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EXCHANGE 




k 



J 



:iA\ir 17 1921 




PAPERS 



OF THE 

PEABODJY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
^^Atfb ETHNOLOGY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

VoiTlX 



A MAYA GRAMMAR 

WITH BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPRAISEMENT 
OF THE WORKS NOTED 



BY 



ALFRED M. TOZZER 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 

PUBLISHED BY THE MUSEUM 

1921 



PAPERS 

OF THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 
AND ETHNOLOGY, HARVARD UNIVERSITY 

Vol. IX 



A MAYA GRAMMAR 

WITH BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPRAISEMENT 
OF THE WORKS NOTED 



BY 

ALFRED M. TOZZER 



CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, U. S. A. 
PUBLISHED BY THE MUSEUM 

1921 



s4 v 



COPYRIGHT, 19£1 

BY THE PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 

AND ETHNOLOGY. HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



ANTHROPOLOGY LIBRARY 

KXCM^Nae 



E 

y 

V, 

A Hi 
u 



TO THE MEMORY OF 
CHARLES P. BOWDITCH 

1842-1921 

THAT GREATEST OF ALL FRIENDS OF MAYA RESEARCH 

THROUGH WHOSE INITIATIVE 

AND AID THIS VOLUME HAS BEEN MADE POSSIBLE 



PREFACE 

As the first recipient of the Travelling Fellowship in American 
Archaeology of the Archaeological Institute of America, I spent 
the winters of the years 1901-1902 to 1904-1905 in Yucatan, Chia- 
pas, and Tabasco, Mexico, and northern Guatemala. 1 

A report on the ethnological work of this Fellowship was pub- 
lished as a special paper of the Archaeological Institute of Amer- 
ica, "A Comparative Study of the Mayas and Lacandones," 
(New York, 1907, xx, 195 p., xxix plates). In that report (p. v) a 
promise was made that the linguistic part of the work undertaken 
under the Fellowship would be published later. The long-delayed 
fulfillment of this promise is the present study of the Maya lan- 
guage. The permission of the Archaeological Institute, through its 
President, has kindly been given to have this work published by 
the Peabody Museum. 

I can do no better than repeat what I said in 1907 regarding my 
obligations. "I desire at this time to express my appreciation and 
thanks to the three original members of the Committee on Ameri- 
can Archaeology, Mr. Charles P. Bowditch, Chairman, Professor 
F. W. Putnam, and Professor Franz Boas. To Mr. Bowditch, 
through whose initiative and aid the Travelling Fellowship in 
American Archaeology was founded, and to Professor Putnam, 2 
both of whom have given unsparingly of their time in advice and 
counsel both before and during the four years of the Fellowship, 
and to Dr. Boas, who has been of great aid in his advice on the 
linguistic side of the work, I am deeply grateful." 

These obligations are quite as heavy today as they were in 1907. 
Dr. Boas has continued to give me valuable aid and it is owing to 
the never-ending interest and generosity of Mr. Charles P. Bow- 

1 For brief reports of the work of the Fellowship, see American Journal of 
Archaeology, 2d series, supplement, v. 6 (1902), p. 2-4; v. 7 (1903), p. 45-49; v. 
8 (1904), p. 54-56; v. 9 (1905), p. 45-47. 

2 Professor Putnam has died since this paragraph was first written. His 
death took place on August 14, 1915. 



vi PREFACE 

ditch that the Peabody Museum has been able to bring this study 
out as a Paper of the Museum.- 

I also wish at this time to thank some of my many friends in 
Yucatan who aided me throughout the time I was there. Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward H. Thompson and Mr. and Mrs. William James of 
Merida gave me abundantly of their generous hospitality. I have 
spoken in another place of my obligations to the late Sefior Don 
Audomaro Molina and to Sefior Don Juan Martinez Hernandez. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Preface v 

PART I. — A MAYA GRAMMAR 

Introduction . . ,. 3 

Maya stock 3 

Location 3 

Dialects 4 

Maya dialect 5 

Location 5 

Hieroglyphic writing 6 

Written Maya 6 

Early grammars on Latin model 7 

Grammars of Coronel, San Buenaventura, and Beltran .... 9 

Maya of present time 14 

Modern Maya grammars of Ruz, Seler, Palma y Palma, Lopez, etc. 15 

Provenance of material discussed 16 

Phonetics 17 

General character 17 

Consonants '. 18 

Vowels . 19 

Doubled vowels 20 

Notation • 20 

Alphabets used by various authorities 21 

Phonetic changes 23 

Syncope, Synalephe and Apocope 23 

Vocalic harmony 26 

Avoidance of hiatus 26 

Semi-vowels 26 

Lacandone dialect 27 

Character of stem 27 

Accent : 27 

Grammatical processes 28 

Enumeration . 28 

Word composition 28 

Affixes 28 

Reduplication 29 

Word order 29 

vii 



viii CONTENTS 

Ideas expressed by the grammatical processes 29 

Word composition 29 

Habitual action expressed by verb and object 29 

Agent 29 

Gender of animals 29 

Indefinite time in the future 29 

Action just completed 30 

Optative 30 

Suffix 30 

Plurality in most nouns and some adjectives, -ob 30 

Plurality in 2d person, nominal pronoun, -es 30 

Plurality in some adjectives, -ak 30 

Plurality in some nouns, -al 30 

Exclusion in dual and plural, -on and -on-es 30 

Inclusion in plural, -e§ 30 

Verbal pronoun as subject or object 30 

Demonstrative pronoun, -a, -o, -u, with prefix le 30 

Reflexive pronoun, -ba 30 

Abstract nouns, -il 31 

Collective nouns, -il 31 

Attributive relationship, -il . . . 31 

Gentilitious relationship, -il 31 

Habituality, -tal 31 

Comparative degree, il 31 

Present time, transitive verb, -ik 31 

Present time, intransitive verb of motion, -kah 31 

Future time, intransitive and transitive verbs, -e 31 

Future time, Class IV verbs, -t§al or -tal 31 

Indefinite future, intransitive verbs, -ak and prefix bin 31 

Past time, intransitive and transitive verbs, Classes, II, III, IV, 

ah or h 31 

Distant past, transitive verbs, m-ah 31 

Causal verbs (Class lb), -s 31 

Verbs of agent (Class IHb), -t 32 

Effect of action of verb on subject, -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 32 

Passive relationship, past time, -b or -n 32 

Imperative, intransitive, -en, transitive, -e 32 

Inchoative or inceptive verbs and those of Class II, -tal or -hal . 32 

Reflexive verbs, -pahal 32 

Adverbial ideas, -il . . . 32 

Manner of action, prefix be-, suffix, -il and demonstrative ... 32 

Numeral classifiers 32 

Prefix 32 

Gender of the " Nomen actoris," H- and §- 32 

Time attached to nominal pronoun, tan-, t-, and he- 32 

Time particle with intransitive verb in past, t- 32 

Nominal pronoun, subject of verb or possessive 33 



CONTENTS ix 

Ideas expressed by grammatical processes (continued). 

Prefix (continued). 

Semi-vowels used with nominal pronoun with vowel stems ... 33 

Demonstrative, le- 33 

Relative relationship, lik- or likil- 33 

Adverbial relationship such as ideas representing repetition, total- 
ity, etc " . . . . 33 

Manner or state, be- with suffix -il and demonstrative pronouns . 33 

Direction of motion 33 

Negative, ma- 33 

Prepositions ... 33 

Reduplication 33 

Distant past in intransitive verb 33 

Iterative or frequentative verb 33 

Plural with some adjectives 33 

Plural with some participles 34 

Diminutive 34 

Word order 34 

Syntax 34 

Noun 34 

Fundamental place in language 34 

Incorporation in verb 35 

Incorporation to express agent 36 

Classification .» 36 

Abstract nouns 36 

Collective nouns 36 

Gender 36 

Number 37 

Case 37 

Attributive relationship 38 

Gentilitious relationship 38 

Habituality 38 

Diminutives 38 

Pronoun 38 

Forms of the pronoun; nominal and verbal 39 

Distinctive features 39 

Number 40 

Persons expressed ..... 40 

Pronoun with vowel stems 41 

Verbal pronoun, when used 42 

Nominal pronoun, when used 43 

Time particles 43 

Contraction of time particles 43 

Present time, tan 44 

Potential mood, k- or ki- 46 

Future time, he- 46 



x CONTENTS 

Syntax (continued). 
Pronoun (continued). 

Time particles (continued). 

Past time, t- 47 

Action just completed, o'ok 47 

Case 48 

Subjective 48 

Objective 48 

Possessive pronoun 49 

Natural possession, -il 49 

Demonstrative pronoun, le- -a, le- -o, le- -e 50 

te-la, te-lo, te-le 50 

Reflexive pronoun, -ba 50 

Reciprocal pronoun, tan-ba 51 

Interrogative pronouns 51 

Verb 51 

Classification 51 

Class I, Action or state, -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 52 

a, Pure action or state 53 

b, Causal, s 53 

Root in be 53 

Class II, Verbs in -tal, " endowed with," 54 

Class III, Neuter stems 55 

a, Stem alone 56 

b, Agent, t 56 

Roots in kin and kun 57 

Verbs in -ankil 58 

Class IV, Auxiliary " to be " 58 

Verb yan 59 

Class V, Irregular and defective verbs 60 

Bin-el, to go 60 

Tal-el, to come 60 

Qat, desire 60 

P'ek, dislike 61 

Tak, desire 61 

Qabet, necessary 61 

Suk, accustom 62 

Pat, ability 62 

Nama, obligation 62 

Tuub, to forget 62 

Qaah, to remember 63 

T§ik-pahal, to appear 63 

Ut§ul, to succeed, to happen 63 

Verbs with stems in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 63 

Intransitive verb 64 

Transitive verb 64 

Transitive to intransitive form 65 

Intransitive to transitive form 66 



CONTENTS • xi 

Syntax (continued). 
Verb (continued). 

Tense 66 

Intransitive verb 68 

Present time 68 

tan and the nominal pronoun 68 

ka or kah with verbs of motion 68 

Future time 70 

he and the nominal pronoun 70 

Indefinite future, bin- -ak 70 

Verbs of Class IV . 71 

Past time . 71 

Class I, shortened stem and verbal pronoun 71 

Class II, -ah and the verbal pronoun 72 

Class III, n-ah and the verbal pronoun 73 

Distant past in -n-ah-ah and the verbal pronoun . 74 

Class IV, -h and the verbal pronoun 74 

Perfect tense with o'ok and the nominal pronoun . . 75 

Transitive verb 75 

Present time, -ik 75 

Future time, -ik and final -e 76 

Indefinite future, bin and final -e 76 

Past time, -ah 78 

Action just completed, o'ok and the nominal pronoun 79 

-ki with idea of " since " or " after " 79 

Distant past, m-ah 79 

Modes . 80 

Indicative 80 

Subjunctive 80 

Potential 81 

Imperative 81 

Intransitive, -en and the shortened stem 81 

Transitive, -e 83 

Optative, qat and the future stem 84 

Passive 84 

Present time 84 

Class I, Causal s and suffix -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 84 

Class Ilia, -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 85 

Class Illb, agent t and -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 85 

Future time 86 

Present passive stem and -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul 86 

Present passive stem with bin and suffix, ak 86 

Past time 87 

-ah-b or -ah-n with verbal pronoun 87 

Distant past, -ah-ah-n 87 

Verbal nouns 87 

Past participle, -an 88 



x ii CONTENTS 

Syntax (continued). 
Verb (continued). 

Verbal nouns (continued). 

Passive participle, -bal, -bil 89 

Infinitive 89 

After verbs denoting purpose, desire, ability, etc 89 

Inchoative or Inceptive verbs, -hal or -tal 90 

Iterative or Frequentative verbs .. . . 91 



Reflexive verbs . . . . 

Reciprocal verbs . 
Clauses . . . . .. .. 

Purpose or motive, 



91 

92 

92 

future construction 92 

Ability, knowledge, desire, fear, etc 92 

Use of ka with future in -ak . . . 92 

Relative clauses 93 

Relative relation with lik or likil 93 

Temporal clauses, introduced by ka 93 

Conditional, introduced by wa or kes 93 

Interrogative 94 

Withwa . 94 

Sign of past omitted 94 

When answer is in the negative 94 

Questions asking permission 94 

Adjective 95 

Order 95 

Number, -ak, -tak, -lak 95 

Reduplication 96 

Comparison 96 

Comparative, -il 96 

Superlative, huts 96 

Diminutive 97 

Numerals 97 

Terms given by the early Spaniards 97 

Terms used in the hieroglyphic writing 97 

Terms used at present time 98 

Beltran's numeration 100 

Numeral classifiers . 103 

Adverb 104 

Position 104 

Use of -il or -ik with verbal pronoun and adverbs 104 

Negation, ma . 104 

Repetition, ka . . 105 

Totality, la 105 

Manner or state, be 106 

Demonstrative 106 

Prepositions and postpositions 107 



CONTENTS xiii 

PART II — MAYA TEXTS 

Introduction Ill 

Material available Ill 

Grammatical structure Ill 

Lexicography 112 

Orthography 113 

Chirography 114 

Possibility of translation 114 

Indians of Chan Santa Cruz (1900) 115 

Lacandone chant (1902) 118 

Maya witch story (1866) . . 119 

Prophecy of Chilam Balam, Versions from the Chilam Balam de Chu- 

mayel and de Tizimin and from Lizana 120 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel. Passage, p. 77, 78 130 

PART III — AN APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 
RELATING TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

Introduction 139 

History of Maya linguistic research 139 

Writers of the xvi, xvn, xvm centuries 139 

Villalpando , 140 

Landa 141 

Solana 141 

Xiu, Aguilar, Mena 141 

Coronel, San Buenaventura, Beltran de Santa Rosa, etc. ... 142 

Avendafio 142 

Joaquin Ruz 142 

Pio Perez 143 

Fletcher, Henderson, Kingdon 145 

Brasseur de Bourbourg 146 

Carl Hermann Berendt 146 

Carrillo y Ancona 147 

Daniel Garrison Brinton 148 

William Gates 148 

Juan Martinez Hernandez 149 

Bibliographies 150 

Bibliography of bibliographies 150 

Missing Authorities 150 

xvi century 151 

xvn century 152 

xvm century 153 



xiv CONTENTS 

Bibliographies (continued). 

xix century 1521 

Early history and early bibliography 153 

General and American bibliography 154 

American linguistics 155 

Middle America. General works 155 

Middle America. Linguistics 156 

Central America. General works 156 

Central America. Linguistics 156 

Yucatan. General works 157 

Yucatan. Maya linguistics 157 

Biographical works 157 

Sale catalogues 158 

Periodicals 158 

Classification of languages 158 

General 158 

Middle America 159 

Affinities 160 

With European languages 160 

With Oceanic and Asiatic languages 160 

With South American languages 161 

With Antillian languages 161 

Description of language 161 

Grammars 162 

xvi century 162 

xvn century * 163 

xviii century 164 

xix century, etc 165 

Special features 167 

Comparative grammar 167 

Maya stock 167 

Maya stock and Mexican languages 168 

Maya stock and North American languages 168 

Maya stock and South American languages 168 

Phonetics 168 

Vocabularies 169 

xvi century 169 

xvn century 172 

xviii century 174 

xix century etc 174 

Day and month names 177 

Comparative vocabularies 178 

Maya-Quiche and other Maya dialects 178 

Maya and Mexican languages 178 

Maya and North American languages 179 



CONTENTS xv 

Vocabularies (continued). 

Comparative vocabularies (continued). 

Maya, South American languages, etc 179 

Maya and Old World languages 179 

Special words 180 

Etymology of proper names • 180 

Yucatan 180 

Maya m 180 

Miscellaneous 180 

Numeration 181 

Maya dialect 181 

Comparative numeration 181 

Texts 182 

Books of Chilam Balam 182 

General 182 

Mani 184 

Perez Codex 184 

(Perez, Cronologia antigua de Yucatan) 186 

Chumayel 187 

Tizimin . . . 189 

Calkini 190 

Ixil 190 

Oxkutzcab 190 

Kaua 190 

Nah 191 

Tekax 191 

Peto 191 

Nabula 191 

Tihosuco 191 

Tixcocob 191 

Hocaba 191 

The Prophecies '. 192 

Medical Books 195 

Libros del Judio 195 

Ritual of the Bacabs 196 

The Catechism 196 

xvi century 196 

xvn century 196 

xvin century 197 

xix century 197 

Los Sacramentos , 197 

ElViatico 198 

Via Sacra 198 

Acto de Contrici6n 198 

Confesi6n 198 

ActosdeFe* 198 



xvi CONTENTS 

Texts (continued). 

The Catechism (continued). 

The Mass 198 

Trinitate Dei 198 

Lord's prayer 199 

The Bible 199 

St. Luke, etc 199 

St. John 200 

St. Matthew and St. Mark 200 

Sermons 200 

xvi century 201 

xvn century 201 

xviii century 201 

xix century 202 

Secular Texts 202 

Cr6nica de Chicxulub (Pech MS.) 202 

Legal documents 203 

Xiu chronicles 203 

Titulos de Ebtun 204 

Libro de Cacalchen 204 

Cr6nica de Mani 205 

Documentos de Sotuta 205 

Documentos de Ticul 205 

Titulo de Acanceh 205 

Papeles de Xtepen 205 

Political papers 205 

Poems, songs, folk-lore, etc 206 

Lacandone texts 207 

PART IV — A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS RELATING TO 
THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

Introduction 211 

Bibliography 213 

APPENDICES 

I, Paradigms of verb classification 283 

II, Paradigms from Beltran, San Buenaventura, Coronel, Lopez, and 

Tozzer 286 

III, List of numeral classifiers 290 

IV, Comparative vocabularies from Peto, Sotuta, Tizimin, and Vallado- 

lid with corresponding terms from the Motul, San Francisco, 

and Ticul dictionaries 293 

Introduction 293 

Vocabularies 295 

Numeration 301 



PART I 
GRAMMAR 



» PART I 
GRAMMAR 

INTRODUCTION 

Maya Stock. Location. The Maya linguistic stock stands with 
Nahuatl as the two most important languages of Middle America. 
With the exception of the Huastecan region, north of Vera Cruz on 
the Panuco River, the territory occupied by the Maya speaking 
peoples is practically continuous, including the greater part of the 
two southernmost states of Mexico, Chiapas and Tabasco, the 
peninsula of Yucatan which is composed of the Mexican states of 
Yucatan and Campeche, the Mexican territory of Quintana Roo, 
and British Honduras, Guatemala, and the northern part of Hon- 
duras. The Maya territory in Guatemala is broken up by islands 
of Nahuatl speaking people and by a few independent stocks such 
as Xinca. 

The geographical unity of the Maya speaking peoples is remark- 
able when one takes into consideration the colonies of Nahuatl 
speaking peoples scattered along the Pacific coast of Central Amer- 
ica even as far south as the Isthmus of Panama. The Mayas seem 
to have been content to remain very much in one place and it is 
evident that it was not their general custom to send out colonies 
to distant parts of the country. Moreover the wandering of the 
Mayas among themselves in the comparatively small territory oc- 
cupied by them is not shown by investigation to have been great. 

Most of the dialects of the Maya seem to have been identified 
with certain localities from the time of the earliest Spanish records 
down to the present. There does not seem to have been that 
shifting of population which one might naturally expect. The 
geographical conditions may have had something to do with this 
seeming lack of mingling of the people of one dialect with those of 
another. The peninsula of Yucatan is comparatively isolated from 
the rest of the Maya territory and the dialect spoken there is very 



4 GRAMMAR 

little changed as far as can be made out from the earliest times of 
which we have records. The various mountain ranges in the south 
often render communication difficult and a mountain system often 
separates distinct linguistic differences as regards dialects of the 
Maya. Geography cannot, however, in all cases explain the free- 
dom of mixture of two dialects occupying neighboring territory. 

Spanish speaking people are found in almost all parts of the 
country occupied by the Mayas and their influence has, of course, 
been very great in changing the native dialects. The Indians in 
most cases have picked up enough Spanish to make themselves in- 
telligible in all parts of the country. When intercourse is to be 
carried on between the people speaking two different dialects of 
Maya, Spanish is usually the medium. This may explain in part 
the distinct dialectic areas still to be made out. 

The Maya stock has no affiliation as far as can be made out with 
any other language of Mexico or Central America. Some authori- 
ties claim that the Zapotec is nearer akin to Maya than it is to 
Nahuatl. Maya is morphologically distinct from the latter. 

Dialects. The Maya stock has a large number of dialects which 
may be divided according to their structure into a certain number 
of groups. Stoll's classification (1884) is the most satisfactory one 
and it has been followed in the main here. 1 The different divisions 
are as follows : 

1. Maya group proper including the Maya of Yucatan, the Itza 
or Peten, the Lacandone and possibly the Mopan dialects. 

2. Tzental or Tzeltal group including the Tzental, Chontal of 
Tabasco, Tzotzil, Chanabal, and Choi (Cholti and Chorti) dialects. 2 

3. Mam group including the Mam, Ixil, and Aguacateca dia- 
lects. 3 

4. Quiche group including the Quiche, Cakchiquel, Tzutuhil, 
and Uspanteca dialects. 

5. Pokom or Pokonchi group including the Kekchi, Pokoman 
and Pokonchi dialects. 

1 For other classifications, see p. 158-160. 

2 Sapper (1897, p. 393) makes a Choi group including Chontal, Chorti, and 
Choi. Gates (1920, p. 606) also makes a separate group of Cholti and 
Chorti. 

3 Gates (1920, p. 606) also includes in this group Solomeca, Jacalteca, 
Chuje, Chicomucelteca, and Motozintleca. 



INTRODUCTION 5 

6. Huasteca. 1 

A further classification can be made based on the use of the pro- 
noun. In the Maya, Tzeltal and Mam groups the verbal pronoun 
is a suffix: in the Quiche and Pokom groups this pronoun is a 
prefix. 2 

The relative antiquity of the various dialects is a subject which 
has not received much study. The great length of time necessary 
for the development of these dialects from a mother-tongue must 
be taken into consideration not only from a linguistic but also 
from an archaeological point of view. 3 

Maya Dialect. Location. The language treated in this paper is 
the Maya dialect of the Maya linguistic stock. 4 This dialect is 
spoken by the natives of the entire peninsula of Yucatan, a larger 
territory than that occupied by any of the other dialects. This 
idiom is commonly regarded as the purest of all the Maya dialects 
owing to the isolation of Yucatan. 5 The language may show a cer- 
tain pureness and stability lacking in other places where the Maya 
stock is spoken but there is little reason to suppose that the Maya 
dialect is the most primitive and that it was from a language such 
as is spoken in Yucatan that all the other Maya dialects have 
sprung. Investigations have not gone far enough into the com- 
parative morphology of the Maya for us to ascribe with certainty 
a primordial character to any of the various dialects. It is com- 

1 Sapper (1905, p. 9) has the Chicomucelteca of southeastern Chiapas as a 
dialect of the Huasteca. He also gives here the approximate number speak- 
ing the various dialects. 

2 Compare Seler, 1887. The page references throughout this paper to this 
work of Seler apply to the 2d edition, published in v. 1 of his collected works. 

3 Stoll (1884, p. 157) estimates the period of 2000 years as the shortest 
time required to explain the difference between Maya and Cakchiquel. 

4 Henceforth when speaking of the Maya, the dialect alone will be under- 
stood unless the term Maya stock is employed. 

6 Berendt (1878, p. 7) writes in this connection, " The Maya language 
proper (Mayathan) is spoken through the whole peninsula of Yucatan, the 
ancient name of which was Maya. It is the purest and, at present, the most 
highly developed of all the languages of the family, and is used not only by 
the Indians, but also by the greater part of the white and mestizo population; 
in the interior of Yucatan 1 have met with white families who do not under- 
stand one word of Spanish. The Maya language is likewise generally used in 
writing and in printing books of instruction and devotion." 



6 GRAMMAR 

monly supposed, however, that Huasteca shows evidences of 
greatest age with Mam second in point of time. 

No attempt will be made in this study to treat the comparative 
aspects of the Maya dialect with other dialects of this stock. 1 

Hieroglyphic Writing. In the treatment of the Maya language I 
shall omit completely any discussion of the phonetic character of 
the Maya hieroglyphics. There is reason to suppose that there is a 
number of distinct symbols in the hieroglyphic writing of Central 
America which denote certain phonetic characters of the Maya 
speech. 2 For the purpose of this paper, however, the Maya will be 
regarded as a language unrecorded up to the time of the Conquest. 

A complete elucidation of the hieroglyphic inscriptions will prob- 
ably be impossible until an advance has been made in our ac- 
quaintance with the phonetic elements in the composition of the 
glyphs. Within recent years our knowledge in this respect has not 
advanced at all in comparison with the gains made in deciphering 
the numerical parts of the hieroglyphic writing. A successful cor- 
relation of the Maya language and the Maya hieroglyphs holds 
out a prospect of the greatest interest and importance from the 
point of view of Maya research. 3 

Written Maya. The Spaniards found the natives speaking the 
Maya language. Their missionaries throughout New Spain easily 
recognized the impossibility of accomplishing any work in christian- 
izing, the people without first learning the native languages. This 
they set about doing in every case and many of the Spanish Padres 
became proficient in the languages of the conquered peoples. 4 

1 Seler (1887) has successfully attempted this. See also the works of 
Charencey. 

2 See Bowditch, 1910, p. 254-258 for a discussion of this point. 

3 It is needless to comment here on the "Landa Alphabet" and its failure 
to produce the results hoped for. 

4 Zavala (1896, p. iv, v) gives the following quotations from the records 
of the Third Mexican Council which considered affairs relating to Yucatan. 
I give these verbatim as quoted by Zavala although the Latin is incorrect in 
several places. " Clericos in regionibus Indorum beneficia cum onere obtinentes 
in materna erumden regionum lingua examinent, Episcopi, et quos repererint 
linguoe hujusmodi ignaros, sex mensium spatio prefinito, ad discendam linguam 
compellant, admonentes eos, quatemus elapso termino, si linguan hujusmodi non 
didiscerint, beneficium quod obtinent, ipso facto, vacabit, et alteri de eo fiet pro- 



INTRODUCTION 7 

One of the first acts was to record the native languages phoneti- 
cally as nearly as they could with the Spanish characters at their 
command. It was impossible to write down many of the sounds 
occurring in the different native dialects with the Spanish letters 
and, in some cases, arbitrary signs or marks were adopted to desig- 
nate these sounds as, in the Maya, the inverted c (o) was early 
used as the sign for a ts sound frequent in the language. 

The natives soon learned to write their own languages, which 
hitherto had been unrecorded, by using the same Spanish char- 
acters and the signs adopted by the Spaniards. To their ability in 
this line we owe many valuable documents connected with the 
native culture of the country, manuscripts written in the native 
language but with Spanish characters. 1 

Early grammars on Latin model. The Spanish priests did not 
stop with translations of documents into the native languages but 
they wrote grammars and collected vocabularies as well. These 
grammars and dictionaries exist in great numbers. There is hardly 
a dialect spoken in Mexico or Central America that has not some 
sort of a grammar dealing with the structure of the language. The 
difficulty met with in using these grammars written by the Spanish 
is the same as that found wherever a primitive language has been 
studied and recorded along the lines and with the corresponding 
forms found in Spanish, Latin, or some other Indo-European gram- 
mar. The Spanish priest thought he had successfully written a 
grammar of a native language if he had found forms in that lan- 

visio. . . . In quo, et in Regula decima octava Cancellarice Apostolicce contientice 
Episcoporum onerantur." (Lib, III, Tit. 1 De doctr. cura, V.) 

"La Regla decimaoctava, dice Arrillaga, es la vigesima que estampa Murillo 
en el tit. de Institutionibus, num. 82; y en ella se prescribe que la provision de 
algun beneficio parroquial, hecha en alguna persona que no sepa el idioma de sus 
feligreses, ni pueda explicarse en H, aun cuando proceda del mismo Papa, sea 
nula y de ningun valor" (Notas al Cons. Ill mex.). 

"20. Item voluit, quod si contingat, ipsum (Urbano VIII) alicui personal de 
parochiali Ecclesia, vel quovis alio beneficio exercilium cura animarum parochi- 
anorum quomodolibet habente, prouideret, nisi ipsa persona intelligat, & intelli- 
gibiliter loqui sciat idioma loci, ubi Ecclesia, vel beneficium huiusmodi consistit, 
prouisio, seu mandatum, & gratia desuper, quoad parochialem Eccleisam, vel 
beneficium huiusmodi, nullius sint roboris vel momenti." 

1 The Books of Chilam Balam (p. 182) are examples of Maya texts written 
by the natives phonetically. 



8 GRAMMAR 

guage to correspond to every term in his Spanish grammar. The 
desire to find words which fitted the different categories of thought 
expressed in his own grammar often outweighed his keenness in 
realizing that many grammatical forms used in Spanish could not 
be properly expressed in the native language. Parallels were sought 
for every form in the Spanish or Latin. The investigators usually 
found some native term which seemed to them to conform to the 
same expression in their own language. If a native did not seem 
able at first to give words for the pluperfect tense in his language, 
the more one insisted that there must be such forms the sooner 
the native would give something which superficially seemed to be 
a pluperfect. 

The whole difficulty lies in the fact that it is impossible to build 
up a grammar of a primitive language by following a Latin or 
Spanish model. 1 This rigid adherence to such a model leads to two 
defects. Forms are given the investigator, often after repeated 
questioning, which only vaguely express corresponding forms in 
Spanish or Latin. These are often unnatural and are compounded 
so as to express in a most artificial way the idea desired. The second 
defect is the greater as scores of native expressions are entirely 
overlooked and are never recorded in the early grammars as there 
are no forms corresponding to them in Latin. 

The Spanish missionary did not realize that the different cate- 
gories of a grammar of a primitive language are entirely different 

1 Palma y Palma (1901, p. 159) in criticizing Beltran's grammar expresses 
the same idea. " Fray Pedro de Beltran, el mejor autor de gramdtica maya, hay 
que admitir que la carencia de un signo propio en el idioma para la expresion de 
los verbos sustantivos es efecliva. Tan hdbil en la lengua como diestro en el latin, 
se esforzo en calcar su Arte del idioma maya a la gramdtica de la de Virgilio, sin 
tener en cuenta el genio y diversidad de indole de cada una. De aqui sus errores en 
esto y en otras cosas de que no me es posible hablar, lo que no desdice en nada su 
talento que me es tanto mas grata reconocer, cuanto que el P. Beltran fue" yucateco 
nato y todo el vigor de su entendimiento claro se desarrollo en las aulas de su suelo 
nativo al cual presto un gran servicio con su obra que da a conocer mejor que 
ninguna otra, una de las mas ricas lenguas americanas que se acaba y desapare- 
cerd quizd pronto." 

Berendt (1878, p. 5) writes in this connection, "A striking instance of this 
method is presented by the Spanish grammarians, who, in treating the aborigi- 
nal languages, are particularly bent upon finding similarities or concordances 
with the Spanish or Latin grammar, and, if they do not find them, frequently 
invent them. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

from those of an Indo-European language. The only possible 
method of approach to the study of a primitive language is an 
analytical one, working out the different thought units and the 
methods of expressing these entirely divorced from any model 
based on Latin or Spanish lines. 1 

This difference in categories will be seen at many places in the 
following pages. Here it is only necessary to point out a few of 
these differences. The distinction between the noun and the verb 
is vague in many of the Maya stems — many verbs are really 
nouns and used with the possessive pronoun as the subject. Time 
particles attached to the nominal pronoun are entirely overlooked 
in the early grammars. There is no true case in Maya except in 
the pronoun where we find only the nominal pronoun used as the 
subject and as a possessive and the verbal pronoun used as an ob- 
ject. No gender is expressed except that particles are found denot- 
ing the sex of the actor in the "nomen actoris." The inclusive and 
exclusive forms for the plural are found in the pronoun. 

Maya is a polysynthetic or incorporating language where a pro- 
nominal subject of the verb is always expressed. Maya follows, in 
general, the same methods of expression as those found in the 
greater number of American languages. From the point of view 
of lexicography it is distinct from any of the other languages spoken 
in Mexico or Central America. It is therefore in its structure alone 
that it corresponds to other American languages. 

In the analytical treatment of the grammar I desire, as Boas 2 
expresses it, to present the data "as though an intelligent Indian 
was going to develop the forms of his own thought by an analysis 
of his own form of speech." 

Grammars of Coronel, San Buenaventura, and Beltran. In spite 
of many omissions and forms which are more or less artificial, the 
old Spanish grammars are of distinct service in understanding the 
language. I have made frequent reference to these grammars in 
the footnotes when my forms differ from those given by them. 

There are three early grammars of the language which are worthy 
of special mention, that of Coronel, published in 1620, that of San 

1 For a masterly treatment of this point of view, see Boas, Handbook of 
American Indian Languages, Bulletin 40, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 
1911. Introduction, p. 5-83. 

2 Op. cit., p. 81. 



10 GRAMMAR 

Buenaventura in 1684, and that of Beltran de Santa Rosa in 
1746. 1 

The first grammar to be written on the Maya language was by 
Villalpando, one of the first Catholic priests to arrive in Yucatan. 
He died in 1551 or 1552. His work was never published and the 
manuscript has disappeared. 2 This grammar, with additions by 
Landa, was probably the basis of Coronel's work. 3 The latter 
starts with the pronouns giving nothing on the phonetics which are 
treated by both San Buenaventura and Beltran. 

It is quite evident that San Buenaventura based his work almost 
entirely on that of Coronel. The examples in Maya given to illus- 
trate the different parts of the grammar are often identical with 
those given by Coronel. There are, in fact, only a very few cases 
where San Buenaventura has material not to be found in Coronel. 
The list of particles (fols. 20-37) given by San Buenaventura con- 
tain many not listed by Coronel. Coronel, on the other hand, has 
many not given by San Buenaventura. Coronel also discusses the 
optative which is not mentioned by San Buenaventura and he 
gives a much fuller treatment of the subjunctive than that given 
by San Buenaventura. The latter's work, written about 1675, was 
published in 1684, 64 years after that of Coronel. There is no 
internal evidence that the language had changed during that time. 
Beltran called San Buenaventura, "el Protomaestro del Idioma 
Yucateco." He was not aware of the grammars of Villalpando, 
Landa, and of Coronel when he wrote his work. 4 Beltran follows 
San Buenaventura in using the same verbs for his paradigms but 
he has a large amount of new material in his grammar and often 
refers to what he considers mistakes in San Buenaventura's work. 
In every way Beltran's grammar should be considered by far the 
best of the three printed early treatises on Maya. His qualifica- 
tions for writing a grammar are many as he himself states. 5 He 

1 For full discussion of the different editions of these grammars, see p. 163- 
165. 

2 For a list of the large number of authorities whose works have been lost 
see p. 151-153. 

a Beltran, 1859 ed., p. 242. Hereafter references to Beltran will be to this 
edition. 

4 See Beltran, p. 242. 

5 § 148. "Para exporter al ptiblico mi dictdmen (habiendo de asentar mis con- 
jugaciones diver sas de las del R. P. Fr. Gabriel [San Buenaventura]) necesario 



INTRODUCTION 11 

was a native of Yucatan, grew up among the Indians and lived 
among them practically all his life. San Buenaventura, on the 
other hand, was a Frenchman and probably lived almost exclu- 
sively with Spanish speaking people in Merida. 

It has already been pointed out that there are practically no 
differences between the Coronel and San Buenaventura grammars. 
Beltran, on the other hand, finds much to differ with in the lan- 
guage as he records it and as given by San Buenaventura. 1 The 
differences between the present author's version of the grammar 
and that of Beltran and of the other grammarians will be noted 
throughout the paper. 

There are four possible explanations for these differences: 

1. Time. 

2. Mistakes of each of the authors in question. 

3. Omissions due to following the Latin model. 

4. Difference in locality where the data were collected. 

Beltran's work, written in 1742, was published in 1746, 62 years 
after that of San Buenaventura (1684) and 126 years after that of 
Coronel (1620). It has been pointed out that the grammars of 
Coronel and San Buenaventura do not differ in substance and yet 
presumably each recorded the language as spoken at or near the 
time they were published, 64 years apart. The question may then 
be asked, did 62 more years cause the differences in the idiom as 
noted by Beltran from that of the time of San Buenaventura? 
Again, are the differences noted in the language as spoken today 

es dar las razones, que me asisten para esta, que parece cosa nueva. Es, pues, la 
primera que siendo yo hijo de esta provincia, criado entre esios naturales y habiendo 
habitado con ellos una montana yerma, predicdndoles, confesdndoles, instruye'n- 
doles y con ellos de continuo en su idioma confabulando, de modo que se me llego 
d olvidar mucho de los vocablos castellanos; y estando juntamente instruido del 
Arte gramdtico latino, me es preciso confesar que entiendo con claridad sus periodos 
y que conozco con evidencia en que clausulas no concuerda su modo de hablar con 
el comun modo; y tambien donde pueden no regir bien las reglas que se pueden dar 
para instrucdon de los que quisieren sin error aprender su idioma." 

1 Beltran, 1859 ed. in his "Prohgo al Lector" writes, "Para este fin, queriendo 
facilitar mas este negocio; lei el Arte del R. P. F. Gabriel de San Buenaventura, de 
Nacion Frances, Proto-Maestro de este Idioma, y hasta hoy el unico, que did su 
Arte a la prensa: en donde habiendo yo hallado muchos yerros de imprenta, falta 
de muchas reglas, y reglas, que ya prescribieron por el contrario uso; me determine 
d formar un nuevo Arte, con el designio de proseguir haciendo un vocabulario y 
otras cosas curiosas, y necesarias." 



12 GRAMMAR 

and that of Beltran's epoch due to the factor of time? Languages, 
we are told, never stand still and when we take into consideration 
the steady advance of the Spanish language we do well to pause 
before stating that time is not a great factor in causing these dif- 
ferences. I consider, however, that time has played a relatively 
small part. Those differences pointed out by Beltran in his criti- 
cism of San Buenaventura's grammar are undoubtedly, due for 
the most part, to mistakes in the observation of the earlier gram- 
marian. 1 This point will be made clearer in the comments made 
later on the specific statements of Beltran, San Buenaventura, and 
Coronel. 2 

The differences I found in the Maya as now spoken in Yucatan 
from the forms given by Beltran are, with some few exceptions, due, 
it seems to me, to the rigid adherence to the Latin model observed 
by Beltran. My points of difference with Beltran are compara- 
tively few when everything is taken into consideration. The addi- 
tional data presented here are due to the breaking away from the 
Latin model and carrying on observations from a different angle 
of approach. 3 It should be clearly understood that I refer here to 

1 Beltran states that some of his criticisms of San Buenaventura are due 
to the changes of time. He writes as follows ($49) "Para conocer a que" con- 
jugation pertenece cada verbo, se advierta que estas son cuatro, numero & que las 
redujo el R. P. Fr. Gabriel de S. Buenaventura, Religioso nuestro y Frances de 
nation, Protomaestro de este Arte, formando el suyo (que a la Imprenta did) 
verdaderamente con gran trabajo y elegantia: regratiable por la conocida utilidad 
que nos dejd su magisterio; pero como no todo lo pudo andar, nos dejd que ad- 
vertir algo, y porque los tiempos mudan las cosas, serd pretiso que haga yo algunas 
notas cuando sean necesarias." This statement is nattering to San Buenaven- 
tura and was evidently meant to be so. In the specific objections given through- 
out Beltran' s text it is clear that he considers San Buenaventura to have made 
actual mistakes in recording the language. The fact that he states that he was 
brought up among the natives (§ 148) and that San Buenaventura was a 
Frenchman brings out clearly his own idea that he was the better fitted to 
write a Maya grammar. 

2 The reader will note that I have endeavored to point out in footnotes the 
main points where I differ from the old grammarians on the one hand and 
modern writers such as Seler, Palma y Palma, and Lopez, on the other. 

3 Brinton (1882, p. 35, 36) writes on this point, "I must, however, not omit 
to contradict formally an assertion made by the traveller Waldeck, and often 
repeated, that the language has undergone such extensive changes that what 
was written a century ago is unintelligible to a native of today. So far is this 
from the truth that, except for a few obsolete words, the narrative of the Con- 
quest, written more than three hundred years ago, by the chief Pech, which 



INTRODUCTION 13 

grammatical structure and not to vocabulary. In the latter respect 
the change has been far greater. 1 

There remain to be examined the differences due to the locality 
where the material was collected. There are no data to identify 
the place where Coronel did his work on Maya. San Buenaventura 
was connected with the Convent of San Francisco in Merida. 2 The 
name of the Indian who gave him most of the facts regarding the 
language is known but we are not aware, as Beltran points out, 
whether or not this Indian was a native of Merida. 3 

Beltran was at the Convent of San Pedro y San Pablo at Tiab 
in the former province of San Jose. This town, now called Teabo, 
is in the present District of Tekax, about half way between Tekax 
and Peto. It is very probable that the material for his grammar 
was collected in this vicinity. 4 A contrast should be made between 
a practically pure Maya population in towns such as Teabo and a 
mixed population such as is found at Merida. 

I print in this volume, could be read without much difficulty by any educated 
native." 

1 See in this connection the discussion of the translation of old Maya texts, 
p. 114. 

2 According to the Aprobag,on del Br. Juan Gomez Brizeno in San Buena- 
ventura's grammar, the latter was "Religioso del Orden del Senor S. Francisco, 
Difinidor habitual Guardian del Convento del Senor S. Francisco de la Ciudad 
de Merida y Lector en el Idioma Yucatheco." 

3 Beltran (§ 50) writes, "El R. P. fu£ Autor primero . . . y lo enseno todo d 
los Indios de esta Provincia, fu£ un Indio llamado Kinchahau, y por otro nombre 
Tzamna. Noticia que debemos d dicho R. F. Gabriel, y trae en su Calepino lit. K. 
Verb. Kinchahau, jol. 390, vuelt.; mas no dice como adquirio este Indio tal Idi- 
oma: y de aqui se infiere que el Idioma de esta Provincia era otro y muy distinto. ,> 

4 Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871, p. 23) writes, "Le pere Beltran de Santa- 
Rosa Maria e*%ait natif de Merida de Yucatan, oil il prit, des sa jeunesse, Vhabit 
de Saint Francois, Profitant des travaux faits avant lui, et en particulier de ceux 
du pere Gabriel de Saint Bonaventure, il composa sa Grammaire, dans le temps 
qu'il enseignait la langue maya au monastere principal de San-Benito de sa ville 
natale, dont les grandes ruines recouvrent aujourd'hui celles de V antique demeure 
des pontifes d'Ahchum-Caan." There seems little doubt that Brasseur de 
Bourbourg is mistaken in thinking that Beltran's Grammar was written in 
Merida. There is published in the grammar the Censura of Miguel Leal de 
Las Alas, Predicador of the Province of San Jose and of Pedro Martin, Pre- 
dicador at Tiab together with the Licencia of Juan Esteban Pinelo of the Pro- 
vince of San Jose\ These add weight to the supposition that Beltran wrote 
his work when he was at the Convent of San Pedro y San Pablo at Tiab, the 
present Teabo. 



14 GRAMMAR 

Palma y Palma, who collected his material in Merida, writes of 
the language as spoken in the east, where Beltran lived, as espe- 
cially given to contractions. 1 The use of contractions marks the 
main change in the language as recorded here and that used by 
the Lacandones. It is probable that simple phonetic variations and 
a difference in the use of the contracted forms alone distinguish the 
Maya of these two widely separated localities. 2 The changes in the 
language in the peninsula itself seem to be correspondingly few and 
consist for the most part, of a favorite use of one or more possible 
variations in expression. These variations are commonly known 
by everyone. Slightly different pronunciations of the sounds are 
to be noted. The language structurally does not seem to differ 
much in the whole peninsula. 

It is possible to sum this question up by saying that, whereas 
the vocabulary has changed greatly owing to the more extended 
use of Spanish and the corresponding loss of Maya words, there 
seem to be comparatively few differences in the fundamental 
characteristics of the language, the structure remaining practically 
unchanged as far as can be made out from a comparison of the 
language as spoken in the early days of the Spanish Conquest and 
that spoken today in the smaller towns and away from the large 
centers of population. 

Maya of present time. As noted in a previous study of the ethnol- 
ogy of the Mayas 3 one very interesting fact comes out in connection 
with the Maya language of Yucatan, a fact noted by all histo- 
rians and writers on the inhabitants of the peninsula. The Maya 
language has withstood with amazing stability the entrance of the 
Spanish tongue into the country. The language is still an impor- 
tant factor to be taken into consideration when dealing with this 
people. Maya is the language spoken by the natives in the large 
cities quite as much as in the thinly populated regions. Even the 
natives who have a good knowledge of Spanish almost invariably 
use Maya when conversing with one another and some absolutely 

1 Palma y Palma (p. 179), " Uin y tlo, son contracciones mds usadas en el 
Oriente constituyendo uno de los distintivos del lenguaje y estilo en aquella parte 
del pais donde vivid largos anos de misionero y predicador el P. Beltran * hasta 
casi olvidar el castellano, 1 como H mismo pone en el prologo de su gramdtica." 

2 For further details in this point, see p. 27. 

3 Tozzer, 1907, p. 36. 



INTRODUCTION 15 

refuse to speak anything else, clinging to their own tongue with 
the greatest devotion. 1 

So general is the use of the native tongue in the peninsula that 
in some places in the small interior towns it is sometimes difficult 
to find one who can carry on a continued conversation in Spanish 
although most of the younger generation understand it when 
spoken. It is curious to note the varying differences in the tenacity 
of the mother tongue in various parts of Mexico and Central 
America. In many isolated places throughout the whole region 
the native languages still continue to be used. But in most cases 
with close contact the native tongue has given way to Spanish. 
Contact, however, since the very earliest days of the Conquest has 
not had this influence on the Maya of Yucatan and this still re- 
mains the language of the country. 

On many of the large plantations, Maya is spoken exclusively 
and the mayor domos use it invariably in speaking to the natives. 
The Spanish priests when making their visits through the small 
towns preach their sermons in Maya. 

Modern Maya Grammars. I have attempted to give in the 
Appraisement (Part III) a full discussion of what I consider to be 
the relative merits of the many writers on the Maya dialect. It is, 
therefore, only necessary here to say a few words concerning the 
modern works to which reference is made in the main body of this 
paper. The grammar of Ruz (1844) is of very slight value. The 
work of Seler (1887), although based entirely on the early gram- 
mars, is the first attempt ever made to explain the structure of the 
language. The book of Palma y Palma (1901), although following 
the lines of the older grammarians, contains a great deal of new and 
valuable material. The grammars of Zavala (1896) and of Pacheco 
Cruz (1912) should be mentioned here. The best modern grammar 
is that of Lopez Otero (1914). 

1 Compare Brinton (1882, p. 27-28) who writes, "It has been observed 
that foreigners, coming to Yucatan, ignorant of both Spanish and Maya, ac- 
quire a conversational knowledge of the latter more readily than of the former." 
He quotes Garcia y Garcia (1865, p. lxxv) who writes on this point, "La lengua 
castellana es mas difficultosa que la Maya para la gente adulta, que no ha mamado 
con la leche, como lo ha ensenado la experiencia en los estranjeros de distintas 
naciones, y en los negros bozales que se han radicado en esta provincia, que mas 
facilmente han aprendido la Maya que la castellana." 



16 GRAMMAR 

The late Sefior Don Audomaro Molina of Merida, Yucatan, was 
probably one of the best Maya scholars of the present time. He 
partially completed the difficult task of revising for publication 
the Motul dictionary. Unfortunately he published nothing on the 
language. 

One of his pupils, however, Daniel Lopez Otero, notes in his 
Gramatica Maya 1 that he is under obligations to Sefior Molina 
who taught him the greater part of the rules he uses in his work. 

Mention should be made of another Maya scholar, Sefior Don 
Juan Martinez Hernandez of Merida, who has worked for many 
years on the Maya language and, more especially, on the Books of 
Chilam Balam and on Maya chronology. His valuable writings are 
listed in the Bibliography. I am under deep obligations to him 
for encouragement in this work and more especially for his willing- 
ness to read the proof and to suggest changes in the text of this 
paper. 

All Maya scholars are very greatly indebted to Mr. William 
Gates of Point Loma, California, through whose energy and acu- 
men large stores of material in the Maya language have been 
made available to students. Further mention of this work is made 
in Part III (p. 148-149). 

Provenance of material discussed. The greater part of the linguis- 
tic material used in this study was obtained from Benito Can, a 
native of Valladolid, a town in northeastern Yucatan. The Span- 
iards under Montejo founded this city in 1543 upon the site of the 
native town of Saki. During the early days of the Spanish occupa- 
tion the city arose to some prominence. It was and is, even to this 

1 Lopez (1914, p. 5) writes in this connection, " Tampoco he pretendido con- 
quistar honores que no merezco, sino rendir este humilde recuerdo de gratitud y 
admiration a mi ilustrado y muy querido maestro, don Audomaro Molina Soils 
(q. d. D. g.) de quien he aprendido la mayor parte de las reglas que, en esta desa- 
lihada obrita, hallard el indulgente lector que se dignare leerla. Si el Maestro 
viviera, no me ocuparia en escribir nada acerca de este idioma; pero habiendo falle- 
cido sin haber realizado la noble idea, por U acariciada, de dar a luz una gramatica 
y un diccionario de la lengua maya, y observando que ninguno de sus discipulos 
ha publicado nada hasta la fecha acerca de este idioma, a fin de que tan sabias 
como Utiles ensenanzas no sean relegadas al olvido, he resuelto publicar en forma 
gramatical las lectiones que de H he retibido, aumentadas con, algunas reglas 
tomadas del arte . . . de Beltrdn de Santa Rosa Maria, y otras observationes que 
personalmente he tenido ocasion de hacer," etc. 



PHONETICS 17 

day, the farthest point eastward of the country brought under 
complete Spanish control. The vast territory immediately east- 
ward to the coast is occupied by the "indios sublevados." These 
wandering bands of Indians have never been wholly conquered by 
the Mexicans. Valladolid has suffered several attacks and destruc- 
tions at the hands of these wild tribes and the city is now hardly 
more than an Indian town. 

The language spoken at Valladolid is perhaps more free from out- 
side influence than that used in any other portion of the settled 
part of the peninsula. 

At the time of my four successive seasons in Yucatan, Benito Can 
was an indented servant upon the Hacienda of Chichen Itza be- 
longing to Mr. E. H. Thompson then American Consul at Progreso, 
Yucatan. It was while accepting the kind hospitality of Mr. and 
Mrs. Thompson that I did the greater part of my linguistic work. 

The investigations into the language were undertaken at several 
different times covering the whole period of four years. Thus I 
was able to check up the material often after periods separated by 
an absence of a year or more. 

Benito Can had a strain of Spanish blood in his veins. He had 
lived all his life, however, in the town of his birth and had had com- 
paratively little contact with the Spanish speaking population. 
His knowledge of Spanish, however, was adequate for my purpose. 
He was one of three brothers the other two of whom could not 
speak a word of Spanish. This man was of rather a higher grade 
of intelligence than the average Maya. I used several other inter- 
preters to check up the material obtained from Can. 

PHONETICS 

Genekal character. The phonetic system of the Maya is gen- 
erally simple. The occurrence of the velar k (q) and the globa- 
lized or fortis forms of the t, p, and the two dental surds (o and 
ts) give the language a certain harshness when compared with the 
Nahuatl of the north with its smooth liquid sounds. 1 

1 Beltran in his "Prologo al Lector" writes, "Es el Yucateco Idioma garboso 
en sus dicciones, elegante en sus periodos, y en ambas cosas conciso: pues con pocas 
palabras y breves silabas explica a veces profundas sentencias. Y como se acer- 
tardn a pronunciar ciertas consonantes, que lo hacen acre, seria muy fdcil de 



k 




t 


t' 





0' 


t§ 


t§ ! 


P 


p' 



18 GRAMMAR 

Consonants. The system of consonants includes one velar, two 
palatals, alveolars, a double set of dentals in both the surd and the 
fortis, and labials. It is often difficult to distinguish between the 
sonant b and its corresponding surd p. It is probable, however, 
that they are not interchangeable. The following table represents 
the system of consonants found in the Maya: 

Sonant Surd Fortis Spirant Nasal Lateral 
Velar q 

Palatal 
Alveolar 

Dental 

Labial b 

In addition to these sounds, w, y, and h sounds occur. I have 
been much perplexed by what I have long thought to be an r 
sound, possibly a sonant of the spirant. No mention of this sound 
is made in any of the early grammars and its presence is denied by 
the Mayas themselves. This sound I seem to have heard in several 
words written by Maya scholars with a doubled vowel: 

tin bor-t-ik, or, as usually written, tin boo-t-ik, 
lerti or leeti or leti. 

I have come to the conclusion to omit this sound from the list. 1 

There may also be fortis forms for the velar and the palatal 
surd (q and k). These are difficult to make out. No differentiation 
seems to be made between the surd and the fortis in the k sounds 
in the greater number of cases. I have been unable to note any 
difference in the grammatical structure of the language as a con- 
sequence of the failure to differentiate between the surd and the 
fortis in these two cases. The vocabulary ought naturally to make 
the distinction if it is present but I have not found it. 

The velar k, written q, is formed between the back of the tongue 
and the soft palate. The palatal k is the common English k. The 

aprender por Arte; por carecer, no solo de muchas letras, sino tambien de libros 
enteros, de los cuales fastidian d un Gramdtico. iQuUn creyera, que un idioma 
muy lato se habia de practicar con expedicion y sin tropiezo: sin tardanza, y con 
prefeccion sin el adminiculo de ocho consonantes? Este es el Idioma 6 Lengua 
Maya; y tan cierto, que carece de las siguientes: d, f, g, j, q, r, s, 11." 

1 The r sound is well recognized in Cakchiquel and Quiche where it is used 
in place of the y in Maya. Palma y Palma (p. 145) uses the r in one case, at 
least, in modern Maya. 



PHONETICS 19 

palatal spirant (H) is an intensified h sound and is found only in 
one place as far as could be made out. The first dental surd, really 
a ts, is written with an inverted c (o). The second dental surd, ts, 
is pronounced like the first ch in church. The fortis forms, called 
by the early Spanish grammarians " las letras heridas" are found 
in the alveolar, t\ the two dentals, o y and ts J and the labial, p\ 
These are common and are characterized by a forcible expelling 
of the breath with glottal closure. The dental spirant, s, is pro- 
nounced like the sh in hush. The lateral (1) is thick and rather 
strongly sonant. 1 Long combinations of consonant sounds do not 
occur. 

Vowels. The vowel system is very simple. The vowels all have 
their continental sounds. There is a long a (a) and a short a (a), 
the first pronounced like a in father and the second like a in hat. 
There is also some indication of a long e (e) like a in fate, long i 
(f) like i in pique and long u (u) like u in rule in addition to the 
ordinary e, i, and u. I did not find a long o. 2 The only diphthong 
is ai, written by the early authorities as ay. 

1 For the best discussion of the phonetics of the Maya as given in the older 
authorities, see Beltran, §§ 1-16. See also Lopez, §§ 1-11 and Gates, 1920, 
p. 611-613. 

2 Perez (1866-1877) speaks of two forms of the vowel although he does not 
distinguish these forms in his dictionary. Under each of the vowels he de- 
scribes the two forms. Under "A," for example, he writes, "Esta vocal se 
pronuncia $e dos maneras, una suave que puede ser larga 6 breve, y otra fuerte en 
la que como que se contiene el aliento 6 sonido repentinamente al mismo tiempo de 
emitirlo: como en na, casa y na, madre." A question might well be raised here 
whether he is not speaking of the doubled vowel in each case. It seems from 
his illustration ot na, casa, and na, madre, that this is not the case. The a in 
the word for house is short and in that for mother it is long. 

Berendt (1869) also gives two forms for each of the vowels but he expressly 
states that one is long and the other short. 

Palma y Palma (p. 137) refers at length to the confusion caused by the 
different ways of pronouncing the same vowel. He writes (p. 139), " Aunque 
de esto hablare" desputs en lugar mas apropiado, bueno es decir siquiera de paso, 
que las voces monosildbicas may as, no tienen una cantidad. prosodica fija. Unas 
son extremadamente breves en la emision, y otras, sin contar con sus diversas 
inflexiones y acentos que son otros medios de distincion, son mas 6 menos largas. 
Por eso no se representan bien siempre doblando las vocales, pues las hay tan 
largas, que necesitarian tres 6 rads." 

In this discussion of long and short vowels, it is significant to observe that 
the Landa alphabet has three forms for a, two for o and two for u. See in 
this connection, Palma y Palma, p. 222-239. 



20 GRAMMAR 

Doubled Vowels. These are very common in Maya and great care 
is sometimes needed in distinguishing them as : x 

kan, snake. sill, to give, to offer. 

kaan, sky. ton, male sexual member. 

be, road. toon, we. 

bee, exclamation of pain. hun, one. 

sil, to tuck up the sleeves. huun, paper, letter. 

Notation. It is a matter of no little importance to decide how 
the various sounds should be written. The table (p. 21), gives the 
alphabets as used by the modern authors on Maya as well as the 
letters used by the older Spanish authorities either in their gram- 
mars or in their vocabularies. There is a considerable mass of 
written Maya and material is still being published in Yucatan in 
this language. The usual modern method follows more or less 
closely that used by the earlier writers, c for our k, a k for the velar 
surd (q), a barring or doubling of the letters for the " letras heridas " 
or fortis forms, ch, th, and pp. The fortis form of one of the den- 
tals is almost always written o. The inconsistency from a pho- 
netic standpoint of this method is great but the fact that there is 
a large mass of material already written in this way should be 
given due consideration before any changes are suggested. 

Furthermore, the ease of printing and the necessity for new 
type if diacritical marks are used are other considerations which 

1 The later Spanish dictionaries often fail to distinguish the difference be- 
tween a single vowel and the same one doubled. Perez (1866-77), for example, 
gives qiq or qiiq for blood, kimil or kiimil, to die. The Motul and Ticul dic- 
tionaries, on the other hand, give but one form for each of these words. The 
early Spanish grammarians make no reference to these double vowels. - 

Berendt specifically mentions them. In speaking of false diphthongs he 
writes (1869, p. 4) " In languages of the Maya family they are often formed by 
a repetition of the same vowel and constitute a remarkable distinction; kan 
is snake and kaan is sky in Maya." 

Pimentel (1862-1865, v. 2, p. 7; ed. 1874-1875, v. 3, p. 108) writes "No se 
observa cargazon de consonantes en yucateco, y si la repetition de una misma 
vocal en muchas palabras." 

1 e and z were omitted, probably by mistake, from the list of sounds given 
by Zavala. 

2 Seler in his first paragraphs writes the sounds as indicated here and in his 
text he follows the accustomed usage. 

3 e and ch were omitted by mistake in the 1859 edition of the grammar. They 
occur in the 1746 edition. 



PHONETICS 



21 



ALPHABETS USED BY VARIOUS AUTHORITIES 



u 
a 

M 
O 

H 


02 

1 

"3 



1 

sa 


CD 
08 

GO 

of 

*c5 
> 

a 




00 

oo 
"o 


a 

o 

a 


a 

CC 

o 

OJOO 


05 

to 

00 

c 

n 


00 

N 1 

01 CD 

IS 


i 

3 

i 

u 

pq 


£2 


o 

V 

11 

fa. 2 
a "5 


.2 

5 

h 


GO 

0* 

03 
bi 

n 


■ °o 

m 3 
fifi 
m > 


8 

CO 

s 
o 

3 


a, a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a, a 


a, a 


a, a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a, a 


a 


a 


ai 
















ei[?] 


















b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b 


b* 


k 


c 


c 


c 


c 
k 
ch 


c 
k 


c 


c 


k 


c • 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


c 


ts 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ts 2 
ch' 


ch 


ch 


ch 


tx 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 3 


ch 


ch 


ts' 


ch' 


ch 


ch 


chh 


ch' 


ch 


ch' 


tx 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


ch 


e, e 


e 


e 


[ep 


e 


e 


e 


e 


e, e 


e, e 


e 


e 


e 


e 


e 3 


e 


e 


H 


J 












h' 
















h 




h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


J 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 


h 
J 


h 
J 


i,i 


i 


i 


i 


i 
c' 


i 
c' 


i 


i 
k 


i,i 


i,i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


i 


1 


q 


k 


k 


k 


k' 


k' 


k 


k' 


K 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


m 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


n 


























6, 6 


























P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 
P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


P 


p' 


p' 


P 


P 


PP 


PP 


PP 


P' 


P 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 


PP 

z 


PP 

z 


s 


s • 


z 


[z] 1 


s 

X 

s 


s 


z 


z 


s 


z 


z 


z 


z 


c 


z 


c 


f 


s. 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t 


t' 


t' 


dt 


th 


th 


tt 


th 


t' 


t 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 


th 





tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


ts 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


tz 


o' 


tz' 











tz' 








ts 























3 


u,u 


u 

V 


u 


u 


u 


u 

V 


u 


u 


u,u 

V 


u,u 


u 


u 


u 


u 


u 


V 


U 


w 


































y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 


y 



1 See footnotes 1, 2, and 3 on opposite page. 



22 GRAMMAR 

should be taken into account. If any changes whatsoever are to 
be made from the older methods it seems to me that these changes 
should be along well recognized phonetic lines and that they should 
be consistent. 

In adopting what, in some cases, is a new method I have been 
largely governed by a desire to follow phonetic practices used by 
other writers on the languages of America, namely, to use a single 
character for a single sound and to express consistently all sounds 
made in the same way by a similar notation as, for example, the 
fortis by an apostrophe after the letter. For purposes- of a gram- 
mar of the Maya dialect the following changes in notation are 
used in this paper: 1 * 

1. The palatal surd is always written k rather than c as the c 
in Maya is always hard. 

2. The velar surd is written q, not k which is commonly used. 

3. The dental spirant is s, not x or sh, as this is a single sound 
and should be written by a single letter. 

4. One of the dental surds is written ts, not ch, as the sound is 
really made by a t before the dental spirant, tsh would be more 
correct than ch. 

5. The second dental surd is written o, not tz or ts. 

6. The fortis of the alveolar t, the dentals o and ts, and the 
labial p are written with an apostrophe following the letter, t', o', 
ts', and p* respectively rather than tft, o, ch, and pp. 

7. The s, written c or z by the Spaniards is, of course, a well 
justified change. 

8. W is added to the alphabet. This letter is not found in any 
of the former Maya writings from the fact, no doubt, that there 

1 In proper names, especially the names of towns, and in the terms given to 
the divisions of Maya time as shown in the hieroglyphic writing no changes 
have been made. 

I am well aware that these changes in notation will meet with adverse criti- 
cism. I do not cherish the hope that my method will be followed by other 
workers in this field. I have retained the same general system of notation as 
that used in my previous papers on the Maya language. I have felt that, for 
purposes of a grammar, it is well to make these changes as, with one exception, 
the method used here corresponds to that employed by most other writers on 
American languages. The one exception is the use of the inverted c (o) which 
is used by all the ancient Maya authorities. It is employed here, however, 
for the dental surd and o' for the corresponding fortis form. 



PHONETICS 23 

is no w in Spanish. The consonant w is clearly different from u, 
a vowel, and should be distinguished from it. 

It should be noted that in quoting the Maya of any of the 
earlier authorities I have used, for the purpose of uniformity, the 
method of representing the sounds as here given rather than that 
used by the writers themselves. 

Phonetic Changes. These do not play an important part in 
word composition. When the sign expressing past time, t, is used 
with the nominal pronoun of the 1st person plural, k, in both the 
inclusive and exclusive forms, the k is lost and the t becomes a 
f ortis : 

t-k-puts-ah becomes t'-puts-ah. 

In much the same way, when two k sounds come together they 
usually combine into the velar : 

o'ok-k puts-ah becomes o'oq puts-ah. 1 

Syncope, Synalephe, and Apocope. 2 Contraction by syncope, syn- 
alephe, and apocope occur very frequently. As in English, so in 
Maya, both the contracted and uncontracted forms are in good use. 
When a native is dictating texts, he is much more inclined to use 
the uncontracted forms; whereas, in everyday speech, he usually 
employs the contracted forms. 

Syncope is noted in the following places : 

1. The transitive verb with a pronominal object may lose the 

1 This root is more commonly written puts', to pound, to bruise, to grind 
something: despachurrar, machucar, moler, etc. Puts'tuntik, despachurrar 
con piedra, malar apedreando con las grandes. 

2 Beltran (§§ 129-147) gives ten rules for these changes. He writes, "Porque 
en este idioma no se habla en todo como se escribe, ni se pronuncian muchas voces 
conforme lo piden las reglas (y es lo que causa, que algunos que lo hablan parezcan 
forasteros 6 se juzgue que no pronuncian como deben; siendo asi, que hablan segun 
las reglas del arte) se advierta que es tan necesario el uso de las sinalefas y sinco- 
pas, que sin hipSrbole se puede afirmar, que todo el ser y hermosura de esta lengua 
es el uso de ellas y la parte mas principal del arte es su explicaciony And again 
(§135), "La sincopa no es otra cosa, que comerle a algun vocablo alguna silaba, 6 
letra vocal 6 consonante. Y esta figura agracia tanto at idioma Maya que sin ella 
parece que sus vocablos se hacen extranos, poco agradables y en su cadencia feos. 
En tanta manera, que puedo sin temeridad decir que casi la mitad de sus vocablos 
se sincopan 6 son sincopables." 



24 GRAMMAR 

i of the ending -ik in the present and the a of the ending -ah in 
the past: 

tan-in puts-ik-ets becomes tin puts-k-et§ x 

t-in kambe-s-ah-ets becomes tin kambe-s-h-ets. 

2. The same vowels (i and a) of the temporal endings of the 
transitive verb are lost when the reflexive form of the pronoun is 
used: 

tin han-t-ik-im-ba becomes tin han-t-k-im-ba 
tin han-t-ah-im-ba becomes tin han-t-h-im-ba 

3. All polysyllabic transitive verbs lose the vowel of the tem- 
poral endings before the -es of the 2d person plural and -ob of the 
3d person plural : 2 

tun yakun-t-ik-es becomes tun yakun-t-k-es. 
tun yakun-t-ik-ob becomes tun yakun-t-k-ob. 

4. Verbs using the suffixes -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul lose the vowel 
of the suffix in the present and the future of the intransitive: 

nak-al-in-kah becomes nak-1-in-kah. 
he-in han-al-e becomes hen han-l-e. 

The verbs in -tal, following a final consonant in the stem, do not 
follow this rule. 

.5. In the future of the intransitive with bin and the suffix -ak, 
the a of the suffix is lost : 3 

bin han-ak-en becomes bin han-k-en. 

When the stem ends in k the whole suffix is lost : 
bin nak-ak-en becomes bin nak-en. 

6. In words of two syllables containing two similar vowels, the 
second vowel is lost when: 

1 Beltran (§ 140) gives an example of syncope; 
ten kambe-s-ik-ets becoming ten kambe-s-ets. 

This seems to me to be incorrect as the contracted form has lost the k, the 
sign of the present. His second example; 

tees kambe-s-ik-on becoming tees kambe-s-k-on, 
correct as it retains the k. 

2 Compare Lopez, § 166. 

3 Lopez (§ 165) gives the following: 
bin takets for bin talakets. 



PHONETICS 25 

(a) the plural sign is used : 
taman-ob becomes tamn-ob. 

(6) the verbal pronoun is used : 

winik-en becomes wink-en. 
(c) the demonstrative pronoun is used : 

le-winik-a becomes le-wink-a. 

7. When a vowel suffix is added to a stem ending in 1, the vowel 
of the stem is sometimes lost: 
tel-o becomes tl-o. 

Synalephe is much less common than syncope. It is noted in the 
following places : 

1. Time particles of the present, past, and future attached to the 
nominal pronoun: 

Present, tan-in becomes tin. 

tan-a becomes tan, etc- 
Past, ti-in becomes tin. 
ti-a becomes ta, etc. 
o'ok-in becomes o'in. 
o'ok-a becomes o'a, etc. 
Future, he-in becomes hen. 

he-a becomes ha, etc. 

2. The negative ma and the nominal pronoun: 
ma-in becomes min. 

3. Ti and some other prepositions and the nominal pronoun: * 
ti-in watots becomes tin watots. 

Apocope. This is not uncommon in everyday speech. Among 
the places where it may be found, the following are to be noted: 

1. The final -e, the sign of the future of the transitive with bin, 
is sometimes lost when followed by a noun : 

bin in han-t-e wa becomes bin in han-t wa. 

2. The final -e of the future is usually lost when the form in bin 
takes a pronominal object: 

bin in yakun-t-e-ets becomes bin in yakun-t-ets. 

1 Beltran (§§ 132, 133) makes a distinction in the contraction of ti meaning 
" in " and ti meaning " to or for." Compare also Lopez, § 164. 



26 GRAMMAR 

3. The final -e, the sign of the imperative with transitive verbs, 
is lost when followed by a pronoun or a particle beginning with a 
vowel : 

oik-e a-yum becomes oik a-yum. 

4. The final -1 of the suffix -il is lost when an adverb or negative 
is used : 

ma sak-en-i for ma sak-en-il. 

Vocalic harmony. This is observed in many different sets of 
suffixes especially those in -1, the vowel of the suffix agreeing with 
that of the stem: 

han-al, wen-el, tip'-il, top-ol, quts-ul. 

There seems, however, to be a strong tendency to prefer the 
suffix -al even when the vowel of the stem is not a. 

Avoidance of hiatus. In certain suffixes beginning with a vowel, 
when the stem ends in a vowel, the hiatus is sometimes avoided by 
adding a b sound. This is seen in some cases in the plural suffix 
-ob in which case there may be a certain harmony between the 
consonant of the suffix and the consonant added. 

An h sound is also sometimes added in order to avoid an hiatus 
between two vowel sounds: 

meya-h-en, I am a workman. 

This should not be confused with the hi, the sign of the past: 
meya-hi-en, 1 was a workman. 

Semi-vowels. These are added both to nominal and verbal stems 
beginning with a vowel. Whatever the previous history of these 
sounds may have been they now show a syntactic relation as we find 
the change of w and y made, not according to the initial vowel, but 
rather in relation to the person of the verb or of the nominal 
pronoun. 

Root, al, to see. 

tin w-al-ik, I see it (contraction of tan-in w-al-ik). 

tan w-al-ik, you see it (contraction of tan a-w-al-ik). 

tun y-al-ik, he sees it (contracted to t-i-al-ik). 

tank al-ik, we see it. 

tan wal-ik-es, you see it. 

tun y-al-ik-ob, they see it (contracted to t-i-al-ik-ob). 



PHONETICS 27 

It will be noted that w is added in the first person singular and the 
second person singular and plural and y in the third person sin- 
gular and plural. No vowel is added in the first person plural. 

Lacandone Dialect. Certain simple phonetic changes and a less 
extended use of contraction alone distinguish the dialect spoken 
by the Lacandones from that used by the Mayas of Yucatan. 
Final 1 in stems appears as n in the Lacandone, wen-el changing 
to wen-en. Certain stems with final n in the Maya change to m 
in the dialect of the Lacandone. The great distinguishing mark, 
however, between the Maya as spoken around Valladolid, Yucatan, 
and that spoken in Chiapas is the frequent use of contraction among 
the people in the former territory. Forms which one is unable to 
analyze among the Mayas appear separated into their component 
parts in the dialect spoken by the Lacandones. This is especially 
to be noted in the time particles used with the nominal pronoun. 
I shall limit myself hereafter entirely to the language used in 
Yucatan, leaving it to be understood that that spoken by the 
Lacandones is essentially the same with the exceptions which 
have just been noted. 

Character of Stem. Stems are almost entirely monosyllabic 
and consist normally of consonant, vowel, consonant. Several are 
made up only of vowel and consonant, and a smaller number of 
consonant and vowel. 

Accent. This is not marked. It is in part dependent upon the 
length of the vowel. Contracted syllables usually seem to have 
greater stress of voice laid upon them. In spite of some authorities 
to the contrary, there seem to be few cases where a difference in 
accent occasions a difference in the meaning of the form. 1 

The accent in all the Lacandone chants is much more noticeable 
than in the ordinary speech. There is often a definite rhythm and 
in the slow chants this is very marked. 2 Syllables composed of the 

1 1 was unable to find the distinction in accent made by Beltran (§ 98) be- 
tween the infinitive of certain verbs in -1 and the past participle; 

lub-ul, to fall and lub-ul, a thing fallen, 
lik-il, to raise and lik-il, a thing raised. 

2 Tozzer, 1907, p. 131 and Chant no. 17. 



28 GRAMMAR 

vowel i or ki are often added at the end of words to fill out a cer- 
tain measure. These added sounds seem to affect the meaning in 
no way. 1 The rhythm is very irregular and it is impossible to as- 
certain the general scheme of long and short syllables. 

GRAMMATICAL PROCESSES 

Enumeration. 

1. Word composition. 

2. Affixes, 
(a) Prefix. 
(6) Suffix. 

3. Reduplication. 

4. Word order. 

Word Composition. An idea is expressed in Maya either by a 
single stem, usually monosyllabic, to which one or more particles 
are affixed, or by the juxtaposition of two stems modified and re- 
stricted by one or more prefixes, suffixes, or both. In the latter 
case each stem remains phonetically a unit and each is separated 
from the other by an hiatus. Grammatically, however, there is 
a unity existing between the two. The most important case of 
word composition is that of the transitive verb with its object. 
So strong is this unity that the action of the verb as related to its 
specific object is taken as a whole and is considered as intransitive 
in sense and thus follows the intransitive in form. It is possible to 
join all transitive verbs with their objects in this way but only 
those expressing some common and natural act in relation to the 
object are usually found in the intransitive form as owe-money, 
chop-wood, etc. 

Affixes. These are very common in Maya and are used to ex- 
press practically all the grammatical ideas. Phonetically there is 
much closer unity between the root and its affixes than between 
two juxtaposed roots. In the former case certain phonetic changes 

1 Compare in this connection Palma y Palma (p. 144) who writes, "No 
obstante, las particular compositivas que no modifican el sentido, son muchisimas, 
las cuales, efictivamente, solo contribuyen a la variedad de las formas de la ex- 
presion constituyendo asi, como el indicado padre Beltran dice, 'particulas ador- 
nativas ' que facilitan giros de estilo de que resulta un lenguaje elegante y artistico 
cuando se habla bien el idioma." 



GRAMMATICAL PROCESSES 29 

tend to strengthen this unity. An intimate relation is also brought 
about in some cases between the suffix and the stem by vocalic 
harmony. It is often difficult to draw a line between true word 
composition and prefixing and suffixing. I have placed under 
Composition all forms made up of words which can stand alone and 
thus can be considered as true words in contrast to the affixes 
which cannot appear alone. There are, no doubt, many of the 
latter which were once words. Tan, for example, which is given 
here as a particle is shown by Perez to be an impersonal verb. 

Reduplication. This is not especially common in Maya and 
is found only in a limited number of cases. 

Word Order. This does not play a great part in expressing 
syntactical relations. 

IDEAS EXPRESSED BY THE GRAMMATICAL 
PROCESSES 

Word Composition. This is employed in the following forms : 

1. Habitual action. When a verb and its object expresses this 
idea the two form a unit and the form becomes intransitive in the 
past tense : 

so[t]-tse-n-ah-en, I cut wood. 

This is composed of the root, sot, to cut, and tse, wood. The idea 
of cutting wood is regarded as a verb in itself. 

2. Agent. This is sometimes expressed by word composition in 
addition to the usual sign for the agent, t. 

tin tak-ok-t-ik, I am bending something with my foot (ok). 

3. Gender. In names of animals and, in a few cases, in othei 
nouns: 

Sibal ke, male deer, 
ts'upul ke, female deer. 

4. Indefinite time in the future. This is expressed by the root of 
the verb binel, " to go," in both the intransitive and transitive 
verb: 

bin nak-ak-en, 1 am going to climb. 
. bin a hant wa-e, you are going to eat the tortilla. 1 

1 This also shows a form of word composition as the object is inserted be- 
tween the root of the verb and the sign of the future, -e. 



30 GRAMMAR 

5. Action just completed. This is shown by the root o'ok, to 
finish : 

o'a puts-h-en (o'ok-a puts-ah-en), you have just finished hitting me. 

6. Optative. This is made by the root of the verb qat, to desire, 
in qat bin (el), 1 desire to go, I may go. 

The Suffix. This is found to express the following relations 
and ideas : 

1. Plurality. In most nouns, the 3d person of the nominal pro- 
noun, and in some adjectives, by -ob : 

na, house, na-ob, houses. 

u-na, his house, u-na-ob, their house or his houses. 

2. Plurality. In the 2d person of the nominal pronoun by -es: 
a-na, your house, a-na-e§, your (more than one) house. 

3. Plurality in some adjectives. By -ak: 
kan-ak tsupal-al, tall girls. 

4. Plurality in some nouns. By -al. 

tsupal, a girl, 
tsupal-al, girls. 

5. Exclusion of the person spoken to. In nominal pronoun by 
-on for dual and -on-es for plural: 

k-na-on, our (his and my house). 
k-na-on-e§, our (their and my house). 

6. Inclusion of person spoken to. In plural by -es: 
k-na-es, our (your and my) house. 

7. Verbal pronoun, -en, -ets, etc., when used as subject or ob- 
ject of verbs and as the auxiliary, to be: 

puts-en, 1 hit, I am, a hitter. 

tan puts-ik-en, you are hitting me. 

winik-en, 1 am a man. P 1 

8. Demonstrative pronoun, -a, -o, and -u with the prefix le-: 

le winik-a, this man here. 

le winik-o, that man there. 

le winik-e, that man at a distance. 

9. Reflexive pronoun. By-ba: 

tin puts-im-ba (puts-ik-in-ba) 1 am hitting myself. 



IDEAS EXPRESSED 31 

10. Abstract nouns. By-il: 
kohan-il, sickness. 

11. Collective nouns. By-il: 
u-yoooil-il, the poor. 

12. Attributive relationship. By-il: 
u tunit§-il qaq, the stone of the fire. 

13. Gentilitious relationship. By -il : 
Ho-il, a Meridano. 

14. Habituality. By -tal : 
kohan-tal, a sickly man. 

15. Comparative degree. By-il: 

uo na, a good house, 
uo-il na, a better house. 

16. Present time in transitive verb. By -ik : 
tin o'on-ik, 1 am shooting something. 

17. Present time in intransitive verb of motion. By -kah : 
nak-1-in-kah (nak-al-in-kah) 1 am climbing. 

18. Future time in intransitive and transitive verbs. By -e : 

hen o'on-e, 1 shall shoot. 

hen o'on-ik-e, 1 shall shoot something. 

19. Future time in verbs of Class IV. By -tsal or -tal: 
hen winik-t§al-e, 1 shall become a man. 

20. Indefinite future in intransitive verbs. By ak with stem bin: 
bin nak-ak-en, 1 am going to climb. 

21. Past time in intransitive and transitive verbs of Classes II, III, 
IV. By -ah or h: 

tin o'on-ah, 1 shot something. 
tsi-1-ah-en (tsl-tal-ah-en) 1 lay down. 
o'on-(n) ah-en, I shot. 
keel-h-en, 1 was cold. 

22. Distant past in transitive verb. By ma-ah : 
tin puts-m-ah, 1 hit something a long time ago. 

23. Causal verbs (Class I b). By s: 

tin kim-s-ik, 1 kill something, 1 cause something to die. 



32 GRAMMAR 

24. Agent (Class III b). By t: 

tin mis-t-ik, 1 am sweeping or 1 do something with a broom. 

25. Effect effraction of verb on subject. In some cases this serves 
to express a passive relationship. By -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul : 

tin lub-ul, 1 am falling or my being affected by a fall. 

26. Passive relationship, past tense. By b or n: 
nao-s-ah-b-en, 1 was approached, 
o'on-ah-n-en, 1 was shot. 

27. Imperative. Intransitive by -en, transitive by -e : 
o'on-en, shoot! 

o'on-e, shoot something! 

28. Inchoative or Inceptive verbs and verbs of Class II. By -tal or 
-hal: 

tin winik-tal, I am becoming a man. 

29. Reflexive verbs. By-pahal: 
tun tsun-pahal, it begins itself. 

30. Adverbs. When the verbal pronoun is used and the adverb 
precedes the verb, the verb takes the suffix -il: 

tsits simbal-n-ah-il-en, 1 walked rapidly." 

31. Manner of action. When this is expressed by prefix be, thus, 
the verbal form takes -il, and the demonstrative suffixes -a, -e, or 
-o: 

be tal-il-en-a, in this way, 1 came. 

32. Numeral classifiers (see p. 103). 

The Prefix. This is found to express the following relations 
and ideas: 

1. Gender of the " Nomen actorish H- for male, s- for female: 

H-men, a shaman, literally, one who knows, 
s-men, a female shaman. 

2. Time, attached to the nominal pronoun, tan for present, t for 
past, and he for future: 

tan-in (tin) o'on-ik, 1 am shooting something. 

t-in o'on-ah, ] shot something. 

hen (he-in) o'on-ik-e, 1 shall shoot something. 

3. Time, used with the intransitive verb in the past. By t: 
t-puts-en, I hit or performed the act of hitting. 



IDEAS EXPRESSED 33 

4. Nominal pronoun. When used as subject of the verb of as 
the possessive: 

tin (tan-in) puts-ik, 1 am hitting something. 
Juan, u huun, John, his book. 

5. The semi-vowels. When used with the nominal pronoun with 
vowel stems. These have a phonetic and syntactical history (p. 

26): 

6. Demonstrative, le- with the suffixes -a, -o, -e : 
le-winik-a, this man here. 

7. Relative relationship. By lik or likil: 

likil in wen-el the object in which 1 sleep, my hammock. 

8. Adverbial relationships. Such as those indicating repetition 
with ka, totality with la, and a large number of others: 

tin ka-bin, 1 come again. 

tin la-wuk-ik, 1 am drinking all of it. 

9. Manner or state. By be and the suffix -il with the demon- 
stratives -a, -e, -o : 

be-tal-il-en-o, in that way, 1 came. 

10. Direction of motion, pai, motion towards, pilis, motion away, 
etc.: 

tin-pai-bala-ok-t-ik, 1 am rolling something towards me with the foot. 

11. Negative. -By ma: 

m-in (ma-in) qati, 1 do not wish to. 

12. Prepositions (see p. 107). 

t-in na, in my house. 

yoqol in na, above my house. 

Reduplication. This is syllabic in form. The process seems to 
have no effect upon the vowel of the stem. It is employed to ex- 
press the following relations and ideas : 

1. Distant past in the intransitive verb: 
simbal-n-ah-ah-n-en, 1 ran a long time ago. 

2. Iterative or frequentative verbs: 

tin bi-bi qab, 1 tap with my fingers frequently. 

3. Plural with some adjectives: 
ta-tas be-ob, smooth roads. 



34 GRAMMAR 

4. Plural with some participles: 1 
tsak, to cut with a blow, 
tsak-an, a thing cut. 
tsak-an-tsak, things cut. 

5. Diminutive with nouns and adjectives: - 

kah, pueblo. sa-sak, medio bianco. 

ka-kah, small pueblos. noh or nohots, great. 

sak, white. no-noh or no-nohots, grandecillo. 

Word order. In general the word order does not differ greatly 
from that in English. The Maya, as spoken at the present time, 
generally follows the word order of Spanish. One exception to this 
rule is to be noted, namely, the subject of the verb when expressed 
by a noun follows the verb : 3 

u kim-s-ah Juan Pedro, Peter killed John. 

u luum kah-l-ik in yum, good is the land in which my father lives. 

