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MANUFACTURERS' RECORD. 



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The Manufacturers' Record is a weekly illustrated 
journal of quarto size, devoted to the Industrial, Financial, 
Railroad and Commercial Interests of the South. In its various 
departments it treats of the material interests of the South 
from a practical standpoint, with illustrations of a high order 
whenever they can be used to advantage. The important in- 
dustries of the South are discussed under the following heads ; 

TEXTILES. 

RAILROADS, 

COAL and COKE. 

IRON INDUSTRY. 
PHOSPHATES. 
LUriBER. 

HECHANICAL. 

CONSTRUCTION. 

The Phosphate, Lumber and Iron Departments contain 
carefully-prepared market reviews by special correspondents 
in the leading trade centres. The Construction Department 
is one of the unique features, being a complete record of all 
new industries organized or established in the South. 

There is no other publication that treats so fully and with 
such authority the material interests of the South, and the 
Manufacturers' Record is everywhere looked to for 
information about the South. For ten years it has been 
devoted exclusively to the work of making known to the 
world the resources and progress of the South, and as an 
exponent of Southern industrial, commercial and financial 
affairs it stands without a rival. 

The subscription price of the Manufacturers' Record 
is four dollars per year. 



rianufacturers' Record Publishing Company, 
BALTinORE, MD. 




: ! % 





ICTURERS' RECORD BUILDING, LEXINGTON AND NORTH STREETS, BALTIMORE. 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM 



The pioneers in the publication of jour- 
nals devoted to various lines of trade and 
industry probably never imagined, even 
in their most hopeful moods, that this 
branch of journalism would ever reach the 
importance by which it is marked at the 
present time. The few publications of this 
class which were in existence thirty or forty 
years ago were of small proportions and 
limited circulation. Illustrations were 
sparingly used, and the enterprise that 
characterizes the great trade journals of the 
present day was unknown. Advertising 
was then an unknown art among manufac- 
turers, and the patronage of the most flour- 
ishing trade paper of those days would not 
pay the paper bill of a corresponding pub- 
lication of the present time. But trade 
journalism has developed rapidly, perhaps 
not less so than daily journalism, and now 
publications devoted to industries, trades 
and professions are numbered by the thou- 
sands. Every important industry has its 
representative weekly or monthly journals 
and some branches of trade have scores of 
publications. Several of the larger weekly 
journals publish as much matter in each 
issue as is contained in any of the great popu- 
lar monthly magazines. There are, perhaps, 
a score of trade journals whose profits ap- 
proximate those of a prosperous city daily. 
The fact that the publishers of one of the 
great English technical journals, which has 
its equals in this country, incorporated 
their business with a capital of $750,000 
about a year ago, gives -some idea of the 
magnitude that has been attained by this 
branch of journalism. And it is a some- 



what significant fact that few of the sue 
cessful trade publications of today started 
with much other capital than the brains and 
energy of their founders. 

Success in trade journalism follows the 
diligent pursuit of a definite idea, a devo- 
tion to a single and well-chosen object. It 
is not often that two successful journals 
can be found working in the same 
field and upon the same plan. Every 
successful trade journal has its dis- 
tinctive field and individual line of 
work. More and more are papers of this 
class narrowing their fields and specializing 
in a minute manner, and nearly every day 
witnesses the birth of a new journal de- 
signed to follow between narrow lines, to 
work studiously and persistently upon a 
single idea. 

The Manufacturers' Record, of Balti- 
more, Md., furnishes a striking illustration 
of the value of a defined purpose and a per- 
sistently-followed plan in trade journalism. 
This journal is the outgrowth, the devel- 
opment, of an idea, simple in itself, but of 
exceeding value because strictly adhered 
to through many years. This idea, which 
ten years have not altered, was the stimu- 
lation of the industrial growth of the South 
by making known to the world the re- 
sources and possibilities of that section. 
How fruitful has been this idea in results 
to the South and to the journal that has so 
assiduously fostered it is known to every- 
one who knows the South and the Manu- 
facturers' Record, two things that are 
never separated. 

The venerable Baltimore Journal of Com- 
[3] 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM. 



merce, still energetic and progressive, is 
one of the oldest trade publications in this 
country, being now in its forty-fourth year. 
For many years it was published by the 
late George U. Porter, and for a long time 
it was under the editorial charge of Rich- 
ard H. Edmonds. A devotion to the South, 
a familiarity with its conditions and possi- 
bilities and a desire to enter a field then 
unoccupied developed in the mind of Mr. 



Journal of Commerce and Manufacturers' 
Record, at the same time abandoning the 
cumbersome four-page sheet for a sixteen- 
page paper of the present size. This change 
was made in February, 1882, and for a year 
the dual publication enjoyed a successful ca- 
reer. It was then deemed for the advan- 
tage of both ideas embodied in the paper 
that it should be separated into two dis- 
tinct publications, and in November, 1882, 




MANAGING EDITOR'S OFFICE. 



Edmonds the idea of an industrial journal 
to be devoted to the South; a medium for 
the circulation of Southern industrial news 
and for the transmission of specific infor- 
mation about the resources and possibili- 
ties of that section. Mr. Porter, upon 
whom this idea was frequently urged, did 
not fully enter into the spirit of the 
plan, but compromised by extending the 
scope of his paper and changing it to the 



the present Manufacturers' Record en- 
tered upon a career which has been marked 
by continually increasing influence and 
prosperity. Mr. Edmonds continued his 
management and for a year or two also ed- 
ited the Journal of Commerce. 

The first home of the Manufacturers' 
Record consisted of desk-room in an office 
in the present Peabody Fire Insurance 
Building on Second street, next to the 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM. 



custom-house. There was desk-room only, 
and a small allowance of that. When the 
growth of the paper required more room an 
office was taken on an upper floor of the 
Maryland Fire Insurance Building in the 
same neighborhood. A climb of four flights 
of stairs was something of an obstacle to 
the convenient transaction of business, and 
another move brought the office of the 
paper to quarters ft long occupied in Ex- 



and best-equipped printing-houses in Bal- 
timore. 

Urgent need for better and more ample 
accommodations resulted in the plans for a 
handsome seven-story office building, work 
upon which was begun in the fall of 1891. 
This handsome structure stands at the cor- 
ner of Lexington and North streets, diag- 
onally opposite the city hall and postoffice, 
a location that is at once convenient and 





BUSINESS OFFICE. 



change place, at the corner of Commerce. 
To the single office, which at first answered 
all purposes, other rooms were added, one 
by one, until the working force of the 
paper filled five offices on the second floor. 
A printing office, first intended to do the 
work of the Manufacturers' Record, de- 
veloped into a separate enterprise which 
filled the two upper floors of the building 
and has expanded into one of the largest 



conspicuous. The building was completed 
in September, 1892, and October found the 
Manufacturers' Record installed in its 
present quarters, which are such as few 
trade journals occupy. 

The Manufacturers' Record Building is a 
massive seven-story structure, built of 
brick, with ornate brown sandstone trim- 
mings, having a frontage of fifty feet on 
Lexington street and extending along North 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM. 



street to a depth of 125 feet. The building 
is modern in every respect, being designed 
solely for office purposes. The main en- 
trance is on Lexington street through a 
marble-tiled hall, with wainscoting of 
quartered oak. An Otis electric ele- 
vator runs swiftly and smoothly from 
floor to floor in the centre of the 
enclosed building, with handsome grill 
work in polished brass. The interior 



divided into two large offices; above this the 
building contains thirty-six offices, every 
one of which is practically an outside room 
with abundance of daylight and ventila- 
tion. Few such cheerful offices can be found 
anywhere, even in the great towering piles 
of New York, Boston and Chicago. 

The Manufacturers' Record occupies 
the entire seventh floor of the building, 
high above the noise and dust of the streets, 




EDITORIAL ROOM. 



finish throughout the building is quartered 
oak, an unusually handsome assortment 
of wood having been gathered for this pur- 
pose. The walls are tinted in a light shade 
that softens the abundant light in every 
office. There are both gas and electric 
lights in every room and the building is 
heated by steam. A mail chute extending 
through every floor affordsan additional con- 
venience to tenants. The ground floor is 



where no neighboring buildings can shut 
out the sunlight. The arrangement of this 
floor is precisely the same as all the others 
above the first story. There are six offices, 
four communicating rooms on one side and 
two large offices of equivalent area on the 
other side. The entrance immediately fac- 
ing the elevator opens into the general 
office, which contains the business manager, 
advertising department, bookkeepers, etc. 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM. 



A large communicating office in the rear is 
devoted to stenographers and typewriters, 
subscription department and desks for sev- 
eral local and traveling agents. On the 
other side of the building, opening from 
the general office, is the managing editor's 
room, a cheerful and handsome corner 
office, which commands a fine view of the 
city. Adjoining this is a room occupied by 
other members of the editorial staff; be- 



and supplies. All of these offices are devoted 
to the work of the Manufacturers' Record 
and Manufacturers' Record Magazine. 
The patrons and friends of these publica- 
tions are always welcomed here and the 
facilities of the office are at their disposal. 
Ever since its establishment the Manu- 
facturers' Record has been devoted en- 
tirely to the work of encouraging and stim- 
ulating the growth of the South through 




EDITORIAL K()< >AI 



yond this is the Construction Department, a 
a feature of the Manufacturers' Record 
with which all its readers are familiar, and 
upon which most of the other trade jour- 
nals depend for their news of Southern in- 
dustrial matters. At the end of this suite 
of offices is the file room, lined with shelves 
and pigeon holes, for keeping files of the 
Manufacturers' Record, exchanges, cor- 
respondence files, letter books, electrotypes 



the development of its natural resources. 
Since the first issue it has adhered unwav- 
eringly to the policy adopted at the begin- 
ning. It has had a fixed purpose, based 
on absolute faith in the cause it repre- 
sented. In all these years it has never 
halted or doubted or compromised for a 
single moment, and though at times its 
claims for the natural resources and possi- 
bilities of development of the South were 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM. 



criticised and ridiculed by the incredulous 
public, it has lived to see amply substan- 
tiated and verified all it ever claimed for 
the South. Its forecasts of Southern prog- 
ress have been abundantly fulfilled, while 
the world has been brought to acknowledge 
the inconceivable variety and magnitude 
of the South's material wealth and to look 
to the Manufacturers' Record as the one 
general and authentic source of knowledge 



told to a handful of listless auditors. 
Today it speaks to the largest audi- 
ence addressed by any trade or technical 
publication in the world, first, by its own 
widespread circulation, and, second, 
through the copious quotations from its 
columns by the daily and weekly news- 
papers. The latter characteristic has given 
it the reputation of being the "most widely 
quoted industrial paper in the world." 




CORRliSI'ONDKNCli AND.SL' KSCR 1 1 J TIUN DKl'AKTM KNTS. 



concerning Southern material affairs. 
The founders of the Manufacturers' 
RECORD have had the gratification of see- 
ing its work for the South yield rich re- 
sults, while incidentally, as a profitable 
business undertaking, it has been a pro- 
nounced success. When the Manufac- 
turers' Record joined its fortunes with 
those of the then comparatively im- 
poverished South, its story had to be 



In the columns of the MANUFACTURERS' 
Record the various branches of Southern 
resources and progress are treated in dif- 
ferent departments. The Textile Depart- 
ment contains specially prepared articles 
upon the cotton and woolen industries of 
the South, the culture of various fibres and 
all the news of these branches of industry. 
The Phosphate Department, the only one 
of its kind, is devoted to the phosphate in- 



SUCCESSFUL TRADE JOURNALISM. 



dustry of South Carolina and Florida. Cor- 
respondents at all of the mining centres fur- 
nish news of the industry, the developments 
in each region and carefully prepared re- 
views of the condition of trade. The Coal 
and Coke Department treats fully of this 
great branch of Southern industry. The 
Lumber Department deals with Southern 
timber resources and their development, 
with a series of market reports from the 
leading centres which are recognized as 
accurate and authoritative. The Mechani- 
cal Department is devoted chiefly to illus- 
trated descriptions of the latest ideas in 
machinery of various kinds, supplemented 
by general articles of interest to the me- 
chanical industries. The Railroad Depart- 
ment presents each week the news of the 
Southern railroads, with a letter from Wall 
street treating of financial topics of general 
interest and of Southern questions bearing 
upon railroad interests. The iron and 
cotton markets are also carefully and ac- 
curately reviewed each week. The Con- 
struction Department is a unique feature 
of the paper and one to which much of its 
success is due, as it chronicles each week 
the organization of every new industry in 
the South, the extension of existing estab- 
lishments, the formation of new banks and 
other financial institutions, the placing of 
contracts for new buildings, and all im- 
portant items of new railroad construction, 
surveys and projects. This department of 
the paper is more carefully read and more 
extensively copied than any other feature. 
Naturally a journal of such standing and 
influence is recognized as an exceedingly 



valuable medium for advertising. Its in- 
timate association with the organization of 
new industries in the South has made it the 
first resort of those who intend to estab- 
lish new industrial plants, and they seek 
its advertising pages as a guide in making 
purchases of engines, boilers, machinery, 
tools and supplies of every character. This 
fact has brought to the Manufacturers' 
Record an advertising patronage such as 
is enjoyed by but few trade publications in 
the world. Its advertisers in each issue at 
the present time (January, 1893,) average 
about 560, their announcements filling 
from forty-four to fifty large pages. Many 
of its present advertising patrons have oc- 
cupied its pages continuously since its 
earliest years. There is probably no pub- 
lication of its general character in exist- 
ence which enables advertisers to. trace 
beneficial results so surely and directly. 
As a matter of course, manufacturers of 
machinery, tools and supplies who desire 
to reach Southern buyers now turn natu- 
rally to the Manufacturers' Record. 
Years of experience and success have 
demonstrated the merit of such a means of 
establishing trade. 

In March, 1892, Richard H. Edmonds 
and his brother, William II. Edmonds, 
who for so many years conducted the Man- 
ufacturers' Record and established its 
success, retired from their ownership of 
the paper, which has since been owned and 
published by the Manufacturers' Record 
Publishing Co., a corporation whose stock- 
holders represent large and diverse inter- 
ests in the South. 




People's • Bank, 



Hopkins Place and Lombard St. 
Chartered 1856 BALTIMORE, MD. 



William S. Carroll, President. 
J. Henry Judik, Vice-President. 
Jos. A. McKellip, Cashier. 



Capital, = = = = = 
Surplus and Undivided Profits, 



$225,000 
16,000 



This Bank has superior facilities for making 
Collections throughout the State, having 
correspondents in all the principal cities. 
Proceeds promptly remitted. We would be 
pleased to receive a share of your patronage. 



The Old Town Bank, 



BALTIMORE, MD. 



Capital, = 

Surplus, = 

Undivided Profits, (Jam 1st, 
Average Individual Deposits, 



'893,) 



$150,000 

140,000 

38,040 

825,000 



No interest allowed upon deposits. Collections at low rates and quick remittances Soecial 
short eri^d t0 pnvate accounts and to receiving sums or money for safe keeping for long or 



E. Q. HIPSLEY, President. 



THEO. F. WILCOX, Cashier. 



John Meeth, Prest. N. H. Storey, Vice- Prest 

Howard P. Orem, Casnier. 

South Baltimore Bank 

Capital, $100,000. 

Originally Chartered 1S72. Amended 1888. 
807 Light Street, BALTIflORE, HD. 



The National Bank of Commerce, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

Eugene Levering, Pres. Geo. O. Manning, Vice-Pres. 

Jas. R. Edmunds, Cashier. 
Capital, $300,000. Surplus Profits, $85,000. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 
Eugene Levering, Geo. O. Manning, Chas. Mar- 
kell, Jno. C. King Jno. A. Tompkins, Wm. M. 
f^j 11, J Henry Wllll ams, Fred. Shriver, J. Wm 
Middendorf. Accounts Solicited ' 



De Courcy W. Thorn. 



John Redwood. 



THOM & REDWOOD, 

Bankers and Brokers, 

No. 11 South Street, BALTIHORE, HD, 



SPECIAL DEALERS IN INVESTMENT SECURITIES. 



J. WILLCOX BROWN. C. D. LOWNDES. F. T. REDWOOD. 

BROWN & LOWNDES, 

Bankets and Brokers, 

Stock Exchange Building, BALTIMORE, MD. 



cbvib a^onby ivv this aw-b iw> ot$vc>z> wi&zfacty. 

Information furnished Promptly. 

^IVe solicit co^eoponbe-vvcC' fzovw T,iyCboA\fo of S'Ttazij&mb, 

G Vlz-<^ivi'ici cvnb < Dtozth Qcizo(iwa } Scii4<cf ^pccia£fu familiar 

-vuUfv £lW SectVM-tlc^ o|? tlW^e Staler. 



UNITED STATES DEPOSITORY. 



The /Merchants' Rational Bank, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 
Capital $1,500,000. Surplus $500,000. 

DOES A REGULAR BANKING BUSINESS. 



DOUGLAS H. THOMAS, President. 
EDWARD H. THOMSON, Cashier. 



Collections Carefully Made and Promptly Accounted for on 

Moderate Terms. 



Richard D. Fisher. Wm - Checkley Shaw 

FISHER & SHAW, 

Investment Bankers 

AND 

Members Baltimore Stock: Exchange. 



