Tide in a bowl. A, 278 
Time, standard. Sun-dial for, 485 

transmissicni by telcplnjue, 278 
Todd, Mary, A friendly view of, 807 
Tolstoy on the sin of holding office, 425 
Tolstoy's literary plans, 46 
Topic, dangerous. Is religion a? 215 
Torrey-Alcxander mission criticized, 920 
Traction troubles in Chicago, 604 
Trade, foreign. Doubts of our, 133 
Traffic, Street-railway, shown in curves, 

,307 

Tragedy, D'Annunzio's unsuccessful, 46 

The appeal of, 983 
Train, express, The coming, 48 
Trains, Fast, Are they dangerous? 81 

German device for warning, 743 

Safety of, 2 
Tramp, The, as a literary type, 342 
Transplanting of large trees, 277 
Treasurer of the United States, The 

iH'w, 555 
Treasury deficit, The, 76 

scandal in Pennsylvania, Another, 

Treaties, arbitration. International, 266 
Treatment for tuberculosis, A new, 656 
Tree, A valuable — The Mahwa, 874 
Trees, large. The transplanting of, 277 

sap in. Ascent of, 178 
Trepofif, General, His love of power, 893 
Trust, Beef, fined under the Elkins law, 

444 
St. Louis bridge, Investigating the, 
562 
Trusts and corporations, "Peopleization" 

of, 864 
Tshushinia, lu'hoes of, and "Nelson's 

year," 284 
Tuberculosis, A new treatment for, 656 
Outdoor treatm'ent of, 915 
Vegetable juices and, 418 
Wholesome food and, 918 
Turbine steamers, Transatlantic. 991 
Turkey. International naval demonstra- 
tion against, 880 
Sultan of, Sketch of, 324 
Twain, Mark, on how to reach seventy. 

93'^> 
Twain. Mark. The, of Paris, 849 
Twentieth Centurj- Limited, Wreck of 

the, 2 
Typewriter, shorthand, A new, 119 

U 

Unemployed, Balfour's speech to the. 

835 
Unfit. 1 he. survival of the. 305 
Unillustrated magazine. Fate of the, 570 
Union of Baptist and Free Baptist, The 
proposed, 994 
of Christendom, A barrier to, 215 
Unitarian F^xclnsion defended. 659 
Unitarians barred from tiu- federation 

conference. ()\H 
United States a Chrisli.in n.ition, Is? 

Cuban iiostility against. S~- 

f.-irm i)roduots of the. Value of the. 

Illiteracy in, 909 

imperialism of. How h'rance will check 

the, 153 
printing-office scandal, 371 
Urivers.d life or death? 701 

V 

Vagabond ;is a literary tyi)e, The, 342 
Vanishing races. A study of, 248 
Variable stars. Discovery of, 654 
Vatican and the separation in hVance, 995 
Vegetable juices and tuberculosis, 41S 
Venezuela, Warlike actions of, 298 
Verse, m.-ithem.itical. Some, (x)() 

Physiological theory of. A, 141 
reviewer of. The President as a, 271 
writers, Japan's imperial, 209 



Virility in English literature. An invasion 

of, 609 
Virtue, French, and American Virtue, 90 
Volcanoes of the moon, 15 
Von Buelow on the future relations of 

Germany, France, and Russia, 621 



W 



Wages and the cost of living, 648 
Wagner, Charles, visits the White House, 

594 
Wagner's idea of art, 413 
Wall, sea-, Galveston's great, 575. 
Wallace, Chief Engineer, resigns, 36 
Wallace, Dillon, succeeds in Labrador, 896 
War, A good word for, 286 

Department, Graft in, 299 

Should Christianity' countenance? 20 
Warm weather. Virtuous intluence of, 16 
Water, Fresh, at sea, 955 

sea. Gold in, 700 
Watts and Whistler contrasted, 44 
Watts's genius. Note of melancholy in. 

571 
Wave, bow, Photographing the, of the 

"Ohio," 787 
Waves, ocean, Shape and height of, 486 
Weapon of revolution, A new, 793 
Weather, A new method of foretelling, 145 
Influence of the moon and planets on 

the. 532 
prediction. Contests in. 787 
-proof store and metal. 146 
stations, Islands as, 14 
Sun and the, 213 
warm, The, 138 

warm. Virtuous influence of, 16 
Weathercock of popular romance, The 

veering, 272 
Weaver, John, the ring-smasher, 130 
Web, spider's. Photograph of a, 246 
Wettest place in the world, 617 
Wheat crop, A record, 264 
Whisky, Decreasing use of, 410 
Whistler and Watts contrasted, 44 
Whitehead, Robert, and his torpedo, 851 
Whitelock, Brand, the new "Golden Rule 

Mayor," 850 
Whitman. Puritan objection to. The, 242 

New glimpses of. 739 
Whitnev, Casper, among strange peoples, 

846 
Wilder, Marshall P., Elbert Hubbard on, 

552 
Wilde's "De Profundis," A lawsuit about, 

765 
Williehnina's successor. Queen, 852 
William II. at close range, 507; Dis- 
courses with, 848 
Willia'm H.'s influence in the affairs of 

Europe, 539 
Williams, Sir George, Death of, 829 
Witte, Count Serge, as an "angel of peace," 
583: Sketch of, 226 
Will he succeed in Russia? 923 
Wireless message. Aiming a, 245 
ship-detector. A, 875 
telegraph transmitter. Novel applica- 
tion of. <)i8 
Industrial supremacy of. 299 
Women's rights in Sweden, 965 
Wood, (Eldest piece of, in the world, 917 

Sweetened, 875 
Wooden house. Passing of the, 119 
Words in the average vocabulary, 838 
Work for all. Is there? 480 

lionie. Evils of excessive, 585 
World drying up. Is the? 381 
Loftiest points of the, 13 
Wettest place in the, (uj 
World's Student Christian T'ederation, 
Rally of the, 87 
telegraphy across South America. 415 
telegraphy, l-'arliest form of. 385 
Woman. American. The iMcnch novel and 
the. 77 
Modern, in Italy, 752 
suffrage, Cleveland's attack on, 476 
The greatest boi^k written by a, 820 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Woman's clothes, Blunders of male novel- 
ists in describing, 822 
Women in modern Italian fiction, 112 
Wounded, mortalh', Shall we kill the? 743 
Wreck on the New York elevated, 405 
Wright, Governor-General of the Philip- 
pines, Rumored resignation of, 605 
"Wuthering Heights," the greatest book 
by a woman, 820 

X 

X-ray device, A new, 455 



Young Men's Christian Association : 

The death of the founder of the, 829 

Yellow-fever districts, Roosevelt's trip to 
tlie, 475 
fight. New Orleans', 163, 642; Federal 

control over, 236, ^^^ Zanzibar reducmg m area, 457 

Yiddish stage training. Bertha Kalisch on, Zebra, African, Domestication of the, 416 
iS) I Zemstvo Congress, Meeting of the, 137 

Young Men's Christian Association, Criti- l Zionism, Social peril of, 748 
cisni of, 85 I The split in, 281 



Abbott, Ernest Hamlin, 85 

Acloque, E., 118, 616 

Adams, Alton D., 872 

Adams, Walter, 337 

Adderley, Rev. James, 829 

Adler, Dr. Felix, 122 

Ainger, Canon Alfred, 984 

Aked, Charles Frederic, 536 

Alden, Henry Mills, 273 

Alger, George W., 207 

Allemagne, Henri-Rene d', 416 

Allis, Dexter W., 918 

Amram, David W., 387 

Amsden, Mrs. Dora, 240 

Andrews, Mary Raymond Shipman, 221 

Anesaki, M., 580 

Armstrong, W. W., 403 



Bacon, Capt. R. H., 534 
Badger, J. S., 307 
Bailey, Prof. W. B., 656 
Baldit, A., 875 

Baldwin, Prof. Charles Sears, 97 
Balfour, Arthur J., 835 
Bangs, Francis S., 862 
Banks, Prof. Edgar James, 306 
Barker, Lewellys F., 454 
Barlow, George, 650 
Barrington, Mrs. Russell, 571 
Bates, Prof. E. S., 170 
Bates, Lindon W., 817 
Beadnell, March, 876 
Beal, Prof. W. J., 49 
Beard, J. Carter, 827 
Beilby, G. T., 385 
Bell, Ernest, 945 
Bellaigue, Camille, 740 
Bensley, Miss Martha S., 697 
Benson, Arthur C, 45, 609 
Berget, A., 486 
Bernheimer, Charles S., 375 
Bertha, A. de, 796, 926 
Besant, Mrs. Annie, 422 
Bettany, F. G., 140 
Bharati, Baba, 19 
Bodine, W. L., 299 
' Bolina, Jack la, 284 

Bonaparte, Charles J., 941, 946 

Borchardt, Felix, 848 

Bostwick, Dr. Arthur E., 481 

Bowie, Edward H., 145 

Boyer, Jacques, 875 

Bradford, Rev. Amory H., 747 

Bradley, A. C, 249 

Brandicourt, V., 246 

Brandes, Georg, 450 

Brewer, Justice David J., 299, 657 

Breydel, A., 174 

Briggs, Prof. Charles A., 120, 215 

Brooks, Sidney, 43 

Broomall, C. M., 656 

Brown, Dr. Arthur J., 730 

Brown, Prof. Ernest W., 213 

Bruce, Sir Charles, 353 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, 287, 424, 879 

Brunton, Sir Lauder, 786 

Brussel, Robert, 820 

Buckley, Dr. James M., 421 

Buelow, Prince von, 621 

Burbank, Luther, 305 

Bury, J. B., 657 

Butler, N. M., President, 781 



INDEX OF AUTHORS 



Cafifin, Charles H., 302, 411 

Camp, Walter, 861 

Carl, Kathcrine A., 592 

Carman, Bliss, 951 

Cary, Elizabeth Luther, 912 

Chafifee, General Adna, 863 

Chambers, Robert W., 649 

Chapin, Charles E., 457 

Chautavoine, Henri, 635 

Cheatham, Richard, 103 

Chester, George Randolph, 356 

Chesterton, G. K., 377 

Cleiner, George, 832 

Cleland, H. F., 276 

Clemenceau, Georges, 659 

Clement, Ernest W., 209 

Cleveland, Grover, 476 

Cockran, Bourke, 263 

Colajanni, N., 786 

Coleman, Ambrose, 121 

Collins, James H., 173 

Combes, Emile, 463 

Commons, John R., 690 

Conklin, Rev. John Woodruff, 705 

Constet, Ernest, 144 

Coquelin, Benoit Constant, 243 

Coulton, G. G., 53 

Cox, Kenyon, 482 

Cram, Ralph Adams, 780 

Crapsey, Rev. Algernon Sidney, 421, 491 

Crawford, A. Maud M., 577 

Creelman, James, 233 

Crehore, Albert C, 485 

Crilly, Daniel, 10 

Cromer, George B., 406 

Cromwell, Frederick, 403 

Crooks, Will, 835 

Crothers, Samuel McChord, 957 

Cullom, Senator Shelby M., 388 

Cunnifif, M. G., 593 

Cunningham, William, 52 



D 



Dale, Alan, 572 

Dalryniple, James, 410 

Danilevsky, Mme. M., 821 

Darrow, Clarence B., 604 

Darwin, Prof. George Howard, 346 

Davies, Ffrangcon, 782 

Davray, Henry, 272 

D'avenport, Prof. Fred M., 620 

Davis, Richard Harding, 649 

Dawson, Rev. W. J., 87, 619 

Del Mar, Alexander, 211 

Delyanni, N. P., 709 

Dennis, Rev. James S., 309 

Denison, Lindsay, 259 

Deroulede, Paul, 998 

Desart, Ellen, 949 

Dickinson, G. Lowes, 280 

Dilke, Sir Charles, 124 

Dixon, Rev. Thomas, 266 

Domar, C, 653 

Dowden, Edward, 450 

Dubois, Raphael, 348 

Dunbar, Miss Olivia Howard, 274 

Dunlap, Orrin E., 703 

Dunne, Mayor, of Chicago, 106 

Durell, J. C. V., 120 

Dwelshauvers, F. V., 92 



E 

Edward VIL, 334 
Eliot, Sir Charles N., 311 
Eliot, Rev. Samuel A., 618 
Elliot, Henry R., 745 
Ellison, Grace, 987 
Eltzbacker, O., 795 
Espitalier, Col. G., 82 
Evangelisti, Anna, 752 
Evoli, Francesco, 57 



Farber, Edwin J., 846 

Farnell, L. R., 878 

Farwell, J. V., 167 

Federico, Palma, 391 

Felkin, Dr. R. W., 703 

Fianingo, G. M., 24 

Findon, B. W., 790 

Fiske, Bradley A., Commander, U.S.N., 

41, 916 
Forbin, M. V., 989 
P^orbush, Rev. William Byron, 868 
Ford, James L., 529 
Ford, Mary K., 207 
Forsythe, Rev. P. T., 746, 993 
Fort, J. Hogge, 92 
Foss, Eugene N., 269 
Fowler, Frank, 871 
France, Anatole, 879 
Franklin, W. S., 418 
Freeman, John R., 990 
Frost, Walter B., 82 
Fry, Roger E., 44 
Fuller, Valancey E., 884 



Gabba, C. F., 748 
Gaines, C. H., 449 
Garson, J. G., 741 
Gautier, Paul, 914 
Giddings, Prof. Franklin H., 382 
Gilder, Richard Watson, 12, 609 
Gilman, Lawrence, 986 
Gladden, Washington, 992 
Gorky, Maxim, 750 
Gosse, Edmund, ()ii 
Gradenwitz, Dr. Alfred, 117 
Graves, Ralph H., 851 
Greenslet, Ferris, 781 
Gregoire, Victor, 828 
Gribble. I'rancis, 149 
Grosscup, Judge Peter S., 864 
Gsell, P., 527 
Guarni, Emili, 455 
Gucnther, Ludwig, 385 
Gulick, Rev. Sidney L., 792 
Guyon, E., 278 



H 



Hale, Edward Everett, Jr., 612 
Hall. Miss Anne S., 743, 918 
Hall, Dr. Charles Cuthbert, 619 
Hall, President G. Stanley, 85 
Halls, William, 704 
Hallock, Mrs. Mary, 141 
Handley, Rev. Hubert, 18 
Hannay, James C, 949 
Hapgood, Norman, 243 
Harbord, F. W., 308 
Harrison, Frederic, 20 



14 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Harwood, W. S., 699 

Heath, Dudley, 9 

Helys, Marc, 964 

HemnuttT, Dr. John C, 788 

I iLiidricks, I*"rancis, i 

Heiison, Canon, Herbert Hensley, 490, 

920 
llerichard, E., 115 
I lervc, Gustav, 749 
llig^iiis, niil)crt, 347 
HiKgiiis(]n, Tliomas Wcntworth, 271 
Hirsch, Dr. Emil G., 19 
Hitchcock, C. D., 955 
HoMoway, Edward Stratton, 7ri 
Holt, Henry, 695 
Horwiil, Herbert W., 273 
Howells, William D., 173. 378 
Ilughes, Rupert, 927 
iluiieker, James, 303 
iiutton. Rev. John A., 150 
I lyde, Douglas, 949 
I lykes, Rev. John R., 19 
Hy.slop, Prof. James H., 179 
Hyslop, Theodore li., 456 



Irving, Sir Henry, 243 
Isaacs, Prof, .\brani, 789 



Jacks, E. P., 830 

Jackson, Gi'Drge, 86 

Jackson, Wilbur, 149 

Jacobs, Dr. Joseph, 527 

Jaeger, Paul, 151 

James, Henry, 274 

Japp, Alexander, 349 

Jastrovv, Joseph, 573 

Jaures, Jean, 749 

Jennings, Dr. C. G., 535 

Jeremias, Alfred, 745 

Jerome, Jerome K., 572 

Jerome, William T., 110, 199, 601, 907 

Jiilinson, .\. T. M., 245 

Jnhiisim, Dr. Robert, 312 

Jones, Harry, 379 

Jordan, David Starr, President, 744 

Jousselin, Stephane, TJ 

Jump, Rev. Herbert A., 151 



K 



KacmpfTert, Waldemar li., 307 

Kakuzd. Okakura, \\i 

Kalich. I'.ertha, 528 

Kato, Satori, 664 

Kennard, Dr. Joseph Spencer, 112 

Kildare, Owen, 829 

King, President Henry C, 85 

Kirby, Louis Paul, 250 

Knoi)f. Dr. S. A., 915 

Koechlin, Maurice, 346 

Kohler. Max J., 789 

Kossuth. I'VauQois de, 156, 219 



-add, Prof. George Trumbull, 459 
,anessan, I-'rench ex-Minister of Marine, 

710 
.ang, .Andriw, 80 
-ang, James. 123 
.anglois, (jeneral H.. 710 
.ankester. Prof. lulwin Ray. 14S, 378 
.atapie, Louis, 710 
.ankester, Prof. I*'dwin Ray, 148. 378 
.atapie, Louis, 710 
.atour. .\., 51 
.autier, i^ugene, 234 
,e Hon, Gustav. 915 
Aadi)eater. C. W., 422 
.efevre, lulwin, 595 
.efTm.-mn, Henry. 14 
.ensih. Paul. 7<J3 
,eroy. J., i kj 

.eroy-Heaulieu, .\natole. 879 
.eroy-Heaulieu, Pierre, 285 
-evvis. .Austin. 612 
.ibert. Lucien, 15 
.ighton. William R.. 73 

-illy, w. s.. 350 



Lindsay, Rev. James, 249 

Lindsay, Rev. Thomas ^L, 461 

Linton, Edwin, 177 

Lockyer, W. J. S., 14 

Loeb, Prof. Jacques, 956 

Longman, C. J., 570 

Lounsbury, Prof. Thomas R., of Yale, 913 

Lovett, Robert Morss, 240 

Lowell, Percival, 824 

M 

MacArthur, Rev. Dr. R. S., 123, 618 

Machray, Robert, 256, 584 

Mackay, Dr. Donald Sage, 618, 831 

Macphail, Andrew. 242 

Maeterlinck, Maurice, 877 

Maguire, Andrew, 833 

Mahan, A. T., Captain U.S.N., 40 

.Makuen, Dr. G. Hudson, 955 

Mann, Col. William D., 201 

Markham, P'dwin, 919 

.Mariofif, L., 832 

Marre, Erancis, 485, 531 

Matthews, Prof. Brander, 869, 952 

Matthews, Prof. Shailer, 351. 861 

.Maumene. .Albert. 381 

Maxwell, Dr. S. S., 116 

.McCall. John .\.. 441, 525 

.McCurdy, Richard A., 567 

.McKinley, Miss Julia, 634 

McLaughlin, Dr. Allan, 404 

Mellish, Eullcr, 633 

-Meltzor, C. IL, 740 

Melville, Admiral, 139, 167 

.Mentre, Prof. E., 741 

Metcalfe, James S., 911 

.Meyer, .Annie Nathan, 142 

.Michkine, N. P., 653 

.Miles, General Nelson .A., 692 

Milhaud. .Albert, 392 

Millard. Bailey, 484 

Miller, John S., 42 

Miller. Thomas D., 117 

.Minis. Sidney, 868 

.Mirbeau. Octave. 879 

Mitchell, Dr. Clifford, 653 

Mitchell. Guy Elliott, 210 

Mitchell, John, 239, 338 

.Mitton. G. E., 952 

.Moffatt, Rev. James, 214 

.Montefiore, Claude G., 420 

Mof)rc, Charles Eeonard, 452. 823 

Moore, Prof. Willis L., 145 

More. Paul Elmer. 530 

Morice, Charles, 415 

.Morris, George Perry, 386 

Moses, Montrose J., 6x2 

Mullins, Rev. E. Y., =5^ 

.Mullany. Rev. John E., .578 



N 



Nancouty, Max de, 50 

Nevinson. H. W., 341 

Newman, Ernest, 208 

.N'icholas 11. b'-inperor of Russia, 335 

Nitobe, Dr. Inazo, 252 

Xordau, Max, 879 

Xorth. Dr. Erank Mason. 458 

Xorvins, L. de, 795 



O'.Mara. Patrick, 953 

Odell, Benjamin B., 813, 975 

Oliver, Sydney, 'j'^}, 

Oom. I'Vederico. 176 

Oscar 11. King of Sweden, 55 

Oudesluys, l'".ugene, 235 



Paltrinieri, I-Vederico, 4()4 
Palmer. 1 lelen. 543 
Parker. Judge .Alton B., 403 
I'arkhurst. i)r. Charles IL, 47^ 
Parish, C. H., 474 
Payne, William Norton, 650 
Peabody, Prof. I'Vancis (1.. 959 
Pearson. Dr. D. K.. 524 
Peck, Harry Thurston, 143 



Pellissier, George, 54 

Peres, A., 576 

Peters, Dr. John P., 311 

Pierce. President, of Kenyon College, 818 

Pieron, Henri, 617, 701 

Pinon, Rene, 352 

Pius X.. 91, 334 

Piatt, Thomas C, 813 

Plista, .Achille, 539 

Pocl, William, 114 

Pollock, Col. A. W. A., 963 

Potter, Bishop Henry C., 338 

Pressense, Francis de, 314 

Prevot, Hippolyte, 150 

Pudor, Heinrich, 380 

Puffer. Prof. Ethel. 983 

Putnam, Herbert, 78 



Rae, .Admiral, 167, ']']'] 

Ramsey, Sir William, 453 

Reed. Myrtle, 822 

Regelsperger, Gustav, 416 

Reich, Emil, 245 

Reybel, E., 254 

Ribet, Joseph, 153 

Richards, Bernard G.. 282 

Richards, William R., 791 

Rickseker, Secretary of the Cleveland 

Humane Society, 16 
Rochefort, Henri, 90 
Rockefeller, John D., 524 
Roosevelt, Theodore, 5, 70, 168, 238, 271, 

566, 603, 647, 903 
Ross, Edward .A., 275 
Roubanovitch, E., 316 
Rudaux, Lucien, 13 
Riis, Jacob .A., 473 



Sabatier, Paul, 387 

Saleeby, C. W., 175, 246, 248 

Sanford, Rev. Dr. F. B., 618 

Santayana, Prof. George, 696 

Sato. I. Amira, ZZZ 

Savitch, G., 652 

Schauffler, Robert Haven, 140 

Schott, Karl, 308 

Scott, Leroy, 480 

Scott-James, R. A., 880 

See, Prof. T. J. J., 788 

Sedgwick, Henry Dwight, 'j'] 

Shaler, Prof. N. S., 115 

Shaw. George Bernard, 481, 738 

Shaw. William, 152 

Shorter, Clement K., 820 

Sin;pson, Herman, 140 

Sinclair, William A., 267 

Slicer, Thomas R., 618 

Slipher. V. M., 488 

Smith. Bertha H.. 483 

Smith. Goldwin, 538 

Smith, Joseph F., 704 

Smyth, Albert Henry. 913 

Soisons, S. C. de., 86 

Solano, E. John, 155 

Souvorin, .A. C, 124 

Spalding, Rev. J. L., 280 

Spooner, John C. 975 

Stapfer. Paul. 9S8 

Stead. William t., 661 

Stearns, l-'rank Preston. 413 

Steffens, Lincoln. 850 

Stephenson, Nathaniel, 206 

Stepniak, Sergius. 536 

.Still. Dr. .\. T., •^-^}^ 

Stradling. Lieut. James M., 764 

Strong. Rowland. 612 

Stone, Brig.-General Roy. 374 

Streatfeild, G. S., 279 

Street. G. S.. },"/■/ 

Strother. I'"rench. 47 

Sullivan. M. C. 146 

Sujinatsu, Baron K.. 125 

Symons, .Arthur. 343. 413 



Tafl, William II. . 3. 041 
Tallichet. l^douard, 23 
Tarbell. Ida M., },■] 



Thompson, Edgar W., 279 

Thompson, Grace Agness, 654 

Thompson, Irving, 872 

TInvaite, B. H., 702 

Thurston, Louis L., 148 

Tillman, Benjamin, 406, 975 

Tolstoy, Count Leo, 285, 425, 460, 492 

Tomasina, Dr. T., 383 

Tozer, Basil, 450 

Traubel, Horace, 739 

Travers, Morris W., 51 

Trevelyan, G. M., 180 

Treves, Sir Frederick, 785 

Trotha, I'hils von, 389 

Twain, Mark, 816, 936 

Tyler, Prof. John AL, 956 

U 
Ular, Alexander, 623 



VanDyke, Prof. Henry, 922, 957 
Van Riper, L. C, 103 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 

Varigny, Henry de, 306 
Varilla, Bunau, 817 
Vaya, Count Vay von, 353 
Very, Edward, Captain, 41 
Vialatte, Achille, 542 
Vinton, Dr. C. C, 705 
Vischer, Eberhard, i8j 
Vogt, Von Ogden, 152 



W 



Wade, James F., Major-General, 521 

Walsh, James J., 873 

Walton, William, 911 

Walz, F. J., 532 

Ward, Prof. Henry B., 384 

Ward, Tremaine, 792 

Ward, Dr. William Hayes, 831 

Warner, H. E., 21 

Warren, Edward, 304 

Washington, Booker T., 152 

Webster, Henry Kitchell, 724 

Wellman, Walter, 335 

Whitby, J. E., 381 



15 



White, Sir William, 148 

Whitney, Casper, 39, 846 

Wilcox, Prof. Walter F., 294 

Willett, Prof. Allen H., 477 

William H, Emperor of Germany, 334 

Williams. Rev. Charles D., 921 

Willis, Henry P., 263 

Wilson, H. W., 284 

Winchester, Prof. C. T., 489 

Winter, William, 561 

Wise, John S., 636 

Witte, Count Serge, 645, 794 

Wolf, Simon W., T]z 

Woodberry, George ]uJward, 651 

Woodruff, Charles li., 702, 825 



Yerkes, John W., 446 



Zamenhoff, Dr. Ludwig, 412 
Zangwill, Lsrael, 281 



PORTRAITS 



Abbott, Ernest Hamlin, 85 

Aberdeen, The Ivirl of, 961 

Alden, Henry Mills, 273 

Aldrich, Nelson W., Senator from Rhode 

Island, 905 
Alexander, Charles M., 921 
Alexis, Grand Duke, 21 
Apponyi, Count Albert von, 219 
Arctander, S., 56, 154 
Armstrong, William W., 864 
Asquith, Herbert H., 960 
Atkinson, Edward, 970 
Avellan, Russian admiral, 21 



B 



Bacon, Robert, 2,"]}, 

Baer, George F., 943 

Baker, Hermann, ^t,"] 

Balfour, Arthur J., 881 

Barrie, J. M., 43 

Bates, Lindon W., 817 

Bebel, Ferdinand Augustus, 751 

Behring, Professor, of Berlin, 656 

Bensley, Miss Martha S., 697 

Benson, Arthur Christopher, 609 

Bernhardt, Mme. Sarah, 951 

Berry, William H., 735 

Berteaux, ex-French Minister of War, 
836 

Bezobrazofif, General, "jz 

Bharati, Baba, 19 

Birrell, Augustine, 961 

Boerresen, M., Rear-Admiral in the Nor- 
wegian Navy, 708 

Bonaparte, Charles J., Secretary of the 
Navy, 941 

Borglum, Gutzon, 565 

Bostwick, Dr. Arthur E., 481 

Bother, Auditor of the Norwegian Pro- 
vincial Government, 56, 154 

Bouguereau, William Adolphe, 301 

Boulyguine, Russian Minister of the In- 
terior, resigned, 22 

Bowen, Herbert, 3 

Bradford, Rev. Amory H., 747 

Brewer, David J., Justice of Supreme 
Court, 657 

Browne, George Waldo, 497 

Brunetiere, Ferdinand, 54 

Br3'ce, James, 961 

Buelow, Prince von, 621 

Bull, Charles Livingstone, -183 

Burbank, Luther, 305, 699 

Burgess, Prof. John William, 781 

Burke, J. B., 147 

Burns, John, 961 

Butler, N. M., President of Columbia, 781 

Butler, Sir W. F., Lieut.-Gen., 88 



Cady, J. Cleveland, 831 

Cafifin, Charles H., 303 

Caillard, Admiral, 313 

Calhoun, William J., ■},'jTy 

Camp, Walter, 861 

Campbell- Hanncrmaii, Sir Henry, 881 

Cannon, Speaker Joseph, 903 

Carl, Prince, of Denmark, 709 

Carl, Prince, of Sweden, 708 

Carmack, Edward W., Senator from Ten- 
nessee, 979 

Carnegie, Andrew, 94 

Cassatt, Alexander J., 943 

Castellane, Marquis de, 658 

Castro, Cipriano, President of Vene- 
zuela, 3 

Chappelle, Placide Louis, 2^"] 

Charles, Prince, of Denmark, 155 

Chesterton, G. K., 377 

Chuknin, Vice-Admiral, 867 

Clapp, Moses E., Senator from Minne- 
sota, 979 

Clemenceau, Georges, 659 

Colton, Arthur, 318 

Cooke, Grace Macgowan, 837 

Coquelin, Benoit Constant, 2^,}, 

Corey, W. E., 944 

Cox, George B., 641, 735 

Cram, Ralph Adams, 780 

Crapsey, Rev. Algernon Sidney, ..189 

Crawford, F. Marion, 753 

Crockett, S. R., 838 

Cromwell, Oliver, 9 

Crooks, Will, 835 

Crothers, Samuel M., 957 

Cullom, Selby M., Senator from Illinois, 
269, 979 

Curzon, Lord, 295 

Cutting, R. Fulton, 474 

D 

Dashkoff, Count VorontsofY, 584 

Davies, Ffrangcon, 783 

Dennis, Rev. James S., 309 

Dennison, Henry W., 335 

Depew, Chauncev M., Senator from New 

York, 814 
Depew, Chauncey M., 107 
Deroulede, Paul, 998 
Deuel, Joseph M., 2or 
Dewev, Dr. Melvil. .^48 
D'Indy, Vincent, 986 
Dodge, Mrs. Mary Mapes, 341 
Dolliver, J. P., Senator from Iowa, 979 
Dournovo, Russian Minister of Police, 962 
Dowie, John Alexander, 90, 251 
Dowson, Ernest Christopher, 343 
Drake. Will H.. 483 
Duncan, Norman, 753 
Dunne, Mayor of Chicago, 106 



E 

Eddy, Mrs. Mary Baker G., 251 

Edward VI H., King of England, 313 

I'^lgin, Earl of, 960 

Eliot, Charles W., President of Harvard, 

I'Jiot, Dr. Samuel Atkins, 659 

I'-lkins, Stephen B., Senator from West 

Virginia, 979 
l-'lliot, 1 lenry R., 745 



I'\arwell, Justice, 255 
h'ejervary. Baron (iesa von, 219 
h'isher. Sir John A., 2,\2, 
Folk, Joseph W., Governor of Missouri, 
IIO" 

Foraker, Joseph B., Senator from Ohio, 

519, 979 
P^orbush, Rev. William Byron, 868 
Ford, James, 529 
Foss, Eugene N., 269 
Fowler, Frank, 871 
Fowler, Sir Henry H., 961 
France, Anatole, 61 1 
Frensscn, Gustav, 318 
l*"ujisawa, Asajiro, 821 
Fukui, Mohei, 821 



Gallienne, Richard Lc, 665 
Gautsch, Austrian Premier, 492 
Gibson, Charles Dana, 649 
Gilder, Richard Watson, 11 
Gladstone, Herbert J., 960 
Goldie, Sir George Taubman, 255 
Gomez, Jose Miguel, 523 
Gomez, Maximo, 4 
Goode, Henry W., 602 
Goodrich, C. I"\, Rcar-Adnn'ral, 167 
Goodsell, Bishop D. A., 489 
Gorky, Maxim, 965 

Gorman, Arthur P., Senator from Mary- 
land, 905 
Greenslet, I'erris, 782 
Grey, Earl, 960 
Grosscup, Judge Peter S., 865 



H 



Haldane. Richard B., 960 

Hall, Dr. Charles Cuthbert, 619 

Hall, G. Stanley, 85 

Haniid, Abdul, Sultan of Turkev, 880 

Hanish, Leader of the Sun-Worshipers, 

250 
Hansen, Ole, of the Norwegian Army, 708 
Hardy. Thomas, 171 
Harmon, Judson, 5 



i6 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Harmswortli, Sir Alfred C, 379 

Harnack, Prof. Adolph, 578 

Harriman, E. H., 814 

Harringt(.n, Prof. Karl P., 489 

Harris, Bishop, of Tokyo, 705 

Haruko, I-'nipress of Japan, 209 

Harvey, Eli, 483 

Hav, John, 35, m 

Hearst, William R., 563, 730 

Hendricks, Francis, New York State Su- 
perintendent of Insurance, 1 

Hcndrix, Bishop E. R., 958 

Hewlett, Maurice, 206 

Higginson, Col. Thomas Wentworth, 271, 
1,000 

Holt, Henry, 695 

Hooker. Warren B., Judge, 7 

Hope, Anthony, 886 

Hoss, Bishop E. E., 389 

Howells, William Dean, 187 

Hughes, Charles E., 477, 563 

Hughes, Rupert, 927 

Hutten, Baroness von, 965 

Hyatt, Miss Anna Vaughn, 483 

Hyde, Dr. Douglas, 949 

Hyde, James H., 813 

llvde, Jolni, 103 

Hyslop, Prof. James H., 179 



Trouye. Count, 334 

Irving. Sir Henry, 243, 561, 739 

I to. Marquis, 334 

Ivans. William M., 563 



Jaures, Jean, 749 

Jefferson, Joseph, 569 

Jefferson. Thomas. 569 

Jerome, William T.. 199, 474, 735 

Jones, Paul, 134, 135 

Judson, I'Vederick Newton, 5 



K 



Kakuzo, Okakura, 112 
Kalich, Bertha, 529 
Kanoko, Baron Kentaro. 300 
Kaulhars. Russian general, 833 
Kawakami. Oto, 821 

Kean. John. Senator from New Jersey, 979 
Kennard, Dr. Joseph Spencer, 113 
Kennedy. John Pendleton, 585 
King. Henry C, 85 
Kitchener, General, 295 
Knight, Charles R., 483 
Knowles, Frederic Lawrence, 189 
Knox, Philander C, Senator from Penn- 
sylvania, 905 
Knndsen, G., 56. 154 
Kohler, Max J., 789 
Komura. Baron, 72, 165, 234, 335 
Kossuth. Francis von, 219 
Kropotkin, Prince, 345 



Ladd, Prof. George Trumbull, 459 

Lankester, Prof. Edwin Ray, 378 

I.ehmkuhl, K.. 154 

Fem.iitre, Jules, 870 

Lindman, A. A., of the Swedish .'\rmy, 708 

Lloyd-George, David, 961 

Loeb, Jacques, 117 

Locvland, of the Norwegian provisional 

government, 56, 154 
Long. John D.. ex-Sccretary of the Navv, 

Longworth, Nicholas, 971 

Loomis, Charles Battcll, 797 

Loomis, I'Vancis B., 3 

Loomis. I'Vederick B., 572 

Lord, l-.liol. 667 

Louis. Prince, of Battenhcrg. 731 

Loubet, Emil, President of France, 925 

Lyle, Eugene P., 586 

M 

Maartens, I'rof. de. 335 

MacCracken, Chancellor Henry M., 861 



Macdonald, George, 620 

Mahan, Capt. A. T., 999 

Maksimovitch, General, 22 

Mann. Col. William D'Alton, 201 

Markham, Edwin, 919 

Marshall, Louis, 789 

Martin, "Dave," 74 

Massenet, Jules, 172 

Mathews, Prof. Sliailer, 351 

Matsugata, Count, 334 

Matthews, Prof. Brander, 869 

McCall, John A., 443 

McCIellan, George B., Mayor of New 

York, 473. 729 
McCurdy, Richard A., ex-President of the 

Mutual Life, 525, 814, 864 
McCurdy, Robert II., 525 
McCutcheon, George Barr, 885 
McGuire, Bird S., 947 
McLain, John S., 428 
Mendes. Rev. Dr. II. Pereira. 789 
Meriwether, Minor, 946 
Meriwether court-martial, 947 
Metcalfe, James S., 911 
Metcalf, Victor H., 38 
Metchnikoff. Elie. 966 
Michclsen. Christian, 56. 154 
Minto, Earl of, 295 
Mitchell, Dr. Hinckley G., 993 
Mitchell, Senator John H., 75 
Montetiore, Claude G., 420 
Moore, Charles Leonard, 823 
Moran, John B.. 804 

Morgan. Edwin V., Minister to Cuba, 908 
Morley, John, 960 
Morley, Samuel Hope, 255 
Mowatt, Sir Francis, 255 
Mullany, Rev. John F., 579 
Mullin.s. Rev. E. Y., 5^1 
Muravieff. N. V.. 72 
Mutsu Hito, Emperor of Japan, 209 



N 



Newlar.ds, Francis G., Senator from Ne- 
vada. 979 
Nicholas II., Emperor of Russia, 353, 688 
Nordenskjold, Otto G., 427 
North, Dr. Frank Mason, 458 



O'Brien. Morgan J.. 907 

O'lliggir.s, Harvey J., 224 

Obelensky. Prince, of Russia, 923 

Odell, B. B., ex-Governor of New York, 

813 
Olsson, C. W. E. B., 154 
Oscar II., King of Sweden, 55 



Page, Walter, 695 

Patterson, Thomas M., Senator from 

Colorado, 907 
Pattison, John M.. Governor of Ohio. 735 
Payne, Sereno 1'"-.. Representative from 

New York. 904 
Peabody. Dr. Francis Greenwood, 959 
Peary, R. E., Lieut. -Com., 109 
Perkins. George W.. 441 
Piatt, 'i'homas C. U. S. Senator from 

New York. 813 
Pobiedonostseff. Petrovitch. 688 
Porter. General Horace. 133 
Prcscott, William Hickling, 143 
Proctor, A. Phimister, 483 
Puccini. Ciiacomo. 610 
PutTer. I'rof. label. 984 
Puln;ini, i IcrhiTt, 78 



Quiller-Couch. .\. P.. 93 

R 

Radolin. Prince von, 185 
Rae. Charles W.. Rear-Admiral, 
Ramsav. .Sir William. 4S^ 
Reed. Myrtle. 822. 966 
Rcid, Sir Robert T., 960 



/// 



Revoil, French representative in the Mo- 
rocco negotiations, 583 

Richards, Rev. Dr. William R., 791 

Ripon, Marquis of, 960 

Roberts, Rev. Dr. W. H., 831 

Roosevelt, Miss Alice, 479, 643 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 234, 238, 333, 339, 
482, 603, 647 

Root, Elihu, Secretary of State, 69 

Rosen, Baron, Russian Ambassador to the 
United States, 72, 234, 335 

Rosen, German representative in the Mo- 
rocco negotiations, 583 

Roth, Frederick C. R., 484 

Rousselot, Abbe, 987 

Rungius, Carl, 484 



Sakharoff, Russian General, 923 

Sanford, Frank W., 251 

Sanford, Rev. Dr. E. B., 831 

Santayana, Prof. George, 696 

Sato. A. Imara. 204 

Schiff, Jacob H.. 773 

Scott, Leroy, 428 

Schmitz, Eugene E., Maj-or of San Fran- 
cisco, 735 

Sedgwick, Henry Dwight, 77 

Sharp. William, 983 

Shaw, George Bernard, 140 

Shaw, Leslie M., Secretary of the Treas- 
ury. 525 

Shipoff. J., of Russia, 924 

Shipoff, M., of Russia, 183, 924 

Shute. Henry A., 754 

Sienkiewicz, Henryk, 985 

Sinclair. May, 317 

Smith. F. Berkeley, 317 

Smith, Goldwin, 537 

Smith, Joseph F., 251 

Smollett, Tobias, 80 

Spalding, Rev. J. L., 281 

Speyer, James, 780 

Spiroza, 527 

Spooner, John C. Senator from Wisconsin, 
905 

Squiers, Herbert G., 908 

Stead, William T., 379, 661 

Steinmetz, Charles, 48 

Stepniak, Sergius. 345, 537 

Stevens, John I""., Chief Engineer of the 
Canal Commission. 168 

Stieglitz, Mr. Alfred, 411 

Still, Dr. A. T., 873 

Stone, Brig.-Gen. Roy, 374 

Straus, Oscar S., 789 

Stunner, Russian Minister of the Interior, 
22 

Suttner, Baroness Bertha von. 985 



Taft. William H., 264. 479 

Taine. llippolyte A.. 885 

Takahira. Kogoro. Japanese Ambassador 
to the United States, 72, 234 

Tanner. "Corporal" James. 407 

Tarkington, Booth. 93 

Tawr.ey, James A., Representative from 
Minnesota, 942 

Tewfik Pasha, 880 

Thanet. Octave, 837 

Thomas, Rowland. 46 

Thorpe, h'rancis Newton, 93 

Thwing. luigene. 798 

Tillman, B. R.. Senator from South Caro- 
lina, 975 

Tingsten. L. IL, of the Swedisli .Vrmy, 708 

Tolstoy. Count Leo, 425. 460 

Torrey. Rev. R. A., 921 

Train. Charles J., Rcar-Admiral. 692 

Trepoff. Gov. -Gen. of St. Petersburg, 463, 
688 

Troubetskoy. Prince Eugene, of Russia, 
924 

Turkev. I he Sultan of. 880 

Tweedmouth, Lord, 961 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



17 



Varilla, Bunau, 817 

Vinje, A., member of the Norwegian pro- 
visional government, 56, 154 
Vose, Horace, 7^6 



W 



Wade, Ensign Charles T., 298 

Wade. James F., iMaj.-Gen., 521 

Walker, Justice, 961 

Wallace, Dillon, 896 

Wallace, Sir Donald Mackenzie, 344 

Wallace, John l'"indley, 36 

Walsh, John R., 976 

Ward, Rev. Dr. William Hayes, 831 



Warfield, Edwin, Governor of Maryland, 

866 
Warwick, Charles F., 498 
Watts, George F., 571 
Weingartner, Felix, 950 
Wells, H. G., 427 
Wendell, Prof. Barrett, 141 
Wharton, ]<:dith, 886 
White, Andrew D., 187 
White, Field-Marshal Sir Geo., 255 
Whitlock, Brand, 850 
Wiggin, Kate Douglas, 797 
Wilder, Marshall P., 189 
William IL, lunperor of Germany, 23, 353 
Williams, Rev. Charles D., 921 
Williams, Sir George, 829 



Williams, John Sharp, Representative from 

Mississippi, 904 
Wilson, Harry Eeon, 586 
Wilson, James, Secretary of Agriculture, 

103 
Winchester, Prof. C. T., 489 
Witte, Serge, Count, 164, 234, 335, 687, 773 
Woodherry. George Edward, 651 
Woodruff, Atajor Charles E., 825 
Wyman, VV^-^lter, 237 



Yamagata, Marquis, 334 
Young, Lucien, Commander, 167 



CARTOONS, DIAGRAMS, AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 



Acousticon, The, Hutchinson, 574 
Air-ship, Knabenshue's, in New York, 

297 
Anglo-Japanese Alliance, Cartoons of 

the, 582 
Animals, Double, 827 
Arbitration treaties. International, 266 
Art Galleries in Buffalo, The Albright, 11 
Automobiles for the Nevada Stage Line. 

655 
"Bennington," The, 138, 200 
Bosses, political. Cartoons of the. 724 
Bottle-washer, An automatic, 51 
Bridge, Natural, North Adams, 276 
Business and Political Ethics, Cartoons 

on, 37 
Canal, Panama lock, Birds-eye view of, 

943 
Car, Steam motor, 247 
Carmania, The turbine steamer, 991 
Chinese Boycott, Cartoons on, 5, 39 
Christmas caricatures, 945 
Churches, New York, Principal, 180, 181 
Committee on Interstate Commerce, The 

Senate, 979 
Cooker, A fireless, 532 
"Court of Death," The, 571 
Cranes, Magnetic, 83 
Dam on end. Building a, 703 
Dividends, "deferred," 404 
Drawing, Gibson's first published, 649 

Eclipse of the sun. Path of the, 340 
Edison, Thomas A., Laboratory of, 47 
Election results in cartoon, 778 
Elevated wreck. New York's, 405 
Elks, Vast herds of, 337 
England, Balfourian tactics, 314 
Exports to China from the United States, 

203 
Factory-workers, Reading to, 173 
Farmer, American, Snap-shots of the, 863 
Finance, high, Snap-shots of, 442 
F'inancial snap-shots, 107 
Finland, Patriotic demonstration in, 884 
Firemen, Respiratory apparatus for, 457 
Flying machines, 82; The Dufaux, 700 
Forth Bridge, Quebec. At work on the, 

61S 
Free, The land of the, 444 
"Georgi Pobiedonosetz," 73 
Gifts brought to President Roosevelt by 

Japanese envoys, 371 
Gold-dredge at work, 211 
"Graft" sketches, 524 
"Hand of Man," The. 411 
Hankow-Canton Railway concession, 336 
Identification, Practical exercises in, 577 
Imports from China to the United States, 

203 
Insurance methods. Cartoons of, 404, 442, 

475, 567- 607. 944 
Irving, Sir Henry, in some of his famous 

roles, 739 
Japan, business in, Increase of, during the 

war, 72 
Japanese players in a Japanese version 

of Hamlet, 821 
Japan's rank before and after the war, 

265 
Jones, Paul, the pirate. 135; Statuette of, 

153; Where the body was found, 134 



King row, Anxiety in the, 283 

"Kniaz Potemkin," 73 

Lamp that gives ultraviolet light. A, 533 

Lawn-mowers, Automobile, 175 

Libraries, Distribution of, in the United 

States, 79 
London, unemployed of. Parade of the 

wives of, 835 
"Love and Death," (Watts), 570 

Mars, Photographs of, 824 
"Mikasa," Japanese battleship, 409 
Milk-drying machine, 785 
"Mississippi," The battleship, 562 
Mountains of Messier, Two ring, 15 
Mushroom, A luminous, 118 

Naval Stores Building, Portsmouth, N. 

H., 235 
Naval strength of the powers, 265 
Navies of the world. Standing of, 265 
New York, Hearst's campaign in, 775; 

Municipal lighting plant of, 872 
Niagara River, Bed of the, 873 
Norway and Sweden, Separation of, 186 

Odors, Electrical instrument for meas- 
uring, 875 

Out-door life at home, 915 

Passenger service shown in curves, 307 

Peanut field in Virginia, 784 

Philadelphia, Reform in, 74 

Philippines, Taft's trip to the, 749 

Photographing the bow wave of the 
"Ohio," 787 

Photographs on fruit. 381 

Plants, Automatic apparatus for water- 
ing, 826 

"Plunger," submarine boat, 339 

Poe's cottage in Van Cortlandt Park, 
New York, 564 

Politics, American, in (juip and cartoon, 
982 

Portfolio, The, 411 

Postal card, photographic. Making a, 416 

Potomac, Unquiet along the, 980 

Pygmies, Kongo, 989 

Radioactivity, Apparatus for measuring, 

383 
"Radiobes," as distinguished from Rain- 

ey's crystals, 147 
Rail, third. Under-contact, 417 
Railroad rates. Attitude of the Railroads 

toward, 865 
"Roosevelt," Peary's ship, 109 
Roosevelt's trip. Results of, 692 

Russia: 

Astronomy in, 90 

Autocracy in, Cartoons of the, 948, 

963 
Czarism in quip and cartoon, 733 
Little Father, Snapshots of the, 58 
Odessa, A revolutionary mob in, 833 
Revolt in. 689 
Revolutionary mobs in, Photographs 

of, 883 
Saghalien, Prisons of, 105 
The Land of Promise, 924 
Tyranny's warning to, 389 
Where disorders have broken out, 
218 
Russia's naval rank before and after the 
war, 265 



Russo-Japanese War: 

Consolation prizes, 370 

Czar as a peacemaker. The, 125 

Diplomatic exigencies, 423 

Dream, The, and the awakening, 353 

Echoes of the, 624 

Indemnity suggestions, 6 

Indemnity, Who pays the? 267 

Naval strength of the combatants 

before and after the, 265 
Peace, Arguments for, 57 
Peace, As the cartoonists sec it, 204, 

239, 334 
Peace conference. Cartoons of the, 

478; in session, 270 
Peace dove. Helping the, 294 
Peace efiforts, Foreign views of, 91 
Peace program. Hitches in the, 164 
Russia's conditions and condition, 235 
Russia's victories at home, 104 
Suggested reinforcements, 156 
Victims, 136 
Wind-up of the, 71 

Saghalien, Views of, 105 

Salaries compared, Some, 606 

Scandinavian crisis, Conference on the, 

493 

Sea-wall, Galveston's, 575 

Seal adopted by the Panama Canal Com- 
mission, 445 

Senate, A cartoonist's view of the, 904 

"Serapis," Capture by the "Bon Homme 
Richard," 135 

Society, New York, Chicago sketches of, 
201 

Speech, A machine for writing, 987 

Spider's web, A, 246; Diagram of a, 347 

St. Petersburg, Revolutionary mobs in, 
883 

Stars, Variable, 654 

Storm tracks, 145 

Statistics, labor, Diagram of, 648 

Subway tavern, 338 

Sun-dial for standard time, 485 

Tariff idea. The new, illustrated, 296, 520 

Telemobilescope, The, 875 

Tendril, Change of twist in a, 617 

Thanksgiving cartoons. Some, 776 

Thought-forms, Some, 422 

Tcjkyo, Celebrating the naval victory in, 

41 
Transplanter, The, 277 
Turbine steamer. The "Carmania," 991 
Turkey, The President's Thanksgiving, 

736 
Warsaw, Patriotic demonstration in, 882 
Washington, Street Scenes in, 644 
Waves, ocean. Shape and height of, 486 
Wentworth. Hotel, 334 
Wheat-fields, 210 

William II's bracing influence, 355 
Wood of the pre-glacial period, A piece 

of, 917 
World's highest points, 13 

Yellow fever campaign. Cartoons of the, 

205, 375 
Yokohama, Scene of celebrations in, 41 
Zebra, Training a, 417 
Zemstvo Congress, Delegates of the. 137 
Zionist congress at Basel, Switzerland, 

281 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



CARTOONISTS REPRESENTED 



Barclay, McKee, Baltimore Nctvs 
Barhofomevv. C. L., Mnncapolis Journal 
Berrvman, Clifford K., Washington Post 
Biggcrs, J. W.. Nashville Banner 
Bovvers. I'"., Indianapolis News 
Bradlcv. Luther D., Chicago News 
Campbell, V. Floyd, Philadelphia North 

American 
Carter, P. J.. Minneapolis Times 
Corey. New York Evening fl'orld 
Culver, K.. Baltimore American 
Davenport, Homer. New York Mail 
DeMar, John L., Philadelphia Record 
Donahey, J. H., Cleveland Plain Dealer 
F^vans, \V. L., Cleveland Leader 
Gilbert, Denver News 
Gratbill, Duluth Herald 
Gregg, Atlanta Journal 
Hager, Seattle Post-Intelligcncer 



Handy, T. P., Duluth Nezvs-Tribune 

Hurst, H., Phoenix Republican 

Ireland. Columbus Dispatch 

Jack. \V. H., Glenwood Springs (Colo.) 

Post 
Jamieson, Pittsburg Dispatch 
Joimson, Denver News 
Johnson, Philadelphia North .linerican 
Keppler, Puck (New York) 
Leipzigcr. Fred. Detroit Nezcs 
Lovcy. Butte Inter-Mountain 
Lowry, Chicago Chronicle 
Alahoney, F. S., Washington Star 
May. Thomas, Detroit Journal 
Ma.vi)cll, Claudius, Brooklyn Eagle 
McCord. Newark Nezvs 
McCutchcon, John T., Chicago Tribune 
McWhortcr, Tyler, St. Paul Dispatch 
Morgan, Fred, Philadelphia Jncjuircr 



Morris, Spokane Spokesman-Review 
Munson. New York Nezvs 
Naughton. Minneapolis Tribune 
Opper, Fred, New York American 
Payne, Pittsburg Gazette 
Pughe, Puck, New York 
Relise, George, St. Paul Pioneer-Press 
Reynolds, Tacoma Ledger 
Rogers. W. A., New York Herald 
Scott, Denver News 
Sullivant, T. S.. New York American 
Thonuliko. Philadelphia Press 
\\'alker, Ryan, Syndicate cartoonist 
Warren, Boston Herald 
Webster. Chicago Inter-Ocean 
Westerman, Ohio State Journal (Colum- 
bus. O.) 
Wilder, Ralph. Chicago Record-Herald 
Williams, Philadelphia North American 



LIST OE PERIODICALS REPRESENTED 



American Periodicals. 

Advance, Chicago 

Advertiser, Montgomery 

Age, New York 

Ainslee's Magazine, New York 

Amateur Work, Boston 

American, Baltimore 

American, Nashville 

American, New York 

American Hebrew, New ^'(U•k 

American Illustrated .Masj,a/.ine, New 

York 
American Inventor, New York 
American Journal of Science, New 

Haven, Conn. 
American Machinist, New York 
American Medicine, Philadelphia 
American Nut Journal. Petersburg, Va. 
American Siren and Shipping, New York 
Appleton's Booklover's Magazine, New 

York 
Architectural Record, New York 
Argonaut, San Francisco 
Argus, Holbrook, Ariz. 
Argus, Seattle 

Army and Navy Journal, New York 
Army and Navy Register, Washington 
Associatif)n Men, New York 
Atlantic Monthl}% Boston 
Automobile, New York 
liankers' Magazine, New York 
Banner, Nashville 

Baptist Review and F.xpositor, Louisville 
Bee, Sacrament(j 
Biblical World, Chicago 
Bibliothec.a Sacra, Oberlin, Oh'iu 
Blade, Toledo 
Book News, Philadelphia 
Bookman, New York 
lUadstreet's. New York 
Bulletin of Pharmacy, New York 
Call. San brancisco 
Capital, Guthrie, Okla. 
Cassier's Magazine, New York 
Catholic Citizen, Milwaukee 
Catholic Mirror, Baltimore 
Catholic Universe, Cleveland 
Central Christian Advocate, Kansas City 
Century Magazine, New York 
Chieftain, Pueblo, Colo. 
Christian Advocate, New York 
Christi.'in Advocate, Pittsburg 
Chrisli.in Register, Boston 
Christian Work, New York 
Chronicle, Augusta, Ga. 
Chronicle, Ciiicago 
Chronicle, Houston 
Chronicle. Madison, Wis. 
Chronicle. San brancisco 
Church l'"c(jnoinist. New York 
Church .Standard, Philadelphia 
Churchman, New Yf)rk 
Citizen, Brooklyn 



Citizen, Tucson, Ariz. 

Clarion, Nashville 

Clinique, Chicago 

Collier's Weekly, New York 

Commoner, Lincoln, Neb. 

Congregationalist, Boston 

Constitution, Atlanta 

Consular and Trade Reports, Washing- 
ton 

Cosmopolitan, New York 

Country Life in America, New York 

Courant, Hartford 

Courier, Buffalo 

Courier- Journal, Louisville 

Criterion, New York 

Critic and Literary World, New York 

Democrat and Chronicle, Rochester, 
New York 

Dial, Chicago 

Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette, New York 

Dispatch, Columbus, O. 

Dispatch, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Dispatch, Pittsburg 

Dispatch, St. Paul 

Drover's Telegram, .Kansas City 

Druggists' Circular, New York 

I'Lagle, Brooklyn 

Fducational Review, New York 

IClcctrical Review, New York 

Flectrical World and Fngineer, New 
York 

ICIectricity, New York 

Fngineering Magazine, New York 

iMigineering News, New York 

Fngineering and Mining Journal, New 
York. 

Fncjuirer, Cincinnati 

Fvening Mail, New York 

Fvcning Post, New York 

I'-vening Wisconsin, Milwaukee 

lCverybodj''s Magazine, New York 

Ivx.'iniiner, New S'f)rk 

b'xaminer, San Francisco 

ICxpress, Buffalo 

Fxpress, Los Angeles 

I-'inancier. New York 

b'lorists' I'^xchange, New York 

b'oruni. New York 

b'ree I'ress, Detroit 

I'ree Press, Milwaukee 

Gaelic American, New York 

Gazette, Colorado Springs 

Gazette. Plnenix, Ariz. 

Gazette. I'ittsburg 

Globe, Boston 

(ilobe. New York 

Globe-Democrat, St. Louis 

Harper's Bazar, New York 

Harper's Magazine. New York 

ll;iri)er's Weekly. New ^"ork 

I Ubrew Standard, New \'ork 

Herald, Baltimore 

Herald, Boston 

Herald, Duluth 



Herald, New York 

Herald, Rochester 

Herald, Salt Lake 

Herald and Apache News, St. Johns, 
Ariz. 

Homiletic Review, New York 

Improvement Fra. Salt T>akc 

Independent, Kansas City 

Independent, New York 

Inquirer. Philadelphia 

Inter-Mountain, Butte, Mont. 

Inter-Ocean, Chicago 

Interior, Chicago 

International, Douglas, Ariz. 

International Journal of Ethics, Phila- 
delphia 

International Quarterly, New York 

Interstate Medical Journal, St. Louis 

Irish World, New York 

Jewish Comment, Baltimore 

Jewish Morning Journal, New Y'ork 

Journal, Atlanta 

Journal, Boston 

Journal, Chicago 

Journal, Detroit t 

Journal, Kansas City 

Journal, Minneapolis 

Journal, Peoria, III. 

Journal, Providence 

Journal, Topeka 

Journal of Commerce, New York. 

J(nirnal of Economics. Boston 

Journal of the Franklin Institute, Phila- 
delphia 

Judge, New York 

Ladies' Home Journal. Philadelphia 

Lampoon. Harvard Universit}', Cam- 
bridge. Mass. 

Leader. Cleveland 

Ledger, Philadelphia 

Ledger. Tacoma 

Leslie's Weekly, New York 

Life, New York 

Lippincott's Magazine, Philadelphia 

Living Church, ATilwaukee. Wis 

Loews Monthlj'. Cleveland, O 

M.'inutacturing Jeweler. Providence 

Marine ICngineering. New York 

Marine Review. Cleveland 

McClure's Magazine New York 

.Medical Annals. Washington 

Medical News. New York 

Nedical Record. New York 

Medical Recorder. Chicago 

Medical World, Philadelphia 

Men and Women, Cincinnati 

Methodist Review, New York 

Metropolitan. New York 

Missionary Review. New York 

Modern Medicine, Battle Creek, Mich. 

Morning Star. Boston 

Munsey's Magazine, New York 

National Druggist, St. Louis 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



19 



National Geographic Magazine, Wash 

ington 
National Magazine, Boston 
National Stockman and Farmer, Pitts 

burg 
National Tribune, Washington 
New Mexican, Santa Fe 
New Yorker, New York 
News, Baltimore 
News, Buffalo 
News, Chicago 
News, Denver 
News, Detroit 
News, Indianapolis 
News, New York 
News, Newark 
News, Omaha 
News, Savannah 
News, Seattle 

News and Courier, Charleston, S. C. 
News and Observer, Raleigh, N. C. 
News Leader, Richmond 
News-Tribune, Detroit 
News-Tribune, Duluth 
North American, Philadelphia 
North American Review, New York 
Oasis, Nogales, Ariz. 
Observer, Charlotte, N. C. 
Observer, Utica, N. Y. 
Ohio State Journal, Columbus 
Oklahoman, Oklahoma City 
Optical Instrument Monthly 
Oregonian, Portland, Ore. 
Out West, Los Angeles 
Outing, New York 
Outlook, New York 
Pennsj'lvania Medical Journal, Athens, 

Pa. 
Phoenix, Muskegee, I. T. 
Picayune, New Orleans 
Pilot, Boston 
Pioneer Press, St. Paul 
Plain Dealer, Cleveland 
Poet Lore, Boston 
Political Science Quarterly, Boston 
Popular Astronomy, Northfield, Minn. 
Popular ]\Iechanics, Chicago 
Popular Science Monthly, New York 
Post, Charleston, S. C. 
Post, Chicago 

Post, Glenwood Springs, Colo. 
Post, Houston 
Post, Louisville 
Post, Tucson, Ariz. 
Post, Washington 
Post-Intelligencer, Seattle 
Press, New York 
Press, Philadelphia 
Press, Portland, Me. 
Press-Post, Columbus, O. 
Princeton Theological Review, Phila- 
delphia 
Prospector, Tombstone, Ariz. 
Public, Chicago 
Public Opinion, New York 
Publishers' Weekly, New York 
Puck, New York 
Railroad Gazette, New York 
Railway and Engineering Review, Chi- 
cago 
Reader, Indianapolis 
Record, Philadelphia 
Record-Herald, Chicago 
Reform Advocate, Chicago 
Register, Mobile 

Register and Leader, Des Moines 
Republican, Phoenix, I. T. 
Republic, St. Louis 
Republican, Denver 
Republican, Springfield, Mass. 
Review of Reviews, New York 
Rural New Yorker, New York 
Sanitary Bulletin, New Haven, Conn. 
Saturday Evening Post, Philadelphia 
Science, New York 
Scientific American, New York 
Scientific American Supplement, New 

York 
Sentinel, Milwaukee 
Shipping Illustrated, New York 
Smart Set, New York 
Southern Practitioner, Nashville 



University, New 
Wash. 



J. 



Spectator, New York 

Spectator, Columbia 
York 

Spokesman-Review, Spokane, 

Standard Union, Brooklyn 

Star, Indianapolis 

Star, Tucson, Ariz. 

Star, Washington 

State, Columbia, S. C. 

States, New Orleans 

Street Railway Journal, New York 

Student, Amherst, Mass. 

Studio, New York 

Success, New York 

Sun, Baltimore 

Sun, Flagstaff, Ariz. 

Sun, New York 

Sunday Magazine, New York 

Sunny South, Atlanta 

Tammany Times, New York 

Technical World, Chicago 

Telegraph, Macon, Ga. 

Telegraph, New York 

Telegraph, Philadelphia 

Texarkanian, Texarkana, Ark. 

Theatre, New York 

Tiger, Princeton, N. 

Times, Brooklyn 

Times, Crisfield, Md. 

Times, Denver 
Times, Kansas City 
Times, Louisville 
Times, Minneapolis 
Times, New York 
Times, Washington 
Times-Democrat, New Orleans 
Times-Dispatch, Richmond 
Times-Star, Cincinnati 
Times-Union, Jacksonville, Fla 
Times Saturday Review, New York 
Town Topics, New York 
Town and Country, New York 
Transcript, Boston 
Tribune, Chicago 
Tribune, Detroit 
Tribune, Minneapolis 
Tribune, New York 
[ Tribune, Oakland, Cal 
Tribune, Sioux City 
Universalist Leader, Boston 
Virginian-Pilot, Norfolk 
Vogue, New York 
Wall Street Journal, New York 
Western Electrician, Chicago 
Westminster, Philadelphia 
Woman's Home Companion, New York 
Worker, New York 
World, Cleveland 
World, New York 
World-Herald, Omaha 
World To-Day, Chicago 
World's Work, New York 
Yale Record, New Haven, Conn. 
Youth's Companion, Boston. 
Zion's Advocate, Portland, Me 
Zion's Herald, Boston. 

In the Philippines. 

American, Manila 
Bulletin, Manila 
Cablenews, Manila 
Philippine Gossip, Manila 

ENGLISH PERIODICALS 



In the United Kingdom and Ireland. 

Academy, London 

Advertiser, Dundee 

Answers, London 

Archives of the Roentgen Ray, London 

Athenjeum, London 

British Medical Journal, London 

British Weekly, London 

Chambers's Journal, London 

Christian World, London. 

Chronicle, London 

Contemporary Review, London 

Dublin Review, Dublin 

East and West, London 

Edinburgh Review, Edinburgh 

Engineer, London 



Engineering, London 

Evening Standard and St. James's Ga- 
zette, London 

Fortnightly Review, London 

Freeman's Journal, Dublin 

Gentlewoman, London 

Globe, London 

Graphic, London 

Guardian, London 

Guardian, Manchester 

Hibbert Journal, London 

Hospital, London 

Humane Review, London 

Illustrated London News, London 

Independent Review, London 

Judy, London 

Lancet, London 

Liberator, London 

Lloyd's Weekly News, London 

London Quarterly Review, London 

Longman's Magazine, London 

Macmillan's Magazine, London 

Mail, Glasgow 

Mail, London 

Medical Journal, Edinburgh 

Methodist Recorder, London 

Mirror, London 

Monthly Review, London 

National Review, London 

Nature, London 

News, London 

Nineteenth Century and After, London. 

Outlook, London 

Pall Mall Gazette, London 

Positivist Review, London 

Post, Birmingham 

Post, London 

Punch, London 

Quarterly Review, London 

Review of Reviews, London 

Saturday Review, London 

Science, London 

Scotsman, Edinburgh 

Sketch, London 

Speaker, London 

Spectator, London 

Standard, London 

Statist, London 

Strand Alagazine, London 

T. P's Weekly, London 

Tablet, London 

Tatler, London 

Telegraph, London 

Temple Bar, London 

Times, London 

Times Engineering Supplement, London 

Tit-Bits, London 

Westminster Gazette, London' 



English 



Periodicals in 
Colonies. 



the British 



London, Ont. 

Review of Reviews, Mel- 



Advertiser, 
Australian 

bourne 

Canadian Magazine, Toronto 
Express, Johannesburg 
Free Press, Ottawa 
Free Press, Singapore 
Globe, Toronto 
Herald, Montreal 
Indian Review, Madras 
Monetary Times, Toronto 
News, Montreal 
News, Toronto 
Presbyterian, Toronto 
Star, Johannesburg 
Weekly Sun, Toronto 
Witness, Montreal 

English Periodicals in Various Countries. 

Korea Field, Seoul 

North China Daily News, Shanghai 

FRENCH PERIODICALS 

In the French Republic. 

.\ction, Paris 
Aurore, Paris 
Avantgarde, Paris 



20 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Bulletin de L'lnstitute General Psycho- 

logiqiie, Paris 
Cadiicee, Paris 
Ciel et Terrc. Paris 
Coniptes Rtndus, Paris 
Correspondent, Paris 
Cosmos, Paris 
Depeche Coloniale, Paris 
Echo de Paris, Paris 
Eclair, Paris 

Economiste Erangaisc, Paris 
Etudes, Paris 
Europeen, Paris 
Eigaro. Paris 
Gaulois, Paris 
Geographic. Paris 
Gil Bias, Paris 
Grande Revue, Paris. 
Humanite, Paris 
Illustration, Paris 
Intransigeant, Paris 
Journai, Paris 
Journal des Debats, Paris 
Lanterne, Paris 
Liberie, Paris 
Libre Parole, Paris 
Matin. Paris 

Mercure de I'Vance, Paris 
Nature, Paris 
Xouvelle Revue, Paris 
Patrie, Paris 
Petit Parisien, Paris 
Presse, Paris 
Presse Medicale, Paris 
Radical de la Drome, Moutcliniar 
Republic Eranqaise, Paris 
Revue, Paris 
Revue Bleue, Paris 
Revue de Paris, Paris 
Revue des Deux Mondes, Paris 
Revue I^iplomatiquc, Paris 
Revue Generale des Sciences, Paris 
Revue Scientitique, Paris 
Revue Mineralurgique, Paris 
Rirc, Paris 
Siecle, Paris 
Tcmi)s, Paris 

French Periodicals in Various Countries. 

Archives des Sciences Physi<|ues et Xa- 

turelles. Geneva 
Canada, Montreal 
Evenement. Quebec 
Independance Beige, Brussels 
Medical, Montreal 
Patrie, Quebec 
Temps, Ottawa 

GERMAN PERIODICALS 

In the German Empire. 

Allegemeine Eleischer Zeitung, Berlin 
Allegemeine Mission Zeitschrift, Berlin 
Alte Glaube, Leipsic 
Berliner Tageblatt, Berlin 



Borsen-Kurier, Berlin 

Christliche Welt, Marburg 

Continental Correspondence, Berlin 

Deutsche Ereie Presse, Berlin 

Deutsche Revue, Stuttgart 

Deutsche Rundschau, Berlin 

Deutsche Tages Zeitung, Berlin 

Evangel - Lutherische Kirchenzcitung, 
Leipsic 

Germania, Berlin 

Greiizl)oten, Leii)sic 

lllustrirte Zeitung, Berlin 

Jugend, Munich 

Kladderadatsch, Berlin 

K()Inische Zeitung, Cologne 

Lokal Anzeiger. Berlin 

Mititiir-Wochenblatt. Berlin 

Xachrichten, Berlin 

Nation, Berlin 

Xational Zeitung, Berlin 

Xeue Zeit. Berlin 

Xeueste Xachrichten, Berlin 

Xorddeusche Allegemeine Zeitung, Ber- 
lin 

Preussische Zeitung, Berlin 

Theologische Rundschau, Tubingen 

Simi)licissimus, Munich 

S u d d e u t s c h e s Reichskorrespondenz, 
Carlsruhe 

Unschau, Berlin 

Vorwaerts, Berlin 

Vossische Zeitung, Berlin 

Wahre Jacob, Stuttgart 

GERMAN PERIODICALS IN AUS- 
TRIA. 

Floh, Vienna 
Fremdenblatt, Vienna 
Humoristische Blatter, Vienna 
Xeue Feie Presse, Vienna 
Pester Lloyd, Budapest 
Ruthenisciie Revue, Vienna 
Sonn und Montag Zeitung, Vienna 
Zeit, Vienna 
Zeitung, Frankfort 

ITALIAN PERIODICALS. 

Fischietto, Turin 
Italia Moderna, Rome 
Messagiero, Rome 
Minerva, Rome 
Nuova Antologia, Rome 
Osservatore Romano, Rome 
Rassegna Nationale, Florence 
Rivista I'isica, Pavia 
Secolo, Milan 
Stampa, Turin 

RUSSIAN PERIODICALS. 

Deenas Lapa, Riga 
Grojdanin. St. Petersburg 
Listt)k, Odessa 
Molva, St. Petersburg 



I Nascha Zhizn, St. Petersburg 

! Xovosti, St. Petersburg 

! Novosti Dnia, Moscow 

I Novoye Vremja, St. Petersburg 

! Novyi Put, St. Petersburg 

I Official Gazette, St. Petersburg 

Russ, St. Petersburg 

Russkiya Viedomosti, St. Petersburg 

Russktiye Slovo, Moscow 

Sin Otechestva, St. Petersburg 

Slovo, St. Petersburg 

Sviet, St. Petersburg 

Viedomosti, St. Petersburg 

Viestnik Europy, Harbin 

SCANDINAVIAN PERIODICALS. 

Aftenposten, Christiania 

Bladet, Stockholm 

Dogens Nj'heta, Stockholm 

Intelligenssedlern, Christiania 

Morgenbladet, Christiania 

Post och Inrikestidningen, Christiania 

Svenska Dagbladet, Stockholm 

Tidningen, Stockholm 



OTHER PERIODICALS. 

In Spain. 

Epoca, Madrid 

Espana Moderna, Madrid 

Pais, Madrid 

In Denmark. 

Ekstrabladet, Copenhagen 
Kobenhaven, Copenhagen 
National Tidende. Copenhagen 
Politiken, Copenhagen 
Socialdemokraten, Copenhagen 

Hungarian and Polish. 

Alkolmany, Budapest 

Az Uisag, Budapest 

Fueggentlen Magyar Orszaj', Budapest 

Hirlap. Budapest 

Magyar Menzet, Budapest 

Naplo, Budapest 

SIowo Polskie, Leopol 

Zgoda, Chicago 

Swiss. 

Bibliotheque Universelle, Berne 

Dutch. 

Amsterdammer, Amsterdam 

Japanese. 

Mainichi Shimbun, Tokyo 



The Literary Digest 



Vol. XXXI.. No. i 



New York, July i, 1905 



Whole Number, 793 



Published Weekly by 

Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

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with the suggestion made in the third paragraph above concerning " post-office 
address." Send notice at least two weeks in advance, stating the date when the 
change is to go into effect. Similar notice should be given when subscribers are 
returning to their permanent addresses. 

CONTINUOUS INDKX. 

A " Continuous Index," rendering all topics treated during the preceding three 
months available to the reader, will be found on page 29. 

LITERARY DIGEST INOEXKg. 

The index of Vol. XXX. of The Literary Digest will be ready about 
July 15, and will be mailed free to subscribers who have previously made appli- 
cation. Other subscribers who wish to be supplied regularly with future indexes 
will please send request accordingly. 



TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



"EQUITABLE" METHODS OF FINANCE. 

THE report of Superintendent Hendricks, of the New York 
State Department of Insurance, upon his investigation of 
the Equitable Life Assurance Society, outlined below, leaves its 
former officers without a defender among the newspaper critics. 
Even the New York Times, which has treated the whole imbrog- 
lio with gloves of the softest texture, admits, after reading this re- 
port, tliat " the misconduct of officers of the company, holding 
places of trust, bound in honor to serve only the avowed beneficia- 
ries of the trust, and amply compensated for their labors, is lam- 
entable and deserving of the severest censure." Other newspa- 
per observers treat the accused officials in the most scathing terms. 
The report reveals a "shameful record of official faithlessness and 
graft," declares the New York E'vening Post j while The Jour- 
nal of Commerce says that " there is hardly a conceivable abuse of 
corporate power and privilege, hardly a violation of sacred trust 
or exhibition of extravagance and greed, that is not laid bare in 
this remarkable record li turpitude." Indeed, remarks the New 
York Eveni7ig Mail.W. appears that "the Equitable, under the 
Hydes has been . . . conducted with no higher code of ethics than 
the ordinary confidence game." 
This report of Superintendent Hendricks is only a preliminary 



one, and he intimates that more revelations, of equal importance, 
will be forthcoming later. Paul Morton, the new head of the 
Society, is also conducting an investigation that will make the 
Frick and Hendricks inquiries, we are assured, " look like pas- 
toral poems." The offi- 
cers and directors of 
the old regime, whose 
names were blazoned on 
the Society's advertise- 
ments throughout Amer- 
ica and Europe as guar- 
antees of its strength and 
equitability, are now fa- 
cing the probability of 
suits to recover the sums 
diverted from the Soci- 
ety's treasury by the 
methods laid bare in the 
report, and are also 
threatened with criminal 
proceedings by District- 
Attorney Jerome and At- 
torney-General Mayer. 

The Sun, Press, and 
other papers hint that 
similar "graft" methods 
may pervade the manage- 
ment of other big insur- 
ance concerns, and the 




FRANCIS HENDRICKS. 

The revelations in his report, says the Xew 
York Evening Mail, " show a deliberate pur- 
pose almost from the organization of the So- 
ciety to use its funds for personal ends." 



Mutual has met this in.=>nuation by applying to Superintendent 
Hendricks for an investigation and report. 

Superintendent Hendricks's report, after rehearsing the details 
of the present controversy, gives an account of three safe deposit 
concerns organized and conducted by the late Henry B. Hyde, 
founder of the Equitable, and his friends. These tliree concerns 
occupied, and still occupy, space in the Equitable buildings in 
New York, Boston, and St. Louis, at a rent so low that the Equita- 
ble has steadily lost money on the bargain, while the safe deposit 
concerns have paid magnificent dividends to the insurance mag- 
nates who engineered the scheme. The New York and Boston 
leases are made renewable until tlie years 2000 and 2080. Turning 
attention next to the Commercial Trust Company, of Philadelphia, 
and the Equitable Trust Company, of New York, Superintendent 
Hendricks tells us how the insurance company was made to bor- 
row over $4,000,000 from the Philadelphia concern and al)out 
$1,500,000 from the New York one on claims against agents for 
advpi.ces as security, which sums were left with these trust com- 
panies as deposits. In this way the trust companies paid the in- 
surance company 3 and 2 per cent., respectively, on the $5,500,- 
000 as "deposits," while the insurance company paid the trust 
companies 5 per cent, on the same amount as "loan," without the 
actual passage of "deposit" or "loan" from either party to the 
other. The insurance magnates were largely interested in the 
trust companies and shared in the profits. Considerable space is 
also devoted to tiie purcha.se of stocks and bonds by the Equitable, 
in which it appears that the Equitable treasury paid prices consid- 
erably above those paid by the men who were Supposed to be 
guarding the interests of the policy-holders. Among the " peculiar 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



unusual business transactions " noted by Mr. Hendricks was the 
frequent purchase of stock in the Equitable Trust Com- 
pany by the Equitable Society at from 5640 to $750 a share, and 
its sale to individuals at §500 a share. Other similar cases are 
noted. 

Turning to the item of salaries, Mr. Hendricks finds that young 
Mr. Hyde, who was vice-president of the Society, drew $100,000 
a year for filling, or holding, that office, $28,000 a year in salaries 
for offices in affiliated corporations, many thousands more for " ex- 
penses," and many more in commissions and directors' fees. His 
mother, who enjoys a comfortable fortune, receives a pension of 
$25,000 a year from the Society, and Senator Depew is retained as 
an attorney at $20,000 a year. Other attorney fees amount to 
about 5ioo,ooo a year more. President Alexander and Vice-Presi- 
dent Hyde are severely censured in the report for participating in 
these transactions and extravagances. Superintendent Hendricks 
says : 

" If life insurance is to commend itself to the people to provide 
for those who are left behind, it is important that the business of 
the insurance companies be conducted on strictly business lines, 
and that extravagance of management and large salaries should 
be reduced within proper limits. 

" During the progress of this investigation a change in the stock 
control of the Society has been made, and three trustees have been 
empowered under a deed of trust to partially mutualize the so- 
ciety ; that is, it is provided tliat twenty-eight of the directors 
should be elected by the policy-holders and twenty-four by the 
stockholders, with the promise that there would be a reduction in 
the expenses of the company, and that the managers would insti- 
tute other reforms in the management of the Society which would 
inure to the benefit of the policy-holders. I do not question but 
what this is the honest intention of those who have acquired the 
control of the stock of the Society. I do not think, however, that 
this will go far toward restoring the confidence of the present poli- 




SAVhlJ (.) 

— Bush in the New \'ork World. 

cy-holdcrsor aid in procuring new business for the Society. In my 
opinion the only tiling that will restore that confidence and benefit 
the company will be the elimination of stock control, and what 
I deem of eciual importance, the elimination of Wall Street 
control 

"No superficial measures will correct the existing evils in this 
Society. A cancer can not be cured by treating the symptoms. 
Complete nuitualization with the elimination of the stock, to be 
paid for at % price only commensurate with its dividends, is, in my 
opinion . the only sure measure of relief. 

"This report, with a copy of the evidence taken on this investi- 



gation, will be transmitted to the attorney-general for such action 
thereon as he may deem proper." 

A friend of Mr. Hyde is reported as saying in reply : 

"This report of Superintendent Hendricks is a political docu- 
ment. It is conspicuous for its underhandedness. Without cause 
it attacks the dead, omitting many of the living who might have 
been assailed. 

"As to the criticism of James H. Hyde, I wish to call attentior» 
to this principal fact: Except for the 'syndicate operations ' and 
the high salary, not one of the things criticized in the report is trace- 
able to young Mr. Hyde. When the first of the much-talked of 
leases were made, he was not born; when the later ones were ar- 
ranged, he was in knickerbockers, and there has not even been a 
renewal since he had anything to do with the management of the 
Society, except such renewals as were obligatory under the original 
leases 

" Now the 'syndicate operations,' we claim, were proper in every 
way, from every point of view. We shall uphold that claim vigor- 
ously. If Mr. Hendricks does not bring the matter into court, 
Mr. Hyde will sue to determine whether he is the rightful owner 
of the profits deposited by him with the cashier at the time the 
transactions were publicly questioned." 



SAFETY OF FAST TRAINS. 

WHILE it is calculated that the wreck of the New York Cen- 
tral's 18-hour flyer between New York and Chicago will 
dampen the desire of some who want to ride at such speed, the 
newspapers, generally, are of the opinion that the accident can not 
fairly be attributed to the fact that the train was running faster 
than usual. Had the train been making 30 miles an hour instead 
of 60, says the New York JVor/d, " it must have been wrecked just 
the same." The Twentieth Century Limited was going on its mile- 
a-minute clip, when, near Mentor, Ohio, it ran into an open switch, 
and crashed through the freight station, and a moment later the 
locomotive blew up, setting fire to the wreckage. Nineteen per- 
sons were killed and 12 injured. The railroad officials are of the 
opinion that the wreck was the work either of a maniac or of some 
one who had a grievance against the railroad. According to the 
press reports, investigations show that the switch where the train 
left the track was open and locked open, and the light at the switch, 
which should have shown red to the engineer, did not show. Fire- 
man Gorham says that both he and the engineer, Tyler, who died 
at his post, SAW a white light at the switch, but that when the train 
was within a few yards of the switch there was no light at all. 
Gorham adds that an attempt was made to stop the train, but with- 
out avail. Railroad men believe that the switch was thrown just 
as the train was coming into Mentor. 

The New York World sadly remarks that " it was fire that 
doubled the horrors of the catastrophe. Despite the teachings of 
experience scattered through long years, railway enterprise lags 
still behind the point of fireproof safety " ; and the New York 
American adds, in a similar vein : 

" Human skill, possibly, can never avert accidents, but surely 
human forethought can see to it that trains carrying scores of peo- 
ple shall be composed of non-inflammable materials and tiiat every 
device to secure safety which can be invented shall be applied to 
them." 

The Central's iS-hour schedule had been in effect only a few 
days when the wreck occurred. The 18-liour .schedule was then 
abandoned, but was renewed on June 26. with the e.xplanation 
that the accident was not caused by the speed of tlie train The 
Philadelphia Lcdf^cr, which we quoted last week as saying that fast 
schedules increased the efficiency of the road, still holds its opin- 
ion. It remarks : 

" In the general problem of guarding the traveling public the 
condition of the joadbed rather than of the trains is by far the most 
serious point of danger. As The Public Ledi^cr pointed ou» ^vhen 
the Pennsylvania Railroad inaugurated this fast service to and fiom 



Vol. XXXI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Chicago, the very fact of the supreme care required to keep the 
tracks clear and in perfect condition for these 'flyers ' would in the 
end operate for the greater security of the passengers on ail trains 
on the system. This opinion the event of Wednesday night has 
in no way altered, for the conditions are unchanged. 

"The public demands from the railways swift trains; that they 
can be run with safety is being demonstrated every day on every 
first-class road. The only remarkable thing about the service to 
Chicago is the extension to 900 miles of line of the same thorough- 
ness of supervision, the same perfection of equipment, the same 
precautions which have made 'flyers' possible on shorter stretches. 
Should absolute security be required, trains could not be driven 
faster than perhaps ten or twelve miles an hour. This the Ameri- 
can people would not submit to; they have elected to take the 
risks attending a greater speed, and all that can be required of the 
companies is the exercise of due precautions against preventable 
disasters. The acts of criminals, the frailty of human nature, the 
class of accidents to which we apply the term 'acts of Providence,' 
can not be guarded against. Such mishaps are as likely to befall 
the way train as the express, and in the long run will not seriously 
prevent the development and improvement of long-distance trains 
at high speeds." 



END OF THE BOWEN-LOOMIS CASE. 

THE report of Secretary Taft and the decision of President 
Roosevelt have made a greater newspaper stir over the 
Bowen-Loomis case than there was before. Probably a majority 
of the press agree in approving the dismissal of Mr. Bowen, but 
very divergent views are expressed in discussing the other features 
of this ugly Venezuelan scandal. Those who are dissatisfied with 
the outcome of the affair base their objections on what they con- 
sider the injustice of punishing Mr. Bowen for talking indiscreetly, 
and yet allowing Mr. Loomis to go scot-free in spite of indiscreet 




MR. BOWEN AND PRESIDENT CASTRO. 

The President says that Mr. Bowen's propensity for hunting up scandals " has 
seemingly become a monomania with him," and has led to his "entire unfitness 
to remain in the diplomatic service." 

Courtesy of Colliey's Weekly. 

acts which were so improper on their face that Secretary Taft had 
to "presume" several things " in his favor "in order to establish 
his innocence. Thus the Buffalo Courier (Dem.) remarks : 

"The dismissal of Mr. Bowen may, indeed, be justified by the 



circumstances of the case. Quite clearly, he has been injudicious 
in various ways. Still, the retirement of Loomis, a notably un- 
popular personage, would assist to convince the public that even- 
handed justice is designed to be meted out." 

Altho a diplomatic representative, as the Philadelphia Record 
(Dem.) points out, " has no business to be interested in schemes of 
flotation and exploitation," no doubt is expressed that Mr. Loomis 
violated this rule, and while minister to Venezuela, in 1900, became 
"personally interested in a claim to which . . . the American lega- 
tion had become trustee 




FRANCIS B. LOOMIS, 

Charged with serious indiscretions by Mr. 
Bowen. but retained in office by the Administra- 
tion. 



to see to its correct pay- 
ment"; that he also con- 
sidered a proposition of 
future employment by a 
syndicate promising great 
profit to himself by re- 
funding Venezuelan loans 
which the United States 
might oppose, and "did 
intend to resign if the loan 
went through in order to 
take charge of the inter- 
ests of the syndicate"; 
that he also "did accept 
the power of attorney to 
organize a West Virginia 
corporation for the pur- 
pose of carrying on min- 
ing operations in Vene- 
zuela," and received " cer- 
tificates of stock of a 
hundred shares " in the 
company ; and failed to 
hold himself aloof from 

" personal participation in plans for investment and exploitation 
of the country to which he was accredited, and from allowing 
himself to take personal interest in transactions in which he or 
his legation might also have to act as in a trust capacity." These 
are the facts as found by Secretary Taft in his report, from which 
the extracts are copied verbatim. 

This, however, as the investigation shows, was the limit of Mr. 
Loomis's wrong-doing; and perhaps if the activity of Mr. Bowen 
" as a talebearer had," in the language of the Philadelphia Inquirer 
(Rep.), "not gone beyond that measure, no trouble would have en- 
sued." But Mr. Bowen was not content to stop there. As the 
President charges, "he evidently for many months, indeed for the 
last two years, devoted himself to hunting up every piece of scan- 
dal or gossip he heard affecting Mr. Loomis, until it has .seemingly 
become a monomania with him and has caused him to show com- 
plete disloyalty to the service to which he belongs, and therefore 
to the country which he represented." Some other serious gossip 
which Mr. Bowen officially reported and furtively published against 
Mr. Loomis was that he " received a bribe from the New York & 
BermudezCompany for $10,000 while minister of the United States 
to Venezuela"; and that wiiile acting as Secretary of State he 
broke up, with the connivance of Mr. Hay, "an arrangement which 
Mr. Bowen had about completed with the \'enezuelan Government 
for the arbitration not only of the asphalt company matters, but of 
many other claims " ; and at a later date " tran.sferred the undue al- 
legiance that he had felt to the New York & Bermudez Company 
to the Quinlan Company." President Roosevelt deemed such con- 
duct in Mr. Bowen as " inexcusable." declared that it proved his 
"entire unfitness to remain in the diplomatic service, without re- 
gard to whether the charges he has made against Mr. Loomis are 
true or false," and so dismissed Mr. Bowen from his post at Cara- 
cas after he had refu.sed to resign. But while Mr. Bowen leaves 
rfie service under these humiliating circumstances, Mr. Loomis ia 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



turn does not come out of the ordeal whollj' un- 
scathed. The Boston 7>7j«jr/-///( Rep.) says: 

*' True, he is acquitted of the charges which 
TVIr. Bowen brought against him, but Secre- 
tary Taft, acting temporarily as the head of 
the State department in liis findings, reads 
Mr. Loomis a lecture on 'indiscretion " which 
may cause the country to think that Mr. 
Loomis, too, is lacking in some of tiie es.sen- 
lial qualifications of a diplomatist." 

And the Philadelphia Telegraph (Rep.) 
-speaks in a similar vein in expressing its 
•opinion as to the next steps which should be 
taken in the case. Thus: 

^ The question now must be seriously asked 
as to how far President Castro has been in 
the right with respect to this matter and how- 
far we have been in the wrong. This is the 
most serious aspect of the case, tho the most 
immediately conspicuous feature will be the 
President's decision that Herbert W. Bowen 
is an unfit per.son to be retained in the diplo- 
matic service. Mr. Loomis, Assistant Secre- 
tarj'of State, who has been the object of Mr. 
liowen's slanderous charges, stands exoner- 
ated from these charges • but at the same 
time he has been found indiscreet in his con- 
duct to an extent that would warrant the Government in asking for 
his resignation and retirement from the diplomatic service." 

The New York Tribune (Rep.) and iI/«// (Rep.), however, think 
Mr. Loomis sufficiently punished for his indiscretions by the im- 
plied censure in the Taft report. 




MAXIMO GOMK/, 

Who died in Havana on June 17. " Gomez 
had that wonderful equipoise wliich has 
marked the supremely great men of the 
world.'' 



GOMEZ, THE LIBERATOR. 

•' I "HE enlightening blessings of liberty now being enjoyed by the 
-■■ Cubans is credited by the Kansas C\\.y Journal more to Gen- 
eral Gomez than to any other one force. Indeed, that paper goes 
on to say that " it is impossible to consider the progress of Cuba 
without taking into active account tiiis one great man." General 
Oomez,commander-in chief of the Cuban army during the war for 
liberty against Spain, who won for himself the name of " Cuban 
Napoleon," died at Havana on June 17. "His position in the 



affairs of the world was a small one," remarks 
the New Orleans Times-Deinocral,'' but what 
he had to do he achieved with credit to him- 
self, and his memory will live in the his- 
tory of a people, which one day may occupy 
an important position in the affairs of the 
world." 

It has been said that General Gomez was 
something of a soldier of fortune, and that he 
fought as much for the love of battle as for 
the freedom of his countrymen. He was born 
in Santo Domingo in 1823, and was of good 
Spanish descent. He was a Spanish officer 
in the war which followed the rebellion of his 
native isle against Spain. The Natio?ial Trib- 
une (G. A. R., Wash.) gives this sketch of 
his life : 

" He became disgusted with the Spanish 
army, and quarreled with his General over the 
cruel treatment of some Cuban refugees. The 
quarrel became so violent that Gomez called 
the General a coward and struck him. He 
joined the Cubans who began the lo-years' 
war in 1868, and speedily distinguished him- 
self by his courage and ability. Toward the 
end of the lo-years' war he became com- 
mander-in-chief of the patriotic forces, succeeding General 
Agramonte on the latter's death. When the treaty of peace was 
made in 1878 Gomez went back to Jamaica and thence to San Do- 
mingo, where he lived quietly on a farm until the war was renewed, 
with a proclamation of independence, and the election of Joseph 
Marti as president. His conduct of the war was admirable, as 
with scanty forces and no commissariat of supplies or munitions, 
except such as could run the blockade of the Spanish cruisers, he 
maintained a successful war for years, outgeneraling the Spanish 
officers, winning victory after victory, and crossing their dreaded 
trochas at will." 

Gomez was the popular hero of Cuba and would have been 
chosen as the first President if he had not declined the honor on 
the plea that he was a soldier and not a statesman. The National 
party, however, had hopes of nominating him for President upon 
the retirement of the present executive. He was of the greatest 
assistance to the United States authorities in quieting the island 





A 1)KI.1LA I E III!) 1-UK Dl'SI N KSS. 

—Rogers in the New York Herald. 



THE NEW CHINESE WALL. 

—Bush in the New York World. 



CAUSE AND EFFECT. 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



and bringing about the new regime. General Gomez declined a 
pension, but the Cuban Congress, just before he died, unanimously 
voted him ^100,000. 

The Baltimore American, which is one of the few papers that 
class Gomez as one of the world's great men, says : 

"It was not until freedom was won that the splendid qualities 
of Gomez were understood. In the anxious days of State or- 
ganization he was the almost unanimous choice of the Cubans for 
President, but it became apparent tiiat Cuba would be better served 
by the choice of another. Gomez not only refused the honor, but 
insisted on the election of the man who had been proposed to the 
Cubans. His unselfishness and patriotism were then perceived by 
the world. It was this disregard of self and his remarkable mili- 
tary sagacity which had endeared him to the Cuban 
soldiers. He could be stern when sternness was 
needed, and he had singular administrative ability, 
otherwise it would have been impossible for him, with 
the fagged and inferior character of his resources^ to 
maintain for so many years a desultory conflict 
against Spain. Gomez had that wonderful equipoise 
which has marked the supremely great men of the 
world." 