SYNTAX 

The Noun 

Fundamental place in Language. The noun should be con- 
sidered first as it plays a far greater part in the development of the 
language than has been supposed in the past. The important place 
has always been given to the verb. 4 It is not true to say that all 
verbs were originally nouns but the relation between the verb and 
the noun is very intimate. There are a far greater number of verbs 
made directly from nouns than there are nouns from verbs. 5 

1 Compare Seler, p. 111. 

2 Beltran (§ 128) writes, "Pero se ha de notar tambien, que no siempre esta 
reduplication significa el frecuente ejertitio del verbo 6 nombre, porque d veces con 
ella se minora su signification, v.g.: ts'uhuk, lo dulce, ts'uts'uhuk, lo que no estd 
dulce, ts'ots', lo salado, ts'ots'ots', lo poco salado: tsokow, lo caliente, tsotsokow, 
lo poco caliente 6 lo tibio. Ay otros vocablos que aunque tienen reduplication no 
son frecuentativos, porque ab origine se pusieron para significar aquella cosa sin 
frecuentia, v.g.: o'uo'uki, lo blando, tsatsak, lo encarnado, sasak, lo bianco &c." 

For other forms using reduplication, see Palma y Palma, p. 150-156. 

3 Compare Seler, p. 89, 120. 

4 Seler writes (p. 66) "denn der Kern der ganzen Sprache (el bianco de este 
idioma) liegt, wie der Grammatiker Beltran mit Recht bemerkt, in dem Verbum. 
Wer das Verbum versteht, versteht die Sprache." 

6 Seler (p. 89) explains all transitive verbs with objects as " nominal themes 
of passive significance." 



THE NOUN 35 

Stems which seem to occupy this half-way position have been 
called neutral (Class III) : 

From los, fist, tin (tan-in) los-ik, 1 am hitting something with my fist, 
literally, present time my fisting it (present time). 

The essentially nominal character of the Maya is seen not only in 
the verbal stems made directly from nouns but also in words de- 
noting action or state and the effect of this action or state on the 
subject (Class I). This class of verbs are really predicated nouns. 
The objective pronoun often conveys the verbal idea. 
Directly from nouns we have : 

From mis, a broom; mis-en, 1 am a sweeper, literally a broomer; mis-n- 

ah-en, 1 was a sweeper, or 1 swept. 
From o'ib, writing; o'ib-en, 1 am a writer. 

From verbs of action or state, 

From kimi, death; tin kim-il, 1 am dying, or my being affected by death; 
tin kim-s-ik, 1 am causing something to die, or my killing something; 
kim-en, 1 died; tin kim-s-il, 1 am being caused to die, or my being 
killed. 

Kim-il is the stem of the intransitive, present, passive relation- 
ship, kim-s-il of the intransitive, present, passive, and kim-en, the 
past of the intransitive, active, with the verbal pronoun. As will 
be .pointed out later (p. 64), the distinction made in Spanish be- 
tween the active and passive voices is not found in Maya. 

Another feature of the nominal character of Maya is seen in the 
fact that the nominal pronoun used with predicative verbal ex- 
pressions is fundamentally a nominal expression showing possessive 
relationship : 1 

tin mis-t-ik, 1 am sweeping, literally, my brooming something. 

Incorporation in Verb. A noun, the object of a transitive 
verb, may become incorporated in the verb and the unity of the 
two made so close that the verb passes from the form of the 
transitive with its object to an intransitive in form. This is found 
especially in words whose meanings express some habitual action as 
chop- wood, carry-water, spend-money, etc: 

tin tsa-ik ha, 1 am carrying water, less common, tsa-ha-in-ka, 

tin tsa-ah ha or tsa-ha-n-ah-en, 1 carried water. 

hen tsa-ik ha-e or bin tsa-ha-n-ak-en, 1 shall carry water. 

1 Compare Seler, p. 66. 



36 GRAMMAR 

The transitive form is usually found in the present and future 
tenses and the intransitive in the past. 1 

Incorporation to express the agent. Another type of incorporation 
is seen when the noun is used to denote the agent by which the 
action of the verb is accomplished : 2 

tin pai-bala-ok-t-ik, 1 am rolling something towards me with the foot (ok) . 

tin wuo'-tse-t-ik, 1 am bending something with a stick (tse). 

tin wop-tunits-t-ik, 1 am breaking something with a stone (tunits). 

Classification. There is no classification of nouns with the ex- 
ception of those used with numerals where there is a broad division 
of those animate and inanimate together with many minor classes 
(p. 103). 

Abstract Nouns. These are made by adding the suffix -il to 
the stem : 3 

kohan-il, sickness. 
kimako-il, happiness. 
noh-il, greatness. 

Collective Nouns. There is a class of collective nouns made 
from the preceding abstract forms by prefixing the possessive pro- 
noun of the 3d person singular. The root in -1 is used when verbs 
are thus used : 

u-kohan-il, the sick. 

u-y-oooil-il, the poor. 

u-kim[i]l-il, the dead. 

Gender. No gender is expressed with one exception. In the 
"nomen actoris" male and female are shown by the prefixes H, for 
male, and s, for female. 4 The palatal spirant is rather difficult to 
pronounce correctly. It is a weak breathing and, in many cases, 

1 Beltran (§ 58) notes the incorporation of the object in this form and also 
the fact that the form is made intransitive in the past tense. He finds fault 
with San Buenaventura who (fol. 6 ob.) makes the past in ni (3d person) and 
not in n-ah. 

2 Compare Palma y Palma (p. 324) who writes, "Hay verbos que a mas del 
acto, expresan el objecto con que se lleva a cabo": 

mas-tun-te, machdcalo con piedra. 
peo'-tun-te, apesgalo con piedra. 
peo'-qab-te, apesgalo con la mono. 

3 Compare Seler, p. 113. 

4 Beltran (§ 23) gives the particles as ah and is (ix) but he adds that the 



THE NOUN 37 

passes almost unobserved. It is the only case where this sound is 
found : 

H-men, the shaman, literally, one who knows. 

s-men, the female shaman. 

H-ooqot, the male dancer. ft * a k l< 7 <> -fc 

s-ooqot, the female dancer. 

Gender is also shown, especially in the names of animals, by 
word composition using the words sibil, male, and ts'upul, female. 
These forms are also used in some cases with words denoting human 
beings : l 

sibil-pal, boy. ts'upul-pal, girl. 

Number. The singular and plural alone are found in the noun. 
The plural ending is usually -ob as seen in the third person of the 
verb: 

na, house. na-ob, houses. 

When a noun ends in -al, plurality is shown by a duplication of 

the last syllable: 

ts'upal, girl. 

ts'upal-al, contracted to ts'upl-al, girls. 

The usual plural ending, -ob may be used in these forms in addi- 
tion to the -al : 2 
ts'upal-al-ob. 

Case. There is no case expressed with nouns. 3 

more elegant (mas garbosamente) forms are h and s (x). San Buenaventura 
and Coronel do not mention the feminine prefix s. Compare Seler, p. 100. 

Palma y Palma (p. 221) finds fault with Beltran for calling these particles 
"articulos." He writes (p. 221) "No determinan nunca equivaliendo a el, un; 
de modo que si se les quiere llamar articulos por darles algun nombre como las 
demds partes de la oracion, son articulos sui g&neris cuyo oficio apenas se asemeja 
en algo al de los castellanos." 

1 1 failed to find the term in -ton given by Lopez (§ 27) to indicate the mas- 
culine sex of animals; 

ton wakas, the bull. ton peq, the dog. 

2 Lopez (§ 23) does not recognize the uncontracted form except when the 
regular plural ending, ob, is used in addition to -al. 

3 Beltran (§ 18) states that there is no sign for the nominative and accusa- 
tive. He gives the genitive of possession as u but this is really the possessive 
pronoun, 3d person. He gives a dative in ti or tial, a vocative in e, or bee, 
and ablatives in oqlal, men or menel, ti, and yetel. These are not true cases as 
the dative, vocative, and ablative relations are expressed by prepositional 
particles. 



38 GRAMMAR 

The different relationships such as instrument, location, etc. are 
expressed by adverbial prepositions. The phonetic connection be- 
tween these suffixes and the words they modify is weak. They 
are considered under prepositions (p. 107). The indirect object is 
sometimes expressed by the particle t: 
tin wal-ah-t-ets, 1 told something to you. 

Attributive Relationship. This is expressed by means of the 
suffix -il : 1 

u tunit§-il qaq, the stone of the fire, or, the fire, its stone. 

u o'on-il ke, the gun for deer. 

u na-il winik, the house for the men. 

u ha-il o'onot, the water of the cenote. 

Gentilitious Relationship. This is shown by the suffix -il: 
Ho-iL, a Meridano, a man from Merida (Ho). 
Saki-il, Sak-il, a man from Valladolid (Saki). 

Habituality. Nouns denoting accustomed condition or state 
are made from other nouns by means of the suffix -tal. There is 
some reason to believe that this -tal is the same suffix as that 
seen in verbs of Class II and seen again in the inchoative verb: 

kohan, a sick man, kohan-tal, a sickly man. 

kalan, a drunken man, kalan-tal, a drunkard. 

Diminutives. This idea in nouns and adjectives may be ex- 
pressed by reduplication: 

kah, pueblo. ka-kah, small pueblo. 

A more common form of diminutives with nouns is the use of the 
adjective tsan, little; 2 
t§an peq, small dog. 

THE PRONOUN 3 

The pronominal forms are added directly to the root-stem. 
They do not lose their identity when thus added but they are often 

1 Compare Seler (p. 78, 113) where he considers the attributive relation- 
ship with adjective forms and also with nouns. 

San Buenaventura (fol. 28 ob.) mentions this use of -il as follows; "no propia 
de persona, sino que por razon de algun oficio se apropia la cosa." 

2 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 161-162. 

3 A portion of the material contained in this section was published as 
"Some notes on the Maya Pronoun" in Boas Anniversary Volume, New York, 
1906, p. 85-88. 



Verbal Pronoun 


Nominal Pronoun 


-en 


in- 


-et§ 


a- 


---(i) 


u- 


-on 


k- 


-on 


k--on 


-ones 


k--es 


-ones 


k- -ones 


-es 


a--es 


-ob 


u- -ob 



THE PRONOUN 39 

phonetically changed. The pronouns do not occur as individual 
words with one exception (p. 42). 

Forms of the Pronoun. There are two forms of the pronoun, 
the real pronoun called " verbal" and used as a suffix and the pos- 
sessive pronoun called " nominal " and used as a prefix. These 
forms are as follows: x 

Singular 

1st person, 

2d person, 

3d person, 
Dual 

1st person, inclusive, 
exclusive, 
Plural 

1st person, inclusive, 
exclusive, 

2d person, 

3d person, 

Distinctive Features. The Maya pronoun presents some dis- 
tinctive features. Among these is the use of two different sets of 
pronouns for active or transitive verbs and neutral or intransitive 

1 Beltran (§§ 32-47) gives the following pronouns: 
1. Demonstrative 2. Demonstrative 3. Mixed 

ten toon en on in ka 

tet§ te- -es ets es a a- -es 

lai lo- -ob lailo ob u u- -ob 

4. Mixed with vowel stems * 5. Reciprocal 

w ka inba kaba 

aw aw- -es aba aba- -es 

y y- -ob uba uba- -ob 

It will be seen that these five narrow down to the two given here, the two 
Demonstratives being the verbal pronoun and the verbal pronoun compounded 
with t, the two Mixed being the nominal pronoun with consonant and vowel 
stems and the Reciprocal being the nominal compounded with ba. He makes 
a distinction (§ 61) in the nominal pronoun in the 3d person singular between 
that used in the present tense where he uses lai and in the preterit and future 
where he has the usual form, u; 
lai kambesik 
u kambesah 

bin u kambes 
1 see no reason for this change which he calls " mi nueva correccion, " 



40 GRAMMAR 

forms. There is an irregularity of usage of the two sets of pronouns 
dependent, in many cases, upon tense. Another uncommon feature 
is the association of forms characterizing different types of verbs. 

Number. In both pronouns there is a singular, dual, and plural. 1 
In actual conversation the distinction between the dual and plural 
is very seldom made. 

When the verbal pronoun is used as an object there is no form 
to express the 3d person singular. When this form is used as the 
subject of an intransitive verb in the past tenses an i is used to 
express the 3d person. 

kim-en, 1 died. kim-i, he died. 

A demonstrative (leti or leeti) is sometimes used when special 
emphasis is laid upon the 3d person. 2 

Persons Expressed. In the nominal pronoun all three persons 
are expressed. The inclusive and exclusive forms of the dual and 
plural of the verbal pronoun are not differentiated whereas in the 
nominal pronoun there are different forms marking the inclusion 
or the exclusion of the person addressed : — we, meaning you and 
I, or we, meaning he and I. As in the case with the dual and plural 
the distinction between the inclusive and exclusive forms is made 
very seldom in actual conversation. 3 

It will be noted that in the plural of the nominal pronoun both 
a prefix and a suffix are used and that the second and third persons 
plural have the same form prefixed as that of the singular with the 

1 Beltran (§§ 225-227) notes the dual and pkfral forms in only two cases, 
and he does not fail to mention the difference between the forms of the verbal 
pronoun in -on and the -ones as seen in koon, come (dual) and koones, 
come (plural). There may also be a distinction between the dual and plural of 
the second person as shown by his forms kos (cox) for the dual and koses 
(coxex) for the plural. 

2 The early Spanish grammars have lai for the demonstrative of the 3d per- 
son. Palma y Palma (p. 209, 210) has the form leti. He considers this the 
pronoun of the 3d person which contracts to i in some cases; 

nak leti or nak-i he ascended. 
Lopez (§ 49) has lai, lei or leti, laiob, letiob or leobti for the 3d person, 
singular and plural. 

3 The Huasteca has the inclusive and exclusive forms for the nominal pro- 
noun. These forms undoubtedly exist in many of the other dialects of the 
Maya stock. 



THE PRONOUN 41 

addition of the suffix, -es for the second person and -ob for the 
third person. The -es is also used alone in the second person plural 
of the verbal and is found in the first person plural compounded 
with -on, the regular verbal pronoun for the first person, dual and 
plural. 

There is no way to make clear without the use of the demon- 
strative the distinction in the pronoun between a singular subject 
with a plural object and a plural subject with a singular object, as 
"he hit them" and "they hit him." 

Pronoun with vowel stems. When the root or stem begins 
with a vowel a semi-vowel is infixed between the nominal pronoun 
and the stem with the exception of the first person plural. This 
vowel is w in the first person singular and the second person singu- 
lar and plural and y in the third person singular and plural. These 
vowels, when they occur here, may have had a phonetic origin but 
a syntactic relation is shown at the present time by the fact that 
the w changes to y in the third person. 1 

1 Coronel and the other early grammarians give special forms for the pro- 
noun when used with vowel stems. These forms agree in the main with those 
found at the present time. It should be noted that the form for the first per- 
son plural does not differ from the same form used with consonant stems, 
thus agreeing with Beltran in saying that no semi-vowel is added in the first 
person plural. The distinction made by them between the first and second 
person singular by the use of the regular form of the pronoun for the second 
person and the semi-vowel alone in the first person is probably incorrect as 1 
found the pronoun of the first person singular (in) always retained and used 
with the semi-vowel, w. These points are made clear by the following com- 
parison between the early forms and those used at the present time; 

Coronel, etc. A.M.T. 

w-atan in w-atan 

a w-atan a w-atan 

y-atan u y-atan or y-atan 

k-atan k-atan 

a w-atan-es a w-atan-es 

y-atan-ob u y-atan-ob or y-atan-ob 

Zavala (p. 13) gives the two forms for the 1st person singular; 
w-atan and in w-atan, w-al, in w-al, 
and two for the third person; 

y-atan and u-y-atan, y-al, u y-al. 
Palma y Palma (p. 147 and p. 213-215) has the same forms as those given 
here, using the u, however, instead of the w. He finds fault and quite correctly, 



42 GRAMMAR 

Verbal Pronoun. This is found in the following places: 

1. Subject of the intransitive verb in the past tense. 

2. Object of intransitive verbs. 

3. With verbs of Class IV. 

It may stand alone only when compounded with t or te as t-en, 
t-ets, t-o(o)n. These forms are used as a demonstrative pronoun 
when emphasis is desired and especially in answer to questions; * 

The verbal pronoun may be compounded with ka which, as 
pointed out by Seler (p. 98, 99), serves as a conjunction, a rela- 
tive. This ka combines with the pronoun into k-en, k-ets, etc. : 
ten ken in Nakuk Pech, I, who am here, 1 am Nakuk Pech. 

with the forms of the pronoun given by the early grammarians as used with 
vowel stems. 

Lopez (§ 172) agrees with the forms given here. 

San Buenaventura uses the semi-vowel with vowel verbs even when the 
nominal pronoun follows the verbal stem; 
wokol-in-kah. 
Beltran (§ 45) finds fault with this with good reason. 
1 Beltran (§ 160) uses the same form in answer to a question; 
ma e§ hantik wan la, who is eating the tortilla? 
ten hantik, 1 am eating it. 

He also (§ 32) makes this form compounded with t his first pronoun which he 
calls Demonstrative. He uses it in his 2d, 3d, and 4th Conjugations as the 
subject of the verb in the present and imperfect tenses; 

ten kambesik ten oikik ten kanantik 

In the Maya as spoken at Valladolid at the present time the nominal pro- 
noun would be used compounded with its time particles for the present and 
past. As noted above, the forms of the verbal pronoun compounded with t 
have the meaning of a demonstrative; 

ten kambe-s-ik, 1 am the one who is showing something. 

The fact that Beltran uses the nominal pronoun in the preterit, pluperfect, and 
his two futures shows that he has no warrant for using the verbal pronoun in 
the present and imperfect. 

San Buenaventura incorrectly uses the forms ten, tet§, etc. as the forms of 
the verb " to be." Beltran (§ 32) does not agree with this. 

Seler (p. 73) notes the use of the verbal pronoun with a " supporter " t or te. 
He (p. 79) points out the mistake of San Buenaventura in considering the te 
as a verb. He bases his objection on the fact that it does not, as a rule, have 
tense characters. 

Lopez (§§ 48, 49) gives the personal pronoun in the nominative as ten, tet§, 
etc. 



THE PRONOUN 43 

Nominal Pronoun. This is found in the following places : 

1. Subject of all transitive verbs. 

2. Subject of the present and future of intransitive verbs. 

3. Possessive pronoun. 

Time Particles. These time particles of the pronoun have 
not been recognized as such in any of the Maya grammars. 1 It is 
not without ample verification of the data collected in Yucatan 
and among the Lacandones that I venture to suggest the presence 
of a full set of time particles for the nominal pronoun. These are 
prefixed to the forms of the pronoun and are sometimes so closely 
joined to the pronoun by phonetic changes that it is difficult to 
separate them from the form of the pronoun. In general, it can 
be said, that the uncontracted forms are most common among the 
Mayas as well as among the Lacandones. The uncontracted forms 
seem to have been earlier than those where contraction has re- 
sulted. Among the Mayas near Valladolid the contracted forms 
were used almost exclusively. 

The time particles seen in the 1st person, dual and plural, usu- 
ally remain unchanged. The contractions of these particles with 
the pronoun are shown here. 

Contraction of time particles. Present, tan, may contract with 
the pronoun as follows: 

Consonant Stems Vowel Stems 

tan-in into t-in tan-in w-atan into t-in w-atan, my wife. 

tan-a into t-an 2 tan-a w-atan into t-an w-atan. 

tan-u into t-un tan-u y-atan into tan y-atan. 

tan-k remains tan-k tan-k atan remains tan-k atan. 

Ki or k contracts with the pronoun as follows : 
ki-in into k-in. 
ki-a into k-a. 
ki-u into k-u. 
ki-k into q. 

1 Lopez (§ 72), speaks of the ki- used with the pronoun for the present and 
ti- fcr the past, giving, respectively, kin, ka, ku and tin, ta, tu. 

2 Lopez (§.163) makes this contraction ta instead of tan, tu instead of tun, 
resulting in trie same forms as the contraction seen in the past tense of t or ti 
and the pronoun into ta and tu. In the 1st person, singular, the resulting forms 
in the present and past agree, tan-in, and t-in both giving tin. In all the other 
persons the forms in the present and past do not agree. 



44 GRAMMAR 

Past, t, forms with the pronoun the following : 
t-in remains t-in or t'-in. 
t-a remains t-a or t'-a. 
t-u remains t-u or t'-u. 
t-k becomes t'. 

o'ok may contract with the pronoun as follows : 
o'ok-in into o'-in. 
o'ok-a into o'-a. 
o'ok-u into o'-u. 
o'ok-k becomes o'oq. 

Future, he, may contract with the pronoun as follows: 
he-in into he-n. 
he-a into h-a. 
he-u into h-u. 
he-k remains he-k. 

A more detailed consideration of these particles will now be 
attempted. 

Present time. This is expressed in the pronoun by the Indians 
with whom I worked by the particle tan. 1 The union of this par- 

1 The early Spanish grammars do not recognize these time particles. Bel- 
tran, however (§ 262) notes the particle tan as expressing present time. He 
does not speak cf the contracted forms. The Motul Dictionary has the follow- 
ing entry under tan, " presencia, tin tan, ta tan, tu tan." Perez (1866-1877) 
has the following, "Tan, verbo impersonal: el acto 6 capacidad de hacer 6 ejecutar. 
Tan u tal, estd viniendo." This would seem to show that the uncontracted 
forms were employed in early times. 

The Ticul dictionary (Perez, 1898) gives the following under tan, "en 
presencia, con tin, ta, tu, se usa tin tan, en mi presencia, ante mi" 

San Buenaventura (fol. 19) gives the particle tan as always prefixed to the 
active verb in ik: * 

tan in kambesik, 1 am showing something. 
This indicates that the uncontracted form was in good use in his time. 

Cruz (1912) frequently uses the uncontracted form of the nominal pronoun 
with tan in his examples of the present tense. He is more inclined, however, 
to employ it with a negative; 

ma tan a betik, you are making nothing. 
baas ten tan u kanik, why does he not learn? 

Palma y Palma (p. 177) uses the forms tin, tan, tun, etc., for his transitive 
verbs in the present tense. These are undoubtedly the contracted forms of 
tan-in, tan-a, tan-u as he specifically mentions (p. 177) these forms compounded 
with taan. His interpretation of tin, however, differs from the one given here. 
He states that it is formed from ti " cuando se dice al por a el. . . . Tin en el 



THE PRONOUN 45 

tide with the pronoun is seen above. Tan seems to convey the 
idea of continued action in the present: 

tin (tan-in) sotik tse, I am now cutting wood or 1 am now engaged in the 

act of cutting wood, 
tan-k han-al, we are eating, we are engaged in the act of eating, 
tun (tan-u) wen-el, he is sleeping. 

With vowel stems, where y is the semi-vowel added only in the 
3d person, the form of the pronoun of this person with tan shows 
the dropping of the u, the true pronoun, and the tan is retained : 

tan yooqot, he is dancing, 
rather than 

tun (tan-u) yooqot. 

which might be expected. 

The use of tan with the pronoun to express present time seems 
to be less common in many parts of the peninsula than the use of 
the ki- or k- compounded with the nominal pronoun. 1 This form is 

presente de indicativo tan to se puede covsiderar sincopa de ti in, como de taan in. 
Ti in betik. Esto vale lo hago. Taan in betik. Esto vale lo estoy haciendo." 

Lopez (§§ 158, 163), in writing of synalephe, uses as illustrations forms in 
tan: 

tin bin for tan in bin, 1 am going. 

tin hanal for tan in hanal, 1 am eating. 

He makes no mention in any other part of his grammar of this use of tan in the 
present tense. 

1 Beltran (§ 161) gives the form ki as denoting present time when com- 
pounded with the nominal pronoun. He often uses his pronoun t-en, t-ets, etc., 
with this; 

ten ki-in wal-ik, contracting to ten kin walik, 1 am saying it. 
He repeats the same form (§ 34) in the preterit; 

ten kin yakunah, 1 loved someone. 
These sentences should more properly be translated; 

1 am the one who is talking. 

1 am the one who loved someone. 

In § 101 he states that the particle ki appears as if it were a pronoun but it is 
merely used for ornament or for greater signification and denotes present time. 
Here he uses it without the verbal pronoun compounded with t, as above, but 
notes that it combines with the nominal pronoun into k-in, k-a, k-u, etc. 

Palma y Palma uses the forms in k-. He states (p. 171) that it indicates ac- 
customed action; 



46 GRAMMAR 

recognized at Valladolid but is far less common than that with 
tan. 

The forms in k- or ki- seem, in some cases, to express the idea 
of a potential mood when used with the future stem in -e: 

k-in puts-e, 1 may strike it. 

k-in hant-e, I may eat it. 

tuu§ k-a bin, where may you be going, where are you going? 

The contrast between the use of tan and k with the nominal- pro- 
noun is seen in the following: 

le winik k-u tal, the man is going to come, the man may come. 

le winik t-un (tan-u) tal, the man is coming, the man is in the act of coming. 

When k- or ki- is used the idea may in some cases be translated 
by the Spanish term "a veces," sometimes. 

Future time. This may be expressed by the nominal pronoun 
compounded with the particle he. The uncontracted forms are 
found in use among the Mayas as well as among the Lacandones. 
The contracted forms are shown above. Here, as in the case with 
the present particle, tan, the first person, dual and plural, does 
not show contraction. I have been unable to find the derivation 
of this particle. Undoubtedly this he, as in the case of the tan and 
o'ok, is derived from a former stem. 1 

t-in be-t-ik, 1 am doing it. 
k-in be-t-ik, I am accustomed to do it. 
k-in bin, 1 am accustomed to go. 
Zavala uses the forms in k for the present, both of the transitive and in- 
transitive; 

k-in naak-al, 1 am climbing, 
k-in kanan-t-ik, 1 am guarding it. 
Lopez follows Beltran and uses the forms in k- or ki- with the nominal pro- 
noun. He uses it always in combination with the verbal pronoun with t-; ten, 
teti, etc. 

Martinez thinks that the k-in is a contraction of ka-in. 
1 This particle for future time may be a late development. Whereas tan, t, 
and o'ok are mentioned by the early writers as having some time significance 
1 have found this future time particle, he, given only by several of the later 
authorities. 

Cruz (1912) has the following; 

he in oikti, 1 shall give it. 
Ruz (1844, p. 88) has the following; 
ten he in binel, 1 shall go. k-toon he k binel, we shall go. 

tet§ he a binel, thou wilt go. tees he a binel, you will go. 

letile he u binel, he will go. leti le-ob he u binel, they will go. 



THE PRONOUN 47 

hen (he-in) bin-[el]-e, 1 shall go. 

he-k han-al-e, we shall eat. 

hu (he-u) han-t-ik-e (han-t-k-e), he will eat something. 

Past time. This is expressed in the nominal pronoun with the 
particle t. This t unites with the pronoun as we have shown above 
(p. 44). The resulting form for the first person singular t-in is the 
same as that for the present pronoun with tan, tan-in contracting 
to t-in. The history of the two forms is, however, entirely differ- 
ent. It may be possible that the form expressing past time is pro- 
nounced with a slightly more explosive character to the initial t 
than is given to the same form expressing present time. In the 
first person dual and plural there is an unusual change. The pro- 
nominal prefix k is dropped and the sign of the past (t) is changed 
to the fortis (V). There is necessarily a slight hiatus in this form 
before the explosive t and the initial consonant sound of the ver- 
bal stem. 1 

t-in or t'-in puts-ah, 1 hit something. 
t' (t-k) han-t-ah, we ate something. 

This t, expressing a past, is undoubtedly the same as that found 
used directly with the intransitive verb (p. 72) : 2 
t-bin-en, 1 went. t-han-en, 1 ate. 

The prefix o'ok is used with the nominal pronoun to convey the 
idea of action just completed. 3 This o'ok is the root of the verb, 

Lopez (§ 107) writes; " En vez del futuro imperfecto de indicativo se usa fre- 
cuentemente el presente, anteponiendole la particula he seguida de los pronombres 
in, a, u, etc. y posponiendole una e: 
he in betike, 1 shall do it. 

Martinez has suggested to me that he is a contracted form of helel, now, 
to-day. He does not consider the forms in he good Maya. 

The Motul and Ticul dictionaries give he as meaning " el que, la que, lo que." 

1 Palma y Palma (p. 212) accepts this time particle compounded with the 
nominal pronoun. In the 1st person plural, however, he gives k or ka instead 
oft'. 

Lopez (p. 50) has t in this place but makes no mention of it being the fortis. 
Martinez consider this t stands for ten. 

2 Compare Beltran, § 85. This tense sign, t, should not be confounded with 
ti or t, meaning " to " and given in the early Spanish grammars as the sign of 
the dative. 

3 Beltran (§ 85) also uses the verb o'ok for a preterit with transitive and in- 



48 GRAMMAR 

" to finish or complete." This is added directly to the forms of the 
pronoun. Here, again, the Lacandones and many of the Mayas 
use the uncontracted forms. The contracted forms used by some 
are seen above. The only unusual contraction is that for the first 
person dual and plural where o'ok-k becomes o'oq, the two k 
sounds making a velar k (q). The verb is used in the present 
stem with o'ok: 

D'in (o'ok-in) wen-el, 1 have just been sleeping. 

o'oq (o'ok-k) han-t-ik, we have just been eating something, or we have 
finished eating something. 

Case. It is only in the pronoun that we have any suggestion 
of case in Maya and even here there are only three; — subjective, 
objective, and possessive. The oblique cases are all expressed by 
prepositions. 

Subjective. The subject of the verb is always expressed by the 
pronoun even when there is a noun for the subject. This subject, 
the nominal pronoun, is really a possessive: 

winik u put§-ik Pedro, or u puts-ik winik Pedro, the man is hitting Peter, 
literally, the man, his hitting something, Peter. 

Objective. The forms of the verbal pronoun are used as the 
object: 

tin put§-ik-ets, 1 am hitting you; literally, present time, 1 am hitting 
something, present time, you; or, you are the object of my hitting. 

In the future the -e, the sign of this tense, is placed at the end 
of the form: 

hu puts-ik-en-e, he will hit me. 

transitive verbs. He does not mention the contracted forms made with the 
nominal pronoun; 

o'ok u hantik, he ate it, (ya lo comio), 
o'ok u lubul, he fell (ya acabo de caer). 
Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 17) show the form o'ok in an example 
which they both give to illustrate the statement that the -ik form is used when 
an active verb follows a neuter and the latter does not denote action; 
o'oki in kanik paialt§i, acabe de aprender d rezar. 
Lopez (§ 106) states that the form in o'ok is used " con mucha frecuencia '' 
as a preterit perfect; " que signified terminar, acabar y ya"; 

han-en, yo comi. o'ok in han-al ya coml. 

He has another form with o'ok combined with ill to form the pluperfect. I 
did not find this form. 

o'okili in hanal, 1 had eaten. 



THE PRONOUN 49 

The indirect object is expressed by the particle t and the verbal 
pronoun : 

tin o'ib-t-ik-t-ets, contracted to tin o'ib-t-ets, I am writing something to 
you. 

Possessive Pronoun. The nominal pronoun is really a posses- 
sive and is naturally used to express possession. There is little 
doubt that the possessive idea is uppermost even in the use of this 
nominal pronoun with a finite verb. 1 

tin (tan-in) §otik t§e, 1 am cutting wood; literally, in present time, my cut- 
ting something, in present time, wood. 

The forms of the nominal pronoun used to convey the idea of 
possession are attached to the name of the object possessed rather 
than to that of the possessor; 

u-huun Juan, John, his book. 
u peq winik, the man's dog. 

With nouns beginning with a vowel the nominal pronoun of the 
third person (u) is often dropped when the semi- vowel is added. 
There is no cause for confusion in this as y is only added in the 3d 
person : 

u-y-otots, becomes y-otots, his house. 

Natural possession. There is another form indicating possession 
made by prefixing the usual form of the nominal pronoun to the 
name of the object possessed and, at the same time, suffixing the 
particle -il to the same word. This indicates in most cases, not 
so much possession, as a natural and often inseparable relation- 
ship between the possessor and the thing possessed. The possessor 
is very often an inanimate object; 2 

1 Lopez (§ 56) seems to fail to recognize the idea of possession when these 
forms are used as the subject of the verb. He calls this pronoun " mixed" 
"porque se usa indistintamente como pronombre personal y como adjectivo 
posesivo. 

in qat in hant in wan, quiero comer mi pan, 
donde tenemos el pronombre in empleado, en el primer caso, como personal y en el 
segundo, como posesivo." 

2 Seler (p. 115) writes in this connection, "Im Maya wird dabei, wenn der 
betreffende Gegenstand zu einer dritten Person gehbrt und diese drilte Person 
ausdriicklich genannt ist, das Possessivprdfix der dritten Person als uberfiiissig 
night gesetzt." 



50 GRAMMAR 

u-ha-il ts'en, the water of the well. 

u-na-il Chichen, the houses of Chichen, more properly, u-na-il-ob. 

u-na-il winik, the houses for the men. 

u-o'on-il ke the gun for deer. 

Demonstrative Pronoun. This is found in three forms. There 
is no well developed system denning the noun in relation to the 
speaker, the person addressed, and the person spoken of. The 
demonstrative roughly corresponds to the Spanish, este, ese, and 
aquel. I am inclined to think, however, that this similarity is more 
apparent than real and that there are distinctions in the three 
sets of forms which will come out later. 

The demonstrative is expressed by the suffixes -a, -o, and -e; 
the first denoting " this one here," the second, " that one there," 
and the third, " that one at a distance." When one of these is 
found it is always in connection with the prefix le, itself a demon- 
strative or a sort of definite article. The latter is sometimes used 
alone : 

le winik-a, this man here. 

le winik-o, that man there, pointing to the place. 

le winik-e, that man at an distance. 

The prefix le-, also found in the form leeti or leti, the demon- 
strative of the 3d person, is used, in some cases, in place of the 
personal pronoun with past tenses of the intransitive: 
leeti bini, he went (usually written lay ti). 

The same form is used redundantly with transitive verbs and the 
nominal pronoun: 

leeti tu puts-ob, he hit them, more correctly, puts-ah-ob. 
leeti-ob tu puts-ob, they hit them, 
mas putse, who hit him? 
leeti put§e, he hit him. 

The demonstrative particles are also used with te, as te-la, t§-lo, 
and te-le contracted, in some cases, into t-la, t-lo, t-le. 1 

Reflexive Pronoun. This is made by adding the particle -ba 
to the usual forms of the nominal pronoun. This is best seen in 

1 The Spanish grammars give only the forms te-la and te-lo. Beltran 
(§ 145) notes the syncopation of the e into t-la, t-lo, and they note that with 
le an e is added to the noun; 
le-peq-e, that dog. 



THE VERB 51 

transitive verbs with the nominal pronoun as subject and the 
same form repeated as the object; 

tin put§-k-im-ba, contracted from puts-ik-in-ba, 1 am hitting myself. 

The n changes for euphony to m as Chilam Balam for Chilan 
Balam. It should be noted that the verbal pronoun is not used as 
the object as might be expected. In a past tense we have 
tin puts-im-ba, 1 hit myself. 

The normal form does not seem to be used. This would be 
tin puts-ah-in-ba. 

The reflexive is also seen in the form 

tin nao'-k-im-ba, 1 approach, literally, my nearing it, my, myself. 

Reciprocal Pronoun. This relation is expressed by the par- 
ticle tan-ba or ba-tan: 1 

u ba-tan-ba-ob, entre si mismos. 

tun puts-k-u-tan-ba-ob, they are hitting one another. 

Interrogative Pronouns. These end in s and occur at the be- 
ginning of the sentence: 

mas il-ets, who saw you? 

mas ta-wil-ah, whom did you see? 

baas ta-o'ibol-t-ah, what do you desire? 

tuus ka-bin, where are you going? 

mas meya-n-ah-i, who worked? 

baas ta-mis-t-ah, what are you sweeping? 

♦ 

THE VERB 
Classification. 
I. Action or state in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -til. 

(a) Pure action or state. 

(b) Causal, s. 

Root in be. 
II. " Endowed with " in -tal. 

1 San Buenaventura states that tanba is used as a reciprocal in the 2d and 
3d person plural. Beltran (§ 47) correctly adds that it can also be used in the 
1st person plural. 

Palma y Palma (p. 216) gives the reciprocal pronoun as tam-ba; 
tin qol-tam-ba. 
In explaining this form he writes " No vale, me golpeo a mi, sino me golpeo con 
otro 6 cow otros en pelea" 



52 GRAMMAR 

III. Neuter stems. 

(a) Stem alone. 

(b) Agent, t. 

Roots in kin and kun. 
Verbs in -ankil. 

TV. Auxiliary " to be " (verbal pronoun). 
Root in yan. 

V. Irregular and defective verbs. 

It does not seem necessary to classify the verbs into the four 
conjugations according to the methods of the early Spanish gram- 
marians. 1 In place of these conjugations it has seemed more wise 
to make the following divisions : 2 

Class I. Verbs in -al, -el, -il, -ol, and ul, denoting action or 
state. The ending in -1 with a vowel corresponding to that of the 
root denotes the effect of the action or state upon the subject of 
the verb : 3 

tin lub-ul, I am falling, literally, 1 am affected by the act of falling, my fall. 
tin kim-il, 1 am dying, literally, 1 am affected by the act of death, my 

death, 
tin kim-s-il, 1 am being killed, literally, 1 am affected by someone causing 

me to die, my caused death. 
tin wem-el, 1 am descending, literally, 1 am affected by the descent. 

1 The 1st Conjugation erf Beltran and of the other early grammarians is 
the intransitive verb, and their 2d, 3d, and 4th Conjugations are the active 
or transitive verb. There is a general correspondence between these conjuga- 
tions and the classes given here. The 1st Conjugation is my Class I a, the 2d 
is Class I b, the 3d, composed of monosyllabic stems, is Class Ilia, and the 
4th, made up of polysyllabic stems, is Class III o. 

For a comparison of the forms given by Beltran, San Buenaventura, and 
Coronel with forms found today, see p. 286-289. These tables have been 
taken, for the most part, from the paradigms given by the early grammarians 
in question. A few forms have been added from the text of the grammars. 
It should be noted that the forms of the subjunctive, infinitive, and optative 
have been omitted as forms corresponding with these are not generally found 
among the present Mayas. 

2 This classification has been briefly outlined in Tozzer, 1912. 

3 For skeleton paradigms of the various classes of verbs, see p. 283-285. 
Lopez (§§ 70, 76), following the analogy of the three Spanish conjugations 

in ar, er and ir, makes five conjugations of the verb in -1, corresponding to the 
five vowels used with it. 



THE VERB 53 

These verbs may be further divided into two subclasses: 
(a) Pure action or state. The transitive or applicative form is 
made by dropping the suffix in -1 and adding -ik and other time 
particles directly to the root: 

tin het-el, 1 am performing the act of opening. 

tin het-ik, 1 am opening something. 

tin nao'-al, 1 am approaching. 

tin nao'-ik, ] am approaching something. 

tin nao'-ah, 1 approached something. 

(6) Causal verbs. These make the transitive or applicative 
form by dropping the suffix in -1 and adding the causal s before 
the time particles of the verbal stem: 

tin ban-al, 1 am tumbling down, my being affected by the tumble. 

tin ban-s-ik, 1 am causing something to tumble down. 

tin kim-il, ], am dying. 

tin kim-s-ik, ] am causing something to die, 1 am killing something. 

Root in be. There is a subdivision in Class I b. A large number 
of verbal stems are made by adding be, the root of the verb mean- 
ing " to make " before the causal and the transitive endings, -ik, 
-ah, and -e : l 

tin kam-be-s-ik, 1 am teaching scmeone, 1 cause to make learn someone. 
tin kim-be-s-ik, I injure someone, 1 cause to make someone die. 
tin yah-be-s-ik, 1 wound someone, 1 cause to make someone wounded. 
tin qin-be-s-ik, 1 sun something, 1 cause to make something sunned, I 

warm something. 
tin qis-be-s-ik, I fill something with thorns, 1 cause to make something 
thorny. 

Some of these verbs more properly belong in Class III as they 
are also used with the sign of the agent, t: 

tin qin-t-ik, 1 warm something, 1 do something by means of the sun. 
tin qis-t-ik, 1 make something thorny, 1 do something by means of thorns. 

1 These causal verbs with be form the 2d Conjugation of the Spanish gram- 
mars although they are not recognized as causal. The verb used in the para- 
digm for this Conjugation is kambesah which is described below. 

Seler (p. 92, 93) states that t and s (z) are " employed with passive themes 
to render transitive expressions." His examples of the use of s in this connec- 
tion show the causal relationship although this is not mentioned by him. The 
following sentences with his translation make this clear; * 

kim, to die, kim-s-ah, to kill, 
aak, fresh, green, aakesah, aksah, to water, to make fresh. 

Lopez (§ 103) has much to say concerning the forms of the neuter verb in -1 
and the corresponding form of the active verb in -s-ik but no mention is made 
that this s is a causal. 



54 GRAMMAR 

This same root, be, is sometimes used with verbal roots or nouns, 
the sign of the agent, and the transitive endings to denote an in- 
transitive idea. The root or noun always precedes the nominal 
pronoun : 1 

tal tin be-t-ik, 1 am making it to come, 1 am coming. 

qai tin be-t-ik, 1 am singing, 1 am making it by means of song. 

These forms are exactly equivalent to the forms: 
tal-in-kah or tin tal, tin qai. 

A distinguishing feature of Class I verbs is that the past tense 
of the intransitive is formed by dropping the -1 of the present 
stem and adding the verbal pronoun directly to the root: 

nao'-en, 1 approached, literally, 1 am an approaches 

em-ets, heiwent down. ' 

kim-i, he died. 

ooq-on, we entered, literally, we are enterers. 

Thus it will be seen that all verbs of Class I may be used either 
in the intransitive or transitive or applicative according to the 
ending employed; the first, denoting simply the effect of the action 
or state on the subject, and the second, expressing the action or 
state as directed toward an object. In considering the intransitive 
and transitive by themselves this subject will be discussed more 
fully later (p. 64). 

Class II. This class of verbs are those in -tal which have the 
meaning " endowed with." 2 They are intransitive only and form 
the past in 1-ah with the verbal pronoun : 3 

1 Palma y Palma (p. 172, 173) gives these forms and comments on the fact 
that neither Beltran nor San Buenaventura speak of them. Palma y Palma 
uses the ncminal pronoun compounded with k in his form with be. He gives 
three ways of saying, " 1 am going " ; 

bin-in-kah tin bin bin kin be-t-ik. 

and he adds " tddas sort muy corrientes" It is quite possible that the form used 
with be shows a late development in the language. 

2 Seler (p. 81) explains these forms as follows; — " Es liegen hier alte No- 
mina vor. kus, das als solches im heutigen Maya nicht mehr existirt, eigentlich 
k'us zu schreiben, entspricht dem Qu'iche-Cakchiquel k'u§ und heisst ' Herz.' 
kah ist 'das Gesetzte, Gergriindete, die Ansiedlung, das Dorf." He repeats the mis- 
take of limiting the use of these forms with the verbal pronoun. In the present 
and future tenses the nominal pronoun is used. 

3 Coronel and the other grammatists have a rule that verbs in -tal which 
have an 1 in the root form the past, not in -lah, but in -hi, as kul-tal, kul-hi. 



THE VERB 55 

tin ku§-tal, 1 am living; literally, my being endowed with a heart. 

kus-1-ah-i, he lived. 

tin kah-tal, 1 am dwelling; literally, my being endowed with a pueblo. 

kah-1-ah-en, 1 dwelt. 

tin tsui-tal, 1 am hanging. 

The same suffix, -tal, is found with verbs of Class IV and with 
nouns with the same meaning as above: 

keel-en, 1 am cold. 

keel-tal-en, 1 am always cold (" endowed with " cold). 

kalan, a drunken man. 

kalan-tal, a drunkard. 

Class III. This class is composed of those verbs formed from 
stems which are nominal in character and which have been called 
neutral. These verbs may or may not be monosyllabic and they 
have no uniform ending in the present of the intransitive as those 
of the former class. The distinction between this class and Class I 
is seen in these two examples: 

Class 1. tin lub-ul, 1 am falling, my being affected by the act of falling, 

my fall. 
Class 111, tin o'on, 1 am shooting, literally, my gunning. 

Other examples of Class III follow : l 

From nai, a dream, tin nai, 1 am dreaming, my dreaming. 
tub, saliva, tin tub, 1 am spitting, my saliva. 
qai, a song, tin qai, 1 am singing, my song. 
baab, a crab, tin baab, 1 am swimming, my crabbing. 

There are a few noun stems which are shortened when used in 
the transitive with -ik. This may be a case of syncope as the t is 
retained : 2 

The verb kul-tal, to sit, is an early form of ku-tal. 1 found a past in kul-h-i, he 
sat down, but the more common one follows the general rule above and we have 
ku-1-ah-i. 

1 As noted by Beltran (§§ 121, 122), tsibal, to bite, to eat meat, from tsi, 
mouth, belongs in this conjugation. The past is formed in the regular way but 
the passive is irregular; 

tsi-b-il, 1 am being bitten. 
Beltran also notes (§ 124) the possibility of confusion in the verb tukul. 
This is not a verb of Class 1 but a noun meaning " thought, idea " and belongs 
in this conjugation. The past is 

tukul-n-ah-en, not tuk-en. 

2 Compare Beltran, § 124. 



56 GRAMMAR 

p'ulut, smoke, tin p'ulut, 1 smoke, my smoking. 

p'ulut-n-ah-en, 1 smoked. 

tin p'ul-t-ik, I smoke something, 1 fumigate* for p'ulut-ik. 

mulut, a wish, tin mul-t-ik, 1 am wishing something, for mulut-ik. 

The distinguishing feature of the intransitive of these verbs is 
that the past tense is formed by adding n-ah and the verbal pro- 
noun to the root : 1 

nai-n-ah-en, I dreamed. qai-n-ah-i, he sang. 

tub-n-ah-ets, you spat. baab-n-ah-on, we swam. 

As with Class I this class may be subdivided according to the 
method of making the present and future stems in the transitive 
or applicative : 

(a) Some make the transitive by adding the -ik of the present 
and the -ah of the past directly to the stem: 

tin o'on-ik, 1 am shooting something, my gunning something. 

tin los-ik, 1 am hitting something with my fist, my fisting something. 

tin puts-ik, 1 am hitting something with my hand. 

(6) Verbs of agent. These add a t before the ending for the 
transitive : 2 

1 Seler (p. 83) calls the verbs of Class I "the intransitive verbs proper" 
and those of Class III "derived intransitives." He points out that the 
" intransitives proper" refer to "bodily activity, position in place, changes 
in time, etc," but he fails to note the main distinction between the verbs of 
these two classes, namely that those of Class I express actions or states and 
those of Class III are all derived directly from nouns. Both may be used in 
the transitive and intransitive. 

Lopez (§ 88) fails also to make the proper distinction between verbs of Class 
1 and Class HI. He recognizes the past as given here for these verbs and states 
that all neuter verbs not ending in -1 make the past in n-ah. 

2 These, in general, are the verbs placed by the early grammarians in their 
4th Conjugation. Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 12) are not consistent 
in this for they include in their 3d Conjugation some verbs in t-ik. Beltran 
(§§ 118-120) finds fault with this although he places (§ 298) the monosyllabic 
stems which form the past in t-ah in the 3d conjugation. He also places here 
(§ 59) verbs made up of two nouns. These correspond to the verbs of agent 
with t: 

Juan u bets-qab-t-ah u mehen, Juan called with his hand to his son. 
He also follows the modern practice by making the intransitive form; 

bets-qab-n-ah-i, he called with his hand. 
He explains the t (§ 296), not as denoting agent, but as added for euphony 
(buen sonido). 



THE VERB ' 57 

tin mis-t-ik, ] am sweeping something, my doing something with a broom, 
tin lats-t-ah, 1 scratched it, from lats, finger nail, 
tin qaq-t-ik, 1 am roasting it, from qaq, fire. 

I have not been able to find any rule to determine which nouns 
made into verbs of Class III take the sign -of the agent and which 
do not. It must be confessed that the idea of the agent is implied 
in verbs of Class III a quite as much as in those of III b. 

Class HI a. tin o'on-ik, 1 am doing something with a gun. 

Class 111 b. tin mis-t-ik, 1 am doing something with a broom. 

Root in kin and kun. All adjectives and some nouns are made 
into transitive verbs of Class III by being used with the particle 
kin or kun, evidently meaning " to make," 1 the sign of the agent 
and the usual tense endings : 2 

Seler (p. 92) states that the t denotes compulsion; 

alkab, speed. tsuuk, coal, live coals. 

in alkab-t-ah, 1 made him run. in tsuuk-t-ah, 1 warmed something. 

These forms are much better explained by considering the t as agent; 

1 made use of speed for something. 

1 made use of live coals for something. 

1 This root, unlike be, is not found in the Spanish dictionaries in this sig- 
nificance. The San Francisco and Perez give the verb kun, kun-ah meaning 
" conjuror hechizando, encantar." Perez gives kin-il as meaning " herida 
reciente." 

2 Beltran (§ 91) has this form made with kun or yenkun with vowel stems. 
He does not, however, give the sign of the agent, t. He places these verbs in 
his 4th Conjugation. 1 could find no present use of the form in yenkun for 
vowel stems. San Buenaventura (fol. 9b, ob.) and Coronel have the form in kun. 
San Buenaventura changes the kun to kin when the vowel of the stem is o : 

t'on-tal, to lower oneself. t'on-kin-ah, to lower something. 

Seler (p. 92, 93) explains these forms made with kun or kin as a means of 
deriving a transitive idea from nominal themes in the same way as using ah 
which has already been discussed (p. 56). All his examples are in the past 
tense, using ah : 

in yaab-kun-ah, 1 multiplied it. in kul-kin-ah, 1 established it. 

If these were to be written in the present we would have; 

in yaab-kun-t-ik in kul-kin-t-ik. 

and they would, therefore, have to be explained quite differently according to 
Seler. 

Lopez (§ 95) has the form in kun-s-ik as well as in kun-t-ik. The first is, of 
course, the causal and the second is that of the agent. He gives only one ex- 
ample of the use of the causal form; 

toh-kun-s-ik, to erect, literally, to cause to make straight. 



58 GRAMMAR 

tin pim-kun-t-ik, 1 strengthen something, I make something by means of 

thickness. 
tin keel-kun-t-ik-ets, 1 make you cold, 1 make someone by means of cold, 

you. 
tin mul-kun-t-ik, ] pile up something. 
tin kal-kun-t-ik, 1 make him drunk, 
tin kal-kin-t-k-im-ba, 1 make myself drunk. 

Verbs in -ankil. There is a class of verbs made from nouns with 
the suffix -ankil. 1 

qiq, blood, tin qiq-il-ankil, 1 am afraid, 1 am trembling. 

sisit', leap, tin sisit'-ankil, 1 am leaping. 

al, weight, burden, tun al-ankil, she is giving birth. 

sakal, ant, tun sakal-ankil, he is crawling. 

eel, egg, tun eel-ankil, she is laying eggs. 

The past of these forms is made by dropping the ending k-il and 
adding the sign of the past and the verbal pronoun. 

qiqil-an-ah-en, 1 was afraid, 1 trembled, 
sisit'-an-ah-en, 1 leaped. 

A second, but seldom used, form of the past is made by dropping 
the suffix and following the usual rule for verbs of Class III : 2 
qiqil-n-ah-en, sisit'-n-ah-en. 

The future retains the entire suffix: 
hen qiqil-an-k-il-e, 1 shall be afraid. 

Class IV. These verbs are intransitive and express a quality 
or condition, having the idea of the auxiliary " to be." They use 
the verbal pronoun. 3 

keel-en, 1 am cold. winik-en, 1 am a man. 

1 Beltran (§ 87) states that these verbs are in -ankal, not -ankil. He finds 
fault (§84) with San Buenaventura for giving the forms in -ankil which is the 
same as that used today. Seler (p. 84) follows Beltran in using -ankal. 1 found 
both forms with that in -ankil more commonly used. 

2 Beltran (§ 87) has these forms and also one where only the -il of the suf- 
fix is dropped in the preterit; 

qiqil-an-k-ah-i, he was afraid. 

3 Beltran has the same forms and he points out (§§ 185, 186) the mistake 
of San Buenaventura in using the verbal pronoun compounded with t as 

batab-t-en for batab-en. 
There is no doubt that the former is incorrect. San Buenaventura uses the 
verbal pronoun without t when the expression is negative; 

ma en batab or men batab. 



THE VERB 59 

The form of the verbal pronoun compounded with t may be used 
pleonastically with the predicative expression with the simple ver- 
bal pronoun: 

ten batab-en, I am the one who is chief. 1 

The past of these verbs is formed by adding an h sound before 
the verbal pronoun : 

keel-h-en, ] was cold. kohan-h-ets, you were ill. 

It is interesting to compare these forms with those of verbs in 
other classes. The past tense of verbs of Class I are identical 
in form with those of the present tense of Class IV: 

lub-en, 1 fell, 1 am a faller. kohan-en, 1 am ill. 

This h or hi, the sign of the past, with these verbs may be de- 
rived from the same source as the -ah, the sign of the past, with 
the transitive verb of Classes I, and III, and with the intransitive 
of Class 111. 

The suffix -tal, seen in verbs of Class II, may be used with verbs 
of this class to denote an habitual condition: 

keel-tal-en, 1 am always cold. kohan-tal-en, 1 am always ill. 

The verb yan or yantal comes in this class. 2 It has the meaning 
" there is " or " there is present." It forms its present by adding 
the verbal pronoun directly to the root, its past with h or hi and 
the verbal pronoun, and its future by the use of the nominal pro- 
noun, -tal, and the sign of the future, -e : 

yan-en Ho, 1 am in Merida. 

yan-h-en Ho, or yan-hi-en, 1 was in Merida. 

hen yan-tal-e, 1 shall be in Merida. 

The future may also be made by use of the particle bin and the 
suffix -ak with the verbal pronoun: 

bin yan-ak-en, or bin yan-k-en-ak. 

1 Compare Seler (p. 74). He would translate this as " 1 am he, 1 am chief." 
San Buenaventura (fol. 37) considers the forms, ten, tets, etc. as the verb " to 
be." Seler (p. 79) points out this mistake. It is quite clear that the verbal 
pronoun alone has the verbal idea. 

2 Compare Beltran (§§ 198-200) who gives the form as yanhal. This change 
from tal to hal is the same as that seen in the inchoative forms (p. 90). Com- 
pare also Seler, p. 82. 



60 GRAMMAR 

This verb may also have the meaning to have, to take, to hold. 
In this case the particle t or ti may or may not be used with the 
verbal pronoun: x 

yan-en or yan-t-en ke, 1 have a deer, literally there is, to me, a deer. 

When this verb is used with the negative ma, there is a contraction 
in the present. This is not seen commonly in the other tenses: 
ma-yan becoming mi nan, there is none, 
ma-yan-h-i, there was none. 2 

Class V. This is composed of the irregular and defective verbs 
of which there is not a great number. Among them are the fol- 
lowing : 

Bin-el, to go. This verb is usually found without its suffix -el: 
tin bin or bin-in-kah rather than tin bin-el or bin-el-in-kah. 

Here there is no vocalic harmony between the vowel of the root 
and that of the suffix. All forms are regular, belonging to Class I, 
except the future stem sik, and the imperative sen: 

bin-en, 1 went. 

bin sik-en, or hen bin-e, 1 shall go. 

Tal-el, to come. This verb is usually found without the suffix 
-el. All forms are regular, belonging to Class I, except the im- 
perative which is kot-en. The imperatives 
kon, kon-es, ko§, ko§-es\ 

correspond in meaning to the Spanish " Vamos" These forms 
show the dual and plural endings. 3 

Qat, desire. The verb is really a noun meaning, " a wish." It 
is only found used with the nominal pronoun with no time suffixes. 

1 Both Beltran (§§ 199, 200) and Lopez (§ 111) make a distinction between 
yan meaning " tener " and yan meaning " haber." With the latter meaning 
yan is defective being used only in the 3d person. 

2 Lopez (§ 113) gives the form for the past as ma t-an-hi. 1 do not recognize 
this form. For the positive form corresponding to this he gives yan-hi, which 
agrees with the one given here. 

3 Compare Beltran (§§ 204-206) for the forms tal-el and bin-el. Beltran 
(§ 207) gives the verb il, to see, as an irregular verb. 1 fail to find any irregular- 
ity in its conjugation. In §§ 225, 226, he discusses the forms kon, kones, etc. 
Among several verbs given by Beltran as irregular appears the verb ken, 1 
say, k-en-h-i, 1 said. 1 found this verb very little used. In its place the noun 
fan, speech or word, is used as a verb of Class 111 with a past in t'an[n]-ah 
and the verbal pronoun. 



THE VERB 61 

This stem should not be confounded with qat meaning " question, 
to question." This latter is found in all forms as a verb of Class 
III. The verb with qat conveys the idea of an optative mode. 

in qat bin (el), 1 desire to go, my wish to go. 

in qat o'ib, 1 desire to write, 

in qat in wil-e, 1 desire to see it. 

in qat in wuq ha, 1 desire to drink water. 

The regular verb o'ibol (Class III b) is also used as a verb mean- 
ing " to desire." In tenses other than the present it is more fre- 
quently employed than the verb qat: 1 

tin o'ibol-t-ah ha, 1 desired water. 

P'ek, dislike. This is used with the nominal pronoun. It seems 
to be found only in the present tense: 2 
in p'ek bin(el), 1 dislike to go. 

Tak, taktal, desire. The verb made from this noun differs from 
the two preceding forms in the fact that the nominal or possessive 
pronoun is used with the true verb and also that all tenses can be 
expressed. 3 The conjugation follows that of verbs in Class IV: 

tak or tak-tal in wen-el, 1 desire to sleep. 

tak-hi in wen-el, 1 desired to sleep. 

bin tal-ak in wen-el, 1 shall desire to sleep. 

There is also a reduplicated form, tak-i-tak which expresses the 
idea of desiring something very much, " tener gana 6 deseo vehe- 
mente de hacer algo." 

Qabet, necessary. This is used either with nouns or with verbs. 
In the first case the verbal pronoun compounded with t or ti is 
used: 

qabet t-en wa, 1 need tortillas; literally, necessary to me, tortillas. 
qabet-hi t-en wa, 4 past tense. 

1 Compare Lopez, § 126. 

2 As pointed out by Lopez (§ 128), in other tenses the regular verb, p'ek-t-ik, 
p'ek-t-ah, p'ek-t-e, is used. 

3 The Perez dictionary gives the form as tak-tal. Beltran (§ 224) has the 
past in tal-hi. Lopez (§ 129) writes " Apenas se usa mas que en presented 

4 Lopez (§ 122) uses the inchoative form in tsah for the past. Compare 
p. 90. 



62 GRAMMAR 

When a verb is used, the form takes the nominal or possessive 
pronoun as with tak and the conjugation follows verbs in Class IV. 
The verbal pronoun with t may be omitted: 

qabet in bin(el), 1 need to go, literally, necessary, my going. 
qabet h-in bin(el), past tense. 
qabet in puts-ik, 1 need to hit him. 

Suk. accustom. This has forms similar to the preceding: 

suk t-en in han-t-ik wa, 1 am accustomed to eat tortillas, literally, cus- 
tomary to me, my eating something, tortillas. 

The following irregular verbs are impersonal, using, in most 
cases, the nominal pronoun of the 3d person before the form in- 
troducing the expression. The conjugation generally follows that 
of Class IV: 

Pat, patal, ability. 1 

u pat in bin(el), 1 am able to go, literally, its ability, my going. 

u pat h-in bin(el), 1 was able to go. 

hu pat in bin-e or, 

bin patak in bin, 1 shall be able to go. , 

The second verb in each case may take the suffix, -e when it is 
intransitive : 

u pat in han-l-e (han-al-e), 1 am able to eat. 
u pat in qai-y-e, 1 am able to sing. 
u pat in bin-e, 1 am able to go. 

Nama, obligation: 2 
u nama in bin (el), I ought to go. 

Tuub, tuubul, to forget. I found this verb only in one form: 3 
tuub ten, 1 forgot. 

1 Lopez (§ 123) has this and several of the following forms used in connec- 
tion with the nominal pronoun compounded with k, as ku. He gives this form 
as: 

ku pah-tal. 
He agrees with me in the past as he drops the suffix -tal and his stem seems to 
change from pah to pat. 

He is inclined to use the stem with the suffix in -1 in the present. My forms 
usually omit the suffix. 

2 Perez (1898) gives the form nan, necessario. Compare a corresponding 
form, nakma, given by Beltran (§ 216). 

3 Lopez (§ 118) gives the following forms for this verb: 



THE VERB 63 

The active verb is : 

tuub-s-ik, tuub-s-ah, tuub-s-e. 

tin tuub-s-ik, 1 am forgetting something. 

Qaah, qaahal, to remember. The verbal pronoun in this and 
several of the following forms takes t- or ti-: 

u qaah £-en, 1 remember, literally, its memory to me. 

qaah [h]i t-en, past tense. 

bin qaah-ak t-en, future tense. 

The active verb is : 
qaah-s-ik, qaah-s-ah, qaah-s-e. 

Tsik-pahal. to appear. This is a reflexive verb from the stem 
tsikaan, visible and has the literal meaning, to appear itself: 
u tsik-pahal t-en, it appears to me. 

tsik-pa-hi t-en, past tense. 
bin tsik-pah-ak t-en, future tense. 

Utsul, to succeed, to happen : x 

u y-utsul t-en, it happens to me, me sucede. 

uts-hi t-en, past tense. 
bin uts-ak t-en, future tense. 

Verbs with Stems in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -til. For greater clearness 
it has seemed best to describe these verbs as a whole although 
they are taken up under other headings. This ending in -1 preceded 
by the vowel similar to that of the root signifies that the subject 
of the verb is affected by the action of the verb. 

These forms in -1 are found in the following places: 

(a) Present of the intransitive in Class I. 
tin lub-ul, 1 am falling, 1 am affected by a fall. 

(b) Present of the intransitive in Class III a, showing a passive 
relationship : 

tin o'on-ol, 1 am being shot, my being affected by a gun. 

ku tuubul ten, 1 forget. 

tuub ten, 1 forgot. 

bin tuubuc ten, 1 shall forget. 
Beltran (§ 203) has the form: 

ma in tubul tets or ti tets, do not forget me. 
1 For other irregular forms, see Beltran, §§ 201, 202, 207, 211, 212, 229. 



64 GRAMMAR 

The causal s preceding the form in -1 is found in the following 
place: 

(q) Present of the intransitive in Class I showing a passive 
relationship : 

tin kim-s-il, 1 am being killed, my being affected by someone causing me 
to die. 

(d) Verbs in Class III b which form the transitive by using t, 
the sign of the agent, have the form -tal regardless of the vowel 
of the root to show a passive relationship : 

tun mis-t-al in na, my house is being swept, literally, my house is being 

affected by means of a broom. 
tin yakun-t-al, 1 am being loved, my being affected by love. 

It will be seen from the foregoing that syntactically the passive 
relationship for verbs in Class III is exactly similar to the active 
forms of verbs in Class I. 

Intransitive Verb. The preceding classification, as has been 
noted, is made up without taking into consideration whether the 
verb is intransitive or transitive. It is well to consider these forms 
by themselves and endeavor to show how the intransitive and 
transitive are built up. 

Intransitive verbs are found in all classes of verbs and they are 
distinguished from the transitive of each respective class by cer- 
tain differences in the method of conjugation, by different pro- 
nouns or different time suffixes. 

The simplest form of the intransitive verb is seen in the use of 
the verbal pronoun with verbs of Class IV, nouns or adjective-like 
forms : 

batab-en, 1 am a chief. batab-h-en, 1 was a chief. 

In the past of verbs of Classes I— III the stem appears with the 
true personal pronoun, commonly called the objective, but here 
spoken of as the verbal pronoun. This is the same in form as that 
used as the object of the transitive verb: 

1 a. ah-en, 1 woke up. Ill a. nai-n-ah-en, 1 dreamed. 

1 b. kim-en, 1 died. Ill b. mis-n-ah-en, 1 swept. 

11. kus-1-ah-en, 1 lived. IV. keel-h-en, 1 was cold. 

Transitive Verb. This is sharply distinguished from the in- 
transitive. The pronoun used with the transitive is similar to the 



THE VERB 65 

possessive and has been called the nominal pronoun. The connec- 
tion between the possessive and its noun and the pronoun used 
with the transitive is very close : 1 

tin o'on-ik ke, 1 am shooting with a gun a deer, literally, my gunning a deer. 

Two of the classes of transitive verbs may be roughly classified as 
regards instrument and cause. 

The transitive verb is found in Classes I, III, and IV. Class II 
is not found in the transitive. 

Transitive to Intransitive Form. Transitive verbs may pass 
over to the intransitive form when the combined meaning of the 
verb and its object represents habitual action: 

tin sul-ik meya, 1 am finishing work. 

tin sul-ah meya (transitive form). 1 finished work. 

sul-meya-n-ah-en (intransitive form), ] finished work. 

tan sup-ik taqin, you are spending money. 

tan jjup-ah taqin (transitive form), you spent money. 

sup-taqin-n-ah-ets (intransitive form), you spent money. 

Both of these verbs are in Class I as the intransitive forms are 
respectively : 

tin sul-ul, 1 am finishing. 

sul-en, 1 finished. 

tin sup-ul, I am spending. 

sup-en, 1 spent. 

1 Seler (p. 76) makes this same distinction. He writes, "nur die absoluten, 
eines direkten Objekts entbehrenden V erbalausdrucke durch Prddikatskonstruk- 
tion mit dem Personalpronomen (my verbal pronoun) gebildet; die transitiven 
Verba dagegen sind wurzelhafte oder abgeleitete Nomina, die als solche mit dem 
Possessivprdfix (my nominal pronoun) verbunden werden." He fails to state, 
however, that it is only in the past tenses of the intransitive, with the excep- 
tion of verbs of Class IV, that the "personal pronoun" is used. The "pos- 
sessive prefix" is used in the present and future tenses of both transitive and 
intransitive forms: 

tin lub-ul, 1 am falling. 
lub-en, 1 fell. 

tin lub-s-ik, 1 am destroying something. 

tin lub-s-ah, 1 destroyed something. 
He elaborates (p. 89) his former statement and writes, "Die Maya-Syr achen 
besitzen also transitive aktive Verben in unserem Sinne nicht. Sie kennen nur 
Nomina und absolute Verba, die einen Zustand des Seins, eine Eigenschaft 
oder eine Thdtigkeit bezeichnen, die als Prddikate zu einem Personalpronomen 
oder einer dritten Person als Subjekt konstruirt werden, aber kein direktes Objekt 
zu sich nehmen konnen" ' 



66 GRAMMAR 

When the verbal stem combines with an object so closely that 
the whole idea is considered as an action in itself and is intransi- 
tive, the verb passes into Class III on account of the method of 
making the past with n-ah and the verbal pronoun. 1 This is one 
of the few cases where a verb belonging to one class passes over 
into another. The complete unity of the object with the action of 
the verb is seen in the fact that the object is infixed, coming be- 
fore the sign of the past and the verbal pronoun. The intransitive 
form for the present is practically never found: 
sul-meya-in-kah. 

These compounded forms may remain transitive when an object 
is expressed. In this case they usually go in Class III b, that class 
using t as the sign of the agent : 2 

tin bets-qab-t-ik Pedro, I am calling by means of the hand Peter, 
tin tsin-pol-t-ik winik 1 am reverencing the man, literally, 1 am inclining 
(by means of the head) the man. 

Intransitive to Transitive Form. The intransitive verb may 
pass to the transitive in form but it retains the intransitive mean- 
ing by the use of the root, be to make, and the sign of the agent: 3 

tal tin be-t-ik, I am coming, 1 am making it to come. 

qai tin be-t-ik, 1 am singing, 1 am making it by means of song. 

Tense in the Verb. The Spanish grammars have, in addition 
to the present tense of the Indicative, a Preterito Imperfecto, Pre- 
terite Perfecto, Preterito Pluscuamperfecto, Futuro Imperfecto, and a 
Futuro Perfecto. The Present, Preterito Perfecto, and Futuro Im- 
perfecto are the true present, past and future respectively. The 
Preterito Imperfecto, is made from the present by the addition of 
kutsi (cuchi), 4 the Preterito Pluscuamperfecto from the Preterito 

1 Beltran (§ 58) has the same form in the past and notes that San Buena- 
ventura makes the past of these forms by the addition of the verbal pronoun 
to the root compounded with the object: 

tsa-ha-n-en, 1 carried water. 
The correct form is, 

tsa-ha-n-ah-en. 
Beltran adds that the form given by San Buenaventura may have been cor- 
rect at the time the latter studied the language. 

2 Compare Lopez, § 92. 

3 Compare p. 54, and Palma y Palma, p. 172, 173. 

4 The form kutsi is undoubtedly from ka and utsul, utsi, or utsuk given by 
Beltran (§ 222) as an irregular verb meaning "to happen" or "to succeed" 



THE VERB 67 

Perfecto by the addition of ili kutsi, and the Future Perfecto from 
the Futuro Imperfecto by the addition of ili kotsom. The forms 
made by the words kutsi, ili kutsi, and ili kostom seem to me to 
be more or less artificial and are the result, in the main, of the de- 
sire to present every tense known to the Spaniard in his own 
language. 1 

I found the form utsi instead of kutsi could be used to make a 
past from the present stem but it was not the common way of 
expressing this tense. 

The tenses in the Maya, as spoken today, are: present, a past, 
a past denoting action just completed, a past denoting action 
completed some time ago, a future denoting action just about to 
take place and a future denoting action to take place some time 
in the future. 2 

(acaecer, suceder, acontecer). The form of the past as given in the early gram- 
mars use this verb as a sort of auxiliary with the present tense to form the past; 

nak-al-in-kah kutsi, 1 climbed, literally, I am climbing, it happened. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 15 ob.) make a distinction, using kutsi 
for distant past time and katsi for time just past. 

1 Palma y Palma (p. 188, 189) expresses the idea of the artificiality of 
these forms as follows: — "Los tiempos que aparecen aqui como ejemplos, son 
tornados de la gramdtica de Fray Pedro de Beltran. Observando, sin embargo, 
el comun lenguaje de los mayas, se ve que no todos estdn en uso. SEn qui consiste 
esto? SSerd que ya no es menester emplearlosl Esto es inadmisible, porque la 
misma causa que obro para establecerlos subsiste: la necesidad de expresar ac- 
ciones que forzosamente tienen que corresponder a tiempo presente, pasado, 6 
venidero. Y los que indican absolutamente estos, subsisten; los que vienen a ser 
como intermedios : segun la expresion de la Academia, los cuales en castellano se 
forman con verbos auxiliares solamente, son los que no se usan. Pero la razon 
estd en que hay otros medios de expresar los tiempos correspondientes a estas 
acciones cuando se relacionan con los de otras para significar respecto de ellas 
pasado 6 futuro, como habia hecho, habre" hecho, etc. Lo habia hecho cuando lleg- 
aste. Lo habre' hecho cuando llegues. La forma del preUrito pluscuamperfecto, por 
ejemplo, segun el P. Beltran, es binen ili katsi, 6 kutsi como pone y se usaba antes. 

Yo me habia ido. En vez de esta forma los mayas usan: " 

o'ook ili in bin ka t quts-ets-e, me habia ido cuando llegaste. 
" Si se dijera ": 

ka t quts-ets-e, binen ili katsi. 
" ningun maya lo entenderia." 

2 Seler (p. 102) writes, "Das Maya unterscheidet sich von den verwandten 
guatemaltekischen Sprachen sehr bestimmt dadurch, dass die Tempusprdfixe in 
ihm nur eine sehr unbedeutende Rolle spielen. Im Prateritum treten, wie erwdhnt, 
die Prdfixe t und c auf. Das ist wichtig, weil es uns beweist, dass das Maya der 



68 GRAMMAR 

Tense is expressed by means of suffixes added to the root in ad- 
dition to a time particle used with the nominal pronoun. The 
former differ in the transitive and intransitive. 

An interesting and unusual feature connected with tense in 
Maya is the fact that the forms of the pronoun vary in the in- 
transitive according to the tense employed. 

Tense in the Intransitive Verb. Present Time. This is expressed 
in several ways. The most common is the use of the verbal stem 
with the nominal pronoun compounded with the pronominal sign 
of present time, tan. This is found in all verbs of Classes I, II, III : 

Class 1 a, tin het-el, I am performing the act of opening. 

b, tin kim-il, 1 am dying. 
Class 11, tin tsi-tal, 1 am lying down. 

tin tsen-tal, 1 am listening. 
Class 111, tin o'on, 1 am shooting. 

tin siit', 1 am jumping. 

tin o'iib, 1 am writing. 

With verbs of motion and a few others a second set of forms for 
the present is found composed of the nominal pronoun and the 
particle -ka or -kah suffixed to the stem. These may be called 
" duratives ": l 

Mittel, welche in den anderen Sprachen sich Geltung verschafft haben, nicht ganz 
entbehrt. Aber diese Prdfixe treten durchaus nicht bestimmt und regelmdssig auf. 
Und Prdfixe, welche es gestatten, die verschiedenen Tempora zu unterscheiden, 
haben sich nicht herausgebildet. Dieses Sprache ist daher genothigt, zu anderen 
Aushulfsmitteln zu greifen, um die nothige Prdzision in der Tempusbezeichnung 
zu erreichen, und siefindet solche in periphrastischen Konstruktionen." It seems 
to me that Seler is quite incorrect in this statement. The Maya has very defi- 
nite tense signs. Seler fails in several cases to recognize the ik and the ah of 
the transitive verb as tense signs. He mentions the prefix t as a sign of the past 
in the intransitive only in the 1st person with k for the 3d person. The t is 
used in all persons as a sign for the past and the k is never found. 

1 These forms are given by Coronel, San Buenaventura, and Beltran in 
their 1st Conjugation. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura in their paradigms and Seler (p. 102), also 
give the forms in -kah for the present of the transitive verb (2d, 3d, and 4th 
Conjugations) : 

kambes-ah-in-kah Pedro, 1 am teaching Peter. 
This form in in-kah is not used in the transitive. San Buenaventura (fol. 2 ob.) 
recognizes the proper form in his discussion of the pronoun, ten: 

ten yakun-ik (properly, yakun-t-ik), 1 shall love someone. 
Both Coronel and San Buenaventura use the form in -ik rather than in in-kah 



THE VERB 69 

Class 1, lubul-in-kah, contracted to lub-1-in-kah, 1 am falling. 

nakal-in-kah, contracted to nak-1-in-kah, 1 am ascending. 

bin[el]-in-kah, 1 am going. 
Class 11, o'on-in-kah, 1 am shooting. 

It should be noted that in these forms the pronoun has no time 
particle. This -kah is probably the root of a defective verb mean- 
ing, " to do." The literal translation of the form lubul-in-kah 
would probably be, " affected by the act of a fall, my doing." l 

in asking a question when the pronoun is used as the object of the transitive 
verb : 

mas kambes-ik-ets, who is showing you? 
The -ik form is also used by them when one verb follows another, especially 
is this so (fol. 72) when an active verb follows a neuter and the neuter does not 
denote an action: 

tal-u-kah in boo-t-ik in p'a§, 1 am on the point of paying my debt. 

In the discussion of the pronoun en, ets, etc. (fol. 3) San Buenaventura gives 
the form in in-kah: 

yakun-ah in kah et§, 1 love you. 
But in fol. 16 ob. he states that the form in -ik is used if a noun preceded the 
verb: 

Pedro kambe-s-ik Juan, Peter is showing John. 
There is therefore great inconsistency in these statements. Beltran points out 
(§§ 153-157) at length why San Buenaventura is wrong in giving the form in 
in-kah as a transitive, thus making no distinction between the transitive and 
the intransitive. The same criticism also applies to the forms of Coronel and 
of Seler (p. 102). 

The latter (p. 103) writes that he has followed the more ancient authority 
of San Buenaventura rather than " sein jilngerer Kollege," Beltran, and he ac- 
cepts the use of the form in in-kah for transitives as well as intransitive verbs. As 
pointed out above, San Buenaventura, Coronel, and Seler are incorrect here. 

1 Beltran (§ 209) gives -kah as the root of the verb meaning " to do." He 
points out that it is found only in the present stem, the past being made by the 
addition of kutsi. He finds fault with San Buenaventura for giving kibah and 
kib for the past and future of the form kah. Buenaventura is inconsistent in 
his forms for the future as these forms in his 3d Conjugation are made with ib 
added to the root. 

Seler (p. 102) explains the -kah in an entirely different way. He derives it 
from kah, " a village or settlement " and translates it in the verb as "to be 
stationary." This is probably incorrect as the form is found especially with 
verbs of motion. 

Lopez (§ 132) seems inclined to accept Beltran's explanation that this kah 
is a defective verb, meaning " hacer." It is perfectly true, as Lopez points out 
that the form in -kah may be replaced by be-t-ik (see p. 54), but in the latter 
form we find the transitive ending, the sign of the agent, and the root of a 
regular verb. 



70 GRAMMAR 

The present tense in verbs of Class IV from noun or adjective 
stems is made by the simple addition of the verbal pronoun; 1 
keel-en, 1 am cold, 
kohan-ets, you are ill. 
uo-ob, they are good, or the good ones. 
winik-en, contracted to winken, 1 am a man. 

Future Time. In the intransitive of verbs in Classes J, II, and 
III, future time is expressed in much the same way as in the tran- 
sitive. The forms of the nominal pronoun are compounded with 
the future time particle, he, and a final -e is suffixed to the present 
stem: 

Class 1 a. hen (he-in) nak-al-e, contracted to nak-l-e, 1 shall climb. 
Class I b. hen kim-il-e, contracted to kim-l-e, 1 shall die. 
Class 11. he-k kus-tal-e, we shall live. 
Class 111 a. hen qai-y-e, 1 shall sing. 
hen o'on-e, 1 shall shoot. 
Class 111 6. hen mis-e, 1 shall sweep. 

Indefinite time in the future is expressed by prefixing the root, 
bin, of the verb " to go." When this is used with verbs of Class I 
the shortened stem without -1 is employed and the suffix -ak added 
before the verbal pronoun: 2 

Class 1 a. bin nak-ak-en, contracted to bin nak-en, 3 1 am going to 

climb. 
Class 1 b. bin kim-fik-en, contracted to bin kim-k-en, 1 am going to die. 

1 These are the verbs given by the Spanish grammars which use the auxi- 
liary " to be." Beltran shows the same forms as those given here and he notes 
(§ 195) that San Buenaventura is incorrect in giving the auxiliary as the 
verbal pronoun compounded with t as t-en, t-et§, etc. Beltran is entirely cor- 
rect in noting this mistake. San Buenaventura uses the verbal pronoun alone 
when a negative expression is employed. 

2 This is the form for the Futuro Imperfecto given in the old grammars for 
the 1st Conjugation. The preceding form in he is not mentioned. 1 was not 
able to find the form of their Futuro Perfecto in ili kutsom. This seems to me 
to be an impossible form as the past stem is used with ili kutsom to express a 
future. 

Palma y Palma (p. 189-190) does not accept this form. He gives as a sub- 
stitute; 

o'ook in bin or o'ook ili in bin wal kaan qut§ket§e, me habre ido cuando 
llegues. 
He writes, " Si se diiera 

kaan qutsketse, binen ili kotsoom 
ningun maya h entenderia." 

3 Seler (p. 110) has some very significant remarks on the particle -ak. He 



THE VERB 71 

Class HI a. bin D'on-ak-en, contracted to bin o'on-k-en, 1 am going to 

shoot. 
Class HI b. bin mis-ak-en, contracted to bin mis-k-en, 1 am going to 

sweep. 

The future of adjective and nominal verbs of Class IV is not 
made, as one might expect, simply by using the nominal pronoun 
and the suffix -e, but it is expressed by the inchoative form by 
adding the suffix -tsal or -tal and the final -e. The nominal future 
pronoun is used with these forms : 1 

he-k kohan-tsal-e, we shall be sick, we shall become sick. 
hu (he-u) keel-t§al-e, he will be cold. 

Past Time. In verbs of Class I, this is expressed by the stem 
alone compounded with the verbal pronoun. This form is really a 
verbal noun : 2 

lub-en, I fell, literally, I am a faller. 

bin-ets, you went. 

tal-i, he came. 

kim-ob, they died. 

The form of the imperative is similar to the first person singular 
of the past tense, as lub-en, fall, or I fell. To distinguish between 

translates this form on the basis of a participial meaning as "it goes (will be) 
raising itself I, i.e. it is in the notion to raise itself, 1 = 1 will raise myself." 
Compare Beltran (§137) for the contraction. 

1 Coronel, followed by San Buenaventura (fol. 7 ob.) gives a future in om for 
neuter verbs. Beltran (§ 96) is entirely correct in pointing out that these forms 
are not found. By the examples given both by Coronel and San Buenaventura 
it is clear that they have mistaken the on of the 1st person plural, written by 
them, in this case, as om for a sign of the future. 

2 This is given by the Spanish grammars as the Preterito Perfecto. 
Friedrich Miiller (1882, v. 2, p. 309) considers this form and others like 

it as exhibiting " the predicative power of the true verb." Adam (1878a, p. 155) 
says, " The intransitive preterit nak-en may seem morphologically the same 
as the Aryan ds-mi) but here again, nak is a verbal noun, as is demonstrated 
by the plural of the 3d person nak-ob, ' the ascenders.' Nak-en comes to mean 
' ascender [formerly] me.' " Brinton (1882, p. 31), who quotes these authori- 
ties, writes, " 1 am inclined to think that the French critic is right, and that, in 
fact, there is no true verb in the Maya, but merely verbal nouns, nomina 
actionis, to which the pronouns stand either in the possessive or objective re- 
lations, or, more remotely, in the possessive relation to another verbal noun in 
apposition, as kah, kutsi, etc. The importance of this point in estimating the 
structure of the language will be appreciated by those who have paid any at- 
tention to the science of linguistics." 



72 GRAMMAR 

the two an initial t sound, usually glottalized, may be used be- 
fore the verbal stem : 1 

t'-lub-en, I fell. 

t'-bin-en, I went. 

t'-tal-en, I came. 

The t* is the same form as that used with the nominal pronoun as 
a time particle for the past. The V is often retained throughout 
all forms for the past : 2 

t'-bin-i, he went. 

t'-tal-on, we came. 

As has been noted, the Spanish grammars all give a Preterito 
Imperfecto using the form of the present followed by kutsi (cuchi) . 
This is really the past of the verb utsul, to happen. It is recognized 
at the present time but is not commonly used. The Preterito 
Pluscuamperfecto in ili kutsi I was not able to find. 3 

Past time in verbs of Class II is expressed by adding to the stem 

1 Beltran (§ 85) gives the two forms for the past, lub-en and t-lub-en. He 
states that the latter form is the better. He makes no mention, however, of 
the fact that this t is usually glottalized. 

Seler (p. 98, 99) seems to limit the use of the t as a sign of the preterite to 
the 1st person. The t is used in all persons as a sign for the past in the intran- 
sitive. Beltran (§ 81) gives his examples of the use of t in the 3d person. 
Palma y Palma (p. 185-187) uses an h in place of the t: 

h-bin-en, I went. 
He writes, "A binen se adiciona una ache sin poderse haller una razon mani- 
festo. Acoso sea contraccion de hi-binen, particulc que se emplea en el modo 
optativo para significar irio, segun el P. Beltran." On p. 209 he also uses the 
form in t, as given above. In connection with this he writes, " Pare distinguir 
el preterito perfecto de indicativo del presei te de imperativo * nacen ' sube, se 
antepore una te al primero como se he visto antes, y a veces una ache con sonido de 
jota. A si se dice: " 

t naken 6 h naken, subi. 

t nakets 6 h nakets, subiste. 

2 Seler (p. 98), as already pointed out, limits the use of t as a sign of the past 
to the 1st person and states that a k (c) is used for the same purpose in the 3d 
person. He seems to base this statement on the fact that kutsi, from utsul, 
begins with a k. 

3 Palma y Palma (p. 189) also fails to find this form. He gives as a sub- 
stitute; 

o'ook ili in bin ka t qutsetse, me habia ido cuando llegaste. 
Lopez (1914) follows Palma y Palma in giving the same forms in o'ook ili 
(see p. 67). 



