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MAJOR GEN. POPE.
GENS. HALLECK AND POPE.
BY G. \Y. RICHARDS.
COUNSELLOR AT LAW.
PUBLISHED BY J. MAQEE,
316 CHESTNUT STREET.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 18C2, by
J. MA GEE,
in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States in and for
the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
There are but few that have not read the immortal lyric of
Marco Bozzaris, penned to commemorate one of the bravest strug-
gles of modern times, a contest possessing an intense interest
to the scholar, as Greece, the land of Socrates, Plato, Homer,
and Hesiod was the battle-ground, the natives of the soil,
that had been inhabited by these mighty spirits — which after
the lapse of eighteen centuries, still exert so vast an influence
over the human intellect — were battling for their rights against
the turbaned infidel ; Christian Greece vs. Heathen Slavery —
freedom vs. despotism, the theme even with the dullest pen
must be attractive ; but the merits of the verse, and the charm-
ing imagery, have given it a high place in the temple of poesy.
But its gifted author did not stop there ; another poem of equal
merit came from his pen. The story was not new ; the poet,
painter, and novelist, had trodden the ground a thousand times ;
history "with her iron pen" had recorded the deeds in that
part of England often times, but still the poet's witching genius
gave to Alnwick Castle a freshness, and the legend seemed to
be read for the first time. A descendant of that lordly race,
a scion of " gallant Hotspur and his gentle Kate" was to do
battle for the cause of freedom, and confer a brighter lustre on
the ancient name.
The State of New York has been celebrated for the admix-
4: MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
ture of German and English blood, which prevails in most of the
counties. During the war of the revolution there were many of
the old Teutonic race claiming descent from noble stocks, who
gallantly fought on the side of liberty ; and recent experience
has shown us that the old martial spirit is not yet dead. Blood,
beyond all doubt, exercises a powerful control in the destinies
of men ; when the word German is mentioned there is a host of
associations belonging to it ; we recall that gallant nation that
has at different times swept over the fertile plains of southern
Italy, bled on the holy fields of Palestine, fought at Waterloo ;
and which, when old Europe refused them food, and interfered
with their religious convictions, sought homes in the blue hills
of the Empire State, or in the sweet valleys of Pennsylvania.
A man who fills a high place in the army of the United States
is of this descent. This individual is Henry Wager Halleck.
General Henry Wager Halleck was born in the year 1816,
on the banks of the Mohawk River, a few miles west of Utica,
in Oneida County, New York. The family name was origi-
nally Hallyoak, and is now spelled Halliock, Hallock, and
Halleck. On the paternal side he is a descendant of Peter
Halleck of Long Island ; and on the maternal of Henry Wager,
a personal friend of Baron Steuben, and one of the first settlers
of central New York ; in 1834 he pursued his studies at Union
College, and the following year was transferred to the military
academy of West Point ; he graduated third in the class, and in
1839 was brevetted Second Lieutenant of engineers, and from
July 1839 to 1840, acted as assistant professor of engineering.
In 1841 the scientific Avorld welcomed a valuable work on
bitumen from his pen. He was also, at the same time, assistant
to the chief engineer Totten, at Washington, and till 1844 was
employed on the fortifications of New York harbor. In the
autumn of 1844 he accompanied Marshal Bertrand, the soother
of the mighty Napoleon's captivity, to Europe, and by him was
introduced to Marshal Soult, who then held the portfolio of
Prime Minister to Louis Phillippe, and who extended to him
full permission to visit all the fortifications in France ; this
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER IIALLECK. 5
liberty, so rarely given, pleased the young soldier, and he thus
gathered immensely valuable information. In 1845, the com-
mittee of the Lowell Institute of Boston invited him to deliver
one of the regular courses of lectures, and he selected as his
topic " military science and art;" these discourses were after-
wards published with an introduction " on the justifiableness of
war ;" this volume contains much valuable instruction and
historical research ; the style is plain and easy. That same year
Lieut. Halleck made a second visit to Europe, on purely pro-
fessional matters, and entirely at his own expense, and while
abroad examined thoroughly the arms and fortifications of En-
gland, France, Italy, and Germany.
The aggressions with Mexico rendered hostilities with that
nation unavoidable, and the gallant sons of the Union poured
forth-their blood freely on the sandy plains of Palo Alto, Re-
saca de la Palma, and Monterey. In this strife Lieut. Halleck
was not backward. Immediately after the battle of Palo Alto
in 1846, the Government despatched this young oflScer to Cali-
fornia, where he acted in both a civil and a military capacity ;
he participated in the engagements of " Palos Prietas," and
" Unas." At St. Antonio, with thirty volunteers, he marched one
hundred and twenty miles in twenty-eight hours, surprised the ene-
my's garrison, recaptured some naval officers and several marines,
seized the Mexican flag, the archives, and two officers of rank,
the Governor barely escaping. This was justly considered as
the most brilliant and successful operation of the war on the
Pacific coast. At Todos Santos he led the main body of Col.
Burton's forces. For these gallant exploits he was recom-
mended for additional brevet, having been previously brevetted
in 1847 ; but the recommendation did not reach Washington
till after the list had been sent in to the Senate. He was also
aid to Commodore Shubrick, during the descent upon Mazatlan,
and afterwards chief of staff, and Lieutenant Governor of the
Capt, Halleck also officiated as Secretary of State under the
b MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
military government of Generals Riley, Harney, and Mason
from 1847 to 1849.
When California was finally ceded to the United States, the
wealth of the region, its great commercial advantages, and the
chance of making money, allured thither many adventurers.
The land was full of enterprise and talent, and the old adage
almost seemed on the point of realization, that gold could be
picked up in the streets ; so rapidly were fortunes made, and so
fabulously was labor remunerated. Capt. Halleck was among
those who remained in the newly conquered territory. The
time had now arrived when qualities of a high order of states-
manship were necessary. In 1849, there were two parties in
California : one pro-slavery, and the other free soil. A large
proportion of the recent settlers were from Europe, and the
northern, eastern, and middle States, who were bitterly opposed
to the whole system. Others, who came from the southern
States, were equally desirous of fastening slavery on the State,
and anarchy threatened to wrap them all in her mantle. But
Capt. Halleck came to the aid of the free soil party, suggested
the idea of a convention, which was adopted, and to which he
Avas elected. When a member of that Assembly, Capt. Halleck
drafted the constitution under which California was admitted
into the Union.