MR. MORTON'S EXONERATION. 

THE anxiously awaited report of Messrs. Harmon 
and Judson was made public last week together 
with the President's letter to Mr. Paul Morton and all 
correspondence connected with the case. The publica- 
tion immediately gave rise to a lively discussion in the 
newspapers which is still going on. Much interesting 
comment has already appeared touching the strong sup- 
port given by the administration to Mr. Morton, and 
all the other incidents which led to the resignation of 
the special counsel of the department of justice and to 
the collapse of the plans to prosecute the Santa Fe 
Railroad officials of 1902 for alleged violations of the 
laws against rebates and discriminations. The report 
does not seem to contain anything new and startling 
enough to change previously formed convictions. The 
old alinement of the press remains the same as ever. 
For instance, the Pittsburg Gazel/e{KeY>.) loyally indorses the stand 
taken by the Administration and declares that the President was 
justified in exonerating Mr. Morton. To quote : 

" President Roosevelt's letter to Paul Morton will attract wide 
attention, but it should not be permitted to wholly overshadow the 
correspondence between the department of justice and special coun- 
sel which preceded it. That correspondence makes plain the fact 
that no evidence has been found tending to incriminate the man- 
aging officers of the Santa F^, and that Attorney General Moody 
only refused to proceed against them on account of that fact. 
Messrs. Harmon and Judson freely admit in their correspondence 
they had no evidence implicating those officers, but recommended 
proceedings in the hope tliat judicial processes would uncover the 
guilt they were looking for. 

" Bearing these facts in mind, the letter of Mr. Morton carries 
conviction that he was not only innocent, but had issued positive 
instructions against the practises complained of. With this addi- 
tional light, and with knowledge of the previous acts of Mr. Mor- 
ton, the President was fully justified in expressing his entire con- 
fidence in the integrity of his retiring secretary of the navy." 

On the other side the New York Evening Post (Ind.), in speak- 
ing of the President's letter, bitterly exclaims: 

" Never in his whole career did the President put his name to 
such a web of special pleadings, of casuistical and illogical argu- 
ments, as here appear, varied only by an irrelevant excursion into 
the affairs of the Equitable Life Assurance Society — as if to dis- 
tract attention from the real defendant. The whole statement is a 
most disheartening indorsement of a man who is by his own sworn 
testimony a defiant law-breaker." 

The parts of this letter and of the rest of the President's corre- 



spondence connected with the report which have been most severely 
objected to by unfriendly critics, probably are these : 

" Not a shred of testimony, so far as I know, has been presented 
from any source, whether by the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion or by special counsel employed by the Department of Justice, 
which personally implicates you in granting these rebates. In your 
letter you show not only that you were ignorant of the existence 
of such rebates, but that you had taken every possible step to see 
that neither in this case nor in any other were any rebates 
granted " 

" I do not myself need any corroboration of any statement you 
make, but if I did need it, it would be furnished by the boldness 
and frankness with which over three years ago, and before any of 




JUDSON HARMON, FREDERICK NEWTON JUDSON, 

Who resigned as special counsel for the Department of Justice in the rebate case, involving- 
tlie Santa Fe railroad and the Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, when their wish to bring con- 
tempt proceedings against Paul Morton and other officers of the road was disapproved by the 
Department and the President. 



the proceedings with which we are now dealing took place, you 
testified to the entire truth in connection with the taking of rebates 
from the railroads." 

" When I took up the matter and endeavored to enforce obedi- 
ence to the law on the part of the railroads in the question of re- 
bates, . . . you alone stated that you would do all in your power 
to break up this system of giving rebates." 

"It was primarily due to this testimony of yours that we were 
able to put so nearly effective a stop to the system of rebates as it 
then existed. You rendered a great public service by your testi- 
mony. 

" No one has suggested, and, as far as I am aware, no one has 
thought of suggesting, that we should proceed individually against 
the officers of the roads engaged in this international Harvester 
Company affair; yet the case is exactly parallel to this Atcl-ison, 
Topeka & Santa F^ case, 5nd if such action as you have refused 
to take was taken against the officers of the Atchison, Topeka & 
Santa F^ Railroad, it would also have to be taken in the case of 
the International Harvester Company against the officers of every 
railroad running west of Chicago. There is, of course, no possi- 
ble excuse for discriminating one case from the other." 

" If it were not for Mr. Morton's being in my Cabinet, neither 
you nor I would dream ot following such a course in this instance, 
and we could not follow it save on condition of also following it in 
the ca.se of the Harvester Company, and in all similar cases — 
whicli, in my judgment, would put us in a wholly untenable posi- 
tion." 

The friends of Mr. Morton, however, of course believe that the 
decision taken in the case was the only one justifiable under the 
circumstances; for it should be noted that he claims that the re- 
bates granted by the Santa F^ Railroad were without his knowledge 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1. 1905 



and consent. In referring!; to one of the charges and rebates under 
investigation, he says: 

" It might be considered tliat it was a 'misplaced switch ' in that 
bureau, and neither the president of the railroad nor Mr. Biddlc 
the freight traffic manager, nor myself was any more responsible 
for it personally than was the president or vice-president or gen- 
eral manager of any great railroad for the train service which may 
result in a bad wreck." 

This distinction between Mr. Morton's private and official re- 
sponsibility seems to he the rock upon whicii the plans for the 
prosecution split. As the New York Globe (Rep.) declares, the 
trouble was as follows : 

"The simple question of difference between Mr. Moody [the 
Attorney'General] and the special counsel was as to the advisa- 
bility of instituting proceedings against the corporation or its indi- 
vidual officers. There was proof against the company, but, in 
Mr. Moody's opinion, none against the officers. Mr. Morton as- 
serts that he-issued orders against rebates, but that they were not 
carried out immediately by his subordinates. The crime alleged 
was committed in the interval of a few months between issuing the 
order and carrying it into effect." 

Much regret is expressed by some papers that the prosecution 
should have failed on account of this technicality. Thus the New 
\'ork Journal of Counnerce remarks : 

"Giving all credit for good faitii in this plea and in the presi- 
dent's acceptance of it, we can not help sympathizing with the 
view of Messrs. Harmon and Judson that the only way to hold 
corporations to obedience to law is to hold their officers to a full 
responsibility, not only for giving the proper orders but for seeing 
that they are executed. . . . The corporations can not be impris- 
oned, and punishment by fine is not only inadequate but reaches 
the real culprits only inadequately, if at all. The evils with whicli 
xve are now confronted are corporate in name, but individual in 
fact. Guilt is always personal. So long as officials can hide be- 
hind their corporations, no remedy can be effected." 

Much talk is going on in the newspapers over certain alleged 
confessions of Mr. Morton as to violations of the laws, but as ex- 
plained by the New York Globe, this is due to a misunderstanding 
of the facts. We quote the following: 

" In order that there may be no confusion of mind in regard to 
the main point involved, it should be rememliered that the case 
with winch Messrs. Judson and Harmon were dealing, that of 



March. 1902, was a totally different case from that concerning 
which Mr. Morton testified in December, 1901. that it was an ' ille- 
gal contract and we knew it.' It is perfectly true, as the President 
says, that at the time when Mr. Morton 'gave this testimony the 
interstate commerce law in the matter of rebates was practically a 
dead letter.' The case of 1901 was not before the special counsel 
at all. What they were considering, with a view to legal proceed- 
ings, was the case of 1902. Concerning this Mr. Moody declares 
that 'there is not a syllable of testimony that Mr. Ripley, the presi- 
dent of the road, or Mr. Morton, then one of its vice-presidents, 
had any connection whatever with the departure £rom the pub- 
lished rates.'" 



OUSTING A NEW YORK JUDGE. 

EV'EN if " the continuance on the bench of Judge Hooker is a 
scandal," as the Brooklyn Citizen boldly declares, can he be 
removed from office by means of the proceedings which have been 
instituted against him ? This is the problem now bothering the 
State legislature, and which that body has been called upon by 
Governor Higgins to decide at the extraordinary session that began 
on June 21. No less a person than Chief Justice Cullen of tlie 
Court of Appeals is said to oppose the attempt to oust the judge 
on the grounds that the form of the procedure used is without con- 
stitutional warrant and endangers the dignity and independence of 
the judiciary. Judge Warren B. Hooker, of the Supreme Court of 
New York, is being tried for alleged corrupt, unlawful, and im- 
moral acts, by the State legislature under Section 11 of Article 6 of 
the State Constitution, which provides : 

Judges of the Court of Appeals and Justices of the Supreme Court may be re- 
moved by concurrent resolution of both houses of the Legislature, if two-thirds 
of all the members elected to each house concur therein. 

The charges against Judge Hooker allege that while he was a 
representative in Congress and after he became a justice of the 
New York Supreme Court, he made a numberof appointments not 
only with the intent to evade the civil-service laws of the United 
States, but also with the purpose of securing pecuniary gain for 
himself and family. As some of the alleged acts were committed 
before he was a judge, while others were not provable, as the 
Brooklyn Citizen points out, by the strict rules of evidence, the 
managers of the prosecution decided not to use the formal, diffi- 
cult, and cumbersome method of trial by impeachment. They re- 
sorted to the more direct and expeditious method of trial under the 





HUT IT IS SUCH A ROOMY TAILl 

The Czar-" It's all very well to say ' put salt on his tail'; but thequestion effect on Japan ?" 
is how much will it tike ? " —Bradley in the Chicago Neiis. 



Russia " I wonder if tliat Washington atmosphere will have the desired 

— Leipziger in the Detroit News. 



INDEMNITY SUGGESTIONS, 



Vol. XXXL, No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



constitutional clause above referred to, with the hope of avoiding 
all technicalities and getting a judgment against Judge Hooker 
without delay. The dangerous possibilities in a constitutional pro- 
vision and amendment which gives the legislature such liberal 
powers over the judiciary have not been overlooked by the bench, 
the bar, and the press. If the legislature can remove a judge like 
Hooker, who is claimed to be notoriously unfit for his position, it 
may also remove a judge who might be objectionable only on ac- 
count of political reasons. This is the view taken by the New 
York Times, which, after expressing a hope that the legislature at 
Albany will do nothing with Judge Hooker, says : 

" No doubt the spectacle of this discredited judge sitting upon 
the bench and continuing the business of his court— and we believe 
there is no way of stopping him from exercis- 
ing his judicial function save by removal — 
would be shameful. Yet questions of larger 
scope and of graver import, even, than the 
unfitness of a single member of the judiciary 
are involved in this attempt to remove a 
judge by a method to which resort has never 
before been had in this State, a method 
which sound opinion condemns as improper 
and out of harmony with the political theories 
upon which our institutions are based." 

Chief Justice Cullen, mentioned above, 
brings out very clearly the main arguments 
on the side which The Times supports. We 
quote the following from a recent address of 
the chief justice on the subject: 

" In my judgment, the three branches of 
government — the executive, legislative, and 
judicial — should be each independent of the 
others, and that independence, so far as the 
court is concerned, will be greatly impaned 
should the proposed constitutional amend- 
ment be adopted. 

" I have always doubted — I say it with the 
greatest deference to the able men who com- 
posed the Constitutional Convention of 1894 
—the wisdom of the present provision of the 
constitution which authorizes the court to control by mandamus 
the action of the legislature in the apportionment of senators and 
assemblymen. I hope the time will never come when that power 
will be invoked and coordinate branches of the Government 
brought into conflict. 

" I equally deprecate any constitutional provision which would 
subject the formation of this court to the control of the legislature. 
If any changes are to be made in the organization of the court, 
those changes should be prescribed by the constitution itself. 

"If we do wrong the legislature may impeach us. If we become 
mentally incompetent the legislature may remove us by a concur- 
rent resolution of both houses. In my judgment, beyond this its 
control over the court should not extend." 

But, on the other hand, there are many who not only approve 
the course which the Governor and the legislature are pursuing but 
also think that the Section 11 of Article 6 of the State Constitution 
agrees in every respect with the principles upon which our Gov- 
ernment is founded. Says the New York Tribune : 

"Thus, where there is no method but impeachment to remove 
unfit officers, the well-settled rules of law which should govern an 
impeachment are likely to be disregarded when manifest reasons 
for removal, not really criminal, exist. The makers of the Con- 
stitution of 1894 seem to have been protecting our legal traditions 
and institutions with their amendment. Without it, under pres- 
sure, impeachment would be twisted to mean whatever those in 
power wished, and its success as an instrument of politics would 
depend entirely upon the command of sufficient votes, as in the 
case of Justice Chase and later of President Johnson. The fear 
that the New York amendment might be such an instrument- 
might, for instance, be used by a labor party in power to punish 
injunction issuing judges— is no better founded than the fear that 
impeachment may be misused." 




WARREN B. HOOKER. 

A special session of the New York State 
legislature is considering his removal from the 
bench. 



IS OUR "SEA HABIT" DYING OUT? 

" ISN'T it a terrible thing to let the sea habit die out of a race?" 
-*- asks The Marine Review (Cleveland, June 8), and at once an- 
swers its own question by pointing to the place where Rozhdest- 
vensky's ships have .sunk beneath the waves. They were good 
vessels and they outnumbered the enemy's — but those who manned 
them had not the "sea habit." In this connection, the fact that 
we Americans find so much difficulty in manning our ships with 
native crews appears to the author worthy of note. He says : 

"Rozhdestvensky was foreordained to failure. His fate was 
irretrievably sealed before he left the Baltic. He had magnificent 
ships, the best in the world, superior in armor, armament, and 
numbers; but he lacked personnel, and for that reason they were 

as useless and ineffective as painted ships 

upon a painted .sea. We repeat that it is a 
terrible thing for a maritime nation to let 
the sea habit die out of its people — and Rus- 
sia has the greatest coast line on earth. 
From what source does a nation draft its men 
to man its war-ships? There is only one — 
its merchant marine. No man is born with 
a knowledge of the sea. It has to be ac- 
quired. It has to be obtained on ships sail- 
ing in the competitive trades of commerce. 
A maritime nation must have a merchant 
marine of its own, manned and owned by its 
own citizens, or it must some day pay an 
awful price for its failure to have one. 
Nothing takes the place of love of country in 
a fight. There is no security unless there is 
patriotism back of gunfire. One can not 
march a regiment aboard a ship to fight a 
naval battle with it. What was Rozhdest- 
vensky to expect with his inexperienced and 
untrained crews? He was not to blame. 
His country was to blame for its neglect of 
its maritime interests, for the fact that wlien 
it needed a navy it had no disciplined men, 
no real patriotic Russian seamen trained in 
the merchant marine of Russia, to put upon 
its battle-ships. When the Russian admiral 
met Togo with his small but effective Japan- 
ese fleet, every man drafted from the merchant marine, experi- 
enced with the sea and flaming with passion for his native land, 
he was doomed to inevitable defeat; and so is every nation in 
Russia's plight that meets a like adversary." 

Is the United States any better off than Russia? Our Navy De- 
partment, the writer reminds us, continually complains that it can 
not get men for our war-ships. We appropriate $100,000,000 per an- 
num for the support of the navy, and add to it annually the finest 
ships in the world. But what of that? asks our critic; Rozh- 
destvensky had as much. Where are the men to go aboard these 
ships? To get them we should have a merchant marine to train 
them, and this is just where we are lacking. Says the writer : 

" The United States has not even a cradle for its navy. Its total 
merchant marine in the foreign trade is included in the small com- 
pass of 879,000 tons. That is not a mouthful for Britain. The 
situation is one which may well make the patriotic men of this 
country pause. American merchant ships are needed to obtain 
American seamen for American naval ships. There is no other 
way to get an efficient fighting force. Means should be devi.sed to 
make the life of the merchant marine attractive to American boys. 
As surely as night follows day the country will some day have need 
of them. The thing to do is to face the condition squarely; to 
recognize the fact that a maritime country such as this has need of 
a merchant marine of its own as much for protection as for com- 
merce, and that if economic conditions make it impossible under 
our fiscal policy to win a profit from the sea, to remedy by artificial 
means a state which artifice has created. If the American boy 
finds that he can do better on shore than he can aboard ship, let 
the nation make up the difference and make him a member of our 
naval reserve in consideration thereof. We can buy cheaply now 
that which, if neglected, will some day have to be dearly bought." 



it*;ttllt *UUiilAI^MiS 3iiMaaKnVHtt 



8 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



THE UPRISING IN RUSSIAN POLAND. 

" "IV /TORE ominous to Russia's peace tlian Oyama's renewed ac- 
-i-V 1 tivities," is the way the New York H'orld characterizes 
the reports of the civil strife which broke out anew in Poland and 
Transcaucasia last week, and, indeed, the press accounts are so 
alarming that they inspire the gloomiest forebodings as to the con- 
sequences of the desperate and bloody fight between the soldiers 
and citizens that began at Lodz on June 23 and continued through 
the next day, precipitating sympathetic riots at Warsaw and in- 
flaming all the surrounding country. Says adespatcii from Lodz : 
"The city resembles a shambles, and the terrible scenes of the last 
two days will never be wiped from the memory of the Polish peo- 
ple." The correspondent of the New York 7>//J?/«^ declares : 

"The fighting spirit of the people is fully aroused. They have 
tasted blood and want more. Certainly the revolutionary spirit is 
abroad, and it remains to be seen whether military measures will 
have the same effect as they previously did." 

About two thousand persons are known to have been killed or 
wounded. ALiny others are unaccounted for. So ruthlessly did 
the soldiers slay when they got the upjier hand that it is claimed a 




"even IHE CZAK's lungs CAN NOT BLOW OUT THE SUN"--A RUSSIAN 

ROVEKB. 

— Maybell in the Hrooklyn Eagle. 

full and complete list of the casualties will show that Lodz's 
" Black Friday " surpassed all the horrors of the" Red Sunday " in 
St. Petersburg on January 15 of the present year. 

Some of the facts of this new uprising against the Russian Gov- 
ernment as reported by the press tend to prove that the revolution- 
ists have profited by the disasters which overtook all their former 
frenzied and poorly planned encounters with the troops, and have 
at last learned to make their attacks with a certain degree of organi- 
zation and preparation. Thus the despatches say in substance : 

Tlie streets on l-'riday rescml)led a battlefield. Tlic houses 
were l)arricaded with boards and mattresses ; and for hours volley 
and individual firing was iieard in all parts of the city. Men 
climbed to the roofs, destroyed all telei)h<)ne and telegraph con- 
nections, constructed entanglements out of tiie poles and wires cut 
down, and setoff infernal machines and threw bombs and vitriol 
upon the confused and bewildered troopers from pointsof vantage. 

The immediate cause of the trouble on June 23 and 24, as we 
are informed by the New York Trihuiic. was the action of govern- 
ment officials in proliibiting the burial, with customary riles, of 
certain Jews who had been killed in a conflict between the troops 
and Socialists on the previous Sunday. This excited Socialist 



riots, in which the people at once became involved. It seems, 
however, that the revolt has really been simmering ever since the 
early part of February, as appears from the following, which we 
condense from the columns of the New York Sun : 

For months the 100,000 workmen in Lodz have been discon- 
tented and sullen. Their grievances have been fanned by revolu- 
tionist agents. The disturbances at Warsaw, which is only forty 
miles away, served to increase the unrest. The fight has been one 
between the workmen and the mill-owners. The workmen in Feb- 
ruary demanded more pay and easier hours. Strikes were ordered 
and violence began almost immediately. The mills shut down. 
The strike, on its face an industrial movement, was in reality a 
political demonstration. 

The employers refused the demands of the men, who, on the ad- 
vice of their leaders in St. Petersburg, demanded eight hours' 
work a day and in addition eighty-two half holidays a year. The 
workmen already had thirty holidays a year besides Sundays. 
These demands were afterward modified, but were not yet, in the 
opinion of the mill-owners, reasonable or acceptable. That the 
employers were conciliatory was apparent from the fact that when 
they paid off the strikers on February 9 they gave them three days' 
extra pay. Some of the owners refused to make this extra pay- 
ment, whereat the strikers gathered at the mills. The soldiers 
were about to fire when women rushed forward and defied them to 
shoot. To prevent bloodshed the owners complied with the de- 
mand and paid the extra three days' wages. 

The provincial governor interceded on February 10 and threat- 
ened to arrest any owner who paid the three days' wage. The 
military took control and clashes occurred, in which several per- 
sons were killed. Altho there were frequent encounters on Feb- 
ruary 10 and II, they were not of a serious enough nature to arouse 
the people actively against the Government. The strike weakened 
after a few days and most of the men returned to work. They 
were influenced partly by the reforms promised by the Czar in labor 
questions throughout Poland. Then, to the surprise of the mill- 
owners, the men again went on strike on February 14. The em- 
ployers threw up their hands and closed down indefinitely, many 
of them leaving town. 

In the opinion of the Philadelphia Ledger the bloodshed and 
savage street fighting at Lodz and in other Polish towns are the 
natural fruits of " the brutal policy of the conquerors of the 
country," and, moreover, show "how much weight the people at- 
tach to the reforms promised by the Czar." The Ledger con- 
tinues : 

"Coming little more than a month after the imperial rescript 
that assured to the Poles some of the privileges they most ardently 
desired— permission to employ their own language in the schools, 
the removal of religious disabilities and the gradual restoration of 
local self-government— the horrors of 'Black Friday' prove the 
desperation and despair to which these unhappy slaves, industrial 
and political, have been driven. Even in Russia's present demor- 
alized condition, such an outbreak as that at Lodz, and the simi- 
lar disturbances at Warsaw and other points, can have but one re- 
sult. They may hasten the economic revolution in the empire, but 
they are far more likely to provoke fresh measures of oppression 
and a repetition of the horrors of the '60s. The autocracy had 
sufficient power to suppress the flames of resentment and revolt 
started by the bloody crime of 'Red Sunday' in St. Petersburg; 
the outbreak in the Polish textile center, with its dense and hope- 
lessly illiterate population of 400,000, is not likely to be of greater 
inriuence in arousing the inert masses of Russia to their power." 



TOPICS IN BRIEF. 

CARiir.N seed 4,000 years old have been discovered in Egypt. Our congress- 
man sent us some of the same kind last season.— 7"A^ Atlanta Journal. 

Of course, if tlie Japanese terms are too severe, Russia will refuse to accept 
them and will instruct Linevitch to proceed with his march on Tokyo.— r//<r 
Chicago Netvs. 

Reports of the international Chess tournament announce victories for 
Tscliiijorin and J.inowski. Evidently there were no Japanese entries.— y//<fA'«w 
York Tribune. 

Tme i)e()ple of Norway are said to be Democrats. Let's by all means encoui^ 
a(;e exteii-iive Xor\vi>).ian inmiiKration, as election returns of late years show that 
we are sadly in need of Democrats. Ihc Atlanta Journal (Dem.). 



Vol. XXXI., Ifo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



LETTERS AND ART. 




AN ART THAT PHOTOGRAPHY HAS 
DEGRADED. 

MINIATURE painting to-day is an art whose greater glory 
belongs to the past. This fact is due, according to Mr. 
Dudley Heath, botli to the influence and to the competition of 
modern photography. Mr. Heatit is the author of " Miniatures," 

the latest volume of the 
" Connoisseurs' Library." 
It is idle to deny, he 
says, that the majority of 
paintings on ivory to-day 
can not be placed for a 
moment on the same level 
with the productions of 
other branches of the art 
of portraiture. This be- 
cause " they are produced 
with a minimum amount 
of effort and study, by the 
aid or under the influence 
of the pernicious photo- 
graph." The art suffers 
by the lack of "discretion 
OLIVER CROMWELL. ^nd culture on the part 

From a 17th Century miniature by .Samuel of the public, and robust- 
Cooper'^ the greatest exponent of the miniature ^^.^^ ^^^ individuality On 
portrait. •' 

the part of the artist." 

Never was there a time, he continues, when artists who work in 
this medium displayed so much technical excellence in the mere 
manipulation, and so httle imagination and inspiration in the treat- 
ment. The main reason for this condition seems to be that pho- 
tography has not only supplied a substitute for the old-time por- 
trait-in-little, but miniature painters have even been led to employ 
photography as a means to an end. As to the conditions that meet 
the painter of to-day, Mr. Heath says : 

" We must acknowledge that the modern painter of small por- 
traits labors under many disadvantages, and has many difficulties 
to contend with. His position demands a robustness of profes- 
sional constitution never so necessary as now. He has to face a 
long-continued degeneracy of the art and a perverted public taste, 
mainly due to photography. This enemy to the delightful cult has 
insidiously and in the guise of sincerity slowly warped and misled 
public appreciation. It has assumed the airs of a fine art when, 
as a matter of fact, its plumes are borrowed, and it is quite in- 
capable of giving us, in portraiture, any artistic truth other than a 
weak reflection of some quality rendered far better by the genius 
of the artist. This is not the worst; under this guise of sincerity 
it gives us an insipid, unselective imitation that falsifies nature, and 
has been fruitful in educating a demand for a soft, boneless, char- 
acterless prettiness in portraiture, the very antithesis to real style, 
form, and individuality 

" Before the advent of photography, the miniaturist reigned su- 
preme as the creator of small portraits. In the century which pre- 
ceded the discovery of the sensitized plate, there existed an un- 
usual demand for miniatures, and the supply was in the hands of 
miniature painters of every grade of ability. It may at least be 
said of the worst of these painters, that he depended for his results 
on his own efforts alone, and he was rightly considered as an hon- 
est member of a recognized and necessary branch of portraiture. 
To-day the position of the indifferent miniaturist is entirely changed, 
and the old order of things can never return. The unskilled paint- 
er must be made to accept honestly the altered conditions, and 
must not be encouraged in the belief that he is worthy to rank with 
the artist of real ability and training. He will none the less con- 
tinue to be in demand as the servant of photography. It is quite 
certain that there can be no place for him within the portals of that 
distinguished guild which is to raise the prestige of the art. Its 
members will be steadfast to those principles which alone can win 



for it recognition among artists as a serious branch of the profes- 
sion. They will set their art before their reputations, and their 
reputations before their incomes." 

The modern miniaturist has a very serious task before him, says 
the writer, if lie would wean public favor from the " commercial 
and mechanical miniature portrait," and place his art completely 
outside it. The seriousness of this task was recognized by the 
English Society of Miniature Painters, which was organized in 
1894. This society erred, according to Mr. Heath, in allowing too 
large a membership ; his own ideal of such a society is sketched in 
the following passage : 

" Twenty members who bound themselves by their enthusiasm 
for their art to descend to no triviality or pettiness, in pandering 
to a stereotyped convention, for the mere sake of gain, would ulti- 
mately become a source of influence, tenfold greater than a society 
of a hundred members, the majority of whom take a much lower 
standpoint and whose ambitions do not rise above a possible in- 
come. To do this, the twenty members must possess sufficient ro- 
bustness to constitute themselves a miniature corporation for the 
study and advancement of their art. They should fearlessly face 
their responsibilities and justify their superior aims by the stead- 
fastness of their study and the unprejudiced appreciation and help 
they tender to rising talent. A society to have a vital influence 
must do something more than hold exhibitions ; its sphere of activ- 
ity should be more in the nature of a guild. It should hold meet- 
ings, invite lectures, acquire representative specimens of the best 
schools, possess a library, and form a class at which members and 
probationary members could paint from the life, and so train and 
prove their ability. Every opportunity should be given to study 
the history and traditions of the art. Copies of the old masters 
in miniature should be encouraged, and members and probationary 
members invited to present such copies to form a permanent gal- 
lery belonging to the society. On election to membership a paint- 
er should be obliged to present a specimen of his best work to the 
society, and the confirmation of full membership should not be 
complete until the acceptance of this diploma work by the council. 
In suggesting the lines upon which a succe.ssful society might 
achieve its object, that of adding prestige to the art. I claim no 
originality for my ideas. It is only reverting to a modified form 
of an old institution — the Medieval Art (iuild." 

As the miniature portrait has very defined limitations, says Mr. 
Heath, there is not a wide scope for what inay be termed experi- 
mental effects of technique. He believes that the art would gain 
by a uniformity of method, akin to that practised by the technical 
guilds, and suggests that 
the early Flemish school 
would furnish a solid 
foundation upon which a 
new and vigorous style 
might grow up. He adds 
further : 

" A love for the art 
makes me appreciative of 
anything that indicates 
vitality or renewed life in 
the work of contempora- 
ries. I should rejoice at 
eccentricity as a sign of 
vigor, and it is even a de- 
light to come across work 
where nature has been 
carefully and thoughtfully 
expressed, even if in a 
trivial manner; but such 
sparks of fire are rare, 
and the vast army of 
stipplers in the present 

day sit perseveringly at their easels and see little beyond the tips 
of their sables. Why is it deemed unnecessary for the aspirant to 
miniature painting to do more than have a dozen or so lessons, and 
then launch iiimself in competition with the painter who has given 
the best years of his life to training, unless it is the photograph 
that helps the cripple home ? To be capable of deftly painting 




OLIVER Cromwell's wife. 

This is another example of the work of Sam- 
uel Cooper, whose miniatures are notable for 
their marvelous grasp of character. 



10 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



from life a head from a quarter of an inch to an incli in size, giv- 
ing It the vitality, expression, and portraiture of the subject, re- 
quires a skill and know edge that are worthy of the most liberal 
recognition. It is the mediocre amateur posing as a professional 
who is lowering the prestige of the art I.et the skilled miniature 
portraitist produce small portraits equal to a Cooper, and there 
would be no fear of competition from the photograph or the ama- 
teur." 



IS THE PUBLIC LIBRARY FEMINIZED? 

IT is alleged editorially by the New York J ndependent that pub- 
lic libraries in the United States" are useful to the women and 
children, but not so much to the men." The writer argues that a 
reference library rather than a reading library is best suited to mas- 
culine minds— "a library primarily composed of books which no- 
body wants on his own shelves, but which anybody is liable to 
need some time." 

Women, he says, have become our leisure class, in the technical 
sense of the term, by the transference of household industries to 
the factory, and " it is very gratifying to see how generally they 
are spending the time thus gained in intellectual effort." And chil- 
dren use the libraries, because they are trained in the public 
schools to do so. " But the number of men who take books out of 
the town library or go to it for reference is very small." The rea- 
sons for this, says The />uiepende»t, are two : " First, the men 
have come to think that there is nothing in the library for them ; 
and, second, they are usually right in thinking so." We read fur- 
ther : 

"Women use books as playthings; men as tools. When a 
woman reads a serious book it is usually to improve her mind ; a 
man generally thinks that there are many other things which need 
improving more than his mind, and he reads to find out how to do 
it. Bacon, whose tabloid wisdom is popular because it is so con- 
venient to carry in the vest pocket of one's memory, says : 'Studies 
.serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability." Of these mo- 
tives the first and the second are more apt to be dominant with 
women and the third with men. That is why the studious man 
looks into more books and reads fewer than the studious woman. 
For information in itself, apart from any apparent use, man has lit- 
tle liking. He may not be more practical, but he is more objective 
than a woman." 

The writer thinks that the large predominance of women in 
library work and management has tended to increase the feminiza- 
tion of the public libraries. In consequence, " the town library is 
to be classed rather with municipal amusements, like the band play- 
ing in tiie park on summer evenings and the fireworks on the 
Fourth, than with public utilities." And he offers the following 
suggestions toward extending its usefulness: 

" When the farmer drops in to see what is the red bug that is 
eating his box-elder trees and what to do for it, or, rather, against 
it ; when the editor telephones over for a map of Port Arthur for 
the afternoon edition; when the orator for 'Pioneer Day' finds 
there anecdotes of the early history of the town ; when the boy 
who wants to study electrical engineering in his odd hours does 
not have to send $25 to a correspondence .school for books the 
library ought to supply ; wiien the village inventor can learn how 
many times before his non-refillable bottle has been patented ; 
when the grocer's clerk comes over to see what brands of baking 
powder contain alum ; when the mechanic can find out what horse- 
power he can get from a windmill al)()ve his shop ; when the polit- 
ical junta adjourns from the drug-store to the library to see how 
much McKinley ran ahead of his ticket in i<S(j6 in the fifth congres- 
sion.il district ; when the young married couple look over the col- 
ored plates of a volume on the house furnishings <J I'lirt nonveau ; 
when the labor leader conies in to look up English laws on the 
financial responsibility of trades-unions; wlien tlie mayor .sends in 
for all the books on the municipal ownership of electric-light plants ; 
when the clerk of the district court discovers in the files of the 
local paper an advertisement of a dissolution of partnership ten 
years ago— then we can be sure that Andrew Carnegie has not 
wasted his money." 



AFTER-DINNER ORATORY IN AMERICA. 

THE after-dinner speech of America, says Mr. Daniel Crilly, 
an Irish journalist and reviewer. " is a phase of intellectual 
effort that has no counterpart elsewhere." To reach the accepted 
standard of American criticism," it must have all the choice quali- 
ties of Sheridan's dialogue; it must be a gem in ])rose as one of 
Austin Dobson's masterpieces is in poetry; it must sparkle and 
effervesce like the higher brands of champagne." In Great Brit- 
ain, where its fame is known, it is associated with "good stories, 
riant humor, graceful rhetoric, quaint conceits, and a genius for 
dexterously manipulating and alternating in a brief compass the 
lighter and graver shades of thought." That the post-prandial 
eloquence of America has won for itself a unique reputation, says 
Mr. Crilly (writing in The Nineteettth Century and After), is not 
surprising, " when it is remembered that among those who have fre- 
quently responded to the toast-master's call in that country have 
been such men as Oliver Wendell Holmes, James Russell Lowell, 
Mark Twain. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Col. John Hay, Edmund 
Clarence Stedman, William Cullen Bryant. George William Curtis, 
William Dean Howells, Whitelavv Reid. Charles Dudley Warner, 
Joseph Hodges Choate, and Chauncey Mitchell Depew." 

Mr. Crilly contrasts the after-dinner oratory in England and 
America, comparing the statistical dryness and gravity of the 
speeches at a London Chamber of Commerce dinner with a simi- 
lar function in New York. Of the latter he says : 

"The whimsical phrase, the inevitable anecdote, the fine literary 
turn of thought, are as common here as they are elsewhere. 
Those who think that the more delicate phases of art, literature, 
or philosophy should only be reverenced and expounded in an inner 
circle of superfine intellectual culture, far removed from the com- 
mon skirts of the madding crowd, will doubtless regard it as insuf- 
ferably incongruous that the following exquisitely happy word- 
picture of the dainty genius of Washington Irving should grow to 
life at a mere Chamber of Commerce dinner. The fact remains, 
however, that Mr. George William Curtis spoke in this fashion of 
the genial author of 'The Sketch Book ' at an annual banquet of 
the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York : 

" ' He touched our liistoric river with the glamor of the imagination. He in- 
vested it with the subtle and enduring charm of literary association. He peopled 
it with figures that make it dear to the whole world, like Scott's Tweed, or 
Burns's Bonny Doon. The belated wanderer, in the twilight roads of Tarrj- 
town, as he hears approaching the pattering gallop behind him, knows that it is 
not his ne .ghbor ; it is the Headless Horseman of Sleepy Hollow. It is not 
thunder that we hear in the Katskill on a still summer afternoon, it is the airy 
game of Hendnk Hudscm's crew that Rip Van Winkle heard. The commerce of 
New York may penetrate every sea, and carry around the world the promise of 
the American flag and the grandeur of tlie American name, and return trium- 
phant with the trophies of every clime; but over their leagues of wharves and 
towering warehouses and far-stretching streets can it throw a charm, as fresh to 
the next century as to this, such as the genius of literature cast upon the quaint 
little Dutch town more than two centuries ago, and upon the river which is our 
pride?'" 

Mr. Crilly admits, however, that this specimen of Mr. Curtis's 
graceful eloquence is not altogether typical of American after-din- 
ner oratory, in which, as a rule, " the vested rights of humor," and 
" the full prerogatives of the cap and bells "obtain distinct recogni- 
tion. To quote further : 

" We have it on the authority of a brilliant master of the art of 
after-dinner speaking that platitudes are essential adjuncts to the 
construction of a speech, and, that being so. repetition, more or 
less, can scarcely be avoided. James Russell Lowell once enum- 
erated what he called 'the ingredients of after-dinner oratory.' 
'They are,' he said, 'the joke, the quotation, and the platitude; 
and the successful platitude, in my judgment, requires a very high 
order of genius.'" 

Says Mr. Crilly in conclusion : 

"The conviction may be allowed that in a country where life is 
driven at the highest pressure, where trusts, and 'rings,' and 'cor- 
ners' must do anything but conduce to mental tranquillity, where 
the fear of any encroachment on the Monroe Doctrine must be per- 
petually 'getting on' people's nerves, it is well that the after-dinner 
speech has assumed the proportions of a national possession. So 
long as it manages to hold its own in that position the gaiety of the 
nation can never be altogether eclipsed " 



Vol. XXXI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



11 




THE ALBKIGHl ART GALLERY IN BUFFALO. 



"The architects .have shown the instinct which guides French architects in dealing with the building as part of a landscape," thereby giving " to a building of very- 
simple lines softness and elegance." 



A SIGNIFICANT ARTISTIC EVENT. 

THE dedication ot the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, says 
the New York Outlook, is not only the most interesting re- 
cent event in the art world, but a significant indication of the rapid 
cultivation of the art spirit in this country, and of the rapid exten- 
sion of opportunities of art stud\ . The new building is the gift of 
Mr. J. J.Albright to the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy. The donor 
has further promised to contribute, for some time to come, the sum 
of $10,000 a year to be used for the purchase of works of art. The 
opening of the gallery was made the occasion of a loan exiiibition 
of very unusual interest, including canvases of Franz Hals. \'elas- 
quez, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Rembrandt, among the earlier, 
and Manet, Monet, Courbet. Puvis de Chavannts. Millet. Rous- 
seau, Whistler, and others among the later painters, .\mong those 
representing American art in this exhibition are Sargent. Thayer, 
Horatio Walker, Chase, Twachtman, Abbey, Miss Beaux. Homer 
Martin, and George Fuller. 

The dedication exercises, which were attended by about ten 
thousand people, consisted of singing by a combined c'lorus under 
the leadership ot Prof. Horatio Parker of Yale University : an ad- 
dress on "Beauty and Democracy," by Presi- 
dent Eliot, of Harvard; and the reading of a 
poem by Mr. Richard Watson Gilder. The 
latter feature has been commented upon as 
peculiarly significant. Mr. Arthur Stringer, 
himself a poet and novelist, writing to the 
Literary Supplement of the New York Times, 
remarks : 



" Surely it should not l)e lovers of poetry 
alone who will take an uncommonly keen de- 
light not only in Mr. Richard Watson (/ilder's 
poem read at the opening of the Albright Art 
Gallery in Buffalo, but also in tiie fact that 
one of our living poets, and one of our most 
dignified and scholarly living poets, should 
actually be asked to participate in any such 
public service. Timely, too. as was the theme 
of Mr. Gilder's dedicatory ode, and sturdily 
beautiful as were many of his lines, the pri- 
mary delight that lies in the poem itself is 
altogether overshadowed, with many, by that 
secondary pleasure which lurks in the long- 
abandoned belief that the poet of to-day can, 
for even a moment, make himself of any pos- 
sible civic use or of any possible national con- 




MR. RICHARD WATSON GILDER, 

Who read a dedicatory poem at the recent 
opening of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo. 



cern ■ Especially must we feel this way in America, swept as our 
republic now is by its 'Big Stick' and its turgid, anesthetizing 
tides of material prosperity — against which the inopportune minor 
versifiers have hitherto cheeped only thinly and plaintively from 
unread magazine page ends and from uncut author's editions. 
The poet, we all thought, was a good deal like a hermit-thrush 
lost among the shafts and pulleys of a shoe factory or an armor- 
plate foundry. He was pretty enough, in his place and in his 
way, but he had nothing to do with life or with the things that 
really counted. 

"So even this momentary identification of what was once held 
the divinest of tiie arts with actual affairs and actual life carries 
with it some poignantly muftled touch of promise. It has a micro- 
scopic tinge of something Homeric about it, recalling older and 
nobler traditions. It shows that poetry, after all, is not as obso- 
lete as antimacassars. It also serves to 'democratize ' an art which, 
at first sight, appears to have been usurped and carried off (and 
well-nigh strangled) by idle-handed esthetes and self-immured dilet- 
tantes 

" It is. on tlie other hand, equally to the advantage of the poet, 
now that the commercialized magazine is no longer an outlet for 
anything but his shallowest and most fragmentary aspirations, to 
identify himself, in no matter how desperate a manner, with some 
scattered few of the wider issues of life. That alone can keep 

him vital 

" 1 venture to repeat that it seems highly 
significant that in a representative American 
city ten thousand representative American citi- 
zens, gathered together to witness the dedica- 
tion of a public building, should not only listen 
to but vigorously applaud a poem serious in 
note and exalted in thought, written by an 
American poet of the twentieth century. If 
such things continue it may even come about 
that we shall no longer have to seek out a 
French St. Gaudens to make our municipal 
statuary for us and an English Stephen Phil- 
lips to write our successful tragedies for us. 
There is a market or two, and a market or two 
almost worth while, which we, with all our 
fiercely aggressive American energy, have not 
yet quite captured." 

From Dr. Eliot's address we quote the fol- 
lowing sentences : 

" The provision of public museums, like this 
beautiful structure whose opening we com- 
memorate to-day, is another means of educat- 
ing the popular sense of beauty. For training 
the eye to the appreciation of beautiful com- 
positions in color good paintings are necessary. 



12 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1906 



Unfortunately, our barbarous legislation, taxing imported works 
of art, piles on the natural difficulties of our situation a serious arti- 
ticial obstruction. In diffusing among the American population 
knowledge and appreciation of the fine arts, we shall also diffuse 
the artistic sentiment about labor. Toward that idealization of 
daily life the love of the beautiful leads us, and the road which 
connects the love of the beautiful with the love of the good is short 
and smooth." 

The building itself is described by Ilie Uuilook as " a classic 
structure of the Ionic order, simple almost to .severity in general 
design, but conveying a notable impression of dignity and stateli- 
ness." Moreover: 

"The architects have shown the instinct whicli guides French 
architects in dealing with the building as part of a landscape. 
They have admirably fitted the gallery into a background of soft 
turf, abundant shrubbery, and clusters of trees, so as to produce 
the best effect, and to give not only a human interest to a charm- 
ing landscape, to which both the blue of the sky and .the green of 
the lake contribute, but to make the gallery a focal point of the 
entire scene. The architects have succeeded, therefore, in dealing 
with all the conditions so as to give to a building of very simple- 
lines softness and elegance." 

We here quote in full Mr. iWkler's dedicatory ode, "A Temple 

of Art": 

Slowly to the day tlie rose, 

The moon-flower suddenly to tlie night, 

Their mysteries of light 

In innocence unclose. 

In this garden of delight. 

This pillared temple, pure and white, 

We plant the seed of art. 

With mystic i)o\ver 

To bring, or sudden or slow, the perfect flower. 

That cheers and comforts tlie sad human heart ; 

That brings to man high thought 

From starry regions cauglit. 

And sweet, unconscious nobleness of deed ; 

So he may never lose his childhood's joyful creed. 

Tho years and sorrows to sorrows and years succeed. 

Tho thick the cloud that hides the unseen life 

Before we were and after we shall be, 

Here in this fragment of eternity ; 

And heavy is the burden and the strife — 

The universe, we know in beauty had its birth ; 

The day in beauty dawns, in beauty dies, 

With intense color of tiie sea and skies ; 

And life, for all its rapine, with beauty floods tlu- t-,irth. 

Lovely the birds, and their true song, 

Amid the murnuirous leaves the Summer long. 

Whate'er the baffling jjower 

Sent anger and earthquake and a thousand ill- - 

It made the violet flower, 

And the wide world with breathless beauty thiills. 

Who built the world, made man 

With power to build and plan. 

A soul all loveliness to love 

Blossom below and lucent blue above — 

And new unending beauty to contrive. 

He, the creature, may not make 

Beautiful Ijeiiigs all alive 

Irised moth nor mottled snake. 

The lily's splendor, 

Tlie ligiit of glances inhnitely tender, 

Nor the day's dying glow nor flush of morn— 

And yet his handiwork the angels shall not scorn, 

vVlien he hath wrought in truth and by heaven's law — 

In lowliness and awe. 

Bravely shall lie labor, while from his pure hands 

Spring fresh wonders, spread new lands ; 

Son of God, no longer child of fate, 

Like God he shall create. 

When, weary ages hence, tlie wrong world is set right : 

Wlien i)rotlierhood is real 

And all that justice can for man is done, 

Wiieii the fair, fleeing, anguished-for ideal 

Turns actual at last, and 'neatli the sun 

Man liatli no human foe; 

And even the bra/en sky, and storms that blow, 

And all the elements have friendlier proved • 

By iuinian wit to human uses moved 

Ah, still shall art endure, 

And beauty's light and lure. 

To keep man noble, and make life delight, 

Tho shadows backward fall from the»engulfing night. 

In a world of littK- aims. 
Sordid hopes and futile fames. 
.Spirit of Beauty! high thy plate 
In the fashioning of the race. 



In this temple, built to thee, 

We thy worshipers would be. 

Lifting up, all undefiled, 

Hearts as lowly as a child. 

Humble to be taught and led 

And on celestial manna fed ; 

So take into our lives 

Something that from heaven derives. 



FEAR AND DISTRUST OF BOOKS IN RUSSIA. 

A FAVORABLE sign of the times in Kussia is the appearance 
of a new edition of the famous novel, " What's to Be Done ? " 
written half a century ago by Tchernishevsky, the radical publicist, 
critic, and reformer. Tlie book was forbidden almost as soon as 
it had seen the light, on account of its heterodox tendencies. In 
spite of being suppressed it lound its way into two English trans- 
lations. Now it is republished without objection from the censor. 
This fact, in connection with other symptoms, and especially 
with the trend of the testimony and proposals submitted to the 
Kobeko Commission on the press laws and the desirable amend- 
ments of the same, is regarded by Russian journalists as an indi- 
cation of a real and healthy change of governmental policy with 
regard to books and periodical literature, including the daily press. 
Writers have had a good deal to say lately about the "distrust of 
books" in Russia, the suspicion and presumption of injury and 
mischief with which the Government has viewed the product of 
the national intelligence plus the printing press. A writer in the 
St. Petersburg Novosti, in urging "trust in books," gives the fol- 
lowing facts : 

■• Books, like newspapers, are divided into two classes : those that 
may be published without preliminary censorship, and those that 
must be submitted in advance, in manuscript, to the local censor. 
Even the first cla.ss is in reality subject to censorship, for several 
copies of eacli printed book must be handed to the censor before 
any are placed on the market. Whatever book he finds objection- 
able, politically or morally, he may declare illegal, confiscating or 
burning the whole edition. In the last forty years some censors, 
by keeping single copies of prohibited books for strictly private 
use, have accumulated libraries of tiie greatest value and intellect- 
ual interest to educated Russia, and some of these rare volumes 
command, at 'private sales' high premiums. 

" Instead of one censor, the writer and publisher have to reckon 
with no fewer than eight different censors representing as many 
official departments. Thus there are eight gantlets to run, seven 
tests to undergo, and each censor is a law unto himself, following 
his own notions, whims, and prejudices. 

" Finally, when a book at last obtains the requisite authorizations 
and reaches tlie public, it encounters another array of difficulties. 
Libraries are not permitted to purchase and circulate even the 
censor-ridden books. Many, in fact, are expressly prohibited to 
the libraries, the idea being that what may be safe in the small 
circles of the well-to-do intelligent, may be dangerous in the hands 
of the people." 

" Hence those who can not buy books, or borrow them, are de- 
prived of the privilege of reading some of the best and most pro- 
gressive and stimulating productions of the present or the past. 
Many Russian classics are excluded from the libraries. 

■■ It is stated in the St. Petersburg papers that the publishers have 
all demanded the complete abolition of the book censorship and 
full liberty to issue any book they see fit, subject to prosecution in 
court under general laws safeguarding public morality, order, etc. 
The commission proposed a compromise as follows: That all 
books should be jiassed ujion by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 
anil sucli as are found politically injurious or revolutionary should 
be turned over for examination and judgment to the National 
Academy of Science, a body of which almost every distinguished 
author is a member. The Academy, however, promptly declined 
this function. It declared that it could not undertake to apply 
official, political, governmental, or other non-literary and non-scien- 
tific and non -artistic standards to literature. It did not care to 
exercise 'police ftmctions ' and become a governmental agency. 

" The commission is expected to recommend liberal changes in 
the laws as to the jMrss and remove the stigma of the 'distrust of 
hooV-a.^"— Translation iiiiuic tor THii LiTEKAKV Digest. 



Vol. XXXL.Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



13 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION 



THE WORLD'S LOFTIEST POINTS. 

A N interesting diagram or cliart showing points not on a hori- 
^^^ zontal i)ut on a vertical plane, and exhibiting the various 
records of achievement in the line of lofty ascent, is presented to 
its readeri l)y La Nature (Paris). On it one may see the highest 
point on which man lias lived, the highest points reached on a 
mountain-peal< and in a balloon respectively, the record ascent of 
an exploring or " sounding" balloon without passengers, and so on. 
The explanatory text, which is by M. Lucien Kudaux, is as fol- 
lows : 

"Our readers will doubtless find some interest in the examina- 
tion of the accompanying diagram, on which are indicated pro- 
portionally the chief fixed points in the higher regions of the earth 
and its atmosphere. The 
scale of this diagram, for 
height, is 4 millimeters 
to the kilometer [about '4 
inch to the mile] It is 
scarcely necessary to note 
that the aspect and pro- 
portions of the objects 
represented are purely 
conventional. The note- 
worthy points are marked 
by balloons, and human 
or other figures, and as 
these various objects are 
necessarily of exagger- 
ated dimensions, the alti- 
tudes that they indicate 
are marked by the bas- 
kets of the balloons and 
by the feet of the human 
figures. Each of the 
points is the highest of 
its class. The principal 
natural points of compar- 
ison are as follows : Mont 
Blanc and the Himalay- 
an range where the high- 
est peak on the globe is 
found, the mean line of 
perpetual snow on each, 
and certain characteristic clouds ; the heights of the clouds are 
shown according to the measurements made at Blue Hill, in the 
United States, by Mr. Rotch. 

"Beginning at the bottom, then, we find: 

" First, at E, the Eiffel Tower (300 meters) [984 feet], the high- 
est monument built by man. Thence we rise to the summit of 
Mont Blanc, traversing on the way the cumulus clouds C C, a thin 
layer whose base is at 1,470 meters [4,821 feet] and its upper limit 
at 2,180 meters [7,150 feet]. A little higher we find the Alpine 
snow-line, and then at « <: the lower alto-cumulus {3,170 meters); 
about 4,000 meters [13,120 feet], approximately, is the Himalaya 
snow line. We now reach the top of Mont Blanc, crowned at J by 
M. Janssen's observatory, the highest on earth." 

Leaving the earth's surface and rising for an instant into the 
air, the writer now points out a kite at T-B, at the height of 5,908 
meters [19,378 feet]. This has been reached by one of the " sound- 
ing kites" sent up at sea by IVL T. de Bort. Landing again, this 
time on the Himalayas, a little above the higher alto-cumulus 
clouds, we find G, the highest place where men have stayed an 
appreciable time. This was in the international expedition of 1902. 
when the hardy explorers remained at tliis enormous height of 20,- 
992 feet for no less than six weeks, under the most painful condi- 
tions. Higher still, at 6,6So meters [21,910 feet] is the extreme 
point (B W) of Mrs. Bullock-Workman's ascents, thegreatest alti- 
tude yet reached by a woman. Says the writer : 

" We can not too much admire the courageous climber when we 
remember the rarefaction of the air, so great at this altitude that a 




COMPARATIVE HEIGHTS OF POINTS REACHED BY MAN ON PEAK.S AND IN THE AIR. 



little below this level .VI. lier.son, whom we shall find higher still 
in his balloon, began his artificial inhalations of oxygen. We 
should also admire the more than hardy temperament of Mr. Bul- 
lock-Workman, who kept on to the point B W at 7,132 meters 
[-3-393 feet]— the highest altitude reached by any mountain 
climber, unless Graham's report of his ascension of Kabrou be 
verified. 

"The line 00, at 8,000 meters [26.240 feet] is the limit at which 
aeronauts begm tiie continued respiration of the oxygen that they 
have brought for the purpose, remembering that neglect to do so 
may cause grave catastrophes of which we have, alas ! some cruel 
instances. For example, there was the tragic ascent of April 15, 
1875, in which Crocd-Spinelli and Sivel were asphyxiated at 8,600 
meters [28. 208 feet], while their companion, Gaston Tissandier, 
escaped almost by a miracle. At 240 meters higher, we come 
finally to the highest point of the terrestrial globe, the most colossal 
summit of our planet— Everest, rising to 8,840 meters (28,995 feet] 
in the rarefied and glacial regions of the upper air. Will man ever 

set foot on this peak .' 

"At about 10,000 me- 
ters [32,800 feet] is the 
zone (G) of the highest 
clouds, the cirrus, often 
composed of spicules of 
ice. At 10,800 meters 
[35,424 feet], B marks the 
extreme limit of human 
ascent; on July 31, 1901, 
a balloon, bearing M. 
Berson, reached this for- 
midable height, thanks to 
the precaution taken by 
the aeronaut, of breath- 
ing oxygen at 8.000 me- 
ters and above, as noted 
previously. 

"The line II is the 
mean lower limit of the 
isothermal zone of M. 
Teisserenc de Bort. The 
numerous 'soundings ' 
effected by this expert 
meteorologist enabled 
him to discover that in 
this zone, whose thick- 
ness would appear to be 
at least six kilometers (in- 
dicated by 11,11) the 
temperature remains nearly stationary, at a little below — 50" 
[-58° F.]. 

" We may end up by a prodigious leap, which lands us at S, at 
22,290 meters [73,111 feet], the altitude reached on December 4, 
1902, by a sounding balloon sent up from the Strasburg observa- 
tory in a series of international ascensions. To use a sporting 
term, this little rubber balloon of 1,900 millimeters [76 inches] 
diameter, inflated with hydrogen, holds at present the world's rec- 
ord !" — Translation made for The Literary Digest. 



HOW TO LIVE THROUGH THE "FOURTH." 

TH.E yearly loss of life due to inconsiderate and reckless meth- 
ods of celebrating Independence Day is recognized more 
and more as a national evil. That much of this loss of life is 
through lockjaw, or tetanus, has been understood for some time, 
but the exact connection between this disease and the discharge of 
toy pistols or firecrackers is not commonly realized. An editorial 
writer in The Dietetic and Hygienic Gazette (New York) puts one 
phase of it clearly and gives some valuable advice. He says : 

" As the noise of the firecracker is heard in our streets, it reminds 
us of the gradual approach of the Fourth of July. The ever-recur- 
ring fatal accidents due to carelessness and spontaneous ignition 
will always be present. Our duty as physicians is to study pro- 
phylactic measures and apply them so that a wound, if inflicted by 
an accident, should not be necessarily fatal. Bacteriologists who 
have studied this question find that altho the true tetanus bacillus 
is frequently found and gives rise to specific disease in many cases 



14 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[Jnly'l, 1905 



the Bacillus aerogenes mpsiilatus is present. This i)acteriiini was 
first isolated by Welch. It is found in. a large proportion of the 
wads of cartridges. When some of these wads were inoculated 
into rats, guinea-pigs, or rabbits they produced ciiaracteristic 
symptoms of tetanus and still, altho the symptoms of tetanus were 
present, the bacillus tetanus could not be isolated. In very many 
cases it is difficult to isolate the true etiological factor, and the 
diagnosis must rest between the symptoms and the effect seen. 
We are frequently asked. How can tetanus be prevented? There 
is no direct method known unless it be 'to avoid taking part in the 
celebration." The first aid to the injured consists in thoroughly 
wasliing a wound with a i-per-cent. carbolic water or with a 1-5.000 
bichlorid of mercury solution. The most important point is to 
carelully wash the hands vvitli soap and water before touching any 
bruise, as lacerated flesh wound, thus assuring cleanliness and the 
avoidance of possible contamination. 

" If swelling and pain exist, then constantly moistening with lead 
and opium wasii is soothing and reduces swelling. In open wounds 
cotton should be avoided and in its stead gauze or cheesecloth 
should be u.sed. It is self-understood tliat the rules of asepsis 
must be strictly carried out to guard against suppuration, which 
may prolong and disturb the healing process. If wads of cotton 
iiave been imbedded in the soft tissues by an e.xplosion. the same 
should be removed, if at all possible, before attempting to close 
and bandage the wound. It is to these filthy wads that we can lay 
the blame of a possible transmission of tetanus as previously 
mentioned." 



ISLANDS AS WEATHER STATIONS. 

THAT outlying islands afford the best facilities lor observing 
weather conditions that may affect a neighboring continent 
is as.serted by W. J. S. Lockyer in Xahire (London. June 1 1. Mr. 
Lockyer notes at the outset that the practical aim of meteorology 
is the forecasting of the amount of rainfall and the approach of 
storms. The former, he says, will tell us whether we may expect 
floods, or an average amount of water for successful crop produc- 
tion, or a drought po.ssibly ending in famine. Tlie hitter affords a 
means of saving many lives and ships, and also, probably, much 




Fk.. 1. The wind system during summer in tiie northern hemispliere and win- 
ter in the southern hemispliere. Tlie black dots represent island--, and the letter 
H the centers of regions of high pressure or anticyclonic areas. 

property ashore. These are certainly practical aims, and it is our 
business to use every means which will bring us nearer the goal ol 
satisfactory forecasting Mr. Lockyer goes on : 

" Investigations carried out during the last decade have indicated 
the importance of each weather bureau e.xtending its area of in- 
quiry beyond the region for which it is making its forecasts. 
Needless to say, many of these institutions have for some years 
been in telegraphic commimication with outlving stations. Thus, 
for instance, the Indian Meteorological Service receives informa- 
tion from a station .so far distant as Mauritius, wiiile the I'niled 
States Weather Bureau utilizes valuable observations by telegraph 
from stations in the West Indies, Azores, Europe, etc 

" It is important to bear in mind that rain-bearing winds are those 



that have passed over large stretches of water, and that the rainfall 
of a country is deficient or well supplied with this commodity ac- 
cording to its geographical position in relation to the oceans or in- 
land seas, mountain ranges, and the prevailing winds. It is for 
these reasons that the nearer the coast is approached from the cen- 
ter of any continent, the greater becomes the rainfall. Thus, for 
instance, the interior of Australia, the Sahara, the Arabian Desert, 
Tibet, etc.. are all very dry areas 

" For forecasting purposes, therefore, attention should be, and 
in many regions is, paid to the region from which the prevailing 




Fig. 2.— The wind system during winter in the northern hemisphere and sum- 
mer in the southern hemisphere. Notation as in I-"ig. i. The letter L indicates 
the center of a low pressure or cyclonic area. 

winds come, due consideration being given to the particular baro- 
metric svstem of which the wind forms part. 

" From the above the important functions of islands conveniently 
situated become obvious. It is not. however, every country bor- 
dering on tlie ocean that is blessed with such an island in tiie direc- 
tion of the prevailing wind, and the British Isles, in consequence, 
suffer very much from this very defect. In Great Britain the main 
rain-bearing wind is that from the southwest. In summer this 
forms part of a large anticyclonic system situated in mid-Atlantic 
toward tiie southwest (see Fig. i). while in winter it is a portion of 
a cyclonic system the center of which is near (Greenland ;see Fig. 
21. With no islands in the track, tlie only meteorological informa- 
tion that is at once useful is that which can be gathered from mes- 
sages sent by the Marconi system of wireless telegraphy from 
steamers en voyage. British weather forecasters are thus undoubt- 
edly heavily handicapped by the lack of some permanent outlying 
source of information in this region. 

" Mention has already been made of the use of islands by the 
United States and India. The latter is particularly fortunate, for 
Mauritius, Seychelles, Chagos (marked with dots in the figures), 
and other islands are all conveniently situated to render info'nia- 
tion if necessary. 

"Another region which very probably would gain considerably 
liy utilizing oliservations made at island stations is South Africa." 

The fact tiiat the most useful islaiuls from the meteorological 
point of view arc not always desirable places of residence, is re- 
sponsible, the writer tiiinks, for the fact that they are so little em- 
ployed as stations. He suggests a change of observers every few 
months and the adoption of self-recording instruments, with a re- 
coinse to wireless telegraphy where cable service is lacking. 



Dangers of illuminating Gas.— That the domestic use 
of nuulern fuel and illuminating gas is not unattended with danger, 
is pointed out from time to time with more or less insistence. The 
latest warning is published by Henry Leffmann in I'lie Journal of 
the American Afedical A.ssociation (June 3). lie asks us to note 
that the coal-gas formerly employed was comparatively non-toxic 
and its characteristic odor was a danger warning, while the modern 
water-gas that has so largely replaced il with its greater content of 
carbon monoxid and its comparative hick of odor, is far more dan- 



Vol. XXXL, No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



15 



gerous. To quote an abstract given '\n .hnerican Medicine iVWxXa.- 
delphia) : 

"Accidents from this cause are far more frequent than formerly, 
and carbolic acid and illuminating gas have replaced, at least in 
Philadelphia, he says, for suicides and accidental poisonings, the 
arsenic and laudanum of the Civil-War period. A sleei)er can 
easily absorb a fatal amount of modern water-gas without being 
aroused, and Leffmann shows by a simple calculation iiow a very 
small percentage of carbon monoxid — less than ,'2 gr., for example, 
to 100 cubic centimeters of blood — can render u.seless its hemoglo- 
bin Gas-stoves for cooking are used generally only in warm 
weather when natural ventilation is good, and the danger from 
them is therefore lessened, but their burners are seldom furnished 
with a collar to regulate the air-supply, and the combustion is there- 
fore liable to be irregular and deleterious gases are given out. Cias 
'stoves' or heaters connected with the gas-pipes by rubber tubing 
are objectionable on account of the liability of leakage, which is 
very great unless the very best tubing material is used. The stop- 
cock on the heater is especially objectionable, as it is the one most 
convenient to use, and when used the leakage through the tube can 
go on unchecked." 



THE SOCIOLOGY OF RAPID TRANSIT. 

UNDER this heading a discussion of the favorable influence 
of rapid transit on the economic life of a city, with particular 
reference to the slum population, is printed in the editorial columns 
of The Street Railway Journal (New York). Says that paper : 

" It has long been recognized in many quarters that the trolley- 
car has been, and still is, a tremendous factor in the betterment of 
housing conditions, but the direct influence of the subway and ele- 
vated line upon. the welfare of the poorer classes has yet to be gen- 
erally appreciated. 

" .Social questions are largely conditioned by surroundings. 
Hence, if the rapid-transit line alleviates the sufferings of slum life 
through the removal of thousands of poorly housed citizens to 
localities more abundantly supplied with fresh air and sunshine, 
and through the transfer of child life from the crowded streets to 
more wholesome playgrounds, great objects have been secured in 
the way of improved health, morality, education, and even political 
honesty, quite apart from the fundamental supply of quick trans- 
portation. That the rapid-transit line does this can not be 
doubted. ' Improved housing conditions in the tenement district,' 
says the Boston Transcript in discussing this point recently, ' can 
do something, but not a great deal. The area is limited, and, 
crowded as it is, the trade, industry, and wealth of the city are for- 
ever pounding against it. . . . Unless there be a vent, the crowding 
becomes worse and worse, and the only satisfactory vent is that 
furnished by cheap rapid transit.' 

"It may be urged by some opponents of rapid-transit extensions 
that the poorest class of society is unreached by even 5-cent rapid 
transit. Since competition is keener as the scale of labor de- 
scends, on account of the lower average of ability required, hours 
of work are longer, and it becomes more and more necessary for 
the laborer to live near his place of employment. Among the 
poorest class this requirement becomes so insistent that in many 
cases no rapid-transit system can compete successfully with the 
cheapness and facility of a short walk. Nevertheless, there are 
many different degrees of existence even in the tenement-house 
district, and the sociological value of rapid transit therefore ' lies 
in the constant drawing away of the upper strata which makes pos- 
sible, without increased discomfort, the admission of the steady in- 
flux at the bottom. Even tho the rapid- transit line may not secure 
the daily patronage of the upper stratum of slum population, it 
does affect the stratum just above, leading it away from its former 
cramped and unattractive habitations and making room for the 
occupancy of the upper stratum of slum population.' A sort of 
moving up takes place all along the line. 

" Far-reaching also are the effects of a new rapid-transit service 
upon the conditions of life in less densely populated sections of a 
city, extending into even the outlying suburbs. The saving of ten 
or fifteen minutes in transit at morning and night means a total 
saving in a year made up of 300 working days of from 12 >< to \'?>}/i 
days at 8 hours each. When such a saving as this, representing 
the case of but a single individual, is multiplied into the lives of 
thousands, it requires little imagination to see why the rapid-tran- 



sit line is the very backbone of suburban life in its highest types. 
There is every reason to believe that in the writings of future so- 
ciologists the beneficent aspects of rapid transit will be appreciated 
as never before, and that the effect on the ave.age individual of 
pure air, healthy surroundings, and a broader environment will 
be a higher standard of living, both morally and physically. The 
proper presentation of those aspects before municipal authorities 
will do much toward disarming opposition to the legitimate exten- 
sion of high-speed facilities." 




THE TWO RING MOUNTAINS OF MESSIER, 

Believed by some astronomers to be of recent 
origin 



ACTIVE VOLCANOES ON THE MOON. 

A RE the lunar volcanoes all extinct.'' Prof. W. H. Pickering 
■^-^ of Harvard, who has been strenuously asserting, against the 
belief and judgment of most of his astronomical colleagues, that 
our satellite is not yet a dead sphere, is quite certain that some of 
them, at least, are as active as Vesuvius or P<51ee. Professor Pick- 
ering, it will be remembered, believes that his observations show 
the existence on the moon of an atmosphere, water, and vegeta- 
tion. In the Revue Scientifique fParis, April 15) M. Lucien Lib- 
bert, of the French Astronomical Society, reviews the whole sub- 
ject, and reminds us at the outset that the discussion regarding the 
moon's condition is a 
very old one. Before the 
invention of the telescope 
it was regarded by philos- 
ophers as a habitable 
globe like the earth, but 
afterward the opinion 
grew that it was a dead 
sphere, cold, dry, and 
sterile. From time to 
time, however, observa- 
tions were reported that 
caused doubts to be cast 
on this conclusion. In 
1706 Lahire wrote that 
Aristarchus appeared so bright at times that some considered 
it to be a volcano. In 1783 Herschel observed a bright point of 
light that he attributed to a lunar volcanic eruption, and in 1787 
he reported the discovery of several other active volcanoes, one 
of which he believed to be at least three miles in diameter. 
Later Beer and Madler. who devoted much time and labbr to 
this subject, asserted that what Herschel had really seen was the 
circular ridges of Aristarchus, Copernicus, and Kepler, touched 
with brilliant sunlight against the dark background of the ad- 
jacent lunar surface. In 1794 Olbers made a similar mistake. 
Finally Nasmyth asserted that volcanic action on the moon had 
ceased for thousands of centuries. In 1857, however, Webb, an 
English observer, took the matter up again, having noticed two 
small craters that he believed to be of recent formation, since no 
previous observer had recorded them. Loewy and Puiseux, in 
their lunar atlas, conclude that the craters in question have changed 
since Beer's time and Marius Honorat, who took the accompany- 
ing photograph on October 13, 1904, asserts that Webb's descrip- 
tion is correct. He adds, however: 

" It is probable that volcanic activitv has ceased in this region. 
As with most lunar craters their ramparts do not rise much above 
the surrounding plain, but their bottoms are at a much lower point. 
It would .seem that the interior pressure of gases has raised the 
lunar crust, forming an enormous dome which later collap.sed by its 
own weight, the gases escaping. ... I believe that I have seen 
two long folds of earth, tangent to the edges of the western crater, 
which support this hypothesis and seem to indicate that the raised 
mass underwent a gyratory motion in the direction of the hands of 
a clock. This character is common to a great number of lunar 
formations. There may be seen also to the east of the group two 
long luminous streaks, almost parallel, which have probably the 
same origin as those that surround the great radiating ring-moun- 
tains. These are doubtless deposits of white matter thrown out 



16 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



of the expansive force of the internal gases. Jlut it would not be 
difficult to see here the intluencc of an atmospheric current that 
would iiave given them a similar definite direction." 

Going back a little. M. Libbert notes, as additional facts that 
have been invoked to show that lunar volcanoes may still be active, 
the disappearance of the small crater Linne, which is indicated on 
all the old charts, but had become invisible by i866,and the appar 
ent deformation of several other craters. In at least one case. 
that of a small crater near Thetek, the disappearance has been 
proved to be due to disturbance of the earth's atmosphere. The 
writer concludes : 

" It seems, consequently, that no decisive fact has yet been ad- 
duced to support the theory of lunar volcanic activity. Picker- 
ing's observation itself, cited at the outset, is by no means conclu- 
sive. A brilliant and vaporous patch, about 2" in diameter, was 
seen on July 31 last at the bottom of the crater of Plato, and on 
August 2, instead of this spot, appeared a ring 3,200 meters across. 
Here again we may have a crater that previously existed but had 
never been noticed — a fact that need not seem extraordinary to 
those who know how delicate are observations made with the en- 
largements employed on the great American instruments. 

"Pickering, it would seem, has taken to heart this question of 
lunar volcanic activity. He wrote in iSy2 : 'Not only is it unde- 
niable that volcanic action exists on the moon, but it is also cer- 
tain that there is a very intense life on the surface of our satel- 
lite. . . . According to what we know of Plato, and a thousand 
other facts, it seems that, so far as volcanic activity goes, our 
satellite is at the present time as young as the earth, if not 
younger.' 

" There has been too much haste in generalizing — in extending 
the bearing of certain facts. Apart, perhaps, from the enigmatic 
change seen in the craters of Messier, all the alterations observed 
are very well explained by other hypotheses than that of lunar ac- 
tivity. 

" All that has probably taken place on the moon has been a land- 
slide, at one time or another, on the rim of a crater, a slight sink- 
ing of the crust — nothing that should lead us to see anything else 
in the moon than a dead world." 

We may still, M. Libbert thinks, stand by the ancient dictum laid 
down regarding the moon in Riccioli's almanac: " Alt-n can not 
live, nor plants grow there." — Translation made for Xwv. Liter- 
ary Digest. 



VIRTUOUS INFLUENCE OF WARM WEATHER. 

ACCORDING to the belief of the secretary of the Cleveland 
Humane Society, warm weather tends to make bad men 
better. This idea he supports in a newspaper interview, taking 
as his starting-point the fact tiiat the demand for tiie aid of the 
society on behalf of abused wives falls off 90 per cent, in summer. 
Says the secretary, Mr. Rickseker: 

" In my many years in this office I have noticed that November 
and December see more real human wretchedness tlian any two 
other months in the year. 1 can not say this will be shown l)y the 
exact figures every year, but that is my impression. I have also 
noticed that with the coming of warm weather there are fewer 
wives coming in here to implore us to force their husbands to sup- 
port them. We have fewer reports of al)solute desertions. 1 am 
sure that the falling off will amount to 90 per cent., for, beginning 
with May and continuing almost through the month of September. 
the society is .seldom called upon by these wretched women. 

" I have an idea that the primary reason for this is to be found 
in the uplifting and rejuvenating influence of June and ample sun- 
shine. I may be accu.sed of spinning fine theories, but that is my 
honest belief. In the winters it is cold, life is only maintained by 
a hard struggle, and the struggle for mere existence among the 
poor is an exhausting one. What finer instincts they may possess 
are certainly subdued by this struggle for a mere existence and 
even almost blotted. I will not say entirely killed, for there is some 
good in every one. 

"Now in the summer it is exactly tiie reverse. Work is more 
plenty, the tendency to drink to drunkemiess is less; the warm, 
bright sunshine makes even the wicked and the vicious feel a little 



more of the love lor their fellow men. If there is a tender senti- 
ment about them anywhere it is stronger in summer tlian in the 
bitter cold winter. Naturally the wife must get the benefit of 
change of heart. She is really loved more in summer than in winter. 

" How about men who never beat or desert their wives.'' Well. 
I have no means of knowing about that class, for if the logic I 
have used on those who do is true the.se men must also love more 
in summer than in winter. 

" One of the most important departments in the work of the 
Humane Society is in forcing husbands who have deserted their 
families to contribute to their support. We have arraigned a 
number under the State law, which iias made this a penitentiary 
offense. In every case which I can now recall to mind these deser- 
tions have occurred in the winter. It is the old story. No work 
and no money to meet the increased expense of maintaining a 
home. Tlien the departure of the husband, presumably to look 
for work. He does not return. He finds it so hard to sliift for 
iiimself that he forgets all about his wife. He never thinks of her. 
She must come to tiie society and ask for aid to find him. Men 
who are inclined to drink heavily drink more in the winter than in 
the summer. Then they go to their wretched homes, and when 
the plea is made for money to buy coal and provisions, money 
which they have squandered in saloons, they get ugly." 



QUEER THINGS TO EAT. 

THERE is no excuse for those who complain of the monotony 
of their daily meals. He who would dine every evening on 
mutton and potatoes when he has never tasted hundreds of nutrient 
and appetizing foods, both animal and vegetable, is lacking in en- 
terprise, tb say the least. Even where an uninteresting cycle of 
food is .suggested by considerations of convenience and economy, 
a little thought and trouble would doubtless bring variety. An 
editorial writer in The Lancet (London, June 3) asserts that the 
subject deserves greater attention than it has hitherto received, and 
suggests that the results would probably be pleasing. He goes on 
to say : 

" 111 this connection it is interesting to consider some of the more 
or less odd materials which man has been led to choose for the 
purposes of food. Environment, of course, must be a factor in re- 
gard to this choice, and necessity also. It is hard to imagine 
that earth would be used for choice as food, and yet such has been 
the case in many countries during famine. The Laplanders mix 
earth with their bread, the Russian peasant uses a 'rock flour," and 
the poorer classes in Hungary are driven occasionally to eat an 
earth which contains but a trifling proportion of nourishing princi- 
ples. The use of seaweed as food, is an example of the determin- 
ing factors of both necessity and environment. It is not a little as- 
tonishing to find what a number of seaweeds are really edible and 
nourishing. Perhaps the best known example in this country is 
laver, which is a kind of stew made from a weed, an alga (Por- 
phyra laciniata). The laver made on the Devonshire coast, and 
to lie found in some London shops, is excellent. The sea alg£e, 
indeed, prove on analysis to contain a considerable proportion of 
nitrogenous matter, and as they are usually tender they are digesti- 
Ijle. There are also several sea mosses which are esteemed for 
their esculent properties. Agar-agar is another example of a sea- 
weed yielding a nutrient jelly. It is suppo.sed that the edible birds' 
nest so highly esteemed when prepared in the form of soup by the 
Chinese has itsorigin in the birds feeding upon agar-agar, (^n the 
other hand, it is said that the substance of which the ne.st is com- 
posed is secreted from certain glands which are developed during 
the nest-building sea.son, but which lose this function afterward. 
The viscid substance resembles the mucin or albumin excreted by 
the sublingual gland." 

Among other odd articles of food, the writer thinks it proper to 
enumerate the turtle, since it is the only example of an edible rep- 
tile, at least in England. Even frogs' legs, he says, are rarely 
eaten there, tho they are easily digested, possess a delicate flavor, 
and have about the same nutritive value as chicken. He adds: 

" Neither is the snail esteemed as an article of food in this coun- 
try, tho in France it is partaken of in large quantities and so good 
is it that it has been called 'the poor man's oyster.' The edible 



Vol. XXXL, No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



17 



snail, however, is a particular kind and is generally collected in con- 
siderai;le number from the vineyards in the south ol France In 
Spain the snail is served in a most excellent and appetizing man- 
ner, and in Paris a dish of selected snails is reserved for the special 
use of the gourmet. Coal would appear to be a strange article ot 
food, but. instances are known in which cliildren and cats have 
been often found consuming it in a not negligible quantity. There 
is no evidence, however, altho coal contains an abundance of one 
of tlie most important elements of food— /.<^'. , carbon— that in this 
form it is in the least degree assimilated. It is almost impossible 
to oxidize by wet methods carbon in the free state, whereas in com- 
bination with other elements, and especially hydrogen, as in the 
carbohydrates, wet combustion in the economy readily ensues. 
Such instances of odd foods could be multiplied, but those quoted 
serve to show the extraordinary range of material selected by man 
for the purposes of food." 



T 



PROBLEIVI OF THE ROTARY ENGINE. 

HE quotation in these columns, recently, of passages from 
several articles describing a rotary engine that appears to 
have met with some measure of success, has called forth letters 
from engineers reminding us that the rotary engine problem is a 
very old one, and that experts are decidedly skeptical regarding 
attempts to solve it. Where a hundred or a thousand have failed, 
the success of the thousand and first seems iinprobable. Yet it is 
certainly not impossible, and the author of the standard treatise on 
the subject himself believed that it would one day come to pass. 
Some recent work along this line — perhaps the very case noted in 
The Literary Digest— has called forth an article in TIic Hn/^i- 
«^^r (London) in which are well set forth the difficulties that beset 
the path of the would-be inventor of a rotary engine— difficulties so 
great that many engineers have come to regard his researches as 
mere waste of time. Says the writer : 

"There are certain problems in mechanical engineering which 
appear to be always on the point of being solved, and always eva- 
ding solution. Frequently they offer to the inventor a selection of 
many metiiods, and they are invariably, of obvious desirability. 
Moreover, they have the fascinating characteristic that success al- 
ways seems just within reach. One of these problems is the rotary 
engine We hesitate to say what a huge number of inventions of 
engines of this description have been protected since patent laws 
began. It certainly runs into three figures, and our own patent 
officp alone, we are confident from a rapid review of the lists of 
specifications for a few weeks here and there during recent years, 
must receive at least fifty applications, and probably many more, 
every twelve months. One very remarkable fact about the inven- 
tion of the rotary engine is that it never ceases, and that the in- 
ventor of to-day never profits by the lessons of his predecessors. 
. . . Invention keeps going over and over the same old ground, 
sometimes without any attempt to meet the real difficulties of the 
problem, and sometimes with full recognition of the obstacles to 
success and praiseworthy efforts to overcome them. Yet the result 
is always the same. For a time a rotary engine here and there, de- 
signed better than others, has a short life; but they all, without 
exception, have hitherto disappeared after a few years into the 
limbo of history or into an intermediate condition of insignifi- 
cance." 

The problem, we are told by the writer, attracted more expert 
attention years ago than it does to-day. for at that time reciproca- 
ting engines could not be run at very high speeds with success and 
efficiency. The elementary facts that stand in the way of success, 
however, are the same to-day as at that period, and apparently they 
affect the greater number of designs. Says the author : 

"The first is the line contact, the second, excessive clearance. 
the third, friction produced by unbalanced steam pressure, or cen- 
trifugal force, on moving parts. If any one will look at a number 
of diagrams of rotary engines he will see that a favorite design is 
the 'crescent chamber type.' In this engine one cylinder is placed 
eccentrically mside another, and is provided with radial abutments 
of some form or another. In some cases the inner cylinder makes 
one of the abutments by bearing against the walls of the contain- 
ing-cylinder. The contact between two curved surfaces of differ- 



ent radii is a line contact, and steam-tightness is impossible. That 
is an elementary tact which is daily forgotten. In some designs 
the abutments spring from the center of the uiner cylinder; hence 
they are only radial to the outer cylinder in two positions, and, if 
their extremities are curved to fit the outer walls in these positions 
they will fit nowhere else; hence, if line contact is to be avoided, a 
flexible joint of .some kind, with consequent leakage and complica- 
tion, must be employed." 

Different ways in which mventors have striven to obviate or 
eliminate these objections are described by the author. In some 
the rotary piston does not make close contact with the cylinder, in 
others, there are other hinged parts, or. again, the revolving portion 
is cam-shaped ; but all these and other similar plans introduce new 
elements of failure more potent than those that they avoid. The 
author concludes : 

" All older engineers who have studied the question at all are 
aware of these difficulties, and have long since given up the pur- 
suit ; but younger men, even among engineers, still spend their 
guineas year after year in the vain quest, and it is to them that 
these few remarks on one or two out of the many difficulties that 
beset the rotary engine are addressed. We have touched only two 
or three types, but we invite our inventors to study Reuleaux's 
pages, and to apply his lucid critical observations to flieir devices 
before they take out patents. One very important thing they must 
note, and that is that many rotary engines are reciprocating en- 
gines in disguise, having masses with alternating motions just as 
ordinary engines have, and hence lacking the very advantages sup- 
posed to be given by the rotary type." 



Flame as an Electrical Conductor. —Recent experi- 
ments, of which we are told in J'/ie Engineering and Mining Jour- 
iiaL show that the electrical conductivity of the lummous section 
of a gas flame is only two-thirds as great as that of the non lumin 
ous part In the acetylene flame, the ratio is as low as one to 
five, and the conductivity of the non-luminous part is also more 
highly increased by spraying with catalytics (such as common salt) 
than is that of the luminous part. Says the paper named above : 

"These results are of the greatest significance. The fundamen- 
tal difference between the oxidizing action of the outer or non- 
luminous, and the reducing action of the inner or luminous, part 
of the blowpipe flame is as old as metallurgy. It brings up tender 
memories of the days when we thought we knew it all. just because 
we could ' determine " almost any quizzical mineral with the aid of 
the blowpipe. But the problem of the furnace tuyere is as great 
as the widest possibility of modern science. We now fear^i that 
the relative inherent activities of flames are conditioned, not only 
by the chemical states and tendencies described by the words 
' oxidation' and '' reduction,' but more than that, by the physical 
condition ; and this means the degree of dissociation of molecules 
into those omnipotent ions— for this is the plain English of electric 
conductivity. The blue or colorless flame is not only relatively an 
oxidizer, but it is a more active agent, relatively, than the more 
sluggish luminous and reducing flame. That this all applies to the 
technique of the furnace foreman can not be doubted: and Tt would 
be quite in keeping with the humor of history for the laboratory 
theorist with his ions and conductivities to develop a clean hypoth- 
esis, only to find that commercial practise had arrived there long 
before, tho giving the result another name. But all the same, the 
activity of the non-luminous flame knocks at the door with a 
modest message. It may be that the ion has nothing to do with 
metallurgy, tho it is hardly probable ; and it may be that metallurgy 
in its overalls would repudiate this young academic enthusiast ; 
but the most rational view is that the two can cordially unite their 
experience to a better understanding and practise of dry smelting." 



In an article recently published in Lc Caducee, as quoted in La Xature, Paris, 
" an old naval surgeon, Dr. Legrand . . . says that of all the means [of relieving 
sea-sickne.ss] only one is really effective : it is to maintain tlie abdomen abso- 
lutely rigid from the moment of setting foot on the vessel To do this, a belt of 
ordinary tightness is insutificient ; the abdomen must be bandaged, with a layer 
of wadding and wide bands of flannel- in a word, absolute compression must be 
attained, care being taken to do the liandaging from below upward, toward the 
chest." Dr. Legraiid adds : '" The important thing is not to be afraid to make 
the bands too tight, otherwise the complete sujjijression of the symptoms can 
not be obtained."— yrrtw^/rt/zow made for The Literary Digest. 



18 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



THE RELIGIOUS WORLD. 



THE NEW ANGLICAN CLERGYMAN. 

"^r" HE Parson Adams of Fielding's " Joseph Andrews "—a cleric 
J^ who wore a cassock abroad, read /tschylus, and could fight 
with tiie cudgel as bravely as a Donnybrook Irishman— is said to 
be a thing of the past in England. The type of man who believes, 
is morally in earnest, and at the same time physically and mentally 
vigorous seems, according to the Rev. Hubert Handley in '/'//c 
Nineteenth Century and After, to be fast dying out. The great 
renovating moments in the last hundred years" history of the Eng- 
lish church have been'those of Evangelicism. High Anglicanism. 
and Broad Churchism. The last is the best, says Mr. Handley, and 
marks tlie survival of the fittest. Speaking of modern clericalism 
in England, he says that priests and deacons have become effemi- 
nate, as caricatured in the Rev. Robert Spalding of Mr. Albert 
Chevalier's farce, "The Private Secretary." He thus outlines this 
type : 

" A certain effeminacy has crept into tiie clerical type : has crept 
in during the High Anglican transformation, and bears usually the 
High Anglican stamp. It is an insurmountable barrier to the re- 
spect of Englishmen. The English are a manly race. The 
ministers of Christ in English history have for the most part been 
a manly breed— St. Cuthljert. Stephen Langton. Hugh Latimer, 
Jeremy Taylor, Robert .South, Thomas Arnold ; these are eminent 
and representative, they are robust and masculine.characters. And 
so it has been generally with the rank and file. Montalembert 
pays his fine tribute to tlie virility of the English church, and. by 
implication, to its virile ministry." 

Of the High Church clergy and their predominant infiuence, 
he says : 

" In the nineteenth century the High Churchmen gradually pre- 
vailed. They prevail now. They, too, in their turn, merited as- 
cendency and control. They had hold of an inherent and momen- 
tous secret of Christianity — sacramental religion : the fact of a 
visible society from first to last, the City of God on earth, tlie king- 
dom. They saw the corporate, fraternal aspect: the elect knit 
together by mystic, holy, indis.soluble bonds, across all time and 
space, across the river of death, in one communion and lellowship. 
(ireat personalities, great virtues established tlie Tractarian pre- 
eminence. The leaders were men of genius, men of sanctity, men 
who wrestled in prayer. Character was at the l:)ottoni of the up- 
heaval." 

But, he adds, they have failed lately to attract and keep the at- 
tention of men in their congregations. Their sermons are silly as 
.Spalding's lecture on " Mary iiad a little Lamb." The English 
" will not be influenced religiously by sermons which, as an aver- 
age audience perceives, are akin to grotesque mincings about 
' .Mary had a little Lamb.' " 

He proceeds to arraign High Churchmen and Ritualists as fol- 
lows : 

" A connected High Church blemish is the observed paucitv of 
men in ordinary High Church congregations. No more compe- 
tent nor more just judge could speak the weighty word on this 
masculine failure than Mr. Charles Booth This is what, in his 
monumental work concerning tiie religious influences of London, 
he writes: 

"'Tiie men who find .satisfaction for their religious nature in the 
High Church are of a quite peculiar type. I can not think it a 
strong type, and the idea that on the.se lines the world of men 
could ever be won is utterly untenable.' .... 

"The same judicial and expert investigator appears to lay at the 
door of the church, especially of the High Church party, e.xceed- 
ing responsibility for the ' discomforts.' the ' bitterness of feeling,' 
the • little cooperation ' v/liich disgrace the relations between Angli- 
canism and Nonconformity. 

"The High Churchmen have been, within clearly marked limits, 
successful; and they know it. Indeed, some of them are more 
conscious of tiie success than of the limits. And with many of 
th( in has ''ollowed that shadow to tiic sunlight of prosperity— self- 
esteem. They display what the adult, in his dull, prosy way. calls 



* conceit ' ; wiiat the boy, with his genius for expository and adhe- 
sive epithet, calls 'side.' " 

He concludes that the remedy for this condition of things is tfie 
domination of Broad Churchmen, and remarks: 

"In the twentieth century the Broad Churchmen must prevail. 
Why must they prevail? Because the church is starving; and 
they, in the actual circumstances, alone can provide the restoradve 
and necessary food. The strict High Church diet is proved to be 
insufficient. Insufficient the strict Low Church diet was long ago 
proved to be. Certain nutritive substances, enriching the older 
regimen, are indispensable to recovery, and are found only in the 
Liberal granaries." 

What these nutritive substances are Mr. Handley discusses un- 
der the following heads : 

"(i) Spiritual experience as the basis of Christian beliefs: a 
principle borrowed from a distinguished (German school of theol- 
ogy. (2) An open mind in natural science and in history. (3) 
Wide sympathies admitting Nonconformity to appreciation and 
fraternity. (4) Manline.ss and womanliness in religion as opposed 
to all that is effeminate or sickly. (5) Our religion must be Eng- 
lish : ' the universal religion will mercifully adapt itself to our 
English needs, as the illimitable ocean incessantly conforms itself 
to our English coasts.'" 



PROTESTANT UNEASINESS IN FRANCE. 

IT seems to many members of the Reformed (Calvanistic) and 
Lutheran communions in France, says The Interior, as if the 
impending legislation were framed as much for their extermination 
as for the discomfiture of Roman clericalism. Some months ago 
the general council of the Reformed Church addressed a petition 
to the prime minister, asking for a real separation of church and 
state, a separation which shall leave the church master of its own 
life and work. The bill now under discussion, according to the 
petitioners, "threatens their existence, and certainly will forbid 
their progress." The definite grounds of their uneasiness appear 
in the following statements in The Interior : 

" In the 86 'departments ' of France there were at the time of the 
last census 650.000 Protestants — very equally distributed, however, 
in different parts of the country. In 35 of these divisions there are 
less than 1,000 Protestants to each: in 23 others the numbers 
ranged from 1,000 to 3,000, and in only one were there as many as 
100.000. It will thus be understood that most of the congregations 
are small and financially feeble. Under the present laws of France 
no church can change its creed or remodel its polity or even issue 
:i pastoral letter without permission from the state. The Reformed 
Churcii has therefore held few general synods for many years, being 
unwilling to submit to the Government's stipulations for such a 
body. .All the Protestant pastors receive a certain assistance from 
the state, in no case exceeding $600 a year, and in most cases 
ranging about or below $350. This denomination. Presbyterian in 
creed and government, occupies S.S7 chapels, of which it po.ssesses 
complete title to only 444. The remainder beFong to the state or 
to the 'commune ' or to private individuals. It has al.so in u.se 162 
manses. Of these only 95 are under control of the church itself. 
Now the proposed law for 'separating ' church and state would 
wipe out at a blow aM assistance in the matter of salaries, and at 
the end of two years would withdraw from free congregational use 
all the properties belonging to the state or the commune, altlio in 
most such ca.ses the title was vested in the state simply because 
the commune furni.shed the site while the congregation built the 
chapel or tlie manse, or both. At the end of two years the con- 
gregations aie to jiay a fixed rent, and at the end of \\\c years in 
the case of manses, or of ten years in the case of chapels, the prop- 
erty is to belong to the state or the commune without reserve. 
Moreover, the new law creates a bureau of worship which shall 
have control of all Protestant chapels and manses, receive the pew 
rents and even all offerings on Sunday, all marriage and burial fees 
and other revenues. The powers of the .synods are lessened from 
the first, and the ciiurch will be unable to carry on home mi.ssions 
in neighborhoods where local support is insufficient. The minis- 
ters of these churches are not recognized as having vested rights in 
their prote.ssions. altho tho.se who have preached for twenty-five 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIC;EST 



19 



years may be retired upon half pay. provided the stipend is in no 
case to exceed )S25o. If engaged in the work of the ministry for 
less than twenty-five years, a graded system of meager doles is 
permitted for the first three or four years, after which even this 
ceases." 

That such a law can be proposed, especially that such a law is 
likely to be passed, remarks the same paper, makes plain that 
France, no more than Russia or Turkey, understands whatis meant 
by liberty of worship. 

FOREIGN MISSIONS AS AFFECTED BY THE 
OUTCOME OF THE WAR. 

" 1\ /TILLIONS upon millions of dollars are spent by these dt- 
-'■»-*■ luded Christians," says Baba Bharati (author of " Krishna : 

A History of the Univer.se." and vice-president for India at tlie 

Boston Peace Congress in 1904), "to send missionaries for saving 

the souls of Asiatics, whom they call 'hea- 
thens,' not knowing that Christian missionaries 

are regarded by these Asiatics as the biggest 

jokes." It is fair to conjecture, remarks The 

Evening Post, that the noise of Togo's guns 

will spread that feeling among a larger circle 

of skeptics over the whole Eastern world ; 

and " it is also safe to predict that we shall 

see a considerable infiltration of Oriental ideas 

into our literature and religion." 