THE VERB 73 

the sign of the past, -ah, as seen also in the past of the intransitive 
verb, and the verbal pronoun : 

t§i-tal-ah-en, I lay down, 
kus-tal-ah-en ti Ho, I lived in Merida. 

These forms are usually contracted into : 

tsi-1-ah-en. 1 kus-1-ah-en. 

Past time in verbs of Class III is made by adding to the stem 
the sign of the past, ah, and the verbal pronoun. An n is inserted 
between the stem and the pronoun. 2 

qai-n-ah-en, 1 sang. o'ib-n-ah-on, we wrote. 

baab-n-ah-ets, you swam. o'on-[n]-ah-ob, they shot. 

tukul-n-ah-i, he thought. 

Verbs of Class III b, forming the present of the transitive in 
t-ik; do not show the sign of the agent (t) when used in the in- 
transitive : 

tin o'ib-t-ik, 1 am writing something. 

o'ib-n-ah-en, 1 performed the action of writing. 

1 Beltran (§ 93) does not give the uncontracted forms. He gives only the 
forms in 1-ah. Beltran follows Coronel in stating that verbs in -tal which 
have an 1 in the root form the past by substituting h for 1-ah. From the verb 
kul-tal he would get the past kul-hi instead of kul-lah-i. The complete un- 
contracted form would be kul-tal-lah-i. According to the present method of 
speaking this would be contracted into kul-ah-i, not kul-h-i according to 
Beltran. There is, therefore, no need to make an exception to verbs in -tal 
with an 1 in the stem as the rules for contraction would attend to this. 

Seler (p. 81) explains this form by saying that a t is added in the present 
and an 1 in the preterit and future. 

2 Beltran (§ 83) gives this same form for his verbs of the 2d, 3d, and 4th Con- 
jugations when they are changed to the intransitive. He points out (§ 53) the 
mistake of San Buenaventura who (fol. 6 ob) makes these forms by using ah-n 
with the verbal pronoun instead of n-ah as kambe-s-ah-n-en for kambe-s-n- 
ah-en. Beltran (§ 85) speaks of the forms in n-ah as the " elegant " (garboso) 
way of expressing the past. 

Seler (p. 83) states that the suffix -n has the meaning "to be engaged in the 
activity in question," "to exert the activity in question." Later (p. 110) he 
states that the -n is used to derive intransitive verbal themes from nouns. 
On p. 119 he gives the forms in n-ah for the past of the intransitive. He calls 
this -ah (p. 122) the " second ah." He notes that this is the " new formation " 
as San Buenaventura gives only the n for the. past. This is the case where 
San Buenaventura (fol. 6 ob) incorporates a noun with the verb as a unit. 
(See discussion of this, p. 29.) Seler overlooks the fact that in the preceding 
paragraph San Buenaventura gives the form with -ah and -a, as noted above, 
although he states that the past is made with n. 



74 GRAMMAR 

This form of the past is the one used when a transitive with 
its object is turned into the intransitive in form: 

tin §ot-ah tse, 1 cut wood (transitive form). 

so[t]-t§e-n-ah-en, 1 cut wood or 1 performed the action of cutting wood. 

A form of the distant past with verbs of Class III is expressed by 
the duplication of the -ah, the sign of the past : 

simbal-n-ah-ah-n-en, ] walked a long time ago. 

An n is added between the final ah and the pronoun for euphony . 
This form is seldom used. 

Past time with verbs of Class IV is made by adding an h or hi 
between the stem and the verbal pronoun: 

keel-h-en, 1 was cold. kohan-h-on, we were ill. 

U3-h-i, he was good. tsupal-h-i, he was a boy.- f 

It is quite probable that the actual time particle for the past with 
these verbs is hi, contracting with the pronoun to h-en, h-ets, and 
h-i. The Mam dialect shows hi as this tense sign. 1 

There are a few verbs ending in -mal and -pal which belong in 
this Class IV although at first sight they would be placed in 
Class I: 2 

tepal, ruler, king. 

tepal-h-en, 1 ruled, 1 was a ruler, (also tepal-n-ah-en possible). 

ol mal, to coagulate, probably from olom, blood. 

ol mal-h-i or olma-h-i, past tense, 3d person. 

nol mal, to blunt. 

nol mal-h-i, or nol ma-h-i, past tense, 3d person. 

muts mal, to fade. 

muts mal-h-i or muts ma-h-i, past tense, 3d person. 

1 Beltran (§ 193) states that the past is formed by adding hi which combines 
with the pronoun into h-en, h-ets, and h-i. Seler (p. 79) follows San Buena- 
ventura and Beltran in this but he states that the sign of the past and the 
future really belong with the noun. The verbal character of the pronoun is 
sufficiently clear to justify the statement that the time particles belong, not 
with the noun, but with the verb. 

2 Lopez (§ 89) gives nol-mal and muts-mal as exceptions to the rule that 
all verbs in -1 make the past by dropping last syllable and adding the verbal 
pronoun. He recognizes that most verbs in m-al form the past in the regular 
way; 

ulm-al, ulm-en o'am-al, o'am-en lam-al, lam-en. 



THE VERB 75 

There is a tense representing completed action made with the 
root of the verb o'ok, to finish. This is found in the transitive as 
well as the intransitive in all classes of verbs : l 
o'in (o'ok-in) hanal, 1 have finished eating. 

Tense in the Transitive Verb. In addition to the time particles 
attached to the nominal pronoun, tense in the transitive verb is 
expressed by suffixes. 

Present Time. This is shown by the suffix -ik which represents 
the object in present time or something directed toward something 
in present time. 2 When there is a pronominal or nominal object, 
this object is in apposition to the idea contained in -ik. 3 

Class la. tin puts-ik, 1 am hitting something. 

tan tsul-ik, you are wetting something. 

1 1 failed to find the forms of the pluperfect in o'okili given by Lopez (§ 77) ; 
o'okili in hanal, 1 had eaten. 

Jt is interesting to note that this form is also given by Palma y Palma (p. 189) 
in place of the artificial form in ili katsi of the early grammars. 

2 Compare Beltran, §235. 

3 Seler (p. 80, 120, 121) regards the -ik as showing a relative or an infini- 
tive idea. It is certainly true that in some cases the relative idea seems to be 
present as when ik is compounded to make a form like likil (p. 93). But as 
ik is found only with transitives it seems to denote an objective relation. One 
of the forms given by Seler, ten-oik-ik, " 1 obey him or 1 am the one who obeys 
him," shows the relative idea but this is probably expressed in the t or ti com- 
bined with the verbal pronoun -en, making ten, and not by the -ik in oikik. 
On page 74 he comments as follows on theform in ik, " die Formen auf -ik sind 
echte gerundivische Formen, die die su Bedeutung eines ganzen Relativsatzes oder 

Umstandssatzes haben." 

Beltran (§ 172) gives the form in -ik but uses the verbal pronoun com- 
pounded with t or ti: 

t-en kambes-ik Pedro, 1 am teaching Peter. 
The forms of the pronoun compounded with t or ti, giving ten, tets, toon, te-es, 
are used in answer to the question, " Who is doing this? " The verbal idea 
is brought out in the answer as in the sentence above, "lam the one who is 
teaching Peter." A more usual way to express this, idea, however, is the use of 
the verbal pronoun compounded with t together with the nominal pronoun 
compounded with k: 

t-en k-in kambes-ik Pedro, 1 am the one who is teaching Peter or 1 am 
the one who is about to teach Peter. 
Beltran (§168) also gives this form. 



76 GRAMMAR 

Class 1 b. tan-k lub-s-ik na, we are destroying the house; literally, in 

present time, our causing something, in present time, to 

fall, the house. 
tun kim-s-ik ke, he is killing the deer, literally; in present 

time, his causing something, in present time, to die, the 

deer. 
Class 111 a. tin o'on-ik ke, he is shooting the deer; literally, in present 

time, his gunning something, in present time, the deer. 
Class 111 b. tun mis-t-ik na, he is sweeping the house; literally, in present 

time, his doing something with a broom, in present time, 

the house. 

When the verbal pronoun is used after the suffix -ik, there is an 
elision of the i in -ik : 1 

tun kam-be-s-ik-en becomes tun kam-be-s-k-en, he is showing me 
something. 

Future Time. Jn the transitive this is much the same as the im- 
perative. It is expressed by the present stem in -ik with the final 
-e together with the usual forms of the nominal pronoun com- 
pounded with the sign of the future, he-. The causal s and the 
instrumental t are retained in Classes I b and III b respectively. 
' Class I a. hen het-ik-e, I shall open something. 
Class I b. hen kim-s-ik-e, I shall kill something. 
Class III a. hen o'on-ik-e, I shall shoot something. 
Class III b. hen o'ib-t-ik-e, I shall write something. 

The omission of the sign of the present transitive, -ik, is often 
made, or the i of the suffix -ik is lost by syncope: 
hen kim-s-e, or kim-s-k-e, 
hen o'on-e, or o'on-k-e, 
hen o'ib-t-e, or o'ib-t-k-e. 

When there is an object expressed, either by a pronoun or a noun, 
the final -e may be added after the object: 

hu (he-u) puts-ik winik-e, or wink-e, he will hit the man. 
hu puts-ik-en-e, or puts-k-en-e, he will hit me. 

Indefinite future is expressed by prefixing the root of the word 
bin, " to go," to the forms of the nominal pronoun and suffixing 
the final -e to the root. 2 

1 Compare Beltran, § 140. 

2 Beltran gives the form in bin as the regular future in the transitive; 
bin-in-kambes, 2d Conjugation. 

bin-in-oik-e, 3d Conjugation. 
bin-in-kanan-t-e, 4th Conjugation. 



THE VERB 77 

It should be noted that the stem in -ik is never used with bin 
nor does the pronoun have a time particle: 

Class I a. bin in het-e, I shall open something, I am going to open 

something. 
Class III a. bin in 3'on-e, I am going to shoot something. 
Class III b. bin in o'ib-t-e, I am going to write something. 

The final -e of the future may be lost by apocope when a noun 
or pronoun is used as the object. If it is retained it is added at 
the end of the form: 

bin in yakun-t-ets or bin in yakun-t-ets-e, I am going to love you. 

bin a hant-wa or bin a hant-wa-e, you will eat the tortilla. 

In verbs of Class I b, using the causal s, the future sign -e may 
occur either before or after the s. The latter is more common at 
the present time. 1 

bin a nak-s-e or nak-e-s, you are going to climb something. 
bin a kim-s-e or kim-e-s, you are going to kill something, you are going 
• to cause death to something. 

Beltran's forms in the 3d and 4th Conjugations agree with corresponding 
forms given here, using the final -e as the sign of the future. He shows the -e 
before the causal s in the 2d Conjugation which corresponds to our rule as the 
verbs in this conjugation belong to our Class I b. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura show forms similar to those of Beltran in 
the 2d and 4th Conjugations. In the 3d all give a form in b preceded by a vowel 
similar to that of the root: 

bin-in-tal-ab, bin-in-oik-ib. 

I was not able to find this form used at the present time. Beltran (§ 112) 
notes that the form in -b is found but the more common form for the future 
is that in -e for verbs of the 3d Conjugation. 

Seler (p. 104, 107) follows San Buenaventura in giving the future in -b. 
He explains the more common future in -e as having been derived from -eb. 
I see no justification for this as Beltran distinctly states that the form in -b is 
not common and he limits it to the 3d Conjugation. Seler (p. 109) makes the 
following literal translation for the future; 

bin-in-kambes, it goes (it is in the work, it will be) that by me is taught = 
I shall teach him. 
1 The early Spanish grammars give as the form of the 2d Conjugation 
bin in kam-be-s. 
This probably corresponds to the alternate forms above. It might possibly 
be explained as formerly, 

bin in kam-be-s-e, 
the e being lost after the e of the root be. 

Palma y Palma (p. 185) gives the form agreeing with the latter: 

bin in kam-be-s-e. 
Lopez (§ 91) recognizes the two forms of the future in these verbs. 



78 GRAMMAR 

These forms in bin may be used in the subjunctive sense, show- 
ing a future possibility. 

I was not able to find the forms in ill kotsom given for the Futuro 
Perfecto in the early grammars. I question them as they are made 
from the past stem in -ah and are used to express a future. 

Past Time. In the transitive this is expressed in several ways 
according to the degree of the distance in the past when the action 
took place. The idea of past time is brought out by the particles 
t or o'ok attached to the forms of the nominal pronoun or by suf- 
fixes on the verbal stem or by both. The usual suffix expressing 
past time is -ah which is added to the stem. 1 This -ah for the past 
takes the place of -ik for the present and is the same form as that 
used for past time in the intransitive for verbs of Classes II— III. 
With this form in -ah the nominal pronoun is usually compounded 
witht: 2 

Class 1 a. t-in sul-ah in-meya, 1 finished my work; literally, -in past 
time, my finishing something, in past time, my work. 

Class 1 b. t-a kim-s-ah in yum, you killed my father. 3 

Class 111 a. t-u o'on-ah ke, he shot the deer. 

Class 111 b. t-a o'ib-t-ah huun, you wrote the letter. 

1 It has already been pointed out (p. 68) that Coronel and San Buena- 
ventura make no distinction in the present between the form of the transitive 
and that of the. intransitive. In the past tense, however, both make the same 
distinction between the transitive and intransitive as that made here and in 
Beltran. Coronel changes the -ah of the past to i when a question is asked; 

mak kambesi palalob, who showed (it to) the boys? 
Seler (p. 91, 92) has much to say about this -ah. He considers this is used 
with the original passive nominal roots to express a transitive idea. He fails, it 
seems to me, to recognize that this -ah, as a sign of the past, is exactly equiv- 
alent to the -ik as the sign of the present with transitive verbs, although later 
in his paper (p. 118) he recognizes the -ah as used " in the preterite of the 
transitive root con j ugation ." 

2 In a few cases when the verbal pronoun is used as an object this sign of 
the past is omitted: 

tu puts-en, he struck me. 
As will be pointed out later (p. 94) the -ah is usually omitted in response to 
questions. 

3 Seler (p. 86) gives this form excepting the time particle of the pronoun and 
translates it literally, " thy dead one is my father." He writes, " Immerhin 
kann man sich der Anschauung nicht verschliessen, dass den transitiven und den 
passiven V erbalausdrucken dieselben Nominolthemata passiver Bedeutung zu 
Grunde liegen, die zur Bildung der passiven Ausdriicke nach den Regeln der 



THE VERB 79 

As in the present there is a syncopation of the a of the ending 
-ah when the verbal pronoun beginning with a vowel is used as the 
object: 

tu kam-be-s-ah-en becomes tu kambe-s-h-en, he showed something to me. 

Action just completed is expressed by the nominal pronoun com- 
pounded with the root of the verb, o'ok, to finish. The verbal 
stem takes the -ah for the past : 1 

o'ok-a puts-ah-en, contracted to o'a put§-h-en, you have just finished hit- 
ting me. 
o'ok-k kim-s-ah ke, contracted to o'oq kim-s-ah ke, we have just finished 
killing the deer. 

There is a form of the past in -ki. This is used in clauses with 
the idea of " since " or " after." 2 

Distant past in the transitive is expressed by the suffix m com- 
pounded with the usual sign of the past, -ah. 3 In most cases the 
temporal sign with the pronoun is omitted in these forms: 

prddikativen Aussage mit dem Personalpronomen verbunden werden, zur Bildung 
der tronsitiven Ausdrucke mit dem Possessivprdfixe versehen werden." 1 readily 
admit the passive relationship shown in verbs of Class 1 (p. 63) but this form 
is to be explained as follows; — my causing (s) someone in past time (ah) to 
die (kim) my (in) father (yum). The use of the causal emphasizes the activity 
of the subject. 

1 Beltran (§ 85) gives the form in o'ok. He also uses it with the intransitive 
verb. 

Ruz (1844) has the form in o'ook for the future perfect, the preterit perfect 
and the pluperfect tenses. 

Lopez has the form in o'ok uncontracted with pronoun and a form in o'okili 
for the pluperfect. 

2 Compare Seler (p. 121, 122). Beltran (§§ 174, 175), notes the statement 
of San Buenaventura regarding variations in his 4th Conjugation in using the 
-ki and not -ah for the past. Beltran states that the form in -ki may be used 
with all verbs but he limits the use to the meaning, " despues que 6 desde que." 

kim-ki in yume oqomuol, after my father died ; 1 was sad. 
Coronel uses the -ki form for the past with reservation regarding clauses. He 
also has the form iki when the verbal root has two consonants preceding this 
ending; 

kokint-iki. 
The forms of the past made by adding kutsi to the forms of the present 
which are given in all the Spanish grammars are not commonly employed at the 
present time. 1 was unable to find the forms given in the early grammars for 
the Preterito Pluscuamperfecto in Hi kutsi. 

3 Ruz (1844, p. 81, 82), in his preterit perfect and pluperfect, has a form 
in -ma following the -ah of the past rather than preceding it as above; 



80 GRAMMAR 

in puts-m-ah-ets, 1 hit you a long time ago. 

u o'on-m-ah-en, he shot me a long time ago. 

a kim-s-m-ah, you killed it a long time ago. 

u het-m-ah-ob, they opened it a long time ago. 

u yal-m-ah tan-il-ob, he spoke these words a long time ago (Xiu ms.). 

Modes. There is no sharp distinction between the different 
modes in Maya. The Spanish grammarians in their endeavor to 
find corresponding forms for everything in the Latin grammar 
give forms for the different modes which are, in many cases, most 
artificial. 

Indicative Mode. There is no occasion to comment on this. 

Subjunctive Mode. This is really lacking in Maya. 1 The idea of 
a future possibility is expressed by certain forms of the future and 

ten in sah-t-ah-ma, 1 have feared. 
ten in sah-t-ah-ma katsi, 1 had feared. 
Lopez (§ 98) has the same forms as Ruz, calling them a preterite indifinido. 
He gives examples for both intransitive and transitive verbs; 
u-hant-ma-ob, lo han comido. 
in-hant-ah-ma-wah, yo he comido pan. 

1 Beltran and his predecessors use the form of the Futuro Imperfecto with 
various modifications for all tenses of the Subjunctive. The bin is dropped, 
as observed in my form, and Beltran gets the following forms;. 

ten nakaken, 1st Conjugation. ten in oike, 3d Conjugation. 

ten in kambes, 2d Conjugation. ten in kanante, 4th Conjugation. 

It will be observed that he prefixes the verbal pronoun compounded with t. 
This verbal pronoun is quite unnecessary. As the form stands with Beltran 
the meaning of ten nakaken would be, "1 am the one who may ascend." 
For the Preterito Imperfecto of the Subjunctive Beltran uses hi or hiwil as a 
prefix to the forms for the present; 

hi or hiwil nakaken. 
These forms for the past of the subjunctive are the same as those given by 
Coronel and San Buenaventura for the present of this mode, Coronel using hij 
for hi. The use of this form in hi or hij is clearly incorrect as h conveys the 
meaning of past time. 

Beltran in his text (§§ 73, 74) states that the better form of the subjunctive 
of transitive verbs adds a final -e. This seems to agree with my statement 
that the subjunctive is a future. He also gives forms for the subjunctive in 
-ina: 

naka-k-en ina, or in nah nakal, yo subiera. 

in kambes ina, or in nah in kambes, yo lo ensendra. 
It should be noted that Coronel and San Buenaventura give forms in ka-ina 



THE VERB 81 

I have regarded these forms as belonging to a potential mode. A 
conditional statement is usually introduced by the particle wa, 
if. The verb has no special form in the conditional clause. The 
future is usually employed in the main clause: 

wa (or wai) yan taqin, hen bin-e, if I had money I should go. 
Potential Mode. The idea of a future possibility is expressed by 
certain forms of the future. The most common is the use of the 
nominal pronoun compounded with k- (p. 46). The suffix of the 
future, -e, may or may not be retained in intransitives : l 

k-in puts-e, I may strike him. 

k-in qai or k-in qai-y-e, I may sing. 

k-in D'on or k-in o'on-e, I may shoot. 

The defective verb, utsak, has the meaning, " it is possible, per- 
haps " and it is sometimes used in connection with the preceding 
forms. 2 

The future in ak and the verbal pronoun are also used to express 
a future possibility. The prefix, bin, is usually omitted: 3 
lub-n-ak-en, I may fall. 
bin-n-ak-ets, you may go. 
3'on-[n]-ak-i, he may shoot. 

Imperative Mode. In the intransitive this is usually formed by 
adding the suffix -en to the shortened stem or root : 4 

for the Optative. I consider all these forms in hi, hiwil and ina alone or com- 
bined with kutii, ili kutsi, and ili kot§om as artificial in their formation. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura give only the present and the imperfect of 
the subjunctive. Beltran has, in addition, the preterit and two futures. 

Palma y Palma (p. 190) in criticizing these forms of Beltran writes very 
truthfully, " Y asi formas del subjuntivo. Yo no sabre" decir de una manera fija 
cual es la causa de esto; pero sospecho que consiste en el afdn de calcar las formas 
verbales de los tiempos mayas a las de los verbos castellanos y latinos empleando 
para esto particulas del futuro, del pasado 6 del futuro y pasado para hacer los 
tiempos llamados mixtos como habrt ido." 

1 These forms correspond to those given by Lopez (p. 51) for the subjunc- 
tive of active verbs. 

2 Compare Lopez (§ 120). 

Coronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 18 ob.) give the form utsak or ut§uk 
with the meaning " to be able " ; 

utsuk in beeltik, lo, I am able to do this. 
utsuk a binel, you are able to go. 

3 These forms correspond to those given by Lopez (p. 39, etc.) for the sub- 
junctive of neuter verbs. 

4 The Spanish grammars have the imperative in -en for verbs of their 1st 



82 GRAMMAR 

Class I. nak-en, climb, 
lub-en, fall, 
ah-en, wake up. 
em-en, come down. 

These forms for verbs of Class I are the same as the first person 
singular of the past tense of the intransitive. It has previously 
been pointed out (p. 71) that the latter may be preceded by a t 
or V to distinguish it from the imperative. This similarity is not 
seen in the imperative in verbs of Class III which form their past 
in n-ah : 

Class III. o'on-en, shoot. 
sut-en, jump, 
qai-y-en, sing. 
mis-en, sweep, broom. 

It should be noted that the causal sign or the sign of the agent 
is not found in the imperative of the intransitive in Class I b and 
III b respectively. 

In verbs of Class II in -tal, the same rule holds, to add -en to 
the stem. The typical ending for verbs of this class, -tal, is con- 
tracted to 1 : 

Class II. tsi-tal-en becomes tsi-l-en, lie down, 
kus-tal-en becomes kus-l-en, live. 1 

This contraction of the stem in -tal suggests the possibility that 
the imperative of verbs of Class I above was formerly made from 
the stem in -1 : 

nak-al-en becoming nak-en. ah-al-en becoming ah-en. 

lub-ul-en becoming lub-en. em-el-en becoming em-en. 

conjugation. Beltran gives nothing but the present tense of the imperative. 
Coronel and San Buenaventura give a future imperative compounded with the 
root of the verb qat, to desire. 

Seler (p. Ill) in his interpretaion of the imperative in -en writes, " Ich bin 
also in der That geneigt, audi der zweiten Person des Imperativs der Verba neutro- 
passiva die ursprilngliche Bedeutung eines Participii Perfecti zuzuweisen, welche 
imperativische Bedeutung in derselben Weise bekommen hat, wie etwa unser 
Kavalleriekommando ' Aufgesessen! ' — Eine Differenzirung des Imperativs und 
des Partizipium kommt in einfacher Weise durch den Accent zu Stande, indem 
der Imperativ in eindringlicher Weise die letzte Silbe betont, das Participium den 
Ton auf der Stammsilbe behalt." In this he tries to trace a similarity between 
the -en of the imperative and the -an of the past participle. 

1 Seler (p. 106) gives the imperative of this form as 
kus-1-ah-en. 



THE VERB 83 

The imperative in the transitive, as already pointed out, is very 
similar to the future. It ends in -e when no pronominal object is 
expressed. The sign of the present -ik is never found as it is some- 
times in the future : l 

Class I a. put§-e, hit it. 

Class I b. kim-s-e, kill it, cause something to die. 

Class III a. o'on-e, shoot it. 

Class III b. mis-t-e, sweep it. 

mis-t-e na, sweep the house. 2 

It should be noted that the -e is not attached to the object as in 
the case of the future tense expressed with the same suffix. This 
-e is lost by syncope when a pronominal object or the sign of the 
plural is used. 3 

1 This form is similar to those used with the 4th Conjugation of the Spanish 
grammars and of the 3d of Beltran as well. In the latter conjugation Coronel 
and San Buenaventura use a vowel corresponding to that of the root explain- 
ing this as formed from the future stem in -ab, -eb, -ib, -ob, -ub with the loss 
of the final b. Beltran (§ 112) does not accept this form and makes the im- 
perative of his 3d Conjugation as is done here. 

Seler (p. 104) follows San Buenaventura and gives the imperative of 
monosyllabic roots ending in the vowel corresponding to that of the root. He 
recognizes (p. 104, 105) the imperatives of some verbs as ending in -e but 
incorrectly derives these from a future in eb. 

In the 2d Conjugation of the early grammars the imperative ends in es 
(ez). This conjugation corresponds to Class I b, the s being causal. It is prob- 
able that the imperative of these verbs formerly followed the rule of the transi- 
tive and added an e. This e was then elided, as stated before, in connection 
with the future of these forms; 
kambe-s-e becoming kambe-s. 
Seler (p. 106) in his attempts to explain all transitive forms as passives 
gives the following translation; 

u kambe-s Pedro Juan, John shall teach Peter or by him taught Peter 
(namely by) John. 

2 Palma y Palma (p. 179) drops the e when an object is used; 
kanan-t-e, cuidalo. 

kanan-t le oimno, cuida ese caballo. 
He adds " Nunca se dice." 
kanan-t-e le oimno. 

3 Beltran (§§ 114, 144) also notes this and gives the form; 
oik-en for oike-en. 

Seler (p. 87, 109) gives the imperative in i after San Buenaventura. He 
explains the preceding form as follows; 

oiki-en or oik-en, derived from oiki-b-en, obey me, or " that one to whom 
(by thee) obedience shall be, am I." 



84 GRAMMAR 

Optative. The idea expressed by the Spanish, Ojala, forming an 
optative, is shown in Maya by the root of the verb qat, to desire 
with the future stem. 1 This form is considered under the irregular 
verbs (p. 60). 

The Passive. It has already been pointed out (p. 63) that 
syntactically many of the forms expressing the passive relation- 
ship cannot be separated from those expressing the active voice. 2 
It has seemed best to consider the passive voice here as as whole 
however. 

Present Time. In the sense of action still going on, this is ex- 
pressed by the suffix in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul which gives the idea of 
the subject as being affected by the action of the verb. This 
suffix in -1 is found either alone, with the causal s, or with the in- 
strumental t. 

Class I a and I b both use the causal s with the suffix -1 to ex- 
press a passive relationship: 

Class I a. tun het-s-el, it is being opened, literally, its being affected by 
someone causing it to open, 
tin nao'-s-al, I am being approached, literally, my being affected 

by someone causing a nearness to me. 
tin ah-s-al, I am being awakened, literally, my being affected 
by someone causing me to wake. 

I cannot agree with him in this as the passive relationship is in no way ex- 
pressed by the simple root of the verb nor can this form be derived from 
oiki-b-en. 

Coronel and San Buenaventura give forms for a future imperative with the 
root of the verb kat, possibly from the root qat, " to ask "; 

1st Conjugation, kat a nak-ak-ets. 

2d Conjugation, kat a kambes. 

3d Conjugation, kat a oik-ib. 

4th Conjugation, kat a kanant-e. 
These forms are similar to the future exchanging the bin for kat. Seler (p. 106) 
seems to recognize these forms in ak only in the 3d person. 

1 Coronel in his paradigms makes an optative by prefixing kahi to the future 
stem. This is undoubtedly the root of the verb qat. In his text he states 
that the optative is made by prefixing kaina to the Futuro Imperfecto. San 
Buenaventura gives the form in kaina for the optative in addition to the form 
in kahi. Beltran does not show the optative in his paradigms. 

2 Seler endeavors to make out, as previously shown, that all transitive ex- 
pressions are passive in construction. I think he is incorrect in making this 
sweeping statement. He admits (p. 86, 90) there are various features which 
upset this theory. 



THE VERB 85 

Class I b, tun ban-s-al, it is being thrown down, literally, its being affected 
by someone causing it to tumble down, 
tin kim-s-il, I am being killed, literally, my being affected by 
someone causing me to die. 

It is interesting to note that, whereas in the passive both sub- 
divisions of Class I use the causal, in the active, transitive, of 
verbs of Class I b the causal is still retained but in Class I a it is 
not found : 

Class I a. tun het-ik, he is opening something. 

tin nao'-ik, I am approaching something, 
tin ah-ik, I am awakening someone. 
Class I b. tun ban-s-ik, he is destroying something, 
tin kim-s-ik, I am killing something. 

There are some cases in the passive where the vowel of the root 
does not agree with the vowel of the suffix. There is a tendency to 
use -al as the suffix even where the vowel of the root is not a : l 

Class III. These verbs from neuter stems express the passive 
relationship by adding -1 either directly to the stem in Class III a 
or to the stem with the sign of the agent, t, in Class III b; 2 

Class III a. tin los-ol, I am being hit, literally, my being affected by a fist. 

tin haa'-al, I am being whipped. 
Class III b. tun mis-t-al, 3 it is being swept, literally, its being affected by 
means of a broom. 

tun han-t-al, it is being eaten. 

When the stem ends in a vowel a b is prefixed to the suffix : 4 

tun oa-b-al, it is being given, 
tan-k t§i-b-il, we are being bitten, 
tin ts'a-b-al, I am being taken. 

1 Beltran (§ 56) makes the passive of verbs of his 1st Conjugation by adding 
-sal or -tal to the root. He makes no mention in these verbs of an agreement 
between the vowel of the root with that of the suffix. The s of his suffix -sal 
is undoubtedly the causal and the t of the suffix -tal is the instrument. 

Palma y Palma (p. 180) has the same rule. 

2 Beltran (§ 57) gives these same forms for the passive and notes the agree- 
ment between the vowel of the stem and that of the suffix. All state that verbs 
in the passive go in their 1st Conjugation. 

3 The same tendency to use the suffix -al even when the vowel of the stem 
is not a is seen here as with verbs of Class I. 

4 Coronel and his followers have this same form. Beltran (§ 57) has the 
form in -bal for the passive for verbs of his 2d and 4th Conjugations; 

From kambesah he gets the passive, kambesabal. 
From kanantah he gets kanantabal. 



86 GRAMMAR 

Future Time. In the passive this is expressed by the same stems 
as in the present with the time particle of the future used with the 
nominal pronoun and the sign of the future, -e: 

Class la. hu (he-u) het-s-el-e, it will be opened. 
Class I b. hen (he-in) kim-s-il-e, I shall be killed, literally, in future 
time, my being affected by someone causing me to die in 
future time. 

hen kam-be-s-al-e, I shall be shown. 
Class III a. hen kat-al-e, I shall be asked. 

hen wal-al-e, I shall be mentioned. 

hen o'on-ol-e, I shall be shot, literally, I am affected by a gun 
Class III b. hu o'ib-t-il-e, it will be written. 

hu han-t-al-e, it will be eaten. 

There is a second form for the future in the passive correspond- 
ing to the form in bin in the active : 

Class I a. bin man-s-al-ak-en, contracting to bin man-s-ak-en, I am 
going to be passed (on the road). 
bin nak-s-al-ak-en, contracting to bin nak-s-ak-en, I am 
going to be climbed. 
Class I b. bin kim-s-al-ak-en, contracting to bin kim-s-ak-en, I am go- 
ing to be killed, literally, I am going to be affected by 
someone causing me to die. 
Class III a. bin kat-al-ak-en, I am going to be asked. 

bin al-al-ak-en, I am going to be awakened, 
bin o'on-ol-ak-en, I am going to be shot. 
Class III b. bin mis-t-al-ak-i, contracted. to bin mis-t-ak-i, it is going to 
be swept, it will be swept. 

It should be noted that verbs in Class III a, if contracted in 
these forms, would have the same forms in the future of the pas- 
sive as in the intransitive active. There is no chance of confusion 
in the contracted forms of verbs in the other classes as the causal 
s is not found in the intransitive active in verbs of Classes I a and 
I b, and the agent t is not found in the corresponding forms in 
verbs of Class III b. 

I consider the passives ot these verbs should be kambe-s-al and kanan-t-al. 
The form kambesabal is the passive participle. 

Beltran (§ 116) objects to some of the forms of San Buenaventura in the 
passive of verbs of the 3d Conjugation where the latter states that a b is added 
together with a vowel similar to that of the root; 

San Buenaventura gives yey-b-il, Beltran gives yey-al. 

San Buenaventura gives nuk-b-ul, Beltran gives nuk-al. 
The forms of Beltran agree with those given here. 



THE VERB 87 

Past Time. This is expressed in the passive in all verbs which 
have a passive by adding a b to the sign of the past and the verbal 
pronoun directly to the stem in verbs of Class III a, to the stem 
with the sign of the agent in Class III b, and to the stem with the 
causal s in verbs of Class I : 

Class I. ah-s-ah-b-en, I was awakened. 

nao'-s-ah-b-en, I was approached. 
Class III a. nats-ah-b-en, I was bitten. 

o'on-ah-b-en, I was shot. 
Class III b. han-t-ah-b-i, it was eaten. 

It is not clear how these forms have been derived. The usual sign 
of the past is ah. The b is seen in the present tense of the passive 
between two vowels, as already pointed out (p. 85). 

The b is often exchanged for a n and we get other forms express- 
ing the same ideas as above: 

nats-ah-n-en, I was bitten. 1 
o'on-ah-n-en, I was shot. 
ah-s-ah-n-en, I was awakened. 

This form in n is seen in the past participle : 

nat&-an, a thing bitten. 

D'on-an, a thing shot. 

kim-s-an, a thing killed, literally, a thing caused to die. 

There is another form expressing distant past in the passive 
made by duplicating the sign of the past, -ah: 
o'on-ah-ah-n-en, I was shot a long time ago. 

Verbal Nouns. There is a large class of verbal nouns made 
directly from the stem by the use of the verbal pronoun. This pro- 
noun always carries with it the verbal idea, "the one who does 
something" or "the one affected by the action of the verb." It is 
never found in the present tense with verbs. It is used with no 
sign of the past in verbs of Class I to express past time. These 
forms are really verbal nouns; 

1 It is interesting to compare these forms with the intransitive, active, past 
tense; 

nats-n-ah-en, I performed the action of biting. 
nats-ah-n-en, I was bitten. 
o'on-[n]-ah-en, I shot, literally, I was a gunner. 
o'on ah-n-en, I was shot, literally, I was gunned. 



88 GRAMMAR 

Class I. lub-en, I fell, I am a faller, I am one who falls. 

man-en, I bought, I am a buyer, I am a merchant. 

han-en, I ate, I am an eater. 

nak-en, I climbed, I am a climber. 

kim-s-en, I am a matador, I am one who causes something to die. 

With verbs of Class III verbal nouns are made in the same way; 

o'on-en, I am a gunner. 
qai-y-et§, you are a singer. 
ooqot-en, I am a dancer. 

It should be noted that, unlike verbs of Class I, these forms in 
Class III are not the same as those used for the past tense. The 
past of verbs in Class III is made by infixing n and the sign of the 
past, -ah, between the root and the verbal pronoun: 

o'on-[n]-ah-en, I shot. 
qai-n-ah-et§, you sang. 
ooqot-n-ab-en, I danced. 

The prefixes of gender, H for male, and s for female, are used 
with the verbal nouns: 

H-man-en, I am a male merchant. 
§-qai-et§, you are a female singer. 

« There is a chance for confusion in the 1st person of the verbal 
pronoun especially with verbs of Class I as the same form is used 
for the imperative of the intransitive as well as for the past tense. 
As already pointed out (p. 72), the form for the past usually has 
an initial t or t' and the verbal noun has the sign of the gender. 

There is a class of nouns made from verbs by means of the suffix 
-b preceded by the vowel corresponding to that of the stem. 1 This 
suffix denotes the instrument with which the action is performed. 
This b undoubtedly is the same as that found in the past tense of 
the passive. 

bah-ab, a hammer, from bah, to nail. 

he-eb, a key, from he, to open, the instrument by which something is 
opened. 

Past Participle. Verbal nouns having the meaning usually as- 
signed to the past participle end in -an. 2 This is added to the root ; 

1 Compare Seler, p. 107. 

2 Lopez (§ 101) states that this participle is formed in aan or ahan: 
mentaan or mentahan, hecho. 

p'oaan, lavado. 



THE VERB 89 

neither causal sign nor that of the agent appear in Classes I b and 
III b respectively. In verbs of Class II the t of the suffix -tal may 
be retained, giving -tan, or the form may be made in -Ian. 1 

Class I a . nak-an, a thing fallen. 

Class I b. kim-an, a thing dead. 2 

Class II. kus-t-an or ku§-l-an, a thing living. 

Class III a. o'on-an, a thing shot. 

Class III b. mis-an, a thing swept. 3 

The plural of the participle follows the same rule as that for the 
adjective, adding the suffix, -tak or -ak. This may be used with 
or without the regular plural ending -ob. The latter may also be 
used alone : 

o'iban-ak, o'iban-ak-ob, o'iban-ob, things written. 

Passive Participle. The passive idea in verbal nouns is brought 
out by means of the suffixes -bal or -bil added to the passive stem. 4 
When the stem ends in a consonant an a is added for euphony 
between the consonant of the stem and that of the suffix: 5 

Class I a. nak-s-a-bal, a thing to be climbed. 

Class I b. kim-s-a-bal, a thing to be killed. 

Class III a. o'on-a-bal, a thing to be shot. 

Class III b. mis-t-a-bal, a thing to be swept. 

Infinitive. There is no infinitive in Maya. 6 The infinitive con- 
struction, used in English, after verbs denoting purpose, desire, 

1 Beltran (§ 126) and Lopez (§ 101) give the participle of these verbs as 
ending in -Ian. I am rather inclined to agree that this is a better form than 
the one in -tan. 

2 Lopez (§ 101) gives this form as kim-en. 

3 Beltran (§ 179) states that the participle of verbs corresponding to those 
of Class III b may have the t as well as the -an : 

o'ib-t-an or o'ib-an, a written thing. 

4 These forms correspond to the future passive participle of the Spanish 
grammars; 

nak-s-a-bal. kam-be-s-bil or kam-be-s-bal. 

6 In verbs of Class I the stem would always end in a consonant as the pas- 
sive stem takes the causal s. In verbs of Class III b, it also ends in a consonant 
as this class takes the sign of the agent, t, as a part of the stem in the passive. 

6 Much is made in the early Spanish grammars of the infinitive. In their 
1st Conjugation the present of the infinitive is the stem in 1 (nakal) . The past 
infinitive in Beltran (naki il) is undoubtedly incorrect as it is inconsistent with 
the past forms he gives in the other conjugations. Coronel and San Buena- 
ventura have a past in nakijl which shows the h (j) sound which is the usual 



90 GRAMMAR 

ability, etc. is expressed in Maya by a future and is really in the 
nature of a clause introduced, in many cases, by the particle ka 

(p. 92). 

Inchoative or Inceptive Verbs. These are made by adding 
the suffix -hal or -tal to the verbal stem with the nominal pro- 
noun. 1 It should be noted that these inchoative verbs are prob- 
ably distinct from verbs of Class II in -tal which make their past 
in 1-ah, although the suffix -tal is common to both forms; 

tin winik-tal or winik-hal, I am becoming a man. 
tin kana-tal, I am increasing in height. 
tun yek-tal, it is growing dark. 

The future is formed in two ways, by using the time particle of 
the future with the nominal pronoun and the suffix -e, retaining 
the -tal, or changing the sign ah of the past in the particle ts-ah 
to al, obtaining the form ts-al : 

method of showing past time. In the 2d Conjugation, Coronel and San Bue- 
naventura have forms ending in -ah. These are clearly incorrect for the present, 
as pointed out by Beltran (§ 105), and San Buenaventura seems to recognize 
this as he gives a second form for the present which corresponds with that of 
Beltran. In the 4th Conjugation, Coronel and San Buenaventura are probably 
incorrect as they give the past participle, kanan, for the present of the infinitive. 
Beltran in this conjugation gives for the past infinitive a passive form, kanan- 
tabil. Martinez says there is an infinitive in -al, -el, -11, -ol and -ul when 
"taken in a general sense" : 

u tanlah-il Dios, el servir a Dios, 

u han-al pisan, el comer de los almas. 

u o'on-ol ke, el cazar venados. 
1 Beltran (§ 90) uses the term neuter in describing these verbs in -hal. He 
does not mention the corresponding form in -tal but gives a form in -nil. He 
states that the past is made in hi, the future in ak. 

Ccronel and San Buenaventura (fol. 9b, ob.) have only the forms in -tal. This 
is one of the cases where the two older authorities agree with the modern usage. 
Seler (p. 80) states that the forms in -hal, used by Beltran, are older than 
the forms in -tal. It is difficult to reconcile this statement with the fact that 
Coronel and San Buenaventura give the forms in -tal. Furthermore Seler 
endeavors to connect the form in -tal with the t or te used as a demonstrative 
with the verbal pronoun. He correctly points cut the limitations of meaning 
when -tal is used as that of an inchoative. He uses the form in kah with these 
verbs; 

winik-hal-in-kah or winik-tal-in-kah. 
I did not find this form in common use. The nominal pronoun with the time 
particle is used as shown below. 



THE VERB 91 

hen winik-tal-e or winik-ts-al-e, I shall become a man. 
hek kohan-ts-al-e, we shall become ill. 

The past tense seems to be seldom used with these verbs. When 
found the suffix -tal changes to ts and the sign of the past, ah, 
with the verbal pronoun is used : 

winik-ts-ah-ets, you became a man. 
kana-ts-ah-en, I increased in height. 

There seems little doubt that, originally, both -tal or -hal and 
-ts were used to express the inchoative idea with no distinction as 
now observed between the use of -tal in the present and -ts in the 
past. This supposition is strengthened by the fact that both -tal 
and -tsal are found in the future. 1 

Attention may be called again to the nouns denoting accustomed 
state or condition in -tal (p. 38). 

Iterative or Frequentative Verbs. These are made by du- 
plicating the first syllable : 2 

tin bi-qab, I tap with the fingers. 

tin bi-bi-qab, I tap frequently with the fingers. 

tin la-k-ets, I strike you with the palm. 

tin la-la-k-ets, I strike you several times with the palm. 

Reflexive Verbs. There is a class of verbs used with the 
particle -pahal, which are reflexive : 3 

1 Seler (p. 81) gives both the forms in -hal or -tal and -tsahal for the present; 
winik-hal or winik-tal to be a man, to prove himself a man. 
winik-tsah-al, just now to be a man, to become manly, attain a position. 

I consider that the -ah of his infix -tsah is the sign of the past and should not 
be used in the present tense. The proper form would be; 

tin winik-ts-al. 
Seler (p. 84, 85) has much to say regarding the use of h which " added to 
nouns forms neutral themes with the meaning ' made for this and that/ ' be- 
ing this and that/ e.g.) 

eeq-ha-al, to be black, to become black." 
This is really the inchoative verb and the more usual form is not -hal but -tal. 

2 Beltran (§ 127) states that this type of verbs almost always is found in 
the 4th Conjugation. He adds that the adverb o'eo'etak, signifying d menudo 
6 con frecuencia is used with verbs of his 1st Conjugation; 

lubul, to fall. 

o'eo'etak lubul, to fall frequently. 
Palma y Palma (p. 163-167) describes these forms very clearly. 

3 See also verbs used with the reflexive pronoun, p. 50. 



92 GRAMMAR 

tsun, begin, 
tun tsun-pa-hal, it begins itself. 

tsun-pa-hi, it began itself. 
tun t§un-pa-hal qin, the day is beginning. 
tun lots-pa-hal, it bends itself. 

Reciprocal Verbs. See under Reciprocal Pronoun, p. 51. 

Clauses. Final clauses expressing purpose or motive. These are 
made by using a future construction. The nominal pronoun takes 
no time particle but the -e of the future is retained : * 

tin bin in bet-e, I go to make something, literally, in present time, my 
going, my making something in future time. 

The form in -kah can also be used to express the same idea; 

bin-in- kah in bet-e, contracted to bin-in-k-in bet-e. I am going to make 

it. 
bin-in-kah utial in wil-e, 1 go in order to see it. 
bin-in-kah in wil-e, contracted to bin-in-k-in wil-e, I go to see it. 

When the object is expressed, the -e of the future is usually- 
dropped; 

bin-in-kah in bet na, I go to build a house. 

Object clauses expressing ability, knowledge, desire, fear, compul- 
sion, command, etc. These also take the future construction. In 
some cases the time particle is omitted with the nominal pronoun ; 

in qat in wil-e, I desire to see it. 

u pat in o'ib-t-e, I am able to write it. 

in wohel in be-t-e, I know how to do it. 

As in the preceding examples, when the object is expressed by a 
noun, the -e is usually dropped : 

in qat in hant wa, I desire to eat tortillas. 

u pat in o'ib-t huun, I am able to write a letter. 

The particla ka often introduces these clauses especially with the 
form of the indefinite future in ak and the verbal pronoun : 

in qat ka uo-s-ak-et§, I desire you to be good. 

leeti u qat qai-n-ak-en, he (demonstrative) wishes me to sing. 

in qat tet§ ka wal-ik-t-en, I wish you to tell me. 

1 Beltran (§§ 99, 100) notes that the future forms are used in some cases 
after the verb, to desire, where one would expect the infinitive to be 
used. 



THE VERB 93 

or in qat tets ka wal-t-en. 

tin al-ik ka alkab-n-ak-en, I say that I shall run. 

saken ka kohan-(n)-ak-en, I fear I shall be ill. 

tin al-t-ets or al-ah-t-ets ka sik-et§, I told you to go. 

Relative clauses. There is no special difference between the verb 
in a relative clause and that in any other place : 

le winik qai-n-ah-i kim-i, the man who sang is dead, literally, the man 
sang, he died. 

There is a relative relation introduced by the particle lik or likil 
denoting in which, by which, for which, etc : x 

likil in wenel, (the object) in which I sleep, my hammock. 
likil in meya, (the object) with which I work, my pencil. 
likil q kus-tal, (the object) by which we live, maize. 
likil in puts-ik, (the object) with which I strike, my stick. 

There is a relative idea conveyed in the compound formed of the 
particle t or ti and the verbal pronoun : 
ma§ puts-ah-en, who hit me ? 
t-en put§-et§, I am the one who hit you. 

Temporal Clauses. These are usually introduced by the par- 
ticle ka : 

tin wal-ah-t-ets ka kut§-en, I told it to you when I arrived. 
k-in qai k-en sik-en-e, I may sing when I arrive. 

Sometimes the particle is repeated before the main clause as well 
as before that of the temporal : 

ka tal-ets-e ka kohan-h-en, when you came, I was ill. 

le ka o'ok in qai-y-e ka bin-en, after I had sung, I went. 

Conditional Clauses. These are usually introduced by the par- 
ticle wa, if, or kes, although. The verb in these clauses does not 
differ from that in the main part of the sentence : 

1 Beltran (§§ 94, 95) has the form in lik or likil and states that it denotes en 
que, con que, de que, por donde, porque, etc., also " que suele hacerse lo que el verbo 
signified." : 

uo yaab qan likil a wenel, good is the hammock in which you are accus- 
tomed to sleep. 
uo luum kus lik in yum, good is the land in which my father lives. 
Beltran (§ 240) has another mutanza with intransitive verbs in the past when 
used in a clause meaning "en que " etc. In his example he adds a k in the 3d 
person; 

iai ts'en lub-k-i, Juan, this is the well into which John fell. 
Seler (p. 120, 121) identifies this suffix, -lik as a combination of -ik, our 
sign of the present transitive verb, and the suffixes -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul. 



94 GRAMMAR 

wa ka al-ik-t-en k-in bin, if you tell it to me, I shall (may) go. 

kes tal-i bin-en, although he came, I went. 

kes tun qai sut-on t'-na-i, although he is singing, we returned to our house. 

Interrogative. In general there seems to be no particular 
form of particle marking the interrogative. The rising voice alone 
seems to indicate a question. This may be a convention of. later 
times. The particle wa is sometimes used as an interrogative with 
the meaning " by chance " or " perhaps " and comes as the final 
suffix : * 

ooqot-n-ah-ets-wa, did you, by chance, dance? 

t-a-puts-ah-wa, did you, by chance, strike him? 

When the interrogative is used with the transitive verb in the 
past tense the sign of the past is sometimes omitted both in the 
question and in the answer. A final -e is found in the 3d person in 
these forms: 

mas puts-en, who struck me? 

t-en puts-ets, I was the one who struck you. 

mas puts-e, who struck him? 

t-en puts-e, I struck him, I am the one who struck him. 

mas mis-t-e na, who swept the house? 

t-en mis-t-e na, I swept the house. 

When the answer to a question is in the negative the suffix -i or 
-il is usually found with the negative ma. The use of this same 
suffix is noted (p. 104) with the adverbs : 

bin-ets, did you go? kohan-ob, are they ill? 

ma bin-en-i, no, I did not go. ma kohan-ob-i, no, they are not ill. 

The interrogative pronouns, mas, tus, bas, etc. are considered 
under the pronoun (p. 51). 

In questions asking permission which are expressed in the future 
an affirmative answer is given in the imperative : 
mis-nak-en, may I sweep? kul-en, yes, sit down. 

mis-n-en, yes, sweep. mis-(t-e) na, may I sweep the house? 

kul-ak-en, may I sit down? mis-t-e, yes, sweep it. 

When permision is not given and the answer is negative the root 
alone is used in the transitive with the proper ending and the root 
alone in the intransitive: 

mis-nak-en, may I sweep? mis-(t-e) na, may I sweep the house? 

ma, mis, no, do not sweep. ma, mis-t-ik, no, do not sweep it. 

1 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 178, 179. 



THE ADJECTIVE 95 

THE ADJECTIVE 

There is no real adjective in Maya. Words which have usually 
been considered as adjectives are really intransitive verbs. The 
term adjective has however been retained as describing these forms : l 

keel, he is cold, it is cold, or something cold. 
keel winik, the man is cold or the cold man. 

kohan winik tun tal, the man is sick, he is coming, or the sick man is. 
coming. 

The attributive and predicate relationship are not distinguished ; 2 
le na bos, this house is black or the black house. 

These adjective-like forms have been put into a class by them- 
selves in the treatment of the verb as their past tenses are made in 
a different way from that used in the regular intransitive forms. 
This is one of the many places where an arbitrary ruling must be 
made in regard to the place where forms should be considered 
which are on the dividing line between two categories. 

It has been thought best to retain the heading " adjective" for 
the sake of clearness and to consider number and comparison here 
rather than under the verb. The idea of time, however, is taken 
up under Class IV of the verbs (p. 59). 

Order. The adjective usually precedes the noun but there are 
many exceptions to the rule; 

u lak winik, the other man. u winik san, the same man. 

Number. The plural ending is usually expressed only in the 
noun used with the adjective. Some cases, however, occur where 
both the adjective and the noun have the sign of the plural. 
Plural in the adjective is not usually shown by the same form, 
-ob, as with nouns, but by the suffixes -ak, -tak, or -lak, the same 
as those used for participles : 3 

1 For a good discussion of the adjective, see Palma y Palma (p. 160-162.) 
Lopez (§§30-33) has two classes of adjectives: — qualifying and determi- 
native. 

Martinez insists that there is an adjective and, like the English adjective, 
it precedes the noun. 

2 Seler (p. 77) makes an attributive expression by means of the suffixes -al, 
-el, -il, -ol, -ul: 

uo-ul winik-ob, the good men. oak-il na, the white house. 

3 Coronel notes the plural in -tak as used for participles. 

Seler (p. 114) is inclined to interpret the plural ending -lak as related to the 



96 GRAMMAR 

uo na, a good house, or the house is good, 

uo-t£k na-ob, the good houses, or the houses are good. 

Reduplication. This is sometimes employed to express the 
plural in adjectives: 

tas be, a smooth road. ta-tai be-ob, smooth roads. 

There are a few adjectives which have different forms for the 
singular and plural : 

nohot§ tunits, a large stone. nukuts tuniti-ob, large stones. 

Comparison. Comparative. The comparative is made by add- 
ing the suffix -il to the adjective form: 
uo, good, uo-il or u-yuo-il, better. 
nat§, far, nats-il, farther. 

This may be a case where there was at one time a vocalic harmony 
between the vowel of the stem and that of the ending in -l. 1 

Superlative. This is formed by prefixing the word hats meaning 
" much, very, or many " to the comparative: 2 

passive or intransitive stem in -al, -el, -il, -ol, -ul, the suffix vowel of which is 
elided with the collective or plural suffix -ak, -ik. As a matter of fact the -lak 
suffix for the plural is very uncommon, -ak or -tak are much more common. 
Seler (p. 122, 123) considers the suffix -ak as identical with -ah as a sign of 
the past. His authority for this is evidently Perez who gives the forms and 
translations noted by Seler; 

alabil, what is or shall be said. bahun-ak, how much were they? 

alabil-ak, it was said. biqin, biqin§, when? 

bahun, how much? biqin§-ak, when was it? 

The Motul dictionary seems to make no distinction between bahun and 
bahun-ak. It does not give the form biqin§-ak and distinctly states that 
biqin is used for the present and past. The San Francisco dictionary gives 
bahun and bahuns using them in both the present and past. It does not give 
bahun-ak. I am rather inclined to consider the -ak in these forms of Perez as 
denoting a plural although the Motul gives an example of the use of bahun 
with a plural noun. 

1 Strength is given to this supposition by the fact that Beltran (§ 27) gives 
the form yuo-ul (yutzul) for better, nohol, greater, qasal, worst, but he also 
notes that the Indian in talking usually uses the suffix -il. 

Lopez (§ 36) does not accept this way of making the comparative at the 
present time. He writes, " Antiguamente, segun asegura el P. Beltran, seformaba 
el comparative) repitiendo la ultima vocal y anadUndole una ele . . . pero actual- 
mente no se usa. Tambie'n, dice que se forma anadiendo al positivo la particula 
il; pero a mi modo de ver, mejor se le llamaria superlativo relativo." Lopez forms 
the comparative by using the particles, asab, mas, or masab with the positive. 

2 Lopez (§ 37) also uses sem or semket§, lem or lemket§, net, bahan and 
kalam to form the superlative degree. 



THE ADJECTIVE 97 

hats uo-il na-ob, the best houses, 
hats nats-il, the farthest. 

The form hats is often used directly with the adjective to form the 
comparative : 

in na hats uo ket a na, my house is better than your house. 

Diminutives or. diminution of the idea. This is expressed by re- 
duplication : t 

noh or nohots, great. sak, white. 

no-noh or no-nohots, grondecillo. sa-sak, medio bianco. 

A more common way of expressing a diminution or an increase of 
the idea expressed by the adjective is by the words, hats, very, 
and the word qas meaning bad. 1 : 

tiitsan, small. 

qas tsitsan, rather small, medio chico. 

hat§ t§it§an, very small. 

Numerals. The numeral system is vigesimal. 2 There is a con- 
sistent treatment so that there is practically no number that can- 
not be expressed in Maya. 

Terms given by the early Spaniards. These are as follows: 

20 units = 1 qal, 1 X 20 = 20. 

20 qal = 1 baq, 20 X 20 = 400. 

20 baq = 1 pik, 20 X 20 X 20 = 8,000. 

20 pik =1 kalab, 20 X 20 X 20 X 20 = 160,000. 

20 kalab = 1 qintsil, 20 X 160,000 = 3,200,000. 

20 qintSil = 1 alaw, 20 X 3,200,000 = 64,000,000 (?). 

Terms used in the hieroglyphic writing. It is clear from a study of 
the hieroglyphic writing that the early Mayas were accustomed to 
deal with very large number series, numbers running into the mil- 
lions, especially the long number series in the Dresden Codex. 3 

The system now commonly used in the hieroglyphic writing is as 
follows : 

20 Kin =1 Uinal, 20 days. 
18 Uinal - 1 Tun, 360 days. 
20 Tun = 1 Katun, 7200 days. 
20 Katun = 1 Cycle, 144,000 days. 
13 or 20 Cycle = 1 Great Cycle, 1,872,000 or 2,880,000 days. 

1 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 161, 162, and Lopez, § 38. 

2 For a complete discussion of the numerals, see Thomas, 1897-1898. See 
also Part III, p. 181. 

3 For a discussion of these number series, see Bowditch, 1910, Chapter VI. 



98 GRAMMAR 

It is not certain regarding all the names given by the early 
Mayas to the different divisions. The numbers were expressed 
very simply in the hieroglyphic writing by a system of super- 
imposed bars and dots. 

There is a certain unity between the numeral system now used 
and that on which the ancient calendarial reckoning was based. 
In the latter, however, 18 units of the 2d order made one of the 
3d. There is also a question whether in the stone inscriptions 20 
of the 5th order made one of the 6th or 13 of the 5th made one of 
the 6th. The change in the 2d order from 20 to 18 was probably 
due to a desire to bring about some degree of accord between the 
actual length of a year and a unit of the 3d order, a Tun being 
360 days. 

Terms used at present time. The Mayas of the present time 
naturally have little occasion for large numbers although some 
are capable of counting up into the thousands. The Lacandones, 
on the other hand, seem entirely unable to use numbers higher 
than three or four. They point to the fingers and toes when they 
desire to signify higher numbers. 

Taking into consideration the ancient Maya method of expres- 
sing numbers by bars and dots, a bar representing five and a dot 
one, we might expect a quinary system with multiples of five up 
to twenty. This is not so, however, as the change in nomenclature 
is made at ten. There are different words used for the numbers 
from 1 through 9. The word for 10, la hun, probably means " all 
of one count." La is the particle denoting totality. 1 

The word for 11, buluk, is quite different from the word for one. 
It is to be noted that in the face numerals the hieroglyph for 11, 
as far as can be made out at present, does not show any of the 
characteristics of the number for one. 

The words for the numbers 12 to 19 correspond in meaning 
with the words for 2 to 9 with the addition of the particle lah, signi- 
fying " all": 

lah ka, all of 2. lah os, all of 3, etc. 

1 Compare Thomas, 1897-98, p. 891. He points out that Henderson in his 
manuscript Maya-English dictionary has as the meaning of lah, " whole 
hands." 



NUMERATION 



99 



It is suggested, as another possibility, that la is to be derived from 
laq meaning " the other " or " the accompanying," giving the 
idea of first counting the fingers up to 10 and then starting with 
the toes up to 20. This suggestion would have more value if la 
was found with the number 11 and not with 10. 



Numeration 


Tozzer 


Beltran 


1. hun- 


hun- 


2. ka- 


ka- (ca) 


3. os- 


os- (ox) 


4. kan- 


kan- (can) 


5. ho- 


ho- 


6. wak- 


wak- (uac) 


7. wuk- 


wuk- (uuc) 


8. wasak- 


wasak- (uaxac) 


9. bolon- 


bolon- 


10. lahun- 


la hun- 


11. buluk- 


buluk- (buluc) 


12. la ka- 


lah ka- (lah ca) 


13. la os- 


os la hun- (ox la hun) 


14. la kan- 


kan la hun- (can la hun) 


15. laho- 


hoi hun- 


16. la wak- 


wak la hun- (uac la hun) 


17. la wuk- 


wuk la hun- (uuc la hun) 


18. la wasak- 


wasak la hun- (uaxac la hun) 


19. la bolon- 


bolon la hun- 


20. hun qal- 


hun qal- (hun kal) 


21. hun qal yete hun- 


hun tu qal- (hun tu kal) 


22. hun qal yete ka- 


ka tu qal- (ca tu kal) 


30. hun qal yete la hun- 


la hu ka qal- (la hu ca kal) 


31. hun qal yete buluk- 


buluk tu qal- (buluc tu kal) 


32. hun qal yete la ka- 


lah ka tu qal- (lah ca tukal) 


40. ka qal- 


ka qal- (ca kal) 


41. ka qal yete hun- 


hun tu yos qal- {hun tu yox kal) 


50. ka qal yete la hun- 


la hu yos qal- (la hu yox kal) 


60. os qal- 


os qal- (ox kal) 


70. os qal yete la hun- 


la hu kan qal- (la hu can kal) 


80. kan qal- 


kan qal- (can kal) 


90. kan qal yete la hun- 


la hu yo qal- (la hu yo kal) 


100. ho qal- 


ho qal- (ho kal) 


101. ho qal yete hun- 


hun tu wak qal- 


110. ho qal yete la hun- 


la hu wak qal- 


111. ho qal yete la hun yete hun- 


buluk tu wak qal- 


120. wak qal- 


wak qal- 



100 GRAMMAR 

Numeration (continued) 
Tozzer Beltran 



130. wak qal yete la hun- 


la hu wuk qal- 


140. wuk qal- 


wuk qal- 


160. wasak qal- 


wasak qal- 


180. bolon qal- 


bolon qal- 


200. la hun qal- 


la hun qal- 


220. buluk qal- 


buluk qal- 


240. la ka qal- 


lah ka qal- 


260. la os qal- 


os lahu qal- 


280. la kan qal- 


kan lahu qal- 


300. la ho qal- 


hol hu qal- 


320. la wak qal- 


wak lahu qal- 


340. la wuk qal- 


wuk lahu qal- 


360. la wasak qal- 


wasak lahu qal- 


380. la bolon qal- 


bolon lahu qal- 


400. hun baq- 


hun baq- 



Beltran' s numeration. There is little doubt that the Maya num- 
eration for the higher numbers has fallen into disuse at the present 
time. 1 It is significant that practically all late grammars give the 
numeration of Beltran rather than the numbers used at the present 
time. 2 

The reader is given a chance on p. 99-100, to compare the num- 
bers as given by Beltran with those collected by the writer. I have 
given the numbers only to 400. 3 I present these with some 
hesitation. 

Beltran has the same form for 12 as that given here but for the 
numbers 13 to 19 he gives: 

os la hun, 13 (3 and 10). kan la hun, 14 (4 and 10), etc. 

The form for 10 is thus carried through all the numbers from 13 to 
19. Attention should be called to the analogy here between these 

1 Compare Cruz (1912, p. 110) who writes, "El sistema de numeration maya 
puede detirse que ha caldo en desuso, iserd posible volverlo a su primitive) estado 
hoy que estd mezclado con el espanoll Es de dudarse. Dia ha de llegar en que 
hasta el propio idioma quede sepultado eternamente. Nosotros no auguramos a 
la lengua maya, que fu£ gloriosa, ningun porvenir, y si presentimos que tarde 6 
temprano caiga en desuso eterno. Pueda que fracasemos en nuestros pronosticos 
pero lo dudamos. }> 

2 See Lopez § 180. Note, however, the numbers given in Appendix IV, 
p. 301. 

3 For the numbers above 400, the reader is referred to the list in Beltran, 
u Articulo Undetimo" Thomas, 1897-1898, p. 861, 890-893, or Lopez, § 180. 



NUMERATION 101 

forms using 10 as a foundation and the face numerals in the hiero- 
glyphic inscriptions for the numbers 13 to 19. These latter show, 
in most cases, a fleshless lower jaw signifying 10 in addition to the 
glyph for the numbers from 3 to 9. 

In the forms given here yetel, with, is used with all numbers 
not multiples of 20 : 

hun qal yete hun, 21 (one 20 with one). 

These correspond to forms given by Perez (1866-1877) and Brin- 
ton (1882, p. 39) in katak. Both yetel, and katak have the mean- 
ing " and," " with." Brinton uses the form in katak as an 
alternative in numbers above 40 : 
ka kaUkatak ka, 42 (2 score and 2). 

Perez gives the example: 

hun qal katak ho, 25 (one score and 5). 

Beltran's numbers for 30 and 35 : 
la hu ka qal hoi hu ka qal. 

and all numbers above 40 use the unit of qal above rather than 
below the number expressed: 

hoi hu ka qal, 35, literally, 15, 2 qal or, freely, 15 toward the 2d qal (40). 

The numbers from 31 to 34 and 36 to 39, on the other hand, use 
the unit of qal below the number expressed: 
wak la hun tu qal, 36 (16 on the [one] qal). 

All numbers above 40 correspond in form with those for 30 and 35, 
using the unit of qal above the number expressed: 
hun tu yos qal, 41 (one on the 3d qal). 

It seems clear that there is some mistake here in Beltran's num- 
eration, although all writers have followed him in giving the 
same forms. The same particle, tu, is used both in those forms for 
numbers below 40 which add the number to the preceding unit of 
qal, and also in the forms for 30, 35 and those above 40, where the 
number is really added, if we accept the meaning of tu, to the suc- 
ceeding unit of qal : l 

ka tu qal, 22 (2 to qal). 

ka tu yos qal, 42 (2 to 3 qal, not 2 to 2 qal). 

1 In this connection, Thomas (1897-1898, p. 891) writes, "Perez, as quoted 
by Dr. Brinton, says, in an unpublished essay in the latter' s possession, that 
Beltran's method of expressing the numbers is erroneous; that 41 should be 






102 GRAMMAR 

Under the same rule, after 380 is reached, Beltran starts with 
381 counting towards the next higher unit of baq, 400: 
htm tu hun baq, 381 (1 to [1] baq). 
ho tu hun baq, 385 (5 to [1] baq), etc. 

A point, not previously mentioned in connection with Beltran's 
numeration, is that tu is not used with the forms adding 10 and 
15 to each qal unit, namely, 30 and 35, 50 and 55, 70 and 75, etc.: 

la hu ka qal, 30. la hu yo§ qal, 50. 

hoi hu ka qal, 35. hoi hu yos qal, 55. 

This omission of the tu is to be noted in the same relative places l 
until 190 is reached when it is found again: 

la hu tu la hun qal, 190. hoi hu tu la hun qal, 195. 

The tu is then found in the same relative places until 370 is reached 
when it is dropped again: 
la hu bolon la hu qal, 370. 

It is found with the next number when 15 is added to the unit: 
hoi hu tu bolon la hu qal, 375. 

and it is dropped again for the next 10 added to the qal: 
la hu hun baq, 390. 

and added for the next 15: 
hoi hu tu hun baq, 395 

I cannot explain this irregularity in these two places in the nu- 
meration. The fact that, with the exception of the even qal and 

hun-tu-kaqal; 42, ka-tu-kaqal; 83, os-tu-kanqal, etc. Nevertheless, as Dr. 
Brinton has pointed out, the numerals above 40 are given in Perez's Diction- 
ary of the Maya Language according to Beltran's system, which appears from 
other evidence to be correct. Leon de Rosny suggests that hun-tu-yosqal 
should be explained thus: 60 — 20 + 1- However, the correct rendering ap- 
pears to be 1 on the third score, or third 20. It is possible that an old and a 
new reckoning prevailed among the Mayas, as apparently among the Cakchi- 
quels. According to Stoll the latter people had an old and a more recent 
method of enumerating . . . Perez says that tu is an abbreviation of the num- 
eral particle tul, but Rosny says, l Je crois que ce riest point, comme il [Ban- 
croft] le suppose, la simple conjonction et, mais une phrase des mots ti-u, dans 
son, a lui, sien; u est un pronom appele par les grammairiens Espanols mixte 
et qui forme la copulation, comme en Anglais Vs du genitif.' Dr. Berendt adopts 
the same opinion, which is probably correct." 

i That is, 70 and 75, 90 and 95, 110 and 115, 130 and 135, 150 and 155, 170 
and 175. 



NUMERATION 103 

baq, tu is always found except in some of the forms adding 10 and 
15 to the units seems to show some definite purpose when it is 
omitted. 1 

The unit above qal is baq which is equivalent to 20 X 20, 400. 
This word has the meaning " to roll up, to tie around." It has 
already been noted that the baq unit comes in first with 381. 

Beltran's numbers above 400, except even multiples of this unit, 
baq, are evidently abbreviated. Otherwise they are unintelligible. 

ho tu baq, 500 = ho qal tu baq. 

la hu tu baq, 600 = la hun qal tu baq. 

Above 800, in the same way as before, the next higher unit is 
used: 

ho tu yo§ baq, 900 = ho qal tu yos baq (100 on 3d baq). 

The unit of the 3d place (20 X 20 X 20, 8000) is pik, meaning 
" cotton cloth or a kind of petticoat." As pointed out by Thomas 
(1897-1898, p 893), Henderson gives the significance of pik as " a 
bag made out of a petticoat " which corresponds with the Mexican 
term for 8000. 

Beltran points out (§ 312) that the Mayas in his day used the 
term pik as meaning 1000 rather than 8000. 

The unit of the 4th place (20 X 20 X 20 X 20, 160,000) is 
kalab and that for the 5th place (20 X 20 X 20 X 20 X 20, 
3,200,000) is qintsil, and that for the 6th place is alaw. 2 

Numeral Classifiers. There is a large number of classificatory 
suffixes in use with the numerals. The latter can never stand alone. 
These suffixes qualify the term and show into what class the ob- 
jects counted fall. At the present time all nouns are broadly 
classified into two classes, animate and inanimate, by the two 
suffixes -tul and -p'el : 

o§-tul winik, three men, os-p'el na, three houses. 

Apart from a few other classifiers there is not much attention paid 
by the Mayas of the present time to the finer distinctions formerly 
made by these suffixes. Some, however, are always used. 

1 There is one exception to this rule. Beltran's form for 171, buluk bolon 
qal, omits the tu. 

2 For a discussion of the meaning of these terms, see Thomas, op. tit. p. 894. 



104 GRAMMAR 

A list of suffixes used as classifiers for the numeral as given, for 
the most part, by Beltran (§ 313) and translated by Nuttall (1903) l 
is given in Appendix III, p. 290-292. 

THE ADVERB 

Position. Adverbs, especially those formed from the intran- 
sitive verb-adjective, have two positions in regard to the verb and 
its subject. They may be placed either at the beginning before the 
nominal pronoun or between the nominal pronoun and the verb : 

seeb tin konil, I sell it easily. tsambe tin o'ib, I write slowly. 

qas tin o'ib, I write badly. tin t§its simbal, I walk fast. 

I cannot state any rule for the position of the adverb in these 
forms. Some seem always to be placed before the pronoun and 
others after the pronoun. 

In verbs where the verbal pronoun rather than the nominal is 
used the adverb comes at the beginning; 
t§ambe o'ib-n-ah-en, I wrote slowly. 

Forms used with the verbal pronoun may have the particle -il 
or -ik inserted between the root and the pronoun : 

tlit§ §imbal-n-ah-il-en, I walked fast, or t§its simbal-n-ah-ik-en. 
tsit§ simbal-n-ah-ah-n-il-en, I walked fast a long time ago. 
suk kohan-il-en, I am always ill. 
suk keel-il-en, I am always cold. 

The adverbial particles are very numerous in Maya. No attempt 
has been made to exhaust the list. 2 The most important are as 
follows : 

Negation. This is shown by the particle ma which precedes the 
nominal pronoun and comes immediately before the verb when the 
verbal pronoun is used: 

1 Mrs. Nuttall makes a very pertinent "suggestion to Maya scholars" as to 
the identity between the significance of some of these classificatory particles 
and portions of the hieroglyphic writing appearing with the series of numbers. 
These number series, worked out up to the present time, all relate to periods 
of time. There is no reference whatever to objects of various classes being 
counted. It is especially desired that something may be done in this line of 
research. 

2 The reader is referred to the lists given in Beltran and in San Buenaven- 
tura. See also Lopez, Chapter VIII. 



THE ADVERB 105 

mi-nan, contracting from ma-yan, there is none, 
ma-in bin, I am not going. 
ma-bin-et§, you did not go. 

The particle -il, noted above, may be used with the negative com- 
ing, however, after the verbal pronoun: 

ma sak-en-il, I was not afraid. 

sah ? 
The final 1 is often lost and we get : l 

ma sak-en-i. ma bin-en-i, I did not go. 

It will be noted that the forms of the nominal pronoun are not 
compounded with a time particle in these examples. The sign of 
the past, -ah, may also be omitted with the negative. The nomi- 
nal pronoun usually contracts with the negative and the final -1 is 
lost as noted above : 2 

ma-in into min. 

ma-a into ma. 

ma-u into mu. 

ma-u put§-ah-en-il, becoming m-u puts-en-i, he did not hit me. 

ma-in put§-ah-il, becoming m-in puts-i, I did not hit him. 

Repetition. This may be expressed in the action of the verb 
by the particle -ka : 

tin ka-bin or ka bin-in-kah, I am going again. 
ka tal-et§, you came again. 

Totality. This idea is shown by the particle ia or lah, probably 
derived from the word tulakal, all : 

tin la-uk-ik or tin la wuk-ik, I am drinking all of it. 
tan la-hant-ik wa, you are eating all of the tortillas, 
tun la-qai-ob, they are all singing. 

1 Lopez (§ 172) has this final i with the negative forms; 
ma in qati, I do not desire. 

ma in qat hanali, I do not desire to eat. 

2 Lopez (§§ 97, 99) makes a negative preterit expression by means of the 
future form without bin and a negative future expression by means of the pre- 
sent form with tin, ta, tu in place of kin, ka, ku: 

ma tal-ak-en, I have not gone. 
ma tin han-al, I shall not eat. 
I cannot understand these forms. 



106 GRAMMAR 

The la seems to modify either the subject or the object of the verb. 
I cannot find that there is any differentiation in the forms accord - 
ing to the thing modified. 1 

A repetition of the particle la is sometimes noted after the root. 
This intensifies the meaning: 

tin la-hant-la-n-t-ik, I am eating absolutely everything. 

This particle is also used with the idea of totality with ad 
jectives: 

kohan-ob, they are ill. 
kohan-tak-ob, many are ill. 
la-kohan-tak-ob, all are ill. 
tun la-kohan-tal-ob, they all become ill. 
tun la-kohan-ob, they are all ill. 

Manner or State. The particle denoting these ideas is be. 
This adverb takes the -il or -ik forms noted above (p. 104). 

be tin puts-ah-il-etg or be tin puts-il-ets, thus, I hit you. 
be tal-il-en or be tal-ik-en, thus I came. 

Demonstrative. Suffixes similar to the demonstrative pronoun, 
a and o, with the meaning " this or that way " are often used with 
the adverb be (usually written bey) : 2 

be tal-il-en-a, thus I came this way. 
be tal-il-en-o, thus I came that way. 

The form in a is used when the method of coming is shown by some 
action, the form in o when the method of coming is described by 
words : 

be puts-il-en-a, thus I was hit (showing how). 
be puts-il-en-o, thus I was hit (telling how). 

When these forms take the nominal pronoun the suffix -il is not 

used: 

be-in wal-ik-a, I say it like this. be-in beet-ik-a, I make it like this. 

be-in wal-ik-o, I say it like that. be-in beet-ik-o, I make it like that. 

1 Seler (p. 81) includes the particle -la with the inchoative foms in -hal, 
-tal, and -tsa-hal and infers that la is used only with intransitive verbs. 

2 Perez (1866-77) makes much the same distinction between the suffixes -a 
and -o in the following examples; 

he le oimn-a, aqui esta el caballo. he le oimn-o, alii esta el cahallo. 



PREPOSITIONS AND POSTPOSITIONS 107 



PREPOSITIONS AND POSTPOSITIONS 

These are interesting as they are used in place of the oblique 
cases in Maya. When used with nouns all are prefixed: 

yalan poq, below the hat. yetel winik, with the man. 

A distinction is seen, however, when these forms are used with 
the pronoun. They are then divided into two classes, those pre- 
fixed to the forms of the verbal pronoun and those suffixed to the 
nominal pronoun. It is not clear how this distinction is governed. 

To the first class belong: 

yetel, with, yetel-en, with me. 
nao', near, nao'-ets, near you. 
yoqol, above, yoqol-i, above him. 

To the second and larger class belong: 

men or menel, by, t-in-men, by me. 

tial, for, in-tiai, for me. 

oel, beside, a-oel, beside you, literally, my side. 

walan, below, in-walan, or t-in walan, below me. 

ti, in, from, and to, tin bin t-in na, I am going to my house. 1 

tin tal t-in na, I am coming from my house. 

It seems clear that the idea of a noun with its possessive pronoun 
is uppermost here but this does not explain why we have, 
in walan, below me and yoqol-en, above me. 

1 The t or ti corresponds to the forms given in the early grammars as the 
dative case. 



PART II 
MAYA TEXTS 



PART II 
MAYA TEXTS 

INTRODUCTION 

Material Available. The reader will gain some idea of the 
vast amount of literature in the Maya language from the discussion 
of the Maya texts available for study (Part III, p. 182). These 
documents date from the days following the Conquest and con- 
tinue down to the present time. They vary much in content and 
in value as faithful transcriptions of the language as spoken at the 
time when they were written. 

Grammatical Structure. It is pertinent to ask how much 
help in translating the early texts is to be derived from a grammar 
such as the present work. The thesis has been advanced in this 
paper that it is probable the grammatical structure of the language 
has not changed appreciably from early to late times. If this is 
the case, and the ancient as well as the modern texts were written 
grammatically, there would be little difficulty, as far as the 
grammar is concerned, in understanding the early examples of 
written Maya. Observations have led me to believe, however, that 
the early texts were not written with much regard for grammar, 
even the Maya grammar built upon a Latin model. It is unusual 
to find in the early texts examples of the greater part of the ex- 
pressions given by Beltran and the other early grammarians. Their 
illustrations are, of course, in most cases grammatical but they are 
not taken from texts but are isolated sentences made up to 
illustrate the special points to which references are made. 

It seems probable that the early Maya texts are generally lack- 
ing in the finer shades of meaning which it is possible to express in 
Maya and, furthermore, it is not to be expected that forms not 
recognized by the early grammarians would always find expression 
in the texts. 

The Books of Chilam Balam, that most fertile source of texts in 
Maya, furnish examples of this lack of precise grammatical struc- 

111 



112 MAYA TEXTS 

ture. As I have written elsewhere (1917, p. 183), "It must be re- 
membered that the manuscripts themselves are, no doubt, copies of 
earlier works, collected from different individuals and often copied 
by several different hands. Some of the manuscripts seem to have 
been the work of those who did not know Maya. Several different 
spellings of the same word occur and common Maya words are 
frequently misspelled. On the other hand, some of the pages seem 
to show a surprising ignorance of Spanish — Iglesia, for example, 
is spelled in one place "Iglayci" As for the Latin words occurring 
sporadically in the text, one is not surprised to find forms difficult 
to recognize." 

It seems safe to say that these famous texts are often illiterate 
in the sense that they are probably copies of copies and have been 
garbled in passing from hand to hand to say nothing of the fact 
that in the beginning they probably did not express precisely in 
every case all the forms of the spoken Maya. We return then to 
the question asked at the beginning of the section, how much help 
is a grammar in the translation of these texts. It seems to me that 
a grammar renders surprisingly little aid in deciphering the 
documents. 

Lexicography. It is in respect to the vocabulary that the 
Maya has changed most. Words have become obsolete. New 
words have been coined and Spanish words have been introduced 
in greater or lesser numbers. 1 In spite of the tremendous advantage 
of possessing three early Maya dictionaries it is often not possible 
to determine accurately the meaning of many of the words in the 
early texts. Several of the vocabularies give examples of Maya 
construction. These forms are helpful in many cases in determin- 
ing homonyms. 

Even where there are parallel texts in Spanish and Maya as in 
the Doctrinas, there is often little help in elucidating the Maya as 
these translations are usually poorly done, not necessarily because 
of an ignorance of the proper words but from a general lack of 
forms in Maya to express properly the ideas contained in the 
"hiperboles y alegorias" of ecclesiastical Spanish or Latin. 2 

1 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 145, 146. 

2 Perez (1844) writes very pertinently on this point as follows, "Si consider a- 
mos igualmente que los antiguos escritores de doctrina y pldticas eran unos seniles 



INTRODUCTION 113 

On the other hand, the Xiu Chronicles, the Libro de Calcalchen 
and other secular texts furnish some excellent examples of parallel 
accounts in the Maya and Spanish of wills and other legal docu- 
ments. Martinez Hernandez writes substantially as follows in a 
personal letter concerning the collection of documents in the Libro 
de Calcalchen, "The Maya is very old and is a splendid specimen 
of Maya literature. Some expressions are unusual and are to be 
translated only after very diligent research. As we are familiar to 
a certain extent with the forms of the Ordenanzas, they would help 
us to translate properly and pave the way for other future transla- 
tions. I am fully convinced that the Books of Chilam Balam can 
be translated after translating all these documents. Before this 
literature came into my hands there were many words in the vo- 
cabularies the use of which I did not know." 

The later Maya texts are naturally far easier to translate on ac- 
count of the fewer changes in the vocabulary. 

The " particles of adornment" are many in Maya. 1 They add 
to the pleasure of the spoken Maya but they cause no little con- 
fusion in deciphering the written language. 

There is a large number of words in Maya with a comparatively 
large number of onomatopoeic words. 2 

Orthography. The spelling of the Maya words is often far 
from consistent. This is especially true of words with the glottal- 

traductores de las hiptrboles y alegorias de la lengua castellana y latina, vendrtmos 
en conocimiento que estos modos de decir no podian generalizarse entre los indios, 
como ajenos y distintos a los que el genio de su lengua demandaba; asi es que la 
expresion jigurada de llamar a este mundo un 'valle de lagrimas,' no es usada entre 
los indios, y cuando la encuentran traducida literalmente en la Salve, la encuentran 
pesada y no hacen de ella aplicacion alguna, y si alguno muy ladino quiere aplicar 
la idea, lo hace como muchas veces lo he oido, con las palabras de ucahal numya 
(pueblo 6 lugar de miserias 6 trabajos), que para ellos tienen igual fuerza, es el 
mismo sentido, y diferentes las voces. Hay algunas figuras castellanas que no 
pueden traducirse literalmente al idioma sin ridiculez." 

1 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 144 who writes, "No obstante, las particulas 
compositivas que no modifican el sentido, son muchisimas, las cuales, efectiva- 
mente, solo contribuyen a la variedad de las formas de la expresion consfituyendo 
asi, como el indicado padre Beltran dice, l particulas adornativas ' que facilitan 
giros de estilo de que resulta un lenguaje elegante y artistico cuando se habla Men el 
idioma.'* 

2 Compare Palma y Palma, p. 133-134, 258-269, 307. 

See discussion of the various dictionaries in Part III (p. 169). 



114 MAYA TEXTS 

ized consonants and those with doubled vowels. In several cases c 
is used for z or s and in these instances the omission of the cedilla 
with the c is a cause of great annoyance, changing, for example, 
cical (sisal) to cical (kikal). The omission of the bar with the h 
and p also adds to the confusion. In the early texts there is no 
proper division into words and sentences. Just as a word may be 
spelled in several different ways on the same page so a word may 
be divided in many different ways in succeeding lines. 1 This lack 
of consistency in writing and spacing the Maya is a cause of 
great confusion. 2 The Berendt copies of many of the Chilam 
Balam texts are very useful in this respect. 3 The punctuation as 
used in the early documents is of no value whatsoever and the 
very common failure to capitalize proper names is still another 
cause of difficulties. 

Chirography. The handwriting in these early texts is often 
very difficult to make out. There is usually a complete failure to 
distinguish between v and b. Several different varieties of hand- 
writing are often seen in the same manuscript. 

Possibility of Translation. I have already discussed in an- 
other place the possibility of a faithful translation of the ancient 
Maya texts, especially those of the Chilam Balam Books (Tozzer, 
1917). I am still of the opinion that many parts of the early docu- 
ments will defy translation. 4 These portions are, for the most part, 

1 On a single page in the Chumayel manuscript within six lines the following 
varieties of spelling and spacing are found : 

uhool u poop u hoi pop 

uhol u pop u holpop 

u hoi u poop 
Compare the different versions of the same prophecy as given in the Tizimin, 
the Chumayel and the Liz ana texts (p. 122). 