In addition to these multifarious and heavy duties, Capt.
Halleck, from 1847 to 1850, superintended the collection of the
revenues of California, and examined all the accounts before
they were transmitted to the general government at Washing-
ton. The legality of these collections was doubted by several
importers ; in this. Governor Mason and Secretary Walker co-
incided. The matter came up before the Supreme Court of the
United States for adjudication ; and these collections were sus-
tained. The opinion of the Court was delivered by Mr. Justice
Wayne, From 1850 to 1854, Capt. Halleck served as Inspec-
tor of light-houses, Judge Advocate, and as a member of the
Pacific Board of Engineers. In 1854 he published the mining
laws of Spain and Mexico. General Halleck has also been di-
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK, T
rector, and at one time chief engineer, of the Ahnadeii jNIining
Company, with a salary of $10,000 per annmn. With the ex-
ception of the Mariposa Grant, this is the richest mining inter-
est in California.
Since 1854, General Ilalleck has devoted himself almost ex-
clusively to the practice of law in California, being the head
of the great law firm of Halleck, Peachy, & Billings. He has,
however, been oifered by the Governor of California a seat on
the Supreme Bench of the State, which he refused.
General Halleck has never sought office of any kind, nor
been much of a party man, though always voting with tlie con-
servative Democratic party. On the demise of Mr. Douglas,
and the breaking out of the rebellion, he exerted all his influ-
ence to strengthen the present administration.
In 1860 General Halleck published Be Foz on the Laws of
Mines, and in December of the same year he was appointed
Major General of militia, which post he held till named Major
General in the United States service, his commission bearing
date August 19th, 1861. Shortly after his arrival from Cali-
fornia he was appointed to the military department of the West ;
on the 19th of November, 1861, the Major General established
his headquarters at St. Louis.
On the 4th of December, 1861, this important order was is-
sued by Major General Halleck, to his commanding officers in
Missouri : directing them to arrest and hold in confinement
every one found in arms against the government, or those who,
in any way, give aid to the rebels ; and ordering that all persons
found within the lines of the army in disguise as loyal citizens,
and giving information to the enemy, and all those taken from
the ranks of the rebels in actual service, should not be treated
as prisoners of war, but as spies, and be shot ; he further ordered
that the provost marshals of St. Louis should take in charge the
numbers of Union families who were crowding into the city,
having been plundered and driven from their homes by the
rebels, and quarter them upon avowed secessionists, charging
the expense of their board to them ; on the ground, that although
8 MAJOR GENERAL IIEXRY WAGER HALLECK.
they had not themselves plundered and driven forth those un-
fortunate people, they were giving aid and comfort to those who
had done so. On the 9th of the same month an order was issued
directing the Mayor to see that all the municipal officers took
the oath as had been prescribed by the convention, and further
directing the Mayor, as head of the police, to order the provost
marshal to arrest all State officers who had not yet subscribed
the oath within the time fixed by the convention, and who,
notwithstanding the ordinance, had attempted to exercise juris-
diction ; the general orders were equally stringent, and no one
could plead ignorance of them, as they Avere publicly promul-
gated. On the 12th of January, 1862, the following letters
passed between the rebel and federal commanders :
"Headquaeters, Missouri State Guard,)
January 12, 1862. |
" General, — I have received information that, as Major
General commanding this Department, j^ou have ordered or al-
lowed the arrest of citizens in the pursuit of their usual and
peaceful avocations; that men, officers and privates belonging to
this army, have been taken prisoners on the Kansas border and
conveyed to Fort Leavenworth, and as such, and for no other
established offence or crime, have been shot in some cases. I
have learned that my discharged soldiers have been seized
whenever and wherever they have shown themselves, and that
they have been, by military coercion, forced into a servitude un-
known to international and civilized usages in such cases. I
have obtained information that individuals and parties of men
specially appointed and instructed by me to destroy railroad
culverts and bridges, by tearing them up, burning, &c., have
been arrested and subjected to general court-martial, for alleged
crimes, which all laws of warfare, heretofore recognized by the
civilized world, have regarded as distinctly proper and lawful.
I have learned that such persons, when tried, if convicted of the
offence or offences, as stated, are viewed as lawful subjects for
capital punishment. These statements I cannot believe to be
correct, but let us understand each other on this subject.
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK. 9
Do you intend to continue the arrest of citizens enscacred in
their ordinary peaceful pursuits and treat them as traitors and
rebels ? If so, will you make exchange with me for such as I
may or will make for similar cases ? Do you intend to regard
the members of this army as persons deserving death wherever
and whenever they may be captured, or will you extend to them
the recognized rights of prisoners of war by the code of civilized
warfare ? Do you regard the destruction of important roads for
transportation facilities for military purposes as the legal right
of a belligerent power ? Do you intend to regard men whom I
have especially despatched to destroy roads and burn bridges,
tear up culverts, &c., as ameanable to the enemy's court martial,
or will you have them tried as usual by the proper civil author-
ities, according to the statues of the States ?
"(Signed) Sterling Price,
"Major General Commanding Department."
The following embraces the main portion of General Halleck's
' Headquarters, Department of Missouri, )
St. Louis, January 22, 1862. |
Gen. Sterling Price, Commanding, etc :
General, — Your letter, dated Springfield, January 12, is
received. The troops of which you complain, on the Kansas
border, and at Fort Leavenworth, are not under my command.
In regard to them, I respectfull}'- refer you to Major General
David Hunter, commanding the Department, at the Head-
quarters, Fort Leavenworth.