According to Baba Bharati, who writes in 

Public Opinion (June 171, " the beef fed brain 

of even the best of the Anglo-Saxon or the 

Celtic or the Slavonic breed fails to grasp the 

subtleties of the Orient's higher mentality," 

and even the Western church " has been en- 
gulfed by the tidal waves of materialism and 

commercialism." His theory is that the " bar- 
barous West" will have to turn to the East 

for religious light and leading. "To be 

healthy in consciousness, the West has to 

adopt the East's ideals of life." As to what 

these ideals are, he writes : 

"The first and foremost is the attainment 
of harmony in the mind's forces by the daily 
practise of concentration upon the basic prin- 
ciple of life, love itself, or upon one of its radiant human ex- 
pressions. 

" But this concentration can not be induced without the convic- 
tion of this fact, that life has sprung from love. To do this, in- 
vestigation is necessary, not through the erroneous process of 
modern science, but by studying the main principles of the East- 
ern religions as interpreted by the Eastern sages of tlie past, and 
as shown in their life and conduct. If the modern Christian 
church had done this, it would have made Christianity a living re- 
ligion, like the old religions of the East. If modern science had 
done this, it would have gleaned truths and suggestions from tiiem 
to push its operations into the mental, and even spiritual planes, 
and thereby helped the church with demonstrated facts to prove 
the value and benefit of Christianity." 

The question naturally arises, "If Japan is victorious in tlie 
Russo-Japanese War, will the attitude indicated by Baba Bharati 
seek expression in a general Oriental intolerance of Christian mis- 
sions ? " 

The missionaries, apparently, feel little uneasiness on this point. 
Some even argue that Russia's triumph would be more dis- 
astrous to their cause than would be the victory of Japan. Rev. 
John R. Hykes, D.I)., general agent of the American Bible So- 
ciety in China, states, in llie Missionary Review, that " the exten- 
sion of Russian rule in the East would not appear to be in the in- 
terests of the Kingdom of God," because " wherever the power of 
Russia reaches, there missionary work is perilous and almost im- 
possible." 




B.AnA 1!H.\R.\TI. 

A }Iindu critic of our modern civilization, 
who claims that " to be liealthy in conscious- 
ness" the "barbarous West" will have to 
adopt the religious ideals of the East. 



JUDAISM'S PROPOSED SYNOD. 

^T^HE fact that the Central Conference of American Rabbis. 
*- meeting at Cleveland, Ohio, from July 2 to 6, will di.scuss 
the desirability of a Jewish synod, indicates that American Juda- 
ism is still interested in a question which has come before it at va- 
rious times during the last sixty-five years. From " Views on the 
Synod." a pamphlet compiled by a committee of the Central Con- 
ference, it appears that the feeling of prominent men and assem- 
blages during the early years of the agitation was nearly unani- 
mous in favor ot a synod or authoritative body, but that opposition 
to the idea has grown of late years. We read, nevertheless, that 
"a majority of those who have expressed an opinion are in favor 
of a higher religious body than any we have now." Jewish Comment 
(Baltimore), in the course of a non-committal editorial, remarks: 

" In the main two purposes have been in the minds of the synod 
advocates — the general arousing of interest in 
Jewish matters and the orderly development 
of Judaism. On the one hand, it was thought 
that if laymen and rabbis came together at 
regular intervals and discussed and settled 
questions, indifference would be checked and 
we should have again a learned and interest- 
ed laity to join hands with tlie rabbinate for 
the good of Judaism; on the other hand, 
many saw in the exaggerated individualism of 
the Jew death to the Jewish religion, for we 
can not have a religion without an organic 
connection among the faithful. From an in- 
tellectual point of view the spectacle of a 
whole race or people deciding each man for 
himself what is good, right, and true may be 
edifying. Taken together they would not be 
a synagogue or church, but units more or less 
unrelated and mutually repellent. Tho.se who 
see the highest good in the synagogue as a 
living organism, in which correlation were 
more to be desired than self-expression, seek 
some organization by which individual oscilla- 
tion can be kept within bounds. But those 
who lay stress upon the freedom of the in- 
dividual, minimizing the social force of re- 
ligion, fight the idea of tlie synod as antago- 
nistic to the best and highest development. 
Naturally, among a people whose social feel- 
ings are so strongly developed as those of 
the Jews, there are many to put stress upon the necessity of keep- 
ing Jews in touch with each other, to keep the religious conscious- 
ness whole and responsive to the same stimuli. And to-day the 
strongest argument for a synod is found in this point of view. 
Since the idea ol the synod was first advanced the break in the 
Jewisli organism has been completed, and no synod is likely to 
bridge it over in a hurry. And now there is a wheel within a wheel, 
for each half of Israel finds itself in need of a steadying power. 
The a:gument for one synod is just as good an argument for 
two. The old belief that a synod would increase the layman's in- 
terest in Jewish matters is not brought so often to the front now, 
but it is his lack of interest in and knowledge of Judaism that is 
the greatest obstacle in the way of the u.seful working of a synod 
along the lines that have been mapped out in the reports made from 
time to time to the Central Conference of American Rabbis." 

I'he .Imerican Hebrew Qs^\s York) is on the side of the opposi- 
tion. Commenting upon the " Views," it says : 

"The most sensible and terse opi"'.on is that of Martin A. 
Marks, of Cleveland, who says, ' I do not believe a synod is either 
advisable or feasible.' It is not feasible because neither the Union 
of American Hebrew Congregations nor the Central Conference 
of American Rabbis have a real harmony, and not advi.sable be- 
cause no authoritative body is desired. ' If the synod is to be a 
body of authority, it is not to be desired in American Israel. 
And if it is to be a body without authority, it is unneces.sary. "" 

Dr. Emil C, Hirsch, editor of The Reform Advocate (C\\'\cz.'go), 
is frankly skeptical as to any need for a synod. He writes : 

" We are told that the svnod will not meddle with Bible criti- 



20 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



cism. It will only from time to time formulate for us, hut at last 
authoritatively, articles of laitli. A great professor lias shown that 
Judaism's content has from time to time undergone such fornuila- 
tion. Just now the century is once more hungering tor a reformu- 
lation. Every lustrum a new creed with sliding possibilities will 
be promulgated. And that is the business of the synod. " Die 
Gegend wird immer schoener. " \ow what will the synod do if a 
congregation refuses to keep up with the changing fashions, if it 
declares that the creed the children in Sunday-school recited at the 
Flower-show . vulgo. Confirmation five years ago is still good enough 
for it.-" It requires but very little imagination to picture the prac- 
tical workings of a ' sliding creed'-factory. liut ' anarchy prevails. 
indifference increases.* Yes- but if they do, the synod will not 
cure the evil. The medicine is worse than the ailment." 

Vhether faith in a synod be that of a majority of rabbis and lay- 
me 1 or not matters litde, says Dr. Hirsch, since " in religion, one 
is a majority." 



SHOULD CHRISTIANITY COUNTENANCE 

WAR? 

LITERATURE dealing with the ethical grounds of war seems 
to be multiplying in these days of international conflict, and 
the writers on this subject all point to the glaring inconsistency 
between the creeds and the practises of the nations at variance. 
H. E. Warner, in a little volume on " The Ethics of Force," origi- 
nating in a series of papers read before the Ethical Club of Wash- 
ington, D. C, declares that the class representing " the highest de- 
velopment of altruism, the loftiest motives, the most generous self- 
sacrifice, the most unselfish lives," are among those who may be 
found favoring " the most selfish, indiscriminate, brutal, wasteful. 
and inost ineffectual means of settling differences among men." 
Yet no authority for war. he states, can be found in the teachings 
of Christ. In his arraignment of the methods of Christian nations 
he says : 

" Until the temporal power was lost to the Pope, there was never 
any doubt as to the right and duty of employing it directly lor the 
destruction of heathen or heretical governments and institutions. 
Upon the ashes of pagan fanes it has reared its temples, bearing 
aloft the symbol of passive suffering. In the blood-soaked soil of 
ruined nations it has planted the laurel and the bay, from which to 
gather its garlands to deck the brow which wore the crown of 
thorns. It has never hesitated to claim that its devastating armies 
were led by the IVince of Peace. 

" It seems, indeed, as if Christianity has felt compelled to prop- 
agate itself by any means which came into its hands. Holding its 
doctrines and practises to be of the supremest importance to man, 
whose eyes are blinded and whose will is paralyzed by sin, its dev- 
otees have felt that they were doing the noblest service in com- 
pelling him to accept that salvation without which he is doomed. 
So far the feeling is not indeed selfish, however misguided. Self- 
ishness has, however, always availed itself of the zeal of the church 
to secure its own ends. Traditional Christianity itself has never 
stopped to inquire whetlur men desire it. From its vantage ground 
it has said they need and must have it, whether they will or no. It 
was in the ages of faith, when no doubt perplexed the heart of the 
church, that its zeal for pr()i)agandism was at its height. It is only 
in modern times, when largely infused with the secular reason, that 
it has come to see that religion can not he imposed upon men by 
force, and so has consented to give up the sword to the civil 
authorities. But while it no longer insists upon war as a direct in- 
strumentality for th*; introduction of Christianity or the suppres- 
sion of heresy, it is e.xceedingly prone to see in it new opportuni- 
ties tor forwarding its interests. It has become sensitive to the 
odium of bloodshed, but it is willing that the state should incur the 
reproach while it. as a silent partner, reaps the benefit. It has lost 
much of its old relish for martyrdom also, and is satisfied to allow 
the army to be a sort of John the liaplist. preparing its way and 
making its paths safe." 

In spile of the attitudr ol Christian nations, .says .Mi . Warner, 
nothing can be found in the teachings of Christ giving authority 



for war. or even a justification of the use of force in self-defense. 
On the contrary, he says: 

" It will be readily conceded — indeed. I do not suppose that it 
has ever been ciuestioned— that Christ clearly and unmistakably 
taught the doctrine of non-resistance, the passive endurance of 
wrong; that he fully exemplitied this doctrine in his life and in his 
death ; that it is as fully set forth, wi'th as complete implication 
that it was a universal principle, for all circumstances and times, 
as the law of love — in fact, that it is a part of that; that his dis- 
ciples perfectly understood his teachings on this point, and. tho 
.some of them were hot-headed enough, followed his teaching and 
example with the inost remarkable devotion. The example of the 
disciples was in turn followed by primitive Christianity; it was 
only when the new faith had become firmly established that force 
was thought of either for protection or as a means of propagan- 
disin 

" If fully satisfied that Jesus approved or permitted war. Chris- 
tianity should rest in that conviction, since it holds that he spoke 
with absolute and final authority. In fact, it is not and never has 
been satisfied. The contradiction between this and the doctrine 
of non-resistance is too plain to be ignored by the most hardened 
believer. It is driven at the outset to apology. The only explana- 
tion it can offer is that he changed his view. The necessary con- 
sequence is to conclude that the doctrine of non-resistance was im- 
practicable, and that his earlier teaching was a delusion. But with 
the ever-widening sense of human brotherhood, the conviction has^ 
deepened that the law of love is the permanent and universal rule 
for the guidance of human conduct, and that war with its dreadful 
destruction and enormous suffering can not be reconciled with it. 
Christianity, therefore, has shifted its ground. Oh. yes, war is 
horrible, and Christ did not approve ot it as a permanent principle, 
but he allowed it for a season because in the state of society which 
he found and which he left it is unavoidable. There will come a 
time of universal peace — in the millennium. War has not been 
eliminated because the evil passions of men. their selfishness, sin. 
and folly have not been eliminated. When Christianity is every- 
where accepted, war will cease. Very good. War is permissible, 
then, because based on the folly, selfishness, and sin of men. 
Christ sanctioned it because it is sinful or selfish But this will 
apply etiually to lying, stealing, burglary, arson, and murder." 

Mr. Frederic Harrison, in the latest issue of The Fositivist Re- 
view (London), writes along the same line. He points out the in- 
congruity of a Christian nation countenancing war, since " the 
teaching of Christ is one impassioned protest against wrath, vio- 
lence, and fighting.'" In continuance : 

" The peculiar note of the Cospel is: Blessed are the meek — 
Blessed are the merciful— Blessed are the peace-makers. Jesu.s- 
said : ' Put up thy sword ; all they that take the sword shall perish 
with the sword.' There are priests of the Cospel to-day, as of the 
Russian state church, who seem to say day and night: ' Draw thy 
Gword ; they who do not draw- the sword shall perish.' I say it is- 
a truly awful thought that an archbishop should write the savage 
calumny that (lOd ' made battles, too " ; that a leading statesman on 
a .Sunday afternoon should cite with approval to his people this- 
sickening blasphemy.'" 

We quote further from Mr. Harrison's article the following in- 
teresting statements : 

" The great majority of the wars of the last fifty years have been 
waged between nations of different faiths— namely, by Christian 
nations against non-Christian. Almost every war undertaken since 
the Crimean War, either by Russia or by England, has been against a 
non-Christian people — Mussulman. Buddhist. Polytheist. or Fetish- 
ist — Afghans, Zulus, Ashafitis. Burmans, Circassians, Chinese. 
Japanese. In all of these the ministers and zealots of the Chris- 
tian churches have vehemently stimulated the war passion. We 
see to-day how the Russian priests bless the guns, consecrate 
every engine of destruction, and even carry miracle-working relics, 
crosses, and the host itself into the battle-tield. The only excep- 
tion out of some fifty wars waged i)y England in as many years 
was the Boer War. In the last forty years tli(> only war waged by 
P'rance against a Christian Power was in 1S70— against Protes- 
tants. The only instance of a war lietween nations of the same 
creed in forty-five years was the Prusso- Danish War of 1864." 



Vol. XXXI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



21 



FOREIGN COMMENT. 

THE PRESIDENT'S INTERVENTION, AS 
EUROPE VIEWS IT. 

'T^HE fact that the I'resident of the United States has inter- 
-■- vened in the great East Asiatic War, and has not been re- 
jected as a mediator, only slowly dawned upon the European press. 
Some papers at first discredited the rumor of his intention to lake 
this step; others doubted of any possible success when they 
learned that the step had been taken. As soon as it became known 
that the step was not a stunil)le, many expressed admiration and 
gratification, altho others merely recorded the incident without 
comment. The Enj^lish press was filled with expressions of ap- 
preciation and congratulation. Yet as no armistice has been ar- 
ranged, and Japan refuses to declare the conditions on which she 
will come to terms with Russia, there is still much doubt and per- 
plexity overhanging the future action of the belligerents. (Ger- 
many is credited in many quarters with attempting to defeat the 
purpose of President Roosevelt and the peace-making Powers. 

The Intransigeant (Pari.s) says that " with regard to the inter- 
vention of the United States. England, France, Spain, and Italy, 
with a view to peace, we are informed that William II. is person- 
ally engaged in endeavoring to defeat the attempt, considering, in 
fact, that the success of such a measure means tlie isolation of Ger- 
many." The Washington correspondent of The Times (London) 
does not believe in the reactionary schemes of the Kaiser. He 
writes that the German Emperor is one with the President, but 
The S/andard {London) remarks : 

" .Suspicion of Germany is growing. The J?uss to-day publishes 
a remarkable article showing that (iermany fomented and con- 
tinued to encourage the war, with the sole aim of weakening Rus- 
sia and thus acquiring a free hand to settle the destinies of the 
dual monarchy and the Balkans." 

With regard to the actual ratification of peace it is generally 
held that now the conference lins been decided on and the place 




AKltK THE liATI l.K. 



' All is lost, except the medals I sliall receive." 

—Hjtmoristisclie Bldttc 



(Vienna). 



fixed for its meeting, the chief difficulties have come to a head. 
The Temps (Paris) states one of these difficulties in the following 
terms : 

"What are Japan's intentions with regard to the establisliment 
of peace? No great importance is to be attached to the informa- 
tion we have received with regard to the friendiy intervention of 



certain Powers. Japan is inconlestaiily victorious both by sea and 
land ; she therefore has no propositions of peace to make, and her 
r61e is simply to wait for tiic proposals of her enemy. This is 
logical: and however desirous we maybe for peace, we consider 
tliat the (Government of Tokyo is right in maintaining this attitude. 
Japan understands that this quarrel is between herself and Russia 




GRAND UUKE ALEXI.S, ADMIRAL AVELLAN, 

.\n uncle of the Czar, and High Ad- Head of the Russian Admiralty l)e- 
miral of the Russian navy since 1881. partment. 

The resignation of these officials is regarded as a concession to public opinitni. 
Charges of mismanagement, inefficiency and corruption in the Marine Depart- 
ment have been rife for years. 

MORE RUSSIAN NAVAL VICTIMS. 

directly, as is usual when two nations take up arms for the jiurpose 
of settling a difference. After the war between China and Japan 
it was possible for the Powers to intervene and rob Japan of the 
fruits of her victory. Since then political conditions have changed 
and Japan has attained a position which enables her to prevent any 
one from hindering her in keeping the, advantage slie has gained. 
Moreover England, her ally, would energetically oppose any at- 
tempt of this kind." 

This sentiment is echoed by The Standard (London) in lhe.se 
words : 

" There can be no doubt at all as to the earnestness with which 
President Roosevelt desires to use his good offices for the restora- 
tion of peace, while AI. Rouvier at Paris inherits from M. Del- 
casse a sense of profound obligation to their Russian ally, as well 
as conviction that the security of France itself is concerned in an 
early settlement of tlie trouble. Neither the Ignited States nor 
P>ance, however, will, we venture to say, prejudice their opportu- 
nities of usefulness by con.senting to enter into any consideration 
of the limits or nature of a satisfactory settlement." 

The IVesiminster Gasetle (London) thinks that Japan ought to 
reveal the conditions of peace which she contemplates exacting. 
While there does not seem to be anything but the vaguest of inten- 
tions manifested by any of the principal parties in the discussion, 
"any or all of these personages might be grateful if President 
Roosevelt or another were able, on his own initiative, to ascertain 
what the Japanese are likely to accept. And if at the same time 
they are able to suggest what Russia is likely to yield, that also 
will do no harm. The chief point is that some important person- 
age should be found willing to take the risk of being disowned by 
everybody, if the preliminaries should prove abortive, and Presi- 
dent Roosevelt shows his usual common sen.se and courage in tak- 
ing up the part." 

The i\eue Freie J'resse (Vienna) considers that President Roose- 
velt is the right man to do this, as America has throughout the war, 
unlike France, maintained the strictest neutrality. The success, 



99 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1,1905 



so far, of Mr. Roosevelt's move in securing acceptance of his note 
to Russia and Japan is frankly admitted by the Freindenblatt 
(Vienna), which says : 

" President Roosevelt iias scored an honorable and significant 
success in his motions for peace. Tiu- President in iiis appeal to 




M. HOULYGUINE, 



M. STURMEK. 



A liberal, whose resignation as Min- Von Plehve's lieutentant, who suc- 

ister of the Interior is regarded as a ceeds M. Boulyguine. Von Plehve's 
victory for the reactionary party. fellow-workers are said to have brought 

about the promotion. 

VON PLEHVE REDIVIVUS. 

the belligerents has shown a tact, circumspection, and discretion 
which claim the grateful recognition of all who, in the name of 
humanity, call for an early ending to the protracted and bloody 
struggle in Eastern Asia." 

Yet the writer concludes that it is too early to hope for peace. 
This can scarcely come until after the capture of Vladivostok and 
the occupation of Manchuria by the Japanese have rendered the 
prospects of peace permanent to the Government of Tokyo. 

The Neue Freie Presse well sums up the general opinion of Ger- 
man-speaking Europe in the following somewhat sneering terms : 

"It is a startling contrast which meets the eyes of the world at 
this present moment. While President Roosevelt, evidently act- 
ing in concert with the European Powers, is pondering how to find 
some way to bring about peace between Russia and Japan, and 
Russia announces her desire to learn the conditions of peace de- 
manded by Japan, Cieneral Linevitch, commandant of the Rus- 
sian forces in Manchuria, is blustering about the future victory of 
the Russian arms, as if there had never been a Liaoyang or a 
Mukden. And while the peace schemes of Roosevelt are received 
with shakings of the head and cast not the slightest ray of hope on 
the prospect of peace, in T.sarskoeselo the endle.ss discussions of 
peace still go on, and there ri.ses amid the sound of clashing sabers 
the bloody and appalling specter of human slaughter, which once 
again is filling the world with horror. In the Wliite House at 
Washington, tiie representatives of the European Powers hobnob 
and talk with Roosevelt concerning the means by which peace is 
to be inaugurated, and end by expressing a fear that every pro- 
posal of peace must fail so long as in the palace of the Czar it is 
considered as an insult to Russia. Meanwhile come tidings from 
the scat of war in Manchuria of the continuation of hostilities, tiie 
prolongation of a struggle which so far has i)roved to Russia noth- 
ing but an unbroken .series of reverses." 

Tiie .S7. Pelcrshtirgcr Zcitung, in acknowledging the services of 
the American President, thinks that " even when we have hopes of 
seeing peace discu.ssed by the belligerents, the how and the when 
of its ratification are still oi)scure (juestions." — 'I ranslations made 
/or Thk Litkraky UiGii.sT. 



RUSSIA APPEALS FOR DIPLOMATIC 
SUPPORT. 

IN spite of the success of President Roosevelt in bringing about 
a Russo-Japanese agreement to meet and discuss peace terms, 
in spite of the universal understanding that the belligerents are not 
to be interfered with, the leading Russian newspapers continue to 
advocate direct or indirect intervention of the Western Powers, 
including the United States, in favor of their country. They think it 
strange, unnatural, and practically unprecedented that the " white " 
world should he so utterly indifferent to the amazing advance of 
the Japanese and the pretensions they are sure to make with re- 
gard to their position in the hierarchy of the nations. 

The St. i'etersburg JVoiwstt \^ of the opinion that by intelligent 
diplomatic and Fabian tactics Russia, tiio defeated, can force the 
Powers to help her in the effort to moderate Japan's peace terms. 
It says : 

" We may refer to the attitude of tiie Powers at the conclusion 
of the Russo- Turkish War. Ru.ssia was not permitted to conclude 
peace by direct negotiations with Turkey, to say nothing about 
entering Constantinople in the capacity of a conqueror; and she 
had to accept terms dictated at the Berlin congress— terms which 
almost deprived her of the fruits of her victories. 

" We do not think that Europe can afford to display greater tol- 
erance toward the embodiment of ' the yellow peril,' which men- 
aces all the Powers equally. 

" Moreover, Europe can not tiiink that Russia's role as the shield 
for Western civilization in the Far East is quite exhausted. Ma- 
terially rehabilitated and morally regenerated, Russia would again 
assume that mission, and under conditions which the whole world 
would sanction. 

" In one word, Europe can not. ought not, to allow the invasion 
into her sphere of the yellow peril, and Russia must be given the 
chance to obtain peace terms which will not fatally compromise 
the prestige of all civilized nations in the East." 

The paper goes on to argue that sheer self-interest ought to 
prompt Western Powers to restrain Japan at this critical and fate- 
ful moment. It is absurd to think about the future of China; if 
any one is entitled to moral 
support, it is Russia, who has 
done much and will yet do 
more for culture and industry 
in the Far East. 

A similar view is expressed 
by the jVovoye Vretny a, \\h.\c\\ 
refuses to join in the cry of 
"peace at any cost." Russia, 
it says, can go on fighting in- 
definitely on land and should 
go on if Europe means to de- 
sert her. To quote : 

" It is the duty of Europe to 
see to it, and employ every 
means in the effort, that the 
peace terms shall not imply 
the admission of final and ab- 
solute defeat of the mightiest 
of the white Powers. Europe 
must take care that the bal- 
ance in the Far East be not 
upset for too long a period, 
else Japan's victory in the Sea 
of Japan will be a menace to 
the Powers not only in a po- 
litical -sense, but in respect of the great markets that are to be won 
and retained. . . . 

" The Japanese will not stop. The victory over Russia is merely 
the beginning. For a decade, perhaps, they will be satisfied with 
their industrial conquests, but during this interval they will create 
inider their flag a military and political organization coextensive 
with the Far East. They will stand forth as the leading Oriental 




GENERAL MAKSIMOVITCH. 

Governor-General of Warsaw, who has 
recently been the object of a number of 
terrorist tlireats. 



Vol. XXXI., No. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Power, and their present success may mean the opening of a new- 
chapter in world-history — a chapter full of portent for Plurope." 

The white nations, says this organ, ouglit to bury their differ- 
ences and make common cause against the new yellow i'ower. It 
can not understand the indifference, the apathy of the West, tiie 
antipathy toward Russia in the face of a danger that is so manifest 
and so great. 

Prince Ukhtomsky, in the St. Petersburg Vicdoiiwsti. tells his 
countrymen tliat while there is little probability of European aid, 
in the United States they would find a steadfast and formidable 
friend. The Americans, he says, want markets and appreciate 
the opportunities of the Far East. They are not at all prepared 
to surrender the mastery of the Pacific to Japan. Let Russia offer 
them the open door and a fair field in that quarter, and she will 
enlist their sympathy and support as against a certain rival such 
as Japan is. — Translations made for The Literary Digest. 



POSSIBILITIES OF THE MOROCCAN IMBROGLIO. 

"j\ /rOROCCO was long ago said by Lord Salisbury, then British 
-^'■*- Foreign Minister, to be the future storm-center of Euro- 
pean politics. According to the European press, it is already a 
very important point on the map of international rivalries, but 
some papers seem to think it may be a source of peace and a 
prompter of alliances. The principal figure in the present im- 
broglio is William IL, who has induced the Powers to convene 
an international conference at Tangier to discuss the reforms 
necessary in the degraded Oriental admin- 
istration of the Sultan. The meeting may 
lead to far-reaching results — according to 
some authorities to the isolation of Ger- 
many and the formation of a quadruple 
alliance of England, France, Japan, and 
Russia; others think it may occasion the 
reconciliation of Germany and France and 
their union against the naval supremacy, 
the industrial and commercial preeminence 
of England. 

William II. wears the glove of steel 
under the velvet wrapping. He guessed 
the secret of French failure at Tangier, as 
outlined by the Figaro (Paris). That paper 
says, alluding to the peaceful and timid 
policy of Delcass^ : 

" The moment the people of Morocco 
were forced to the conclusion, from the 
words of the French press as well as those 
spoken in the French Chamber which were 
carefully translated for their benefit, that 
France for reasons of domestic policy 
would never resort to measures of firm- 
ness, but would confine herself to those of 
persuasion, they have done all they could 
to escape the reforms we advocated. . . . 
Those who know the temper of the Magh- 
zen are well aware that the slightest pres- 
sure or threat of compulsion would in- 
cline him, after a faint resistance, to con- 
form to our wishes, without even the com- 
mencement of a war of conquest." 

There can be little doubt that Count Tat- 
tenbach did, in the politest manner in the 
world, suggest to the Sultan the possible 
necessity of a war of German conquest. 
The idea of an international conference of 
the Powers to settle the claims of France 
to institute such reforms as would keep 
her Algerian frontier safer from Sheree- 




EMPEROR WILLIAM II., 

In the uniform of a marshal in the Spanish 
,\rmy. His success in inducing tlie Powers to 
convene an international conference to discuss 
reforms necessary in Morocco, shows, according to 
some European observers, that he is the most 
powerful ruler on the continent. 



nan raids and incursions, undoubtedly originated with Germany. 
That international conference seems to be a settled fact of 
the future, but it may be just as portentous as promising to 
(German pretensions. A French e.x-AIinister for Foreign Affairs, 
-M. Hanotau.v, writing in the /^z/r/m/ (Paris), seems to be of opin- 
ion that the last word on this question has by no means been 
spoken. He writes : 

"There now remains the game which is about to be played at 
Tangier and in which four players are alreadv announced— namely, 
the French, (ierman, Spanish, and English ministers. We are 
therefore about to .see, at the bedside of the Moroccan sick man, a 
revival of the traditional intrigues around those of tiie other sick 
men of the Near East and tiie Far East."' 

He thinks that these intrigues will lead to a new alliance and 
alignment of the Powers, but feels there is many a slip between 
the cup and the lip. M. Edouard Tallichet, editor of the Biblio- 
th^que (Jniverselle (Berne), does not think that Germany, in her 
treatment of Morocco, has been picking a quarrel with France. 
He says, in an article in that review : 

" In case of an armed struggle, Germany would probably stand 
alone, Austria being by no means in a position, owing to her inter- 
nal difficulties, to come to her assistance, and Italy still less so, as 
King Victor Emmanuel showed clearly enough by his silence as 
to the Triple Alliance during his recent visit to William II. The 
King of Italy is not his own master on ihis question. His people 
would not now consent to an anti-French policy, and, out of grati- 
tude for what they owe to France, may even favor a Francophile 
policy. On the other hand, with the exception of a certain num- 
ber of ' sore-heads,' the German people 
generally want peace. William II., him- 
self, would not probably be capable of sup- 
porting a life-and-death struggle, fierce as 
that of Russia against Japan, if there be 
no doubt that P-ngland would bring to the 
assistance of France her .seasoned South 
African veterans and her powerful navy."' 

Speaking of William's attitude toward 
France, the radical L' Action (Paris) takes 
a still more positive view. William II., 
according to this writer, is the artful but 
determined suitor, France the coy, reluct- 
ant maiden. To quote : 

" There can be little doubt that the Em- 
peror William has been animated by a sin- 
cere desire to be on good terms with us. 
May not the brusque, if not brutal, manner 
in which he dismissed l^rince Bismarck, our 
conqueror, who repre.sented in tiie eyes of 
the world and of our countrynu-n the ruth- 
less and implacable enemy of our coun- 
try, have indicated a clear and palpable 
intention of effacing memories of the past 
wiiicli were paintul to us"' ... Is it not 
because he wishes some day to dispute 
with England the empire of the .sea and 
to wrest from her her industrial and com- 
mercial supremacy that he makes advances 
to France.'' However this may be. France 
makes no response to his advances." 

This view is even more plainly stated by 
The K-i'ening Standard and St. James's 
Gazette (\^ox\Aow<. which remarks: 

"The (ierman (Government has looked 
into the future beyond the mere securing 
of her interests in Morocco. She aims at 
nothing less than an entente with France. . . 

" From the very outset Germany has 
known perfectly well that Fiance would 
not fight over Morocco. France would 
not have consented even to fight the 
Sulta:i. Tke whole policy of jmcific pene- 



24 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



tration was never very popular, and it was accepted at all only 
on the condition that it was to be really paciric If, then, the 
French would not tight the Sultan, much less would they tight 
Germany. The Government ii\ Berlin took this for granted, and 
the results have fully justified their assumption. France will not 
fight, but she will negotiate. And once the councilors of the two 
countries sit down togetiier at a round table, they will be able to 
settle a good maiiy other dithcult points as well. In fact, the 
Morocco difficulty may be the means ot bringing about a really 
good feeling between the two countries." 

On the other hand. M. Hanotaux. in the course of the article in 
the y<?«r;/rt'/( Paris), quoted from above, expresses his ideas of a 
new quadruple alliance which excludes Germany, and .says: 

" France and Russia are allies, so are England and Japan. Is it 
impossible to imagine that, in consequence of the grov/ing friend- 
ship of two great peoples on both sides of the Channel, an agree- 
ment might not one day be realized between the four Powers.^ 
This is probably the desire of King Edward VII., whose warm 
friendship for his nephew, Nicholas II., is well known."— 7>a«i-/a- 
tioiis made for i:\w. Literary Digest. 



THE SECRET OF SUCCESS IN AMERICAN 
RAILROADS. 

7^ HE recent railroad troubles in Italy, by which traffic has been 
hindered, fortunes lost, and business prosperity generally 
suspended, have drawn the attention of Italian publicists to the 
American system of railroad construction and management. They 
are struck by the fact that it is not the material success of the 
United States that has produced its vast railroad system, but vice 
versa, the great and flourishing cities and farm lands of the West 
have actually been the result of railroads projected by private en- 
terprise, built cheaply, handled economically, equipped in the most 
practical and yet attractive manner, well advertised, and run in the 
spirit of fierce competition with rival companies. 

Writing on "The American Railroads and the Reasons of Their 
Success " in Nuova Antologia (Rome), G. M. Flamingo says : 

'The kings of American railroads are potent and preeminent 
autocrats. The extraordinary force of initiative, of omnipotent, 
creative energy on which are based the daring and the renown of the 
Goulds, \'anderbilts, Huntingtons, and oth^r suchjCbmmands the 
admiration even of the sincerest defender of Anglo-Saxon democ- 
racy. These are the highest types of the American business man, 
and frequently such men have passed through every grade and de- 
partment of their business from the bottom to the top. Practical 
lite is their native element." 

He proceeds to observe that such projectors have constructed 
and worked 340.000 kilometers of railroad; which are worth one- 
sixth of the wealth of the United States — twelve rnilliards of dol- 
lars, /.^.,as much as the whole wealth of Italy, public and private. 

J. Picrpont Morgan administers more miles of railroads than are 
possessed by the united lines of Germany, Austria, Russia^ and 
Belgium. The railroad tariff of the United States is lower tiian 
that of any European country, and it is as cheap to transport 
goods from Chicago to New York as from Yorkshire to London 
by rail. Even English railroads are styled, by the expert Percy 
Williams a "decrepit system." and William Stead has declared 
" we must Americanize our railroads." 

The first reason of American success in railroading is the free- 
dom from government restriction and monopoly in the construc- 
tion. This writer says : 

" In contradistinction to the system of privilege and monopoly 
for railroads, often so unjust to the public, the United States allows 
the mo^X absolute liberty in the construction of railroads and utter 
freedom of competition between rival companies." 

It was thus that Lcland Stanford and C. 1' Huntington were 
enabled to construct the Central I'aciJic Railroad, the tirst to tra- 



verse the whole continent. But another secret of success is the 
rapidity with which roads are built in this country. To quote fur- 
ther : 

"The peasants of Basilicata, Calabria, and the Abruzzi, Italian 
laborers who are preferred above all others for this work, can in 
a .single year extend either over the plain between Denver and Chi- 
cago, or across the mountains of Colorado as long a line of rails as 
equals the whole railroad system of Italy, the work of fifty years." 

Added to this, he proceeds, is the cheapness of American rail- 
road construction. Wood is largely employed, bridges are rare, 
and the lines enter the city streets, as at Chicago, with no other 
protection for the public than the lettered warning, " Look out for 
the trains ! " Freedom in the administration of the lines is a fur- 
ther element of success. The state does not impose a factitious 
system of management as in European companies, and' if a com- 
pany fails, "it is taken out of the hands of those who have ruined 
it and is intrusted to a receiver, who insures the continuance of its 
operation, safeguards the interests of those who have invested in 
it, and sets about its reorganization." Expense in the employ- 
ment of train-men is saved by the immense size and capacity not 
only of the passenger coaches, but of the freight and baggage cars. 
The system of advertising is also promotive of traffic. The Twen- 
tieth Century Special, from New York to Chicago, says Mr. Fia- 
mingo, with its bath-rooms, barber-shop, ob.ervation car, library 
and luxurious appointments and decorations, and smoking-room 
equal to that of a London club, is of most importance as an adver- 
tisement of the road, in accordance with the well known maxim, 
" A man ships his merchandise by the route he travels." 

Every American railroad has ticket offices in various quarters of 
the cities through which it passes. There are one hundred such 
ticket-offices in Broadway, New York. The writer is also im- 
pressed by the activity of the industrial commissioners on great 
American lines, who are employed to suggest the inception of in- 
dustrial enterprises in the regions through which the particular 
railroad passes. He concludes by saying of American railroads: 

" They are the work of stupendous daring, uncurbed in their am- 
bition for the conquest of wealth. Those prodigies of economic 
progress who built them have found no other sources of help in 
maintaining them but the agriculture, the industries, the life of 
the country, and these have given them a power, free from law, in- 
dependent of monopolistic concession, emancipated from the pro- 
tection which in other countries the state has granted to .such 
companies, thus rendering them nothing more than feeble and 
parasitic dependents on its whim." 

It would be interesting to have this writer's opinion on the pres- 
ent movement to bring our railroads under government control. — 
Translation made for Tan Literary Digest. 



POINTS OF VIEW, 

According to Admiral Enquist. says T/ic Daily Xcxvs ( London"), the Russian 
ships in tiie battle of the Sea of Japan were for the most part painted black and 
white, and stood out as large targets against the sea-green background, whereas 
the Japanese warships, which were painted an olive green, could hardly be seen. 

1 N the battle of the Sea of J ajian, says The Evening Standard and St. Jame^s 
(rrt2C//f (London), tlie i5tfro<////() continued fighting till she sank, and what was 
practically her last siiot struck the ^.f(f/// astern, killing Lieutenant Morishita 
and seven others. Lieutenant Morishita's leg was shut off, but, using his sword 
as a crutch, he managed to reach the deck. Tliere he asked for some paper on 
which to write a farewell message to the Japanese navy. He scrawled the words, 
" Manzai ! I die a glorious death," and fell back dead. 

Tin-: King of Spain in visiting England to-day sees the consummation of 
his plans, and so is more fortunate than some rulers, who have been compelled, 
from motives of economy, to cut short their journeys, says The Evening Stand- 
ard and St. James's Gazette (Londoni. Ceorge IV. was the last man to consider 
expense wjiere liis own pocket was not concerned, but he had to be recalled ta 
IJritain from Hanover in 1821. He was to have gone on to Vienna and Berlin, 
but the cost was too terrific, and the i>rojected visits had to be abandoned. The 
traveling expenses of royalty are terrible. Oucen X'ictoria's last visit to Irelana 
is said to have cost /;i20,ooo, just hall tlie sum which it cost the Czar to spend (fve 
days in Paris. The Shah does not move out of his own land under half a million 
I)ounds a time; that apart from his purchases. 



Vol. XXXL. Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



25 




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2<) 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 




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BOOKS RECEIVED. 

The Literakv Digest is in receipt of the follow- 
ing books : 

'• Chinese Life in Town and Country." — Emile 
Hard. (G. P. I'utnam's Sons, 5.1.20, net.) 

" China in Law and Commerce."— T. R. Jemigan. 
( Macmillan Company, $2 net.) 

" President Roosevelt's Railroad Policy."— Report 
of addresses of Hon. Cliarles A. Prouty et al. (Ginn 
& Company.) 

"The Wheels of Chance."-H. G. Wells. (Mac- 
millan Company, paper, $0.25.) 

" Tuskegee and its People."'— Booker T. Washing- 
ton. (D. Appleton & Co., $2 net.) 

" Territories and I)ei)endencies of the United 
.States."-W. F. Willoughby. (The Century Com- 
pany, $1.25 net.) 

" The American Judiciary."— Simeon E. Baldwin. 
(The Century Company, $1.25, net.) 

" Elements of Political Economy."— E. Levasseur, 
Translated by Theodore Marburg. (Macmillan Com- 
pany, $1.75 net.) 

" Examples in .Mgebra."— Charles M. Clay. (Mac- 
millan Company, S0.90.) 

"The Game." -Jack London. (Macmillan Com- 
pany, $1.50 net.) 

" Metaphysical Phenomena."— J. Maxwell. (G. P. 
Putnam's Sons, Ifs.jo.) 

" Harvard Lectures on the Revival of Learning." 
—John Edwin Sandys. (Macmillan Company, $1.50.) 

" David Ransom's Watch." — Mrs. G. R. Alden. 
(Lothrop Publishing Company, $1.50.) 

" The Flying Lesson."— Agnes Tobin. (William 
Heinemann, London.) 

"The Book of the Automobile."- Robert T. Sloss. 
(D. Appleton & Co., $3 net.) 

" Terrence O'Rourke."— Louis Joseph Vance. (A. 
Wessels Company, $1.50.) 

"In Response." — William E. Raymond. (Pub- 
lished by author.) 

" Rose of the World.''— Agnes and Egerton Castle. 
(F. A. Stokes.) 

" The Ethics of Force."-H. E. Warner. (Ginn & 
Co.) 

" The Walk, Conversation, and Character of Jesus 
Christ our Lord."— Ale.xander Whyte, D.D. (Flem- 
ing IL Revell.) 

"Jorn Uhl."— Gustav Frenssen. (Dana Estes & 
Co.) 

" The Venus of Cadi;z."- Richard Fisguill. (Henry 
Holt & Co., #1.50.) 

" A Maid of Japan."— Mrs. Hugh Eraser. (Henry 
Holt & Co., 51-25.) 

" Threads."— (Jarrett W. Thompson. (John C. 
Winston Company, f 1.50.) 

"The Divine Fire." May Sinclair. (Henry Holt 
& Co., $1.50.) 

"A Modern Utopia."-H. G. Wells. (Charles 
.Scribner's Sons, $1.50 ) 

" The Globe-Trotters Dictionary."— O. Beta and 
Wm. .S. Myers. (Published by authors). 

" The Art of Writing and Speaking the English 
Language." — Sherwin Cody. (The Old Greek Press.) 

" \ Woman's Confessional." — Helen Woljeska. 
(Life Publishing Company.) 

"Japanese for Daily Use."— E. P. Prentys. (Wm. 
R. Jenkins.) 

"How to Read and What to Read." — Sherwin 
Cody. (The Old Greek Press, Chicago.) 

" The Outlook to Nature."— L. H. Bailey. (Mac- 
millan Company, #1.25 net.) 

"Edward Fitzgerald."— Arthur C.Benson. (Mac 
mtllan Company, 1^0.75.) 

"Adventures .Among Books." Andrew Lanj;. 
(Longmans, Green & Co.) 

"Glenanaar A Story of Irish Life."- Canon P. A. 
Sheehan, D.D. (Longmans, Green & Co.) 

" Tlie Broadway of Yesterday." — Charles Hem- 
street. (Cadwallader Publishing Company.) 




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Vol. XXXI., Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



27 



CURRENT POETRY. 

Mary. 
By Rose Trumbull. 

Mary, when that little child 

Lay upon your heart at rest, 
Did the thorns. Maid mother, mild, 

Pierce your breast ? 

Mary, when that little child 
Softly kissed your cheek benign, 

Did you know, O Mary mild, 
J udas' sign ? 

Mary, when that little child 
Cooed and i)rattled at your knee, 

Did you see with heart-beat wild. 
Calvary ? 

— From AlcClure's Magazine. 



Ttvo Sorrows. 

By Charles Hanson Tovvne. 

Before Love came my eyes were dim with tears. 
Because I had not known her gentle face; 

Softly I said : " lUit when across the years 
Her smile illumines the darkness of my place. 
All grief from my poor heart she will efface." 

Now Love is mine — she walks with me fur aye 
Down paths of primrose and blue violet ; 

But on my heart at every close of day 
A grief more keen than my old grief is set— 
I weep for those who have not found Love yet ! 

— From Ainslee's Magazine. 



The Miracle of Daw^n. 

By Madison Cavvein. 

What it would mean fi^t yci: and me 
If dawn should come no more ! 

Think of its gold along the sea. 
Its rose above the shore I 

That rose of awful mystery, 
Our souls bow down before. 

Think what it means to me and you 

To see it even as God 
Evolved it when tlie world was new ! 

When Light rose, earthquake shod, 
And slow its gradual splendor grew 

O'er deeps the whirlwind trod. 

What shoutings then and cymbalings 
Arose from deptli and height ! 

What worship-solemn trumpetings. 
And thunders, burning white. 

Of winds and waves, and anthemings 
Of Earth received the flight ! 

Think wiiat it means to see the dawn ! 

The dawn, that comes each dav ! 
What if the East should ne'er grow wan, 

Should never more grow gray ! 
That line of rose no more be drawn 

Above the ocean's spray ! 

— From Aiiislee^ s Magazine. 




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house already looking shabby from the poor wear poor 
paint always gives, and a new painting bill staring you 
in the face, it should not take you long to see that you 
have lost that poor little saving a good manv times. 

Pure White Lead 

paint may cost a few cents more a gallon than the poor 
stuff, but it gives a good many more months of service 
and looks, and that is probably what you want. 

PURE WHITE LEAD is the safest, the most economical and 
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where your money goes. Our book, " What Paint and Why," 
settles the house-paint question in a helpful and practical way 
and explains why PURE WHITE LEAD should always 
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Fre© on request. Send postal to-day. 

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY, 

Largest Manufacturers of White Lead in the World. 

Boston Buffalo Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland New York St. Louis 
Philadelphia : John T. Lewis & Bros, Co. Pittsburgh : National Lead and Oil Co. 




The Silence of the Dark. 

By Charles Buxton Going. 

My neighbor's lamp, across the way. 

Throws dancing lights upon my wall ; 
They come and go in passing play, 

And then the sudden shadows fall. 

My friend's white soul through eyes and lips 

Shone out on me but yesterday 
In radiant warmth ; now swift eclipse 

Has left those windows cold and gray. 

Ah, if I could but look behind 

The still, dark barrier of that night. 

And there — undimmed, unwavering— find 
That life and love were all alight ! 

— From Mu n sey ' s Maga zine. 



Science Eliminates the Possibility of a Burnt Tongue 




UnrvffirHoH — A, H, C 
IUff union- I, », .3. 
C'oiniftiMiitioii — Ji. 
I>r<iiii<t<je — A , U, 
Ventilation — 4. 



Sold 



DrntcKist* 



THE "A. C. 



Endorsed by Physicians 

Send for Booklet 

PIPE, 807 Times Building. Broadway & 42d Street, New Yc^k 



Readers of Thk Litebart DiaKsr are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



28 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 




Make Bi^ Money 
as Local A^ent 

Are you making enough money? 

Are you completely satisfied with what 
you are making ? 

Are you ambitious to make more — do 
you want to succeed? 

Become a local agent for the Oliver ! 

You can add at least $300 a year to 
your income if you're already in a salaried 
position for you'll only need a few hours 
each evening at your own convenience. 
Or, you can make a comfortable living if 
you devote your entire time to a local 
agency. 

For some Local Agents make $300 a 
month. Several have 10 to 15 assistants 
under them. And many of our high sal- 
aried people — managers, etc., were at one 
time Local Agents. 

Now we help you to make money! 

We post you thoroughly on the Oliver 
and on the Typewriter situation generally. 
We send you handsome booklets give 
you valuable sale prospects and send our 
Traveling Salesmen when you need their 
assistance to close a deal. 

And while you're Local Agent you get 
the full advantage of every sale made in 
your territory— even if we sell the Type- 
writer ourselves. 



We Standard Visible Writer 

is the best ~ most durable— neatest — quickest — 



surest Typewriter made in the world 

It excells all other Tygevriters in practical 



efficiency — is comparatively free from repairs 
is a Perfect Aligner— an enormous Manifolder. 
When you knowr the Oliver you'll feel com- 
passionate for all other Typewriters! For compe- 
tition simply demonstrates Oliver superiority 

o o o 

Now you'll have to act at once if you want to 
become a Local Agent for the Oliver. We're 
allotting exclusive territory right nov;'. 

It may be that your local town is unrepre- 
sented—act at once if you would like to have 
the exclusive agency for your own town. 

Sit ripht down and write us— we'll tell you 
all about our proposition— give you detailed in- 
formation and let you know just what we'll do. 

Remember this is an opportunity to increase 
your salary or to earn a livelihood in a dignifi- 
i-d, respected way— one that may never occur to 
you again. AA/rite now. 

THE OLIVER TYPEWRITER CO., 
i3:)Wabash Avenue, CHICAGO, ILL. 
PRINCIPAL FOREIGN OFFICE 
75 Queen Victoria St., London. 



INCOME OF 



6 
5 



QL per annum on sums of $ioo or 
^ more, withdrawable after one 
year ----.____ 

per annum on any amount de- 
posited, withdrawable at any 
time ------_-. 



Cppiippn by first mortgage on New 
OLUUIILU York City improved real 
estate, and a guarantee 
fund of !()',( of the face value of all 
mortgages in force. 

This corporation is subject to exami- 
nation by the Superintendent of Banks 
of the State of New York. 

KN CKERBOCK[R =f 

'KHtubliohixl 1883 

38 Park Row New York City 



Meeuaneary. 

By Stephen Gwynn. 
There's some that love the mountain and some that 

love the sea. 
But tha brown bubbling river is the dearest thing to 

me, 
.And sweeter than all waters in all the lands I know, 
Is the stream by Meenaneary in the county of Mayo. 

' Tis there the plungfing torrents spread and slacken to 

a curl. 
.•\nd in below the fern-clad rock the dimpled eddies 

swirl ; 
'Tis there in blue and silver mail the fresh-run salmon 

lie. 
While overhead goes dancing the dainty-feathered fly. 

Oh, to hear the reel go singing, to feel the rod 

a-str.ain ! 
liiit still the days are passing, and I'll \x b;ick again 
To brush through dewy heather in tlie myrtle-scented 

air. 
With the freshness of the morning, it is then I will be 

there. 

Here on the gritty pavement I'm pent in London 

town, 
But on the smoke-grimed elm-trees yon swollen buds 

are lirown — 
And with the leaf's unfurling I'll say good-by and go 
To airy Meenaneary in the county of Mayo. 

— From The Spectator. 



CURRENT EVENTS. 

Foreign. 

Russo-Japanese War. 

June i8.— Oyama reports the capture on June i6 of 
Liaoyangwopeng, west of the Liao River, where 
5,000 Russians with twenty guns were driven 
north. The British Ambassador at St Peters- 
burg asks reparation for the sinking of the St. 
Kilda by the cruiser Dnieper. 

June 19.— Russian cavalry under Mistchenko re- 
captures Liaoyangwopeng, but the Japanese 
advance continues on other parts of the field, 
and the Russian position generally is critical. 
A reinforcing army of 50,000 men is advancing 
from Korea to join Oyama. 

June 20.— Tokyo reports say that jjeace negotiations 
would not interrupt the military operations. 
Russia assents to the Japanese suggestion that 
the date for the opening of the peace conference 
be August I. 

June 21. Reports that President Roosevelt is try- 
ing to bring about an armistice between Russia 
and Japan come both from St. Petersburg and 
Washington. M. Nelidoff, tlie Russian Am- 
bassador at Paris, is appointed one of the peace 
envoys to Washington. 

June 22.— Grand Duke Nicholas isappointed head of 
Russia's new Council of Defense. 

June 23.— Hope of an armistice between Russia and 
Japan prior to the meeting of the peace envoys 
IS abandoned in Washington. 

Other Foreign News. 

June 17. -General Maximo Gomez, the hero of the 
Cuban wars for independence, dies at Havana. 

June 18.— France is assured by Germany that the 
conference plan contains no menace to her and 
is not a step toward destroying her prestige in 
Morocco. 

June ig.- The movement to boycott American goods 
is rapidly spreading in China. 

France yields to the Kaiser's demand that an in- 
ternational conference pronounce on tlie status 
of Morocco. 

The Czar cordially receives a deputation from the 
Zemstvo Congress and promises a national as- 
sembly. 

June 21.— Eighteen persons are killed and one hun- 
dred wounded at Lodz, Russia, by Cossacks, 
who tire upon a parade of workmen. 

June 23.— The I'rench note to Germany concerning 
Morocco is reported to be unsatisfactory. 
Powerful intrigues are reported to be working to 
force war. 

Domestic. 

June 17.— Judge Seaman, in the United States Cir- 
cuit Court, at Milwaukee, rules in the anti-trust 
proceedings against the General Paper Com- 
pany, that the officers nuist i)roduce the books 
and answer all relevant questions. 
Tlie Grand Jury at Cleveland. O.. indicts the 
alleged plumlx'rs' trust and Mantel and Tile 
Dealers' Association as combinations in re- 
straint of trade. 



We have •J.'i KimlH of InBtruments to Assist Hearing, 

Si'nt on iippi-oval. Write for OatnloRuo. 
^«'iii. .\. Willis .V <'o., 134 s. iiib St., phlladrlptala. 
Readers of TiiK Litkuary DIGEST are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



GI3AND EiAPIDS, MICHIGAi^ 

FoRMCRur THE FRED MACEY CO..Z.M. 




THE BOOKCASE 
for the HOME 

ITTHE MACEY SECTIONAL 
BOOKCASE is an artistic piece of 
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IT MADE IN VARIETY of sizes, 
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alog of Foster Safety Cribs, Iron Beds, etc 

Look for Foster Bros. Mfg. Co. 

T J <:^ ' 4 I Broad St., Utica, N. Y. 
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rknrfnrc a(rrpp thnt the host sport, summer iiiid win- 
UOCIOrS agree „,,. f,„.„mall boys an<l fc'irls, is the 

Irish Mail 

"It's geared." 

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over-tax nor over-heat. l>e- 
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Irisli Mnil Strprl, AnderHou, Ind. 
Co. 




Suci-essors to The Standuni Mi's 



AR£ YOU DEAF9 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



29 



U.S.Silk Flag 



With Silk 
Cocoon 



FREE 



Postage 
Prepaid 



In order to more widely introduce 
Cheney's Listerated Tooth Powder 
and Cheney's Listerated Tooth Paste, 
we will send, postage prepaid, a genu- 
ine beautiful American Silk Flag, 12 
in. wide by 18 in. long, with the silk 
cocoon attached. All we ask is that 
you go to your druggist or dealer and 
buy a can of Cheney's Listerated 
Tooth Powder or Cheney's Listerated 
Tooth Paste, and mail us the paste- 
board box in which it is packed. If 
the dealer does not have Cheney's 
Listerated Tooth Powder or Paste, 
send us his name and 25c. and we will 
forward the Silk Flag and a regular 
25c. package of Cheney's Listerated 
Tooth Powder or Paste (state which), 
postage prepaid. Please tell your 
friends about this offer. 




Contains the best known 
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keeping n\outh and ^ums 
sweet, clean and healthy. 

It is delightful to use. and so unusual that it 
is sure to be America's favorite tooth powder. 
Dentists use it for themselves, and physicians 
everywhere are ordering it. 

Sold by druggists and dealers, and by mail, 
postage paid. Regular price, 25 cents. 

CHENEY CHEMICAL CO. 

Box 15, South Manchester, Conn. 






5% interest 



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is the keystone which y^. «^ 
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money - saving. Every 
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Write for booklet about this safe and 
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Calvert Mortgage & Deposit Co. 

Dept. K, Calvert Bldg., Baltimore, Md. 




Send for this 

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Money saver. Print for others, big profits. 
Typesetting easy, printed rules sent. 
Write to makers for catalog, presses, type, 
paper, &o. the press CO., mekiueiN, conn. 



June 18. — Governor Herrick, of Ohio, in a speech 
denouncing the professional lobby, declares that 
he will do all in his power to drive lobbyists 
from the State. 

June ig.— Secretary Hay returns to Washington. 

Paul Morton, chairman of the Equitable, orders 
another examination of the affairs of the Society. 

At a meeting of the New York Civic Federation, 
experts declare that, in proportion to the popu- 
lation of the United .States immigration is de- 
creasing. 

June 20. - The President dismisses Herbert W. 
Bowen, former Minister to Venezuela, for repre- 
hensible conduct in procuring tlie publication of 
false and scandalous charges against Assistant- 
Secretary of State Loomis. 

James W. Alexander and James H. Hyde, presi- 
dent and first-vice president of the Equitable, 

resign. 

J. W. Hill, formerly chief of the Philadelphia 
filtration bureau, is arrested on charges of 
forgery and fraud in connection with filtration 
plant contracts. 

June 21. —The correspondence of the President. 
Attorney-General Moody, Secretary Morton and 
Messrs. Judson and Harmon, special counsel, in 
regard to the freight rebates on the Atchison, 
Topeka and Santa F€ Railway is made public. 
The President vindicates and praises Mr. Mor- 
ton. 

The report of the New York State Superintendent 
of Insurance severely censures officers of the 
Equitable Life, and declares that complete re- 
moval of stock control is the only remedy for the 
Society's troubles. 

The New York Central's iS-hour flyer between 
New York and Chicago, is wrecked at Mentor, 
Ohio, by running into an open switch ; nineteen 
persons are killed. 

June 22. — President Roosevelt, Elihu Root and 
Joseph H. Choate receive honorary degrees at 
\VilIiams College ; the President speaks on the 
Monroe Doctrine and various other subjects. 

Attorney General Mayer announces that he will 
begin proceedin<^s to compel restitution to 
Equitable policy-liolders ana to bar all guilty 
directors from holding a similar office. 

June 23.— At a meeting of the Cabinet, the Presi- 
dent insists that Chinese immigrants be fairly 
treated, and he declares his belief that the dan- 
ger of a boycott is serious. 



CONTINUOUS INDEX. 

Below will be found an inde.x covering the issues of 
The Literary Digest for the last three months. 
Each week the subiects for the week Drevious will be 
added, and the subjects for the issue" fourteen weeks 
previous will be eliminated, so that the reader will 
always be able to turn readily to any topic considered 
in our columns during the preceding three months. 

Adler, Felix, on divorce, 896 
Agnosticism and national decay, 783 
Alchemy in modern times, 661 
Ambassador, A persecuted, 753 
America as Russia's " real enemy," 787 

Degeneracy in, 6g6 
American influence on English naval policy, 790 

language. Frenchman's comment on, 505 

music. Growth of, 702 

president, Powerlessness of the, 941 
" Arnica," Mascagni's new opera, 541 
Anarchy versus Anarchy, 902 
Andersen, Hans Christian, 541, 776 
Anesthesia by electricity, ^46 
Animalcules, how they behave, 856 
Ant as a medicine, The, 855 
Anthropology ? What is, 931 
Antidotes, Diseases as, 662 
Arabian rebellion, The, 941 
Archeological research in Palestine, 474 
Arc-lamp, Improving the, 704 
Aristocracy of Art, The, 467 
Art mergers. New York's, 815 
Art, The machinery of, 469 

in Russia defended, 478 
Atlantic ports, Rivalry of tne, 808 
" Atlantic's" victory, The, 846 
Automobile or trolley ? 660 

Baltimore, Rebuilding, 695 

Balzac his own literary ancestor ? Was, 892 

" Baptist brotherhood defended," 897 

Beef prices. Rise in, 616 

Believe ? Do we, 663 

Biblical criticism. The English manifesto on, 938 

Births and deaths balanced, 746 

Blonds and brunettes in tropics, 662 

Blood not affected by gravitation, 471 

Bloom, The mechanism of. 625 

Bonaparte, new Secretary of the Navy, 849 

Books reviewed : 

Africa from South to North (Gibbons), 944 
Chatham, Life of ( Harrison), 944 
My Poor Relations (Maartens;, 943 



Sandy ( Rice), 943 
Wild Wings (Job), 



943 



WL OFFER 
RAILROAD 
BONDS 

for July investment, part of an 
entire issue that we have pur- 



chased with our own money, 
for our own account, direct 



from the company issuing. 

You Se^Ve the underwrit- 
er's commission. 

You Save the expense of 
a legal and expert examination. 

For Savings. Trust, or individ- 
ual funds good Railroad Bonds 
offer the same security as Gov- 
errtment Bonds', and net more 
money. 

We shall be pleased to submit 
you our July Bond list ; or data 
and quotations on any bonds in 
which you may be interested. 

A.N. Chandler <a Co 

-BANKERS 

111 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 
HOVRSE. PHILADELPHIA 

Our booklet, " Hints and Helps to 
Investors" is a study of bond invest-' 
inent well worth reading. Sent free 
on request. 



We Sell Farm Loans 

Netting Investors 6'. We have done so for 22 years — 
never lost a cent for anybody. We solicit correspond- 
ence from parlies who have money to invest. We 
shall expect to satisfy you as to our financial respon- 
sibility, reliability and safety of our loans. Let us 
send you list of on-hand loans with full particulars. 

E. J. LANDER & CO.. Box " 8 " GRAND FORKS, N. D. 



Readers of The LmiUR-f Diqbst are askod to mention the publication when 



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Book iS.",.* free. Very interesting. 
Write P. HAROLD HAYES. BUFFALO, N. V. 
writing to advertisers. 



30 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 1905 



Continuous Inuex Kt'ontinued). 

Broadway Tabernacle, The new, 475 
BrowninL' popular ? Why is, 775 
Bryant the American Puritan poet, 658 
Bryce, James, revisits America. 4gq 
Bullet. Japan's " humanitarian,'' 779. 
Butterflies, The migrations of, 933 
Byron, The apotheosis of, 928 

Cabinet changes. Rumored. 806 
Cactus made useful, 586 
Canadian crisis precipitated, 597 

school conflict, ji7 
Carnegjie pension fund for teachers, 648 
Cassini, Count, replaced. 733 
Castro's defiance, 457 

Europe's impressions of, 553 

vindicated by South America, 7:3 
Caucasians, Failing birth-rate of, 546 
Censorship of dime-novel literature, 468 
Chateaubriand and Madame K6caniier, 741 
Chicago strikers. Roosevelt 10,731 

campaign. The. 460 

claimed by Tom Watson. 579 
Chinese Ixjycott of .American trade, 772 

exclusion troubles, 924 

Bioate's. Mr., home-coming, 737 
lopins, The two, 921; 
Christian Science, Psychologist on, 590 
Christianity impugned by Confucianism, 859 
Christians .' Are we. 629 
Churcli and the public school, 747 

hold on .American men, 511 

impeached by Frederic Harrison. 512 

Ought radical thinkers to leave the ? 549 

The. and social problems, 551 

union in the May conventions, 822 

union, A bisliop on. 783 

union, A protest against, 939 
Cigarette. Outlawing the. 615 
Cleveland. G., arraigns club-women, 651 

on rabbit hunting, 883 

Club-women's replies to, 735 
Coal-tar colors. Poisonous, 309 
Collars, High, and the pneumogastric nerve, 782 
College athletics. Commercialism in. 807 
Colleges, Denominational, excluded from Carneg^ie 

benefit. 861 
Collision exhibition. Mr. Westinghouse's. 857 
Comedy, Zang will's indictment of modern, 816 
Composite Madonna. Tlie first, 749 
Cotton-crop reports, Leaks in. 921 
Cripples by defective education, 028 
Croton reservoir. Opening new, 626 
Crucifixion, New light on the, 821 
Czar. The puppet, 464 
Czar's escape from assassination, 714 

gift of religious liberty, 707 

Daguerreotype, How to copy an old, 509 
Dalrymple, Mr., on municipal ownership, 925 
Degeneracy in .America, 696 
Delcasse's defeat in Morocco, 902 
Diaz on .Monroe doctrine, 578 
Disarmament scheme. New, 614 
Divorce, F^eli.x Adler on, 896 

The Roman Catholic theory of, 821 
Drama as an aid to se.lition, The, 891 
Dramatic season. End of the. 851 
Dust and patent medicines, 508 
Dynamite transportation, The problem of, 934 

Earth has solidified. How the, 745 
Easter in Jerusalem, 591 
Eclipse expeditions pay ? Do, 705 
Egoism as a basis for Christian ethics, 936 
Electric motors. New uses for, 627 

transformer. The, 935 
Electrical industries. Progress in, 935 
Electricity in railroading, 858 

to transmit music, 500 
Electroplated lace. 5^5 
" Elga,'' Haupt mannas new play, 624 
Emperor William as Czar's evil genius, 594 

attitude to France, 669 
England's buffer state for North India, 904 
" Equitable" broil, The, 534 

management, Weigning the new. 



r 



Lea & Perrins' 
Sauce 

THE ORIGINAL WORCESTERSHIRE 

^Fi fl»-^ fy j The Peerless 

cjj Seasoning 

A dash of which adds more relish 
to a greater number of dishes than 
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Soups, Oysters, Fish, all Roasts. 
Gravies, Salads, etc. For Cold 
Meats of all kinds 
LEA &. PERRINS' SAUCE 
is superb. 

John Duncan's Suns, Agents, New York. 




Regeneration of the, 849 
settlement. The, 886 



921 



upheaval. Newspapers on the, 577 
European pressure on I nited .States, 754 
Evangelization of New \'ork, S59 
E.\ plosive. .Safe, wanted, 660 
Explosives, Kailroad transportation of, 774 

Fiction as an art, 776 

Tendencies in American, 740 
Financial corruptifm charged against Loomis, 650 
iMrefly, Source of light of, 470 
I'ire proof scenery, Real, 744 
Fire protection, 706 

I'ishtry disputes with Newfoundland, 714 
Fishing witli drujjs, 857 
Fogs, To clear, with electricity, 817 
France and the German Crown Prince, 901 

fierman Em|H*ror unfriendly to, 66() 

Separation of churdi and state, 516 

Wrangle with Japan. S27 
Franchise tax law, .New \ork, sustained, 848 
French disarmament scheme, 614 

dramatic season. Successes, ^(i(i 

neutrality, American views of. 733 

republic, I'lot to overthrow. 668 

suspicion of Cierman policy, >54 
Frenchman's comment on our language, 505 

Gas mono|M>lists vs. the iwoj^c, 691 
German fear o( Japan's growing power, 633 



wmc//0srm 




.33 CALIBER RIFLES 

The "Winchester Model 1886 .33 Caliber is 
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game generally shot at fairly long range. 

IVlnchtsler Quni anJ /Jmmum'don Are Sold Eetflivhtte 

WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS CO. 
NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



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I By an rstahli'-hcd Ohio corporiitioii ; ^ncd salary, 
lolficc rxpr lives and commisMoin p.iiii lo mm of 
Icharactrr and ;iMliiy. Rcfcrrncrs rrquircd and giv- 
en. Address. MANAGER. 179 Ontario Bldg, Tolido. Ohio. 



The Lost 



WEDDING RING 



Ileart-to-hcHit talks on 
nmrnage and its pitfalls. 
Hy Uev. Cortland Myers. 
lAaio, cloth, 76c. Funk & Wagnalls Oomiiany, Tubs., N. Y. 



Headers of TUK Litkrary Digest arc asked to mention the puhlicullon when writiiifc' to udvcrtisei^. 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



31 



Continuous Index (Continued). 

Germany affected by Russian situation, 712 
and Englisli admirals, 82S 
Crown Prince wedding, 901 
would wage war with U. S., How, 635 

" Girl, Unpleasant," in literature. The. 8go 

Gospels, Credibility of, 511 

Great Britain open to invasion ? Is, 789 

Ground, Temperature of the, 547 

Guns, great, with rapid fire, 932 

Hara-kiri defended by Japanese, 617 

Higher-criticism defended, 552 

" Historico-religious ' Bible interpretation, 6-?2 

Horles, Wild, on Sable Island, S5S 

House-plants, Some irritant, 545 

Hugo, victor, and Juliette Druet, 622 

Ibsen, A new estimate of, 927 

.(ration fjauds. 810 
Immortality,Tviiinsterberg on, 549 



Immigration fjauds. 810 
Immortality, iVliinsterberg on, 549 
Incandescent lamjjs. Fire from. 818 



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Asbury Park, N. J. 
Belmar, N. J. 
Carbondale, Fa. 
Chester, Pa. 
Detroit, Mich. 
Fairfield, Me. 



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Harrisbuvg. Pa. 
Uonesdale, Pa. 
Knoxviile, T»*nn. 
Iiakewood, N. J. 
London, England 
Washinuton, D. C. 
Watertown, N. Y. 



Name. 



(E) 



Address. 



India, North, England's buffer state for, 904 
Insurance jugglery, Lawson on, 458 
Ireland's literary revival, 816 
Irish akin to ancient Romans, 703 

James, Henry, Critical study of, 621 

on American men and women, 929 
Japan as the "' Scourge of God," 785 

may become too powerful, 633 

Missionary situation in, 708 
Japanese civilization. Seamy side of, 888 

menace to colonists in the East, 788 

naval victory, The. 812 

success, Menace of, 920 

Trafalgar, A, 863 
Jefferson, Joseph, Some estimates of, 655 
Jesus, The lynching of, 664 

Jewish problem " in America, 630 
Jingoism rebuked in Germany^ 942 
Judaism in New York, Condition of, 936 
Jury system a failure ? Is the, 696 

Kaiser's Cupj Capture of the, 812 
Knox, John, influence in America, 708 
Korin, the Japanese artist, 890 

Language, A peril to our, 854 

Lantern for opaque objects, 70S 

Laurier's compromise of school conflict, 517 

Lee, Fitzhugh, 640 

Lewis and Clark Exposition, 882 

Life, A chemical definition of, 856 

insurance, Wall Street methods in, 619 
Literary woman ? Does it pay to be a, 621 
Liturgic trend in Presbyterianism, The, 862 
Loomis, Financial corruption charged to, 650 
" Lycidas " rejected by the Royal Academy, 853 

Macedonian outbreak imminent, 480 
Mackay, Dr. D. S., charged with heresy, 550 
Magnetism by mixture, 703 
Manchuria, War balloons used in. 706 
Marking-system, Scientific, possible, 589 
Mathematical laws in aesthetics, 469 
Matter only two states ? Has, 5oi6 
Medical jesting, Inadvisability of, 472 
Medicine, Modern, in antiquity, 743 
Medicines, Some pernicious, 894 
Mental disease. Responsibility in, 781 
Meredith's literary style. The penalty of, 891 
Methodism as alternative to Romanism, 592 
Milk-bottles, Paper, 820 
Mine, Finding a lost. 819 
Ministerial irresponsibility, 785 

training. Specialism in, 437 
Missions, Christian, The greatest problem before, 861 
Modjeska testimonial. The, 701 
Mohammedanism, A missionary spirit in, 786 
Moliere comedy revived, 585 
Monistic basis for theology and ethics, 399 
Morales, The shrewdness of, 495 
Morality, Machine-made, 587 
Morocco, Delcasse's defeat in, 902 

German Emperor's action in, 636 

German policy in, 554 
Music at a distance, 506 

and religion as rivals, 822 

Nan Patterson case. Verdict in the, 6g6 
Naval training, English views of our, 866 
Navy, Deserters from, 578 
Negroes, Southern, as property-holders, 926 
Nerve-current. Nature of a, 704 
Neutrality ana French neutrality, 751 

laws enforced, 884 
Newfoundland strikes oack. 579 
Newspaper woman. Struggles of a, 544 
Niagara, Commercializing, 737 

How to save, 893 

The destruction of, 507 
Norway preparing for war, 825 

1 he fate of, 940 
Norway's secession. Causes of, 900 
North pole. Ownership of the, 894 
North Sea case, Verdict on the, 480 

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Readers of The Literary Disest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertiaera, 



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Newark : 129 Wickliffe Street 



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32 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[Jiily 1, 1905 



Continuous Index {Continued). 

Novel. Future of the American, 657 

Popularity of, explained, 502 , , „ 

" Novel with a Purpose," One, that succeeded, 814 
Novelist, Woman of to-day as, 46, 

Ocean depths, Vision in, 62; 
Odor, Loss of substance with, 857 
" Ogaen movement " criticised, 652 
Osier rebuked by medical journals, 472 

Pagoscope, The, a frost-pre-licter, 470 
Panama canal commission. The new, 536 

canal supplies abroad. Buying, 771 

misni.inagement at, 497 

railway rates, Furor over, 618 
Parliamentary office. Comedy of, 751 
Paul Jones's body found, 617 
Peace, The butcheries of, 6q8 
Peary's new Arctic ship, 780 
Personality, Multiple, (J26 
Persuasion and suggestion, jSS 
Philadelphia praying for civic betterment, 476 
Philadelphia's gas fight, 770 

Results of S47 
Philippines an element of weakness, 698 

Census returns from, 580 
Pictures ? Why do we paint, 927 
Pipe, A smoke-cooling. 933 
Plants grown by acetylene light, S95 
Poetry, Consolations of, 77S 

National note in American, 584 
Polishing, Mechanical effects of, 744 
Pope and Emperor of Germany, 865 

Pessimism of the S60 
Population and rainfall. 706 
Protestant and Roman Catholic Bibles, 710 
Pure food bill. Enemies of the, 736 
Pyromania, 472 

Rabelais, Rehabilitation of, 543 
Races of Europe. Mi.xed, 746 
Racing for Kaiser's Cup, 768 
Railroad authorities on rate control, 767 

control. Administration dilYerences on, 734 
Railroads, High-speed, 659 
Railway congress, International, 693 

rate issue, Spencer on, 653 

Speed war between New York Central and 
Pennsylvania, 922 
Raines-law hotels. Fight on the, 8S5 
Rat trap, A vegetable, 471 
Religion, Losing one's, 550 
Religions of New York, 747 
Renan as an artistic trifler, R23 
Resistance, passive, Dr. Clifford on, 629 
Resurrection, Origin of belief in the, 590 
Reverence and ritual, 899 
Revivals, Fear and hypnotism in, 750 
Revolutionary spirit in French literature and art, 742 
Rockefeller and the clergy, 473 
Rockefeller's gift, Religious views of, 513 

Further reflections on, 631 
Rodin's artistic ideals, 777 
Roosevelt and the third term, 773 
Rotary engine, A new, 547 
Rouvier on separation of church and state, 516 
Rozhdestvensky investigation, Result of, 480 

London papers on, 667 
Russia, Agrarian revolt in, 790 

anarchy versus anarchy, 902 

Assassination in, defended, 478 

End of autocracy in, 826 

Future of, 940 

Hope of revenge in, 788 

Reaction in, 553 

reluctant to conclude peace, 514 

Student strikes in, 4;;7 
Russian biireaiicracv satirized, 582 

church demands independence, 665 

Czar, Personal view of the, 464 

losses. The. 496 

navy and Mr. Schwab, 695 

" Outlawed" organs on revolt, 668 

press on prospects of revolt, 668 

realism, 852 

refusal of humiliation, 596 

situation. Importance of^the, to Germany, 712 

stage during a critical year. 889 

treatment of artists and authors, 701 
Russo-Japanese War: 

American views of French neutrality, 733 

Lessons of the naval battle, 881 



Linevitch's task, 598 
Paris on continuation of. 



554 



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Ileatlera of Tue Litkrauy DiufcST uro uakeU to luuntlou llio pubUcatlou wheu writing to advertisers. 



Vol. XXXI. , .\o. 1] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



33 



INSIST 

upon having the 

Ferris Delicious 
Hams and Bacon 

Your dealer may tell you : 
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If you wish Ferris, 
why not have it ? 

INSIST' 



BRIGHTON 




GEM 

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THE H 



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49 



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/ 



Continuous Index (Contuiiict{\. 

Russo Japanese War : 

Peace Japan does not want. 477 

Peace proposals of President Roosevelt, 887 

Plans of battle of Mukden, sjg 

Rozhdestvensky and I'rencn neutrality, 633 

Russia refuses to be humiliated, 596 

Russian losses, 496 

Russian admirals and lost battle-ships, 844 

St. Petersburg's hope of victory, 556 

Togo-Rozhdestvensky duel. 580 

Togo's strategy, 594 

Togo's victory, comments on, 843 

Washington cnosen for peace conference, 919 

.St. Louis Exposition awards, 462 

scandal rejoinders, 500 
St. Petersburg's hope of victory, 556 
Santo Domingo, Financial affairs of, 461 

Roosevelt and the Senate, 515 

Shrewdness of president of, 49; 
Scandinavian Peninsula, Prospect of war in the, 786 
Schiller centenary, The, 58 ( 

Religion of. 937 
School-children, Underfed, 738 
-Scientists. Hasty, 931 
Scottish church controversy, 898 
-Sea-command, Coming struggle for, ^79 
" Segregation " plan of New York police, 462 
Sensation last 1 How long does a, 779 
Sense, Still another, 820 

" Sex drama " vindicated by a Frenchman, 658 
Shakespeare as an imitator, 504 

impeached by Shaw, "jv) 
Ships, determined by shape of fishes, 433 
Sin, Modem, 666 

Singing in English, Nordica on, 656 
Smoke-cooling pipe. A, 933 
Snapshots by lamplight. So; 
Socialism as a menace to Cnristianity, 510 

next g^reat political issue ? 647 

A trend toward, 808 
Soil, Disappearance of the, 743 
South America saved from Europe by U. S., 636 
Speed, Higher railroad^933 
Spencer's philosophy. Fatal gap in, 824 
Spider-silk from Madagascar, 745 
Staircase, Moving, for vehicles, 587 
-Standard Oil's defense, 540 
" Star-spangled Banner " mutilated, 582 
Stevenson's background of gloom, 700 
Strike, in Chicago raises problems, 692 

Labor press on New York, 498 

Teamsters' side of, 732 
Strikers, Chicago, Roosevelt to, 731 • 

Student or apprentice? 858 
Swinburne, Present position of, 542 

Taft's Presidential prospects, 811 

Talking-machines, Some ancient, 855 

Tea, Substitutes for, 934 

Tears as a test of literature, 813 

Telegraphy, Obstacles utilized in wireless, 5(W 

Temperature used to develop new species, 508 

Ten nour law. Labor press on, 654 

Supreme Court on the, 614 
Theatrical trust. More light on the, 669 
Theological students, Coddling of, 709 
Theology as a university discipline, 475 

Advanced, made popular, 784 

Radical, combated in Germany, 898 
Thoreau's religion, 593 
Tooth-brush, The deadly, 659 
Torrey-Alexander crusade, 435 
Tourg^e, Albion W., 930 
Transvaal constitution. The new, 752 
Trolley or automobile ? 660 
Tropics, Blonds and brunettes in the, 662 
TurKey, Origin of the, 819 
Turner, most whimsical of painters, 854 

Unemployed in England, The, 864 

United States, European pressure on the, 754 

Unrighteousness, The newer, 666 

Vegetable combat. A, 782 
Vehicles. Moving staircase for, 587 
Venezuela, Diplomatic shake-up in, 694 

Present regime in, 4^7 
Verne, J., and other scientific prophets, 628 
Death of, 502 

Wall Street and tax dodgers, 538 

methods in life insurance, 619 
War-balloons in Manchuria, 706 
War, How waged between U. S. and Germany, 635 
Warsaw, Massacre at, 697 
Washington, chosen for peace conference, 919 
Water : pure and adulterated, 588 
Water-supply, Prehistoric, 818 
Wealth-getting, Drama of, 813 
Weaver's defiance. Mayor, 805 
Wheat crop. Bumper, 614 
Whistler exhibition in London, 503 
White race hold its own ? Will, 5-16 
William II., France, and England, 825 
Wireless possibilities, 548 

telegraphy, Obstacles utilized in, 507 
Wisconsin's rate legislation, 8og 
Witte, Mr., Truth about, 593 
Yeats's impressions of America, 465 
Zionism, New phases of, 748 

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34 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1, 190;") 



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These valves ab- 
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energy, hence in- 
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mple turning of a 




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THE TEXIC0<3RAPHER*S 

^ JjasyQhair 




In tnis colnnin, to deeide uue.stions concerning the correct 
Hse of words, the Funk oc Wagnalls Standard Dictionary is 
consulted as arbiter. 

"S. D. Y.." New York.-" A makes the following 
statement concerning C" : 'He lust me a good ca.se.' B 
contends that the sentence is Incorrect. What is your 
decision on this point 't " 

It is assitmed tliat tlie i)oiiit 011 Avliich our 
correspondent is in doubt i.s whether the verb 
"lost" is correct as here used. The Standard 
Dictionary says: "Lose" is "to deprive of; 
subject to the loss of; as, ' His rashness last liini 
his life.' " From this it will be seen that " lost " 
as used by A is sanctioned by good authoritj-. 

"Ah hae ma doots," New York.—" Which is the cor- 
rect form of the verb In the following sentence : ' I'lit 
season goods carefully away as soon as the .season is 
past ; mark the inukages so" that at the beginning of 
a new season they will be easily identified even tho the 
store liitre [_sltiiuiil }iiiri\ or )ias] another manager' V " 

As doubt and futurity are both implied, the 
subjunctive mode, subjunctive form should be 
used, making the sentence read : "... even 
tho the store have another manager." 

" F. L.," Baltimore, Md. - " Is it ever correct to say 
' H7)o have you there?' This question In this form is 
to be found in Kingsley's ' Hypatia. ' " 

The sentence you cite is incorrect. " Who" 
siiould be " whom " because it is in the objec- 
tive case, object of the verb "have." 

"S. V. D.," Chicago, III.— "What part of speech is 
' unseen ' in the line ' Full many a flower wa.s born to 
blush unseen ' > " 

The sentence cited is elliptical — a tiuile com- 
mon form of expression in poetry. " Unseen " 
is an adjective qualifying " Hower." 

"A. B. N ," Danvillis Ky.— "1. Are the following 
.sentences correct ? Ui] 'His seventieth liirthday luis 
hifii recently greeted with an'e<-tion.' 
(h) ' And with the morn tlio.se angel faces smile. 

Which I }iavi' loved long since, and lost awhile.' 
2. Where should the interrogation-point be placed in 
the following sentence at the close of a letter: 'Will 
you kindly make the e.\<-hange desired, and otilige, 
yours truly ' V " 

1. (a) The use of the present perfect tense 
with the word "recently" is sanctioned by 
good usage, altho some grammarians prefer the 
past tense, (h) Strictly, the past tense should 
liave been used. Perhaps in order to preserve 
thi> meter the poet used the tuixiliary " have." 
2. The interrogation - j)oint in the sentence 
cited should be placed after the word " desired," 
as the qtiestion ends there. 

"T. r ." Confluence, Ph.-" How shouUi 'Slratford- 
on-Avon' and 'Stoke-upon-'rreiit ' be written? Is it as 
correct to say 'Stratford-upou-Avon ' and '.Stoke-on- 
Trent ' as It Is to transiiose the prepositions ? " 

The correct form in which these two geo- 
graphic names should be written is the first 
cited by our correspondent. I'sage long ago 
determined the forms of these names, which 
forms have been accepted almost universally. 
The I'nited States l?oard of (Geographic Names 
passed upon all geographic names in the Stand- 
ard Dictionary; therefore, that work has the 
benefit of its decisions. In the censtis rettirns 
issued by the Hritish Government tlie names 
are iiriiitcd " Stratford-on-.Vvoii " and " Stoke- 
upon-Trent." In the semi-oiricial " Barthol- 
omew's (iazetteer" the same forms are given. 

".I.B. H." St. Louis, Mo. -"In Browning's 'The 
King and the Book' tli(> word ' Mimnaia ' freiiueiitly 
occurs. Could you favor me with a clear detlnition of 
the word ? " 



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The Literary Digest 



Vol. XXXI. . No. 2 



New York, July 8, 1905 



Whole Number, 794 



Published Weekly by 

Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

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Entered at New York Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 

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CONTINUOUS INDEX. 

A " Continuous Index," rendering all topics treated during the preceding three 
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LITERARY DIGEST INDEXES. 

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TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



DEATH OF SECRETARY HAY. 

THE high rank which John Hay held as a citizen, scholar^ 
statesman, and diplomat is attested, now that he is gone, by 
friendly tributes of praise accorded to his memory by friend and 
foe alike. Newspapers and public men of all political parties 
agree with President Roosevelt in declaring that his death, which 
occurred on July i,at his summer home in New Hampshire, was a 
"national bereavement." 

Even the New York ^<7r/^(Dem.), despite its persistent and 
well-known opposition to everything and everybody connected 
with the Administration, admits that "he raised American di- 
plomacy to its highest point in foreign capitals." The World 
continues : 

" Mr. Hay had the intuitions of statecraft. He knew his inter- 
national law and the precedents. He knew how to keep his tem- 
per. ... In short, Mr. Hay's diplomacy was the diplomacy of a 
high-minded, courteous, scholarly gentleman, and it was respected 
because Europe soon learned to know that it was without guile. 
Mr. Hay's death will be regretted in every civilized capital." 

The New York Times (Ind. Dem.) speaks with similar import 
in weighing the value of his services and says : 

" That he has made of this Administration a signal success is the 
testimony not only of his own countrymen but of all the world. 




And, as we have said, he has made this great success honestly 
and by the exhibition in international affairs of the same qualities 
which enabled Lincoln to succeed in composing civil strife. . . . 
'The Golden Rule and the Monroe Doctrine ' he once declared 
the basis of American diplomacy to be. They were tlie basis of 
his diplomacy. And by adhering to the law of justice and kind- 
ness he made such a suc- 
cess that his death will 
be as sincerely mourned 
to-day in far-off Peking 
as among us here at 
home." 

Among the diplomatic 
achievements and victor- 
ies which the newspapers 
refer to as giving Mr. 
Hay a right to claim 
equal rank with Amer- 
ica's greatest secretaries 
of state, are these: He 
arranged the protocol of 
peace with Spain ; he set- 
tled the clash with Great 
Britain on the Alaskan 
boundary ; he obtained a 
modification of the Ger- 
man inspection law re- 
garding American meat ; 
he negotiated many im- 
portant reciprocity trea- 
ties, none of which, how- 
ever, has been ratified by the Senate ; he arranged for an important 
United States coaling station in Samoa, and secured assent of Eng- 
land to the abrogation of the Clayton-Bulvver treaty, thus making 
possible the construction of the isthmian canal by the United 
States. He is also credited witii putting into erfective operation 
the Hay-Pauncefote treaty, and with overcoming the efforts of the 
Colombian legislature to making Panama a free and independent 
republic. His latest achievements were to establish the "open 
door" in China, preserve the integrity of that nation, and save 
its territory from the ravages of war. 

Mr. Hay, as the New York Su7i (Rep.) points out, was a " unique 
figure among American public men " for the reason that " he never 
held an elective office." The New York Times (Ind. Dem.), how- 
ever, declares that, after all, his career was " typically American," 
and then proceeds to show that the successive promotions of Mr. 
Hay were deserved and well earned. Thus : 

" This service was for many years not very conspicuous nor spe- 
cifically important. A Secretaryship of Legation at Paris, at 
Madrid, at \'ienna, even a First Assistantship in the State Depart- 
ment, to which he attained a quarter of a century ago, could not of 
them.selves have marked or indicated him as the man destined to 
control the foreign relations of his country. Any or all of these 
posts might have bet'n held and have been held by frivolous and 
empty persons or by mere routineers. But John Hay belonged to 
neither of these classes. ... It was not until the retirement of 
Secretary Day from the secretaryship of state to a more congenial 
and appropriate judgeship that John Hay came, in the fulness of 
his powers and the ripeness of his experience, to the direction of 
the foreign affairs of his country." 



JOHN HAY, 

Who died at his summer home on Lake 
Sunapee, in New Hampshire, on Saturday 
morning, July i. 



36 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



rjuly 8, 1905 



WHY CHIEF ENGINEER WALLACE RESIGNED. 

''T' HE retirement of Mr. John F. Wallace from his post as a 
A member and chief engineer of the Isthmian Canal Commis- 
sion has. in the opinion of the New York Wor/d (Dem.) gWen rise 
to a "highly delicate situation of affairs." The Springfield v?t'- 
publican (Ind.) declares that it "tends to throw discouragement 
upon the entire enterprise." As was anticipated, the Administra- 
tion did not let Mr. Wallace go without showing deep resentment 
at the abrupt way in which he severed his relations with the com- 
mission. President Roosevelt took particular pains to make it 

appear of record that his res- 
ignation was " tendered in ac- 
cordance with the request of 
Secretary Taf t " ; while the 
usually affable and even-tem- 
pered Secretary of War ad- 
ministered such a burning 
castigation " as has not in 
recent years at least," ex- 
claims the New York Herald 
(Ind.), "been visited upon 
any American official not con- 
victed of dishonesty." 

Mr. Wallace, however, in 
his reply given to the press 
June 30, emphatically dis- 
claims "all responsibility for 
the various statements re- 
cently published, alleged to 
have been made by so-called 
friends." He furthermore de- 
clares that Secretary Taft 
"labored under a misappre- 
hension " in recounting some 
of the important facts in the 
case. Mr. Wallace denies 
that he told the secretary 




JUHN IINULEV WALLACE, 

Whose resignation as chief-engineer 
of the Isthmian Canal Commission and 
reported acceptance of a $60,000 a year 
offer, were resented by Secretary Taft, 
who declared : " For mere lucre you 
change your position over night, with- 
out thought of the embarrassing position 
in which you place your government." 



that he resigned because he had accepted a position in a New 
York company. All that he admits regarding this charge is this : 
" I did state to him that I desired to accept one, but under such 
circumstances and conditions and at such time as would cause the 
least embarrassment to the Administration." The weakness 
noted by his critics in this reply of Mr. Wallace is that he fails to 
name specifically the causes for his resignation. He simply alludes 
to them as " underlying and fundamental," but such as" involve no 
criticism of any act of the President or the Secretary of War." 
The only sentence which might be interpreted as finding fault with 
the Government is the following: 

" I have made no criticism of personnel or individuals, but do 
believe that the obstacles due to the governmental methods re- 
quired by existing laws are so .serious that they will have to be 
eliminated if the American people are to see the Panama Canal 
constructed in a reasonable time and at a moderate cost." 

Hut while Mr. Wallace has thus graciou.sly cleared the Adminis- 
tration of the scandal which was supposed to be lurking in the 
background, a very ugly rumor, repeated by the New York 
Times (\vi<S.. Dem.) has become current against him to the effect 
that he was tempted and induced to re.sign by the transcontinental 
railway companies which are conspiring " to break up the Panama 
Canal Commi.ssion and delay as long as possible the construction 
of the canal." It is insinuated in some of the press reports that 
the suspicion of such a plot might possibly be responsible for tlie 
bitter spirit of vindictiveness which Secretary Taft displays. Says 
the Secretary in arraigning Mr. Wallace: 

"I am inexpressibly disappointed, not only because you have 
taken tins step, but because you seem so utterly insensible of the 



significance of your conduct. You come with the bald announce- 
ment that you quit your task at a critical moment, on the eve of 
important work and in the midst •f reorganization plans under 
which you accepted your position, witli your department unper- 
fected in organization, and when you know, too, that my public 
duties call me to tiie Philippines for .several months 

" For mere lucre you change your place over night without 
thought of the embarrassing position in which you place your 
Government by this action, when the engineering forces on the 
isthmus are left without a real head, and your department is not 
perfected in organization 

" You have thought of yourself and yourself alone. I consider 
that by every principle of honor and duty you were bound to treat 
the subject differently. You have permitted the President and all 
of us to proceed in full confidence that you would perform the 
functions of chief engineer, and now in an hour you drop your 
great duties and throw them back upon us as if it were a matter of 
no con.sequence, and all this for your personal advantage solely. 

" Mr. Wallace, I do not agree with your idea of your rights, nor 
with your ideas as to your duties. . . . Great fame attached to 
your office, but also equal responsibility, and now you desert them 
in an hour. Even from a standpoint of policy you are making a 
profound mistake. If you could withdraw from your new arrange- 
ments, which I do not suggest, then I could have no confidence 
(since I know now your conception of duty) that you would not in 
the future repeat the same act at a moment eve^ niore critical, 
when the consequences might be even more embarrassing and in- 
jurious to the Government 

" Under these circumstances, Mr. Wallace, and with great per- 
sonal pain and disappointment, I am bound to say that I consider 
the public interest requires that you tender your resignation at this 
moment, and turn over the records of your office to the chairman 
of the commission." 

Such were the severest parts of the stinging rebuke which Sec- 
retary Taft administered to Mr. Wallace upon hearing that the 
only excuse advanced by the latter for th 'wing up his work and 
suddenly returning to America was that he had been offered by 
prominent business men of New York a new place where the sal- 
ary and perquisites would amount to $60,000 or $65,000 a year; 
and, further, that" life on the isthmus was lonely and accompanied 
with risk to himself and wife." 

There is, however, another version of the "canal situation" 
which tends to show that the real cause of Mr. Wallace's resigna- 
tion is very different from the one that Secretary Taft would have 
the public believe. Thus the New York Evening Post (Ind.) 
says : 

" Close friends of Mr. Wallace have known for a long time that 
he has been irritated, to say the least, by the multiplicity of the 
coils of red tape which he has been obliged to uncoil in order to 
get at things which he desired put in motion." 

Some of the irritating instances of red-tapism which broke the 
patience of Mr. Wallace, as reported by The Post, are these : A 
short time ago he wanted 400 pounds of rock salt on the canal 
work. To obtain this, advertisements had to be inserted in this 
country, poster-circulars prepared, and bids sought. These bids 
had to be made out in triplicate and sent to Washington, to be 
opened later in public, and so on with a lot of other formalities. 
Again last week " bids were opened for (among other things) two 
pairs of men's rubber gloves" and "one pound of No. 24 seed." 
Says a friend of the ex-chief engineer in comment: 

"Imagine what it means when you get this at every turn, when 
you want to push things along. Is it not enough to break the 
heart of any man who wants to get somewhere or do something? 
Mr. Wallace thought he was to have a free hand. Why, not 
merely his hands, but his arms as well, were bound tight with 
yards and yards of this same lurid tape. Well, he's cut himself 
free, that's all." 