NEGOTIATORS OF AND DEALERS IN 

MUNICIPAL LOANS AND LOANS OF WATER, GAS, ELECTRIC 

LIGHT AND STREET RAILWAY COMPANIES POSSESSING 

MUNICIPAL FRANCHISES. 



Stocks and Bonds Bought and Sold on Order and an Assortment of 
Investment Securities always on hand and for sale. 

OFFICE, 4 SOUTH CALVERT STREET, 

POBo 21 BALTIHQKE. 

Telephone 953. 



R. B. SPERRY, 



G 



DEALER IN 



nvestment • S ecur ities, 

No. 5 Consolidated Building, 

S. W. Cor. South and German Streets, 

BALTIMORE, MD. 

Special facilitiesTfor handling issues of southern state, 

municipal, railroad, street railway, gas and 

water company bonds 



A Line of Carefully Selected SECURITIES Constantly on Hand for Prompt 

Delivery. Everything I offer has the benefit of my personal Inves= 

ligation and the best Legal Advice that can be obtained. 



JAMES G. WILSON. WILLIAM WILSON & SONS, 

FREDERICK M. COLSTON. Established 1802. 

WILLIAM B WILSON. WiLSON, COLSTON & CO, 

Established 1867. 



Wilson, Colston & Co, 

(Members of Baltimore Stock Exchange,) 

BANKERS, 

216 EAST BALTIMORE STREET 



BALTIMORE. 



INVESTMENT and Miscellaneous SECURITIES a Specialty, and Whole Issues Handled. 

Exceptional Facilities for Dealings in all Classes of SOUTHERN BONDS. 

LOANS on Collateral Securities Negotiated. 

QUOTATIONS and Information Furnished on Application, and Correspondence Invited. 



J. Wm. Middendorf. Wm. B. Oliver. 

MIDDENDORF, OLIVER & CO. 

Members Baltimore Stock Exchange. 

Bankers and Brokers, 

(No. 213 EAST QERHAN STREET, Keyser Building,) 

BALTIflORE, flD. 



Stocks and Bonds Bought and Sold on Commission. 

Special attention given to Municipal and other Investment Loans. 
Dealers in Foreign Exchange. 

Drafts on Europe and Letters of Credit Furnished. 
13 



Mercantile Trust and Deposit Co. 

-% OF BALTIMORE, MD. % 



Capital Paid Up, $1,000,000 

Undivided Earnings, Including Surplus, - 500,000 



Designated a Legal Depositary for Trust Honey by 
Act of Incorporation. 



Current Interest Allowed on Deposits. 



Special Rates on Time Deposits. 



Established for the Execution of all manner of TRUSTS, the Management and 
Settling of ESTATES, as Executor, Administrator, Assignee, Receiver, Guardian, 
Trustee, Agent or Attorney. 

Special attention given to the COLLECTION OF RENTS, Etc. 

Acts as REGISTRAR AND TRANSFER AGENT for Railroad Companies, 
States, Cities, Counties, Towns and Villages, and as TRUSTEE for Railroad or 
other Corporation Mortgages. 

Safes for Rent and Storage Received on Moderate Terms. 



JOHN GILL, President. W. W. SPENCE, First Vice-President. 

L. C. FISCHER, Secretary and Treasurer. C. R. SPENCE, Third Vice-President. 

JOHN McHENRY, Asst. Sec. and Treas. 

EXECUTIVE AND FINANCE COMMITTEE. 

LOUIS McLANE, Chairman. 
ANDREW REID, BERNARD CAHN, JOHN A. HAMBLETON, J. WILLCOX BROWN. 

DIRECTORS. 

WW. SPENCE, WM. H WHITRIDGE. E. AUSTIN JENKINS, 
CHRISTIAN DEVRIES, JOHN A. HAMBLETON, BERNARD CAHN, 
C. MORTON STEWART, THOMAS DEFORD, J. WILLCOX BROWN, 
ROBERT GARRETT, JOHN E. HURST, ALEXANDER FRANK, 
CHAS. D. FISHER, STEWART BROWN, JOHN GILL, 
ANDREW REID, WM. H. PERKINS, R. C. HOFFMAN, 
LOUIS McLANE. LAWRASON RIGGS, ALEXANDER SHAW- 
WESLEY A. TUCKER, WM. H. BLACKFORD, CHAS. W. SLAGLE. 



Building N. E. Corner German and Calvert Streets. 

OFFICE HOURS 9 A. M. TO 4 P M 

14 



Manufacturers' Record 
Magazine. 



FEBRUARY, 1893. 

PRESENT PROSPERITY OF THE SOUTH; 

By Richard H. Edmonds. 

The New Year opens with brighter prospects for the South than it has 
enjoyed at any time since 1861. At present the activity in business may 
be less than at some former periods, and some of the enthusiasm which 
marked the speculative era that commenced in Birmingham in 1885 and 
1886, and thence spread Northward to the Virginias, may be wanting, but 
after a careful study of the whole situation it is safe to repeat the statement 
made in the opening sentence of this article. Ten years ago the South was not 
considered a factor of any great importance in the manufacturing interests of 
the whole country. It was practically without any strong financial friends in the 
North and in Europe, and it had before it the certainty of a hard struggle 
to overcome the prejudice of investors and to convince the world that it 
could produce iron and manufacture cotton in competition with any other 
section of the United States. The tide of surplus money seeking invest- 
ment and of surplus energy seeking profitable fields of operation had for 
years been flowing Westward. To turn it Southward seemed a hopeless 
task to undertake. 

Five years ago the South had won many friends among the financial 
leaders of the country ; it had convinced the most skeptical that its resources 
in coal and iron were greater than those of any other country, that their 
proximity would enable it to produce pig iron .at a minimum cost, and that 
it could profitably ship iron North and West ; it had given the strongest 
proof, through the financial success of its mills, that it had every needed 
advantage to enable it to become the seat of great cotton manufacturing 
interests, and its future looked very bright. But these favorable conditions 
existed while there was universal prosperity throughout the country except 
in some Western agricultural districts, and the stability of the South 's 



2 PRESENT PROSPERITY OF THE SOUTH. 

growth had not then been tested by any wide-reaching financial panic. 
The test, however, soon came. The Baring failure, followed by a year or 
more of universal stagnation in finances and of the lowest prices ever 
known for pig iron and for cotton, was an ordeal through which none but 
those who understood the solid basis of Southern development would have 
dared to hope that it would pass without serious troubles in its mercantile 
and manufacturing interests. Its new growth had not had time to accumu- 
late financial strength, and it was but reasonable to suppose that such 
a panic would be to it what a killing frost is to the tender plants that the 
warmth of a few premature spring days has brought forth. 

But the South stood the test better even than any other section. Its fur- 
naces continued in blast and met every reduction in price of iron ; its 
cotton mills were crowded to the limit of their machinery ; its woodworking 
industry was active and prosperous ; its banks continued to pay good divi- 
dends, and its railroads, except those already ruined by Wall Street manipu- 
lations, increased their traffic and continued to build new branches to open 
new territory, and failures were much fewer than might reasonably have 
been looked for. Of course the organization of many new enterprises could 
not be expected. The South had faced the worst conditions that could be 
brought upon it from a world-wide panic and it had proved that its business 
interests were on a solid basis and that its industrial development had been 
legitimate. 

But in an evil hour there came a danger greater than any financial panic 
could create. Fanaticism run mad had fathered a measure which the more 
conservative members of the party in which it had originated denounced as 
a menace to the peace of the whole country. The Force Bill became an 
issue in politics, and while there was a possibility of such a bill being 
enacted and inevitably bringing on a perpetual race war throughout the 
South, a revival in business and in the investment of outside money in 
that section was almost hopeless. The Force Bill is now forever dead and 
the South has the assurance of friendly national legislation. 

Thus the New Year opens with the South freed from the danger of the 
Force Bill, and its people therefore more enthusiastic over their country 
than for four years, with its record of stability through the panic known to 
all, with the business world fully convinced by the results of the past that 
its advantages for manufacturing are not equalled elsewhere in this country 
or in Europe, with the tendency of capital turned Southward and with 
"every prospect pleasing." These are conditions more favorable than the 
South has ever enjoyed before, because its position has been strengthened 
by the victories which it has won. 

The low price of cotton due to overproduction in 1890 and 1891 has 
taught the Southern farmer to be more self-supporting and to raise more 



PRESENT PROSPERITY OF THE SOUTH. 3 

grain and provisions ; it also necessitated great economy, as advance money 
on the crop could not be had last spring as freely as before prices dropped 
so low. Naturally the result has been that this season's crop has been 
raised at a smaller cost than any other crop since the war. The yield 
having: been much less than for the two preceding years, prices have 
materially advanced, adding, since September 1, from $75,000,000 to $100,- 
000,000 to the value of the crop, which means a decided improvement in 
the financial condition, not only of the farmers, but of all business interests. 
With so large a decrease in the crop, the world's surplus stock of cotton, 
which for two years has depressed the markets, will doubtless be nearly 
wiped out, or at least reduced to normal conditions, thus clearing the way 
for profitable prices for the crop of 1893. 

The extreme depression in iron during 1891 and 1892 forced upon 
Southern iron makers the necessity for strict economy and for a study of 
the best facilities for producing iron at a minimum cost. Prices for pig iron 
that would have bankrupted any Southern iron company a few years ago, 
can now be. met with some margin of profit left. Standing on this rock- 
bottom basis of cheap production and better iron, the furnaces of this 
section now see before them better prospects for an increasing demand and 
some advance in prices than they have been able to see for two years or 
more. The outlook is certainly encouraging for Southern iron interests. 

Even during the general depression in business there has been no 
depression in the coal trade of the South. The demand has grown so 
steadily that an advance in production from 6,000,000 tons ten years ago to 
over 25,000,000 tons has found a ready market, and the output can be 
increased as rapidly in the future as in the past. New markets are being 
opened for Southern coal, and contracts recently made assure a very large 
consumption in the West. As extensive as have been the coal mining develop- 
ments of the South during the last few years, they will be largely exceeded 
by the operations of the near future. Many of the leading financiers of the 
country have been making very heavy investments in Southern coal 
properties, even during the dull period which commenced with the Baring 
failure, and their mining operations will be on a very large scale. ' 

The solid basis on which the agricultural, the iron and the coal interests 
now rest, and the promising outlook before them are duplicated in all other 
branches of business in the South. Everything is on a good foundation. 
The whole South, enthused with the certainty of freedom from political 
troubles, strengthened in all its business operations by the experience of the 
past, with more powerful financial influences working in its favor than ever 
before, starts the new year with the assurance that it is entering upon a 
period of greater progress and prosperity than it has enjoyed for thirty 
years. 



4 PRESENT PROSPERITY OF THE SOUTH. 

Ten years ago the South's agricultural, manufacturing and mining pro- 
ducts aggregated in value about $1,200,000,000; now they are about 
$2,100,000,000 and are annually increasing. The increase in population 
during that period was only about 18 to 20 per cent., as the South has no 
heavy immigration to swell' its growth. So practically the same people who 
ten years ago were producing $1,200,000,000 a year are now, by reason of 
being more fully employed, able to turn out nearly $1,000,000,000 a year 
more than they were then doing. They have doubled their railroad mileage 
and trebled and quadrupled the traffic ; they have more than quadrupled 
their iron and coal production, trebled their cotton mills, added $2,000,000,- 
000 to the assessed value of their property, doubled their banking capital, 
and more than doubled their manufacturing interests. This is what they 
have done in ten years. Those who live to see another ten-year period 
ended, and who compare the growth of the South during it with what has 
been done in the last ten years, will be astonished at the difference, so great 
will be the progress of the future. 

With an abiding faith in the truth of the statement which the writer has so 
often made, that the South, taken as a whole, is the best country in the 
world, with the greatest possibilities of wealth, I have never doubted that the 
time would come when that section would be the center of the most active 
industrial movements of this or any other country. That time is coming. 



THE KINGDOM OF COTTON. 




By Harry S. Fleming. 

HE time of year when a cotton plantation has 
on its most picturesque dress is from September 
to December, when the bolls are open and all 
hands are busy picking. True, in June, when the 
flowers open, the scene is very beautiful, with the 
green leaves of the plant as a background for the 
red and white blossoms, but in fall, when the 
field is a stretch of snowy white cotton, with only 
a faint setting of green leaves, with the busy 
figures of the pickers moving along the rows, the wagon-loads of 
seed cotton going to the ginhouse, the subdued hum of the gin 
and the groaning of the press as it releases a bale — this is the season 
when plantation life is full of movement and animation not to be found 
in any other class of agricultural pursuit. In early spring, when ground 
is first broken, and at planting time, while the scene is a busy one, it 
does not differ in any way from similar work on any other farm, and is as 
drearily monotonous as can be imagined. The hands, almost invariably 
negroes, start out by "sun up" with their mule or team, this depending on 
the size of the plot they cultivate. They first loosen the ground, turning 
last year's stalks under, if it was not done after the field was stripped. 
Later on, in March or April, according to the weather, the seed is planted 
by hand or drills, generally the latter, dropping them about twenty 
inches apart in rows three feet from each other. These early spring days 
of bright, warm sunshine, with the robbins singing their cheery note of wel- 
come to the approaching season, are marred by intermittent spells of cold 
rainy weather, which, with the softening of the ground as the frost comes 
out, give unlimited and omnipresent mud, and this of a persistently sticky 
kind, only found on bottom lands, and which has its highest type in the 
"buckshot" soil along the Mississippi river. 

Within a week or ten days after planting, the sprout appears above 
ground, and if the weather be favorable, warm and moist, it will grow 
steadily, commencing to flower in June, and after that the bolls, which have 



6 THE KINGDOM OF COTTON. 

their commencement in the tiny four-sided pod left when the flowers fell off, 
grow in size until in August they begin to open and the cotton hangs down. 
During the early growth of the plant it is necessary to cut it to a "stand" — 
that is, remove from each hill a part of the stalks growing, so that the 
number will not be so great as to stunt the growth. Until the plant begins 
to mature in August it is necessary to keep the ground well broken and free 
from weeds, but after that time it needs no further attention until picking 
commences. In July and early August plants can frequently be found 
which show every stage of development — the unopened buds, flowers, small 
bolls and larger ones from which the cotton is hanging. 

When enough cotton is open, generally in early September or in some 
seasons in August, picking commences and all hands, old and young, male 
and female, turn out into the field at break of day and pick until dusk. 
This is an anxious time for the planter. Unless the weather is warm and 
dry the unopened and partly opened bolls will not mature before frost, and 
in addition to this, rains will soil and stain the cotton by splashing dirt upon it 
or causing the dust already deposited on the delicate fibres to cake, and if con- 
tinued, the wet weather will cause the cotton to rot in the boll. After a rain, 
even though the cotton is dry, the pickers, for obvious reasons, cannot go 
into the field unless the ground also has dried. An attempt to walk through 
this heavy ground while it is wet, and particularly when dragging a heavy 
cotton bag, would immediately discourage the most enthusiastic advocate of 
physical culture. Apart from the effort required to overcome the suction 
created by lifting the foot, so much mud clings to it that the would-be 
pedestrian instinctively looks over the field to see where the line of fracture 
occurs. 

Practically the only labor employed on plantations is that of negroes, and 
upon them the planter must depend under all circumstances, and a very 
poor dependence it is. Without attempting to go into that much discussed 
and little understood problem, the negro question, it may be said that the 
average negro is about as reliable as the weather, quite so when it happens 
to fit into his mood, and less so when it does not. They are improvident 
to the last degree and procrastinate whenever it is possible. In matters per- 
taining to their support they are utterly dependent upon white people, and 
seem to think it the duty of the latter to support them ; indeed this idea 
frequently takes such a strong hold that they will appropriate various move- 
able things, not considering it as stealing in its moral sense, but merely the 
pre-emption, redemption of something to which they have a prospective 
right, that is upon its being cast aside. On the other hand, in carrying out 
their obligations to their employers, from the most trifling kind to those of 
importance, they too often appear to be entirely devoid of moral principle. 
They can hardly be called lazy, for few people can do more fatiguing work, 



8 THE KINGDOM OF COTTON. 

but they will not do it unless they have to. With all this they will many 
times perform services of kindness and assistance in no way obligatory, and 
from which they expect no return. It is a curious combination, and one not 
duplicated in any other race. With such labor the planter has many 
troubles other than those which Providence sends in the shape of weather 
and insects. 

On the majority of large plantations, it is customary to lease small tracts of 
five, ten or maybe twenty acres, to negro " renters," who cultivate and gather 
the cotton, drawing their supplies from planting to harvest time from the 
owner, who also furnishes the necessary farming implements. As the cotton 
is growing, the planter estimates how many bales it is going to make and 
allows the renter to draw supplies equal to part of the value of the prospec- 
tive crop. This works all right if the crop comes up to expectations, but 
frequently when the indications are that it will fall short, the renter and his 
family quietly decamp during the night and leave the field for the planter to 
attend to and pick. When picking time comes, it is so desirable to take 
advantage of fair weather, that every effort is made to secure a large force of 
hands to hasten the work, Ordinarily the price paid for picking is fifty to 
seventy-five cents per hundred pounds seed cotton, but when labor is partic- 
ularly scarce, this runs up to one dollar. It takes on the average fifteen hun- 
dred pounds of seed cotton to make a five-hundred-pound bale of "lint 
cotton," or cotton ready for the market ; consequently at such prices, the plan- 
ter is paying fifteen dollars per bale for picking, and even under the best 
circumstances, it costs him eight dollars. This will readily explain why a 
cotton-picking machine is so universally wished for and particularly when, as 
in the past season, cotton sold for but thirty-five dollars a bale. 