You also complain that individuals and parties of men,
especially appointed and instructed by you to destroy railroad
culverts and bridges, by tearing up, burning, &c., had been
arrested, and subjected to general court-martial for alleged
crimes. This statement is in the main correct. Where indi-
viduals and parties of men violate the laws of war, they will be
tried, and if found guilty, will certainly be punished, whether
acting under your special appointment and instructions or not,
10 MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK
You must be aware, General, that no orders of yours can save
from punishment, spies, marauders, robbers, incendiaries, guer-
rilla bands, etc., who violate the laws of war. You cannot
give immunity to crimes. But let us fully understand each
other on this point. If you send armed forces, wearing the
garb of soldiers, and duly organized and enrolled as legitimate
belligerents to destroy railroads, bridges, .&c., as a military act,
we shall kill, if possible, in open warfsire, or if we capture them
we will treat them as prisoners of war. But it is well known
that you have sent numbers of your adherents in the garb of
principal citizens, and under false pretences, through our lines
into Northern Missouri, to rob and destroy the property of
Union men and burn and destroy railroad bridges, thus en-
dangering the lives of thousands, and this, too, without any
military necessity or possible military advantage. Moreover,
peaceful citizens of Missoux'i, quietly working on their farms,
have been instigated by your emissaries to take up arms as in-
surgents, and rob and plunder, and commit arson and murder,
they do not even act under the garb of soldiers, but under false
pretences, and in the guise of private citizens. You certainly
will not pretend that men guilty of such crimes, although
specially appointed and instructed by you are entitled to the
rights and immunities of ordinary prisoners of war. If you
do, will you refer me to a single authority on the laws of Avar
vrhich recognizes such a claim ?
" I am daily expecting instructions in regard to the exchange
of prisoners of war. I will communicate with you on that
subject as soon as they are received.
"(Signed) H. W. Halleck,
"Major General, Commanding Department."
Like the laws of the Medes and Persians, the decrees of
General Halleck were always strictly enforced. With him se-
cession was a crime ; he had taken an oath to maintain the con-
stitution, and was determined to uphold the Federal authoi'ities,
and to see that all others did the same. And some parties, who
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK. 11
were assessed for the benefit of the southwestern fugitives, by
order of General Halleck, failed to pay the assessments, their
property has been seized within a day or two past under execu-
tion to satisfy the assessment, with 25 per cent additional, ac-
cording to general orders No. 24.
Yesterday, Samuel Engler, a prominent merchant, and one
of the assessed secessionists, had a writ of replevin served upon
the Provost Marshal General for property seized from him,
whereupon he and his attorney, Nathaniel Cox, were arrested
and lodged in the military prison.
To-day, General Halleck issued a special order directing the
Provost Marshal General to send Engler beyond the limits of
this department, and to notify him not to return without the
permission of the Commanding General, under the penalty ac-
cording to the laws of war.
General Halleck also adds that, martial law having been de-
clared in this city, by the authority of the President of the
United States, all the civil authorities, of whatever name or
office, are hereby notified that any attempt on their part to in-
terfere with any order issued from these headquarters, or im-
pede, molest, or trouble any officer- duly appointed to carry
such order into eifect, will be regarded as a military ofi"ence and
The Provost Marshal General will arrest each and every per-
son, of whatever rank or office, who attempts in any way to
prevent or interfere with the execution of any order issued
from these headquarters. He will call upon the commanding
officer of the department at St. Louis for any military assist-
ance he may require.
Samuel Engler, the banished secessionist, was sent across the
river this afternoon. His destination is unknown. His attor-
ney has been released from military imprisonment. Attach-
ments were served upon the property of several other delin-
quent secessionists to-day.
The rebels attempted to make headway in other parts of the
State, but wherever they appeared, loss, ruin, and disaster fol-
12 MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
lowed in their footsteps. In an engagement at Silver Creek,
in the early part of January, 1862, the Federal-forces, number-
ing four hundred and fifty, encountered Poindexter, who com-
manded from 1000 to 1,300 men. Thirty prisoners, a large
number of horses, and some teams were captured, fifty to seven-
ty-five wounded, and a large number carried off; the Federal
loss was only four. Inch by inch the Federal commander of
the West entrenches himself; the stars and bars veiling their
diminished heads before the red, white, and blue, as the gallant
To detail the Avhole progress of General Halleck, and the de-
feat and route of the enemy, would make a fair sized volume,
and far exceed the limits of the present article. A few ex-
tracts from the papers must sufiice.
On the 4th of May, General Halleck, then near Corinth,
moved his headquarters twelve miles towards the front, and our
advance is now within two miles of the enemy's works. The
entire column is still pressing forward, and skirmishes between
tlie advance and the rebels are of daily occurrence. The
latter are making a slight show of resistance, and then falling
On Thursday, four hundred Germans from a Louisiana regi-
ment, who had been sent out from the rebel camp on guard
duty, came into our lines in a body with white flags on their
guns, and gave themselves up as deserters.
Still near Corinth, on the 27th of May, General Halleck is-
sued an order prohibiting unnecessary skirmishing with the
The pickets on each side are now friendly, and being within
speaking distance, they improve the opportunity of conversing
with each other.
Last night five rebels, including one sergeant, came over to
All along the line our forces are within two miles of the rebel
works, and in some places our heavy guns are within battering
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK. 13
distance ; but the dense woodlands intervening, prevent either
party from opening fire.
Camp rumors say that Vicksburg had surrendered, and our
fleet was on the way to Memphis.
The reporter of the Associated Press at Gen. Halleck's head-
quarters, says that all the Corinthian news that has been tele-
graphed from the Chicago papers, as contained in despatches
from Cairo, for some time past, has been utterly without foun-
No engagement of the least consequence had occurred at
Corinth or the vicinity up to half past eleven o'clock last
At last Beauregard is compelled to fly, and on the 9th of
June, an official communication is received from Halleck's head-
quarters, that the United States forces now occupy Baldwin,
Guntown, Jackson, and Bolivar.
The railroad repairs are progressing rapidly. The enemy
passed Guntown last night, retreating southward from Baldwin.
It is estimated that there have been twenty thousand deserters
from the rebel army since it left Corinth. These deserters are
mostly from the Tennessee, Kentucky, and Arkansas regi-
ments. All the regiments from these States passed down
closely guarded on both sides by Mississippi and Alabama regi-
It is believed by country people that Beauregard cannot en-
ter Columbus with half the troops he brought aAvay from Co-
rinth. The whole country east and north of Baldwin is full of
armed soldiers returning from Tennessee and Kentucky.
General Pope telegraphs from the advance that the prisoners
who first deserted to be exchanged, now want to take the oath.
The enemy drove and carried off everything for miles around.
The wealthiest families are destitute and starving. The women
and children are crying for food, the fathers, their protectors,
having been forced into the army.