It is the opinion of the Springfield Republican, -xhox^t quoted, 
that tile resignation of Mr. Wallace can not be a happy event to 
the Administration, for it will make a disagreeable impression on 
the world at large. Says 'The Republican : 

" To an outsider, the Panama job has been notable under Mr. 



Vol. XXXL, No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



37 



Roosevelt's management for the number of able men who liave 
been constrained to sever their connection with the work. The 
Walker commission was thronged wiih experts, and they were 
found to be in the way. Who or what is in the way now? It is to 
be hoped that the country's supply of experts will not be exhausted 
before the root of the difficulty that obviously exists has been laid 
bare." 

The Baltimore Sun (Ind.) gives the following as its suggestions 
for a policy that the Government should now adopt in dealing with 
the problems arising over the digging of the canal : 

" Wliile, as has been pointed out, the withdrawal of Chief Engi- 
neer VV'allace seems to indicate disorganization, it has not been 
established conclusively that such a condition actually exists. 
President Roosevelt and Secretary of War Taft are too wise — or 
at least ought to be — not to realize the vital importance of cooper- 
ation between all the elements engaged in the construction of the 
Panama Canal. Chief Engineer Wallace or his successor, eminent 
as each may be in his profession, should cheerfully submit to such 
reasonable regulations as the War Department may prescribe, 
even if these regulations necessitate certain red-tape practises. 
On the other hand, the War Department should impose no restric- 
tions that are unreasonable and merely irksome. The man who is 
capable of discharging the duties of chief engineer of an inter- 
oceanic waterway ought not to be made to conform to army disci- 
pline, inasmuch as he is not an enlisted man or a commissioned 
officer in the military forces of the United States, but a professional 
man,* for whose services the Government is paying a larger salary 
than for the services of any official of the United States except 
the President. The chief engineer's work should, of course, 
be subject to review by the engineer members of the commission, 
but the War Department ought not to assume too large a measure 
of supervision, for the convincing reason that there is possibly no 
engineer in the department who has Mr. Wallace's knowledge of 
engineering and his practical experience. 

"The only red tape which should be used in the work on the 
Panama Canal should be employed to make impossible any system 
of grafting. The American people will raise no objection to the 
most stringent regulations for the protection of the public funds. 
Finally, there should be no political ' pulls ' of any kind, for if pol- 
itics once creeps in the grafter will surely follow." 

Mr. John F. Stevens, whose appointment as Mr. Wallace's suc- 
cessor as chief engineer was announced June 30, is a railroad man 
of long experience and recognized ability. He had but recently 
been selected as the Government expert in the railroad to be con- 
structed in the Philippine Islands. Chairman Shonts speaks of 
him as " a man who will stay put." 



MR. ROCKEFELLER'S GIFTS AND BUSINESS 

ETHICS. 

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER'S gifts of $1,000,000 to Yale and 
$10,000,000 to the General Education Uoard, last week, have 
again brought to the fore the question of the acceptance of 
trust-made money. The New York Sun, which sometimes in- 
dulges ill rather acrid comments on .Mr. Rockefeller and Stand- 
ard Oil, has only good words for him on this occasion, and re- 
marks that "the more or less silly discussion about 'tainted 
money ' which has been going on does not alter the splendid 
fact that John Davison Rockefeller is the most magnificent con- 
tributor for the spread of the higher education in the history of 
mankind." This.great gift of ten millions, we are told, is to be 
used to help small colleges, and the New York 7>7^7^;/^ declares 
that " it means the unification of the educational system of this 
country." Further gifts from Mr. Rockefeller are expected to 
follow as occasion shall require. 

These gifts make particularly timely and pertinent an analysis 
of Mr. Rockefeller's business ethics which appears in the July 
McClures from the pen of Ida M. Tarbell. She says of his gifts: 

"All over the land those who direct great educational, charita- 
ble and religious institutions are asking, ' Can we not get some- 
thing from him '^. ' Receiving his bequests they become at least the 
tacit supporters of the thing for which he stands — that is, John D. 
Rockefeller exercises a powerful control over the very sources of 
American intellectual and religious inspirations. 

"Now a man who possesses this kind of influence can not be 
allowed to live in the dark. The public not only has the riqht to 
know what sort of a man he is; it is the duty oi the public to 
know." 

Miss Tarbell then proceeds to delineate Mr. Rockefeller's love 
of money and his capacity for making it, and pictures his lust 
for power, and tries to show how unscrupulous he is in exercising 
or increasing it. The sketch of Mr. Rockefeller "as a money- 
grabber," says the Chicago AVwj, " is hardly a thing that Mr. 
Rockefeller will wish to have struck off in editions de luxe and 
distributed among family acquaintances." Miss Tarbell, who 
has studied Mr. Rockefeller and his oil company for years, 
goes into detail in McClure's Magazine concerning his life, but 
dwells chiefly on his peculiar business morality. After noting his 
early entry into business, Miss Tarbell states that in i860 Mr. 
Rockefeller was " frugal, calculating, money-bent, cautious in trade> 






T IL-L THE CLOODS ROl-i- . B Y O 




CHORUS— "Wait till the clouds roll by!" 

— Opper in the New York American. 




SHADES OF CAPTAIN KiDD AND jF.ssiF. jAMF.s-".And we thought we knew a. 

thing or two !" 

—Webster in the Chicago Inter Ocean. 



SIDELIGHTS ON BUSINESS AND POLITICAL ETHICS. 



38 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



yet darinp:, quick to seize, yet ready to wait," 
and eschewing all amusements which might 
be called frivolous. As time went on these 
characteristics became more conspicuous. He 
took up the oil business, to which he gave 
himself, body and soul, "working with a per- 
sistency which would put laborers to shame." 
It was in i868 that tlie turning-point came 
in Mr. Rockefeller's career. He was nearly 
thirty then, and he sought to make himself dic- 
tator in the oil industry, by getting his trans- 
portation cheaper than his neighbors could. 
"He had evidently never thought seriously of 
anything but making money," writes Miss 
Tarbell. "His religious training seems to 
have been formal, awakening him merely to 
the duty of attending to devotional exercises 
and giving to the church. So, when he rea- 
lized that the rebate was the means by which 
he could gain control of the oil industry in 
Cleveland, he went after it. ignorant of. or in- 
different to, the ethical quality of the act." 
Miss Tarbell goes on to tell of the giving of 
rebates, and the storm of protest that fol- 
lowed when the nature of the contracts he had 
made became public." " Mr. Rockefeller knew 



'Jl 


1 




w 


• 


• 



VICTOR H. METCALK. 

Secretary of the department of Commerce 
and Labor, whose rigorous execution of the 
Chinese e.xchision law was disapproved by 
President Roosevelt. In consequence there 
are rumors that the secretary will resign from 
the Cabinet. 



now," we read, "if he had not before, that the scheme he had gone 
into was bound to ruin men, that by it he enriched himself at the 
expense of others." If he was convinced of his wrong-doing, he 
did not show it. Instead, we are told, he went to Mr. Vanderbilt 
and by a series of arguments and threats he obtained a secret re- 
bate on his shipments. 

I5ut what could have induced Mr. Rockefeller to resort to such 
tactics? Miss Tarbell says there seems to have been no inducement 
but the size of the stakes for which he was playing. To quote : 

■ " When a man deliberately decides to build up his fortune by 
taking advantage of practises against which, the moral sense of his 
day has pronounced, as in 1872 it had loudly pronounced against 
railroad discriminations, of practises to which he knows the moral 
law is opposed, he must have the courage of his decision, he must 
be prepared to sustain his determination by any or all of those 
practises which are essential in supporting a deed which society 
declares contrary to her good. He must be prepared to conceal, 
to spy, to threaten, to bribe, to perjure himself, and he must be 
prepared to harden his heart to the sufferings of those who fall in 
his path. . . . This is what it always will cost. There is no evi- 
dence whatever that Mr. Rockefeller has ever hesitated once, in 
thirty-two years, at the price demanded. He has faced the need 
with unwavering courage. He has paid, like a man who has 
weighed the price of wrong-doing and decided to pay it. 

" From the first, concealment was the very key to the game. 
Mr. Rockefeller's skill in concealing the truth was masterly. His 
is not a frank nature. . . . It was not long after the .Standard C)il 
Company was founded, before it was said in Cleveland that iis 
offices were the most difficult in town to enter, Mr. Rockefeller 
the most difficult man to see. If a stranger got in to see any one 
he was anxious. . . . This caution gradually developed into a Chi- 
nese wall of .seclusion. Tiiis suspicion extended no; only to all 
outsiders but most insiders 

" As the business developed and its practises became more hos- 
tile to public good, one of its chief aims was to protect itself from 
I)ui)licily. It became tiic practise to conceal whatever advantages 
it gained and whatever relations it formed— if charged with them, 
to deny them even under oath. 'You were a member of the South- 
ern Improvement Company.'' he was a*ikcd once by an investigat- 
ing committee. 'I was not,' he said. Yet Mr. Rockefeller was a 
member of this company, owned iSo shares of its stock — was one 
of the two men who stood by it until public indignation overthrew 
it 

" Undoubtedly Mr. Rockefeller swore falsely becau.se in his 
judgment secrecy was essential to carrying out his purpose, and 



carrying out his purpose was vastly more im- 
portant in his opinion than telling the truth. 
That is. he had no interest in truth when it in- 
terfered with business. Business is the higher 
law ; success in it justifies itself ! So absolute 
is his faith in this policy of concealment that 
he has for years endured misrepresentation, 
jeers, absurd canards, as general and con- 
temptuous ridicule as any man in America, 
even in politics, has endured without reply. 
His self-control has been masterful— he knows, 
nobody better, that to answer is to invite dis- 
cussion, to answer is to call attention to the 
facts in the case. 'Why do you not deny 
these slanders, John?' a friend once asked 
him. as they walked a path in one of his great 
parks. 'Do you see that worm there? ' Mr. 
Rockefeller said, pointing to an earth-worm 
which squirmed on the walk, at his feet. 'If I 
let it go. it will disappear into tlie ground. If 
I trample on it, I will call the attention of 
every passer-by to it.' It is a great philoso- 
phy — a very great philosophy for one with 
Mr. Rockefeller's ambition. Its difficulty is 
that the day conies when it no longer works. 
It has come for John D. Rockefeller. Who 
is left in the country so unsophisticated as to 
believe Mr. Rockefeller, except upon personal 
knowledge that he is telling the truth ? Wit- 
ness the cynical sneers that have gone over 

the country recently at the public statements of the Standard Oil 

Company." 



RESULTS OF THE CHINESE BOYCOTT. 

" TT required little more than a threat on the part of China to 
-■- boycott United States products to bring us to time," ex- 
claims the Milwaukee Free Press in commenting upon the instruc- 
tions which President Roosevelt has given to Secretary Metcalf to 
be less rigorous in executing the exclusion laws. The Philadel- 
phia Public Ledger speaks in a similar vein in assigning a motive 
for the President's action, and further declares: 

" Now that the 'pocket nerve ' is being touched, there is a likeli- 
hood that the whole question of our relations with. China will be 
reopened. The Chinese have found our vulnerable point. So 
long as they went on buying our goods, our statesmen, particularly 
those from the Pacific coast, where the question of Chinese immi- 
gration is felt in an acute form, could afford to ignore the consid- 
erations of national honor involved." 

Now, if the President's orders are obeyed, "Chinese officials, 
merchants, students, and travelers" will be accorded all "the 
rights, privileges, and immunities" which are granted to citizens 
of "the most favored nation." Only laborers will be excluded, 
and if discourtesy is shown to any one of the exempt classes, the 
official responsible will be immediately " dismissed from the ser- 
vice." But a question has arisen whether these orders can or will 
be obeyed. As the Public Ledger again points out : 

"Secretary Metcalf is between the 'devil and the deep sea ' on 
the question. He comes from a section where any relaxation of 
the government methods of enforcing the exclusion law or of the 
regulations which have made it as difficult as possible for the Chi- 
nese merchant and student to come in will be interpreted as a 
w eakening on their great issue. He seems to have his ear so close 
to the ground and to have so intently in mind the possible effect 
upon his political fortunes of any action he may take in the direc- 
tion of humane treatment of the Chinese, that his apparent ten- 
dency is to lean too far in the other direction." 

Indeed, so strong is the belief in some quarters that Secretary 
Metcalf is di.ssatisfied with the attitude of the Administration that 
the New York rrfl/-A/ publishes the prediction, " that the final re- 
sult will be that Mr. Metcalf will resign from tlie Cabinet" ; and it 
must be admitted thnt the position of the Secretary of Commerce 



Vol. XXXL, No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



39 



and Labor — a popular and influential citizen of California— is ex- 
ceedingly embarrassing ii Mr. Taft voiced the sentiment of his 
colleagues when he said at Miami University in condemning the 
exclusion laws : 

" Ought we to throw away the advantage which we have by rea- 
son of Chinese natural friendship for us and continue to enforce 
an unjustly severe law. and thus create in the Chinese mind a dis- 
position to boycott American trade and to drive our merchants 
from Chinese shores, simply because we are afraid that we may 
for the time lose the approval of certain unreasonable and extreme 
popular leaders of California and other coast States? Does the 
question not answer itself? Is it not the duty of members of Con- 
gress and of the Executive to disregard the unreasonable demands 
of a portion of the community deeply prejudiced upon this sub- 
ject in the Far West and insist on extending justice and courtesy 
to a people from whom we are deriving, and are likely to derive, 
such immense benefit in the way of international trade?" 

But whether the prediction that Secretary Metcalf will resign be 
baseless or not, it should be noted that he did not remain silent in 
the face of censure and complaint. In fact he gave the President 
some belated information in excuse of the acts done by his depart- 
ment ; and besides, he is reported as bluntly saying in an interview 
that "the exclusion law is not harshly administered." His defense 
for whatever severities his subordinates may have shown to the 
Chinese is explained by the Boston Herald substantially as fol- 
lows : 

" Secretary Me'tcalf accuses the Chinese Government, or at least 
Chinese officials, of issuing fraudulent certificates to Chinese 
coolies. In these certificates the coolies are described as receiv- 
ing certificates from the officials of their own country which are 
intended, under our law, to enable merchants, students, and trav- 
elers to enter freely into this country and to travel through it. 
These certificates are countersigned by our own diplomatic and con- 
sular officers. The harshest words which the President and the 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor apply to our own officers in 
speaking of these certificates is that they have been negligent. They 
have countersigned, in other words, the fraudulent certificates, so 
called, given by Chinese officials, and, doing it carelessly, have en- 
abled a great many coolies to come to the United States under the 
pretense of being merchants, students, or travelers." 

But while, as the //era/d iurther remarks, " the harshness mani- 
fested by the administrators of the exclusion law is born of dislike 
to the Chinamen, or is due to the willingness of our officials, and 
to their readiness, also, to heed the voice of those who vote on the 



Pacific coast," yet nevertheless it very plainly appears that two 
diametrically opposing views are entertained regarding the exclu- 
sion law even in these Pacific coast States where the true hotbed 
of the anti-Chinese sentiment is located. The laboring classes 
want the laws enforced with all the severity allowable. On the 
other hand, the business men, as a rule, desire that there should be 
a liberal interpretation and administration of the law in favor of 
the Chinese. The Detroit /""rce Press, in commenting upon this 
feature of the case, remarks : 

"Sentiment in the Far West was supposedly solid in favor of 
the most rigid enforcement of the law possible, but a change is 
taking place among business men and manufacturers, who are be- 
ginning to realize the peril confronting this country as a result of 
the threatened boycott of American-made goods by the Chinese 
commercial guilds. This is evidenced by the action of the Port- 
land, Ore., chamber of commerce in telegraphing President Roose- 
velt calling attention to the conditions existing and earnestly recom- 
mending a more liberal interpretation of the laws and the appoint- 
ment of a commission to investigate the matter and recommend to 
Congress such legislation as will promote increased harmony be- 
tween the two nations." 

The New York Herald says : 

"On the other hand, the temper of the labor unions, particularly 
those on the Pacific coast, may be inferred from the fact that a 
new organization has been formed in California to urge that the 
Chinese exclusion act be extended to exclude Japanese and Korean 
laborers from the United States and its insular possessions." 



"PROFESSIONAL AMATEURS" IN ATHLETICS. 

"T^ HE agitation stirred up by Mr. Henry Beach Needham's ac- 
* count of "Commercialism in College Athletics" continues 
to go on. Much wholesome discussion of the evil complained of 
has taken place. As will be recalled by reference to our digest of 
comment in these columns a month ago, Mr. Needham went no 
further than to state the facts and to deprecate the condition which 
they disclosed. Subsequent writers, however, have been so bold 
as to ascribe a cause for the trouble and to suggest the remedy. 
Perhaps the most forcible article in this direction, which has fol- 
lowed Mr. Needham's expose, is that of Mr. Caspar Whitney, 
published in the July number of Outing. Mr. Whitney has been 
studying and writing on college sports for twenty years, and for 
this reason more than usual importance is attached to all that he 




FIRING THE FOREIGNER. 

The East threatens to adopt more '■ Western methods." 




THE RETORT COURTEOUS. 

— May in the Yit%.\o\\. JournaL 



— Warren in the Boston Herald. 

A RULE THAT "WORKS BOTH WAYS." 



40 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



says on the subject. He does not take quite the alarming view of 
the case which Mr. Xeedham takes, as the following quotation 
will show : 

"Within the time I have so closely followed the subject 1 have 
seen the standard improve from corruption to comparative purity. 
There is no comparison between the condition of college athletics 
to-day and that of say ten years ago. Cases of rule infringement, 
of ineligible students played, are to-day the exceptions at our lead- 
ing colleges. Ten to twelve years ago they were the rule." 

But, nevertheless, Mr. Whitney admits that Mr. Needham's ar- 
ticle " marshals an array of facts bearing on commercialism in col- 
lege sport which is startling." It seems to be the opinion of Mr. 
Whitney that the employment of "professional coaches" does 
more tiian any otiier cause to foster and maintain the spirit of com- 
mercialism in college athletics. His words in support of this con- 
tention are as follows : 

" I say that in my judgment, based upon a score of years of close 
study of this subject, the profe.ssional coach has more to do with 
the present spirit in our universities of winning at any cost than 
any other single factor. There are many excellent men who are 
professionals. I make no criticism of them individually ; I would 
not be interpreted as reHecting upon their honesty of purpose or 
their personal character. In the nature of things, in tlie common 
sense of things, the man who is employed to coach and make foot- 
ball teams, baseball teams, track teams, crews, what you will, is 
bound to be governed by the single thought of winning. It is his 
business ; it is his reputation ; it is his life's work, his success, his 
all in all to turn out teams that beat the combinations of a rival 
university. He must win in order to hold his job." 

But if all of Mr. Whitney's charges be true, there is no immedi- 
ate danger that the professional coach will lose his job, and there 
is also but little hope that any other of the practises objected to 
will soon be abandoned ; for the faculties, alumni, and students of 
all the larger colleges, in his belief, appear to be entirely willing 
to allow the present order of things to remain. Says Mr. Whit- 
ney : 

" Regularly as the football season comes around, presidents and 
gentlemen in high standing in the university world relieve them- 
selves of certain pent-up feelings through the newspapers. Foot- 
ball is damned from kick to touch-down, charged with trickery, 
charged with unmaking of character, charged with all crimes on 
the calendar from A to Z. . . . But when the football season 
draws near and the baseball season is at hand, and various individ- 
ual illustrations of these practises that have been so vigorously de- 
nounced are brought to the attention of our worthy presidents and 
faculty members and athletic-committee chairmen— behold an in- 
stant scramble for a stretching of the rule to fit the particular case I" 

When the rule has at last been stretched so as to permit "re- 
cruiting" and the employment of real professionals and profes- 
sional amateurs, "the president shifts his responsibility to the 
chairman of the athletic committee, and tiie athletic committee 
shifts it to the alut/nins — and the aluiiiniis saws wood every min- 
ute." But Mr. Whitney declares that " the president and the ath- 
letic committee and the college itself should not escape condemna- 
tion by putting the odium" of these evil practises " on aliitiini 
shoulders " ; especially so when these college officials could end 
the trouble and scandal simply by doing their plain duty. In con- 
clusion, Mr. Whitney says: 

" If Harvard and Yale should get together, whether as to facul- 
ties or athletic committees or bodies of aliiniui, and say we will 
have no men on our teams— regardless of the individual's athletic 
ability, regardless of what it meant to the strength or weakness of 
their respective teams— who have ])layed on semi-professional i^all 
nines, who are being ' assisted,' who, in a word, have tran.sgressed 
the letter or spirit of the Providence rules— there would be in- 
stant end to all transgression. But the facts are that, while Presi- 
dent Eliot of Harvard and President Hadley of Yale are preach- 
ing and writing against uncleanliness in college athletics, their 
athletic committees are aboM to pass a rule whits^-.vashing any 
athlilc —ho has accepted money for his playing skill before he was 
nineteen years of age ! They say this is an effort to separate the 



black sheep from the gray ones. And that is just the point ; just 
an illustration of the spirit of commercialism in our college sport. 
Why separate the black from the gray? Why consider the gray 
at all. ^ What is the matter with keeping our sport to those con- 
cerning whose color there is no question? Why should our col- 
leges be always making rules in order to get in desirable athletes 
who have in some direction or in some way violated the written 
law or the spirit of amateur sport? Why /////.v/" the nine have a 
man who is tainted? Why can not the faculties rise above the 
pressing demand of the football captain? Why are Yale and 
Pennsylvania bidding in rivalry for the services of a trainer?" 

President Roosevelt also referred to this subject in his address 
to the graduates at Harvard on Wednesday of last week. After 
speaking favorably of " rough games," but decrying brutality, he 
said : 

"And, finally, it is a much worse thing to permit college sport 
to become in any shape or way tainted by professionalism, or by 
so much as the slightest suspicion of money-making; and this is 
especially true if the professionalism is furtive, if the boy or man 
violates the spirit of the rule while striving to keep within the let- 
ter. 

" Professional sport is all right in its way. I am glad to say 
that among my friends I number professional boxers and wrest- 
lers, oarsmen, and baseball men, w4iose regard I value, and whom 
in turn I regard as thoroughly good citizens. But the college un- 
dergraduate who, in furtive fashion, becomes a semi-professional 
is an unmitigated curse, and that not alone to university life and to 
the cause of amateur sport ; for the college graduate ought in after 
years to take the lead in putting the business morality of this coun- 
try on a proper plane, and he can not do it if in his own college 
career his code of conduct has been warped and twisted." 



NAVAL AUTHORITIES ON THE NAVAL 

BATTLE. 

' I ''HERE still seems to be a lack of authentic and definite infor- 
-'• mation as to many important details of the Battle of the Sea 
of Japan and of the other naval operations in the Far East. A 
few facts, however, have been established, and from these experts 
are trying to find the lessons to be taught by the remarkable and 
uninterrupted series of Japanese successes. Perhaps the most in- 
teresting contribution to the literature of the subject is the article 
by Captain A. T. Mahan (in Collier's Weekly of June 17), who is 
looked upon by many as America's foremost critic in naval affairs. 
We gather from Captain Mahan's article that, while the Russians 
had more battle-ships, they had fewer armored cruisers and tor- 
pedo-vessels ; and that the deficiency in these two latter classes 
was so pronounced as to give to the Japanese a decided superiority 
in the numi^er of armored vessels and in the total of the fighting 
units of their fieet. The other advantages possessed by the Jap- 
anese were a home base and sucli fine training and experience that 
there was "no approach to equality in the efficiency of the oppos- 
ing ships' companies." Under these adverse circumstances Admi- 
ral Rozhdcstvensky steamed with full speed ahead through the 
Tsushima Strait in two columns, with the weaker and lighter ves- 
sels toward the enemy, whom he met at the ea.stern entrance of the 
strait at close on to 2 p.m. — a fact which CajUain Mahan brings out 
to show that the opposing fleets had only five hours and a half of 
daylight in which to fight on the first day of the battle. 

In commenting upon the Russian admiral's disposition of his 
ve.s.sels. Captain Mahan says: " I should certainly hesitate to joiil 
in condemning the arrangement, tactically considered. Least of 
all should 1 do so on the ground I have seen that this lighter line 
was thrown into confusion and so reacted upon and confu.sed the 
main battle line." The arrangement, however, proved disastrous 
to the Russians, on account of the superior seamanship of Togo, 
who clearly outmaneuvered his opponent by hurling all his availa- 
ble force on his lighter line and throwing it into disorder. "There 
would be in such conditions," Captain Mahan asserts, "nothing 
to cause confusion among capable and self-possessed captains." 



Vol. XXXL.Xo. 21 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



A 



(ii 



But it seems that the Russian captains lacked the qualities referred 
to. For as Captain Mahan continues : 

" Into such disorder the Russians fell, facilitating still further 
the concentration of enemies upon separated vessels or groups ; 
an opportunity which the Japanese were enabled to improve by 
being numerically much superior in armored vessels on the whole, 
tho with fewer battle-ships." 

It was, in the opinion of Captain Mahan, the greater number of 
vessels possessed by the Japanese which enabled them " to com- 




From slereogr.aph, copyrisht 1905, by Underwood & Underwood, New York. 
STREET DECORATIONS IN YOKOHAMA. 

After the smashing of the Russian fleet in the sea of Japan. 

bine to advantage " and to turn this trick, and hence he draws his 
first conclusion as to the lessons of the Battle of the Sea of Japan. 
He says: 

"This, if accurately inferred from the instance before us, sounds 
again the warning, continually repeated, but in vain, that in dis- 
tributing fleet tonnage regard must be had to numbers, quite as 
really as to the size of the individual ship. This I say, while fully 
conscious of the paradox that an amount of power developed in a 
single ship is more efficient than the same amount in two. In part, 
the present Japanese success has been the triumph of greater num- 
bers, skilfully combined, over superior individual ship power, too 
concentrated for flexibility of movement." 

The only part which Captain Mahan finds that the torpedo-boats 
played in this great fight was to increase " the confusion once initi- 
ated," and to attack "an enemy crippled and broken" under 
"cover of darkness " which soon came on. Captain Mahan admits 
that in this crisis the torpedo craft did excellent service, but never- 
theless he declares ; 

" Yet, altho we may be sure they did much good work, the testi- 
mony more and more seems to show that the decisive effect had 
been produced by the guns, and that the destroyers acted mainly 
t'.ie part of cavalry, rounding up and completing the destruction of 
a foe already decisively routed. It may be believed that they in 
many cases sank what the Japanese, in Nelson's phrase, miglit 
liave considered already ' their own ships.' It is reported that 
this enveloping movement was shared also by some of the armored 
vessels, moving by the rear, and seemingly also to the other side ; 
a distribution of vessels followed by combination of movement — 
corresponding to analysis and synthesis — which is only possible to 



numbers, and enforces again tlie need for numbers, as well as for 
individual power." 

So, in view of all known circumstances. Captain Mahan makes 
the emphatic assertion that " the superiority of tlie battle-ship and 
of the gun tor the main purposes of naval warfare has not been 
shaken." In conclusion, tlie captain speaks of the report that, in 
spite of the disorder which reigned, the crippled battle-ships beat 
off after dark two attacks of the whole flotilla of the enemy's de- 
stroyers, and remarks: 

" Should tlie official accounts confirm this, it will approach dem- 
onstration that uninjured battle-ships, manned by watclilul seamen 
who keep their head, will in the long run suffer from torpedo attack 
only in the .same proportion as any military force suffers from 
other incidents of war. Let it be mentioned also that the torpedo- 
vessel, from the delicacy of its constitution— a box of machinery— 
and from the narrowness of its coal supply, will always be most 
numerous and efficient in home waters. This advantage in this 
case fell to the Japanese, and it may have contrilmted to determine 
Togo's choice of position. This particular consideration sliows 
that, in the broad view of naval policy, the function of the torpedo- 
vessel is defensive, altho its local action is offensive." 

Other experts who have essayed to analyze the results of the 
naval operations in the Far East all seem to agree with the main 
conclusion reached by Captain Mahan, which is that the battle- 
ship still remains supreme. Thus Captain Edward W. Very, late 
U. S. N., says, in Harpers Weekly for July i : 

"The remedy, therefore, for the overtoppling budget does not lie 
in abolishing the battle-ship for a makeshift substitute, no matter 




From atereograph, copyright 190S, by Underwood & UDderwood, New York. 
CELEBRATING THE VICTORY IN TOKYO. 

how valuable as a fighting unit that substitute may be within its 
own province. Nor does it lie in retrograding the size and power 
of future battle-ships, for in this the unit of the squadron so vitally 
necessary for thorough efficiency is sacrificed. If a sacrifice is to 
be made, it must be in magnitude of the power as a whole, but 
never under any circumstances should a single step be taken that 
shall endanger the thorough efficiency of whatever limited power 
there be." 

And Commander Bradley A. Fiske, U. S. N., in the same mag- 
azine says : 

" Many Congressmen of undoubted ability and patriotism, and 



42 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



distinguished in their own professions, have challenged the declar- 
ation of the men of the naval profession that they needed very 
large battle-ships. Now what the recent successes of Japan have 
done for naval officers, and therefore for the country, is to prove 
that they were right. . . . Some of the immediate results are easy 
to foresee. One is that the great American fleet, so long desired 
and needed, will at last come into being." 



THE RUSSIAN NAVAL MUTINY. 

IF there were any doubts in the American press that a rebellion 
is under way in Russia, the events of last week seem to have 
removed them. With the remnant of the Czar's navy saturated 
with the spirit of mutiny, and with the uprisings in Odessa, Lodz, 
and Warsaw, and a score or more towns in all parts of Russia, 
our papers hold out little hope for the future of the Czar's reign. 
"The Russian Empire continues on its eighteen-hour schedule to- 
ruin," declares the New York Mail; and the New York Globe 
thinks that '"it is evident that organized revolt is under way." 
The Philadelphia Press says : 

" The shadow and eclipse of revolution is sweeping over a great 
empire, and in its sudden darkness nothing is clear, save one great 
fact — the Government faces disaffection in its military service on 
land as well as at sea, as well as the complete disorganization of 
all civil means for maintaining order. 

" It is now a mere question of time when some regiment or some 
garrison will raise the standard of revolt and unite with the mob. 
Nothing can prevent this but some sudden palace revolution, aid- 
ed, it may be, by the local authorities of Moscow and St. Peters- 
burg, which puts the Liberal forces of the empire in control in the 
name of the Czar or of his successor. 

" But speculation is as useless and as fruitless, now that the storm 
of revolution, successful or not, has broken, as to predict midway 
the next stroke of a storm or of earthquake." 

Probably the most sensational of all the happenings in Russia, 
last week, was the outbreak aboard some of the war-ships of the 
lilack Sea fleet. The mutiny began on board the Kniaz Poietn- 
kine, and followed, it is reported, the shooting of a sailor, who in 
behalf of his comrades had made a complaint against bad treat- 
ment. On June 28 the battle-ship was seized by the insurgent 
crew, who hoisted a red flag, and, putting in at Odessa, became 
the flghting allies of the strikers on shore. At that time anarchy 
ran riot in Odessa. The populace resisted the troops, burned 
public buildings, and much of the shipping around the harbor. 
As at Lodz, the week before, the casualties are hard to ascertain. 
Finally the military gained control of the situation, while Admiral 
Kruger, in command of the Black Sea fleet, was sent to capture or 
oink the Kniaz Potemkine, which threatened the city. Kruger ar- 
rived at Odessa on June 30, but the Kniaz refused to surrender, 
and, to make matters worse, was joined by the battle-ship Georgi 
Pobiedonosetz. Kruger signalled his ships to proceed to Sevasto- 
pol, but these two ships refused to obey. The Admiral, it is said, 
was afraid to fire on the mutineers, because of the mutinous state 
of his own men. The men aboard the Pobiedonosetz, after a day 
in mutiny, offered to surrender, but the Kniaz Potemkine pro- 
ceeded to cruise about the Black Sea. The condition aboard the 
vessels of the Black Sea fleet was such that the Admiralty decided 
to put the crews ashore and to ungear the machinery. 

" If tlie spirit of the men on the Kniaz Poieinkine fairly repre- 
sents that of the rest of the men in the ranks of the Czar's navy 
and army, we need not go far to seek the reason for the one-sided 
victory in the Sea of Japan and for the successive Japanese vic- 
tories on the plains of Manchuria," declares the Philadelphia 
I.edi^er ; and the New York Kvenmf; Post. \\\ commenting on the 
mutmy on tiie Kniaz Poteinkme says : 

"The history of navies could be overhauled for a century back 
without finding as tragic or startling a story as that which came 
fr>)in Odessa yesterday. Not even Marryat or Cooper ever por- 
trayed in (heir sea novels tiie crew of a large man-of-war rising 
against tlieir own officers, and certainly this is the first time that 



the red flag of anarchy has ever been flung to the breeze from a 
war-ship"s masthead. On the face of the news, it is hard to be- 
lieve that the mutiny was merely the result of serving bad food. 
The Russian .sailor is accustomed to ill-treatment, to being kicked 
and ruffed about the decks, and it hardly required the fact that two 
torpedo-boats are supporting the crew of the Kniaz Potemkine, 
and the St. Petersburg rumors that the men on other ships have 
risen, to make it appear as if the Odessa tragedy were part of a 
well-thought-out revolutionary plan. But none of the tragic hap- 
penings which have affected Russia these last two months so 
clearly .shows the seething popular discontent with present condi- 
tions. These sailors have had no long cruises to make under try- 
ing conditions, as had Rohzdestvensky's men when they showed 
signs of insubordination off Madagascar. But, doubtless, the sail- 
ors of the Black Sea squadron have felt deeply the sacrifice of their 
comrades of the Baltic fleet, and have longed for a chance to ex- 
press their opinions for this reason alone. It is not surprising that 
the news has created a panic in St. Petersburg, and that there is 
already a belief that more than one regiment is disaffected. If 
this army dissatisfaction spreads, the throne will totter. Its only 
support to-day is bayonets, and if these fail there will be a crash 
to shake the world." 



BEEF TRUST INDICTMENTS. 

THE indictment of seventeen beef magnates and five of their 
corporations for violating the Sherman anti-trust law does 
not seem to inspire the press with the conviction that the magnates 
will go to jail, that the " trust " will be broken up, or that the price 
of meat will fall. The New York American notes that on the 
same day that the Federal grand jury returned these indictments 
in Chicago, the Cook County grand jury, sitting in the .same city, 
returned indictments against forty-seven strikers and labor agita- 
tors for offenses committed in connection with the teamster's 
strike, and it asks which are more likely to be sent to prison. The 
meat-trust indictments bear the names of some of the most promi- 
nent packers in the country, such as J. Ogden Armour, Charles 
Armour, Louis F. Swift, Charles Swift, Edward F. Swift, Edward 
Cudahy, Edward Morris, and Ira W. Morris. The New York 
Tribune thinks that crime has been committed in the operations 
of the beef industry, and expresses the hope that it will be shown 
that our system of justice is " as ready and powerful in dealing 
with the lawbreakers working through great industrial corpora- 
tions as with those working through labor unions." The New 
York World(Dtm.) and Press (Rep.) seize this occasion to make 
some rather slurring comparisons between the beef-trust case and 
the Morton rebate case. " Fortunately no beef-packer is a mem- 
ber of the cabinet," remarks The World; and T/te Press says: 

" We do not dare to imagine what would have happened in the 
beef-trust cases if instead of Mr. J. Ogden Armour the president 
of that organization had been Mr. Paul Morton or some one with 
an equal claim on the unlimited friendship of President Roosevelt. 
The public can only be grateful that the Administration had no 
friends to protect from justice at Chicago, and must hail with sat- 
isfaction the indictment of the twenty-one men who have main- 
tained the cruel conspiracy popularly identified as the beef trust." 

John S. Miller, of counsel for the packing firms, says: 

"I ask for the packers who have been indicted the withholding 
of judgment until their side of this matter can be properly pre- 
sented, i think the investigation on which these indictments are 
based was instituted and carried on with the previous conviction 
that the accused were guilty, and that the thing to accomplish was 
to get the evidence. The packers have been held in prejudice and 
condemned by being called a beef trust, by continued and repeat- 
ed charges, without proofs, and by gross fal.sehood and misrepre- 
sentations. The Garfield report accurately stated the facts in re- 
spect to the i^acking business, but its results, which were truthful 
and accurate, did not agree with the exaggerated and false charges 
that have been made. 

" The packers are not violators of the Sherman act. They have 
endeavored to comply with the law in the best of faith, and in my 
opinion they have done so." 



Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



43 



LETTERS AND ART. 



THE FAIRYLAND DRAMA OF J. M. BARRIE. 

" A PROOF of Mr. Barrie's value to the stage," declares Max 
■^^- Beerbohm, "is that his plays would not have the faintest 
chance of being produced if they were written by any other man." 
As it is, not only are they produced, but their production is a 
source of much profit both to the author and to Mr. Charles Froh- 
man, the manager who had enough business imagination to present 
them. 

Mr. Barrie's more recent successes have been won in London by 
"Peter Pan; or the Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up," " Pantaloon," 
and " Alice Sit-by-the-fire." The first of these, which will proba- 
bly be seen in America next season, is characterized by Mr. Syd- 
ney Brooks as "almost perfect Barry." Writing in Harper's 
Weekly (June 24), Mr. Brooks says of this play : 

"Nobody but Mr. Barrie could have written it; nobody but he 
would have even had the courage to conceive it. Fairyland, and 
the dreams of a boy of ten, and all the logical topsyturvyness of 
childhood dramatized — actually dramatized ! You begin in a nur- 
sery and you end in the Never Never Never Land. You have 
children bathed and tucked up in bed, with a gigantic dog for a 
nurse; you have them taught how to fly by Peter Pan — and fly 
they do, out of the nursery window, to where Peter lives under- 
ground with boys who have been spilled from their perambulators 
by careless nurse-maids ; you have everything you ever did in those 
early waking dreams that no sleeping ones ever rival afterward — 
fights with wolves, gorgeous Stevensonian battles with pirates, 
intoxicating Fenimore-Cooperish wallowings in the blood of In- 
dians ; you have, in short, yourself as you always knew you would 
be if only you had your chance — the invincible patriot, the reckless 
swashbuckler, the tireless enemy of the Jolly Roger, and the cas- 
ual rescuer of beauty in distress. All this ' Peter Pan ' gives you, 
this and much else ; till you feel that justice has been done to your 
merits at last. That there are in it passages that seem over- 
strained, and some, tho not many, ' false notes,' is very possible ; 
but who cares for that? When a genius can make us all remem- 
ber what too many of us forget, can take us back, and can recon- 
struct the very essence and vitality of childhood, it is the part of 
wisdom to accept without cavil. That is how London has accept- 
ed ' Peter Pan.' That, too, of a surety is how New York will ac- 
cept it." 

Mr. George Henry Payne, in a London letter to The Eve7ting 
Telegram (New York), declares that in " Peter Pan " Barrie has 
written around " the eternal truth of motherhood " a play " that 
will live for years and years, and even more years." It is, says 
Mr. Payne, " the new note in play writing." From his description 
we quote as follows : 

"The play opens almost like one of the modern English com- 
edies—a piece of daring indeed for one who is about to spin a fairy 
tale of as tenuous tissue as that of Grimm or Andersen. Mr. and 
Mrs. Darling, before going out to a fashionable dinner, are saying 
good-night in the nursery to their children 

"Peter Pan, hunting for his shadow, as all things of air are 
always hunting for some sign of body or flesh, comes flying in at 
the window of the nursery, and Wende, waking, meets for the first 
time a real representative of the Fairy Land. But the fairies, Pe- 
ter tells her, are fast dying out, for ' Every time a little child says 
she does not believe in fairies a fairy drops dead.' 

"Off to the Never Never Land Peter takes the three children, 
for W^ende has promised to be a mother to him — you see, Peter 
never had a mother — and you can imagine how excited the chil- 
dren are at being taken to a place where they will see fairies and 
have nothing to do but fly about all day. And the wonderful 
things that happen in the Never Never Land ! The pirates come 
to steal Wende, for even the fierce pirates know that if you have a 
mother no harm can come to you, and Wende is such a good little 
mother that her fame spreads rapidly. Then the Indians fight the 
pirates, but they are defeated in a terrible battle and Wende and 
the lost children — for the Never Never Land is inhabited by the 
children who fell out of their perambulators when nurses were flirt- 
ing with policemen — are carried away. 

" Before Wende goes she has made Peter promise to take his 



medicine regularly and be sure to wear heavy underwear until the 
late spring. But his medicine has been poisoned by the pirates, 
and Tinklebell, the faithful fairy companion, takes it herself to 
save Peter. 

" But Tinklebell is dying ; she grows dimmer and dimmer, for to 
human eyes a real fairy seems only a dancing light. Peter is in 
despair and bethinks him of the only thing that really can save a 
fairy's life, and down to the footlights he rushes and throwing out 
both hands in a fervent appeal : 

"' Oh, you children who say you don't believe in fairies, show 
now that you do and save Tinklebell's life; clap your hands that 
she may live. Tinklebell appeals to you.' 

"And from orchestra stall lo gallery I doubt if there was one 




Frciii a dr.iwing by Williiiiii Nicholson, 

MR. J. M. BARRIE. 

A critic pictures Queen Mab saying- at his cradle : " He shall be a boy as long 
as he lives; he shall have a way with him, so that people shall like him to be 
always a boy ; and he shall have the courage to go on being a boy, however hard 
they try to make him grow up." 

who did not respond. The demonstration lasted several minutes, 
and as an insigiit into human nature was one of the finest scenes 
one could witness. 

"Of the Barrie humor with which the play is filled, of the insight 
into lite and modern foibles, of the intellectual strength of many a 
jesting point, one could write columns. And yet Peter Pan is a 
fairy story,. a real fairy story with music and dances and what not, 
the lairy story of the beauty of motherhood, the fairy story of 
keeping children young." 

" Pantaloon " and " Alice Sit-by-the-Fire,'' while not fairy sto- 
ries, are scarcely less fanciful in treatment, and the slightness of 
their dramatic substance, when separated from the genius of the 
author, leads Max Beerbohm to remark that "alone among artists, 
Mr. Barrie is inspired by very lack of material." The drama, it 
appears, is indebted to Mr. Barrie for having opened to it new 



44 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



fields. A doubt may be entertained, however, as to whether these 
fields can be successfully occupied by any other than Barrie's pe- 
culiar genius— the genius, claims the London Outlook, of one who 
is still a boy at forty-five. Says the same paper: 

" Not once in a century does the star dance and Queen Mab 
stand godmother to an earth-born child, tho now and then some 
dull moralist will lay a false claim to these honors. Every child 
who really receives them is 

A dancing Shape, an Image gay, 
To haunt, to startle, and way-lay; 

but of all those few none has found the world so ready to be way- 
laid and to join in the fun as Barrie. Queen IVIab has been very 
kind to him. She has taught him all the trickiness of a good 
fairy, with none of the spitefulness of a bad fairy : he is full of the 
French malice and has no spark of the English malice. And so 
the wise ones among the grown-ups. judging him by none of their 
own standards, let him play with them as he will, and love him 
for it." 

WHISTLER AND WATTS CONTRASTED. 

LONDON'S art exhibitions of the past winter have led Mr. 
Roger E. Fry to comment, in The Quarterly Reinew, on the 
individualism of the English masters. "The characteristics of a 
nation with a hundred creeds and only one sauce make themselves 
felt even in our art." In illustration he compares Watts and 
Whistler, each, he says, "in some ways typical of Engli.sh art," 
yet remarkable for their "extraordinary unlikeness." For Watts, 
" art was an organic part of human life, affected by its conditions 
and expressive of its needs." Whistler, on the other hand, "as- 
serted the unique nature of the sense of beauty, its uselessness, its 
separation from all other human faculties, and its supreme claims." 
If there be such a thing as a religion of beauty, says Mr. Fry, 
Whistler was its hierophant. In further characterization we read : 

"Whistler, the pamphleteer, the journaHst, the dandy, the pug- 
nacious litigant, was always in evidence. One might have sup- 
posed then that here at least was the man who, loving publicity 
and the stir of city life, would have been able to .say, in a spark- 
ling and witty idiom of his own, something about life. Even if he 
had not interpreted its deeper significance, we might have expected 
from him some close and convincing statement of its fashions and 
its follies. But no artist ever shrank from life more than Whistler. 
No one approached it with more haughty and self-contained re- 
serve. He was never really on terms with life; his keen intelli- 
gence made him alert to detect fallacies in the proverbial philoso- 
phies of his day, and his corrosive wit made his exposure of them 
bitterly resented. Me became a negative Mephistophelian figure ; 
his geniality shriveled, his sympathies were crushed both from 
within and from without. But the very fastidiousness of taste, 
bolli intellectual and esthetic, which tiius set him in opposition to 
life prevented him from giving vent, as a Swift or Carlyle, to the 
rage of his heart The fire burned within him, but he spoke only 
ephemeral witticisms in the press; he never painted the satires 
that he conceived ; for the root of all his quarrel with life lay 
in the one really deep emotion he possessed — the love of pure 
beauty 

"His theory, then, that the esthetic emotion is entirely distinct 
and self-sufficient, made it a point of honor for him to eliminate 
from his painting all that indignation with a gross generation which 
might conceivably have inspired in liim an art of terrible denuncia- 
tion like Daumier's. His fiery and militant spirit concentrated it- 
self on the perfection of beauty, on the searcli for it in its purest 
aspects, vviiere its elements could be seized apart from any possi- 
ble meanings they might connote. He made almost a fetish of 
the artistic conscience. His negations and exclusions became 
more and more exacting, his points of contact with life rarer. . . . 
He realized taste in its highest development. For its perfection 
it re(iuired a scrupulosity and ascesis which made it analogous to 
moral purity. He carried it about with him as a prophylactic 
against the contaminations of a vulgar age ; he lived by it as a re- 
ligious by his rule ; he almost sank the genius in the man of taste." 

And .again : 

" Whistler stands alone untouched by the imitations of life, pro- 



testing that beauty exists apart, that the work of man's hands is 
fairer than all that nature can show. He is a monument to the 
power of the artist's creed in its narrowest interpretations, and to 
the unbending rectitude of the artistic conscience, a lonely, scarcely 
a lovable, but surely an heroic figure." 

Watts, says the writer, " presents at almost every point the com- 
pletest contrast to Whistler." Of Watts we read further: 

"He clung always with a genial pertinacity to what was hopeful 
and elevating. He was positive and generous where Whistler was 
negative and cynical. His easily kindled enthusiasm for what was 
noble silenced the critical and discriminating faculties of the intel- 
lect. Where Whistler was moved to scornful indignation by the 
hasty assumptions of a superficial and facile philosophy, by the 
easy-going generalizations which were current at the time, Watts's 
imagination responded with glowing enthusiasm. . . . To his 
genial, assimilative nature the harsh abstraction of Whistler's ar- 
tistic Calvinism, with its insistence on perfection, had no meaning. 
For him perfection, as the result of deliberate and critical choice, 
of rejection and exclusion, had no attractions. He created by in- 
clusion and absorption, by identifying himself with some great and 
elevating idea which gathered to itself, as it grew, what was neces- 
sary to its sustenance, careless even if it included some accidental 
and unnecessary accretions. 

" We are not, then, to look to Watts for perfection ; each picture 
of his was a struggle to express some idea which stirred his emo- 
tions. He was bound to be experimental and tentative in his efforts 
to find for this the expressive symbol. And the very importance 
of the ideas to him, the high duty which he believed lay upon him 
to utter them to the world, prevented him from a curious preoccu- 
pation with the mode of their embodiment." 

Yet Watts," almost alone of English artists, . . . has attempted 
the grand style, and on its highest plane." " His spirit," says Mr. 
Fry, " moved at ease in a large orbit ; his ears were attuned to ma- 
jestic strains ; he had to be grandiose or nothing." In Mr. Fry's 
opinion the great mystery of Watts's work is that " in an age of 
exasperating and nervous activity, greeted on all sides by the jerky 
briskness of the modern man," he succeeded in expressing himself 
in the grand style at all. 

As to Watts's future position among the world's great artists, 
Mr. P>y finds it far more difficult to prophesy than in the case of 
Whistler. The latter " accomplished something which had never 
been done before, accomplished it finally and definitively." But 
Watts "calls up perpetually the memory of the greatest creators, 
of Michelangelo, of Titian, of Rubens; and, if we are perfectly 
frank, his work will not quite stand the test thus inevitably ap- 
plied." 

Foreign Books in Russia.— According to the St. Peters- 
burg Novoye Vre/nya, the Kobeko commission on press reforms, 
after thoroughly considering the question of censorship as applied 
to native books, turned Its attention to the proper treatment of im- 
ported books in foreign languages, and found that the situation in 
that respect was even more anomalous and chaotic than with regard 
to the national literary output. Russia is the country of transla- 
tions par excellence. She reads and devours everything, and 
American or German or Italian or Dutch books that are hardly 
known in their own respective countries are promptly translated and 
read by her " intelligencia." Her magazines are full of translated 
fiction from English, French, and other sources. In view of these 
facts the duties of the censors have not been light, and they have 
fallen into many ludicrous blunders and paradoxes. Thus many 
books which one department permitted in translations another 
prohibited in the original, and while a man might be punished for 
selling or possessing a given French book, there was nothing to 
prevent him from selling or buying the same book in a Russian 
translation. The official report submitted to the commission 
showed, says the paper referred to, that in the years 1S71-99 ten 
thousand foreign books were prohibited by the censors, and these 
books included all forms of literature. There has never been any 
revision of this " index," and the Minister of the Interior has offered 



Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



45 



to examine the whole list and remove the ban from at least two- 
thirds of the number. With regard to the future, he proposed to 
abolish the censorship as to all scientific books in foreign languages, 
including books on politics, social science, and economics, while re- 
taining it with reference to fiction, poetry, plays, and "popular" 
literature generally. The liberal members of the commission re- 
garded these proposals as inadequate, and advocated greater free- 
dom and less "distrust of books," tho they be written in other lan- 
guages. — Translation made for The. Literary Digest. 



FITZGERALD CLASSED AS AN AMATEUR. 

MR. ARTHUR C. BENSOxN, the author of the life of Ed- 
ward FitzGerald that has just been added to the English 
Men of Letters Series, finds it no easy matter to define FitzGerald's 
position with regard to the literary tradition of the age. Notwith- 
standing the fact that the "Omar" is a piece of absolutely first- 
rate work, its author "can not be said to have affected the stream 
of English poetry very deeply." Even the language of the poems, 
says Mr. Benson, " stately and beautiful as it is, has no modernity 
about it; it is not a development, but a reverting to older tradi- 
tions, a memorable graft, so to speak, of a bygone style." And so 
the finding is that the author — for .such translation justifies the 
word — of one of the most widely known volumes of verse in the 
English language, is best described as an "amateur." Says Mr. 
Benson : 

" FitzGerald's position with regard to the poetry that was rising 
and swelling about him is that of a stranded boat on a lee shore. 
He could not bring himself into line with modern verse at all; he 
had none of the nineteenth-century spirit. Yet he is in the fore- 
front of those who, standing apart from the direct current of the 
time, seem destined to make the Victorian age furnish a singularly 
rich anthology of beautiful poetry. How many poets there are in 
the last century whose work does not entitle them to be called great 
poets, who yet have produced a very little of the best quality of 
poetry. The same is singularly true of the Elizabethan age, which 
produced not only great poets, but a large number of poetasters 
whose work rises in a few lyrics into the very front rank. 

" With FitzGerald it may be plainly said that, with the excep- 
tion of 'Omar ' and 'The Meadows in Spring,' all the rest of his 
deliberate work in verse is second-rate, the product of a gifted and 
accomplished amateur." 

His inability to produce the greater work was due, the author 
thinks, to a deficiency in the imaginative quality. His positive 
faculty was " a strong spectatorial interest in life, a kind of dark 
yet tender philosophy, which gave him his one great opportunity " 
in literature, and gave him also an attitude toward life that may be 
called that of the amateur. This stands revealed in his correspond- 
ence. Says Mr. Benson : 

" But in prose there still remain the wonderful letters; and these 
have a high value, both for their beautiful and original literary 
form, for the careless picture they give of a certain type of retired 
and refined country life, for their unconsidered glimpses of great 
personalities, and for the fact that they present a very peculiar and 
interesting point of view, a delicate criticism of life from a highly 
original standpoint. The melancholy which underlies the letters 
is not a practical or inspiring thing, but it is essentially true; and 
it carries with it a sad refinement, a temperate waiting upon the 
issues of life, a sober resignation, which are pure and noble. Fitz- 
Gerald, by his lover like tenderness of heart, his wistful desire to 
clasp hands with life, was enabled to resist the temptation, apt to 
beset similar temperaments, to sink into a dreary silence about the 
whole unhappy business. And thus there emerges a certain gen- 
tle and pathetic philosophy, not a philosophy for the brisk, the 
eager, and the successful, but a philosophy for all who find their 
own defects of character too strong for them, and yet would not 
willingly collapse into petulant bitterness. FitzGerald is a sort of 
sedate Hamlet; the madness that wrought in his brain does not 
emerge in loud railings, or in tempestuous and brief agonies of des- 
perate action ; but it emerges in many gentle gestures and pathetic 



beckonings, and a tender desire, in a world where so much is 
dark, that men should cling all together and float into the dark- 
ness. There are many who can not believe and can not act — and 
for these, as for FitzGerald, it seems best to hold fast to all that 
is dear and beautiful. To such as these Fitz(ierald speaks heart 
to heart; and after all, no gifts of style, no bri.sk technique, can 
ever take the place of that closeness of fellowship, which seems to be 

the only human power that may perhaps defy even death 

"Given the shy and sensitive temperament, the acute and skep- 
tical mind, the indolent disposition of FitzGerald, and the ample 
competence which he enjoyed, and the resultant was bound to be 
what it was. He was too sensitive to take his ambitions into the 
arena, too indolent to submit his kindly impulses to an organized 
system of philanthropy; too uncertain to preach a faith which he 
could not hold. But it may be questioned whether the primal law 
which seems to indicate labor as a condition of bodily and mental 
equilibrium can ever be quite successfully evaded. FitzGerald 
felt the need of organized work in his own life, but the pressure 
was never strong enough to induce him to submit himself to uneasy 
conditions." 

Summarizing his subject's qualities and attempting to strike a 
balance therefrom the biographer writes : 

" He had a great tenderness for worthless little books, if they 
only revealed some gentle and delicate trait of character, some 
small piece of wistful individuality. A great conception, a broad 
and vigorous motive, often bewildered and stupefied him His 
idea of the paradise of art was as of a place where you could 
wander quietly about picking a flower here and there, catching a 
little effect, watching a pretty grouping of trees and water, the sun- 
light on a gras.sy bank or a gable-end. He lived and thought in a 
series of glimpses and vistas, but the plan of the place, its avenues 
and terraces, was unregarded by him. And thus there was a want 
of centrality, of combination, of breadth, about his mind. Art 
was to him not an impassioned quest, but a leisurely wandering in 
search of charm, of color, of subtle impressions 

" After all, the process of estimating the character even of the 
best of men must be of the nature of addition and subtraction. It 
is the final note that is our main concern. In FitzGerald's case, 
on the debit side of the account stand a certain childishness of dis- 
position, indolence, a weak sentimentality, a slackness of moral 
fiber, a deep-seated infirmity of purpose. These may be partly 
condoned by an inherited eccentricity. On the credit side stand 
a true loyalty of nature, an unobtrusive generosity, a real love of 
humanity, a moral clear-sightedness, an acute perception of 
beauty, a literary gift that at its best was of the nature of genius. 
There can be little question on which side the balance lies. We 
may regret the want of strenuousness, the over-developed sensi- 
bility which led him to live constantly in the pathos of the past, 
the pain of the contemplation of perishable sweetness. But we 
may be thankful for so simple, so tender-hearted, so ingenuous a 
life ; we may feel that the long quiet years were not misspent which 
produced, if so rarely, the delicate flowers of genius. To enrich 
the world with one imperishable poem, to make music of some of 
the saddest doubts that haunt the mind of man — that is what many 
far busier and more concentrated lives fail to do. To strew the 
threshold of tlie abyss with flowers, to dart an ethereal gleam into 
the encircling gloom, to set a garland of roses in the very slirine 
of death, to touch despair with beauty — this is to bear a part in the 
work of con.soling men, of reconciling fate, of enlightening doom, 
of interpreting the vast and awful mind of God. Truth itself can 
do no more than hint at the larger hope — 'It is He that hath 
made us. ' " 



Is There No Standard for Short Stories?— The 

differences of critical opinion in regard to " Fagan," the winner of 
the 55,000 prize in the short-story competition instituted by Col- 
lier's Weekly, leads The Argonaut (San Francisco) to the conclu- 
sion that "there is no standard of excellence for short stories, and 
there never will be." While three of the judges in the competition 
gave " Fagan " preference over all others. Senator Lodge gave it 
zero out of a possible one hundred. Says The Argonaut : 

"With crude materials, imitating Kipling and London, he [the 
author of ' Fagan '] has made a crudely big, but by no means a 
great, story. The only point where ' Fagan ' exhibits a trace of 



4G 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



genius is in the description of the Filipino 
girl. And this seems to be the opinion of 
most readers of intelligence. . . . Conhrma- 
tory evidence of this is that ' Fagan ' was re- 
jected by two magazines before it was sent to 
the weekly's competition, where it was to win 

the grand prize 

" But. truth to tell, there is no standard of 
excellence for short stories, and there never 
will be. Speaking roughly, they all fall into 
two classes : the imaginative and the intimate. 
Poe was the master of the first sort, and ' The 
Fall of the House of I'sher' stands, perhaps, 
as the best of all imaginative tales, liut Poe 
knew nothing of life, was no close student of 
human character, was not privy to our most 
secret thought. About that he cared nothing. 
In a world he had himself created he dwelt 
content. Some of Maupassant's stories, on 
the otiier hand, are marvels of cynical dissec- 
tion of human motives, as, for example, that 
improper one called ' Ball of Fat.' Here is 
exhibited a cruel intimacy with the springs of 
action that makes us writhe. James and Mrs. 
Wharton are other masters of the short story 
who write from sure knowledge. ' Fagan,' of 
cour.se. falls into neither of these classes, but 




MR. ROWLAND THOMAS, 

Whose $5,000 prize story, " Fagan," lias 
evoked widely divergent critical opinions. 



is interesting chiefly because of its unusual setting and simplicity 
of plot, which makes it comprehensible to the least intelligent 
reader." 



D'ANNUNZIO'S UNSUCCESSFUL TRAGEDY. 

CRITICS differ as to the dramatic value and significance of 
(Jabriele D'Annunzio's new play, the second of the projected 
trilogy. The first, "The Daughter of Jorio," was a study of popu- 
lar superstition and passion, and despite its gloomy and somber 
character it was fascinating and full of a peculiar beauty of its 
own. The second, " The Light Beneath the Bushel," recently pro- 
duced with little success at Milan and Rome, is chiefiy remarkable, 
it appears, for its rich and exuberant language. The .symbolism, 
if there be symbolism in the tragedy, is hidden, and the plot is 
described as slight and crude. The play, indeed, is declared to be 
an unexampled collection of crimes and horrors. Some Italian 
and French critics, however, find power and meaning in it. 

The tragedy is a study in decay— the decay of an ancient and 
once proud and great race. The scene is laid in Naples in the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, and the main incidents of the 
story are as follows : 

Tibaldo de Sangro is the head of the decaying house. He is 
threatened with heart di.sease and has little moral or physical 
strength. He has a son, Simonetto, who is even feebler and more 
degenerate; a daughter, Gigliola, who lives for revenge and is 
consumed by that passion, and a half-brother, Bertrando, who is 
the lover of his present wife, once the servant of his iiouse and his 
deceased first wife. 

Gigliola suspects her stepmother of having murdered her mother, 
and the play opens on the anniversary of that lady's death. It is 
a day of quarrels and bitter recriminations. The daughter has a 
scene with the stepmother, Angizia Fura, and Tibaldo has a vio- 
lent quarrel with Bertrando. Angizia, in the course of the act, con- 
fesses the murder of her mistress and defies the young girl to at- 
tempt vengeance, claiming that the foul deed was committed with 
the approval and complicity of the father. 

But the father turns upon the wicked and faithless Angizia, de- 
nouncing her as the criminal while solemnly protesting his own 
innocence. The spiritless and sickly brother is informed of the 
awful family tragedy, but he is merely thrown into a fit, and no 
action can be expected from him. The " Light Beneath the Bushel " 
is the fiame in Gigliola's heart. It is she who must punish the 
treacherous, cruel, and venomous Angizia. But how.'' Angizia s 
father is a snake-catcher, and she is ashamed of him. When he 
appears in the decaying castle of Tibaldo, his daughter throws 
stents at ius back. 

Gigliola contrives to steal the snake-catcher's bag. filled witli 



vipers, and stirs up its contents. She is de- 
termined to poison her stepmother, but before 
she carries out her design Tibaldo himself kills 
his wife. Gigliola, meantime, dies in great 
agony as the result of her handling of the fatal 
bag. What happens to the other members of 
the decayed house the dramatist but vaguely 
indicates. They are all doomed, but the light 
is extinguished. 

The Latin critics find much in the tragedy 
to admire, and in spite of the absence of a 
love motive and of a plot characterized by 
suspense and development of character through 
action, it is strong and effective on the stage, 
in their opinion. How it appears to an Anglo- 
Saxon critic may be seen from the following 
expressions of the Rome correspondent of the 
London Times, who writes about the play as 
follows : 

" Its purpose is that of the simplest kind — 
to make the flesh creep. It is a modest ambi- 
tion which d'Annunzio shares with his equally 
unromantic prototype, the fat boy in Pick- 
wick ; and even the fat boy's methods of 
achieving his end are scarcely more humble than those of the Ital- 
ian author. Here is no dream of one who has'supp'd full with 
horrors' ; but only a cheap nightmare peopled with phantoms so 
worn with long use and age that they would scarce fright a babe. 
There is indeed something pathetic in a poverty of ideas so open 
and confessed that it is fain to furbish up such threadbare bogeys. 
"The author seems to have come to the conclusion that the pub- 
lic is a coarse feeder, and that no food can be too rancid for its 
taste. One can only hope that he may some day realize the differ- 
ence between one public and another, and discover the value of his 
present popularity. The one redeeming feature of his voice is his 
unexampled mastery of the music which lies in his own tongue; 
and even tiiat is marred by his frequent use of affected or exotic 
words." 

Tolstoy's Literary Plans.— A staff writer for the liberal 
St. Petersburg daily, Nasha Zht'sn (Our Life) gives an account of a 
recent visit to Count Leo Tolstoy's rural estate, Yasnaya Polyana, 
and his conversation witli the great novelist about current and 
other topics. The Count, it appears, was full of energy, strength, 
and vitality, and displayed keen interest in such things as the war, 
European diplomatic intrigue, constitutional reform, agrarian dis- 
content, etc. Withal, he spoke with withering contempt of news- 
papers and newspaper reading. He compared such reading to 
smoking, with all its "depressing, befogging, stupefying, demoral- 
izing effects." For his own part, he does not read newspapers at 
all and depends for news on his family and visitors. His chief oc- 
cupation consists in preparing the clearest possible exposition of 
his whole philosophy and applying it to practical problems of the 
day. The result will be an elaborate work. But there are several 
other things in process of completion, some of them of an artistic 
and imaginative form. Count Tolstoy was not ready to indicate 
their nature, but he was willing to announce the early appearance 
of a unique eclectic work — a sort of philosophical, social, and ar- 
tistic encyclopedia — a collection of specimens of the best literature 
of all ages and countries. This he had conceived as necessary for 
the guidance of men and women who do not want to w-aste time on 
inferior or indifferent stuff, and who are desirous of following a 
course of really profitable reading. — Translation made for The 

LiTKK.XKV DUiKST. 

NOTES. 

Scihi.ler's " Wilhelm Tell" is beiiij; [ilayed with great success in the chief 
theater of Tokio, we are informed by the London Academy. The characters 
have Japanese names. Tell is a Japanese hunter, and Gessler a Daimio. 

SoMK idea of the polyglot drama of New York may be had from the fact that 
during tl\e dramatic season the lioardings near the Astor Library advertised thea- 
trical performances in the (lernian, Italian, Yiddish. Russian and French lan- 
guages. The Chinese theater in New York does not advertise. 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



47 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION. 



A NEW ANESTHETIC. 

'T^O go to sleep quietly before a surgical operation, to slumber 
-*- peacefully after it, and to waken as if from natural sleep 
witii no recollection of what has happened, and witli health and 
appetite unimpaired— all this seems an unrealizable ideal in anes- 
thesia ; yet we are assured that French physicians have found a 
new anesthetic that accomplishes all these results. Up to this 
time it can not be said that any substance in use has quite realized 
the surgeon's ideal. Chloroform and ether are the most common, 
but with chloroform there are occasional accidents which do not 
appear altogether preventable, even with the recent devices that 
enable the physician to administer it mingled with air in any de- 
sired proportion. As to ether, its well-known after-effects are most 
disagreeable. Some recent attempts to utilize the anesthetic quali- 
ties of other chemical substances, culminating in the discovery just 
mentioned, are described in Cosmos (Paris, May 27) by a con- 
tributor. He says : 

" Other liquids, such as the bromid and chlorid of ethyl, or their 
mixture in certain proportions, produce rapid anesthesia with a 
minimum of danger, but their effect is fleeting, lasting scarcely one 
or two minutes, and it can generally be utilized only for very short 
operations— the opening of abscesses, the extraction of teeth, the 
removal of adenoid growths. 

" Cocain and its recent substitute, stovain, produce local anes- 
thesia that is very useful for small operations in a limited region. 
By injection of either of these substances into the spinal marrow 
we may produce insensibility of the whole lower part of the body, 
which with a sufficient dose may be extended over the whole body. 
But in spite of the progress of anti.septic manipulation . . . some 
cases of death and others of paralysis have followed the use of this 
method." 

The writer reminds us that the awakening from the effects of all 
these anesthetics is more or less disagreeable. The Parisian hos- 
pitals, however, are experimenting with a substance that is said 
not to possess this inconvenience. This agent, which is named 
"scopolamin," is an alkaloid extracted from a plant {Scopolia ja- 
potiicd) of the nightshade family {Solanacea:), sometimes known as 
"Japanese belladonna." This has been familiar to physicians for 
many years as a sedative and it has even been used as an anes- 
thetic since 1900, but the most successful methods date only from 
December last. The substance is now used mixed with morphine, 
and three hypodermic injections are required, each of which 
throws the patient into a deeper sleep until he is quite insensible. 
A peculiarity is that the muscles do not become flaccid, and that 
the patient may be awakened as from normal sleep. Says the 
writer : 

" It is very important to note that no matter how deep the sleep 
may be, if the patient be shaken or spoken to loudly and insist- 
ently, or if a noise is made near him, he will awake precisely like 
a man in a natural sleep. But if he is pricked or pinched he shows 
not the slightest sensitiveness. This complete anesthesia, with 
persistence of the intellectual functions, is particularly striking 
with scopolamin, which seems to act exclusively on the sensitive 
fibers. 

"After the operation, the patient is placed in liis l)ed, | where] 
he continues to sleep as calmly as before it ; the breathing is very 
quiet, and not the least complaint is heard, tho sometimes there is 
a good deal of perspiration. 

"The duration of the sleep varies slightly with different sub- 
jects ; it averages four or five hours after the operation (or nine to 
ten hours in all). 

" The awakening takes place exactly as in ordinary sleep. The 
patient opens his eyes, and his face expresses astonishment at find- 
ing himself in bed. He tries to get his ideas together . . . and 
asks questions of those about him, wanting to know whether the 
operation has yet taken place ; generally he calls for a drink and 
then goes to sleep again for several hours. Sometimes he stays 
awake and wants something to eat. Several have refused to be- 
lieve that they had been operated upon 



"On the morrow, the patient eats in his customary manner and 
follows with appetite the regimen demanded by the operation that 
he has undergone. 

" Finally— and this is an important point — none of those operated 
upon remember anything of the operation or of its pain, even when 
they have appeared sensitive during its progress ; and this fact 
is tlie more striking because some patients have appeared to be 
completely awake through the operation, speaking and complain- 
ing as if they had received no anesthetic. 

" Some surgeons, after the first injections of scopolamin, admin- 
ister chloroform. The effects are nearly the same, and in this case 
the scopolamin has the advantage of saving the patient from ap- 
prehension of the operation and of the chloroform . . . ; but this 
addition is unnecessary, and scopolamin alone appears to furnish 
a prolonged anesthesia without the inconveniences of chloroform." 
— Translation made for Thk Litkrar v Digest. 



INVENTION AS A DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS. 

" I ^HE inventor is popularly regarded as a man who works alone 
^ for years by himself, following out an impelling idea, which 
leads him sometimes to success and fame, often to failure and star- 
vation. That there are still many such " free-lance " inventors, 




Courtesy of " The World's Work." 

IN THE LABORATORY OK T. A. EDISON, 

The greatest " free-lance" inventor. 

some of them energetic and ingenious enough to create numerous 
marketable inventions and thus maintain financial independence, 
is acknowledged by French Strother in an article on "The Modern 
Profession of Inventing," in The World's tf<?r,t(New York, June) ; 
but he goes on to assert that these are exceptions, and that the 
typical modern inventor is the unknown man who toils with hun- 
dreds of his fellows in what are known as the "inver.tions depart- 
ments " of great factories. Says Mr. Strother : 

" The great majority of practical inventions are made by a group 
of men of whom the public never hears. These men are members 
of one of the most complicated and highly organized of the mod- 
ern professions. Every great manufacturing concern maintains, 
under one name or another, an 'inventions department,' employ- 
ing men who are paid various salaries simply to develop inventions. 
Tliey are supplied with every mechanical appliance to facilitate 
their work; the- bills are paid by the company, and every invention 
they make is assigned to the company 'in consideration of salary 
and one dollar.' The General Electric Company, at Schenectady. 
X. v., for example, employs about Sec men who devote much of 
their time to developing new ideas. It spends 52,500,000 a year in 
this development work. The Westinghouse Companies do the 
same thing; so does every progressive manufacturing concern of 
any consequence in the United States. And it is the.se unknown 
men, grappling with the every -day, practical problems of great 
manfactories, who make most of the inventions of immediate com- 
mercial value 

"The inventions departments, the modern development of in- 
venting, are maintained by the great manufacturing concerns. The 



48 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



National Cash Register Company, the Hoe Printing Press Com- 
pany, the United Shoe Machinery Company, the Bell Telephone 
Company, and many others have each a corps of men. who have 
displayed the inventive faculty, at work on salary, developing tiie 




Courtesy of " The World's Work." 

MR. CHARLES STEINMETZ, 

Tlie chief engineer of the General Electric Company, and liis latest invention, a 
model of his mercury arc current rectifier. 

inventions needed by the companies. In any one of these depart- 
ments new devices are being created that will not be made public 
for years to come, because they are not yet perfected. The inven- 
tions by tlie time the public knows them are always months, and 
usually years, old. 

"The (ieneral Electric Company offers a typical example of the 
u.se of the inventions department. In an establishment employing 
2o,ooo men. a round $2,500,000 is spent each year in developing 
patentable inventions. There are about fifty engineers at the head 
ol various departments, and each of them is expected, as a part of 
his routine duty, to develop such improvements as are suggested 
by the needs of his department to keep it in a position to meet 
competition. Last year 1.412 ideas were carried to the manage- 
ment by 300 men. as patentable inventions. Of these 797 were 
found to be either impracticable or not new. The remaining 615 
were developed by the company to such a degree of perfection that 
applications for jiatents were tiled with the Patent Office at 
Washington. In round numbers, an average of 500 patents a year 
are taken out l)y the comi)any. every one of them for a device of 
immediate commercial value. To handle the legal end of the com- 
pany's patent business, drawing up applications for patents, carry- 
ing them through the Patent Office, and conducting suits for 
infringement, a corps of twelve lawyers and twenty-eight assistants 
is maintained at .Schenectady, besides two lawyers at Washington 
and one in Europe. These figures give some idea of the dignified 
proportions of the profession of inventing; for this company is 
only one of scores which carry on similar work on a greater or 
lesser scale. Follow one of the 615 inventions patented last year 
through all the stages of its develojiment and consider what an in- 
ventions department means when that work is multiplied by 615." 

But this is not all. Not only are practicable inventions devel- 
oped in tills way. but laboratories of research in pure science are 
often carried on. at a cost of thousands of dollars, in the hope that 
discoveries will be made, in new fields, that can afterward be util- 



ized, Mr. Strother tells us that the workers in all these different 
branches of an " inventions department " are recruited in various 
ways. Sometimes they are taken from the staff of the company, 
sometimes picked up from all sorts of outside occupations. In 
one case a groceryman from a small California town became a 
worker in such a department in a large company. According to 
.Mr. Strother. the chance or haphazard inventor cuts little figure 
with us. Of the thirty thousand patents taken out annually in the 
L'nited States, nearly all come from persons who make a business 
of inventing, either as " free-lances " or on a salary. 



THE COIVIING EXPRESS TRAIN. 

THE ease with which the time between New York and Chicago 
has been cut from 20 to 18 hours on two different roads has 
been a matter of general remark. There is talk of another de- 
crease to 17 or even 16 hours in the near future, and the public, as 
usual, is ready for anything. Electricity (New York) thinks that 
the electric locomotive will make further progress even easier. It 
says, editorially (June 14) : 

" From New York to Chicago was once considered a serious jour- 
ney. In provincial days dangers beset the traveler on every side. 
Days were consumed in covering the distance. Now it is but a 
question of hours. Shall it be called the ultimate triumph of 
steam.'' Or shall we inquire as to what this ultimate triumph 
must be? 

"The distance is roughly i.ooo miles between New York and 
Chicago. About 29 hours, cut down to 24. was the customary limit 
of time in covering it. A speed of 40 miles an hour averaged up 
along the route. This, during the Columbian Exposition, was con- 
sidered splendid railroading. Since then the locomotive has 
undergone great changes. The well-fortified roadbed, connecting 
that city and ours, invited a higher speed. A 50-mile an hour rate 
then presented the average. The latest reports show a capacity on 
the part of the Pennsylvania and New York Central to regularly 
operate an 18-hour train. This means an average j^peed of over 55 
miles an hour. Now comes the question again. Is this the ulti- 
mate triumph? We think not. The locomotive can spin along 
much faster than this. Speed must be made subservient to the 
conditions of the road — whether it is clear or not, whether it can 
stand the rapid pounding of this great engine or whether it is safe 
to hurry forward so impetuously. 

" The suggestion is presented here that electric traction has set 
a new standard. The New York Central will use electric locomo- 




Coiirtesy of " The World's W..rk.' 

AT WOKK ON .\ DKSICN I'OR AN ARC I.AM I', 

In Uie model shop of the General Electric Company. 

fives of 2,200 rated hor.se-power. A speed of go miles an hour is 
easily attainable with a train of cars. Divide i.ooo by9oand what 
is the result? A little over 11 hours. These are not merely fig- 
ures, they are facts. The electric locomotives have been tested 
and tried. The system works like a charm. It would take a great 



Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



49 




LEAF AND FLOWER AND RIPENING FRUIT OF 

THE LOTUS, Nelumbium. 

Protruding above the water, which protects these 
plants from many animals. (Much reduced.) 



deal of audacity to 
say when Chicago and 
New York will be the 
termini of an electric 
express system, but it 
is impossible to be 
blind to the truth. Ten 
hours to Chicago from 
New York is not so far 
off after all. Perhaps 
none have recognized 
this fact more readily 
than those from whom 
these results are to be 
expected — the steam 
railroad companies 
themselves." 

That we shall not 
reach the speed limit 
with our present road- 
beds — a fact empha- 
sized by the famous 
Berlin - Zossen speed 
trials— is asserted by 
many authorities. Etigineering News (June 8) advocates a return to 
the old longitudinal sleeper, to be made of solid concrete. It says : 

" There are very strong reasons for believing that when the time 
comes that the present makeshift track construction which we 
miscall 'permanent way' is displaced by something really perma- 
nent, it will be a longitudinal 
system rather than a cross-tie 
system. 

" In view of the present prac- 
tically universal use of wooden 
cross-ties in railway track, it 
may seem extravagant to pre- 
dict so radical a change ; but 
to engineers who are aware 
how widely and successfully 
the longitudinal system of rail 
supports has been used, the proposal will not appear by any means 
revolutionary. 

" For a great many years the longitudinal system was the stand- 
ard track construction on the Great Western Railway of England ; 
and it is still in place on a good many sidings on that railway. In 
Germany for a long time the longitudinal system was in nearly as 
extensive use as the cross-tie system." 

The substitution of the cross-tie system for the " sleeper " was 
due, the writer asserts, first, to the difficulty of draining the space 
between the rails; secondly, to the necessity of iron tie-bars to 
keep the rails from spreading; and thirdly, to the difficulty of re- 
placing worn-out sleepers without interruption of traffic. With the 
substitution of concrete for wood these objections easily disappear, 
and there is attained a continuous solidity of structure that is im- 
possible with the present system of support at a series of independ- 
ent points. The cost would be great, but the results would be 
worth it. The writer concludes: 

" An engineer would never design an important building and sup- 
port it on wooden blocks bedded a few inches below the ground 
surface ; and he would not consider the case much better if stone 
or concrete blocks were substituted for wooden. To make a per- 
manent support for railway track we must carry our foundation 
course down deeper, just as we would a building foundation. But 
it is practically impossible with the cross-tie system to make the 
foundation much deeper than the thickness of the present wooden 
ties, for the trackmen could not reach under the ties to tamp them 
if the ties were, say, 12 to 16 inches in depth. There is not room 
enough between the ties to permit this ; and it is, of course, out of 
the question to space the ties farther apart. All this points directly 
to the replacement of cross-ties with longitudinals whenever a 
really permanent system of track foundations replaces the present 
'mud-sill ' system." 




FOUR SEEDS WHICH CLOSELY RESEMBLE PEBBLES, 

Among which they were accidently gathered. 



PLANTS THAT HIDE FROM ANIMALS. 

X 1 UMEROUS instances in which the habits of growth of cer- 
•^ ^ tain plants serve to protect them from destruction by ani- 
mal enemies are recounted in The Popular Science Monthly (New 
York, June) by Prof. W. J. Beal, of the Michigan agricultural col- 
lege. Some plants, he notes, are thus protected by growing under 
thorn bushes and thistles. He writes : 

" C. G. Pringle, for many years a famous plant collector, espe- 
cially in Mexico and the arid regions of the United States, speaks 
of a native grass of Northern Mexico, Muhlenbergia Texana, as 
such a great favorite with all grazing animals that it is usually ex- 
terminated or nearly so, except when growing under the protection 
of thorny shrubs, usually mesquite bushes. In Arizona during 
the winter and spring, the Indians bring it long distances into the 
towns to sell. He adds: 'How many times I have contended 
with the horrid mesquite bushes to gather an armful of this grass 
to carry joyfully to my hungry and jaded horses.' In such cases 
the thorns, spines, and perhaps bitter taste of the bu.shes not only 
protect the young growth and leaves of certain plants, but furnish 
shelter for other tender and nutritious herbage. 

" In arid regions, especially, similar instances of protection by 
thorn bushes are numerous." 

Again, some plants retire beneath the surface of the ground at 
the close of the growing season, especially in regions subject to 
droughts or cold, remaining secure beneath the surface for months 
in the form of bulbs, tubers, and rootstocks. At such times they 
are nearly sure to escape destruction by animals. Examples are 
Solomon's seal, Dutchman's breeches, May apple, goldenrod, and 

artichoke. Other plants are 
protected by water, and of 
these Professor Beal says : 

" Not only the flowers of 
many species of plants as they 
project above the surface of 
the water are protected from 
most unwelcome insects, but 
the whole plants as well. Mud 
turtles, certain fishes, water- 
snails, larvae of insects, eat aquatic plants, but most other animals 
are unable to reach them in such places. 

"Water-plantain, wild rice, pond-lilies, arrow-head, pickerel- 
weed, pond-weed, lizard's tail, bulrush, bur-reed, cat-tail flag, 
water-dock, and many more of their associates, root at the bottom 
with leaves floating on the surface or projecting above. 

" Innumerable low 
forms, known as al- 
gae, are at h.^me in 
lakes, ponds, and 
streams, or on the 
surface of the water, 
while other kinds 
thrive in salt or 
in brackish water. 
These aquatics find 
protection below the 
surface or by ex- 
tending above it, not 
only from numerous 
animals, but they 
have no competition 
with others which 
can only grow on 
dry or moist soil. 

"Aquatics and ma- 
rine plants and alg^e 
are also protected 
from extremes of 
cold and heat. Dur- 
ing the winter of a 
cold or temperate 
climate the root- a night blooming cereus, 

stocks and buds sev- showing large succulent roots which serve as a store- 
ered from the tips or house for water (Much reduced). 




50 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



branches, and even the entire plant of some species, remain safe 
and dormant in the mud at the bottom, ready on the approach of 
mild weather to begin growing again. Some are amphibious, able 
to thrive when the land is flooded or when the floods have subsided. 

Plants with such habits have little competition 

" A few plants not only defend themselves, but are aggressive 
fighters, because they put to good u.se the animals they capture. 
The bladderwort is a water-plant and catches much of its food. 
Underneath the surface of the water in which the plant floats are 
a number of lax, leafy branches spread out in all directions, and 
attached to these are large numbers of little flattened sacks or 
bladders, sometimes one-sixth of an inch long. The small end of 
each little bladder is surrounded by a cluster of bristles, forming a 
sort of hollow funnel leading into the mouth below, and this is 
covered inside by a perfect little trap-door, whicli fits closely, but 
opens with the least pressure from without. A little worm or in- 
sect, or even a very small fish, can pass within, but never back 
again. The sack acts like an eel-trap or a catch-'em-alive mouse- 
trap. These little sacks actually allure very small animals by dis- 
playing glandular hairs about the entrance. The small animals are 
imprisoned and soon perish and decay to nourish the wicked 
plant." 

A curious case of protection by hiding is that in which the 
plant deceives man himself by masquerading as something that it 
is his interest to preserve. Thus gardeners often overlook certain 
weeds that resemble the flowers or vegetables with which they 
grow. Says Professor Beal : 

"It is the exception to pass over a bed after a workman has 
'dressed it up' and not find a number of weeds left among the cul- 
tivated plants. They are overlooked because of some resem- 
blance of the weed to the plant desired. I enumerate a few ex- 
amples found one day in the month of May : A few wild onions 
are left in the asparagus; wild seedling lilies in a plat of Solo- 
mon's seal and in a bed of turtle-head; June grass lurks in plats 
of several sorts of pinks, of Phlox, and of many other plants; 
narrow-leaved dock is often abundant, and some of it is left in a 
plat of dandelions, of teasels, of rhubarb, of buttercuppT, of rue 
anemone ; pig weeds are left to go to seed among potatoes and 
tomatoes ; the brittle joints of prickly pear are left to grow among 
other species which they resemble ; seeds of violets in variety 
spring up in plats of other violets where they were shot by the 
mother plants." 

Among other cases of protective imitation that results in driving 
away or deceiving animal enemies Professor Beal describes the 
following : 

" In portions of Washington rattlesnakes are very abundant, and 
are much dreaded by cattle and horses which graze large portions 
of the State. 

" in this region grow large quantities of Iris Missouriensis ■2iX\^ 
when ripe the rattle of the seed in the pods closely resembles the 
rattle of the snake. Grazing animals invariably step back after 
hitting these pods, and thus the green leaves of the plants are 
ppared to work for future crops of seeds 

" Seeds are frequently met with that are mottled or striped or of 
an inconspicuous color difficult to find when dropped on the soil 
or among small pebbles. Seeds of this character are least liable 
to be destroyed. By a process of selection for many generations, 
no doubt, seeds have acquired their present colors, and some of 
them are still undergoing this process." 



A Mystery Sol ved.— The mystery of the " ice-cave," which 
has puzzled physicists for years, appears to have been greatly 
cleared up by recent experiment. In these caves, which are found 
in some of our Western States and in many other parts of the 
world, ice not only remains during the summer, but even continues 
to form when the temperature of the outside air is above the freez- 
ing point— a fact which shows that mere "cold storage," as in an 
ice-house, will not explain the phenomena. Says Tlie Scientific 
Ann) icait (June 17) : 

" Years ago B. Schwalbe suggested, supporting his hypothesis 
by still older (1S65) experiments of Jungk, that the refrigeration in 
this case is due t(i ])irc()lation of water tlirougli porous strata. The 
ph\ sii nl justification of this assumption, however, has since been 



apparently destroyed by experiments, in which the percolation of 
water through silica and other powders was found to be attended 
by a rise of temperature, in some cases of considerable amount. 

" (i. Schwalbe has now made a series of experiments with pure 
silica and different kinds of sand, using water of various initial 
temperatures, and has found that water warmer than 4 C. (the 
temperature of maximum density) is heated, water cooler than 4° 
C. is cooled, and water at 4 C. is unchanged in temperature by its 
passage through the porous stratum 

"These results are in accordance with deductions from the me- 
chanical theory of heat, and are due to the fluid pressure caused 
by the attraction exerted by a solid body upon the film of liquid 
which adheres to it. As water expands with rise of temperature 
above 4' C, and also with fall of temperature below 4 C, com- 
pression necessarily causes heating in the first case and cooling in 
the second." 



AN AUTOMATIC BOTTLE-WASHER. 

\ MACHINE for washing empty bottles by wholesale, accom- 
•^^- modating over two thousand at a time and turning them out 
at the rate of forty thousand a day, is described by Max de Nan- 
souty in La Nature (Paris, May 13). The writer notes at the out- 
set that, while bottle-washing as a problem of domestic hygiene 
demands much care, still greater attention is required when the 




AUTOMATIC BOTTLE-WASHER. 

operation must be carried on, satisfactorily and continuously, with 
thousands upon thousands of bottles, as is the case in great brew- 
eries, wine-houses, distilleries, and manufactories of mineral waters 
or of perfumery. He writes : 

"The bottles that go out of such establishments ceaselessly re- 
turn thither, more or less soiled, having sometimes been used for 
other liquids than the originnl. They must be cleaned thoroughly, 
and when they have been used to hold petroleum or vegetable oils 
it is often necessary to throw them away. In any case the manu- 
facturer is obliged to employ a considerable force of cleaners, 
whose work must be carefully supervised if he is to be sure that it 
is always conscientiously done. 

" Mechanicians can not avoid interfering in a difl^cultv of this 
kind, clearly defined as it is. Various automatic washing ma- 
chines have been invented and have rendered service, but the rec- 
ord is now held by an American machine shown in our illustra- 
tion 

" This automatic bottle-washer adds power in operation to econ- 
omy of manipulation. According to its size, it washes automatic- 
ally 1 1,000, 22,000, or 42.000 bottles in a working day of ten hours, 
and it requires the presence of only four workmen, two to feed it 
and two to place the washed bottles in baskets. These four at- 
tendants may be women, for the work requires no violent effort; 
women do it very well, with their habitual care in cleaning-work of 
all kinds. The mechanical power consumed varies, with the size 
of the apparatus, from two to three horse-power. 

"The mechanical arrangement is easy to grasp. In brief, the 
apparatus is composed of a rectangular tank divided into three 
compartments: the first two contain the cleaning licjuid. which is 
a mixture of alkaline solutions in carefully studied proportions; 
the third is filled with pure water for the final rinsing, which is re- 
newed as often as desired. 

"An endless chain, formed of parallel rows of metallic ca.ses, 



Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



51 



receives the bottles; it passes over fixed guides arranged in and 
above the tank; thus the bottles are methodically carried along by 
the slow movement of the chain without power to fall out of the 
cases. 

" Suppose we have a machine in which there are 268 rows of 
transverse plates to which the cases are fixed. Half of these rows 
consist of nine cases each and the other half of eight each, so that 
they are in quincunx arrangement. Thus the chain contains alto- 
gether 2,278 cases holding as many bottles, which, after having 
passed twice into the cleansing liquid, finally are carried through 
the rinsing bath. They tlien drop, in regular order, into a shallow 
tank half full of running water, whose purpose is to break the shock 
of the fall. A wooden paddle-wheel turns slowly in this tank, set- 
ting in motion a regular current which constantly brings the bottles 
to the hands of the women, who stand ready to receive them and 
place them in baskets to drain. Loss by breakage is almost noth- 
ing in these conditions. 

" The bottles are about 35 minutes in passing through the appa- 
ratus. In general, the water used in the first two tanks should be 
at a temperature between 50 and 60 C. [122 and 140° F.]. Never- 
theless, when the bottles have contained oils, either vegetable or 
mineral, it is a good thing to raise the temperature of the baths up 
to nearly 80" C. [176" F.]. With a few simple trials it is easy to 
determine the temperature most favorable to success in any par- 
ticular case." — Tratislation made for Thk Literary Digest. 



Our present insects are thus reproducing indefinitely the faculties 
and cerebral development of the insects of the secondary epoch of 
geological time." — Translation made for TmkI^itkkakx Digest. 



ORIGIN OF INSTINCT IN INSECTS. 

A CCORDING to the theory that instinct is inherited experi- 



l\ 



ence, it is difficult to see why insects that live only a few 



weeks or months should have any instincts at all, since the time in 
which they may accumulate experience is so limited. But M. Ed- 
mond Perrier, an advocate of this theory, shows us that we may 
reconcile it with these facts by supposing that the original experi- 
ences, of which the instinct of insects is the successor by heredi- 
tary transmission, was acquired by their ancestors ages ago when 
they Hved longer and had time to learn. Of this ingenious tlieory 
M. A. Latour says in La Nature (Paris, May 13): 

" The progress made recently in the study of the nervous system 
has led M. Edmond Perrier to a new theory of instinct, regarding 
which philosophers will probably be somewhat skeptical, but of 
which a geological consequence deserves to be known for its inge- 
nuity. The author is endeavoring to explain, by means of experi- 
ence and heredity alone, how insects, whose adult life lasts only a 
few weeks, or even a few days, and who know nothing of their 
parentage, have the time and the ability to acquire their wonderful 
instincts. Evidently there is no possibility here of education nor 
of customs ; it would seem as if the manifestation of instinct in 
the individual were quite spontaneous. But M. Perrier notes that 
the existence of the seasons, as we know them, appears to be of 
very recent geological origin. Geologists in general agree that 
temperature and climatte were once, for very long periods, abso- 
lutely uniform in all parts of the earth and throughout the whole 
year. This is explained by the fact that the sun was then much 
larger, the inequalities of the seasons having been finally brought 
about, little by little, by its gradual condensation. Now insects 
existed at a time when this condensation had not yet taken place. 
Insects were remarkably abundant on the banks of the carbonifer- 
ous lakes or lagoons, and the interesting discoveries of Messrs. 
Fayol and Charles Brongniart, at Commentry. have shown how 
great was their variety and how huge their size at that time. Now, 
since there were then no seasons — the cause that now brings about 
the early death of insects, so soon after their reproduction— these 
carboniferous insects must have lived as long as any other crea- 
tures ; they must have been able, like our iiigher animals, to ac- 
quire experience and transmit it to their offspring, thus gaining an 
acquired and cultivated intelligence in the same measure as other 
living beings. This was then transmitted by heredity, and when 
the seasons began to appear, in the tertiary epoch, when by the 
appearance of cold insect life was reduced to a brief season, when 
experience and parental education could no longer play their part, 
the intelligence formerly acquired and transmitted from generation 
to generation must, according to M. Perrier's theory, have been 
changed into immutable instinct ; that is to say, it must have been 
fixed at a determinate point without power to progress further. 



GARBAGE DISPOSAL AND CITY POLITICS. 