2 In the Chumayel version of one of the prophecies (Chilam Balam de 
Chumayel, p. 106) there is found, for example, the following division of words : 
ytzam = nakauil for ytzamna kauil. As Ytzamna is a main god of the Mayas, 
one would think that the copyist would have known how to write this name 
properly. 

3 Compare Tozzer, 1917, p. 183. 

4 I have submitted this portion of the manuscript, as well as a great part of 
the remainder, to Seiior Juan Martinez Hernandez and he agrees with me in 
all the statements contained in Part II. He writes, "The parts dealing with 
their ancient mythology and the esoteric language of the Maya priests may 



THE INDIANS OF CHAN SANTA CRUZ 115 

those dealing with Maya ritual and, in a figurative way, with the 
coming of the new religion and the change to the worship of the 
true God. 1 

Many parts are translatable but only after the most careful 
study. There is a great opportunity for mistakes and there are 
many places where more than one rendering of the text is possible. 
It is in such places that time and patience are needed. 

There follow some examples of Maya texts with translations, 
starting with the modern Maya and going back to the Maya of the 
Prophecies and of the Books of Chilam Balam. 

1. THE INDIANS OF CHAN SANTA CRUZ 2 

Tu haab-il 1847 liqil u-ka-pul le-wink-ob leeti 

In the year 1847 arose for second time these men (Indians) this 

u-haab-il tal-ob u-took-ob Saki tan nohots kah: 

its year they came to burn Valladolid in the midst of a large pueblo : 

yaab pal-al tu-kim-s-ob : 3 be-san tulakal kah-ob tu-took- 

many boys they killed: thus also all the habitations they 

ah-ob ku A o'ok-ol ka-bin-ob Santa Cruz u-qaba 

burned when its completion again they went (to) Santa Cruz its name 

tak helae ti-an-ob 5 ti buk-ah haab yaab : yet wink-il-ob 

until now there they are there so many years many : and men 

o'oki u-kim-s-ik-ob : luum utsuk man-ob nohots: 

they have just finished killing: the land where they pass is great: 

yaab-ob san : helae u-yum oik benil Mexico 

(there are) many (of) the same ones: now their lord, his Honorable Mexico 

tun sup-ik u-taqin yetel u-meq-tan-ob yoklal u-o'ok-s-ik 

he is spending his money and his dependents so that they cause to end 

prevent or defy translation. ... It is by the abundance of these examples 
(Maya constructions given in the vocabularies) that we can find our way in 
ascertaining so many homonyms of the brief and concise monosyllabic Maya. 
Compound verbs are difficult to make out. These are often conjugated as 
simple verbs with additional words completing the same." 

1 Compare in this respect the variation in the Maya of the same text (p. 122) 
as well as the different possibilities in translating the Maya. 

2 This text was collected by the author in 1900 at Uayma, near Valladolid, 
Yucatan, from an Indian named Marcelino Tas. 

3 Or tu-kim-s-ah-ob, they caused to die. 

4 Ku, a contraction of ka-u. 

6 This is really a contraction of ti-yan-ob. 



116 MAYA TEXTS 

le-batel-o: utial le-wink-ob-o hu-hum-p'it-il tuno'ok-ol: 

that war: in order that those men one by one may be exterminated : 

tan §an u-boot-k-ob tulakal baa§ u-meya-m-ob 

they also are paying (the penalty for) all which they worked 

ti Yucatan: yan u-o'ok-ol tumen o'u-qut§-ul tu haab-il 

in Yucatan : there is its ending because it has arrived the year 

u-o'ok-ol: le-buk-ah luum yan-il-ob bin-u-kah p'atal 

its completion : all that land where they are they are coming to leave 

yalan u-qab yum halat§ winik tu sebal: behelae yaab 

under his arm the lord great man as quickly: now many 

mak o'ok u-kah-al te Santa Cruz: u-t§ikul tu o'oko[l] 

persons finished (making) their town in Santa Cruz : its sign of its ending 

tumen mi-nan u-o'on le-wink-ob hebis le bin-s-ah 

because there are no guns the men like (the ones) they raised 

yoqol-ob leeti utsben baal: kin sut-in-wal-e utsben o'on-ob 

above them this (in )f ormer custom : I return to say the former guns 

ma tan u-pat-al-ob ma be ut§i: qut§ tu haab-il 

they are not serviceable (it was) not thus formerly : there came the year 

tu yalkab-an-s-ob o'ul tumen masewal ku o'ok-ol 

they caused to run the strangers lor the Indians after the completion 

ka-sut-n-ah-i yoqol-ob ma tu met-h-ob misbal tak behelae : 

when they returned above them they did not do anything until now: 

ud san yoqlal u-yan-tal ka-p'el hol-be utial yookol koon-ol 

it is well also because they have two doors in order to enter to sell 

tile wai laqin: tak behelae ooo-il u-kah-il-ob utsik 

by here the east : until now are the poor the ones of the pueblo formerly 

u-took-(i)k-ob yaab baal: ut§i qas-ob tumen tu 

they burn many things : formerly they are bad because they 

qas-kun-t-h-ob behelae tune tun yil-k-ob ba§ u-o'ok 

bad things they did now finally they see it what its end 

lobil-il bisa wa uo-h-oob misma bin me-t-ik San 

to the wickedness how if they are good nothing comes to cause the same 

lob-ti-ob: behelae mi§un noq-ob misun han-l-ob: yan tsen 

evil things: now nothing clothes nothing to eat: there is only 

tu tsun-t§e ku wen-l-ob tei yahal-kab-ti-ob: 

the branches of the tree where they sleep there they wake up in the morning: 

be-ku-ka§-t-ob ha yuq-ob be tei ku-kim-1-oob u-hut§ 

thus then they seek water to drink thus there they die in the greater 

yaa-h-il leeti le-ooo-il pal-al ku-kim-1-ob tak tun leeti-ob boo-t-ik 

misery these poor children they may die until they these pay 



THE INDIANS OF CHAN SANTA CRUZ 117 

u-sipil u-tata-ob u-han-1-ob tsen u-moo'-tSe yetel 

their sins their fathers they eat only the roots of the trees with 

yit§-t§e mi-nan §iim: utial u-man-s-ik u-kus-tal-ob 

the fruit of the trees there is no maize : in order to carry on their lives 

yetel tut§i qaanab tei- ku-ka§-t-ik u-ku§-tal-ob. 

and gifts of the sea there they seek it their lives. 

Free Translation 

For the second time, in the year 1847, these Indians rose in arms. 
That is the year in which they came to burn Valladolid, the large 
city. They killed many people. They also burned all the houses. 
After they had finished, they returned to the place called Santa 
Cruz where they are now and where they have been for many years. 
They have just been killing men of their own race. The land 
where they live is large. There are many of them there. Now their 
master is the President of Mexico. He is spending his money and 
his people also in order to put an end to the war, in order that these 
men, one by one, may be exterminated. They are paying the 
penalty for all they did in Yucatan. It has to end because the 
time for the ending has come. All that land where they are is 
about to come under the rule of the President. Many persons have 
already gone to live in Santa Cruz. This is a proof of the ending 
of the war because those Indians do not now have guns like the 
ones they formerly carried. I repeat, the old guns are now good 
for nothing, nothing like the former ones with which they put to 
flight the Spaniards (strangers) . After the Indians had finished the 
attack, they have done nothing up to the present time. This is 
also well because they have two avenues to sell their wares here 
in the east. Even to-day the villagers are poor because they for- 
merly burned many things. Formerly they were bad because they 
did bad things. Now, finally, they see the result of their wicked- 
ness; now, if they are good, nothing comes to cause the same evil 
things. 1 Now they have neither clothes nor food. They have only 
the branches of the trees under which to sleep where morning 

1 Martinez, who has been good enough to offer many suggestions, has 
translated this still more freely as follows: — "Formerly they were bad be- 
cause they had bad examples set before them, now, then, they can discrimi- 
nate better what is right and what is wrong and will no longer do any harm to 
them." 



118 MAYA TEXTS 

awakens them. They seek water to drink. They thus die in the 
greatest misery, this poor people. They may die until they pay for 
the sins of their fathers. They eat only the roots of the trees and 
the fruit of the trees. There is no maize to nourish them. In order 
to find nourishment they go to the shores of the sea. 

2. LACANDONE CHANT 

Fifty-one chants were collected by the writer in 1902 and 1903 
among the Lacandones of Chiapas, Mexico. These people, as 
already pointed out, speak practically the same dialect of the Maya 
stock as that of the natives of Yucatan. The language of these 
chants is generally simple. Syllables are often added at the end 
of words to preserve a rhythm. The single chant given here has 
already been published (Tozzer, 1907, p. 171-172). I have given a 
more literal translation than that previously printed. The reader 
is referred to the former paper (p. 169-189) for the other chants. 

When Copal and Posole are Distributed in the 
Ceremony of Renewing the Incense-Burners 

Tan in kub-ik in pom k-et§ tiala kub-ik 

I am restoring it my offering of copal to you for you to restore it 

t-ik * yum tiala nas-ik 2 t-ik yum. Hen boo-t-ik-ets 

to the father, for you to raise it up to the father. I will pay it to you 

in tsula t-ets uhel a kunya tiala kub-t-ik 

my offering of posol to you again (for) your welfare for you to restore it 

yum. Hen boo-t-ik-et§ in tsula t-ets tiala ti-lili. 

to the father. I will pay it to you my offering of posol to you for you yourself. 

Tan in mee-t-ik in sil t-ets-ki uhel a kunya. Bin-in-kin 3 pok 

I am making it my gifts to you again (for) your welfare. I am about to dry 

in sil t-ets ma tu buh-ul ma u lak-al 

my gifts to you, may they not be affected by crumble may they not separate 

u-hol in sil t-ets. Ma tu wak-al in sil t-ets. 

(as to) their heads my gifts to you. May they not crack my gifts to you. 

Ma tu pas-al in sil t-et§. II in mee-t-ik in sil t-ets, 

May they not break my gifts to you. See my making them my gifts to you, 

1 Kub-ik t-ik is equivalent to kub-t-ik. 

2 nas-ik is the same as nak-s-ik. 

3 Literally, I am going to. 



A MAYA WITCH STORY 119 

yume. Ma tu lub-ul tsak-wil-ki. Bin-in-k-in pul-ik et§ 

oh father. May not be affected by a fall fever. I am about to place you 

yoko tumu lak. II in mee-t-ik in sil t-et§ uhel 
(the idol) in the new brasero. See my making them my gifts to you again 

a kunya. II in mee-t-ik in sil t-et§ tia yol 

(for) your welfare. See my making them my gifts to you for the health 

in pal-al. Ma u nak-tan-t-ik yah-il, ma u 

my children. May not trample them under foot harm, my not trample 

nak-tan-t-ik keel, ma u nak-tan-t-ik tsak-wil. Ooken 

them under foot cold, may not trample them under foot fever. Enter, 

ta simbal a wil-ik in pal, a-kun-e in pal. 
walk you see my son, cure my son. 

3. A MAYA WITCH STORY 

The original text was collected by Berendt in Peten in 1866. 
The manuscript is now in the Berendt Linguistic Collection (Br. 
498. 21. M. L. 545). The text and an English translation of Be- 
rendt's German translation were published by Brinton (1883 and 
1890) . A few changes have been made and a literal translation has 
been added. The simple tale shows certain features which seem to 
be of European origin. 

Hun-tul H-sib o'ook-u-bel yetel hun-tul i-s-ts'up ma tu-yohel-t-ah wa 
One man married with one woman not did he know her as 

s-wai. Hun-p'e qin tu yal-ah-ti, " Huts'e ka-p'el mut taab." 
a witch. One day he said to her, "Grind two measures of salt." 

Tu huts'-ah paibe ka tu qat-ah, " Baas tial tets? " 

She ground them first when she asked him, " Why [do] you [wish it?] " 

Hun-p'el aqab pisaan H-sib-e ka tu yil-ah u-hoq-ol u-yatan. 
One night awoke the man when he saw she goes out his wife. 

Ka tu-tsa-ah u maskabe, ka tu mukul t'ul-bel-ah tu pat§ ti 
When he took his axe, when he secretly followed her behind to 

qas. Ka qutsi-ob ti tsitsan tsaqan, yan u sas-il 

the wood. When they arrived at a little pasture, there is its brightness 

uh. Ka tu muk-u-b-ah H-sib tu booy nohots yas-tse. 

a moon. When he hid himself, the man, in the shade of a great seiba tree. 

Ka tu pul-ah u noq s-ts'up tu pats waan 

When she threw her clothes, the woman, behind her standing 



120 MAYA TEXTS 

§-ma-buk tu tan uh; ka tu o'ip-ah u-yot'el, 

she without covering in its face the moon; when she stripped off her skin, 

ka kul-hi tsem-bak: ka nak-i ti kaan: ka 

when she remained mere bones: when she arose to the sky: when 

em-i tu-ka-ten, ka tu-yal-ah-i: " Sao'aba §ta-kaan? " 

she descended again, when he said to her, "stretch yourself to the sky? " 

Hemak ma utsak u nak-al tu-ka-ten tumen tu t'oot'-al taab. 
But not possible her ascending again because he sprinkled salt. 

Free Translation 

A man (once) married a woman. The man did not know that 
his wife was a witch. One day, he said to her, " Grind two meas- 
ures of salt/' She ground them and then she asked him, " Why do 
you wish this?" One night he awoke and saw his wife go out. 
Taking his axe, he secretly followed her to the wood. They arrived 
at a little pasture in the bright moonlight. The man hid himself in 
the shadow of a great seiba tree. The woman threw her clothes 
behind her, standing naked in the moonlight. When she stripped 
off her skin she appeared mere bones. Then she arose into the sky, 
returning again (to the earth),. Then the man said to her, " Would 
you reach the sky? " But she could not ascend a second time as he 
sprinkled salt. 

4. PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 

This is one of the Maya prophecies which are discussed in Part 
III (p. 192). l The text is given of the Chumayel version (Chilam 

r This prophecy is undoubtedly the one referred to by Cogolludo (1688, 
p. 199) and also in the Relation de la Ciudad de Merida, dated 1579 and signed 
by Gaspar Antonio Xiu among others. This Relation is reprinted in Coleccion 
de Documentos Intditos, v. 11, p. 37-75. As Martinez Hernandez has pointed 
out, this statement in the Merida report is so very important that I reprint it 
here. 

" Ubo algunas provincias que nunca dieron guerra, sino que rrescibieron a los 
espanoles de paz, en especial la provintia de Tutulxiu cuya cabegera era y es el 
pueblo de Mani, catorce leguas de esta tiudad al sueste, donde ubo pocos anos antes 
que los espanoles viniesen a conquistar esta tierra un yndio principal, que era 
sacerdote, llamado Chilan-balam, que le tenian por gran prof eta y adivino, y este 
les dixo que dentro de breve tiempo vernia de hazia donde sale el sol una jente blanca 

barbada, y que traerian levantada una serial como esta *{*, ala qual no podian 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 121 

Balam de Chumayel, p. 105-107), the Tizimin version (Chilam 
Balam de Tizimin, Gates reproduction, p. 17, 18), and the Lizana 
version (Lizana, 1633; ed. 1893, p. 38-39). I have added a read- 
ing of the Maya text as interpreted by Martinez Hernandez. 

The variations in the four versions should be noted, not only in 
the spellings but in the words themselves. The Chumayel version 
has frequent interpolations by the author of the copy. The trans- 
lation of Lizana which, in general, is that followed by Carrillo y 
Ancona and many others is given in English together with the 
Spanish text. 1 I have attempted a new translation, following in 
the main the Martinez text. In a few cases a rendering of portions 
of the text into English by Martinez is given. 

It will be noted that there are several passages which still remain 
far from clear in spite of the different authors who have worked 
upon them. Lizana's translation, which is very good as a free 
rendering, does not follow the text at all closely in several places. 
He has left out many words and particles. 

This passage is given in order to illustrate some of the difficulties 
spoken of in the introduction to this section. It should be remem- 
bered that these Maya texts are transcribed into the system of 
writing Maya adopted in this work. The division into syllables 
is the work of the author. 

llegar sus Dioses, y huyan della, yque estajente avia de senorear la tierra, y que a los 
que los rrecibiesen de paz no les harian mat nynguno, y a los que les hiziesen guerra 
los matarian, y que los naturales de la tierra dejarian sus ydolos y adorarian un solo 
Dios, que ellos adoraban y avian de predicar, y les serian tributarios, e hizo tejer 
una manta de algodon y les dixo que de aquella suerte avia de ser el tributo que les 
avian de dar, y mando al senor de Many, que se llamaba Mochanxiu, que ofreciese 
a los ydolos aquella manta para que estubiese guardada y quedase por memoria, y 
aquella serial de cruz y otras hizo hazer de piedra labrada y ponerlas en los patios 
de los templos donde pudiese ser vista de todos, y dixo que aquel era el arbol verde del 
mundo, e yvan aberla mucha jente por cosa nueba, y parecia que la beneraban desde 
entonzes, y despues quando vinieron los espanoles y supieron que trayan la serial 
de la santa cruz, que era como la que su prof eta chilam balam les avia figurado, 
tuvieron por cierto lo que les avia dicho, y determinaron de rrecebir a los espanoles 
de paz y no les hazer guerra, sino ser sus amigos, como siempre lo han sido despues 
que poblaron estas provincias, y les ayudaron con mantenimientos e jente de guerra 
de servicio para conquistar e pacificar otras provincias." 
1 For bibliographical notes on editions of this Prophecy, see p. 192-194. 



122 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tizimin: u profesia Chilam Balam tis kayom x kabal tsen Man: 

Chumayel: u profeciado de Chilam Balam de sis koyom ka-wi tsen Mani: 
Lizana: profecias de Chilan Kalam de sii kayon ka-wi t§en Mani: 

Martinez: u prof ecia Chilam Balam tis kayon ka- wits ts'en Mani: 

Tozzer: His prophecy Chilam Balam of singer Cawich Chen 2 of Mani 
Martinez : Kayom 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 



oslahun 
oslahun 
oslahun 
oslahun 
In 13 



Ahau u-heo'i-wil 
Ahau u-hiho'-wil 
Ahau u-heo'i-wil 
Ahau u-heo'i-wil Qatun 

Ahau its established Katun 



At the end of the 13th epoch being in power 



Martinez: 



Qatun walak-wil 

Qatun-e walak-wil 

Qatun walak-wil 

walak-wil 

at this time 

it may be 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 



Itza 
Itza 
Itza 
Itza 



walak-wil 
walak-wil 
walak-wil 
walak-wil 



tan-kahe 
tan-kah-e 
tan-kat§-e 
tan-kah-e 



yum 
yum-e 
yum 
yum-e 



u-tsikul hunab 
u-tsikul hunab 
u-tsikul hunab 
u-tsikul hunab 



the Itzas at this time in Tancah 
the Itzas (and )Tancah 3 



oh Father his sign the only 
the sign of a 



Martinez : ye Itzas it may be ye citizens 4 Sirs, 



qu kanal u-lom u-aom-tse 

qu kanal hu-lom u-aom-tse 

qu kanal hu-lom u-alom-tse 

qu kanal hu-lom u-ahom-t§e 5 

God on high his cross his cross of wood 

God (who is) on high (will come) the cross 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : will come from heaven (to us) 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : 



etsah-om ti kah-e u-tsebal 

etsah-an ti bal-kah-e u-tsebal 

etkah-an ti kats-e u-tsewal 

etsah-an ti bal-kah-e u-tsebal 



the cross 

u-sas-hal 
u-sas-hal 
u-kas-hal 
u-sas-hal 



a demonstration to the world with which day breaks 
will show itself to the world with which was lighted 
will be shown to the world so that be enlightened the 



yoqol 
yoqol 
yoqal 
yoqol 
above 



1 The verb, to sing, is qai. The text is clearly kay which is translated by 
Martinez as a proper noun. 

2 There is a town of this name near Mani. 

3 Lizana interpolates. See his translation, p. 129. 

4 Martinez translates this ciudadano 6 el que vivo en el centro 6 medio del 
pueblo (Ticul, p. 164). He notes that Tancah had been destroyed with Maya- 
pan many years previously. 

5 Martinez writes, " u-ahom-tse is the tree of life, arbol de nuestra subsis- 
tencia and wa-om-tse is picota, horca, the cross of Jesus, his punishment." 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 



123 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 



kab-e 
kab-e 
kab-e 
kab-e 



yum 
yum-e 
yum 
yum 



uts 



ut§ 



o'uni 
o'uni to 
o'uni 
o'uni 



the earth, oh Father a long time ago there began 
the earth, there will be 



Martinez: world, Sirs, 



for a long time there has been 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar.: 
Tozzer: 
Lizana : 



mok-tam-ba o'uni 

mok-tan-ba uts o'uni 

mok-tan-ba o'uni 

mok-t'an-ba uts o'uni 

fighting with one another a long time ago there began 
a division 



Martinez: political divisions 



for a long time there has been 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : 

Tiz.: 
Chu.: 
Liz. : 
Mar.: 
Tozzer : 
Lizana: 
Martinez : 



sawinal 
sawinal 
kawinal * 
sawinal 

confusion 



ka tal-on 
ka tal-on 
ka tal-om 
ka tal-on 

when we came 



tipul 
tipul 
ti pul 
tipul 



tsikul 
tsikul 
tsikul 
tsikul 



among the wills 2 when is brought 
discord 



carrying the sign: 

the sign (in the future) 



quutsmal 
utsmal-e 
utsmal 
utimal-e 



ah qin winik-e 
ah qin-i winik-e 
ah qin winik-e 
ah qin winik-e 



yum 
yum-e 
yum 
yum-e 



hun-awat 3 hun 
hun-awat hun 
hun-awat hun 
hun-awat hun 



at another time the priest of the men the Father one quarter (of) one 
before arriving the priests, men a quarter (and) a 

in that time ye priests of the idols 



lub-i 
lub-i 
lub-i 
lub-i 



wil 
wil 
wil 
wil 



u-tal 
u-tal 
u-tal 
u-tal 



a-wil-ik-es mut-e 
a-wil-k-es mut-e 
a-wil-k-es mut-e 



league so that it comes you will see fame 
league you will see 



quetzal bird 



u-tip'il yetel 
u-t'ipil yetel 
u-tip'il yetel 
appearing with 
appearing 



1 This reading of Lizana is doubtless due to the omission of the cedilla 
under the c making it k instead of s. 

2 The Spanish is voluntaries. 

3 This is literally, one grito, a numeral suffix used to count miles and quarters 
of a league. 

4 The idea, as interpreted by Martinez, is that the quetzal will appear with 
the Maya cross as it is represented on the bas-reliefs at Palenque. 



124 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez: 



ahom x wil kab hun saman hun tsiqin 

u-aom-tse a ho-hom kab hun saman hun tsiqin 

u-aom-tse ahom wil kab hun saman hun tsaqin 

u-ahom-tse ahom wil kab hun saman hun tsiqin 

his cross of wood illuminate the earth one south one west 

the cross illuminate from pole to pole 

the Maya cross will illuminate the world in the four cardinal points. 



Tiz.: ahom Itzamna qawil : tal-el u-kah 

Chu. : ahom Itzamna qawil tal-el u-kah 

Liz.: ahuom Itzamna qawil: tal-el u-ah 

Mar.: ahom Itzamna qabwil: tal-el u-kah 

Tozzer: illuminate Itzamna,Kabwil 2 ; he is coming 

Lizana: (the worship of) vain gods will cease; he is coming 



Tiz.: 
Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar. : 
Tozzer : 



a yum Itza 
ka yum Itza 
ka yum Itzaa 
ka yum Itza 

your father, Itzas 



tal-el u-kah 
tal-el u-kah 
tal-el u-kah 
tal-el u-kah 

he is coming 



Lizana: your father, oh, Itzas he is coming 



u 

ka 

a 



sas-kun 
su-kun 
su-kun 
su-kun 

your brother, 
your brother 



Martinez : 



they are coming your brothers 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar.: 
Tozzer: 
Lizana : 



tan tun-e : 
ah tan tun-e : 
tan tunk: 
ah tan kun-e : 



qam 
qam 
qama 
qam 



a-wula 
a-wula-ob 
a-wula 
a-wula 



ah-mes-ob 
ah-mes-ob 
ah-u-mes-ob 
ah-mes-ob 



place him ahead of others; receive your guests the bearded ones 
oh, Tantunites; receive your guests the bearded ones 



Tiz.: 
Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar.: 
Tozzer : 



liqin 

ah liqin 

liqin 

liqin 

the east, 



Lizana: (of) the east 



kab-ob 
kab-ob 
kab-ob 
kab-ob 

the villagers 



ah-pul-ob 
ah-pul 
ah-pul 
ah-pul 

the carriers 



tu tsikul 
tu tSikul 
tu t§ikul 
tu tsikul 

his sign 



(who come) to carry the sign (of) 



1 ahom from anal. 

2 Martinez has pointed out in Lizana (1633 ed. 1883, f . 4 ob) the following 
quotation in reference to this place in the text, "Falso Dios Ytsmat vl, donde 
pusieron lafigura de la mano, que les servia de memoria; y dizen que alii le llevaban 
los muertos, y enfermos, y que alii resucitaban, y sanaban tocandolos la mano, y 
este era el que esta en la parte del Puniente, y assi se llama y nombra Kal vl, que 
quiere desir, mano obradora." 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 



125 



Tiz.: 


qu yum 


uoqa 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Chu.: 


qu-e yum-e 


uoqa 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Liz.: 


qu-e yum 


uoqa 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Mar.: 


qu-e yum 


uoka 


u-t'an 


qu ku-tal-el 


Tozzer: 


God the Lord 


to arrange his word 


God who may come 


Lizana: 


God 






(It is) God who comes, 


Tiz.: 


qiknale 




tal-el u-kah 


u-t'an-il u-qin 


Chu.: 


kiknale 




tal-el u-kah 


u-qin 


Liz.: 


kiknale 




tal-el qa-u-kah 


i u-qin 


Mar. : , 


yiknale 




tal-el u-kah 


u-t'an-il u-qin 


Tozzer : 


in (your) company, 


he is coming 


(to bring) order the time 


Lizana : 


(he is) gentle and pious, 


he is coming 


the new 


Martinez 








to establish the day 


Tiz.: 


ka ku§-tal-e 


ma a sah-t-ik ] 


yoqol-kab-e 2 yum 


Chu.: 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma a sah-t-ik 


yoqol-kab-e yum-e 


Liz.: 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma ak « 


i sah-t-ik 


yoqol-kab-e yum 


Mar.: 


ka kus-tal-e 


ma ah sah-t-ik 


yoqol-kab-e yum 


Tozzer: 


again living: 


you do not fear him above the earth Father, 


Lizana : 


in our life : 3 


you have nothing to fear from the earth 


Martinez 


: of resurrection 








Tiz.: 


lets hunab qu 


ts'ab-t-i 


koon uo-tum-ba 


Chu.: 


tets hunak qu 


t§'ab-t-i 


kon uh-tun-bak 


Liz.: 


tet§ hunak qu 


tsab-t-i 


kom u-uo-tun-bak 


Mar.: 


tets Hunab qu 


t§'ab-t-ik koon uo-tan-ba 


Tozzer: 


you the only God 


created 


us good for themselves 


Lizana : 


you (are) the c 


>nly God (who) created 


us good 


Tiz.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum 




Chu.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum-e y(etel) ah-kan-ul ka 


Liz.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum 




Mar.: 


u-t'an qu-e 




yum 


ah-kam-ul ka 


Tozzer : 


his words, God 




Father and 


the caretaker (of) our 


Lizana : 


(are) the words of God 4 







1 Martinez suggests that this may be read, a despertar 6 iluminar al mundo, 
He thinks the rendering given here by Lizana and by the author is more prob- 
able however. 

2 Martinez thinks that yoqol-kab is simply " the earth " for those who live 
in it. 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 530) translates this, "ya viene el tiempo de 
nuestra vida." 

4 Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 530) gives this as the translation here. Lizana 
omits it, probably by mistake. • 



126 MAYA TEXTS 

Tiz.: 

Chu. : pisan hemak bin qam u-hats okan-ti yole ti kaan 

Liz.: 

Mar. : pisan hemak bin qam u-hats okan-ti yole ti kaan 

Tozzer: souls he who goes to receive very true faith to heaven 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: u-bin tu-pats hewak u-tsun ka qin winik-il. 1 

Liz.: 

Mar.: u-bin tu-pats hewak u-tsun ka bin (?) winik-il. 

Tozzer: goes ahead but begins our day of men. 

Lizana : 

Martinez : porque es que fueron los indios, en su compania el dia de nuestra re- 
division, or sea cuando principiemos por la gracia division a ser hombres 
nuevamente. 



Tiz.: 


ka wakunto u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


a wakunto ka 


Chu.: 


ka wakunto u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


wakunto 


Liz.: 


ka wakunto u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


wakunto ka 


Mar.: 


ka wakunto u-tsikul 


kanal 


ka 


wakunto ka 


Tozzer: 


We extol 


his sign 


on high, 


we 


extol, we 


Lizana: 


(Let) us praise his sign 


on high 


(let) us praise it by 


Tiz.: 


pak-te helee 


ka 


wakunto 


u 


u-aom-tse 


Chu.: 








yetel 


ua-om-t§e 


Liz.: 


pak-te hele 


ka 


wakunto 


yu 


a-om-tsek 


Mar.: 


pak-te hele 


ka 


wakunto 




ua-hom-tse 


Tozzer: 


see (it) now 


we 


extol 


his 


; cross of wood 


Lizana: 


seeing and adoring it, we 


must praise 


the cross: 


Tiz.: 


num-te tan 


u-qes-ah 


oqol 


helee 


u-hel-tu-pats 


Chu.: 


num-te tan 


uqas a 


u-hoqol 


hele 


u-hel-tu-pats 


Liz.: 


num-te tan 


uqes a 


tsoqol 


hele 


u-hel-tu-pats 


Mar.: 


num-te tan (tak) uqes a 


wolah 


hele 


u-hel-tu-pats 


Tozzer: 


misery 


it changed 


discord 


now 


restore 


Lizana : 


falsehood 


in exchange 




to-day 


will appear against 


Tiz.: 


u-yas tseel 


ka 


et sah-om 


helel 


Chu.: 


u-yas tseel 


kab 


et sah-an 


helel 


Liz.: 


u-yah tseel 


kab 


et kah-an 


hele 


Mar.: 


u-yas t§eel 


kab 


et sah-an 


hele 


Tozzer: 


the first tree 


of the world: 


a demonstration 


now 


Lizana : 


the first tree 


of the world 


a demonstration 


to-day (is made) 



1 These words, given only in the Chumayel, are an interpolation by the 
copyist of the Chumayel manuscript. • 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 



127 



Tiz. : ti bal-kah-e la u-tsikul 

Chu. : ti bal-kah-e la u-tsikul 

Liz. : ti bal-kal-he la u-tsiqul 

Mar. : ti bal-kah-e la u-tsikul 

Tozzer: to the world: this his sign 

Lizana: to the world: (there is a) sign 



hunab qu kanal tal ome 



hunab 
hunab 
hunab 
only 
of a 



qu kanal-e 
qu kanal 
qu kanal 
god on high 
god on high 



tal emel 

come, lower 



Tiz.: 
Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar. : 
Tozzer: 
Lizana : 

Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana : 

Martinez : 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 



laa 
lae 

laak 

la 

all 



qui tes 
a-qul tes 
a-qul tes 
a-qul tes 
reverence you 
worship it 



ah-Itzae s 
ah-Itzae 
ah-Itzaao 
ah-Itzae 

oh, Itzas 
oh, Itzas 



ka 
ka 
ka 
ka 

and 
we 



a-qul-te 
a-qul-te 
a-qul-te 
a-qul-te 

reverence 



quliqul kanal-e kak qul-te to 



reverence 



qol-ah 
kol-ah 
kol-ah 
wol-ah 

good- will : 



kanal-e 

kanal 

kanal-e 

on high 



ka 
ka 
ka 

and 



ka a-qul-te 
ka qul-te 
ka a-qul-te 
ka a-qul-te 
and adore 



a-qul-te to 
a-qul-te to 

qul-te 

reverence 

shall reverence 



to ka 



hele 

helel 

hele 

hele 

now 



Lizana : good- will : 



we shall adore 



tu 

tu 

tu 

tu 

with 

with 

with 



u-tslts-il 
u-tsikul 
u-tsiqlul 
u-tsikul 

his sign, 



hah-il 
hah-il 
hah-ik 
hah-il 

true 
true 
all your 



or with true 



hah-al qu-e 

hah-al qu hehelae 

ka hah-al qak 

ka hah-al qu-e 

him our true God now 

our true God 



Martinez : heart or good faith 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 

Liz.: 

Mar.: 

Tozzer: 

Lizana: 

Martinez : 



okestaba u-t'an hunab 

yum-e okestaba u-t'an hunab 

okestaba u-t'an hunab 

okestaba u-t'an hunab 

oh, Father: receive his word only 

receive the word (of) the true 



qu-e 

qu-e yum-e 

qu-e yum 

qu-e yum 

God 

God 



believe the commandments of the only God 



Tiz.: 

Chu.: 
Liz.: 
Mar.: 
Tozzer: 



tal-i 
tal-i 
tal-i 
tal-i 

he came 



kanal 
ti kaan 
ti kaan 
ti kaan 
from ori high 



a-wah fan l 

a-wah fan be 

a-wah fan 

a wah-f an-e 

the commandments: 



ul-e kus-kin 
kus-kin 

u-e kus-kin 
kus-kin 
invigorate 



Lizana : (who) comes from heaven to you speaks : 



1 These two words are difficult to translate, 
mandments. 



I suggest halmah-fan, com- 



128 



MAYA TEXTS 



Tiz.: 


ta-wol-ah 


Itza 


ahom J 


Chu.: 


ka-a-wol-ah 


Itzae 


ahom 


Liz.: 


qa-a-wol-ah 


Itzaa 


ah horn 


Mar.: 


ka wol 




ah Itzae 


ah horn 


Tozzer: 


your good-will Itzas 


illuminate 


Lizana : 


your will 




(and be one) of the Itzas will be enlightened 


Tiz.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-s-ik ti yol itsil u-yan-al 


Chu.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-s-ik-ob ti yol-e it§il u-yan-al 


Liz.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-k-ik-ob ti yol itsil u-yan-al 


Mar.: 


wilkab-ti-ob 


ok-s-ik-ob ti yol itsil u-yan-al 


Tozzer: 


the earth for them cause to enter the spirit within its other 


Lizana: 






those who believe in to come 


Tiz.: 


Qatun 




wale 


yab tuba in fan 


Chu.: 


Qatun-e 


yum 


-e 


yoq tuba in fan 


Liz.: 


Qutun 






yoq tuba in fan 


Mar.: 


Qatun 




wale 


yok tuba in fan 


Tozzer: 


Katun, 




afterwards : 


believe (in) my words 


Lizana : 


the age: 




Note 


if you care (for what) I say (to you), 


Tiz.: 


ken 


Chilam Balam ka 


in ool-ah u-fan 


Chu.: 


ken 


Chilam Balam ka 


in ool-ah u-fan 


Liz.: 


ken 


Chilan Balan kan in ool-ah u-fan 


Mar.: 


ken 


Chilan Balam ka 


in ool-ah u-fan 


Tozzer: 


I am 


Chilam Balam and I interpreted his word 


Lizana: 


I charge 


Chilam Balam 


your interpreter; I say (that which) 


Tiz.: 


hahal 


qu 




in bin 


Chu.: 


habal 


qu 


tu sin-il-e 


yoqol-kab-e yabi 


Liz.: 


hahal 


qu 




inbi 


Mar. : 


hahal 


qu 


tu sin-il-e 


yoqol-kab-e yubi 


Tozzer: 


the true 


God among all 


above the earth to know I go 


Lizana: 


the true 


God 


ordered 


Tiz.: 


hunak 




ouk ti kab. 




Chu.: 


hunak 




ouk ti kab-e. 




Liz.: 


hunak 




ouk ti kah. 




Mar.: 


hunak 




ouk ti kah-e. 




Tozzer: 


many 




portions of the pueblo. 


Lizana : 


porque dello 


sea el mundo sabedor. 



1 The text from here to the end, according to Martinez, forms the "esoteric 
Maya invocation at the end of the Katuns." 



PROPHECY OF CHILAM BALAM 129 

Free Translation 

The Prophecy of Chilam Balam, the singer of Cawich Chen of 
Mani. In the Katun beginning in Ahau 13, the Itzas were in 
Taricah at this time. Oh, Father, the sign of the only God on high 
is the cross, the wooden cross. This will be shown to the world so 
that the world will be enlightened. Oh, Father, a long time ago, 
there began wranglings and confusion when we came bringing the 
sign. At another time, the priest of the Indians arrived. From a 
quarter of a league away you will see fame coming with the cross 
lighting up all parts of the world, also Itzamna Kabwil. Your 
Father, oh Itzas, is coming. Your brother is coming. Place him 
ahead of all. Receive your guests, the bearded men, the villagers 
from the East, the bearers of the sign of God, the Father. The 
Lord is coming in your company to promulgate his command- 
ments. He is coming to arrange the day of resurrection. You do 
not fear him who is above the earth. Oh, Father, you are the only 
God who created us. Good are the commandments of God, the 
Father, the caretaker of our souls. He who accepts the true faith, 
goes upwards to heaven. Our time has come (?). We extol his 
sign above, we extol it by looking at it, we extol his cross. In ex- 
change for misery and discord restore the first tree of the world. 
Show this now to the world, the sign of the only God on high. You, 
oh Itzas, reverence all, reverence the one on high, reverence with 
true good-will and worship him, our true God. Now, oh Father, 
receive the commandments of the only God who came from on 
high. Invigorate your good-will, oh Itzas, the earth is enlightened. 
The spirit enters in another Katun. Believe my message. I am 
Chilam Balam. I interpreted the commandments of the true 
God among all the places of the earth. I go to all parts of the 
country. 

Lizana Translation 

"La interpretacion es esta muy a la letra y sentido." 
"En el fin de la decima tercia edad estando en su pujanza Ytza 
y (la ciudad nombrada) Tancah, (que esta entre Yacman y Ticha- 
quillo, que oy se llama Ychpaa, que es fortaleza o castillo) vendra 
la senal de Dios que esta en las alturas, y la Cruz se manifestara 
ya al mundo con la qual el orbe fue alumbrado, avra division entre 
las voluntades quando esta serial sea tray da en tiempo venidero, 



130 MAYA TEXTS 

los hombres Sacerdotes antes de llegar una legua, y aunque un 
quarto de legua no mas vereis la Cruz que se os aparecera y os 
amanecera de Polo a Polo, cessara luego el culto de vanos dioses ya 
vuestro padre viene o Ytzalanos, o Tantunites ya viene un her- 
mano,recibid a vuestros guespedes, guespedes barbados del Oriente 
que vienen a traer la serial de Dios, Dios es que nos viene manso y 
poderoso, ya viene la nueva de nuestra vida. No teneis que temer 
del mundo tu eres Dios unico que nos criaste, eres Dios amigable 
y piadoso, ea ensalcemos su sefial en alto ensalcemosla para adorarla 
y verla, la Cruz emos de ensalcar en oposicion de la mentira se 
aparece oy en contra del arbol primero del mundo, oy es hecha al 
mundo demonstracion, sefial es esta de un Dios de las alturas, esta 
adorad o gente Ytzalana, adoremosla con voluntad recta adoremos 
al que es Dios nuestro y verdadero Dios, recibid la palabra de Dios 
verdadero que del cielo viene el que os habla cobrad juizio y ser los 
de Ytza los que creyeren seran alumbrados en la edad que esta por 
venir mirad si os importa lo que os digo y advierto, y encargo yo 
vuestro interprete y maestro de credito Balam por nombre. 1 Y 
con esto dixe lo que Dios verdadero me mando, porque dello sea el 
mundo sebedor." 

5. CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 
Passage, p. 77, 78 

This text is to be found in the original document (Gordon, 1913) 
on p. 77, 78. The translations printed here are to be found in Brinton 
(1882, p. 180, 181) and in Martinez Hernandez (1910). This pas- 
sage is given to show the differences in the two translations of the 
same text. The original is obviously incorrect in several places, in 
one of which Brinton changes it to read in one way and Martinez 
to read in another. A second point should be noted, the difference 
in the translation of proper names. Martinez makes a proper 
name of words which are translated by Brinton. This text, there- 
fore, illustrates some of the difficulties met with in rendering the 
ancient Maya into English. For purposes of verification I have 
added the Spanish translation of Martinez. 

1 From here to the end, the translation of Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 532) 
reads as follows: " Y con esto he acabado de decir lo que el Dios verdadero me 
mando para que lo oiga el mundo." 



CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 



131 



Kan Ahau u-qaba Qatun ut§-ki u-sih-il-ob 

Brinton: (The) 4th Ahau (was) the name (of) the Katun took place the 

births 
Martinez : Four Ahau is called the Katun in which were born 



pawaha * 
Brin. : were taken possession 
Mar. : the Pawah 



en 2 

of 
they 



Brin. 
Mar. 



os-(la)-hunte 
(It was) the 13th 
13 periods of the 



ti 



Qatun 

Katun 
Katun 



kuh 

the towns 
began 

lik 

in which 
thus 



u-y-ahau-ob : 
by the rulers: 
the rulers of the years: 



u-tepal-ob 
they ruled 



lai 

these 
thus 



u-qaba-ob 
Brin. : (were) their names 
Mar. : they were called 



tamuq u-tepal-ob lae. 
while they ruled, 
in the course of time. 



Kan ahau u-qaba Qatun em-ki-ob 

Brin. : (The) 4th Ahau (was) the name (of) the Katun in it they arrived 
Mar. : (The) 4th Ahau (was) called the Katun in which they arrived 



Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 



noh-he-mal 

the great arrival 
the great descent, 

Os la hunte 

(It was) the 13th 
13 periods of the 



o'ee-mal 

the less arrival 
the small descent, 



u qaba-ob lae. 

as they are called, 
they were called thus. 



Qatun lik u-tepal-ob lik u- 

Katun in which they ruled in which 
Katun thus elapsed thus 



qaba-tik-ob tii 

they took names at that time 
they were called at that time 

kuthi 

the residence was continued 
lasted 



walak u-kut-ob 

while they resided 
they took root 

u-kut-ob lae. 
they resided here, 
their permanency. 



Kan Ahau u-Qatun-il uts-ki 

Brin. : (The) 4th Ahau Katun (then) took place 

Mar. : In the 4th Ahau Katun it happened 



lae 4 oslahun 
here in the 13th 
13 periods 



u-kasan-tik-ob 

the search 
that they found 



1 Brinton writes this pats-ah u kah. 

2 Martinez changes this to em-kuts. 

3 In several places Martinez has translated tepalob in two ways. In the 
translation line by line he translates the word as gobernaron whereas in his 
version given as a whole he translates it as transcurrieron. In his line by line 
translation this sentence reads, Trece periodos del katun, asi gobernaron; asi se 
llamaron mientras gobernaron. The Martinez translation given here follows 
that given by him on p. 35-38 (1910). 

4 This word is crossed out in the original MS. 



132 



MAYA TEXTS 



u-Chich'een Itzae. 
Brin. : for Chichen Itza. 
Mar.: Chichen Itza. 



Tii uo-kinnabi makoil-ti-ob 

At that time they were improved marvelously 
There was modified their religion 



tumen 
Brin.: by 
Mar.: by 



u-yum-oobe : 

the fathers : 
their Lords : 



kan ouk 

in four divisions 

four tribes 



kan-oukul-kab 
Brin. : the four territories 
Mar.: Cantsuculcabes 



u qaba-ob. 

which were called, 
called. 



Liqul 
From 
From 



luq-ki-ob 

they went forth 
set out 

ti liqin 
the east of 
the east side 



Qin-kolah-peten bini hun ouki. 

Brin. : Kin Cola Peten came forth one division. 
Mar. : to Kin Cola Peten went one tribe. 



Kul saman 

From the north of 

To the sacred north 



nakok-ob 
Brin.: Nacocob 
Mar.: ascending 



hoq 

came forth 
set out 



hun 

one 
one 



ouk[k]i. 

division. 

tribe. 



He i§ hoqi hun 

Brin. : Came forth one 

Mar. : This other set out one 



ouki-e hol-tun Suyuua 

division (from the) gate of Zuyuua 

tribe (from the) entrance of Zuyuah 



ti t§iqin. Hoqi hun ou[k]ki-e kan heq 

Brin. : to the west. Came forth one division from Can hek 
Mar. : to the west. Went one tribe to the place ot the tour 

ub, bolonte uio u-qaba u-luumil lae. 

Brin. : the mountains, the nine mountains (as) is called the land. 

Mar.: hills, that of the nine hills was called their land. 

u-payal-ob 

the calling together 
that they were called 

tu kan-ouk-[k]il-ob kan-ouk-kul-kab u-qaba-ob. [Ka 

Brin. : of the four divisions, the four territories as they were called. 
Mar. : the Cantsuciles the Cantsuculcabes called. When 



Kan 


Ahau 


u-Qatun-il 


ut§-ki 


Brin.: (The) 4th 


Ahau 


Katun 


then took place 


Mar.: (The) 4th 


Ahau 


Katun 


it happened 



emi-ob ti 



yum-tal-ob.] 1 



Brin.: 

Mar. : they arrived there (they were received) as Lords. 

Ka emi-ob tu Chich'een Itzae, ah Itza tun u-qaba-ob. 

Brin.: And they arrived at Chichen Itza, men of Itza they were called. 
Mar. : When they arrived at Chichen Itza, the Itzas they were called. 



1 The words within the braces are omitted in the Berendt copy of the MS. 
which was used by Brinton. 



CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 



133 



Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 



Brin. 
Mar. 

Brin. 
Mar. 



Oslahunte ti Qatun lik u-tepal-ob-i ka 

[It was the] 13th Katun in which they ruled then 

Thirteen periods of the Katun thus elapsed and 



oki 

were introduced 
took place 

pa§i (pa§-ki) 
were destroyed 
was abandoned 



u-qeban-t'an-ob-i 

the plottings 
the treachery 



tumen Hun nak keeli ka 
by Hunnac Ceel and 

of Hunac Ceel and 



u-kab-ob. 

the territories, 
their towns. 



yol-t§e tan 

the forests in the midst of 

forest to a place 

u-Qatun-il uts-ki 

Katun (then) took place 
Katun took place 



Ka bini-ob 

Then they went 
And they went 

Suluk-mul u-qaba. 

Xuluc mul so called. 
Xuluc mul called. 



tan 

in the midst of 

to the wilderness 

Kan Ahau 
(The) 4th Ahau 
In the four Ahau 



yawat pisan-ob-i. 

singing for their happiness, 
the cries of the blessed. 



Oslahunte ti Qatun lik u-tepal-ob-i yetel 

(It was the) 13th Katum in which they governed and (had) 

Thirteen periods of the Katum thus elapsed with 



u-numya-ob-i. 
heavy labor, 
their exile. 

yulel-ob 
there arrived 
arrived 



Wasak Ahau u-Qatun-il ut§-ki 

The 8th Ahau Katun thus it took place (that) 

In the eight Ahau Katun thus it took place 

yala-ob ah Itza u-qaba-ob 

the remainder of the Itza men as they were called; 
the remainder of the Itza men so called 



ka 

then 

as soon as 



ul-ob 

they arrived; 
they arrived 



tii 

and 



ka walak 

about that time 



Chakanputune. 

Chakanputun. 
at Chakanputun. 

kah 

the city of 
the pueblo of 

Wasak 
(In the) 8th 
(In the) eight 



Oslahun Ahau 

In the 13th Ahau 
In the thirteen Ahau 



u-Qatun-il 

Katun 

Katun 



u-tepal-ob 

they governed 
they took root 

u-heo'-k-ob 

founded 
they founded 



Mayapan 

Mayapan 
Mayapan 

Ahau 
Ahau 
Ahau 



Maya 
the Maya 
Maya 



winik 



men 
men 



u-qaba-ob. 

those called, 
they were called. 



pas-ki 

were destroyed 

were abandoned 



u-cab-ob-i ka 
the towns then 
the towns and 



wektsabi l 

they were driven out 

they disappeared 



ti peten 

of the province 
from the region 



tulakal. Wak Qatun-i 

wholly. (In the) 6th Katun 
whole. (In the) six Katun 



The original text has wek tsa hi. Brinton has wak t§a bi. 



134 MAYA TEXTS 

pas-ki-ob ka hawi u Maya qaba-ob. 

Brin.: they were destroyed and it was ended with Maya those called. 
Mar.: they were dispersed and they ceased Maya calling themselves 

Buluk Ahau u-qaba u-Qatun-il hau-ki 

Brin.: (It was the) 11th Ahau Katun. in which it ended 

Mar. : In the eleven Ahau Katun they ceased 

u-Maya qaba-ob. Maya winik-ob Christiano 

Brin. : with Mayas those called. The Maya men Christians 

Mar. : Maya calling themselves. Maya Indians Christians 

u-qaba-ob tulakal u-kuts-kabal ooma San Pedro 

Brin. : were called all came under control of Saint Peter 

Mar. : they called (now) all those of the province, sons of Saint Peter 

yetel Rey ah-tepal-e. 

Brin.: and the king the rulers. 
Mar. : and the king his Majesty. 

Martinez Translation 

"El cuarto ahau se denomina el katun en que nacieron los Pauah. 
Comenzaron los regentes de los arios. Trece periodos del katun; 
asi transcurrieron ; 1 asi fueron designados en su transcurso. El 
cuarto ahau se llama el katun en que llegaron: la gran bajada, la 
pequefia bajada, asi fueron designadas. Trece periodos del katun; 
asi transcurrieron; asi fueron designados, alii se radicaron; trece 
periodos duro su permanencia. En el katun cuarto ahau sucedio 
que hallaron Chichen Itza. Alii fue compuesto lo divino en ellos 
por sus sen ores. Cuatro tribus salieron llamadas 'cantzuculcabes.' 
La tribu de lado oriente se dirigio a Kin-colah-peten. Al sagrado 
norte, ascendiendo, salio una tribu. Esta otra tribu salio de la 
entrada de Zuyuah al poniente. Una tribu salio hacia el lugar de 
los cuatro cerros. La de los nueve cerros se llama la tierra de ellos. 
En el katun cuarto ahau sucedio que fueron llamados los cantzuciles, 
apellidados cantzuculcabes. Cuando llegaron fueron aceptados como 
senores de la tierra. Cuando llegaron a Chichen Itza, se llamaron 
Itzaes. Trece periodos del katun, asi transcurrieron y tuvo lugar 
la traicion de Hunac-Ceel. Y fueron abandonados sus pueblos, y 
fueron a los bosques desiertos a un lugar llamado Xuluc-mul. En 

1 It has already been noted that the translation given by Martinez when 
he is translating line by line differs in several places from the translation he 
gives as a whole. The latter is more free in several places. 



CHILAM BALAM DE CHUMAYEL 135 

el kaiun cuarto ahau tuvo lugar el llanto de los bienventurados. 
Trece periodos del katun transcurrieron, inclusive el periodo de sus 
padecimientos. En el katun octavo ahau llegaron los llamados 
restos de los Itza: luego que llegaron se radicaron en Chakanputun. 
En el katun trece ahau fundaron el pueblo de Mayapan; se llama- 
ron mayas. En el octavo ahau fueron abandonadas las poblaciones 
y se esparcieron por toda la region. En el sexto katun fueron dis- 
persos y dejaron de llamarse mayas. En el katun once ahau cesaron 
de llamarse mayas. Indios mayas cristianos se llaman hoy todos 
los de la provincia, hijos de San Pedro y de S. M., el Rey de 
Espafia." 



PART III 

AN APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 
RELATING TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 



PART III 

AN APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 
RELATING TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

INTRODUCTION 

In the Bibliography (Part IV) there are listed over 700 different 
works, not including second editions, on or in the Maya language 
or referring to it in some way. It should be understood that the 
language in question is that dialect spoken in the peninsula of 
Yucatan and not the Maya linguistic stock which covers a far 
more extended area. 

The large number of books and manuscripts dating from the 
earliest days of the Conquest and continuing down to the present 
time indicates the interest taken in this field. 

This Appraisement of the works mentioned in the Bibliography, 
it is hoped, will serve as an aid to those w r ho desire some idea of 
the relative value of the works listed under the various headings. 

HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 

Writers of the xvi, xvii, xviii Centuries. The history of 
early research in the Maya language centers around the names of 
nearly all the authors of the Church who were in Yucatan in the 
xvi, xvii, and xviii centuries. According to instructions from the 
Holy See each priest was to learn the language of the country and 
was to teach and to preach to the natives in their own languages. 1 
The priests saw at once that a phonetic transcription of the lan- 
guages was necessary. They accomplished this with no small suc- 
cess so that books are found written in the native languages but 
with Spanish characters soon after the appearance of the first 
white men. In fact, the first books printed in America were trans- 

1 See Gomez de Parada, 1722. The titles of all books referred to by author 
and date are given in full in Part iv. 

139 



140 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

lations of the Catechism and sermons in the Nahuatl language of 
Mexico. 

Landa (1864, p. 94), the second Bishop of Yucatan, 1 writing be- 
tween 1561 and 1566, states that priests were sent to Yucatan from 
Guatemala and from Mexico and that they established themselves 
at Campeche, founded in 1541, and at Merida, founded one year 
later, under the protection of the Adelantado and of his son, both 
called Francisco de Montejo. A monastery was built at Merida 
and the priests occupied themselves with learning the Maya 
language which was difficult. Juan de Herrera was probably the 
first teacher of Maya written in the Spanish characters. 2 

Villalpando is the first Maya scholar as well as the first author 
of works in Maya. Landa writes "El que mas supo fue fray Luis de 
Villalpando que comengo a saberla por senas y pedrezuelas y la reduxo 
a alguna manera de arte y escrivio una doctrina Christiana de aquella 
lengua." 3 

Starting with Villalpando, "el proto-lingilista Maya" 4 there is a 
constant succession of priests, both Spanish and native born, who 

1 Carrillo y Ancona (1892-95, p. 318) writes in this connection, "El Illmo 
Sr. Landa es en realidad el quinto Obispo de Yucatan, y si suele contdrse le 
como segundo, es solo con respecto a la segunda epoca de la historia de esta 
Diocesis." 

2 Cogolludo C1688, lib. v, cap. v) writes in this connection, " Fray Iuan de 
Herrera, aunque Lego, era muy habil, sabia escribir bien, cantor canto llano, y 
organo, y aprendiendo la lengua, se ocupaba en ensenar la Doctrina Cristiana a los 
Indios, y en especial a los ninos. Para poder mejor lograr su deseo en estos exer- 
cicios, puso forma de Escuela, donde acudian todos los muchachos, dandolos sus 
padres con mucho gusto y uoluntad, aprehendian las Oraciones, y a muchos ensenb 
a leer, escribir, y cantar." 

3 Garcia Cubas (1888-91, v. 1, p. xv) speaks of Villalpando in the following 
words: "En 1546 llegaron directamente de Espana a la peninsula algunos religi- 
osas franciscanos con el P. Fr. Luis de Villalpando, a fin de afianzar la conquista 
por medio de la persuasiva y pacifica predicacion evangelica." 

Lizana (1633, ed. 1893, p. 47 ob.) writes in describing Villalpando, "A lo qual 
le ayudaban con gran cuidado sus companeros Fray Melchor de Benavente, y Fray 
Angel Maldonado, que eran Sacerdotes, y Fray Juan de Herrera Lego de la Pro- 
vincia de los Angeles ensenaba la doctrina Christiana a los Indios, y en particular 
a los ninos, poniendoles escuela, y ensenandoles a leer, escribir, y cantar canto 
llano, y organo, que todo esto sabia el santo baron Lego, Fr. Juan, aunque su 
estado era de Lego, y con tan santos, y solic'ios trabajadores, etc." 

4 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 148) writes, " Villalpando, pues, debia 
ser y fue en realidad, como vamos a ver, el proto-linguista maya, esto es, el que 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 141 

devoted themselves to the study of the Maya language, writing 
grammars, collecting vocabularies, and translating the Doctrina 
into Maya in addition to writing sermons in the native language. 1 

After Villalpando the first author of importance is Bishop Diego 
de Landa whose work entitled Relation de las cosas de Yucatan, 
written between 1561 and 1566, has contributed more to Maya 
research than any other single book. From this a start was made 
in deciphering the Maya hieroglyphic writing. Little is known 
regarding the linguistic work of Landa. He was probably the first 
to open a school for teaching Maya to the priests in the Monaster 
of San Antonio at Izamal. Cogolludo (1688, lib. v, cap. xiv) writes 
"El que mas presto, y con mayor perfection la supo,fue el bendito 
Padre Fr. Diego de Landa, de quien se dize (no sin admiration) que 
a pocos dias la hablada, y predicaba, como si fuera su lengua nativa. 11 

Solana, who was in Yucatan from 1560 to his death in 1600, is 
the author of the first dictionary (1580) which has come down to 
us. Ciudad Real, who died in 1617, is famous for his Gran Calepino 
in six volumes on which he was at work for 40 years. 

Gaspar Antonio Xiu, Sanchez de Aguilar and Carlos Mena are 
some of the natives of Yucatan who are authors of works in the 
Maya language. 2 

aparece el primer o al f rente de los que estudian el idioma yucateco, y al j rente del 
catdlogo de los escritores que cuenta la civilization en este mismo idioma." 

Torquemada, cited by Cogolludo (1688, lib. vi., cap. xii) writes "Quepor 
ser (el P. Villalpando) el primero que supo la lengua destos naturales, y que 
la predicb con exemplo de essential Religioso, es digno de eterna memorial 

The importance of Villalpando is shown by the fact that he is the only 
author on Maya mentioned by Sobron (1875). 

1 For excellent accounts of these authorities and their work, see Carrillo y 
Ancona (1870; ed. 1872). 

2 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 167-168) gives an interesting ac- 
count of another author of about this time. He writes, "El celebre Fr. Ber- 
nardino de Valladolid . . . vino d Yucatan siendo aun mas joven, por el ano de 
1634, y su aficion al estudio de la lengua maya era como un delirio, una verdadera 
pasion. Alia por los anos de 1641 6 1642, se celebraron unas funciones literarias 
6 ados en el convento mayor de San Francisco de esta ciudad de Merida, pues 
siguiendo el uso laudable de las universidades y colegios de Europa, ya de algunos 
anos atras acostumbraba celebrarse aquellas funciones en Yucatan en las cdtedras 
de los PP. franciscanos. Por aquella ocasion, pues, Fr. Bernardino, ya tan dis- 
tinguido y profundo escolar, como perfecto gramdtico y orador del idioma indigena 
de su nueva patria, con anuentia d el superior de la orden, el R. P. Fr. Antonio 
Ramirez; y del profesor de lengua yucateca, el P. Fr. Diego Perez, de Merida, 



142 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Padres Coronel, San Buenaventura and Beltran de Santa Rosa 
should be mentioned for their excellent work on the Maya gram- 
mar. 1 Notice should also be made of the unknown authors of the 
Motul and San Francisco dictionaries. The work of this early 
time has hardly been equalled either in quantity or, in some re- 
spects, we may add, in quality. 

One other writer of these early centuries deserves special men- 
tion, Andres de Avendafio. He is the author of a most important 
Relation (1696) which is fortunately extant. The list of his linguis- 
tic works is a long one. These have all disappeared. I pass over 
the names of many others of the early writers on Maya subjects 
whose works are listed in the Bibliography. Mention is made 
of these early efforts under the discussion of the Maya grammars, 
vocabularies, sermons, the Catechism, etc. A glance at the list of 
works which are now known only by name (p. 151) shows the 
fertility of Maya research in the xvi, xvn, and xvm centuries. 

There follows a note on the most important modern authors in 
the field of Maya linguistics with a short account of their work. A 
detailed list of their manuscripts and books will be found in the 
Bibliography. 

Padre Joaquin Ruz. He was born in Merida in 1785 and died 
in 1855. He was the first modern author of works on Maya. He 
was a Franciscan and the most fertile writer on Maya subjects. 

concibio y ejecuto el pensamiento feliz de sostener un acto literario en lengua maya, 
realzando asi el grande merito que en ella con su continuo estudio habia encontrado. 
Ademas, al par de las tesis literario-teologicas que sostuvo el celebre actuante, puso 
una muy notable para la filologia, reducida d proponer: que el languaje 6 texto 
biblico podia vertirse en toda su exactitud caracteristica al idioma maya, de modo 
que los lugares dificiles de las Sagradas Escrituras podian declararse a la letra en 
esta lengua. 

Al principiar una funcion tan extraordinaria y notable como esta, y d que en 
pos de los hombres de letras fue atraida una gran multitud, asi por la singularidad 
del caso, como por la facilidad de su inteligencia, pues el idioma maya es vulgar 
entie todas las clases sociales del pais, Fr. Bernardino se presenta con las enter eza 
y la modestia de un verdadero sabio } y pronuncia un discurso brillante y solido 
(i Idstima que no se hubiese conservado !) original, lleno de propiedad y belleza, en 
idioma yucateco. 

Las replicas, las soluciones, la conferencia toda, fue en el mismo idioma, que- 
dando todos los concurrentes llenos de complacencia y admiracion." 

1 The relative merit of their works has been discussed exhaustively in Part I 
(p. 9). 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 143 

Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 172-179) and Sosa (1884, p. 
942-948) give short accounts of his life. The former, quoted also by 
Sosa (p. 944), most truthfully expresses the number of the works 
by Ruz when he writes, "Ninguno de los escritores de la lengua may a 
se presenta con tan considerable numero de volumenes, debidos a su 
incansable y sdbia pluma, como el R. P. Fr. Joaquin Ruz, que hizo 
verdaderamente sudar la prensa con la edicion de sus obras en el 
primer tercio del siglo actual, y precisamente cuando era para el pais 
una cosa rara la publicacion de un libro." 

The writings of Ruz are of little value from the standpoint of 
the study of Maya linguistics. He did his best to revise the 
language so that it conformed as far as possible with Latin stand- 
ards. Brinton (1900, p. 212) writes in this connection, "His style 
has however been severely criticized by almost all competent 
scholars as impressing on the native language grammatical forms, 
terms of expression, and compounds, foreign to its history and 
character. Ruz was well aware he was making these innovations, 
but claimed they were called for to elevate and develop the powers 
of the Maya." 

Juan Pio Perez. He was born in Merida in 1798 and died in 
1859. He was the first modern Maya scholar. Carrillo y Ancona 
(1870; ed. 1872, p. 140-145, 179-186), Carrillo Suaste (1875), 
Ancona (1877), Sosa (1884, p. 803-806), and Martinez Alomia 
(1906, p. 142-146) are among those giving his biography. Berendt 
(1871a) describes his work in great detail. He was selected as the 
Maya interpreter to the Secretary of State at Merida. The suc- 
cessful fulfillment of the duties of this office shows his ability to use 
the Maya language and the position gave him access to much Maya 
material. Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 117) writes, "I had been advised 
that this gentleman (Perez) was the best Maya scholar in Yucatan, 
and that he was distinguished in the same degree for the investi- 
gation and study of all matters tending to elucidate the history 
of the ancient Indians. His attention was turned in this direction 
by the circumstance of holding an office in the department of 
state, in which old documents in the Maya language were con- 
stantly passing under his eyes. Fortunately for the interests of 
science and his own studious tastes, on account of some political 
disgust he withdrew from public life, and, during two years of 



144 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

retirement, devoted himself to the study of the ancient chronology 
of Yucatan." 

Perez realized the importance of preserving material on the 
Maya language which was fast disappearing. He made a collection 
of original documents in Maya and copies of various manuscripts 
which he did not personally possess. This collection was copied 
in great part by Berendt and these copies furnished the foundation 
for the Berendt Collection. The importance of the Books of 
Chilam Balam was very early recognized by Perez. The most 
important parts of his collection were included in a volume en- 
titled " Chilam Balam" (Berendt, 1868, in B. L. C. No. 49) l and 
another called by Carrillo y Ancona, "Codice Perez" (Perez, 2, 
copy in B. L. C. No. 50) . 2 The contents of this volume are treated 
fully by Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 140-145). 

There is another document more properly called the " Codex 
Perez " (Perez, 1842). This is the famous manuscript given by 
Perez to Stephens which formed a part of the Chilam Balam de 

1 The letters B. L. C. refer to the Berendt Linguistic Collection in the library 
of the University Museum, Philadelphia. The number refers to the entry in 
Brinton's Catalogue of this collection. See Brinton, 1900. 

2 This Codice Perez has the following Advertencia, written by Carrillo y 
Ancona and republished by him in his 1870; ed. 1872, p. 140-141: "Estas 
apuntaciones son del Sr. D. Juan Pio Perez. Las tomaba 6 extractaba de los 
manuscritos que solia hollar en poder de los indios, y el fin principal que con ellas 
se proponia era hacer un caudal suficiente de noticias para escribir sobre el Calen- 
dario yucateco. Es, pues, muy preciosa esta coleccion, pues no solo revela mucho 
de lo que puede apetecerse sobre el computo del tiempo, usado por los antiguos 
yucatecos, sino que servird tambien para testificar la existencia de muchas obras 
manuscritas de autores indios, que se han ido perdiendo; pero cuya memoria 
conservaremos en conjunto en este volumen, ddndole el nombre general de 'Codice 
Perez,' para perpetuar tambien asi el nombre del ilustre yucateco moderno a quien 
se lo debemos. El ' Codice Perez ' sera, pues, siempre un importante monumento 
bibliogrdfico, de gran trascendencia para la historia, de valor inestimable para los 
yucatecos, y, por gran fortuna nuestra, una de los mas ricos tesoros de nuestro 
gabinete particular. — C. C." 

Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 179) writes: "Debemos a la pluma del 
Sr. Perez las siguientes obras: I. 'Opusculos varios 6 notas a las copias y traduc- 
ciones del yucateco al espanol, y del espanol al yucateco, observaciones y apunta- 
ciones sobre diferentes materias, correspondientes a la historia y lengua de Yucatan, 
esparcida en fragmentos en diferentes manos y parses. Mss. ineditos.' He adds 
that the first part of this collection is the Codex Perez. The other part of the 
collection is undoubtedly contained in the several works in manuscript re- 
corded in the Bibliography. 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 145 

Mani, and is described at length in another place (p. 184). This 
manuscript made possible the first attempts to synchronize Maya 
and Christian chronology. His Cronologia Antigua (Perez, 1843) 
has not contributed greatly to the knowledge of the hieroglyphic 
writing as he made a grave mistake in the interpretation of the 
length of one of the Maya time periods. Two printed dictionaries 
bear his name in addition to several important manuscripts not 
already mentioned, copies of many of which are in the Berendt 
Linguistic Collection. 

Fletcher, Henderson, Kingdon. These three Protestant 
missionaries were in British Honduras in the second quarter of the 
last century. There is little that is known regarding the details 
of their linguistic work and there is, as a consequence, some con- 
fusion regarding the authorship of certain books. 1 Richard Fletcher 
was a Methodist missionary stationed at Corozal and he wrote a 
catechism in Maya (1865a) for his denomination and a brief 
series of prayers (1865). The Maya language used by these three 
Protestant missionaries is very corrupt. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; 
ed. 1872, p. 191) writes, "Fletcher se ha apropiado no mas el maya 
corrompido de hispanismo, 6 esa habla amestizada que usa el ultimo 
vulgo del pais, y que no sabemos si llamar mejor un castellano bdrbaro 
6 un maya tristemente degenerado." 

Alexander Henderson, a Baptist missionary, came to Belize in 
1834. John Kingdon came to Belize in 1845 after having served 
for thirteen years as a missionary in Jamaica. There was con- 
stant trouble between these two workers, Kingdon being the more 
to blame if one is to believe the account of Crowe (1850), another 
missionary in this field. There are vague notices in this book of 
the linguistic work of the mission. It would seem as if Henderson 
devoted most of his time during the first years in this field to work 
on the Mosquito language. Kingdon (1847) translated the gram- 
mar of Ruz and it was he who seems to have been the more ener- 
getic in translating portions of the scriptures into Maya. Crowe 
(1850, p. 493) writes, "Before the close of 1849, Mr. Kingdon had 
purchased a piece of plantation land on the banks of the Old River 

1 Pilling (1885, p. 258) furnishes an interesting letter from Carrillo y Ancona 
regarding the authorship of various works ascribed to Henderson which were 
really written by Fletcher. 



146 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

. . . and thus founded his fifth missionary station, since his arrival 
four years before. The spot chosen was about twenty miles from 
Belize, in a very thinly-peopled neighborhood, where his studies 
and labours in translating Maya would be but little interrupted." 
The Baptists abandoned their mission in British Honduras in 
1850. Henderson evidently stayed on in the country as his Maia 
Primer was published in 1852 and he left in manuscript six vo- 
lumes of a dictionary of the dialect of Maya spoken in Bacalar 
(Henderson 1859-66). 

Brasseur de Bourbourg. He was born near Dunkirk in 1814 
and died in 1874. He should be remembered not for what he wrote 
himself but for the manuscripts which he published. He became 
interested in the Maya field and visited Yucatan in 1865. Carrillo 
y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 193-195) and Martinez Alomia (1906, 
p. 172-175) give short biographies. Mitre (1909-11, v. 1, p. 19-24) 
sums up his work. The introduction to the Bibliography of Bras- 
seur de Bourbourg (1871, p. vii-xlvii) under the title Coup d'ceil sur 
les etudes americaines dans leurs rapports avec les etudes classiques 
serves to show his method of deductions and his fantastic theories. 

The importance of the work of Brasseur de Bourbourg from the 
standpoint of Maya studies is his publication of the Codex Troano 
(1869-70) and his finding and publishing the manuscript of Landa 
(1864). In addition to this he published practically the whole of 
the grammar of San Buenaventura (1869-70, v. 2, p. 1-99). His 
vocabularies are of no value as will be pointed out later. Berendt 
(7, in B. L. C. No. 181, fol. 62) has a section marked " Brasseuriana- 
Troano-Landa " which contains a good criticism of the work of 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. 

Carl Hermann Berendt. He was born in Danzig in 1817 and 
died in Coban, Guatemala, in 1878. He was undoubtedly the 
greatest scholar of the Maya language although the list of his actual 
publications is a short one. His biography is given by Brinton 
(1884-85: 1900, p. 204, note). Berendt came to New York in 1851. 
He went almost immediately to Central America and, with the ex- 
ception of occasional visits to the United States, remained in Mex- 
ico and Central America until he died in 1878. He made several 
visits to Yucatan, copying manuscripts and studying the language. 
He visited all the noted libraries of Middle America collecting 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 147 

material on the Maya language. His monument is the Berendt 
Linguistic Collection of manuscripts and books in the library of 
the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania. Brinton 
(1900) who purchased this collection and presented it to the Mu- 
seum has made a catalogue. As already pointed out, the founda- 
tion of this library on the Maya side was the copies made by 
Berendt of the Pio Perez collection the originals of which have 
now been scattered. Up to the time when Mr. Gates began his 
photographic reproductions every student of Maya linguistics was 
absolutely dependent upon this Berendt material. 

Berendt's copy of the Motul dictionary with emendations, addi- 
tions and comparisons with other vocabularies is a monumental 
work in itself. He brought together for the firs.t time copies of 
practically everything then known on the Maya languages. His 
Lengua Maya Miscelanea (Berendt, 1868d, 3 v. in B. L. C. Nos. 
42, 43, 44); and his scrap books (Berendt, 5, 6, 7 in B. L. C. Nos. 
179, 180, 181) contain a large mass of important material on the 
Maya language. 1 

Bishop Crescencio Carrillo y Ancona. He was born at 
Izamal, Yucatan in 1837 and died in Merida in 1897. He was the 
friend of Pio Perez and kept alive the Perez tradition regarding the 
importance of Maya studies. Carrillo Suaste (1875, p. xi-xx), Sosa 
(1873: 1884, p. 215), Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 237-244), Rivero 
Figueroa (1918), and Anon 1897a, present biographical notes. The 
most complete list of his works is published by Rivero Figueroa and 
Canton Rosado (1918, p. 65-78). Carrillo became the thirty-sixth 
bishop of Yucatan in 1887. His interest in the early history of the 
country was great. He founded the archaeological museum at 
Merida and also started several different literary periodicals. His 
most important work was on the historical rather than on the lin- 
guistic side. Special attention should be called to his Disertacion 
sobre la historia de la lengua Maya 6 Yucateca (1870; ed. 1872) and 
to his main work on the history of the bishops of Yucatan (1892- 
1895). He was the editor of El Repetorio Pinforesco (1863). 

1 Bowditch (1908, 1908a) and Schuller (1) collated several of the manuscripts 
in this Berendt Collection. Gates reproduced the Bowditch notes and several 
of those taken by Schuller. Various unidentified articles should be noted 
(Berendt 9) together with his copies of various documents of a religious nature 
(Berendt 1868a in B. L. C. Nos. 46, 47). 



148 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Daniel Garrison Brinton. He was born at Thornbury, 
Pennsylvania, in 1837, and died in Philadelphia in 1899. He was 
a worthy successor to Berendt. His field of activity was broader 
than that of Berendt. His great interest in Maya studies caused 
him to purchase the Berendt Collection and later he presented it 
to the University of Pennsylvania. Biographical notes are to be 
found in Brinton (19006), Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 245-249) and 
in several transactions of scientific societies of which he was a mem- 
ber. Brinton (1898) sums up his work on American languages. 
The chief work of Brinton (1882) on Maya linguistics was the 
publication of an English translation of the chronological parts of 
several of the Books of Chilam Balam, copies of which he obtained 
in the Berendt Collection. It is worthy of note that this work, 
although written almost forty years ago, still remains the most ex- 
tensive translation from the Maya ever undertaken at one time. 

William Gates. Mr. Gates of Point Loma, California, is a 
Maya scholar to whom all students of Maya linguistics owe a deep 
debt of gratitude. An indefatigable energy, great acumen, and a 
knowledge of the Middle American field have enabled Mr. Gates 
to gather together the largest collection of documents on the Maya 
linguistic stock ever assembled in one place. Moreover, not being 
satisfied to possess this remarkable collection he desired copies of 
all available documents on the Maya field owned by libraries and 
by individuals. With only a few exceptions he now possesses either 
the original manuscript or the photographic reproduction of all 
the known documents on the Maya stock, as well as many others 
on the languages of Southern and Central Mexico. Furthermore, 
he possesses the only known copies of several printed works on this 
field. Mr. Gates has made duplicate sets of many of his photo- 
graphs and he has allowed Mr. Charles P. Bowditch to purchase a 
set of these. Mr. Bowditch has very generously presented them 
to the Peabody Museum. The Gates Collection stands, therefore, 
in the first place. 

His photographic reproductions covering the field included in the 
scope of the present work are mentioned in the Bibliography. 1 For 

1 It should be noted that the bibliographical data on manuscripts pho- 
tographed by Gates have been taken in general from the reproductions rather 
than from the original manuscripts themselves. Blank pages in the manu- 



HISTORY OF MAYA LINGUISTIC RESEARCH 149 

convenience a list of them is included here. First place should be 
given to the Motul and San Francisco dictionaries without which 
no important work in translation can be done. Anon 5 and 26 
are also vocabularies. Next come the unique imprint of the Coro- 
nel grammar (1620) and the first editions of the grammars of San 
Buenaventura (1684) and of Beltran (1746) together with the 
grammars of Ruz (1844) and Kingdon (1847). 

Second place in point of importance should be given to the re- 
productions of the originals of the Chilam Balam de Calkini, Kaua, 
Nah, Tekax, and Tizimin and of copies of the Chilam Balam de 
Calkini, Chumayel, Ixil, Kaua, and Tizimin together with the copy 
of the Cronica de Chicxulub. The Bowditch notes on Berendt 1868, 
the Chicxulub, the Mani, and Oxkutzcab manuscripts with the 
Prophecies, and the Schuller notes on Berendt 1868c and the Mani 
manuscript come next. The various medical portions of the Books 
of Chilam Balam should be mentioned, the Judio de Sotuta and 
Anon, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 19 (Berendt copy). The Ritual of the 
Bacabs comes here. 

The Avendaiio manuscript stands alone in importance. The 
secular manuscripts are as follows: Titulos de Ebtun, Libro de 
Cacalchen, the Pat Letters, Documentos de Ticul, the Xiu Chroni- 
cles, Anon 2 and Anon 8. Finally we also have Gates reproduc- 
tions of the following religious works : — the Doctrinas of Coronel 
(1620a), Beltran (1740; ed. 1816), Ruz (1822, 1849, 1851), Fletcher 
(1865a), Nolasco de los Reyes, and Anon (1803, Berendt copy, 7, 
20, 23), together with the sermons of Coronel (16206), Dominguez 
y Argaiz, Carvajal (1, Berendt copy), Acosta, Vales, Vela, Ora- 
ciones de Teabo, and Anon (21 and 22, Berendt copy). 

Juan Martinez Hernandez. He was born in Merida in 1866 
and educated at Georgetown University, District of Columbia, as 
a lawyer. He is a descendant of the Adelantado, Don Francisco de 
Monte jo. He has an intimate knowledge of the Maya language as 
is shown by the list of his published and unpublished works in the 
Bibliography. He is one of a few gentlemen in Merida who now 
interest themselves in the study of the language of the natives. 

scripts have not generally been reproduced so that there may be differences 
in certain cases in the number of pages in the reproduction and in the manu- 
script itself. 



150 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 



It is only necessary to note the number of bibliographies men- 
tioned in the following pages to realize the great interest taken 
in the subject of American languages and, more especially, the 
languages of Middle America. Little attempt has been made to 
list the large number of bibliographies which cover the general 
field of history and travel, although many of these books also con- 
tain references to works on the Maya linguistic stock. No bibliog- 
raphy is included here which does not contain books on the Maya 
language of Yucatan. 

Bibliography of Bibliographies. The best list of the bib- 
liographies of Mexico and Central America is that contained in 
Mitre (1909-11, v. 1, p. 5-70). He discusses at some length most 
of the important lists of books from this region. Vifiaza (1892, 
p. xix-xxv) and the Bulletin of the New York Public Library 
(1909, p. 622-624, 810-811) also give very good lists of bibliogra- 
phies on Middle America. Lejeal (1902, p. 5-7) and Lehmann 
(1907) cover the same ground in a less extensive way. 

Missing Authorities. There is a long list of works on the 
Maya language references to which are made in the early histories 
but many of these books or manuscripts have disappeared in the 
course of time. It is to be hoped that some of these missing 
authorities will be found just as the long lost grammar of Coronel 
(1620) turned up in Mexico in 1912. 

Landa who wrote his Relation de las Cosas de Yucatan (1864) 
sometime between 1561 and 1566 mentions Villalpando and his 
work. No books of this author have survived. Landa himself 
wrote a grammar and possibly a Doctrina which are lost. Other 
references occur in several of the early works to books, copies of 
which are now unknown. Leon Pinelo (1629) and Nicolas Antonio 
(1672) list many works which have vanished. Lizana (1633) and 
Cogolludo (1688, p. 439-440) refer in their histories to several 
writers whose manuscripts have disappeared. Cogolludo is es- 
pecially full on this point. Clavigero (1780-81) also gives a short 
bibliography several entries of which are unknown at the present 
time. Later notices of missing authorities are usually taken from 
the lists already mentioned. These lost works are given more or 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 151 

less fully in the bibliographies of Eguiara (1755), Beristain y Souza 
(1816-21), Squier (1861), Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872), 
Civezza (1879), CarrOlo y Ancona (1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 123-127), 
Sanchez (1886), and Medina (1907-12). An separate list of these 
missing authorities is given in El Registro Yucateco (1845, p. 358), 
an almost complete list by Berendt (1868b), and shorter lists by 
Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. i-iv), Viiiaza (1892, 
p. 241 et seq.), Brinton (1897), and Juan Molina (1904^13, v. 1, 
p. 327-330). 

In the following list of the missing authorities I have tried to ar- 
range the authors in as near a chronological order as possible. The 
Berendt manuscript (18686) gives, in several instances, dates for 
the various manuscripts which I have not been able to find in any 
other authority. This list compiled from the above sources is as 
follows: 

List of Missing Authorities 

XVI Century. 

Villalpando: circa 1546. 

(1) Arte. 1 

(2) Doctrina. 

1571 Vocabulario, missing (?). 

Landa: in Yucatan, 1549-1579. 

(1) Arte (possibly a revised edition of Villalpando (1). 

(2) Doctrina (?). 

Solana: in Yucatan 1560-1600. 

(1) Sermones. 

(2) Noticias sagradas. 

(3) Apuntaciones sobre las antiguedades (?). 

(4) Estudios historicos. 

(5) Apuntes de las santas escrituras. 

(6) Apuntamientos historicos. 
Xiu: circa 1593. 

1582 Relacion sobre las costumbres. 
(1) Vocabulario. 

1 The number in front of each work refers to the corresponding number in 
the Bibliography under the author. 



152 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

CiudadReal: died, 1617. 

(1) Gran calepino (Motul dictionary ?). 

(2) Diccionario (?). 

(3) Tratado curioso. 

(4) Sermones. 

Torralva: in Yucatan, 1573-1624. 

(1) Sermones. 
Najera, Gaspar de: in Yucatan, circa 1579. 

(1) Relacion de las antigt-edades de Yucatan. 
Anon. 1 

(28) Vocabulario grande. 

(30) Un librillo escrito ... en el idioma de los Indios. 

XVII Century. 

Sanchez de Aguilar. 

(1) Catecismo, 1602 (Berendt). 
Acevedo: in Yucatan, 1592-1624. 

(1) Gramatica. 

(2) Instrucciones catequisticas. 
Cuartas: died, 1610. 

(1) Arte. 
Coronel: in Yucatan, 1590-1651. 

(1) Vocabulario. 

(2) Doctrina. 

(3) Confesionario. 
Rincon: died, 1647. 

(1) Sermones. 
Valladolid: in Yucatan, 1617-52. 

(1) Sacramentos. 

(2) Dioscorides. 

(3) Vocabulario (?). 
Mena: died, 1633. 

(1) Sermones. 
Cardenas: 
1639 Relacion. 

1 Clavigero gives the name of Jose Dominguez as an author of Maya 
works. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 153 

Vidales: wrote, 1644-48. 

(1) Vocabulario. 

(2) Sintaxis. 

(3) Florilegia medicinal. 
Rivas Gastelu. 

(1) Gramatica (Lacandone), 1685 (Berendt). 
San Buenaventura. 

(1) Diccionario, 1695 (Berendt). 

XVIII Century. 

Avendafio: in Yucatan, 1705. 1750 (Berendt). 

(1) Arte. 

(2) Diccionario. 

(3) Diccionario abreviado. 

(4) Diccionario botanico. 

(5) Diccionario de nombres de personas. 

(6) Explicacion de varios vaticinios. 

XIX Century. 
Carvajal. 

(2) Collection of proverbs. 
Henderson, circa 1860. 

(1) Book of Genesis in Maya. 

(2) Psalms in Maya. 

(3) English translation of Beltran (1746), ? 
Kingdon, circa 1860. 

(1) English translation of Beltran (1746), ? 

(2) Dictionary. 

Eakly History and Early Bibliography. No attempt has 
been made to exhaust the references to books and manuscripts 
mentioned in the early histories, such as those of Martyr (1516), 
Mendieta (1870), written about 1590, Herrera (1601-15), Gregorio 
Garcia (1607), Torquemada (1613), Remesal (1620), Cogolludo 
(1688), Villagutierre (1701), Boturini (1746), and other similar 
works. The earliest general bibliographies which mention books on 
the Maya language are those of Leon Pinelo (1629; 2d ed. by Barcia, 
1737-38) and Nicolas Antonio (1672 and 1696), the former a sequel 
of the latter although published first. Eguiara (1755) is the first 
to give a list composed solely of the books on Latin America. This 



154 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

work was never completed, only the first volume, through C, being 
printed. Four note-books containing other parts of the manuscript 
are said to be in the library of the Cathedral of Mexico City. 1 

The manuscript bibliography of Alcedo (1807) is especially good 
for biographical details and he gives his opinion of the early 
bibliographies. 2 Harrisse (1866, p. xiii-xlii) also gives a very good 
discussion of the important bibliographies. 