The enemy is represented to be greatly suffering for food.
Jackson, Baldwin, and Guntown are stations on the Mobile
14 MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER IIALLECK.
and Ohio Railroad, the first being near Corinth, and Baldwin
and Guntown being respectively thirty-one and thirty-six miles
On the same day. General Halleck thus writes to the Secre-
tary of war :
To the Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, — The
enemy has fallen back to Tupelo, fifty miles by railroad, and
nearly seventy by wagon road.
Gen. Pope estimates the rebel loss from casualties, prisoners,
and deserters, at over twenty thousand, and Gen. Buell at be-
tween twenty-five and thirty thousand.
A person who was employed in the Confederate Commissary
Department, says that they had one hundred and thirty thou-
sand men in Corinth, and that now they cannot muster much
over eighty thousand.
Some of the fresh graves on the road have been opened, and
found filled with arms.
Many of the prisoners of war beg not to be exchanged, say-
ing that they purposely allowed themselves to be taken.
Beauregard himself retreated from Baldwin, on Saturday af-
ternoon, to Okalona.
[Signed] H. W. Halleck,
General Halleck has been as successful in Missouri and the
territory adjacent as McClellan in Virginia.
Pittsburg, Tenn., May 11, 1862, — The following despatch
has just been received at the Headquarters of the Army of the
Near Farmington, May 9th, P. M.
To Major General Halleck. — The enemy, 20,000 strong,
drove in our pickets beyond Farmington, and advanced against
the brigade occupying the farther side of the creek, in front of
The brigade held on for five hours, until, finding them heavily
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK. 15
pressed in front and on the flank, and that I coukl not sustain
them without crossing the creek with my whole force, which
was contrary to your orders, and would have brought on a gen-
eral engagement, I withdrew to this side in good order.
The conduct of the troops was excellent, and the withdrawal
was made by them very reluctantly.
The enemy made a demonstration to cross, but abandoned the
Our loss Avas considerable, though I cannot yet tell how great.
The enemy being much exposed, suffered very severely, one of
his batteries being completely disabled, and his infantry line
driven back several times. My command is eager for the
(Signed) John Pope, Major General.
Farmington is five miles northwest of Corinth.
The only forces engaged in the conflict referred to in the
above despatch, on the Federal side, were Plummer's and Pol-
The weather is warm and pleasant. All is quiet in front, the
enemy having retired.
Two days later some additional items of information are re-
On Thursday, the Second Battallion of the 7th Illinois Cav-
alry, under command of Major Applington, accompanied Gen.
Paine from Farmington on a reconuoissance of the enemy's
When about two miles out, the scouts, who had been sent in
advance, came back and reported that a force of rebel infantry
were lying in ambush in the wood on both sides of the road
leading from Farmington to Corinth.
After a consultation, the Federal force advanced for the pur-
pose of ascertaining the rebel strength. They were surrounded,
but succeeded in cutting their way through the rebels, who had
formed in the road, and making their way back to camp, bring-
16 MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
ing off the body of Major Applington, ^Yllo was killed, and four
of our wounded.
A deserter, who came in subsequently, says the rebels lost
forty-nine killed, wounded, and missing, of whom a Lieutenant
Colonel and a Captain were killed.
On Friday, the rebel General Bragg's division attacked Gen.
Paine in his position, two miles beyond Farmington. A sharp
engagement followed, our men fighting bravely, making several
bayonet charges on the enemy, who were repulsed with great
Large reinforcements of the rebels having arrived, our troops
retired to Farmington.
We lost nearly two hundred killed and wounded and prison-
ers. No particulars have been received.
A correspondent under date of June the 2nd, writes from the
camp near Corinth, that since the evacuation of Corinth and
the rapid route of the rebel army, General Halleck has been
active in the movements of our troops. A large portion of the
command of General Pope is in hot pursuit, and have already
captured a considerable force of rebels. He pursued them on
the line of the Mississippi and Mobile road. Some thirty miles
south of Corinth he overhauled a large body of rebel infantry,
together with two regiments of cavalry, and engaged them.
After a brisk fight of an hour or more, the rebels attempted a
retreat, but they were unfortunate in their position, owing, I
understand, to a swamp in their rear. By a rapid and brilliant
disposition of cavalry and support of infantry, they were out-
flanked both right and left, and the result is the capture of some
four thousand, mostly Mississippi and Tennessee troops.
Portions of General Buell's command have also been active,
the cavalry especially, scouring the country for miles, and cap-
turing rebels in bands of from half a dozen to fifty. Large
numbers are constantly arriving and delivering themselves up
to the Union pickets. They are principally deserters from the
rebel army in its retreat. I have conversed with several oflicers,
and from them I find the aggregate prisoners thus far taken to
MAJOR GENERAL IIEXRY \7AGER HALLECK. IT
be about five thousand, five hundred. This is not far from the
truth. The rapid pursuit of the enemy and the different direc-
tions of pursuit, render it impossible for me to give with any
degree of certainty the whereabouts of any particular regiment,
brigade, or even division. Suffice it to say, they are not idle,
and wherever they may be, or however far they may have ad-
vanced into the enemy's country, there will be no defeat from
surprise. Nor can they be overpowered, unless by a vastly
superior force. There is much truth in the remark of one of
our Generals, that " an army of ten thousand men in an enemy's
country, with no means of retreat is as good as twenty thousand
with good facilities of retreat." The Grand x\.rmy of the West
will render a good account of itself ere this afi'air at Corinth
shall have ended. I understand that the principal portion of
Major General Thomas' Command is in position some twelve
miles to our right, keeping vigilant "watch and ward" against
any attack which might possibly be made against us from the
Grand Junction, west of Corinth on the Memphis road, whither
it is thought by some a considerable force of rebels have gone.
I do not, however, apprehend that such is the case, for they
will not voluntarily rush into the "jaws of death." The re-
port prevails here to-day (and it is of rebel source), that Mem-
phis is evacuated, also the forts above and below Memphis, and
that the troops stationed at these places have gone to Granada,
at the junction of the Memphis and New Orleans and Jackson
roads. TJiis may or may not be true. Word was received at
General Halleck's headquarters yesterday, that General Pope
had come upon a long baggage and commissary train drawn by
five locomotives, that he had destroyed the baggage and stores,
the estimated value of which is one half a million of dollars,
and that he intends returning the engines to Corinth. A cou-
rier arrived late last night and announced that General Pope,
with the most part of his command, had crossed the Tuscumbia
Creek and would make his headquarters at Danville that night.