" I "HAT we are years behind European cities in our methods of 
■*• garbage disposal, and that this state of affairs is directly 
chargeable to our municipal politics, is asserted by The Times 
(London) in some recent comments on "American Refu.se-De- 
structor Practise." It says: 

"While the refuse-destructor has attained a recognized position 
in this country, and its value is acknowledged on all hands from 
an economical, as well as a hygienic point of view, the situation 
regarding similar appliances in the United States is in singular 
contrast to the progress made in this country in the utilization of 
towns' refuse. For this there appear to be several reasons, none 
of which convey any reflection on the ability of American engi- 
neers to place this branch of engineering on the high level asso- 
ciated with the general industry in America. The chief of the 
causes assigned for the backwardness in this respect is concerned 
with tiie politics of the United States municipalities, by which 
municipal engineering and sanitation are controlled to a large ex- 
tent by considerations which have no reference to their individual 
advancement and well-being. Contracts relating to such engineer- 
ing works are found extremely difficult to obtain on any satisfac- 
tory basis, and still more difficult to successfully carry out, with 
the result, as stated, that an important branch of engineering prac- 
tise in the United States is, and seems likely to remain, many years 
behind that of Europe." 

After quoting these remarks in full, an editorial writer in Engt- 
fieering News (New York. June 15) remarks upon them as follows: 

"This is all very true so far as political influence and misman- 
agement is concerned, and it is al.so quite true that American engi- 
neers are not responsil)le for the situation. T/te 7^/w^j- confines its 
remarks to refuse-destructors, or what we here term garbage-fur- 
naces, either being ignorant of or else ignoring the fact tiiat our 
garbage-reduction systems have been carried to quite a high stage 
of mechanical development, and that the garbage of nearly all our 
large cities is utilized for the production of grease and a fertilizing 
base, and in the process of treatment is rendered innocuous. Our 
reduction plants, however, have been the cause of more or, if not 
more then worse, municipal scandals than our garbage furnaces, 
largely because the interests involved have been greater. Both 
the collection and final disposal of municipal refuse in the United 
States are in sad need of being put on a businesslike basis, and of 
being freed from political corruption. This done, necessary engi- 
neering improvements will come rapidly." 



SCIENCE BREVITIES. 

A CORRESPONDENT of The Z,rt«c^^, writing of street dangers, gives a promi- 
nent place among these to the hatpins of the women, which he terms "unclean 
imitations of the ladies' dagger of tlie Middle Ages." Says the editor in a com- 
ment on this: " There is much force in his contention that hatjjins in women's 
heads ... do form public dangers. Among a certain class hatpins are constantly 
used as weapons of offence, and when they are not employed in this manner by 
the design of the wearer they often threaten the eyes of others in a really danger- 
ous way. It ought to be possible for an ingenious milliner to devise some less 
dangerous method of fi.xing on the hat." 

Is Glass a Liquid?— "When a liquid crystallizes," says Morris W. Travers, 
in a recent lecture, printed in TJtc National Druggist. '" heat is evolved, and it is 
found that the solid and liquid have different densities : there is, in fact, a dis- 
continuity in the properties of the solid and liquid states, or to use the modern 
term, phases of the substance. The formation of the glassy substance is not, 
however, accompanied by any such change; it is in fact only a highly viscous 
liquid. A clear proof of the liquid nature of window-glass, for instance, lies in 
the fact that a cut made in it with a diamond rapidly ' heals' so tliat after a short 
time the glass is less readily broken along the cut than when it was first made. 
Such glassy bodies can not be regarded as true solids, which should, in every 
case, be capable of existing in a crystalline form, tho this is not always apparent. 
Sometimes, particularly at low temperatures, it is difficult to determine whether 
a substance is actually in the crystalline or glassy condition, and its true state 
can only be determined by observing the change which takes place when the 
liquid is cooled. In the case of some paraffin hydrocarbons, for instance, the 
liquid becomes thick and treacly before passing into the glassy condition. In no 
case can petrol be made to crystallize. Liquid hydrogen, when evaporated in 
vacuo, does not become more viscous as its temperature falls, but when a tem- 
perature corresponding to about 14.1° absolute is reached, flakes of glassy matter 
break away at the surface, and finally the whole mass turns to a clear glassy 
solid." 



52 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



THE RELIGIOUS WORLD. 



CHRIST AND THE SENSE OF JUSTICE. 

•' T^^HE place of what we call justice in the Christian system of 
A ethics is not very easy to determine," remarks a writer in 
the London Spectator. Altho Christ made continual appeal to the 
natural sense of justice, at the same time " he told parables, pro- 
pounded problems, and pointed to facts deliberately calculated to 
shake the faith of his hearers in the infallibility of their instinctive 
feeling on the subject." The writer accounts for the apparent con- 
flict of evidence on this point by reminding us that " our Lord was 
a realist " rather than a theorist, and that " he never took any pains 
to spare the moral prejudices of his«hearers." As illustrating 
Christ's apparent contradiction, at times, of the sense of justice, 
we read : 

" Take the story of the laborers who agreed to work all day for 
a given sum. and then complained because certain other men who 
were put on to work much later received the same wage. At tirst 
sight the arrangement seems exceedingly unfair. The instinct of 
the reader suggests a fellow-feeling for the grumblers. Surely 
those who bear the burden and heat of the day should gain more 
than those who do an easy piece of work in the cool of the even- 
ing. Our Lord, however, had not the smallest sympathy with the 
malcontents. They should. He implies, have minded their own 
business, and abided by their bargain. 'Is thine eye evil, because 
I am good ? ' are the words put into the mouth of the employer, 
and tiie employer, we are taught, was entirely within his right in 
so replying to his men. Again, the mental position of the elder 
son in the parable appeals very much to the reader's instinctive 
sense of justice. But Christ, tho he is far from condemning the 
elder son ('Son, thou art ever with me, and all that I have is thine,' 
can not be turned by the most pharisaical of minds into a harsh 
speech), yet makes him stand before his hearers as a type of a 
good man in the wrong, occupying for the moment, and by reason 
of his advocacy of superhcial equity, a very undignitied moral posi- 
tion." 

Or, turning from stories to statements: 

'•'There is joy in the presence of the angels of God over one 
sinner that repenteth,' is a saying which could give nothing but de- 
light to any well-meaning person. But our Lord did not stop 
there. He said also: 'More than over ninety and nine just per- 
sons that need no repentance.' To the moral plodder the sentence 
does give something of a cold shock. What is the use of so much 
effort if those who do not make it succeed as well, if the secret of 
making the best of both worlds lies with the sinner all the time.'' 
While we are thinking of hard sayings on the subject of justice we 
must not forget the question which Christ put to Simon: 'There 
was a certain creditor which had two debtors: the one owed five 
hundred pence, and the other tifty. And when they had nothing 
to pay, he frankly forgave them both. Tell me, therefore, which 
of them will love him most?' Once more the suggestion is hard 
for the moral plodder, and again our Lord does not stop short at 
suggestion. 'Her sins, which are many, are forgiven,' he says; 
'for she loved much: but to whom little is forgiven, the same 
loveth little.'" 

The writer finds that while Christ considered a sense of justice 
to be the great moral standby of the ordinary man, he neverthe- 
less taught that it is "exceedingly liable to parasitic growths of a 
non-moral, and even an immoral, character." To quote more fully : 

" Cruelty, revenge, envy, and that criminal refusal to think a mat- 
ter out, which we call prejudice, all grow up in the human mind in 
such close connection with the sense of justice that it is often al- 
most impossible to divide the one from the other. The workmen 
in the parable no doubt thought that they were actuated by a 
spirit of justice, but as a matter of fact they were simply moved 
by the spirit of envy. They did not ask whether the sum received 
was a sufficient remuneration for a day's labor, nor whotlier they 
could live on it. They had no reasonable ground whatever for 
thinking themselves underpaid, except the fact that some one else 
was receiving a wage at a higher rate. .'Superficially the arrange- 
ment did not look fair, and they judged alti.r appearances instead 



of judging righteous judgment. They used a moral rule-of-thumb, 
measured one man's fortune against another's, and refused to 
think. The elder brother, in the same way. was very unrea.son- 
able. He lost nothing by the feast which was made for the re- 
turned prodigal. He might have enjoyed it even, if he had not al- 
lowed jealousy to prey upon his sense of justice till they were so 
much entangled that he could not divide the one from the other. 
When one thinks of the 'sayings ' we have quoted, it is necessary, 
we think, to remember that our Lord was a realist, and a realist is 
seldom a theorist. We can not look on life exactly as it is. and 
not give some very great pain to very good people who have made 
for themselves a theory which explains life." 

In conclusion the writer in The Spectator offers the following 
statement of Christ's teaching in regard to justice: "The natural 
sense of justice must be freed of revenge, of cruelty, and of self- 
interested and sentimental theorizing before it can be safely relied 
upon; and if in the process a few guilty persons escape, society is 
better served by the self-discipline of the judging crowd than it 
could have been by looking on at the preventive warning of the 
most severe punishment." 



SCOTCH AND ENGLISH CHRISTIANITY 
COMPARED. 

THE attention attracted by the Scotch Free Church case has at 
the same time, according to Mr. William Cunningham (a 
writer in The JK'ational Review. London), brought into clear light 
the fundamental differences between Scotch and English Christian- 
ity. For one thing, says Mr. Cunningham, the dominance of tra- 
dition is felt in every part of the Anglican system, while the Scotch 
Presbyterians were from the first " eager to claim complete free- 
dom for a democratic church, reconstituted on a scriptural basis."' 
Again, altho the want of consonance between the critical move- 
ment and traditional orthodoxy is felt on all sides- in the Church 
of Rome and the Church of England, as well as in Scotland — " it 
is a practical difference be 'ween AngHcan and Scotch Christianity 
that the difficulty is felt so much more acutely in the north." On 
this point we read further: 

" The Presbyterian has hitherto taken the Bible as the sole stand- 
ard—the absolute statement of divine truth for man ; while there 
are, at any rate, many in England who regard it as an invaluable 
record of Christian experience in the first ages of the church, but 
not as being independent of all other lights on Christian faith and 
practise. 

"So, too, there is a difference as to the importance to be at- 
tached to the individual judgment as capable of interpreting the 
Bible aright. Earnestly religious men, both English and Scotch, 
would agree in repudiating the deistic opinion which was put for- 
ward by Locke, that human intelligence, brought to bear on the 
Bible, is quite capable of apprehending and appreciating the eter- 
nal truths it contains. Spiritual things, it would be urged, must 
be spiritually discerned, and divine guidance is needed, if any 
mere man is to grasp truth about the eternal and unseen. So far 
all are agreed, but there is a difference according as it is held that 
this divine guidance is personal to the individual, or given through 
the corporate consciousness of the church. The former point of 
view seems to lead naturally to a negation of criticism. The in- 
dividual can never presume to stand in any true sense above a 
divine revelation, and therefore can never criticize it. But the 
corporate Christian consciousness has a right to criticize. The 
church is older than the New Testament, and the classification of 
sacred books, as spurious, doubtful, and authentic, on which 
canonicity depends, was a decision taken In' the church. The liv- 
ing Christian consciousness has an abiding power of interpreting 
and criticizing the writings which it was instrumental in selecting 
and preserving. The development not only of literary and scien- 
tific, but of theological, knowledge has been going on throughout 
all the ages; and by this corporate right the claim of ihe individ- 
ual is conditioned. His personal apprehension and appreciation 
of the faith of the church — the fullest and most definite knowledge 
of Cod that has been attained by man — gives the basis from which 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



53 



any one has a right to criticize the earlier and less developed forms 
of belief in spiritual realities." 

The differences between the national feeling and political tradi- 
tions of Scotland and England, says Mr. Cunningham, are asso- 
ciated with, and to some extent based upon, differences in the relig- 
ious sentiment in the two countries. " The spirit and influence of 
their respective religious institutions has had a considerable part 
in perpetuating the distinctive character of each people." 



RADICAL FORCES IN THE ROMAN 

CHURCH. 



CATHOLIC 



"T^^ HE reports that have emanated from Rome from time to time 
■'• since the accession of Pius X., to the effect that tlie new 
pontiff is contemplating new policies, give interest to a side-light 
on the Vatican program from a Protestant journal in Germany, 
the Christliche Welt^oi Marburg (No. 22). This paper, after say- 
ing that the changed attitude first became apparent in the utter- 
ances of the Pope himself, influenced, perhaps, by pressure from 
cardinals in Protestant countries, goes on to tell of a " Christian 
Democratic " movement that is agitating the church. It says : 

"'And yet it moves!' not the earth, as everybody knows, but 
the Roman Catholic Church and the spiritual atmosphere of Rome 
and of Italy. He who is able to recall seventy-flve years is amazed 
at the contrast. A quarter of a century ago it seemed impossible 
that any modern thought should force its entrance into the ideals 
of the Vatican ; but it has been recognized in the course of time 
by the Vatican authorities that the church simply must take into 
account the problems and perplexities of the day, if the church 
would retain its hold on the minds and hearts of its constituents. 
The change in the official program began with the official utter- 
ances of the Pope on the social and economic problems of the 
times. In the Vatican itself they were totally unprepared for this ; 
the pressure came from without, chiefly from Germany, England, 
and North America, the leading agitators being Cardinals Gibbons 
and Manning. 

" In Italy itself the steps taken by the Vatican in these problems 
proved rather disappointing, chiefly because they did not go far 
enough in either direction. The clergy, the press, and the church 
at large were divided, the conservative and reactionary element 
being represented chiefly by the aristocratic and wealthy higher 
officials in the hierarchy, while the progressive party, especially 
the 'Christian Democrats,' consisted .chiefly of the younger and 
more energetic clergy. Just to what degree the clergy should take 
part in the social and economic reforms of the day seemed a prob- 
lem on which the authorities had not yet definitely decided. At 
first the activities of the 'Christian Democrats' were at least tac- 
itly approved ; but when these developed a spirit of independence, 
which virtually demanded the right for good Catholics to take part 
in the elections and in the political affairs of the kingdom of Italy, 
thus ignoring the 7ion expedit policy that had prevailed since the 
capture of Rome by Victor Emmanuel and the establishment of 
the present kingdom of Italy, then the program was changed and 
the new agitation frowned upon. A convention of the 'Christian 
Democrats ' had been called to meet in Bologna during the present 
season ; but a special pronouncement from the Pope's own hand, 
addressed to Cardinal Svampa, archbishop of that city, who is re- 
garded as favoring the progressive policy of this party, has 
promptly put a stop to the proposed convention. Tho obedient, 
as good Catholics should be, the 'Christian Democrats' are not 
silent, but through such organs as the Cnltura and other journals, 
they boldly declare that the Pope has been misinformed as to the 
spirit and character of the agitation, and ask for the right to be 
heard before they are condemned. 

" It is very evident that the present Pope is not the equal of his 
predecessor in diplomatic skill, and for that reason the progressive 
dements have managed to make themselves felt more now than 
was the case under Leo XIII. In Rome it is currently reported 
and widely believed that the powers behind the throne are the Papa 
Nero (The Black Pope, i.e., the General of the Jesuits), the Secre- 
tary of State, and one of the cardinals living in the Vatican. It 
is, however, equally well known that these three leaders consult 
■often with the representatives of modern learning among the 
younger clergy, such as the Abbe Murri, the Barnabite Semeria. 



the learned Don Salvatore Minochi, also with the gentle Pater 
Genochi. 

" It is a singular fact that other forces are at work in the Catho- 
lic Church at Rome that compel the \'atican leaders to pay due 
heed to modern problems and thought. Among these forces is the 
active participation of prominent women, even of princesses, such 
as Elena d'Aosta and Isabella di (ienova, who are ardently attached 
to the church, in the social work for the benefit of the poor and 
the needy. Especially is this the case in Southern Italy, where 
the poverty-stricken ma.sses need help more than elsewhere. 

" Another peculiar element in the problem, one especially active 
in the hou.ses of higher officers and officials, is theosophy. This 
has recently proved itself a troublesome factor with which the Ro- 
man Catholic Church must reckon. 

"Just within recent months and weeks a new manifestation of 
progressiveness has appeared in the shape of books and pamphlets 
dealing with modern problems in a spirit that brings them into 
touch with the church and its ideals. The most prominent work 
of this kind is 'Pius X., His Acts and His Intentions.' by an 'Ob- 
server.' The program here ascribed to the Pope is so progres- 
sive, that the Osservatore Romano has deemed it the part of wis- 
dom to deny that the book was in any way 'inspired.' Further 
progressive thought appears in such works as the discussion of the 
'Guarantee Law ' by Monsignore Petrizi, and is a criticism of the 
cultus published by Monsignore Bonomelli. Another book of this 
kind is the long-expected work of the veteran church historian of 
Rome, Prof. B. Labanca, entitled 'The Papacy; Its Origin. His- 
tory, and Future.' Quite naturally the intransigent party is not 
silent in the literary field. The most characteristic production of 
this school is the ]/era Roma, II papa c il papa ' which is suffi- 
ciently characterized by its title." 

From communications to The Tablet (Roman Catholic, London) 
and to The Catholic Citizen (Milwaukee), we learn that the pam- 
phlet here mentioned, "Pius X., His Acts and His Intentions," 
which created a sensation in Rome, deals only with reforms in the 
machinery, and not in the doctrines, of Roman Catholicism. — 
Translation made for The Literary Digest. 



AGNOSTICISM'S RESPONSIBILITY FOR SOCIAL 

EVILS. 

IN a recent review article which was quoted in The Literary 
Digest of May 27, Dr. William Barry, an English Roman 
Catholic priest well known as a critic and a novelist, argued that 
agnosticism was " in no small measure the cause " of the many 
moral evils afflicting modern society. In answer to this theory, 
Mr. G. G. Coulton, writing in The Independent /P^tvVw (London, 
June), contrasts our present age of alleged agnosticism with the 
thirteenth century, which he characterizes as " the age of faith." 

Mr. Coulton writes with an evident hostility toward Roman Ca- 
tholicism, and his critics might urge that his accusations are made 
against the Catholic Church at a time when there practically was 
no other. Comparing the two periods under discussion, he reviews 
briefly "all the crimes of which Dr. Barry complains," and writes: 

" By two independent calculations, from coroners' rolls of Ox- 
ford and Bedfordshire, I get at the same result— that the percent- 
age of murders and homicides to the total population of tho.se days 
was more than twenty times greater than at present. With rape, 
the disproportion is greater still ; for it was a habitual practise in 
warfare, and when was Europe without war? Even nowadays it 
is in Romanist countries that gambling is especially rampant; in 
the Middle Ages it was far worse, and rendered even chess a dis- 
reputable game. St. Bernardino complains of the horrible bla.s- 
pheniies and mutilations of saints' images to which the gambling 
mania led — far worse than anything known to modern Protestant- 
ism. Drunkenness, even without the worst modern temptation of 
distilled liquors, was also rampant in the past; at Oxford, as Dr. 
Rashdall points out, it was not even an offense recognized by the 
university authorities. As to obscenity. I dare not even summa- 
rize the testimony of Thomas of Celano and Gerson, which points 
to something far beyond modern France and Italy. One of St. 
Catherine of Siena's worst trials lay in the impossibility of escap- 
ing from foul talk in respectable middle-class circles. There is 
scarcely a book of medieval history or fiction, even including the 



54 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905- 



collections of anecdotes for preaciiers' use. which could conve- 
niently be published in an unexpurgated translation. Dozens of 
songs and parodies written by medieval clerics, and preserved to 
modern times in monastic or cathedral libraries, are far too licen- 
tious to be translated and published in any modern community. 
The beautiful poem from which Neale took "Jerusalem the (iold- 
en " is in many parts quite untranslatable. It is very strange 
that IJr. Barry, a professed medievalist, should not have at least 
some inkling of these things : and that he should not know how lit- 
tle the thirteenth century can be spoken of as a time of pure and 
ideal family life, untainted by divorce, tho space fails me to grap- 
ple here with a subject which is complicated by medieval legal fic- 
tions 

"On one point, however. I am glad to agree with Dr. Barry. 
NeoMaitluisianism is comparatively modern as a general practise. 
It is gaining ground alarmingly in most civilized countries; and I 
heartily indorse his plea that it is contrary both to natural and to 
Christian morality." 

In his sneer at the "new decalogue," says Mr. Coulton, Dr. 
Barry " shows utter blindness to the entirely modern virtue of tol- 
eration." The point of Mr. Coulton's paper seems to be that Dr. 
Barry has e.xaggerated the significance of " the dummy agnostic 
whom he sets up to knock down again." 



AN ANALYSIS OF M. BRUNETIERE'S 
CONVERSION. 

" T X a certain sense M. Brunetiere has always been a Catholic," 

^ says George I'ellissicr (" I^tudes de Littdrature etde Morale 

Contemporaines "), discussing the "Conversion of M. Ferdinand 

Brunetiere." He goes on to say tliat by this he means that his 

principles, on every 
question, were from the 
first in intimate accord 
with tiie spirit of Ca- 
tholicism; that the Cath- 
olic spirit has one 
indisputably essential 
feature, and that is its 
tendency toward unity 
— a unity founded on 
common sense, disci- 
pline, tradition. But 
common sense, disci- 
pline, tradition charac- 
terize the whole doctrine 
of M. Brunetiere, liter- 
ary, moral, and politi- 
cal. 

The writer proceeds 
to show this at some 
length, and proves that 
even when his subject 
was a mere positivist 
these were the control- 
ling ideas of his mind. 
But the positivist is practically a skeptic, a doubter, an unbeliever. 
How did .M. Brunetiere become a believer? In his " Discourse on 
the Need of Believing." this writer thus expounds his thesis: 

" You can not eliminate belief from tlu' human mind, for you can 
not destroy the need of it to man. The proof of this is that even 
in our time men who have discarded tlie Christian faith erect for 
tiiemselves some other idol —science, art, democracy, progress, 
solidarity, revolution." 

M. I'elissier points out here the confusion in sense implied in 
speaking of believing in what is rational, and in mysteries which 
transcend or contradict rea.son -as, for instance, the rights of man 
and transubstantiation — and proceeds lo show how M. Brunetiibre 
makes even his faith require the support ol authority. Why siiould 
we ,isk for authority? Why not choose i)etween two solutions, 
and accept the more probable, more agreeable to mind and heart? 



'^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H 


k 






«Vr 


\'^ 


'ic 



M. IKKDINA.M) 111(1 N KTI I'.R M. 

His conversion from t'ositivism to Roman 
Catholicism, claims a I'rencli critic, " was luirely 
intellectual, and sentiment had no share in it." 



But -M. Brunetiere does not only profess to be a believer, but a 
Catholic. 

" Comparing the two great Christian confessions, the Catholic 
and the Protestant, he prefers the Catholic, because it is— I quote 
his own words — a government, a tradition, a sociology." 

Catholicism is a sociology, contends M. Brunetiere, because it 
teaches the solidarity of works and merits and the share which 
each has iii the common property, while Protestantism is occu- 
pied by the salvation of the individual by faith. But would M. 
Brunetiere think that there is any reality in a religion in which 
faith and works are separated ? M. Pelissier then takes up the 
famous critic's assertion that Catholicism is a tradition— a doc- 
trine unchangeable, independent of the vagaries of the individual. 
But if Catholicism demands a blind belief, based on authority, 
what is the use of personal faith? There is no room for it. 

Finally, according to M. Brunetiere, Catholicism is a govern- 
ment — and J'rotestantism is an anarchy. M. Pelissier proceeds: 

" What reason can M. Brunetiere give for denying that Protes- 
tantism is a government? Are there no Protestant churches in 
existence? Are Protestant nations inferior to Catholic nations in 
material or moral qualities? If the Protestant religion is not an 
anarchy, much less is it an aristocratic religion. But the critic 
has often declared him.self a democrat and declared the Protes- 
tants are aristocrats — perhaps they form a democracy of aristocrats, 
in which case where would M. Brunetiere find himself as a demo- 
cratic Catholic? 

■' Many unbelievers are converted by the heart and the imagina- 
tion. Chateaubriand was an atheist in his ' Essay on Revolu- 
tions.' Bereavement melted his heart ; he became a believer and 
wrote the ' Genius of Christianity,' a book which is not addressed 
to the understanding, but touches the heart and enchants the under- 
standing, a book in which he leads us to see tiie truth of Christi- 
anity not by argument, but by the beauty of his descriptions. 
Such was not the conversion of M. Brunetiere. It was purely in- 
tellectual, and .sentiment had no share in it. If M. Brunetiere has 
faith, it is because he is convinced by reason that he ought to have 
it. The act of faith proceeds from a logical demonstration — to 
linn— yes— but not to every one ; and therefore his example is only 
one of those isolated instances which can add nothing to the evi- 
dences or to the persuasiveness of the Christian faith." — Transla. 
t ion made for T WE- Literary Digest. 



A Catholic View of Protestant Federation.— The 

recent meeting of the committee of arrangements for the Inter- 
church Conference on federation (Protestant), which is to be held 
in Carnegie Hall. New York, from the fifteenth to the twentieth 
of November, calls forth the following comment in The Catholic 
Universe (Cleveland, Ohio): 

" The sects of Protestantism want to form a trust or a combina- 
tion to change the spots that scandalize even the heathens. The 
frantic efforts of Protestants 'to get together ' only emphasize the 
fact of their disintegrating principle of private interpretation. 
When each captain and each private is made a commander in an 
army, the ranks will never 'dress up ' for inspection, much less for 
battle. Before there can ever be a semblance of unity, a good 
many self-constituted officers and high privates must lose their 
shoulder-straps. When a sacrifice is wanted, 'the other fellow ' is 
selected for the victim, and he claims that his demur is sanctioned 
by the Holy Ghost. 

" Of course the proposed national body can have nothing to do 
with creeds. Doctrines are submarine mines for the Protestant 
craft. The pilots and the captains fear them." 



The Protest.-int Alliance of Kngland. at its recent annual meetinq-. was greatly 
exercised over the i^Towtli of conventual a?Ki monastic institutions in England as 
a result of the I'rench Congregation laws. These institutions, the Alhance com- 
Iilained. were " gaining the young by tlie ofter of special educational advantages, 
thus imbuing their minds with Romish superstitions." Some members went so 
far as to demur to applyini; complimentary phrases to King Edward, since in 
Ireland he had passed under a banner w-ith the inscription " Welcome to the- 
Friends of the I'oiie," and had attended a mass at Marienhad. The London cor- 
respondent of the New York Chuichmaii comments as follows : " In themselves 
these declarations may jirovoke a smile, but the intense interest wliicii English- 
men show in such questions, even when their 7eal is not discreet, is part of the- 
nation's strength and one of the guarantees of the Chmch's democratic liberty."' 



Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



55 



FOREIGN COMMENT. 



OSCAR II. OF SWEDEN AND THE THRONE 
OF NORWAY. 

' I ^HE King of Sweden bears the general reputation of being one 
^ of the best and most generous monarchs. one of the most 
accomplished savants and gentlemen of Europe. 1 1 is unfortunate 
for him that he has had two kingdoms to rule, and, as a writer in 
the Hamburge?- A^acJirichteit thinks, his administration lias been 
divided, even distracted. "When he was needed in Norway at 
any crisis, he was always occupied in Sweden." In the Roman 
circus the performer who rode two horses and leaped alternately 
from the saddle of one to that of the other was called desu/tor; he 
was a desultory rider. Norwegians accuse Oscar II. of being a 
desultory ruler, with the implication that he sometimes .sat longer 
in one saddle than in the other, for, as the above-quoted writer re- 
marks, " He is himself a Swede." 

Judging from the demeanor of the King of Sweden, it does not 
appear that he anticipated the coup dUtat which deposed liim from 
the throne of Norway. Yet all his utterances that are published 
in the press indicate that his character has much in common with 
the ideal Scandinavian monarch of Shakespeare. Oscar 11. re- 
ceived what from a personal standpoint he must have taken as an 
affront, "more in sorrow than in anger." His kingly dignity and 
self-restraint are evidenced in a letter which he recently addressed 
to the Storthing, or parliament, of Norway. 

The reyal communication is published in the Post och lurikesii- 
dtiingen (Christiania). In this letter he says that his oath to the 
Norwegian Constitution obliges him to answer the charge that his 
veto of the Norwegian measure for a separate consular service, on 
May 27, was unconstitutional and contrary to the independence 
and sovereignty of Norway, and that it was, moreover, illegal, null, 
and void, because it lacked the endorsement of the Prime Minis- 




THE MAN OF THE MOMENT. 

Kaiser William — " Modesty forbids my siiugesting the right man to inter- 
vene, but "—(bitterly)—" I suppose it will be Roosevelt as usual ! '' 

—Punch (London). 

ter. King Oscar puts forth long and exhaustive arguments in 
favor of his position ; he claims absolute right to exercise his judg- 
ment in acting for the best interests of the United Kingdom, and 
says that in making his decision on the consulate question he con- 
sulted the interests both of Norway and the union. He concludes 
in the following words •. 

"The Constitution I have sworn to respect and the good of the 




OSCAR II. 



" My contemporaries and history will judge 
between me and the Norwegian people." 



two countries I govern made it my absolute duty to take that deci- 
sion. The resignation of the Ministers placed me in the painful 
dilemma of being false to that duty or of remaining without a Cab- 
inet. I had no choice. The Storthing, in accepting the resigna- 
tions of the Ministry, have violated the Constitution, and by a rev- 
olutionary act have declared that the King of Norway has ceased 
to reign and that the Union with Sweden is dissolved. It rests 
with Sweden and with 
me, as King of the Union, 
to decide whether this 
violation of the compact 
of union shall be followed 
by a legitimate and legal 
dissolution of the Union. 
My contemporaries and 
history will judge be- 
tween me and the Nor- 
wegian people." 

Such a letter as this, 
academic, abstract in ar- 
gument, is, as the Eng- 
lish press is unanimous 
in considering, thrown to 
the winds amid the ex- 
citement of the revolu- 
tionary tempest. Revolu- 
tion aims not at the letter, 
but at the spirit of justice. 
The Saturday Review, in 
this connection, quotes 
Burke's " You can not 
indict a nation," with the 
implication that Oscar II., by attempting to do so. has proved 
himself a mere doctrinaire. 

Naturally the Swedish papers are enthusiastic over the King's 
message to the Storthing. Says the Stockholms Bladet : 

"The letter of the King is so calm in language that every one 
will admire in astonishment the self-control which the writer ex- 
hibits. The fact that such a letter has come before the Storthing 
clearly shows that a way is open not only for a personal union be- 
tween the two countries, but also for the succession of a young 
liernadotte to the Swedish throne." 

Equally tolerant, hopeful, and enthusiastic is tlie StockhoUns 
Tidiiiiigeii, which declares : 

" King Oscar takes a firm stand on the ground of right and truth. 
Revolutions have their justification, when a people's rights are 
threatened or denied or when oppression crushes the subjects of a 
throne. But a king is never to be deposed when he is merely 
maintaining his position on the basis of constitutional enactment 
or takes a step which he believes is called for by his duty as a ruler." 

The Dagtns Nyheta (Stockholm) seems impressed with the 
King's statement, as likely to prove a document of permanent 
value in the history of the Swedish-Norwegian conflict, but re- 
marks rather vaguely : 

" As regards ourselves and in view of the final verdict of Europe, 
the King's sound and logical presentation of the Norwegian im- 
broglio, if considered aright, is a statement which deserves the 
most careful consideration." 

Naturally enough, the Norwegian press do not agree with the 
Swedish view. The A/ienposten (Christiania) intimates, in its 
criticism of King Oscar's letter, that that monarch's conception of 
the Union and of his own constitutional rights and duties is unjust 
and illogical, as well as quite irreconcilable with all that constitutes 
national independence and constitutional prosperity. To this th' 
Morgenbladet (Christiania) adds the reflection that the King hai 
not uttered a single word in answer to the Storthing's request for 
his cooperation in the election of a new king. This silence on the 
part of King Oscar induces that paper to think that he will con 
sider that point at some future time. 

In predicting the ultimate outcome of the Swedish-Norwegiar 



56 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July S, 1905 




M. ARCTANDER, 

Minister of Industry and Navigation. 

dispute, the most difficult part 
of the problem is to decide 
upon the future action of the 
Swedish irreconcilables. Ac- 
cording to the Stockholm cor- 
respondent of The T////es {Lon- 
don), Sweden is at present di- 
vided. This writer says : 

" The general tone all over 
the country is still against mil- 
itary measures or any attempt 
to coerce Norway back into 
the I'nion, but opinion is by 
no means as unanimous in 
favor of a prompt and amic- 
able settlement witli Norway, 
wiping out all old scores and 
making a clean slate in view 
of drawing up the conditions 
of the future. An adverse 
current is setting in frt^.m dif- 
ferent directions, prompted by 
a variety of feelings, such as 
loyalty to the King, indigna- 
tion at the way he has been 
treated, and distrustof the Nor- 
wegian democracy and its un- 
compromising thoroughness." 



4 



'^nt 





M. BOTHNER, 

Auditor. 



M. G. KNUDSEN. 






M. MICHELSEN, 

Prime Minister. 



Recent despatches say that 
the.se "adverse currents" are setting in liie direction of war, altho 
the Norwegian poet, Jonas Lie, writing in the Copenhagen paper. 
J'olitiken, says : " I believe that most Norwegians feel as I do— 
we wish for no war; we wish for peace." 

The Xiiic Frcic /'/Yr.tj^ (Vienna) speaks of the two Scandinavian 
peoples in a /lan/ en das \ont, ending with a somewhat sinister 
reference to the octopus power of Russia. It .says: 

"So long as these little Northern Powers are not threatened by 
any foreign danger, no one need pay much attention to the present 
squabble. Hut it will be a ditfcrcnt matter if the rupture Ik- made 
permanent. Norway and Sweden are not the only nations in the 
world, and there is a capital city outside of Christiania, where there 
are leaders who will rejoice over the Scandinavian crisis, and that 
capital city is St. Petersburg." 

The Copenhagen Eksfrab/ade/sjiy^ of Christian Michelsen, chief 
of thecabinetand Storthing,whoisnow practicallyruler of Norway : 

"The man wlio of a sudden has become the head of the Nor- 
wegian Ciovernment, is a man in the zenitii of his strength. 
He was born in 1857, and is thus only forty-eight years of age. 



RULERS OF NORWAY. 

Some members of the ministry whose resignation precipitated the crisis, and 
wiio now form the provisional government. M. Michelsen, who is described as 
the Cromwell of tlie present crisis, is considered at some length in the accompany- 
ing article. 



M. VINJE. 

A man of indomitable energy, 
an iron will, quick to decide — 
such is Norway's chief. 

" In iSjy he was admitted 
to the bar, practised for a 
few years as a lawyer, and 
thereafter became a partner 
of one of the large firms of 
shipowners in Bergen. His 
tireless energy, and the lively 
interest he took in public af- 
fairs, soon made him one of 
the leading men of this im- 
portant community, and after 
having served for some years 
as chairman of the alder- 
manic board he was in 1891 
returned to the Storthing as 
the representative of Bergen. 
In the Rigsdag he belonged 
to the radical wing of the left. 
He retired in 1894, but was 
reelected in 1903, was ap- 
pointed a member of Ha- 
gerup's cabinet, and, upon 
the fall of that ministry, was 
chosen chief of the new.'" 

The Kobenha^'ii (Copenlia- 
gen) contains the following let- 
ter from its Norwegian corre- 
spondent : 

" Whenever the German Emperor has visited Bergen he has al- 
ways .sent for Michelsen. The latter has had to breakfastand dine 
on the imperial yacht, and the emperor has never tired of his con- 
versation. And God only knows how they keep the conversation 
going, for Michelsen"s German is not very intelligible. But the 
Emperor likes him nevertheless, and has always asked his opinion 
in matters pertaining to Norwegian politics. Recent develop- 
nients seem to prove that the Emperor chose the right source of in- 
formation." 

Speaking of the reply made by the Storthing to the communica- 
tion of King Oscar, above referred to, The Times (London) says: 

"The Storthing maintain their own view of the lawfulness of 
their action. That was as certain as that the King should deny it. 
But they recognize in the amplest terms, and with evident convic- 
tion, the good faith of his Majesty in defending the rights and 
prerogatives which he claims for the crown. They appeal to him 
and to the Swedish Riksdag and people to assist them in the 
peaceful dissolution of the I'nion and in .safeguarding friendship 
and concord between the two nd^xKon^"— Translations made for 
Thk LrrKKAKV Di(;est. 



M. LOVLAND. 

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Com- 
merce. 



Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



57 



DEPORTING AMERICAN LABORERS FROM 

CANADA. 

WHAT is considered by the Canadian press a curious and 
important point of international law has been settled by 
the decision of Judge Anglin that the Canadian Alien Labor Law 
is unconstitutional, and that Canada not being a sovereign State, 
her Parliament has gone beyond its powers in decreeing the de- 
portation of foreign contract laborers who may have been intro- 
duced into the Dominion for the purpose of working there. The 
decision is apropos of certain American engineers who were en- 
gaged on the construction of the Pcre Marquette Canal. The 
Canadian authorities arrestod these men. with a view to deporting 
them under the Alien Labor Act. According to the judge, Can- 
ada's authority ceases on the frontier line, and in his ruling he 
says that carrying a prisoner to Detroit is a " violation of United 
States territory," and continues: 

" In theory his [the alien laborer's] imprisonment may cease at 
the instant his body is carried over the border; in fact, he is not 
carried to the border, but to the city of Detroit, in United States 
territory, by compulsion of Canadian law." 

The Toronto JVcekly Sun thinks that this interpretation of the 
law is advantageous to Canada, which will practically enjoy free 
trade in labor and will be able to take the pick of the world. 

The London (Ont.) Advertiser says that the Canadian Alien 
Labor law was a measure of retaliation directed against the United 
States, which inaugurated a similar movement, and writes .is fol- 
lows ; 

" Alien labor laws, as between Canada and the United States, are 
unneighborly and illogical. Uncle Sam began it, and if he chooses 
to drop it Canada will meet him half way." 

The Ottawa 7>w^i- (French) discusses the point as to whether 
the decision applies to the whole or merely to one clause of the 
act, and says : 

"The question is. Does this decision declare ultra vires the 
whole act, or only that article of it which authorizes deportation? 
If this latter alone is illegal, the matter might be remedied by the 
substitution of an adequate fine." 

The same newspaper joins in the expression of widespread dis- 
satisfaction with which Judge Anglin's decision is greeted in Can- 



ada, and finally declares, speaking of " almost all Canadian jour- 
nals " : 

" Their comments on the decision of Judge Anglin are decidedly 
unfavorable. They consider it unjust that the United States can 
deport our laborers and that we can not do the same with theirs. 
But all depends upon the point of view from whicli we consider 
this matter. The question is, Is a foreign \vorkman an advantage 
or a disadvantage to the country in which he intends to find work? 
If he is an advantage and earns his wage, why deport him ? If he 
is a disadvantage, why was he induced to come to the country?" — 
Translation made for Thk Literary Digest. 



FAILURE OF THE KAISER'S POLICY 
PREDICTED. 

' I "HAT the Emperor William II. acted in a consistent manner 
■'■ and in pursuance of definite plans when he supplanted France 
in the favor of the Sultan at Tangier, is apparent to some Euro- 
pean observers from the course of previous events. Germany 
wishes to keep Morocco independent, because she aspires to be a 
Mediterranean Power, and Morocco commands the western gate 
of the Mediterranean. She lias large interests in Syria and Meso- 
potamia, and these are controlled from the Mediterranean. In the 
Far East she has to protect her commerce in China and Oceanica, 
and these regions, as well as the East Coast of Africa, are ap- 
proachable through the eastern gate of the Mediterranean, the 
Suez Canal. As Russia worked her course to a port on the Pa- 
cific, so Germany hopes eventually to force her way southward to 
a sea outlet on the Adriatic at Trieste, or on the .(^igean at Salonica. 
Such is tlie contention of Francesco Evoli in L' Italia Modcrna 
(Rome), who proceeds to show what part France and England are 
to play in the Emperor's plan " to change Germany's European 
policy into a worla policy." And first, as to France's position on 
the continent of Africa, this writer says : 

" France's colonial empire in Africa is homogeneous and com- 
plete. Her po.ssessions extend from the Mediterranan to the At- 
lantic and to Lake Tchad in Central Africa, the so-called lake re- 
gion. They compri.se Algeria, Tunis, the hinterland of Tripoli, 
the French Sudan, the French Kongo. Gambia, and Senegal. 

" Between her western and northern territories crops up Mo- 
rocco, the possession of which, either in the form of a protecto- 
rate, a regency, or under some other diplomatic arrangement, 




THE BEST ARGUMENT FOR PEACE— EMPTY POCKET.S. 

- Fischietto (Turin). 




THE HINGRV UOGS AT HOME 

are fiercer than the dogs of war. 



ARGUMENTS FOR PEACE. 



—Pischietto ' Turin). 



68 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



would give to the African colonial empire of France a continuity 
and formidable size which would guarantee to France its peaceful 
occupation for the future." 

He goes on to say that the other Towers interested in Morocco 
were Spain, Italy, and England, all strong Mediterranean Powers, 
and exercising great influence at the court of Tangier. France, 
after the affair of Fashoda, fell into accord with England; Spain 
was too weak to follow her commerce into African colonization; 
Italy felt her influence vanish on the de.ith of the Sultan Muley 
Hassan. It seemed as if England and France alone remained to 
claim Northwestern Africa. But a formidable commercial rival of 
England had meanwhile appeared in Germany. To qviote further : 

" England now saw herself confronted in her commerce and com- 
mercial relations by two strong rivals. America and Germany. 
The sudden appearance of the latter country in the arena of world 
politics, with a new and powerful navy seemed likely to diminish 
the supremacy of England as a world Power, to snatch from her 
her domination of the sea. and threaten her even in her island 
home. To-day the aim of the military and naval policy of Eng- 
land is directed against her only two enemies; Russia and Ger- 
many." 

It was in view of these circumstances that England formed the 
entente with France, of which this writer says : 

"The entente of 1904 is not only interesting because of its con- 
tent, but it has an importance of historic significance, in that it 
marks an epoch in the life and political relations of two great na- 
tions." 

France was enjoying a free hand in Morocco, exploring the in- 
terior, putting down insurrections against the Sultan, developing 
the military power and material resources of the country, as well 
as superintending the administration of justice, advancing loans 
for the construction of roads and means of transport, and raising 
fortifications. Then it was that William II. appeared on the scene 
and gained the ear of the Sultan. French influence was destroyed, 
Delcassd dismissed, and Germany established at Tangier. 

At the conference of the Powers which is to settle the rival 
claims of Germany and France in Morocco, Germany's position 
as a world Power will be decided. The Emperor of Germany 
aims especially at extending German commerce and influence in 
the East. "William wishes to appear before the Mussulman 



world as the sole defender of the rights of the Caliphate in Europe." 
But he must have his price for this— concessions in Syria and 
Palestine, commercial privileges, railroad rights, and grants in the 
vast mineral regions of Anatolia. As a matter of fact, German 
influence has at this moment supplanted that of either France, 
England, or Russia with the Turkish Government. 

Speaking of the entente between England and France, this 
writer continues : 

"At this present moment the diplomatic understanding between 
England and France considerably diminishes Germany's chance 
of predominance in the Mediterranean, and it will prove a gigantic 
barrier to German colonial expansion in every quarter of the globe. 
This barrier will prove insurmountable if the United States should 
become a party to the entente^ in accordance with the words ut- 
tered in Paris some days ago by the new ambassador of the great 
republic of North America on the occasion of presenting his cre- 
dentials." 

Francesco Evoli proceeds to say that the preponderance of 
France in the Levant, where French religious establishments "form 
so many admirable agencies for introducing French policy, indus- 
try, and commerce." is dependent upon France's protectorate over 
Christians in the Orient. This protectorate, he says, William II. 
showed his willingness to undertake by accepting, "with great 
pomp and political emphasis," the Cross of the Holy Sepulcher. 

Finally he speaks of the coming conference of the Powers, and 
says that England and France will be paramount in the decisions 
arrived at. In his own words : 

" The conclusion of the whole affair, granted the cooperation of 
Germany and the eventuality of a conference, seems to be obvi- 
ous. The conference will grant to France the opportunity of car- 
rying on, as the Power most interested in the tranquillity, develop- 
ment, and progress of Morocco, all the reforms necessary in that 
country, for no one can deny that the necessity of her African 
colonies depends upon the pacification of the Shereefian domin- 
ions. . . . When this has been done, will not the shout over Ger- 
many's diplomatic triumph appear to have been slightly prema- 
ture.'^" — Translation made for The Literary Digest. 



King Alfonso, says the Daily /V^t/'j (London), apropos of the King of 
Spain's recent visit to London, " will take away in his memory a confused vision 
of wet pavements, turtle soup, Beef-eaters, and hundreds of personages, distin- 
giiished and other, exerting themselves to interest and please him. The King of 
Spain must give England another trial." 




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1 irii KISSI.-XN DM lAlDK. 

CzAK " Trepoff. is all danger over ?" 

Trepoff— " Patience, sire. One of your majesty's subjects i> still alive ! " 

- Iliimoristischt- Bliiltcr (\'ienna). 



RUSSIA S BLOODY CROWN. 

" Let Russians perish, so long as the crown is safe." 

—Fiscliiefto (Turin). 



SNAPSHOTS OF THE "LITTLE FATHER." 



Vol. XXXL, No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



59 



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hiyli grouuil. 



We offer special premiums 
and lend material assi'stance'to those who will build at once. Thousands of dollars have already been spent 
by the Company for improvements. Free excursions are run every week from Atlantic City to enable lot 
owners to see the character of improvements, ,..,,. ., , 

We make no charge for deed. No mortgages. No taxes until igo6. If you die before lot is paid tor, 
we issue deed to your heirs, without further payments. 

Building operations are under way in ever > s.ru. 11, AN EXCEJr 1 lOlNAI-/ IIN V Lo I I^ t-fN 1 

Every one who knows anything about Atlantic City, knows that land there for building purposes has groNMi scarcer eafh year. We anticipated this condition 
several years ago by purchasing the General Doughty Estate on the main land, the present site of Pleasantville terrace. u„:u:„„ i„, 

Ifwehadtobuythislandto-day, we would have to charge three times the prices we now ask for Pleasantville Terrace lots. Just think of it! A building lot 
25 X ,00 ft., eleven minutes from the country's greatest coast risort, at from »35 to »55 (according to location), payable in easy amounts, withm the means of the person 
of most moderate circumstances. _ ^ __,... —»,w,. imTwr^^mr 

THIS IS YOUR OPPORTUNITY 

This messaee will be read by thousands of people, yet it is a personal one for you. No matter how small your income take advantage of it now. Bo not let it 

ATLANTIC CITY ESTATE CO. 

VICTOR J. HUMBRECHT, President 
Address MAIN OFFICE. 1051 Drexel Bldg.. Philadelphia ATLANTIC CITY OFFIC E. 937 Boardwalk 

CUT THIS OUT AND MAIL TO-DAY. 




..... ... ..„.. ......«..s""S;SlS£sSS?£Si"" -•" '""•"* - °°"°'-"-" 



Atlantic City Estate Co., 

Suite 1031. Drexel Bldg.. 

PHILADELPHIA. 

I enclose ?i. Please re- 
serve lots in 

Pleasantville Terrace, with 
the understanding that you 
will refund my dollar if I am 
not satisfied after further in- 
vestigation. 



Name. 



Address.. 



60 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



^■ 



Everyone has heard the story of the man 
who stood on London Bridge and offered 
Golden Guineas for Twenty Shillings, and 
that he made but few sales. The reason 
is obvious — no one believed him. Had 
the vendor of the Guineas 
offered would-be purchasers 
the privilege of taking them 
to the mint to find out whether 
they were genuine or not be- 
fore the transaction was com- 
pleted, he would have had no 
difficulty in breaking the Bank 
of England. 

If every man who can afford 
to buy my cigars and who reads 
this advertisement believed 
that I was selling cigars by 
the hundred at wholesale 
prices, neither mine nor any 
other factory in the world 
could fill the orders. Please ^^ 
consider for a moment that I 
give you the opportunity of 
taking my Guineas to the mint 
— in other words, take the 
cigars, try them by smoking 
ten or twelve out of one hun- 
dred, compare them with other 
cigars that you know or think 
to be good that cost from 
53.00 to ^5.00 per hundred ^^-^i^S^ 
more, and if you are not per- 
fectly satisfied that I am sell- 
ing them at wholesale prices, 
return the remaining cigars ; 
no charge for what you have 
smoked — I will pay the ex- 
pressage both ways. 

My Offer is: 

I will, upon request, send 
one hundred Shivers' Pana- 
tela Cigars on approval to a 
reader of Literary Digest, 
express prepaid. He may smoke ten cigars 
and return the remaining ninety at my ex- 
pense, if he is not pleased with them; if he 
is pleased, and keeps them, he agrees to 
remit the price, $5.00, within tenjdays. 

The fillers of these cigars are clear Havana 
of good quality— not only clear, but long, clean 
Havana ; no shorts or cuttings are used. They 
are handmade by the best of workmen, and the 
making has much to do with the smoking 
qualities of a cigar. The wrappers are genuine 
Sumatra. 

In ordering, please use business letter-head or 
enclose business card, and state whether mild, 
medium or strong cigars are desired. 

HERBERT I). SHIVERS, 

913 KILIIERT STREET, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



Shivers' 
Panatela 

EXACT SIZE 
AND SHAPE 




Pan-Toc 



A DKMI.KllA.li'S 
lllll:SSI.\(M'IIAIU 



whirli i.rrn^^n nn«| ) ri-iiM'^ yiuir trniiHf rn while 
I ytiii iilt:«-p. IVovidfn nil improved hfiiili*T fori 
1 ront nucl v.iit, n hnndy pliii ^ fur i>liii|if rn orl 
I ■ih.«-ii. Till. ■Iinir will POHITIVKLY prt-ie 
t>n«iy klK^ii bjr SOO ll>». pretuiiirr iii. 
■Uiilly npplipil. Yoiir ilolhini will 
I npi- ,.r .«■ KKKSH KVKKV HOILNING ( 

1 1 InM f..,i,i Ih.- I.ill.ir'.. %\\r, it»< 
rnnt in <*> iii'inlh* iinil will Innt a 
^ hrftiiiw. Iiiiliiip**nttiitilf< m n ip-ntlfi. 
rnni)** npnrtinr'nt. rrit-t* within rrni h _ 

ofnil. Writa to-ilny fiir illiiMrnliMl ilroiTiplive foltlcr nnd priii>. 
CESTIIAI, HA.IITRL CO., I9IO Olli* 81^ 8T. I.OIIS, JIO. 




BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Thi; Litkkakv Digest is in receipt of the follow- 
ing books : 

"The Real World."— Robert Merrick. (The Mac- 
millan Company, paper.) 

" The Celebrity."— Winston Chuicliill. (The Mac- 
millan Company, paper, i 

"A Twentieth Century Idealist." ~ Henry Pettit. 
(The Grafton Press.) 

" The Russian Jew in the United States." — Charles 
S. Bernlieimer. (John C. Winston Company, Phila- 
delphia.) 

" Two Moods of a Man."- Horace G. Hutchinson. 
(G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

" Bushido : The Soul of Japan.''— Inazo Xitobe. 
(G. P. Putnam's .Sons.) 

" The Fountain of Youth.''— Grace Peckliam Mur- 
ray, M.D. (F. A. Stokes Company, $i.6onet.) 

"The Jordan V'alley and Petra."-Winiam Libbey 
and I'ranklin E. Hoskins. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

".■\ History of the I'nited States."'— William C. 
Doub. (The Macmillan Company, $i net.) 

" The Little Hills." - Xancy Huston Ba.nks. (The 
Macmillan Company, $1.50.) 

'■ The Storm Center." Charles Egbert Craddock." 
(The Macmillan Company, $1.50.) 

" Schubert."- P2dmondstoune Duncan. (E. P. But- 
ton Company, $1.25.) 

"Will Warburton."- George Gissing. (E. P. But- 
ton Company, $1.50.) 

" The Proceedings of the Society for the Promotion 
of Engineering Education." Vol. XII. (The Engi- 
neering News Publishing Company, J52.50.) 

" \'ashti : A Poem in Seven Books."— John Bray- 
shaw Kaye. (G. P. Putnam's Sons.) 

"The Apple of Discord, or Temporal Power in the 
Catholic Church." (The Apple of Biscord Company, 
Buffalo, N. V.) 

" Broke of Covenden."— J. C. Snaith. (Herbert R. 
Turner Company, Boston.) 



CURRENT POETRY. 

The Return to the Sea. 

By Frank Lillie Pollock. 

Let us destroy the dream ! She knows not of it. 

Let us go back rejoicing to the sea. 
-Sighing is vain, and laughter shall not profit ; 
But fill Life's frothing cup again and quaff it 

To wider hopes and greater things to be. 

Time turns his tide, and turns back our distresses; 

Let us return unshaken as we came. 
Shall we, the wanderers, mourn for lost caresses? 
Our hands are fettered by no cloudy tresses ; 

Ours are the hearts no starry eyes can tame. 

Yet, had she heard the tones our songs could lend her, 
We might have found some world of hers and mine 
Sweet with perfume of summer roses tender. 
And vibrant witli the salt sea's strength and splendor, 
And lit by stars thai .-.ow shall never shine. 

Nay, but she would not— nay, she could not know 
them. 
The flying dreams with vast and vivid wings. 
Days and delights with iX)isoned pain Ix-low them, 
Hopes, flowers, and fancies— where shall we bestow 
them ? 
What shall we do with all tliese wasted things ? 

Sink them in seas that give their dead up never; 

A hundred fathoms deep lx;neath the main; 
Beside the rotted wrecks of old endeavor, 
So that no daring deep-sea diver ever 

Can bring our worthless treasures up again. 

I"or her the safer life of dreams crushed under. 

The petty pleasures, and the dusty way. 
For us the oceanic throb and thunder, 
The resonance of all the winds of wonder 
And lordly interchange of night and day. 



THE NEW GAMES , 

'^■^-^^£D EDUCATIONAL ^ 

NEW IN MATTER— NEW IN MANNER 



FOR 



SEND POSTAL FOR BOOKLET D 

^Otft ART GAME COm>J^^ 



WASHINGTON, D. C. 



The 

Home 
KINDERGARTEN 

FOR. MOTHERS 

Is a practical ]5lan of instructive amuse- 
ment accompanied by suitable material 
and based on correct kindergarten 
principles. A delight to children — 
a boon to parents. 

Terms reasonable — Book free. 

HOME KINDERGARTEN SCHOOL 
525 Washington Arcade, Detroit. Mich. 



Shur-On gif^V. 



asse^ 



When you drop your glasses, you lose money. 
' Much more economical to buy Shur-On Eye-glasses 
I — they dome off only when you take them off. 

AU .shapes at all optu i;iiis' ; iimmI with any nose-guard, 
**Shur-On" c" tbf nioimtiiiK. Fully gnaranU-ed for one year 
— ir.ounTiiifi* replaced free oCehni'se by any opticiau in the U. S, 

Valuable book free 

for the name of your optician. Full of helpful 
hints on the care of the eyes. 

E. Kirstein Sons Co., Dept. E, 
, Est aiilishocl 1804. Rochester, N. Y. 



5Q/ GUAR.ANTEED 
yO WATER BONDS 

VVrito for Circular ]., iiud New York. Boston. Phila- 
dolphiii, iind Pittsburtih l)iink referenees. 

BSiipirifes 



OORPOK/^^ 



COMPANY 



OF PITTSBURGH, PA. 
I».%1I>-IIP C.*I»IT.\1, - - #300.000.00 

JAMES S. KUHN. L. L. MoCLELLAND, 

rriniili'tit. Sfc'ifaiid I'reasiij'er. 



ESSAYS 



Readers of Thk Literary Digest are asked to mention the publication when \\Tltlng to advertisers. 



cpepQupe "ritten on any subject at short notice. Sntls- 

, c/^-r■lDcc •action unar.iiit. ■.<(!. AM transactions con 

J* ♦ Il<icntial. OiivU I'mte, Ills llriiii(lKa7, N. Y. 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. L>] 

Nay, she has chosen. Let us turn our faces, 

And go back gladly to the windy shore ; 
And follow far the tide's tumultuous traces 
Toward the fierce flicker of adventurous places, 
And look not back, nor listen any more. 

—Prom The Atlantic Monthly. 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



(JL 



To Orient Oneself 

I steered for land when tides were flowing fast, 

Far off I heard the foaming breakers roar, 

I brought my precious cargo to the shore, 

And in a crc i\ded port did anchor cast. 

My gallant ship was dressed from \>ro\\ to mast 

With banr.'^rs beautiful, hung aft and fore, 

My mates I greeted with full hands and more, 

" Give them, O heart," I cried, " the best thou hast !' 

Why did they tease and vex and baffle me 

With traffic of base coin, with greed and spite ? 

It is enough ; —I seek the open sea, 

Peace and wide spaces shall be mine this night, 

Where changeless guides will fi.\ my course aright. 

The Polar Star, and Heaven's Infinity. 

— From The London Speaker. 



Leavetaking. 

By William Watson. 

Pass, thou wild light. 

Wild light on peaks that so 

Grieve to let go 

The day. 

Lovely thy tarrying, lovely too is night : 

Pass thou away. 

Pass, thou wild heart. 

Wild heart of youth that still 

Hast half a will 

To stay, 

I grow too old a comrade, let us part. 

Pass thou away. 

— From The London Spectator. 



PERSONAL. 

General Cronje's Defense. — General P. A. 
Cronje, the commander of the Boer forces at Paarde- 
berg, has become a showman, and is appearing regu- 
larly in " The Boer War," at Coney Island, N. Y. 
General Cronje has been criticized for "descending to 
the level of a showman and disgracing the military 
profession," and to these censures the General makes 
this rather pathetic reply in the New V'ork Sun : 

" I went, as every Boer who was a man went, and 
faced the foe that was seeking to destroy the liberty of 
my country. After many victories I was defeated and 
captured. I neither disgraced my cause nor my be- 
loved nation by my surrender. No man could have 
done better than we did at Paardeberg. I was sent by 
the British to St. Helena, a prisoner. When I re- 
turned to the Transvaal, after the conclusion of the 
war, I found nothing but desolation and ruin. My 
country was still black with cinders and stained with 
blood. In the battle of Paardeberg my wife was 
wounded as she fought in tlie trenches. That wound 
bled out from my heart. I thought I had felt the 
worst pain. Alas, when I saw the scarred face of my 
poor country the wound in my heart opened and bled 
out my liope. I looked into mv dear old wife's care- 
worn face and then across the niired veld. I could not 
help it. I cried. 

" Since that day I have not been able to stand 



TOUKING THE MIGHTY ST. LAWRENCE, 

that most picturesque and historic river, the vast water- 
way which drains 500,000 square miles, is the tour of all 
summer tours. Mighty also has now become its tide of 
travel. Of course, the great Canadian city, Montreal, is 
the Mecca of all this travel. And the best class of these 
tourists patronize their favorite home there — the central and 
elegant hreproof " Queens ' Hotel. Foreseeing greatly 
increased patronage, Manager D. Raymond h:is just got 
completed some extensive alterations and additions to 
" Queens." Its dining-room has been greatly enlarged 
and omated, and 30 of the 100 fine new rooms added liave 
baths. Indeed, the whole house as well as the extensions 
are now equipped with telephones and with every other 
modem device known for safety, comfort and convenience. 
You should get the handsome booklet illustrating and 
describing Montreal, which Manager Raymond sends on 
application. 








. r^i'.-jtv(v»->A2"T*/ .'-1:^ -•-* '"-^^ •i.-i^li' 



•«*fcii:. 



■^'7 . 




HAIR 



GUMRMINTEED 
BY THE B/\INK: 



We will send you an Kvans Vacuum Cap by prepaid expresf to use 
thirty dayH, and tlii; Jf ffiTsou Bank of St. Louis will give you a ci-rti(l- 
cate agreeing to return to you the price of tiie Cap if you do not culti- 
vate a .--ufllcient growth of hair witnin the trial period to convince ^i>u 
of the ctrectivencs.s of this method. The banic will also specify thafyou 
are to lie tlie judge as to benctlts derived. From this arrangement 
you will ob.serve tlmtif the Cap fails to make your hair gr' w, we will 
be the only loser in tile transaction, for you understand the price of 
theapiiliance would be deposited with the bank, subject to your own 
order- notouis— and we pay all expreps charges. You do not have to 
1'^^^^^^^^^^^^^ have failli to get results from the use of our appliance, for if you 
b4 f ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ »ill ai>|>ly a strong vacuum to your scalp each day and draw 
'' ■-•^^^^^^^^^^^^ the liloorf to the hair roots. your hair will grow wneiheryou 
want it to or not. The hair is an independent little plant 
that really has a tendency to grow, and all it needs is the 
right kind of help, and the Evans Vacuum Cap is the only 
effective means of accomplishing the work. Even one 
application of a vacuum srtves the scalp a pleasant, tingling sen.sntion that denotes the 
presence of new life in the scalp and which cannot be obtained by any other means. 
All orders are sent through the bunk. We have no agents or traveling representatives, 
trrtted, will be sent j'ou free. 

EVANS VACUUM CAP CO., 740 Fullerton Building, St. Louis 




A sixteen-page book, IIIub- 
U. S. A. 



Readers of Thk Literarv Digest are askud to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



\ 



62 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



straight. I was old and weak, hungry and homeless. 
My children had all died in defense of our country. 
There we stood, my wife and I, supporting each other 
in our misery. How lonely we were. How much 
alone. I was too old to fight again and strike another 
blow for our liberty. Too old to walk behind the 
plow. Almost too old to live. My countrymen saw 
my tears. They offered to help me out of their scanty 
cuplx)ards. They were as poor as I. I was so old, 
but not too old to earn a living if the opportunity 
offered. 

" Tiiat opportunity came from Capt. .\. \V. Lewis, 
who asked me to join the Boer War exhibition- They 
told me that it would serve to educate and instruct 
the .American people, who were our friends, and to 
teach them something of the nobility of tlie strugsK- 
and the justire of our cause. It was beneath the dig- 
nity of a professional patriot or soldier to earn an 
honest living, and it may be considered unheroic to 
have to work, but I will not be an encumbrance in ni\ 
old age just because I have done my duty. Boers 
have no [tension departments to look after them, and 
and it is well. When they do their duty to their 
country they do not cease doing it to themselves. 

" I hoiie that my critics will understand this poor old 
man and think of the circumstances behind his ac- 
tions." 



CURRENT EVENTS, 
Foreign. 



Russia. 



About two thousand persons are reported 
or wounded at Lodz as a result of en- 
counters between the people and the troops. 



June 24.— 
killed 



Rioting begins in Warsaw, and a general strike 
is called as a protest against the shooting at 
Lodz. 

June 25. — Troops control the situation at I,odz 
and Warsaw, and only minor riots are reported 
from those cities. It is reported tliat the Brit- 
ish steamer Iklioiia, with mails and a valuable 
cargo, was sunk by the Russian cniiser Tcrch 
near Hong Kong on June 5. 

June 26. - The uprisings spread throughout Poland 
and many provinces of Russia. Prisons are 
overflowing with those already airested, and 
efforts are ueing directed toward quieting oppo- 
sition to the forthcoming mobilization. 

June 28. — The crew of the Black .Sea battle-ship 
Ktiiaz Fotcinkinc, it is reported, mutinied, 
murdered their officers, and seized the warship, 
putting into Odessa Harbor. The city is in con- 
trol of the revolting populace, and all shipping 
is in flames. 

June 29. The Czar declares that a state of war 
e.xists at Odessa, and confers plenary power on 
the military officials to (juell the \iprising. Re- 
ports from that city declare that the rioting con- 
tinues, while the city is blanketed witli smoke 
from the burning ships, waterfront property and 
railroad cars, are set on fire by the strikers. 

June 30. — The mutinous crew of the battle-ship 
Kniaz Potcinkittc is reported to have surren- 
dered to the Black Sea fleet without firing a 
shot ; mutinies at Libau and Cronstadt are also 
checked. 

Russo-Japanese War. 

June 26. President Roosevelt is now.iied that the 
i)eace envoys of Russia and Japan will meet in 
Washington within the first ten days of August. 
M. Nelidotf and Baron Rosen are selected by 
Russia for peace plenipotentiaries, and Min- 
ister Takahira and Count Kokura by Japan. 

June 2.S.— Jajjanese w-arships are reported off Vladi- 
vostok, and despatches from Manchuria indicate 
that the Japanese advance toward Vladivostok 
continues. 

June30. Oyamaand Linevitch are reported to Ix- 
negotiating to arrange an armistice. 

Other Fokkicn News. 

June 25. In a note to Germany, I'rance takes the 
stand tliat she can not submit all of her Moroc - 
can policy to revision; (iermany. it is said, will 
ask for a clearer statement of I-'ranre's program. 

June 27. Germany, in her reply to France, refuses 
to yielil a point, 

Sweden's Kiksdag names a conunittee to consider 
the (ioveriiment bill for the separation from 
Norway, 

June 28, _A11 tension, it is reported, has vanished in 
the l"ranco-(ierman controversy over Morocio. 
It is fully established that l-rance will aiiept the 
j>ro|Kisal to submit the (|uestions at issue loan 
international conference. 

June 30. The American si|uadron, under .Admiral 
Sigslxre. which is to bring to the I'nited St ite-. 
the body of John Paul Jones, arrives at Cher 
K.urg. 



^ 



M 



\m**. 



^/'-^ 



't. 



m 



''M 



. jff:— ,^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^mm ^>^ ^^^^^^ Climbing 

"" ■ ^ steep grades or 

under other severe con- 
ditions of travel, the Cadillac not 
only reaches its own destination without 
annoyance, but is a "friend in need" to others. 
Whatever the test, there is power enough and to spare. 
Simplicity and accuracy of construction reduce the liability to dam- 
age or derangement of mechanism so low as to make the Cadillac almost 
trouble-proof. The money-saving in consequence of this, combined with remark- 
ably low cost of fuel and lubrication, make the Cadillac the most economically maintained 
of all motor cars. Ask any Cadillac owner. His expense book is our best advertisement. 

Model F— Side-Entrance Touring Car. $950. Model E— Light, stylisti, powerful Runabont. $750. 

Model B— Touring Car, detacliable tonneaa. $993. Model D— Four-cylinder. 30 h. p. Touring Car. $2,800. 

ail prices f. o. b. Detroit. 

Write for catalog A D, and address of nearest dealer ivhere you may try a Cadillac. 

CADILLAC AUXOMOBILE CO., Detroit, micb. 

^ Member Atsoeiation Lieemed Automobile ManufacturerB. 



ZA 





vis is pre-emmerLt- 
fly Sk. faimily car: 
vts erijoymen-t is 
riot. cox\€iT\(zci ±0 
ftKe Jnours ■vvl-ien 
■fcKc men o'f tine 
riou.seJn.olci are 
rree; taoyyten. and. 
!iCrii?cir-erx can use 
it mea.-nvoh.i7e. C, Operation 
\$ )sy orve. le-ver, peclals axid a 
tKi-ottle attacrvea ±o tKe steer- 
ing -w^Keel. C.T]ie Kand tkat 
S-teex-s is tKe Jnan<l tnat cor\' 
troly. C^IgiaitioTt \S a-utomatic 

fi«-ai-i<iK«.r. 'Bo^-ton — CKica^o — Pl^iladelpliicL 

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THOMAS B. JEFFERYS" COMPANY 




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Boody,McLellan^Co. 
Bankers 

57 BROADWAY. NEW YORK 

Membeis of tlie New Yoi k Stock Exchange 



ORDERS EXECUTED FOR C/ISH 

OR ON MARGIN 
Interest allowed on deposits subject to cheque 



BRANCH OFFICES 

Albany Poughkeepsie New Haven 

Hartford, Bridgeport and Brooklyn 



Readers or THK Literary Direst are asked to mention the publication when writing to udvortisii^. 



Vol. XXXL, No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



63 



Domestic. 

June 24.— A letter from the Chamber of Commerce 
of Portland, Ore., urging liis action on the Chi- 
nese exclusion question, is received by the 
President. 

Secretary of State Hay arrives at his summer 
home at Newbury, N. H. 

John W. Alexander returns to the Equitable 
$25,000; his share of the profits in the syndicate 
deals. 

In addition to acting as special ambassador at the 
ceremonies incident to tlie transfer of the body 
of John Paul Jones, .Assistant-Secretary of State 
Loomis is to inquire into the affairs of American 
embassies and legations abroad. 

June 2;.— President Roosevelt orders that Chinese 
of the e.xempt classes coming to this country 
shall be treated as citizens of the most favored 
nation. 
Secretary Hay suffers a slight relapse, but after 
treatment is reported much improved. 

June 26. — Secretary of War Taft tells the Yale 
graduating class that the administration of the 
criminal laws in the United States is a disgrace 
to civilization. 

June 27. — A scandal as to the status of the Panama 
Canal is threatened through the resignation of 
Chief Engineer. Wallace, because of friction with 
Secretary Taft and his associates in the com- 
mission. - ■ ; k • ■■■ i 

June 28.— President Roosevelt, in speaking at the 
Harvard commencement, denounces lawbreak- 
ing business and deplore -jJcofeSsionalism in 
college athletics. — • • : - 

June 29.— President Roosevelt is Heartily greeted by 
his fellow-villagers at Oyster Bay. 

Seven negroes and one white man are lynched at 
Watkinsville, Ga. 

June 30. — John F. Stevens, of Chicago, is appointed 
chief engineer of the f'anama Canal, to succeed 
John F. Wallace. ; ,' 

John D. Rockefeller announices'a gift of $10,000,- 
000 to the General Education Board, to be used 
as an endowment fund for promoting higher 
education in the United States. 

John Hay, Secretary of State, dies at Newbury, 
N. H. 

Secretary Taft, accompanied by Miss Alice Roose- 
velt and some members of both houses of Con- 
gress, leaves Washington on his trip to the 
Philippines. 



CONTINUOUS INDEX. 

Below will be found an index covering the issues of 
The Literary Digest for the last three months. 
Each week the subjects for the week previous will be 
added, and. the subjects for the issue fourteen weeks 
previous will be eliminated, so that the reader will 
always be atle to turn readily to any topic considered 
in our columns during the preceding three months. 

Adler, Felix, on divorce, 896 
Agnosticism and national decay, 783 
Albright Art Gallery, Dedication of, n* 
Alchemy.in modern times, 661 
Ambassador, A persecuted, 753 
America as Russia's " real enemy," 787 

D>egeneracy in, 6g6 
American influence on English naval policy, 790 

language, Frenchman's comment on, 505 

music, Growth of, 702 

president, Powerlessness of the, 941 
" Amica," Mascagni's new opera, 541 
Anarchy versus Anarchy, 902 
Andersen, Hans Christian, 541, 776 
Anesthesia by electricitv, 546 
Animalcules, how they behave, 856 
Ant as a medicine. The, 855 
Anthropology ? What is, 931 
Antidotes, Diseases as, 662 
Arabian rebellion. The, 941 
Arc-lamp, Improving the, 704 
Art mergers. New York's, 815 
Art in Russia defended, 478 
Atlantic ports. Rivalry of the, 808 
" Atlantic's" victory. The, 846 
Automobile or trolley ? 660 

Baltimore, Rebuilding, 695 

Balzac his own literary ancestor ? Was, 892 

" Baptist brotherhood defended," 897 

Beef prices, Rise in, 616 

Believe ? Do we, 663 

Biblical criticism, The English manifesto on, 938 

Births and deaths balanced, 746 

Blonds and brunettes in tropics, 662 

Bloom, The mechanism of, 625 

Bonaparte, new Secretary of tne Navy, 849 

Books in Russia, Fear and distiust of, 12* 

Books reviewed : 

Africa from South to North (Gibbons), 944 
Chatham, Life of (Harrison), 944 
My Poor Relations (Maartens), 943 



Sandy (Rice), 943 
Wild Wings (Job), 



.94.3 



Bowen-Loomis case. End of the, 3* 
Browning popular ? Why is, 775 
Bryant tne American Puritan poet, 658 



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Readers of The Literary Digest are asked to mention the pubUcation when writing to advertisers. 



64 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



Continuous Index {Continued). 



779- 

„ ^ - t.oi 

bjTon, The afxitheosis of, 928 

Cabinet changes. Rumored, 806 
Cactus made useful, 586 
Canadian crisis precipitated, 597 

school conflict, 517 
Carnef^ie jjension fund for teachers, 648 
Cassini. Count, replaced. 733 
Castro's defiance, 457 

Eur()j)e's impressions of, 553 

vindicated by South America, 713 
Caucasians, l-'ailinL' birth-rate of, 546 
Chateaubriand and Madame R6camier, 741 
Chicago strikers, Roosevelt to, 731 

claimed by Tom Watson, 579 
Chinese boycott of .American trade, 772 

exclusion troubles. 924 
Choate's, Mr., home-coming, 737 
Chopins, The two, 929 
Christian Science, Psychologist on, 590 
Christianity impugned by Confucianism, 859 

Should it countenance war ? 20* 
Christians .■' Are we, 629 
Church and the public school, 747 

hold on American men, 511 

impeached by Krederic Harrison 512 

Ought radical thinkers to leave the ? 549 

The, and social problems, 551 

union in tlie May conventions, S22 

union, A bishop on. 783 

union, A protest against, 939 
Cigarette, Outlawing the, 615 
Clergyman, The New Anglican, iS* 
Cleveland, G., arraigns club-women, 651 

on rabbit hunting, 883 

Club-women's replies to, 735 
Coal-tar colors. Poisonous, 509 
Collars, High, and the pneumogastric nerve, 782 
College athletics. Commercialism in. 807 
Colleges, Denominational, excluded from Carnegie 

benefit, 861 
Collision exhibition, Mr. Westinghouse's, 857 
Comedy, Zangwill's indictrnent of modem, 816 
Composite Madonna, The first, 749 
Cotton-crop reports, Leaks in, 923 
Cripples by defective education, 628 
Croton reservoir. Opening new, 626 
Crucifixion, New light on the, 821 
Czar's escape from assassination, 714 

gift of religious liberty, 707 

Daguerreotype, How to copy an old, 509 
Dalrymple, Mr., on municipal ownership, 925 
Degeneracy in America, 696 
Delcass6's defeat in Morocco, 902 
Diaz on Monroe doctrine, 578 
Disarmament scheme. New, 614 
Divorce, Felix Adler on, 896 

The Roman Catholic theory ef, 82. 
Drama as an aid to sedition. The, 891 
Dramatic season, End of the, 8si 
Dust and patent medicines, jo8 
Dynamite transportation, The problem of, 934 

Earth has solidified, How the, 745 
Easter in Jerusalem, 591 
Eclipse expeditions pay? Do, 705 
Egoism as a basis for Christian ethics, 936 
Electric motors. New uses for, 627 



in, 935 



transformer, The, 935 
Electrical industries, Progress i 
Electricity in railroading, 858 

to transmit music, 500 
Electroplated lace, 545 
" Elga," Hauptmann's new play, 624 
Emijeror William as Czar's evil genius, 594 

attitude to France, 669 
Engine, rotary. Problem of the, 17* 
England's buffer state for North India, 904 
"Equitable" broil, The, 534 

management, Weigning the new, 921 

methods of finance, i* 

Regeneration of the, 849 

settlement. The, 886 

upheaval. Newspapers on the, 577 
European pressure on L nited States, 754 
Evangelization of New York, 859 
Explosive, Safe, wanted, 660 
Explosives, Railroad transijortation of, 77^ 

Fast trains. Safety of, 2* 
Fiction as an art, 776 

Tendencies in American, 740 
Finant ial corruption charged against I.oomis, 650 
l'"ire proof scenery, Real, 744 
Fire protection, 706 

Fishery disputes with Newfoundland, 714 -' 
I'isliing with drugs, 8^7 
I'kime as an electrical conductor, 17* 
Fogs, To clear, with electricity. S17 
Food, Oueer things as, i6* 
" P'ourtli," How to live through the, i3»' 
France and the (ierman Crown Prince, 901 

German Kmi>eror unfriendly to, 669 

Protestant uneasiness in. iS* 

Separation of churcli aiul state, 516 

Wrangle with Japan, S27 
Franchise-tax l.iw, New York, sustained, S48 
French disarmament scheme, 614 

neutrality, American views of, 733 

republii . Plot to overthrow, 668 

suspicion ot Cicrman |M)li( y, S54 
Frenchman's comment on our language, 505 

G.xs, illuminating. Dangers of, 14* 

monopolists vs. the |x?ople, fx)i 
Germ..,, fear of Japan's growing [xjwer, 633 




mnM 




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all last Winter at Cost of 



Pastor's Study, Robinson's Run, United Presbyterian Church, 
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HE Peck-Williamson Company. 

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test tlie merits of the UNDEKFHliU Ft'KNACE you installed in our 
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per bushel, delivered, total flS.OO. 

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proviiling a furnace that will give abundance of steady heat, at minimum 
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Compare the above cost with your coal bills for last winter. 
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Heating Flans and Services of otu: Engineering Dept. absolstely frea 

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Meiltcal KuowlcJgf a llusbaud Should Uave. 
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Readers of Tuk Litkkary Digkst are asked to mention tlio publication when writing Ui udvet Users. 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



65 



CoNTiNUOLS Index (Continued). 

Germany affected by Russian situation, 712 
and English admirals, 82S 
Crown Prince wedding, goi 
would wage war witli U. S., How, 635 

"Girl, Unpleasant," in literature. The. S90 

Gomez, the liberator, 4* 

Gospels, Credibility of, 511 

Great liritain open to invasion? Is, 789 

Ground, Temperature of the, 547 

Guns, great, with rapid fire, 932 

Hara-kiri defended by Jananese, 617 

Higher-criticism defendea, 552 

" Historico-religious " IJible interpretation, 632 

Hooker, W. H., and the New \'ork legislature, 6* 

Horses, Wild, on Sable Island, 858 

House-plants, Some irritant, 545 

Hugo, Victor, and Juliette Druet, 622 

Ibsen, A new estimate of, 927 
Immigration frauds. 810 
Immortality, Miinsterberg on, 549 
Incandescent lamps, Fire from. 818 
India, North, England's buffer state for, 904 
Insurance jugglery, Lawson on, 458 
Ireland's literary revival, 816 
Irish akin to ancient Romans, 703 
Islands as weather stations, 14" 

James, Henry, Critical study of, 621 

on American men and women, 929 
Japan as the " Scourge of God," 785 

may become too powerful, 633 

Missionary situation in, 708 
Japanese civilization. Seamy side of. 888 

menace to colonists in the East, 788 

naval victcry, The, 812 

success. Menace of, 920 

Trafalgar, A, 863 
Jefferson, Joseph, Some estimates of, 655 
lesus. The lynching of, 664 

Jewish problem " in America, 630 
Jingoism rebuked in Germany, 942 
Judaism in New York, Condition of, 936 

Proposed synod of, 19* 
Jury system a failure ? Is tne, 696 

Kaiser's Cupj Capture of the, 812 
Knox, John, mfluence in America, 708 
Korin, the Japanese artist, 890 

Language, A peril to our, 854 

Lantern for opaque objects, 705 

Laurier's compromise of school conflict, 517 

Lee, Fitzhugh, 649 

Lewis and Clark Exposition, S82 

Life, A chemical definition of, 856 

insurance. Wall Street methods in, 619 
Literary woman ? Does it pay to be a, 621 
Liturgic trend in Presbyterianism, The, 862 
Loomis, Financial corruption charged to, 650 
" Lycidas " rejected by the Royal Academy, 853 

Mackay, Dr. D. S., charged with heresy, 550 
Magnetism by mixture, 703 
Manchuria, War balloons used in, 706 
Marking-system, Scientific, possible, 589 
Matter only two states ? Has^ 506 
Medicine, Modern, in antiquity, 743 
Medicines, Some pernicious, 894 
Mental disease. Responsibility in, 781 
Meredith's literary style. The penalty of, 891 
Methodism as alternative to Romanism, 592 
Milk-bottles, Paper, 820 
Mine, Finding a lost, 819 
Miniature painting, 9* 
Ministerial irresponsibility, 785 

training; Specialism in, 437 
Missions, Christian, The greatest problem before, 861 

Foreign, as affected by outcome of the war, 19* 
Modjeska testimonial, The, 701 
Mohammedanism, A missionary spirit in, 786 
Molifere comedy revived, 585 
Monistic basis for theology and ethics, 399 
Moon, Active volcanoes on the, 15* 
Morales, The shrewdness of, 495 
Morality, Machine-made, 587 
Morocco, Delcasse's defeat in, 902 

German Emperor's action in, 636 

German policy in, 554 

imbroglio, Possibilities of, 23* 
Morton's, Mr., exoneration, 5* 
Music at a distance, 506 

and religion as rivals, 822 

Nan Patterson case. Verdict in the, 696 
Naval training, English views of our, 866 
Navy, Deserters from, 578 
Negroes, Southern, as property-holders, 926 
Nerve-current, Nature of a, 704 
Neutrality and French neutrality, 751 

laws enforced, 88,1 
Ne\vfoundland strikes back, 579 
Newspaper woman. Struggles of a, 544 
Niagara, Commercializing, 737 

How to save, 893 

The destruction of, 507 
Norway preparing for war, 825 

'I'he fate of, 940 
Norway's secession. Causes of, 900 
North pole. Ownership of the, 894 
Novel, Future of the American, 657 

Popularity of, explained, 502 
" Novel with a Purpose," One, that succeeded, S14 
Novelist, Woman of to-day as, 46s 

Ocean depths. Vision in, 625 
Odor. Loss of substance with, 857 
" Ogden movement " criticised, 652 
Oratory, After-dinner, in America, 10* 




A 



From ToKio 
to Capetown 
and the 
Philippines 

Witt's Can — the sanitary garbage 
holder — is used ; at the American 
Embassies, at army posts and by 
medical missionaries. 

So trim, (water-tight,) simple, 
strong and easily cleaned that Uncle 
Sam's soldiers in the Philippines use 
the cans to make coffee and soup in. 

The U.S. Government has bought 
a great many of Witt's Cans most 
of which are in use at army posts 
for holding garbage, waste, etc. 

Every home and business establishment 
where neatness and health are valued needs 




For Garbage and Waste. 

Close-fitting lid makes it impossible to detect the slightest odor; 
prevents dogs scattering contents ; gives sightliness in connection 
with caring for refuse. 

Made of corrugated steel — practically ruver wears out. 

Witt's Pail is like Witt's Can, only smaller and with handle, for 
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Ask your dealer for "Witt's." 

("Witt's Can" stamped in lid and bottom.) 

THREE SIZES : No. 1— 15%x25 In., No. 2—18x25 in., No. 3— 20>^x25. 
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We Sell Farm Loans 

Netting Investors 6«. We have done so for 22 years — 
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WE ARE SELLING 

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Hiittery Table Lamps, *;100 to 10.00 

Ti-lephones. Complete. ii-J..'JO to ]1.20 

1 Klectric IJoor Hells. 75<-.. *1. i\:& 1.55 

jCarriaKe anil Bicycle LiKhts. 75c. to 6J)0 

Lanterns d. Pocket Flash Lights, 75c. 3.00 

' ?*.(« M<-dical Batteries S.'JO 

Teli'Kraph Outfits. $1.7510 '2.55 

Battery Motors. 7.V. to 12.00 

Necktie and Cap LinhtH, 75c. to 6.00 

Dynamos and .Motors, ^OO.OOto 1.00 

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66 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



The Gibson Monograph 




Copyright 1904 by Collipr's 

Two Strikes and the Bases Full 



$ 



6 



worth of ^ 

Gibson Proofs 

mounted and all ready 
for framing 



2 



Upon receipt of $2 (stamps, draft or money 
order) we will send by mail, prepaid, The Gibson 
Monograph — " Charles Dana Gibson, A Study of 
the Man, with Some Recent Examples of His 
Best Work." This is a beautifully printed volume 
measuring 15 x 10 inches. In addition to the 
thirteen choice illustrations printed in the text there 
are six full-page drawings in his very best manner 
that are separately mounted on heavy matboard, 
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proofs for framing at less than $1 each — the de- 
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we will send a catalogue showing small facsimiles 
of the six pictures and the cover. 

Address The Business Office of Collier's 
424 A\'. 13th St., New York City 




AIIOUND 
WORLD 




CoNTiNVOfs Index (Coiiiinued). 

I'anama canal commission. The new, 536 

canal supplies abroad. Buying, 771 

mismanagement at, 497 

railway rates. Furor over, 61S 
Parliamentary office, Cbmedy of, 751 
Haul Jones's body found. 617 
Peace, The butcheries of, 698 
Peary s new .Arctic ship, 780 
Personality, Multiple, 626 
Persuasion and suggestion, 5S8 
Philadelijhia's gas hght, 770 

Results of 847 
Philippines an element of weakness, 698 

Census returns from, 580 
Pictures .' Why do we paint, 927 
Pipe, A smoke-cooling. 933 
I^lants grown by acetylene light, 895 
Poetry. Consolations of, 77S 

National note in .\nierican, 5S4 
Poland, Russian, Uprising in, 8* 
Polishing. Mechanical effects of, 744 
Pope and Emperor of Germany, 865 

Pessimism of tlie S60 
Population and rainfall. 706 
Protestant and Roman Catholic Pibles, 710 
Public library. Is it feminized ? 10* 
Pure food bill, Enemies of the, 736 

Rabelais, Rehabilitation of. 543 
Races of Europe, Mixed, 746 
Racing for Kaiser's Cup, 76S 
Railroad authorities on rate control. 767 

control. Administration differences on, 734 
Railroads, High-speed, 659 

.'\merican. Secret of success in, 24* 
Railway congress. International, 693 

rate issue, Spencer on, 653 

Speed war between New York Central and 
Pennsylvania, 922 
Raines-law hotels. Fight on the, 8S5 
Rapid Transit, The sociology of, 15* 
Religion, Losing one's, 550 
Religions of New York, 747 
Renan as an artistic tritler, 823 
Resistance, passive. Dr. Clifford on. 629 
Resurrection, Origin of belief in the, 590 
Reverence and ritual, 899 
Revivals, Fear and hypnotism in, 750 
Revolutionary spirit in French literature and art, 742 
Rockefeller's gift, Religious views of, 513 

F'urther reflections on, 631 
Rodin's artistic ideals, 777 
Roosevelt and the third term, 773 
Rotary engine, A new, 547 
Rouvier on separation of church and state, ;i6 
Rozhdestvensky investigation, London papers on, 667 
Russia, Agrarian revolt in, 790 

appeals for diplomatic support, 22* 

anarchy versus anarchy, 902 

End of autocracy in, 826 

Fear and distrust of books in, 12* 

Future of, 940 

Hope of revenge in, 788 

Reaction in, 533 

reluctant to conclude peace, 514 
Russian bureaucracy satirized, 582 

church demands independence, 665 

losses, Tlie. 496 

navy and Mr. Schwab, 69; 

" Outlawed" organs on revolt, 668 

press on prospects of revolt, 668 

realism, 852 • 

refusal of humiliation, 596 

situation, Importance of the. to Germany, 712 

stage durintj a critical year, 889 

treatment of artists and authors, 701 
Russo Japanese War: 

American views of French neutrality, 733 

Lessons of the naval battle, S81 

Linevitch's task, 59S 

Paris on continuation, of, 554 

Peace proposals of President Roosevelt, S87 

Plans of battle of Mukden, 539 

Roosevelt's intervention, 21* 

Rozhdestvensky and I'rench neutrality, 633 

Russia refuses to be humiliated, 596 

Russian losses, 496 

Russian admirals and lost battle-ships, S44 
• St. Petersburg's hope of victory, 556 

Togo-Rozhdestvensky duel, 580 

Togo's strategy, 594 

Togo's victory, comments on, S43 

Washington ciiosen for peace conference, 919 

St. Louis li.xposition, scandal rejoinders, 500 

St. Petersburg's hope of victory, ^56 

Santo Domingo, Roosevelt and the Senate, 515 

Shrewdness of president of, 49; 
Scandinavian Peninsula, Prospect of war in the, 7S6 
.Schiller centeiiaiT, The, 583 

Religion of, 937 
.School-children, Underfed, 738 
.Scientists. Hasty, 931 
S< ottish cliuri: h controversy 



' Sea-habit '' dying out ? 

last .' How long does a, 779 



,. , S.,8 
Is our, 7* 
Sensation la ' "" 
.'-iense, .Still another, 820 
" Sex drama " vindicated by a I'renchman, 65S 
Shakes|)eare as an imitator, 504 

imwai hed by .Shaw, 7-;g 
.Sin, Modern, 666 

Singing in English, Nordica on, 656 
Smoke-cooling pipe. A, 933 
Snapsliots by lamplight, S(^; 
Socialism as a menace to Cliristianity, 510 

next great |«)litical issue.' 647 

A trend toward, 80S 
Soil, Disapiiearance of the, 743 
South .America saved from Euroix; by I', S., 636 
.Six;ed, Higher railroad, 933 



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Vol. XXXI., No. 2] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



67 



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CoNTiNLOts Inuex {Continued). 

Spencer's j hilosophy, Fatal j^ap in, 824 
Spider-silk from Madajjascar, 745 
Staircase, Movinj; for vehicles, 587 
Standard Oils defense, 540 
"Star-spangled Banner'' mutilated. 582 
Stevenson's backfrround of j>looni, 700 
Strike, in Chicago raises problems, 6c;2 

Labor press on New York, 498 

Teamsters' side of, 732 
Strikers, Chicajjo. Roosevelt to, 731 
Student or apprentice ? 858 
Swinburne, I'resent position of, 542 

Taft's Presidential prospects, 811 

Talkinj(-machines, Some ancient, 855 

Tea, Substitutes for, 934 

Tears as a test of literature, 813 

Telegraphy, Obstacles utilizecfin wireless, 507 

Temperature used to develop new species, 508 

Ten hour law, I.abor press on, 654 

Supreme Court on the, 614 
Theatrical trust. More light on the, 66g 
Theological students. Coddling of. 709 
Theology. Advanced, made popular, 784 

Radical, combated in Germany, 898 
Thoreau's religion. 593 
Tooth-brush, The deadly, 659 
Tourgee, Albion W., 930 
Transvaal constitution. The new, 752 
Trolley or automobile ? 660 
Tropics. Blonds and brunettes in the, 662 
Turkey, Origin of the, 819 
Turner, most whimsical of painters, 854 

Unemployed in England, The, 864 

United States, European pressure on the, 754 

Unrighteousness, The newer, 666 

Vegetable combat. A; 782 
Vehicles. Moving staircase for, 587 
Venezuela, Diplomatic shake-up in, 694 

Present regime in, 457 
Verne, J., and other scientific prophets, 628 

Death of, 502 
Wall Street and tax dodgers, 538 

methods in life insurance, 019 
War-balloons in Manchuria, 706 
War, How waged between U. S. and Germany, 635 
Warm weather, Virtuous influence of, 16* 
Warsaw, Massacre at, 697 
Washington, chosen for peace conference, 919 
Water : pure and adulterated, 588 
Water-supply, Prehistoric, 818 
Wealth-getting, Drama of, 813 
Weaver's defiance. Mayor, 805 
Wheat crop. Bumper, 614 
Whistler e.xnibition in London, 533 
White race hold its own ? Will, 5.16 
William II., France, and England, 825 
Wireless possibilities, 548 

telegraphy. Obstacles utilizid in, 507 
Wisconsin's rate legislation, 809 
Witte, Mr., Truth about, 593 
World's loftiest points, 13* 

Zionism, New phases of, 748 

* Articles are in Vol. 31, others in Vol. 30. 



THE SUMMER REFUGE 



Scarcely are the gang-planks pulled ashore, when, with 
a start, the boat has left the whart and is footing it rapidly 
down stream. Then you remember that the .Sandy Hook 
line is the fastest out of New York, or any other harbor for 
the matter of that. There is yet something in store to thrill 
the man who has not seen the " sky-.scrapers," standing 
together like a band of giants at a hunting, as they trans- 
cend the purple vapors of evening, and catch on their higher 
portions the rosy light from the setting sun. Then, as even 
more steadily than the Ancient Marin«r, we drop " below 
the kirk, below the hill, below the light-house top," we 
have passed the Statue of Liberty, the Narrows themselves, 
and perceive the wooded shore of Staten Island running off 
mistily towards New Jersey. On the other side the lights 
of Coney Island sink in distance, and presently we are in- 
side the long bar of Sandy Hook. What in the world 
could be more refreshing than this splendid sail at the b:- 
ginning and end of a summer day. 