To the uninitiated cotton is cotton, but those who handle it have evolved, 
partly from their imagination and in smaller part from existing facts, a 
peculiar and complicated "system of grading," as it is called, which divides 
the cotton into two prime classes, according to whether it is grown on river 
bottoms or uplands. These are then subdivided into about twenty-five 
grades, and each of these is divided again according to its physical 
condition and appearance. The standard grade upon which prices are 
based is "middling upland," the highest grade being "fair" and the lowest 
"ordinary," these two being twelve grades respectively above and below 
middling. With the grades there is a corresponding difference in value, and 
the planter quite naturally endeavors to raise such quality as will bring him 
the largest return. This can be partly accomplished by planting good seed 
and by care in cultivating, but the soil, weather, care in picking and ginning 
are the material factors which make or mar the crop. 

The influence exerted by the soil and weather is mainly on the yield, 
length, color and strength ^f the fibre, while upon the picking depends the 



io THE KINGDOM OF COTTON. 

amount of foreign matter, dirt, leaves, etc., gathered with the cotton. When 
the negroes go into the field to pick they carry a long bag hung over the 
shoulder by a strap of sufficient length to bring the mouth of the bag at the 
waist. As they pass along the rows they take hold of the cotton, draw it from 
the shell of the boll and drop it in the bag. In their haste — and carelessness — 
leaves, twigs and other things are thrown in also. The gin which separates 
the cotton fibre from the seed to which it clings removes a portion of this 
"trash," but not all; how much depends upon the care with which the gin 
is operated. 

It is an interesting sight to watch these pickers at work, and it seems that 
the hotter the day the more they can accomplish. Dressed "in sundry rags" 
patched together with less regard to design than in a crazy quilt, often with 
several spaces yet waiting to be covered, and with an ancient and battered 
hat to keep off the sun, they pass along the rows talking to each other and 
oftentimes singing melodies, the tune of which may have had its origin in 
some old African dance with tom-tom accompaniment. Popular songs of 
today are taken up, new words fitted to them and the melody just enough 
changed and modulated by that peculiar syncopation in all negro songs to 
give it an added charm. Even the little pickaninnies just able to walk will 
try to copy after their elders. Bareheaded and barelegged, they tie a rag 
or anything else around their waist and solemnly walk along the rows pull- 
ing off leaves, twigs or possibly the empty husk and gravely depositing it 
where the mouth of the bag should be. Children ten and twelve years old 
can do service at actual picking, and are provided with small bags, which 
they fill in a surprisingly short time. It is the happiest, though the busiest, 
time of year for all. The work, which for six months has yielded them 
nothing, now begins to bring in money, and while the greater part of it 
goes to pay for supplies drawn, there are generally enough bright dollars 
left over to make them feel light at heart. 

In the evening when the field wagon takes the last load to the ginhouse, 
everyone accompanies it to find the weight of what they have sent in during 
the day. This varies with the " stand," i. e., the number of opened bolls on 
a stalk, and the picker. When the stand is good an average hand will pick 
one hundred to one hundred and fifty pounds, in some cases even two hun- 
dred or over. To the hired picker this of course represents only his wages 
for the day, but to the renter it is the result of the year's work, and he is 
consequently anxious as to its value. Each day the weight of cotton re- 
ceived at the gin from different renters is either chalked on the wall or kept 
in a book where everyone may see it. As the majority of the hands can 
neither read nor write, it would seem that there would be little difficulty in 
summing up the weights and preparing their supply account in such way 
thai iney would be losers ; but anyone who tries it will meet with disappoint- 



i2 THE KINGDOM OF COTTON. 

ment, as they have the excellent memory usually found among illiterate 
people, and in these matters it seems to be particularly keen. When the 
final settlement is made, after the crop is all in, it is amusing to see them 
go over their account. When they cannot read it the planter or his clerk 
will do so for them, giving the date, name of article purchased and price. 
For each they have some comment as to the purpose or quality, and at the 
same time they slowly add the amounts together. Sometimes one will get 
an idea in his head that he is not being treated fairly, and it needs more 
talk to convince him that his account is correct than it does to trade horses. 
If he is not finally convinced, he will generally come out even by borrowing 
various movable things — turkeys, chickens, pigs or other "miscellany" — 
during the small hours of the morning, or at least in some other way. 

The gin, which separates the seed from the fibre, is an all-important factor 
in cotton culture. Seed cotton, as it is plucked from the boll, consists of a 
mass of the fluffy white fibres in which are a number of seed about the size 
of a bean. In the "long staple" varieties the surface of the seed is compar- 
atively smooth, in some varieties perfectly so, and in such they may be 
removed by running the cotton between rolls, squeezing the seed out and 
passing the fibre through. With most cotton, however, and particularly the 
shorter staple varieties (those with short fibres), these seeds have a rough 
coat, and in addition a little furze of lint grows on them, so they cannot be 
separated from the fibre unless picked out. In the early days of cotton 
growing the use of these varieties was practically prohibited for this reason. 
In 1794 Eli Whitney, a Massachusetts law student, while visiting friends in 
South Carolina, was told of the difficulty, and he set to work to overcome it. 
His first machine was a revolving drum in which were fixed rows of stiff 
wires, arranged to pass through an upright board on which the cotton was 
fed, the wires drawing the fibre from the seed through slots in the board. 
Later this drum was replaced by a number of small circular saws, and the 
board by an iron grid. As the cotton was drawn through by the saw a 
revolving brush stripped it from the saw teeth, and in turn a strong blast of 
air blew it from the brush. With few changes the same form of machine is 
in general use today. 

In the old style ginhouses, as the cotton was blown from the brush, it 
passed through a box into what was termed the "lint-room," and here it 
settled down into a snowy mass of white, looking as soft and beautiful as a 
cloud. Its imponderability was, however, a great inconvenience, as it was 
difficult to carry to the press and exceedingly inflammable. To avoid this a 
"condenser" was invented by some bright mind. This is a box placed in front 
of the gin, and as the fine cotton lint is blown in it strikes against a wire- 
gauze screen through which the air passes while the cotton is retained, piling 
up until it reaches two rolls in the upper part of the box and passing out 



THE KINGDOM OF COTTON. 13 

from them in a fleecy sheet. Even with this arrangement some very fine 
particles get into the air and float around, finally settling on rough projec- 
tions on the walls or ceiling, and then building up in bunches or hanging 
down in white festoons. 

After the cotton passes from the gin it is placed in a press, a piece of 
heavy bagging being first put in. Then enough cotton to form a bale is 
packed down and covered with another piece of bagging. The press, which 
is operated by a long screw driven by the ginhouse engine, is then started, 
and comes up with a squeaking, grunting and grinding noise until the cotton 
has been pressed to the proper size. When this point is reached several 
thin bands of iron are passed around the bale and fastened, after which the 
press is released, and, with long-drawn groan, drops the bale to the ground. 

From the ginhouse the bales of cotton are taken either to the nearest 
country town and shipped thence to the city, or are shipped direct to the 
latter point by the planter. Here they are received and stored in ware- 
houses, generally called "cotton sheds," and sampled, graded, inspected by 
buyers and finally sold. Each bale is then taken to a cotton compress, 
where a ponderous machine of enormous power squeezes it into a bale little 
more than one-third of its size on leaving the plantation. At the compress 
it is loaded on cars and sent to its final destination. 




ADVANTAGES OF THE SOUTH IN COTTON 
MANUFACTURE. 

By D. A. Tompkins. 

Food, clothing and shelter — these three are the prime needs of the 
human race. 

The soil of the Southern States is capable of producing, in cotton, the 
raw materials for clothing to supply the entire human race. Cotton clothing 
for some climates, for at least part of the year, would not be sufficient, but 
for many parts of the earth it would be sufficient all the year round, and for 
the remaining parts it would be sufficient for the greater part of the year. 

The achievement of having developed the culture of cotton to the extent 
to demonstrate that in the South alone cotton enough may be produced to 
clothe the people of the world exhibits a wonderful capability of Southern 
soil and Southern people. Cotton has been produced in many countries 
and for centuries in the past, but it has never, within the knowledge of man, 
occupied so important a place in relation to the affairs of the human race as 
now. This condition could never have been attained except by an intelli- 
gent and progressive people. 

Before the civil war little effort was made by these people to manufacture 
as well as produce cotton. As soon after the war as the political conditions 
would admit new ventures in business, the manufacture of cotton was. begun, 
and has steadily increased until at the present time the percentage of its 
increase in the South far exceeds that of New England. 

The unfavorable condition existing before the civil war was the institution 
of slavery. That being removed, most of the conditions at the South are 
more favorable for the manufacture of cotton than those of any other part of 
the world, viz : 

i. The freight charges on raw material to other points are saved. 

2. Profits of dealers in cotton are eliminated. 

3. Labor is cheaper than in other parts of the United States. 

4. Living is cheaper than in other parts of the United States. 

5. The cost of bagging and ties is almost entirely saved by selling these 
back to the farmer and thus using them over and over until worn out. 



ADVANTAGES OF THE SOUTH. . 15 

6. Saving in cotton lost in transportation in going to other points. 

Since the beginning of the new development of cotton manufacture in 
the South the results justify the statement that cotton goods can be pro- 
duced cheaper in the Southern part of the United States than in any other 
part of the world. Many of the new factories in the South have made 
larger profits than New England or English mills, notwithstanding that time 
has not yet elapsed for Southern managers and operatives to acquire that 
degree of skill and knowledge that it is fair to assume will come with 
increased experience. 

In the development of cotton manufacture in the South finer goods are 
constantly produced with commercial success. Several years ago coarse 
plaids were the principal colored goods produced in the section about 
Charlotte, N. C, but within the last few years quite a number of mills have 
been built that are now making ginghams and are running with quite as 
much success as the mills running on coarser goods. 

The success so far attained is sufficient to warrant the belief that, as 
knowledge and skill in manufacture increase, still finer goods will be pro- 
duced, until at no very distant day the skill at the South will equal that of 
the other manufacturing centres, and then all classes of cotton goods may 
be made cheaper than elsewhere. 

The prospect of attaining to this condition holds open to the South the 
promise of a future prosperity that it is difficult to estimate. The greatest 
ultimate prosperity will come to the South by two means, viz : 

1. The production of cotton cheaper than it can be produced in any 
other country. 

2. The manufacture of cotton goods cheaper than other sections or 
countries can manufacture them. 

The first must be accomplished by improved methods of agriculture and 
improved methods and appliances for the preparation of cotton for the 
market. The agricultural methods in the South, while not as improved as 
those of the wheat-growers of the Northwest, are far more improved than 
the methods of any other cotton-growing country. The manufacture and 
use of commercial fertilizers in the South have become enormous. In the 
South Atlantic cotton-growing States almost every town has sulphuric-acid 
chambers and chemical works for the production of commercial fertilizers, 
and in some of the larger Southern cities a number of these works exist, 
and the capital employed will go into the millions. Almost every cotton- 
growing State has in operation or is preparing to establish an agricultural 
college. The methods and appliances for ginning and baling cotton have 
been completely revolutionized since the abolition of slavery, steam having 
been substituted for horse-power and mechanical appliances for what form- 
erly required manual labor. 



1 6 ADVANTAGES OF THE SOUTH. 

The best prosperity of the cotton-producing part of the United States 
lies not in the direction of causing cotton to be high-priced, but rather in 
the direction of the production of cotton so cheap and in such large 
quantities that the competition of Brazil, Egypt and India will be 
destroyed. The chief item of cost in producing cotton now is in picking. 
What the South wants is not small crops and high prices, but the knowledge, 
skill and appliances to produce large crops at low prices, but yet at a fair 
profit. 

The tendency is all in the direction of accomplishing this. The production 
of fertilizers is constantly increasing, while the price decreases. Appliances 
for ginning and baling cotton are being constantly improved, while they are 
made and sold at less cost. With a good cotton-picker the South could 
produce 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 bales of cotton, and make as much per 
pound at five to six cents per pound as it now makes on its 7,000,000 to 
9,000,000 bales at seven to ten cents per pound. 

Having before it the prospect and the probability of supplying the bulk 
of the cotton for the world, and being well situated in all respects for the 
manufacture of cotton, it behooves the Southern States to give every 
encouragement possible to the production of finished cotton products. We 
can already produce cotton in large quantities cheaper than any other part 
of the world. If we can also manufacture it cheaper into merchantable 
goods, then the future prosperity of the South, founded alone on the 
production and manufacture of cotton, ought to be as great as any people 
ought to wish for. 

In the Piedmont region of North and South Carolina and in Middle 
Georgia the manufacture of cotton has developed to important proportions, 
and investments in the mills have been uniformly satisfactory to the investors. 
In these sections the development is already sufficient to determine that 
cotton manufacture is already established not only as a permanent institution, 
but on a competitive basis as to the other sections of the world. Its further 
growth is simply a matter of accumulating capital and the acquisition of 
more widespread knowledge and skill, and these are constantly increasing. 

Charlotte, N. C. 



GROWTH OF COTTON MANUFACTURING 
IN THE SOUTH. 

The statistics of cotton manufactures issued by the census office show 
that during - the ten years from 1880 to 1890 there was a remarkable 
development in the cotton manufacturing- industries of the United States. 
In 1880 the total spindles in operation were 10,653,435, an d by 1890 this 
had increased to 14,088,103, a gain of 3,434,668 spindles, or 32.24 per 
cent. In the South this increase is particularly noticeable. Ranging the 
different sections in the order of actual increase in spindles, New England 
leads with 2,104,068 increase since 1880, the Southern States 1,045,176 
increase, Middle States 209,334 an d Western States 76,090. In the order 
of the percentage of increase over 1880 the South leads with a gain of 
156.5 per cent., the Western States 86.3 per cent., New England States 
24.3 per cent, and Middle States 16.5 per cent. Apart from the South the 
total increase in the country was 23.9 per cent. The increase in the 
number of looms is in the same proportion, the total for the country in 
1890 being 43.9 per cent, more than in 1880. The increase in the South is 
173.8 per cent, the West 85.1 per cent., New England 35.4 per cent., and 
the Middle States 28.9 per cent. 

The following table shows the increase in the industry in the Southern 
States : 

SUMMARY. 



Number of establishments 

Capital invested 

Hands employed 

Wages paid 

Bales of cotton used 

Cost of all materials 

Value of products -. 

Number of spindles 

Number of looms 



1880. 



180 


254 


$21,976,713 


#61,124,096 


20,827 


41,481 


$3,517-115 


#8,951,514 


233.886 


57S,8 4 4 


#12,887,078 


#31,076,473 


#21,038,712 


#46,971-503 


667,754 


1,712,930 


14-323 


39,231 



1890. 



From this it will be seen that during the ten years $39,147,383 additional 
capital has been invested in cotton manufacturing in the South. The num- 
ber of hands employed has doubled and the wages paid nearly trebled. The 
cost of the materials used and the value of the product have more than doubled. 



i8 GROWTH OF COTTON MANUFACTURING. . 

The consumption of cotton by Southern mills has increased 344,958 bales, 
or 147 per cent. This latter is particularly noticeable, as the increase in 
consumption in the entire country, including the South, is but 43 per cent. ; 
and for alb other than Southern States only 25 percent. In other words, 
there were used in 1890 in this country 688,218 bales of cotton more than 
in 1880. Of this increase the South used 344,958 bales, and all other sec- 
tions 343,260 bales. 

The following statement shows the quantity and value of the cotton 
goods manufactured in the South in 1890. In the census tabulation 
Maryland is grouped with the Middle States, but in the preceding figures it 
has been included with the Southern States. In this table it is omitted. 

SUMMARY OF GOODS MANUFACTURED IN 1890. 



Plain cloths for printing or converting (sq. yds.] 
Brown or bleached sheetings or shirting (sq.yds.). 

Drills, twills and sateens (sq. yds.) 

Ginghams (sq. yds.) 

Cotton flannels (sq. yds) 

Fine or fancy woven fabrics (sq. yds.) 

Duck (sq. yds.) 

Ticks, denims and stripes (sq. yds.) 

Bags or bagging 

Yarns for sale (lbs.) 

Sewing cotton (lbs.) 

Twine (lbs.) 

Batting or wadding (lbs.) 

Rope (lbs.) 

Waste (lbs.) 

All other products 



Total value all products. 



Quantity. 



365,020 
526,060 
153,833 
481,246 
608,951 
402,244 
270,658 
875,016 



67 



752,241 
684,347 
787,250 
383,961 
894,406 
796,367 



Value. 



$1,117,409 

12,729,063 

3,651,159 

5o7° 57 

737,86i 

37,796 

i,57o,9i7 ■ 

1,213,206 

1,105,006 

",311,733 

191,835 

285,649 

202,655 

375,807 

656,142 

757,3i6 



$41,513,711 



From this it appears that the principal goods produced in the South are 
sheetings, ginghams and yarns. Of the first, 26 per cent, of the entire 
product of the country was made in the South ; of the second, 36 per cent, 
and of the third, 41 per cent. Of cotton rope, the South produced 80 per 
cent, of the total made in the country. 