Thus moves the army of the Mississippi. Of General Mitchell
I can learn nothing. It is safe to say that he will ere long turn
18 MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
up where the rebels have not the least inclination to see him,
and where we shall be surprised to find him. Of General
Buell's army, Generals Sherman's and Crittenden's Divisions
are following the retreat. General Nelson's Division passed
through Corinth last night, with the intention of taking a tem-
porary position some five miles south of the town. General
"Wood's Division is stationed at Corinth. General McCook's
command is still held as a reserve, but to-day goes out as picket
guard. From the orders received through the different com-
mands in relation to the disposition of the sick at the difterent
hospitals, it is evident that another grand movement is soon to
commence. Whither we go, and how, is still a mystery.
Under date of June 9th, 1862, General Halleck writes offici-
ally to the AVar Department.
"Corinth, June 9.
"To the Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War :— The
enemy has fallen back to Tupelo, fifty miles by railroad, and
nearly seventy by wagon road.
" General Pope estimates the rebel loss from casualties,
prisoners, and deserters, at over twenty thousand, and General
Buell at between twenty-five and thirty thousand.
" A person who was employed in the Confederate Commissary
Department says they had one hundred and thirty thousand
men in Corinth, and that now they cannot muster much over
" Some of the fresh graves on the road have been opened,
and found filled with arms.
"Many of the prisoners of war beg not to be exchanged,
saying that they purposely allowed themselves to be taken.
" Beauregard himself retreated from Baldwin on Saturday
afternoon, to Okalona.
"(Signed) H. W. Hallfck.
MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK. 19
Three days later additional despatches were received con-
veying the information that Beauregard is reported to have
been with the remains of his army on Saturday last.
Spies and deserters represent the rebel army to be greatly
disorganized, mutinous, and deserting.
The regiments which refused to serve longer than their time
of enlistment, which is expired, have been disarmed, and large
The immense destruction of valuable stores proves that the
retreat was a hurried one, half-burned lomocotives and cars are
found in places where they would not have been left if the
enemy had been making a contemplated and prepared retreat.
The Rebel army has stripped of food the whole country south
of Corinth, and many of the inhabitants are in a starving con-
From the St. Louis journals under date of June 11th, we
learn that a gentleman, who has just arrived from Corinth, and
is conversant with matters there, says General Buell, with 60,000
troops embracing two divisions of his own and all of General
Pope's forces, were at Guntown, in hot pursuit of General
General W. T. Sherman's division was engaged in repairing
the bridges on the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, between
Corinth and Grand Junction.
General Wood's division, of Buell's corps, was repairing the
bridges across Big Bear Creek, twenty-six miles from Corinth.
General Thomas, with about 6,000 troops, is at Corinth, re-
novating the town, so that it may be used as a habitation for
Generals McClernand and Wallace are at Purdy, with 20,000
The railroad from Corinth to Jackson and thence to Grand
Junction, is being rapidly repaired, and communication was
expected to be opened with Columbus, Ky., in a day or two,
affording an important and speedy route for the transportation
of supplies. Eleven locomotives have been captured at different
20 MAJOR GENERAL HENRY WAGER HALLECK.
points, four of which are in running' order and the balance be-
ing rapidly repaired.
The General's staff comprises some of the bravest and most
scientific men in the service of the United States ; these gentle-
men admirably second their distinguished chief. Sagacity, deter-
mination, and great practical and theoretical military knowledge,
are the leading traits of General Halleck ; that he is a man of
intense industry no one can doubt, as in addition to the works
mentioned in this meagre sketch the General has published pa-
pers on practical engineering, report on military defences, and
a valuable text book on international law and the laws of war.
One of our contempories gives a pen and ink portrait of the
General's personal appearance.
General Halleck in the field is hardly the same person who
might have been seen quietly gliding from the Planter's House
to headquarters in St. Louis. He does not look a Avhit
more military in appearance, but looks in his new and rich,
though plain, uniform, as if he were in borrowed clothes.
In truth, he bears a most striking resemblance to some oleagin-
ous Methodist parson dressed in regimentals, with a wide, stiff-
rimmed black felt hat sticking on the back of his head, at an
acute angle with the ground. His demeanor in front of his
tent is very simple and business-like. No pomp, no unusual
ceremony, and no lack of order. His camps are pitched on a
declivity, on the south side of the village of Monterey. When
on horseback, his Wesleyan character is more and more promi-
nent. He neither looks like a soldier, rides like one, nor does
he carry the state of a Major General in the field, but is the
impersonation of the man of peace. His face is large, tabular,
and Teutonic ; his eyes the eyes of genius — a kind of indistinct
gray, not without expression, but of that deep welling kind
that only reveal the emotion without indicating its character.
Mr. Lambdin has latterly painted a portrait of General
Halleck, from a photograph, which has been exhibited for some
days in Robinson's window. It is a fine work of art ; the col-
oring is excellent, and the position free and unconstrained.
MAJOR GENERAL HEXRY WAGER HALLECK. 21
Two rebel trophies from Corinth have been brought to Phila-
delphia by H. E. Thayer, Esq. They consist of a rifle and
pike. The latter is apparently the most dangerous weapon
of the two, being so arranged as to protect the bearer against
a bayonet charge, and to inflict a wound when it is drawn
backward as well as when thrust forward. The trophies can be
seen at the Inquirer Oflice.
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE.
Kentucky, almost since lier earliest settlement, has produced
great men. The name of Henry Clay was a tower of strength,
aud history has assigned him an honorable place among her
great statesmen. Crittenden's glorious eiforts in the cause of
the Union also entitle him to the praises of every true patriot.
Major General John Pope, whose brilliant exploits in central
Missouri have latterly been much extolled, was a native of this
State, and is the son of General Nathaniel Pope, who emi-
grated to the "bloody land" from Virginia, but, who after the
birth of his son, removed to Illinois.