From Atlantic Highlands the innumerable attractions of 
the coast from Highland Beach to Point Pleasant are with- 
in easy reach, and surroundings may be found to suit every 
taste. The express train service embraces Navesink, Nor- 
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Branch, Elberon, Deal, Allenhurst, Asliury Park, Ocean 
Grove, Avon, Belinar, Spring Lake, Manasquan, Point 
Pleasant, Red Bank, Malawan, Freehold, and other re- 
sorts boasting well kept hotels. The coast is justlv famous 
for its facilities for yachting, driving, automobiling and 
both salt and fresh water bathing. Besides the Sindy 
Hook route the New Jcrsev Central has an all rail ro-.itc 
with stations at the foot of West 23d Street, N. R , and at 
the foot of Liberty Street, N. R. All trains are equipped 
with the latest designed Pullman parlor cars and coaches. 
Upon application to C. M. Burt, General Passenger Acent, 
Central Railroad of New Jersey, New York City, a hotel 
book and Sea Shore time-table will be sent you ; they are 
free for the asking. 



Physician vs, Bacteriologist 

This embraces Rosenbach's discussion on clinico- 
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ALCOHOLISM 

Any of the following sent free on request. Mark book 
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Ciin Drunkj-nness Be Cured ? 

By Lady Henry Somerset 

The Kidneys : nd AleolioliHiii 

By Frank G. Ketchum, M. D. 

Remarks on Drag Addiotion ivitli labn- 
lated C;i«es By Ira K. Shaffer, M D 

Medical Treatment for the Di iinkard vs. 

IiupriHoi.nient By Carl H. Fowler 

Vital Ouestions Answerfd. . . .By a Staff Physician 

The Oppenlieimer Institute — Its Treat- 
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68 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 8, 1905 



tHE lEXlCOGRAPHER'S 

^ jjasyQhair 




In this rohiiiin. tu ileciUe questions concerning the correct 
use of words, tlie Kunk & W'agnallB Standard Dictionary is 
conHulted as arbiter. 

" R. R. G.," Middleton, N. S., Can.— The in- 
formation that you furnish is too meager to 
enable us to investigate your question with 
any hope of result. However, we know the 
"chivo," one of the goatfishes (genus Upeneus) 
of the surmullet family ; but this fish, so far as 
we can ascertain, is tropical only. 

"T. F. B.," Atlanta, (ia.— "Whence does Zangwill 
get the words " iniiisnio»rrify ' and ' transmogriflca- 
tiou ' ? " 

Possibly from the Standard Dictionary, page 
1915. The wonls have been in use in a collo- 
quial or humorous sense since 1728 by such 
writers as Fielding and .Jorlin, the latter 
of whom, in his "Ecclesiastical History," 
writes : " Augustine seems to have had a small 
doubt whether Apuleius was really transmogri- 
fied into an ass." The words have also been 
used by P"'oote, Scott, and Barham. (See 
" Ingoldsby.") 

"A. R.," New York.— "Among the absurd words 
coined by some noincnclatoi- who can not speak Greek 
are two especially remarkable: '()))tomeler,' 'optome- 
try.' In reality tlie latter means the measurement of 
something thal.is broiled or roasted." 

While it is true that the (ireek npfos, " seen," 
is very rare, it is a legitinuite fornuition from 
the root op-, " to see," and is an entirely differ- 
ent word in origin from optos, "cooked." 
Oplns, "seen," is not a mere modern forma- 
tion, but occurs in Ltician's " Lexiphanes," ix. 
The word "optometer" has formed a part of 
the English vocabulary since 17.1S, and in view 
of the words " optogram," "()i)tostriate," " op- 
totype," etc., it would be difficult to change 
it now. 

"H. B.," Ilo.sendale, N. V. — "In reading the i)reface 
to a recent work I met wilh the following words wliicli 
I do not find In my dictionary: 'banausic,' 'ephebic,' 
'haptic,' and 'mer'lstic.' Will you kindly tell me their 
meaning? " 

With plea.sure. We give the definitions 
below: " banauHic, (i. Merely mechanical or of 
mechanics, ephebic, <i. Of or i)ertaining to the 
training or exercise of ei)hebe. hHptic. a. Re- 
lating to the sense of touch, ineristic, n. Of or 
pertaining to a mefamere ; being tv metamere." 
The words are all to be found in tiie Standard 
Dictionary. 

"A. H.," Chicago, III —"What is the dilTerence be- 
tween the words 'l)ig" and * large' > Is there a ride bv 
whii-h one can delenntne the correct use df these 
words '; " 

" Hig" is often used colloquially and in bad 
taste for "great"; as, "He is a liifi man" in- 
stead of "... a (iridt man." A "big" man 
may be very far from being a "great" man. 
Wa^ilinglull was mentally and spirituallv a 
"great" man, physically a "large" man, but 
no one shoulil speiik of the father of his country 
as a "big" man. " Large" denotes exteii.sioii 
in more than one ilirection, and beyoixl the 
averaj,'e of the chi.HM to which t he object i)elong.s : 
we speak of a "hnre" surface or a "large" 
.^olid, a "large" field, a "large" room, a 
"large" ai)ple, etc. \ "largo" man is n man 
of more than ordinary size; a "great" man is 
a man of remarkalde mental jjower. " Hi^ ' is 
a iiiore ('m|)hatic wonl than "large," but or- 
dinarily less elegant ; therefore, " large" should 
be preferred. 



TARTARLITHINE 

A Rochester physician reports a case of a 
yoimg lady with gouty manifestations, who 
had not had a satisfactory night's test for two 
years, on account of the disturbing symptoms ; 
the five grain tablets of Tartarlithine were 
recommended and two days after the treatment 
was commenced the patient reported that she 
had slept continually " from the time of going 
to bed undl the time of getting up in the 
mo'ning" — attrifjuting this condition entirely 
to the use of the Tartarlithine tablets. 



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13.5 illustrations, six in colors, lt> full-page half- 
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FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, Pubs., NEW YORK 



Mauch Chunk, within easy excursion distance of New 
York, is one of the most strikingly picturesque resorts in 
the country. Lying among the hills twelve miles within 
the Lehigh Gap, it appears so be so completely walled In, 
that it is only when the traveler has attained one of the 
commanding summits, and descried the wonderful horse- 
shoe bend of the narrow valley, that he can conceive how 
such a cul de sac can be approached from any direction by 
a railroad. The houses nse afxjve each other as they back 
up against the rising hillside. On the opposite side of the 
river the precipitous bluffs of Bear Mountain, from the In- 
dian of which the town derives its name, form the front of 
the horseshoe round which the current sweeps. 

Trout fishing may be indulged in at the preserve of the 
Penn Forest Brook Trout Company, which comprises 
about sixty-five ponds and dams and is fed by four moun- 
tain streams. Nearer at hand, however, are the great 
scenic attractions of the resort. A trolley line attains the 
" Flag Staff " on the mountain at the southern end of the 
city, and westward lies the old Switch-back or Gravity 
Railroad, which historically and physically is of the most 
unique interest. 

On Mount Pisgah, behind the site of the town, coal was 
discoverd by a hunter in 1791. The earliest anthracite 
mines of the country were opened in this vicinity, and the 
Gravity Railroad was constructed to bring the output down 
to the river. The length of the line was nine miles, and it 
was constructed at an even grade for the whole distance. 
Mules were used for years to haul the empty cars back to 
the mines. These sagacious beasts were wont to toil pa- 
tiently up the long road, but they refused flatly to be driven 
down, having once become accustomed to the exhilaration 
of coasting with the coal and enjoying the beauties of the 
natural scenery. In 1844 a return track was laid. Machin- 
ery was installed to draw the cars up Mount Pisgah and 
Sharp Mountain, but the cars ran the remainder of the way 
by their own gravity. Of late years the railroad has been 
used exclusively for recreation. 

As we ascend Mount Pisgah the earth seems to sink away 
from us, and the vast amphitheatre of the hills falls into 
perspective. It is a thrillmg sight. The summit reached, 
we slowly cross a trestle over a wild ravine. To the north 
lies Broad Mountain, and we catch a glimpse of Glen Ono- 
ko through a distant ravine. Behind us the Lehigh Gap is 
outlined in blue. The river winds below like a silver ser- 
pent, banded by a bridge where it is crossed by the Central 
Railroad of New Jersey. The towns cuddled in the valley 
sides look like toy houses from a Noah's Ark. Now we 
gather speed as we roll along; on the right rises a ridge 
buried in forest, and below, on the other hand, we pass the 
old tunnel and hamlet of Hackelbemie. From Bloommg- 
dale Valley the second ascent is made, this time to a slight- 
ly higher altitude, and again we scan a wide panorama 
bounded by mountain ranges. From here we scarcely 
travel a mile before we come to the tvirning point, the 
qoaint old mining village of Summit Hill Here there is 
much of interest to be seen. The mines may be \'isited, 
and the burning mine, a vein which has been smouldering 
since 1832, and is now on fire at a great depth, should be 
seen. The return ride over the nine miles of continuous 
descending grade is perhaps the pleasantest part of the trip. 
Starting gradually as before, great speed is soon attained, 
and we whistle through the greenwood on the wings of the 
wind. Under the shadow of great crags, through forests of 
rhododendron and laurel, by purling mountain streams, and 
out again across open pasture land the car leaps like a thing 
alive. Finally we descry the roofs and spires of Mauch 
Chunk, and all too quickly the ride comes to an end. Who- 
ever is thrilled by the scenic railways indoors at Coney Is- 
land, should try this indescribable coast of eighteen miles 
around the everlasting hills. 

The New Jersey Central runs fortnightly excursions to 
Mauch Chunk at popular prices, and if you are interested 
send for circulars to C. M. Burt, General Passenger Agent, 
New York City. 



Electro-Diagnosis and 

Electro-Therapeutics 

This gives a clear and concise explanation of the 
principles of electricity, and the latest research as to 
the physiological effects of electricity upon the human 
body. By Dr. Tobv Cohn, Nerve Specialist, Berlin. 
8voi 8 plates, 39 cuts, cloth, fi. 
FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, Publlsliers, New York 



TITTLEBAT TITMOUSE 

The new edition of Dr. Samuel Warren's immortal 
"Ten Thousand a Year." Cloth, illustrated, lT.50. 

FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY. Pubs., NEW YORK 



,\l"., 



vV\» '/// 



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shines brignHy in aLhouse where 

iJff©iKl abolishes dirh bub"Dirh 

evnd despa.ira.re close ofkinrTry i^in 

your nexb- house-clea.ning 3i3^i*^^^ia 



Readers of TiiK Literary Digest are asked to mention the publloatton when \vTftlng to advertisers. 



The Literary Digest 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3 



New York, July 15, 1905 



Whole Numijer, 795 



Published Weekly by 

FuxK & Wagnalls Company. 

44-60 E. 23d St., New 'i'ork. 44 Fleet Street, London. 

Entered at New York Post-Office as Second-Class Matter. 



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TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



MR. ROOT AS SECRETARY OF STATE. 

IN commenting upon Mr. Elihu's Root's return to the Cabinet 
as the successor to the late John Hay in the Department of 
State, the New York Times (Deni.) declares that he relinquishes 
"the unchallenged primacy of the New York bar" and gives up 
" the richest law practise " in the world. Mr. Root's income from 
his law practise, according to trustworthy reports, amounts annu- 
ally to $200,000. His salary as .Secretary of State will be only 
$8,000 a year. Why is he willing to make this great financial 
sacrifice? The New York 11 'ofM (Dem.), seldom at a loss for a 
plausible solution for every problem, has the following answer for 
the question in a despatch from its Washington correspondent : 

" In consideration of President Roosevelt's active support for 
the Presidential nomination in 1908, ex-Secretary of War Elihu 
Root has consented to give up the most profitable law practise in 
the country and return to the Cabinet as Secretary of State. 

" Secretary Taft will withdraw from the race and throw all his 
influence to Mr. Root. In return he will be appointed Chief-Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court by Mr. Roosevelt if Chief-Justice Fuller 
retires in his term, or by Mr. Root, if he is nominated and 
elected 

"The President's support of Mr. Root will be of the strenuous 
kind. From now until convention time in 1908 every important 
appointment that is made will be handed out with the understand- 
ing, implied and understood if not actually stated in plain English, 
that the man to whom it is given will work for Mr. Root. The 
word will be passed along the line to all the present federal office- 
holders of the rank which entitles them to active participation in 
politics, and \vith the quiet but always effective work of the corpor- 
ations and their agents it is expected that a machine will be cre- 
ated that will be powerful enough to secure Mr. Root's nomination 
on the first ballot. 

" It was not until the President promised Mr. Root this kind of 
support that Mr. Root agreed to surrender the immensely lucrative 
law practise which impelled his retirement from the Cabinet and 
which he at first was decidedly averse to giving up 

"The President firmly believes that Mr. Root is the greatest 
man in the country next to himself, and the one best suited to be 
his successor. Ever since his own nomination was assured he has 



been shaping things to secure Mr. Root's nomination in 190S. and 
when Mr. Hay's death lelt the first place in the Cabinet vacant he 
was convinced tliat the psychological moment for the first definite 
step in that direction and the positive declaration of his clioice for 
his successor had arrived. Mr. Roosevelt thinks that Mr. Root's 
direction of the War Department and the manner in which he 
handled the Philippines are alone sufficient to make him President." 

Even the conservative New York E7>en//ig^ Posf {Ind.), by gWmg 
publicity to this story, seems in a measure to stand sponsor for its 
truthfulness, but in spite of this indorsement by widely separated 




Fr"iii tht p;tintiinr by A. A. ArnlerjM)n. 

ELIHU ROOT, SF.CKF.T.XRY OK ST.\TE. 

authorities, the story is not generally believed. The prevailing 
opinion seems to be that -Mr. Root has returned to tlie Cabinet 
because the demand for his return was too urgent and flattering to 
be resisted, because his temperament and talents naturally adapt 
him to the place, and that furthermore his ambitions will be satis- 
fied and he will consider himself well paid if he .so discharges the 
duties of his great office as to receive the thanks and commenda- 
tions of his fellow citizens. It is also pointed out that monetary 
loss is a matter of slight importance to Mr. Root now, as through 
the death of his father-in-law he has recently come into the po.sses- 
sion of a fortune of $3,000,000. There is no attempt, however, to 
deny the fact that the position of .Mr. Root as Secretary of State 
under present circumstances makes him an imposing figure in the 
political world, and that possibly affairs might soon so shape 
themselves as to lead his friends to conclude that he is the logical 



70 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July ir>, 1905 




?• T 'f*' 




NOT MISSING ANYTHING ON THE WAY DOWN. 

— Payne, in the Pittsburg Post. 



MAKING IT INTERESTING. 

— Rehse, in the St. Paul Pioneer Press. 



ASTRONOMY IN RUSSIA. 



successor to President Roosevelt as the head of the Republican 
party and Chief Magistrate of the nation. 

No man in recent years at least has taken a high and responsi- 
ble position under the Cjovernment with so little unfriendly news- 
paper comment. Mr. Root appears to be immune from attack. 
For instance, all that the New York American, a radically Demo- 
cratic paper, can find to say against him is that he is tied so closely 
" to the practitioners of high finance " that he will experience diffi- 
culty in breaking his " affiliations of this sort in a moment." Thus : 

" It IS impossible for Mr. Root in public service to ignore the 
clients who have made him great and prosperous in private life. 
This we say with the utmost good feeling to Elihu Root, whose 
ability all men must recognize 

" Nevertheless, we think it will be an error for Mr. Roosevelt to 
make him Secretary of State. Mr. Roosevelt has had some expe- 
rience with his diplomats. He has had the 'indiscreet ' Loomis, 
who was more of an attorney than an envoy extraordinary and 
minister plenipotentiary. Now does he want for Secretary of 
State a man, able and honorable, who is at the same time entan- 
gled in one way or another with every big corporation in this 
country .'" 

The New York ll^or/d (Dem.), quoted above, can not refrain 
from adverse comment on Mr. Root's clientele, and recalls the 
fact that it has included such men as " l>oss " Tweed of long ago 
and some of the "James H. Hyde associates " involved in the pres- 
ent Equitable .scandal. But at the .same time, T/w World cxit'A a 
ca.se squarely in point which may dispel the fears of 77/6' Ameri- 
can, as above expressed, and prove that Mr. Root will find it ea.sy 
to ignore " the clients who have made him great and famous in 
private life." To quote : 

" If proof were needed of Mr. Root's single-minded devotion to 
public interests wiien he is a pui^lic official it would be nece.ssary 
only to refer to the Dady contracts. As a practising lawyer, Mr. 
Root, in consideration of a fee of $5,000, it is said, gave an opinion 
that Mr. Dady's right to certain sewer and paving contracts in 
Havana was valid. After he bexame Secretary of War he issuud 
an order repudiating these contracts. As Secretary of War Cuba 
was his client, and nolhing that he had done for a previous client 
was allowed to stand in the way of his official duties." 

In the light of this i.istancce of Mr. Root's fidelity to his em- 
ployer, no n.atter who l.e be, insinuations as to commitments to 
moneyed interests that might warp his judgment or interfere with 
his official duties are looked upon with suspicion. Those who know 



Mr. Root agree with the New York Sicn (Rep.) in saying that 
morally as well as mentally he " is the fittest of all men to succeed 
John Hay in the Cabinet of Theodore Roosevelt." The New 
York Tribune (Rep.) speaks of the popular confidence in Mr. 
Root as natural, on the ground that his integrity and worth have 
already been proved, and says: 

" As Secretary of War he gave the country a taste of his force 
as an administrator and of his ability to vitalize ideas and achieve 
results. To him more than to any other man we owe the moderni- 
zation of our military system which came in the years immediately 
following the Spanish War. He saw the defects in the old organi- 
zation — exposed by the test of actual warfare— and set himself to 
cure them. His remedies were heroic, and Congress listened re- 
luctantly to his appeals for legislation which should sweep away 
abuses and remodel obsolete practises and ideas. 

"It took three years of agitation to accomplish the reforms that 
the Secretary recommended. But in the end Congress consented 
to each and every innovation, and before Mr. Root resigned in 
1904 he had the satisfaction of seeing the new system in actual 
operation and our army refashioned into an effective, modern, 
trustworthy weapon of defense. The creation of a general staff, 
the establishment of a system of schools of technical and profes- 
sional training, with the War College at its apex; the introduction 
of the skeletonized company, the three battalion formation, the 
reorganization of the artillery, the limitation of details to the staff 
corps, and the nationalization of the militia — these are some of the 
reforms for which Mr. Root successfully labored and for whose 
far-reaching benefits he is entitled to the fullest personal and offi- 
cial credit." 

But the highest testimonial to the qualifications of Mr. Root for 
any position he may choose to hold, was given by President Roose- 
velt in a public address delivered about eighteen months ago. In 
view of the important events which have followed, the remarks of 
the President on that occasion appear very significant. So we 
repeat the following : 

" In John Hay 1 have a great Secretary of State. In Philander 
Knox 1 have a great Attorney-Cieneral. In other Cabinet posts 1 
have greal men. Klihu Root could take any of these places and 
fill it as well as the man who is now there. And, in addition, he is 
what probably none of these gentlemen could be, a great Secretary 
of War. Klihu Root is the ablest man I have known in oiw (lOv- 
ernment service. 1 will go further. He is the greatest man that 
has appeared in the public life of any country, in any position, on 
either side of the ocean, in my time." 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



71 



SOUTHERN PRESS ON THE GEORGIA 
LYNCHING. 

/^NE day last month The Times-Union, of Jacksonville, Fla., 
^-^ in a cheerful and congratulatory editorial, expressed pleas- 
ure at the fact that lynching was on the wane in the South. This 
was scarcely one week before a gang of a hundred armed and 
masked white men broke into a jail and lynched eight prisoners 
with a savagery, as the Chicago Record-Hera/d dtc\3.r<i?,, that was 
" inconceivable to a civilized man who was outside the influence 
of the mob's frenzy." This disgrace to Georgia occurred on June 
29 at Watkinsville, within a few miles of the State university., 
The victims were one white man charged with murder, which he 
strenuously denied; two negroes charged with the same crime, 
which they confessed, one negro charged with the "usual crime," 
but whose guilt was not established, one negro who had already 
been condemned to be hanged, one negro charged with shooting 
another negro, and one negro charged with the theft of a rifle. A 
ninth negro escaped by feigning death until the lynchers had rid- 
den away. The wholesale slaughter has aroused great indigna- 
tion. Governor Terrell has offered a reward for the capture ot the 
lynchers, and the citizens of Watkinsville have pledged their aid to 
the officials in hunting them down. These facts, in spit« of the 
horrible crime that was perpetrated, furnish, as The Times- Union 
declares, " the best possible proof of our statement that lynching 
is on the wane," for, continues this paper, " the time was, and 
not so long ago, when the better classes would have stopped with 
deploring the event." Indeed, The Times-Union is fully justified 
in taking this encouraging view, if conmient of the Southern press 
upon the bloody and cowardly affair is a true index of public feel- 
ing. The great majority of the Southern newspapers condemn the 
Watkinsville lynching in unmeasured terms, and are demanding 
that the leaders of the mob be punished as a warning for the fu- 
ture. Says the Louisville Courier-Journal : 

"The incitement to the deed was occasioned by a case of crimi- 
nal assault, altho all the victims were not accused of the crime, rn 1 
some of them were under arrest for minor misdemeanors. This 
serves to illustrate the great wrong committed against law and jus- 
tice when mob law is resorted to. In the blindness of passion no 
discrimination is made in the degree of guilt, and the innocent are 
treated with the same severity as the guilty. But there is no need 
of argument to condemn such lawlessness. It deserves upon its 
^ace the condemnation of everj' citizen who has a stake in the 




security of life and property, and such acts should brand the per- 
petrators as enemies to society equally worthy of punishment with 
the most guilty of their victims. If such acts are tolerated, even 
for the gravest offenses, they will soon be resorted to for lesser 
crimes or for avenging personal grievances. It has cost too many 
years of struggle to establish our system of judicial trial, as the 
safeguard of law and the surest means of punishing crime, to per- 
mit such usurpation of its functions by lawless mobs." 

But such, exclaims the Richmond Times-Dispaich, has mob 
law always been. "There is no trial. There is no deliberation. 
There is no respect of persons. When the mob goes on the ram- 
page, no man's life is safe. The citizen who remonstrates with 
them and the jailer who resists them are lucky that they were not 
numbered among the victims." And the Raleigh I^cws and Ob- 
server, aittr referring to the occurrence as one which " inflames 
prejudice against the South," and" is naturally productive of harm- 
ful general censure," attempts to fix the responsibility and says: 

" Split hairs over the matter as they may, the officers of the law 
who fail to enforce the law can not escape responsibility for out- 
rages committed against society. They may cajole a supine pub- 
lic opinion with protestations of their innocence and rectitude, but 
when the final reckoning of human affairs is made, blood-guiltiness 
will be among the sins for which they will have to seek forgive- 
ness." 

Many other Southern papers are holding the (Governor and the 
sheriff accountable for the crime, and are calling upon these offi- 
cials to make every effort to capture the lynchers and bring them 
to punishment. Thus the Savannah A^eivs declares : 

"The (Governor should do something more than simply offer 
large rewards. He should employ the l)cst detective talent there 
is to be had, and he should continue the hunt for the lynciiers as 
long as there is a possibility of finding them If such barbarous 
deeds are to be allowed to go unpunished we shall get a name for 
lawlessness that can not be lived down in a generation. Immi- 
grants will avoid us and capital will shun us. Our prosperity, of 
which we boast so much, will shrivel up. The Governor must do 
more than promise and offer rewards. He must take hold of the 
matter in a way that indicates that he means business, and which 
will encourage the people of the section where the crime was com- 
mitted to lend him a helping hand." 

The Macon (Ga.) Telegraph also calls upon the Governor and 
sheriff to act, but at the same time it acknowledges that they will 
have a hard time in bringing the criminals to book, for it seems. 



fi/mfm(^ 



r^^^i?^^. 







The Cz.iR vto liis subject)-" Vou furnished the men for my \var, and now you 
must pay for not winning victory for me." 

— Walker in the Cleveland World. 



LINEVITCH HAS OVA.MA ON THE RUN. 

—Morris in the Spokane Spokesman Kei'iew^ 



CARTOONS ON THE WIND UP OF THE WAR. 



72 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 





BARON ROSEN. 

It is said ttiat he was greatly op- 
posed to tlie war. He was Mii.ister at 
Tokyo and his reports regarding; the 
preparedness of tlie Japanese were 
minimized at St. I'etersburg. He suc- 
ceeds Count Cassini as Ambassador to 
the United States. 



N. V. MURAVIEI'F. 

Formerly Russian Minister of Jus- 
tice. The .St. I^etersburg Slovo says 
tliat he has neither tlie ability nor the 
temperament to conduct great nego- 
tiations, and predicts that his work 
will prove a disappointment. 





KOGORO TAKAHIRA, 

Japanese Minister at Washington. 
The Mikado charges his envoys to 
" make every effort to secure the re- 
establishment of peace on a durable 
basis." 



UARON KOiMURA, 

Who has represented Japan at 
Washington and St. Petersburg. As 
Foreign Minister he conducted the 
long and delicate negotiations in 
Tokyo with Baron Rosen preceding 
the war. He is a Harvard graduate. 



RUSSIAN AND JAPANESE PEACE ENVOYS. 



that the immunity of the different members of a mob of Southern 
lynchers is usually secured by assassinating or threatening to as- 
sassinate all who try to bring them to trial. We quote the follow- 
ing substantially verbatim from The Telegraph : 

"Sheriff Overby of Oconee County has an opportunity such as 
rarely comes to a man, to distinguish himself in the service of the 
State. Me should not wait for the Governor to act, but .should pro- 
ceed, upon his own motion and in his own way, to apprehend the 
members of the mob who slaughtered eight of the inmates of the jail 
^nder his direct care. Oconee is a small county and not thickly 
settled. It is hardly conceivable that the names of those who 
committed the crime can not be learned, if the sheriff has the 
moral courage to undertake an honest investigation. However, 



increase 
of 20% 



Japans Business iTicrease 
Duririg LUar 




Increas 
of 2% 

StQrtiiig PoiT)t 
of Increosa 



F.U).Keu)e<. 



231,000,000 Bush, to 25f ,000.000 
^I22.,774,U00 to % 132,94-5,000 
#103,905.000 to ^110,355,000 



1>IA(.I(A.M .SIIOWINC. 1111. IM Kl-.A.Sb IN IIISINE S IN JAPAN IH KlMi 1111- WAR. 

T". W. Hewes makes this diaRram for ffar/>ct's Wcel/y from data gathered l)y 
Sajiro Tateisli.of Toky). from the several Japanese Government departments. It 
covers the tirst eight uionlhs of the war. 



we know very well how such investigations are thwarted as a rule. 
It is no trivial matter to endeavor to penetrate the veil of neigh- 
borhood secrecy. The local officer runs the risk of being killed 
himself if he become too hot on the trail. Many a one, in the 
past, has been shot from ambush. Jurors tremble at the thought 
of being summoned, should any of the lynchers be brought to trial. 
As bloodthirsty as the latter showed themselves to be at Watkins- 
ville, they will be likewise desperate in protecting themselves." 



IS IT REVOLUTION IN RUSSIA? 

'"T^HE Black Sea mutiny has convinced nearly all the American 
•*■ newspapers which were not convinced before that revolu- 
tion is coming in Russia. 
"It seems almost im- 
possible" to the Boston 
Jlerald "that Russia 
siiould come out of the 
present situation with- 
out r e V o 1 u t i o n a ry 
changes of some sort " ; 
and the Chicago News 
argues tiiat " where the 
evidences of a wide- 
spread insurrectionary 
spirit are so unmista- 
kable, it is essentially 
improbable that an up- 
heaval involving the 
entire empne can be 
long delayed." The 
late of the mutineers 
makes little difference, 
we are reminded by the 
Newark .\V'7t'.v, the 
Providence Jonnial. 
a n (1 several other 
l)apers, for enough has 
happened to prove that 

the entire navy is honeycombed witli disaffection. "The army 
may be loyal for the lime," remarks the Providence daily, " but 




M. IlEZOHRAZOKl', 

President of the Yalu Timber Company, and 
one of the cliief instigators of the war. He has 
been threatened with death by peasants, and has 
invoked police protection. 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



73 



it is not likely to remain uninfluenced by the example of the sister 
service." "Without the support of the army, the autocracy is 
doomed," declares the Brooklyn Citizen, and it adds that " it is im-. 
possible to believe that in an atmosphere instinct with the spirit 
of revolt, tlie army alone is imnume." "There is enough deep 
discontent among many of the soldiers here to render it doubtful 
whether they will stand the test of obeying orders to fire on the 
people in the streets," says the St. Petersburg correspondent of 
the Associated Press, and another report has it that in some regi- 
ments the men detailed for Manchuria are refusing to go and liicir 
comrades are refusing to make them go. Jo.seph Mandelkem, a 
New York real estate dealer who has been traveling in Russian 
Poland, arrived in St. Petersburg last week and told of an aston- 
ishing state of affairs in Warsaw. On June 29, he said, he saw 
a procession of twenty thousand persons carrying red flags, with 
not a policeman in sight, the police having been warned that if 
they appeared they would be murdered, and in Byelostok, Mr. 
Mandelkern says, the revolutionists are even wearing a sort of uni- 
form, a blue blouse. 

Reforms are promised, but " the period within which conces- 
sions will be of avail is fast drawing to a close," says the Cleve- 
land /'/«/'« Dealer. The Houston Chronicle believes that " the 
clock of Russia's destiny has struck." It says: 

" Defeated abroad, with a spreading revolution at home, it begins 
to look as if the clock of Russia's destiny has struck. Nicholas 
II. may go down in history as the last of the Romanoffs. The 
sins of the fathers are visited upon the children. The Czar has 
not been a bad man, but he has manifested the incapacity which in 
his situation is as bad as crime. By inheritance he obtained his 
throne ; by heredity and the ills to which he is heir he may lose it. 
With a coterie of grand dukes, who are grand devils, with a bu- 
reaucracy that traditionally practises oppression as a fine art, his 
'divine right' to rule and ruin may be questioned by the people 
and answered with the ax, with the royal head on the block, as 
happened to Charles I. in England and to Louis X\'I. in France. 

" For long years in Russia tiie existence of the Nihilists and the 
danger, more than once proved not to be vain, to Czar and duke 
of high degree of assassination from a bomb of dynamite at home 
in the palace or abroad in a carriage, no matter what the precau- 
tions, no matter how numerous the guard, has told the story in elo- 
quent language of the bitterness of Russian oppression that could 
cause such awful revenge. 

" Cruelty breeds cruelty. The tears of the exiles to Siberia and 
of the executioner's victims could not be and have not been shed 
in vain. The blood from the knout has cried to heaven. Strange 
and sure is the retribution of history. 'Vengeance is mine, saith 
the Lord.' Hard is the way of the transgressor, whether man or 
nation. With Him with whom a thousand years are as one day, 
and one day as a thousand years, punishment sometimes seems to 




THE KNIAZ I'OTF.MKIN TA VK I CH ESKV." 

Seized by its crew on June 26, and surrendered on July 8 to the Runiai i in 
authorities, who turned it over to the Russian Government. 

us children of time to be very slow. But it is very certain. The 
vials of wrath often seemed closed and sealed ; once they are 
opened no man, from the least to the greatest, from the mujik ta 
the emperor, and no country can stand before the whirlwind." 

Turning now to the papers that take the other view, the Mobile 
Register thinks Russia is hardly ripe for revolution, becau.se the 
people "belong to a century different from ours, and have very lit- 
tle idea of concentration, unity of action, and, above all, are igno- 
rant of their power." The St. Paul Pioneer Press says similarly: 

" There is nothing to indicate any preconcert, and there is every- 
thing to indicate that the outbursts now in this part of the empire 
and now in that have only a remote connection with each other. 
There is not even harmony among the different parties and classes. 
Mutual distrust separates Jew from orthodox Christian, Pole from 
Russian, and the working classes from the employers, the peasant 
from the provincial nobility, and the Social Democrat from the 



.i\ jry"^1 










the"(;eorgi i'obiedonosetz.' 
Which was seized by its crew in the liarbor of Odessa on June 30, but surrendered next day. 



74 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



Liberal of the zemstvoes. Tlie police play 
upon and foster this distrust, setting religion 
against religion and class against class. 
There is ferment, but there is no prospect of 
a united and simultaneous upheaval." 

And the Detroit Trt'du fie doubts if revolu- 
tion is in sight. 1 1 observes : 

" It will not do to point in our time to rev- 
oluiions in the past. Overturnings of gov- 
ernment were not so difficult wiien a mob 
could arm itself in a few hours almost as well 
as the army. When swords or ancient mus- 
kets were the best arm available for the army, 
it was not difficult to improvise a new army 
among the people ; but the weapons of our 
time can not be improvised. It requires years 
to organize even the machinery to make them, 
and once properly equipped, governments 
have an insuperable advantage over the 
people, and this advantage is growing greater 
with every new invention 

" If Nicholas II. is to lose his crown, it will 
not be by any organized action of the Russian 
masses, who are utterly incapable of con- 
certed action, but by the intrigues of his own 
family, when they have made up their mind 
he must be sacrificed to save the dynasty ; if 

the dynasty is to go, it must be overthrown by a conspiracy of 
the army leaders. It was in one of these two ways that previous 
czars have been disposed of. The people will worship the new 
Czar as loyally as the old one, however he reaches the throne." 




DAVE" MARTIN. 

Pennsylvania Republicans are wondering 
wlietlier Martin or Senator Knox will control 
their party in that State. 



CHOOSING A NEW LEADER IN 
PHILADELPHIA. 

OO many have been the startling and important political events 
"'^ which have occurred in Philadelphia during the past two 
months that tlie initial victory over the gas trust now appears in 
the retrospect as only one of the lesser incidents in the grand cam- 
paign of reform. In speaking of the uprising of the citizens 
against tiie political machine and corruption generally in Philadel- 
phia, The Rcinew of Revieivs iox July says: "It is the swiftest 
and most thorough municipal revolution known in American civic 
annals." None of the more influential politicians of the old Re- 
publican "organization" remains in office. A few of them have 



been made defendants in criminal prosecu- 
tions, while all of them who profess allegiance 
to the old leaders are looked upon by the 
Philadelphia newspapers as unworthy of the 
trust and confidence of the people. So com- 
plete is the popular suspicion against every- 
thing connected with the old organization that 
the city Republican committee has deemed it 
advisable to withdraw the local ticket already 
nominated and agree to accept any ticket 
which the reform leaders may choose to put 
up. Nor is this all. The force of the 
aroused public opinion has been so drastic 
that it has caused the city council to repeal 
the great street-car "grab" and the gas-lease 
ordinance ; while it has also enabled Mayor 
Weaver, in spite of the resulting inconven- 
ience, to stop all work on contracts for the 
filtration-plants, boulevards, streets and high- 
ways, and to block other schemes involving 
the expenditure of over ^30,000,000. The 
discoveries brought to light in the investi- 
gation of these contracts gave the reform 
leaders the strong upper hand. When " Boss " 
Israel W. Durham, bowing to the storm of public indigna- 
tion, resigned his place as State Insurance Commissioner and 
abdicated from the leadership of the local Republican organi- 
zation, Governor Pennypacker appointed David Martin to the 
vacant office, an appointment that is taken as a tacit recognition 
of Martin as the local Republican leader. Martin, according to 
Philadelphia accounts, has been an enemy of Durham and an 
enemy of reform as well. Senator Quay, the former Republican 
" boss " of Pennsylvania, once made the remark that Martin " was 
branded with the dollar mark on his brow." This appointment, 
therefore, puzzles the experts in the Philadelphia newspaper offices. 
"It involves contradictions and incongruities in every aspect," 
says the Philadelphia Press (Rep.). The Public Ledger (Ind.) 
suspects that the Durham machine, finding itself hopelessly dis- 
credited, has secretly taken Martin into camp and put him in com- 
mand. 

Some think it will take more than appointment as Insurance 



t(-7^^<^-f-^ 





ini wi:avkk. 
—Campbell, in the I'hiladelphia North Atnerican. 



COMING EVENTS CAST THEIR SHADOWS BEFORE.' 



-De Mar, in the Philadelphia Record. 



IN THE CITY OF BROTHERLY LOVE. 



Vol. XXXL,Xo. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



75 



Commissioner, however, to make Martin a leader. A strong move- 
ment is afoot, we are told, to put Senator Knox in command. 
The New York Times (Dem.) thinks such an event would be little 
short of revolution. To quote : 

"The downfall of Israel \V. Durham, the head of the Republi- 
can machine in Philadelpliia ; the virtual abdication of Senator 
Penrose, the weak and incapable successor of Quay in the man- 
agement of the State machine, and the coming to tiie fore of Sen- 
ator Knox are among the events, and chief among them, that 
have suddenly and in a radical manner changed the character of 
the Republican organization in Pennsylvania. . . . The over- 
throw of Durham appears to have made an end of Penrose, and 
now the decent Republicans of Pennsylvania demand that Mr. 
Knox shall assume the leadership, a post which he does not want 
and is reluctant to take. Mr. H. C. Frick, it is declared, will be 
his right-hand man and firm supporter. This is indeed a remark- 
able change, for Senator Knox and Mr. Frick are honest men." 



CONVICTION OF SENATOR MITCHELL. 

IF the verdict of guilty rendered by an Oregon, jury on July 4, 
against Senator John H. Mitchell (Rep.) is irreversible, the 
Government has gained its first substantial victory in the campaign 
which it is waging against Senators charged with taking bribes. 
Senator Charles H. Dietrich (Rep.), of Nebraska, was acquitted, 
and Senator Joseph R. Burton (Rep.), of Kansas, once convicted, 
has been granted a new trial. But the Portland Oregotiian (Rep.) 
asserts that the conviction of Senator Mitchell is based on "incon- 
testable proof." The Louisville Courier-Journal (Dem.") also de- 
clares that "the facts brought to light at the trial make a record of 
official corruption and false swearing rarely developed in any crim- 
inal case." This, indeed, seems to be the consentient opinion of 
the press about the case. The only extenuation of Senator Mitch- 
ell that has been attempted is that his culpability might be due as 
much to ignorance and carelessness as to moral obliquity. This 
defense is suggested by the Philadelphia Public Ledger (Ind.) in 
the following words : 

" That Mitchell was legally guilty — that he infringed a Federal 
law — is not in doubt; but that he entered into a vulgar grafting 
scheme knowingly and deliberately, with intent to cheat the Gov- 
ernment, has been the subject of doubt. Senator Mitchell made 
a passionate defense of himself in the United States Senate, and 
the public in Oregon was, in the beginning of the case, willing to 
believe that he was acting as attorney for importunate constitu- 
ents, and that he was thus led foolishly or thoughtlessly to contra- 
vene the Federal statute which makes it a grave offense for a Con- 
gressman to practise before or to use his influence with one of the 
Government departments." 

But, while Senator Mitchell will look in vain for expressions of 
pity and sympathy from the press, he can find abundance of con- 
solation of that sort which comes from knowing that almost every- 
body believes that he is not the only Senator who deserves punish- 
ment similar to that meted out to him. Says the New York 
Evening Post (Ind.) : " He merely did what dozens of other Sena- 
tors and Congressmen are doing all the time " ; and the Minneap- 
oHs Tribune (Rep.) ventures the remark that now " many conscript 
fathers of the republic must be sitting on the uneasy bench of anx- 
iety." Indeed, if all stories be true, there are many other Sena- 
tors, besides Congressmen, and Government officials still at large, 
who are just as deserving of being placed behind prison bars as is 
Senator Mitchell. 

As reported by the papers, the specific charge that this Oregon 
Senator was convicted on was that he. together with Congressman 
Binger Hermann, of Oregon, then Commissioner of the General 
Land Office at Washington, conspired with one Puter and many 
others to cheat the Government out of public lands by means of 
forged affidavits and the use of false and fictitious names, and that 
Puter, the arch-conspirator or the most active agent in the fraud, 
paid to Mitchell $2,000 to secure his influence with Commissioner 



Hermann, who then had great power in expediting land claims in 
Washington. 

The area of the land stolen from the Government by means of 
this fraud does not exceed two thousand acres. But, as the Chi- 
cago Record-Herald {XnA.) declares : 

"There is no doubt whatever that the land offices of Oregon, 
California, and other far Western States have been permeated 
with fraud. According to a recent report to the Government, two- 
thirds of California's valuable timber has been stolen, and a little 
band of pirates has succeeded in seizing millions of acres of the 
remaining public domain. Bribery, false entries, forgery, every 
criminal device, in short, has been employed by these land thieves 
and their official accessories. Every act passed during the last 
thirty years and designed to benefit actual homeseekers has been 
violated and perverted for tlie benefit of thieving conspirators." 

Mr. William R. Lighton, writing for the Boston Transcript 
(Rep.\ makes the almost incredible assertion that " within the last 
fifteen years 510.000.000 
acres — an area that 
would make thirty 
States of the size of 
Massachusetts " — have 
been stolen from the 
public domain. The 
methods of operation 
employed by these land 
looters are practically 
all alike. So it will be 
necessary to cite only a 
few instances by way of 
illustration. To e x- 
plain : The Government 
has from time to time 
set aside great tracts of 
land for forest reserves. 
As The Public Ledger 
relates : 

" In the Mitchell case 
it was the Cascade senator john h. mitchei.l, 

Forest Reserve A lot ^^ Oregon, convicted of complicity in land 

J. r • 1 1 J frauds. Some say his real name is John Mit- 

of professional land ^^^n ^y^^^^^^^ transposed later to eh>de the in- 
looters, who operate on felicities of an early matrimonial venture, 
a large scale, found 

out through their bribed agents in the Washington Land Office, 
which was then in charge of the alleged co conspirator, Her- 
mann, the boundaries of the proposed reserve. The land 
' cruisers' or ' squatters ' were then sent out upon the reserve to 
file claims right and left and to hire clerks, bootblacks, profes- 
sional grafters, and all sorts of dummies to file claims to the 
worthless and inaccessible parts of the reserve, which none of the 
filers ever saw. As all the land agents in the State of Oregon 
were at that time in the conspiracy, including the Surveyor-(Jen- 
eral (since convicted and imprisoned), and as there was a large 
band of perjurers in the employ of the gang as notaries and the 
like, false affidavits and other papers were supplied at will." 

Even these bold and simple schemes would be ineffectual, it is 
claimed, if they were not backed by strong political influences. 
But this requisite, it seems, has always been obtainable. Says the 
New York Evening Post (Ind.) : 

" Behind the land thieves and the grafting officials of the Interior 
Department, of course, have stood the Western Senators and Rep- 
resentatives in Congress. They have tinkered the original home- 
stead law, passed forty-three years ago, uniil it no longer serves 
the purpose of putting the land into the hands of the actual user. 
The five-year continuous residence clause was changed by engraft- 
ing upon it a ' commutation ' provision— six months of residence 
and the payment of a nominal cash price. Later, under a reac- 
tionary impulse, the six months was changed to fourteen. Again, 
the preemption law and the' timber-culture' law. by the aid of 
which a homesteader could get an additional 320 acres— 480 in all 




re 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



— were passed in the interests of the grafters, then repealed to 
satisfy an aroused public sentiment. In 1S77 the ' desert-land " act 
was passed, dictated, it is charged, by the California conspirators 
themselves, by wliich, at first, a square mile of non-agricultural 
land could be taken up. Afterward tiiis was reduced to 360 acres. 
Even the admirable ' forest-reserve " act has been made to serve 
the land tiiicves" purpose. Hyde and Benson, of San Francisco, 
in collusion with the forest supervisor, had great tracts of worth- 
less land which they had acquired withdrawn from entry and re- 
served for forestry. They then got in exchange equal areas of 
really valuable land." 

The papers which speak in unfriendly tone of Senator Mitchell 
declare that the result of the trial is the logical sequel to his life. 
In support of this contention, they refer to the facts that there 
were many marks of dishonesty and double-dealing about the 
man. His true name is said to be John M. Hippie, but this name 
he discarded, as the story goes, to hide his identity when he fled 
from I'ennsylvania to the I'acitic coast in order to escape the infe- 
licities of his first marital venture. In general comment upon the 
convicted Senator's character, the Springfield Republican (Ind.) 
says : 

" He has well earned the fate which now overwhelms him. Al- 
ways of coarse fiber, he has never won the full confidence of the 
most acute and honest men of his State, of which he has been at 
several periods one of the Senators in Washington. His elections 
to that office were always stormy and marked by a low tone of po- ■ 
litical striving." 

AS TO THE DEFICIT. 

'T^HE excess of $24,305,903 of expenditures over receipts, as 
-*• shown by Secretary Shaw's review of the finances of the 
Government for the fiscal year just closed, does not seem to be 
causing much uneasiness to the Administration and its supporters. 
In spite of the unfavorable balance sheet there is a great surplus 







LETTING IT l-LV. 

—Rogers in tliu Now Vork Herald. 

of 5140.429,240 on hand in tiie Treasury, and this is looked upon 
as ample protection against all possible contingencies. In the 
opinion of the r\L\. y'ork Evciiinir Mail (Kep.) "the solvency of 
the I'nitcd States Government is adamantine," while the New 
York 7>-//'«//t' (Rep. ) believes that "with reasonable economy the 
Treasury can pay its way for several years to come." 

But while none of the Republican and only a few of the Demo- 
cratic papers are expressing alarm over the situation, yet all agree 
with the Buffalo A'-vv////;'- AVti'j- (Rep. ) in saying that "the (kticit 
habit is not \ , j^g thought of in this rich countrv." Moreover it is 



admitted by all sides that the deficit will be greatly in excess of 
;?24,ooo,ooo by the end of the fiscal year 1906, if present arrange- 
ments are continued. Democratic authorities estimate that it will 
reach $40,000,000. But whatever the figures will be, there seems 
to be no doubt that Congress can not evade the deficit problem 
next winter, as the New York Herald {InA.) claims it did last win- 
ter, but must face the issue and .settle it one way or another. " The 
Government," says the Baltimore Nerald (Ind.), "must cut down 
expenses, or the people must prepare to submit to the imposition 
of more taxes." This leads the I'hiladelphia AVr<5;v/(Dem.) to ask, 
"What does the Administration party propose to do?" T/ie 
Record then replies to its own question by so construing Secretary 
Taft's speech delivered before the Ohio convention as to make it 
appear that the Secretary as spokesman for the Administration 
favors a revision of the tariff. What Secretary Taft did say on 
the occasion referred to was to the effect that we must " either ad- 
just the tariff schedules so as to encourage larger dutiable imports 
or else reimpose some of the special taxes remitted by the repeal 
acts of 1901 and 1902." This alternative, which suggests the pos- 
sibility of violating the "sacred tariff," brought forth, as will be 
remembered, clamors of disapproval from the "standpatters." 
They have now sounded their slogan through Senator Dick, of 
Ohio, who, in an authorized interview, is reported as announcing 
his " intention to support a restoration of the stamp taxes imposed 
as a revenue measure at the time of the Spanish War," From the 
Democratic standpoint, the Philadelphia i'?^^^/-^/ declares that such 
an increase of taxation " would be a legislative crime." Senator 
Dick's plan is also being opposed by revisionists within the Repub- 
lican party, who, it seems, prefer the exercise of rigid economy to 
the restoration of the stamp acts, if they can not secure their 
hoped-for modification of the tariff. Thus the Pittsburg Posi 
(Rep.) remarks: 

"The question of abolishing the deficit, however, should be ap- 
proached in a different manner from that advocated by those 
whose only remedy would be to increase our revenues. These 
latter are already larger than they should be, and involve a tax on 
our people which is greater than they ought to be asked to bear. 
We are now spending many millions of dollars more every year 
on our military and naval establishments than we should." 



TOPICS IN BRIEF. 

We desire to call it to the attention of the Administration that there is a most 
persistent leak in the weather department, too.— T/ie Detroit JVevs. 

With reference to Manchuria, Russia will probably agree now that oneevacua- 
tion in time would have saved the price of nine.— T/ie Atlauta Journat. 

California says that it is a greater State than Oregon, and seems to be try- 
ing to prove it by showing the size of its land frauds.— The Atlanta Journal. 

In substance the Czar told the Zemstvos that if tliey can secure a national par- 
liament he'll be among the first to congratulate them. — The Kansas City 
Journal. 

Onk trouble about Norway's getting recognized by this country is that we 
couldn't possibly have any use for a canal located in Norway. — The Atlanta 
Journal. 

"The industrial [iroblem is mainly one of good will,'' says President Eliot. 
In Cliicago it is mainly one of good marksmanship and court injunctions. — The 
Washington Post. 

When the Czar sees how much Japan wants for making peace, he will prob- 
ably concur in the opinion that ['resident Roosevelt's intervention is " high diplo- 
macy." - The Atlanta Journal. 

The Baltic Fleet, it is true, has been annihilated. Still, as the Russians point 
out, it was a fine feat to have taken it all the way to the place of e.\ecution with- 
out \\\\i,\v\.\^. Punch cLondon). 

I'kesiuent Roosevhlt'.s success in adjusting the Russo-Japanese fracas 
indicates that he possesses the qualities which go to make up a great baseball 
umpire.— The Atlanta Journal. 

PossiDLVthe President argues tliat Mr. Paul Morton s1h)u1c1 not be punished 
for the Sante I"e matter until we see how badly he is punished in the Equitable 
Life brawl.— 7"//^ Detroit Journal. 

The General Land Office has issued an order prohibiting any |)erson from 
taking up more than 320 acres of timber lands. Tlie order conveys the inference 
that there are 320 .Teres of timber land which have not been gobbled by syndicates. 
— The Washington Post. 



Vol. XXXI., No. 8] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



77 



LETTERS AND ART. 



THE MOB SPIRIT IN LITERATURE. 

A CCORDING to Mr. Henry Dwight Sedgwick, a writer on 
*^ legal and literary topics, American literature is too much 
dominated by " the reading mob " and " the mob novel." In his 
analysis and characterization of the reading mob, Mr. Sedgwick 
touches on its points of similarity to the street mob. It rests 
with the critic, he says, to tame, in the name of art, " the turbulent 
mob spirit in which we Americans take so much pride and pleas- 
ure." 

The reading mob, continues this critic (in The Atlantic Monthly, 
July), is of indiscriminate composition, except that it acquires a 
certain appearance of homogeneity from its 
division into three varieties : " The proletarian 
reading mob, which reads dime novels; the 
lower bourgeois reading mob, which reads 
the novels of Albert Ross, E. P. Roe, and the 
like; and the upper bourgeois reading mob, 
which reads Winston Churchill, Charles Ma- 
jor, Thomas Dixon, Jr., Mary Hartwell Cath- 
erwood, Hallie Erminie Rives, and others." 
His concern in the prescr.t article is with the 
third section. 

The mob spirit depends on two things, "a 
proper condition of receptivity and a power 
of suggestion, mutually acting on each other." 
The reading mob, says Mr. Sedgwick, displays 
this union of receptivity and suggestion in its 
own special form : 

"It displays expectation, fixed attention, 
and eagerness — ' I must get the book right 
away,' ' You must read it at once ' — haste to 
get at the plot, to assimilate experience, to 
devour the story, the irritation of suspense. 
It displays a craving for emotional stimulus, 
and also that peculiar mobbish behavior which 
we detect in the difference between the perusal 
of a classic, Balzac or Thackeray, and that of a 
current novel. It shows the excitement caused 
by the sense of numbers, the feeling that the individual is of no 
consequence except as one of a crowd, represented by such phrases 
as 'everybody is talking of it,' 'eiierybody is reading it.' The ele- 
ment which, acting upon analogy, I call suggestion, comes in vari- 
ous ways. The most conspicuous factors are advertisements, 
publishers, wholesale booksellers, retail dealers, book agents, 
news-stands, parlor-car pedlers, and circulating libraries ; but far 
more effective than these are the murmurous buzz and hum of 
question and answer, ' Have you read it? . . . No.'* you must,' re- 
peated in boudoir, drawing-room, club, in the train, at the lunch- 
table, over teacups, over the cigarette, under the umbrella. Ex- 
pectation quickens, attention becomes rigid, and the mob novel, 
like a magnet, draws all to it. . . . These waves of contagion 
sweep over the reading mob, just as contagious emotions rufHe up 
a street mob. But the initial cause is obscure. What does first 
stir the reading mob toward a particular novel? Advertising is a 
factor, but the outward cause, the suggestion, is far less important 
than the condition of receptivity. The same is true of the street 
mob." 

The intellectual development of the reading mob, says Mr. 
Sedgwick, may be illustrated by the heroines that interest it. 
And he cites : 

" Heroine : 'Her skin was like velvet; a rich, clear, rosy snow, 
..ith the hot young blood glowing through it like the faint red 
tinge we sometimes see on the inner side of a white rose leaf. Her 
hair was a very light brown, almost golden, and fluffy, soft, and 
fine as a skein of Arras silk. She was of medium height, with a 
figure Venus might have envied. Her feet and hands were small, 
and apparently made for the sole purpose of driving mankind dis- 
tracted. . . . Her greatest beauty was her glowing dark brown 




MK. hi;nrv I)WI<;ht seugwick. 

He alleges that American literature is too 
much dominated by ''tlie turbulent mob spirit 
in which we Americans take so much pride and 
pleasure." 



eyes, wliich shone with an ever-changing luster from beneath the 
sliade of the longest, blackest, upcurving lashes ever seen.' 
(' When Knighthood Was in Flower.') 

"Another heroine: ' The second was a tall, beautiful girl, with 
an exquisite ivory-like complexion, and a wonderful crown of 
fluffy red hair, wiiich encircled her liead like a halo of sunlit 
glory. 1 could compare its wondrous luster to no color save that 
of molten gold deeply alloyed with copper. It was red, but it 
was also golden, as if the enamored sun had gilded every hair with 
its radiance.' (' Dorothy Vernon of Haddon Hall.') 

" Here is another : ' I'pon her alabaster skin the black eyebrows, 
the long lashes, the faint blue veins, and the curving red lips stood 
in exquisite relief, . . . her round snowy forearm and wrist, . . . 
the perfect curves of her form.' {Ibid.) 

"Another: ' A slender girl ... of that age when nature paints 
with her richest brush. Her hair was a wave of russet lights, with 
shadows of warmer brown. Her face, rose- 
stained, was the texture of a rose. Her 
mouth, below serious eyes of blended blue, 
gave a touch of wilfulness. If there was in- 
tentness on the brow, so was there languor in 
the lips, red, half-ripe, the upper short and 
curved to smile. Siie was all raptures— all 
sapphire and rose-gold, against the dark cush- 
ion.' (' Hearts Courageous.')" 

Another characteristic of the reading mob, 
says Mr. Sedgwick, is the absence of duly 
constituted authority. We read : 

" Leaders must be improvised on the spur 
of the moment. At the head of the two col- 
umns that attacked the Bastille were HuUin, 
a watchmaker from Geneva, and Elie, a sol- 
dier of fortune; they had no previous author- 
ity; their credentials were the spasmodic 
needs of the moment. So, too, our reading 
mob has no leaders, no guides. In the mob 
itself there is no critical faculty. Reflex ac- 
tion answers to periplieral stimulus ; there is 
no pondering, no consideration, no choice of 
acts. If there were critics, men of natural 
gifts and educated taste, experienced in the 
humanities, there would be no mob ; for the 
condition of headlessness, of unguidedness, 
is essential to a mob. But there are no 

American critics, except Mr. Henry James, who confines himself 

to a consideration of foreigners." 

Art and the mob, according to Mr. Sedgwick, are mutually ex- 
clusive, like heat and cold. The transformation of the reading 
mob into an educated body of readers will depend upon the num- 
ber of artists and critics, and will be a slow process at best, he 
thinks. " The public schools and our general system of education, 
to which we ordinarily turn in such difficulties, unfortunately sup- 
ply the conditions which make a reading mob possible, and do 
not offer any hope of cure." Mr. Sedgwick concludes, not very 
specifically, that art and authority are the only remedies. 



THE FRENCH NOVEL AND THE AMERICAN 

WOMAN. 

" \ A7^^ '^ '^ ^^^^ *^^ ^^"^^ books a French woman would not 
• * admit to her home must be the ones that find their way 
across the ocean into the homes of American women, who, half 
the time, do not understand them, but upon whom they leave a 
most deplorable impression of our French literature?" Thus 
questions M. Stephane Jousselin, member of the Paris Munici 
pal Council and of the General Council of the Seine. M. Jousse- 
lin, during a recent visit to the United States, was very agreeably 
impressed by the discovery that the American woman shows a 
deep interest in, and a wide acquaintance with, French literature. 
In fact, writing in the American Revieiv of Reviews (July), he 
states that he knows of "no other part of the world, with the pos- 



i8 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



sible exception of Russia, where the women so generally sptak 
the French language, and where the study of our literature is so 
closely followed as in America." But he adds: "There is one 
fact, however, which I can not explam— that is, the extraordinary 
selection of French books which, as a rule, I find lying around in 
American libraries." He goes on to say : 

" Many times, in positive amazement, I have asked my amiable 
hostess how she came to possess copies of some of the most dis- 
gusting novels published during the year, the titles of which 1 do 
not care to mention for fear of advertising them further. The 
reply was always to the effect that the volume had been purchased 
at a well-known bookseller's as one of the latest Parisian novel- 
ties, the lady adding that her nature had more than revolted at its 
broad, unhealthy tone." 

M. Jousselin proceeds to urge that, .I'.tho "the naturaliste 
school has been a little too prominent of late years, and certain 
French writers have manifested an unhealthy talent for depicting 
the hidden side of Parisian life," these writers " are in the small 
minority." To the question with which this article opens he has 
"searched in vain " for an answer. Yet he adds: "Here is the 
only possible one : as a rule, the publishers bring out a larger 
edition of their immoral novels, and evidently they prefer such to 
form the greater part of what they call ' littdrature (fexpor/ation.' " 

Among the writers whose works he thinks it desirable that the 
American woman should know, M. Jousselin mentions Paul 
Bourget, Anatole France, Pierre Loti, Ren^ Bazin, Paul Hervieu, 
and Marcel Prdvost. These, he states, " are the worthy successors 
of Maupassant, Goncourt, Zola, and Daudet, altho I certainly 
would not say that their works ought to be left in the hands of the 
young and unsophisticated." He continues : 

"A judicious selection can easily be made. For example, it is 
certain that some of Zola's books, such as ' Le R^ve,' ' La Faute de 
I'Abb^ Mouret,"Une Page d' Amour, 'give us a delightful impres- 
sion of the charm and poetry of the author's genius, whereas 
'Nana,' 'La Betd Humaine,' ' L'Assommoir,' and others, notwith- 
standing the real talent they display, can only 
sicken a delicate mind by their too-evident 
Search for degrading realism. Is there any 
more charming book than ' Lettres de Mon 
Moulin,' by Alphonse Daudet? I looked for 
them in vain in America. No one knew them. 
This is a great pity, for they are each one a 
veritable jewel in its way, and far superior to 
'Sapho,' the presentation of which on the stage 
recently caused such a tempest of indignation 
in .New York. 

"While speaking of Alphonse Daudet, I 
must not forget to mention his son, Lt^on 
Daudet, who has so richly inherited from the 
paternal genius. Altho still young, he is a 
member of the Goncourt Academy, and his 
triumphs are innumerable. 

Extending the list, he writes: 

" I want to mention Andrd Theuriet, a true 
romancer, whose novels are full of poetry and 
sentiment, and can be left unhesitatingly in 
any hands. Gustave Drog has amused us, 
and can amuse any who will give them.selves 
the trouble to read his 'Monsieur, Madame, et 
B(5b(5' or ' Mme. Femme Gdnante,' but he is 
especially captivating in a delicious volume 
entitled 'Tristesses et Sourires.' This last 
is not a novel, but a series of observa- 
tions so cleverly and daintily penned that it can be reread many 
times. 

" Victor Cherbulicz and Leon de Tinseau can be recommended 
without hesitation, as can also Edouard Rod, who becomes more 
and more eminent as a psychological analyst. And Huysmanns, 
what an admirable writer he has become within the past few 
years ! His ' Cathddrale ' is a treasure of learning and beauty. 

" I must not forget to remind American women tiiat our women 
of France have not remained outside the literary movement. 



Among the French writers of the gentler sex, I would first men- 
tion Jean de la Brdtd, whose book entitled 'Mon Oncle et Mon 
Curd ' is a dainty masterpiece which has been crowned by the 
French Academy. But especially would I speak to Americans of 
Madame Bentzon, who has written two books of notes and obser- 
vations, 'Femmes d'Amdrique' and ' Les Amdricaines chez EUes.' 
I have heard a number of American women say that these vol- 
umes show on the part of the author, not only a clear insight into 
the feminine oature, but also a particular discernment into the 
special complexities of American feminine nature." 




MK. HERBEKT PUTNAM, 

Who lias cliarjje of more than 1,000,000 books 
;iiid paniphets— the largest collection in the 

I'nitL'd States. 



ENORMOUS GROWTH OF PUBLIC 
LIBRARIES. 

MR. HERBERT PUTNAM, librarian of Congress, regards 
the remarkable growth of the free library system through- 
out the LInited States as valid evidence of an intention, on the part 
of the public, to promote culture and the arts. While admitting 
that " for the most important of its achievements — a general ame- 
liorating influence — the free library can offer no proof," Mr. Put- 
nam puts before us (in T/ie World's VVork,]\x\y) graphic statistics 
which do prove " a prodigious increase of facilities, and thus an 
undiminished confidence in the utility of the work." The greatest 
advance he finds in the South and the West. During the three 
years from 1900 to 1903 the number of volumes in libraries ad- 
vanced 22 per cent. New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania 
still lead in total of volumes, and the three together had almost 40 
per cent, of the additional volumes reported. But in the percentage 
of increase the south central division of States leads by 34 per 
cent. By means of a chart (here reproduced) Mr. Putnam indi- 
cates the distribution of libraries in the United States. But he re- 
marks that a scientific estimate of the use of these libraries is not 
easily arrived at. On this point we read : ,. 

"The only indication of service rendered is the number of vol- 
umes circulated — an inconclusive test indeed. Nothing is easier 
in the administration of a free library than to 
increase the circulation. It may be done by 
merely multiplying copies of the more popular 
books. (A novel issued fifty times a year 
counts fifty units in this total, where a work 
of science issued once counts but as one.) 
Every lending library classifies its issues of 
books for home use ; but under a liberal pro- 
vision for access to the shelves the record can 
not extend to the reference use. Comparison 
of such statistics has never gone beyond the 
ratio of fiction to the entire circulation. If the 
Philadelphia librarians have their way, even 
this will be deprived of its sting, for they pro- 
pose a subclassification of fiction itself, which 
will rescue from disrepute a large percentage 
of novels as 'history,' 'sociology,' etc. A 
record of circulation should give us a classifi- 
cation of the books issued and also of the 
people drawing them— by age, by sex, by oc- 
cupation—which, strange to say, almost no 
libraries record." 



The library movement, says Mr. Putnam, 
has passed beyond the stage where it needs 
to prove its right to exist or where it must 
continually dig up its beginnings to see 
whether it is growing. Of the activities 



which have resulted from the spread of libraries, we are told : 

" They include extension in every direction by branch libraries 
and reading-rooms and delivery stations, even house-to-house de- 
livery, in the cities; by traveling libraries in the country; by the 
organization of further State library commissions and more library 
associations; and by the multiplication of training-schools for 
librarians and library assistants, including 'institutes' for those 
already in the service without adequate theoretic training." 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



79 




CourttHy of ** The World's Work." 



MAP SHOWING THE DISTRIBUTION OF LIBRARIES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1900. 



Two characteristics of the recent progress which are most sig- 
nificant to librarians are the effort toward more discriminate selec- 
tions of books and the tendency toward "cooperation, or at least 
avoidance of duplication, in processes." The first is illustrated 
by the lists of books drawn up by commissions of experts for the 
guidance of small libraries. The most notable of these, says Mr. 
Putnam, is the "A. L. A. Catalogue," which contains the names 
of 8,000 carefully selected volumes. The movement toward "co- 
operation in processes " has already resulted, for those libraries 
availing themselves of it, in a marked economy in the cost of cat- 
aloguing — " the most expensive of the technical processes of a libra- 
ry." Mr. Putnam predicts a time when the work of cataloguing 
shall be centralized at one point for the entire country. 

The recent progress in American libraries, concludes the writer, 
is not merely toward the popularization of literature. It aims also, 
by means of special collections for investigation and research, to 
advance the cause of learning. 

A recent issue of Harper's Weekly prints further data in regard 
to American libraries. We there read : 

"The Federal Commissioner of Education has published some 
interesting library statistics, showing that in 1903 the number of 
books in public society and school libraries was 54,4191000. The 
number represented an increase of 374 per cent, in twenty-eight 
years— an increase largely due to Mr. Andrew Carnegie, to whom 
upward of a thousand libraries in the United States owe their ex- 
istence, wholly or in part. The number of volumes in 1900 was 
44,591,000. The largest collection of books in the United States 
is the Congressional Library, which contains 1,000,000 volumes, 
including pamphlets; next to which comes Harvard University, 
which contains 560,000 bound volumes and 350,000 pamphlets. 
The Boston Public Library figures in the third place, the aggre- 
gate number of its books and pamphlets being 772,000. The New 
York Public Library, which will comprehend the Astor, Lenox, 
and Tilden foundations, has 500.000 volumes and 140,000 pam- 
phlets." 

For the United States, taken collectively, says the weekly quoted 
above, the commissioner's report shows an average of sixty-eight 



books to every one hundred inhabitants. These, however, are 
far from being evenly distributed, altho Mr. Carnegie has tried to 
lessen the inequality by directing especial attention to the Western 
section of the community. In the Indian Territory in 1903 there 
were only two books for one hundred persons, while in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia 925 books were available per hundred inhabit- 
ants. 

INADEQUACY OF THE BIBLE AS A MODEL 

OF STYLE. 

IT will interest many people to know that Prof. Charles Sears 
Baldwin, of Yale University, who has been described by a 
leading metropolitan journal as "one of the most successful 
teachers of composition in the country," publishes a little hand- 
book, " How to Write," in which he deduces the doctrines of good 
writing entirely from the King James translation of the Bible. 
Professor Baldwin points out that while hitherto the importance 
of the Bible as a model of style has been often felt and often ex- 
pressed, it has never, apparently, been realized in systematic, 
practical application. 

"The greatest single lesson, perhaps, that the Bible teaches 
concerning the use of words is sincerity." says Professor Baldwin. 
And again : " For any one who studies it from this point of view, 
part of the moral influence of the English 151 ble is strict honesty 
in writing, a growing sense of responsibility for the right word." 
But he admits that as a model of style the Authorized Version suf- 
fers from two defects. One is the absence of paragraphing, the 
other the frequent use of the compound instead of the complex 
sentence. Of the latter defect we read : 

" Compound sentences are the language of childhood ; the lan- 
guage, that is. both of children and of early prose, such as old 
chronicles. Complex sentences are the language of maturity ; 

that is, both of grown men and of modern prose Taken 

as a whole, the English Bible is looser in this single respect than 
the best modern prose. The reason for this difference has been 
hinted above When the translation was made, the English Ian- 



80 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 1.'), li)05 



guage, tho exceptionally rich in store of words, had not yet devel- 
oped a consistently logical habit of sentences. In habit of sen- 
tences it was still youthful. So the translation of St. Paul's 
epistles, for instance, is sometimes inadequate to the nicer sen- 
tence relations of the original (ireek." 

The Evening Post, commenting upon Professor Baldwin's 
book, thinks that "the usefulness of the -Bible as a model is 
sharply limited." To quote further from the same paper : 

•in a wide range of writing, Biblical language and imagery 
would be wholly incongruous. Reports of the legislative proceed- 
ings at Albany, of a fire in Broadway, and of a thousand occur- 
rences of modern life must be told in the best English of the year 
1905. not 1612. The language must suit the subject-matter, must 
be dictated by it, be a part of it; and for most purposes the 
archaic is grotesque. 

" More than mere choice of words, however, is involved in the 
art of composition. The structure of the sentence and the para- 
graph, the organization of the ' whole '—to borrow a term from the 
rhetorics— are even more important. In these respects the Eng- 
lish of the Bible does not accord with the usage 
of to-day. Just as our vocabulary has enor- 
mously enlarged, so our sentence structure has 
developed in three centuries. The first four 
verses of the first chapter of Genesis, with the 
clauses loo.sely connected by ands, are ex- 
amples of how not to make sentences : 

'■'In the beginning God created the heaven and the 
earth. And the earth was without form, and void; and 
darkness was iiijoii the face of the deep. And the -Spirit 
of God moved upon tlie face of the waters. And God 
said. Let there be light : and there was light. And God 
saw tlie liglit, tliat it was good; and God divided the 
light from the darkness.' 

" The paragraphs of the Bible are broken 
and obscured by the verse numbering ; but 
the so-called 'paragraph-Bible' shows at a 
glance that the structure is primitive and 
amorphous. Macaulay and Newman are both 
fond of the Biblical vocabulary, but they are 
removed by ten generations from the Biblical 
paragraph. 

"The man who turns to the Bible for in- 
struction in narration, description, exposition, 
and argumentation, will, as Professor Baldwin 
proves, come upon pretty doubtful examples. 
As a mere piece of narrative, the story of Da- 
vid and Absalom or even of the Prodigal Son 
is by no means incomparable. The descrip- 
tion of the Tabernacle, which Professor Baldwin cites from Exodus, 
is certainly not remarkable for clearness. Exposition of all kinds 
has been better done by modern masters. No expositor of 
.science would set the Bible above Huxley and Tyndall as models. 
In argumentation, there is hardly a passage in the Old Testament 
or New in which evidence is marshaled and tested as by Burke or 
Webster. Indeed, we can not expect to find in the Bible a clear 
conception of the current theories of evidence which determine 
the form of an argument." 




Comparing "Roderick Random " with the same author's " I^ere- 
grine Pickle," Mr. Lang gives the palm t® the latter, which he 
considers Smollett's greatest work. He says of it : 

" Nothing is so rich in variety of character, scene, and ad-ven- 
ture. We are carried along by the swift and copious volume of 
the current, carried into very queer places, and into the oddest 
miscellaneous company, but we can not escape from Smollett's 
vigorous grasp. Sir Walter jScott] thought that ' Roderick ' ex- 
celled its successor in ease and simplicity, and that Smollett's sail- 
ors, in ' Pickle,' border on caricature. No doubt they do. . . . 
We may speak of " caricature," but if an author can make us sob 
with laughter, to criticize him solemnlv is ungrateful. 

"Except Fielding occasionally, and Smollett, and Swift, and 
Sheridan, and the authors of ' The Rovers,' one does not remem- 
ber any writers of the eighteenth century who quite upset the 
gravity of the reader." 

Probably one reason for the present neglect of Smollett is to be 
found in his own neglect of the proper standards of taste. But, 
in the view of Sir Walter Scott, " the deep and 
fertile genius of Smollett afforded resources 
sufficient to make up for these deficiencies." 
Comparing the relative merits of Smollett and 
Fielding, Scott remarked: "If Fielding had 
superior taste, the palm of more brilliancy of 
genius, more inexhaustible richness of inven- 
tion, must in justice be awarded to Smollett. 
In comparison with his sphere, that in which 
Fielding walked was limited." But to this 
dictum Mr. Lang takes exception : 



lOlilAS .SMOI.LET'I . 

With Samuel Richardson and Henry Field- 
ing he completed " tlie great trio of eighteenth 
century novelists." 



A NEGLECTED HUMORIST OF THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

^OBIAS SMOLLETT, who completed the great trio of 
■*■ eighteenth-century novelists, forms the subject of a brilliant 
essay by Andrew Lang in his latest volume, entitled "Adventures 
Among Books." With this writer, remarks Mr. Lang, "died the 
burly, brawling, picturesque old English novel of humor and of the 
road"; and nothing notable in this manner appeared in English 
literature " before the arrival of Mr. Pickwick." Little known and 
read as Smollett may be in these days, he is a mine to which his 
successors of the craft have gone for material ; " both Scott and 
Thackeray," says Mr. Lang, "owe a good deal to Smollett in the 
way of suggestion " ; and for the general reader, according to the 
view of the Scotch critic, he is still a novelist worthy of being res- 
cued from the long oblivion into which his works have fallen 



" The second part of Scott's parallel be- 
tween the men whom he considered the great- 
est of our novelists qualifies the first. Smol- 
lett's invention was not richer than Fielding's, 
but the sphere in which he walked, the circle 
of his experience, was much wider. One di- 
vision of life they knew about equally well — 
the category of rakes, adventurers, card- 
sharpers, unhappy authors, people of the 
stage, and ladies without reputations, in every 
degree. There were conditions of higher so- 
ciety, of English rural society, and of clerical 
society, which Fielding, by birth and educa- 
tion, knew much better than Smollett. But 
Smollett had the advantage of his early years 
in Scotland, then as little known as Japan ; with the ' nautical 
multitude,' from captain to loblolly boy, he was intimately famil- 
iar; with the East Indies he was acquainted ; and he later resided 
in Paris and traveled in Flanders, so that he had more experience 
certainly, if not more invention, than Fielding." 

Admitting the lapses in delicacy to be found in Smollett's work, 
Mr. Lang, however, looks to the temper of the eighteenth century 
and to the personal temper of the writer himself for the material 
for his whitewashing. He says : 

" Smollett's heroes, one conceives, were intended to be fine tho 
not faultless fellows; men. not plaster images; brave, generous, 
free-living, but, as Roderick finds once, when e.xamining his con- 
science, pure from serious stains on that important faculty. To 
us these heroes often appear no better than ruffians; Peregrine 
Pickle, for example, rather excels the infamy of Ferdinand, Count 
Fathom, in certain respects; tho Ferdinand is professedly ' often 
the object of our detestation and abhorrence,' and is left in a very 
bad, but, as Humphrey Clinker shows, in by no means a hopeless, 
way. Yet, throughout, Smollett regarded himself as a moralist, a 
writer of improving tendencies, one who lashed the vices of his 
age. He was by no means wholly mistaken, but we should proba- 
bly wrong the eighteenth century if we accepted all Smollett's cen- 
sures as entirely deserved. The vices which he lashed are those 
which he detected, or fancied that he detected, in people who re- 
garded a modest and meritorious Scottish orphan with base indif- 
ference." 

Mr. Lang characterizes " Peregrine Pickle" as " a kind of Odys- 
sey of the eighteenth century, an epic of humor and adventure." 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



81 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION, 



PLAIN TALK ABOUT FAKE FOODS. 

''T^HE State }5oard of Health of New Hampshire, in its Sani- 
*■ ta>y Bulletins, i.s pubhshing the results of analyses of vari- 
ous food stuffs. As the analyses are of specific foods, and the 
names and addresses of the manufacturers are distinctly stated, 
the pubhcation has in some instances been attended with consider- 
able interest both among the local public and in trade circles. The 
following table given in the issue for April, 1905, shows fairly well 
what the State cliemists have found: 



Articles examined. 



Canned fruits, jellies and jams , 

Cider vinegar 

Cheese 

Coffee and cocoa 

Condensed milk 

Cream of tartar and baking powder 

Honey '. 

Lemon extract 

Lime-juice 

Maple syrup and sugar 

Milk 

Molasses 

Meat products, sausage, pressed meats 

etc 

Spices 

Tomato ketchup 

Vanilla extract 

Miscellaneous products 

Totals 



Number 

found 

to be 

of good 

quality. 


Number 
adulter'd 


Total 


Percent- 


or vary- 


articles 


age of 


ing from 

legal 
standard. 


e.\- 
aniined. 


adultera- 
tion. 


3 


29 


32 


91.0 


27 


15 


42 


35-7 


I 


I 


2 


50.0 





2 


II 


18. 1 


B 





8 


00.0 


9 


4 


>3 


30.8 


6 


3 


9 


33-3 
87.5 


3 


21 


24 





7 


7 


100. 


'3 


10 


23 


43-5 


17 


14 


31 
62 


45.1 


D3 


7 


"3 


18 


23 


4. 


56.1 


21 





21 


00.0 


I 


5 


6 


83.3 


4 


20 


24 


83-3 


4 


3 


7 


42.9 


1% 


164 


363 


45.2 



From the details given in the accompanying schedules, it appears 
that the apple is the basis of a considerable number of canned fruits. 
It was found to constitute a large part of specimens of " strawberry 
jam," "fruit preserves," etc., while certain " raspberry preserves," 
"currant" and "pineapple" jellies consisted wholly of apple, 
colored with coal-tar dyes and appropriately flavored. Even where 
some or all of the preserve was real, coloring matters were often 
used, and the employment of preservatives, as the salts of benzoic 
and salicylic acids, was quite general. The chemist of the board, 
H. E. Barnard, states in the same. bulletin : 

" Particular attention has been paid to the collection and exami- 
nation of samples of vinegar and maple products, and a marked 
decrease in the percentage of adulteration of these articles is ap- 
parent. This may be attributed to the publication of special arti- 
cles on these subjects in recent numbers of The Bulletin, and a 
better understanding among the producers and dealers of the ne- 
cessity of complying with the food laws. Under the influence of 
the stringent vinegar and maple sugar law passed at the last ses- 
sion of the legislature we shall expect to see the percentage of 
adulteration of these products rapidly decrease, to the great bene- 
fit of the producer, who will no longer find his market usurped by 
artificial goods, and of the consumer, who will be able to purchase 
pure articles at a reasonable cost instead of the adulterated goods 
that have heretofore flooded the State. 

" Since our last report we have analyzed 363 samples of food 
products. Of that number 199, or 54.8 per cent., proved to be pure 
and of standard quality, 164 were adulterated or varied from the 
legal standard. This is equivalent to an adulteration of 45.2 per 
cent. 

" It must be remembered that in the collection of samples for 
analysis attention is directed to suspicious articles of food and to 
those products that are especially liable to adulteration. Staple 
articles of food, such as fruits and vegetables, cereals and sugar, 
are rarely adulterated. The actual percentage of adulteration of 
all food products is therefore very much lower than the figure 
above given." 

It is stated by The Journal of Commerce (New York, June 20). 
that these reports have seriously affected the sales of some canned 
goods in New Hampshire. Evidently persons in that State prefer 
their apples " straight," rather than dyed and flavored in the guise 
of " strawberry jam." 



ARE FAST TRAINS DANGEROUS? 

' I "HERE seems to be considerable difference of opinion, both 
-'• among scientific men and practical railroad managers in re- 
gard to the safety of fast trains. /Mter the recent accident to the 
New York Central flyer at Mentor, Ohio, the train was made two 
iiours slower, apparently as a measure of safety, only to be re- 
stored to fast time as the result of a hurried conference of experts, 
who decided that speed had nothing to do with the accident. As 
to the technical journals, good opinions are to be quoted on each 
side. The Scieniijic American (New York, July i) thinks that a 
fast train is safer than a slow one. and it gives no less than seven 
reasons. First, the equipment is apt to he of the best ; second, 
the engineer and crew are selected men ; third, it is given the right 
of way and is watched with special care; fourth, on straight 
stretches its high velocity actually tends to keep it on the track, 
enabling it to cut through or override obstacles that would derail 
a slower train; fifth, on sharp curves the engineer knows that he 
must slow down, and accordingly does so, where a slightly slower 
train might take the chances of full speed; sixth, the train has 
fewer cars and its smashing effect is less in a collision ; and lastly, 
"the fast train, like the fast transatlantic liner in a fog, is sooner 
through the danger space." Says the writer: 

"This argument, which is accepted among steamship captains 
as a perfectly sound one, applies in its degree to railroad travel, 
for if dangers lurk on the rails, the sooner the journey is over, 
other things being equal (and we have shown above that " other 
things' rather favor the fast train than otherwi.se), the less the 
danger of injury. 

" VVe have gone somewhat fully into this question, because we 
believe that it affects, in the most vital way, the whole question of 
the increased speed of so-called express American railroad trains, 
which to-day, except for a few special trains, is lamentably behind 
that of some foreign countries. Every day of the year in France 
over thirty trains are run that have a schedule speed of from 55 to 
60 miles an hour; and in Great Britain there are over fifty such 
trains. Time was when the immature state of our railroads could 
be urged as a plea for the low average speed of the majority 
of our express trains. No such plea can be urged to-day. for our 
best track is just as good as the best track in European countries." 

On the other hand, the editor of Engineering A'ews (New York, 
June 29) believes that the recent accident raises a very serious 
question regarding the propriety of high train-speeds. The opin- 
ion that a fast train runs no more risk of accident than a slow one 
it pronounces "contrary to common sense." The writer goes on 
to say : 

" Risk of disaster is actually increased with every increa.se in 
train-speeds; and when disaster does occur to a high-speed train, 
either in the form of derailment or collision, its results are likely 
to be far more serious than would be the case if the train were 
running at low speed. 

" Particularly is it true that danger is involved in an increase of 
train-speeds over that at which express trains are ordinarily run, 
or say an increase from 50 miles an hour to 70 miles per hour. 
Since the stored energy in a moving body varies as the square of 
its velocity, a train at 70 miles an hour contains nearly douiile the 
stored energy of one traveling 50 miles an hour; and as a conse- 
quence if danger appears ahead and the brakes are applied, the 
70-mile an hour train will run twice as far before stopping as the 
50-mile an hour train." 

A fast train, too, can not stop between signal and danger-point, 
and as to slowing up on curves, the engineer who has to make up 
time is very apt to " take chances " on not doing so. Then the 
cost of fast trains is out of all proportion to their usefulness. 
Fast trains are run at a loss as advertisements, and when two 
competing railroads bid against each other with higher and higher 
speeds, the danger is obvious. Says the writer: 

" The great defect of American railroading to-day is not low 
speeds. It is too frequent accidents. Most American railway 
trains are run at quite as high speed as the existing track, rolling 
stock, and signal systems justify. If money is to be spent for im- 



82 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July If), 1905 



proved service, let it be in making travel safer. So far as in 
creased speed is concerned, the traveling public, as a whole, will 
gain much more l)y greater promptness and regularity of train 
movement and close adherence to time-tables than it will by spec- 
tacular feats of fast running by special trains." 



1 



AN EXHIBITION OF FLYING-MACHINES. 

HE Paris "Aero-Club." the most noted organization devoted 
to aerial navigation, held, several months ago, an exhibition 
of aeroplanes and other heavy flying-machines, or " apparatus of 
aviation," as they arc somewhat pompously called by Col. G. 
Espitalier, who describes them in La Nature (Paris, March 25). 
Colonel Espitalier reminds us at the outset that such a project 
was a bold one, for builders of aeroplanes are not so numerous as 




" For this first competition there had not been impo.sed a too 
restrictive prpgram nor a too learned classification ; any machine 
was admitted that had a surface of at least one square meter [11 
square feet] and could carry at least 2 kilograms to the square 
meter [about 6 j^ ounces to the square foot]. Belo.v these limits 
there was no admission to the competitive trials, but still the ma- 
chines could be tried 

" The quality of an aeroplane depends on elements that are com- 
plex and difficult to determine. The criterion adopted and the 
short time allowed did not permit of classing all the dissimilar 
machines in a precise way, and the jury was content to distribute 
its medals to those that attracted notice by their stability, their 
surety of movement, and the time during which they were able to 

stay in the air 

" ]>esides the flying-machines properly so-called, the exhibition 
included all kinds of devices such as the balloon, with lateral 
screw-propellers, of M. Deltour, a model of an aeroplane with 
motor of \% horse-power constructed by a sergeant 
of engineers named Paulhan. which was suspended 
by a w'ire from tlif gallery, and described a large 
circle under the impulse of its two lateral screws ; 
several kites made by M. \'areille ; an air turbine 
of M. de Carlshausen ; the ingenious reversible 
screws of Messrs. Robert and Fillet etc. 

" As may be seen, there was plenty to satisfy pub- 
lic curiosity. If there was at first some doubt of 
the success of this first attempt in a direction as yet 
untried, this doubt disappeared quickly, and w'e may 
hope that the next competition, in 1906, will mark 
an important step toward the solution of the prob- 
lem, especially if a place is selected where may be 
shown in the open air the curious experiments in 
' soaring,' which, following the example of the Amer- 
icans, Chanute, Herring, and the Wright brothers, 
some bold aviators like Captain Ferber and M. 
Archdeacon have already begun to make, with con- 
siderable success." — Translation made for The 
Literary Digest. 



SOME OK THE FLYING MACHINES EXHIBITED IN PARIS. 

I. Dunioiilin's aeroplane. 2. The Gelitas, M. Gelit's mechanical bird. 3. Paiilhan's aeroplane. 
4. Deltour's dirigible balloon. 5. Roze's aviator. 6. Seu.x's aerop'nne. 



makers of automobiles, and the inventors of flying-machines are 
often rather Utopian. Not knowing of any practicable aeroplanes 
at all, the judges naturally had little to go on, in awarding their 
prizes. There were twenty -nine machines altogether on exhibi- 
tion, and most of these were models that would not work because 
they were too heavy or too small, or lor some other reason. Still, 
there were enough left to furnish a very interesting series of trials. 
Says the writer : 

"As might have been foreseen, the apparatus without motors 
were in the majority, and in fact these were the only ones that 
gave results. The jury . . . had erected a magnificent pylon 38 
meters [125 feet] high . . . from which were launched devices 
that met with varied fates. Some dropped noses at once . . . 
others descended slowly as on an invisible inclined plane, or 
curved gracefully about like birds of prey 



THE MAKING OF PASTE DIAMONDS. 

T N an article quoted in these columns some time 
^ since, on the use of electricity in the jewelry 
trade, it was stated that large quantities of imitation 
diamonds are made in this country out of paste and 
quartz, by means of electrically driven grinders. 
Regarding this, Walter B. Frost, editor of The 
Manufacturing Jeweler, Providence, R. L, writes us 
as follows : 

"No imitation diamonds whatever are made in 
this country. They are all manufactured in Europe, 
where labor is very cheap, and probably imitation 
stones which have ground facets never will be manu- 
factured here, as the American labor cost would 
make them so expensive as to be prohibitive. 
There are some pressed stones made here, but these 
are confined to stones without facets. Instead of these 
imitation stones retailing for a ' few dollars apiece,' 
they really cost anywhere from less than one cent, 
not to exceed five cents apiece. When quantities of the nicer 
qualities of imitation stones are set in an artistic manner in gold 
settings, the finished articles may bring the' few dollars apiece' 
mentioned, but the stones themselves have very little value. No 
stones are made out of quartz, with the exception of a very few 
which are cut in Colorado and other tourist localities, and these 
are of value simply as souvenirs. The imitation stones made of 
strass, which is only a higher quality of glass, are much superior 
to anything which could be cut out of quartz. 

" And, while I am on this subject. I would like to correct a great 
misapprehension which is in the minds of mil. ions of people in 
this country. A white stone is either a diamond or it isn't. If it 
is a diamond, it is worth a hundred dollars a carat, or more. If 
it isn't a diamond, it is not worth anything. There is no middle 
course. The idea that there is something which is better than an 
imitation paste stone made out of strass. and not as good as a dia- 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



83 



mond, has been fostered by the fake diamond palaces so liberally 
sprinkled over the various cities, but I can assure you positively 
that the aforesaid ' Arizona diamonds,' ' Barrios diamonds,' etc., 
are nothing more than imitation stones made out of strass, and are 
not made in this country. 

" There are a very few ' doublets ' made and sold. These are 
constructed with a garnet front and a glass back. By means of 
using a different colored glass, different colored effects are ob- 
tained, and the front is a little harder and has a little more dura- 
bility and retains its luster a little longer than the ordinary imita- 
tion white stone. But . . the garnet front is of no particular 
value, and the extra cost of these doublets is really due to the 
labor that is put on them. These, however, are not used to any 
very great extent, and I repeat, with emphasis, that the vast ma- 
jority of imitation stones sold in the stores are made out of glass, 
and are made in Europe and mounted by the manufacturing 
jewelers in this country." 



MAGNETIC CRANES. 

THE pictures that accompany this article show more strikingly 
than words the extent to which electromagnetism is now 
used in lifting large or unwieldy masses of iron. The statement 
that iron is lifted by magnetic force, however, would be incorrect ; 




Courtesy of " The Electrical World and Engineer." 

FIG. 1.— MAGNET LIFTING STEEL TURNINGS AND BORINGS. 

it would be analogous to an assertion that when a man lifts a piece 
of sticking-plaster after pressing his finger on it, the lifting is done 
by the molecular force of adhesion. In both cases the adhesion, 
magnetic or molecular, merely furnishes the " hold." The devices 
shown in the pictures are designed and made by a company in 
Cleveland, Ohio. Says the writer of a brief note accompanying 
them in The Electrical World and Engineer (New York, June 24) : 

" In the handling of pig iron, steel, iron scraps, baled or loose 
tin scraps, bolts, nuts, rivets, and similar material by means of 
traveling cranes, much difficulty is encountered in obtaining an 
adequate hold upon the material to be lifted. With large castings 
the time consumed in connecting the hook of the crane in an eye- 
bolt or in placing a chain or rope in position for hoisting the cast- 
ing represents an appreciable part of the cost of the completed 
article. It is evident, however, that frequently there must be 
bandied pieces which are too small to need eye-bolts and which 
can not conveniently and economically be handled by means of 
ropes or chains. Even when the pieces are assembled in a con- 
taining vessel, the task of handling is only slightly simplified, since 
the disposal of the contents of the vessel in many cases presents a 
difficult problem. 

"An ideal substitute for chains, ropes, hooks, and containing 




(.'iinrlesy «»t *' The Electrical Worl.l and Knjiiiieer.' 

FIG. 2. -UNLOADING LOOSE TIN 
FROM CARS. 



FIG. 3.- LIFTING SKULL-CRACKER. 



vessels for the services indicated above is found in the electro- 
magnet, and the accompanying illustrations serve to show a few of 
the numerous tasks which can be imposed upon it. Fig. i shows 
a magnet lifting steel turnings and borings. This class of mate- 
rial is very difficult to handle, as it is laborious to shovel, and the 
work is very slow and costly where a fork is used. It is light and 
is easily magnetized, however, and the magnet is able to carry a 
large quantity at each lift. Tin scrap in either the baled or loose 
form is ordinarily a most unwelcomed class of material. With 




C"urtesv *_.t " Tile Ki- tri*';tl \V..rl'i and Engineer." 

FK. 4. -MAGNET LIFTING PLATE WITH THREE .MEN. 



84 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July l."), 1905 



the magnet, however, as seen in F\g. 2, it can be handled as easily 
and rapidly as the heavier stock. 

"A most interesting application of the lifting magnet is indi- 
cated in Fig. 3, which shows a magnet lifting a ball weighing 
11.000 pounds, which skull-cracker is dropped for the purpose of 
breaking up old ingot moulds, skulls, defective castings, etc.. so 
that they may be remelted. The entire operation is conducted 
from a safe distance by the crane-man. thus eliminating the dan- 
ger of accident to ground-men. who are usually required for oper- 
ating a mechanical trip. The crane-man simply lowers the mag- 
net on the ball, turns on the current, raises the ball and carries it 
immediately over the desired striking-point. He then raises the 
ball to the full height, opens the circuit and allows the ball to 
drop. The aim is absolutely exact, and no time is lost in ineffec- 
tive blows. 

"It is evident that the features of the lifting magnet which are 
especially advantageous in cases where the ordinary lifting devices 
can be applied only with great difficulty, are such as to render the 
magnetic device convenient for many purposes where the more 
familiar devices are now employed. . . . Fig. 4 shows a magnet 
lifting a plate of sheet iron. Plates of any thickness can be han- 
dled rapidly by the crane-man without ground-helpers." 



average lowering of the lake levels from Lake Erie to Lake 
Michigan and their connecting channels of at least seven inches, 
or over half a foot." 