In the order of capital invested in 1890, Georgia leads, followed in order 
by South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi and Kentucky. In the order of the increase in 
capital employed from 1880 to 1890 the States stand as follows : Georgia, 
South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland, Tennessee, Virginia, Alabama, 
Kentucky and Mississippi. In the order, however, of the percentage of 
increase, South Carolina leads with 301 per cent. ; Kentucky, 282 per 
cent.; North Carolina, 277 per cent. ; Georgia, 178 per cent. ; Tennessee, 
I55 per cent.; Virginia, 149 per cent.; Alabama, 128 per cent.; 
Mississippi, 83 per cent, and Maryland, 58 per cent. 

The following statements give the details for each State in each census 
year. 



GROWTH OF COTTON MANUFACTURING. 



19 



MARYLAND. 



No. establishments. 
Capital invested.... 

Hands employed 

Wages paid 

Bales cotton used... 
Cost all materials. . 
Value of products. . 

No. spindles 

No. looms 



1 

1SS0. 


1890. 


19 


15 


$4,600,816 


$7,296,793 


4,086 


4.313 


$766,129 


$1,134,445 


51,537 


55,026 


$2,887,933 


$3.373,ii6 


$4,682,114 


$5,457,792 


125,706 


158,930 


2,425 


2,905 



VIRGI 


XIA. 






1S80. 


1S90. 


No. establishments 

Capital invested 

Hands employed 


8 

$1,190,100 

1,112 

$169,789 

11,461 

$640,391 

$1,040,962 

44,340 

1,322 


9 

$2,966,889 

2 019 

$406,824 

■ 22,731 

$1,197,234 

$1,732,648 

94,294 

2,517 


Bales cotton used 

Cost all materials 

Value of products 


No. looms 



NORTH CAROLINA. 



189O. 



No. establishments 49 

Capital invested $2,855,800 

Hands employed 1 3,343 

Wages paid ! $439 659 

Bales cotton used i 27,642 

Cost all materials $1,463,645 

Value of products $2,554,482 

No. spindles 92,385 

No. looms I 1,790 



9i 

$10,775, 134 

8,742 

$1,646,196 

U4,37i 

$6,238,352 

$9,563,443 

337,786 

7-254 



SOUTH CAROLINA. 



1890. 



No. establishments I 14 j 34 

Capital invested $2,776,100 I $11,141,833 

Hands employed j 2,053 J 8,192 

Wages paid ,. : 380,844 I 1,646,574 

Bales cotton used 33,624 I 133,342 

Cost all materials $1,808,300 $6,816,820 

Value of products , $2,895,769 | $9,800,798 

No. spindles I 82,334 j 332,784 

No. looms I 1,676 8,546 



GF.ORGIA. 



No. establishments 
Capital invested.. . 
Hands employed.. 

Wages paid 

Bales cotton used . 
Cost all materials. 
Value of products. 

No. spindles 

No. looms 



1880. 



40 
$6,348,657 

6.349 

$1,135,184 

71,389 

$4,019,673 

$6,481,894 

198,656 

4,493 



1890. 



53 

$17,664,675 

10,530 

$2,366 085 

145,859 

$7,778,026 

$12,035,629 

. 445,452 

io,459 



1880. 



No. establishments . 

Capital invested 

Hands employed 

Wages paid 

Bales cotton used.. . 
Cost all materials... 
Value of products . . . 

No. spindles 

No. looms 



16 

$1,246,500 

1,490 

$239,998 

14,702 

$783,7" 

$1,228,019 

49,432 

863 



KENTUCKY 



No. establishments 3 

Capital invested $360,000 

Hands employed 352 

Wages paid $63,850 

Bales cotton used 4,050 

Cost all materials $253,818 

Value of products $418,286 

No. spindles 9,022 

No. looms 73 



TENNHSSKK. 



No. establishments 
Capital invested. . 
Hands employed.. 

Wages paid 

Bales cotton used. 
Cost all materials. 
Value of products 

No. spindles 

No. looms 



16 
$1,145,600 

1,044 

$161,070 

10,436 

$553,76i 

$874,717 

35,736 

818 



[8co. 



$2,853 

2 

$447. 

26, 

$i-459. 

$2,190, 

79- 

1. 



015 
*37 

173 
924 
04S 

234 
692 



MISSISSIPPI. 






1880. 


1890. 


No. establishments 

Capital invested 


8 

$1,122,140 

722 

$133,214 

6,411 

$337,M9 

$679,093 

18,568 

644 


9 

$2,053,743 

1,184 

$290,981 

17,366 

$87^,970 

$1,333,398 

57,004 

i,352 


Wages paid 

Bales cotton used 

Cost all materials 

Value of products 







1890. 



1,376,132 

$189,039 

11,980 

$643,949 

1,000,66 s , 

42,942 

677 



1890. 



$2,928,657 

2,174 

$495,438 

33-114 

$1,765,062 

$2,507,719 

97,524 

2,043 



ALL OTHER SOUTHERN STATES. 





iSSo. 


1890. 


No. establishments 


7 

$331,000 

276 

$27-377 

2,634 

$138,697 

$183,376 

H.575 

219 


5 

$2 067,225 

1-356 

$328,759 

18,131 

$932, S96 

#1.348,637 

66,980 

1,726 


Hands employed 


Bales cotton used 

Cost all materials 

Value of products 







THE NICARAGUA CANAL AND THE SOUTH. 

By John L. Williams. 

The language of Senator Morgan, concluding his great speech before the 
last Senate in support of the bill for the great canal from the Committee on 
Foreign Relations, ought to arouse every man in the South to work for the 
speedy completion of the great transit. The committee was composed of 
the ablest lawyers in the Senate, and they unanimously recommended it. 
Senator Morgan concluded his argument with the following words : 

"If I could serve in the Senate for a century, and in every moment could 
be endued with the wisdom of Solomon, I could find no opportunity to 
bless the people of Alabama so greatly as this, which is thrust upon me 
with a command that I do not dare to disobey." 

The people of Alabama have shown their confidence in their Senator's 
words, through their own Senate and House of Delegates, by sending a 
weighty memorial to Congress, reciting many strong reasons and urging 
the government speedily to complete the canal. 

It is enough for the States of the South to look at the map of North and 
South America. They see themselves within a comparatively short dis- 
tance of the Pacific Ocean, of Western South America and our own Pacific 
States. But a great wall, a strong door, bars them off. Their nearness 
avails them nothing. The Pacific countries offer a world of wealth to the 
Southern States, and they are their own natural and peculiar market. But 
we Americans of this nineteenth century must bow before this obstacle that 
is in our way, surrender all our advantages, because we " dare not let ' I will 
do' wait upon ' I should.' " We must be sorry we cannot open these gates 
which our industry and courage could easily surmount. We must sail away 
out into the Atlantic and follow for thousands of miles the ships of Europeans 
3,000 miles farther off, and, coining in after them, be satisfied with 
one-twentieth of a trade which we should monopolize. The map is the 
object lesson and argument that no man in his senses can resist — the map 
and the ships and trade of America following in the trail and taking the 
leavings of England, Germany and France, because we have not the 
courage or enterprise to open our way by the route that nature so plainly 
shows across the Isthmus. 



THE NICARAGUA CANAL AND THE SOUTH. 21 

Let us of the South look at the Mediterranean. What the Straits of Gib- 
raltar are to the countries of Europe and Africa, the Nicaragua Canal will be 
to the States of the South. It will open the gates, level the obstacle that 
stands between us and our dominion. It puts the Pacific ocean at our doors, 
and makes its best countries our near neighbors. Our own Pacific States are 
starving for our coal. Along their coast it brings near $15 per ton. We of 
the South are craving a market for our coal. Western South America, Chili, 
Peru, etc., are a magnificent market for all that we manufacture. And we 
want what they produce. Now we have a small fraction of their trade. 

Now our cotton goes to Liverpool, and thence to China and Japan. And 
these two great and populous countries want our cotton, and they want our 
iron and iron manufactures too. But we can only follow the old countries. 
O ! what a shame is it to us ! that we have not, ere this, cut through this way. 
It will be an honor to our country to open the way ; but attended with pro- 
found regret that we should have delayed so long about it. 

President Harrison is right. It is amazing that any man should be found 
to stand in the way of the immediate finishing of this great work. Every 
part of the country, North, South, East and West, will feel the great benefit 
of the canal. New York will in a few years become the settling centre of 
the., world. But we of the South will be the first to feel the immense 
advantages of an open Pacific doorway, and of the markets of the whole 
world at our doors. Our Southern ports will be depots for the immense 
wealth that is behind them of agriculture and manufacture, and the coaling 
and trading stations for the ships of all nations, as far beyond Tyre and 
Corinth and Florence as American enterprise and genius are beyond and 
above all that has gone before them. 

The canal has been asked for by all Chambers of Commerce of the 
country. And the very best and ablest men of the land have commended 
it, the most intelligent and best being the most enthusiastic. Must we be 
met by the fear that the government cannot take care of itself; that we are 
such a nation of swindlers that we dare not enter upon a great undertaking. 
The plea and opposition are no honor to those who urge them. We have 
honest and able and patriotic men who can and will make the work as 
honorable in its management as it will be glorious in its achievement and its 
results. So far I am satisfied that no great public enterprise in America has 
had for its managers and patrons men so distinguished for integrity, energy 
and skill, both in its financial and scientific departments. 

After years of investigation and the most exhaustive study by the offi- 
cers of the government, including not less than ten special expeditions, 
costing hundreds of thousands of dollars ; after the practicability of the 
enterprise has been demonstrated and made plain by private men with their 
own means, the building, control and ownership are offered to the government 



22 THE NICARAGUA CANAL AND THE SOUTH 

in the most satisfactory shape and on the most liberal terms, compensating 
those who have risked their means by a small percentage of the possible 
profit in the shape of stock, the control of the company to be evenly divided 
between the two political parties. At this point we are to plead public vil- 
lainy, a want of virtue among our best men, as our excuse for not entering 
upon the greatest and most promising undertaking that was ever offered to 
a people. Such an objection to our government undertaking the work is 
close to an insult to each and every one of our public representatives and 
officers, and to the whole American people. 



SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

The group of State buildings upon the grounds of the World's Colum- 
bian Exposition in Chicago will contain several noteworthy specimens of 
work by Southern architects, both in the shape of original designs of 
typical Southern character and in the reproduction of Southern buildings 
that claim attention because of their historic interest. These buildings lack 
the pretentious proportions and elegance of some of the structures erected 
by Northern and Western States, but most of their modest size and 
character is largely due to the fact that the provision for these Southern 
buildings is being made almost entirely by private subscription, apart from 
legislative aid. This does not in any respect detract from the attractiveness 
or value of the buildings, for in nearly every instance they have been 
planned and constructed to meet a specific purpose, either in making pro- 
vision for a particular line of exhibits or to embody Southern character- 
istics in their architecture. In nearly all respects they are distinctively 
Southern, being the embodiment of Southern ideas in Southern materials. 

The building that will be of the greatest historic interest among all those 
which will make up the exposition city in Jackson Park, will be the Virginia 
headquarters, a reproduction of the Washington mansion at Mt. Vernon. 
Of the thousands who have visited Mt. Vernon and gazed upon the stately 
old mansion there will probably be many who will recognize the fac-simile 
at Chicago, and other thousands who may never have opportunity to visit 
the home of the nation's father will be able to carry from the exposition a 
correct idea of the historic old residence. 

The Washington mansion was built in the early part of the eighteenth 
century by Lawrence Washington, and at his death it fell by inheritance to 
George, his brother. The place was named after Admiral Vernon, under 
whom Lawrence Washington served in the West Indies. When George 
Washington came into possession of the property the mansion house stood 
alone. Wings, now called "dependencies," were afterwards added to it by 
him, and the estate was much enlarged and otherwise embellished. Most 
of his life from boyhood was spent here, and everything observable in the 
arrangement of lawns, shrubbery, gardens, buildings, etc., are suggestive 
that, though this great man was soldier, statesman and financier, he still 
found time to devote some part of his active life to the ornate and beautiful. 
George Washington bequeathed the property at his death to Bushrod 
Washington, from whom it passed to John A. Washington, and by him the 



24 SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S EAIR. 

mansion and 200 acres of land were sold in 1858 to the Ladies' Mount 
Vernon Memorial Association. At that time the property was rapidly 
falling into decay and ruin, but by this organization it has been restored 
and is now kept in a manner exactly suited to its historic associations. 

The mansion proper is a wooden structure, two main stories in height, 
with a finished attic and donner windows. It is built on a substantial brick 
foundation. The chimneys are large, made of brick and are triangular 
in shape, with fireplaces in the corners of the rooms they serve. 
The weatherboarding or siding is made of beveled boards ten inches 
in width, one and a half inches in thickness, tongued and grooved and 










MT. VERNON '. THE VIRGINIA STATE BUILDING. 



carefully fitted together. The boards are cut across with leveled 
groove so as to represent a paneled wall. The length of the build- 
ing is ninety-four feet, and the width thirty-two feet ; height of first story 
ten feet, nine inches ; second story, seven feet, eleven inches ; attic, six feet, 
nine inches. 

The rooms, some seventeen or eighteen in number, vary in size from 
mere closets to seventeen by sixteen feet, except the banquet hall, which is a 
large compartment, thirty-one by twenty-three feet, and about eighteen feet 
high. The lower hallway is ample in size and elaborately molded and 
caned. The carving here and in some of the rooms is a marvel of patient 



SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 25 



work by the builders of that time. The exterior of the building presents to 
the river front an open colonnade running its whole length. The columns 
are slender and square, slightly tapering from floor to eaves of the house, 
with nearly plain freize surmounted by 
open-work balustrade. The roof is 
crowned by an octagon tower. 

The Mount Vernon Memorial Asso- 
ciation has undertaken the work of 
raising the funds required for the repro- 
duction of the mansion in Chicago. 
Handsomely engraved certificates con- 
taining a picture of the building are 
being sold, and the proceeds will be 
used for the work. The plans and 
specifications for the work have been 
prepared by Captain Edgerton Rogers, 
of Richmond. The construction is be- 
ing done by Holtzclaw Bros., of Hamp- 
ton, Va., and Washington, D. C, who 
took the contract at $14,450. The 
building will be ready about March 1, 
1893. Much of the interior work will 
be difficult and costly to reproduce, but 
so far as it is possible this will be done. 
It is proposed to make the large ban- 
quet hall a general assembly-room. In 
the library will be gathered books by 
Virginia authors, and paintings, and in 
other rooms will be placed such exhibits 
as may be collected in the departments 
of fine arts, archaeology, etc. 

Florida chose an unique design for 
a State building which is as striking as 
it is original and historic. Few of the 
State buildings on the World's Fair 
grounds have attracted so much atten- 
tion during construction as the repro- 
duction of old Fort Marion, St. Augus- 
tine's remarkable Spanish fortress, which 
will serve as the Florida headquarters 
during the exposition. This structure 
will probably outrank any other building 




26 SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S E AIR. 

at Chicago in the antiquity of its historic interest. St. Augustine, Fla. , and Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, are the oldest towns in North America, and the history of St. 
Augustine is the history of Fort Marion. The old fort has figured in the 
stirring events of three centuries. It was called by the Spaniards San Juan 
de Pifios, San Augustin, San Marco, and by the English St. Mark, the 
name of Fort Marion being given by the United States Government in 
honor of General Francis Marion, of Revolutionary fame, in 1825, when 
the peninsular came into the Union. 

This ancient fortress witnessed the struggles between the Spanish and 
French for the possession of the river of Dolphins, the revengeful destruction 




WUFACTURERS RECORD 



THE ARKANSAS STATE BUILDING. 



of the early Spanish settlement by the English Sea-king Drake, the bitter 
warfare with the English colonists of South Carolina and Georgia under 
Governors Moore and Oglethorpe, and lastly the fierce ravages of the 
Indian foe in the Seminole war. Its walls have sheltered half-starved 
Spanish garrisons, have kept in misery the Indian slave and the English 
prisoner, and have been the home of the convict. The fortress is in all 
respects a castle built after the style of the middle ages. After a century 
of toil by an army of troops, bands of Indian captives, slaves, convicts and 
exiles, the great bastions were finally completed under the name of Fort 
San Marco in 1765. It then required an armament of 100 guns and a 
garrison of 1,000 men. 



SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 27 

The form of the old fortress is admirably adapted for a grand display of 
Florida's peculiar and varied resources and attractions. Its moat and 
ramparts will afford an opportunity for a series of hanging- and sunken 
gardens, which will form object lessons of great interest to visitors. There 
will be produced miniature cotton, sugar, rice and tobacco fields, pineapple, 
orange, lemon, lime and other tropical fruit groves and vegetable gardens. 
The interior of the walls will form a series of rooms for exhibits, head- 
quarters, meetings and other uses. All of these apartments will be beauti- 
fully finished in Florida's native woods to show the great lumber interests of 
the State. The interior courtyard will be made attractive by placing there 
transplanted palms and fruit trees. The expense of constructing this 
historic exhibition building has been borne entirely by private contributions. 




THE LOUISIANA STATE BUILDING. 