His son John entered West Point in 1838, and graduating in
1842, remained in the army. Like most of the younger officers
who then left West Point, Lieut. Pope served in the Mexican
war, and was brevetted for gallant conduct at Monterey, Septem-
ber 23d, 1846.
The battle of Buenavista was perhaps the most celebrated in
the Mexican campaign ; and on the 2od of February, 1847,
Lieutenant Pope was brevetted captain for his meritorious con-
duct in the action last mentioned. On the 1st of July, 1856,
he was named actual captain of typographical engineers, and
on the 17th of May, 1861, was created Brigadier General of
On the 18th of December, 1861, General Pope headed an
MAJOR GENERAL JOIIX POPE. 23
expedition and cut ofi" the enemy's camp near Sha-wnee's Mound,
Missouri, and scattered 2,200 strong, in every direction. A part
of this commander's forces, under Colonel T. C. Davis and
Major Marshall, surprised another camp at Mulford, Missouri,
a little north of Warnersburg ; the enemy surrendered at dis-
cretion ; 1,300 prisoners, 1,000 stand of arms, 65 wagons, a large
amount of baggage, and some horses were taken. On the 22d
of the same month, the cavalry under the command of the same
officer, despatched to Lexington, Mo., made some important
captures and destroyed some ferry boats and a foundry.
His brilliant movement in central Missouri tended greatly
to restore peace to that section of the State, and his successful
investment of Ncav iNIadrid, led to its evacuation ; this tri-
umph only encouraged General Pope to attempt a more daring
Since the first possession of New Madrid, the place has been
held by General Pope, who commands the Mississippi with his
batteries, and effectually prevents the retreat of the rebel gun
boats down the river. It was now a matter of great importance
to reduce Island No 10 ; this difficulty General Pope executed.
Colonel Bissell Avas ordered to cut a channel and force the
transports across over the marshes west of Island No 10 ; and
with immense labour successfully accomplished it. General
Pope, assisted by the gun boats Corondelet and Pittsburg,
(which had passed near Island No 10 in a thunder storm and
shelled out the rebel batteries opposite New Madrid,) threw two
divisions across the river. The rebels on the Tennessee bank
facing Island No 10, thus approached in the rear, fled to Tipton,
whither they were pursued by General Pope and the gun boats.
Battle was at once given ; the rebels dispersed ; 2,000 prisoners
were taken and the residue fled in consternation to the morasses.
The island was instantly surrendered, the position was taken by
Commodore Foote, and the Federal authorities had undisturbed
river communication with New Madrid.
About the middle of June, an invitation was extended to
General Pope to visit Washington, and on the 21st, that officer
24 MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE.
Avith a portion of his staff, loft for the seat of the Federal Go-
General Pope on his arrival at Washington appeared in a
suit of black, and rather shunned notice, but was warmly wel-
comed when recognized.
After a brief sojourn at Washington, General Pope and the
President turned their steps northward, and after passing
through Philadelphia, arrived on the 24th of June at West
Point to confer with General Scott on matters of moment.
The New York Express thus details the movements of the
President. To this we add the on dits of the day, both in
Gotham and Philadelphia :
The precise motives which induced the President to leave the
capital of the nation, and travel with almost telegraphic speed
to West Point, has been the anxious inquiry of thousands. Up
to this time that inquiry has not been answered, but perhaps
the following record of the Presidential doings and sayings will
furnish a clue to the mystery.
As already stated, Mr. Lincoln arrived in New York at mid-
night on Monday. He was accompanied by Colonel D. C. Mc-
CuUum, Military Superintendent of Railroads, and his colored
servant, William. As soon as he arrived a special train, which
had been been previously prepared, was in waiting at the Hud-
son River Railroad depot, and immediately sta)-ted for West
Point. As soon as the train was ordered, a telegram was sent
to Mr. Sloan, President of the road, who is staying at Cozzens'
Hotel, directing him to be prepared to meet "a fellow President
who was coming on a special train." On receiving this mis-
sive, Mr. Sloan conjectured who his visitor would be, but the
idea was generally scouted at the hotel — the belief being that
it was a President of some one-horse railroad, anxious to see
his brother of the locomotives. Mr. Sloan, however, took mea-
sures to have the ferry boat in readiness all night, and Mr.
Cozzens also waited to receive the anxiously looked for and
somewhat hurried visitor.
In the evening, Mr. Sloan went over to the Point and brought
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE. 25
General Scott, at the same time intimating who was coming.
The General acquiesced in Mr. Sloan's A^ews. The railroad
president and the General went on the ferry boat, Avhere they
remained all night. General Scott was very much agitated,
and expressed his fears that something was wrong.
At three A. M. on Tuesday, the train reached- Garrison's, and
a few minutes after President Lincoln came on board the ferry
boat. He looked somewhat anxious and careworn, but on see-
ing General Scott his face Avas lit up Avith a smile of gladness,
and seizing his hand, ho grasped it eagerly, saying: " General,
I'm glad to see you looking so Avell, I have come to see you."
The two then retired to the cabin, where they were engaged in
earnest conversation till they arrived at the Point, Avhere a car-
riage was in Avaiting to carry them to Cozzens' Hotel. Mr.
Sloan and Mr. Belcher, of "Garrison's," had already gone
ahead, and at the request of the former, a number of gentle-
men Avho were standing on the piazza to see the ncAV comer, re-
tired. The President immediately went to bed, but arose about
seven o'clock and took breakfast. Directly after breakfast, the
President and General Scott retired to a private parlor, where,
with maps charts, locked doors, and a waiter outside to pre-
vent intrusion, they were in earnest conversation for five hours.
The full purport of that consultation is not IcnoAvn. Suffi-
cient information was, hoAvever, gleaned as to the motive which
brought the President to the General. He consulted with him
as to the present state of the campaign, and the best policy to
bring the Avar to a speedy end. The advice of General Scott
was asked and obtained as to the necessity for immediate reor-
ganization of the army, and Avhat changes would be necessary
in the several military departments.
A great change will take place, Avithin a day or two, in the
Cabinet, and an entire fresh war programme has been decided
upon. General Scott Avill, in all probability, Avithin a few days
reassume his position as Commander-in-Chief, and Avill stay in
NcAV York in readiness to leave for Washington at a moment's
notice. It Avas noticed that when the President came from the
26 MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE.
room liis countenance bore a comparatively joyous expression,
and as he came forth, arm in arm Avitli General Scott, he ap-
peared to have derived much encouragement from the interview.