Clavigero (1780-81; ed. 1826, v. 2, p. 396) gives a Catdlogo de 
algunos autores Europeos y criollos que han escrito sobre la doctrina 
y moral cristianas en las lenguas de Anahuac. This is probably the 
first attempt to bring together in one place a list of the writings on 
Mexican linguistics. 

Hervas y Panduro (1784; ed. 1800-05, v. 1, p. 289-290) and 
Vater (1815) are more ambitious attempts at listing linguistic 
works covering larger areas. 

General and American Bibliography. There is a long list 
of general bibliographies many of them specializing on books 
on America. It is only necessary to give a few of these which 
contain references to works on Maya linguistics. Rich (1835), 
Ternaux-Compans (1837), Leclerc (1867 and 1878), Sabin (1868- 
92), Andrade, (1869; Languages, p. 362-368), Quaritch (1873 et 
seq.), Field (1873, 1875), Civezza (1879), Murphy (1884) and 
Menendez y Pelayo (1888) are a few of the more important general 
bibliographies. 

1 Mitre, 1909-11, v. 1, p. 28-29, probably from Boletin de Sociedad Mexi- 
cana de Geografia y Estadistica, v. 10, no. 2, p. 77. 

2 Harrisse (1866, p. xxiv) comments as follows on Alcedo's work, " This 
bulky compilation seems to be based entirely upon Pinelo-Barcia, with the 
addition of a few biographical notes, which are of interest only when referring 
to modern American authors. The titles are given in alphabetical order, 
abridged, and selected with very little discrimination." This is not a fair esti- 
mate of the work of Alcedo. The latter gives far more details than Barcia and 
the biographical notes are very full and refer to the early as well as to the later 
writers. In a few cases Alcedo is better than Beristain y Souza for biography. 
It is interesting to note that Alcedo (f. iv ob) comments as follows on Barcia, 
" Tan lleno de err ores en los nombres y apellidos de los autores, en los titulos de 
las obras y en los anos y lugares que se imprimieron, que 6 ya fuese por defecto 
de los copiantes 6 del impresor apenas hay articulo sin yerro; por cuya razon es de 
poquisima utilidad, y no menece el titulo que tiene." It is evident that Alcedo 
did not have access to Cogolludo and therefore he failed to mention several of 
the early writers. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES , 155 

American Linguistics. Ludewig (1858; Maya, p. 102-103, 
226-227) is an excellent work on American linguistic research. 
Others are Icazbalceta (1866) and Platzmann (1876: 1903). Winsor 
(1889, v. 1, p. 427) has a bibliographical note on American lan- 
guages. The catalogues of Hiersemann (1891 et seq.) often con- 
tain important material on the Maya language. Special mention 
should be made of three works which come in this class. The first 
of these is the most exhaustive list contained in the proof-sheets of 
Pilling (1885), made in collaboration with librarians of the great 
collections of Americana. This work is indispensable for investiga- 
tions on American languages. 

The second of these is a bibliography of the Lenguas Indigenas 
de America by Viiiaza (1892). He has made use of many of the 
earlier lists and gives under most of the entries the various early 
references to the books in question. It is a most useful work. 

The third, and perhaps the most valuable general bibliography 
on American linguistics, is a Catdlogo Razonado by Mitre (1909- 
11, 1912). This contains full critical remarks on the different works 
and often quotes long passages from the various grammars. 

Stein (1897, p. 261-262) mentions a few of the bibliographies on 
American linguistics. 

Middle America. General Works. Of the older authori- 
ties the first place in this class should be given to the monumental 
work of Beristain y Souza (1816-21) with additions by Ramirez 
(1898). This is founded on the bibliography of Eguiara (1755), 
but it is a great improvement in arrangement and it is very much 
more complete. The biographical notes are especially valuable 
and are followed by many of the later authorities. Next in impor- 
tance come the great works of Medina (1898-1907, 1907-12). 
Next in point of time to Beristain y Souza come two sale cata- 
logues, Anon (1868) and Fischer (1869). The latter contains the 
Berendt books which were not included in those bought by Brinton. 
The bibliography of Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871; Maya, p. 169- 
172) is a very good one containing a list of many manuscripts as 
well as printed books. Pinart (1883) contains much the same ma- 
terial as that in the Brasseur de Bourbourg list as Pinart bought 
the greater part of the library of the latter. Ramirez (1880) is a 
well known work, more important for Mexico than for Central 



156 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

America however. Icazbalceta (1886) has a bibliography of xvi 
century books with additions by Leon (1902). Beauvois (1899) 
should be mentioned here. V. de P. Andrade (1899) has an essay 
on the books of the xvn century, Leon (1902-08) on those of the 
xviii and Leon (1902a) again on those of the xix century. Lejeal 
(1902; Languages, p. 31-39) has a very good general bibliography 
of Middle America. Lehmann (1907) has slight material on the 
Maya. The Bulletin of the New York Public Library (1909) is a 
good general working list. The two catalogues of the library of 
Wilkinson (1914, 1915) include a large number of documents 
never before noted, together with several unique books. There is 
also a manuscript list of books by Wilkinson (1) . This bibliography 
is very disappointing as it contains practically no original material. 
Furthermore, it is far from complete. Medina serves as the main 
source of the work. The contents are noted in the Bibliography. 

The greater part of the rare material in the Bancroft Library at 
the University of California is included in the notes taken by 
Tozzer (1918). 

Middle America. Linguistics. Romero (1860) has a list of 
writers on Mexican languages. The bibliography of Sanchez 
(1886) gives a few of the early writers on the Maya language. 
Leon (1905) covers the linguistic field superficially. 

Central America. General Works. Bandelier (1881) is 
especially good from the side of early histories. It is of little im- 
portance, however, on the subject of languages. 

Central America. Linguistics. The Monograph of Squier 
(1861) is well known as an excellent second-hand bibliography. 
He uses the biographical material in Beristain y Souza and Har- 
risse has noted that the titles are taken from other notices of the 
books rather than from the books themselves. 1 Haebler (1895; 
Maya, p. 566-568) is to be especially recommended. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1859) gives a bibliography of the languages of Central 
America. 

1 Squier made use of the works of Beristain y Souza, Remesal, Vasquez, 
Cogolludo, Villagutierre, Juarros, etc., but he did not use Balbi, Hervas y 
Panduro, Gilii, Adelung, Vater, and Buschmann as he presumed these were 
known to investigators. 



BIBLIOGRAPHIES 157 

The Catalogue of the Berendt Linguistic Collection by Brinton 
(1900; Maya, p. 204-215) is probably the most valuable printed 
bibliography of the Maya linguistic stock. It contains material 
not to be found in any other work, especially as regards manu- 
scripts. Mention has been made in another place of this collec- 
tion (p. 147). 

Gates (2) has prepared a finding list of manuscripts and printed 
material on the languages of the Maya stock. He also has an excel- 
lent essay (Gates, 1915) on the unpublished material in the Maya 
dialects. Stoll (1884, p. 73-78) contains a short list of books on the 
Maya family. 

Yucatan. General Works. No attempt is made here to 
touch upon any material on the ruins of Yucatan. It must not be 
forgotten also that all the books listed in the previous divisions 
have something in them on the Maya dialect. There are noted 
here only those books bearing on the language which are limited in 
their general contents to Yucatan. Castillo (1866) published only 
the first volume of an historical and biographical dictionary which 
has some good material on the language. 1 Berendt (7 in B. L. C. 
No. 181) has a fair bibliography of Yucatan in manuscript. Car- 
rillo y Ancona (1868, 1871, 1871a, 1878-82) gives bibliographical 
material on the Maya language. Sosa (1884) and especially Mar- 
tinez Alomia (1906) are biographical-bibliographical works of some 
importance. Menendez (1906) has a good list of writers on Yuca- 
tan. Saville (1921) also has a list of works on Yucatan. 

Yucatan. Maya Linguistics. Berendt (8 in B. L. C. No. 11) 
and de Rosny (1875; ed. 1904) have bibliographical notes limited 
to the Maya dialect. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872) should 
be mentioned here. Brinton (1882, p. 72-77) discusses the Maya 
grammars and dictionaries. Tozzer (1917, p. 184-186) gives a 
bibliography covering the Books of Chilam Balam. 

Biographical Works. Alcedo (1807), Beristain y Souza (1816- 
21), Castillo (1866), Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872), Sosa (1866: 
1884), and Martinez Alomia (1906) are excellent reference books 
on the biographies of writers on Maya linguistics. 

1 Reference should be made here to another work of Castillo (1861) which 
Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 138) considers "preciosa." 



158 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Sale Catalogues. References have been made to a few of the 
important sale catalogues containing books on Maya linguistics. 
No attempt has been made to exhaust this list. The following are 
noted in the bibliography: Anon (1868), Fischer (1869), J. M. 
Andrade (1869), Quaritch (1873 et seq.), Field (1875), Clarke 
(1878), Ramirez (1880), Maisonneuve (1881: 1897), Triibner 
(1882), Murphy (1884), Penafiel (1886), Chadenat (1889 et seq.), 
Hiersemann (1891 et seq.), Leon (1896), Platzmann (1903), Hamy 
(1909), and Wilkinson (1914; 1915). 

Periodicals. There is a long list of periodicals printed in Yuca- 
tan, principally in Merida and in Campeche. With few exceptions 
each has had a very short history. The newspaper, La Revista 
de Merida, founded in 1859, has been published continuously up 
to the present time with the exception of the years 1916, 1917. 
It often contains important articles on the Maya language. El 
Museo Yucateco (1841-42) was published in Campeche, only two 
volumes of which appeared. El Registro Yucateco (1845-49) only 
lasted for five years. This publication (1845, p. 233-235) gives a 
list of the various periodicals appearing in Yucatan from 1813 to 
1845. Medina (1904) and Molina (1904-13, v. 3, p. 574) also 
give lists. Few of these papers contain anything of interest on our 
subject. La Revista Yucateca (1849), El Semanario Yucateco 
(1878-82), and El Seminario Conciliar are names of other early 
serial publications. Martinez Alomia (1902) gives a list of the peri- 
odicals published in Campeche from 1813 to 1889. The Calendario 
de Espinosa, a modern publication, appearing annually, often con- 
tains short articles on the Maya language. 

CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES 

General. The monumental work of the Abbe Hervas y Pan- 
duro (1784; ed. 1800-05) is the first attempt at a classification and 
study of the languages of the world. 1 Hervas (1784) treats of the 
classification of the languages and v. 1 of the 1800-05 edition con- 
siders the languages of America. There is a very brief notice of 
the Maya language (1800-05, v. 1, p. 289-290). 

1 For an excellent discussion of this work and the material used in its prep- 
aration, see Mitre 1909-11, v. 1, p. 116-122. 



CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES 159 

The Mithridates begun by Adelung (1806-17) and continued by 
Vater is the second great attempt to classify the languages of the 
world. The 3d volume, 2d part, treats of the languages of America. 
Neither this nor the work of Hervas y Panduro is of much present 
use. 

Middle America. The attempts to classify the languages of 
America have been many. These classifications are of interest to 
us only as they treat the languages of Middle America, especially 
those of the Maya stock and particularly those of the Maya dialect. 
No attempt has been made to list the numberless minor works 
such as Estadisticas, etc., printed in Mexico, which often give lists 
of languages spoken in the Republic or in the various states. 1 

Juarros (1808; ed. 1857, v. 2, p. 35), Latham (1850, p. 410-411) 
and C. Malte-Brun (1862, p. 59) give imperfect lists of the Maya 
dialects. The Ministerio de Fomento (1854) and Siliceo (1857), 
Secretary of the Ministerio de Fomento, Mexico, both publish brief 
accounts of the dialects of Maya. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1857) 
has an incomplete list. Orozco y Berra (1864, esp. p. 56 and map) 
gives one of the best of the earliest classifications. Malte-Brun 
(1878, p. 19-20) republishes this with corrections. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1865, p. 127-129,) Bancroft (1874-76, v. 3, p. 571), 
Berendt (1878, map), Larrainzar (1875-78, v. 2, p. 407-409, map) 
arid Bastian (1878-89, v. 2, p. 343) all give more or less complete 
lists of the dialects of the Maya-Quiche stock. Pimentel (1876) 
gives a full list with an interesting arrangement of the dialects as 
branches of a tree. 

Stoll (1884, map, and 1886, p. 300-303) is one of the best writers 
on this subject. Cubas (1876, p. 105-112: 1884, p. 23) and Batres 
(1885) are less important. Brinton (1891) and Cubas (1888-91, 
v. 1, p. v, xv ; also v. 5, p. 473) are serviceable. Gerrodette (1891- 
92, map), Charencey (1894, p. 345-346), and Penafiel (1897), the 
latter arranged by states, are secondary in importance. Sapper 
1893: 1895a: 1897: 1905) ranks with Stoll as an authority. Leon 
(1900; ed. 1903, p. 282, map), Gatschet (1900), and Keane (1901; 
ed. 1911, v. 2, p. 22) have fairly complete lists. Penafiel (1900, 
p. 92-97, 216—221, 340—343, 464-469) gives a census of people 

1 Two of the most important of these works are those of Regil and Peon 
(1852) and Baqueiro (1881) as they treat solely of Yucatan. 



160 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

speaking Maya and its various dialects. The work of Thomas 
(1902), amplified and corrected by Swanton, (Thomas and Swan- 
ton, 1911, map) stands at present as the best discussion of the 
different linguistic families of Middle America. Zayas (1908, p. 160- 
164) and Beuchat (1912, p. 405-406) give brief accounts of the 
different Maya dialects. Joyce (1914, p. 201-202) follows Thomas 
and Swanton in the main. Attention should be called to the work 
of Gates (1920), more especially to his map (p. 606). Wilkinson 
(1) has a tentative arrangement of the Maya dialects with their 
lopation. 

AFFINITIES 

It is not necessary to treat here the much debated question re- 
garding the possible affiliation between the Maya culture and that 
in other parts of the world. For bibliographical purposes it is well 
to record the most important discussions regarding the possible con- 
nection between the Maya language and that spoken in other parts 
of the world. It is hardly necessary to add that these treatises are 
of no scientific value. No attempt is made to discuss the possible 
affiliation of any features other than language. 

European Languages. The connection between Maya and 
several of the languages of the Indo-European and Semitic groups 
is discussed by Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. i-xlix). 1 
Douay (1900, p. 94) quotes Brasseur de Bourbourg. The work of 
LePlongeon, as described by Salisbury (1877), and the writings of 
LePlongeon himself (1879: 1880: 1880a, 1881: 1881a: 1896) are 
interesting examples of other fantastic ideas regarding the connec- 
tion between the Maya language and those of the Old World. Car- 
rillo y Ancona (1880b; ed. 1883, p. 624-631) refutes the testimony 
of LePlongeon of a connection between Maya on the one hand and 
Greek and Egyptian on the other. Ober (1884, p. 102) quotes Le 
Plongeon regarding a Chaldean connection. Ancona (1877) com- 
pares some Maya words with Egyptian. Dusaert (1882) refutes 
Brasseur de Bourbourg. 2 

Oceanic and Asiatic Languages. A belief in a relationship 
between Maya and the languages of the Oceanic area is held by 

1 See reference to this in Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 63). 

2 See also in this connection the list of comparative vobabularies on p. 293. 



DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE 161 

Thomas (1894), Tregear (1898), and Campbell (1898-99). Ken- 
nedy (1861, p. 139) thinks there is some affiliation between Maya 
and Chinese or Japanese. Douay (1905) denies that there is any 
connection between Maya and Japanese. Books containing com- 
parative vocabularies of Maya and Chinese are discussed on p. 179. 

South American Languages. Douay (1) discusses the affilia- 
tion between the Maya vocabulary and that of Quechua. 1 

Antillian Languages. A connection between Maya and the 
languages of the Antilles was thought possible from very early 
times. 2 Oviedo (1535), quoted in turn by Vater-Adelung (1806-17) 
and Prichard (1843), thinks that Cuba and Yucatan were related 
linguistically. Bachiller (1883, chap. 5) states that Cuba was not 
populated from Yucatan but he compares Maya with the lan- 
guages of the Antilles. Douay (1894: 1900) believes that there 
are certain lexical similarities between Maya-Quiche and the lan- 
guage of Haiti. 

DESCRIPTION OF LANGUAGE 

Apart from the more detailed examination and description of 
the Maya language given in many of the grammars, there is often 
a short notice of the dialect in many of the early histories and in a 
large number of the later works. In the Coleccion de Documentos 
Ineditos (1898-1900, v. 11, 13) and in other collections of this 
sort brief reference is often made to the language. The O'Neil 
manuscript (1795) probably belongs here. Barton (1797, p. lxxiii) 
quotes Clavigero and mentions the Maya dialect. F. H. A. von 
Humboldt (1811, v 2, p. 246), followed by J. B. Gordon (1820, 
p. 73), has a short statement including the fact that the language 
is guttural. Balbi (1826; ed. 1835, p. xxx), Ternaux-Compans 
(1843), and Granado (1845, p. 167) give very brief notes on the 
language. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1855) gives a short description 
of the language and (1857-59, v. 1, p. 63) mentions the fact that 
the Maya is undoubtedly the mother of the Tzental of Chiapas. 

1 In this connection, he uses the Maya vocabularies of Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg (1869-70) and Charencey both of which are very imperfect. 

2 Peter Martyr in De Insults nuper inventis writes " Quorum idioma si non 
idem, consanguineum tamen." 



162 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Jehan (1864, col. 881) describes the language. Bollaert (1870, 
p. 291) quotes Beltran regarding Maya diction and Hovelaque 
(1876, p. 107) classes Maya among the agglutinative languages. 

Orozco y Berra (1864, p. 155-159) presents almost the first 
good account of the language outside that of the grammars which 
are noted in another place. Garcia y Garcia (1865, p. lxxv) is one 
of the many who states the ease with which Maya is learned by 
the Spanish-speaking population. Carrillo y Ancona (1865: 1866; 
ed. 1883, p. 555-561: 1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 101-123) presents his 
own ideas regarding the language and also quotes freely from the 
earlier authorities. J. G. Miiller (1855) has a very short note. Brin- 
ton (1871) has a description of the Maya stock in general. Ancona 
(1878-1905; ed. 1889, v. 1, p. 112-117) limits his observations 
to the language of Yucatan. Brinton (1881, p. 623 : 1882a, p. 218, 
note) speaks of the figurative expressions it is possible to make 
in Maya. In Brinton (1885) the philosophical character of the 
Maya is described according to an unknown manuscript of von 
Humboldt. Palma y Palma (1901, p. 108-131) has a very interest- 
ing chapter on the richness of expression possible in Maya. 

The long description of Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, 
p. i-xlix) is practically worthless. Larrainzar (1875-78, v. 2, p. 407- 
409) and Rockstroh (1878, p. 1-13) give a general description of 
Maya. Malte-Brun (1878) has a statement taken from Orozco 
y Berra (1864). Baeza {circa 1880) has a paper on the Maya lan- 
guage. Short accounts of the language also appear in Winsor (1889, 
v. 1, p. 427), Juan Molina (1896, p. 332-335), Spencer (1873-1910, 
div. ii, pt. lb, p. 51), Mendez (1898), Brinton (1900a, p. 207), and 
Lehmann (1907). Tozzer (1902-05) makes several general obser- 
vations on the language. Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 61-64) sum- 
marizes the description of the language taken from several sources. 
Hestermann (1915) has a few scattering observations on the 
language. 

GRAMMARS 

Carrillo y Ancona (1881; ed. 1883, p. 123), quoted by Brinton 
(1882, p. 72), states that thirteen grammars of the Maya language 
have been written. This number could be considerably increased 
at the present time. 

XVI Century. Mention has already been made of the early 
work of Villalpando (§ 1). He was the author of a grammar, ac- 



GRAMMARS 163 

cording to Landa (1863, p. 94), which was probably printed but no 
copy is now known. His dictionary, probably founded on the 
vocabulary contained in the grammar was printed in 1571. The 
grammar is supposed to have been perfected by Landa (§ l) 1 and 
to have furnished some of the material for the grammar of Coronel 
(1620). 

XVII Century. It is probable that the first Maya grammar 
of this century was written by Acevedo (§ 1) 2 who came to Yuca- 
tan in 1592 and died at the end of the first quarter of the century. 3 
Another grammar of about this time is that by Cuartas (§ 1). The 
earliest grammar now available is that of Coronel (1620) , 4 the 
teacher of Cogolludo. The only copy known is in the possession of 
Mr. Gates. As previously noted (p. 10), it undoubtedly furnished 
the foundation for the grammar of San Buenaventura. Other 
grammars of this century, all of which have disappeared, are those 
written by Vidales (§ 2) toward the end of the second quarter of 
the century 5 and one on the Lacandone dialect by Rivas Gastelu 
(§ 1), a native of Guatemala. 

San Buenaventura (1684; 2d ed 1888), a French Franciscan 
stationed in Merida, wrote the grammar which has been described 
elsewhere (p. 10) on or about 1675. 6 This was published in 1684 

1 Cogolludo (1688, lib. vi, cap. i) writes, " Fr. Lorengo de Bienvenida, con no 
menos feliz despacho, que se presumib de la solicitud de tan gran Religioso, yi 
traxo una Mission de diez Religiosos, que le did el Rey para esta Provincia, y 
sabiendo que avian llegado a desembarcar en el Puerto de Zilam, el R. Padre 
Custodio did orden at Padre Fr. Diego de Landa, que era Guardian de Merida f 
para que fuesse al Puerto, y los recibiesse, y llevandolos at Convento de Ytzmal 
les leyesse el Arte de la lengua de estos naturales, que el avia perficionado, y que en 
sabiendole se fuesse a su Convento de Merida." 

2 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 165) writes: "Vino con la cruz del 
misionero a la provincia de Yucatan, y entre sus muchos servicios y esclarecidas 
virtudes, la historia refiere su dedicacion particular al estudio del idioma yucateco, 
de que escribio un 'Manual 6 compendio elemental,' y una como ' Misceldnea 
Maya,' 6 coleccion de escritos varios sobre este idioma y de Tratados morales 
escritos en el, procurando suplir con estos trabajos, el defecto natural de su lengua." 

3 See Lizana (1633; ed. 1893, p. 102) for details of. his work. 

4 For a full discussion of the grammars of Coronel, San Buenaventura, and 
Beltran, see Part I, p. 9-14. 

5 Beristain y Souza (1816-21, v. 3, p. 276) states that he wrote from 1644 
to 1648. Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 124) places this writer among those who 
worked in the xvi Century. 

6 The Aprobacion del R. P. Fr. Juan de Torres is dated May 19, 1675. 



164 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

with a facsimile edition in 1888. Until a few years ago this was 
considered the first of the Maya grammars which had come down 
to us. With the appearance of the single copy of Coronel's work 
first place in point of time now belongs to that. It has been stated 
that San Buenaventura follows Coronel with great fidelity. It is 
quite evident that San Buenaventura's grammar, on the other 
hand, furnished the data for grammatical material on the Maya 
given by A von Humboldt l (1811, English ed. v. 2, p. 246) and he, 
in turn, was followed by Adelung (1806-17, v. 3, pt. 3, p. 16-23). 
Pimentel (1862-65, v. 2, p. 1-39; ed. 1875, v. 3, p. 105-138, 230- 
275) follows San Buenaventura. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, 
v. 2, p. 1-84) has printed the greater part of this grammar under a 
different arrangement and Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 64-70) has 
given a full outline of this grammar of San Buenaventura. Bryne 
(1885, v. 1, p. 191-193; ed. 1892, v. 1, p. 195-197) has some gram- 
matical notes after Brasseur de Bourbourg. 

XVIII Century. One of the grammars of this century is that 
of Avendafio (§ 1) who held the title of Difinidor in Yucatan in 
1705. 2 This work has disappeared. 

Beltran (1746; 2d ed. 1859) and his famous grammar come in 
this century. As previously noted (p. 10), this grammar, by a 
native of Yucatan, seems by far the best of the early works on the 
Maya. Brasseur de Bourbourg is altogether too severe in his crit- 
icism of this grammar in comparison with that of San Buena- 
ventura. He writes (1871, p. 24), " II possedait parfaitement sa 
langue: mais il n'en comprit pas le genie comme son predecesseur, 
le pere Gabriel de Saint Bonaventure, auquel il emprunta, toutefois, 
une partie de son travail; aussi sa grammaire, diffuse et mal congue, 
manque-t-elle de lucidite." Seler (1887) is also inclined to favor San 
Buenaventura to Beltran. 3 Beltran was a native of Yucatan and 

1 W. von Humboldt (1: 2) is the author of two manuscripts on the Maya 
grammar. 

2 For an excellent account of the missionary labors of this Franciscan, see 
his work (1696), translated by Mr. Charles P. Bowditch, and collated with 
other material by Means (1917). 

Carrillo y Ancona (1883, p. 125) places Avendafio among the writers of the 
xt II Century. Berendt dates these works of Avendafio about 1750. 

3 Gates also regards Beltran's work as inferior to that of the two earlier 
writers whose grammars are extant. 



GRAMMARS 165 

a good Maya scholar. He taught Maya in Merida about 1740. 
His grammar was written in 1742 and printed in 1746 with an 
excellent reprint in 1859. 

Berendt (1867) states that he saw Henderson (§ 3) at work in 
Belize and that the latter made a translation into English of 
Beltran's grammar. According to Ludewig (1858, p. 227) Kingdon 
(§ 1) made an English translation of the same grammar which is 
said to be in the possession of the American Bible Society of New 
York. The present Secretary states that he can find no trace of 
this manuscript. As previously pointed out, there is much con- 
fusion over the authorship of works listed under Henderson and 
Kingdon. 

Much of the material published on the Maya grammar in the 
last century was taken from Beltran. The list of his followers is a 
long one. It contains: Norman (1843, p. 240-249), Gallatin (1845, 
p. 45-47, 252-268) and Heller (1853, p. 381-385). They evidently 
had access to the first edition. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1864, 
p. 459-478) writes that he obtained his grammatical material from 
the works of Beltran and Ruz. It is quite evident that he de- 
pended very slightly, if at all, on Beltran's treatise. According to 
Brinton (1900, p. 209), Brasseur de Bourbourg explained to Berendt 
that when he wrote this book he had never seen the original works 
either of Beltran or of Ruz but only Gallatin's reference to the 
former and Kingdon's translation of the latter. De Rosny (1875, 
p. 61-82) and Bancroft (1874-76, v. 3, p. 773-776) give some por- 
tions of Beltran almost without change. Charencey (1883-84; ed. 
1885) uses it in comparing the conjugation of the Maya with that of 
Quiche. Larrainzar (1875-78, v. 2, p. 407-408) mentions Beltran. 
Palma y Palma (1901) follows him quite fully and Mitre (1909- 
11, v. 3, p. 71-83) gives an outline of the work. De Rosny (1904, 
p. 87-115) has grammatical notes after San Buenaventura, Bel- 
tran, and Ruz. 

XIX Century, etc. The next independent work on the Maya 
grammar was that of Ruz (1844: 1845) } He was a Franciscan, 
born in Merida in 1785. He was a prolific writer on Maya sub- 

1 Squier (1861, p. 38) gives a Maya grammar by Narciso (1838). This is 
clearly a mistake. The Narciso work is a Spanish grammar by Diego Narciso 
Herranz y Quiros, translated into Maya by Ruz. 



166 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

jects as already pointed out. His main grammatical work (1844) is 
written in the form of questions and answers in the Maya language 
and is really a translation into Maya of the Spanish grammar of 
Herranz y Quiros (1834). Neither this, his Cartilla (Ruz, 1845; 
2d. ed. Berendt, 1871) nor any of his other works are of great im- 
portance from a linguistic point of view. An English translation 
of his grammar was published by Kingdon (1847). 1 Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1864, p. 459-478) follows Ruz, as previously stated, 
although he claims to have used Beltran as well. Finally, de 
Rosny (1875, p. 91-93) gives some modern Maya from Ruz. 
Vela (1) has left a few grammatical notes some of which refer to 
the grammar of Ruz. 

Juan Pio Perez (1) contemplated writing a grammar and col- 
lected notes for this work (B. L. C No. 11). There seems also to 
have been some manuscript notes on the language given by Perez 
(1842a) to Stephens. 2 Gallatin (1845) used these in addition to 
the grammar of Beltran in preparing his own work. Perez (1844), 
in a letter written from Peto, makes some very interesting gram- 
matical observations regarding the changes in Maya from the 
point of view of time. Henderson (1852) published a Maya primer 
of no value. 

Berendt (1864 and 5, § 1, 3-5) has left several incomplete por- 
tions of a Maya grammar in manuscript. Anon (26, p. 88-98) pre- 
sents a few grammatical notes. Shea (1873-76, v. 1, p. 411) gives 
a specimen of Maya grammar. Sayce (1875, p. 187, note) has an 
example of the Maya noun and adjective taken Trom the text of 
Charencey (1873). Gabelentz (1881, p. 368) gives an example of 
the possessive. Charencey (1883: 1896) should be mentioned 
among the writers on Maya grammar although his writings deal 
with special features of the language. 

1 In a preliminary note to Berendt's copy of the Kingdon translation 
(Berendt, 1865), Berendt points out that Kingdon mistranslates Ruz's title, 
Gramatica Yucateca which does not mean a " Yucatan Grammar," but a gram- 
mar of the Yucatecan language. He adds: "It seems that Father Kingdon 
had only an imperfect knowledge of either Maya or Spanish. We arrive at 
this conclusion in view of the many blunders made in his translation, for which 
see my notes." (This note given by Brinton, 1900, p, 208). 

2 See Stephens, 1843, v. 2, p. 278. There is another set of manuscript notes 
on the grammar by Perez (10). It is impossible to judge how much of this 
material is contained in Perez (1) and (1842a). 



GRAMMARS 167 

Brinton (1882, p. 27-37) gives some brief grammatical notes. 
He had access to the early works of San Buenaventura and of Bel- 
tran. Seler (1887), while basing his study entirely on early 
printed material, presents the grammatical forms in a new light. 
Zavala (1896) has a small grammar, rather badly arranged, and not 
covering the ground so fully as the early grammarians have done. 
Palma y Palma (1901, p. 83-474), although following Beltran in 
the main, presents much new and original material of some value. 
Romero Fuentes (1910) and Pacheco Cruz (1912) have phrase 
books which are useful in acquiring a superficial speaking knowl- 
edge of the Maya but they are quite inadequate for a proper 
understanding of the grammatical forms. 

Lopez Otero (1914) has a very good grammar founded in part 
upon the grammar of Beltran and upon the linguistic teachings of 
the late Sefior Don Audomaro Molina. This work ranks next to 
that of the three early grammarians. It also gives a very good idea 
of the language as spoken at the present time. 

Special Features. Studies of special phases of the Maya gram- 
mar are not numerous. Adam (1877) has a study of polysynthesis 
in Maya and Quiche. Charencey (1884) has some pertinent ideas 
regarding the formation of words in Maya and another paper 
(1896) on the classification of the verb. Tozzer (1912) attempts to 
classify the verb. The Maya pronoun is treated by Brinton 1885, 
p. 35-36), Charencey (1883, p. 123-129), and by Tozzer (1906). 
Rejon Garcia (1905, p. 19-27) has some remarks of no value on 
certain particles. Gates (1) has an excellent article in manuscript 
regarding the modern approach to a Maya grammar. He also 
(Gates, 1914) discusses the grammar from a philosophical basis. 

Comparative Grammar. Maya Stock. This subject is best 
treated by Seler (1887), Charencey (1866: 1883-84; digest in 
Mitre, 1909-11, v. 3, p. 87-95), and Charencey (1883, p. 123-139). 
The interpretation of the material, gathered from the older au- 
thorities, is a distinct contribution to the study of the Maya 
language as a whole. 

Slight comparative grammatical material on the Maya and 
Quiche is to be found in Adam (1877). Gallatin (1845) treats of 
Maya, Quiche, Pokonchi, and Huastec. F. Miiller (1876-88, v. 2, 



168 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

p. 305-313, after Vater) compares Maya, Quiche, Mam, Pokonchi, 
and Huastec. 

Maya stock and Mexican languages. Berendt (5 in B. L. C. 
No. 179) compares Maya with Nahuatl, Otomi, Natchez, Cak- 
chiquel, etc. Palma y Palma (1901, p. 421-449) has some reflec r 
tions on Nahuatl and Maya. See also Adam (1878a) below. 

Maya stock and North American Languages. Adam (1878) com- 
pares Dakota, Cree and some other North American stocks with 
Maya and Quiche and Adam (1878a) treats briefly of Dakota, 
Nahuatl, Maya, Quiche, as well as two South American stocks. 

Maya stock and South American Languages. See Adam (1878a) 
above. 

PHONETICS 

The phonetics of the Maya language are discussed at some 
length in the grammar of Beltran (1746) and in several of the other 
grammars. His list of the sounds is used by Norman (1843, p. 242) 
and the latter is copied in turn by Spence (1913, p. 342). Juan 
Molina (1896, p. 335) also quotes from Beltran. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1864, p. 322, note), followed by Bollaert (1866, p. 50- 
51) quote Beltran on the alphabet. The Analytical Alphabet of 
Berendt (1869) and Berendt (5 in B. L. C. No. 179, § 1) together 
with Stoll (1884, p. 39-44) give good discussions of the phonetics 
of the whole group of Maya languages. Carrillo y Ancona (1880a, 
p. 91-95: 1893) l has some words on the pronunciation. Anon. 
(2, ff. 9-11) treats of the sounds in Maya. Perez (1842a) has left 
some remarks on the various sounds and letters adopted for these 
sounds as a preliminary notice to his manuscript " Codex Perez " 
in the library of the New York Historical Society. These notes 
were used by Gallatin (1845, p. 252). Justo Sierra (1842-45) dis- 
cusses the sounds in Maya. Gates (3) has a paper in manuscript 
regarding the pronunciation with an alphabet which he prefers in 
writing Maya and he describes (Gates, 1920, p. 611-613) very 
carefully the phonetic system of the language. Tozzer (1907, 
p. xxiii: 1910, p. 277) gives a key to the pronunciation of the 
Maya Sounds. 

1 This work introduces the series of manuscript vocabularies from the dif- 
ferent towns in Yucatan described on p. 293. 



VOCABULARIES 169 

VOCABULARIES 

Carrillo y Ancona (1881; ed. 1883, p. 123), quoted by Brinton 
(1882, p. 72), states that seventeen dictionaries of the language 
have been written. This number should be increased if we include 
all the missing Maya vocabularies. 

XVI Century. Villalpando (1571) holds the place of priority 
regarding the authorship of a Maya dictionary as he does that of 
a grammar. His dictionary was published in Mexico in 1571. 1 
This work is probably based upon the vocabulary contained in his 
Arte (§ 1) which is missing. 

Solana (1580), a Franciscan and companion of Landa, is another 
author of a dictionary in this century. This is in manuscript and is 
probably in the library of The H ispanic Society of America in New 
York. 2 Mention should also be made here of a short collection of 
Maya words given by Oviedo (1535; ed. 1851-55, v. 4, p. 593- 
607), also in Berendt, (1868d, v. 1, in B. L. C. No. 42-11) and 
Berendt (6 in B. L. C. No. 180). The Maya words in Landa (1864) 
have been collected and translated by Bowditch (1). 

Another dictionary of this century is that by Gaspar Antonio 
Xiu (§ l). 3 He was a Maya Indian and related to the so-called 
royal family of the Tutul Xius, one of the two reigning families 
of Mayapan. The manuscript is missing but it is dated toward the 
close of the century as he is known to have been receiving a pension 
from the Spanish Government in 1593 and 1599. 4 

1 Brinton (1882, o. 74) states that one copy at least is in existence. 

2 I have been unable to verify this point. For bibliographical purposes 
several works of Solana are listed in the bibliography although they do not 
appear to touch upon the Maya language, Solana (§3), (§4), (§5), (§6). 
Najera (1) should be noted here, The work of Cardenas (1639), although 
belonging to the next century, may be mentioned as being in the same class. 

3 In the list of missing authorities I have also placed another work by Xiu 
(1582) although it probably has little to do with Maya linguistics. See Carrillo 
y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, p. 137-138. 

4 A description of his work is given in the Relation de Quinacama (Coleccion 
de Documentor Ineditos, v. 11, p. 264). Juan Martinez writes personally as 
follows, "Antonio Xiu helped everybody in his work. He never wrote a vo- 
cabulary : he was not a scholar but an interpreter of the government and had 
access to the library of the Franciscan Convent in Merida." 



170 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Another companion of Landa was Ciudad Real. He came to 
America in 1573 and died in 1617. He is the author of several 
works on the Maya language. His Gran Diccionario 6 Calepino 
(Ciudad Real, § 1) was prepared in two copies neither of which has 
been found. 1 He is said to have taken forty years to write this. 
Juan Martinez Hernandez identifies the Motul dictionary as this 
missing work. There is probably another dictionary (Ciudad Real, 
§ 2) distinct from the Calepino. 2 Cogolludo (1688, p. 513) writes 
of Ciudad Real, " Aprendid el idioma de estos Indios con tanta per- 
fection quefue el mayor Maestro de el que ha tenido esta tierra. Como 
tal predico, enseno y escribid Sermones de Santos . . . no solo hizo 
Vocabularios, que el uno empiega con la lengua Castellana, y el otro con 
la de los Indios; pero compuso una obra tan insigne, que por su 
grandeza se llamo Calepino de la lengua Mayo 6 Yucaiheca." 

The Motul Dictionary, the most famous of all the Maya extant 
dictionaries, probably goes back to the last quarter of the xvi 
century. 3 A copy of this manuscript is now in the John Carter 
Brown Library 'at Providence, Rhode Island. It is called the 
Motul Dictionary as there is reason to believe that the first part 
was written at the Convent of Motul. It is probably a copy of an 
earlier manuscript. It is impossible to determine the exact date of 
the original but the author speaks of a comet which he saw in 1577 
and " gives other evidence that he was writing in the first genera- 
tion after the Conquest." 4 The present copy seems to have been 
made about the close of the xvi century. It consists of two parts : — 

1 According to Nicolas Antonio (1672) who copied from Lizana (1633, ed. 
1893, p. 100), one copy remained in Yucatan and the other was in the library 
of the Duque del Infantado in Spain. Brinton (1897, p. 185) tried to trace this 
library in 1888 and again in 1893. Some volumes were said to have gone to 
the Real Academia de Historia and the bulk of the collection passed to the 
Duke de Osuna and was sold by him to the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid. 
Inquiries by Brinton in both these institutions met with failure. 

2 Berendt (18686) gives an otro diccionario in his list of missing authorities. 
Mention is made of another work of Ciudad Real (§ 3) although it evidently 
contained nothing on the language. 

3 Ciudad Real was in Yucatan from 1573 to 1617 which would be about the 
time this manuscript was written. 

For bibliographical note, see Bartlett (1865-71, v. 1, p. 226, 2d. ed. 1875- 
82, v. 1, p. 446). 

4 Brinton (1882, p. 77: 1885a, p. 32) and Berendt (7, in B. L. C. No. 181) 
also have notes on the Motul. Bollaert (1866, p. 54, note) gives information 
on the Motul taken from Triibner (1865, p. 2). 



VOCABULARIES 171 

• 

Maya-Spanish and Spanish -Maya, the latter section containing 
approximately 11,180 words. This is probably later in date than 
the Maya-Spanish part. 

Juan Martinez Hernandez thinks that the Motul dictionary is 
the same work as the Calepino of Ciudad Real and refers to Lizana 
(1633, ed. 1893, p. 99) who writes, ''Antonio de Ciudad Real . . . 
hizo Calepino tan grande, que son seis bolumenes de a dozientos pliegos 
cada uno, los dos de su letra sacados en limpios, y los borradores 
llenaua dos costales, ocupo Ifi anos en esta obra, mas es tan buena, y 
de tanto peso, y utilidad, que no tiene otro defeto que ser para esta 
tierra solamente que a correr esta lengua en todo el mundo solas estas 
obras bastauan para dar luz, y claridad a todos los que la aprendiessen, 
y alii hallassen quantas frasis, y propiedad se pueden imaginar, sin 
que ayafaltade una palabra, etcP 

Berendt made a careful copy of the manuscript in 1864 (B. L. C. 
No. 1) with extensive corrections and additions from the other 
Maya dictionaries, the Ticul, San Francisco and Pio Perez, copies 
of which he possessed. In the preface to his copy he writes, "The 
first part of the Providence MS. is written in an extremely small 
and badly arranged hand. It shows an author of wide instruction, 
with scientific mind, and profound knowledge of the Maya language 
and great care and attention. But the copyist was an ignorant 
fellow who did not understand what he was writing, not even in the 
Spanish part, and in places he shows terrible negligence." 1 It is 
needless to add that this dictionary is indispensable for the student 
who is working on the translation of old Maya texts. The illustra- 
tive sentences after many of the words are most useful. An un- 
successful attempt was made by the Bureau of American Ethnology 
to publish this manuscript. A portion of it was set up in proof 
after having been copied by Miss Thomas. These proofs were being 
corrected by Sefior Audomaro Molina at the time of his death. 2 
Mr. William Gates is now at work on an edition of the dictionary. 

Mention should be made here of the Vocabulario grande Yucatano 
(Anon. 28) mentioned by Cogolludo. 3 

1 This is a translation from the Spanish kindly furnished me by Miss Adela 
Breton. 

2 For the work of Miss Thomas and Audomaro Molina, see Powell (1900, 
p. 67-68), McGee (1901, p. 79: 1902, p. 53-54), and Holmes (1903, p. 41). 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 135) writes: "La primera obra que 
escribieron los indios yucatecos en el sigh mismo de la conquista, usando por 



172 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

XVII Century. Coronel (§ 1) (circa 1620) and Vidales (§ 1) 
(circa 1644) are both authors of vocabularies which are missing. 
Coronel (1620, p. 107-110) gives the names of the different parts of 
the body. Valladolid (§ 3) also wrote a dictionary according to 
Ludewig (1858, p. 103). This may be questioned. 

The San Francisco Dictionary is second in importance to the 
Motul and probably belongs about the middle of the xvu century. 
This work was found at the closing of the Convent of San Fran- 
cisco in Merida in 1820. It bears no date. The original is lost but 
Perez made a copy (Perez, 11) r and Berendt made a copy from that 
of Perez in 1870 (B. L. C. No. 3). Meneses (1) made a partial 
copy. Pio Perez considers that this dictionary is older than the 
Ticul vocabulary, probably by half a century. Berendt would place 
it as older than the Motul, basing his decision on some antiquated 
forms in the San Francisco which appear in the Motul as modern- 
ized. 2 Mitre (1909-11, v. 3, p. 71) suggests that this dictionary may 
have been the work of San Buenaventura (§ l). 3 In this case the 

primera vez de los caracteres alfabeticos, fue un gran Vocabulario historico que, no 
habiendose nunca llegado d imprimir, parece que se ha perdido por complete. Con- 
servdbase todavia a mediados del siglo diez y siete, epoca en que Fr. Diego Lopez de 
Cogolludo se hallaba en esta Peninsula, pues le vio y aun le servio para componer 
su Historia, como se ve por estas palabras que se leen en el cap. V del lib. IV, con 
motivo de hablar aquel autor del nombre que los antiguos Mayas daban a un Dios 
unico e incorporeal 

1 From Berendt (1871a, p. 60) who writes, " D. Pio ha copiado tambien este 
Diccionario, coordinando la parte maya-espanola por el mismo metodo que habia 
empleado en su trabajo anterior," it might be inferred that this dictionary was 
originally arranged in a Spanish-Maya order only and that Perez made the 
Maya-Spanish part when he copied it in the same way as he had done with the 
Ticul Dictionary. But in his Preface he states that he received a copy of a 
part of the Maya-Spanish portion made by Meneses. This seems to show that 
the original manuscript was in Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maya. 

The Perez copy was found by Martinez Hernandez among papers presented 
by Mrs. Ernesto de Regil to her brother-in-law, Jose Rafael de Regil of Merida, 
who is the present owner. 

2 Berendt in the Preface to his copy of y. 2 of the Motul Dictionary (B. L. C. 
No. 1). 

3 Mitre quotes as follows from Ancona (1877, p. iv), in his introduction to 
Perez (1866-77): "En 1848, el mismo Perez encontro en casa del cura Jos6 
Maria Meneses, un diccionario de la lengua Maya, mds voluminoso, el cual habia 
sido de la biblioteca del convento grande de San Francisco, y cuya fecha y autor se 
ignoraba por faltar d la obra sus primeras pdginas. Parece que despu6s de una 
enfermedad del Sehor Meneses el volumen fue" extraido de su casa, y P6rez pudo al 



VOCABULARIES 173 

date would presumably be about 1684, the date of his grammar. 1 
Mitre is probably incorrect in this supposition. The manuscript 
is in two parts, Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maya, the latter por- 
tion containing approximately 9160 words. The two parts do not 
correspond, each portion having terms and acceptations not to be 
found in the other. 

The Ticul Dictionary comes at the end of the xvn century. It 
bears the date of 1690 and was found in 1836 in the Convent of 
Ticul. The original manuscript is lost. It is in Spanish-Maya, 
and contains approximately 6190 words. Pio Perez copied it in 
1836 and made a second copy in 1847, 2 together with a list of the 
words arranged as Maya-Spanish (Perez, 1847a). From the 1847 
copy and the Maya-Spanish arrangement Berendt made his copy 
in 1870 (B. L. C. No. 2). The manuscript, not including the Maya- 
Spanish part, was published under the name of Perez (1898, p. 124- 
196) by Ignacio Peon who joined it to the vocabulary of Beltran's 
grammar. The two works do not correspond. 

Berendt in the Preface to v. 2 of his copy of the Motul in speak- 
ing of the Ticul and the San Francisco vocabularies writes, " The 
concordance of many Spanish terms and also the identical co- 
ordination of their different Maya equivalents and other par- 
ticulars repeated in the last two works (the Ticul and the San 
Francisco) give reason to believe that both have the same origin. 
But as each contains clauses not found in the other, presumably 
they were copies corrected and amplified by different authors and 
at different periods." 

fin conseguirlo en 1855." and Mitre adds "Este manuscrito era evidentemente el 
del diccionario Maya de San Buenaventura que segun Beristain y Souza se con- 
servaba en el convento de San Francisco de Me"rida, el cual servio principalmente 
de base para el trabajo de P6rez y no se explica sino como ocultacion de malafe,el 
que se hay a omitido mencionar siquiera el nombre del precursor y primer codifica- 
dor del idioma Maya." 

1 Berendt (1868 b) places the date of the San Buenaventura dictionary as 
1695. 

2 Pio Perez (1844) mentions this Ticul dictionary as having been found 
with a copy of Coronel's grammar. 

Perez (7, in B. L. C. No. 11, p. 165-84) writes an introduction to this vo- 
cabulary. See Perez, 1898. 

Juan Martinez writes personally regarding the Ticul as follows, "Said vo- 
cabulary is a copy from an older work with innovations of small importance, 
all copied from a pattern or old vocabulary, a standard authority which is no 
other than the work of Fray Antonio Ciudad Real." 



174 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

San Buenaventura (§ 1) {circa 1684) is given as the author of a 
large dictionary toward the end of this century. 1 Carrillo y 
Ancona (1) mentions this vocabulary and the vain search he made 
for it. 

XVIII Century. In this epoch are found the numerous vocab- 
ularies of Avendafio all of which are missing: — a dictionary (§ 2), 
a short dictionary of adverbs (§3), a botanical and medical dic- 
tionary (§ 4), and a list of proper names (§ 5). 2 A single leaf of a 
vocabulary, probably of this century is in the possession of Mr. 
Gates (Anon. 5). 

Mention should be made here of the various vocabularies in the 
grammar of Beltran (1746; ed. 1859, p. 209-241). These vocab- 
ularies are given in the present copy of the San Francisco diction- 
ary. The Maya words with their meanings as given by Beltran 
are all collected and published by Perez (1898, p. 1-101). 

XIX Century. The next vocabulary in point of time is that 
of Baezo (1832), of words in the dialect of Peten, Guatemala. 3 
Along with this should go the dialect collected at Sacluk, Peten, 
by Berendt (1866-67) and republished with English translation by 
Means, 1917, p. 188-191. Norman (1843, p. 255-263) gives an 
English-Maya vocabulary which he may have collected during his 
sojourn in Yucatan. 

Henderson (1859-66) has left a manuscript of six volumes, 
averaging 250 pages each, of a dictionary of the dialect spoken in 
the District of Bacalar. This is in the collection of manuscripts 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 4 A dictionary by King- 
don (§ 2) is reported in the library of the American Bible Society 
of New York. No trace of this can be found. 

Perez was the author of several manuscript vocabularies. He 
started with the Maya words in Beltran's Arte (1746). He ampli- 
fied this with the words in Beltran's Doctrina (1740) and Sermons 

1 See note 3 on p. 172-173. 

2 Carrillo y Ancona (1882, p. 125) places these works among those written 
in the xvii Century. 

3 Ludewig (1858, p. 102) mentions a work by Malte-Brun (1824) as con- 
taining a Maya vocabulary. I have been unable to find this book. It has been 
entered in the Bibliography under C. Malte-Brun. 

4 See Berendt (1867, p. 420) and Anon (1900) for references to this work. 



VOCABULARIES 175 

(1740a) and Dominguez (1758). In 1836 he obtained possession of 
the Ticul dictionary which he copied and with this he produced a 
two volume work (Perez, 1838). He treated these manuscripts 
as rough drafts for future revision. In the same year there is an 
account of another manuscript vocabulary (Perez, 1838a). It is 
impossible to know whether one of these various works is that 
(Perez, 1842b) noted in Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 278) who writes 
that Perez gave him a vocabulary in manuscript containing more 
than four thousand words in Maya. The manuscript of this is in 
the library of the New York Historical Society. 

Perez (1845) left another manuscript containing material for a 
dictionary. This was presented by his niece to Dr. Berendt and 
is referred to by Berendt (1871a, p. 5). It is now in the Berendt 
Linguistic Collection (No. 5). It contains several hundred words 
not in Perez (1866-77). A partial copy was made by Berendt 
when the manuscript was still in the possession of Perez. The 
latter copied the Ticul again (Perez, 1847). In this same year he 
made a Maya-Spanish arrangement of the Ticul (Perez, 1847a). 

The Perez Dictionary (1866-77), written as far as the word 
ulchahal by Perez, down to ven by Carrillo y Ancona, and completed 
by Berendt, is the largest dictionary at present in print. 1 It con- 
tains about 20,000 words and is Maya-Spanish only. As noted 
above, Perez used Beltran (1746) in preparing the first drafts of his 
dictionaries together with Beltran's sermons and Doctrina. Later 
he added the Ticul material. Finally he found the San Francisco 
and began the work all over again omitting, as antiquated, the 
examples of Maya construction. The work does not give the parts 
of the verbs and it is not always useful in explaining many of the 
old terms. The Ticul is much better in this respect. Brinton (1882, 
p. 75) rightly complains " that it gives very few examples of idioms 
or phrases showing the uses of words and the construction of 
sentences." Breton (1919) gives a few relationship terms from 
Perez. 

The second dictionary of Perez (1898) was probably written be- 
fore that of 1866-77 and it is much better for use in translating 
the old documents. It contains the Ticul Dictionary (p. 124-296) 
mention of which has already been made. 

1 Gatschet (1879) has a note on this dictionary. Gatschet ^1883) again dis- 
cusses this work together with that of Brinton (1882). 



176 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

The two vocabularies of Brasseur de Bourbourg (1864, p. 480- 
506 and 1869-70, v. 2, p. 123-462) are both compilations from 
various sources : Beltran and San Buenaventura, Cogolludo, Landa 
Perez, Solis y Rosales, possibly the Motul, and other writers. 
Neither dictionary is of any great value. 1 Juan Martinez owns an 
annotated copy of a Brasseur vocabulary made by Berendt which 
formerly belonged to Rodolfo G. Canton. 

De Rosny (1875, p. 94-118; ed. 1904, p. 133-166) has published 
selections from the vocabulary in Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869- 
70). The latter (1857-59, v. 1, p. lxxxix) mentions a vocabulary 
(Anon, 27) of 2000 words in Maya, Spanish and English. I have 
been unable to identify this. 

Waldeck (1838, p. 79-90, copy in B. L. C. No. 41-1) has pub- 
lished a short list of words in Spanish, French, and Maya and 
(1838, p. 29-33, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-3) he gives the Maya 
names of many of the pueblos. Solis y Rosales (1870) furnished 
Brasseur de Bourbourg with a manuscript vocabulary. 

Berendt has left numerous vocabularies in manuscript : — one in 
the collection of manuscripts of the Bureau of American Ethnology 
at Washington (Berendt, 2), a list of proper names (Berendt, 4), 
and a large number of comparative vocabularies which will be 
discussed later. 

Donde (1876, p. 229-241) gives a list of plants with their Maya 
names prepared by Thomas Aznar Barbachano. 

Brinton (1882, p. 261-279) gives the Maya^English vocabulary of 
words found in his selections from the Books of Chilam Balam. 
He published the Maya linear measurements in 1885b (p. 434-439) 
and another short vocabulary in 1894 (p. 143-146) . 2 

Charencey (1883a) has a French-Maya vocabulary of about four 
thousand words and Charencey (1891, p. 247-301) has a Maya- 
French dictionary of about eighteen hundred words. DeRosny 
(1887; ed. 1888, p. 71—85) gives a list of Maya divinities. 

1 Compare Brinton (1882, p. 75) who writes, "I can say little in praise of 
the Vocabulaire Maya-Francais-Espanole, compiled by the Abbe Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1869-70). ... It contains about ten thousand words but many 
of these are drawn from doubtful sources, and are incorrectly given; while the 
derivations and analogies proposed are of a character unknown to the science 
of language." 

2 LePlongeon (1896, p. 202-207) has much to say regarding a controversy 
with Brinton on the linear measurements of the Mayas. 



VOCABULARIES 177 

The Peabody Museum owns a manuscript vocabulary of 250 
words from each of the following towns in Yucatan: Peto (Valez, 
1893), Sotuta (Anon, 1893), Valladolid (Manzano, 1893), and 
Tizimin (Rejon Espinola, 1893). These were probably collected by 
Carrillo y Ancona as there is an introduction on the Maya pro- 
nunciation by him. A digest of these vocabularies is given in Ap- 
pendix IV (p. 293). 

Zavala (1898) published a short Spanish -Maya vocabulary. 
Palma y Palma (1901, p. 258-269, 307-326) writes instructively on 
the wealth of material in the Maya vocabularies. In the Coleccion 
de Documentos Tneditos (1898-1900, v. 11, p. 435-436) there is a 
short list of Maya words to be found in the text. 

Sapper {circa 1895) collected a small vocabulary from San Luis, 
Peten, which he was good enough to give the author. Millspaugh 
(1895-98: 1900: 1903-04) has works on the flora of Yucatan which 
give many of the native names of plants. Pacheco Cruz (1919) 
has a work on the fauna of Yucatan giving the Maya names. 
Mention should also be made here of the following anonymous 
vocabularies : — that in the Libreria de San Gregorio de Mexico 
(Anon, 25, after Vifiaza, No. 1134), and that owned by Mr. Gates 
(Anon, 26). Starr (1908, p. 399-404) gives a very few Maya words 
in his glossary. 

Day and Month Names. There are many treatises on the 
meaning of the names of the days and months in the Maya year 
and the possible correlation of this meaning with the forms of the 
hieroglyphs for these days and months. The most comprehensive 
of these discussions are those by Seler (1888; ed. 1902, p. 448-503) 
and by Bowditch (1910, p. 263-265) . The latter collates the mean- 
ings given the day names by Perez, Brasseur de Bourbourg, Brin- 
ton, Schellhas, and Tozzer. Little need be said in this place re- 
garding the discussion of the linguistic meaning of the Maya 
hieroglyphics as a whole. The phonetic character of the Maya 
glyphs is discussed by Bowditch (1910, p. 254-258) and by many 
other authors. There is a long series of < articles dealing with the 
supposed phonetic transcription of series of glyphs. These are 
generally of no value. 1 

1 Eichhorn (1896: 1905) belongs to this class. Parisio is an earlier writer 
along the same lines. 



178 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Comparative Vocabularies. Maya-Quiche and other Maya 
dialects. Galindo (1834, p. 63. Copy in B. L. C. No. 42-6) gives 
a few words in Maya and Punctunc. Berendt (3) wrote a manu- 
script composed of between 600 and 700 words in 24 dialects of the 
Maya stock. This formed the basis for Stoll (1884). Berendt (5, 
in B. L. C. No. 179-6, fol. 60, 64) gives comparative lists of words 
in Maya, Putun, Tzental, Cakchiquel, Chontal, etc. Squier (1857, 
p. 179) gives a few words in Maya, Mam, Quiche, and Cakchiquel. 
Squier (1858, p. 552-553) has words in Maya, Cakchiquel, and 
from Peten. Berendt (1867a, in B. L. C. No. 82) has marginal 
comparisons in Maya and Cakchiquel with Huastec forms in his 
copy of the dictionary of Tapia Zenteno. Rockstroh (1878) gives 
a comparative vocabulary of the Maya stock. This was probably 
prepared under the direction of Berendt. Campbell (1879, p. 72- 
73) gives a few Maya and Quiche words. 1 

Stoll (1884, p. 46-70, and 1886, p. 301) gives comparative lists 
of words of many of the Maya dialects. 2 Brigham (1887, p. 276) 
gives selections from Stoll and Sapper (1897, p. 407-436) improves 
on Stoll. Brinton (1888, p. 82-91) gives a comparative vocabulary 
of Maya dialects and reprints Berendt (1870a). Starr (1901-04) 
has a comparative list of words from several Maya dialects and 
Zoque and Chiapanec. 

Maya and Mexican Languages. Berendt (1) in the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, 3 Berendt (5, in B. L. C. No. 179, fol. 58), and 
Heller (1853, p. 387-388) give comparative lists of words in Maya 
and Nahuatl. Carrillo y Ancona (1872) gives many of the Maya 
and Nahuatl words used in Spanish. Palma y Palma (1901, p. 
718-738) has the following: Voces Aztecas Castellanizadas y sus 
equivalentes en Maya, and Voces Mayas Castellanizadas. Anon 
(1898) has a short word list in Maya and Nahuatl. Berendt (5, in 
B. L. C, No. 179, fol. 59) has a vocabulary in Maya, Nahuatl and 
Otomi. Gallatin (1845, p. 9-10, 298-304) includes Otomi, Nahuatl, 
Huastec, and Maya in a comparative vocabulary. Fuertes (1) has 
Zoque, Zapotec, Mixe, and Maya words. Ternaux-Compans 

1 Ordoflez (1), according to Brasseur de Bourbourg (1855-56, p. 292), has 
the following: Linguistique du Mexique et de V ' Amerique Centrale (une joule 
d 'etymologies tzendales, mayas, itzoziles, quichees, azteques, etc. 

1 See Berendt (3) above. 

3 Pilling (1879-80) has a list of the linguistic manuscripts in the library of 
the Bureau of Ethnology at Washington. 



VOCABULARIES 179 

(1840-41; Maya in v. 88, p. 5-37) gives a comparative list of words 
in the main languages of Mexico. Prichard (1836-47, v. 5, p. 344) 
republishes this. Latham (1862, p. 755) publishes a few words in 
Maya, Huastec, Nahuatl, and Otomi. Ferraz (1902, p. 95) has a 
short list of words in Maya, Quiche, and Nahuatl. 

Maya and North American languages. Adam (1878) has a com- 
parative vocabulary of Cree, Chippewa, Algonkin, Dakota, Hi- 
datsa, Maya, and Quiche. Berendt (5, in B. L. C. No. 179, fol. 62, 
63) gives words in Natchez, Apalachee, and Maya. Brinton (1867) 
has a list of words in Natchez, Huastec, and Maya. 

Maya, South American Languages, etc. Adam (1878a) gives 
words from Dakota, Nahuatl, Chibcha, Quechiia, Quiche, and 
Maya. Douay (1894) has a comparative list of words in Haitian, 
and Maya. Douay (1900) gives words in Haitian, Maya, and 
Quiche, and Douay (1), in Quechua and Maya. Nuttall (1901, 
p. 549-555) gives a comparative vocabulary of Maya, Quechua, 
and Nahuatl. Schomburgk (1848, p. 236-237) has a selection of 
words from American languages and from the languages of the 
Guianas. 

Maya and Old World Languages. Comparative vocabularies 
covering a wider field are in general most unsatisfactory. They 
are to be found in Hervas y Panduro (1785, Maya p. 21, 41, 48, 121, 
Tab. xlix, 1, li and 1787a, Maya, p. 161 et seq.) and BaJbi (1826; 
ed. 1835, Maya, Tab. xli, No. 676). There is also a class of early 
works of no present value which give the equivalents for certain 
common words in many American languages for comparison with 
the forms in European or Asiatic languages. A few Maya words 
sometimes appear in the following works: Vater (1810), Klaproth 
(1824-28, v. 2, p. 28-45), Merian (1828, p. 185-206) after Vater. 
C. Malte-Brun (1810-29, p. 18-21), Johnes (1846), Buschmann 
(1853), and Clarke (1877). Nuttall (1901, p. 563-575) gives a list 
of Maya words and their equivalents in languages of the eastern 
continent. 

C. Malte-Brun (1810-29), Latham (1860, p. 398), Charencey 
(1871, p. 106), and Platzmann (1871) give comparative list of words 
from Chinese and other Asiatic languages and corresponding words 
from the languages of America including Maya. Campbell (1879, 
p. 72-73) compares Maya and Polynesian. Umery (1863) gives a 
list of words for " mother " in many languages including Maya. 



180 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Comparative vocabularies of special words. Charencey has two 
papers (1882; Maya, p. 28-30 and 1899, Maya, p. 117, 166-169) 
on the names for the points of space in Maya and Quiche. Charen- 
cey (1883b) has another study of the names of the cardinal points 
and a fourth (1892) on the names of the metals in certain Maya 
dialects. Brinton (1886; Maya p. 10-13) treats of the word for 
love in some American languages. 

ETYMOLOGY OF PROPER NAMES 

Yucatan. There has been much discussion regarding the deri- 
vation of the names Yucatan and Maya. There is hardly an early 
history which does not have something to say regarding the origin 
of the name Yucatan. Cortes in his first letter (1852; 1866; ed. 
1908, v. 1, p. 124-125), BernalDiaz (1632; ed. 1908-16, v. 1, p. 32), 
Gomara (1553, cap. 52), republished in Barcia (1749, v. 2), Lizana 
(1633, cap. 1), Landa (Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1864, p. 6-8, copied 
by Malte-Brun (1864, p. 14-15), Cogolludo (1688, p. 60-61), Villa- 
gutierre (1701, p. 28), all discuss the question of the origin of the 
word Yucatan. The Perez Codex (Perez, 1842) and the Chilam 
Balam de Chumayel should be cited here as they contain a varia- 
tion in the name given to Yucatan. 1 Among the modern authori- 
ties to touch upon this question of etymology are : Waldeck (1838, 
p. 25), Stephens (1843, v. 1, p. 139-140), Prescott (1843, Bk. 2, 
Chap. 1), Ternaux-Compans (1843, p. 30-31), Bollaert (1866, p. 
46), Carrillo y Ancona (1868: 1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 133-141: 
1890), Bancroft (1874-76, v. 5, p. 614-615), Ancona (1881), and 
Zuiiiga (1). 

Maya. The best discussion of the derivation of the name Maya 
is that in Carrillo y Ancona (1883a, p. 632-634). Brinton (1882, 
p. 9-16), Ancona (1878-1905; ed. 1889, v. 1, p. 44) and Rejon 
Garcia (1905, p. 5-17) also suggest derivations. Pimentel (1860) 
discusses the words Mayo and Maya. 

Miscellaneous. Brinton (1887) discusses the origin of the 
Maya words used in Landa's work. Rovirosa (1888) and Douay 
(1891) mention the etymology of a few Maya names. Robelo 
(1902) gives the Maya, Nahuatl and Spanish equivalents of some 

1 Compare Carrillo y Ancona, 1890, p. 35-45. 



NUMERATION 181 

proper names. Rejon Garcia (1905, p. 29-78; 1910) presents sev- 
eral derivations which are in most cases decidedly doubtful in 
origin. 

NUMERATION 

The Maya numeration has already been discussed in the gram- 
matical portion of this work. I mentioned there that practically 
every publication on the numeration of the Mayas goes back to 
that given by Beltran (1746; ed. 1859, p. 195-208). Even modern 
works published in Yucatan seem to rely in general upon the series 
of numbers given by Beltran. No attempt is made here to list the 
publications which give the Maya system of numeration as a part 
of a grammar or as a part of the hieroglyphic writing. 1 

Maya Dialect. Galindo (1832) gives the numbers from 1 to 10 
and Waldeck (1838, p. 88, copy in B. L. C. No. 42) gives them 
from 1 to 100, both of which series were probably collected by the 
authors themselves. Baezo (1832) has some numbers collected at 
Peten. Sivers (1861, p. 290-291) offers a series of numbers in 
Maya. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. 92-99) is the first to 
give the numeration of Beltran in extenso with a French transla- 
tion. 2 Bancroft (1874-76, v. 2, p. 753-754) gives the numbers from 
1 to 51 from Brasseur de Bourbourg. Orozco y Berra (1880, v. 1, 
p. 542, 559-569) also follows the same second-hand authority. 
Brinton (1882, p. 37-50), Molina y Solis (1896, p. 316-320), and 
Perez (1898, p. 113-120) go back to Beltran. Pousse (1886) is of 
little value. Nuttall (1903) gives an excellent translation of the 
numeral classifiers of Beltran with a suggestion regarding their 
possible presence in the hieroglyphic inscriptions. This list of suf- 
fixes with additions is published in Appendix III (p. 290). 

Valez (1893), Anon (1893), Manzano (1893), and Rejon Espinola 
(1893) give several numerals collected in the different towns. 3 

Comparative Lists of Numbers. There is a large number of 
works which present, more or less extensively, comparative series 

1 Charencey (1881), for example, treats of the numeration by means of 
bars and dots as shown in the hieroglyphic writing. 

2 There is a copy of the Beltran numeration in the B. L. C. No. 42-8. 

3 These numbers are given in Appendix IV, p. 301. 



182 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

of numbers from many different peoples. Hervas y Panduro 
(1786; Maya, p. 110-111) is the earliest of these works. The best 
of these comparative lists is that of Thomas (1897-98) which 
presents a good discussion of the numeral systems of Mexico and 
Central America. Other works on numeration covering many of 
the languages of Middle America are by Ternaux-Compans (1840- 
41, p. 5-37, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-7), followed by Prichard (1836- 
47, v. 5, p. 344), Gallatin (1845, p. 49-57, Table A), followed by 
Pott (1847, p. 93-96, 301), and Charencey (1878, p. 12). Compara- 
tive lists are also given in Berendt (5, in B. L. C. No. 179-8). Maya 
and Aztec numerals are given by Heller (1853, p. 386-388) and 
Palma y Palma (1901, p. 447-449), Maya, Quiche, and Aztec by 
de Rosny (1875a), several dialects of the Maya by Charencey 
(1883b), and Maya and Quiche alone by Charencey (1880, 1882a). 

TEXTS 

There is a large mass of material written in Maya. 1 These texts 
date from early Spanish times and continue down to the present. 
They vary in value for linguistic study from the point of view of 
the time in which they were written and also from the point of 
view of the individual author. The Books of Chilam Balam furnish 
the most profitable study of early Maya texts. There are often 
parallel accounts in several of these Books. The text, however, 
is corrupt as the present manuscripts are usually copies of earlier 
documents often made by individuals who did not know Maya. 
There is far less likelihood of corruption in the legal and political 
documents, some of which are extant. The Maya texts of ser- 
mons, the Catechism, and parts of the Bible vary greatly accord- 
ing to the ability of the individual translator. They are, in general, 
however, rather poorly done both from a grammatical and a lexical 
standpoint. 

BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 

General. The fullest description of these Maya texts is that 
by Tozzer (1917). Other descriptions are by Carrillo y Ancona 
(1870: ed. 1872, p. 138-140), Melgar y Serrano (1873), Brinton 
(1882, p. 67-72), quoted by Bowditch (1910, p. 1-3), Brinton 

1 Part II contains several Maya texts. See p. Ill for the discussion of 
these texts. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 183 

(1882b), translated into Spanish by Aznar (1882) and Troncoso 
(1883), and Brinton (1883a). Echano (1758), Castillo (1866, p. 
255-256), Rivera (1878, p. 22-23), Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 9- 
10), and Beuchat (1912, p. 407-408) are among those giving short 
accounts of these Books. 

Before considering the bibliographical details of the separate 
texts it may be well to dwell for a moment on several collections 
which contain abundant material for the study of the Books of 
Chilam Balam. Up to a few years ago, for the proper study of the 
manuscripts one had to depend entirely upon the Maya Chronicles 
of Brinton (1882) which in turn was based upon the Berendt 
copies of manuscripts collected, for the most part, by Pio Perez 
(Berendt, 1868, in B. L. C. No. 49). This material was augmented 
by another volume of manuscript material in the possession of Pio 
Perez and copied by Berendt (Perez, 2, in B. L. C. No. 50). 

This scarcity of texts no longer holds true. In addition to the 
University of Pennsylvania reproduction of the original of the 
Chilam Balam de Chumayel we are fortunate in having the Gates 
reproductions of the originals of the Tizimin, Kaua, Calkini, Tekax, 
and Nah, Mr. Gates owning the last two manuscripts. Gates also 
owns beautiful hand copies of the Chumayel, Tizimin, Ixil, Kaua, 
and Calkini which he has reproduced. 

It does not seem necessary in this paper to give complete refer- 
ences to the frequent use of the chronological parts of the Books 
of Chilam Balam as a starting point in the attempt to correlate 
Maya and Christian chronology. 1 The prophecies contained in 
these manuscripts are considered together. 

According to the testimony of Landa, Lizana, Sanchez Aguilar, 
Cogolludo and other early writers many of these manuscripts were 
in existence in the xvi century. Several are reported in the xvn 
century. Most of the manuscripts now known were made in the 
latter part of the xvm century and were, in some cases, at least, 
copies of earlier documents. 

Brinton (1882b) states that there are still in existence sixteen of 
these Books. Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 9) gives a list of eleven. 

1 See in this connection Seler, 1892, 1895, 1895a; Bowditch, 1901, 1901a; 
Martinez, 1907, 1909a, 1912, 1915, 1918; and Morley, 1910, 1911, and espe- 
cially 1920, p. 464-539. For earlier material on this subject which, however, is 
of little value, see Perez 2, in B. L. C. No. 50 and 5, in B. L. C. No. 44-4. 



184 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

New ones are appearing at infrequent intervals. Counting the 
Mani manuscripts as one, fourteen of these books are listed here, 
four of which are known only by name. 

Chilam Balam de Mani. The original of the Mani manuscript 
is probably lost. It is dated not later than 1595. Berendt (1868d, 
v. 2, p. 138-184 in B. L. C. No. 43-7) copied from a copy by Pio 
Perez certain parts of the manuscript. Berendt (1868d, v. 2, 
p. 102-106 in B. L. C. No. 43-5) presents a comparison, probably 
from the pen of Perez, of the Mani description of the calendar with 
that of the Kaua manuscript. Perez (6), (or Berendt 1868d, v. 
3, in B. L. C. No. 44-3) compares the description of the calendar 
of the Mani with that of the Tizimin and the Kaua manuscripts. 
Perez (2, p. 48-49, in B. L. C. No. 50-10) has an entry, Apuntes 
historiosdel Chilam Balam de Mani. Juan Molina (1897, p. 68-69) 
gives a paragraph of this Maya document and a Spanish trans- 
lation. 

Berendt (Brinton, 1882; p. 91) speaks of four Mani manuscripts 
dated 1689, 1697, 1755, and 1761 respectively. A portion of one 
of them was given by Pio Perez to Stephens. It is well, therefore, 
to distinguish between the Mani manuscript proper and that por- 
tion given to Stephens which is usually called the " Perez Codex." 
A part of the Mani manuscript entitled Historia de la Doncella 
Teodora is given in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 225-239, copy in 
B. L. C. No. 43-9). The Kaua has the same story. Perez (2, 
p. 31-37, copy in B. L. C. No. 50-3) writes, " La historia que sigue 
se halla inter calada entre esta multitud de predicciones que se copiai on 
y tradujeron de los antiguos almanaques espanoles. 11 

Perez Codex {Lai u tzolan katun). This is probably the most 
widely known example of Maya writing. It gives an outline of 
Maya history from the time the Mayas set out from the south to 
travel northward down to and including the arrival of the Span- 
iards. It is a part of the Chilam Balam de Mani and was copied 
by Pio Perez from one of the four books of Mani. Perez translated 
the Maya into Spanish and wrote an extended commentary on the 
Maya text. The whole work was entitled, Traduccion y juicio 
critico de un manuscrito en lengua maya que trata de las principales 
epocas de la historia en esta peninsula ante a s'u conquista. Para el 
Sn. D. Juan L. Stephens su amigo Juan Pio Perez, Peto, 5 de Abril 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 185 

de 184-2. As indicated in the title, Perez gave the manuscript to 
Stephens. 1 Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 465-469) published an English 
translation with the Maya text but refrained from printing some 
of the comments made by Perez. He omitted the parts headed 
Correction cronologia de manuscrito and Recapitulation. The 
Stephens copy of the Perez manuscript is now in the library of the 
New York Historical Society in New York. 

The original Perez Codex was owned by Carlos Peon who loaned 
it to Bishop Carrillo y Ancona. The latter (1868: 1870: 1878-82; 
ed. 1883, p. 48-64) printed the entire manuscript except the Maya 
text and the Resumen at the end. This feature is given in English 
in Stephens (p. 468-469) . 2 

Berendt (1868d, v. 2, in B. L. C. No. 43-1) made a copy of the 
Perez Codex in the possession of Carrillo y Ancona. This Ber- 
endt copy was used by Valentini (1880, p. 52-55) who printed the 
Maya text and translation together with a portion of the com- 
ments of Perez. He adds a good discussion of his own regarding 
the text. Thomas (1882, p. 188-192) follows Valentini in printing 
the text and translation. Valentini (1896) also mentions this Perez 
manuscript. Perez (6) has also left a comparison between the 
Perez Codex and similar portions of the Chilam Balam de Tizimin 
and the Mani proper. Mayer (1851, v. 2, p. 173-177) refers to this 
manuscript. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg (1855-56, v. 51, p. 208: 1857-59, v. 2, 
p. 2, note) mentions the Stephens edition of the Perez Codex and 
he (1864, p. 420^129) published the Maya text and an attempt at 
a new translation in French. He took his text from Stephens and 
his translation is clearly based on that of Stephens as he did not 
have access to the original Spanish translation. Charencey (1874) 
reprinted the whole from Brasseur de Bourbourg. Bancroft (1874- 
76, v. 5, p. 624-627) follows Stephens. Ancona (1878-1905; ed. 
1889, v. 1, p. 382-384) gives the Maya text only. 

1 See Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 278-280), where he tells of obtaining it. 

2 The only difference I could find between the text printed by Carrillo y 
Ancona and the Stephens copy is that in the latter the sub-title is Correction 
cronologia de manuscrito instead of Juicio analitico del manuscrito as it is in the 
Carrillo y Ancona original. 

Note some interesting observations on Carrillo y Ancona and the Mani 
manuscript in Troncoso, 1883, notes A. and H. 



186 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Brinton (1882, p. 89-135) attempts a new translation of the 
Maya text with extended comments and a comparison of the 
translations of Perez, and of Brasseur de Bourbourg with his own. 
Juan Molina (1896, p. x, xlviii et seq.) and Seler (1892) quote 
sentences from the Brinton translation. 

Raynaud (1891-92, p. 145-149) tries to improve on the transla- 
tion of Brinton. Charencey (1896, p. 13-16) endeavors to correct 
the translation of a paragraph of Brinton. Seler (1895) gives the 
text and translation of several sentences of the manuscript. Palma 
y Palma (1901, p. 750-753) gives the Spanish only of the Perez 
manuscript. Martinez Hernandez (1909) has made the last and 
most successful attempt to translate the Maya text. 

Perez: Cronologia antigua de Yucatan. The Perez Codex (Perez, 
1842) and the Perez (1843) study of the Cronologia antigua de Yuca- 
tan are sometimes confused. 1 This latter manuscript, although 
founded on the ancient documents, was entirely written by Pio 
Perez and has very little to do with the Maya language. It is men- 
tioned here, however, to make a complete record of the different 
works of Perez. 2 A copy of this manuscript was given by Perez to 
Stephens who published it in an English translation (Stephens, 
1843, v. 1, p. 434-459). 3 Gallatin (1845, p. 104-114) and Valentini 
(1880) give practically the substance of the entire material con- 
tained in the Stephens text. It seems evident that Stephens did 
not print the entire manuscript as he received it from Perez as the 
second copy which Perez made contains much more material than 
was printed by Stephens. This second copy was made for the 
Registro Yucateco (1846, v. 3, p. 281). The same manuscript was 
printed in the Diccionario Universal de Historia y Geographia, 
(1855, v. 8, Apendice, Cronologia Yucateca), and in Castillo (1866, 
p. 31-51). This second copy (4°, 14 ff.) passed into the hands of 
Brasseur de Bourbourg who published it (1864, p. 366-419) with a 

1 There is also the Codex Peresiano, a pre-Columbian manuscript, which 
deals with the hieroglyphic writing and does not, therefore, enter into this 
discussion. 

2 Other material on the chronology by Perez may be mentioned here : — 
Perez (3 in B. L. C. No. 43, 5: 9 in B. L. C). 

3 Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 117, 277-278) tells of obtaining this manuscript 
from Perez. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 187 

French translation. The Stephens copy is in the possession of the 
New York Historical Society. 1 

The copy made for the Registro Yucateco and published by Bras- 
seur de Bourbourg cannot be located. Pilling states that he saw 
what may have been this manuscript in the library of Pinart. Many 
of the items in the Pinart library were purchased from Brasseur de 
Bourbourg and later these passed into the Bancroft Library now 
at the University of California. I could find no trace of any manu- 
script of this kind in the Brasseur de Bourbourg-Pilling-Bancroft 
Library at Berkeley. 

The Peabody Museum has another copy (8°, 20 if.), said to be 
from the library of Brasseur de Bourbourg, which follows almost 
exactly that published in the Registro Yucateco. 

The original Perez manuscript of his Cronologia passed into the 
possession of Carrillo y Ancona along with the other Perez ma- 
terial. Carrillo y Ancona (1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 637-663) published 
it. 2 There is then the Carrillo y Ancona original, the Stephens, 
and the Registro Yucateco-Peabody Museum texts all differing 
slightly. The Carrillo y Ancona version is the most complete and 
has one passage which is in Stephens and not in the Peabody 
Museum text. The Peabody version follows that of Carrillo y 
Ancona except for a few omissions in the latter and the passage 
referred to above. The Stephens text differs in many places both 
in order and wording, and it is much shorter than that of the other 
two. 

Brasseur de Bourbourg, (1857-59, v. 3, p. 462 et seq.), Orozco y 
Berra (1864, p. 103-108) Bancroft (1874-76, v. 2, 759 et seq.), Short 
(1880, 439 et seq.), and many others give the substance of these 
Perez texts. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 142) refers to 
the manuscripts on which Perez founded his Cronologia. 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel. This manuscript is a small 
quarto of 107 written pages and is dated about 1780. The name 

1 This Society also has the original Perez manuscript entitled " An almanac, 
adjusted according to the chronological calculation of the ancient Indians of 
Yucatan, for the. years 1841 and 1842." Stephens (1843, v. 1, p. 448-458) 
printed this in an English translation. This article is not included in the Bras- 
seur de Bourbourg-Peabody Museum manuscript. 

2 Carrillo y Ancona gives the title, Antigua Cronologia Yucateca o exposition 
sentilla del metodo que usaban los antiguos habitantes de esta Peninsula de Yuca- 
tan para contar y computar el tiempo. 



188 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

of D. Juan Jose Hoil with the date, January 20, 1782, appears in 
the manuscript. It is probable that Hoil was the one who com- 
piled the text except for a few insignificant interpolations from 
earlier documents. The first pages have been lost. The original 
of the manuscript was owned in Merida. 1 It has been reproduced 
by the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania 
under the editorship of G. B. Gordon (1913). Teoberto Maler had 
previously (1887) printed several sets of photographs of this man- 
uscript. 2 Gates, the Peabody Museum, and the family of the late 
Don Audomaro Molina are some of those possessing the Maler 
photographs. There is a hand copy by Berendt (1868, p. 1-74, 80, 
159-200, in B. L. C. No. 49). Gates owns a second copy, contained 
in rT. 1-55 of a note-book, which has been reproduced by him. 
Portions of the manuscript are given by Berendt (1868d, v. 2, 
p. 25-36, in B. L. C. No. 43-2). Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 
1872, p. 145-146) gives a good description of this work. 

Brinton (1882, p. 152-185) was the first to make an attempt to 
translate any large part of the manuscript. He translated those 
portions relating to the chronology. Berendt had already copied 
these parts from copies by Pio Perez (Berendt, 1868d, v. 2, in 
B. L. C. No. 43-2). Carrillo y Ancona (1890, p. 37-45) gives a 
portion of the manuscript containing the name Yucalpeten as 
given to Yucatan. He also gives in facsimile a portion of p. 63 
(Gordon edition). Seler (1895) gives the text and translation of a 
small part of the manuscript. Juan Molina (1896, p. xxxvii, lviii, 
etc.) gives sentences of the Maya text and translation from the 
Brinton work, Raynaud (1891-92, p. 153-15?) attempts an im- 
provement on the translation of Brinton. Martinez Hernandez 
(1909a: 1912: 1913) has made successful attempts at translating 
parts of the manuscript. 3 Martinez has a translation in manuscript 

1 Morley (1920, p. 475) writes that he saw the original manuscript in 1913 
in the house of Ricardo Figueroa in Merida. Subsequently it was removed to 
the Cepeda library, Merida. When Morley revisited Yucatan in 1918 he was 
told that it had disappeared from the library and that its present location was 
unknown. 

2 Maler (about 1887) also made photographic copies of the-Tizimin, Calkini, 
and Kaua MSS. Gates possesses a complete set of the Maler photographs 
which he obtained from Seler. 

3 The text, p. 77, 78 and the translation of Brinton and Martinez are given 
in Part II, p. 130-135. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 189 

(1919) of p. 102 of the original. The text of a part of p. 85 with 
translation by Gates (1920b) is given in Morley (1920, p. 485). 
Roys (1920) has a translation of p. 60-62. 

The prophecies given in this and other Chilam Balam Books are 
described in another place (p. 192). The day signs as shown in 
the original manuscript are given by Carrillo y Ancona (1866, p. 
38; ed. 1871, p. 257: 1870; ed. 1872, p. 144; and 1882; ed. 1883, 
(p. 250). Carrillo y Ancona (1882; ed. 1883, p. 605-606) Riva 
Palacio (1887-89, v. i, p. 456) or Chavero (1887, p. 456) give 
the Chumayel map. Brinton (1882b; ed. 1890, p. 266) also gives 
the drawings of the day signs. The Katun wheel from the Chuma- 
yel is reproduced by Bowditch (1910, fig. 63). * 

Chilam Balam de Tizimin. This manuscript is a quarto of 52 
pages formerly owned by Senor Bicardo Figueroa of Merida. Like 
the Chumayel it has disappeared. This manuscript has been called 
by Carrillo y Ancona the Codice Anonimo. The original has been 
reproduced by Gates. Berendt (1868, p. 101-158 in B. L. C. No. 
49) made a copy from the original. A second copy (ff. 1-35 in an 
8° note-book) is owned by Gates and has been reproduced by him. 2 
Perez (6, in B. L. C. No. 44-3) discusses the historical and chrono- 
logical portions and compares them with similar parts of the Mani 
manuscript. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 146) discusses 
this document. The prophecies of the Tizimin are treated in 
another place. 