To a woman belongs the honor of designing the Arkansas building at 
the World's Fair, Miss Jean Loughborough, of Little Rock, being the 
architect whose plans were chosen by the Arkansas World's Fair Asso- 
ciation. The building is an ornate structure in the French rococo style of 
architecture, an elliptical piazza and a glass dome relieving the solidity of 
the nearly square structure. The building proper is sixty feet deep by eight 
feet in length, rather smaller than many of the State buildings, but of a style 
that is likely to compensate by its attractiveness for the lack of more 
imposing proportions. Staff constitutes the chief material of construction, 
the cheapness of which makes it possible to enrich the facade of the 
structure at a moderate cost. 

The main entrance to the building is through the elliptical and highly 
ornate piazza. From this a triple arcade leads into the mam hall, which 



SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 29 

extends the whole height of the building, rising to a circular dome thirty feet 
in diameter. The hall itself is thirty by fifty feet, the purpose being to use 
it as a general gathering place for Arkansas visitors at the fair. A suggested 
feature of the plan is the construction in this hall of an electric fountain, 
composed of different colored crystals such as are found at the Hot Springs 
and elsewhere in Arkansas. At the second story a broad gallery encircles 
the hall, affording entrance to various rooms and offices corresponding to 
similar apartments on the first floor. The rear portion of the building is 
devoted chiefly to the assembly hall, in which, as well as in the entrance hall, 
the State exhibits will be placed. This apartment is sixty-five feet in length 




THE TEXAS STATE BUILDING. 



by thirty feet wide, and rises a story and a half. It is to be tastefully decor- 
ated and provided with a platform for speakers' use. The Arkansas legis- 
lature having failed to make any appropriation for World's Fair purposes, 
the cost of this building and all other expenses are being defrayed by funds 
raised by private subscription, in the securing of which the women of the 
State have taken a very important part. 

The Louisiana State building will be a reproduction of a typical old 
style plantation mansion. The design is simple but pleasing, and has a 
significance apart from mere architectural attractiveness. The building will 
be a frame structure, with the lower story cemented and ornamented in 



7 .o 



SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S EAIR. 



characteristic style. The tall columns and broad galleries, the tiny panes of 
glass in the transoms, will all be readily recognized as distinguishing and 
faithfully-preserved features of die famous plantation mansions of the good 
old days. 

On the first floor will be a large exhibition-room, with reception-rooms 
for gentlemen and ladies, a gentlemen's sitting-room and dining-room, 
besides a stair-hall, which is a wide room of itself. Almost the entire floor 
space of the second story is devoted to exhibition-rooms, there being four of 
them, while a snug corner is set aside as a ladies' sitting-room. Ample 
provision is made for light and ventilation, and the long galleries, which are 
ten feet wide, will make the Louisiana building one of the cosiest spots at 
the great exposition. The building will front on Fifty-seventh Street and 







tfonu^tfure^'H.HOTfc 



THE WEST VIRGINIA STATE BUILDING. 



will be between the Missouri and Minnesota buildings. The plans were 
prepared by Messrs. Sully & Toledano, of New Orleans, and the work of 
construction is being done by Messrs. Murdoch, Campbell & Co.. the cost 
of the building being $14,500. 

The construction of this building has been undertaken independent of 
State aid, the funds being provided by private subscription through the 
efforts of the World's Columbian Association of Louisiana, Limited, in 
which many prominent citizens have interested themselves, and to which 
the ladies of Louisiana have extended efficient assistance. 

The Maryland building is of the free classic style of architecture. The 
exterior is made of staff, and the interior is finished in white and cream 
colored paint. There are three handsome entrance porticos with splendid 



SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 31 

columns of the Corinthian order of architecture. The rear has a spacious 
piazza, with deck roof supported by columns also of the Corinthian order. 
The wings also have deck roofs enclosed by handsome balustrades. The 
centre part is a belvedere which offers a fine point of vantage for viewing the 
World's Fair grounds. The centre of the building and the first floor of the 
interior are occupied by a handsome reception hall and bureau of informa- 
tion and grand stairway, all treated in the colonial style of rather rich details 
with delicate lines. To the right of this hall one enters an exhibition hall 
twenty-five by twenty-six feet, set aside for womans' work, with ladies' 
parlor containing a handsome mantel. On the left is the general exhibition 
hall, thirty-six by twenty-six feet ; two stories in height with a gallery at the 
second floor level. The balance of the second story is taken up by the main 
stairs, the stairs to the third story and three handsome exhibition parlors, 
thirteen by seventeen feet each, communicating by means of large folding 
doors and containing handsome mantels ; the office, eight by sixteen feet ; 
the reading-room, twenty by twenty-six feet; smoking-room, eleven by six- 
teen feet, containing colonial mantels, and an adjoining toilet-room. The 
third story contains the janitor's apartments, a stairway to the belvedere and 
doors leading to the deck roofs of wings. The plumbing embodies all of 
the latest improved sanitary appliances. 

The noteworthy points of the exterior are a beautifully modelled coat of 
arms of the State of Maryland placed in the tympanum of the gable of 
main portico, and the elaborate belt cornices with enriched members and 
decorated frieze of garlands and wreaths. The building was designed by 
Baldwin & Pennington, of Baltimore, and was erected by F. Mertens' Sons, 
of Cumberland. The extreme dimensions of the building, including por- 
ticos are, length 142 feet, and depth seventy-eight feet. The cost was 
$20,000. 

The Texas building is being provided entirely by the women of that 
State. Plans have been prepared by Mr. J. Reily Gordon, of San Antonio, 
Texas, for a structure of considerable architectural grace and beauty. The 
building will contain an assembly-room fifty-six feet square, twenty-eight 
feet high, provided with large art glass skylight in the ceiling with a mosaic 
Texas star in centre. The rostrum, ante-rooms, etc., will be finished in the 
natural woods of Texas. 

The adminstration wing will contain rooms for a bureau of information, 
register, messenger, telephone, telegraph, secretary, president, directors, 
Texas Press Association headquarters, lady secretary, president and execu- 
tive committee, lobby, historical museum and library ; also toilet-rooms, 
county collective exhibits, etc. The main entrances are through vestibules, 
flanked on either side by niches and colonnades. The main vestibules 
terminate in a large auditorium, from which entrance is afforded to the 
various working departments above mentioned. 



32 SOUTHERN BUILDINGS AT THE WORLD'S FAIR. 

In the treatment of the design the architect has not deflected from the 
history of the Lone Star State, which from the initial has been marked by 
a Spanish tinge whose architectural feeling and beautiful botanical effects 
lay down a chain of thought far too beautiful to forsake for that of this 
modern day. Therefore, the architect has designed the building, colonnades, 
grounds, fountains, foliage, etc., to present a Spanish vista, a bower of 
beautiful Texas foliage, comprising the banana, palm, magnolia, pome- 
granate, Spanish dagger, orange and many rare tropical plants common to 
Texas. 

The building will cost $40,000, the contract having been awarded* to 
Messrs. W. Harley & Son, of Chicago, 111. 



INVESTMENTS IN THE SOUTH. 

By R. B. Sperry. 

Prudent investors look to security before income, but, all else being equal, 
give preference to that security yielding the largest income. The locality 
furnishing the best security is that possessing diversified industries and 
surroundings capable of development and ample law for the encouragement 
and protection of invested capital. 

In my opinion, based on close personal investigation, many parts of the 
South meet this requirement, notably the southwestern part of Virginia, all 
of West Virginia, North Carolina, Northern South Carolina, Georgia, 
Tennessee and Alabama. In all of these States the pernicious system of 
voting State aid to corporations has been abandoned and is now prohibited 
by constitutional provisions. In most of them municipalities are likewise 
prohibited, and where not so prohibited the evil is reduced to a minimum. 
In like manner the creation of debt for any purpose is limited either by 
constitutional or legislative restrictions. 

The argument most freely used against the sections I name is repudiation. 
I admit the force of it. Corporate debts like any other debts ought to be 
paid. The sovereignty of a State ought never to be invoked against her 
creditors. 

The faith and credit of municipalities ought always to be preserved, no 
matter how obtained. Repudiation anywhere is hateful, but no more so 
South than West. If the sections I name have repudiated, so have those 
in Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri and Kansas. The day 
of repudiation is over. Wholesome laws and liberal interpretations by our 
courts have put a stop to it. Assuming, then, that capital is protected in 
the way I state, will it be secure and profitable ? Let any man draw a line 
around the territory I have named and then consider what it produces, con- 
sumes and sells, and what its possibilities are, and the question is answered. 
Cotton grows at the factory door ; coal and iron are mined within the glare 
of the furnace ; acres by the thousand are covered with corn where cotton 
used to grow ; tobacco is grown and manufactured on the spot and exported 
direct. Railways are opening up virgin pine forests and are dotted with 
mills supplying their products to every seaport on the Atlantic coast. Fer- 



INVESTMENTS IN THE SOUTH. 

tilizer and oil mills, ice factories and breweries are found in every city of 
importance. The climate and adaptability of the soil are encouraging new- 
methods, new people and' new money in its development. Improved 
machinery and skilled labor are having a telling effect, and it won't be long 
before the cotton factories of New England, the furnaces of Pennsylvania 
and the granaries of the West will realize it. 

I suppose that nobody will ascribe abnormal prosperity in any section or 
in any line of trade for the year just past. Certainly no one can say, for 
this period at least, that the South has been boomed, yet the statistics of her 
progress in the face of adverse conditions are significant. Her output of 
pig iron increased 245,330 tons, of coal 986,335 tons, of lumber 230,314,573 
feet, of phosphates 79,648 tons ; her export trade outside of cotton increased 
$6,000,000, her railway mileage increased 1053 miles, the taxable value of 
her property increased $66,339,807, the cotton consumed by her own mills 
increased 79,164 bales, and there was added to her banking capital $2,680,- 
000. If the large majority of her railways are in receivers' hands, they are 
at least out of the hands of the speculators, and are being shaped to run on 
business principles and in the interest of security holders. 

These figures speak eloquently for the energy, progress and stability of 
the South, and should commend themselves to the consideration of intend- 
ing investors. 

Baltimore. 



THE UPPER SOUTH. 

By M. I r . Richards. 

A geographical division with Mason and Dixon's line for the northern 
boundary and the south line of Virginia for the southern and the Ohio 
river on the west comprises one of the richest sections of the United States, 
which is equivalent to saying of the world. The great Chesapeake bay, in 
which all the navies of the world could find a safe anchorage, and the ocean 
on the east and the mountains on the west give this section a climate unsur- 
passed in the world for genialty and health, and' make it one of the most 
desirable regions for residence purposes to be found anywhere at all seasons 
of the year. It is neither tropical in summer nor arctic in winter, but has a 
temperature and climate of a golden mean between the two extremes, and 
in which outdoor avocations can be carried on with safety and comfort every 
day in the year. It has an abundant rainfall and a length of season in which 
all the grains, grasses, fruits, vines and vegetables incident to the temperate 
zone can be successfully cultivated. There are no serious winds such as 
sweep the plains of many sections of the West, blighting the crops in a 
single day with their scorching breath, nor the icy breath of the blizzard's 
blast, which reduces the variety and range of agriculture to a comparatively 
small number of crops that can be successfully raised. 

Then this section has the advantages of the best markets of the world 
lying at its very doors in which can be rapidly sold at the highest market 
rates at all seasons every product of the farmer or herdsman, the orchardist, 
the dairyman, the truck farmer and all others engaged in raising food prod- 
ucts. Indeed the demand for every thing that can be raised in the soil far 
exceeds the supply, and puts the possibilities of competency, if not of wealth, 
within the reach of all who are willing to work for it. In this section, so rich 
in agricultural possibilities, there are millions of acres of lands which can be 
purchased on the most favorable terms. Springs of clear pure water 
abound everywhere, and it only needs the hand of industry and enterprise 
to develop its marvelous resources to make it abound in matchless 
prosperity. 

The question is so frequently asked, whether wheat, corn and oats are 
profitable crops in the upper Southern States, that we venture to utilize 



36 THE UPPER SOUTH ' 

space sufficient to afford the reader the following information, which should 
demonstrate conclusively the value of this section for agricultural pursuits. 

During the year 1892 there were produced in the States of Maryland, 
Virginia and West Virginia 53,354,000 bushels of corn, valued at 
$27,669,857; 18,885,000 bushels of wheat, valued at $14,169,900; 
10,032,000 bushels of oats, valued at $4,271,543. The average yield of 
corn per acre and average price per bushel, was as follows : Maryland, 
32.8 bushels, value 45 cents; Virginia, 22.4 bushels, value 53 cents; 
West Virginia, 31.9 bushels, value 56 cents, while the average yield in 
Iowa was 34 bushels, valued at only 32 cents per bushel. The average 
yield of wheat in the State of Maryland was 18.6 bushels per acre, valued 
at 74 cents per bushel, while in North Dakota, represented to be the 
greatest wheat-producing State, the average yield was only 14.4 bushels, 
and the price averaged only 40 cents per bushel. Truck farming is a 
branch of agriculture that brings excellent returns. We have before us the 
records kept by a Maryland trucker who realized a net profit of $3,625 from 
thirty-five acres. In the Baltimore district about 38,000 acres of land are 
planted into truck, giving employment to 17,000 people, about 5,000 horses 
and mules, and yielding a product valued at nearly $4,000,000. 

In addition to their agricultural riches, the three States embraced in this 
section contain inexhaustible stores of raw material for manufacturing 
purposes, and the natural facilities for converting them into the finished 
product at a minimum cost ; . deposits of every variety of iron ore 
apparently limitless in extent, mountain after mountain of coal of superior 
quality, vast tracts of timber suitable for every variety of manufacturing 
or building purposes, clay banks with material for brick, tile or terra-cotta, 
glass sand, building stone of the best quality, and many other resources 
that only need the hand of development to turn them into marvelous 
wealth. 

Then there are water-powers running to waste all over this region, 
sufficient to furnish the motive power for the world's industries. In 
addition to all the advantages enumerated, this entire region is fast becoming 
threaded by railroads, giving it a system of transportation and facilities for 
travel which, with its river and ocean navigation, bring all ports of the 
country and the world within easy reach for every business and commercial 
enterprise. 

It is indeed strange that all these numerous advantages should have, 
remained so long undeveloped and unused, and that the tide of immigration 
should have turned its ceaseless flow westward instead of southward. The 
causes which made this possible no longer remain ; slavery has been wiped 
out, the old ideas of labor have passed away, the theory that the people of 
the United States are a purely agricultural people was exploded long ago, 



THE UPPER SOUTH. 37 

and the country has entered upon an era of manufacturing and commercial 
enterprises which has placed it in the first rank among the nations of the 
world. In the light of the new epoch the eyes of the homeseeker, the 
farmer, the manufacturer and the mechanic are being turned in this direction, 
and all who have seen the advantages which the writer has briefly outlined 
have been delighted with the outlook. The natural wealth and possibilities 
of the upper South need only to be seen to be appreciated, and the advice 
which the writer would offer to those who for any reason are considering a 
change in their location is to settle in Maryland, Virginia or West Virginia 
and become a factor in the great development of this growing and pros- 
perous section. Success and happiness awaits them. 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 

Not every city in the United States can be the greatest city in the 
country. Not every city in this country possesses the advantages and 
qualifications essential to leadership among great cities. Not every city 
in the United States possesses, even in a moderate degree, all of the 
essentials out of which great cities are made. Every city, however, 
possesses advantages of one character or another, and many cities combine 
advantages in such a manner as to lift them into prominence unattainable by 
less-favored communities. It is not the purpose of this article to demon- 
strate that Baltimore is, or ought to be, the greatest city in the United 
States in all respects, but it is desired to show that the city of Baltimore 
does possess certain peculiar advantages and qualifications which give it an 
undoubted pre-eminence. The growth of cities usually proceeds regardless 
of preconceived ideas and theories, and the selection of a site upon which a 
great city has subsequently grown has been more frequently a matter of 
mere accident than the result of careful study with regard to all the 
essential requirements. So nearly universal is this rule that it is of some 
interest to note that the present city of Baltimore is located upon a site that 
was chosen for the specific purpose of creating a great city. One hundred 
and sixty-four years ago the people of Baltimore county, in Maryland, 
desired the creation of a city and port at some point near the head of 
the Chesapeake bay, offering greater facilities for commerce than the 
towns then existing on the bay. For the purpose of fulfilling this 
desire the Provincial Assembly was petitioned Jo create a town at 
a point on the north side of the Patapsco river, fourteen miles from the 
waters of the Chesapeake bay. This was the beginning of Baltimore. 
It is apparent, therefore, that Baltimore is one of the cities that exists not by 
chance, but as the fulfillment of a definite purpose. This community was 
intended from the start to be a city, and to be a more important city than 
any of those with which it came in competition at its creation. 