Accompanied by Col. McCullum, the President then pro-
ceeded to the Military Academy, General Scott being too fa-
tigued to go with him.
On arriving at the Academy, the cadets were drawn up in
line and saluted the President with military honors. A thor-
ough inspection of the barracks and apartments was then made,
and the President expressed his great satisfaction at the ap-
pearance of everything he beheld. In company with Professor
McMahon and Colonel Bowen he then returned to the hotel.
About three o'clock he took dinner, the party consisting of the
President, General Scott, Colonel Bowen, Professor McMahon,
Colonel IMcCullum, and Mr. Sloan. The head waiter was con-
ducting Mr. Lincoln to a seat, when turning round towards
General Scott, he remarked, " No, thank you, the commander-
in-Chief will seat me;" and so saying, he took a seat to the
right of General Scott. Of course the President was the cy-
nosure of all eyes, and comments upon his appearance, and
what brought him to West Point, were a fruitful theme of din-
After dinner the President and Col. McCullum took a car-
riage and drove to Cold Springs, where they visited the iron
foundry of Gouverneur Kemble. While the President was at this
place, several Parrot guns, throwing shell weighing one and two
hundred pounds, Avere tested. The experiment was eminently
satisfactory ; the shell were fired with ease a distance of a
mile and a half and two miles, and in every instance ex-
ploded the moment they came in contact with the ground.
After staying at the foundry some time, the President re-
turned to the hotel, which he reached about 8 P. M. About
nine o'clock Mr. Lincoln, escorting the Baroness Stoeckel,
entered the public parlor and for about half an hour held a
levee. He then engaged in conversation with Mrs. General
Viele, to whom he paid marked attention, observing jocosely,
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE. 27
that "the wives of his Generals had a daim upon him." He
complimented the lady in a very flattering manner upon the
gallantry and bravery of her husband, and expressed himself
highly pleased with the polic}^ displayed by the General, as
Military Commandant of Norfolk. He engaged in conversa-
tion with nearly all the ladies present, drawing his chair near
them and making himself the centre of a conversational circle.
Of course, in such agreeable society the stern topics of war
were discarded, and the President charmed all the ladies with
his conversational powers and affability. In response to a re-
quest of that nature, Mr. Lincoln inscribed his autograph in the
photograpic album of Mrs. Viele and several other ladies. An
hour or two were wiled away in this agreeable manner, and
about 11 o'clock the President retired to his room. Shortly
after midnight, in the midst of a pelting rain, the harmonious
notes of the Academy band broke upon the stillness of the air,
and the President and guests were regaled with a very agreeable
serenade. The selection of music was —
"Hail to the Chief," "Hail Columbia," "Yankee Doodle,"
"Negroe Medley," Serenade from "Trovatore," solo, " Spirito
Gentil," •'vnd numerous operatic and patriotic selections.
The President, having already retired, did not re-appear, but
the guests at the hotel were much pleased with the serenade.
"While in his room, arrangements were made for his departure
this morning. It was arranged to have a special train in wait-
ing at Garrison's at 8 25, to arrive at this cit}^ at 10 15, so that
the President could leave by special train from Jersey City
direct for Washington. Col, McCullum left by the late train
on Tuesday night, to see that his programme was carried out.
Permission was then asked of Mr. Lincoln to alloAV the repre-
sentatives of the press to travel with him on the special train.
" Certainly," was the President's reply. " Why not ? I am not
afraid of the reporters, and talking of reporters puts me in
mind of a good story." A characteristic anecdote was then
narrated, by which Mr. Lincoln conveyed the idea that he was
28 MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE.
not as badly scared by the knights of the quill as some folks
The President arose about seven o'clock this morning and
took breakfast with General Scott and Mr. Sloan. About eight
o'clock an open barouche drove up to the hotel, and in it Mr.
Lincoln, General Scott, Mr. Sloan, and William proceeded to the
ferry boat. The rest of the party, who were going with the train,
went with another larger two horse conveyance. On arriving
on the boat, the party were met by Mr. Belcher, formerly of
the firm of Belcher, Sackett, & Co., of this city, and Mr. Toucey,
the Assistant Superintendent of the Hudson River railroad.
In compliance with a suggestion of Mr. Belcher, a circuit of
some two miles was made to give the President an opportunity
of witnessing the picturesque scenery of this part of the Hud-
While on the Avay, the Albany boat Mary Powell passed, and
Mr. Lincoln and General Scott being observed, the passengers
cheered vociferously, the bell ringing at the same time. In
answer to the cheers the President took oiF his hat and waved
it. On nearing Garrison's a salute was fired, to the music of
which the party entered the train. The train, which consisted
of a locomotive and one handsomely furnished ladies' car, then
left Garrison's at 9 o'clock. Prior to startinir, the morninor
papers were purchased for Mr. Lincoln, and an elderly lady
threw in a freshly plucked bouquet of " Sweet Williams." The
bouquet was caught by Mr. Sloan, who handed it to the Pres-
ident, who, on receiving it, remarked, " There is an abundance
if not variety." Mr. Sloan observed that it was an offering of
the heart, to which Mr. Lincoln replied, " I know it, and ac-
cept it as such." The train then proceeded at the rate of about
forty-five miles an hour. The party on the train consisted of
Mr. Lincoln, General Scott, Mr. Sloan, Mr. Belcher, Mr. D.
Wolfe Bishop, Mr. Cozzens, Mr. Toucey, Mr. Howard of the
Times, ^Ir. Conway of the Herald, the " representative of the
Express," and the servant of the President.
As the train passed the stations, a conjecture was made as to
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE. 29
the inmates of the train, and cheers were given at ahnost every
point of the road.
After reading the papers, Mr. Lincoln engaged in earnest
conversation with General Scott. The consultation led to a
slight change in the programme, and it was settled that General
Scott should return to West Point to-night, and there await the
missive which will probably soon summon him to Washington.
When the train reached Tarrytown, an immense concourse was
assembled, who cheered lustily for President Lincoln and Gen-
eral Scott, to which the " cheerers" responded bowing. The
train was carefully run, scarcely any fear being felt, though the
run was made from Tarrytown in twenty minutes.