Manuel Luciano Perez (1870, p. 102, in B. L. C. No. 49) has a 
short letter written from Tizimin to Carrillo y Ancona regarding 
the sending of the manuscript to the Bishop. 3 The first publication 
of any portion of the Tizimin text was by Brinton (1882, p. 136- 
151) where he presents a translation of the chronological parts. 
Raynaud (1891-92, p. 149-152) attempts another translation of 
those parts given by Brinton. Seler (1895; ed. 1902, p. 580: 
1898; ed. 1902, p. 676) gives sentences with translation from this 
manuscript. 

1 Perez (2, p. 174-177 in B. L. C. No. 50-31) has a heading Ruedas crono- 
logicas con su explication. 

2 See Morley, 1920, p. 470, note. 

3 This letter is discussed with quotations, in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 
1872, p. 146. 



190 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Chilam Balam de Calkini. This is a quarto manuscript of 30 
pages formerly owned by Sefior Ricardo Figueroa. It has disap- 
peared. The manuscript is not complete. The pages of the orig- 
inal are numbered 11-40. There is a Gates reproduction of the 
original and Gates also owns a copy (ff. 55-67 of a note-book) 
which he has also reproduced. Martinez Alomia (1906, p. 14-15) 
gives a description of this manuscript. Juan Molina y Solis (1896) 
also mentions it. 

Chilam Balam de Ixil. This manuscript was also owned by 
Sefior Ricardo Figueroa of Merida. There is no reproduction of 
the original of this manuscript. Berendt (1868, p. 75-79, 97-100 
in B. L. C. No. 49) made a copy. Gates also has another copy 
(ff. 36-60 of a note-book) which has been reproduced by him. 
Perez (2, p. 174-177, in B. L. C. 50-31) gives the Katun wheels 
from a number of these Chilam Balam Books. That from the Ixil 
has been reproduced by Thomas (1881-82, p. 60), Carrillo y Ancona 
(1878-82, ed. 1883, p. 252), Chavero (1887, p. 440) or Riva Palacio 
(1887-89, v. 1, p. 440), and by Bowditch (1910, figs. 61, 62). The 
prophecies contained in this manuscript are compared with those 
from the Mani in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 107-123, in B. L. C. 
No. 43-6). Perez (8, in B. L. C. No. 44-2) gives a part of this 
manuscript. 

Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab (1689). The original of this 
manuscript has been lost. It was partially copied by Pio Perez 
and his copy, in turn, copied by Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 185-224, 
in B. L. C. No. 43-8). These copies undoubtedly refer only to the 
chronological portion of the manuscript. It is to be supposed that 
there were other parts not copied by Perez. Carrillo y Ancona 
(1870; ed. 1872, p. 147) mentions this document. It is also prob- 
ably referred to in the Registro Yucateco (v. 1, p. 360. Anon. 1845) '. l 

Chilam Balam de Kaua. This is a quarto manuscript con- 
taining 282 pages, also formerly owned by Sefior Ricardo Figueroa 
and now in the Biblioteca Cepeda in Merida. Gates has repro- 
duced the original. There is a partial copy by Berendt (1868, 
p. 81-92, in B. L. C. No. 49). Gates has a second partial copy (to 

1 Care should be taken not to confuse this manuscript with the Xiu Chroni- 
cles, called by some the Cronica de Oxkutzcab. 



BOOKS OF CHILAM BALAM 191 

p. 184 of the original manuscript). This is contained in a note- 
book (ff. 61 — 150) and has also been reproduced by him. Parts of 
this manuscript are given in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 87-101 in 
B. L. C. No. 43-5). Berendt (1868d, v. 1, in B. L. C. No. 42-13) 
has the multiplication table from the manuscript. The chronologi- 
cal portions are compared with corresponding parts of the Mani 
in Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 102-106 in B. L. C. No. 43-5). Brinton 
(1882b; ed. 1890, p. 270-271) gives the day signs from the manu- 
script. These are copied from Brinton by Troncoso (1883, p. 105). 
Bowditch (1910, fig. 64) gives a Katun wheel from this manuscript. 
This manuscript is probably the same as the Chilam Balam de 
Hocaba. 

Chilam Balam de Nah. This is a quarto manuscript of 64 
pages, owned by Gates and reproduced by him. It is signed by 
Jose Maria Nah and came from Teabo. Mr. Gates has called it 
by the name of its signer rather than by the name of the town in 
which it was found as there are already two collections of docu- 
ments bearing the name of this town. It is of the calendar type 
and similar, in general, to the Kaua manuscript. There are entries 
in a later hand as late as 1871 and 1896. 

Chilam Balam de Tekax. This manuscript is a quarto and 
consists of 36 written pages. It is incomplete. Gates is the owner 
and he has reproduced the manuscript. It contains features which 
place it in the same class as the Chilam Balam de Kaua. The 
usual medical recipes and a current calendar of the good and bad 
days are to be found in the manuscript. 

Chilam Balam de Peto. There is an obscure reference to the 
possible existence of a Chilam Balam Book at Peto. Carrillo y 
Ancona (1878-82: ed. 1883, p. 592) records that Juan Pio Perez 
writing from Peto in 1840 states, " Literatura quien sabe si la 
tuvieron; pero sabian escribir con precision. Una es la poesia del 
pueblo y otra la del sabio y sacerdote; la de estos no llego a nosotros, 
6 serdn muy raros los ejemplos^ 

Chilam Balam de Nabula, Tihosuco, Tixcocob, and Ho- 
caba. These four manuscripts are known hardly more than by 
name. The Nabula has an account of an epidemic which occurred 
in 1673. Brinton (1883) refers to a manuscript from Tihosuco 



192 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

which he used in preparing his article on " The folk-lore of Yuca- 
tan." Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 147-148) and Berendt 
tried in vain to find the Hocaba manuscript. This latter is prob- 
ably the same as the Kaua manuscript which formerly belonged to 
a resident in Hocaba. There is no information available on the 
Tixcocob document. 

THE PROPHECIES 

There has been - a great deal of discussion concerning various so- 
called " Prophecies" contained in several of the Books of Chilam 
Balam. These prophecies as they now stand clearly foretell the 
coming of Christianity to the land. The natives of Haiti told 
Columbus of similar predictions made long before his arrival. 1 As 
Brinton points out (1868, p. 188) these prophecies were doubtless 
adapted by the Spanish to proselytizing purposes but they seem 
fundamentally to have been native accounts of the return of 
Kukulcan, one of the culture heroes of the Mayas, and correspond- 
ing to Quetzalcouatl of the Mexicans. 

Gomara, Herrera, Cogolludo, Villagutierre and other early his- 
torians give other instances of the prophecy of the arrival of the 
white race. 2 Several modern authors (Sierra, 1841) 3 have tried to 
prove that these prophecies were pure inventions of the Spanish 
priests to give a supernatural sanction to their teachings. There 
is no doubt that the influence of Christian teaching is seen in 
several of these documents. But the fact that the Mayas and 
other peoples of Latin America had native tales of the return of 
their culture heroes is proved by. the way the Spanish Conquerors 
were first received by the natives of Mexico and Peru. They were 
considered to be the actual deified heroes who the natives had 
learned were to return. 

Anon (§ 31) is a discussion of the second return of the Spaniards. 
Cogolludo (1688, lib. 2, cap. xiv) writes as follows in connection 

1 Sahagun, Historia de la Nueva Espana, Lib. xii, Caps. 2, 3. 

2 Sanchez de Aguilar (1639; ed. 1892, p. 95) probably refers to one of 
these prophecies. 

3 Vicente Calero is often mentioned as a writer with Justo Sierra on Maya 
subjects. Pablo Moreno is another author who considered the Prophecies the 
inventions of the Spanish priests. Le Plongeon expressed the opinion in a pri- 
vate letter that these Prophecies were " pious frauds." 



THE PROPHECIES 193 

with this work, " Sin duda se rigid por un librillo escrito de mano, 
que ay en el idioma de los Indios, que le escribieron los de muy dentro 
de la tierra, despues de su conversion, en que notaron algunas cosas 
de aquellos tiempos, desde la segunda venida de los Espanoles, y algo 
de las guerras referidas." 

The prophecies under discussion are those of the Maya priests 
Napuc Tun, Ah Kuil Chel, Ahau Pech, Natzin Abun Chan, and 
Chilam Balam. 1 

The first authority to give these prophecies was Lizana (1633, 
parte 2, cap. 1; ed. 1893, p. 37-39). He gives the Maya text and 
a translation in Spanish. He probably obtained the Maya from 
some early text of a Chilam Balam Book. It was evidently not one 
of the Balam Books known at the present time as the text differs 
in several places from that in any of the versions of the prophecies 
now available. It is interesting to note that there are no two 
copies of the same prophecy exactly alike. 2 Cogolludo (1688, lib. 
2, cap. 11) gives the Spanish of the five prophecies stating that he 
had no room for the Maya. The Avendafio manuscript (§ 6) may 
have been an account of these prophecies. Lizana's translation 
and text were published by Brasseur de Bourbourg (1857-59, v. 2, 
603-606, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-9). Brasseur de Bourbourg 
(1869-70, v. 2, p. 103-110) attempts next a French translation but 
gives the Maya text together with the translation of Lizana for 
comparison. Castillo (1866, p. 256-257) gives the Spanish transla- 
tion from Cogolludo of the prophecy of Chilam Balam. Perez (2, 
p. 65-74, 166-173, in B. L. C. No. 50-13 and No. 50-30) has some- 
thing on these parts of the Balam Books. Carrillo y Ancona (1870; 
ed. 1872, p. 142) refers to the text of Perez. Brinton (1868, p. 188- 
189) gives an English translation of a portion of the prophecy of 
Chilam Balam taken from the Spanish of Lizana and of Brasseur 
de Bourbourg. Troncoso (1883, p. 103, 109) gives a few lines of 
this prophecy and suggests a connection between the meaning and 
the significance of the engraving in Cogolludo. Brinton (1890a, 
p. 303) gives the English of a poem by the Priest Chilam. 

1 There is a wide variety in the spelling of these proper names. I have fol- 
lowed the spelling given by Lizana for the most part. The prophecy of Chilam 
Balam as shown in the Chumayel and Tizimin texts and in Lizana is given 
with translation in Part II, p. 120-130. 

2 Compare in this respect the versions given on p. 122 of the Chilam Balam 
Prophecy. 



194 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

Berendt (1868d, v. 2) presents the version of the prophecies as 
given in the Chilam Balam de Mani and Ixil (B. L. C. No. 43-6, 
p. 107-132), and the versions of the Chilam Balam de Chumayel 
and again that of Mani (B. L. C. No. 43-3, p. 37-46). As noted 
above, the same prophecy, as given in different versions, may differ 
in spelling and also in length. Nicoli (1870, p. 511) mentions and 
discusses the prophecy of Napuc Tun but gives neither text nor 
translation. Charencey (1873) gives the same prophecy with the 
Maya text, the translation of Lizana, that of Brasseur de Bour- 
bourg and a new one of his own in French. De Rosny (1875, p. 
85-93; ed. 1904, p. 120-123) gives the Maya text and his own 
French translation with comments of the prophecies of Napuc 
Tun and Ah Kuil Chel. He also gives for comparison the Spanish 
translation of Lizana and the French of Brasseur de Bourbourg. 
Schultz-Sellack (1879) makes a study of the words for east and 
west as given in the prophecies of Lizana. 

Orozco y Berra (1880, v. 1, p. 71-73) gives the Spanish of the 
prophecy of Napuc Tun and portions of the others. Carrillo y 
Ancona (1878-82; ed. 1883, p. 526-532) presents a new translation 
in Spanish of all five prophecies with the Maya text as foot-notes. 

Brinton who formerly had only the Lizana version for study, later 
came into possession of the Berendt Library so that other versions 
were available. Brinton (1882, p. 255-256) gives the Maya and 
English translation of the prophecy of Ahau Pech. Troncoso (1883, 
p. 104) reprints this, also giving the Maya of the Lizana version. 
Brinton (1882a, p. 167, 237) refers to the Pech prophecy in the 
Mani manuscript and Brinton (1882c, p. xxix) gives the Maya and 
English translation of the prophecy of Ah Kuil Chel from the 
Chilam Balam de Chumayel. Charencey (1876; ed. 1883, p. 141- 
150) discusses and translates the same prophecy. Finally, Brinton 
(1890a, p. 302) repeats the English translation of Ahau Pech. 
Rejon Garcia (1905a, p. 78-84) gives a partial Spanish translation 
of the prophecy of Ahau Pech. There is a song from one of the 
Books of Chilam Balam given by Brinton (1882, p. 126-127). 
Charencey (1875) discusses a paragraph from one of the prophecies 
and Maclean (1883, p. 442, note) gives an English translation of 
one of them. 



MEDICAL BOOKS 195 

MEDICAL BOOKS 

Libros del Judio. In addition to the medical portions of the 
Books of Chilam Balam which consider the symptoms and the 
cure of diseases there are several manuscripts which deal exclu- 
sivefy with the native remedies. These have been classed to- 
gether under the above heading. They are sometimes called " The 
Book of the Jew." There was one Ricardo Ossado, alias, the Jew, 
who used herbs and other native remedies for curing disease (see 
Ossado, 1834). Brinton (1882b; ed. 1890, p. 272-273) andTozzer 
(1917, p. 182) describe this class of books. 

The first notice of a manuscript dealing exclusively with medi- 
cine is the work of Vidales (§ 3) of the xvn century. This is miss- 
ing. There are several different manuscripts dealing with medi- 
cine. They seem to date from the end of the xviii up to the middle 
of the xix century. These manuscripts include the Libro del 
Judio (Anon, 13) of the Peabody Museum, described with extracts 
in English by Alice Le Plongeon (1879, p. 92, and 1889, p. 15-17), 1 
the Libro de Medicina (Anon. 15), 2 the Libro del Judio de Sotuta, 
(Sotuta), 3 and Medicina Maya (Anon. 16), all three of which are 
owned by Gates, and the Cuaderno de Teabo (Teabo. Copy in 
B.L.C.No.49). 

There are two valuable manuscripts dealing with diseases in 
Spanish. These are the Noticias de varios plantas (Anon. 19) a 
manuscript owned by Jose Rafael de Regil of Merida, and El libro 
de los Medicos (Anon. 14), a manuscript owned by Gates. Mr. 
Gates also owns another manuscript (Anon. 1820) on the medicinal 
plants. It is evidently part of a manuscript of considerable size 
as the last leaf remaining is numbered 123. It contains brief de- 
scriptions of plants with colored sketches. 4 The most valuable 

1 This MS. is described as having come from the island of Las Mujeres. 
Mr. Gates informs me that a physician in Acanceh told him that he had given 
the MS. to the Le Plongeons. 

2 Gates suggests that this manuscript is very valuable as a supplement to 
the botanical series of Millspaugh (1895-98: 1900: 1903-04). 

3 The Gates reproduction of this manuscript shows p. 1-26 written in one 
hand followed by pages numbered 17-26, 33-54 in an entirely different writ- 
ing. There are evidently two separate documents. 

4 A note in Berendt's hand and signed by his initial states that the MS. was 
given to him by Rodolfo Canton in Vera Cruz in 1859. 



196 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

single manuscript dealing with this subject is probably that of 
Perez (4) with notes and additions to this manuscript by Berendt 
(1870, inB. L. C. No. 45). 

Ritual of the Bacabs. This is a most important Maya man- 
uscript, owned by Gates, of 46 medical incantations. Wilkins 
(1), who is at work upon a translation of the text, regards it as the 
oldest Maya to which we have access. At the end there are a few 
pages of the ordinary medical receipts markedly different from the 
main part of the work. All but about ten pages is in one hand- 
writing. These ten pages are in several different hands. The 
only mention of anything Christian or Spanish occurs in these 
pages. Two of these pages are on the back of a printed Indulgence 
of 1779. Wilkins considers the main body of the manuscript of 
earlier date. A report and preliminary translation of one chapter 
by Wilkins (1919) was read by Gates at the Cambridge meeting 
u^ (1919) of the American Anthropological Association. 

THE CATECHISM 

XVI Century. The Catholic Catechism was naturally the first 
book to be translated into the native idioms by the Spanish priests. 
It is probable that Villalpando (§ 2) stands as the first translator 
of the Catechism into Maya as he does regarding the authorship 
of a Maya grammar and vocabulary. This would have been 
written toward the middle of the xvi century. 

Sanchez de Aguilar (1639; ed. 1892, p. 35) writing in 1613 states 
that all the Indians from childhood learned and knew the whole 
Catechism. He adds that the Doctrina was translated into Maya 
admirably by Bishop Landa (§ 2) . This was probably done in the 
third quarter of the century as Landa died in 1579. l The Noticias 
Sagrades of Solana (§ 2) should be mentioned here. 

XVII Century. Sanchez de Aguilar (§ 1), born in Valladolid 
in 1555, a grandson of one of the founders of Merida and a Maya 
student under Gaspar Antonio Xiu, wrote a Doctrina in Maya 
probably toward the beginning of this century. He carried the 
manuscript with him to Madrid in 1617 and it was lost on the 

1 A Doctrina in Maya is listed under the name of Juan Ciuz (1571). This 
is probably an error. Squier (1861, p. 29) has a Huastec Doctrina by Cruz. 



THE CATECHISM 197 

journey. It is said that a copy was left behind in Yucatan in the 
possession of the Jesuits. 

At about the same time Acevedo, who was in Yucatan from 
1592 to 1624, wrote his Instrucciones catequisticas (§ 2) in Maya. 
This is missing. The Doctrina of Coronel (1620a) is the first which 
has come down to us. His larger work Discursos Predicables 
(1620b) is also known, three copies of which are said to be in 
existence, one owned by Gates, another in Puebla, and the third 
is the Pinart-Pilling copy. Coronel (§ 2) is also the author of a 
second catechism and, according to Juan de San Antonio in his 
Bibliotheca Franciscana, this is more complete than that of 1620a. 
The manuscript is supposed to be in the library of the Colegio de 
San Buenaventura in Seville. 

XVIII Century. The Doctrina of Beltran (1740) seems to 
have been very popular as it has had several editions, the last of 
which was in 1895. No copy of the first edition is known. Juan 
Martinez owns the only known copy of the edition of 1816, a 
product of the first printing press in Yucatan. Gates owns a 
Doctrina in manuscript (Anon. 7) of this century. 

XIX Century. Ruz made translations of the following works: 
a Catechism of Abad Fleuri (Ruz 1822), one by Ripalda (1847), 
which was issued in another edition by Charencey (1892a), an ex- 
planation of the Doctrina by Placido Rico (Ruz 1847a), and an- 
other edition of the Catechism (1851). Mention is also made by 
Carrillo y Ancona of still another Catechism by Ruz (2). Fletcher 
(1865a) was probably the author of a translation of the Catechism 
of the Methodist Church. 1 There is a Doctrina by Audomaro 
Molina (1905) and one in the dialect of Peten (Anon. 6 in B. L. C. 
No. 42-10, B.L.C.). 

Los Sacramentos. Parts of the Catechism have frequently 
been translated into Maya. The Sacramentos have been translated 
by Valladolid (§ 1) in a manuscript of the xvn century which is 

1 Brinton (1900) gives the author as Richard Fletcher. No author's name 
appears on the title page but on the Berendt copy that of Richard Fletcher is 
written in. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871, p. 81) and Vifiaza (1892, § 551) give 
the author as Henderson. Carrillo y Ancona (2) definitely establishes the fact 
that Fletcher was the author of this and other works ascribed by some to 
Henderson. 



198 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

missing. He gave the Latin and Maya text. San Buenaventura 
(1684, fol. 39-41o6.) gives the Forma administrandi infirmis Sacra- 
mentum Eucharistiae. Gates owns a manuscript of the Pasion 
domini (Anon. 20) dating from the end of the xviii century. Ruz 
(1846) in his Manual Romano gives the Sacramentos. This has 
been republished in part by Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, 
p. 121-122). 

El Viatico. This is given in Maya in several places in the 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, Nos. 42-12 (Anon. 11), 42-15 
(Anon. 18), 42-17 (Anon. 17), as well as in Anon (1897). 

Via Sacra. This is translated by Ruz (1849) from the Spanish 
of Jose de Herrera Villavicencio. Nolasco de los Reyes (1869) 
also translates the Via Sacra which was reissued by Madier (1875). x 
The manuscript in the Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-17, 
should be noted in this connection (Anon, 17). 

Acto de Contrici6n. This is given in Maya by Carrillo y 
Ancona (1866; ed. 1883, p. 565). It is also to be found in the 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-14 (Anon, 1). 

Confesi6n. This is given in Maya in an anonymous manu- 
script (Anon, 1803) collected in Campeche by Berendt (B. L. C. 
No. 26). I saw the Confesion in Maya in Merida in 1904 (Anon, 
9). This may be the same work as Baeza (1883) 2 although the 
titles are slightly different. Coronel (§ 3) is mentioned as having 
written a Confesionario and instructions for new priests. 

Actos de Fe. These were translated into Maya by Acosta 

(1851). 3 

Administration of the Mass. This is given in Maya by 
Ruz (1835) from the Spanish of Luiz Lanzi. 

Trinitate Dei. This is shown in Maya in an incomplete man- 
uscript owned by Gates (Anon, 23). 

1 See Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 189-190). 

2 Wilkinson (Anon, 1883) gives a Doctrina which is probably the same as 
that of Baeza. 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 189) in speaking of this work, 
writes, "No hemos podido conseguir ningun manuscrito del Sr. presditero D. Jose 
Antonio Acosta; pero sabemos con certeza que dejo varios, y entre ellos algunas 
colecciones 6 sermonarios." 



THE BIBLE 199 

Lord's Prayer. In addition to more general works in which 
prayers are given, the Lord's Prayer is to be found in several dif- 
ferent versions in many places. Hervas y Panduro (1787, p. 115- 
116) gives it and his version is followed by Adelung (1806-17, v. 3, 
part 3, p. 20-21). Norman (1843, p. 68, note), Auer (1844-47, part 
2, p. 571), and Anon (1860) give the same prayer. Brasseur de 
Bourbourg (1864, p. 478-479) gives it with the Creed after the ver- 
sion by Ruz. Galindo (1832) also gives the prayer and Creed. 
Berendt (1869, p. 8), Naphegyi (1869, p. 310-311), Marietti (1870, 
p. 281), de Rosny (1875, p. 83-85; ed. 1904, p. 116-119), and 
Bancroft (1874-76, v. 3, p. 776) all print the Lord's Prayer in Maya. 
Carrillo y Ancona (1880) gives the Maya of two prayers. Anon. 
(1891) probably has the Lord's Prayer in Maya. 

THE BIBLE 

St. Luke. The translations into Maya of parts of the Bible are 
all comparatively late works. Ruz (1) made a translation of 
Chapters 5, 11, 15 and 23 of the Gospel of St. Luke. This manu- 
script, in the handwriting of Ruz with many corrections by him, 
was in the library of Bishop Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872 
p. 177) in Merida. Ruz (3) is a second edition of the translation 
with a few changes in writing the Maya. 

The historical catalogue of the books of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society of London states that as early as 1833 the Committee 
of the Society had heard that a version of St. Luke in Maya was 
being prepared in Central America and some years later they re- 
ceived the manuscript which was published in a tentative edition 
in 1862 (?) with no author's name given. John Kingdon arrived 
in Belize, British Honduras, in 1845 from Jamaica as a missionary 
of the British Missionary Society. It is probable that he was the 
author of this edition (Kingdon, 1862), as it was published on the 
request of the Bishop of Kingston, Jamaica. He may or may not 
have used the translation of Ruz. 1 According to the records of 

1 Brinton (1882, p. 41) states definitely that Kingdon obtained a copy of 
the Ruz MS. which he printed with no acknowledgment of the author. There 
is a great deal of confusion regarding the authorship of several of these trans- 
lations of the Bible. Kingdon and Henderson were Baptist missionaries at 
Belize and Fletcher was a Methodist missionary at Corozal, British Honduras. 
For the work of Henderson and Kingdon, see Crowe, 1850. 



200 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

the British and Foreign Bible Society, Kingdon completed an 
edition of the Gospels and the Acts in Maya. This would seem to 
show that his own translation of St. Luke may have been sent to 
London to be printed rather than the pirated text of Ruz. 

The complete Gospel of St. Luke was published by the Bible 
Society in 1865 with no name but probably under the same au- 
thority as the tentative edition of 1862 (Kingdon, 1865). Hender- 
son (1870) corrected this text and brought out another edition 
under the imprint of the Baptist Bible Translation Society of 
London. Henderson also made a translation of the Book of 
Genesis (§ 1) and the Psalms (§ 2) according to Berendt (1867). 

Chapter 6, verses 27-34 of St. Luke have been published by 
Bagster (1848-51, p. 386; ed. 1860, p. 468). 

St. John. Fletcher (1868), a missionary at Corozal, British 
Honduras, brought out a tentative edition of the Gospel of St. 
John translated into Maya. This was published by the British 
and Foreign Bible Society as well as the final edition (Fletcher, 
1869). x The latter was printed at Cambridge, England. 

Chapter 3, verse 16, of St. John has been published by the Ameri- 
can Bible Society (1876, p. 39), British and Foreign Bible Society 
(1, p. 30; 2d ed. 1878, p. 28) and by the Pennsylvania Bible Society, 
(1, p. 39: 2, p. 28). 

St. Matthew and St. Mark. Fletcher (1900: 1900a) was also 
the translator of the Gospels of St. Matthew and St. Mark brought 
out by the same Society. These translations were probably made 
at the same time as that of St. John. There seems to be another 
translation of St. Mark which I cannot identify (Anon, 12). 

SERMONS 

Not only were the Spanish priests active in spreading the Gospel 
by means of translations of the Catechism into Maya but again 
and again one reads that the Spanish missionaries were commanded 

1 Brinton (1900, p. 213) makes Alexander Henderson a joint author of this 
work. This is probably incorrect as Henderson belonged to another denomi- 
nation. There seems to have been a definitive edition St. John published in 
1868 as well as in 1869, according to a record kindly furnished me by the 
Reverend R. Kilgour, D.D., Librarian of the British and Foreign Bible Society 
of London. I am also indebted to him for other intormation concerning the 
works of these Protestant missionaries. See also Carrillo y Ancona (2). 



SERMONS 201 

to learn the languages of the country and to preach in these lan- 
guages. There are, therefore, references to a large number of ser- 
mons written in Maya. The greater part of these are in manuscript 
although several collections of them have been published. 

XVI Century. Mention has already been made of the volu- 
minous writings on Maya vocabularies of Ciudad Real. He was 
the greatest master of Latin in Yucatan in the xvi century. His 
sermons in Maya (Ciudad Real, § 4) are considered by the early 
authorities to have been models of excellence. They are unfor- 
tunately missing. Solana (§ 1) is another Padre of this century 
who wrote sermons. Torralva (§ 1) who was in Yucatan from 1573 
to 1624 also was the author of a collection of religious treatises in 
Maya. The copy of a draft of a sermon (Anon, 4, copy in B. L. C. 
No. 42-4), supposedly written by the author of the Motul Dic- 
tionary, is to be noted. Anon (30) should be mentioned here as 
it is probably the same manuscript as the preceding one. 1 

XVII Century. Among the writers of this century who were 
the authors of sermons in Maya, mention should be made of 
Coronel (1620b), Rincon 2 (§ 1), Mena (§ 1), and Valladolid (§ 2), 
a native of Yucatan, born in 1617 and dying in 1652. The sermons 
of the last three writers are missing. 

XVIII Century. Writers of discourses of this century include 
Beltran (1740a, copy in B. L. C. No. 21), Dominguez y Argaiz 
1758) 3 and a collection of sermons in manuscript (Anon, 22, in 
B. L. C. No. 47). Mention should also be made here of a second 

1 These are probably the two sermons mentioned by LePlongeon in a letter, 
dated September 26, 1884, to J. R. Bartlett, then Librarian of the John Carter 
Brown Library. This was written when he returned the Motul Dictionary 
which he had borrowed to copy. He writes, " Also the two sermons on Maj^a 
language which I likewise have copied. One is on Trinity, the Reverend, I am 
afraid, tried to explain to his hearers what he himself did not understand very 
clearly for he seems to have become confused, repeating the same thing over 
and over again. . . . The other is on the faith in the teachings of the Holy 
Catholic Church." 

2 Cogolludo (1688, lib. 12, cap. xi) writes as follows, " El R. P. Fr. Antonio 
del Rincon . . . fue Predicador de Espanoles, y muy gran lengua de los naturales, 
en la cual escribib algunos Sermones, que han aprovechado a otros Ministros." 

3 A copy of this together with Carvajal (1) and Anon 22 are in Berendt 
1868a. 



202 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

collection of sermons in manuscript belonging to Mr. Gates 
(Anon 21). 

XIX Century. Carvajal (1) has left a manuscript sermon in 
Maya. 1 Carvajal, (§ 2) also made a collection of proverbs in Maya 
which has disappeared. These date from the early xix century. 
There is a manuscript volume of discourses from Teabo owned 
by Mr. Gates dating from about 1865 to 1884. Toward the 
middle of the century Ruz (1846-50) has a collection of four 
volumes of sermons in Maya. 2 These are of little real worth as 
Maya texts. Vela (1848) gives a translation of a sermon by 
Bishop Guerra. Vela (1848a) also addresses the Indios sublevados 
in a religious letter in the native language. Fletcher (1865) is 
probably the author of a short sermon for every day of the week. 3 
Vales (1870) translated into Maya a pastoral sermon of Bishop 
Gala giving the Spanish and Maya texts. Carrillo y Ancona had 
the manuscript of two sermons in Maya (Anon, 1871) which were 
copied by Berendt (B. L. C. No. 44-10). 

SECULAR TEXTS 

There is a large mass of secular texts in Maya some of which go 
back to very early Spanish times. It should be remembered that 
much of the material contained in the Books of Chilam Balam 
might be considered as secular rather than religious in nature. 
Reference is here made, however, to purely historical, legal, and 
political papers. 

Cr6nica de CbicxuLUB. 4 This manuscript, dating from the 
middle of the xvi century, is also called the Nakuk Pech Manu- 

1 This is probably the one referred to by Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, 
p. 189). He writes: " Asi el Sr. presbitero D. Francisco Carvajal, que florecio 
en este siglo, escribio en yucateco muchos y muy buenos discursos y sermones, que 
sin haberse dado a la prensa, los usan los instructors de indios. Varias veces 
hemos escuchado un elocuente sermon de viernes santo, de que el anciano Dr. D. 
Tomds D. Quintana, que conocio y trato intimamente al P. Carvajal nos testified 
ser el MS. obra inedita de este que fue gran orador de la lengua Maya." 

2 Pinart (1883, No. 598) mentions three volumes. 

3 Brinton (1900) in his Catalogue of the Berendt Collection gives the author 
of this work as Richard Fletcher. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1871, p. 81) and 
Vifiaza (1892, p. 552) have Alexander Henderson as the author. 

4 The original name of this town was Chacxulubchen. 



SECULAR TEXTS 203 

script, as it deals with the Pech family as well as with the survey 
of the town. It is a quarto of 26 pages and should still be in exist- 
ence in the village from which it takes its name. A copy, which is 
full of errors, was rediscovered by Martinez in 1907. This is owned 
by Jose Rafael de Regil of Merida. There is a Gates reproduction 
of the copy. Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 47-86, in B. L. C. No. 43-4) 
copied portions of this manuscript. Avila (1864) translated the 
whole document into Spanish. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869- 
70, v. 2, p. 110-120) has published the Maya and a French trans- 
lation of the first five pages of the original together with some 
other material of the Pech family. 1 

Brinton (1882, p. 187-259) describes the manuscript and gives 
the text and translation of the first document using Avila's Spanish 
version to some extent. Charencey (1891) gives a French transla- 
tion of Brinton. Brinton (1882a, p. 167, note) refers again to the 
manuscript. Berendt (1868d, v. 2, p. 47-86 in B. L. C. No. 43-4) 
as noted above, made a copy of the manuscript in Yucatan and 
later he evidently compared his copy with that of Brasseur de 
Bourbourg and also with that of Avila and Brinton. Perez (2, p. 
201-258, in B. L. C. No. 50-35) also gives the document. Fiske 
(1892, v. 1, p. 138) refers to the manuscript and Juan Molina (1897, 
p. 467-468) gives a paragraph from this latter document with 
translation. Martinez (1918a) has a paper in manuscript on the 
chronicle. He found a duplicate manuscript bv Ah Naum Pech 
who is mentioned by Nakuk Pech. The manuscript is practically 
identical with that of Nakuk Pech. 

Legal Documents. The most important of these non-religious 
items consist of legal papers. The earliest of these, so far reported, 
is that dated 1542 (Anon, 1542) still preserved according to 
Brinton. Next in point of time is a collection of legal documents 
owned by Gates, the first paper of which is dated 1571 (Anon, 8). 

Xiu Chronicles or Libro de Probanzas. These date from 1608 
to 1817. They are owned by the Peabody Museum and they have 
been reproduced both by Mr. Gates and by Mr. Bowditch. The 
Bowditch reproduction has an introduction by Miss Adela C. 
Breton. This manuscript is probably to be identified as the Ticul 
Manuscript or the Cronica de Oxkutzcab and is the one probably 

1 See Brinton, 1882, p. 191-192. 



204 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

referred to by an anonymous writer in the Registro Yucateco 
(1845-49, v. 1, p. 360) - 1 This manuscript should be distinguished 
from the Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab. This collection contains 
petitions and evidences and decrees certifying the lordship of the 
heads of the Xiu family established near Oxkutzcab. The Maya 
documents are often followed by the substance of the petition given 
in Spanish. There is also a good map of the region in the vicinity 
of Ticul and and a genealogical tree of the Xiu family which is 
published opposite entry No. 472 in the catalogue of Wilkinson 
(1915). There is an important page containing data useful in the 
correlation of Maya and Christian chronology. This page has 
been reproduced and discussed by Morley (1920, p. 470 etc.) . Gates 
(1920a) gives a translation of the same page with notes upon it 
in Morley (1920, p. 507-509). Parts of the manuscript have been 
copied by Miss Breton and translated by Martinez Hernandez 
(1920). 

Titulos de Ebtun. These compose the largest collection of legal 
documents, dating from about 1638 to 1829. They have been re- 
produced by Gates. 

Libro de los Cocomes or the Libro de Cacalchen. This is probably 
the most interesting series of legal manuscripts from a linguistic 
point of view. This collection of documents is owned by Gates and 
dates from 1646 to 1826. It has been reproduced by him. The 
first 34 leaves contain wills in Maya. The second section is of 41 
paragraphs, the first leaf missing, of regulations for the govern- 
ment of the town. It is this section which Martinez Hernandez 
(1920b) considers to contain copies made in 1729 of original orders 
(ordenanzas) of the Oidor, Don Diego Garcia de Palacios, 2 who 
came to Yucatan in 1583. These orders, in turn, were made by the 
Oidor, Tomas Lopez, in 1552 if we are to believe Cogolludo (1688, 
p. 401) who writes, " Las ordenangas, y leyes con que hasta el tiempo 
presente se estan governando los Indios de esta tierra, son las que hizo 
este Visitador. Casi todas son renovacion de las que hizo el Oydor 
Thomas Lopez, quando visitd esta tierra el ano de mil y quinientos y 
cinquenta y dos, sino que como de aquellas se perdieron co(n) el tiempo 

1 See quotation from this account in Tozzer, 1917, p. 180. This is also given 
by Carrillo y Ancona 1870; ed. 1872, p. 147. 

2 The same person is mentioned in the Mani and Tizimin manuscripts as 
Judge Diego Pare j a. 



SECULAR TEXTS 205 

los quadernos, y en el presente son muy pocos que los han visto, dan por 
nuevo Autor de ellas a este Visitador . . . Traduxeronse en el idioma 
natural de los Indios, para que mejor las entendiessen, y supiessen, 
quedando en todos los Pueblos un traslado dellas, para que las leyessen 
continuamente, como leyes a' avian de observar" Miss Adela Breton 
has pointed out to me that Ordenanza 25 is quoted in a Cedula Real 
of 1579 by Palomino in Juan Molina (1904^13, v. 1, p. 228). 1 
Following the Ordenanzas are many leaves with lists of minor 
officials. Later pages have the parish accounts of payments of 
salaries. It can thus be seen that these documents are of great 
linguistic value as they offer Maya texts dating from the middle of 
the xvn century. Martinez Hernandez (1920a) has translated the 
the will of Andres Pat (1647) contained in this collection. 

Cronica de Manx. This is a series of documents, dating from 
1556, kept in the Casa Real of the town of Mani, according to 
Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 262-268) . 2 He gives an English translation 
from a Spanish version made by Estanislao Carrillo (1) and cor- 
rected by Perez of a portion of these manuscripts. Stephens also 
reproduces the map of the vicinity of Mani contained in this col- 
lection of documents. Juan Molina (1897, p. 69) gives a para- 
graph from this manuscript in Maya and Spanish. 

Other manuscripts of the same general class are as follows : — 
Documentos de Sotuta (Perez 2, p. 187-200, copy in B. L. C. 
No. 50-34) , 3 Documentos de Ticul (Ticul, 1760 et seq.) owned by 
Gates and reproduced by him, Titulo de Acanceh (Acanceh, 1767, 
copy in B. L. C. No. 44-7), translated into Maya by Avila 
1864), and Papeles de Xtepen (Xtepen, copy in B. L. C. No. 44-8). 

Political Papees. These form the next class of secular texts 
in Maya. The first of these in our list is a collection of letters 

1 Gates informs me that this paragraph from Molina is also found in the 
Xiu Chronicles. 

2 Morley (1920, p. 473) mentions this manuscript. 

3 Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 144) writes: "En fin, el libro 
(Perez 2) concluye . . . con los fragmentos de diferentes manuscritos mayas 
sobre documentation de tierras en los pueblos de Sotuta, Yaxcaba y otros. Dichas 
documentations son en parte originalmente obras de nuestro escritor Gaspar 
Antonio. . . . Que esto es asi es indudable, pues en la parte maya y en la ver- 
sion espanola que acompana el Sr. Perez, aparece por dos veces correspondiendo al 
ano de 1600, la firma de Gaspar Antonio como autor de los documentos." 



206 APPRAISEMENT OF WORKS 

(Anon, 1514-72) in the Archives of the Indies in Seville. Several 
of these documents are in Maya. A careful search in these Archives 
would doubtless yield more material in the Maya language. There 
is a letter in Maya by Goncalo Che (1877) and others, addressed to 
Philip II, dated 1567, and published in facsimile in Cartas de 
Indias. There is little now known in this line from this early date 
until the beginning of the xix century. Then, there comes an 
order of the governor of Yucatan translated into Maya by Cervera 
(1803, copy in B. L. C. No. 44-9) and a Banda or Proclamation 
issued by Artazo y Torredemer (1814), Brigadier and Captain- 
General, on matters of the insurrection, dangers of war, etc. This 
is in Maya and Spanish. 1 Next in point of time comes a collection 
of letters in manuscript written in Maya by Pat (1847, circa) and 
other leaders of the uprising in 1847. This manuscript is owned by 
Gates and has been reproduced by him. There follows another 
proclamation translated by Perez (1848) and a proposition for an 
armistice written in Maya by Chan (1850, copy in B. L. C. No. 
44-11) and Others. 

Villanueva (1864, in B. L. C. No. 42-17) gives a proclamation in 
Ma}^a and Pacheco Cruz (1) translates some of the decrees of 
Governor Avila. There is also an address to Maximilian in Maya 
(Anon. 3, copy in B. L. C. No.. 42-18). A political squib by 
Manuel Garcia (1856) should also be noted. 

Short portions of secular text are given in Granado (1845, p.- 171) 
and Waldeck (1838, p. 90-91, copy in B. L. C. No. 42-2). Mention 
should also be made of the Fama diaria (Anon. 24, copy in B. L. C. 
No. 50-18). 

Carrillo y Ancona (1870; ed. 1872, p. 190) writes. " Hemos 
visto una especie de circular 6 manifiesto de la reina de Inglaterra, 6 
dado en nombre suyo, a manera de cartelon, con grandes y hermosos 
caracteres en idioma Maya, el cual fue desprendido de una esquina 
de calle publica. Modo indirecto de imponer poco a poco y de hecho 
la dominacion britdnica sobre los habitantes de nacionalidad yucateca 
6 mexicana, que hablan el idioma Maya y tienen comercio con aquella 
colonia inglesa" (See Anon, 10.) 

Poems, Songs, Folk-Lore, etc. Poems in Maya are given by 
Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. 120-121, copy in B. L. C. 

1 Gates regards this as being the first Maya printed in Yucatan. It is No. 
10 in Medina (1904) where he calls it Cakchiquel. 



LACANDONE TEXTS 207 

No. 44-5), Hernandez (1905), and Rejon Garcia (1905a, p. 118- 
144). Some music and Maya words are given by Berendt (1868c). 
Alice LePlongeon (1) published some Maj^a music with Maya 
words. Berendt (1866) has a Maya witch story with translation in 
Spanish. 1 Brinton (1883; ed. 1890, p. 171-172) gives this with an 
English translation. Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869-70, v. 2, p. 101- 
102, copy in B. L. C. No. 44-6) gives a short text in Maya and 
French entitled Invocation au Soleil, which he collected at Xcancha- 
kan. An English version is given by Brinton (1883; ed. 1890, 
p. 167). Brasseur de Bourbourg (1869, p. 10) gives a short sen- 
tence in Maya with translation. Anon (29) is probably a folk-tale. 
Tozzer (1901) is a collection of historical and legendary material. 2 

LACANDONE TEXTS 

Finally, mention should be made of the Lacandone text and Eng- 
lish translation of fifty-one prayers given by Tozzer (1907, p. 169- 
189) . 3 Incantations, similar in many respects to these, and com- 
ing from southeastern Yucatan and British Honduras are given by 
Gann (1918, p. 46-47). 

1 This tale is given in Part II, p. 119-120. 

2 A small part of this manuscript is given in Part II, p. 115-118. 

3 One of these is given with translation in Part II, p. 118-119. 



PART IV 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS RELATING 
TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 



PART IV 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WORKS RELATING 
TO THE MAYA LANGUAGE 

INTRODUCTION 

It is my intention to give in the accompanying bibliography as 
complete a list as possible of the writers and their works on and in 
the Maya language of Yucatan. I do not attempt to give all 
books which mention this language but those only which describe 
or treat the language at some length. 

It will.be noted that following each entry one or more numbers 
are given. These refer to the page or pages in the critical survey 
of the literature (Part III) where the book or manuscript in ques- 
tion is discussed. Part III can thus be used in connection with 
this list as a subject catalogue. A number also follows the names of 
some of the authors. This refers to the place where the work of the 
writer in question is discussed as a whole. 

A § in front of a date or number indicates that the work referred 
to is missing. 

The anonymous books will be found listed at the end of the bib- 
liography. Wherever possible these are arranged by date; other- 
wise they are grouped alphabetically by the first word of the title 
and given consecutive numbers. 

I desire at this place to thank once more my friend, William 
Gates, Esqr., who has given me so much of his valuable time and 
has been so willing to suggest points which I have overlooked. I 
wish also to express my appreciation of the kindness of Mrs. Anne 
Fadil, formerly Librarian of the University Museum, Philadelphia, 
who was good enough to look up many references for me in the 
Berendt Collection. Don Juan Martinez Hernandez should also be 
thanked in connection with this bibliography. Professor M._H. 

211 



212 INTRODUCTION 

Saville has been good enough to loan me books from his valuable 
library in addition to giving me several suggestions. Finally, I 
wish to thank Mr. T. F. Currier, Assistant Librarian of the Har- 
vard College library, who has supervised the verification of many 
of the references. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

ACANCEH, TlTULO DE 

1767 Titulo de un solar y monte en Acanceh (en lengua Maya) : Trans- 
lated into Spanish by Avila. (Copy 12°, 8 p. in Berendt Lin- 
guistic Collection, No. 44-7.) 205. 

Acevedo, Juan de 

§ (1) Principios elementales de la gramatica Yucateca: MS. xvn 

century (missing). (Cogolludo gives the title Arte de la lengua 

Yucateca mas breve.) 163. 
§ (2) Instrucciones catequisticas y morales para los Indios en idioma 

Yucateco: MS. xvn century (missing). 197. 

Acosta, Jose Antonio 

1851 Oraciones devotas que comprenden los actos de fe, esperanza, 
caridad. Afectos para un cristiano y una oracion para pedir 
una buena muerte en idioma Yucateco con inclusion del Santo 
Dios: Merida, 12°, 16 p. (Maya and Spanish. Gates reproduc- 
tion.) 198. 

Adam, Lucien 

1877 Du polysynthetisme et de la formation des mots dans les langues 

Quiche" et Maya : in Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Com- 
paree, v. 10, p. 34-74. 167 (2). 

1878 Examen grammatical compare de seize langues americaines: in 

Proceedings of the 2d International Congress of Americanists, 
Luxembourg (1877), v. 2, p. 161-244. (Published separately, 
Paris, 1878, 8°, 88 p. 5 folding sheets.) 168, 179. 
1878a Etudes sur six langues americaines: Dakota, Chibcha, Nahuatl, 
Kechua, Quiche, Maya: Paris, 8°, viii, 165 p. 168 (3), 179. 

Adelung, Johann Christoph 

1806-17 Mithridates oder allgemeine Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater 
unser als Sprachprobe in bey nahe 500 Sprachen und Mund- 
arten. Mit wichtigen Beytragen zweyer grossen Sprachfor- 
scher: Berlin, 8°, 4 v. (with additions by Johann Severin 
Vater). 159, 161, 164, 199. 

Aguilar, Pedro Sanchez de 

1639 Informe contra idolorum cultores del Obispado de Yucatan: 
Madrid 4°. (New edition in Anales del Museo Nacional, 
Mexico, v. 6, 1892, p. 15-122.) (This is probably the same 
work as his Relacion de las cosas de Yucatan y sus ecclesiasticos.) 
(See Saville, 1921.) 192. 

§ (1) Catecismo de Doctrina Cristiana en lengua Maya: MS. xvii 
century (missing). 196. 

213 



214 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Alcedo y Bexarano, Antonio de 

1807 Biblioteca americana. Catalogo de los au tores que han escrito 
de la America en diferentes idiomas. Y noticia de su vida y 
patria, afios en que viveron y obras que escribieron: folio, 
MS. 2 v. vi, 488; 489-1028 ff. (from Lord Kingsborough's 
library) in John Carter Brown Library, Providence, Rhode 
Island. (Copy in Sparks Collection, Cornell University, with 
following note by Sparks, "This volume was copied from the 
original MS. in the possession of 0. Rich of London. The 
original was found by him in Madrid. Copied, 1843." There 
is another copy with statement as follows, "Mexico. Copia 
remitida de Boston por el Sefior William H. Prescott, 1854." 
See criticism of this work by Harrisse, 1866, p. xxiv, and 
quoted in Spanish by Medina, 1898-1907, v. 6, p. cxvi.) 154, 
157. 

American Bible Society. Publisher. 

1876 Centennial exhibition, 1876. Specimen verses from versions in 
different languages and dialects in which the Holy Scriptures 
have been printed and circulated by the American Bible So- 
ciety and the British and Foreign Bible Society: 16°, 48 p., 
2 pis. (Numerous other editions the last of which was in 1919 
including specimen verses from 269 different languages.) 200. 

Ancona, Eligio 

[1877] Introduction to the Pio Perez Diccionario, 1866-77. (See Perez, 

1866-77.) 160. 
1878-1905 Historiade Yucatan: Merida, 8°, 5 v. (4 v. 1878-80. v. 5, 

edited by Jose Maria Pino Suarez, published in 1905. 2d and 

revised edition of first 4 v. Barcelona, 1889.) 162, 180, 185. 
1881 Compendio de la historia de la peninsula de Yucatan que com- 

prende los estados de Yucatan y Campeche. Obra escrita en 

forma de dialogo para el uso de las escuelas: Merida, 16°, 84 p. 

180. 
Andrade, Jose Leocadio 

1880 See Carrillo y Ancona, 1880. 
Andrade, Jose Maria 

1869 Catalogue de la riche bibliotheque de Andrade: Leipzig and 

Paris, 8°, xi. 368 p. (Sale catalogue.) 154, 158. 

Andrade, Vicente de Paula 

1899 Ensayo bibhVgrafico Mexicano del siglo xvn: Mexico, (2d ed.) 
8°, vh, 803 p. (1st ed., 1894, in Memorias de la Sociedad Cienti- 
fica "Antonio Alzate," never completed.) 156. 
Anon. 

For anonymous works, see p. 276-279. 
Anonimo, Codice 

See Tizimin, Chilam Balam de 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 215 

Antonio, Gaspar 

See Xiu, Gaspar Antonio 

Antonio, Nicolas 

1672 Bibliotheca Hispana sive Hispanorvm, qvi vsqvam vnqvamve 
sive Latina sive populari sive alia quavis lingua scripto aliquid 
consignaverunt notitia, his qvse prsecesservnt locvpletior et 
certior brevia elogia, editorum atque ineditorum operum 
catalogum dvabvs par tibvs contiens, etc.: Rome, 4°, 2 v. 
41 ff., 633; 690 p. (2d ed. Madrid, 1783-88.) 150, 163. 
1696 Bibliotheca Hispana Vetus; sive, Hispanorum qui usquam, 
unquamve scripto aliquid consignaverunt, notitia. Com- 
plectens scriptores omnes, qui, ab Octaviani Augusti imperio, 
usque ad annum M. 1 floruerunt: Rome, 4°, 2 v. (2d ed. 
Madrid, 1788.) 153. 
Artazo y Torredemer, Manuel 

1814 Banda (or Proclamation) Maya and Spanish in parallel columns: 
1 f . 206. 
Asensio, Jose Maria. Editor. 

SeeColeccion de Documentos, 1898-1900. 
Auer, Alois 

1844-47. Sprachenhalle : Vienna, 2 parts, folio. 199. 

AVENDANO Y LOYOLA, ANDRES DE 142. 

1696 Relacion de las dos entradas que hize a Peten Itza: 4°, MS. 
66 ff. (Gates reproduction. For publication of greater part 
of MS., see Means, 1917. p. 103-174.) 164. 

§ (1) Arte para aprender la lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvm century 
(missing). 164. 

§ (2) Diccionario de la lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvm century (miss- 
ing). 174. 

§ (3) Diccionario abreviado de los adverbos de tiempo y lugar de la 
lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvm century (missing). 174. 

§ (4) Diccionario botanico y medico conforme a los usos y costumbres 
de los Indios de Yucatan: MS. xvm century (missing). 174. 

§ (5) Diccionario de nombres de personas, idolos, danzas, y otras 
antigtiedades de los Indios de Yucatan: MS. xvm century 
(missing). 174. 

§ (6) Explicacion de varios vaticinios de los antiguos Indios de Yuca- 
tan: MS. xvm century (missing). 193. 
Avila, Manuel Encarnacion. Translator. 

[1864 circa] [Translation into Spanish of Titulo de Acanceh (1767) and 
Cronica de Cnicxulub (1542)]. 203, 205. 
Aznar y Perez, Gabriel. Translator. 

1882 Translation of Brinton, 18826: in Semanario Yucateco: Merida. 
183. 

1 The M in the title is, of course, a misprint for M.D. 



216 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bacabs, Ritual of the 

12°, MS., 237 p. contains 46 incantations. (Owned by Gates.) 
196. 
Bachiller y Morales, Antonio 

1883 Cuba primitiva, origen, lenguas, tradiciones e historia de los 
Indios de las Antillas Mayores y las Lucayas : Havana, 8°, 7- 
399 p. 2d ed. Corregida y aumentada. (Printed first in La 
Revista de Cuba.) (See Proceedings of the 1+th International 
Congress of Americanists, Madrid, 1882 [1881], p. 315-317.) 
161. 
Baeza, Jose Nicolas 

1860 See Beltran, 1740; ed. 1860 and later editions. 
Baeza, Secundino 

[1880 circa] [Sobre la lengua Yucateca] : in El Seminario Conciliar, 

Merida. 162. 
1883 Doctrina necesaria para confesar en el regla. Dispuesta en 
lengua Maya: Merida. 16°, 24 p. (See Anon, 9.) 198. 
Baezo, Perfecto 

1832 Vocabulario de las lenguas Castellana y Maya (en el idioma de 
Peten) in Bulletin de la Societe de Geographic de Paris, v. 18, 
p. 215-217. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-5, 
corrected in Peten by Berendt.) 174, 181. 
[Bagster, Samuel.] Editor. 

[1848-51] The Bible of every land. A history of the sacred scriptures 
in every language and dialect into which translations have been 
made : London, 4°, xxviii, 3, 406, 12 p. maps. (2d ed. London, 
1860, 4°, (28) 32 (3) 475 (5) p.) 200. 
Balbi, Adrien 

1826 Atlas ethnographique du globe, ou classification des peuples 
anciens et modernes d'apres leurs langues, pr6c6de d'un dis- 
cours sur Putilite et ^importance de l'etude des langues appli- 
que^ a plusieurs branches des connaissances humaines, etc.: 
Paris, 1 v. fol. (xlix pis.). (Another edition, Boston, 1835.) 
161, 179. 
Bancroft, Hubert Howe 

1874-76 The native races of the Pacific States of North America : New 
York, 8°, 5 v. (Numerous other editions.) 159, 165, 180, 181, 
185, 187, 199. 
Bandelier, Adolf F[rancois Alphonse] 

1881 Notes on the bibliography of Yucatan and Central America: in 
Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society (1880) (n. s.) 
v. 1, p. 82-117. (Published separately, Worcester, 1881, 8°, 
39 p.) 156. 
Baqueiro, Serapio 

1881 Resena geografica, historica y estadistica del estado de Yucatan: 
Mexico. 159. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 217 

Barbachano, Thomas Aznar 

1876 See Donde, Joaquin, 1876. 
Barcia Carballido y Zuniga, Andres Gonzalez de 

1737-38 Epitome de la biblioteca oriental y occidental, nautica y geo- 
gr&fica, anadido y enmendado nuevamente en que se contienen 
los escritores de las Indias Orientales, y Occidentales, y reinos 
convecinos, China, Tartaria, Japon, Persia, Armenia, Etiopia, 
y otras partes: Madrid, 4°, 3 v. 153. This contains: 

Autores que han escrito en lenguas de las Indias (col. 719- 
738). (For 1st ed. see Leon Pinelo, 1629.) 
1749 Historiadores primitivos de las Indias Occidentales que junt6, 
traduxo en parte y saco a luz, illustrados con eruditas notas y 
copiosos indices: Madrid, 4°, 3 v. (v. 2 contains Gomara, 
1553.) 180. 
Bartlett, John Russell 

1865-71 Bibliotheca Americana. A catalogue of books relating to 
North and South America in the library of John Carter Brown 
of Providence, R. I.: Providence, 8°, 3 pts. (2d ed. 1875-82, 
2 v.). 170. 
Barton, Benjamin Smith 

1797 New views of the origin of the tribes and nations of America: 
Philadelphia, 8°, xii, cix, 83 p. (New edition, 1798.) 161. 
Bastian, [Phillip Wilhelm] Adolf 

1878-89 Die Culturlander des alten America: Berlin, 8°, 3 v. 159. 
Bates, Henry Walter. Editor 

1878 Central America, the West Indies and South America, edited and 
extended . . . with ethnological appendix by A. H. Keane; 
London, 12°, xviii p. If., 571 p., 20 pis. (Numerous editions. 
For enlarged edition, see Keane, 1901.) 
Batres, Leopoldo 

1885 Cuadro arqueologico y etnogrdfico de la Republica Mexicana: 
New York, 1 folio sheet. 159. 
Beauvois, Eugene 

1899 Les publications relatives a l'ancien Mexique depuis une tren- 
taine d'annees: Paris, 8°. 156. 
Beltran, de Santa Rosa Maria, Pedro 

1740 Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en el idioma Yucateco, 
nuevamente corregida en algunos vocables y periodos : Mexico 
(missing). Ed. 1757, Mexico, 8°, 36 p. (Title p. 1, p. 2-22 
Advertencias, p. 18 incorrectly numbered 81.) Later editions 
have title Declaracion de la Doctrina Christiana en el idioma 
Yucateco por el. . . . Anadiendole el acto de contricion en verso: 
Merida, 1816, 12°, 2 fif . 3-20 p. (Gates reproduction) ; Merida, 
1860, 24°, 23 p. (revised by J. N. Baeza with Acto de contricion 
en prosa.) Later editions follow this: Merida, 1866, 16°, 23 p. 
and Merida, 1895, 16°, 16 p. 197. 



218 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Beltran, de Santa Rosa MarIa, Pedro (continued). 

1740a Novena de Christo crucificado con otras oraciones en lengua 
Maya: Mexico, 27 ff. (Copy by Berendt, 12°, 105 p. in 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 21.) 201. 

1746 Arte de el idioma Maya reducido a succintas reglas y semi- 
lexicon Yucateco: Mexico 8°, 8 ff . 188 p. (Gates reproduc- 
tion.) (2d ed. Merida, 1859. 1739 is date given by some as 
that of 1st ed., this is incorrect.) (See Kingdon 1, and Hen- 
derson 3.) 164, 168, 174, 181. 

1859 Second edition of 1746: Merida, 8°, 8ff., 242 p. (The editor, 
Espinosa, has a second impression of his edition with a Preface 
and notes at bottom of page.) 164, 168, 174, 181. 

Berendt, Carl Hermann 146. 

1864 Notas gramaticales sobre la lengua Maya de Yucatan: Incom- 

plete MS. 4°, 40 p. (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 12). 
166. 

1865 [Annotated copy of Kingdon, 1847, which, in turn, is a transla- 

tion of Ruz, 1844]: 12°, MS. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 14. 166. 

1866 Ein feen Marchen der Maya; (Maya and Spanish) Peten. MS. 

in Berendt Linguistic Collection. (Published in Brinton, 1883; 
ed. 1890, p. 171-72). 207. 
1866-67 Vocabulario del dialecto (de Maya) de Peten: MS. (Berendt 
Linguistic Collection, No. 42-5. English translation by Means 
(1917) in Papers of the Peabody Museum, v. 7, p. 188-191). 
174. 

1867 Report of explorations in Central America: in Report of the 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington p. 420-426. 174. 
1867a Diccionario Huasteco-Espanol estractado de la Noticia de la 
lengua Huasteca con Catecismo y Doctrina Christiana y con 
un copioso Diccionario por Carlos de Tapia Zenteno: 8°, MS. 
288 p. (Copy of the Tapia Zenteno dictionary with numerous 
additions and marginal comparisons of Huastec words with 
others in Maya and Cakchiquel. About 3000 words, in B. L. C. 
No. 82.) 178. 

1868 Chilam Balam. Articulos y fragmentos de manuscritos antiguos 

en lengua Maya, colectados y copiados en facsimile: 4°, MS. 
200 p. (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Notes taken 
on this MS. by C. P. Bowditch (1908a). Gates reproduction 
of notes). 144, 183. This contains the following: 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel, p. 1-74, 80, 159-200. 188. 

Chilam Balam de Ixil, p. 75-79, 97-100. 190. 

Chilam Balam de Kaua, p. 81-92. 190. 

Chilam Balam de Tizimin, p. 101-158. 189. 

Cuaderno de Teabo, p. 93-96. 195. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 219 

1868a Coleccion de platicas, doctrinales y sermones en lengua Maya por 
diferentes autores: 16°, MS. 257 p. (Berendt Linguistic Col- 
lection, Nos. 46, 47). 147, 201. This contains the following: 

Dominguez y Argaiz (1758) p. 1-76. 

Carvajal(l) p. 77-116. 

Sermones (Anon. 22) p. 119-229. 

Modo de confesar (Anon 1803) p. 231-257. 

(P. 37, 77-257 reproduced by Gates.) 

18686 Literatura de la lengua Maya, obras que parecen perdidas : MS., 

written in Merida (Berendt Linguistic Collection). 151. 
1868c Canciones en lengua Maya: MS., collected in Merida, in Berendt 

Linguistic Collection. (Partial copy by Schuller, 8°, 13 p, 

reproduced by Gates.) 207. 
1868d Lengua Maya. Miscelanea: 12°, MS. 3 v. 147. The contents 

of these volumes are entered in this bibliography under the 

following headings : 

Vol. 1 (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42). 

No. 1. Waldeck, 1838, p. 79-90. 

2. Waldeck, 1838, p. 91. 

3. Waldeck, 1838, p. 29-30. 

4. Anon (4). 

5. Baezo, 1832. 

6. Galindo, 1832. 

7. Ternaux-Compans, 1840-41. 

8. Numerales: in Beltran, 1748; ed. 1859, p. 195-201. 

9. Las Profecias: in Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1857-59, v. 

2, p. 603-606. 192. 

10. Anon (6). 

11. Oviedo, 1535; ed. 1851-55, v. 4, p. 593-607. 169. 

12. Anon (11). 

13. Tabla de multiplicar: in Chilam Balam de Kaua. 191. 

14. Anon (1). 

15. Anon (18). 

16. Anon (17). 

17. Villanueva (1). 

18. Anon (3). 

Vol. 2 (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43). 

No. 1. Epocas de la historia de Yucatan: in Perez, 1842. 185. 

2. The same: in Chilam Balam de Chumayel 188. 

3. Las Profecias: in Chilam Balam de Mani y de Chi- 

mayel. 194. 

4. Cronica de Cnicxulub. 203 (2). 

5. Fragmentos sobre la cronologia (Perez, 3). (Mainly 

the Chilam Balam de Kaua.) 184, 191 (2). 

6. Las Profecias: in Chilam Balam de Ixil and Mani. 

190, 194. 



220 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berendt, Carl Hermann — 1868d, Vol. 2 (continued). 
No. 7. Chilam Balam de Mani. 184. 

8. Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab. 190. 

9. Historia de la Doncella Teodora. 184. 
Vol. 3 (Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 44). 
No. 1. Perez (9). 

2. Perez (8). 

3. Perez (6). 

4. Perez (5). 

5. Cancion amorosa: in Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1869-70, 

v. 2, p. 120-121. 206. 

6. Invocation au soleil: in Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1869- 

70, v. 2, p. 101-102. 207. 

7. Titulo de Acanceh. 205. 

8. Papeles de Xtepen. 205. 

9. Cevera, 1803. 

10. Anon, 1871. 

11. Chan, 1850. 

1869 Analytical alphabet for the Mexican and Central American 

languages: New York, 16°, 8, 6 p. (Published by American 
Ethnological Society.) 168, 199. 

1870 Extractos de los recetarios de Indios en lengua Maya, notas, y 

afiadiduras [a MS. de Pio Perez]: See Pio Perez (4). (In 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 45). 196. 
1870a Apuntes sobre la lengua Chaneabal. Con un vocabulario: 8° 
MS. 7, 25 ff. (See Brinton, 1888.) (In Berendt Linguistic 
Collection. No. 96.) 178. 

1871 2d edition of Ruz, 1845, revised and edited: Merida, 16°, 14 p. 

166. 

1871a Los trabajos linguisticos de Don Juan Pio Perez: Mexico, in 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica 
Mexicana (2d Series), v. 3, p. 58-61. (Published separately. 
Mexico, 1871, 8°, 6 p. Original MS. in Berendt Linguistic 
Collection. No. 11, p. 137-163. See Perez, 1.) 143, 175. 

1878 Remarks on the centres of ancient civilization in Central America 
and their geographical distribution: in Bulletin of the Ameri- 
can Geographical Society, (1876) v. 8, p. 132-145 (Published 
separately, New York, 1876). 159. 

1878a See Rockstroh 1878. 

(1) Comparative vocabulary of Mexican or Nahuatl and Maya 

languages: 4°, MS. 10 ff. in Collection Linguistic MSS., 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 178. 

(2) Vocabulary of the Maya language; 200 words: fol. MS. 6 ff*. in 

Collection Linguistic MSS., Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 
176. 

(3) Vocabulario comparativo de las lenguas pertenecientes a la fa- 

milia Maya-Quiche: 600-700 words in 24 dialects: MS. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 221 

(formerly in possession of Rockstroh, published, in part, in 
Stoll, 1884). 178. 

(4) Nombres proprios en lengua Maya: folio, MS. 150 ff. (in Berendt 

Linguistic Collection, No. 48). 176. 

(5) Miscellanea Maya. Folio scrap-book: (Berendt Linguistic Col- 

lection, No. 179). 147. This book contains the following: 

1. Gramatica. 

Analytical alphabet, 11 p. fol. 4. 168. 
Comparative alphabet of the Maya, 2 p. fol. 5. 168. 

2. Languages. 

Alfabeto de las lenguas Metropolitana, 4 p. fol. 14. 
Charakter der americanischen Sprachen, 2 p. fol. 22. 

3. Wortbildungen Maya, 17 p. fol. 24. 166. 

4. Maya moderna y dialectos, 2 p. fol. 34. 166. 

5. Grammar. 166. 

Formacion del plural, 4 p. fol. 36. 

Adjectivos, 2 p. fol. 39. 

Pronombres, 4 p. fol. 42. 

Prepositiones, etc. 3 p. fol. 45. 

Verbos, 19 p. fol. 47. 

Partes sexuales, 6 p. 

Korpertheile, 5 p. 

Nombres de parentesco, 3 p. 

Plantas; mais; medidas, 12 p. fol. 54. 

Bebida y comida; Mammalia, 7 p. 

Pajaros; Beleuchtung, Insects, Aves, 13 p. fol. 55. 

Conversazione, 10 p. fol. 57. 

6. Vocabulario de la lengua Maya, del Putun, del Tzental, 

del Chontal, etc. 178. 
Maya und Nahuatl, 56 p. fol. 58. 178. 
Mexicano-Maya-Otomi, 30 p. fol. 59. 178. 
Maya-Cakchiquel, 4 p. fol. 60. 179. 
Maya-Natchez, 13 p. fol. 62. 179. 
Maya-Apalahchi, fol. 63. 179. 
Maya-Chontal-Quiche-Cakchiquel-Zutuhil-Huasteca- 

Mame-Poconchi, 2 p. fol. 64. 179. 

7. Gramatical comparativos de las lenguas de la Familia 

Maya, 5 p. fol. 66. 168. 

8. Vergleichende Uebersicht d. Zahlu'tr, 14 p. fol. 67. 182. 

9. Locuciones varios en Maya, 8 p. fol. 71. 
10. Ethnologia, fol. 76. 

Caracter de los indios de Yucatan. 
Costumbres de los indios, fol. 77. 
Calendarios, fol. 79. 
Jeroglificos, fol. 86. 
Antiqiiedades, fol. 89. 
Maya ethnologia, fol. 92. 



222 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Berendt, Carl Hermann, (continued). 

(6) Miscellanea Centro-Americana. Folio scrap-book: (Berendt 

Linguistic Collection, No. 180). 147. Among other items, 
this volume contains: 

A bibliography of no value for Maya linguistics. 

100 worc|s with translation from Oviedo. 169. 

(7) Miscellanea historica et linguistica. Folio scrap-book: (Berendt 

Linguistic Collection, No. 181). 147. Among other items, 
this volume contains: 

A note on the Motul dictionary. 170. 

A bibliography of Yucatan. 157. 

Brasseuriana. 146. 

(8) Historia de la lexicografia de la lengua Maya. Original MS. (in 

Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 11, p. 185-188. See Perez 1). 
157. 

(9) [Unidentified articles in Deutsch-Amerikanisches Conversations- 

Lexikon, Correspondenzblatt fur Anthropologie, Ethnologie und 
Urgeschichte, La Revista de Merida, etc.] 147. 
Beristain y [Martin de] Souza, Jose Mariano 

1816-21 Biblioteca hispano-americana septentrional (6 Catalogo y 
noticia de los literatos) : Mexico, 3 v. (2d edition, Amecameca, 
1883, sm. 12°, 3 v. and 1 v. Santiago de Chile, 1897. Latter 
has sub-title, O catalogo y noticia de los literatos que 6 nacidos 
6 educados 6 florecientes en la America septentrional han 
dado a luz algun escrito 6 lo han dejado preparado para la 
prensa). (See Ramirez, 1898.) 151, 165, 157. 
Beuchat, Henri 

1912 Manuel d'archeologie americaine (Ame>ique prehistorique. 
Civilisations disparues) : Paris, 8°, xli, 773 p. 160, 183. 
Boban, E[ugene|. Editor. 

1885 See Batres, 1885. 
Bollaert, William 

1866 Maya hieroglyphic alphabet of Yucatan: In Memoirs of the 
Anthropological Society of London, v. 2 (1865-66), p. 46-54. 
168, 170, 180. 
1870 Examination of Central American hieroglyphs: Of Yucatan — 
including the Dresden Codex, the Guatemalien of Paris, and 
the Troano of Madrid: the hieroglyphs of Palenque, Copan, 
Nicaragua, Veraguas, and New Granada; by the newly dis- 
covered Maya alphabet: in Memoirs of the Anthropological 
Society of London, v. 3 (1867-69), p. 288-314. 162. 
Boturini Benaducci, Lorenzo 

1746 Idea de una nueva historia general de la America Septentrional. 
Fundada sobre material copioso de figuras, symbolos, carac- 
teres, y geroglificos, cantares y manuscritos de autores indios, 
ultimamente descubiertos : Madrid, 4°, 20 ff., 167, [8], 96 p. 
(2d ed. Mexico, 1887.) 153. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 223 

Bowditch, Charles P[ickering] 

1901 Memoranda on the Maya calendars used in the Books of Chilam 

Balam: in American Anthropologist (n. s.) v. 3, p. 129-138. 

183. 
1901a On the age of the Maya ruins: in American Anthropologist (n. s.) 

v. 3, p. 697-700. 183. 
1908 Collation of Berendt 1868c?, v. 2: in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion No. 43. (Gates reproduction.) 147. 
1908a Collation of Berendt, 1868: in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 

49. (Gates reproduction.) 147. 
1910 The numeration, calendar systems, and astronomical knowledge 

of the Mayas: Cambridge, 8°, xviii, 340 p. , xix pis. 177 (2), 

182, 189, 190, 191. 
(1) List of Maya words in Landa and elsewhere with translation. 

4°, MS. 17 ff. 169. 

Brasseurde Bourbourg, Charles Etienne 146. 

1851 Lettres pour servir d'introduction a l'histoire primitive des na- 
tions civilisees de l'Amerique Meridionale, a M. le due de 
Valmy: Mexico, 4°, 76 p. (This is the 1st ed. of his 1855-56.) 

1855 Notes d'un voyage dans l'Amerique Centrale. Lettres a M. 
Alfred Maury, Bibliothecaire de lTnstitut : in Nouvelles Annates 
des Voyages et des Sciences Geographiques , Paris, (6th series), 
v. 1, p. 129-158. 161. 

1855-56 Nouvelles decouvertes sur les traditions primitives conservees 
chez les anciens habitants de l'Amerique, d'apres leurs livres 
et la lecture de leurs hieroglyphes : in Annates de Philosophic 
Chretienne, Paris, v. 50, p. 278-296, 325-341; v. 51, p. 199- 
220, 477-491; v. 52, p. 62-79, 112-117. 185. 

1857 Essai historique sur les sources de la philologie Mexicaine: in 
Archives de la Societe Americaine de France, v. 1, p. 5-32. 159. 

1857-59 Histoire des nations civilisees du Mexique et de l'Amerique- 
centrale,etc: Paris, 8°, 4 v. xcii, 440; 616; 692; 851 p. 161, 
185, 187, 193. 

1859 Essai historique sur les sources de la philologie mexicaine et sur 
l'ethnographie de l'Amerique Centrale: in Revue Orientate et 
Americaine, Memoires de la Societe oV Ethnographic, (Series 1), 
Paris, v. 1, p. 354-380, v. 2, p. 64-75. 156. 

1864 Relation des choses de Yucatan de Diego de Landa . . . avec 
une grammaire et un vocabulaire abreges Francais-Maya : 
Paris, 8°, cxii, 516 p. 168, 169, 180. This also contains: 
Lizana (1633, caps 1-4) with French translation, p. 348-365. 
Perez (1843) with French translation, p. 366-419. 186. 
Perez (1842) with French translation, p. 420-429. 185. 
Esquisse d'une grammaire de la langue Maya; d'apres celles 
de Beltran et de Ruz, p. 459-478. 165, 166. 



224 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bkasseur de Bourbourg, Charles Etienne, 1864 (continued). 

Les prieres en Maya et en Francais d'apres le P. Joaquin 

Ruz, p. 478-479. 199. 
Vocabulaire Maya-Francais d'apres divers auteurs anciens 
et modernes, p. 480-506. (Annotated copy by Berendt 
in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 7.) 176. 
1865 Esquisses d'histoire, d'arch^ologie, d'ethnographie et de linguis- 
tique pouvant servir d'instructions generates : in Archives de 
la Commission Scientifique du Mexique, Paris, v. 1, p. 85-136. 
159. 
1869 Lettre a M. Leon de Rosny sur la d^couverte de documents 
relatifs a la haute antiquite americaine, et sur le dechiffrement 
et Interpretation de l'ecriture phonetique et figurative de la 
langue Maya: in Memoires de la Societe d'Ethnographie de 
Paris (2d Series), v. 1. (Published separately: Paris, 1869, 
8°, 20 p.) 207. 
1869-70 Manuscrit Troano. Etudes sur le systeme graphique et la 
langue des Mayas: Paris, 4°, 2 v. Mission Scientifique au 
Mexique et dans l'Ame>ique Centrale. V. 2 contains: 
Introduction aux elements de la langue Maya, p. i-xlix. 160, 

162, 161. 
Grammaire et chrestomathie de la langue Maya (after San 

Buenaventura), p. 1-84. 164. 
Observations du traducteur sur l'orthographe de quelques 

mots, p. 85-87. 
Resume* des desinences verbales, p. 87-91. 
Tables des noms de nombre, manieres de compter, etc. 

d'apres Beltran, p. 92-99. 181. 
Chrestomathie ou choix de morceaux de literature Maya, 

p. 101-122. 207. 
Invocation au soleil (collected at Hacienda de Xcanchakan), 
p. 101-102. Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
44-6. 207. 
Les cinq proprieties sibyllines d'apres Lizana, p. 103-110. 

193. 
Titre antique concernant la famille de Nakuk Pech, p. 110— 

120. 203. 
Chant d'amour. Recueilli a Izamal au mois de d£cembre, 
1864, p. 120-121. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 44-5.) 206. 
Ruz, 1846, p. 121-2. 198. 

Vocabulaire general, Maya-Francais et Espagnol, p. 123- 

462. 176. 

1871 Bibliotheque Mexico-Guatemalienne prece'dee d'un coup d'ceil 

sur les etudes americaines dans leurs rapports avec les etudes 

classiques et suivie du tableau par ordre alphabetique des 

ouvrages de linguistique americaine contenus dans le meme 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 225 

volume, r£digee et mise en ordre d' apres les documents de sa 
collection ame>icaine: Paris, 8°, xlvii, 183 p. 146, 165. 
1872 Dictionnaire, grammaire et chrestomathie de la langue Maya 
prec6d6s d' une 6tude sur le systeme graphique des indigenes 
du Yucatan (Mexique) : Paris, 4°, xlix, 464 p. (Reissue with 
new title page of his 1869-70, v. 2.) 

Breton, Adela C. 

1919 Relationships in Central America: in Man, v. 19, article 94, 

London. 175. 

1920 See Martinez Hernandez, 1920, 1920a, 19206. 

Brigham, William T[ufts] 

1887 Guatemala, the land of the quetzal: New York, 8°, xv, 453 p. 
178. 

Brinton, Daniel Garrison 148. 

1867 The Natchez of Louisiana, an offshoot of the civilized nations of 

Central America: in Historical Magazine, New York, (2d 
series), v. 1, p. 16-18. 179. 

1868 The myths of the New World: a treatise on the symbolism and 

mythology of the red race of America: New York, 12°, 
viii, 307 p. (2d ed., New York, 1876; 3d ed., Philadelphia, 
1896.) 193. 
1871 Remarks on the nature of the Maya group of languages: in Pro- 
ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, (1869), v. 11, 
p. 4-6. 162. 

1881 The names of the gods in the Kiche myths, Central America: 

in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 19, 
p. 613-647. (Published separately, Philadelphia, 1881, 8°, 
37 p.) 162. 

1882 Maya chronicles: Philadelphia, 8°, 279 p.: in Library of Aborigi- 

nal American Literature, No. 1. 148, 183. Among other items, 
this book contains the following: 
The name "Maya," p. 9-16. 180. 
Maya linguistic family, p. 17-20. 
Grammar, p. 27-37. 167. 
Numeral system, p. 37-50. 181. 
Books of Chilam Balam, p. 67-72, 81-88. 182. 
Grammars and dictionaries, p. 72-77. 157, 170. 
Extracts with translations : — 
ManiMS., p. 89-135. 186,194. 
Tizimin MS., p. 136-151. 189. 
Chumayel MS., p. 152-185. 188. 
Pech MS., p. 187-259. 194, 203. 
Vocabulary, p. 261-279. 176. 
1882a American hero-myths, a study in the native religions of the 
western continent: Philadelphia, 8°, 251 p. 162, 194, 203. 



226 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Brinton, Daniel Garrison (continued) 

18826 The books of Chilam Balam, the prophetic and historic records 
of the Mayas of Yucatan: in Penn Monthly, v. 13, p. 261-275. 
(Republished in his 1890, p. 255-273, also printed separately, 
Philadelphia, 1882, 8°, 19 p. Spanish translations by Aznar 
y Perez, 1882, and Troncoso, 1883, in Andes del Museo Na- 
tional, Mexico, v. 3, p. 92-109.) 183 (2), 189, 191, 195. 

1882c The graphic system and ancient records of the Mayas. Origi- 
nally published as the Introduction to Cyrus Thomas: "Study 
of the Manuscrit Troano " in Contributions to North American 
Ethnology: Washington, v. 5, 4°, p. xvii-xxxvii. (Republished 
with additions as "The writing and records of the Ancient 
Mayas" in his 1890, p. 230-254.) 194. 

1883 The folk-lore of Yucatan: in Folk-Lore Journal, London, v. 1, 

p. 244-256. (Republished in his 1890, p. 163-180.) 191, 
207 (2). 
1883a Aboriginal American authors and their productions; especially 
those in the native languages. A chapter in the history of 
literature: Philadelphia, 8°, viii, 9-63 p. 183. 

1884 Catalogue of the Berendt Linguistic Collection: 4°, MS. 1 p. 

79 ff. (For printed edition, see his 1900.) 
1884-85 Memoir of Dr. C. H. Berendt : in Proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society, 1883, (n. s.) v. 3, p. 205-210. 146. 

1885 The philosophic grammar of American languages, as set forth by 

Wilhelm von Humboldt; with the translation of an unpub- 
lished memoir by him on the American verb: in Proceedings 
oj the American Philosophical Society, v. 22, p. 306-354. (Pub- 
lished separately, Philadelphia, 1885, 8°, 51 p. This is re- 
printed in an altered form in his 1890, p. 328-348.) 162, 167. 

1885a American languages and why we should study them: in Pennsyl- 
vania Magazine of History and Biography, v. 9, p. 15-35. (Pub- 
lished separately.) 170. 

18856 The lineal measures of the semi-civilized nations of Mexico and 
Central America : in Proceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society, v. 22, p. 194-207. (Published separately, Philadel- 
phia, 1885. 8°, 14 p. Republished in his 1890, p. 433-451.) 
176. 

1886 The conception of love in some American languages: in Pro- 

ceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 23, p. 546- 
561. (Published separately. Philadelphia, 1886, 8°, 18 p. and 
republished in his 1890, p. 410-432.) 180. 

1887 Critical remarks on the editions of Diego de Landa's writings: 

in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, v. 24, 
p. 1-8. (Published separately, Philadelphia, 1887, 8°, 8 p.) 
180. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 227 

1888 On the Chane-abal (four language) tribe and dialect of Chiapas: 
in American Anthropologist, v. 1, p. 77-96. (Contains Berendt 's 
comparative vocabulary (1870a) in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 96.) 178. 

1890 Essays of an Americanist: Philadelphia, 8°, 489 p. This con- 

tains, among other items, the following articles: his 18826, 
1882c, 1883, 1885, 18856, 1886, 1890a. 
1890a Native American poetry: in his 1890, p. 284-304. 193, 194. 

1891 The American race. A linguistic classification and ethnographic 

description of the native tribes of North and South America: 
New York, 8°, xvi, 392 p. (Another edition, Philadelphia, 
1901.) 169. 
[1894] A primer of Maya hieroglyphics: Boston, 8°, vi, 9, 152 p. in 
Publications of the University of Pennsylvania Series in Philos- 
ophy, Literature and Archaeology, v. 3, n. 2. 176. 

1897 The missing authorities on Mayan antiquities: in American 

Anthropologist, v. 10, p. 183-191. 151. 

1898 A record of study in aboriginal American languages: Media 

(Pa.), 8°, 24 p. 148. 

1900 Catalogue of the Berendt linguistic collection: in Bulletin of 
the Free Museum of Science and Art, Philadelphia,v. 2, n. 4. 
p. 203-234. 146, 157. 

1900a Indians of Central America: in (Appleton's) Universal Cyclo- 
pedia (New edition), New York, 4°, v. 6, p. 206-208. 162. 

19006 Brinton Memorial meeting. Report of the memorial meeting 
held January 16, 1900, under the auspices of the American 
Philosophical Society ... in honor of the late Daniel Garri- 
son Brinton, M.D.: Philadelphia, 8°, 67 p. (Bibliography of 
Brinton by Stewart Culin, p. 42-67). 148. 
British and Foreign Bible Society 

(1) St. John III, 16, in most of the languages and dialects in which 
the British and Foreign Bible Society has printed or circulated 
the Holy Scriptures: London, 12°, 3-20 p. (Enlarged ed. 
London, 1878, 16°, 48 p. 1 f.) 200. 

BUSCHMANN, JOHANN KARL EdUARD 

1853 Uber den Naturlaut: in Philologische und historische Abhand- 
lungen der Koniglichen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin 
(1852), p. 391-423. 179. 
Byrne, James 

1885 General principles of the structure of language : London, 8°, 2 v. 
xxx, 504; xvii, 396 p. (2d ed. London, 1892, 8°, xxx, 510; 
xvii, 404 p.) 164. 
Cacalchen, Libro de 

[Collection of legal documents in Maya dating from about 1646 
to 1826.] 4°, MS., 164 p. (Owned by Gates and reproduced 
by him.) 204. 



228 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Calero, Vicente and Justo Sierra 

[Articles in Museo Yucateco and Registro Yucateco.] 192. 
Calkini, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS., 15 ff. (Gates reproduction. He owns a copy, 8°, 13 p. 
also reproduced by him.) 190. 
Campbell, John 

1879 On the origin of some American Indian tribes: in Proceedings of 
the Natural History Society of Montreal, (n. s.) v. 9, p. 65-80, 
193-212. 178, 179. 
1898-99 Decipherment of the hieroglyphic inscriptions of Central 
America: in Transaction* of the Canadian Institute, v. 6, p. 
101-244. 161. 
Canton Rosado, Francisco 

See Rivero Figueroa, 1918. 
Cardenas, Francisco 
§ 1639 Relation de la conquista y sucesos de Yucatan, para el uso del 
Cronista Mayor de las Indias, D. Tomas Tamayo de Vargas: 
(missing) . 169. 
Carrillo, Estanislao 

(1) [Translation of portion of Cronica de Mani: see Stephens, 1843, 
v. 2, p. 265.] 205. 
Carrillo y Ancona, Crescencio 147. 

1863 El Repertorio Pintoresco 6 Miscelanea instructiva y amena con- 
sagrada a la religion, la historia del pais, la filosofia, la industria 
y las bellas letras. . . . Redactor D. Crescencio Carrillo: 
Merida, 8°, 586 p. 147. 

1865 Estudio historico sobre la raza indfgena de Yucatan : Vera Cruz, 

8°, 26 p. 162. 