An advantageous location was the principal consideration in the founding 
of Baltimore, and it is still the most important factor in the city's growth 
and prosperity. Perhaps the first advantage that is apparent in the location 
lies in the facilities that are offered for commerce. It is as a distributing 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 39 

centre that Baltimore has always been most prominent, and undoubtedly 
this will always be a chief characteristic of the city. Situated practically at 
the head of Chesapeake bay, 180 miles from the coast, it is further inland 
than any other tidewater city in the country, a factor that offers distinct 
advantages in the transaction of both foreign and domestic commerce. 
From Baltimore can be shipped by water to coastwise points the products 
of a larger inland territory than is tributary to any other of the seaboard 
cities, and this same element of location also gives the city undoubted 
advantage in foreign trade, as the transportation by rail from interior points 
is reduced to a minimum. In its relation to the South, Baltimore stands in 
the position of a gate city, through which the trade between the East and 
the South has for many years passed. The growth of the West, of 
course, has divided the commercial stream that flows to the South, but 
the eastern portion of the current still flows through Baltimore. An 
admirable system of railways gives Baltimore communication in every 
direction with the inland cities. A safe and commodious harbor, with ample 
depth of water, offers every facility for commerce by the sea. With these 
two essentials in its %ail and water communication, Baltimore is exceptionally 
well provided for, and enjoys distinct advantages over every other city on 
the Atlantic seaboard. The harbor of Baltimore has an available water- 
front of about twelve miles, with an inner basin extending into the very 
heart of the city, and offering complete shelter for small craft. The original 
depth of the Patapsco river, which constitutes the harbor, was about seven- 
teen to eighteen feet at mean low water. This was ample for all require- 
ments until the advent of deep-draft ocean steamships, but ever since the 
city has existed harbor improvements have kept pace with the necessities of 
commerce, and there is now a channel with a depth of twenty -seven feet at 
low water extending from the city to the deep waters of Chesapeake bay. 
The harbor of Baltimore enjoys the advantage of complete shelter from 
storms, and the ample wharves and terminal accommodations permit the 
handling of an enormous amount of business, regardless of weather or the 
seasons. 

That these advantages exist not only in theory but in fact is shown by 
the position of Baltimore in the foreign trade of the country. As an 
exporting centre Baltimore ranks third, being surpassed only by New York, 
which stands first, and New Orleans, which occupies second position by 
virtue of its enormous cotton trade. During the year 1892 the exports of 
the five leading cities were as follows: New York, $377,722,983; New 
Orleans, $107,684,127; Baltimore, $91,952,125; Boston, $88,806,672; 
Philadelphia, $60,315,880. In 1891 Baltimore stood fourth, with a volume 
of trade $2,000,000 less than that of Boston, but the year 1892 brought 
Baltimore to its present position. It is a fact worthy of note that during 



4 o 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 



the past year, while the export trade of New York fell off $10,000,000 and 
that of New Orleans decreased by about $8,000,000, the export trade of 
Baltimore increased over $12,000,000. This gain was in the face of a 
decline of $32,000,000 in the aggregate export trade of the country. The 
exports of foodstuffs contributed largely to the increase of Baltimore's 
foreign commerce in 1892, as the shipments of grain increased from 
21,191,713 bushels in 1891 to 36,704,455 bushels in 1892. An enumera- 
tion of a few of the important items in the export trade of Baltimore for 
1892 will indicate the character of the city's foreign trade: Flour, 3,661,- 




A GLIMPSE OF BALTIMORE'S HARBOR. 



623 barrels; wheat, 16,661,559 bushels; corn, 18,995,907 bushels; pork, 
9,143,182 pounds; lard, 51,153,707 pounds; bacon, 6,014,727 pounds; 
ham, 3,516,747 pounds; beef, 11,715,496 pounds; canned beef, 29,907,787 
pounds; tallow, 23,588,179 pounds; lumber, 36,121,000 feet; tobacco, 
107,293 tierces and hogsheads; whiskey, 778,635 gallons; oil cake, 35,726 
tons; cattle, 57,740 head; copper matte, 62,414,117 pounds; cotton-seed 
oil, 1,360,902 gallons; oleo oil, 19,547,430 pounds; cotton, 299,351 bales; 
rosin, 113,306 barrels; dried apples, 4,024,000 pounds. 

The foreign trade of Baltimore furnishes traffic to eighteen lines of 
regular steamers of large carrying capacity, besides a great number of 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 41 

tramp steamers which make occasional trips and several lines of sailing 
vessels. The list of steamship lines in the foreign trade is made up as 
follows : 

Empire Line, monthly to Leith. 

Bristol Channel Line, tri-weekly to Bristol. 

Allan Line, fortnightly to Halifax, St. John's and Liverpool. 

North German Lloyd Line, fortnightly to Bremen. 

Neptune Line, weekly to Rotterdam. 

Royal Netherlands Line, fortnightly to Rotterdam and Amsterdam. 

Earn Line, at short intervals to Cuba and West Indies. 

Hooper Line, occasional sailings to Liverpool. 

Johnston Line, weekly to Liverpool. 

Donaldson Line, fortnightly to Glasgow. 

Blue Cross Line, bi-monthly to Glasgow, New Castle and Hull. 

Robert N. Sloman's Line, monthly to Rio Janeiro and Santos. 

Puritan Line, bi-monthly to Antwerp. 

Liverpool, Brazil and River Plate Line, semi-monthly to Rio Janeiro and 
Santos. 

Blue Cross Pinckney Line, bi-monthly to Havre. 

Atlantic Transport Line, weekly to London. 

Hamburg- American Packet Line, semi-monthly to Hamburg. 

Lord Line, weekly and bi-monthly to Belfast, Dublin and Londonderry. 

The great Chesapeake bay, at the head of which Baltimore stands, is a 
most important commercial advantage to the city, yielding a volume of traffic 
that would maintain the business interests of a large city. Into this bay 
empty numerous navigable streams which traverse prosperous agricultural 
regions of great extent on the shores of Maryland and Virginia, and reach 
many thriving towns and small cities, for all of which Baltimore is the 
natural market and supply centre. The commerce of this tributary territory 
sustains a great number of steam and sailing craft which ply the waters of 
the bay, bringing to Baltimore a large volume of freight. Beyond the bay 
Baltimore does a great amount of business with ports to the south and to 
the north, this coastwise traffic maintaining several well-equipped steamship 
lines which handle a considerable passenger business in addition to their 
freight traffic. The Merchants & Miners' Transportation Co. is one of the 
largest of the coastwise lines, having a fleet of nine large modern steamships 
plying between Baltimore and Norfolk, Providence, Boston and Savannah. 
The New York & Baltimore Transportation Co. operates an equal number 
of steamers between Baltimore and New York. In the bay trade is the 
Bay Line between Baltimore and Norfolk, with important connections by 
both rail and water which make it an important link in through travel and 
transportation. The Ericsson Line operates between Baltimore and Phila- 



■---*"#,•: | 




THE CITY OF BAL TIMORE, MD. 43 

delphia by way of the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal. The Richmond & 
York River Line runs from Baltimore to West Point and Richmond, com- 
municating with the Richmond & Danville Railroad for points further South. 
The Roanoke, Norfolk & Baltimore, Maryland, Suffolk, Chester Ri\ er, Weems 
and Maryland & Virginia steamboat companies all are engaged in the 
bay trade, in addition to which there are other small lines and innumerable 
pungies, bugeyes, schooners and other sailing craft engaged in the oyster, 
produce and fruit-carrying trade, the greater part of which reaches Baltimore 
for distribution to other markets. Although small in its individual items, 
the aggregate of the commerce of the Chesapeake bay forms a very 
important feature in the trade of Baltimore. 

With this view of Baltimore's facilities for transportation by water to 
coastwise and foreign points, let us turn to the railroad accommodations of 
the city. At the outset it is of interest to note that citizens of Baltimore 
were the pioneer railroad builders of the United States. Ever since its 
inception in 1826 the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad has been inseparably 
interwoven with the history of Baltimore, and for more then fifty years the 
railroad has been an important element in the prosperity and growth of the 
city. The first section of the road was opened for traffic on May 22, 1830. 
It was then a thirteen-mile road, extending from Baltimore to Ellicott Mills, 
on Patapsco river, and operated by horses, with a maximum speed of ten 
miles an hour. At present the Baltimore & Ohio is a comprehensive system 
of over 3000 miles, connecting the great trade centres of the East — Balti- 
more, Philadelphia and New York — with the principal centres of the West, 
Its terminal facilities at Baltimore are planned on a magnificent scale, and 
when fully completed will provide admirable accommodations for handling 
the diversified and extensive business of the company. The tidewater 
terminus of the system is at Locust Point, directly within the main harbor, 
where the railroad has a large water frontage, with docks, elevators, coal- 
shipping piers and yardage. The heavy immigrant business of the road is 
also handled at this point, for which special facilities are provided. There 
are two grain elevators for export delivery at Locust Point, one of 1,500,000 
bushels capacity, the other 1,800,000 bushels. Another elevator con- 
veniently located in the city is used for local traffic. Across the Patapsco 
river from Locust Point at the foot of Fell street there is a freight depot 
largely used by the oyster and canning interests. The central station of the 
road in Baltimore covers a wide area fronting on Camden street and readily 
accessible. Under existing conditions all traffic destined for points east of 
Baltimore has to be ferried across the Patapsco from Locust Point, but the 
Belt Line tunnel now approaching completion will give the railroad passage 
under and through the heart of the city without break. 

By means of the Northern Central Railway link of the Pennsylvania 



44 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, AID. 



Railroad, Baltimore is made a terminal point of this great trunk line, while 
the Baltimore & Potomac and Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore 
railroads, parts of the same great system, place Baltimore upon the great 
high road between New York, Washington and the South. By the Northern 
Central Railway, which crosses the main line of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
at Harrisburg, Pa., and extends northward to the Great Lakes, an enormous 
traffic in corn and wheat from the West and Northwest is poured into Balti- 




WASHINGTON MONUMENT, MT. VERNON PLACE. 

more for export from the elevators of the company at Canton, about three 
miles below the city proper. At Canton there are extensive terminal 
facilities, extending along several miles of water front, and here there is an 
immense interchange of freight between the railroad and the steamship 
lines. The principal city terminals of the Pennsylvania system are the 
Calvert, President-Street and Bolton stations, all of which are 
located at advantageous points in the business portions of the 
city. At the Calvert-street freight yards there is a grain elevator of 
300,000 bushels capacity, used for city trade. In addition to 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 45 

the extensive tidewater terminals at Canton, the Pennsylvania lines have 
numerous receiving stations on the water front for the accommodation of 
special classes of trade. The chief passenger station, the Union, is located 
in the upper part of the city, the railroads entering the city on either side 
by tunnel. The cattle trade of the Pennsylvania and Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroads is handled jointly at the yards of the Union Stock Yards & 
Abattoir Co., at Claremont, west of the city, and reached by both railroads. 
This union establishment is a new institution, not yet fully completed, which 
will be one of the most complete stock-yards in the country. In addition 
to the great grain trade which the Pennsylvania Railroad brings to Balti- 
more over the Northern Central Railway, an immense tonnage of coal, both 
anthracite and bituminous, comes to the city over the same road from Penn- 
sylvania. This traffic is of such volume that special piers are provided at 
the company's harbor terminals for handling coal. There are three piers 
for anthracite coal, having storage capacity for 30,000 tons and a daily 
shipping capacity of 10,000 tons, and two piers for bituminous coal are, 
respectively, 400 and 800 feet in length, with berth room for five steamers 
to load at once, besides several smaller craft. 

With its main line and numerous branches, aggregating over 200 miles, 
the Western Maryland Railroad makes tributary to Baltimore a large and 
productive territory in Maryland and the southern counties of Pennsylvania. 
The main line reaches westward from Baltimore through the State of Mary- 
land to Cherry Run, W. Va. About half the mileage of the road, however, 
is in Pennsylvania, and with the extensions now being made it will reach 
nearly all of the trade centres along the southern border of Pennsylvania, 
and also give Baltimore an additional entrance to Harrisburg and thence 
into the coal and iron regions of Pennsylvania. The road also has valuable 
connections with the Reading and Baltimore & Ohio systems. Its terminal 
facilities at Baltimore are ample, embracing large freight sheds, warehouses, 
yards, &c, in addition to the tide-water terminals of the Pennsylvania sys- 
tem, which it uses jointly with that company. The Western Maryland Rail- 
road Co. also holds a franchise for the construction of a line through the 
centre of the city to tide water, the provisions of which are very liberal and 
which may at some time in the near future be made use of to give this road 
independent terminal facilities. 

The Baltimore & Lehigh Railroad is a short line extending northward 
from Baltimore to York, Pa., a distance of 75 miles. It traverses a fine 
agricultural country and a section that shows steady material growth. It 
touches several valuable quarries and passes through a section of country 
that possesses great possibilities for manufacturing or residence purposes. 
At present this road is a narrow-gauge line, but the carrying out of plans 
which have already been formulated will make this a standard -gauge road, 



4 6 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 



well equipped and in a position to handle important business. The Balti- 
more Forwarding & Railroad Co., which now operates this road, owns a 
large tract of land at Canton with a very valuable water front. At this point 
independent tide-water terminals will be built for this road and connections 
will be made with the Belt Line Railroad, by means of which the Baltimore 
& Lehigh will have access to all portions of the city and the use of extensive 
facilities. 

The Annapolis & Baltimore Short Line is a road of thirty-three miles in 
length following the Patapsco river and the bay to Bay Ridge and using the 




EUTAW PLACE. 



terminals of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad in Baltimore. The country 
through which this road passes is chiefly devoted to truck farming and con- 
stitutes an important source of supply of foodstuffs for the city. 

Baltimore has twenty -three banks with an aggregate capital of $13,287,860. 
The statement last called for by the Comptroller of the Currency showed 
the following condition on December 9th, 1892: Capital, $13,287,860; 
loans and discounts, $32,079,300; surplus fund, $4,477,900; undivided 
profits, $1,504,543; individual deposits, $24,351,224. 

The aggregate bank clearings for Baltimore during the year 1892 were 
$772,000,000, an increase of $36,000,000 over the preceding year and a gain 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 47 

of $151,000,000 in five years. In addition to the national banks there is a 
very large amount of private capital engaged in banking in Baltimore, and 
there are a score of well-known private banking houses whose business 
reaches a large aggregate and extends to all parts of the country and abroad. 
The banking business of Baltimore is conducted on a very safe and conserva- 
tive basis, and, while no encouragement is offered to speculative ventures, 
ample capital is always available for any sort of legitimate enterprise. Evi- 
dence of this appears in the enormous amount of Southern railroad stocks 
and bonds that have been absorbed by Baltimore banking houses. 

Having considered the advantages of Baltimore as a commercial centre, 
we may turn to its advantages as a location for industrial enterprises. While 
the site of Baltimore was not selected with regard to the creation of a large 
industrial centre, the same conditions which made it desirable as a distribu- 
ting point have also given it very important advantages as a manufacturing 
centre. The industrial advantages may be summarized as follows : The 
location of the city renders available supplies of raw material of every char- 
acter for manufacturing purposes in great abundance and at minimum cost. 
Lumber is brought to Baltimore by water from the great timber regions of 
the South and by rail from West Virginia and Pennsylvania. On the one 
hand are the great iron-producing regions of the South, and on the other 
are the furnaces and mills of Pennsylvania. From either source a supply of 
iron can be obtained with equal advantage. One of the oldest and best 
known coal-producing regions of the country, the Cumberland coal field of 
Maryland and West Virginia, ic about 200 miles from the city, and Balti- 
more is the natural shipping point for the output of these mines. 

The Northern Central Railroad, reaching northward into Pennsylvania, 
brings both the anthracite and bituminous coal fields of Pennsylvania to 
Baltimore's door. Fuel is, therefore, both abundant and cheap in Baltimore. 
Proximity to the manufacturing regions of Pennsylvania and the cities 
along the Delaware river, and the existence of a large manufacturing 
interest in the city itself make skilled labor of every class always in good 
supply. Added to these elements of advantage are the numerous tracts of 
land in and about Baltimore admirably adapted for manufacturing sites. To 
all of these advantages, which admirably equip the city for manufacturing 
purposes, must be added that advantage which makes Baltimore commer- 
cially great — namely, its commanding position as a distributing centre. Not 
only does the city offer every advantage for the manufacture of various 
products, but its position and transportation facilities offer immense advan- 
tage in the distribution of the manufactured products to various markets. 

That these advantages exist in fact as well as in theory is indicated by 
the manner in which the manufacturing interests of Baltimore have grown 
during the past ten years or more. The eleventh census shows that between 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 49 

1880 and 1890 the number of manufacturing establishments in Baltimore 
increased from 3,683 to 5,258, while the capital invested in manufacturing 
increased from $38,586,773 to $82,526,344 ; the number of hands employed 
increased from 56,338 to 83,091 ; the wages paid from $15,117,489 to 
$35,377,538, while the value of the products manufactured rose from $78,417,- 
304 to $140,401,026. The largest manufacturing interest in Baltimore, 
both in point of capital employed and goods manufactured, is the clothing 
industry. 