On nearing Thirty-fifth street a number of torpedoes, one for
each State that ought to be in the Union, and which had been
placed expressly on the track, exploded; the Avorkmen of the
company — about two hundred in number — were drawn up in
line, and to the cracking of the torpedoes and the cheers of the
workmen the special train rode up to the depot, where a large
number of spectators had assembled, who clamored in stcntoi'ian
tones for a speech. The President " could not see it," and with
the aid of the police a passage way was kept clear, through
which Mr. Lincoln, General Scott, and Mr. Sloan proceeded to
a carriage, which Col. McCullum had in waiting. Accompanied
by the colonel, the carriage drove off, all heads being uncovered
as cheer after cheer was given for Mr. Lincoln and General
Scott. The train arrived at Thirty-first street at 10 20, and
the carriage left almost immediately for the Jersey City ferry.
When nearing the depot. General Scott was asked his opinion
of Mr. Lincoln. "Sir," said the old hero to the querist, ad-
dressing him with emphasis, " he is an honest, upright man,
very conscientious, and tries to do right with all parties ; that's
what I believe, and I hope you are satisfied."
The party arrived at Jersey City at eight minutes past eight
o'clock, accompanied by Inspector Leonard, and two patrolmen
of the Metropolitan Police, who came over to aid in keeping back
the crowd, which, it was expected, would be at the railroad depot.
30 MAJOR GENERAL JOHX POPE
The time of the anticipated arrival of the President was
known to but very few persons in Jersey City, so that no un-
usually large crowd awaited his coming. About one hundred
persons were on hand at the depot, however, including about a
dozen ladies. The carriage containing the President was im-
mediately driven from the ferry boat to the special train of an
engine, and two handsome new cars, in waiting within the de-
pot. On alighting from the carriage the crowd completely sur-
rounded the President and Colonel McCullura. The Ncav York
police cleared the short passage way necessary for them to
reach the cars, to which they were escorted by Mr. J. W. Wood-
ruff, the Assistant Superintendent of the New Jersey Railroad,
after the distinguished travelers had shaken hands Avith and
bidden adieu to General Scott and Mr. Sloan, who remained
in the passage, and were immediately driven back to the boat
to return to New York.
President Lincoln got upon the train at the rear platform of
the back car, and when he reached this elevation he was cheered
enthusiastically. He acknowledged the favor with a bow to the
excited crowd, who renewed the cheers and called for a
"speech." The President smiled at this demand, and shook
his head discouragingly ; but the crowd persevered in the call
so strongly that the President removed his seat as a preparatory
act towards granting their desire. This movement elated the
spectators to the highest degree. They showed their apprecia-
tion of it by a round of cheers, and then quieted down to hear
The President spoke substantially as follows :
"When birds and animals are looked at through a fog, they
are seen to disadvantage, and so it might be Avith you if I Avere
to attempt to tell you Avhy T went to see General Scott. I can
only say that my visit to West Point did not have the import-
ance which has been attached to it ; but it concerned matters
that you understand quite as well as if I were to tell you all
about them. Now I can only remark that it had nothing
whatever to do with making or unmaking any general
MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE. 31
in the country. (Laughter and applause.) The Secretary of
AYar, you know, holds a pretty tight rein on the press, so that
they shall not tell more than they ought to ; and I'm afraid that
if I blab too much he might draw a tight rein on me." (Roars
of laughter and loud applause, during which the President re-
tired within the car.)
The train slowly moved off a moment afterward, in charge of
Mr. Woodruff, who stood upon the front platform of the back
car, and called for "three cheers for the President of the United
States." The call was vigorously responded to, and the com-
pliment was acknowledged by the President by standing up and
removing his hat. By this time the train was rapidly moving
away, and the crowd dispersed.
On the boat coming back, General Scott was looked at with
a great deal of curiosity within the cai-riage by a number of
men and boys who gathered about it and glanced in through the
windows at the veteran warrior. The General, on arrivins on
the New York side, was driven to his hotel, where he will re-
main till afternoon, when he will return to West Point.
The President's visit to West Point to see General Scott, has
given rise to many rumors of intended changes in the Cabinet,
and thereinstatement of General Scott as Commander-in-Chief
of the army^
Scott has studied the entire country with an eye to its stra-
tegic points, and with his experience and knowledge to assist
the War Department, our gallant generals in the field will find
able support and proper appreciation, instead of being crippled
and bafiled at every turn by personal jealousies, private piques,
and political ambitious. If the reports be true, they afford an-
other proof of the good sense of the President, in applying to
the best sources for aid in an emergency, and setting aside all
other considerations than the good of the country when he
wishes to obtain it.
Rumor says that General Scott is to succeed the Secretary
of War, with General Banks as Assistant Secretary, and that
32 MAJOR GENERAL JOHN POPE.
Geneva! Pope will take Banks' command in the field, while Mc-
Dowell will be given some garrison station.
Another version makes Gen. Scott Commander-in-Chief of
the army, with Banks as Secretary of War.
By recent despatches from Washington under date of June
2C)th, we learn that the forces under Major General Fremont,
Banks, and McDowell, have been consolidated into one army,
to be called the Army of Virginia, and Major General Pope has
been especially assigned by the President to the chief com-
The forces under General Fremont will constitute the first
army corps, to be commanded by General Fremont.
The forces under General Banks will constitute the second
army corps, to be commanded by that officer.
The forces ^nder General McDowell will constitute the third
army corps, to be commanded by General McDowell.
General McCall's division, 10,000 strong, which formed a
part of General McDowell's corps, has reached General Mc-
Clollan by Avater, and another division is to follow immediately
in the same way, while General Pope will also operate against
the enemy at Richmond.
Besides McCall's division. General McClellan has received
other reinforcements, to the amount of several thousands, since
the battle of Fair Oaks.
Washington, June 2G. — The consolidation of the forces
under Major Generals Fremont, Banks, and IMcDowell, to be
called the "Army of Virginia," with Major General Pope as
the chief commander, is hailed with delight as an earnest of
the determination of the President to act with reference only to
the public welfare, while it is not doubted that all of these
officers will cheerfully co-operate in the performance of their
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