1866 Disertacion sobre la literatura y civilizacion antigua de Yucatan: 

Merida, 4°, 38 p. (Republished in Boletin de la Sociedad de 
Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana (2d series), 
1871, v. 3, p. 257-271, and in his 1883, p. 555-590.) 162, 189, 
198. 
1868 Manuel de historia y geografia de la peninsula de Yucatan: in 
La Peninsula, Merida, parts 1-5, p. 1-162. (Part republished 
in his 1883.) 157, 180, 185. 

1870 Disertacion sobre la historia de la lengua Maya 6 Yucateca: in 

La Revista de Merida (Alio II). Republished in Boletin de la 
Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana, 
(2d series) 1872, v. 4, p. 134-195. 147, 151, 157 (2), 182, 185, 
187, 188, 189 (3), 190, 192, 193. 

1871 Compendio de la historia de Yucatan, precedido del de su geo- 

grafia y dispuesto en forma de lecciones: Merida, 16°, xii, 
432 p. 157. 
1871a Compendio historico de Yucatan. Resumen: Merida, 8°, 64 p. 
157. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 229 

1872 Catalogo de las principales palabras Mayas usadas en el Castel- 
lano que se hable en el estado de Yucatan. (This forms the 
second part (p. 57-75) of Mendoza, 1872.) 178. 

1878-82 Historia antigua de Yucatan: in Semanario Yucateco, Merida. 
(Other editions with additions, Merida, 1881 and 1883. 161, 
157, 162, 180, 186, 187, 190, 191, 194. 

1880 Quilich xocbil-u-payalchi ti c-colebil x-Zuhuy Maria, yetel u 

chucaan payalchiob ualkezahantacob ti maya-dtan tumen 
Don Hoze Leocadio Andrade u-mektan-pixnal katunil etel 
huntul yetkinil: Ho (Merida), 16°, 31 (1) p. (This was written 
in collaboration with Jose* Leocadio Andrade.) 199. 
[1880a] Catecismo de historia y de geografia de Yucatan: Merida, 
16°, 95 p. (This is an abbreviated edition of his 1871. See 
also 1871a and 1887.) This also contains: 

Geografia de Yucatan (p. 1-28). (In 1887 ed. Audomaro 

Molina is given as the author.) 
Nota sobre la ortologia de Yucatan (p. 91-95). 168. 
18806 Sobre la historia del idioma Yucateco o Maya: Republished in 
his 1883, p. 624-631. 160. 

1881 Bibliotheca de autores Yucatecos. Tomo I. Historia antigua de 

Yucatan. . . . Segunda de las disertaciones del mismo autor 
relativas al proprio asunto: Merida, sm. 4°, 504 + p. (This 
is a reissue with changes of several previous works : 1866; 1868; 
1878-82. For 2d edition see his 1883.) 

1882 Geografia Maya: in Anales del Museo National, Mexico, v. 2, 

p. 435-^38. (Republished in his 1883, p. 603-611.) 189 (2). 

1883 Historia Antigua de Yucatan: Merida, 16°, 670 p. (This is 

another edition of his 1881.) 151, 160, 162, 168, 180, 185, 187, 
189 (2), 190, 191, 194, 198. 

1883a Maya. Etimologia de este nombre : in his 1883, p. 632-634. 180. 

1887 Compendio de la historia de Yucatan por Carrillo y Ancona. 
Compendio de la geografia de Yucatan por Audomaro Molina : 
Merida, 16°, 96 p. (This is an enlarged edition of 1880a with- 
out the Nota de ortologia. There is an edition of the Compendio de 
la historia: Merida, 1904, 16°, 72 p.) (Compare Ancona, 1881.) 

1890 Estudio fllologico sobre el nombre de America y el de Yucatan: 
Merida, 8°, 54 p. (Much the same material as in Chap. 5 in 
his 1883, p. 133-141.) 180, 188. 

1892-95 El obispado de Yucatan. Historia de su fundacion y de sus 
obispos desde el siglo xvi hasta el xix seguida de las consti- 
tuciones sinodales de la diocesis y otros documentos relativos. 
(Edicion ilustrada) : Merida, 4°, 2 v. 1-521, 522-1102 p. (Sup- 
plements, 1896-97, 28 p.) (First published in La Guirnalda.) 
147. 

[1893?] Pronunciacion de las letras del alfabeto en lengua Maya, 
segun el Sr. Obispo de Yucatan: Copy, 4°, MS., 2 ff. in Pea- 
body Museum. 168. 



230 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Carrillo y Ancona, Crescencio (continued). 
1897 Homenaies funebres. See Anon, 1897a. 

(1) Galeria biografica-litografica de los Senores Obispos de Yucatan. 

Merida. 174. 

(2) [Portion of a letter written to Pilling regarding the authorship 

of works attributed to Henderson and Fletcher]: in Pilling, 
1885, p. 258. 197. 

Carrillo Suaste, Fabian 
[1875] D. Juan Pio Perez. Memoria biografica: in Perez, 1866-77, 
p. i-xx. 143. 

Carvajal, Francisco 

(1) Discurso para el descendimiento del Senor (en Maya): Early 

xix century MS. in Merida. (Copy by Berendt, 1868a, p. 77- 
116 in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 46. Reproduction by 
Gates of Berendt copy.) 202. 

(2) [Collection of proverbs in Maya.] Early xix century MS. (un- 

located). 202. 

Castillo, Geronimo 
1861 Efemerides hispano-mexicanas 6 calendario-historico Yucateco: 

in Repertorio Pintoresco, Merida. 157. 
1866 Diccionario historico, biografico y monumental de Yucatan, 
desde la conquista hasta el ultimo afio de la dominacion Espa- 
nola en el pais: Merida, v. 1, A-E, 12°, vii, 9-315 p. (Only 
volume published.) 157 (2), 183, 186, 193. 

Cervera, Jose Tiburcio. Translator. 

1803 Una orden (por Benito Perez) de Gobierno de Yucatan respecto 
del despacho puntual de los correos, traducida en lengua Maya. 
(Copy, 12°, 6 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 44-9.) 
206. 

Chacxulubchen, Cronica de 

See Chicxulub, Cronica de 

Chadenat, Charles. Editor. 

1889 et seq. Le bibliophile americain. Catalogue de livres, etc. relatifs 
a . . . l'Amerique. Archeologie, histoire, geographie, ethno- 
graphic, linguistique, voyages, etc. Bulletin trimestriel. 
(Numerous sale catalogues.) 158. 

Chan, Florencio and others 

1850 Propositiones de los Indios sublevados para un armisticio y 
tratado de paz en carta dirigida al Cura de Chimax. MS. 
Cruzctun. (Copy, 12°, 15 p. from original in Coleccion de 
Documentos para la Historia de la Guerra, formerly in posses- 
sion of Carrillo y Ancona, in Berendt Linguistic Collection No. 
44-11.) 206. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 231 

Charencey [Charles Felix Hyacinthe Gouhier] Comte de 

1866 Introduction a une etude comparative sur les langues de la famille 

Maya-Quiche: Paris (in Avant Propos, p. 32-37.) 167. 
1871 Le my the de Votan. Etude sur les origin es asiatiques de la civili- 
sation americaine: in Actes de la Societe Philologique, Paris, 
v. 2, ii, 7-144 p. (Published separately.) 179. 

1873 Recherches sur une ancienne prophetie en langue Maya (Napuc- 

tun) : in Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Comparee, v. 6, 
p. 42-61. 194. 

1874 Essai d 'analyse grammaticale d'un texte en langue Maya: in 

Memoires de V Academic Nationale des Sciences, Arts et Belles- 
Lettres de Caen, p. 142-161. (Published separately, Le Havre, 
1875, 8°, 9 p.) 185. 

1875 Fragment de chrestomathie de la langue Maya antique: in 

Revue de Philologie et d' Ethnographic, v. 1, p. 259-264. (Pub- 
lished separately, Paris, 1875, 8°, 8 p.) 194. 

1876 Etude sur la prophetie en langue Maya d'Ah Kuel-Chel: in 

Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Comparee, v. 8, p. 320- 
332. (Published separately, Paris, 1876, 8°, 15 p. Republished 
in his 1883, p. 141-150.) 194. 
1878 Des animaux symboliques dans leur relation avec les points de 
l'espace chez les Americaines: Paris, 8°, 19 p. 182. 

1880 Des expletives numerates dans les dialectes de la famille Maya- 

Quichee: in Revue de Linguistique et de Philologie Comparee, 
v. 13, p. 339-386. (Published separately, Paris, 1880.) 182. 

1881 Des signes de numeration en Maya : in Actes de la Societe Philolo- 

gique, v. 8, p. 230-234. (Published separately, Alencon, 1881, 
8°, 7 p.) 181. 

1882 Recherches sur les noms des points de l'espace : Caen, 8°, 86 p. 

180. 
1882a Du systeme de numeration chez les peuples de la famille Maya- 
Quiche: in Le Museon. Revue des Sciences et des Lettres, Paris, 
v. 1, p. 256-261. (Published separately, Louvain, 1882, 8°, 
8 p. Republished in his 1883, p. 151-157.) 182. 

1883 Melanges de philologie et de paleographie americaines: Paris: 

8°, 2, 195 p. 166, 167. Among other items, this volume con- 
tains the following: 

Sur le sj^steme de numeration (see 1882a). 
Etude sur la prophetie (see 1876). 

Sur le pronom personnel dans les idiomes de la famille Maya- 
Quiche, p. 123-139. 167. 
Sur les lois phonetiques dans les idiomes de la famille Mame- 
Huasteque, p. 89-121. 
1883a Vocabulaire Francais-Maya : in Actes de la Societe Philologique, 
v. 13, p. 1-87. (Published separately, Alengon, 1884, 8°, 
87 p.) 176. 



232 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Charencey [Charles Felix Hyacinthe Gouhier] Comte de (contin'd). 

18836 Recherches sur les noms de nombres cardinaux dans la famille 
Maya-Quiche: in Revue de Linquistique et de Philologie Com- 
paree, v. 16, p. 325-339. (Published separately, Paris, 8°, 15 p.) 
180, 182. 

1883-84 De la conjugaison dans les langues de la famille Maya-Quiche : 
in Le Museon. Revue des Sciences et des Lettres, Paris, v. 2, 1883, 
p. 575-595; v. 3, 1884, p. 40-72, 280-293, 464-488. (Pub- 
lished separately, Louvain, 1885, 8°, 130 p.) 165, 167. 

1884 De la formation des mots en langue Maya: in Proceedings of the 
5th International Congress of Americanists, Copenhagen (1883), 
p. 379-426. (Published separately, Copenhagen, 1884.) 167. 

1891 Chrestomathie Maya d'apres la chronique de Chac-Xulub-Chen. 

Extrait de la " Library of Aboriginal American Literature " 
de M. le Dr. D. G. Brinton. Texte avec traduction inter- 
lineaire, analyse grammaticale et vocabulaire maya-f rancaise : 
in Actes de la Societe Philologique, v. 19, 20. (Published 
separately, Paris, 1891, 8°, viii, 301 p.) 176, 203. 

1892 Les noms des metaux chez differents peuples de la Nouvelle 

Espagne: Paris, 8°, 14 p. (Republished, in part, in his 1894, 

p. 346-349.) 180. 
1892a 2d edition of Ruz, 1847; in Actes de la Societe Philologique, (1891) 

v. 21, p. 157-207. (Published separately, Alencon, 1892, 8°, 

51 p.) 197. 
1894 Le folklore dans les deux mondes: Paris, 8°. 424 p. 159. 
1896 Melanges sur quelques dialectes de la famille Maya-Quichee : 

in Journal de la Societe des Arnericanistes, Paris, v. 1, p. 43-60. 

(Published separately, Paris, 1897.) 166. Among other items 

this paper contains the following: 

Rectification d' un texte en langue Maya. 186. 
Des voix verb ales en Maya. 167. 
1899 Noms des points de Tespace dans divers dialectes americains : in 

Journal de la Societe des Arnericanistes, Paris. v.2, p. 109-178. 180. 
Chavero, Alfredo. 

1887 Historia antigua y de la conquista. See Riva Palacio, 1887-88, 

v. 1. 189, 190. 
Ch6, Gon^alo and others. 

1877 Carta de diez caciques de Nueva Espafia, k S. M. el Rey Don 

Felipe II, pidiendo de la orden de San Francisco, Yucatan, 11 

de febrero de 1567: in Cartas de Indias, Madrid, folio, p. 307- 

308 and facsimile. 206. 

Chicxulub, Cronica de 

1542-62 4°, MS. 26 p., copy owned in Merida (Gates reproduction). 
(Notes on this MS. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-4, 
copied by C. P. Bowditch, reproduced by Gates. Other notes 
in Berendt Collection No. 50-35. See Perez (2). This MS. 
written by Nakuk and Pablo Pech.) 202. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 233 

Chumayel, Book of Chilam Balam of 

1913 Sm. 4°, MS. 107 p. Published in Anthropological Publications of 
the University of Pennsylvania, v. 5, Philadelphia. George 
Byron Gordon, editor. (There is a copy by Berendt, 1868, in 
the Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Gates owns a 
second copy, 8°, 55 ff., reproduced by him.) 180, 187. 
Ciudau Real, Antonio de 

§ (1) Gran diccionario 6 calepino de la lengua Maya de Yucatan: MS. 

4°, 6 v. xvi century (missing). 170. 
§ (2) Diccionario de la lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (missing). 

170. 
§ (3) Tratado curioso de las grandezas de Nueva Esparia: MS. xvi 

century (missing). 170. 
§ (4) Sermones de Santos en lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (missing). 
201. 
Civezza, Marcellino da 

1879 Saggio di bibliografia, geografica, storica, etnografica, San Fran- 
cescana: 4°, xv, 698 p. (This is the geographical part of 
Wadding and Sboralen's Scriptores ordinis minorum). 151, 154. 
Clarke, Hyde 

1877 The Khita and Khita-Peruvian epoch: Khita, Hamath, Hittite, 

Canaanite, Etruscan, Peruvian, Mexican, etc.: London, 8°, 
vii, 88 p. 179. 
Clarke and Co., Robert. Editors. 

1878 Bibliotheca Americana; catalogue of a valuable collection of 

books and pamphlets relating to America: Cincinnati, 8°. 
(4), 262, (2), 64 p. Other sale catalogues, 1879, 1883, etc. 158. 
Clavigero, Francesco Saverio 

1780-81 Storia antica del Messico, cavata da' migliori storici spagnuoli 
e da' manoscritti e dalle pitture antiche degP Indiani; divisa in 
dieci libri e corredata di carte geografiche e di varie figure e 
dissertazioni sulla terra, sugli animali e sugli abitatori del 
Messico; Cesena, 4°, 4 v. vii, 302 p. 4 pis.; 276 p. 17 pis.; 
260 p. lpl.; 331 p. Spanish ed. London, 1826, 8°, 2 v. Among 
other editions, London, 1787, (English), 4°, 2 v.; Leipzig, 1789, 
(German); Richmond, Va.; 1806, London, 1807, Philadelphia 
1817, (English); London, 1826, (Italian); Mexico, 1844 and 
1853; Jacapa, 1868, (Spanish). 1st ed. v. 4 (1781) p. 262-263 
has the following: 

Catologo d'alcuni autori Europei e Creogli, che hanno scritto 
delta dottrina e morale Christiana ftelle lingue delta Nuova Spagna. 
Ed. 1826, v. 2, p. 396 and later Spanish editions have the 
following: 

Catalogo de algunos autores Europeos y Criollos que han esciito 
sobre la doctrina y moral cristianas en las lenguas de Anahuac. 
150, 154. 



234 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

COCOMES, LlBRO DE LOS 

See Cacalchen, Libro de 
Codice Anomino 

See Tizimin, Chilam Balam de 
Cogolludo, Diego Lopez 

1688 Historia de Yucathan: Madrid, 4°, 15, 760 (31) p. (2d ed. with 
title. Los tres siglos de la dominacion espanola en Yucatan 6 
sea historia de esta provincia desde la conquista hasta la inde- 
pendencia, etc.: Campeche, 1842, Merida, 1845, 8°, 2 v., 
(Justo Sierra, editor) : 3d ed. with title, Historia de Yucatan, 
escrita en el sigh xvii. Merida, 1867-68, 8°, 2 v.) 150, 153, 
180, 193. 
Colecci6n de Documentos 

1898-1900 Coleccion de documentos ineditos relativos al descubri- 
miento, conquista y organization de las antiguas posesiones 
Espanoles de Ultramar. (2d series), v. 11, 13. Relaciones de 
Yucatan: Madrid, 8°, xl, 436; xvi, 414 p. (Jose Maria Ascen- 
sio, editor.) 161, 177. 
Coronel, Juan 

1620 Arte en lengua de Maya recopilado y enmendado: Mexico, 24°, 
54 ff. [Gates reproduction.] 163, 172. 

1620a Doctrina Christiana en lengua de Maya: Mexico, 16°, 27 ff. 
(Gates reproduction. 4 ff. at end contain contents of Coronel, 
16206.) 197. 

16206 Discursos predicables, con otras diversas materias espirituales, 
con la Doctrina Christiana, y los articulos de la Fe, recopilados 
y enmendados [en lengua Yucateca]: Mexico, 16°, 8, 240 ff. 
(ff. 73-80 are mispaged as 83-90). (Gates reproduction.) 197, 
201. 

§ (1) Vocabulario Maya: MS. xvii century (missing). 172. 

§ (2) Doctrina Christiana, MS. xvii century (missing ?). 197. 

§ (3) Confesionario 6 instrucciones para los nuevos ministros, en lengua 
Maya: MS. xvii century (missing). 198. 
Cortes, Hernando 

1852 Cartas [1st letter lost.] In its place the letter of the Municipality 
of Vera Cruz, dated July 10, 1519, may be substituted. This 
printed in Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos para la Historia de 
Espana, v. 1, and in Historiadores primitivos de Indias: Madrid 
1852, v. 1. (See MacNutt ed. of letters, New York, 1908, 
8°, v. 1, p. 123-182.) 180. 

1866 Cartas y relaciones al Emperador Carlos V: Paris, 8°, li, 575 p. 
(Best edition by MacNutt, New York and London, 1908, 8°, 
2 v. xi, 354; vii, 374 p.) 180. 
Crowe, Frederick 

1850 The Gospel in Central America; containing a sketch of the 
country ... a histor}^ of the Baptist mission in British Hon- 
duras, etc.: London, 12°, xii, 588 p. 199. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 235 

Cruz, Juan 

1571 Catecismo en lengua Maya: Mexico (also 1639 ed.) [?] 196. 
Cubas, Antonio Garcia 

See Garcia Cubas, Antonio 
Cuartas, Julian de 
§ (1) Arte compendiado de la lengua Maya: MS. xvn century, (miss- 
ing). 163. 
D. Do 

[Initials of writers on Maya language in Repertorio Pintoresco, of 
Merida]. 
Diaz del Castillo, Bernal 

1632 Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva-Esparia, escrita 
por el Capitan Bernal Diaz del Castillo, uno de sus conquista- 
dores: Madrid, 4°, 6 p. 254 ff. (11) p. (Numerous other edi- 
tions, the best of which is that by Maudslay, published by 
the Hakluyt Society, London, 1908-16, 8°, 5 v.) 180. 

DlCCIONARIO HlSTORICO, BlOGRAFICO Y MONUMENTAL DE YUCATAN. 

See Castillo, 1866. 
Diccionario Universal de Historia y Geographia. 186. 
Dominguez, Jose 

[Given by Clavigero as a writer on Maya.] 152. 
Dominguez y Argaiz, Francisco Eugenio 

1758 Platicas de los principales mysterios de nuestra Santa Fee, con 
una breve exortacion al fin del modo con que deben excitarse 
al dolor de las culpas. Hechas en el idioma Yucateco : Mexico, 
8°, 5 ff., 24 p. 1 f. (Gates reproduction. Copy by Berendt ip 
1868a, p. 1-76.) 201. 
Donde, Joaquin y Donde, Juan 

1876 Lecciones de Botanica, arregladas segun los principios admitidos 
por Guibourt Richard Duchartre, etc.: Merida, 8°, xxiii, 
259 p. (Maya names prepared by Thomas Aznar Barbachano.) 
176. 
Douay, Leon 

1891 Etudes etymologiques sur Tantiquite americaine: Paris, 8°, 

158 p. 180. 
1894 Affinites lexicologique du Haitien et du Maya : in Proceedings of 
the 10th International Congress of Americanists, Stockholm, 
p. 191-208. 161, 179. 
1900 Nouvelles recherches philologiques sur Tantiquite americaine: 

Paris, 8°, 188 p. 160, 161, 179. 
1905 De la non-parente de certaines langues de l'ancien monde (en 
particulier du japonais) avec celles du Nouveau, etspeciale- 
ment, du groupe Maya: in Proceedings of the 13th International 
Congress of Americanists, New York (1902), p. 245-247. 161. 
(1) Memoire sur les affinites du Maya avec certaines langues de 
l'Amerique Me>idionale: 8°, 17 p. (reprint). 161, 179. 



236 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

DUSAERT, [EdOUARD] Le COLONEL 

1882 La carie americaine, mere, en civilisation de l'antique Egypte 
d'apres les documents de M. TAbbe Brasseur de Bourbourg: 
Paris, 8°, 64 p. 160. 
Ebtun, Titulos de 

4°, Mssel. MSS. en lengua Maya. 324 p. dating from about 1638 
to 1829. (Gates reproduction.) 204. 

ECHANO, AGUSTIN DE 

1758 Aprobacion: in Dominguez, 1758. 183. 
Eguiara et Eguren, Juan Jose de 

1755 Bibliotheca Mexicana, sive eruditorum historia virorum, qui 
in America Boreali nati, vel alibi geniti in ipsam domicilio aut 
studijs asciti, quavis lingua scripto aliquid tradiderunt: v. 1, 
A. B. C.: Mexico, 4°, 80 ff., 543 p. (Other portions exist 
in manuscript.) 151, 163. 
Eichhorn, Albert 

1896 Naual; oder Die hohe Wissenschatft (scientia mirabilis) der 
architectonischen und kiinstlerischen Composition bei den 
Maya-Volkern, deren Descendenten und Schiilern : Berlin, 4°, 
126 p. 177. 
1905 Die Hieroglyphen-Bildschrift der Maya-Volker in ihrer stufen- 
weisen Entwickelung bis zur Ornamentbildschrift dargestellt 
und an den Hieroglyphen der 20 Monatstage erlautert: Berlin, 
4°, iv. 236 (2), p. 177. 
Espinosa, Calendario de 

Annual publication, Merida. 158. 
Ferraz, Juan Fernandez 

1902 Lengua Quiche. Sinopsis de constitutiva gramatical, 1897-1902: 
San Jose de Costa Rica, 12°, 153 p. 179. 
Field, Thomas Warren 

1873 An essay towards an Indian bibliography. Being a catalogue of 
books, relating to the .history, antiquities, languages, customs, 
religion, wars, literature, and origin of the American Indians, 
etc.: New York, 8°, iv, 430 p. 164. 
1875 Catalogue of his library: New York, 8°, viii, 376 p. (Sale cata- 
logue.) 164, 158. 
[Fischer, Augustin] 

1869 Bibliotheca Mejicana. A catalogue of an extraordinary collec- 
tion of books relating to Mexico and North and South America, 
from the first introduction of printing in the New World, a.d. 
1544 to a.d. 1868. Collected during 20 years' official residence 
in Mexico: London, 8°, 312 p. (p. 229 has title: Valuable 
• books relating to the history, literature, and dialects of North 
and South America, comprising the libraries of the late Dr. 
Berendt of Vera Cruz, and that of an official personage for 
many years resident in the West Indies). (Sale catalogue.) 
155, 158. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 237 

Fiske, John 

1892 The discovery of America with some account of ancient America 
and the Spanish Conquest: Boston and New York, 12°, 2 v. 
(Other editions.) 203. 
[Fletcher, Richard] 145. 

1865 Breve devocionario para todos los dias de la semana. Payalchioob 
utial tulacal le u kiniloob ti le semana: London, 16°, 17 ff. 
202. 
1865a Cateeismo de los Metodistas. No. 1, Para los ninos de tierna 
edad. Cateeismo ti le metodistaoob. No. 2, Utial mehen 
palaloob: London, 16°, 17 ff. (Gates reproduction.) 197. 

1868 [A tentative edition in Maya of St. John's Gospel, published by 

the British and Foreign Bible Society.] (See Fletcher, 1869.) 
200. 

1869 Leti u ebanhelio Hezu Crizto Hebix Huan : London, 16°, 83 p. 200. 
1900 Leti u ebanhelio Hezu Crizto Heliz Marcoz: London, 16°, 

67 p. 200. 
1900a Leti u ebanhelio Hezu Crizto Hebix Mateo: London, 16°, 104 p. 
200. 

FUERTES, E. A. 

(1) Vocabularies of the Chimalapa or Zoque: Guichicovian ; or 
Mixe; Zapoteco; and Maya; 200 words each, accompanied 
by grammatic notes: 4°, MS. 17 ff. in Bureau of Ethnology 
MSS. Collection, Washington. (Copy by Berendt.) 178. 
Gabelentz, [Hans] Georg [Conon] von der 

1881 Die Sprachwissenschaft, ihre Aufgaben, Methoden und bisheri- 
gen Ergebnisse: Leipzig, 8°, xx, 502 p. 166. 
Gala, Leandro Rodriguez de la 

See Vales, 1870. 
Galindo, Juan 

1832 Memoire de M. Galindo, officier superieur de la Republique de 
l'Amerique Centrale, adresse a M. le Secretaire de la Societe de 
Geographie de Paris : in Bulletin de la Societe de Geographie de 
Paris, v. 18, p. 198-214. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 42-6.) 181, 199. 
1834 Description of the river Usumasinta in Guatemala: in Proceed- 
ings of the Royal Geographical Society, v. 3, p. 59-64, (1833). 
(French trans, in Nouvelles Annates des Voyages, 3d series: 
Paris. 1834, v. 3, p, 147-151. 178. 
Gallatin, Albert 

1845 Notes on the semi-civilized nations of Mexico, Yucatan and of 
Central America; in Transactions of the American Ethnological 
Society, v. 1, p. 1-352. 165, 166, 167, 168, 178, 182, 186. 
Gann, Thomas W. F. 

1918 The Maya Indians of southern Yucatan and northern British 
Honduras: in Bureau of Ethnology , Washington. Bulletin 64, 
8°, 146 p. 28 pis. 207. 



238 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Garcia, Genaro 

1898 See Spencer, 1873-1910. 
Garcia, Gregorio 

1607 Origen de los Indios de el Nuevo Mundo e Indias Occidentales 
averiguado con discurso de opiniones por el padre presentado 
fray Gregorio Garcia de la orden de Predicadores. Tratanse en 
este libro varias cosas, y puntos curiosos, tocantes a diversas 
ciencias y facultades, con que se haze varia historia, de mucho 
gusto para el ingenio y entendimiento de hombres agudos y 
curiosos: Valencia. (2d ed. Madrid, 1729, 26, 336, (80) p.) 
153. 
Garcia, [Manuel] 

1856 El toro de Sinkeuel. Leyenda hipica, politico-tauromaquica : 
Merida, 24°, 32 p. 206. 
Garcia Cubas, Antonio 

1876 The Republic of Mexico in 1876. A political and ethnographical 
division of the population, character, habits, costumes, and 
vocations of its inhabitants. Translated into English by 
George E. Henderson: Mexico, 8°, 130 p. 1 f . 8 p. of music, 
8 pis. map. 159. 
1884 Cuadro geogrdfico, estadistico, descriptivo e historico de los 
Estados Unidos Mexicanos: Mexico, 8°, xxxi, 474, iii p. 1 
map. 1 pi., 3 tab. (Another edition, Mexico, 1885.) 159. 
1888-91 Diccionario geografico, historico, y biografico de los Estados 
Unidos Mexicanos: Mexico, 4°, 5 v. 159. 
Garcia y Garcia, Apolinar 

1865 Historia de la guerra de castas en Yucatan: Merida, 4°. 162. 
Garcia Icazbalceta, Joaquin 

See Icazbalceta, Joaquin Garcia. 
Gates, William [E.] 148. 

1914 Concepts linguistiques dans l'Am£rique ancienne: in Compte 

Rendu, Congres International d' Anthropologic et d' Archeologie 
Prehistoriques, 14th Session, Geneva (1912), v. 2, p. 341-348. 
167. 

1915 The unpublished material in the Mayance and southern Mexican 

languages: 8°, MS. 22 IT. (Prepared for the meeting of the 
Archaeological Institute of America. San Francisco, 1915.) 
157. 

1920 The distribution of the several branches of the Mayance linguis- 
tic stock: in Morley, 1920. Appendix 12, p. 604-615. 160, 
168. 

1920a [Transcription and translation with notes of page 66 of the 
Cronica de Oxkutzcab]: in Morley, 1920, p. 507-509. 204. 

19206 [Transcription and translation of p. 85 of the Chilam Balam de 
Chumayel]: in Morley, 1920, p. 485. 189. 
(1) Apuntes para el arte de la lengua Maya: 4°, MS. 7 ff. 167. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 239 

(2) [Finding list of MSS. and printed material on the languages of 

the Maya stock]: 4°, MS. 56 ff. 157. 

(3) [Maya pronunciation and alphabet]: 4°, MS. 5 ff. 168. 

(4) Photographic reproductions of Maya manuscripts and books. 

For list, see p. 148-149- 
Gatschet, Albert S[amuel] 

1879 Perez' Maya-Spanish dictionary: in American Antiquarian, v. 2, 
p. 30-32. 175. 

1883 Native American languages: in The Critic, New York, v. 3. No. 
61, p. 96-97. (Review of Perez, 1866-77 and Brinton, 1882.) 
175. 

1900 Central-Amerikas Sprachstamme und Dialekte: in Globus, v. 77, 
n. 5 ; p. 81-84. 159. 
Gerrodette, Frank Honore 

1891-92 The linguistic stocks of the Indians of Mexico and Central 
America: sm. 4°, MS. 320 p. Index and map. (In Peabody 
Museum.) 159. 
Gomara, Francisco Lopez de 

1553 Hispania Victrix. Primera y segvnda parte de la historia general 
de las Indias co todo el descubrimiento, y cosas notables que 
han acaescido dende que se ganaron hasta el afio de 1551 : 
Medina del Campo, folio, cxxii, cxxxix ff. (There was evi- 
dently another edition, with slightly different title, published 
in Zaragoza in 1553. Also numerous other editions.) (See 
Barcia, 1749.) 180. 
Gomez de Parada, Juan 

1722 Constituciones Sinodales dispuestas por el orden de Libros y 
Titulos y Santos Decretos del Concilio Mexicano III para el 
Obispado de Yucatan por "su Obispo el Yll mo - S or - D v - D n 
Juan Gomez de Parada del Consejo de su Mag d - en el Sinodo 
que comenzo en su Yglecia Catedral, el dia seis de Ag to - de mil 
setecientos veinte y dos, y se finalizo el dia primero de 
O bre - del mismo afio: fol. 454 p. 139. 

Gordon, George Byron. Editor. 

1913 See Chumayel, Book of Chilam Balam of 
Gordon, James Bentley 

1820 An historical and geographical memoir of the North American 
continent, its nations and tribes: Dublin, 4°, civ, x, 305 p. 161. 
Granado Baeza, Bartolome Jose 

1845 Los indios de Yucatan. Informe dado por el cura de Yaxcaba" 
en contestacion al interrogatorio de 36 preguntas, etc.: in 
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206. 
Guerra, Jose Maria 
See Vela, 1848. 



240 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Haebler, Karl 

1895 Die Maya-Litteratur und der Maya-Apparat zu Dresden: in 
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156. 

[Hamy, Ernest Theodore] 

1909 Catalogue de la bibliotheque de feu M. le Docteur E. T. Hamy: 
Paris, 8°, 118 p. (Sale catalogue.) 158. 

Harrisse, Henry 

1866 Bibliotheca americana vetustissima. A description of works re- 
lating to America published between the years 1492 and 1551 : 
New York, 1. 8°, liv, 519 p. (Additions, Paris, 1872, 1. 8°, xl, 
199 p.) 164. 

Heller, Carl Bartholomaeus 

1853 Reisen in Mexiko in den Jahren 1845-48: Leipzig, 8°, xxiv, 
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Henderson, Alexander 145. 
[1852] The Maia primer: Birmingham, 16°, 12 p. (Berendt, 1867, gives 

the date as 1863.) 166. 
1859-66 A Maya dictionary of the language as spoken in the District 

of Bacalar, Yucatan. MS. 6 v. averaging 250 pages each. 3 v. 

Maya-English; 3 v. English-Maya: in Bureau of Ethnology 

library. (See note in American Anthropologist (n. s.) 1900. 

v. 2, p. 403-404. 174. 
1870 Ebanhilio Hezu-Clizto hebix Zan Lucaz: London, 16°, 14 p. 

(Four chapters of St. Luke as translated by Ruz, 1, published 

by Kingdon, 1865, and corrected by Henderson.) 200. 
§ (1) Book of Genesis in Maya. MS. (according to Berendt, 1867, 

p. 420). [?] 200. 
§ (2) The Psalms in Maya. MS. (according to Berendt, 1867, p. 420). 

[?] 200. 
§ (3) Translation of Beltran's grammar into English. (According to 

Berendt, 1867, p. 420. [?] See Kingdon, 1.) 165. 

Hernandez, Pedro M. 

1905 De los primeros habitantes de la venturosa Yucateca, traducido 
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and Spanish text). 207. 

Herranz y Quiros, Diego Narciso 

1834 Compendio mayor de gramatica Castellana para uso de los nifios 
que concurren a las escuelas: Madrid. (9th ed. Madrid, 1858.) 
(This is the Spanish grammar translated into Maya by Ruz, 
1844. See Narciso, 1838.) 166. 

Herrera, Alfonso L. and Cicero, Ricardo E. 

1895 Catalogo de la colecion de anthropologia del Museo Nacional de 
Mexico: Mexico, 8°, viii, 164 p. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 241 

Herrera [y Tordesillas], Antonio de 
1601-15. Historia general de los hechos de los Castellanos en las islas 
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de 1492 hasta el de 1531: Madrid, 4°, 8 pt. (Other editions.) 
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Los Au tores impresos, y de mano, que han escrito cosas 
particulares de las Indias Occidentales. 153. 

Hervas y Panduro, Lorenzo 

1784 Catalogo delle lingue conosciute e notizia delle loro affinita e 

diversita . . . : Cesena, 4°, 260 p. (V. 17. Idea delVUni- 
verso.) 154, 158. 

1785 Origine, formazione, meccanismo, ed armonia degP idiomi: 

Cesena, 4°, 180 p. 18 ff. (V. 18. Idea delVUniverso.) 179. 

1786 Aritmetica delle nazioni e divisione del tempo fra l'Orientali: 

Cesena, 4°, 206 p. (V. 19. Idea delVUniverso.) 182. 

1787 Saggio pratico delle lingue con prolegomeni, e una raccolta di 

orazioni Dominican' in piu di trecento lingue, e dialetti con cui 
si dimostra Pinfusione del primo idioma dell'uman genere, e la 
confusione delle lingue in esso poi succeduta, e si additano la 
diramazione, e dispersione della nazioni con molti risultati 
utili alia storia: Cesena, 4°, 256 p. (V. 21. Idea delV Uni- 
verso.) 199. 

1787a Vocabolario poligloto con proligomeni sopra piu di CL. lingue. 
Dove sono delle scoperte nuove, ed utili alPantica storia 
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parole: Cesena, 4°, 247 p. (V. 20. Idea delV Universo.) 179. 

1800-05 Catalogo de las lenguas de las naciones conocidas, y numer- 
acion, division y clases de estas, segiin la diversidad de sus 
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and selective edition of Hervas, 1785, 1786, 1787, 1787a.) 154, 
158. 

Hestermann, P. Ferdinand 

1915 Die Maya-Kultur Mittelamerikas (Sprache, Schrift, Literatur, 
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162. 

Hiersemann, Karl Wilhelm. Editor. 

1891 et seq. Amerikanische Sprachen., (Numerous sale catalogues, 
1891, Nos. 70, 82, 87; 1893, No. 119; 1895, No. 143; 1897, 
No. 179; 1898, No. 200; 1904, No. 301; etc.) 155, 158. 

Hocaba, Chilam Balam de 

See Chilam Balam de Kaua. 191. 

Hoil, Juan Jose 

Chilam Balam de Chumayel (see under Chumayel). 



242 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Holmes, William Henry 

1903 Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in Smithsonian 
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Hovelaque, Abel 

1876 La linguistique : in Bibliotheque des Sciences Contemporaines, 
Paris, v. 2, 16°, xi, 365 p. (2d ed. Paris, 1877, 8°, xiv, 435 p.) 
162. 

Humboldt, [Friedrick Heinrich] Alexander von 

1811 Essai politique sur le royaume de la Nouvelle-Espagne, etc. 
Paris, 8°, 5 v. (Many other editions among them, English 
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161, 164. 

Humboldt, [Karl] Wilhelm von 

(1) Ueber das Verbum in den amerikanischen Sprachen: MS. 40 p. 

(in Humboldt's writing, 13 p. notes by ?). 164. 

(2) Maya Grammatik: folio MS. 135 p. (36 p. in Humboldt's writ- 

ing, 82 p. and table in writing of his secretary, 15 p. notes and 
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ICAZBALCETA, JOAQUIN GARCIA 

1866 Apuntes para un catalogo de escritores en lenguas indigenas de 
America; Mexico, 16°, xiii, 157 p. (Republished in his Obras, 
Mexico, 1898, v. 8, p. 1-181.) (134 titles reprinted in Polemica 
entre el Diario Oficial y la Colonia Espanola, Mexico, 1875.) 155. 

1870 See Mendieta. 

1886 Bibliografia mexicana del siglo xvi. Primera parte. Catalogo 
razonado de libros impresos en Mexico de 1539 a 1600 con 
biografias de autores y otras ilustraciones; precedido de una 
noticia acerca de la introduction de la imprenta en Mexico: 
Mexico, 4°, xxix, 419, p. (3) ff. (See Leon, 1902.) 156. 
Ixil, Chilam Balam de 

MS. owned in Merida. (There is a Berendt copy, 1868, in the 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Gates owns a second 
copy, 8°, 25 ff. reproduced by him.) 190. 

Jehan, Louis Francois 

1864 Dictionnaire de linguistique et de philologie compared. His- 
toire de toutes les langues mortes et vivantes, traite complet 
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clopedic Theologique, v. 34, Paris, 4°, 1448 columns (two to a 
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Johnes, Arthur James 

1846 Philological proofs of the original unity and recent origin of the 
human race. Derived from a comparison of the languages of 
Asia, Europe, Africa and America. Being an inquiry how far 
the differences in the languages of the globe are referrible to 
causes now in operation: London, 8°, lx, 172, 103 p. 179. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 243 

Joyce, Thomas A[thol] 

1914 Mexican archaeology, an introduction to the archaeology of the 
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Juarros, Domingo 

1808 Compendio de la historia de la ciudad de Guatemala. . . . 
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JUDIO, LlBRO DE 

See Anon (13-16), Ossado, 1834, Perez (4) and Berendt 1870. 195. 
Kaua, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS. 282 p. owned in Merida (Gates reproduction.) (There is 
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MS.) 190. 
Keane, Augustus Henry 

1901 Central and South America: London, 12°, 2 v. edited by Sir 
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Kennedy, James 

1861 Essays ethnological and linguistic: London, 8°, vi p. (1) f. 230 p. 

(Edited by C. M. Kennedy.) This contains: 
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152). 161. 
Kingdon, John 145. 
1847 A Yucatecan grammar: translated from the Spanish into Maya 
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1862 [?] [A tentative edition in Maya of chaps, v, xi, xv, xxiii of St. 

Luke's Gospel, published by the British and Foreign Bible 
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1865 Leti u cilich Evangelio Jesu Cristo hebix San Lucas: London, 
16°, 90 p, published by the British and Foreign Bible Society. 
200. 

§(1) [Beltran's grammar translated into English]. MS. [?] (Ludewig, 
1858, p. 227 states that there is a translation of Beltran's gram- 
mar into English in possession of American Bible Society, 
New York. Present officers deny this. See Henderson, 3.) 
165. 



244 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Kingdon, John {continued). 

§ (2) Dictionary Maya-Spanish-English and English-Spanish-Maya: 
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this.) 174. 
Klaproth, Julius 

1824-28 Memoires relatifs a TAsie contenant des recherches histo- 
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Landa, Diego de 141. 

1864 See Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1864. (2d edition, Appendix to the 
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and a 3d edition in Coleccion de Documentos Ineditos (2d 
series): Madrid, 1900, v. 13, p. 265-411). 

§ (1) Arte perfeccionado de la lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (miss- 
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§ (2) Doctrina en la lengua Maya [?]. (See Aguilar, 1639; ed. 1892, 
p. 35.) 196. 
Larrainzar, Manuel 

1875-78 Estudios sobre la historia de America, sus ruinas y anti- 
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Latham, Robert Gordon 

1850 The natural history of the varieties of man: London, 8°, xxviii 
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1860 Opuscula. Essays chiefly philological and ethnographical : Lon- 
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1862 Elements of comparative philology: London, 8°, xxxii, 774 p. 179. 
Leclerc, Charles 

1867 Bibliotheca americana. Catalogue raisonne d'une tres-precieuse 
collection de livres anciens et modernes sur TAmerique et les 
Philippines: Paris, 8°, vii, 407 p. 154. 

1878 Bibliotheca americana. Histoire, geographie, voyages, archeo- 
logie et linguistique des deux Ame>iques et des iles Philippines : 
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Lehmann, Walter 

1907 Ergebnisse und Aufgaben der mexikanistischen Forschung: in 
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156, 162. 
Lejeal, Leon 

1902 Les antiquit^s mexicaines (Mexique, Yucatan, Amerique-cen- 
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BIBLIOGRAPHY 245 

Leon, Nicolas 

1896 Biblioteca mexicana. Catalogo para la venta de la porcion mas 
escogida de (su) biblioteca: Mexico, 16°, 37 p. (Sale cata- 
logue.) 158. 
1898 See Ramirez, 1898. 

1900 Familias lingiiisticas de Mexico: in Memorias de la Sociedad 
Cientifica de "Antonio Alzate," v. 15, p. 275-284. (Republished 
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1902 Adiciones a" la Bibliografia mexicana del siglo xvi: in Boletin del 
Instituto Bibliogrdfico Mexicano, Part 1, p. 43 et seq. (See 
Icazbalceta, 1886.) 156. 
1902a La bibliografia in Mexico en el siglo xix; in Boletin del Instituto 

Bibliogrdfico Mexicano, Part 3, p. 55-66. 156. 
1902-08 Bibliografia mexicana del siglo xvin: Mexico, sm. 4°, 5 parts. 
(Parts 1-3 in Boletin del Instituto Bibliogrdfico Mexicano, 
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1905 Las lenguas indigenas de Mexico en el siglo xix, Nota biblio- 
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Leon Pinelo, Antonio Rodriguez de 

1629 Epitome de la biblioteca oriental i occidental, nautica i geo- 
grafica: Madrid, 8°, 44 ff., 186, xii p. If. This contains: 
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Le Plongeon, Alice [Dixon] 

1879 Notes on Yucatan: in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian 
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[1889] Here and there in Yucatan. Miscellanies. New York, 12°, 
146 p. 195. 
(1) Maya melodies of Yucatan. Taken from Indian airs of Alice 
Dixon LePlongeon with musical settings by Susanne V. R. 
Lawton. 207. 
Le Plongeon, Augusti/s 

1877 See Salisbury, Stephen, 1877. 

1879 Letter addressed to the Right Rev. Bishop Courtenay, Bishop of 

Kingston [on the Maya language] : in Proceedings of the Ameri- 
can Antiquarian Society, p. 113-117. 160. 

1880 Ensayo sobre la antigliedad de la lengua Maya: in La Revista 

de Merida. (Republished in El Republicano, Mexico.) (See 
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[1880a?] [Comparative study of the Maya language.] (A letter in 
Spanish addressed to the Right Reverend Bishop Courtenay of 
Kingston, Jamaica) : in La Revista de Merida. 160. 



246 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Le Plongeon, Augustus (continued). 

18806 [Letter on the antiquity of the Mayas addressed to the Right 
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as 1880a.) 

1881 Mayapan and Maya inscriptions: in Proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society, (n. s.), v. 1, p. 246-282. 160. 

1881a Vestiges of the Mayas, or, Facts tending to prove that communi- 
cations and intimate relations must have existed, in very 
remote times, between the inhabitants of Mayab and those of 
Asia and Africa: New York, 8°, 68 p. 160. 

1896 Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx: New York, 8°, lxv, 277 p. 
68 pis. (2d ed. 1900.) 160, 176. 

Lizana, Bernardo de 

1633 Historia de Yucatan. Devocionario de Nuestra Sefiora de Izmal 
y conquista espiritual ; Valladolid. (Another edition, Mexico, 
1893, 8°, (12 ff.), 127 ff. (1) f . Parts of first four chapters pub- 
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Lopez Otero, Daniel 

1914 Gramatica Maya. Metodo teorico practico: Merida, 8°, 130 p. 
(Founded, in part, on notes by Audomaro Molina.) 167. 

Ludewig, Hermann Ernst 

1858 The literature of American aboriginal languages. With addi- 
tions and corrections b}' Professor Wm. W. Turner. Edited 
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Mc Gee, W. J. 

1901 Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in Smithsonian 

Institution, Annual Report, Washington, [1902], p. 65-84. 171. 

1902 Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in Smithsonian 

Institution, Annual Report, Washington, [1903], p. 39-57. 171. 

Maclean, J. P. 

1883 Maya literature: in [some magazine for] October, (n. s.) v. 20, 
p. 438-448. (Pilling, No. 2392a after Brinton.) 194. 

MacNutt, Francis Augustus 
1908 See Cortes, Hernando. 
1912 See Martyr d'Anghera. 

Madier de Montjau, £duard 

1875 Textes Mayas: in Archives de la Societe Americaine de France 
(2d ser.) v. 1, p. 373-378. (This is an ectftion of Nolasco de los 
Reyes, 1869.) 198. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 247 

Maisonneuve et Cie. Editors. 

1881 Bibliotheca americana. Histoire, geographie, voyages, arch£o- 
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(This is a supplement to Leclerc, 1878. Another appeared 
in 1887.) 158. 

1897 Catalogues des livres de fonds et en nombre. Histoire, arch£o- 
logie, voyages, mythologie, religions, ethnographie et linguis- 
tique, etc.,de l'Amerique et de POc6anie: Paris, 8°, 2, 134 p. 
(Sale catalogue.) 158. 

Malte-Brun, Conrad 

1810-29 Precis de la geographie universelle, ou description de toutes 
les parties du monde, sur un plan nouveau, d'apres les grandes 
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179. This contains: 
Tableau de renchainement geographique des langues ameri- 
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1824 Gemalde von Amerika und seinen Bewohnern. Uebersetzt von 
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174. 
1862 Le Mexique illustr6, histoire et geographic Recit des evene- 
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Malte-Brun, V[ictor] A[dolph] 

1864 Un coup d'ceil sur le Yucatan: Paris, 8°, 34 p. 180. 

1878 Tableau de la distribution des langues au Mexique: in Proceed- 
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Mani, Chilam Balam de 

1595 circa. [Portions of this MS. called Perez Codex (q. v.), other parts 
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Mani, Cronica de 

1556 et seq. [MS. in Maya described by Stephens, 1843, v. 2, p. 262- 
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Manzano, L. 

1893 Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan. 250 pala- 
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248 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Marietti, Pietro. Editor. 

1870 Oratio Dominica in CCL. lingvas versa et CLXXX charactervm 
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Martinez Alomia, Gustavo 

1902 Introduction de la imprenta en Campeche y cien portadas de 
impresos Mexicanos: in Boletin del Instituto Bibliogrdfico 
Mexicano, Part 3, p. 1-25. 158. 

1906 Historiadores de Yucatan. Apuntes biograficos y bibliograficos 

de los historiadores de esta peninsula desde su descubrimiento 
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nally published in La Revista de Merida.) 157 (2), 183 (2), 190. 

Martinez Hernandez, Juan 149. 

1907 [Essay on Maya calendar] : in El Calendario de Espinosa. 183. 
1909 El Chilam Balam de Mani 6 Codice Perez: Merida, 12°, 18 p. 

(Published originally in El Calendario de Espinosa.) 186. 
1909a Las cronicas Mayas. Revision y traduccion del texto de las 
cronicas de Chicxulub, de Mani, de Tizimin, de Chumayel: 
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1912 Los grandes ciclos de la historia Maya segiin el manuscrito de 

Chumayel: in Proceedings of the 17th International Congress 
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1913 La creation del mundo segiin los Mayas. Paginas ineditos del 

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188. 
1915 La muerte de los " Ahpulhaob." Retaliation de Nachi Cocom 
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1918 Correlacion entre la cronologia Maya y la cristiana. Correlacion 

por katunes desde el ciclo noveno hasta la fundacion de Merida. 
Correlacion de todas las fechas determinadas en los monu- 
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1918a La cronica de Yaxkukul por Ah Macan Pech y Ah Naum Pech. 
Revision y traduccion del texto : MS. 203. 

1919 El juicio final. (Translation into Spanish of p. 102 of the Chu- 

mayel.) 4°, MS. 2 p. 189. 

1920 Petition de Juan Xiu (from Xiu Chronicles) : Translation. MS. 

(In collaboration with Adela C. Breton.) 204. 

1920a Testamento de Andres Pat (from Libro de Cacalchen. 1647): 
Translation. MS. (In collaboration with Adela C. Breton.) 
205. 

19206 Ordenanzas de Don Diego Garcia Palacios (from Libro de Cacal- 
chen, 1583) : Translation. MS. (In collaboration with Adela 
C. Breton.) 204. 



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Martyr D'Anghera, Peter 

1516 Deorbe nouo decades: Alcala, folio, (65), 16 ff. (Numerous other 
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Maudslay, Alfred Percival. Editor. 
1908-16 See Diaz del Castillo. 

Mayer, Brantz 

1851 Mexico. Aztec, Spanish and Republican . . . with . . . his- 
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Means, Philip Ainsworth 

1917 History of the Spanish conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas : in 

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Medina, Jose Toribio 

1893 La imprenta en Mexico. Epitome (1539-1810). Seville 8°, 

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1898-1907 Biblioteca Hispano-Americana (1493-1810): Santiago de 

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1904 La imprenta en Merida de Yucatan (1813-21). Notas biblio- 

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Melgar y Serrano, Jose Maria. 

1873 Juicio sobre lo que servio de base a las primeras teogonias. Tra- 
duccion del manuscrito Maya perteneciente al Senor Miro: 
Vera Cruz. 182. 

Mena, Carlos 

§ (1) Sermon y opusculos piadosos en lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvii 
century (missing). 201. 

Mendez, Santiago 

1898 Noticias sobre las costumbres, trabajos, idioma, industria, fisono- 
mia de los Indios de Yucatan: in Boletin de la Sociedad de 
Geografia y Estadistica de. la Republica Mexicana. (Repub- 
lished in El Reproductor Campechano, 1899.) 162. 

Mendieta, Geronimo de 

1870 Historia eclesiastica indiana, obra escrita a fines del siglo xvi. 
... La piiblica por primera vez Joaquin Garcia Icazbalceta: 
Mexico, 4°, xlv, 790 p. (Written about 1590.) 163. 
Mendoza, Eufemio 

1872 Apuntes para un catalogo razonado de las palabras Mexicanas 
introducidas al Castellano: Mexico, 8°, 88 p. This contains: 
Carrillo y Ancona, 1872 (p. 56-88). 



250 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Menendez, Rodolfo 

1906 [Bibliographical note]: in Martinez Alomia, 1906, p. i-iv. 157. 

Menendez y Pelayo, Marcelino 

1888 Inventario bibliografico de la ciencia espanola: in Ciencia 
Espanola, Madrid, v. 3, p. 125-445. (It is v. 64 in Coleccion 
de Escritores Castellanos.) 154. 

Meneses, Jose Maria 
1848 See Perez, 1848. 
(1) [Copy of Diccionario de San Francisco, Maya-Spanish, A-K, 4°, 
MS., 54 ff. with Advertencia preliminar]. 172. 

Merian [Falkach, Andre Adolphe] Baron de 

1828 Principes de l'etude comparative des langues par le baron de 
Merian, suivis d 'observations sur les racines des langues semi- 
tiques par M. Klaproth: Paris, 8°, viii, 240 p. 179. 

Migne, Jacques Paul. Editor. 

1864 Dictionnaire de linguistique (Troisieme et Derniere Encyclopedic 
ThSologique, v. 34): Paris, 4°. (See J£han, 1864.) 

Millspaugh, Charles Frederick 

1895-98 Contributions 1-3 to the flora of Yucatan: in Field Museum 
Publications, 4, 15, 25. Botanical Series, v. 1, p. 1-56, i-vii, 
281-339; 345-410. 177, 195. 

1900 Plantse Utowanse: in Field Museum Publications, 43, 50. Botani- 
cal Series, v. 2, p. 1-135. 177, 195. 

1903-04 Plantse Yucatanse: in Field Museum Publications, 69, 92. 
Botanical Series, v. 3, p. 1-151, 1 f. "177, 195. 

MlNISTERIO DE FoMENTO, ANALES DE 

1854 Mexico, v. 1, 8°, 726 p. 1 map. (See also Siliceo, 1857.) 159. 

Mitre, Bartolome 

1909-11 Catalogo razonado de la secci6n lenguas Americanas: 
Buenos Aires, 8°, 3 v. xliii, 409 p. 1 f.; 325 p. 1 f.; 318 p. 1 f. 
160, 155, 162, 164, 165, 167. 

1912 Museo Mitre. Lenguas americanas. Catalogo ilustrado de la 
seccion X de la biblioteca. Con muchos facsimiles de portadas : 
Buenos Aires, 8°, 182 p. 155. 

Molina y Solis, Audomaro 

1887 Compendio de la geografia de Yucatan. (See Carrillo y Ancona, 

1887, p. 1-31). 
1905 U molcabthanil camathan. Catecismo de la Doctrina Cristiana 

Merida, 46 p. (Published without name of author.) 197. 
1914 See Lopez Otero, 1914. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 251 

Molina y Solis, Juan Francisco 

1896 Historia del descubrimiento y conquista de Yucatan con una 

resefia de la historia antigua de esta peninsula : Merida, 8°, lx, 
911 p. 162, 168, 181, 186, 188, 190. 

1897 El primer Obispado de la nacion Mejicana. Articulos publicados 

sobre esta materia y sobre otros puntos de nuestra historia: 
Merida, 8°, 475 p. 184, 203, 205. 
1904-13 Historia de Yucatan durante la dominacion Espafiola: 
Merida, 8°, 3 v. iv, 359; iii, 455; 658 p. 151, 158, 205. 
Moreno, Pablo 

[Writer on Maya subjects, after Castillo, 1866, p. 255.] 192. 

MORLEY, SYLVANUS GrISWOLD 

1910 The correlation of Maya and Christian chronology: in American 

Journal of Archaeology (2d series), v. 14, p. 193-204. 183. 

1911 The historical value of the Books of Chilam Balam : in American 

Journal of Archaeology (2d series), v. 15, p. 195-214. 183. 
1920 The inscriptions at Copan: Washington, 4°, xii, 643 p. 33, 
1 pis. (Carnegie Institution Publication, No. 219.) 183, 189, 
204, 205. 
Motul, Diccionario de 

MS. xvi century (missing). Copy, 16°, in John Carter Brown 
Library, Providence, Rhode Island: Maya-Spanish, 465 ff. 
Spanish-Maya, 236 ff. (ff. 83-104, 161, 171-174, 209-216, 233 
missing), (Gates reproduction, 8°.) (Copy by Berendt, 4°, 2 v. , 
viii, 1565, 508 p. with 1 v. of Additions and Corrections, about 
600 p. Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 1. Copy (partial) 
by Le Plongeon in 1884 and copy (partial) by Miss Thomas, 
1900 et seq. in Bureau of Ethnology. Note of this dictionary 
by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 181.) 170. 

MtJLLER, FRIEDRICH 

1876-88 Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaf t : Vienna, 8°, 4 v. V. 2, 
part 1 (1882) contains: 

Die Sprachen der schlichthaarigen Rassen. Die Maya- 
Sprachen (p. 305-313). 167. 

MtJLLER, J[OHANNJ G[EORG] 

1855 Geschichte der amerikanischen Urreligionen : (2d ed., Basel, 
1867, 8°, vii, 706 p.) 162. 

[Murphy, Henry Cruse] 

1884 Catalogue of the magnificent library of . . . consisting almost 
wholly of Americana or books relating to America : New York, 
8°, viii, 434 p. (Sale catalogue.) 154, 158. 

MUSEO YUCATECO, El 

1841-42 Redactado por D. Justo Sierra y D. Vicente Calero Quintana; 
considerado como la piedra miliar en que descansa el edificio, 
levantado a literatura en la peninsula : Campeche, 8°, 2 v. 158. 



252 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Nabula, Chilam Balam de 

[MS. known only by name.] 191. 
Nah, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS. 64 p. Signed by Jose* Maria Nah. (Owned by William 
Gates and reproduced by him.) 191. 
NIjera, Gaspar de 
§ (1) Relation de las antigtiedades de Yucatan: MS. xvi century 
(missing). 169. 
Naphegyi, Gabor 

1869 The album of language illustrated by the Lord's Prayer in one 

hundred languages, with historical description of the principal 
languages, interlinear translation and pronunciation of each 
prayer, a dissertation on the languages of the world and tables 
exhibiting all known languages, dead and living: Phila- 
delphia, fol. 4, 11-323, (1) p. 199. 

Narciso, J. 
[1838 Arte de la lengua Maya]. (This is mentioned by Squier, p. 38 
but it is clearly a mistake. The work is the Spanish grammar 
of Diego Narciso Herranz y Quiros, translated into Maya by 
Ruz.) 165. 

New York Public Library, Bulletin of 

1909 List of works in New York Public Library relating to Mexico: 
v. 13, n. 10-12, New York, p. 622-662, 675-737, 748-829. 
150, 156. 

Nicoli, Jose P. 

1870 Las ruinas de Yucatan y los viajeros: in Boletin de la Sociedad 

de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana. (2d 
series), v. 2, p. 510-524. 194. 

[NOLASCO DE LOS REYES, PeDRO] 

1869 El ejercicio del santo via crusis puesto en lengua Maya y 
copiado de un antiguo manuscrito : Lo da & la prensa con su- 
perior permiso el Dr. D. J. Vicente Solis Rosales quien desea 
se propague esta devocion entre los fieles, principalmente de 
la clase indigena. Va corregida por el R. P. Fr. M. Antonio 
Peralta: Mexico, 16°, 31 p. (Gates reproduction.) (See 
Madier de Montiau, 1875, and Anon. 17.) 198. 
Norman, B[enjamin] M[oore] 

1843 Rambles in Yucatan including a visit to the remarkable ruins of 
Chi-Chen, Kabah, Zayi, Uxmal, etc.: New York, 8°, 304 p. 
(Other editions.) 165, 168, 174, 199. 

NUTTALL, ZELIA. 

1901 Fundamental principles of old and new world civilizations: in 
Papers of the Peabody Museum, v. 2, Cambridge, 602 p. 179 (2) . 

1903 A suggestion to Maya scholars: in American Anthropologist, 
(n. s.) v. 5, p. 667-678. 181. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 253 

Ober, Frederick A[lbion] 

1884 Travels in Mexico and life among the Mexicans: Boston, 8°, 
xxii, 672 p. 160. 

O'Neil 6 O'Kelly, Arturo 

1795 Descripcion, poblacion, y censo de la Provincia de Yucatan en 
la Nueva Espafia: MS. (Copy in Library of Cathedral of 
Mexico City according to Beristain y Souza, 1816-21, v. 2, 
p. 355). (Name of author is written "Oneil u Oneylli".) 161. 

Ordonez Ramon de 

(1) Historia de la creacion del cielo y de la tierra, conforme al systema 
de la gentilidad Americana, etc.: MS. 253 ff. (Copied by 
Brasseur de Bourbourg in 1848 and 1849.) Part 2, 50 p. in- 
complete. (See Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1871, p. 112-113.) 
178. 

Orozco y Berra, Manuel 

1864 Geografia de las lenguas y carta etnografica de Mexico, prece- 

didas de un ensaj^o de clasificacion de las mismas lenguas y de 

apuntes para las inmigraciones de las tribus: Mexico, 4°, xiv, 

392 p. 1 map. 159, 162, 187. 
1880 Historia antigua y de la conquista de Mexico: Mexico, 8°, 4 v. 

ix, 584; 603; 527; 694 p. and atlas, fol. 181, 194. 

OSSADO, RlCARDO, alias El JUDIO 

1834 Conocimiento de yerbas Yucatecas, etc.: Merida, 16°, 80 p. 
(Unique imprint owned by Gates.) 195. 

Oviedo y Valdes, Gonzalo Fernandez de 

1535 La historia general de las Indias, etc.: Seville. 4°. (French 
trans, of first 10 books. Paris, 1555. Ed. Madrid, 1851-55. 
4°, 4 v.). (Berendt copy of Maya words in Oviedo in Berendt 
Linguistic Collection Nos. 42-11, and 180.) 161, 169. 

OXKUTZCAB, CHILAM BaLAM DE 

1689 Pronosticos de los ahaues del libro de Chilam Balam de Oxkutz- 
cab. (This is a partial copy from Perez collection, copied by 
Berendt, 1868d, in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-8, 
p. 185-224. Notes on this copy taken by C. P. Bowditch. 
These reproduced by Gates.) 190. 

OXKUTZCAB, CRONICA DE 

See Xiu Chronicles. 

Pacheco Cruz, Santiago 

1912 Compendio del "Idioma Yucateco": Merida, 12°, 122 (3) p. (2d 
ed. Aumentada, corregida y reformada. Merida, 12°, 5 en- 
tregas.) 167. 
1919 Lexico de la fauna Yucateca: Merida, 12°, 76 p. 177. 
(1) Traduction literal de los descretos del Gobernador E. Avila, a 
la lengua Maya. 206. 



254 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Palma y Palma, Eulogio 

1901 Los Mayos (Disertaciones historico-filologicas) : Motul (Yuca- 
tan), 8°, viii, 753, (2) p. Among other items this book con- 
tains : 

Arqueologfa e historia, p. 1-63. 

Filologia, gramatica, y escritura, p. 83-474. 162, 165, 167, 

168, 177, 182. 
Disquisiciones historicas, p. 475-712. 
Voces aztecas castellanizadas y sus equivalentes en Maya, 

p. 718-735. 138. 
Voces mayas castellanizadas, p. 735-738. 178. 
Dioses y genios malignos de la mitologia maya, p. 742-749. 
La serie de los katunes (Perez, 1842). 186. 

Parisio, Nicola 

(1) De' pretesi elementi fonetici nelle antiche scriture del Messico e 
del Yucatan : Rasscgna Storica Napolitana di Letter e et Arte. 
v. 1, pts. 3-5, p. 17-34, 65-82, Naples. 177. 

Pat, Jacinto and others 

1847 [circa] Cartas particulares (en la lengua Maya )de la sublevacion 
de 1847. Mssel. MSS. (owned by Gates and reproduced by 
him, 4°, 9 p.). 206. 

Pech Manuscript 

See Chicxulub, Cronica de 

Penafiel, Antonio 

1886 Libros mexicanos antiguos y modernos. Catalogo descriptivo 
de la biblioteca del Dr Penafiel. 158. 

1897 Division y clasificacion de las lenguas y dialectos que usaron los 
antiguos habitantes del actual territorio Mexicano. Su estado 
presente: in Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of 
Americanists, Mexico, (1895), p. 91-96. 169. 

1900 Censo general de la Republica Mexicano, verificado el 20 de 
Octubre de 1895: Mexico. (Published by the Ministerio de 
Fomento, Direccion General de Estadislica.) 159. 

Pennsylvania Bible Society, 

(1) Specimen verses in 164 languages and dialects in which the Holy 

Scriptures have been printed and circulated by the Pennsyl- 
vania Bible Society: Philadelphia, 18°, 46 p. 200. 

(2) Specimen verses in 215 languages and dialects in which the Holy 

Scriptures have been printed and circulated by the Pennsyl- 
vania Bible Society: Philadelphia, 16°, 48 p. 200. 

Peralta, Antonio 

1869 See Nolasco de los Reyes, 1869. 

Perez, Benito 

1803 See Cervera, Jose Tiburcio. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 255 

Perez, Juan Pio 143. 

1836 [Copy of the Diccionario de Ticul.] (Missing.) 173. 

1838 Tomo 2°, de la coordinacion alfabetica de las palabras reunidas 
en los apuntes 6 cuadernos hechos para la formacion de un 
diccionario de la lengua Maya (Letras L-O) : 4° MS. 108 ff. 
(The first volume has no title nor date. It contains letters 
A-K, 84 ff.) 175. 

1838a Diccionario de la lengua Maya, 6 mas bien, apuntes para la for- 
macion de un diccionario de la lengua Maya y Espanola: 4°, 
MS. 1108 (4) ff. 176. 

[1840] Carta & Don Vicente Calero Quintana sobre la literatura de los 
Indios. Written at Peto: in Registro Yucateco, v. 2. (Repub- 
lished in Carrillo y Ancona, 1883, p. 591-592.) 191. 

1842 Principales epocas de la historia antigua de Yucatan: (Original 

MS., a part of the Chilam Balam de Mani, copied and trans- 
lated by Perez, Peto, 1842. His copy (8°, 13, 2 p.) given to 
Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 465-469) who published it and pre- 
sented the MS. to the New York Historical Society. Copy in 
Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-1). (See Mani, Chilam 
Balam de.) (Also called the Codex Perez.) 144, 180, 184. 

[1842a] Notas sobre la lengua Maya [pronunciation of various Maya 
sounds and letters adopted for these sounds. MS. given to 
Stephens (1843, v. 2, p. 178) and now in the New York His- 
torical Society as a preliminary notice to the Codex Perez]. 
166, 168. 

[18426] [Dictionary of 4000 Maya words. MS. given to Stephens 
(1843, v. 2, p. 278) and now in the New York Historical 
Society.] 176. 

1843 Cronologia antigua de Yucatan y examen del metodo con que los 

Indios contaban el tiempo, sacados de varios documentos 
antiguos: English translation in Stephens, 1843, v. 1, p. 434- 
459. There is a Brasseur de Bourbourg-Pilling copy with the 
following title : Explication \ del Calendario y de la cronologica \ 
antiqua de Yucatan, \ escrita por D. Pio Perez, \ juez que fue de 
Peto: folio, MS. 14 ff. There is also a copy in the Peabody 
Museum with the following title: Cronologia antigua \ de 
Yucatan \ y examen del metodo con que los Indios contaban el 
tiempo. | Sacada de varios documentos antiguos, por D. Juan Pio 
Perez \ jefe politico de Peto, Yucatan: 8°, MS. 20 ff. (See Pilling, 
1885, No. 2950.) 145, 186. 

[1844] Carta a" Don Vicente Calero Quintana (sobre el idioma Maya). 
Peto: in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, p. 182-18j5. 166. 

1845 Apuntes del diccionario de la lengua Maya, compuestos en vista 
de varios catalogos antiguos de sus voces y aumentado con 
gran suma de las de uso comun y otras que se han extractado 
de manuscritos antiguos por un Yucateco aficionado k la 
lengua: 4°, MS. 4, 468 p. 8ff. in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 5. (A partial copy was made by Berendt.) 175. 



256 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perez, Juan Pio (continued). 

1847 [2d copy of the Diccionario de Ticul: 4°, MS. 146 p.] 175. 
1847a Coordination alfabetica de las palabras Mayas que se hallan en 

la anterior parte Castellana: 4°, MS. 133 p. (This is the Dic- 
cionario de Ticul arranged by Perez in Maya-Spanish order. 
Copied by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 2, 
v. 2.) 173, 175. 

1848 Una proclama destinada a los Indios sublevados. (Translated 

into Maya by Perez and Meneses.) 206. 

1866-77 Diccionario de la lengua Maya: Merida, 4°, x, xx, 437 p. 
(Maya-Spanish). 175. 

1898 Coordinacion alfabetica de las voces del idioma Maya que se hal- 
lan en el arte y obras del Padre Fr. Pedro Beltran de Santa 
Rosa, con las equivalencias castellanas que en las mismas se 
hallan: Merida, 8°, vi, 296 p. (p. 123-296 contain the Ticul 
dictionary). 173, 174, 175, 181. 

(1) Apuntes para una grama tica Maya, etc., copia de los fragmentos 

en poder de D. Pedro Regil: Merida, 12°, MS., 144 p. (Copied 
by Berendt from notes of Perez in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 11.) This is a note-book with pages numbered 45 
to 188. It contains: 

Apuntes para una gramatica, p. 45-132, 173-179. 166. 

Indice alfabetico, p. 132. 

Berendt (1871a), p. 137-163. 

Perez (7), p. 165-184. 

Berendt (8), p. 185-188. 

(2) Chilam Balam. Articulos y fragmentos de manuscritos antiguos 

en lengua Maya colectados por Perez: MS. (Copy by Berendt 

(1870), 4°, vi, 258 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 50.) 

144, 183 (2), 205. 

This volume contains the following: 

Parte primera. 

1 . Calendario espanol para todos los dias del ano en relation 

con el calendario yucateco, con pronosticos para todos 
los dias y todos los meses; p. 1. 

2. Relaciones astrologicos entre los siete planetas y los dias 

de la semana; p. 25. 

3. Historieta de le Donsella Teodora; p. 31. 184. 

4. Influencias planetarias; p. 38. 

5. Influencias de los signos del zodiaco; p. 39. 

6. Indicaciones sobre sangrias; p. 39. 

7. Pronosticos de los afios segun comienzan con uno u otro 

dia de la semana; p. 41. 

8. Pronosticos de los signos del zodiaco; p. 43. 

9. Nota de D. Pio Perez; p. 47. 

10. Apuntes historias del Chilam Balam de Mani; p. 48. 184. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 257 

11. Relacion del ano yucateco con el espanol; p. 50. 

12. Calendario espanol para todos los dias del ano en su rela- 

cion al calendario yucateco; p. 51. 
Parte segunda. 

13. Las profecias de los sacerdotes mayas; p. 65. 193. 

14. Los Ahaues; p. 75. 

15. Explicacion de la cronologia antigua; p. 90. 

16. Tabla del numero de horas en el dia y en la noche para 

todos los meses del ano; p. 93. 

17. Los dias del mes maya en relacion a cientos Santos del 

calendario cristiano; p. 93. 

18. U mutil vine zanzamal (fama diaria del hombre); p. 94. 
. 19. Los Katunes; p. 95. 

20. Calendario maya para cuatro meses; p. 95. 

21. Rueda para el computo del calendario maya; p. 99 bis. 

22. Explicacion del calendario maya en espanol (1595); 

p. 100. " 

23. Cuceb. Explicacion de la cronologia antigua; p. 101. 

24. Explicaciones de la cronologia antigua; p. 122. 

25. Las epocas de la historia antigua de Yucatan; p. 134. 
Parte tercera. 

26. Tabla de anos con los dias en que cae 7 poop; p. 138. 

27. Tabla de correspondencia de los dos calendarios; p. 139. 

28. Calendario espanol en su relacion con el yucateco con pro- 

nosticos para todas los dias; p. 140. 

29. Pronosticos de los Ahaues; p. 152. 

30. Las profecias de los sacerdotes mayas; p. 166. 193. 

31. Ruedas cronologicas con su explicacion ; p. 174. 189, 190. 

32. Bukxok. Tabla para el computo de fechas del ano maya 

con explicacion de D. Pio Perez (no concluida y com- 
pletada por el copiante) ; p. 178. 
Apendice. 

33. Documento sobre un convenio entre varios pueblos de la 

Sierra Alta; p. 181. 

34. Documentos de tierras del pueblo de Sotuta; p. 187. 205. 

35. Documentos de tierras del pueblo Chacxulubchen; p. 201. 

203. 

(3) Fragmentos sobre la cronologia de los Maj^as. Tornados de la 

coleccion de MSS. en lengua Maya de Pio Perez. (Copy by 
Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 43-5, p. 87-106. 
Notes on this MS. by C. P. Bowditch reproduced by Gates.) 
186. 

(4) Recetarios de Indios en lengua Maya. Indices de plantas medi- 

cinales y de enfermedades coordinados: 4°, MS., 85 ff. (Be- 
rendt made extracts, notes and additions to this. See Berendt, 
1870. Gates has a copy.) 196. 



258 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Perez, Juan Pio, (continued). 

(5) Los afios de la era Cristiana arreglados al computo de los Mayas : 

4°, MS. 13 ff. (Copy 12°, 79 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 44-4.) 183. 

(6) Las epocas de la historia antigua de Yucatan. Texto del Codice 

Perez confrontado con el del Codice de Tizimin, Chilam Balam 
de Mani; 12°, MS., 18 p. (in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 44-3). 184, 185, 189. 

(7) Extractos de la introduccion que puso a su transcripcion del 

diccionario de Ticul: (See Perez, 1898, p. 123-127. Copy by 
Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 11, p. 165-184). 
173. 

(8) Fragmentos de la historia sagrada traducido en lengua Maya y 

copiado de un libro de Chilam Balam que fue hallado en el 
Pueblo de Ixil: 4°, MS. cuaderno, 4 p. (Copy by Berendt, 
12°, 7 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 44-2.) 190. 

(9) Predicciones de los meses. Fragmento de un calendario antiguo 

del ario 1701 en lengua Maya: 4°, MS. cuaderno, 20 p. (Copy 
by Berendt 12°, 22 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
44-1.) 186. 

(10) Estudios de la gram&tica. Unos fragmentos: 8°, MS. 48 p. 

(This probably contains some of the same material that is in 
Perez, 1.) 166. 

(11) [Copy of the San Francisco Dictionary]: 4°, Introduction, v. p. 

Maya-Spanish, 93 ff. Beltran's vocabularies, 8 p. Adiciones 
marginales que se hallan en la parte Maya, p. 9-10: Spanish- 
Maya, 87 ff. Complemento del diccionario, 87a, 876, 87c ff . 
Adiciones marginales del diccionario, 88-101 ff . (Gates re- 
production. Copy by Berendt, 1870, 4°, 2 v., vii, 364; 386 p. 
in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 3.) 172. 
Perez, Manuel Luciano 

1870 Carta a Carrillo y Ancona: in La Revista de Merida, p. 128. (This 
relates to sending the Tizimin MS. to Carrillo y Ancona. 
Quoted in Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, p. 146. Partial 
copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49, p. 102. Eng- 
lish translation in Pilling, 1885, p. 161-162.) 189. 
Perez Codex. 

See Perez, Juan Pio, 1842. 
Peto, Chilam Balam de [?] 

(See Pio Perez, 1840, in Carrillo y Ancona, 1883, p. 592.) 191. 
Pilling, James Constantine 

1879-80 Catalogue of linguistic manuscripts in the library of the 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington : in 1st Annual Report [1881] 
of the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, p. 553-577. 178. 
1885 Proof-sheets of a bibliography of the languages of the North 
American Indians: Washington, 1. 4°, xl, 1135 p. (Publica- 
tion of the Bureau of Ethnology.) 145, 155. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 259 

Pimentel, Francisco 

1860 Algunas observaciones sobre las palabras Mayo y Maya: in 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica 
Mexicana. (Republished in Pimentel, 1862-65, v. 2, p. 35-38; 
ed. 1874-75, v. 3, p. 133-137.) 180. 

1862-65 Cuadro descriptivo y comparativo de las lenguas indigenas 
de Mexico: Mexico, 8°, 2 v. Hi, 539 p.; vi., 427 p., 2 ff. 
(2d edition, 3 v. Mexico, 12°, 1874-75, xvi, 426; 472; 570, 
p. If.) (German ed. by Epstein, New York, 1877.) 164. 

1876 Cuadro sinoptico de las lenguas indigenas de Mexico. 159. 

PlNART, ALPHONSE LOUIS 

1883 Catalogue de livres rares et precieux, manuscrits et imprimes, 
principalement sur l'Amerique et sur les langues du monde 
entier, composant la bibliotheque de M. A. L. P., et compre- 
nant ... la bibliotheque mexico-guatemalienne de M. l'abbe 
Brasseur de Bourbourg: Paris, 8°, viii, 248 p. 155. 

Platzmann, Julius 

1871 Amerikanisch-asiatische Etymologien via Behring-Strasse "from 

the east to the west": Leipzig, 8°, (3) ff., 112 p. map. 179. 
1876 Verzeichniss einer auswahl amerikanischer Grammatiken, Wor- 

terbucher, Katechismen, u. s. w.: Leipzig, 8°, (6) 38 p. 155. 

1903 Verzeichniss der werthvollen an Seltenheiten reichen Bibliothek 
des verstorbenen Amerikanisten Dr Julius Platzmann welche 
nebst einigen anderen linguistischen Beitragen am 10 bis 13 
Juni 1903 in Leipzig versteigert werden soil: Leipzig, 8°, 112 p. 
(Sale catalogue.) 155, 158. 

Pott, August Friedrich 

1847 Die quinare und vigesimale Zahlmethode bei Volkern aller Welt- 
theile nebst ausfuhrlicheren Bemerkungen uber die Zahl- 
worter indogermanischen Stammes, und einem Anhange uber 
Fingernamen: Halle, 8°, viii, 304 p. 182. 

Pousse, A. 

1886 Sur les notations numeriques dans les manuscrits hieratiques de 
Yucatan: in Archives de la Societe Americaine de France (2d 
series), v. 4, p. 97-110.' 181. 

Powell, John Wesley 

1900 Report of the Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology: in 
Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report, Washington [1901], 
p. 58-72. 171. 

Prescott, William H[ickling] 

1843 History of the conquest of Mexico with a preliminary view of the 
ancient Mexican civilization and the life of the conqueror, 
Hernando Cortes: New York, 8°, 3 v. (Numerous other 
editions.) 180. 



260 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Prichard, James Cowles 

1836-47 Researches into the physical history of mankind: London, 8°, 

5 v. (Enlarged edition of 1826, London, 8°, 2 v. Numerous 

other editions.) 179, 182. 
1843 Natural history of man, etc. : London, 8°, xvi, 556 p. (Numerous 

other editions.) 161. 

Profecias de los Mayas, Las 

[These are found in several of the Books of Chilam Balam. They 
first appeared in Lizana, 1633. Those from Mani, Ixil, and 
Chumayel MSS. are in Berendt Linguistic Collection, Nos. 
43-3, 43-6. Notes by C. P. Bowditch, reproduced by Gates.] 
192. 

Quaritch, Bernard. Editor. 

1873 etseq. (Numerous sale catalogues. For list, see Mitre, 1909-11, 
v. 1, p. 62-63.) 154, 158. 
R. Y. 

[Initials of writer on Maya language in Repertorio Pintoresco of 
Merida.] 

Ramirez, Jose Fernando 

1880 Bibliotheca Mexicana : or, A catalogue of the library of rare books 

and important manuscripts relating to Mexico and other 

parts of Spanish America: London, 8°, iv, 165 p. (Sale 

Catalogue.) 155, 158. 
1898 Biblioteca Hispano-Americana Septentrional. Adiciones y cor- 

recciones que a su fallecimiento dejo manuscritas el Sr. lie. D. 

Jose Fernando Ramirez, y son las que cita con el nombre de 

" Suplemento " ; 6 " Adicion " en las apostillas que paso a 

su ejemplar de la Biblioteca hispano-americana del Dr. D. J. 

Mariano de Beristain y Souza: Mexico, 12°, xlvii, (4), 662 p. 

(Nicolas Leon, Editor.) (See Beristain y Souza, 1816-21.) 

155. 

Raynaud, Georges 

1891-92 L'histoire Maya d'apres les documents en langue Yucateque 
(Chilam Balam): in Archives de la Societe Americaine de 
France (n. s.) v. 7, p. 145-159. 186, 188, 189. 

Regil, Jose Maria and Peon, A. M. 

1852 Estadistica de Yucatan. Publicarse por acuerdo de la R. Socie- 
dad de Geografia y Estadistica, de 27 de Enero de 1853: in 
Boletin de la Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica 
Mexicana, v. 3, p. 237-340. 159. 

Registro Yucateco 

1845-49 Periodico literario (edited by Justo Sierra): Merida and 
Campeche. 151, 158, 186, 204. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 261 

Rejon Espinola, Francisco 

1893 Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan. 250 pala- 
tums en la lengua Maya y Castellano de la villa de Tizimin: 
Copy, 4°, 4 ff. in Peabody Museum. 177, 181. 

Rejon Garcia, Manuel (Marcos de Chimay) 

1905 Los Mayas primitivos. Algunos estudios sobre su origen, idioma 
y costumbres: Merida, 16°, 124 p. 1 f. 167, 180, 207. 

1905a Supersticiones y leyendas Mayas: Merida, 16°, 147 p. 181, 194. 

1910 Etimologias Mayas. Los nombres de varias poblaciones 
Yucatecas. Algo sobre su origen: Merida, sm. 4°, vi, 75 p. 
181. 
Remesal, Antonio de 

1620 Historia general de las Indias Ocidentales y particular de la go- 
vernacion de Chiapa, y Guatemala, escrivese juntamente los 
principios de la religion de nuestro glorioso padre Santo Do- 
mingo, y de las demas religiones: Madrid, 4°, 6ff., 784 p. 
(1619 on eng. tp. There is a second title, Historia de la 
Provincia de S Vicente de Chyapas y Guatemala de la orden de 
Santo Domingo). 153. 

Repertorio Pintoresco 

1863 See Carrillo y Ancona, 1863. 

Revista de Merida, La 

1859-1915, 1918- [A newspaper of Merida often publishing articles 
on the Maya language.] 158. 

Revista Yucateca, La 

1849 Periodico politico y noticioso sedienta de saber la inteligencia 
abarca el universo en su gran vuelo : Merida, 2 v. 158. 

Rich, Obadiah 

1835 Bibliotheca Americana Nova; or, A catalogue of books in various 
languages relating to America, printed since the year 1700: 
London, 8°, 2 ff. 424 p. (Numerous other catalogues by Rich.) 
154. 

Rincon, Antonio del 

§ (1) Sermones en la lengua de los naturales: MS. xvii century (mis- 
sing). 201. 

RlPALDA, GERONIMO DE 

See Ruz, 1847 and Charency, 1892a. 

Riva Palacio, Vicente. Editor. 

1887-89 Mexico a traves de los siglos: historia general y completa 
del desenvolvimiento social, politico, religioso, militar, artis- 
tico, cientifico y literario de Mexico desde la antiguedad mas 
remota hasta la epoca actual; obra unica en su genero: Mex- 
ico, fol. 5 v. (v. 1, author, Alfredo Chavero, subtitle of volume, 
Historia antigua y de la conquista). 189, 190. 



262 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Rivas Gastelu, Diego 

§ (1) Gramatica de la lengua de los Lacandones (de Guatemala): 
MS. xvn Century (missing). 163. 4 

Rivera Agustin 

1878 Compendio de la historia antigua de Mexico; desde los tiempos 
primitivos hasta el desembarco de Juan de Grijalva: San Juan 
de los Lagos, 8°, v. 1, 447 p. . 183. 

RlVERO FlGUEROA, JOSE DOLORES 

1918 Dos vidas ejemplares. Ensayos biograficos del Ilmo. Sr. Obispo 
de Yucatan, Don Crescendo Carrillo y Ancona y de Monsenor 
Norberto Dominguez: Havana, 8°, 86 p. (Francisco Canton 
Rosado, joint author.) 147. 

Robelo, Cecilio A. 

1902 Toponimia Maya-Hispano-Nahoa : Cuernavaca, 8°, 81 p. 180. 

Rockstroh, Edwin and Berendt, C. H. 

1878 Los ihdigenas de la America Central y sus idiomas, resefia ethno- 
grafica, compilado de los escritos y apuntes del Doctor C. 
Hermann Berendt. Edicion de la Sociedad Economica, 
Guatemala. (Only the first 16 p. were ever completed). 
Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection. This copied by 
Schuller and reproduced by Gates.) 162, 178. 