IS THE LEVEL OF THE GREAT LAKES 
FALLING ? 

IT is believed by persons who navigate the Great Lakes or who 
live near them, that their level is permanently lower than it 
was formerly. \'arious causes are assigned, one of them being 
usually the water abstracted from Lake Michigan by the Chicago 
Drainage Canal. As this matter is of great public interest it has 
been recently looked into by the United States Government. The 
engineers of the Cieological Survey have been investigating the in- 
flow to the lakes, while the Lake Survey has measured the outflow. 
It is found that when the rainfall on the lake surface is taken into 
consideration there is a material difference between the outflow 
and the inflow, which is attributed to evaporation from the lake 
surface. Says a writer in T/w National Geographic Magazine 
(Washington, July): 

" In order to determine this more definitely, a set of instruments 
for measuring evaporation, wind velocity, and the temperature of 
the air and water, will be placed on Beaver Island in the northerly 
part of Lake Michigan. The instruments will be placed near the 
village of St. James, and as they are near the center of the width 
of the lake they will be fully exposed to the wind and will give a 
record of the rainfall, wind direction and velocity, and evapora- 
tion over the lake itself, which could not be obtained from a simi- 
lar station on the mainland 

" What seems to be a newly discovered cause for the lowering 
of the levels of the Cireat Lakes, which is commonly believed to 
have taken place during the last half of the century, is brought 
forward in an investigation by Mr. Robert E. Horton, of the 
United States (ieological Survey. It is well known that Michigan 
was at one time almost completely covered with heavy forests. 
These have gradually been cut away and the land cleared for 
agriculture. In early days many marshes existed. Many of these 
were tiie result of beaver dams blocking the pa.ssages of the 
streams. These dams have been cleared out and drainage chan- 
nels aggregating tiiousands of miles in length have been exca- 
vated. Mr. Horton has collected statistics showing the extent of 
deforestation, drainage, and cultivation of land, and its progress 
from year to year, over the State of Michigan. It is found that 
the changes which have taken place have been sufficient, according 
to the estimates of different authorities, to decrease the average 
flow in the streams Irom five to twenty per cent per year. It is 
possible that in some .sections of the State the cutting off of pine 
timber has actually increased instead ol decreasing the annual 
flow of the streams available for water power and other i)urposes. 
r.alancing the ditferent elements it lias been found that a decrease 
in the deptli of rainfall, which runs off in the streams, of at least 
one-inch per year, has probably taken place over the State of 
Michigan in the past fifty years. The importance of this fact will 
at once be seen when it is understood that a decrease of one inch 
in the run-off of the stream's tributary to the lakes means an 



A 



CRYSTAL OR ORGANISM? 

CCOUNTS of an experiment in which an English biologist, 
Professor Burke, is said to have produced from inorganic 
matter, by the action of radium, growths appearing to be organic, 
have been published recently in the daily papers, some of which 
have announced that Burke has succeeded in creating living from 
dead matter. From such reliable sources as have noticed these 
experiments it would appear that the action of radium on a steril- 
ized gelatin culture, such as is used for growing bacteria, produces 
peculiar growths which are certainly not bacterial, but which dif- 
fer in many respects from ordinary branching crystals. What 
they really are, it seems to be too early to conclude. All that is 
known at present is briefly summed up in the following note from 
The Laneel (London). Says the writer: 

" Briefly the experiment consisted in placing radium salts in 
sterilized gelatin culture, care being taken to sterilize both the salt 
and the broth before commencing the experiment. After twenty - 
four hours or so in the case of the bromid and about three or four 
days in that of the chlorid a peculiar culture-like growth appeared 
on the surface and gradually made its way downward until after a 
fortnight, in some cases, it had grown fully a centimeter beneath 
the surface. The centrals showed no growth whatever. 

" At first sight on microscopic examination the growth appeared 
to be due to microbes, but as they did not give subcultures when 
inoculated in fresh media they could scarcely be bacteria. Their 
presence would appear to be due to the spontaneous action of the 
radium salt upon the culture medium and not solely to the influ- 
ence of anything which previously existed therein. Mr. Burke 
concluded after a careful and prolonged examination of their struc- 
ture, behavior, and development that they are highly organized 
bodies, altho not bacteria, and that they arose in some way from 
the action of the invisible particles of radium. He has proposed 
to give these bodies the name of ' radiobes ' as indicating their re- 
semblance to microbes as well as their distinct nature and origin. 
It has been suggested that they are, after all, crystals, but Mr. 
Burke is confident that they are not of the nature of crystals. 

"While admitting the extreme interest of these results the evi- 
dence that gelatin culture has been vitalized by purely physical and 
inorganic agencies, that life has been established out of inanimate 
material, is not at the present stage of the experiment convincing, 
and further results will be awaited before the opponents of the 
' spontaneous theory ' may be induced to abandon their position." 



SCIENCE BREVITIES. 

That a method of using acetylene gas as an explosive has been devised in 
Germany, is asserted by T/ie American Inventor (Washington, May 15). It 
says : " I5y means of an air mixture explosive force is obtained which can com- 
pete with that of powder and dynamite. The explosion takes place in an air- 
chamber and is caused by an electric spark. For this purpose carbide of calcium 
is reduced to small particles and put into a cartridge, consisting of a tin box. In 
this the carbide lies at tlie bottom and above it is a partition filled with water. 
Above tliis is a vacant sjiace with the electric percussion device. On tlie side of 
the cartridge is an iron pin, by means of which tlie partition between the carbide 
and the water can be perforated. .Vfter the drill-hole has been completed the 
cartridge is placed into it and the hole is closed with a wooden stopper. Then 
the protruding iron pin is dealt a blow, by which the partition is [jerforated and 
the water is caused to come in contact with the carbide, whereby acetylene gas is 
generated. This mixes with tlie air of the drill-hole. After five minutes the gas 
is ignited by an electric spark." 

Kkcarding the accounts in the daily press of the recent fast train runs be- 
tween New York and Chicago, I'/ic Americait Machinist makes the following 
conunent : " We note that one daily pai)er lias a prominent headline which 
reads, ' I'aster Than the Wind,' and it emphasizes the fact that one of these 
trains traveled over the surface of the earth faster than the wind which was ac- 
companying a certain storm, so that the train outran tlie wind. It seems curious 
that any one should attach importance to a circumstance such as this. By refer- 
ence to a weather report, one can readily perceive, if he does not otherwise be- 
come aware of the fact, that the saying " the speed of the wind ' means nothing ; 
that the wind may blow at any rate of sjieed, varying from one mile an hour to 
about a hundred per hour, and tliat, therefore, the fact that a train runs faster 
than the wind is wonderful or not. dei)ending altogettier upon how fast the wind 
is moving. A very slow train often runs faster than the wind." The writer 
might have added that the wind blows in tlitferent directions in different parts of 
a storm, so tiiat a train, in passing through one, travels part of the way with the 
wind and part of the way against it. 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



85 



THE RELIGIOUS WORLD. 

THE YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION 
UNDER CRITICISM. 

' I "HE conference of employed officers of the Young Men's 
•*• Christian Association, held recently at Niagara, took what 
President G. Stanley Hall (of Clarke University, Worcester, 
Mass.) characterized as " a magnificent new step '"when it not only 
opened its platform to. hut invited frank criticism from, men of 
expert training and ability. The criticisms offered, as well as the 
discussions which followed, are published in Association Men 
(New York, July). From this source we learn that President Hall, 
already quoted, recalled the days when "the pure culture of per- 
sonal piety was relatively a far larger part of the association's ac- 
tivities than it is now," and admonished its officers not to "let the 
strong, short circuit current between the individual and Jesus be 
weakened by the multiplication of long-circuit activities." Presi- 
dent Henry C. King, of Oberlin College, indicated a tendency on 

the part of the Y. M. 

C. A. to bring to the 
Bible " a practically full- 
fledged dogmatic the- 
ology— .not very care- 
fully thought througii — 
in consequence of the 
influence of a good deal 
of the earlier literature 
of the Association 
movement." But the 
most drastic criticisms 
uttered were those of 
Mr. Ernest Hamlin Ab- 
bott, of the New York 
Outlook. The employed 
officer, said Mr. Abbott, 
is the controlling force 
in the Young Men's 
Christian Association 
to-day— "his hope, his 
faith, his charity, his 
thoughts, his beliefs, his 
conduct, his manner, his 
appearance constitute 
the traits which first are 
attributed to the Asso- 
ciation and then are fixed upon it." Yet these men, he continued, 
are as a rule intellectually ill-equipped for their work. He de- 
clared further : 

" Few secretaries in any adequate sense are either students or 
thinkers. In a very limited sense many secretaries are students. 
They are largely observers of modern methods in use among As- 
sociations. They are imitators rather than students. Outside the 
limits of certain professional methods they know little and care 
less about the religious progress of the world. They are ignorant 
of the social feeling of the times, the growing sense of social 
morality, as they are also of religious movements. 

■■ You have not begun to understand how the intellectual per- 
meates all life, and how the lack of intellectual vigor is likely to 
vitiate all your work. The secretary who regards intellectual ac- 
tivity as outside of his province minimizes his office. This under- 
estimate of the intellectual is very evident in the lack of regard for 
the boy who is by temperament quiet, studious, imaginative, or 
artistic. In the boys' departments the active boy, what some 
psychologists call the motor-minded boy, rules. The sensor- 
minded boy, the boy who lives in his thoughts or his fancies, is 
treated as an inferior. In that discrimination you have rendered 
a verdict against yourselves. 

■' In this disregard of the intellectual life lies one reason for the 
failure of the Associations to win the cooperation of college-bred 
men. Artisans, I think, a "^ much keener mtellectually than 




Copyri<;ht by J. E. Pnrdy, Boston, 

PRESIDENT HENRY C. KING, 

Who questioned the attitude of the .Associa- 
tion toward higher criticism. " Do the .Associa- 
tions intend to shut out even thoroughly con- 
structive men, if their entire position is not 
along old line views of the Bible ? " he asked. 




MR. ERNEST H.\M1.IN ARnOTT. 

He criticized the intellectual equipment of the 
.Association's employed officers, few of whom, he 
said, '■ are in any ^equate sense either students 
or tliinkers.'' 



clerks Pit them against one another in discussion, for instance, 
on socialism and see. The temperament of the Associations is 
still that of the com- 
mercial classes of so- 
ciety 

" Next to personality 
I would place manners 
and taste as a cause 
aftecting efficiency. 
, . , The prevalence of 
bad taste is nowhere so 
conspicuous as in the 
music of the Associa- 
tion, Triviality is 
deadly to reverence, 
and reverence is the 
soul of religion." 

There are three prime 
defects, concluded Mr. 
Abbott, to which all the 
shortcomings indicated 
can be referred. These 
he tabulated as follows : 

" I. Intellectual : Un- 
equipped minds. 

"2. Ethical : Timidity 
or indifference in the 
presence of great social 
problems. 

"3. Institutional: Complactni isolation." 

Mr. Abbott's attitude, v/hile critical, was the reverse of hostile. 
He spoke with enthusiasm of the possibilities of the Association, 
and concluded : 

" What career issues a summons to a loftier life than that of the 
ideal secretary.'' Here ready to his hand is a great lay order de- 
voted to the service of men, titled with that energy which is at 
once love for Jesus Christ and faith in his power, and .set in the 
midst of human life approachable as never in any other land or 
age, where kingdoms, and peoples and tongues have been assem- 
bled for enlightenment; can any man full of ambition to serve 
covet any greater office in that army which is to bring not only in- 
dividual men but also society, kindred and tribes and nations 
under the domination of our God and His Christ? " 

To obtain still further the benefit of outside criticism, the 
committee sent letters 
to one hundred minis- 
ters of seven denomina- 
tions who were under- 
stood to hold a critical 
attitude toward the As- 
sociation, asking for 
frank comment upon 
the Association's work. 
From the answers to 
these letters we gather 
the following charges: 
"It may have been an 
assistant to the Church, 
but to-day it is a com- 
petitor." " It is reach- 
ing the class that needs 
it the least; those who 
need it the most can 
not afford the price." 
" It tends to develop a 
brotherhood outside of 
the church." " The in- 
stitution has a ' goody- 




PRESIUENT G. STANLEY HALL, 

Who recalled the time when " the pure culture 
of personal piety was relatively a far larger part 
of tlie .Association's activities than it is now." 



goody ' atmosphere which is not a genuine spiritual atmosphere." 
In connection with the charge that tlie Association is to-dnv a 



8G 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



competitor of the Church, it is interesting to note the following 
words of Dr. Gulick, a man for fifteen years prominently con- 
nected with Association work. He said, at the recent conven- 
tion : " It is pretty clear to me that no Association officer has a 
rijjht to publicly connect himself with any wing of the church. He 
belongs to the body." 

Ur liuckley, reviewing the whole discussion editorially in The 
Christian Advocate (Meth., New York), reaches the following 
conclusions : 

" The Young Men's Christian Association is entitled to credit 
for the following achievements: 

" I. It brought young men to their proper place in the vanguard 
of Cliristian work. 

"2. It contributed greatly to the spirit of unity among the de- 
nominations in this country. 

"3 It is doing the same now in all the countries of the world. 

"4 It diffuses throughout the world the spirit of American en- 
terprise in religious and social work. 

" 5. Its railroad work is worthy of all praise, and alone justifies 
its existence. 

"Self-criticism, the welcoming of .honest friendly criticism, the 
serious consideration of the attacks of enemies, the recognition of 
the fact that from sucii organizations and opportunities may rea- 
sonably be expected the faithful, uncompromising adherence to 
evangelical truth, and tlie maintaining of tlie moral and spiritual 
element as the primary aim. will insure its progress and beneficent 
influence to the end of time." 



BEGINNINGS OF A RUSSIAN RELIGIOUS 
REFORMATION. 

OUT of the literary activities of certain of the younger Russian 
writers has developed a pronounced philosophico religious 
tendency, which seems to mark a phase of what is observable in 
many parts of the Christian world, namely, a return to spiritual 
faith. This Russian manifestation, according to S. C. de Sois- 
sons, who contributes an article on the subject to The Conteinpo- 
rary Revie^u, may be described in general terms as " idealism 
ranged against a former materialism." and the extent to which en- 
thusiasm for the new cult carries its devotees is such as " to out- 
rage all the laws of reasonable restraint in the dreaminess of its 
outlook." 

The new movement has for its official organ a review called the 
Afliyj Put, or the A-ew Road, which already possesses a high lit- 
erary standing. Moreover, says the writer, outside the "publica- 
tions specially designed for the clergy there is not another review 
in Europe which gives so much space to religious questions." 
Among its contributors are Dmitri Merejkovski, " the world-famous 
novelist and literary critic"; Vladimir Rozanoff, "an original and 
many-sided thinker and journalist"; and Nicolai Minskij, "a lyri- 
cal poet and dramatist "—all of whom, putting aside personal dif- 
ferences, " agree as to their principal aim, which is to raise the 
soul of the nation to a higher plane of spiritual life and to fight 
down the ideas and doctrines of positivism." The movement as 
an organized form was built upon the system of the religious 
tliinker, Vladimir Solovieff, of whom the Count de Soissons 
writes : 

" SoloviefT, who died prematurely about two years ago, may be 
said to iiave l)een the leader of the new philosophic and religious 
movement in Russian thought, of which I write. During his life- 
time he was looked upon as a wild dreamer. But he has left his 
countrymen a rich store of ideas, v/iiich have grown up after his 
death and blossomed in the idealist atmosphere of tlie present 
day. .Solovieff was one of the greatest idealists of our time. 

Of tiic more definite elements of the new movement t!ie writer 
says : 

"The Russian seekers after the religious ideal agree, however, in 
one tiling, and that is that the Cliristian doctrine is the only road 
leading to tliat ideal, and that its pr()i)er don.ai.i is the universal 
Christian cluirch with its dogmas and ^ts mystic unity of the spir- 



itual life. Thus their ideas have nothing in common with Tol- 
stoyism, which, altho based on Christian morality and wishing 
that morality to be put in practise, aspires to know nothing of 
Christian mysticism. Merejkovski and Rozanoff, who have spo- 
ken very plainly on the subject, incline to the opposite of Tolstoy- 
ism ; they seem to forget the ethical side of Christianity, and to 
see its essence not in the moral but in the mystic development of 
the human spirit 

" One of the articles of their creed appears to be the universal 
Christian church, not as it now exists, but as the ideal of the fu- 
ture, the aim and end of the whole Christian evolution. They 
draw a distinction between the true Christianity still to come and 
historical Christianity, which, according to them, has never yet 
realized the ideal taught by Christ, but has only found the way to 
it. There are in the N^ovyj Put considerable differences with re- 
gard to dogma. Merejkovski, followed, as it would seem, by the 
majority of the group, accepts the principal dogmas of the Holy 
Trinity, Christ's kingdom, and the universal church ; while Rozan- 
off, acknowledging their religious truth, considers the whole sys- 
tem of doctrine as a useless accumulation of soulless formulae 
which tends to fetter the spiritual life of Christianity. 

" If Merejkovski and Rozanoff do not agree in their views of 
dogma, they are of one mind about other fundamental religious 
convictions. They both reject the ascetic ideal, and interpret 
Christianity as involving the sanctification not only of the soul, but 
also of the body, and, indeed, of all physical existence as mani- 
fested in nature and in human life. 

" Naturally, among the religious questions discussed by the wri- 
ters in the Novyj Put is included that of the position and impor- 
tance of the Roman Catholic Church. The advocates of Christian 
unity and Solovieff's adherents must needs be free from prejudice 
against that church, of which so many of the so-called schismatics 
are members. On the other hand, their critical attitude toward 
historical Christianity, which includes the early history of both the 
Eastern and Western churches, has tended to a certain under- 
standing with the official Russian Church, and excludes the ac- 
knowledgment of Catholic ideas. They are not in favor of any of 
the existing Christian churches, but they look forward to the unity 
of all churches in one ideal church of the future, which shall em- 
brace all humanity and thus become universal — a perfect realiza- 
tion of the Christian ideal. That universal church of the future 
is the principal subject of their discussions with the representatives 
of the official church in Russia, who are now no longer satisfied 
with the administrative means of propaganda which they have 
used against multiplying religious sects among the lower classes, 
but try by means of public discussions to draw the new sect which 
is appearing among the intellectual ' classes into the orthodox 
church." 

During the last two years philosophical and religious meetings 
have been held in St. Petersburg, at which dignitaries of the high- 
est orders of the established church and the lay element, led by 
the writers grouped round the Novyj Put, have freely discussed 
questions concerning faith and the aims of the Christian church. 
At these meetings questions dealing with the state religion have 
been handled, particularly the question of religious tolerance. 



Imagination in Religion.— "We are in danger today of 
losing the romance of religion, and it is only by means of a quick- 
ened, cleansed, and sanctified imagination that it can be restored 
to us," writes Mr. George Jackson in The Methodist Recorder 
(London). In this modern sense the word is not used in the Bible. 
There, Mr. Jackson points out, " imagination always means evil 
purpose, contrivance." Of the importance to religion of " imagi- 
nation " as we understand the word, Mr. Jackson goes on to say : 

" The practical difficulty of belief often lies rather in the ina- 
bility of the imagination to conceive the reality of things spiritual 
and eternal, than in the refusal of the reason to render assent to 
the evidences of their truth. Take, <•..<'. . the objection that is often 
urged with so much plausibility agai'ist the doctrine of immortal- 
ity. How, it is asked, can we believe in immortality for the whole 
human race, for the countless hosts of the great dead empires of 
the past — Babylonia. Assyria. Persia. Rome — for the vanished 
tribes of North America, for the swarming millions of India and 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY x)IGEST 



87 



China? As well ask us to believe in the resurrection of the leaves 
of the forest that withered and fell before the last autumn winds. 
So it is urged ; and the curious thing is that men should take this 
for reasoning. But reasoning there is none; it is simply an at- 
tempt to terrorize the imagination 

" In precisely the same way it is the poverty of our imagination 
that lends its chief force to the objections so often heard to the 
doctrine of a particular providence. in the vast universe of 
created being, what is man that God should be mindful of him .^ 
Can we believe that God really cares when a man is out of work, 
or a little child is sick, or a pauper dies? So runs tlie familiar 
* argument.' But here, again, argument there is none, but only 
another attempt to terrorize the imagination." 



proof, in a long historic line, that the public mind moves to moral 
issues ahead of the church, with her impedimenta of traditions and 
conservatisms. Alas, thai the captain ol the Lord's host should 
so often follow the company ! 'I'he revival for wiiich the people 
and the world are waiting and perishing is not a revival to greater 
pietistic fervors, but to simple, practical righteousness in all the 
affairs ot common life." 



NEW ATTITUDE OF THE CHURCHES IN 

AMERICA. 

REV. W. J. DAWSON, the English revivalist who has been 
carrying on an evangelical campaign in this country, writes 
to The Chrisiian World (London), on the subject of religious 
tendencies in America. He claims to detect a marked breaking 
away, on the part of the church, from its tradition of non-interven- 
tion in the larger affairs of politics. No feature of religious life in 
America is more hopeful than this, he contends It is "really the 
€thical side of the great spiritual revival which is already at 
■work." " A wave of national anger against the abuse of power by 
the trusts, against corrupt politics, against the wholesale robbery 
•of the people by the lords of wealth, is slowly rising." And from 
this movement, says Mr. Dawson, the church is not going to hold 
aloof. 

Mr. Dawson's contention derives some support from the attitude 
■of the church toward the recent municipal scandal in Philadelphia, 
when the ministers of various denominations lent their support to 
the mayor in his struggle for civic reform. Nevertheless, accord- 
ing to the Rev. James H. Ecob, minister of the First Unitarian 
Church of Philadelphia, the church has still far to go on its new 
path. Writing in The Hoi>iiletic Revieiv (July) he says : 

" Religious teachers have failed to carry over to the public mind 
precisely the same spiritual laws and sanctions which they have 
applied to the private mind. This hiatus between private and pub- 
lic religion has been from time immemorial the genetic point of all 
civic unrighteousness. When men are permitted to think that, in 
any public act or capacity, they are not held by their fellow men 
to as strict an application of religious principles as in tiieir most 
intimate private affairs, then we may be sure their latitude will 
•straightway run into license. Their inch will become an ell. This 
ancient heresy that our life is subject to biformity still persists in 
the church. We do not, of course, shock ourselves by affirming 
the crude Dr.-Jekyl-and-Mr.-Hyde type of duality. We give it 
the bland, innocuous title, 'the religious and the secular life re- 
spectively.' 

" Here we come squarely upon the demand for a reform before 
reforms, a reform inclusive of all reforms. The church must'make 
one sweeping generalization, that the ' Father's business ' is simply 
■everything human." 

That ancient bogy, " the secularization of the pulpit," says Mr. 
Ecob, has haunted ministers and people. " ' Politics in the pulpit ' 
•was hardly a less abomination than the red flag in the streets." 
Referring to the civic corruption in Philadelphia, the writer con- 
tinues : 

"If the church and her ministry had in the past held the belief 
intelligently and efficiently that everything human is her proper 
business, this odious title, 'Corrupt and Contented,' would have 
been impossible. Civic duties would have been placed in the cate- 
gory of religious duties, where they belong, and enforced upon the 
public mind under precisely the same sanctions as private morals. 
As it was, the church was held in sophistical and wicked silence 
until the corruption became an open abomination. The bad gov- 
ernment became so bad that the church was forced out of her 
false logic and pious dilettanteism into a rational and practical 
activity in civic affairs. The fact that the people turned instinc- 
tively to the ministry for leadership and inspiration is only another 



GERIVIAN EFFORTS TO REVISE CHRISTIANITY. 

^ I ^HE future of Christianity, s.-xy the advocates of the modern 
^ " advanced theology " in Germany, must develop along other 
than traditional lines. But when the question is asked: In what 
direction, or of what kind shall this development be? the answers 
are exceedingly divergent. Some of these answers are to be found 
in a recently published book called "Contributions to the Further 
Development of the Christian Religion." The authors, ten theo- 
logians, philosophers, and pedagogues, find a common basis in two 
propositions. One of these is" that in Christianity an eternal truth 
has come to light, and a kind of life has been developed which de 
serves permanent spiritual supremacy." The second is "that tlie 
present state of the Christian religion does not meet the require- 
ments of modern thought and hfe, because in its present form the 
eternal truth of Christianity is saturated with many human and 
temporal things, so that modern thought and life can not pay the 
reverence to Christianity in this form that it would pay otily to that 
which is eternal and divine." These writers claim that it is neces- 
sary to reconcile Christianity and modern culture by eliminating 
from the former all that which the latter can not recognize as divine 
and eternal. Modifications of traditional Christian views, they 
say, must take place in such matters as the relations of the Chris- 
tian religion to morality and to science, and in the establishnient 
of an " undogmatic Christianity." Incidentally, the authority of 
the church must pass away. Among other books dealing with the 
future of the Christian religion, one of the most interesting is 
"Independent Christianity." The author demands a Christian 
communion, consisting of pure Christian personalities, without 
dogma or creed. The church needs one thing above all others, he 
holds, and that is " tolerance." The creative trutii of life and not 
a stereotype truth of consciousness should be our motto. Gall- 
witz, in his " Foundations of the Church " strikes out in an al- 
together different direction. He chides the church that it has 
not been firmly enough rooted in tlie natural order of creation. 
" In the doctrine of atonement and in ethics. Protestantism has 
accomplished great results. But the Christian doctrine of crea- 
tion has only been poorly cultivated and has not yielded the 
point it should give." From this basis he claims that the chief 
need of further development in Christianity is the sanctification 
and the spiritualization of natural things, both in the Ciiris- 
tian individual and in the social order, through Jesus Christ and 
His spirit and His holy church. But this church must be in visible 
form, which is probably better realized in England than is the case 
elsewhere. The large mass-congregations are to be divided into 
smaller groups of believers and of free churches, in which a new 
generation, healthy in body and .soul, can be developed 

The A//e Glaube, of Leipsic, a very conservative church paper, 
declares that these suggested " reforms" for the Christianity of the 
future are so hopelesslv antagonistic and irreconcilable, that they 
show the folly of the whole scheme of developing Christianity 
along lines that are virtually a denial of the fundamentals and es- 
sentials of the i-3\\.\\. — Translation viade for The Litekakv 
Digest. 

The recent international rally of the World's Student Christian Federation 
at Zeist, Holland, calls attention to an interesting and significant movement. 
Leaders of student work in thirty nations, from the five continents and from 
Australia, were present. The movement was organized in Sweden in 1895. It 
has now in its ranks over 100.000 students and professors belonging to nearly 
forty nations, and contemplates an extension of its work among the students of 
Russia, China, India and Japan. The Congregationalisth'a.Wf, the organization 
as '"a force ma'King for international brotherhood." 



88 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



FOREIGN COMMENT. 




BRITISH ARMY CONTRACT SCANDALS. 

THE British press are deeply stirred by the revelations of cor- 
ruption and "graft" in the army supply department in South 
Africa, as laid bare in the report of a Parliamentary commission. 
It appears from this report, as publisiied in tiie British newspapers, 
that at the conclusion of hostilities in South Africa between the 
English and the Boers, the English Commissariat found itself, in 
June, 1902, in po.ssession of accumulated food supplies, distribu- 
ted through various de- 
pots in the Transvaal, 
Orange River Colony, 
Cape Colony, and Na- 
tal. There were suffi- 
cient provisions to feed 
more than 300,000 men 
and 200,000 animals for 
four months. Before 
deneral Kitchener left 
South Africa, at the 
end of that month, he 
formed a new depart- 
ment of the Army Ser- 
vice Corps and gave in- 
structions to this " Sales 
Department " to sell this 
surplus, which involved 
the sum of $30,000,000 
or 335.000,000. 

Charges having been 
brought against those 
who carried out General 
Kitchener's i n s t r u c - 
tions, a Parliamentary 
Commission was ap- 
pointed under Lieut. -Gen. Sir W. F. Butler, K.C.B., to investi- 
gate these charges, and the report has fallen like a bombshell in 
the midst of high military and ministerial circles in England. The 
point of the report, which incriminates military officers of high 
rank, is that those supplies fell into the hands of a "ring," which 
included some chief members of Kitchener's " Sales Department." 
The goods left tiie (government's hands at a nominal price, and 
the members of the ring who purchased them resold them at a high 
profit, sometimes selling the same supplies back to the army at a 
large advance. 

One man named Meyer, who made about $10,000 a day in this 
manner, is described by the commission as " a person possessing a 
remarkable mental grasp of the necessities of a financial situation." 
The brother of the Army Director of Supplies was actually " the 
salaried servant of favored firms," and had " his brother's sanc- 
tion to appear openly as the engaged servant of the contractor 
Meyer." .Some of the contractors made prohts"of from 50 per 
cent, to 500 per cent." The Government supplies were forwarded 
to inland army depots in .South Africa, at great expense, "appar- 
ently only to be sold on arrival for a nominal price, their sale ren- 
dering the Government liable for customs duty, which in some 
cases is alone greater than the total price they have realized." 

The Saturday Revieiu (London), in speaking of this report, 
blames the incompetency of the army officers, and even suggests a 
reflection on Lord Kitchener. Its general verdict is as follows: 

"The report . . . is most unpleasant reading. It involves the 
most serious charges against a variety of people both military and 
civilian ; on the one hand, it opens out visions of untold folly and 
inaptitude for business on the part ot some officers of the Army 
Service Corps charged with both the disposal and provision of 
army stores, and on the other hand it suggests villainy on the side 



LIULT.-GEN. SIR W. F. liUTI.ER, 

Whose report on the Britisli Army Contract 
Scandals " has fallen like a bombshell in the 
midst of high military and ministerial circles in 
England."' 



of the civilian contractors fairly eclipsing even their performances 
in other campaigns." 

The Times (London) is inclined as much as possible to discount 
the grave import of the document, and says : 

"It remains a paper which must cause a profound impression 
not merely among the lovers of scandalous ' sensations.' but 
among all who have at heart the honor and the welfare of the army 
and of the empire. That impression would have been still deeper 
with responsible men were it not for the extravagant and tasteless 
rhetoric in which much of the report is clothed, and for the ob- 
-scurity of certain passages, which appear to suggest imputations 
that either should have been made outright or should not have 
been made at all. Devices of that order may be calculated to in- 
flame certain kinds of opinion; but they can only excite doubts as 
to the judicial character of the report among those who are most 
competent to understand the grave matters with which it deals." 

'J'he Standard (London) puts down the whole affair to the busi- 
ness incapacity of military men, and would avoid personal reflec- 
tions. It remarks : 

" If for the present we disregard the accusations against individ- 
uals, the story told by the committee, in the voluminous evidence 
which is published simultaneously with the report, is an extraor- 
dinary revelation of the incapacity of military men for dealing 
with matters of business." 

Not so TIte Chronicle (London), which takes the opportunity to 
have a fling at the War Office under the Balfour ministry, and calls 
the report " one of the most scathing and unpleasantly spicy docu- 
ments ever presented for the perusal of the British public." It 
adds : 

"Some people, we see, apply the epithet ' astounding' to the dis- 
closure of the latest — but not, we fear, the last — War Office scan- 
dal. We can not accept it; the disclosures are entirely in keeping 
with the ineptitude which has marked every stage of the W'ar 
Office's administration." 

The Morning Post (London) accuses the report of being "devoid 
of judicial character and even judicial tone," and of "throwing 
suspicion broadcast upon a number of officers of the army and 
other persons"; while The Daily Xeius {\^oriAo\-\^ thinks that the 
.Secretary of War is " obviously desirous of whitewashing the par- 
ties to these disgraceful scandals." The Manchester Guardian 
also comes down upon Mr. Amold-Forster — principally for his de- 
lay in ordering the investigation — but suspends judgment on its 
results; while the Birmingham Post lays on the lash with a heavy 
hand, and says the report "will be read with shame and indigna- 
tion." It continues : 

" For some days past many-tongued rumor attributed all sorts of 
dreadful disclosures to this report, but the actual document is, 
indeed, more remarkable than any hint or suggestion of its con- 
tents could have conveyed. We must confess never having read 
condemnation more sweeping or criticism more scathing. It is 
difficult to discuss the report in measured terms." 



German Press on the Morocco Dispute. — While 
the French and British press have been filled during the past few 
weeks with talk of war over the aMorocco protectorate (as reflect- 
ed in these columns), the press of Germany have been calm and 
peaceable almost to the point of dulness, in their handling of the 
matter. The Briti.sh and French press have apparently had the 
idea that Germany was trying to stir up a war, but if newspaper 
comment is any criterion, the German attitude would seem to be 
the most peaceful imaginable. The Frankfurter Zeitungwzrns 
llie French papers that they must not mistake the language of 
German jingoes in Berlin for the sentiment of the German people, 
and advises the French press not to quote their utterances. " If a 
mutual confidence be the real aim of both parties," says the 
and Frankfort daily. " the whole press mustfeel their responsibility, 
refrain from publishing anything that is likely to disturb inter- 
national harmony or be misinterpreted as intended to do so." 



Vol. XXXI., No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



89 



One German paper says that if croakings like those of the Paris 
'lei..ps are heeded "all hope of peace must fall to the ground," 
and the Vossische Zeitiing {)S^x\\w) remarks reassuringly that "it 
would be a good thing if people in France would not let them- 
selves be hoodwinked about the attitude of the German people on 
the Morocco question." To read some of the German editorial 
pages, one would hardly suspect a Morocco question existed. — 
Translations made for 'YwM Literary Digest. 



PROGRESS OF DISESTABLISHMENT IN 
FRANCE. 

THE French press take calmly the passage of the bill for 
separation of Church and State in France by the Chamber 
of Deputies by the decisive vote of 341 to 233, perhaps because 
they have been clearly anticipating it for some time. Many 
friends of the Church, in France and Italy, are hoping that the 
Senate will throw the measure out. M. Briand, a Socialist Dep- 
uty and a supporter of the bill, who was secretary of the com- 
mission which formulated it, explains its object thus in his work 
on " The Separation of the Churches and the State " : 

" We are not asking the complete separation of the churches from 
the State in order to satisfy political rancor, or from hatred of 
Catholicism. We ask it in order to establish the one form of 
government under which peace may reign between the supporters 
of different faiths." 

Anatole France, in his work, "The Church and the Republic," 
says that the separation of Church and State has been largely 
brought about by the intolerance of churchmen and their constant 
intriguing interference in politics. In 1891 the French Govern- 
ment was deeply offended when a number of French pilgrims at 
Rome hailed the successor of Peter as " the pope-king," and AI. 
Freycinet on that occasion made this half-threat, which has since 
become fulfilled : 

"This cabinet does not believe it has a mandate, either from 
the chambers or from the country, to accomplish the separation of 
the churches from the State, or even to prepare for it. But we 
have received a mandate to make the State respected, and, if 
separation comes as a result of the agitation I have referred to, 



the responsibility will rest on the authors of that agitation, not 
upon us." 

The Brithh Weekly (London) asks: 

" What will be the result of disestablishment and disendowmcnt? 
The answer is, tiiat whatever is true and real in the religion of the 
country will survive and flourish. In so far as religion is dead, 
the mimicry of life will be at an end. and well that it should be at 
an end." 

The most pressing inconvenience of the moment will be the 
failure of all government aid by the suppression of the budget for 
the support of religion in France. This budget provided for 
Jews, Protestants, and Roman Catholics 250,000 francs, 1,625,000 
francs, and 41,125,000 francs, severally, a year. Since the Revo- 
lution things financial seem to have gone from bad to worse with 
religious bodies in France. To quote The British Weekly 
further: 

" Disestablishment has come, as it always will come, at a time 
when it was not looked for. It is somewhat as it was in the years 
before the Revolution. In 1778 there were in France 130.000 ec- 
clesiastics. They possessed among them one-third of the entire 
fortune of the country. Their total yearly revenue was 200.000,-' 
000 francs, which is estimated by M. Briand at present day values 
as 400.000,000. The material power of the Church was at its 
highest when that power and the moral authority of Catholicism 
itself were put to proof and overthrown. During the period pre- 
ceding the Concordat of kSoi that immense power was ' sapped, 
destroyed, and annihilated.' " 

Under these circumstances it is not astonishing that Anatole 
France looks forward with foreboding to the future. The Roman 
Catholic Church in France, he tells us, needs at least 50.000,000 
francs for the support of its ministrations. He asks : 

" How will the budget of 50,000,000 francs be made up? At 
first people will give. But afterward ? The peasants are econom- 
ical, the bourgeois are already burdened with poor rates, etc. 
The association founded in the diocese of Quiinper already fur- 
nishes 50.000 francs to clergy deprived of salary, and how painful 
it will be for the clergy to go begging to the country squires and 
dowagers." 

1\\e^ Journal (les Dd)ats (Paris) speaks of the narrow and grudg- 
ing manner in which the bill provides for permanent endowment 
funds in the Church. There are to be certain lay associations 




NEITHER HAS ANY INTENTION OF DEVOVRING IT, BUT NEITHER WILL LET 

IT ESCAPE. 

— Pischietto (Turin). 




IN THE MCJROCCO COFFEE-HOUSE. 



\Vaitress— " Will you take anything?" 

Germany- '■ No, and I will take good care that this gentleman doesn't take 
anything, either I " —Fischietto ^Tu^in). 



IN THE MULTITUDE OF COUNSELORS THERE IS SAFETY. 



90 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



(Associations Culiuelles) appointed to be trustees of church 
property, and authorized by law to accept gifts and legacies— but 
only to apply them specifically to the expenses of " ceremonies 
and religious services." The Journal des Ddbats says : 

" If the dwelling-place of the cur^ can not be assured in a man- 
ner fixed by a foundation, it runs the risk of being merely a pre- 
carious and provisional home, maintained by 
a small number ot persons or by an individ- 
ual, so that the cur^ is placed in a position of 
painful dependence. . . . And who will suffer 
the most in this contingency? The poor con- 
gregations. The rich can look out for them- 
selves, but in our small rural districts, which 
form the majority of our communities, the 
faithful will be condemned to efforts which 
they must constantly keep up, and from which 
the generosity of some individual might have 
released them. So the chamber has decided ; 
but it has done wrong." 

The same journal, speaking of the at- 
tempts of the liberals to strike a blow at the 
authority of the Pope in France, thus denying 
to those who acknowledge that authority the 
liberty of choice claimed by the representa- 
tives of liberalism, declares: 

"Thus it is that bad laws are voted for, 
laws full of obscurities, of incoherences, and 
contradictions. We must not blind ourselves 
to the fact that in such legislation a choice 
has to be made between giving liberty to the 
Church when separated from the State, and 
maintaining the State's control of the Church's 
temporal administration. The latter can only 
be accomplished with the Concordat, which 
is abolished. As for the bastard and dis- 
loyal system which consists in separating 
Church and State, and yet allowing the latter 
to interfere in the domestic affairs of the 
former it is worthy of the petty jacobins who 
slavishly follow M. Buisson [a liberal politi- 
cian and deputy who favors separation "]. 

It is not surprising that this revolutionary 
measure has called forth a protest addressed 
to the President of the Republic by the five 
cardinal archbishops, and all the other 
bishops of France. The position taken by 
the protesting prelates is based upon the pro- 
visions of the Concordat of i8oi by which the 
Church secured an income, and its bishops 
were to be jointly chosen by the French Gov- 
ernment and tiie Pope, while the acceptance of foundation legacies 
and the use of church buildings were permitted. They .say : 

" We ask tliat the Concordat, that is to say the agreement be- 
tween civil and religious bodies, be maintained, and if there is any 
reason to modify it, this should be done with the joint consent of 
both authorities." 

r 

This Concordat contained a clause by which " the Church relin- 
quished absolutely all rights to recover its former property. In 
return the State agreed to pay an income to the ministers of relig- 
ion." The Constitution of 1791 acknowledged tiiat " the support 
of the ministers of the Catholic Church is part of the national 
debt." The repudiation of this debt, by the suppression of the 
Budget of Public Worship is " a refusal to perform an act of strict 
obligation guaranteed by a contract," i.e., is an outrage on justice. 

The second point made by the prelates is that the appointment 
of lay trustees of church property, the "Associations of Public 
Worship" "organized independently of the authority of the 
bishops and rectors," implies " a denial of the constitution of the 
Church," and is, practically, "an attempt at schism," for lay insti- 
tutions are thus founded to govern the Catholic Church.— /W/wj- 
lation made for Thk Literary Digest. 




ALEXANDER DOWIE, 

Whose intention to save Paris arouses deris- 
ion in that city. 



FRENCH VIRTUE AND AMERICAN VIRTUE. 

THE intention of Alexander Dowie, the modern Elijah, r.s be 
claims to be, prophet and miracle-worker, to visit Paris with 
three thousand of his followers, in order to convert that modern 
city of Baal or Beelzebub, has roused some little notice in the 
French press, and the ////r/z«j-/^/a«/ (Paris), edited by the lively 
and versatile Henri Rochefort, has some 
pointed and pertinent remarks to make on the 
subject. The writer, however, is evidently 
laboring under the delusion that Dowie is a 
representative American and leads a religious 
delegation of the population who dwell be- 
tween the Atlantic and the Pacific, south of 
the St. Lawrence. Hence he says: 

" America contams some virtuous people, 
and these are so very virtuous that they desire 
to impart their virtue to our dear fellow citi- 
zens. To the eyes of certain Americans, 
Paris is a dissolute city. We are all depraved 
— creatures of pleasure. In order to make us 
good, an American has resolved to come and 
preach morality at Paris." 

The writer goes on to say that he believes 
such a crusade in honor of virtue to be use- 
less, for virtue exists in Paris as in America, 
and the French city does not need her supply 
of it to be increased, adding: 

" If we become too virtuous the blonde 
American ladies will not come any more to 
seek husbands in France, and this will be a 
loss to our country." 

There are two reasons especially why the 
Dowie expedition is in vain, he says. The first 
is that in all probability many of the pro- 
fessors of American virtue will find them- 
selves converted to French virtue. To quote 
his words : 



" Perhaps the meeting of American virtue 
and that of our country may produce results 
the reverse of those expected, and we would 
like to know how many Americans will take 
passage home on the steamer by which they 
arrived. They will number 3,000 on their ar- 
rival, but all will not go back. The conver- 
sion they will have undergone here will prevent 
some of them from regaining their homes." 



Possibly tlie Americans are trying to form a Virtue Trust, he 
says, and to rope in new capital. But perhaps they are coming 
to purify French politics. He exclaims : 

"If only they would undertake to render virtuous the present 
members of the French Ministry, and all the members of the Ma- 
sonic lodges, and Deputies of the Chamber, we should certainly 
felicitate them on their good offices. It is true that President 
Roosevelt has proved to the world his personal virtue by preach- 
ing reconciliation to the belligerents who are shooting each other 
in Manchuria. If these newcomers have peace and concord up 
their sleeve, let them show it ! In short, these modest virtues are 
the most important, and they include many ancient virtues which 
people in America neglect because of their small attractiveness. 
And yet we anticipate seeing the faces of these virtuous men, with 
the reflection that our most indulgent sculptors will find no models 
for Adonis or Apollo among them." 

He concludes with the serious hope that Alexander Dowie and 
his American "virtuists" will not import into Paris the fashion of 
Haunting virtue in the eyes of all, and he says : 

"Virtue loves mysterious concealment. The most virtuous 
hide the fact with extreme care. This is the reason why those 
who are not virtuous bear so strong a resemblance to those who 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



91 



are. . . . Virtue runs the streets in Paris ; it is found at every 
step. The only point is, not to make it stumble. 

" In France we love virtue — each one in his way. Our lightest 
poets have celebrated it. Has not Alfred de Musset himself said 
of Hercules : 

Pleasure he saw with beckoning hand approach ; 

He followed Virtue, for she seemed more fair ? " 

— Translation made for TyiY. Literary Digest. 



THE POPE AND ITALIAN POLITICS. 

LIBERTY to vote and take part in the political life of their 
native land has at last been granted by Pius X. both to the 
clergy and laity of the Italian church. Such is the subject of his 
recent encyclical. According to the language of this document 
the object of the Pope is " to unite all the living forces of the 
Catholic Church in order to contend, by every just means, against 
anti-Christian elements in public life ; to repair as far as possible 
all the frightful disorders which spring from the presence of such 
elements, and to bring Jesus Christ back to the family, to the 
school, and to society ; to reestablish the principle that human au- 
thority represents the authority of God ; to take new interest in 
the claims of the people, particularly those of the industrial and 
agricultural classes ; . . . to see that public legislation is guided 
by justice." 

This leads the pontiff to state that such activity as he prescribes 
must not be confined to private or isolated social efforts. To 
quote his words : 

" Inasmuch as Catholic activities are in every respect effica- 
cious, it is not sufficient that they be confined to every-day inter- 
course with our fellows, they must also find a field in the promo- 
tion of all those practical measures which are dictated by the 
study of social and economic science, by experience, by the con- 
ditions of civil affairs, by the political life of the State." 

He proceeds to pronounce all Italian Catholics free to exercise 
their political rights as citizens of the State, and remarks: 

"These poHtical rights are of various kinds, and include that of 
taking part in the political life of the country, and acting as repre- 
sentatives of the people in the halls of legislature. God forbid 
that I should lightly swerve from the rule maintained by my pre- 



decessor, Pius IX., and his succes.sor. Leo XIII., through a long 
pontificate, in accordance with which participation in legislative 
activity is in general forbidden to Catholics in Italy. Other rea- 
sons, equally binding, based on that welfare of society which must 
be safeguarded at any cost, may demand, in particular cases, a 
dispensation from the obligation of existing laws." 

The words of the Encyclical are very guarded, and something 
has to be read between the lines. Pius IX. and Leo XIII. had 
declared of Catholic participation in Italian public life, non ex- 
Pedit; it is " not expedient "—thus removing the question, as St. 
Paul removed many such questions, out of the sphere of morals. 
Pius X. has simply seen the hour arrive when he could say expedit 
— it is convenient and proper. 

L'Osservatore Ro/nano, which must be taken as the organ of the 
Curia, remarks in this connection : 

"There is no break of continuity, no spirit of innovation in 
this ^a.^?i\ pronunciamento. The utterance of Pius X. knits and 
unites itself in a wonderful way with those of his venerated prede- 
cessors, and without the introduction of any new principles, such 
as it would be folly to suspect, he wisely applies in changed cir- 
cumstances of the time that prudent capacity for adaptation which 
is inherent in the church, and is one of the finest of her preroga- 
tives." 

The spectator (London) says of the effect of this new ruling : 

" The political effect of this recession from the sterner policy 
will not be of great direct importance, because a very small sec- 
tion of Italians have attended to the inhibition ; but so far as it is 
operative, it will increase the strength of the King's Government, 
and of conservatism generally. The families which, in North 
Italy especially, are sincerely papal belong for the most part to 
those classes whose interests as well as their convictions induce 
them to dread as well as despise extreme liberalism of any kind. 
They want above all things order, and if they enter the political 
arena at all, must, to be of the smallest weight, rally round the 
throne. The house of Savoy, which is neither Protestant nor 
skeptical, tho it has never admitted the absolute right of the pa- 
pacy to territorial sovereignty, will feel that ; and the total effect 
of the encyclical, tho it is not reconciliation, will tend toward 
the long-desired /nodus vivendi between the papacy and the ' in- 
truding Power.'" 

The Pope "has been wisely advised" in his promulgation of this 
encyclical, adds the same journal. Some of the priests, it says, 






mI 


K% 


^^S^i 


Px 


^^^ 


^^^-^ 


^zj^^ame^"'''^' 



THE QUIET LIFE. UNCLE SAM S HAT. 

Mr. Roosevelt can't keep away from the bears, but his mission happens to be a Just as the hat of Uncle Sam seemed likely to squelch the combatants, they 

peaceful one this time. '^'■eak out again ! 

— Westminister Review (London). 

FOREIGN VIEWS OF AMERICAN PEACE EFFORTS. 



— Fischietto (Turin). 



92 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



have been forming " secret alliances " with the Socialists for political 
reasons. Now there will be no more necessity for such alliances, 
and the church can regain its old conservative position. To quote : 

"Some of the oversubtle leaders of the Roman Catholic 
Church, who feel greatly the want of physical forces at their dis- 
posal, will seriously regret this encyclical ; but we fancy it will be 
found that, on the whole, Pius X. has been wisely advised to issue 
it. . . . Roman Catholicism, considered as a political force, will 
probably do better for itself by regaining its old conservative 
position, and announcing itself in sympathy with that individual- 
ism which is the guarantee of property, and with which in the 
popular mind for many generations it has been more or less habit- 
ually associated. No doubt its leaders proclaim with great wis- 
dom, and, of course, entire truth, that they can accept any form of 
government so long as it is sanctified by obedience to the Church, 
and allows perfect freedom to the successors of .St. Peter. But it 
can hardly be wise as yet to throw over the kings, or to arouse in 
the well-to do a suspicion that at heart monks must always be in 
favor of collectivism. The papacy will certainly not regain tem- 
poral power by means of a popular rush, and it is hard to see how 
a party which in France may almost be considered anti-Christian, 
which in Italy is simply irreligious, and which in Spain is clamor- 
ing for the secularization of all church property, can be an avail- 
able instrument for that triumph of the faith which the leaders of 
the Church, even when most absorbed in temporal matters, never 
entirely forget to be the raison d'etre of their organization." — 
Translations made for The Literary Digest. 



PROSPERITY OF SPAIN. 

THE present increased and increasing prosperity of Spain is 
one of the most interesting .subjects of economic study. She 
has lost what was once tiie principal .source of her wealth — her 
colonies in Asia and America, territories transcending in area and 
productivity any dominion ever included in a single kingdom. But 
she learned what it was to be " land poor" and to be overweighted 
with responsibilities which she could not carry. She has now 
turned to the exploitation of her own soil and her native industries ; 
she is cultivating a mercantile marine, and the result is a rapid rise 
to prosperity, so that by J. Hogge Fort and F. V. Dwelshauvers, 
in Espana Moderna (Madrid), she is hailed as " New Spain." 

These authors describe, under various heads, the rise of .Spanish 
prosperity, and support their assertions by the citation of figures 
of the revenue and the value abroad of Spanish Government bonds. 
To quote their own words : 

" An examination of these figures shows that in 1893 the revenue 
had sunk to its minimum. At that time the country had encoun- 
tered a crisis. Spanish bonds were quoted at 65, and there seemed 
to be no prospects of a rise. At the end of Jhe followmg year, 
however, business took a turn for the better and they were rated 
at 73, but the following year fluctuated between 60 and 65." 

Undoubtedly the expenses of the Cuban War disconcerted the 
mother country, so that it was some time before it awoke to an 
economic life entirely new. The sudden fall of Spanish bonds to 
34 was the final result of the war and the fears which were aroused 
by the defeat of the country. Since then the revenue has under- 
gone a progre.ssive increase, and little by little public confidence 
in Spain's financial stability has been restored. Since 1901 the 
public revenue has exceeded 1,000,000,000 pesetas ($200,000,000), 
while before the close of the Cuban War it had fluctuated between 
600,000,000, 700,000,000, and 800,000,000 pesetas. By 1898 Spanish 
bonds had sunk to 34. In 1903 they were slated at 90. For the 
financial depression of Spain was the ry cause of her rise to a 
condition of solvency. To quote further: 

" It was at the precise moment when Spain found herself in the 
most difficult situation, namely, between i,S95 and 1898, that she 
felt those keen incentives which contributed most of all to her 
patriotic and energetic efforts. It is no secret that her industrial 
and commercial revival seemed to start out from the financial ruin 
in which she was involved— a ruin which had produced a condition 
absolutely unprecedented in the economic history of the country." 



The countrj" was compelled to develop its own natural resources. 
The high rate of exchange made import-ed goods most costly, so 
that a demand for native products and manufactures at once arose; 
importations diminished just in proportion as home industries took 
advantage of the situation to operate with renewed activity. On 
the other hand, native products, marketable in foreign countries, 
were in high demand by exporters who shipped them in consider- 
able quantities. It was amid these circumstances that "New 
Spain was born — strong, courageous, and resolute. . . . Happy 
is the people whose energy and national sentiment is so great, that 
of itself it is enabled to pass with such rapidity through so many 
economic vicissitudes. Happy is the monarch whose presence in 
the dawn of his reign is coincident with the industrial transforma- 
tion of his country, its entrance upon the life ot progress, and the 
inauguration of a New Spain." 

Spain's industrial transformation has manifested itself in many 
ways. P'rom the tables furnished by this article we find that the 
tonnage of the Spanish mercantile marine in 1897 reached the fig- 
ure of 656,000 — of sailing ships 164.000, of steamers 492.000. In 
1901 the sum of tonnage was 744,000 — of which 689,000 were of 
steamers. This improvement in the merchant marine was the di- 
rect result of improved trade, the sum of tons of imported and ex- 
ported goods in 1897 being 2,419,000; in 1901, 4.467,245. The 
expansion of trade necessitated also the extension of the railroad 
systems, which in 1903 show an aggregate mileage of 14,000 kilo- 
meters and upward, with a total invested capital of 2,343,000,259 
pesetas; as against a mileage in 1S97 of 12,916, rising in 1900 to 
13,281. The earnings of these lines in 1898 were 202,000,000 pese- 
tas ; in 1902 they rose to 235,500,000. On this subject the authors 
of the article before us say : 

" Madrid occupies the center of the railroad system, which 
spreads like a spider's web through the whole national territory, 
representing a very large part of tlie country's wealth. We know 
all the vicissitudes and financial diflficulties through which Spanish 
railroading has had to pass and from which it is not even yet en- 
tirely free. The establishment of this means of transportation has 
been very costly, partly owijig to the nature of the country and the 
hard rock of the Sierras, which has demanded many feats of engi- 
neering. The introduction of the narrow gage has diminished the 
expense of building a line. In all of these lines the capital involved 
has been considerable, and the development of the Spanish rail- 
road industry will always be an interesting sul)ject as an inde.x of 
the ec inomic and financial progress (^f the country." — Translation 
jnade for Tnic Liter ah v Dige.st. 




IHE YELLOW NEl'lUNE. 

" Hurrah for European factories! Even a Christian torpedo may be a good 

torpedo!" —/?/^tf«(/ (Munich) 



Vol. XXXI. , No. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



93 



NOTABLE BOOKS OF THE DAY. 



A FRANCO-AMERICAN ENTREMET. 

The Beautiful Lady. Bv Booth Tarkington. Illustrated by Blendon 
Campbell, and decorated by William Jordan. Cloth. i2mo, 144 pp. Price, 
$1.2;. McClure, Phillips & Co. 

MR. BOOTH TARKINGTON is the cordon bleu of literary cui- 
sine. No writer of the chiy understands cjuite so well as he the art 
of catering to the public j)alate. He does not cloy the taste for fiction by 
a succession of pretentious novels, but whets the appetite for his principal 
works by serving little tasty novelette-entrees between. Accompanying 
"The Gentleman from Indiana" appeared "Monsieur Beaucaire," a 
hors-d'ceuvre that many consider the authors' che/'d'cruvre, and now pre- 
ceding "The Conquest of Canaan" we have set before us an exquisite 
"made dish" so pi([uant in flavor that we await the piece de resistance 
with impatience. 

In "The Beautiful Lady" the author has interfused with simple yet 
supreme art, French esprit and American morals — for Mr. Tarkington 
has clearly shown that in this country we, or at least our womenkind, 
have as specially developed and as refined a code of ethics as the Japan- 
ese possess in their "bushido." The story is told in a quaint Franco- 
American English (that fortunately escapes being classified as dialect) 
by the central character, who, except as he came to view his degrading 
situation in the illumination of the divine pity of the American girl, is 
unconscious of his heroism. Of his wit, being a Frenchman, the hero is 
not so unconscious. In fact, he uses it as a cloak to hide, both to himself 
and the world, the nobility of his actions. The curtain rises upon him 

seated at the table of a corner cafe, 
w'ith a theatrical notice painted on his 
shaved head, "confused with blushes, 
at the center of the whole world as 
a living advertisement of the least 
amusing ballet in Paris." He prefers 
to consider the shame of his. position 
from the standpoint of the artist 
rather than that of the man! He 
continues in the same vein, tho in 
English idiom, "I [had] asked [at the 
theater] for bread, and they offered 
me not a role, but a sandwich!" 
How to his abased eyes came the 
"apparition" of "a divine skirt," 
whose wearer saw no humor in his 
degrading situation, but with angelic 
prescience pierced to its secret, and 
how he afterward repaid this kindness 
by a courage which in her interest 
braved further humiliation amounting to the outrage of his most sacred 
sensibilities, may not here be given in rechauffe'. None but the chef him- 
self can supply the sauce of blended idiom, and the garnish of savory 
humor which are essential factors in the success of the "creation." 




BOOTH TARKINGTON. 



A DEFENDER OF "RECONSTRUCTION." 

A Short Constitutional History ok the United States. By 
Francis Newton Thorpe. Price, $1.75 net. Little, Brown & Co. 

IN this compendium of the facts which have contributed to the estab- 
hshment of our present Governmental laws. Dr. Thorpe has made 
a text-book which must prove of value to all who are interested in the 
study of United States History. For so small a volume its scope is re- 
markable; and, notwithstanding the heaviness of his theme, and an occa- 
sional involved sentence which detains the reader, the author presents his 
matter in a manner to hold the interest of even the layman in politics. 
Dr. Thorpe's book represents many interesting phases of the early 
struggles over the Constitution and the evolution of our Governmental 
affairs, and attains a peculiar worth in its concise recital of these and 
correlating facts and conditions which early disturbed the peace of the 
American Confederacy and culminated in the secession of the Southern 
States in 1861. His resume of the negro question is admirably compact 
and clear, and especially valuable because of its strictly judicial telling. 
The negro was a problem in American politics in 1776. He puzzled the 
framers of the Constftulion and compelled them to an elaborate attempt 
to establish the new government on a representative basis composed partly 
of freemen and partly of slaves. The resulting basis, of the " three-fifths 
representation," conferred upon the slaveholding South an unequal 
political power which gave it a long-sustained and confident predominance 
in governmental affairs. 

The phenomenal altruism won by the American people through the Ci\al 
War was a phase of an inevitable racial adjustment, and Dr. Thorpe 
regards the abolition of slavery, tho forced by a growing necessity, the 



most notable political and civil adjustment thus far made in America. 
Of the mistakes made by our legislators of that time in connection with 
the lately freed and enfranchised negroes, the author remarks that 
" Critics living in these later days claim to understand the question better 
than did Congress in 1865," and he 
points out the danger of a return to 
slavery by way of peonism, that lay 
in a j)olicy of gradual citizenship as 
propo.sed by critics of the Government. 
Dr. Thorpe concludes that there was 
"no other course for Congress than 
at once to treat the negro as a man 
and take the consequences." The 
author weighs with respect the criti- 
cisms made by Southern statesmen, 
but himself believes that the era of 
Reconstruction was' as distinct as 
was the era of the Revolution; that 
the (luestions then at issue were na- 
tional, not local, and that the stupen- 
dous ])roblem of adjusting the popu- 
lar government to the moral order 
which faced the Congress of that pe- 
riod was such as to give to the states- 
men of that day a rank with the Fathers. By adjusting the theory of free 
government to the facts which so long had confronted them they destroyed 
a bickering confederacy and established a nation. Dr. Thorpe believes 
that the solution of the negro problem rests with the negro himself, and 
with the whites in those States in which the black race is a civil, political, 
or industrial factor; but, he adds, the negro himself must bear his share 
of the burden w'hich his race imposes upon society. 

The book is indexed with commendable care and is provided with an 
appendix containing the Constitution and its .\mendments, together with 
dates and references which suggest a large working bibliography for the 
student. 




I'RANCIS newto.n thokpe. 



A BAR ON THE SCUTCHEON. 

Shining Ferry. By A. T. Quiller-Couch. Cloth, 405 pp. Price, $1.50. 
Charles Scribner's Sons. 

IN this latest novel by Mr. Arthur Quiller-Couch, as in the real drama 
of life, there is no one leading figure that occupies the center of the 
stage continuously — it is a novel without a hero and without a heroine, 
altho in the attractive person of Hester Marvin we have a near approach 
to the latter figure. But it is to John Rosewarne we are introduced, as 
the head of the family, the owner of the ancestral estate and Hall, and 
the "big man" of the towns of Hall and Troy, between which old Nicky 
Vro plies his shining ferry. His life has contained one great romance, 
its scenes enacted in the wild days of his youth, when his love for Mary 
Marvin did not save them from the shame of a late marriage and a son 
born out of wedlock. But this happened in the South .'\tlantic, long 
before the story opens, and is a secret which in Rosewarne's ol<l age is 
known to himself alone. It is the aged Rosewarne's knowledge of the 
wrong he is doing these two children, his legal heirs, in keeping to himself 
the secret of the birth of his son, Sam, that gives a clue to the remorse 
that now enthralls him. This Sam is a mean, cowardly creature, unfit 
for the inheritance his father intends for him, but with a smooth, oily 
exterior that covers up each fresh meanness with a Bible text, its meaning 
twisted to suit his motives. The pas- 
sage in which the elder Rosewarne dis- 
closes the truth to Sam gives the key 
to the character of both father and 
son: 

"The old man jabbed viciously at 
the gravel with his staff. '.Vnd your 
religion?' he broke forth again. 
'What is it? In some secret way it 
satisfies you — but how? I look into 
the Bible, and I find that the whole 
of religion rests on a man's giving 
himself away to help others. I don't 
believe in it myself; I l)elieve in the 
exact contrary. Still there the thing 
is, set out in black and white. It 
upsets law and soldiering and nine- 
tenths of men's doing in trade: to me 
it's folly; but so it stands, honest as 
davlight. When did you help a man 
down on his luck? or forgive your 

debtor? You'll get my money because you never did aught of the kind. 
Yet somehow you're a Christian, and prate of your mean life as an ac- 
ceptable sacrifice. In my belief you're a Christian precisely because 
Christianitv — how you work it out I don't know — will give you a sanction 




A. T. (JUILLER-COUCH. 



94 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 



for any dirty trick that comes your way. When good feeling, or even com- 
mon honor, denies you, there's always a text somewhere to oil your 
conscience.' 

"'I've one, sir, on which I can rely — " Be just, and fear not." ' 

"'I'll test it. You'll have my money; on which you hardly dared hope 
to count, eh? Be h(jnest.' 

"'Only on so much of it as is entailed, sir.' 

"For a while John Roscwarnc sat silent, with his eyes on the horizon. 

"'That,* said he at length, 'is — just what you could not count on.' He 
turned and looked Sam squarely in the face. 'You were born out of 
wedlock, my son.' 

"Sam's hand gripjied the iron of the bench. The muscles of his face 
scarcely moved, but its sallow tint changed, under his father's eyes, to a 
sickly drab." 

Had Mr. W. D. Howclls taken up the story at this point we .should have 
received a minute and illuminating record of John Roscwarnc's penance, 
with its doubts, struggles, and pathetic misgivings. But the author's 
interest leads in another direction. Rosewarne dies after the interview 
with his son, and we are shown the effect on the life of the community 
when the/lecadent Sam becomes the master of Hall, and thus the master 
of the fortunes of two-thirds of the townsfolk. 

The blind Clem, and Myra, his devoted sister, play a beautiful but 
pathetic part in the history of a community where the persecuting and 
hypocritical Sam is the evil genius, and Hester Marvin, who remains a 
mystery until the end of the story, is the ministering angel. These figures 
are all well drawn — not overdrawn — neither too diabolical nor too angelic, 
but human, and especially in the cases of both Hester and Myra, keenly 
sympathetic. But it is in Peter Benny, the quondam clerk of old John 
Rosewarne, that Mr. Quiller-Couch has drawn closest to life. This lova- 
ble little man, the meekest in the town, yet the most heroic when occasion 
needs, dances through the ])ages like a ray of sunshine. He is indeed worth 
a story to himself, and a further account of his life should prove of greater 
interest than the mildly disappointing tale that forms the present volum.c. 



CARNEGIE'S LIFE OF WATT. 

James Watt. By Andrew Carnegie. Cloth, 241 pp. Price, $1.40 net. Double- 
day, Page & Co. 

WHEN we recall the many respects in which the careers of Andrew- 
Carnegie and James Watt run parallel to each other, it is not 
difficult to appreciate the enthusiasm with which Mr. Carnegie ap- 
proached the task of writing a biography of the inventor of the steam- 
engine, an invention, as the Boston 
Transcript notes, to which the iron- 
master owes much of his fortune. 
Curiously enough, however, he tells 
us that until he was requested to write 
this new "Life," he knew little of the 
history either of the steam-engine or 
of Watt, and that it was primarily the 
desire to know more that influenced 
him to turn biographer. The result 
is a compact and agreeable presenta- 
tion, not only of the salient facts of 
Watt's personality and career, but 
of a ])hiloso])hy of success founded 
upon the experiences of both these 
interesting Scotchmen. Indeed, it is 
in the expression of the author's 
views of life and the world that the 
work's value mainly lies, for, as a 
l^iography, it adds naught to the 
store of available information. As The Evening Post say.'i, it is "an 
exposition of the common-sense philosophy of success as the result of 
industry and labor, with James Watt to illustrate." Mr. Carnegie's 
])hilosophi/,ing begins almost with the ojn-iiing chapter. Writing of the 
necessity which early cast Watt upon his own resources, he declares: 

"Fortunate it was for our subject, and especially so for the world, that 
he was favored by falling heir to the bc-st heritage of all, as Mr. -Morley 
calls it in his address to the- .Midland Institute — 'the necessity at an early 
age to go forth into the world and work for the means needed for his own 
supjjort.' President Oarfield's verdict was to the .same effect, 'The best 
heritage to which a man can be born is jjoverty.' The writer's knowledge 
of the usual c-lTec t of the hc-ritage of milliondom upon the .sons of million- 
aires leads him fully to concur with these high authorities." 

After this, it is only reasonable to exi)ec t a highly .sympathetic study of 
Walt's struggles and achievements, and of the factors a.ssisting or retard- 
ing his i)rogress. From his earliest youth, as Mr. Carnegie shows, he dis- 
played great manual dexterity — a faculty which was to stand him in such 
gcxid stead in the construction of his magnum opus — a lively and energetic 
mind, uncommon resourcefulness, and an innate determination to master 




ANilKKW ( ARNi;C;iE. 



knowledge. In this last characteristic is found the keynote of his success. 
It will be remembered that while he was busied in the workroom provided 
for him by the authorities of Glasgow University, Professor Black com- 
missioned him to build an organ. 

"Watt," writes Mr. Carnegie, "knew nothing about organs, but he 
immediately undertook the work, and the result was an indisputable suc- 
cess that led to his constructing, for a mason's lodge in Glasgow, a larger 
'finger organ,' 'which elicited the surpri.se and admiration of musicians.' 
. . . \\'hen we investigate . . . this seeming sleight-of-hand triumph with 
the organs, we fmd that upon agreeing to make the first, Watt immediately 
devoted himself to a study of the laws of harmony, making science supple- 
ment his lack of the musical ear. .As usual the study was exhaustive. 
Of course, he found and took for guide the highest authority, a profound 
but obscure book by Professor Smith of Cambridge I'niversity, and, mark 
this, he first made a model of the forthcoming organ. . . . We note that 
the taking of infinite pains, this forearming of liimself, this knowing of 
everything that was to be known, the note of thorough prejiaration in 
W'att's career, is ever conspicuous. The best proof that he was a man 
of true genius is that he first made himself master of all knowledge bearing 
upon his tasks." 

Considerations of space forbid further quotation. We can only add 
that all who desire an intimate knowledge of Mr. Carnegie, as well as 
of James Watt, can not do better than to procure this book, which is, 
moreover, extremely interesting and helpful. 



BENTON AND OREGON. 

The Life of Thomas Hart Benton. By William M. Meigs. Cloth, 535 
pp. Price, $1.50 net. J. B. Lippincott Company. 

THE trend of affairs in the Orient and the rapid development of our 
Northwestern territory lend interest to a narrative of the career 
of the statesman who was most active in protecting American interests 
in that quarter. Benton stands just below Webster, Clay, and Calhoun 
as one of the monumental figures of the first half-century of our National 
poUtics. Without the commanding intellect and oratory of the first, the 
fascinating personality of the second, or the acumen in argument of the 
third, he yet surpassed them all in his insight into the real problems of 
the hour and in his prescience of future events. 

His position on the Oregon settlement illustrates his statesmanship. 
At a time when such men as McDuffie said, "I would not give a pinch 
of snuff for the whole territory of Oregon. I wish to God we did not 
have it!" Benton foresaw, with prophetic clearness, the development of 
that region. He said: 

"It is valuable both as a country to be inhabited and as a position to 
be held and defended. I speak of it, first, as a position commanding the 
North Pacific Ocean, the seat of a rich commerce. The Eastern Asiatics 
are more numerous than our customers in Western Europe — more profita- 
ble to trade with, and less dangerous to quarrel with. The trade of the 
East has long been the richest jewel in the diadem of commerre. All 
nations have sought it and those which obtained it attained the highest 
degree of opulence, refinement, and power. . . . The apparition of the 
van of the Caucasian race, rising upon them in the East after having 
left them on the West, and after having completed the circumnavigation 
of the globe, must reanimate the torpid body of old .Asia." 

While thus strongly pressing the claims of the United States to the 
Oregon territory, Benton believed in a fair division of the disputed terri- 
tory with Great Britain at 49° instead of the radical " 54° 40' or fight!" 
which was the slogan which carried Polk to victory in 1845. Benton 
distrusted Webster's ability to conduct the negotiation with Great Britain 
and told him he was "not the man, with a goose-c]uill in hand, to stand 
up against the British Empire in arms." 

By birth a Southerner and a slaveholder, Benton naturally opposed 
the restrictions of slavery and advocated the admission of Missouri as a 
slave State. But later in life he changed his views and said, in 1849: "If 
there was no slavery in the United States to-day I should oppose its com- 
ing in; as there is none in New Mexico or California, I am against send- 
ing it to those territories." He was always for the Union. He opposed 
the Mexican War at first, but advocated its vigorous prosecution, sug- 
gested the \'era Cruz campaign to Polk, and intimated his willingness to 
lead the forces, if given supreme command. He opposed the Omnibus 
Bill and Wilmot Provi.so, and strongly advocated the Pacific Railroad, 
closing an inspiring address on this theme with the ligure of Columbus 
saying to the Hying passengers, "There is the East! There is India!" 
His ojiposition to the extension of slavery led to his defeat, in 1851, for 
reelc-ction to the Senate. He entered the House of Rejjresentatives and 
served one term, occui)ied himself with writing his "Thirty Years' \'iew," 
ran for Governor of Missouri, oppo.sed his own son-in-law, Fremont, and 
supported Buchanan for President in 1856. He died in 1858. 

Mr. Meigs's narrative is dilTuse but vivacious, and abounds in anecdote 
and illustration. It gives an unusually clear and comprehensive survey 
of a signally useful and pure-minded man — great in common-sense, great 
in courage, and great in achievement. 



Vol. XXXI., Ko. 3] 



THE LITERARY LIGEST 



95 



for 

A List of Works Containing the Literary Nuggets of Many Libraries 


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Mr. Wilder's First Meeti^ng 
with President Harrison 

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the President will see you.' 1 was ushered into Mr. Har- 
rison's presence, and the following conversation ensued : 

' Mr. President, this is Mr Wilder.' 

' How do you do, Mr. Wilder? ' 

' How do you do, Mr. President? ' 

A profound silence followed ; it seemed to me to be sev- 
eral minutes Ions; ; then 1 said : 

' Good-day, Mr. President.' 

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FUNK & WAGNALLS COMPANY, Publishers, New York 
writing to advertisers. 



90 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 




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CURRENT EVENTS. 

Foreign. 

Russia. 

July 3. -A mutiny broke out on the Russian cruiser 
Minim at Cronstadt, the ringleaders being ar- 
rested : 

July 4. The mutineers in tlie Black Sea issued a 
proclamation declaring war on all Russian ships 
which refused to join tlieni ; a new plot to seize 
the Gsorici Fobicdonoxctz was reported frus- 
trated. A general politicd strike has been pro- 
claimed in St. I'etersbur.:^ for Thursday; over 
twenty- live thousand nitn are already out and 
there have been a number of clashes with police. 

July ;. — The standard of rebellion was raised on the 
K'liidz Potonkiii at Theodosia, where the bat- 
tle-sliip arrived and demanded supplies, under a 
threat to bombard the city; a proclamation 
similar to that issued at Kustenji was given out 
by the mutineers, notifying tlie Russian Govern- 
ment that the decisive struggle had begun. . . 
I^ioting occurred in St. Petersburg. 

July 6.- Grave disorders throughout the regions bor- 
dering on the lUack Sea have been inspired by 
news of the mutiny. Extreme precautions have 
been taken at Sevastopol. 

Russo-Japanese War. 

July 2.— President Roosevelt announced the con- 
summation of his efforts for peace. Japan and 
Russia have named four envoys, each vested 
witli full power to sign a treaty of peace. They 
will meet in Washington as soon after August i 
as possible. 

July 7. — The Czar approved the list of Russia's 
peace commissioners and gave the plenipoten- 
tiaries authority to fix the amount to be paid 
Japan as indemnity. 

A rumor that the Russians interned at Manila 
were plotting to murder their officers caused the 
American officials to place the monitor Ai^owrt^/- 
7iock near the Russian war-ships. 

Other Foreign News. 

July I.— German yj it is said, will, in the event of the 
rejection by France of the scheme for an inter- 
national conference over Morocco, proceed in 
her own way.in that country. Owinu; to the ill- 
ness of Premier Rouvier the conference be- 
tween him and Prince von Radolin, the German 
Ambassador, was postponed. France has sub- 
mitted to Germany a modified note on Morocco 
favoring in principle the proposed conference. 

July 6. — The body of John Paul Jones, first admiral 
of the American navy, w'as formally handed over 
to United -States officials at Paris with a bril- 
liant display of public ceremonial, speeches be- 
ing made by General Porter, Special Ambassa- 
dor Loomis and Admiral Sigsoee. A French 
submarine, witli a crew of tnirteen on board, 
foundered at Ferryville, Tunis, but it was re- 
ported from Paris that no lives were lost. 

July 7. — France's sunken submarine was raised at 
Tunis, tlie thirteen men who went down with 
her being all alive. 

It was authoratively stated that -Sweden would 
take precautionary measures on her frontier to 
offset the threatening attitude of Norway. 

Domestic. 

July I.— John Hay, -Secretary of State. died suddenly 
at his summer home, Lake Sunapee, near New- 
bury, N. II. 

The Federal Grand Jury at Chicago indicted Ar- 
mour & Co , Swift & Co., the Ciidahy Packing 
Comijany and Morris & Co. and individual 
members of those corporations engaged in the 
lieef packing trade on charges of restraint of 
trade, conspiracy, monopolv and the granting of 
rebates. At Kansas City the Atchison Tojieka 
and Santa Fe Railway Comiiany was indicted 
for contempt of court in violating the order 
against rebates. 

Charles J. Bonaparte was sworn in as Secretary of 
tlie Navy, but may have to take the oath again. 





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Vol. XXXL, Xo. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



97 



as his commission was not signed by the Presi- 
dent. 

The actual deficit for the fiscal year just closed is 
$24,000,000, or 56,000,000 more than the official 
estimate. 

July 2.— President Roosevelt issued a proclamation 
on tlie death of Secretary Hay. President Roose- 
velt, at Oyster liay, authorized the statement 
that he had anpointed Charles E. Magoon as 
United .States Minister to Panama. 

Juty 4.— The Secretary of .•\griculture has caused 
1,200 suits to be begun against railway com- 
panies for violations of the statute requiring 
live stock in transit to be unloaded once in 
twenty-eight hours for food and water and al- 
lowed out of the cars at least five liours. 
Senator Mitchell was found guilty of accepting 
money for practicing as an attorney before the 
Government de|)artments in Washington, and 
recommended to the mercy of the court. 

Julys.— The funeral of John Hay, Secretary of 
State, took place in Cleveland, the services 
being marked by extreme simplicity, President 
Roosevelt, Vice-President Fairbanks and pres- 
ent and former members of the Cabinet attend- 
ing. 

July 7.— The formal acceptance by Elihu Root of 

the office of Secretary of State was made public 
by the President'^__authority, at Oyster Hay. 
A Kansas court decfdBd that tliat State could not 
establish a rival plant to f he Standard Oil Com- 
pany. 

President Roosevelt" addressed the closing meet- 
ing of the National Educational .'Association's 
Convention at Asbury Park, sHeaking to 12,000 
delegates in the Auditorium anp, ,to a crowd of 
more than 20,000 pprs^ins in theidpen air. 



Trouble" — ivithoui the 

Ne<iu Uni'verscil Rim. 



CONTINUOUS INDEX. 

Below will be found an index covering the issues of 
The Literary Digest for the last three months. 
Each week the subiects for the week previous will be 
added, and the subjects for the issue fourteen weeks 
previous will be eliminated, so that the reader will 
always be able to turn readily to ^ny topic considered 
in our columns during the precediiig three months. 

Adler, Feli.x, on divorce, 896 
Agnosticism and national decay, 7S3 

responsible for social evils, 53* 
Albright Art Gallery, Dedication of, 11* 
Alchemy in modern times, 661 
Ambassador, A persecuted, 753 
America as Russia's " real enemy," 787 

Degeneracy in, 696 
American influence on English naval policy, 790 

laborers deported from Canada, 57* 

music, Growth of, 702 

president, Povverlessness of the, 941 
" Arnica," Mascagni's new opera, 541 . 
Anarchy versus Anarchy, 902 
Andersen, Hans Christian, 541, 776 
Anesthesia by electricity, 546 
Anesthetic, A new, 47* 
Animalcules, how they behave, 856 
Ant as a medicine, The, 855 
Antfcropolon:y ? What is, 931 
Antidotes,, Diseases as, 662 
Arabian rebellion, The, 941 
Arc-lamp, Improving the, 704 
Art mergers. New York's, 815 
Athletics, " Professional amateurs" in, 39* 
Atl.intic ports, Rivalry of the, 808 
" Atlantic's" victory, The, 846 
Automobile or trolley ? 660 

Baltimore, Rebuilding, 695 
Balzac his own literary ancestor ? Was, 892 
" Baptist brotherhood defended," 897 
Barrie, J. M., The fairyland drama of, 43* 
Beef prices, Rise in, 616 

trust indictments, 42* 
Believe ? Do we, (£■>, 

Biblical criticism, The English manifesto on, 938 
Births and deaths balanced, 746 



Blonds and brunettes in tropics, 
Bloom, The mechanism of, 625 



662 



>25 

Bonaparte, new Secretary of the Navy, 849 
Books in Russia, Fear and distrust of, 12* 
Books reviewed : 

Africa from South to North (Gibbons), 944 

Chatham, Life of (Harrison), 944 

My Poor Relations (Maartens), 943 

Sandy (Rice). 943 

Wild Wings (Job), 943 
Bottle-washer, An automatic, 50* 
Bowen-Loomis case, End of the, 3* 
Browning popular? Why is, 775 
Brunetiere's, M., conversion. An analysis of, 54* 
Bryant the American Puritan poet, 658 
Bullet, Japan's " humanitarian," 779. 

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Readers of Thk Literary Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



98 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905. 



b 



Get the heating outfit 
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i 



CJt 



CoNTiNUOVS Index (Continued). 

liutterHies. The migrations of, 933 
Ilyron, The apotheosis of, 928 

Cabinet changes. Rumored, 806 
Cactus made useful. 586 
Canadian crisis jnecipitated, 507 
Carnegie pension fund for teachers, 648 
Cassini. Count, replaced. 733 
Castro, Europe's impressions of. 553 

vindicated by .South .America, 713 
Caucasians, Failin" birth-rate of. 546 
Chateaubriand and Madame Kecamier, 741 
Chicago strikers, Roosevelt to. 731 

claimed by Tom Watson. 579 
Chinese boycott of American trade, 772 

boycott. Results of the. 38* 

e.xchision troubles, 924 
Choate's, Mr., home-coming, 737 
Chopins, The two, 929 
Christ and the -Sense of Justice, 52* 
Christian Science, Psychologist on, 590 
Christianity impugned by Confucianism, 859 

Scotch and English compared. 52* 

Should it countenance war .' 20* 
Christians ? .Are we, 629 
Church and the [lublic school, 747 

Ought radical thinkers to leave the ? 549 

The, and social problems, 551 

iiniim in the May conventions, 822 

union, A bishoi) on. 783 

union, A protest against, 939 
Cigarette, Outlawing the, 615 
Clergyman, The New .Anglican, 18* 
Cleveland, G., arraigns club- women, 651 

on rabbit huntmg, 883 

Club-women's replies to, 735 
Collars, High, and the pneumogastric nerve, 782 
College athletics. Commercialism in. 807 
Colleges, Denominational, e.xcluded from Carnegie 

benefit. 861 ^ 

Collision exhibition, Mr. 'Westinghouse's. 857 
Comedy^ Zangwill's indictment of modern, 816 
Composite Madonna, The first, 749 
Cotton-crop reports. Leaks in. 92-? 
Cripples by defective education, 62S 
Croton reservoir. Opening new, 626 
Crucifixion, New light on the, 821 
Czar's escape from assassination, 714 

gift of religious liberty, 707 

Dalrymple, Mr., on municipal ownership, 925 
D'Annunzio's unsuccessful tragedy, 46* 
Degeneracy in America, 696 
Delcasse's defeat in Morocco, 902 
Diaz on Monroe doctrine, 578 
Disarmament scheme, New, 614 
Divorce, Feli.x Adler on, 896 

The Roman Catholic theory of, 821 
Drama as an aid to sedition. The, 891 
Dramatic season. End of the, 851 
Dynamite transportation, The problem of, 934 

Earth has solidified. How the, 745 
Easter in Jerusalem, 591 
Eclipse expeditions pay? Do, 705 
Egoism as a basis for Christian ethics, 936 
Electric motors. New uses for, 627 

transformer. The, 935 
Electrical industries. Progress in, 935 
Electricity in railroading, 858 
Electroplated lace, 5<i5 
" Elga," Hauptmann's new play, 624 
Emperor W^illiam as Czar's evil genius, 594 

attitude to France, 669 
Engine, rotary. Problem of the. ir- 
England's buffer state for North India, 904 



'• Equitable" broil. The, 534 
. "■ 'gnin 
methods of finance, i 



management, Weighing the new, 921 



Regeneration of the, 849 

settlement. The, 886 

upheaval. Newspapers on the, 577 
European pressure on I nited States, 754 
Evangelization of New York, 859 
Explosive, Safe, wanted, 660 
Explosives, Railroad transportation of, 774 
Express train, The coming, 48* 

Fast trains. Safety of, 2* 

I'ederation, Protestant, Catholic view of, 54* 

Fiction as an art, 776 

Tendencies in American, 740 
iMnancial corruption charged against Loomis, 650 
I'ire proof scenery, Real. 744 
I'ire protection, 706 

F'ishery dis])utes with Newfoundland, 714 
I'lsliing with drugs. S;7 
I'itzGerald chissed as an amateur. 45'' 
Flame as an electrical conductor. 17* 
T'-ogs, To clear, witli electricity, £1/ 
Food. Oueer things as. \b* 
" F'ourth," How to live through the, 13* 



\AJi-lf\T IS IT? 
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with I 142 ethers not included 
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Conservative management and 
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S. E. Cor. Beekman St. at Park Row 
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JOHN C. McGUIRE, 

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CHARLES O'C. HENNESSY, 

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GILBERT LLOYD, JR., 

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Vol. XXXI., Xo. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



99 



Continuous Index {Continued). 

France and the German Crown I'rince, qoi 

German Emperor unfriendly to, 669 

Protestant uneasiness in, 18* 

Separation of church and state, 516 

Wrangle with Japan. 827 
Franchise-tax law, New York, sustained, 848 
French disarmament scheme, 614 

neutrality, American views of, 733 

republic. Plot to overthrow, 668 

suspicion of German policy, 554 

Garbage disposal and city politics, 5i« 
Gas, illuminating, Dangers of. 14* 

monopolists vs. the people, 691 
German fear of Jaoan's growing jiower, 633 
Germany affected by Russian situation, 712 

and Knglish admirals, S2S 

Crown Prince wedding, qoi 

won d wage war with U. S., How, 635 
" Girl, L'ni)leasant," in literature, The. 890 
Gomez, the liberator, 4* 
Great Britain o()en to invasion ? Is, 789 
Ground, Temperature of the, 547 
Guns, great, with rapid fire, 932 

Hara-kiri defended by Japanese, 617 
Hay, Secretary, Death of. 35* 
Hlglier-criticism defended, 552 
" Historico-religious " Bible interpretation, 632 
Hooker, W. B., and the New York legislature, 6* 
Horses, Wild, on Sable Island, 858 
House-plants, Some irritant, 545 
Hugo, Victor, and Juliette Druet, 622 

Ibsen, A new estimate of, 927 
Immigration frauds. 810 
Immortality, Miinsterberg on, 549 
Incandescent lamps. Fire from, 818 
India, North, England's buffer state for, 904 
Instinct in insects. Origin of, 51* 
Invention as a department of business, 47* 
Insurance jugglery, Lawson on, 458 
Ireland's literary revival, 816 
Irish akin to ancient Romans, 703 
Islands as weather stations, 14* 

James, Henry, Critical study of, 621 

on American men and women, 929 
Japan as the " Scourge of God," 785 

may become too powerful, 633 

Missionary situation in, 708 
Japanese civilization. Seamy side of, 888 

menace to colonists in the East, 788 

naval victory, The, 812 

success. Menace of, 920 

Trafalgar, A, 863 

Jefferson, Joseph, Some estimates of, 655 
esus. The lynching of, 664 
Jewish problem " in America, 630 
Jingoism rebuked in Germany^ 942 
udaism in New York, Condition of, 936 
Proposed synod of, lo* 
Jury system a failure ? Is tne, 696 

Kaiser's Cup, Capture of the, 812 
Knox, John, influence in America, 708 
Korin, the Japanese artist, 8go 

Language, A peril to our, 854 
Lantern for opaque objects, 705 
Lee, Fitzhugh, 649 
Lewis and Clark Exposition, 882 
Life, A chemical definition of, 856 

insurance. Wall Street methods in, 619 
Literary woman ? Does it pay to be a. 621 
Liturgic trend in Presbyterianism, Tne, 862 
Loomis, Financial corruption charged to, 650 
" Lycidas " rejected by the Royal Academy, 853 

Mackay, Dr. D. S., charged with heresy, 550 

Magnetism by mixture, 703 

Manchuria, War balloons used in, 706 

Marking-system, Scientific, possible, 589 

Medicine, Modern, in antiquity, 743 

Medicines, Some pernicious, 894 

Mental disease. Responsibility in, 781 

Meredith's literary style. The penalty of, 891 

Methodism as alternative to Romanism, 592 

Milk-bottles, Paper, 820 

Mine, Finding a lost, 819 

Miniature painting, 9* 

Ministerial irresponsibility, 785 

Missions, Christian, The greatest problem before, 861 

I'oreign, as affected by outcome of the war, ig* 
Modjeska testimonial. The, 701 
Mohammedanism, A missionary spirit in, 786 
Moliere comedy revived, 5S5 
Moon, Active volcanoes on the, 15* 
Morales, The shrewdness of, 495 
Morality, Machine-made, 587 
Morocco, Delcasse's defeat in, 902 

German Emperor's action in, 636 

German policy in, 554 

imbroglio. Possibilities of, 23* 
Morton's, Mr., exoneration, 5* 
Music at a distance, 506 

and religion as rivals, 822 

Nan Patterson case. Verdict in the, 696 
Naval training, English views of our, 866 
Navy, Deserters from, 578 
Negroes. Southern, as ijroperty-holders, 926 
Nerve-current, Nature of a, 704 
Neutrality and P'rench neutrality, 751 

laws enforced, 88d. 
Newfoundland strikes Lack, 579 
Newspaper woman. Struggles of a, 544 
Niagara, Commercializing, 737 

How to save, 893 

The destruction of, 507 

Readers of The Literart 




L» >,■<<*< 



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ALLEN'S FOOT-EASE 

Shake Into Yoiir Shoos 
Allen's Foot= Ease, a powd «-r lor ' 
thi'feet. It cures paiutul, swollm, 
smarting nervous feet, and i iittant 1} 
takes the sting out ot corn t ;.ii(l' 
bunions. It's the j{ri'aC«'s|i 
^I'/Ji coinrort <li«*ro v«'i-y of lh«-i 

ajft'. Allen's l'\>ot = E:iseniak<stiKlit- ( 
titling or new shoes ftt-1 eas-y. It i> 
a certain cure for introwirg nailc, 
sweating, c lUous and liot, tired, 
aching feet. We have over 3il, i 1 1 
te-itinionials. TKV ITT«.I>AV. 
Sold by a 1 Druggists and Shoe Stores, 
2'>c. Do not accM'pt any hiibsti- 
tlltt". Ssiithv mail ti.r'Jnc instamps. 

CTDCP TUIAM*At'KA<;ii:i 

I ^%^bCk sent b A mail. 
•I „i „!. .IIOTIIIMJ iJKAV'SSWEKTi 

In a pincn, POWIJLKS? 'he liesi medicine fm 
use Allen's Krverish, Sickl.v Children. Sold by 
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[ Mention this p.iper. ] 




Send for this 

Print vour own cards, circulnrs, Ac. 
Press *•'>. Small newspaper press *1S. 
Money saver. Print for others, big prohts. 
Typesetting easy, printed rules sent. 
Write to makers 1 or catalog, presses, tyjie. 
paper. &c. TIIK I'KESSCO., JIKKIOKN, CO.N.N 



/ 



PROTECTS 
INVESTORS 




The Financial World 

smgM.K <'oi'v riii-:K. 

XO I.WKSTOIt OK M»i:«l l,.\T«K V W BK 
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It <-.\p»Mei4 i-ottcii lliiaiifr with nil its tricks and traps. 
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lives and prospers by subscriptions only. Our 

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onatileN >oii lo IikIko >!ifel.> any li:illro:i<l. i»ll, 
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Send now for Fi't-e Sample <'opy before 
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FINANCiat WORLD 
■J!Mt Schlll<-r ItiillcliiiK, ChU-ag-o. 





Aii;M!rH^;U'.7.rmii 



Bi 
By an established Ohio corporation; good salary, 
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character and ability. References required and giv- 
en. Address, MANAGER, J79 Ontario BId'g. Toledo, Ohio. 



Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



100 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 




For sale where the best is sold. 
y^Q . Instantaneous Chocolate 



made instantly witli boiling milk. 

STEPHEN F. WHITMAN <a SON 

1310 Chestuat St., Phila. 
Established 1842. 




^^^i^^i 




For Summer Entertain^ 
ments Use Welch's Grape Juice. 

CAlways in summer-time every hostess 
feels the want of some delicious, re- 
freshing, healthful and non-intoxicating 
drink to serve to her guests at lawn- 
parties, receptions, picnics, summer 
dances, children's parties and similar 
occasions. 

\^lchs Grape Juice 

because it is delicious, healthful, easily 
served, attractive to both the eye and 
the taste, is the greatest help the 
sunmier hostess can have. 

CAsk your druggist or your grocer for 
it. It is sold in quart or pint V)ottles. 
Trial dozen pints $3.00. Express paid 
east of Omaha. Booklet with delicious 
recipes for beverages and desserts made 
from Welch's Grape Juice, free. Sam- 
ple three-ounce bottle, by mail, 10 cts. 

WELCH GRAPE JUICE COMPANY. 

WE,STFIE.LD. N. Y. 