In 1890 there were 125 establishments in this industry, representing an 
invested capital of $11,897,563, employing 13,094 hands and yielding a 
product amounting to $15,032,924. Ranking next to this is the canning 
and preserving of fruits, oysters and vegetables, an industry which has 
made the name of Baltimore familiar the world over. The census figures 
show only the record of this industry as regards the city proper, which does 
not convey an adequate idea of the real extent of this business, inasmuch 
as a large portion of it is located outside of the city limits and in neighbor- 
ing towns, although the entire business practically centres in Baltimore. In 
the packing of corn and tomatoes Maryland leads the country, the output 
in 1892 being estimated at 977,742 cases out of a total of 3,223,165 cases 
for the entire country. The census shows that in 1890 there were forty 
canning and packing establishments in Baltimore, employing 8,990 hands 
and having a product aggregating $8,516,799, but the figures for Baltimore 
alone probably represent not more than one-half of the industry centering 
in this vicinity. During the past season it was estimated that about 12,000 
people were engaged in the fruit-packing industry in Baltimore alone, their 
wages amounting to $75,000 per week. The great oyster industry of 
Chesapeake bay finds its market through Baltimore, and the packing of 
oysters forms a very large business in Baltimore, about 7,500,000 one-pound 
cans of oysters being packed here during the last season. The tobacco 
industry of Baltimore is a very important factor in the city's trade, as this 
city has been for more than two hundred years a great tobacco market. 
The Maryland crop is consumed almost entirely in Europe, the crop of the 
last year amounting to about $1,250,000. There are about thirty-two 
tobacco factories in this district, and upwards of 800 cigar factories of 
various sizes. During the year ended June 30th, 1892, the products of this 
industry in this district amounted to 10,998,500 pounds of manufactured 
tobacco, 624,300 pounds of snuff, 108,165,500 cigars, and 35,100,000 
cigarettes. The census figures for 1890 show a value for the products of 
this industry amounting to $5,906,333. 

The manufacture of cotton duck is one of the oldest and most important 
industries of Baltimore, the mills in this immediate vicinity producing about 
two-thirds of the duck made in the entire country. There are fifteen mills 



.SO 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 



in and about the city, with 134,200 spindles and 2165 looms. They give 
employment to about 3000 operatives, and produce annually something like 
16,000,000 yards of cotton duck, besides a large quantity of yarn, twine 
and rope. Baltimore duck enjoys a high reputation, and the trade of these 
mills is distributed all over the world. 

The manufacture of fertilizers has reached its greatest development in this 
country in Baltimore, which for many years had a practical monopoly of the 
Peruvian guano trade before the production of artificial fertilizers became an 
industry of consequence. Along the shores of the Patapsco and at various 




CHARLES STREET, SOUTH FROM MT. VERNON PLACE. 



points on the harbor are located about fifteen large fertilizer factories, most 
of them having extensive plants for the manufacture of their own sulphuric 
acid, and in addition there are several establishments engaged solely in mak- 
ing sulphuric acid, the larger part of their product being consumed by the 
fertilizer trade. For the requirements of last year's business upwards of 
100,000 tons of South Carolina and Florida phosphate rock was received at 
Baltimore, and large quantities of sulphur and iron pyrites were imported. 
The fertilizer factories employ an average of about 600 hands and produce 
about 225,000 tons of fertilizers per annum, valued at about $4,000,000. 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 51 

The importations of raw materials for this industry constitute an important 
element in the commerce of the city. 

For more than forty years Baltimore has had an iron industry of import- 
ance, a high grade of charcoal pig-iron having been made by furnaces 
located on the harbor and at several points near the city. This industry has 
dwindled to small proportions, and but one concern on the harbor continues 
this branch of the iron business. Within the past four years, however, the 
modern iron and steel industry has been developing in the vicinity upon a 
scale of great magnitude. At Sparrow's Point, where the Patapsco river 
enters the bay, the Maryland Steel Company has built a plant which forms 
the beginning of what will be one of the greatest iron and steel and ship- 
building establishments in the world. The plant now contains four blast 
furnaces of an aggregate annual capacity of about 400,000 tons of pig iron ; 
a Bessemer steel plant and rail mill of great capacity, and a splendidly- 
equipped shipyard for the construction of every class of steel vessels. All 
of the iron ore used is imported from the company's mines in Cuba, a fleet 
of large steamships being engaged in this trade. Upwards of $5,000,000 
has been expended upon the plant at Sparrow's Point, and the works are 
far from complete. About 4000 hands are employed and an admirably- 
arranged town of 5000 or 6000 inhabitants has grown up about the 
works. 

Shipbuilding has been an important industry on the Patapsco longer than 
Baltimore has existed. There are a dozen or more yards for construction 
and repair work, with dry docks, marine railways and other modern appli- 
ances. There are facilities for every kind of work from an oyster pungy to 
an iron-clad warship, two of the latter now being near completion. During 
1892 61 vessels, of an aggregate net vonnage of 17,277 tons, were 
launched from Baltimore shipyards. In a port of such commercial import- 
ance repair work upon seagoing steamships is a very large item. The 
Columbian Iron Works, which is the largest establishment on the harbor, 
has turned out a large amount of work, and its history is of no little interest. 
This concern began with the firm of Malster & Donnell, some twenty-three 
years ago, at the Caroline Iron Works, the principal work then in hand being 
the engines and boilers of the steamer Raleigh, of the Baltimore & Wil- 
mington Packet Line. On the dissolution of partnership two years later Mr. 
Malster continued the business alone and had two yards — one at the foot of 
Ann street and the other near by at Canton, the two being called the Colum- 
bian Iron Works. At Canton were built the iceboat F. C. Latrobe, the 
steamers Enoch Pratt and Canton, the steam yacht Bretagne, then the 
largest steam yacht in the world, and the United States steamer Tallapoosa 
was overhauled and nearly rebuilt. At the Ann street yard were built the 
lighthouse steamers Laurel and Arbutus, the steamers Camille and Royal 



52 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 



Arch, and the tug Alexander Jones, the latter having the first com- 
pound engines built in Baltimore. In 1880 Mr. Malster moved across the 
harbor to the present site at Locust Point, adjoining Fort McHenry, 
where there is now a 450-foot dry dock, a water frontage of about 500 
feet, with two piers 80 by 200 feet. The property embraces about fifteen 
acres and the plant is fully equipped with modern tools and machinery. 
About 600 men are employed, and some notable work has been done here. 
The two ferry boats, Robert Garrett and Erastus Wiman, the largest in the 
world, were built in 1887-8 for service between New York City and Staten 




HARLEM SQUARE. 



Island. The ice boat Annapolis was built here and the United States gun- 
boat Petrel was turned out in 1889. The tank steamer Maverick, the first 
built on this side of the Atlantic was built here. The United States cruiser 
Detroit was launched October 28, 1891, and the Montgomery was launched 
December 5 of the same year, both vessels being now near completion. 
Since 1884 the concern has been known as the Columbian Iron Works and 
Dry Dock Company, of which Mr. W. T. Malster, the founder and creator 
of the works, is president and general manager. 

Ever since 181 5 when a copper rolling mill was established, on the Gun- 
powder river, Baltimore has been the seat of a very important copper indus- 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, AID. 53 

try, and at present it contains the largest copper smelting and refining works 
and rolling mills in the world. The Baltimore Copper, Smelting & Refining 
Co., which was organized in 1886, succeeded all the older concerns and now 
carries on a very large business at its works at Canton. The raw material 
for these works comes from the copper mines in Arizona and Montana in the 
form of matte containing about sixty per cent, copper. This is smelted and 
refined and sold as ingots and as rolled copper in various forms. For many 
years the largest part of the product of the Montana mines has been ship- 
ped abroad in the form of matte, but arrangements have been made whereby 
the entire product will be smelted and refined in Baltimore. There has 
recently been added to the smelting works at Canton an adjunct in the form 
of the Baltimore Electric Refining Co., which has established an extensive 
plant for the treatment of copper by electricity, the first plant of its kind in 
this country and one of the largest in the world. The output of refined cop- 
per from these works exceeds 30,000,000 pounds per annum, valued at many 
millions of dollars, in addition to which a large quantity of blue vitriol is also 
manufactured as a by-product. About 500 hands are employed in these 
works. 

The limits of this article preclude even an enumeration of all the manu- 
facturing interests which centre in and about Baltimore. Those that have 
been mentioned represent merely the more important industries and those 
which are most widely known outside of the city. There are a great many 
smaller establishments covering a wide range of industry, whose aggregate 
capital and products reach a large total and whose operations require the 
services of many thousands of employees. 

Coming to the more specific treatment of the industrial advantages of 
Baltimore, the most conspicuous feature is the great amount of property 
that is available for manufacturing purposes and peculiarly adapted to such 
uses. Along the water-front in particular, on the shores of the Patapsco 
river, and even down along the great Chesapeake bay, there is a great 
amount of land that is peculiarly suited for the location of manufacturing- 
establishments of every character. The ample railway accommodations and 
the facilities for the receipt of raw materials and the shipment of products 
by water fender the water frontage of Baltimore essentially a manufacturing 
section, and at several points along the water-front there have been estab- 
lished important industrial centres in which are grouped together many large 
industries of various kinds. Canton, which is the oldest and one of the 
most important industrial sections of the city, owes its existence to the Canton 
Company, by which nearly all of the property was at one time owned. 
This company was organized about sixty-five years ago by Peter Cooper, who 
was its first president, and a number of his friends, who perceived the 
great advantages which Baltimore possessed for commerce and manu- 



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54 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD, 55 

facture. They organized the Canton Company, and bought several 
thousand acres of land on the lower harbor adjacent to the city. Pursuing 
a very conservative policy, in fact a policy quite at variance with the 
usual methods of land companies, the Canton Company has built up a 
town of 30,000 people upon the property which it formerly owned. This 
was, perhaps, the first well-defined effort to stimulate the industrial 
development of Baltimore, and the result of more than sixty years 
of work by the Canton Company has given to Baltimore great industrial 
prominence. The present property of the Canton Company consists of 
about 2500 acres of land which has 32,000 feet of water front, accessible to 
vessels drawing twenty-eight feet of water. The property is regularly laid 
off and divided by avenues and streets into lots generally 428 feet front by 
204 feet deep. The property is traversed by the tracks of the Pennsylania 
and the Baltimore & Ohio railroads, and the Western Maryland Railroad 
also has access to the property. It is upon this property that the- tide-water 
terminals of the Northern Central (Pennsylvania) Railroad are located, and 
Sparrow's Point, the site of the great works of the Maryland Steel Co., is 
four miles below Canton. The present management of the Canton Company 
includes a number of wealthy Baltimore and New York merchants and 
bankers, and its assets are reckoned at over $6,000,000. Mr. Walter B. 
Brooks, the president of the company, has long been actively identified with 
the development of Baltimore's resources. 

In recent years there has grown up a very important industrial center at 
Curtis bay, or South Baltimore, a few miles south of the city proper and 
across the Patapsco river. The South Baltimore Harbor & Improvement 
Co. owns about 1500 acres of land with a very extensive water-front, where 
the water has an average depth of twenty-five feet. The Baltimore & Ohio 
Railroad runs through the property and has a terminus at Curtis bay. The 
property is reached by an electric railway which runs to the heart of the 
city, and under the stimulus of natural advantages and . energetic manage- 
ment the locality has undergone a remarkable development in recent years. 
There is a very large sugar refinery, a barrel factory, car works and machine 
shops, and a large rolling mill is now nearing completion. These industries 
give employment to thousands of operatives whose dwellings form a 
flourishing town. The land slopes up gradually from the water's edge to a 
height of about two hundred feet, and the locality enjoys a reputation for 
healthfulness, which adds much to its advantages. So rapid has been the 
development at this point that there has been great difficulty in building 
houses rapidly enough to accommodate the ever-increasing population. The 
management of this company in the hands of its President, Mr. Wm. S. 
Rayner, has been marked by good judgment and foresight, and South Balti- 
more has come to be recognized as one of the greatest industrial centers of 
Maryland. 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 57 

The country seat of the late Richard Cromwell, about one and one-half 
miles from Curtis Bay, adjoining the thriving village of Brooklyn, has lately 
been made available for industrial and residence purposes. The property 
embraces a tract of 540 acres of water front on the Patapsco river, and is 
particularly well located from a commercial and industrial standpoint, having 
both water and rail communication and being but a few miles from the city 
proper. As yet the property has undergone very little development, but it 
must be counted as one of the opportunities for industrial development 
which surround the city of Baltimore. This tract of land is well adapted for 
residence purposes, and one of its chief advantages lies in its suitability for 
the location of a colony of working people employed in the neighboring 
works at Curtis Bay or in prospective establishments which are likely to be 
erected upon the property itself. It is the intention of the owners of this 
property to cut it up into lots of a convenient and available size and shape. 

Specific mention is made of these properties, not for the purpose of 
advertising them, but to indicate in a measure the character of the industrial 
opportunities that are presented in the outskirts of Baltimore ; but the list 
does not end with these, for the localities referred to embrace but a small 
portion of the vast area of property adjoining the city which is naturally 
adapted for industrial purposes by reason of its location and convenient 
communication by rail and water. 

Inland from the city there lies a great stretch of country of quite a 
different character. Broken and rolling in its surface and charmingly 
situated for suburban residence purposes, it is rather singular that, with such 
a stretch of charming country immediately at its doors, the city of Baltimore 
should have been for so many years practically without any suburban 
residence sections. The railroads reaching the city traverse miles of country 
of rare picturesque beauty, which would have long ago in any other part of 
the country been developed into charming suburban villages, but in Baltimore 
the line between city and country has been very sharply drawn, and until 
now there has been practically no residence suburbs. There are evidences of 
appreciation of these suburban opportunities, however, in the development 
that is taking place in several localities immediately outside of the city lines. 
The movement toward the country has started in a vigorous manner, and it 
will not be many years before the suburbs of Baltimore will be equal in 
beauty to those of our most attractive cities. All that is needed is the touch 
of the architect, the engineer and the landscape gardener to transform the 
suburbs of Baltimore into a section of rare beauty and attractiveness. 

The most important suburban enterprise now in progress is Roland Park, 
which lies north of the city just beyond the corporate limits. A tract of 
about 120 acres upon the brow of a gravelly hill has been cut up into lots, 
graded and intersected with macadamized streets, and supplied with water, 




58 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 59 

electric lights and modern drainage. An electric railroad is under con- 
struction, running from Roland Park to the heart of the city, to furnish 
prospective residents with quick transportation from their homes to their 
business. The projectors of this enterprise have invested an immense 
amount of money for the purpose of creating what might be regarded as an 
ideal suburb, and their plan has been wrought out in an admirable manner. 

Beyond Roland Park another somewhat similar enterprise is in progress, 
under the name of Tuxedo Park, extending along Roland Avenue for over 
a quarter of a mile. This property has been opened up by streets and 
cut into lots and made available for residence purposes, for which this 
entire region presents many advantages and attractions. The Baltimore 
& Lehigh Railroad and the Lake Roland Elevated Railroad, which is now 
approaching completion, will give a decided impetus to the development 
of this section of the suburbs and stimulate very rapid development in the 
direction of suburban residences. There are a score of other desirable 
localities immediately adjacent to the city, few of which, as yet, 
have passed beyond the condition of open country. As yet, the 
conveniences necessary for suburban comfort are almost entirely lacking, 
but the opportunities exist, and the appreciation of what has thus far 
been done towards suburban development indicates that the people of 
Baltimore are in a frame of mind to give very cordial and substantial support 
to any movement designed to develop these beautiful suburbs into attractive 
and convenient places of residence. It may be said that Baltimore's greatest 
need at the present time is for well-developed suburbs, such as can be found 
in Philadelphia, Boston and some of our other great cities that are particu- 
larly noted for their beautiful surroundings. 

As a place of residence Baltimore presents numerous advantages, enjoying 
an enviable reputation for its healthfulness and agreeable climate. The death 
rate for the entire population is about twenty-two per thousand inhabitants, 
the death rate for the whites being twenty and for the colored about thirty- 
one. The topography of the city is such as to permit of natural drainage to 
an extent that is unknown in our other great cities. Epidemics ' are rarely 
known, and the city is marked by an absence of all diseases traceable to 
contaminated water supply or defective drainage. The water supply is ample 
for a population of over a million, being drawn from streams sufficiently 
removed from the city to render contamination impossible. 

Not only does Baltimore lie in the midst of a great park-like section of 
Maryland, but within the city there are several beautiful public parks which 
add much to the beauty and health of the city. Chief of these is Druid 
Hill Park, a beautiful stretch of 693 acres of natural field and wood- 
land. This property was purchased from a private family in i860 for 
the sum of $500,000, having been laid out over 100 years ago by 



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Cold Spring Lane. 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MD. 61 

its owners in the style of an English park. The preservation of the 
natural features of this tract of land and the many ancient trees of large 
growth give it a beauty that is lacking in artificially-created pleasure-grounds. 
The judicious use of landscape gardening has enhanced the picturesque 
beauty of the park, its numerous lakes have been stocked with fish, and 
deer and sheep roam at large throughout the park. It is a spot of rare 
beauty, and constitutes a feature of which the people of Baltimore are justly 
proud. Patterson Park is a tract of 1 13 acres, situated in the eastern part of 
the city, and commanding a fine view of the harbor and adjacent territory. 
Historical interest attaches to the place from the fact that upon this 
location in 18 14 earthworks were erected by citizen volunteers in 
anticipation of an attack upon the city by the British forces. . Federal 
Hill Park, covering about eight acres of ground, overlooks the* city 
and harbor, and forms a very attractive resort. Riverside Park is 
another pleasure resort of about fourteen acres in extent in the southern 
part of the city, and this also is associated with historical events, as 
it contains the earthworks which were known as Fort Covington during 
the war of 181 2. There are several other squares and public parks of a 
few acres each in extent scattered through the city, which form pleasant 
breathing-places for the people. 