Romero, Jose Guadalupe 

1860 Noticia de las personas que han escrito algunas obras sobre idio- 
mas que se hablan en la Repiiblica : in Boletin de la Sociedad de 
Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana, p. 374-386. 
156. 

Romero Fuentes, Luis C. 

1910 La lengua Maya. Al alcance de todos. Manuel que contiene 34 
lecciones compuestas de las frases mas usuales, presentadas 
con un metodo sencillo para facilitar su aprendizaje: Merida, 
12°, 100 p. and errata. 167. 

Rosny, Leon [Louis Lucien Prunol] de 

1875 L'interpretation des anciens textes Mayas, suivie d'un apercu de 
la grammaire Maj^a, d'un choix de textes originaux avec tra- 
duction et d'un vocabulaire : Paris, 8°, 70 p. 1 f . (Originally 
published in Archives de la Societe Americaine de France, 2d. 
series, v. 1, p. 53-118. Spanish edition with notes by Juan 
de Dios de la Rada y Delgado, Madrid, 1881. Republished in 
de Rosny, 1904, p. 75-166.) 157, 165, 166, 176, 194, 199. 

1875a Memoire sur la numeration dans la langue et dans l'ecriture 
sacr6e des anciens Mayas: in Proceedings of the 1st Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists, Nancy, v. 2, p. 439-458. 
(Republished in his 1904, p. 167-192.) 182. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 263 

1887 Codex Peresianus. Manuscrit hieVatique des anciens Indiens de 

1'AmeVique Centrale conserve a la Bibliotheque Nationale de 
Paris, publie* en couleurs: 4°, 94 p. 28 pis. (2d ed. Paris, 
1888, without colors.) 176. 
1904 L'Amerique pre-Colombienne. Etudes d'histoire, de linguistique 
& de paleographie sur les anciens temps du Nouveau-Monde : 
Paris, 8°, xiv, 376 p. (This contains reprints of his 1875, 
1875a, etc. ) 157, 165, 176, 194, 199. 

Rovirosa, Jose N. 

1888 Nombres geogrdficos del estado de Tabasco: Mexico, 8°, 36 p. 

180. 
Roys, Ralph L. 

1920 A Maya account of creation (pis. 60-62, Chilam Balam de Chu- 
mayel) : in American Anthropologist (n. s.) v. 22, p. 360-366. 
189. 
Ruz, [Jose] Joaquin [Francisco Carrillo de]. 142. 

1822 Catecismo historico 6 compendio de la istoria sagrada y de la 
Doctrina Cristiana. Con preguntas, y respuestas, y lecciones 
seguidas por el Abad Fleuri; y traducidos del Castellano al 
idioma Yucateco con un breve exhorto para el entrego del 
Santo Cristo a los enfermos: Merida, 16°, 3 ff., 3-186 p., 2 f. 
(Gates reproduction. Title and 2 p. (185, 186) and errata 
missing.) 197. 

1835 El devoto instruido en el Santo Sacrificio de la Misa; por el P. 
Luiz Lanzi. Traduccion libre al idioma Yucateco con unos 
afectos: Merida, 4°, 9 ff. (MS. copy, 16°, 62 p., made by 
Berendt in 1873, in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 32.) 
(Leon gives an edition of 1839.) 198. 

1844 Gramatica Yucateca — formada para la instruccion de los indige- 

nas, sobre el compendio de D. Diego Narciso Herranz y Quiros: 
Merida 16°, (7), 8-119 p. (Gates reproduction.) (English ed. 
by Kingdon, 1847.) 165. 

1845 Cartilla 6 silabario de lengua Maya para la ensefianza de los 

ninos indigenas: Merida, 24°, 16 p. (2d ed. Berendt, 1871. 
Another ed. Merida, 1882.) (Pilling has an edition of 1845, 
12°, 20 p.) 165, 166. 

1846 Manual Romano Toledano y Yucateco para la administracion 

de los Santos Sacramentos: Merida, 8°, 9ff., 6-191 p. (Por- 
tion published by Brasseur de Bourbourg, 1869-70, v. 2, p. 121— 
122.) 198. 
1846-50 Coleccion de sermones para los domingos de todo el ano, y 
Cuaresma, tornados de varios autores, y traducidos libremente 
al idioma Yucateco: Merida, 8°, 4 v. 202. The contents are 
as follows : 
v. 1 (11, 145 p. 1846) contiene las dominicas desde adviento 
hasta quincuagesima. 



264 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Ruz, [Jose] Joaquin [Francisco Carrillo de] {continued). 
1846-50 Coleccion de sermones, etc. {continued). 

v. 2 (268 p. 1849) contiene desde ceniza, viernes de cua- 

resma y dominicas hasta pentescotes. 
v. 3 (254 p. 1850) contiene desde pentescotes hasta la 

dominica vigesimacuar/ta. 
v. 4 (228 p. 1850) contiene las festividades principales del 
Senor, de Nuestra Sefiora, de algunos Santos, y cuatro 
platicas de animas, sobre el dogma. 
1847 Catecismo y exposition breve de la Doctrina Cristiana por el P. 
Maestro Geronimo Ripalda, de la compafiia de Jesus. Tra- 
ducida al idioma Yucateco, con unos afectos para socorrer a 
los moribundos: Merida, 16°, 88 p. (2d ed. published by 
Charency, 1892a.) 197. 
1847a Explicacion de una parte de la Doctrina Cristiana : Instrucciones 
dogmatico-morales en que se vierte toda la Doctrina del Cate- 
cismo romano, por el R. P. M. Fr. Placido Rico Frontaura: 
se amplian los diferentes puntos que el mismo Catecismo remite 
£ los parrocos para su extencion: y se tratan de nuevo otros 
importantes, traducido al idioma Yucateco: Merida, part I, 
8°, 390, 3 p. (Part II never published.) 197. 
18476 See Kingdon, 1847. 

1849 Via Sacra del Divino Amante Corazon de Jesus dispuesta por las 
cruces del Calvario, por el Presbitero Jose de Herrera Villa- 
vicencio . . . traducida al idioma Yucateco: Merida, 24°, 
34 p. (Gates reproduction.) 198. 
1851 Analisis del idioma Yucateco, al Castellano: Merida, 16°, 16 p. 
(Gates reproduction.) 197. 

(1) Leti u cilich Evangelio Jesu Cristo hebix San Lucas . MS. 106 p. 

in Merida. (Original translation of chaps. 5, 11, 15, 23 of St. 
Luke. See Kingdon, 1862, 1865, and Henderson, 1870.) 199. 

(2) Catecismo explicado en treinta y nueve instrucciones, sacadas del 

romano: l a parte, Merida, 4°, about 200 p. (This is given by 
Carrillo y Ancona and Leon, 1905, p. 188. Pilling, 1885, No. 
3427 suggests that this is the same as his 1822.) 197. 

(3) Ebanhelio Hezu Clizto (Zan Lucas): No title, p. 1-14, 16. 

(This is taken with few changes from his 1.) 199. 

Sabin, Joseph 

1868-92 A dictionary of books relating to America; from its discovery 
to the present time: New York, 8°, 20 v. 154. 

Salisbury, Stephen 

1877 Dr Le Plongeon in Yucatan [containing letter written to Mr. 
Salisbury by Le Plongeon from Island of Cozumel, June 15, 
1877]: in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 
Worcester, p. 70-119. (Letter originally published in Boston 
Daily Advertiser, September 3, 4, 1877.) 160. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 265 

San Buenaventura, Gabriel de 

1684 Arte de la lengua Maya : Mexico, 8°, (8) ff. 4 p. 5-9, (2), 10-41 ff. 

(Gates reproduction. Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 

No. 8. For 2d ed. see 1888.) (Ludewig notes an edition of 

1560. This is a mistake.) 163, 198. 

1888 Facsimile reprint of 1684 edition: Mexico, (8) ff. 4 p. 5-9, (2), 

10-41 ff., viii p. (Icazbalceta, editor.) 
§ (1) Diccionario Maya-Hispano e* Hispano-Maya, medico-bo tanico 
regional; 3 v. about 500 ff. MS. xvn century (missing.) 174. 
Sanchez de Aguilar, Pedro 

(See Aguilar.) 
Sanchez, Jesus 

1886 Linguistica de la Republica Mexicana: in Anales del Museo 
National, Mexico, v. 3, p. 279-280. 151, 156. 
San Francisco, Diccionario de 

MS, xvii century (missing). (Copy by Perez: 4 Q , MS. Maya- 
Spanish, v p. 93 ff. 10 p.; Spanish-Maya, 101 ff., extra leaves 
' at 87a, 876, 87c. (Gates reproduction. Copy by Berendt, 
1870, 4°, 2 v., vii, 364; 386 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 3. See Perez, 11 and Meneses, 1.) 172, 174. 
Sapper, Karl 

1893 Beit rage zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala: in Peter- 

mann's Mitteilungen, Gotha, v. 39, p. 1-14, pi. 1. 159. 
[1895, circa.] La lengua de San Luis (Peten): 16°, MS. note book, 6 ff., 

in possession of author of this work. 177. 
1895a Beitrage zur Ethnographie von Slidost-Mexiko und Britisch- 
Honduras: in Petermann's Mitteilungen, Gotha, v. 41, p. 177- 
186, pi. 12. 169. 
1897 Das nordliche Mittel-Amerika nebst einem Ausflug nach dem 
Hochland von Anahuac. Reisen und Studien aus den Jahren 
1888-95. Braunschweig, 8°, xii, 436 p., 8 maps. 159. Ap- 
pendix 4 (p. 407-436) contains: 
Vergleichendes Vocabular culturgeschichtlich interessanter 
Worter der Mayasprachen. Nach eigenen Vocabularen 
und StolPs Ethnographie zusammengestellt. 178. 
1905 Der gegenwartige Stand der ethnographischen Kenntnis von 
Mittelamerika : in Archiv fur Anthropologic (n. f.) v. 3, p. 1- 
38, pis. i-vii, map. 159. 
Saville, Marshal H[oward]. Editor. 

1921 Reports on the Maya Indians of Yucatan: in Indian Notes and 
Monographs of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye 
Foundation, New York, v. 9, p. 137-226. This volume con- 
tains the following English translations: 

Santiago Mendez: The Maya Indians of Yucatan in 1861. 
Sanchez de Aguilar: Notes on the superstitions of the 
Indians of Yucatan (1639). 



266 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Saville, Marshal H[oward]. Editor (continued). 
1921 Reports, etc. (continued). 

Francisco Hernandez : On the religious beliefs of the Indians 

of Yucatan in 1545 (from Las Casas). 
Glossary of Maya terms. 
Bibliography. 157. 

Sayce, Archibald Henry 

1875 The principles of comparative philology: (2d ed. revised and 
enlarged, London, 1875, 16°, xxx, (1) f., 416 p. Numerous 
other editions.) 166. 

SCHOMBURGK, ROBERT H[ERMANN] 

1848 Contributions to the philological ethnography of South America: 
in Proceedings of the Philological Society of London, v. 3, p. 228- 
237. This contains: 
Affinity of words in Guinau with other languages and dia- 
lects of America (p. 236-237). 179. 

Schuller, Rudolph R. Collator. 

(1) [Collation of various documents in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion.] (Gates reproduction.) 147. This volume includes: 
Rockstroh, 1878. 

Utzolan u Xocol from Mani MS. 184. 
Canciones en lengua Maya (Berendt, 1868c), etc. 

Schultz-Sellack, Carl 

1879 Die amerikanischen Gotter der vier Weltgegenden und ihre 
Tempel in Palenque: in Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, v. 11, p. 209- 
229. 194. 

Seler, Eduard 

1887 Das Konjugationssystem der Maya-Sprachen : Leipzig, 8°, 

51 p. (Republished in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur 
Amerikanischen Sprach- und Alterthumskunde, Berlin, v. 1, 
1902, p. 65-126.) 167 (2). 

1888 Die Tageszeichen der aztekischen und der Maya-Handschriften 

und ihre Gottheiten : in Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, v. 20, p. 10- 

97. (Republished in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, etc. v. 1, 

p. 417-503.) 177. 
1892 On Maya chronology: in Science, v. 20, n. 496. (Republished in 

his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, etc., v. 1, p. 557.) 183, 186. 
1895 Die wirkliche Lange des Katun's der Maya-Chroniken und der 

Jahresanfang in der Dresdener Handschrift und auf den 

Copan-Stelen : in Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, v. 27, p. (441)-(449). 

(Republished in his Gesammelte Abhandlungen, etc., v. 1, 

p. 577-587. 183, 186, 188, 189. 
1895a Bedeutung des Maya-Kalenders fair die historische Chronologie: 

in Globus, v. 68, p. 37-41. (Republished in his Gesammelte 

Abhandlungen, etc., v. 1, p. 588-599.) 183. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 267 

1898 Quetzalcouatl-Kukulcan in Yucatan : in Zeitschriftfur Ethnologie, 
v. 30, p. 377-410. (Republished in his Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen, etc., v. 1, p. 668-705.) 189. 
Semanario Yucateco, El 

1878-82 [A periodical published in Merida, often containing articles on 
the Maya language.] 158. 
Seminario Conciliar, El 

[A periodical published in Merida.] 158. 
Shea, John Gilmary 

1873-76 Languages of the American Indians : in American Cyclopaedia 
(Ripley G. and Dana, C. A. editors), New York, 8°, v. 1, 
p. 407^14. 166. 
Short, John T[homas] 

1880 The North Americans of antiquity. Their origin, migrations, 
and type of civilization considered: New York, 8°, 544 p. 
(2d ed. 1880). 187. 
Sierra, Justo 

1841 [?] Prof etas Yucatecas: in Museo Yucateco. (Republished in 

1842 edition of Cogolludo, 1688.) 192. 
1842-45 2d ed. of Cogolludo (1688). (This contains in Appendix a 
discussion of the Maya sounds. This is reprinted in the 3d ed. 
1867-1868, v. 1, p. 595.) 168. 
Sierra, Justo and Vicente Calero 

[Articles in El Museo Yucateco and El Registro Yucateco.] 
Siliceo, Manuel 

1857 Memoria de la Secretaria . . . de Fomento: Mexico, folio, map. 
159. 
Sivers, Jegor von 

1861 Ueber Madeira und die Antillen nach Mittelamerika. Reise- 
denkwiirdigkeiten und Forschungen: Leipzig, sm. 8°, xii, 
388 p. 181. 
Sobron, Felix C. 

1875 Los idiomas de la America Latina. Estudios biografico-biblio- 
graficos: Madrid, 12°, 137 p. 141. 

SOLANA, ALONSO DE 141. 

1580 Vocabulario muy copioso en lengua Espariola e Maya de Yucatan : 
sm. 4°, MS. 115 ff. xvi century: in Library of the Hispanic 
Society of America, New York. [Hispanic MS. may be a 
xvii century copy of the xvi century original.] 169. 

§ (1) Sermones de dominicas y Santos en lengua Maya: MS. xvi 
century (missing). 201. 

§ (2) Noticias sagradas y profanas de las antigiiedades y conversion de 
los Indios de Yucatan: MS. xvi century (missing). 196. 

§ (3) Apuntaciones sobre las antigiiedades Mayas o Yucatecas: MS. 
xvi century (missing.) (Probably a variant title for 2. Molina, 



268 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Solana, Alonso de, (3) (continued). 

1904-10, v. 1, p. 329, gives a third variant Historia de las 
antiguedades de los Indios Mayas y de la predication de la fe en 
Yucatan). 169. 

§ (4) Estudios historicos sobre los Indios, MS. xvi century (missing). 

169. 
§ (5) Apuntes de las Santas Escrituras: MS. xvi century (missing). 

(Molina, 1904-10, v. 1, p. 329 gives a variant title, Vidas de 

varones apostolicos.) 169. 
§ (6) Apuntamientos historicos y sagrados de la promulgacion del 

Evangelio en Yucathan, y sus misiones: MS. xvi century 

(missing). (After Alcedo.) 169. 

SOLIS Y ROSALES, JOSE VlCENTE 

1869 See Nolasco de los Reyes, 1869. 

1870 Vocabulario de la lengua Maya compuesto y redactado por el 
• uso del Sr. Abate Brasseur de Bourbourg: Folio MS. 18 ff. 

176. 

Sosa [Escalante], Francisco 

1866 Manuel de biografia Yucateca: Merida, 12°, 228 p. 157. 

1873 Don Crescendo Carrillo. Ensayo biografico: in Boletin de la 

Sociedad de Geografia y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana 

(Series 3), v. 1, p. 733-742. 147. 
1884 Biografias de Mexicanos distinguidos : Mexico, 8°, xii, 1115, 8 p. 

167 (2). 

SOTUTA, DOCUMENTOS DEL PUEBLO DE 

[Various papers in Maya.] (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 50-34, p. 187-200. See Perez (2). Gaspar Antonio 
Xiu, possible author.) 205. 

SOTUTA, LlBRO DEL JuDIO DE 

4°, MS. en lengua Maya (incomplete), 58 p.; (owned by Gates 
and reproduced by him). 196. 

Spence, Lewis 
[1913] The myths of Mexico and Peru: New York, 8°, xiii, 366 p. 168. 

Spencer, Herbert 

1873-1910 Descriptive sociology or groups of sociological facts classi- 
fied and arranged : London and New York, folio, 10 v. (Partial 
Spanish ed. by Genaro Garcia, El antiguo Yucatan: Mexico, 
1898, 8°, 153 p.) 162. 

Squier, Ephraim George 

1857 Nouvelles decouvertes d'antiquites monumentales dans l'Ameri- 
que Centrale: in Nouvelles Annates des Voyages et des Sciences 
Geographiques, Paris, v. 153, p. 175-182. (This communica- 
tion introduces a letter from J. A. Urrutia, p. 182-186.) 178. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 269 

1858 The states of Central America; their geography, topography, 
climate, population, resources, productions, commerce, politi- 
cal organization, aborigines, etc.: New York, 8°, xvi, 17-782, 
maps, pis. (German ed. Leipzig, 1865.) 178. 

1861 Monograph of authors who have written on the languages of 
Central America, and collected vocabularies or composed 
works in the native dialects of that country: New York, 8°, 
xvi, 17-70 p. (Another ed., London, 1861.) 151, 156. 

Starr, Frederick 
1901-04 Notes upon the ethnography of southern Mexico : in Proceed- 
ings of the Davenport Academy of Sciences, Davenport, Iowa, 
v. 8, p. 102-198; v. 9, p. 63-162," pis. (Published separately.) 
178. 
1908 In Indian Mexico. A narrative of travel and labor: Chicago, 
8°, xi, 425p. 177. 
Stein, Henri 

1897 Manuel de bibliographie generale. (Bibliotheca bibliographica 
nova): Paris, 8°, xx, 895 p. This contains: 
Philologie Amenque (p. 261-262). 155. 

Stephens, John L[loyd] 

1843 Incidents of travel in Yucatan: New York, 8°, 2 v. xii, 9-459; 
xvi, 9-478 p. (Other editions with slight variations in imprint 
are: New York, 1847, 1848, 1855, 1856, 1858, 1860, 1868. 
English ed. London, 1843. Spanish ed. by Justo Sierra, Cam- 
peche, 1848-50. German ed. by Meissner, Leipzig, 1853.) 
180, 185, 186, 205. 
Stoll, Otto 

1884 Zur Ethnographie der Republik Guatemala: Zurich, 8°, 175, 

5 p. map. 157, 159, 168, 178. 
1886 Guatemala. Reisen und Schilderungen aus den Jahren 1878- 
83; Leipzig, 8°, xii, 519 p., 2 maps. 159, 178. 

Swanton, John R. and Thomas, Cyrus 

1911 See Thomas, Cyrus and Swanton, John R. 

Tapia Zenteno, Carlos 

1767 For copy with marginal words in Maya, see Berendt, 1867a. 

Teabo, Cuaderno de 

(Copy by Berendt, 1868, p. 93-96, in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 49.) 195. 

Teabo, Oraciones de 

12°, MS. en la lengua Maya, 30, 76 p. circa 1865-1884. (Owned 
by Gates and reproduced by him.) 202. 

Tekax, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS. 36 p. (incomplete). (Owned by Gates and reproduced by 
him.) 191. 



270 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Teodora, Historia de la Doncella 

(Copiado del Chilam Balam de Mani por Juan Pio Perez. Copy 
by Berendt, 1868d, v. 2, p. 225-240 in Berendt Linguistic Col- 
lection, No. 43-9. See also Perez, 2., p. 31-37, in Berendt 
Linguistic Collection, No. 50-3. Same is found in Chilam 
Balam de Kaua.) 184. 
Ternaux-Compans, Henri 

1837 Bibliotheque am^ricaine ou Catalogue des ouvrages relatifs a 
FAmerique qui ont paru depuis sa decouverte jusqu'a Fan 
1700: Paris, 8°, viii, 191 p. 154. 
1840-41 Vocabulaire des principales langues du Mexique: in Nouvelles 
Annates des Voyages et des Sciences Geographiques, Paris, v. 88, 
p. 5-37, v. 92, p. 257-287. (Copy of numerals in Berendt Lin- 
guistic Collection, No. 42-7.) 178, 182. 
1843 Notice sur le Yucathan tiree des ecrivains espafiols: in Nouvelles 
Annates des Voyages et des Sciences Geographiques: Paris, v. 97, 
p. 30-52. 161, 180. 
Thomas, Cyrus 

1881-82 Notes on certain Maya and Mexican manuscripts: in Bureau 
of Ethnology, Washington, 3d Report, p. 7-65, pis. i-iv. 190. 
This contains: 

Symbols of the cardinal points, p. 37-65. 
1882 Study of the manuscript Troano: in Contributions to North 
American Ethnology, Washington, v. 5, 4°, xxxvii, 237 p. 8 pis. 
(Introduction by D. G. Brinton.) 185. 
1894 The Maya language: in American Antiquarian, v. 16, p. 244. 

161. 
1897-98 Numeral systems of Mexico and Central America; in Bureau 
of Ethnology, Washington, 19th Report, part 2, p. 853-956. 
182. 
1902 Provisional list of linguistic families, languages, and dialects of 
Mexico and Central America: in American Anthropologist 
(n. s.) v. 4, p. 207-216. 160. 
Thomas, Cyrus and Swanton, John R[eed] 

1911 Indian languages of Mexico and Central America and their 
geographical distribution : in Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin 44, 
Washington, 8°, vii, 108 p. map. 160. 
Tiburcio Cervera, Jose 

[Writer on Maya language in Repertorio Pintoresco of Merida.] 

TlCUL, DlCCIONARIO DE 

1690 MS. Spanish-Maya, 154 ff. Original MS. missing. Copy by 
Perez (1836) missing. Another copy by Perez (1847, 146 p.). 
Printed in Perez (1898, p. 123-296), with following title Co- 
ordination alfabetica de la coleccion de voces de la lengua Maya, 
compuesta por varios autores, hallada en el Archivo de Libros 
Bautismales del Pueblo de Ticul en el ano de 1836, copiada en 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 271 

dicho ano por Juan Pio Perez y arreglada en 184.7 por el mismo. 
(Rearranged in Maya-Spanish order by Perez (1847a), 133 p. 
Copy by Berendt (1870) of Maya-Spanish and Spanish-Maya: 
4°, 2 v. 268; 241 p. in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 2. 
See Perez, 1836: 1847: 1847a: 1898: 7.) 173. 

TlCUL, DOCUMENTOS DE 

1760 et seq. MS. collection of deeds and legal papers, 4°, 62 p. 
(owned by Gates and reproduced by him). 205. 
Ticul, Manuscrito de 

See Xiu Chronicles. 
Tmosuco, Chilam Balam de 

[MS. known only by name.] 191. 
Tixcocob, Chilam Balam de 

[MS. known only by name.] 191. 
Tizimin, Chilam Balam de 

4°, MS., 52 p. (Gates reproduction.) (There is a Berendt copy, 
1868, in the Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 49. Gates 
owns second copy, 8°, 35 ff., also reproduced by him.) (This 
MS. is also called the Codice Anonimo.) 189. 

TORQUEMADA, JUAN DE 

1613 Los veinte i un libros rituales i monarchia Indiana, con el 
origen y guerras de los Indios occidentales, de sus poblaciones, 
descubrimiento, conquista, conversion, y otras cosas maravil- 
losas de la mesma tierra: Madrid. (2d ed. by Barcia, Madrid, 
1723, 4°, 3 v. 768; 623; iv, 634 p. Other editions.) 153. 
Torralva, Francisco de 
§ (1) Sermones de Dominicas y Santos, para predicar a los Indios todos 
los dias, en lengua Maya 6 Iucateca, mui clara i elegante: 
- MS. xvi-xvii century (missing). 201. 
Tozzer, Alfred M[arston]. 

1901 Modern Maya texts with Spanish translation and grammatical 
notes, collected near Valladolid, Yucatan: 8°, MS. 175 p. 207. 
1902-05 Reports of the Fellow in American Archaeology of the Ar- 
chaeological Institute of America: in American Journal of 
Archaeology (2d series), Supplements, v. 6, p. 2-4; v. 7, p. 45- 
49; v. 8, p. 54-56; v. 9, p. 45-47. 162. 

1906 Notes on the Maya pronoun: in Boas Anniversary Volume, New 

York, p. 85-87. 167. 

1907 A comparative study of the Mayas and the Lacandones: New 

York, 8°, 195 p., xxix pis. 168, 207. 

1910 The animal figures in the Maya codices : in Papers of the Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, v. 3, p. 272-372, 39 pis. (Glover M. 
Allen, joint author.) 168. 

1912 A classification of Maya verbs: in Proceedings of the 17th Inter- 
national Congress of Americanists, Mexico (1910), p. 233-237. 
167. 

% ^7. ~ ■ .. -— > 



272 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Tozzer, Alfred M[arston] (continued). 

1917 The Chilam Balam books and the possibility of their translation: 

in Proceedings of the 19th International Congress of American- 
ists, Washington (1915), p. 178-186. 157, 182, 195. 

1918 Bibliographical notes on the linguistic and other material from 

Middle America in the Bancroft Library of the University of 
California, Berkeley: 4°, MS. 101 ff. 156. 
Tregear, Edward 

1898 Notes on Maya and Malay: in Journal of the Polynesian Society, 
v. 7, p. 101-108. 161. 
T[roncoso], F[rancisco del] P[aso y] Translator. 

1883 Los Libros de Chilam Balam: (Translation of Brinton, 18826,) 
in Anales del Museo Nacional, Mexico, v. 3, p. 92-109, (with 
many original notes). 183, 185, 191, 193, 194. 

Trttbner, Nicolas 

1858 Editor of Ludewig, 1858. 

1865 American literary intelligence : in American and Oriental Literary 
Record, No. 1, London. 170. 
Trubner and Co. Editors. 

1882 Catalogue of dictionaries and grammars of the principal lan- 
guages and dialects of the world: London, 2d. ed. 12°, viii, 
170 p. (Sale catalogue.) (Also many previous catalogues.) 
158. 
Umery, J. 

1863 Sur l'identite* du mot mere dans les idiomes de tous les peuples: 
in Revue Orientate et Americaine, Memoir es de la Societe d' Ethno- 
graphic, Series 1, Paris, v. 8, p. 335-338. 179. 

Urrutia, J. A. 

1857 See Squier, 1857. 
Valentini, Philipp J[ohann] J[osef] 

1880 The katunes of Maya history: in Proceedings of the American 
Antiquarian Society, (1879), p. 71-117. (Published separately, 
Worcester, 1880.) 185, 186. 
1896 Das geschichtliche in den mythischen Stadten "Tulan": in 
Zeitschrijt filr Ethnologie, v. 28, p. 44-55. 185. 
Vales, Jose Pilar. Translator. 

[1870] U oibhuun hach noh tzicbenil Ahaucaan Ahmiatz Leandro 
Rodriguez de la Gala ti u hach yamailoob mohenoob yanoob 
tu nachilcahtaliloob Nohol y Chikin ti le luumcabil Yucatan 
laa: Ho (Merida), 8°, 8 p. (Pastoral sermon translated into 
Maya.) (Gates reproduction.) 202. 

Valez, Manuel A. 
1893 Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan, 250 palabras 
en la lengua Maya y Castellano del pueblo de Sotuta: Copy, 
4°., MS., 4 ff. in Peabody Museum. 177, 181. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 273 

Valladolid, Bernardino de 141. 
§ (1) Conclusiones de todas las materias de los Sacramentos en Latin 

y en Yucateco: MS. xvn century (missing). 197. 
§ (2) Dioscorides en lengua de Yucatan, con adiciones et conciones 

theologicas en idioma Yucateco: MS. xvn century (missing). 

201. 
§ (3) Vocabulario: MS. xvn century, [?] missing. (After Ludewig, 

1858, p. 103.) 172. 

Vater, Johann Severin 

1806-17 See Adelung. 

1810 Untersuchungen liber Amerika's Bevolkerung aus dem alten 
Kontinente dem Herrn Kammerherrn Alexander von Hum- 
boldt: Leipzig, 8°, xii, 212 p. 179. 

1815 Linguarum totius orbis index alphabeticus, quarum grammatical, 
lexica, collectiones vocabularum recensentur, patria significa- 
tur historia adumbratur: Berlin, 8°, 10,259 p. (Text in German 
and Latin. This contains the bibliographical notices in first 
two volumes and the first part of v. 3 of Adelung, 1806-1817. 
German edition by B. Jiilg, Berlin, 1847.) 154. 

Vela, Jos£ Canuto. Translator. 

1848 Pastoral del Ilustrfsimo Senor Obispo (Jose Maria Guerra) diri- 
gida a los indfgenas de esta diocesis: Merida, 16°, 8 p. in Maya 
and "Spanish. (Gates reproduction.) (There is possibly a 
later edition of this. See Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, 
p. 186.) 202. 

1848a Carta que yo presidente de la Mision evangelica dirijo a" los 
caudillos de los Indios sublevados del Sur y Oriente de esta 
peninsula de Yucatan, Ven Tekax, 23 de febrero de 1848: 1 
leaf, Merida. 202. 
(1) [Some grammatical notes on the Maya language. MS. once 
owned by Carrillo y Ancona. See his 1870; ed. 1872, p. 187.] 
166. 

Vidales, Luis 
§(1) Vocabulario Hispano-Maya y Maya-Hispano : MS. xvn century 

(missing). 172. 
§ (2) Sintaxis de la lengua Maya: MS. xvn century (missing). 163. 
§ (3) Florilegia medicinal propio de la provincia de Yucatan: MS. 

xvn century (missing?). 195. 

VlLLAGUTIERRE Y SOTOMAYOR, JUAN 

1701 Historia de la conquista de la provincia de el Itza, reduccion y 
progressos de la de el Lacandon y otras naciones de Indios 
barbaros, de la mediacion de el reyno de Guatimala, a las 
provincias de Yucatan, en la America Septentrional; Primera 
parte. 4°, Madrid, 33 ff., 660 p., 17 ff. 163, 180. 



274 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

VlLLALPANDO, LUIS DE 144. 

1571 Diccionario de la lengua Maya: Mexico, 4° (see 1). (Brinton, 
1882, p. 74, states one copy at least is in existence.) 169. 

§ (1) Arte de la lengua Maya: MS. xvi century (missing). 162, 169. 

§ (2) Doctrina Cristiana en idioma Yucateco 6 Maya: MS. xvi cen- 
tury (missing). 196. 
Villanueva, Juan Jose. Translator. 

1864 Proclama del Comisario. Traducida en lengua Maya. Impresso 
en hoja suelta. (Copy, 12°, 5 p. by Berendt in Berendt Linguis- 
tic Collection, No. 42-17.) 206. 

VlNAZA, [ClPRIANO MANZANO], CONDE DE La 

1892 Bibliografia Espariola de lenguas indigenas de America: Madrid, 
8°, xxv, 1 f. 427, (5) p. 150, 151, 155. 
Waldeck, Frederic 

1838 Voyage pittoresque et arch£ologique dans la Province d'Yucatan 
(Am£rique Centrale), pendant les annees 1834 et 1836: Paris, 
folio, x, 110 p. map, pis. This contains: 

Vocabulaire Maya avec les noms de nombre et quelques 
phrases a l'usage des voyageurs (Spanish, French, Maya), 
p. 79-80. (Copy in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
42-13.) 176 (2), 180, 181, 206. 
Wilkins, E. Percival 

1919 [Report and translation of one chapter of Ritual of the Bacabs, 
read by Gates at meetings of the American Anthropological 
Association, Cambridge, December, 1919]. 196. 
(1) Ritual of the Bacabs. (Text and translation in preparation.) 
196. 
[Wilkinson, Paul] 

1914 The library of . . . scarce books, manuscripts and other ma- 

terial relating to Mexico: New York, 8°, 81 p. (Sale cata- 
logue.) 156, 158. 

1915 Illustrated catalogue of books, maps and documents relating to 

Mexico, Central America and the Maya Indians of Yucatan: 
New York, 8°, 483 nos. (Sale catalogue.) 156, 158, 204. 
(1) Bio-bib] iographical accounts of the writers on Yucatan and 
Central America with special relation to those who have 
treated of the Maya race and "Mayaland": 4°, MS. contained 
in a loose-leaved note-book in the Library of Congress, Wash- 
ington (Handbook of manuscripts, p. 265). 156. Among 
other items this volume contains : 

An incomplete list of the works of Acosta, Berendt, Brasseur 
de Bourbourg, Brinton, Carrillo y Ancona, Las Casas, 
Cortes, Bernal Diaz, Juan Diaz, Gage, Gomara, Herrera, 
Martyr, Oviedo, Perez, Ruz, Solis, and Squier. 
List of the Relaciones (from Coleccion de Documentor Ineditos 
(1898-1900). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 275 

Tentative arrangement of the Maya dialects. 160. 
Definition of Spanish terms, such as adelantado, audiencia, 

etc. 
Article on Folk-Lore . 
List of Maya codices. 

List of Books of Chilam Balam and Maya prophecies. 
List of Chronicles. 
Bibliographies of bibliographies. 
Special bibliographies such as Bandelier and Haebler. 
General bibliographies such as Le6n Pinelo and Nicolas 

Antonio. 
Bibliography of general works such as Fiske and Winsor. 
Bibliography of writers on Maya inscriptions (four entries 

only). 
Entries regarding Columbus. 
Books on the discovery of America. 
Early maps and navigation. 
Early suggestions and accounts of Yucatan. 
The main body of the manuscript is taken up with a general 
bibliography, arranged chronologically, of books and 
manuscripts dating from 1524 to 1912. The entries are 
taken, for the most part, from Medina (1898-1907), 
Martinez Alomia (1906), Squier (1861), Beristain y Souza 
(1816-21), and Gates (2). 
Winsor, Justin 

1889 Narrative and critical history of America : Boston, 1. 8°, 8 v. 155, 
162. 
Xiu, Gaspar Antonio [also called Chi or Herrera] 
§ 1582 Relacion sobre las costumbres de los indios de Yucatan (missing). 
169. 
§ (1) Vocabulario Maya 6 de la lengua de Yucatan: MS. xvi century 
(missing) . 169. 
See also Sotuta, Documentos de. 
Xiu Chronicles • 

1608 et seq. 4°, MS. 1608-1817, 164 p., owned by Peabody Museum. 
(Reproduced by Gates and by C. P. Bowditch, latter with in- 
troduction by A. C. Breton.) (Also called the Ticul MS. and 
the Cronica de Oxkutzcab.) 203. 
Xiu de Oxkutzcab 

See Oxkutzcab, Chilam Balam de 
Xtepen, Papeles de 

Dos piezas de las papeles de la Hacienda Xtepen de Don Joaquin 
Hubbe (en lengua Maya) . (Copy, 12°, 2 p. in Berendt Linguis- 
tic Collection No. 44-8.) 205. 
Zavala, M. 

1896 Gramatica Maya: Merida, 8°, 94 p. 167. 



276 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Zavala, M. and Medina, A. 

1898 Vocabulario Espafiol-Maya : Merida, 8°, 72 p. 177. 

Zayas Enriquez, Rafael de 

1908 El estado de Yucatan, su pasado, su presente, su porvenir: New- 
York, 8°, 366 p. 160. 

ZUNIGA, P. 

(1) [MS. formerly in Carrillo y Ancona collection regarding deriva- 
tion of word Yucatan.] 180. 



Anon. 

1514-72 Un libro que contiene varias cartas escritas & S. ,M. por los 
governadores, obispos, oficiales reales, caciques, e* indios de la 
provincia de Yucatan : 4°, MS. in El Archivo General de Indias, 
Se^illa. (Several of the letters are in the Maya language.) 
206. 

1542 [Official doeument in Maya still preserved on authority of D. G. 
Brinton.] 203. 

1803 Modo de confesar en lengua Maya: 12°, MS. from Campeche, 
38 ft", in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 26. (Copy by 
Berendt in Berendt, 1868a, p. 231-257. This copy reproduced 
by Gates.) 198. 

1820 Apuntes sobre algunas plantas medicinales de Yucatan, escritos 
por un fraile franciscano de Campeche : 4°, MS., 20 ff. (Owned 
by Gates.) 195. 

1845 Manuscrito antiguo (probably the Chilam Balam de Oxkutzcab) : 
in Registro Yucateco, v. 1, p. 360. 190. 

1860 Colecci6n polidi6mica Mexicana que contiene la Oraci6n Domin- 
ical vertida en cincuenta y dos idiomas indfgenos de aquella 
Republica: Mexico, 1. 8°, vii, 52 p. (Reprint in Boletin de la 
Sociedad Geografla y Estadistica de la Republica Mexicana 
(Ser. 4), v. 1, 1888, p. 151-179.) (Pilling mentions an earlier 
ed. of 1859.) 199. 

1868 Bibliotheca Mexicana. Catalogue d'une collection de livres 
rares (principalement sur Thistoire et la linguistique) reunie au 
Mexique par M. * * * : Paris, 8°, 47 p. 155, 158. 

1871 Dos oraciones en lengua Maya. (Copiados de una hoja suelta 
numerada 21, que es de alguno libro: MS. en poder de Car- 
rillo y Ancona. Copy, 12°, 4 p., in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 44-10). 202. 

1883 Doctrina an6nima (en lengua Maya) : Merida (with approval of 
Bishop de la Gala by Secretary, Carrillo y Ancona). (See 
Baeza, 1883.) 198. 

1891 The Lord's Prayer in three hundred languages: London. 199. 
[1893] Vocabularios comparativos del estado de Yucatan. 250 pala- 
bras en la lengua Maya y Castellano del pueblo de Sotuta: 
Copy, 4°, MS., 4 ff. in Peabody Museum. 177, 181. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 277 

1897 Modo de administrar los santos Sacramentos de Sagrada Vidtico 

Matrimonio Extrema Uncion en lengua Maya con una breve 
explicacion acerca del examen de Conciencia y la Comunion: 
Merida, 16°, 52 p. 198. 
1897a Homenajes funebres tributados a la memoria del Ilustrisimo 
Sefior Doctor Don Crescendo Carrillo y Ancona, Obispo de 
Yucatan, con motivo de su muerte, acaecida el 19 de Marzo de 
1897: Merida. 147. 

1898 Vocabulario de las palabras de las lenguas Maya y Mejicana 

usadas y explicadas de las relaciones : in C election de Documen- 
ts Ineditos, (2d series), v. 11, p. 435-436. 178. 

1900 The Henderson Maya dictionary: in American Anthropologist 
(n. s.) v. 2, p. 403-404. (See Report, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, 1867, p. 420-421.) 174. 

1905 See Audomaro Molina, 1905. 

(1) Acto de Contricion en Maya: 12°, MS., 38 ff. (" Copiado de un 

cuadernito ms. ... en poder de D. J. Dolores Espinoza, 
Merida," by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 
42-14.) 198. 

(2) Algunos apuntes sobre la historia antigua de Yucatan: 16°, MS. 

14 ff. in Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. (Gates reproduction.) 
168. 

(3) Alocucion de Indios Mayas d, Maximilian (en lengua Maya.) 

(Copy by Berendt, 12°, 2 p., in Berendt Linguistic Collection, 
No. 42-18.) 206. 

(4) Borrador de un sermon (en lengua Maya): 1,2°, MS., 4 p. 

(" MS. del autor del Vocabulario en lengua de Maya en Prov- 
idence" (Motul dictionary): in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 42^t) . (See Anon, 30.) 201. 

(5) Diccionario de la lengua Maya: 12° MS. xvm century, If. No. 

277 " va." Owned by Gates and reproduced by him. 174. 

(6) Doctrina en el dialecto de la Montana de Holmul (Peten): 4°, 

MS. 12 ff. (Berendt copy, Sacluc, 1867, in Berendt Linguistic 
Collection, No. 42-10.) 197. 

(7) Doctrina en lengua Maya: 8°, MS. xviii century, 34 p. (Owned 

by Gates and reproduced by him.) 197. 

(8) Documentos en la lengua Maya desde el afio 1571, 1663, etc.: 

Mssel. MSS. (mostly 4°). (Owned by Gates and reproduced, 
4°, 101 p., by him.) 203. 

(9) Doctrina necesaria para confesarse en la regla. Dispuesta en 

lengua Maya: Merida, 24 p. (This is probably the same work 
as Baeza, 1883.) 198. 
(10) " Especie de circular 6 manifiesto de la reina de Inglaterra . . . 
& manera de cartelon, con grandes y hermosos caract£res en 
idioma Maya, el cual fue desprendido de una esquina de calle 
publica." (Mentioned by Carrillo y Ancona, 1870; ed. 1872, 
p. 190.) 206. 



278 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Anon, (continued). 

(11) Forma de administrar el Viatico en lengua Maya. (" Copia 

[12°, 12 p.] tomada de un ms. moderno de principios de este 
siglo, en poder de Presbitero D. Crescendo Carrillo, Merida, 
September, 1868 " by Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collec- 
tion, No. 42-12.) 198. 

(12) Hari va vuh ru lokolah evangelio cheri Kanim Ahauh, Kanima 

Kolonel, Jesu Christo Incheel Tantzibatal Rome San Marco: 
16°, 79 p. 200. 

(13) Judio, Libro del: 16°, MS. en lengua Maya, 156 p. (Original in 

Peabody Museum, Gates reproduction.) 195. 

(14) El libro de los medicos, yervateros de Yucatan 6 noticias sobre 

yervas y animales medicinales Yucatecos sacados de los anti- 
guos libros Mayas de Chilam Balam, calendarios y demas co- 
pias curiosas. 8°, MS., 72-117 ff. of a note book. (Gates 
reproduction.) 195. 

(15) Medicina, Libro de: 12°, MS. en lengua Maya, 176 p. (Owned 

by Gates and reproduced by him.) 195. 

(16) Medicina Maya. 4°, MS. in lengua Maya. 94, 2 ff. (ff. 8, 52-57, 

60-73, 75-92 missing. Owned by Gates and reproduced by 
him). 195. 

(17) Modo de administrar el sagrado viatico en lengua Maya. Copi- 

ado del Via Crusis: 12°, MS. 2 p. (in Berendt Linguistic Col- 
lection, No. 42-16. See Nolasco de los Reyes, 1869). 198 (2). 

(18) Modo de administrar el Santissimo Sacramento de la Eucaristia 

como viatico (en lengua Maya). MS. (copy 12°, 7 p. by 
Berendt in Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 42-15). 198. 

(19) Noticias de varias plantas y sus virtudes (de Yucatan). MS. in 

Merida (copy by Berendt, 16°, 29 p. Reproduction by Gates 
of Berendt copy). 195. 

(20) Pasion domini en la lengua Maya: 12°, MS., 44 p. (Owned by 

Gates and reproduced by him.) 198. 

(21) Sermones en la lengua Maya: 4°, MS., 144 p. (Owned by Gates 

and reproduced by him.) 202. 

(22) Sermones en la lengua Maya: 4°, MS., 196 ff., xvm century. 

(Copy by Berendt, 1868a. p. 119-229: in Berendt Linguistic 
Collection, No. 47. Reproduction by Gates of Berendt copy.) 
201. 

(23) De Trinitate Dei en la lengua Maya 6 del Ser de Dios: 8°, MS., 

incomplete, 12 p. (Gates reproduction.) 198. 

(24) U mutil vine zanzamal (fama diaria del hombre) : MS. 1 p. : in 

Berendt Linguistic Collection, No. 50-18. (See Perez, 2, 
p. 94.) 206. 

(25) Vocabulario de la lengua Maya: 8°, MS., (in la Libreria de San 

Gregorio de Mexico, after Vifiaza, No. 1134). 177. 

(26) Vocabulario de la lengua Maya (with a short list of grammatical 

forms): 8°, MS. modern, .98 p. (Owned by Gates and repro- 
duced by him.) 166, 177. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 279 

(27) Vocabulaire de la langue Maya en Anglais, d'environ deux mille 
mots, travail moderne, tres-incomplet fait a Belize. (MS. once 
belonging to Brasseur de Bourbourg. See his 1857-59, v. 1, 
p. lxxxix.) 176. 
§(28) Vocabulario grande Yucatano (after Cogolludo lib. iv. cap. vi.) 
171. 

(29) Cuento de vieja. U tzichbal xnuc : Broadside, 1 sheet. Parallel 

columns, Spanish and Maya. Merida. 207. 

(30) [Two sermons in Maya] 16°, MS. 6 ff. in John Carter Brown 

Library, Providence. (This is probably the same as Anon, 4.) 
201. 
§(31) Un librillo escrito . . . en el idioma de los Indios. MS. xvi cen- 
tury (missing, after Cogolludo, lib. 2, cap. xiv.) 192. 



Harvard University 
May 21, 1921 



APPENDICES 



APPENDIX I 



PARADIGMS 
Verb Classification 



Class Ia. Verbs of action or state. 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in) het-ik 

* 

Future hen (he-in) het-ik-e 

kin (ki-in) het-ik 

bin in het-e 

tin (t-in} het-ah 

o'in (o'on-in) het-ah 

in het-m-ah 
Imperative het-e 

Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) het-el or het-el-in- I am performing the act of opening 
kah (het-1-in-kah) 



Past 



3ok «r 



I am opening something, my open- 
ing something 
I shall open something 
I may open something 
I am going to open something 
I opened something 
I have just opened something 
I opened something a long time ago 
open it 



Future 


hen (he-in) het-el-e 
bin-het-ak-en 






I shall open 

I am going to open 


Past 


het-en or t'-het-en 
o'in het-el 






I performed the act of opening, I 

opened 
I have just opened 


Imperative net-en 






open 


Passive 










Present 


tun (tan-u) het-s-el 






it is being opened, its being affected 
by someone causing it to open 


Future 


hu (he-u) het-s-el-e, 
het-s-ak-i 


or 


bin 


it will be opened 


Past 


het-s-ah-b-i, or het-s 


-ah 


-n-i 


it was opened 


Class Ib. Verbs of action 


or 


state with causal 



Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in), kim-s-ik 

Future hen (he-in) kim-s-ik-e 
kin (ki-in) kim-s-ik 
bin in kim-s-e, or bin in kim-e 

Past tin (t-in) kim-s-ah 

o'in (o'ok-in) kim-s-ah 
in kim-s-m-ah 

Imperative kim-s-e or kim-e-s 

283 



I am killing something, my causing 

death to something 
I shall kill something 
I may kill something 
-s I am going to kill something 
I killed something 
I have just killed something 
I killed something a long time ago 
kill it 



284 



APPENDIX I 



Class Ib. Verbs of action or state with causal (continued) 

Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) kim-il, or kim-il- 

in-kah (kim-1-in-kah) 
Future hen (he-in) kim-il-e 

bin kim-ak-en 
Past kim-i, or t'-kim-i 

o'u kim-i 
Imperative kim-en 
Passive 
Present tin (tan-in) kim-s-il 



I am dying, my being affected by 

death 
I shall die 
I am going to die 
he died 

he has just died 
die 



Future hen (he-in) kim-s-il-e, or 

bin kim-s-ak-en 
Past kim-s-ah-b-i, or kim-s-ah-n-i 

Class II. Verbs in t-al, "endowed 
Present tin (tan-in) ku§-t-al 
Future hen (he-in) ku§-t-al-e 

bin ku§-tal-ak-en 
Past ku§-t-al-ah-en or ku§-l-ah-en 

Imperative ku§-t-en or ku§-t-al-en 

Class IIIa. Nominal verbs 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'on-ik 

Future hen (he-in) o'on-ik-e 

kin (ki-in), o'on-ik 

bin in o'on-e 
Past tin (t-in) o'on-ah 

o'in (o'ok-in) o'on-ah 

in o'on-m-ah 
Imperative o'on-e 
Intransitive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'on (o'on-in-kah) 
Future hen (he-in) o'on-e 

bin o'on-ak-en 
Past o'on-n-ah-en 

o'in (o'ok-in) o'on 

o'on-n-ah-ah-en 
Imperative o'on-en 

Passive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'on-ol 

Future hen (he-in) o'on-ol-e 

Past o'on-ah-b-en or o'on-ah-n-en 



I am being killed, my being affected 

by someone causing my death 
I shall be killed 
I am going to be killed, 
he was killed 

with." 

I am living 

I shall be living 

I am going to live 

I lived 

live 



I am shooting something, my 

gunning something 
I shall shoot something 
I may shoot something 
I am going to shoot something 
I shot something 
I have just shot something 
I shot something a long time ago 
shoot it 

I am shooting or my gunning 

I shall shoot 

I am going to shoot 

I shot 

I have just shot 

I shot a long time ago 

shoot 

I am being shot, I am affected by 

a gun 
I shall be shot 
I was shot, I was gunned 



PARADIGMS 



285 



Class IIIb. Nominal verbs with agent 

Transitive 

Present tin (tan-in) o'ib-t-ik 



Future hen (he-in) o'ib-t-ik-e 
kin (ki-in) o'ib-t-ik 
bin in o'ib-t-e 

Past tin (t-in) o'ib-t-ah 

o'in (o'ok-in) o'ib-t-ah 
in o'ib-t-m-ah 

Imperative o'ib-t-e 

Intransitive 



I am writing something, my writ- 
ing something 
I shall write something 
I may write something 
I am going to write something 
I wrote something 
I have just written something 
I wrote something a long time ago 
write it 



Present 


tin (tan-in) o'ib 


I am writing, my writing 


Future 


hen (he-in) o'ib-e 


I shall write 




bin o'ib-n-ak-en 


I am going to write 


Past 


o'ib-n-ah-en 


I wrote 




o'in (o ok-in) o'ib 


I have just written 




o'ib-n-ah-ah-n-en 


I wrote a long time ago 


Imperative o'ib-en 


write 


Passive 






Present 


tun (tan-u) o'ib-t-il or o'ib-t-al 


it is being written 


Future 


hu (he-u) o'ib-t-il-e 


it will be written 


Past 


o'ib-t-ah-b-i, or o'ib-t-ah-n-i 


it was written 


Class IV. Verb "to be" 




Present 


winik-en 


I am a man 


Future 


hen (he-in) winik-tal-e, or 


I shall be a man, I shall become a 




winik-tsal-e 


man 




bin winik-tal-ak-en 


I am going to become a man 


Past 


winik-h-en 


I was a man 



286 



APPENDIX II 



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288 



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APPENDIX III 



LIST OF NUMERAL CLASSIFIERS 1 

Ak. For canoes, boats, houses, lots, seats, earthen vessels, churches, altars, 

caves, holes or pits, troughs, villages, or maize fields. 
Ahau. For the twenty-year groups of the Maya calendar, which are like our 

indictions, although they consist of a larger number of years than these. 

The native century or era contained 13 ahaues, or 260 years. 
Awat. For distances; miles or quarters of leagues. 
Baq. For 400; because just as we count by thousands, the Indians counted by 

400, sayinq hunbaq, kabaq, etc. 
Bal. For ends of ropes, of thread, etc. 

For things [z]. 
BalatS. For strokes, of measurements made by rule, line or compass. 
Balaq. For the turns given to cords laid in circles, or to similar things which 

are twisted or twined. (Compare Koo\) 
Ban. For things in heaps. The same as banab, which also serves for counting 

small flocks or herds of animals. 
Em. For births. 
Kat. For quadrupeds [z]. 
Kot. For quadrupeds. 

Koo. For lengths of threads, cords, rods or staffs; for " pieces " of time. 
Koo\ For rolls or circular twists, " a roll of cord " (made of native vines). 

Compare Balaq. 
Kuk. For elbow measurements. 
Kut§. For loads. 

Kul. For shrubs, young trees, maize plants, and balls or lumps of dough. 
Qan. For rope. 
Qas. For closets, rooms, etc. 
T§ats. For handfuls of herbs or hair. 
T§inab. For what is measured by gemes, i.e., the space from the end of the 

thumb to the end of the forefinger extended. 
TS'iik. For incised wounds made by arrows, lances, knives, sticks, etc., which 

are thrown and remain sticking in the flesh. 
Ts'ot. For counts of skeins of thread. 
T§'ui. For bunches of fruit, strings of beads, necklaces, braids, bags, and 

things which are carried hanging from the hand. 
Hah. For splinters [z]. 

1 This list was originally published by Beltran (1746; ed. 1859, p. 203-208). 
An English translation was made by Nuttall (1903, p. 674-678). Several addi- 
tions have been made from Zavala (indicated by Z) and from the author's own 
investigations. 



LIST OF NUMERAL CLASSIFIERS 291 

Hat. For mantles or " pati " for piernas of mantles or pati; also for splinters 

of wood. 
Hau. For gourd vessels split into halves, pages of writing, quarters of dead 

animals, and slices of fruit. 
Heb, Hebal, Hebel. For piernas of mantles or pati; also for the counting of 

provinces. 
Hets. For hours and pages of books. Also used in counting strings of bells. 
Heq. For branches or bunches. 
Lat\ For dishes of food. 

Lat'abqin. For hours; nun lat'abqin " one hour." 
Lem. For times; nun lem " once." (Compare Mai and Muk.) 
Lot. For counting in pairs, such as kan lot " four pairs." 
Lub. For counting leagues. 

Mai. For counting numbers of times. (Compare Lem.) 
Muk. For the same count of times and for duplications, such as paying " twice 

as much " " three times as much," etc. 
Muts'. For small heaps of seeds, stones, earth, or for crowds of animals, birds, 

and people. 
Mol. For things that are united or congregated. 
Nab. For handbreadths as a measure. 
Nak. For things that are close to each other, such as jugs, staffs, or seated 

men. 
Nakat. For recumbent living beings. 
Num. For times, when expressed by ordinal numbers. 
Ok. For things measured by handfuls. 

Paak. For mantles or paties of four edges (i.e., square pieces of stuff). 
Paq. For blows, times, years. 
Pats. For birds and other animals; employed from number 9 to 19, after 

which the expression nun tab, " twenty " is used. 
Pai. For things which are long and not thin, such as beehives, canoes, sea- 
boats, wooden beams, bales of cloth, and skeins of thread. 
Pek. For circular things, such as consecrated wafers, maize-cakes, and others 

which are flat. 
Pet. For maize-fields and for pastures. 
Peo'. For chapters of books and for orations and songs. 
Pis. For years, days, months, and coin currency (a real or peso or dollar). 
Pits'. For pieces of a thing cut off and for mouthfuls. 
Poq. For fish, birds, and animals. 
Pul. For lashes given with a whip or blows dealt with the flat side of the blade 

of a sword. 
P'eel. For all inanimate things in general. 
P'ik. For a written chapter or articles of faith; or for rows of stones, each 

row or stone being above the other. 
P'is. For any kind of measure or weight. At the same time this particle 

usually expresses a fanega or measure consisting of twelve almudes. 
P'ots. For bunches of fruit. 
P'uuk. For plants and trees. The particle sek is more popularly used. 



292 APPENDIX III 

P'uk. For mouthfuls of food or swallows of liquid. 

Sap. For counts of arm's lengths; each contains two yards. 

Sek. For trees and other plants. 

Tas. For things which follow each other in order or in line; also for heavens. 

Te. For counts of years, months, days, leagues, cocoa, eggs, and calabashes 

or squashes. 
Ten, Tenak. For numbers of times, and tenak for past times. Tenel is also 

used for times, but with the particle bahun or bahuns or another. 
Tenel. For number of times in questions, (z) 
Tuk. For heaps of things. 
Tul. For men, women, angels, and souls. 

T'il, oool. For things placed in order or file and for the subdivisions of a house. 
T'ol. For lines, furrows, ditches, or trenches, and for pages, printed columns, 

naves of churches, etc. 
3111. For the selvage of mantles or cloths and for folds of paper or the leaves 

of books. 
Ouk. For towns, paragraphs, articles, chapters, notices, heaps or piles, divi- 
sions of a whole in various parts. 
O'ak. For steps, grades, crowns, or things which are placed one over the other, 

or for something that succeeds another, such as one governor after another. 

It is then an ordinal number. 
O'am. For consecrated wafers, pamphlets, shoes, and of all things which are 

counted in pairs. 
O'ik. For persons, this particle being specially dedicated to the persons of 

the Holy Trinity. It is also employed for counting fingers as well as for 

the husbands or wives that a person has had. 
O'it. For candles; cane pipes; long fruits, such as bananas; also alligator 

pears, ears of corn, the mamey fruit, etc. 
Wal. For leaves of tobacco, of banana trees, etc. 
Wao\ For counting journeys or the number of times a person goes and comes 

in performing some business. 
Wol. For balls of dough, bundles of cotton or of wool, balls of thread and other 

round things. 
Wuo\ For folded cloths and similar things. 
Yal. For sheaths or things that are brought together. 



APPENDIX IV 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 

Introduction 

The following vocabulary is made up, first of all, of a collection 
of Maya words gathered in 1893 from various towns in Yucatan. 
The document, which is a typewritten copy of the original lists 
of words, was purchased from Paul Wilkinson in the sale of his 
library by Mr. Charles P. Bowditch and presented by him to the 
Peabody Museum. This manuscript has an introduction on Maya 
pronunciation by Crescendo Carrillo y Ancona. It is probable 
that the collection of words was made for a contemplated work 
by him on the Maya language. 

The vocabulary from Peto was made by Presbftero D. Manuel 
A. Valez, that from Valladolid by Licenciado L. Manzano, that 
from Tizimin by Francisco Rejon Espinola, and that from Sotuta 
is unsigned. These towns are widely separated. Valladolid is the 
most eastern town in the settled portion of the peninsula, Tizimin 
is almost directly north of Valladolid, about half way to the coast, 
Peto is in the south-central part of Yucatan, and Sotuta is north 
of Peto about a third of the way to the northern coast. 1 

A careful study of these words together with grammatical forms 
collected in the same areas would probably show slight dialectical 
differences in the language. 2 

In order that a comparison may be made between these modern 
vocabularies and those of early date, corresponding terms are 
given, wherever possible, from the Motul, the San Francisco, and 
the Ticul dictionaries. These early works probably date from the 
end of the xvi to the end of the xvn century. 

There are comparatively few cases where words of the three 
early authorities differ entirely from those of the four modern 

1 It is well to point out that there is a Book of Chilam Balam from Tizimin 
and a collection of documents in Maya from Sotuta as well as a Libro del 
Judio from the same locality. 

2 See note by Palma y Palma, Part I, p. 14. 

293 



294 APPENDIX IV 

lists. It is much more common to find the earlier terms for the 
same word differ among themselves and the later words agreeing 
some with one and some with others of the older lists. Of the later 
vocabularies, the words in the Peto, Tizimin, and Valladolid lists 
are much more frequently in agreement than the corresponding 
words from the Sotuta collection. 

In words where there is a possibility for single or double vowels, 
the Peto collector is more inclined to use the double vowels than 
any of the others. In the Sotuta and Ticul vocabularies, on the 
other hand, the single vowel occurs most frequently. The Peto list, 
for example, uses eight single to seventeen double vowels while 
the Sotuta uses fifteen single to six double vowels and the Ticul 
eleven single to three double vowels. 1 

In the Valladolid and the Tizimin lists the use of n in place of m 
is common. There is also often a different usage in the earlier 
vocabularies in this respect, the Motul and the Valladolid using 
sinbal, and all the others have the more common form, simbal. 
In the later lists, the Peto, the Sotuta, and the Valladolid use 
hun, the Tizimin alone using hum. 

The use of the fortis forms differs greatly. In the Peto and 
Sotuta vocabularies one finds oa, or oah, to give ; in all the others 
the form is o'a or o'ah. 

The differences in many of the verbal forms are due to the fact 
that in some cases the verb is understood in a transitive sense and 
in others as an intransitive. 

Disregarding the failure to recognize the proper form of the 
verb, the use of the semi-vowels, w and y, before vowel stems, 
and the use of the masculine and feminine prefixes, there is a sur- 
prising agreement between the earlier and later vocabularies. It 
is only fair to point out, however, that the words given in the 
lists are common every-day terms and one would not expect to 
find many changes in these. Words for spring, summer, autumn, 
and winter are given in the later vocabularies except the Tizimin, 
the author of which notes, quite properly, that there are no words 
in Maya exactly corresponding to these terms. The words for 
ice and snow are naturally not found in the earlier lists. 

1 Note the discussion of the use of the double vowel in Part I, p. 30. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



295 



abdomen, 
afternoon, 

all, 

arch (arco), 

arm, 

armadillo, 

arrow, 

autumn, 

axe, 

bad, 

bark (ladrar), 

bark (corteza), 

bat, 

bear (oso), 

beard, 

bird, 

black, 

blood, 

blue, 



Vocabularies 1 

naq, p, s, v, z : m. homtan-il, s. qo, m. 

o-qin, m, f, t, o-qin-al, z. o-qn-al, z. o-qin-il, z. 

okan-qin, p, v. sis-qin, s. 
lah — , z. tulakal, all. tu-sin-il, m, f. 
pun, s. p'un, z. p'um, p : m, t. uo*-bil-t§e, v. 
qab, s, z : m, f, t. noh-qab, p. o'ik-qab, p. o'it-qab, v. 
wet§, p, z. h-wet§, s, v. ibat§, t. 
hul, s, v, z. hul-eb, p. hal-al, t. 
its-ha-ha-lil, p. qini-yas-le, v. no word, z. 
baat, all. 

lob, s, v : m, f, t. qas, p, s, z. ma patan, m. 
tsi-bal, p, z. ha-hai-tsi-bal, s. awat-tii-bal, v. yawat- 

peq, m, f. u qeyah-peq, m. f. 
sool, z. sol-tse, s. sool-tse, p. pats, v. bos, f, t. bos- 

el-tse, f. 
so3*, p, s, v, z : t. 

san-hool, p. saan-hool, z. sam-hol, t. kab-noh, m, f. 
nots, s. noot§, p, v, z. mes, m. mees, f, t. keb, m. 
ts'itg', s : m, f, t. tsiits, v. ts'iits, p. ts'iits', z. 



bo§, p, s, v, z : f, t. eq, z : f. eeq, p : f. 
qiq, s : m, f, t. qiiq, p, v, z. 

yas, z. ya-ya§, t. yas-kab, m, f. yas-kaben, f. yas- 
top'en, f. yas-sak-nohen, v. yas-il-kaan, z. sak- 
yaas, p. 
boar (jabali), kitam, s, z. qas-i-qeqen, p, v. qas-il-qeqem, s. 

body, winkil, p. winklil, s, z. h-wiklil, v. kukut, m, f, t. 

bone, bak, all. 

boy, pal, z. paal, m. si-pal, p, s, v, z. sibi-pal, z. 

breast, oem, p, s, v, z. tan, m, f. 

breasts of woman, im, p, s, z. yim, v. 

brother, elder, sukun, s : m, t. sukuun, p, z : f. nohots sukun, v. 

brother, younger, io'in, s : m, f , t. wioin, p. wio'in, p, z. h-wio'in, v. 
buzzard, ts'om, p, s, v, z. 

canoe, tsem, p, s, v, z. ts'em, p. 

chatter (charlar), oik-bal, p. ban-kab-klu-bal, s. ts'o-ts'op-tsi, v. sakats- 

t'an, z. t'an-t'an-ah, z. 
chief, holil, p. noh-tsil, p. halats winik, s, z. yun-3il, v. 

H-meq-tan, z. kuts-kab, z. meq-tan-kah, z. 
child, tsam-pal, p, v. tsan-tsan-pal, m, f, t. tsan-si-pal, s. 

tsan-ts'u-pal, s. mehen-pal, m, f. 

1 The letters following the Maya words refer to the various vocabularies 
where the terms occur: p, Peto; s, Sotuta; v, Valladolid; z, Tizimin; m, 
Motul; s, San Francisco; and t, Ticul. A colon separates the older from the 
later authorities. 



296 



APPENDIX IV 



chile, ik, p, z : t. iq, s, v. 

cigarette, t§amal, z. ts'uts'-lem, f. tsut§-lem, t. 

cold, sis, s : t. siis, p, z. keel, p, v : m, f. keel-en, t. 

come, tal, z : m, f . tal-el, p, s : m, f, t. u-tal, v. 

corn, Isim, s : m, f, t. §iim, p, v, z. i§iim, p, z. 

coyote, u-peqil-qaa§, p. h-wayu, v. 

cradle (cuna), tas-tse-qan, p. qu-pal, s. kuts-il u o'a-bal pal-al tan tu 

sihil, v. qu-tsam-pal, z. 
crow (cuervo), tsom, s. t§'om, v, z. t§im-toq, p. 

crow (cacarear), qo-qoan-kil, z. qo-qoan-kil u-lum, t. tokan-kil u kal u 

lun, m. to-tokan-kil u kal u lum, f. to-tok-t'ere, p, 
s. t§a-tsak t'oloan-kil, z. awat u lun, m. awat u 
lum, f. 
awat, all. ta-tah-awat, m. 
oqot, all. 
daughter, by father, §-mehen, z. i§-mehen, m, f, t. wis-mehen, p, z. §- 

ts'upu-is-mehen, s. ts'up-lal, v. 
daughter, by mother, al, m, f. wal, z. tsu-pal, t. t§up-lal, m. ts'u-pal, p. 
ts'up-lal, f. §-tsup-wal, s, z. t§upu-al, v. 
qin, all. sasil-qin, s. sasil, t. 
kimen, all. 

keh, v, z : f, t. keeh, p. sibil-keh, s. 
peq, all. 
uq-ul, all. 

ts'ah, v, z. t§'ah-al, p. t§'ah-al-haa, m. tsah-al-haa, f, 
t'ah-al, t. t'ah-al-haa, m, f. t'unul-haa, m, f. 
t§'ab-il, s. 
kuo-a, f. kuo-ha, p, z : t. kuo-haa, s. patus-ha, p. 
§ikin, p, v, z : m, f, t. lee ilikin, s. 
lum, s : m. luum, p, v, z : f, t. kab, z. 
han-al, all. oentah-ba, z. 
kan-il-ha, p. 

he, p, v, z : f, t. hee, s. eel, s, z. 
it§, s, z : m, f, t. wit§, v. tuq-nel-it§, p. 



cry out (gritar), 
dance, 



day, 

dead, 

deer, 

dog, 

drink, 

drop (gotear), 



duck, 

ear, 

earth (tierra), 

eat, 

eel, 

egg, 

eye, 

face, 

far, 

father, 

feather, 

finger, 

finger-nail, 

fire, 

fish (pez), 

fish (bobo), 

fish (bagre), 

fly, 

foot, 



it§, p, s, z : m, f, t. wits, v. tan-it§, p. 

nat§, s, z : f. naats, p, v, z. nat§-il, z. 

yum, s, z : m, f, t. Hum, p. yum-bil, t. tata, v. tat, z. 

qu-qum, all. 

al-qab, z. yal-qab, p, s, z. ts'il-bi-qab, v. moti, z : m. 

mot§-qab, m. mots'-qab, f, t. 
its'ak, p, s, v, z. 
qaq, s, z : m, f. qaaq, p, v. 
kai, p, s, v, z : m, t. oaqin, f. yio, f. t§'a, f. 
sohol-kai, v. 

lu, p, v, z. lun, s. bos-kai, p. 
yas-kat§, s, v, z : m, f. yaa§-kat§, p. 
ok, all. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



297 



forehead, 

forest, 

forget, 

friend, 



frijol, 

fox (zorra), 

girl, 

give, 

go, 

god, 

gold, 

good, 

goodness, 

goose (ganso), 

gourd, 

grave, 

green, 

groan (bramar), 

hair, 

hand, 

he, 

head, 

heart, 

herb, 

here, 

hill, 

horse, 

house, 

house of palm, 

husband, 

I, 

ice, 

indian, 

island, 

kettle, 

kill, 
knife, 
lake, 
large, 



lek, s, z : m, f, t. lek-tii, z. t§i-lek, p, v. 

qas, m. qaas, p, s, v, z. pok-tS'e, m. t§'en-t§e, m. 

tub-ul, s : m, t. tub-olal, z. tub-sa, v. tub-sah, p : f. 

tub-esah, m. 
etool, p. etail, z : m, f, t. yukunah winik, s. yukuna 

h-winik, v. nup-t'an, m, f. nun-pel u lak, f. hun- 

p'el u lak, m. 
buul, all. 

ots, p, s, v. tsomac, z. tsamak, m. tS'amak, f. 
s-ts'u-pal, s, v, z. §-t§'upu-pal, z. t§'up-lal-paal, f. 

tsup-lal-paal, m. 
oa, p. oah, s. o'a, m, f, t. o'ah, p, z. u-o'a-bal, v. 

hah, s. 
bin, p, v. bin-el,' p, s, z : t. ben, m, f . ben-el, m, f , t. 
qu, all. kits-kelem-yum, s. 
qan-maskab, p. qan-qan-taqin, m, f, t. 
uo, all. mal-ob, p, s, z. tibil, m, f, t. 
uo-il, p, z : m, f . yuo-il-in-puqsiqal, v. tibil uo-il, f . 
yak-bok, p. 

qum, s, z. quum, p, v : m, f. 
muk-nal, p, s, v, z : t. muk-sah, f. muk-kimen, f. 
yas, s. yaas, p. v, z : m, f, t. ya-ya§, m, f. yaa§il-kaa§, 

z. (" se confunden el verde y el azul " z). 
akan, all. 

oooo, all. ooo-el, z. 
qab, p, v, z : m, f, t. tan-qab, s. 
le, p, z. leti, p, s, v, z. 
pol, p, s, v, z : m, t. hool, p, z : m, f, t. 
pusiiq, z. puksiqal, all. 
siu, all. 

wai, z : m. waye, p, v, z : t. tela, s, z. 
puuk, p, z : f, t. wio, s. mul, z. muul, v. noh-muul, 

v. qaa§, p. 
oimin, all. 

na, p, v, z : m, f, t. nan, s. otots, z : m, f. 
iani-na, v. §anil-na, p, s, z. pasel, z. yukil-na, z. 
itsam, m, f. h-witsam, v. witsam, p, s, z. 
ten, p, s, v, z. 

yeeb, p. noh-tat-yeeb, p. bat, s, v, z. 
masewal, p, v, z. H-maya-bil, z. 
peten, z. petem, s. oukub-luum, p. hay luum it§ ha, v. 
maskab-kum, p, z : f . kum maskab, t. u-kut§il, v. 

lokansa-ha, v. 
kim-sah, p, s, z : m, f. kin-sah, v. 
qupeb, p. soteb, p, s, z. t§an-qab-maskab, v. 
soo-ha, v. o'ao', z. aqal, p, z. t§i-t§an-qanaab, p. 
noh, m, f, t. nohots, p, Sj v, z : t. 



298 



APPENDIX IV 



laugh, 
laziness, 

leaf, 

leg, 

lie (mentir), 

lightning, 

living, 
lizard, 



love (amar), 
love (amor), 
man, 

many, 

meat, 

memory, 

moon, 

morning, 

mosquito, 

mother, 

mouse, 

mouth, 

name, 

near, 

neck, 

night, 

no, 

nose, 

ocean, 

old, 

people, 

pigeon, 

pine, 

pipe, 

plain (llano), 

priest, 

puma, 

rabbit, 
rain dluvia), 



t§eh, v. tseeh, p. z : f, t. muqluk u tseeh, m. tsek, s. 
ma-qol, m. ma-qobal, s. ma-qolal, v, z : f , t. ma- 

qolil, p. 
le, p, v, z : m, f. u-leh tse, t. leh t§e, s. 
ok, s : f. muq-ok, p. p'ul-ok, v, z. oelek, z. 
tus, all. 
lemba, t. lemba-kaan, m, f. lemba-tsak, p, s. lemba- 

tsaak, z. 
ku-san, s, z. ku-saan, p, v. 
tolok, p, z. ii-mets, m. is-me-mets, s, z : f. merets, 

v. iil-be-betil, s. s-selut§, s. pikuneil, z. silwoh, z. 

is-tulub, s, z. 
yakuna, v. yakunah, p, z : m, f, t. yakunah-il, s. 
yukuna, v, z. yakunah, p, s : m, f, t. 
winik, z : m, f, t. bal-kab winik, m. §ib, v, s. H-sib, 

p, z. 
yab, s. yaab, p, v, z : m, f. 
baq, all. 

qah-sa, v. qah-sah, p, z : f. qah-lai, s, z : m. 
u, all. 

samal, p, z : m, f. hao-kab, v, z. hao-kab-qin, s. 
qas-ol, m. qo§-ol, p, s, v, z : f. 
na, p, z, naa, m, t. nah, s. na-il, z. mama, v. 
ts'o, p, v, z : m, f, t. ts'oo, s. 
t§i, p, v, z : m, f. tsn, s : t. 
qaba, all. 

na3-ti, p. nao'-ti, s, v, z. naq-lik, z. 
kal, all. 
aqab, all. 

ma, p, s, v, z : m. maa, f. matan, m, f. 
ni, p, v, z : m. nii, s : f, t. 
qab-nab, s, v. qa-naab, p. qaq-nab, m. qaq-nab-e, m. 

qaq-naab, z. 
noh-sib, f, t. nu-sib, p, s, v, z. lab, z. utsben, z. 
maak, p, z. winik, s, v. 
ukum, s, z : m, f, t. kastran-ukum, p. kastlan-ukum, z. 

sak-pakal, z. ku-kut-kib, z. ououi, z. 
hu-hub, p. 
hobon-t§e, v. 

tas-kab, p, z. ta-tas-luum, s. uoi-luum, v. 
ah-qin, m, f. H-qin, p, s, z. yun-qin, v. yun-h-qin, z. 

pisnal-yum-Dil, s. ah-meqtan-pisan, z. iq-kab, z. 
koh, v : m, f. tiak-koh, p. qan-koh, z. balam, t. 

t§ak-bolai, m. 
t'ul, s, v : m, f, t. t'uul, p, z. 

ha, p. kasal-ha, s, z. kasal-haa, m. ha-hal, v. haa- 
haal, m. tsaak, p, z. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



299 



rain (lloviznar), 

rain water, 

rattle-snake, 
reason, 

red, 
river, 

rob, 

run, 

salt, 

sandal (guarache) 

scorpion, 

see, 

silver, 

sing, 

sister, elder, 

sister, younger, 

sit, 

sky, 

sleep, 

small, 

soldier, 



snake, 

snow, 

son, by mother, 

son, by father, 

speak, 

spring, 

squirrel, 

stand (pararse), 

star, 

stone, 

strong, 

summer, 

sun, 
tejon, 
temple, 
that, 



tos-ha, p, s, v, z : t. tos-haa, f, m. to-tos-ha, p. tosol- 

ha, z. oabal-ha, f. oabal-haa, m. 
t§ulub, z. t§ulub-ha, z : t. t§akil-haa, m. tsakiqal- 

haa, f. kanil-haa, m. kaanil-haa, f. 
oab-kan, p, s, v, z. ahau-kan, z. 
naat, m, f. toh-t'an, p, s. kusolal, z : m, f, t. u nuk- 

t'an, v. 
t§ak, p, v, z : m, f. tsa-t§ak, p, z : m, f, t. tSu-t§ak, s. 
bekan, z. bekan-ha, p. hai-ha, v. yats-ha, z. yok- 

ha, f, t. yok-haa, m. 
okol, p, s, v, z. koo, m, f, t. paa-koo, m, f. 
alkab, all. 
taab, all. 

sanab, p, z. §anab-kewel, p, s, v, z. 
sinan, s. sinaan, p, v, z : m, f. 
ilah, s, z. ilmah, (permitir) m, f, t. pakat, p, v. 
sak-maskab, p. sak-taqin, m, f, t. 
qai, all. 

kik, p, s, z : f, t. kiik, m. nohots kik, v. 
io'in, m, f, t. wio'in, p, z. tsup-io'in, s. tsupu-io'in, v. 
kutal, p, s, v, z. sekba, z. 
kaan, all. 
wen-el, all. 
tsi-tsan, p, s, v, z. tsan-tsan, m, t. ma-tsan-t§an, m, f. 

manob, m. mehen, m, f. o'eo', t. 
qatun, m, f, t. H-qatun, z. qaatun, v. qatun-maak, s. 

bateel, p. batel-naal, p. H-batel, z. boteel, m. 

H-p'isba, z. holkan, f. 
kan, v, z : m, f, t. qanal-kan, s. quqi-kan, p, v. quqil- 

kan, s. 
yeeb, p, s, v. 

al, m, f, t. wal, p, z. sibi-al, s, v. sibi-bal, z. 
mehen, p, z : m, f, t. laq-pal, v, z. §ibi-is-mehen, s. 
fan, s, v, z : m, f, t. tetan, p. 

yas-qin, m. iti-yas-qin, p. yas-tsun-hab, v. no word, z. 
kuuk, p, s, v, z. 
watal, all. 
eq, all. 

tun, p. tunit§, all. buq-tun, z. 

t'a, s. t§it§, p, v, z. qaam, z. um-qan, v. mu-qaan, z. 
yas-qin, p. qin-un-yabil, t. qin tun yaabil, m, f. qini- 

qil-kab, v. lub-tsak, p. no word, z. 
qin, all. 

tsab, p. sib, s. emuti, v. 
quna, p, v, z : m, f . qunah, s. yotot§ qu, m, f. 
le — e, z. lai, s. lailo, z. le letieele, p. leti-wale, v. 

helo, m. 



300 

there, 

they, 

this, 

thought, 

thumb, 

thunder, 

thunder-clap, 

tiger (tigre) 

time, 
toad, 
tobacco, 
to-day, 

toe, 

to-morrow, 

tongue, 

tooth, 

tree, 

true, 
turkey, 
turtle, 
valley, 

village, 

walk, 

warble (gorjear), 

warm, 

water, 

we, 

who, 

white, 

wife, 

will (voluntad), 

wind, 

wing, 

winter, 

wolf (lobo), 

woman, 

wood, 



APPENDIX IV 

te, f . telo, v, z. tel-lo, t. tlo, z. tolo, p, s, z. lelo, p. 

— o, z. 
leti-ob, v, z. le-ob-ti, p, s, z. te-ob-ti-ob, p. 
le, z. lela, z. le — a, z. letiela, p, s, v. 
tukul, all. 

na-qab, p, v, z : m, f, t. naa-qab, s. 
kil-ba, v. kil-bal, p. amba, z. ambah, s. 
tsaak, z. amba-tsak, s. hum-tsaak, p, z. u pek-tsak, 

t. yakan-t§ak, v. 
balam, s : m. balam-tsak-eqel, z. tsak-mool, p, v, z. 

tsak-eqel, s, z. 
qin, z : t. qin-il, p, s, z. u-qin-il, v : m, f. 
muts, all. uo, p, s. 
quo, s, v, z : f. quuo, p. 
hele, f. be-hele, z. be-hela, z. be-helae, z. be-helak, 

v. ba-hele, p, s. 
al-ok, z. yal-ok, p, s. t§il-bi-ok, v. sau, m. 
samal, p, s, v, z. hao-kab, v : m, f. 
aq, p, s, z : m, f, t. hu-aq, v. 
ko, all. 
kul, z. kulul-t§e, p. watal-t§e, s. wiklil un p'el t§e, v. 

ts'e, m. t§e, t. t§e-el, f. 
ha, s. hah, v, z : m, f, t. ha-hil, p, z. ha-hi-lil, p. 
oo, p, z. ooo, s. oun, s. ulum, v, z. tu§, z. 
ak, m, f, t. aak, p, s, v, z. 
qop, m, f, t. qoop, z. qom, m, f, t. t§a-qan, p. tao- 

luum, v. hem-lum, t. 
kah, all. noh-kah, s. tan-kah, p. t§an-kah, s. kah- 

talil, p. noh-kab, p. ka-kab, z. 
simbal, p, s, z : f, t. sinbal, v : m. 
qai, z : m. qo-qo-qai, p. hum, m, awat, m. 
tioko, p, s, z. tsokoh, v. tsakau, m, f. 
ha, p, v, z : t. haa, s : m, f. 
toon, p, s, v, z. 
mak, m, f. maki, t. ma§, s, z. maa§, p, v. he-mas, z. 

heken-maas, z. f 

sak, p, s, v, z : f, t. sasak, p, z : f, t. 
watan, p, s, z. h-waten, v. 
olah, p, s, z. u sihil tin puqsiqal, v. 
iq, all. 
siq, all. 
its-kelil, p. qini-keel, v. aq-yebil (tiempo de aguas), m, 

f, t. no word, z. 
kab-koh, p, s. 

§-t§'up, p, s, v, z. tsup-lal, f. t§'up-lal, m. 
t§e, all. 



COMPARATIVE VOCABULARIES 



301 



work, meya, v. meyah, p, z. menyah, s : m, f, t. 

world, yoqol-kab, z : m, f,*t. baal-kah, f. bal-kal, t. baal- 

kal, m. 

yellow, qan, p, v, z : m, f , t. • qan-qan, p, z : m. qun-qan, s. 

yes, bei, p, v. bai, p. la, s, z. 

yesterday, holhe, p, s, v, z : f, t. holohe, p. 

you (plural), tees, p, s, z. toon, v. mulanil, v. 

you, tet§, p, s, v, z. 

young, tan-kelem, p, s, v, z. 





Numeration 1 






Peto 


Sotuta 


Tizimin 


Valladolid 


1. nun 


hun 


hum 




un 


2. ka 


ka 


ka 




ka 


3. o§ 


OS 


ofi 




OS 


4. kam 


kan 


kan 




kan 


5. ho 


ho 


ho 




hok 


6. wak 


wak 


wak 




wak 


7. u§uk 


wuk 


wuk 




huk 


8. wa§ak 


wasak 


wasak 




wa§ak 


9. bolom 


bolon 


bolon 




bolon 


10. la-hun 


la-hun 


la-hun 




la-hun 


11. buluk-hun 


buluk 


buluk 




buluk 
un la-hun 


12. lah-ka 


lah-ka 


lah-ka 




ka-la-hun 


20. hun-qaal 


hun-qal 


hun-qal 




un-qal 


30. la-hun-ka-qaal 


la-hu-ka-qal 


la-hun-ka- 


■qal 


os-qal 3 


40. ka-qaal 


ka-qal 


ka-qaal 




kan-la-hun 


50. la-hun-yo§ qaal 


la-hu-yos-qal 


la-hu-yo§-qaal 


la-hun-yo§-qal 


60. os-qaal 


os-qal 


os-qal 




un-la-hun-yoi-qal 


70. la-hun-kan-qaal 


la-hu-kan-qal 


la-hun-kan-qaal 


ka-la-hun-yos-qal 


80. kan-qaal 


kan-qal 


kan-qaal 




kan-qal 


90. la-hun-ho-qaal 


la-hu-yo-qal 


la-hun-ho- 


■qaal 


un-kan-la-hun-qal 


100. ho-qaal 


ho-qal 


ho-qal 




ho-qal 


1000. pik 


hum-pik 


la-hun-os-baaq 


un-pik 






hum-pik 2 







1 The numbers given here may be compared with those of Beltran on 
p. 99-100. 

2 The author of the Tizimin list states tjiat anciently pik means 8000. See 
the statement regarding the present use of the term pik in Part I, p. 103. 

3 Many of the terms from this point onward are obviously incorrect. 



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The publications of the Peabody Museum consist of Annual 
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In addition to the above, five complete quarto volumes of 
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The Museum also issues from time to time Special Publi- 
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For a list of the above with prices, address 

Peabody Museum, 

Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 



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