Why I,rt Biil>.v Try 



li iH hot went li 
(■.».|, <'i,n]fi 



A hi 



it run l)c kl'i't 
rtnhl*' iin<l well in a 

Glascock's Baby-jumper 

K<» klnu ( Imlr, llccl, lllicli < hiilr uiitl 

(Jti-Carl rniiilfincd 

SfilciKlid fur " iIh- new Imliy ;" Hiid ltd 

iiiKtaliUr r..r it H8 it K'""" ol<lei'. Dc 

^l^'llv(l oil npefiul li\^ii>iiir liiii-r', Iti-iiiili 

fully iiukIi' ; vi'iy Htronif. HhIiIch luvi' 

till' Ktritlr lliolloll. A s\(ill(lfl'rill llelp 

III tli<> lii'iillliriil ran- of yiiiii' cliilcl. 

rhyhicliiiiH iirjri' "k" imt'of (iluwoik'H 

.luiii|>fr- till) Mtiiiiiliii'il. Huld wilh (II 

Wllhniil (io-Cnrt Atliii litiiriil. Hiiy nf your 
(Ifiilfr, or 111" n't iliri'i I. il In- hiiHii'l (ilim i>il\ 
.Iuiii|»T .Kl llivn f'KKK Trnil. U ril.- I..r 

riilrili.« iiikI iMoth'T'" ii»inii!il. "Thr'.'Olli 

(Vnliiri ll»ti> ■■ rilKK 



Continuous Index {Continued). 

Norway preparing for war, 825 

1 he fate of, 940 
Norway's secession. Causes of, 900 
North i)ole. Ownership of the, 894 
Novel, Future of the American, 657 
" Novel with a Purpose," One, that succeeded, 814 

Ocean depths, Vision in, 62; 
Odor. Loss of substance with, 857 
" Oj;aen movement " criticised, 652 
Oratory AftPr-dinner, in .America, 10* 
Oscar II. and the throne of Norway, 55* 

Panama canal commission. The new, 536 

canal supplies abroad, Buying, 771 

railway rates, Furor over, 618 
Parliamentary office. Comedy of, 751 
Paul Jones's body found, 617 
Peace. The butcheries of, 698 
Peary s new Arctic ship, 780 
Personality, Mtiltiple, 620 
Persuasion and susgestion. 588 
Philadelphia's pas figlit, 770 

Kesiilts of 847 
Philippines an element of weakness, 698 

Census reiurns from, 580 
Pictures ? Why do we paint, 927 
Pipe, A smoke-cooling. 933 
Plants grown by acetylene light, S95 

that hide from animals, 49* 
Poetry, Consolations of, 778 

National note in American, 584 
Poland, Rtissian, Uprising in, 8* 
Polishing, Mechanical effects of, 744 
Pope and Emperor of Germany, 865 

Pessimism of the 860 
Population and rainfall, 706 
Protestant and Roman Catholic IJibles, 710 
Public library. Is it feminized .' 10* 
Pure food bill, Eneiuies of the, 736 

Rabelais, Rehabilitation of, 543 
Races of Europe, Mixed, 746 
Racing for Kaiser's Cup, 768 
Railroad authorities on rate control, 767 

control, .Vdmmistration differences on, 734 
Railroads, High-speed, 659 

American, Secret of success in, 24* 
Railway congress. International, 693 

rate issue, Spencer on, 653 

Speed war oetween New York Central and 
Pennsylvania, 922 
Raines-law hotels. Fight on the, 885 
Rapid Transit, The sociology of, 15* 
Religion, Losing one's, 550 
Religions of New York, 747 
Renan as an artistic triHer, 823 
Resistance, passive, Dr. Clifford on, 629 
Resurrection, Origin of belief in the, 590 
Reverence and ritual, 899 
Revivals, Fear and hypnotism in, 750 
Revolutionary spirit in French literature ai.d art, 742 
Rockefeller's gift, andbusiness ethics, 37* 

Further reflections on, 631 
Rodin's artistic ideals, 777 

Roman Catholic Church, Radical forces in the, 53* 
Roosevelt and the third term, 773 
Kotary engine, A new, ^47 

Rozhdestvensky investigation, London papers on, 667 
Russia, Agrarian revolt in, 790 

appeals for diplomatic support, 22* 

anarchy versus anarchy, 902 

Find of autocracy in, 826 

Fear and distrust of books in, 12* 

Foreign books in, 44* 

Future of, 940 

Hope of revenge in, 788 

Reaction in, 553 
Russian bureaucracy satirized, 582 

church demands independence, 665 

naval mutiny, i^2* 

navy and Mr. Schwab, 695 

" Outlawed" organs on revolt, 668 

press on prospects of revolt, 668 

realism, 852 

refusal of Inimiliation, 596 

situation. Importance of the, to Germany, 712 

stage during a critical year, 889 

treatment of artists ana authors, 701 
Russo Japanese War: 

American views of French neutrality, 733 

Lessons of the naval battle, 881 

Linevitch's task, 598 

Naval authorities on naval battle, 40* 

Paris on continuation of, 554 



5% 



Increased Secu rity 
Increased Income 



ASSl'.TS of )?i,75ii,r>o<i and New Ymk l-^t.itt' U.ink- 
ing Department supervision protect our investors, 
while the regular receipt of five per cent, per annum 
substantially increases the ordinary income from small 
savings. On request we will refer you to those in your 
own State or immediate locality who have invested 
throuKh us, and we will send you 
full information concerning our 
safe mail investment system, car- 
rying accounts of $25 and upward. 

Assets $1,750,000 

Surplus and Profits. $1 50,000 

INDUSTRIAL SAVINGS 
AND LOAN CO. 

11:19 IIKOAIIWAY, M'.W YOIIK CITY 




Ul.^t.S<'0« K IIIKIN. MFi;. f O 

IlOX ill I. .MlllMll'. lull. 

Readers of TiiK Liteuary Digest are asked to mentioa the publication when 



Lea & Pcrrins' 
Sauce 

THE ORIGINAL WORCESTE RSM IRE 




The Peerless Seasoning 



All the family derive a lasting benefit 
from a well seasoned dish. The per- 
fection of seasoning for most dishes is 
LEA & PERRINS' SAUCE. Cold 
Meats, Baked Beans, Welsh Rarebit, 
Fried Oysters. French Dressine and 
Pot Pies are made more enjoyable by 
its proper use- 
John Duncan's Sons. Agents. New York. 



rtCANi 



^>^ 



&vr 



WAYNE 

Model •' C " 9 1,3 SO, B big comfortiible 
five-passenger c.ir with a twenty H. P. double op- 
poseil motor, c,vliM.li.rs h^\h. 

Model " K " $3,000, .1 4-f.vliniier Tour- 
ing C';ir. 24-M H. i'.. \erti(;il engine, and ."ewer 
inovuig parts tiKiii Miy 4-c ylimler c.ir ninde. 
Model "»" #M«-0, a 16 H. V. runabout, 

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same price you've been paying for a single cylinder car. 

Write us for lull particulars rcsarding thefe cars, 

or call on our nearest agent, we'll send you bis name. 

WAYNE AUTOMOHILE CO., 
Detroit, MU-h. 






We Sell Farm Loans 

Netting Investors 6^ . We have done so for 22 years — 
never lost a cent for anybody, We solicit correspond- 
ence from parties who have money to invest. We 
shall expect to satisfy you as to our financial respon- 
sihility, reliability and safety of our loans. Let us 
send you list of on-hand loans with full particulars. 

E. J. LANDER & CO., Box " 8 " GR.\M) FORkS, N. D. 



PERFECT IGNITION 

IliUterie^ Bi\t' nut at inconvenient 
limef*. II vou lune an Al'PLK 
ArTOn.\TU' SIMKKKIi your 

butteries are ulwaj-.'* ready to Rive 
a strong, hot, Kteaily f»i>ark. All 
owner.H uf Intiiirhe.'*. aiiloin(>bile8 
or (i»f« ••nttine^ shniilci write to-tlny 
for infonnation alioin this perfect 
stoniRc liatleiy rliarner. 

DAYTON ELECTRICAL MFG. CO. 
l-J.'S Ileuvpr BiilldliiK. I>a.ilon, Ohio 

writing to advertisers, 




Vol. XXXI., Xo. 3] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



101 




Kfe^ 



Notice 
Improved " 
Flexo Button 



r-:r —^^ 



^^^^^^^K 


«- ^^^m. 1 


w J J \ 4 


If J 




¥Ji 


Flexo" 'Corteirs 

fit perfectly, hug the limb comfortably without 
binding, never let go of the hose, never tear 
them, last longest, look neatest— are best 
garters. 

Sold by all dealers. Insist on Flexo, and if the dealer 
hasn't them, send us his name and 25c. and we will see 
that you are supplied. Flexo Garters in fine heavy 
ribbed silk elastic — Price 50c. 
A. STEIN & CO., 316 Franklin St.. Chicago. 



Whitman Saddle 

The one saddle always preferred by 
discriminating riders. It is the high- 
est type of the saddler's art. Correct 
in every line— always comfortable for 
the horse and rider. Complete cata- 
logue sent free, showing the Whitman 
for men and women, and everything 
from " Saddle to Spur." Address 

The Mehlbadi Saddle Co.. 10* Cliiimliers St., Sew York 
Successors to The Whitman Saddle Co. 




mm 



E LOCKE ADDER 



rOnli 



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The 

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The famous Calculating Machine Enlhusi:i9tica'llVendw9'ed'the 
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V. S Write for Free Booklet and Sppci»l Offer. Agents wanted. 

C. E. LOCKE M'FXi CO.. 8 wainui si.Kensett.Iowar 



Continuous Index (Continued). 

Russo-Japanese War: 

Peace proposals of President Roosevelt, 887 
Plans of battle of Mukden, 539 
Roosevelt's intervention, 21* 
Rozhdestvensky and French neutrality, 633 
Russia refuses to be humiliated, 50 
Russian losses, 496 

Russian admirals and lost battle-ships, 844 
St. Petersburg's hope of victory, 556 
Togo-Rozhdestvensky duel, 580 
Tojio's strategy, 594 
Togo's victory, comments on, 843 
Washington chosen for peace conference, 919 

St. Petersburg's hope of victory, 556 

Scandinavian Peninsula, Prospect of war in the, 7S6 

Schiller centenary. The, 583 

Religion of, 937 
School-children, Underfed, 738 
.Scientists. Hasty, 931 
Scottish church controversy, 898 
'■ -Sea-habit '' dying out ? Is our, 7* 
Sensation last .' How long does a, 779 
Sense, Still another, 820 

■' Sex drama " vindicated by a Frenchman, 658 
Shakespeare impeached by Shaw, 739 
Sin, Modern, 666 

Singing in English, Nordica on, 656 
Smoke-cooling pipe, A, 933 
Snapshots by lamplight, 895 
Socialism next great political issue.' 647 

A trend toward,' 80S 
Soil, Disappearance of the, 743 
South America saved from Europe by U. S., 636 
Speed, Higher railroad, 933 
Spencer's philosophy. Fatal gap in, 824 
Spider-silk from Madagascar, 745 
Staircase, Moving, for vehicles, 587 
-Standard Oil's defense, 540 
" -Star-spangled Banner " mutilated, 582 
Stevenson's background of gloom, 700 
Stories ? short. Is there no standard for, 45* 
Strike, in Chicago raises problems, 692 

Teamsters' side of, 732 
Strikers, Chicago, Roosevelt to, 731 
-Student or apprentice? 858 
Swinburne, Present position of, 542 

Taft's Presidential prospects, 811 
Talking-machines, Some ancient, 855 
Tea, Substitutes for, 934 
Tears as a test of literature, 813 
Ten hour law, Labor press on, 654 

Supreme Court on the, 614 
Theatrical trust. More light on the, 669 
Theological students, Coddling of, 709 
Theology. Advanced, made popular, 784 

Radical, combated in Germany, 898 
Thoreau's religion, 593 
Tolstoy's literary plans, 46* 
Tooth-brush, The deadly, 659 
Tourgee, Albion W., 930 
Transvaal constitution, The new, 752 
Trolley or automobile ? 660 
Tropics, Blonds and brunettes in the, 662 
Turkey, Origin of the, 819 
Turner, most whimsical of painters, 854 

Unemployed in England, The, 864 

United States, European pressure on the, 754 

Unrighteousness, The newer, 666 

Vegetable combat, A, 782 
Vehicles. Moving staircase for, 587 
Venezuela, Diplomatic shake-up in, 694 
V^erne, J., and other scientific praphets, 628 

Wall Street and tax dodgers, 538 

methods in life insurance, 019 
Wallace, Chief-Engineer, Why he resigned, 36* 
War, How waged between U. S. and Germany, 635 
War-balloons in Manchuria, 706 
Warm weather. Virtuous influence of, 16* 
Warsaw, Massacre at, 697 
Washington, chosen for peace conference, 919 
Water: pure and adulterated, 588 
Water-supply, Prehistoric, 818 
Wealth-getting, Drama of, 813 
Weaver's defiance. Mayor, 805 
Wheat crop, Bumper, 614 
Whistler and Watts contrasted, 44* 
White race hold its own ? Will, 5<i6 
William II., France, and England, 825 

Predicted failure of policy of, 57* 
Wireless possibilities, 548 

telegraphy, Obstacles utilized in, 507 
Wisconsin's rate legislation, 809 



Witte, Mr., Truth about, 593 
World's loftiest points, 13* 

Zionism, New phases of, 748 



* Articles are in Vol. 31, others in Vol. 30. 




Body Builder and Strength Creator 

For Old People, Sre„. 

Weak, Run-down Persons,and after Sickness 



Tbe latest improvementoo old-fashioned cod liver oil 
and emulsions. Deliciously palatable at all seasons 



For sale at THE Leadlnir Drug Store In Every Place. 

EKCl<i«ive Agfiiry Kt%eiitoOnc llrusffiat In a 1*1 ace 

CHESTER KENT dc CO., Chemists. Boston. Moss. 



24 Razors 
On Approval 



or a renny 



Postal 



You should exercise the same care in selecting 
a razor that you do in purchasing a pair of 
shoes, a hat, or any other article that must suit 
your peculiarities, in order to give you the 
greatest degree of comfort. A razor should be 
" tried on " thoroughly before you pay for it. 

Olll* Offer S^"^ "^ your name, occupation, home 
^^* Vlltl and business addresses, and we will send 
you, charges paid, on seven days' Kree trial, an Ever 
Ready " Safety " with 24, or an " 0/d Style " with 12 of 
the smoothest, keenest, sharpest blades ever made— a full 
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requirements. 

Every Ever Ready blade is hand-honed, liand-stropped, 
hand-te.sted, and hand-adjusted. Every bit of matenal in 
the blade is of higher quality than is ordinarily used. 
Every process of manufacture is more expensive than usual, 
because each blade, each handle, each frame, each and 
every part must stand a series of rigid tests applied at each 
stage of manufacture or be rejected. 

"That is why we know the Ever Ready will shave you 
cleaner, easier, and quicker than any other Razor, whether 
your skin is tender or tough, your beard wiry or fine, regu- 
lar or irregular. 

Don't take our word for it, but try a set free for a week. 
Then, if you are satisfied, you can pay us S5 on terms to 
suit. If dissatisfied, simply return the set promptly at our 
expense. 

The Ever Ready is made in two styles — " safety," with 
twenty-four blades, or "old stvle," with twelve blades. 
When you write state which style vou prefer and whether 
to cut close or medium. SHERMAN & COMPANY, 
Box D, 41 Park Row, New York. 

We have a few vacancies for responsibie agents 



lllTlinDO Send ua your MS. ; if worthy of cloth bind- 
AUInUnu inKwowiUimhlish it. To Publishers, fn- 

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IHAVHEW ri'HLISHINU €0., 02.100 Knggles St., limton, JImi. 



ARE YOU DEAF9 

We have 2.5 Kinds of InHtrunuuts to Assist Hearing. 

Sent on approval. Write for Catalonue. 
Win. A. Willis X Co., I»4 s. nth St., Phlladrlphla. 




VA/ater Supply for Country Homes 

Deliver water from spring or stream to house, stable, lawn, storage tank, etc., by the 
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Catalogue and estimates free. 

RIFE ENGINE CO., - - 126 Liberty Street, New York 



Eeaders of The Literary Digest are asked to mention the publication when writing to advertisers. 



102 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 15, 1905 




\iit everyitne appreciates music : but 
.1 i/<mhI tricic isoppnicialed by everu- 

The viilui' of tho 

PLEASING ART OF THE MAGICIAN 

AS AN ACCOMPLISHMENT 

The btf(«t pnrl of nnyoni.*'« lilV ih its Hocial side, iiihI it MhoiiM W 
ifveryi)in-'« wi!ih to make Iheiinelve.'' hb intrrenting »s pon»il)le to 
their friluws in MXirty. Vou may be n very !>urie»i.ful hui.iiiei>« 
or profemional man or woman, but unless y<iu (an ii>ntnliiile 
your nhare of diversion lit an e^eniin'i |i;itherin(. you will be 
s<x-ially nt a diMaJvanta«e and fre<juently iVel yourself a bore. If 
you are not iilted by nature, you cannot readily acquire nwnic, 
or any of the other polite ai-complishinents. Tou will Dot even 
be able to tell a «"<>d •tory entertainingly. Whether lifted or 
not. you can readily learn how to perform a lane number of good 
tricka. You can bei-ome a leader in your set and be considered 
bright and witty by being able to entertain your friends with tricks. 

I have been teaching jleightnif-liand for over thirty years. 

For a number of years 1 hive been perfei Img a course in this 
very fa-scinating art that can be taught by m.ul. 1 am glad to an- 
nouncethat my new CORRESPO.NUE.VCE fOl KSE la LEUER. 
DEXAIN IS a success. It is no longer necessary to pay large 
sums for personal instruction. I can do just as well through my 
perfected mailcourse— perhaps even better. The feats of sleight- 
of-hand I give my students are new, pleasing, interesting, and re- 
quire n > mechanical appliances ; neither do they include cheap 
toy tricks. Anyone can learn. Every student receives my per- 
sonal attention. 1 have just (ompleted an interesting book, 
treating of 

"MYSTERIES 
OF MAGIC," ^ 



THIS ROOK AUSOLITELY FREE, while 
the edition lasts, to all who write for it. It 
explains some startling tricks of the professional 
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<E) Address 



THE TEXICCGRAPHER'S 
^ JJASYQlAlR 




In this column, to decide questions concerning the correct 
use of words, tlie Funk & Wagnalls Standard Dictionary is 
consulted as arbiter. 

"J. H. G.," Cincinnati. Ohio.— "What Is the mean- 
ing of the words ' purin ' and ' Purlm ' ? " 

"Purin" is a hypothetical basic compound 
in chemistry which is closely related to urea in 
composition. "Purim" is a Jewish festival 
commemorating the defeat of Haman's plot to 
massacre the Jews (see Efther ix., 26). It is ob- 
served annually on the 1-lth and 15th of Adar 
(about the 1st of March), with a preparatory 
fast on the 13th. 

"E. G.," Cleveland, Ohio.— "The Standard Diction- 
ary gives the word ' graduation ' as a noun only, but 
advertisers often ii.se it iis an ad.iective. as in the phrase 
' graduation presents.' Is this correct V " 

" Gra<luation" is recognized by lexicogra- 
phers as a noun only. However, like most 
nouns, it may be used attributively; dictionaries 
do not record all such uses. 

"H. n. S.," Atlanta, Ga.— "When did H. de Balzac 
nourish and how is his name pronounced ? " 

H. de Balzac was born in 179!) and died in 
1850. His name is pronounced as tlio written 
Bahl"zahc'. 

"A. A. F.," New York City.—" (1) In the sentence 
'Last winter I was your teacher' is it not correct to 
spell 'teacher' with a capital letter V (.-) Should not 
tlie names of the seasons be siielled with a capital when 
Miey are referred to as In the sentence above V " 

(1) " Teacher " in ihe sentence cited is a com- 
mon noun, and should not, therefore, be capital- 
ized. When used as in the following sentence, 
however, it may be capitalized : " Last winter 
Teacher Jones was my instructor." (2) In 
common practise the names of the seasons 
of the year are not capitalized. 

"L. J. R.," Fort Worth, Texas.— We know 
"moschatel" (French, " moscatelle "), a low 
licrennial herb of the honeysuckle family ; and 
we know " muscatel," a wine made from the 
muscat grape. Our correspondent refers prob- 
ably to " moustiuetaire," a term denoting a 
long-armed glove worn by women. 

" W. A.," Toronto, Canada. — "Are the following 
eipially correct y Which, if any, should be given the 
preference, and on what autiiorityV 'Tho.se who,' 
"them that,' 'they who,' and 'those that,' as used in 
the Lord's I'rayer." 

The only form to be found in the Lord's 
l'ray(^- in the Book of Common Prayer of the 
(;iiur(!1i of England is "them that." It is pos- 
sible that in modern renderings of the Lord's 
Prayer, according to certain rituals, "those 
who" and "those that" nuty have been used, 
for according to gramtnar they are correct. 
The form " tliem that" might be considered 
arcluiic, hvit has been sanctioned by usage since 
tlie publication of the Book of Common Prayer 
in the year 16(j2. "They who" would be in- 
correct. 

"P. L.," Brooklyn, N. Y.— "Are the words 'all 
right ' ever written as one word— 'alright ' ? " 

There is such a word as "alright" in the 
English language, but it is obsolete. Under tlie 
Plantagenets this form, analogous to "already" 
and "altogether," found favor. Other variants 
were " alrilit " and " alrihtes." Modern u.sage 
prefers to write the term as two words, "all 
right." 

"A. W. .1.," New Orleans, La.— "Klndlv give the 
corn-ct pronuncliKlon of the word 'acclimated.' " 

This word is i)ronounced with the accent on 
the second syllable, which has the diphthongal 
sound of "ai" in "aisle" — ac-clai'ma'tetl. 




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The Literary Digest 



Vol. XXXL. No 4 



New York, July 22, 1905 



Whole Nump.er, 796 



Published Weekly by 

Funk & Wagnai.ls Company. 

44-60 E. 23d St., New York. 44 Fleet Street, London. 

Entered at New York Post-Oflfice as Second-Class Matter. 



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TOPICS OF THE DAY. 



THE COTTON REPORT SCANDAL. 

THE admission that there was a " leak " in the Bureau of Sta- 
tistics of the Department of Agriculture, by which advance 
information of the cotton-crop report was given to favored bro- 
kers, brings up the query whether Holmes, the dismissed clerk, 
was alone in his wrong-doing, or whether the entire department is 
honeycombed with corruption, and also prompts the query whether 

Secretary Wilson is the 
man for head of such a 
department. The New 
York Evening Post 
(Ind.), which has never 
manifested any hesita- 
tion to criticize the Ad- 
ministration, does not 
think that in this case 
"a thorough inquiry 
would establish general 
conditions of corruption 
in the department" of 
which " the Holmes 
scandal is only an in- 
cident." Mr Richard 
Cheatham, however. 
the secretary of the 
Southern Cotton Grow- 
ers' Association, who 
brought the charges 
against the department, 
believes that the partic- 
ular piece of rascality 




JOHN HVUE, 

Chief-Statistician in the Department of Agri- 
culture. The Southern Cotton Growers Asso- 
ciation is said to be " after his scalp." 



(Ind.) credits Mr. Cheatham with the following bold state- 
ments : 

" Mr. Cheatham does not hesitate to say that in his opinion there 
could have been no leakage without the knowledge of other offi- 
cials of the department 




CopyrijfhL by J. E. Purdy, boston. 

SECRETARY WILSON. 

The discovery of corruption in his department 
prompts his critics to suggest that he resign. 



he has helped to bring to light is indicative of dishonest practises 
which have been going on for a long time and involve many per- 
sons either connected with the Government or doing business in 
the cotton markets. Thus a despatch to the New York Herald 



than H o 1 nit. . ; that 
Holmes was made a 
scapegoat for officials 
higher up, and he fur- 
ther says that, in his 
opinion. Chief Statisti- 
cian Hyde is either im- 
plicated in the leakage 
or he is incompetent. 
Mr. Cheatham even 
goes to the point of 
asserting that it is his 
belief if the investiga- 
tion is sufficiently 
pressed Secretary Wil- 
son may also lose his 
official head." 

The person around 
whom the scandal cen- 
ters at present is Ed- 
ward S. Holmes, Jr., 
associate statistician of 
the bureau. He was 
suspended when the 
ugly rumors of irregu- 
larities in his office first 
got afloat, and on July 9 he was summarily dismissed, after the 
truth of these rumors was confirmed by the investigations insti- 
tuted by Secretary Wilson. The Secretary finds and reports that 
Mr. Holmes communicated advance information to L. C. Van 
Riper, a New York broker, and to M. Haas of New York a go- 
between for the parties implicated. The evidence of Mr. Holmes's 
wrong-doing rests UfJon the testimony of Mr. Van Riper, a portion 
of which we condense as follows : 

Mr. Van Riper testified he became acquainted with Holmes in 
New York, in 1904, who said he could get information concerning 
the Government crop report, througli tlie report of tiie general 
agent and the reports of the State agents. \'an Riper said Holmes 
furnished him with information for several months, in'advance of 
the publication of the official figures, and that the mformation 
furnished by Holmes corresponded exactly with the figures after- 
ward published as the official crop reports. Mr. Haas, of New 
York, acted as a go-between for Holmes and himself. The wit- 
ness said he met Haas at the Hotel Waldorf, and was told by him 
that the report for June, 1905, would be 75 per cent, on condition 
and i2'-< or 13 per cent, on acreage, which was as bearish as they 
could make it; that in an hour Haas called on him again and said 
that he was going to Washington to see if they could not get tlie 
percentage a little higher and the acreage a little smaller, to make 
the report more bearish. Van Riper testified that the official report 
was more bearish than the figures previously given him, and that 
he took this to mean that the effort to influence the report had 
succeeded." 

Mr. \'an Riper further confessed that during the progress of 
these dealings he bought from Mr. Holmes, for $73,000 cash, a 
three-fourths' interest in an Idaho mining property which he had 
never seen nor known anything about. The story that Holmes's 



104 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 22, 1905 



gains reach a total of $500,000 lacks proof ; but the costly flats he 
is erecting in Washington are mentioned by the newspapers as an 
indication that his financial ventures have been very successful dur- 
ing recent years. Solicitor-Cieneral Hoyt, who will probably have 
charge of the Government's interests in the case, expresses his 
opinion that criminal proceedings will lie against Holmes and his 
accomplices ; and President Roosevelt has ordered that the inves- 
tigation be pushed " with vigor and without regard to those who 
migiit be affected by it." This inquiry set in motion by the Presi- 
dent has led to rumors that Secretary Wilson will resign. Apropos 
-of this pha.se of the case the Springfield Republican (Ind.) says: 

"No implication of connivance, of course, lies against the chief 
statistician, and much less against Secretary Wilson ; but the com- 
petency of either for his position may have been called into ques- 
tion. Against repeated charges from the .speculative markets of 
a leak, they have serenely gone on asserting the impossibility of 
such a thing, and it remained for a private citizen to uncover the 
scandal. In the face of what has happened, how much confidence 
is to be placed in present assurances that a change is to be made 
which will hereafter prevent a recurrence of the trouble.'"' 

Secretary Wilson has already inaugurated a reform in the depart 
ment which he declares will absolutely prevent the "doctoring" or 
" leakage " of reports. But his assurances have not quieted the 
distrust of those who think that the collecting of crop statistics is 
not a proper work for the Government to undertake. Says the 
Baltimore ^///^r/'trtw (Rep.) : 

"They [the statistics] have been furnished for many years, and 
it is questionable if any man who has ever raised a bale of cotton 
or any person who has ever actually sold one has made a cent by 
them, while hundreds of legitimate dealers have been ruined." 

Many other Southern papers, among which might be cited the 
Baltimore Sun^ the Louisville Courier-Journal ^ and the Charles- 
ton Xeu's and Courier, declare that the service under present con- 
ditions is of no particular value except to the cotton gamblers, and 
they suggest the advisability of its discontinuance. But the Bo.s- 
ton Herald (Ind.) takes an entirely different view, and says: 

" Instead of warranting the abolition of the system of crop re- 
ports, it seems to us that thus far the Government has the best pos- 
sible justification for a continuance of these reports, from the fact 
that they give the public in advance a comprehensive knowledge 
of the situation, with the sound business opportunity which such 
knowledge affords of preparing in time for large or small harvests." 



SEIZURE OF SAGHAL!Ei<I. 

'T^HE glory and chief importance of the capture of the island 
•'• of Saghalien are found in the fact that now for the first time, 
after eighteen months of fighting, the Japanese have secured a 
foothold in Russian territory. The j\'o7>oye Vre/nya, of St. Pe- 
tersburg, declares that the "control of the island puts a powerful 
argument in the possession of Japanese diplomacy, which finally 
has something tangible to throw in with the sword at the coming 
conference." The real value of Saghalien, however, seems to be 
insignificant in comparison with the huge indemnity which it is un- 
derstood that the Japanese think themselves entitled to. So the 
papers are ascribing the intense satisfaction of Japan over the ac- 
quisition to the strategic position of the island and to the senti- 
mental considerations involved. Thus the Philadelphia Public 
Ledger says : 

"Japan's occupation of Saghalien, that densely forested and cli- 
matically uninviting island which geographically brings the chain 
of islands forming the Japanese Empire to their nearest contact 
with the mainland of Asia, has far greater political significance 
than the importance of Saghalien itself would seem to call for. 
In addition to the fact that in this move Japan has for the first 
time carried the war into Russian territory, . . . there is the fur- 
ther point to remember that in regaining Saghalien Japan has set- 
tled an old score against Russia. The grievance dates from 1875, 
when Japan was forced to relinquish all claim to the island, with 
its 29.300 square miles of territory and its mines and fisheries, in 
exchange for the Kuriles, which Russia had never owned and had 
no right to giveaway, and which contain about 6,000 square miles, 
scattered over thirty-two islets. Japan has never ceased to resent 
the way in which the Russians accomplished this piece of spolia- 
tion." 

Saghalien has been used by the Russians as a penal colony. 
According to the New York Tribune, one-half of its population of 
fifteen thousand are convicts. Fearful stories are told of the ter- 
rible oppression and torture with which these miserable creatures 
are treated. In commenting upon this point The Ledger, quoted 
just above, declares : 

"If Japan's seizure of the island accomplishes no other end than 
the wiping out of the stain of Russia's misuse of the land, the hu- 
mane everywhere will rejoice. The penal settlements there have 
long been a disgrace to the world, and have done much to alienate 
the sympathies of those who would otherwise have looked with 
interest and approval upon the eastward progress of the great 





If you started out us a bold, bloody 
revolutionist, 



-and assured the rest of tlie worldthat 
you would not hurt them, 




—if this happened to you, wouldn't it make you teel Hke thirty kopecks .' 

—Johnson in the nenvcr iWeiis 



— -s^- 


1 


^^^^H^^^^H^ ii 


|H|P^^^H 


^ 














II 






"^^"^^ 


!:'.l!: ■' ' ^^---/^Tf^"'" 





M COSSA-( K MAS BKEN APPOINTED RUSSIA'S PEACE ENVOY IN POLAND. 

— McCutcheon in the Chicago Tribune. 

RUSSIA'S VICTORIES AT HOME. 



Vol. XXXI., Xo. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



105 




A RUSSIAN PRISON-SUPERINTENDENT ON 
THE ISLAND OF SAGHALIEN. 

It is said that 300 convict workmen under 
him died of hunger during the building of 
the Anorsk government road. 



Muscovite empire. It has 
been judged by its deeds, 
however, and there will be 
few to regret the change 
which is likely to obhterate 
one more ugly chapter in 
the dark history of man's 
inliumanity to man." 

The island, of course, 
lias lain at the mercy of the 
Japanese ever since the de- 
feat of Rozhdestvensky. 
Some authorities even say 
tliat Japan could have ap- 
propriated it immediately 
after the war began. The 
only reason for the delay 
seems to be that Japan did 
not care to take the island 
until it felt sure that it 
could hold it. 

So the seizure is not 
looked upon as a great 
naval or military achieve- 
ment. A Japanese squad- 



the capture of Vladivostok, so that Japan could go into the peace 
conference with the claim that Russia has been ousted from .nil 
the Asiatic sea-ports and cannot be granted permanent sovereignty 
over any such naval outlets in the final adjustment." 




RUSSIAN CONVICTS HAULING GOVERNMENT KKKIGHT WAGONS ON A PRISON RESER\ A- 

TION IN sa(;halien. 



ron of two battle-ships, 
seven cruisers, three gun- 
boats, and ten transports 
loaded with troops, we 
are told, appeared off the 
southern end of the island, 
and did the work. Ikit 
the easiness with which 
Saghalien was acquired 
furnishes little evidence 
of the importance and 
meaning of this great 
event. Says the New 
York Globe : 

"The seizure and occu- 
pation of the Saghalien 
Islands by Japan is fur 
ther proof that the Japan- 
ese have no intention of suspending military operations pending 
the result of the peace negotiations. Russia, it is understood, 
last week directly applied to Japan for an armistice, but manifestly 
without success. Japan's interest does not permit her to halt her 
operations until such time as Russia shall accede to her terms of 
peace. The next thing we are likely to hear of is the presence of 
a Japanese army in Russian Siberia, in the vicinity of Vladivostok. 
It is likely to be the threatened fall of Russia's remaining Pacific 
stronghold which will press Russia to conclude an early treaty." 

The capture of Saghalien has a significant bearing upon the 
peace negotiations now in progress, in the opinion of many papers 
which have discussed the event. Thus the Washington S/ar re- 
marks : 

"Japan's occupation of the island of Saghalien anticipates in a 
striking manner the demand wiiich the Mikado's envoys at the 
peace conference are expected to make for the return of that 
island to the Japanese sovereignty. Possession is a powerful fac- 
tor in the shaping of peace terms. Thus 'there is to-day no doubt 
whatever in the mind of the world that Japan will emerge from 
the conference undisputed possessor of Port Arthur, chiefly be- 
cause that point was captured by Japan after a terrific contest. 
Just so it is the average expectation that by the peace terms Russia 
will be excluded from practically all of Manchuria, because of the 
fact that her armies have been driven out of the greater part of 
that province. And it has been the belief of many that the Japan- 
ese armies would have ere now effected the isolation and perhaps 



MAYOR DUNNE'S CHANGE OF BASE. 

jWr AYOR DUNNE, of Chicago, was elected last April upon a 
^^ ^ pledge to accomplish immediate municipal ownership and 
operation of the two hundred and forty odd miles of street railways 
in that city. The more conservative plan of Candidate Harlan, 
who believes in municipal ownership, was rejected by a vote which 
showed that at the time of the election there was a majority of 
eighty-six thousand in Chicago against the proposition to grant any 
franciiise to any company. But now, three months after he was 
inducted into office, the mayor has submitted to the council a plan 
which T//e Post (Ind ) and most of the other Chicago papers tl. .nk 
shows that he "has absolutely surrendered the hope cf municipal 
ownership." The mayor's plan, as explained by the Chicago News 
(Ind.) is this : 

"He prefers that a twenty -year franchise be granted to a friendly 
corporation controlled by five trustees 'who command the confi- 
dence of the people of Chicago for their personal integrity, their 
business ability „and their pronounced sympathy with the policy 
of municipal ownership of streetcar service.' This corporation, 

bound by contracts 'in- 
suring the performance 
of the undertaking wholly 
in the public interest,' 
would be given control of 
streets over which the 
city has authority through 
tlie expiration of street- 
car franchises granted to 
the old companies. Hav- 
ing issued stock calling 
for dividends of 6 per 
cent, and sold by popular 
subscription, it would 
proceed to construct a 
street - railway system 
with the proceeds, no 
bonds being issued. Net 
profits of the business 
beyond those paid out in 



Notice the drawn bayonets of the guards. 



dividends would go into 
a fund for the city's bene- 
fit to be used in purchasing 
the lines. After these lines 
were constructed the city 
would have the privilege 
of purchasing them at any 
time that it succeeded in 
raising the money by the 
sale of Mueller certificates 
or otherwi.se." 

This plan is entirely dif- 
ferent from that in (Glas- 
gow, where nobody inter- 
venes between the city 
council and the operation of 
the railway. It is, .so May- 
or Dunne's critics declare, 
simply the contract system 
" Merely," exclaims the 
Chicago Post, "a twenty- 
five-year franchise to five 
unnamed capitalists. . . . 
No amount of dodging or 
explaining will change its 




WIELDER OF THE KNOUT AT A KISSIAN 
CONVICT STATION ON SAGHALIEN. 

One convict on this island survived 8cx> 
lashes. 



106 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 2i», 1905 



character." It must be noted that the mayor himself does not 
claim that his plan agrees with the municipal o.vnership idea upon 
which he was elected, but he does claim tliat it is as near to the 
"absolute and immediate ownership" project as the legal barriers 

and present conditions 
will permit. In explain- 
ing his seeming change 
of base he says : 

" It has been said that 
I have abandoned mu- 
nicipal ownership, but 
that is not the case. 
The platform upon 
which I was elected says 
first, I shall break off all 
existing negotiations for 
an extension of fran- 
chises; second, that I 
should enter into nego- 
tiations for the acquire- 
ment of the present 
lines; and, third, failing 
in that, I should seek to 
accomplish municipal 
ownership according to 
the most expedient 
^_____^_ course." 

MAYOR IJUNNE. 




Who denies that he has abandoned munici- 
pal ownership. 



So the Mayor seems to 
be exercising only the 
discretion granted him 
by his party. The legal barriers in the way of municipal owner- 
ship are, as shown by the New York Sun (Ind.), these : 

"As Chicago has already reached the limit of her borrowing 
powers, funds for street-railway enterprises may be had only by 
recourse to the issuance of certificates under the Mueller law. Be- 
fore such certificates can be issued, the clearly specified project 
for which it is proposed to issue them must be submitted to a vote 
of the people, a three-fifths majority being necessary for approval. 
This process means delay, at its best, with defeat of the project 
a probability." 

This is the state of affairs supposed to have caused Mayor Dunne 
to originate his scheme to turn the railways over to five gentlemen, 
who, altho not city officials, are to be so devoted to the principles 
of municipal ownership that their administration would practically 
amount to the same thing as operation by the city government. 



m?^* 




The litter Ocean (Rep.), however, does not seem to have much 
confidence in the success of this plan. It facetiously remarks : 

"If, tiien, we are to reach municipal ownership by way of pri- 
vate operation and control, it is manifestly a mistake to limit to five 
the number of those wiio shall enjoy our confidence. Why limit 
the number at all.' There may be six, or even seven, citizens of 
Chicago who enjoy our confidence to the extent that we would be 
willing to turn over our street-car lines to them in the hope that 
they would some day turn over their street car lines to us. 

" Mayor Dunne should be able to see plainly that a private cor- 
poration of five to control the street railways until the city is 
ready to take them over, say a thousand years hence, would not 
take in all the friends of municipal ownership connected with the 
trust press, let alone those champions of a better and purer trac- 
tion system in the M. V. L.. the L. V. L.,and other reform organi- 
zations. If the mayor will raise the number of citizens in his 
private corporation for the encouragement of municipal ownership 
so that it may include all of those who feel that they should be al- 
lowed to enter on the ground fioor, he will make everybody hap- 
pier." 



Mayor Dunne.—" I don't tliink I shall imcrate him." 

— Rehse in the St. Paul Fionecr Press. 



SENATOR DEPEW AND "EQUITABLE" 
FINANCE. 

1\ /TANY of the newspapers have been making sarcastic remarks 
^^ ^ for some time about Senator Depew's annual " retainer " 
of $20,000 from the Equitable Life Assurance Society, and have 
been intimating that he earned his $20,000 and David B. Hill 
earned his $5,000 more by lobbying than by legal advice. Both 
, the.se retainers were promptly cut off by Mr. Morton. A more 
serious tone of criticism is taken by the press, however, upon the 
publication of Senator Depew's testimony before Insurance Com- 
missioner Hendricks, which was published in the New York papers 
of July II and 12. 

It appears from this testimony that Senator Depew was induced 
to lend his name to the Depew Improvement Company, which de- 
veloped the town of Depew, near Buffalo; was presented with 
$100,000 worth of its stock, and voted for a loan of $250,000 of the 
Equitable's money to the company, altho, he says. " I want to say 
I didn't advise the loan, and was not consulted about it at all." 
In 190T, the State Insurance Department appraised the property 
at $150,000, or $100,000 less than the Equitable's loan, and the 
manager of the improvement company appealed to the Senator to 
write to Albany for a reappraisement, which, he says, he did. 
Then the insurance company foreclosed on the property, and sev- 
eral capitalists tried to reorganize the " improvement " company 
and save it from the wreck. Senator Depew admits that he made 
some kind of an agreement to save the Equitable harmless from 
this bad loan, but when the counsel asked if he considered that 
that agreement " fixes any liability on you of any kind," the Sena- 
tor replied, "As a lawyer 1 don't think so. and I am informed by 
the counsel of the receiver that it does not." The loan, with inter- 
est and expenses, now amounts to $275,000, on the property ap- 
praised at $150,000. 

" As a trustee of millions of other people's money," remarks the 
Boston Transcript (Rep. ), the Senator affords "a revelation whish 
places his reputation even for sagacity in question." The Phila- 
delphia .^^r<?r<f(Dem.) tiiinks the Senator should retire not only 
from the Equitable directorate, but from the Senate; and the New 
N'ork American (Dem.) would like to see him behind the bars. 
It says: "United States Senators from Oregon and Kansas are 
now under conviction of misdemeanors which are trivial in com- 
parison to this colossal ofTense of Depew's. Is the State of New 
York going to let this juggler with the moneys of widows and 
orphans go scot-free .'' " The Chicago Tribune (R&\). ) suggests that 
the .Senator "hand over to the Equitable its los.ses by the Depew 
Improvement Company." The New York Evening Post (Ind.) 
remarks : 

" Mr. Depew is now in Europe. He will have to stay there a 



Vol. XXXI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



107 



long time if he waits until this thing blows 
over. We do not see liow his reputation can 
survive the terriijJe blows he has hiniselt given 
it. Western wits will have too much reason 
further to rally him on his 'geniality.' A more 
genial-mannered man never gutted a company 
or went back on his guaranty. How can he 
ever resume his old self-appointed task of mor- 
al exhorter to the world in general? How 
can he expect anybody but Senator Dryden 
to listen to him when he again ventures to ad- 
dress the Senate.' The Equitable misman- 
agement has inflicted more than money losses. 
It has wrecked characters; and Senator De- 
pew's is one of those of which it will be most 
difficult to make salvage. Even the optimistic 
Depew Improvement Company would now de- 
cline that job." 

The Atlanta Constitution (Dem.) compares 
Depew with Mitchell thus: 

" Senator Depew may not 'practise law ' be- 
fore the departments and lay himself crimi- 
nally liable, as did Senator Mitchell, of Ore- 
gon, but there are other forms of graft. Sen- 
ator Depew stands as a conspicuous type of 
public men who enjoy sinecures and substan- 
tial gratuities from interests that know where 
to place their favors for value received. On 
the surface, Depew is a mere poseur and pro- 
fessional jester, but under the surface let it not 
be doubted that he can work on occasion — for 
his munificent masters. 

"It is a damning reflection upon the civic 
virtue and public morality of a great common- 
wealth like New York when it will submit to 
allowing an unscrupulous political machine, 
personal rather than partizan, to commission 
in the name of the sovereignty of that State 
men like Chauncey M. Depew, and his master 
and colleague, ' Boss ' Piatt, to hold the highest 
public office in its gift. It is a nice commen- 
tary on the citizenship of the State of New 
York. 

" The Equitable disclosure as regards De- 
pew is illuminating. It throws a calcium light 
upon the source of the gentleman's opulence and 
— or, rather, lack of the latter." 




SENATOR DEPEW, 

Whose transactions with the " Depew im- 
provement Company," and the Equitable 
have aroused some pretty sharp criticism. 



political principles 



Turning to the West, we find the Salt Lake 
Herald (Dem.) confessing that the "mine- 
.salters " and " wild-catters " of that region 
must own their inferiority. To quote : 

" Out here in the wild and woolly West, we 
know a little something about flotation of 
stocks with the aid of respectable names on 
the directory ; we have occasional deals in 
salted mines, and we thought there were some 
really bright men operating in the 'wild-cat' 
line. But the Equitable revelations would 
make the cutest of the wild-catters feel like 
a puling infant, a four-card flush, a false alarm. 
Once in a great while the Western mine op- 
erator who robs his friends and betrays a 
trust is permitted to associate with decent 
people on terms of equality ; but in New York 
it seems a man has not really qualified for 
the haut ton in financial and social circles un- 
til he has bilked the Equitable policy-holders. 

" No wonder the Mutual Life asks for a 
State investigation of its affairs in order that 
its policy-holders may be reassured ; no won- 
der the whole business of life insurance has 
suffered from the exposure of the Hyde- Alex- 
ander management. 

"One encouraging feature remains: the 
very fact that the whole country has been 
shocked by the Equitable affair is a hopeful 
sign that the American people still have some 
regard for moral standards in business. 

" But it is sad to think that Depew and 
Hill must get along without their share of the 
loot." 

The Chicago '! ribjine (Rep.) says : 

" There are men who consider it dishonora- 
ble to break a promise, whether it is legally 
binding or not. These are the persons whom 
it is a pleasure to have dealings with, because 
the promises they make have not to be exam- 
ined through legal spectacles to find out what 
they are worth. Perhaps after thinking the 
matter over Senator Depew will let the high 
moral side of his nature get the better of the 
low legal side, will join the ' Gideon's band ' 
of men whose word is as good as their bond, and hand over to the 
Equitable its losses by the Depew Improvement company." 




STEALING, SAFE AND UNSAFE. 

— Mayl)ell in the Brooklyn Eagle. 




THE NEW SEAL. 



—May in the Detro\t/ot/r>i{r/. 



FINANCIAL SNAP-SHOTS. 



108 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 22, 1905 



NO STATE OIL-REFINERY IN KANSAS. 

I^'HE decision rendered by the Kansas Supreme Court on July 
7 lias wrecked the plans which Kansas elaborated last winter 
to enter the industrial field as a competitor of the Standard Oil 
Company, altho all the other measures adopted about the same 
time in the interest of the producers still remain on the statute- 
books. These laws, as explained by an article in Public Opinion, 
seem to assure everybody a square deal in the great oil-fields of 
the Central West, so far as legislation is able to effect this result. 
We condense the following from this article : 

The maximum freight-rate law .secures the producer a reasona 
ble rate in spite of any infiuence the Standard Oil Company might 
bring to bear on railroads. All pipe lines owned by the Standard 
Oil Company or other companies are common carriers, and must 
transport to market all oil offered of a certain quality at a fixed 
rate. No discrimination in the price of refined oil is allowed in 
different localities in the State on the same day, so the Standard 
Oil Company can not cut prices in Kansas in order to freeze out 
competitors. And when the Standard Oil Company chooses to 
take crude oil for its lines it must accept it at the grade determined 
by a State inspector, so the practise of reducing the grade of oil 
by way of reducing the price is no longer possible in Kansas. 

The trouble with the oil-refinery law was that it violated the 
constitutional provision which forbids the State from being "a 
party in carrying on works of internal improvement." In order to 
obviate this objection the law was framed so as to make the refin- 
ery an annex to the penitentiary, to be operated by convicts as 
employees. The law appeared all right on its face. But Mr. Jus- 
tice Greene, in delivering the unanimous opinion of the court, as- 
serted the right, in construing a statute, to take judicial notice of 
facts which everybody should know. With this view of the case, 
he denounced the penitentiary annex scheme as a subterfuge, con- 
fe.ssed to be so by the Governor and legislators when the bill was 
passed, and hence just as unconstitutional as if the record clearly 
disclosed its defects. We quote the following as the most vital 
parts of the opinion of Mr. Justice (Greene : 

" In common with all other well-informed persons, this court 
knows of the great quantities of crude oil that were discovered in 
a part of the State; the rapid development of this field of indus- 
try ; the general public complaint that a particular corporation was 
unjustly manipulating the market of this product so that the pro- 
ducer was being deprived of what rightfully belonged to him ; 
that a public demand was made upon the legislature of 1905 to 
enact some law which would protect the producer from the further 
encroachments of this corporation upon his rights 

"The bill in question having originated, as expressed in the 
message, in a popular demand for relief against a ' powerful com- 
mercial combatant,' against whicii the individual was unable to 
cope, it met the hearty and enthusiastic approval of the Governor, 
not as an appropriation to build a branch penitentiary, but as 
an appropriation for the construction and operation of an oil- 
refinery 

" If, as contended by the State, the object of the bill is the con- 
struction of a branch penitentiary, it seems strange that the Gov- 
ernor in approving it should feel called upon to say that it is 
' such a radical departure from governmental precedent that it 
seems wise to put upon the records a clear statement of the provo- 
cation and the purpose of this undertaking that our action is clearly 
defined and thoroughly understood at home and abroad. . . . The 
indictmejit of the Standard Oil Company is no doubt true and the 
provocation was vcrv great, but we must not make a scarecrow of 
the law. 

" The consideration of the bill in the light of public conditions 
under which it was conceived, the title under which it was intro- 
duced in the .Senate, the bill itself and its reference by the Senate 
to itslpommittee on oil and gas, instead of its committee on penal 
institutions, the i)assage of the bill oy the S(;nate under its original 
title, the purpose of the bill and the reasons for \ts passage as ex- 
pressed by the Governor in his special message of approval, leave 
no doubt in our minds that the object of iie bill is to secure a site 



whereon the State should construct, operate, and maintain an oil- 
refinery." 

Some papers take exception to the argument upon which the 
court bases its decision. Thus the Chicago Chronicle (Rep.) 
says : 

" Few people will agree in all respects with the reasoning of the 
court. The phrase ' internal improvement ' had at the time the 







Mr. Rockefeller.— "Have you any reading-matter that isn"t about nie .' " 

— McCutcheon in the Chicago Tribune. 

constitution was adopted as well settled a meaning as the word 
' constitution ' had, and it meant canals, railroads, and other means 
of travel. Even if an oil-refinery was not a penitentiary, it was as 
different from an ' internal improvement ' as the penitentiary was. 
If the decision had been based on the constitutional argument 
alone it would be hard to defend it. It is well that the court based 
it also on the principle that it was contrary to public policy for 
the State to enter into competition with private parties, for here it 
planted its feet on solid ground." 

Governor Hoch, who naturally is greatly disappointed at the 
failure of the main part of his scheme to force the "Standard to 
be decent," has also publicly expressed his disapproval of Mr. 
lustice Greene's line of argument. After asserting that the opin- 
ion is founded on " a cold, clammy, and technical construction " of 
the law, the (lovernor says: 

"The meaning of the language in any document, I think, should 
be a.scertained not by the present meaning of these terms, but by 
their meaning at the time the document was written. When our 
constitution was framed and that language was used, oil had just 
been discovered. Hence, there was no contemplation of an oil- 
refinery, at least by the framers of our constitution. Neither were 
any of the great industrial enterprises that now characterize the 
business world in such existence as they are to-day. Internal im- 
provements then meant. 1 think, the construction of public thor- 
oughfares, canals, railroads, and the like, and did not then mean 
business enterprises such as we have in this commercial era." 

There are few papers in the West which did not express mis- 
givings as to the constitutionality of the State refinery scheme at 
the very start. So little complaint is heard against the decision. 
All now .seem to be reconciled to the decision as the only thing the 
judge could do in the face of the constitution of the State. The 
Kansas City y<^«;7/rt/ (Rep.), which has opposed the refinery from 
the beginning, gives the following account of the excited state of 
the public mind, which perhaps was the cause of the passage of 
the law : 

" The Kansas State oil-refinery bill was a concrete protest of 



Vol. XXXI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



109 



the aroused people of tlie State against what they considered the 
blighting domination of the Standard Oil Company. The spread 
of excitement incident to the discovery and development of oil 
properties in Kansas was like a malignant infection. Thousands 
of people bought stock in the hundreds of companies that sprang 
up like mushrooms throughout the oil district. The oil companies 
floated millions of dollars in stock, and every one connected with 
the industry expected a golden return from his investment. 

"But oil went down in value with sucli rapidity that the inter- 
ested people of the State became frantic and attributed tiieir losses 
to the greed of the Standard Oil Company. When once sentiment 
against this company crystallized there was a tremendous pres- 
sure brought to bear upon the legislature to enact some measure 
of retaliation. It was anything to bring the Standard to terms or 
drive it from the field, and when it was proposed that the State 
should go into the refinery business in competition with the Rock- 
efeller interests nothing could stem the tide. Once committed to 
baiting the octopus the excited people would stop at nothing, and 
legal opinions were scouted as mere baseless obstructions." 



PEARY'S NEW DASH FOR THE POLE. 

IT seems to be generally believed that Lieutenant-Commander 
Robert E. Peary has begun his new " dash " for the North 
Pole with fair prospects of success. Late last week the explorer 
made public the fact that he lacked many of the supplies and in- 
struments needed for the expedition. Where he needed ^^40,000, 
he said, he had only $16,000. Next day after this announcement 
he reported that the sum in hand had been increased by donations 
to $70,000. The Roose7'eit, his new boat that is to carry him as far 
north as water will take him, was described at considerable length, 
with diagrams of its peculiar construction and sail plan, in our 




LIEUTENANT-COMMANDER PEARY AND HIS MATE ON BOARD 

r/ie Roosevelt. 

issue for May 27 (page 780). The course which Commander Peary 
intends to take is known as the American route. He will pass 
through Smith Sound, on the northwest of Cireenland, then through 
Robeson Channel, and make permanent headquarters for the win- 
ter on the north shore of Grant Land. At this place he will be less 
than five hundred miles away from the Pole. The rest of his jour- 
ney, as explained by the Springfield Republican., will probably be 
conducted as follows : 

" Next February with the return of the first daylight in the Arc- 
tic regions Peary plans to start on his dash for the pole, depend- 




" THE ROOSEVELT." 

The craft that will carry Peary into the 
Arctic region. It is specially built to with- 
stand icebergs. 



ing very largely upon .sledge dogs. The strategy of the dash, if 
it may so be called, will follow that successfully adopted by the 
Italian party under the Duke of Abruzzi, which, in 1900, reached in 
the latitude of 86 degrees and 34 minutes the farthest north yet 
definitely claimed to have been attained by man. The expedition 
will start out with perhaps 12 men and several dog sledges, divided 
theoretically into several 
divisions. The first stage 
of the journey will be limit- 
ed by the distance that the 
entire party can cover 
while depending upon the 
provisions carried by one 
division and yet leaving 
that division sufficient to 
get it back to headquar- 
ters. When this limit has 
been reached the strongest 
men, if there is any choice, 
will be selected to push on 
farther, and the smaller 
division will turn back for 
headquarters. The party 
that pushes on will thus 
have the full amount of 
provisions with which it 
started, and will begin 
again the same policy of 
subsistence, another divis 
ion being sent back when 
the consumption of food 
by the whole party has in 
turn reduced its supply to 
the amount needed to 
carry it safely back to 
headquarters. Thus the 
final party will enter upon the last stage with its full supply of 
provisions untouched. Meantime the first party, having returned 
to headquarters, will have started north again with fresh supplies 
which will be located upon the expected line of return of the ad- 
vance party. The second returning division will also perform the 
same duty so that the selected little band that has pushed on for 
the final dash to the pole will have its retreat as well guarded 
and provisioned for as systematic organization can do it. 

"In case all goes as hoped for the members of the expedition, 
whose luck it will have been to reach the pole, will be returning to 
headquarters and the good ship Roosevelt next May. Tlie Roose- 
velt \\\\\ then be broken out of the ice in July or August, explos- 
ives being used to free her if necessary, and she will return some 
time in the fall of 1906 with the triumphant news of the reaching 
of the pole by an American expedition. If, however, the obstacle 
most feared presents itself and the ice-pack prevents Tlie Roose- 
velt from reaching Grant Land this summer, the winter will be 
spent as far north as it is possible to get the ship, and an effort will 
be made to obtain the desired location a year later. The dash for 
the pole will then be also delayed a year." 

The present expedition makes the tenth time that Commander 
Peary has entered the Arctic regions. So, as the New York 7>7^- 
?/;/^says, "No one is openly planning to seek the Pole whose ex- 
perience in Arctic work is at all comparable to his." We take 
from The Republican, above quoted, the following short biograph- 
ical sketch of Mr. Peary : 

" He is just 50 years of age, and altho born in Pennsylvania, is 
descended from a line of Maine lumbermen, in which State he 
passed his boyhood and received his education, graduating from 
Bowdoin College in 1877. In 1881 he passed the navy department 
examinations for the admission of civilians as engineers. In 1886 
he made his first Arctic trip, and since 1891 has been at it almost 
continuously, the interim being devoted to the raising of funds from 
private sources, since following the tragedy of the (ireely expedi- 
tion, in 1883, it has proved impossible to obtain public appropria- 
tions for further Arctic explorations. In 1892, after a journey of 
600 miles with a single companion, he reached the rocky northern 
shore of Greenland, which no man had even seen before. In 1895, 
1896, 1897, 1899, 1900, 1901, and 1902 he was again in the field. 



110 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 22, 1005 



He has endured fearful experiences on vari- 
ous expeditions and would seem inured to 
hardships if ever man was. In 1899 both his 
feet were frost-bitten, necessitating the ampu- 
tation of seven toes, but his ardor is not to be 
dampened and now he is prepared to go upon 
one more trial." 



GOVERNOR FOLK AND SUNDAY- 
CLOSING LAWS. 

AFTER Joseph W. Folk was elected Gov- 
ernor of Missouri as a reward for his 
successful work in bringing St. Louis boodlers 
to trial the next good thing he set himself to 
do was to breed a respect for the laws gener- 
ally. Believing that the disregard for one law 
tends to excite contempt for all the laws he 
had often declared : 

" The only proper way is to enforce every 
law on the statute books. If the law be a bad 
law, the remedy is to repeal it, not to ignore 
it. No official has a right to ignore any law. 
It is not for him to say whether the law is 
good or bad, but it is for him to enforce it as 
he finds it on the books." 




G. G. Hain. 



This sentiment seems to have become the 
inspiration for his conduct as governor, for he 
has expressed his resolve that no law of Mis- 
souri should be a dead letter on the statute- 
books as long as he remains in office. He commenced his reform 
work with the " Sunday-closing " laws and the laws forbidding race- 
track gambling. The influence and control which he could exercise 
through his appointive power over the police commissioners made 
the success of his venture immediate and almost complete in all the 
larger cities of the State — except in St. Louis. Here the large, 
respectable (German population who wanted its Sunday beer, and 
a troublesome criminal element, who had long been allowed great 
freedom of action, created a trying situation for the Governor, 
which was made worse by the attitude of the local sheriff, who be- 
lieved more in tiie principle of " home-rule " than in the plan for the 
rigorous enforcement of all the laws. To Folk's threat to make 
use of the military power the sheriff replied, " If Governor Folk's 
militia disturbs my peace you can bet they will be arrested." 
This conflict of authority and opinion boded trouble for a time. 
The Kansas City /i9«r««/ (Rep.) once reported that the " entire 
lid has blown off" in the city and county of St. Louis. Local 
papers, however, now say that the Governor has won, altho the 
people of his own liome town are restive under the restrictions im- 
posed upon them. 

This Wits tiie state of affairs when the redoubtable William T. 
Jerome, prosecuting attorney of New York County, entered the 
West on a speaking tour. He talked quite freely about Folk's 
work, and some of his remarks have aroused no end of comment. 
Among his most discussed words are these : 

" I am heartily in sympatiiy with Governor Folk in his determin- 
ation to enforce the law— all laws— 1 think tliat he is engaged in a 
fight in places like St. Louis and Kansas City which, from my ex- 
l)erience in the East, I judge can not be successful. I am sore 
myself with i)anging my own head against unenforceable laws, 
r.iit I liad to. 1 have got to do it. It is my duty. iSut 1 know 
tliat I can not succeed, because the peoi)le do not believe those 
laws liave a sound moral .sanction." 

"Tiie tiling can be done for a while as it has been in Missouri, 
l)ut a Sunday-closing law can not be enforced permanently in any 
community that does not want it, and you can i)ut it down that 
none of the large cities of the country wants it. Tiiis talk about 
the use of militia would have no lasting effect. Militia would have 
to i)e kept on the ground all the time to enforce the law perma- 
nently, wlicre the great majority of the peo|)le do not want it." 

"The idea may suit these rural communities, l)ut it does not fit 



— Snapshot \ 

GOVERNOK JOSEPH W. FOLK. 

Whose new motto '" Americans for Amer- 
ica," e.xijresses his idea of tiie needs of the 
country and of the kind of citizenship now re- 
quired. 



in cities. I am of the opinion that there should 
be two statute-books. In one could be incor- 
porated those moral yearnings of the rural 
communities, while in others could be placed 
laws for human beings. The latter would rep- 
resent the best thought of the people in the 
cities and would be adapted to their uses. 
Sunday-closing laws are sediments of Puri- 
tanism, with this big difference — that the 
Puritans enforced their laws, while we don't." 

These views of Mr. Jerome were so antag- 
onistic to those entertained and often ex- 
pressed by Governor Folk that everybody 
expected a strong reply from the Governor, 
and he did not disappoint the expectation. 
He accepted the issue opened by the New 
York prosecutor with the results, as related 
by the St. Louis G/oieDewocra^ {Kep.): 

" There was one place in the interview of 
District Attorney Jerome at Kansas City, in 
criticism of Sunday closing, in which he left 
himself open to an effective rejoinder, and the 
lance of Governor Folk has lost no time in 
tinding the hole in the armor. This is done by 
the Governor in the interview printed in T/ie 
Globe- Democrat^ in the course of which, re- 
sponding to Mr. Jerome's criticism, he says: 
'It is political suicide to enforce these laws,' 
says Mr. Jerome. An executive official should 
not ask. Is it popular? Is it good politics.'' 
but. Is it the law .'' And if it is, it is his duty 
to carry it out. He swears to support the law, not public sentiment. 
Mr. Jerome is mistaken. The law-abiding are in a vast majority, 
and looking at it solely from the sordid standpoint of politics, it is 
better politics to serve the law-abiding than to serve the lawless. 
If any official were allowed to ignore a law because it is unpopular 
in his opinion, then each official would be a judge as to whether or 
not any laws at all should be enforced. Such a doctrine would 
lead to absolute anarchy.' " 

But the most effective argument cited against Mr. Jerome's 
side of the case is the actual good which has been accomplished in 
Missouri by the enforcement of the Sunday-closing laws. If the 
deductions made by the St. Louis Republic (D^m..) ixoxn a com- 
parative table of statistics be correct, the enforcement of the law 
makes for the reduction of crime. Says 7 he Republic in speaking 
of conditions in St. Louis: 

" Except for the two arrests on a charge of murder, as against 
one arrest on this charge in 1903, the police statistics show a record 
of better order and a reduction in crime during the 'lid-down' 
period in 1905. The arrests for assault to kill are only half as 
many as in 1902 and only one-third as many as in 1903 or in 1904. 
The arrests for drunkenness are only about half as many as in 
either of the other three years. Statistics are not always conclu- 
sive ; but. to the extent that they are valuable, these show better 
order and a decrease in criminal acts and the common offenses. 
It seems clear that the common exhibitions of disorder— disturb- 
ances and drunkenness— have been reduced almost 50 per cent. 
Hospital tigures show a similar result. Sunday and Monday cases 
have been reduced to a small number. Sunday closing seems to 
be justified by practical results." 



TOPICS IN BRIEF. 

It begins to look as tiio tiie infant CzarevitL'li mij;ht iiave a chance to yrow up 
to be a good and useful i)rivate citizen. The Chiaxgo News. 

Gen. Leon.vkd Wood has rfturiieil to the United States in order to give the 
younger Moros a chance to grow up with their country. - The Chicago Tribune. 

It is now impossible to induce Southern nej^oes to }>o to Chicago as strike 
breakers. The watermelon season has opened in Di.\ie. - The Atlanta Constitu- 
tion. 

The Mikado would doubtless prefer to have jieace declared while the Russian 
fiovornment controls enough resources to meet an indemnity. — y'//<: Washing- 
ton Star. 

China is Ix-comini; so chesty tliat it is thinking of demanding that the peace 
envoys consult it as to what shall be done with its own territory. The Chici-^o 
Daily News. 



Vol. XXXI. , No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



111 



LETTERS AND ART. 



JOHN HAY AS A MAN OF LETTERS. 

O ESPONDING to tlie toast " Literature " at a public function 
*-^ in London, tiie late Secretary Hay. then Ambassador at 
the Court of St. James, disclaimed his own riijlit to " the title of a 
representative of literature." Nevertheless, it will l)e generally 
admitted that his name add- 
ed to the literary associa- 
tions of that embassy which 
could already claim Frank- 
lin, Motley, Bancroft, 
Washington Irving, f^aw- 
thorne, Lowell, and Bret 
Harte. The New York 
Tribune, to which Mr. Hay 
contributed for several 
years as an editorial writer, 
makes the point that his 
character as a man of let- 
ters owed much to the fact 
that he was also a man of 
the world. " He took liter- 
ature as he took life — with 
a light touch ; and if his 
books have the vitality of 
works written only when 
the author has something 
to say, they have likewise 
the quality which comes of 
saying it in the right way." 
The Evetiing Post finds that 
what distinguishes John 
Hay from a score of illus- 
trious predecessors in the 
State Department is " a cer- 
tain literary, or, if one will, 
artistic, quality of his tem- 
per." " In tact," continues 
the same paper, " it was be 
cause Mr. Hay so thorough 
ly represented what Bliss 
Perry has eulogized as the 
' amateur spirit ' that he 
was a figure not only potent but fascinating in all the many walks 
of life he entered." Of his poems The Tribune says : 

"It is customary when speaking of Mr. Hay's poetry to begin 
with ' Little Breeches ' and ' Jim Bludso," and some of his critics 
have been content to go no further. .As a matter of fact, those 
clever ballads, whether written in good faith or in amiable parody 
of Bret Harte, are not to be taken as e.xpressing their author's es- 
sential gift in verse. His true measure is given by those numerous 
pieces in which he set forth the meditations and impressions of a 
serious lyrist, using the metaphors and diction ot a profoundly self- 
possessed and polished man of the world. . . . One has only to 
glance through his collected poems to see at once how far he was 
from sharing any of the weaknesses of the minor poet. Imagination 
iii there, with shrewd insight into human lite ; also there is the grav- 
ity of a thoughtful man, tempered by the wit of an experienced con- 
noisseur in emotion, and everywhere you recognize the poise, the 
instinctive skill, of a writer who may not have been inspired, but who 
could not for the life of him make a poetical line prosaic. He had 
the poet's clairvoyance for the right motive, the craftsman's flair 
for the right word. To be dull, to be sentimental, to be slipshod 
or affected, was no more possible to him than to be heavy in con- 
versation or blundering in diplomacy." 

Mr. Hay's prose, apart from addresses and editorials — one of 
the latter, by the way, was acclaimed by Horace Greeley " the best 
editorial I have ever read" — is represented by"Castilian Days," 




1- rum steri'ogra|th, loj'yrijjht by L'tiderwood & Cnderwood, New York. 

JOHN HAY. 

'■ He took literature as he look life- with a light touch." 



by the monumental life of Lincoln, written in collaboration with 
Mr. Nicolay, and, it is widely alleged, by the anonymous novel, 
" The Breadwinners," at the time of its appearance in 1S93 the liter- 
ary sensation of the .season. His "Lincoln" is de.scribed by the 
Chicago Inter Ocean as" the best biography in American literature, 
possibly the best in all English literature"; altho the verdict of 
The Tribune is that it "has more historical weight than literary 

charm." The latter qual- 
ity, however, that paper 
finds in abundance in " Cas- 
tilian Days." It reminds 
us, moreover, that Mr. Hay 
" was not at any time com- 
mitted to the career of a 
man of letters in the strict 
sense of the phrase." The 
Philadelphia /Vd^jj- appears 
to regard him somewhat in 
thelight of an " inheritor of 
unfulfilled renown." "In 
college," says The Press, 
" he wrote better verse than 
he ever touched again, and 
the vein of adoration, wor- 
.ship, and mystic regard 
which suffused the brief 
verse of his later years was 
not the full flower to be 
expected from the strong 
earlier root, native to the 
Western soil." 

Mr. Hay's" Pike County 
Ballads," published about 
thirty-four years ago, won 
him a fame which was af- 
terward overshadowed by 
his success in diplomacy. 
In this volume appeared 
"Jim Bludso" and "Little 
Breeches," which achieved 
such wide popularity. 

According to the New 

York Times' s Saturday 

Review, Mr. Hay's literary 

reputation will rest most securely upon the " Pike County Ballads " 

and upon his addresses. We read : 

"Looking through the " Poems " and the ' Castilian Days 'with 
the sincerest wish to find enkindling sparks of genius, one is com- 
pelled to fall back upon the ' Pike County Ballads ' of the author's 
youth. There is a ' human document.' There, more specitically, 
is an American document. The author of " Little Breeches' and 
' Jim Bludso ' had ' sized up ' his countrymen, had sized them up 
as accurately as. in the next generation, Mr. Owen Wister sized 
them up in ' The V'irginian.' " 

.Among his .serious poetiis ' The .Stirrup Cup " lends itself with 

peculiar appropriateness to quotation at this tiine : 

My short and li.ippy day is done. 

The Ions and dieaiy nij^ht conies on ; , 

And at my door tiie I'ale Horse stands, 

To carry me to unknown lands. 

His whinny shrill, his pawing hoof, 

.Sound dreadful as a gathering storm : 
And 1 must leave this sheltering roof, 

And joys of life so soft and warm. 
Tender and warm the joys of life 

Good friends, the faithful and the true, 
My rosy children and my wife, 

So sweet to kiss, so fair to view. 
So sweet to kiss, so fair to view — 
The night comes down, the lights burn blue; 
And at my door the Pale Horse stands, 
To Ijear me forth to unknown lands. 



112 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 22, 1905 



SOCIETY VERSUS ART. 

MR. OKAKUKA-KAKUZO, a well-known Japanese connois- 
seur and author of works on Oriental art, lays stress on the 
essential antagonism between Art and Society. This antagonism, 
he alleges, lies in the laws of their existence. " Art is the sphere 
of freedom, society that of conventions." And again: "Society 
is somehow always afraid of the living artist ; it begins to offer ap- 
plau.se when his ears are deaf — flowers when he is safely laid in 
his grave." When Society has not persecuted Art, says this East- 
ern critic, it has degraded it by patronage. Indeed, the count he 
piles up, on behalf of Art, against organized Society, is a formid- 
able one. 

Mr. Okakura-Kakuzo traces to an Eastern source the definition 
of art as an expression of the "play impulse." But further, he 
says, "Art is nothing if not the expression of 
the individual mind." It would seem, then, 
that tiie antagonism he emphasizes is another 
phase of the demand for conformity that or- 
ganized society makes upon the individual. 
Quoting from his paper in Tlie International 
Quarterly (New York) for July, we give the 
gist of his contention in his own words : 

" Society has ever been ready to invade the 
sanctuary of Art. Patronage, with its accus- 
tomed superciliousness, has often imposed 
its authority on a realm where gold could not 
reach. Public criticism, with the best inten- 
tions in the world, has made itself only ridic- 
ulous by trying to interfere in questions where 
the painter must be the sole judge. Why en- 
chain the vital spirit of Art? It is evanescent 
and always alive, and is godlike in its trans- 
formations. Was it not a Greek who said 
that he defined certain limits in Art by what 
he had done? The Napoleonic geniu.ses of 
the brush are constantly winning victories, 
mindless of the dogmatic strategy of the 
academicians. The foremost critic of modern 
England has been ironically censured for his 
undue depreciation of Whistler as one who 
was to be remembered by what he failed to 
understand. The fate of esthetic discussions 
is to iiang on the Achillean heels of Art, 
and therein to find the vulnerable point of 
attack. We can Ruskinize only on the past. 

"HI may stretch a point, the masters themselves may be said 
to be responsible for allowing society to frustrate the spontaneous 
play of later artists. Their personality has been so great as to 
leave a lasting impression on the canons of beauty, and any devia- 
tion from the accepted notions is certain to be regarded witii sus- 
picion. Society has been taken into the confidence of Art, and, 
like all conlidences, it has been eitlier too little or too much. The 
world has become disrespectful toward Art on account of the prof- 
fered familiarity. It feels at liberty to dictate where it ouglil to 
worship, to criticize where it ought to comprehend. It is not tliat 
the public should not talk, but that it should know better. It is 
not that Society should not be amu.sed, but that it should enjoy 
more. We are sorry to realize how much of real esthetic sym- 
pathy is lost in the jargon of studio-talks." 

Sociological conditions, he continues, are seldom favorable to 
the free development of Art, and hence it is " that the great masters 
are so rare." Dwelling upon this point, he writes: 

" Indeed, it is a tribute to the virility of the art instinct that we 
should have even the few. Their lives both in the East and West 
have shown remarkable instances of struggle and victory over cir- 
cumstance. Hosts have suffered and have .succumbed to .social 
tyranny. Hosts are suffering and succumbing to their destiny. 

" Nothing touches us more than the weary lines on a great paint- 
er's face, for they are the traces, not of his contact with his art, 
but with the world. One is a joy and a solace, the other is an 
eternal torment. . . . The success and popularity of a living painter 
in many cases are signs of lowness of spiritual level. For the 




higher the artistic mind soars, the greater becomes the possibility 
of local or contemporary miscomprehension. Even in the perfec- 
tion of Raphael or the princely ease of Rubens, we are tempted to 
miss the suljlimity of the tormented soul of Michelangelo." 

After citing many instances of injury to the cause of art in times 
of warfare, the writer goes on to say that even the " so-called en- 
couragement" to Art in times of peace has often proved other than 
a boon. And of the relations between Art and Religion we read: 

" Religion has been supposed to be the greatest inspiration of 
Art. It is often claimed that the loss of religious zeal caused the 
decadence of Art, Put Art is a religion in itself. The mere fact 
of painting a holy subject does not constitute the holiness of the 
picture. The inherent nobleness and devotional attitude of the art- 
ist's mind toward the universe, alone stamp him as the religious 
painter. It has been remarked that in the picture of the bamboo 
by Sankoku lay the whole mystery of Taoism. 
The stereotyped representations of Christian 
or Buddhist subjects, of which, alas! there 
are so many, are not only a parody on Reli- 
gion, but a caricature of Art itself. Here we 
see another instance of the effects of mis- 
placed patronage where even Religion made 
a handmaiden of Art, and thus robbed it of 
its legitimate expression." 

To the Japanese, he says, it seems that 
" Industrialism is making a handmaiden of 
Art, as Religion has made of it in the past." 
Under .such conditions, he warns us, "Art is 
apt to recoil either in incipient flattery or with 
brutal sarcasm." 



MR. OKAKURA-KAKUZO. 

' Society is somehow always afraid of the liv- 
ing artist," he says. 



WOMAN IN MODERN ITALIAN 
FICTION. 

^^ HE portrayal of women by Italian novel- 
' ists was the subject of a series of ad- 
dresses delivered by Dr. Joseph Spencer 
Kennard at the Sorbonne in Paris. Dr. Ken- 
nard, son of a Baptist clergyman in Philadel- 
phia and author of books in four languages, 
is the first American since Franklin to be in- 
vited to lecture at the great Parisian univer- 
sity. The papers he then read have since 
appeared in book form, under the title, " La 
Femme dans le Roman Italien." 
He prefaces his analyses of the heroines of modern Italian fic- 
tion by a summing up of the conditions prevailing in woman "s life 
in general. After mentioning the various outlets for her new ac- 
tivity in which woman in Italy follows the world currents started 
in other civilized countries, he praises her rapi:l readjustment. 
But in the novel, in particular, "representing the opinion of the 
i^ois (ill jjionde" — " that is to say. mediocre opinion "—the growth 
she has achieved does not obtain recognition. Says Dr. Kennard: 

■■ WhclJKr from an attitude of contempt, the survival of old tra- 
ditions, or from an incapacity to jienetrate beneath the superficial 
impression, the Italian romancer has continued to represent the 
Italian woman with the traits of a being too simple to be real, too 
inferior to be of importance, and above all. too much like foreign 
models not to l)e conventional, 

"Thus, while official statistics and disinterested observations 
furnish undeniable witness to the intellectual development, moral 
progress, and subtlety of the modern Italian woman, the heroines 
of the novels are still most often represented by means of coarse 
or rudimentary traits. 

" In general is to be noted in the.se, only a perverse and badly 
balanced nature, dominated by a sole function of her organism, 
haunted by a single desire, incapable of feeling any but one senti- 
ment, and who, therefore, is apt to .suggest but one emotion. It 
is useless to analyze the other aspects of her character, useless to 
discuss the numerous problems which are arising," 

He linds that in Italian tiction in general the feminine charac- 



Vol. XXXL, Xo. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



113 



ters are l)ut copies, in 
spite of the growing ten- 
dency to wiiat is falsely 
called the naturalistic 
method. 

The numerous causes 
for this, which are " not 
confined to Italy." the 
autlior touches upon 
lightly. "The habit, 
trarismitted by Orient- 
als to the Italians, whom 
this influence so long 
preponderant in .Spain 
has but reenforced, of 
keeping their women — 
even the most beloved — 
at a distance from their 
thought, has contributed 
not a little to falsify or 
obscure their judgment." 
We read further : 




DR. JOSEPH SPENCER KENNARIJ, 

Sitting for liis portrait in the New York studio of Mr. Roland Hinton Perry, the sculptor. 



" Apart from the de- 
mands of gallantry, the Italian of former times felt no need for 
associating his companion with the cares, the intrigues, the satis- 
factions of his political or literary life. This stand taken, women 
are unaccustomed to a constant and active participation in the 
affairs, in the studies, in the amusements of their husbands and 
their sons; men, even the more sentimental or passionate, do not 
dream of asking from a woman this higher sympathy which is an 
echo of the purest thought." 

Naturally, then, writers as well as readers, " are deprived of the 
intimate acquaintance with woman, which should begin at the 
cradle ... to continue during the whole life " 

Dr. Kennard proceeds to follow woman's personalization, her 
development in certain novels, little by little. This literary form, 
moreover, "as human document and study of manners, has be- 
gun very late in Italy." It could not, however, have been born 
earlier, because "it would be an unheard of thing in the annals of 
literature, if the representation of something should precede its ex- 
istence." For the same reasons, we read, a chivalrous and feudal, 
world was needed to inspire the clianson dc j^estc, a whole flourish- 
ing bourgeoisie to give birth to the fabliau, and for the enlarging 
and prosperity of the novel is necessary a society so advanced that 
it will feel the desire to know itself, and personalities marked 
enough to show their detachment in salient features. '"Such a so- 
ciety, of a fixed type, desirous to view itself in fiction, capable of 
recognizing it.self and of recognizing its own, exists in Italy only 
during the last twenty years." 

The writer speaks of the " heartbreaking conventionalism " of 
the former types of women in Italian literature, " mere abstract 
phantoms." Neither the "austere Manzoni." who shows his 
women only "in profile or bust." nor any of his disciples, roman- 
esques and exotic, have been able to distinguish the Italian woman 
who "emerges trom the shade, and from her secular sleep." He 
brings sharply to view as an exception Ippolito Nieve, Italian 
poet and patriot (1820 60), and his singularly premature chcj- 
d'a'uv7-e. "The Confessions of an Octogenarian," in wiiich the 
author brings to view figures of women, "full of life and of truth." 
Later, the influence of the French naturalists turns the Italian 
novel " toward a mode of interpretation of the true " v.hich does 
not suit its national genius. "The premeditated grossncss which 
Zola prodigally cast before a hlasi! public, jjathologic subdeties 
which represented a society mellowed to decadence, answered in 
nothing to the veritable necessities of the Italian novel." 

This brings Dr. Kennard to the novels of Gabriel D"Annunzio. 
After a r<fsumtf oi the heroines of the great Italian he pauses upon 
the one in whom the " author has put more than his talent: a lit- 



tle of his heart" — la 
Foscarina, modeled af- 
ter the great tragedi- 
enne, Duse. lUit he 
concludes : 

" The depth of tiie 
thought, with all these 
romancers, is that wo- 
man, being made for 
love, and for nothing 
but love, it is useless to 
study her from another 
point of view, it is su- 
perfluous to reclaim her 
for other rights. Lib- 
erty, economic indepen- 
dence, authority, even 
justice, all that makes 
the dignity, the glory of 
masculine existence, all 
which contributes to ele- 
vate the consciousness, 
to illumine the spirit, to 
maintain the equilib- 
rium of physical and 
mental faculties, all 
which, in fine, is called happiness and leads to progress— all this 
is for the strong sex!" — Translation made for The Literary 
Digest. 



NEWSPAPER ENGLISH. 

' I ^HE newspapers and the common schools, Mr. Henry James 
-*■ lately told the Bryn Mawr girls, are twin influences which 
keep the American speech "crude, untidy, and careless." The 
newspapers, he said, are " nothing more than black eruptions of 
type." " They roar like monsters ; like maniacs breaking loose." 
Both the allegation that our speech is " untidy " and the placing of 
blame with the newspapers have evoked much comment in the 
press. Some papers have evinced irritation, some have put the 
matter in the hands of their " funny men," while others have in- 
clined to agree with Mr. James, in part at least. The Baltimore 
Herald" \-\\\s> back" at the novelist in the following vigorous man- 
ner : 

"Take any considerable sentence from any of his novels and ex- 
amine its architecture. Isn't it wobbly with qualifying clauses 
and subassistant phrases.'' Doesn't it wriggle and stumble and 
stagger and flounder? Isn't it ' crude, untidy, careless,' bedrag- 
gled, loo.se, frowsy, disorderly, unkempt, uncombed, uncurried. 
unbrushed, unscrubbed ? Doesn't it begin in the middle and work 
away from both ends? Doesn't it often bounce along for a while 
and then, of a sudden, roll up its eyes and go out of business en- 
tirely?" 

Men and IVonien ( Cincinnati 1 for July comments in part as fol- 
lows : 

"There is probably some justification for Mr. James's accusa- 
tion, since the ' storm and stress' of getting out an entire paper 
once a day is not calculated to foster an excellent siyle of expres- 
sion. And we know enough about the difficulty of writing a t.iirly 
good sentence to be able to agree with Mr. James's contention. 
But. on the other hand, we can not quite forget that i 1 spite c f its 
slovenly stvle— in spite cf its inelegant expressions and inipjam- 
matical .sentences, the perusal of ths daily i)aper affords us greater 
pleasure than anything tiiat wo liave ever lead which was written 
bv Mr. James; and if we are compelled to choose between two 
evils, give us the newspaper by all means. Mr. James's style of 
literary expression has always seemed to us the ciuintessence of 
artistic absurdity ; and we are almost persuaded that the one thing 
that gives value to his writings is the fact that Mr. James's name 
is attached to them." 

ToivJt and Country (New York) congratulates Mr. James on his 

practical admonition, and adds: 

" There is no doubt but that [sic] carelessness is more perceptible 



114 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



[July 22, 1905 



in the speech of educated Americans than of any other nation. 
U is true the American has mucli against which he or she must 
struggle. We are a conglomerate, composite people, and altho 
English pure and simple may be taught in the classroom, it is not 
always used at home. There are some people who, no matter how 
well educated they may be, have a certain inflection or accent 
which betrays bad breeding and a defective training. Men and 
women who graduate with honor, and who would write excellent 
English, frequently use bad grammar; they employ slang of tiie 
common street variety, and are absolutely without conscience 
when it comes to the proper or fit word or expression." 

Mr. Albert Henry Smyth, writing in Boo^ A'e7vs (Ph\\:idt\ph\a) 
for July, questions whether we are really untidy in our speech. 
The fault, says Mr. Smyth, lies rather with our American voice. 
We read : 

" If Mr. James would analyze more carefully liis feeling with re- 
gard to American ' untidiness," he would probably find that it orig- 
inated in the revolt of his ear, acccustomed to the mellow music of 
English speech, against the strident clamor of the American voices. 
It is not our English that is at fault, so much as our voices. The 
American, like the cuckoo, is known by his bad voice. Perhaps 
climatic conditions had something to do with flattening our vowels 
and imparting the hideous catarrhal twang to our voices; certainly 
the nervous, excitable American temperament has engendered the 
throaty tones and high, strident quality which ' get so upon the 
nerves' of Britons and foreigners." 

To set against Mr. James's criticism af newspaper English we 
have the recent statement of Dr. Woodrow Wilson to a represen- 
tative of the New York Herald, to the effect that the English of 
the newspapers is remarkably good, being " terse and clear and to 
the point." 



I 



AN INTERESTING DRAMATIC PROBLEM. 

N four countries an active discussion is proceeding on the sub- 
ject of the legitimate method of producing the dramas and 
comedies of the time when our scenic accessories and lavish ex- 
penditures on the external and decorative side of the stage were 
entirely unknown. In England, in the United States, in France, 
and in Germany, the presentation of old plays in the " Elizabethan 
manner" has given rise to considerable controversy. In Paris, 
Antoine, the famous independent manager, has given Shakespeare 
in tiiat manner. In the United States the Ben Greet company's 
performances have been the object lessons in the same direction. 

The question is subdivided as follows: Should modern inven- 
tion and mechanism be pressed into the service of the ancient 
drama.' Is it legitimate to provide scenery and other accessories 
that were not originally contemplated ? Should the old plays be 
given as they were written, without "acts." intermissions, and 
" curtains" ? 

Tiie Elizabethan Stage Society of London having dissolved and 
passed into history, its creator. Mr. William Poel, has published 
in The Times ■& sort of apologia for its career and achievements. 
Its performances have been praised and appreciated, but the ques- 
tion to which it owed its existence is still open. iMr. Poel says, 
among other things: 

"Ben Jonson's rebuke to Inigo Jones, who valued iiis own in- 
ventions more than those of the poet, clearly indicates that Eliza- 
bethan audiences neither expected nor wanted scenic enil)cllish- 
ments in a playhouse. The theater then was essentially a declama- 
tory platform, in which the art of the dramatist consisted in the 
telling of an interesting story, full of varied incidents, together 
with bold characterization, and in satisfying the playgoer's imagi- 
nation with poetic descriptions of the character's environment. 
Undoubtedly, one of the stimulating conditions of playgoing in 
those days was the opportunity afforded to criticize the dramatist's 
skill in bringing vividly before the mind's eye, by means of nar- 
ration, not only a scene, but also a fight, a knock at the door, or 
an attitude 

" Scholars may insist that Shakespeare can be better appreci- 
avcd in the study than on the stage, but they forget, what every 



Elizabethan dramatist acknowledged, that action and elocution are 
coequal parts with dialogue in the making of drama, and that a 
play-book in the hands of the ordinary reader is as lifeless as a 
skeleton, rarely appreciated and more rarely understood until tirst 
seen acted. (3n the other hand, it must be admitted that many of 
Shakespeare"^ plays can be made attractive on the modern stage, 
and that popular judgment asserts that Shakespeare is most hon- 
ored when his plays are given in the biggest theaters with the 
greatest number of acces.sories. But a closer acquaintance with 
the conditions under which Shakespeare wrote must convince the 
intelligent playgoer that to honor his genius is not to rearrange 
his plays, in order to suit modern conditions of stage representa- 
tion, but to bring our own minds witiiin reach of those influences 
from which the Elizabethan playgoer undoubtedly obtained the 
greatest enjoyment." 

Plays, Mr. Poel continues, did not consist of four or five " acts " ; 
this method of construction was not merely unknown, it would 
have been scouted and rejected as illegitimate and inartistic. 
Hence the " acting versions " of Shakespeare's plays are without 
an excuse, historically or artistically. 

Mr. Walkly, the critic of the London Times, ?Jax Beerbohm, the 
critic of The Sattirday Review, and others, think all such argu- 
ments inconclusive. Alike in technic and in mechanical accesso- 
ries, they urge, there has been great progress ; and if the masters 
could see our modern resources they would but too gladly avail 
themselves of these. The great masters, says Mr. Walkly, are 
for all time, and should be given in accordance with the spirit and 
tastes of the period whenever they are produced. Whether the 
tree is on the stage, on a painting in the background, er merely in 
our imagination, can not affect any scene from Shakespeare in 
which a tree is part of the mise-efi-schie. 

A writer in Die Deutsche Rundschau welcomes the new-old man- 
ner of producing classics (which is but little known in Germany, 
notwithstanding the remarkable frequency with which Shakespeare 
is presented in every art center of the fatherland), and holds it to 
be conducive to the simplicity, sincerity, and dignity which are es- 
sential to art. 

In Paris, curiously enough, the discussion has degenerated into 
a contest between those who favor long intermissions and those 
who favor short ones or none at all. The desire of the feminine 
auditors to display their costumes and jewels and headgear, and to 
convert the theater into a social and fashionable institution, figure 
prominently among the intermission pros. 



NOTES. 



Bf.c.inning with the September number. Leslie's Monthly Afa^azinc \\\\\ be 
known as 'I'/ic A»icricn>! IllKstiatcd Magazine. The magazine will continue 
to be published by Mr. Colver, wl\ose connection with tlie publication dates from 
May I, 1SS9; and tlie tiini name, for fifty \ears tlie I-'rank Leslie Publi-^hing 
House, will Ijecome tlie Colver I'ublishiiis; House. Most of the score of publica- 
tions long ago started by I'rank Leslie have passed out of existence. After 
September Leslie's Weekly will be the only one still carrying his name. 

Thk literary taste of the Japanese, remarks T/ie \\ 'orld. is significantly shown 
in the report of the librarian of the Inii.erial Library at Tok\o. Lor fiction, it 
appears, there is little demand. \Ve read further : "While 12.4S6 works relating 
to theology and religion, or only i.h per cent, of the total number of books in the 
library, vvere asked for, according to the records of the past year, there j\ ere de- 
manded by readers 166.677 volumes, or 21.6 per cent, classified under the head of 
mathematics, science, and medicine. Works on literature and language, to the 
number of 152,711 that is, 20 per cent, were asked for, while iS per rent, of the 
applications were for books on history and geography. Works of art, industries, 
engineering, military and naval science figure prominently on the list of additions 
made in recent years to the shelves of the Imperial lil)rary." 

President W'ii.soN,of Princeton University, announces an interesting in- 
novation in instruction. In Collier's Weekly we read: ".A committee of the 
alumni has assured the university of additional iiiiome exceeding Jioo.ooo a 
year. This money is to be sjient in adding to the I'rinceton faculty fifty precei)- 
tors, who are to do. apparently, what tutors do in the older Hritish universities. 
That is they will keej) in constant touch with the students, 'as guides, advisers 
and testers of their learning.' Less reliance than formerly is to be placed at 
Princeton on recitations and examinations, and more on conferences of individ- 
uals and small groups of men with their instructors. Not only the new precep- 
tors, but the older memters of the faculty, are to take jiart in these conferences. 
Dr. Wilson proposes, it would seem, to have his young men taught by hand. 
They are not merely to be led to water. They must drink. It is a very interest- 
ing experiment in .American college education, and its results will dot. t less be 
closely watched by educators." 



Vol. XXXI., No. 4] 



THE LITERARY DIGEST 



Uo 



SCIENCE AND INVENTION. 



RAY-CURES. 

nnHE various cures by the application of light or other forms of 
■*• radiant energy excite, from time to time, a good deal of 
public interest, but concise accounts of their operation and results, 
viewing them as a whole, have not been available. Such a view is 
given by Dr. Leredde in a lecture before the French Association 
for the Advancement of Science, of which an abstract appears in 
Cosmos (Paris, April 29) from the pen of M. E. Hericiiard. Dr. 
Leredde spoke chiefly of phototherapy and radiotherapy, the 
former term denoting Finsen's light-cure, and the latter the use of 
the jr-ray. The use ot radium he apparently did not touch upon — 
perhaps because he did not consider it sufficiently developed as 
yet. H^richard notes that all methods of cure based on the use of 
light or other kinds of radiation are of recent date, the earliest, 
that of Finsen, dating back only about ten years. In the case of 
light, both the heat and the chemical properties of the rays con- 
tribute to the result; if the chemical effects be suppressed, how- 
ever, as when the light passes through red glass, the action is much 
less energetic. Says the writer: 

"Finsen distinguishes two kinds of phototherapy, the positive 
in which the action of the light-rays is used; and the negative, in 
which it is suppressed. The latter does not act with much energy. 
Finsen has used it, nevertheless, in treatment of smallpox scars. 
... In Norway an