By general repute Baltimore is essentially a conservative city. The con- 
servatism of Baltimore, however, must not be interpreted to mean stagna- 
tion, for the city grows and develops rapidly. In many respects, however, 
it is undoubtedly less progressive than some of our other great American 
cities, but it must be admitted that we have no city in America that is more 
substantial in its present prosperity or steadier in its growth. The absence of 
speculative tendencies must not be counted as a disadvantage, for the people 
of Baltimore have sufficient business perception and intelligence to appreciate 
whatever is of genuine merit. The enterprises in which Baltimore men and 
money have had a hand will be found invariably to be of the most substantial 
character. It is of interest to note that just at the present time Baltimore is 
undergoing the transformation period which is marked in all our great cities 
by the advent of rapid transit and the erection of modern office buildings. 
A vast amount of money, which is estimated to be not less than fifty or 
sixty millions dollars, will be expended by the end of next year in improve- 
ments of a public and semi-public character. The street railways of the 
city are undergoing a complete transformation which will result in the aboli- 
tion of animal power and the substitution therefor of the cable and electric 
motor. It is estimated that this transformation requires the expenditure of 
about $10,000,000. Apart from this the most important stimulus to the 
commercial interests of the city is being imparted by the erection of hand- 
some modern business buildings such as will compare favorably with those 



62 



THE CITY OF BALTIMORE, MB. 



that are found in many of our most progressive cities. Three or four fine 
office buildings ranging in cost from $100,000 to $1,500,000 have already 
been completed and three or four others are now in course of erection. 
The completion of these buildings and the improvements of transportation 
facilities will impart a stimulus to Baltimore such as it has never 




TUXEDO PARK. 



known before, and the result will be of inestimable value to every interest in 
the city. It is significant also as showing the appreciation of what Baltimore 
is or may be that a very large proportion of this immense amount of 
money now being expended in improvements comes from other cities, 
showing that there is a widespread appreciation of the advantages and 
possibilities existing in Baltimore. 



NATURAL GAS IN INDIANA. 



There is an impression very generally 
prevalent that natural gas as an economic 
factor has seen its best days. Like many 
other popular beliefs, however, this is in- 
correct. The idea has grown out of the 
casual reading of occasional newspaper 
articles about the failure of gas in some 
sections where it was first used. Natural 
gas has not played out by a good deal. 

On the contrary, it is going to be a more 
important factor in general development 
than it has yet been. True, it has given 
out in some localities and the supply has 
been greatly lessened in others. Many 
towns in the gas districts of Pennsylvania 
and Ohio that once used gas for domestic 
purposes and for manufacturing have had 
to abandon it altogether. But it is still 
largely used, though, of course, in the older 
gas regions not to anything like so great 
an extent as formerly. 

The area of gas territory in Pennsylvania 
and Ohio is very small. For several years 
after the general -use of natural gas began 
it was used with reckless wastefulness. 
Nobody thought of taking care of it. The 
flow from many of the largest wells was 
allowed to go to waste for months. Travel- 
ing through the gas fields at night one 
would hardly ever be away from the light 
of wells that were allowed to burn continu- 
ously simply to advertise some adjacent 
town, or because the owners didn't think it 
worth while to confine the flow. 

Wells were bored and the gas from them 
allowed to blow out into the air for 
months, until the increased consumption in 
the neighborhood should make it necessary 
to utilize it. Besides this sort of waste, 
its method of use in factories and homes 
was inconceivably extravagant. There was 



a notion that the gas was generated 
as fast as used and could never be 
used up. It seemed to the mind of 
most people to be a newly-discovered 
gift of nature, as free as water and air and 
as incapable of exhaustion. For years 
millions and millions of feet a day were 
thus wasted. Besides this, the actual con- 
sumption subjected the fields to an enor- 
mous drain. The great aggregation of in- 
dustries in and around Pittsburg and the 
factories at Findlay, Tiffin and a hundred 
other cities and towns within the gas area, 
used natural gas almost wholly in place of 
coal, and it supplanted coal and wood for 
all domestic uses also. In addition to this 
stupendous draft upon the hidden reservoirs, 
gas was piped to large cities outside of the 
district and used for manufacturing pur- 
poses and for heating, lighting and cook- 
ing. Taking these facts into account and 
considering the very small area of gas-pro- 
ducing territory in Pennsylvania and Ohio, 
the wonder is that the supply of gas did 
not give out years ago. And yet, even in 
these two States there are yet several hun- 
dreds of productive wells, yielding many 
millions of cubic feet of gas a day. 

The gas district of Indiana, which is of 
recent discovery and development, is many 
times as large as the aggregate gas-pro- 
ducing territory of Pennsylvania and Ohio 
combined. The owners of gas lands in 
Indiana are wisely profiting by the experi- 
ence of the older fields, and are carefully 
guarding against any waste of the gas. 
Moreover, it is protected from waste and 
extravagant use by stringent laws that are 
rigidly enforced. Thus, even if the Indiana 
gas field had not any greater supply than 
Pennsylvania and Ohio had, it would hold 



NATURAL GAS IN INDIANA. 



out many years longer. But, as a fact, the 
field embraces, as has just been said, an 
area many times greater than that of these 
two States. 

In the centre of the gas district there is 
an area of greater pressure and more 
abundant and lasting supply than in the 
surrounding territory. This high-pressure 
field is about 1600 square miles in extent, 
and only about one-fourth of it has been 
drawn upon. 

Since natural gas began to be used in 
Indiana there have been some instances 
of remarkable town growth brought about 
by the building of factories, the owners 
of them having moved from other locali- 
ties becaus^ of the inducement of cheap 
fuel. Of course, accompanying this ex- 
pansion of towns into cities, there is 
great real estate speculation. Fortunes are 
made on small investments. 

At the older places the limit of prices 
has been very nearly reached, and values 
will, in the main, make but little ad- 
vance until the towns have made large 
further additions to their population. 
The buyers, with appetites whetted by their 
experience in the older towns, will next 
give their attention to the new towns now 
coming into prominence. Of the more re- 
cently started towns the most prominent 
and promising is Alexandria, which, ac- 
cording to the maps issued by the State 
Geological Department, lies in the geo- 
graphical centre of the area of heaviest 
pressure. Alexandria is undergoing a 
much more rapid industrial development, 
and it is going to have a much greater real 
estate boom than any of the other towns in 
the gas district have had. Two years ago 
it had no factories and was simply a country 
village of the usual sort. A year and a-half 
ago a lamp-chimney works was started. 
This was followed in a little while by a 
window-glass factory. Then others came 
along, until at the end of a year there were 
fourteen factories, employing about 1200 
hands. Ayear or more ago the De Pauw 
Plate Glass Co., of New Albany, Ind. , just 
across the river from Louisville, Ky., own- 
ing one of the largest plate-glass works in 
the world, decided to remove its plant into 
the natural gas district. The best experts 
in the country were employed and several 
thousand dollars were spent in exploring 
the whole gas field. As a result of this in- 



vestigation the company fixed upon Alexan- 
dria as the locality likely to have the largest 
and longest supply of gas, and decided to 
move its works there. It has now completed 
one-fourth of its plant and gone into opera- 
tion. The buildings are of brick and of 
the most substantial and expensive sort. 
Between 400 and 450 men are employed. 
The works when finished will cover nearly 
thirty acres of ground and employ from 
1600 to 2000 men. The De Pauw people, 
under a separate organization, are building 
also a window-glass factory to employ be- 
tween goo and 1000 men. Half of this 
plant is already completed and will start up 
next month with 400 or 500 men. A bottle 
.factory and a glass-jar factory are to be 
built, and will employ about 200 men 
each. The United Window Glass Co. has 
signed a contract to build a window-glass 
factory that will employ 1200 or more 
hands. The same concern* will build also 
a factory to make table glassware. A 
rolling mill that will employ from 300 to 
500 men is preparing to build. A contract 
has just been signed for the establishment 
here of earthenware works guaranteed to 
employ not less than 500 hands. A canning 
factory to employ 200 hands will be built 
in the spring. The lamp-chimney works, 
the first factory started, is to be enlarged 
and will employ 275 more hands than now. 
Several smaller industries are under con- 
tract and negotiations are pending with a 
large number of others. There are 500 
or 600 men now employed in build- 
ing operations. The enterprises already in 
operation or contracted for will employ -an 
aggregate of over 8000 mechanics. 

A year ago there were about 800 people 
living at Alexandria. The present popu- 
lation, ascertained by actual count, is some- 
thing over 4500. A three or four-story brick 
hotel is to be built. An electric street rail- 
way will be constructed in the spring, and 
various other improvements have been in- 
augurated. The town is at the crossing 
point of the C, C, C. & St. L. R. R. (the 
Big Four) and the Lake Erie & Western 
Railroad. The Panhandle, one of the 
Pennsylvania Company's lines, will build 
to the town. 

Factories locating at Alexandria are given 
a site and allowed the use of gas free by the 
Alexandria Company, of which Mr. A. A. 
Arthur is manager. 



CHARLOTTESVILLE, VIRGINIA, U. S. 



Nearly one hundred years ago the great- 
est statesman then living appeared before 
the Old Dominion legislature and asked 
that the child of which he was justly proud, 
the University of Virginia, should be 
located at Charlottesville. It was then a 
small and insignificant village. Thomas 
Jefferson's request was granted, and for 
many years the town of Queen Charlotte 
was only known as the place near which 
the Athens of America was built. Now 
the ancient inhabitants would hardly know 
it. From a straggling, poorly-paved, muddy- 
streeted, dingy and shabby old neglected 
town of about 25,00 people in 1880 there 
has sprung a city of nearly 10,000 inhabit- 
ants. Well has it been called the Central- 
City of Virginia, for it is so geographically, 
socially, educationally and religiously. It 
is also a railway centre. The Richmond & 
Danville and Chesapeake & Ohio Railroads 
cross at Charlottesville and have eighteen 
passenger and about sixty freight trains 
daily. The city is only three hours from 
the nation's capital, Washington, and four 
hours from Baltimore, nine hours from New 
York, two and a-half hours from Richmond, 
two hours from Lynchburg and one hour 
from Staunton. 

Charlottesville is the county seat of 
Albemarle, one of the richest and most 
productive counties in Virginia. Fruit, 
especially the justly celebrated Albemarle 
pippin apple, grows abundantly; grapes are 
easily and profitably cultivated. The 
people of the city and county work to- 
gether with great harmony and good-will. 
The schools, both public and private, are 
the best in existence, having gained a 
world-wide fame. The churches represent 
every denomination and have seating 
capacity for 10,000 souls, or for every man, 
woman and child in the township. 



Property is low both as to the purchas" 
able value and . rentals. The city has 
never had a boom, and to a stranger re- 
turning from the dreary waste, now char- 
acterizing the dead corn-field or boom 
towns, this place proves a lovely oasis in 
the midst of a sandy desert. The factories 
here are doing well, making from 7 per 
cent, to ir per cent, dividends for their 
stockholders. The land company, under 
the management of one of nature's noble- 
men, has accomplished wonders. People 
all seem happy and contented with them- 
selves, neighbors and surroundings — all at 
work and more employment for willing 
hands to do. 

If you want to know more about this 
thriving city, go and see it or write for in- 
formation, maps, etc., to the Hon. L. T. 
Hankel, the postmaster, judge of the city 
or county, or to A. P. Bibb & Co., real 
estate and investment brokers. If in 
Washington, D. C, during the inaugura- 
tion, call at No. 1716 Pennsylvania avenue 
and ask for A. P. Bibb. He will be pleased 
to answer and furnish you additional infor- 
mation. The best thing for you to do is to 
go and see for yourself what this city is 
really like. We have been there and were* 
pleased. 

Charlottesville should influence your best 
judgment as a place for business invest- 
ment. It appeals to the imagination as a 
place of rare picturesque beauty. From the 
heights surrounding the city, scenery such 
as delights the artist meets you at every 
turn. The patriot may here have his 
purest and noblest passions thoroughly 
aroused as he bows, with uncovered and 
reverent head, before the beautiful national 
monument which marks the resting place 
of the Sage of Monticello. 



OPPORTUNITIES FOR INVESTMENT. 



We shall be pleased to answer communications and give information concerning the following 
opportunities for investment. Address all correspondence to the Manufacturers' Record Publishing 
Co., Baltimore, Md., and be particular to give the number of the notice to which you refer. 



.' ; 



".'- • 



C '"• 






No. 7.— A MANUFACTURING COMPANY in 
Texas desires to place $28,000 ten-year 8 per 
cent, mortgage bonds, the total issue being 
$60,000, of which $32,000 has already been sold. 
The proceeds are to be used for final payments 
on machinery and for working capital. The 
bonds are secured by the entire property of the 
company, consisting of factory building, ma- 
chinery and real estate, all of which has a clear 
title and is free of any incumbrance. 

No. 8— PHOSPHATE LAND.— 600 acres pebble 
phosphate land within one and one-half miles of 
two important and competitive railroads. Exten- 
sive deposits in sand and marl matrix from two to 
fifteen feet deep, and ranging from 30 to 80 per 
cent, pebble. Analyses show from 60 to 80 pei 
cent, phosphate of lime. 

No. 9.— A tract of land located in the suburbs of 
Macon, Ga., and admirably adapted to manufac- 
turing purposes, is offered for sale at reasonable 
price. The property is at the junction of three 
railroad lines, has abundant water supply, labor 
can be obtained cheaply, and ail conditions 
requisite for industrial enterprises are present. 

No. 10. — About. 10,000 acres of mineral and tim- 
ber land in one tract in North Carolina can be 
purchased cheap. The minerals are copper, iron, 
•silver and nickel. 

No. 11. — A tract of about 10,000 acres of timber 
land near Bristol, Tenn. Contains also several 
large deposits of iron ore which will soon be 
accessible by railroads now under construction. 

No. 12. — About 17,000 acres of coal and timber 
land in Scott and Wise counties, Virginia, near to 
both the Norfolk & Western and South Atlantic 
& Ohio Railroads. 

No. 13. — A copper ore property is for sale in 
North Carolina. There is an extensive deposit 
of ore upon which some development has been 
done with results that indicate the existence of a 
valuable property. 

No. 14. — A woodworking concern in Virginia, 
engaged in the manufacture of interior wood- 
work, with a well-established trade and an 
abundance of orders in hand, desires to secure 
$10,000 of additional capital to increase the plant 
and enable more advantageous purchases of 
material. It is desired that the investor of 
additional capital in this company shall assume 
its financial management. The business is well 
organized, has good plant, and is making money. 
The addition of more capital will greatly increase 
its facilities and earning power. 



No. 15. — A fine tract of timber property in 
North Carolina, aggregating about 1,200 acres 
and covered with hardwoods and pine, can be 
secured at a reasonable figure. About one- 
quarter of the property is cleared and is admira- 
ble farming land. There are buildings upon the 
tract which could be utilized to good advantage 
for Manufacturing purposes. There is a railroad 
station within one mile of this tract. 



No. 16. — A valuable coal property in Tennessee, 
which is well under development, shipping coal 
regularly and earning a handsome return upon 
its value, can be purchased at a low figure. The 
property is sure to earn, under proper manage- 
ment, 10 to 15 per cent, per annum on the price 
that is asked for it. The property has been in 
operation about two years, and the mines are 
well established, and the shipping facilities are 
excellent. 

No. 17. — We have knowledge of a large and 
very valuable granite property in Virginia, which 
is available for development and which ought to 
prove a very good investment. The property 
lies two and one-half miles from the Norfolk & 
Western Railroad, and very favorable arrange- 
ments can be made for the construction of a side 
track to the quarry. The property has never 
been developed, but could be opened at once at 
small expense: The granite is of excellent 
quality, admirabiy-suited for building purposes. 
The color ranges from pale pink to purple, and 
the stone is susceptible of a high polish. There 
are quarries not far distant upon the same vein 
which are furnishing stone that has a wide repu- 
tation. 



No. 18. — There is now in the market at a low 
price a tract of about 100,000 acres of good 
mountain timber land in western North Carolina. 
It has railroad communication, is well watered, 
and is admirably adapted to fruit growing and 
grazing, and particularly to the culture of 
tobacco. The timber is chiefly hard wood of 
several varieties. The property can be bought at 
a very reasonable figure. 



No. 19. — One of the largest known deposits of 
jet marble in the United States is located near 
Chattanooga, Tenn., near two railroads and with 
water communication. The marble is jet black, 
takes a fine polish, and is equal to any imported 
varieties. The owner being occupied with other 
business, will sell this property at a low figure, or 
might lease it upon a royalty basis. 



No. 20. — A tract of about 1,200 acres of pebble 
phosphate property on Peace River in Polk 
county, Fla., has just been put upon the market 
for the first time, and is offered at a very low 
price. The property is well located for mining 
purposes, and mining can be carried on at a mini- 
mum cost. There are five other mining plants 
now in operation upon adjoining property, and 
this tract offers advantages rarely to be found, 
both in character of the deposit, facility of 
working and means of shipment. If purchased 
at once this property can be had at a low figure. 

No. 21— STREET RAILWAY.— A small street 
railway, in one of the most substantial and most 
rapidly-growing towns in Virginia, is for sale. 
The road is now a good-paying piece of property 
and by reorganization, extension and improve- 
ment it can easily be made to pay a good return 
upon twice its present price. 



HECKMAN 

BINDERY INC. 



Sk MAR 65 

N. MANCHESTER, 
INDIANA 46962