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New Congress Speeds Job Measures 

Calls For 

In Future 

By David L. Periman 

The new 95th Congress is 
sending out clear signals of its 
readiness to move ahead with 
job-creating legislation in part- 
nership with the incoming Carter 

A bill supported by the House 
leadership to pump an additional 
$4 billion into accelerated pub- 
lic works funding as a first step 
towards economic recovery gath- 
ered nearly 200 co-sponsors in the 
first three days of the session. And 
a group of 41 House members is- 
sued an opening day statement 
calling for a large-scale economic 
stimulus program aimed at achiev- 
ing full employment goals within 
four years. 

President Ford, who will leave 
office Jan. 20, sent to Congress 
a trickle-down tax cut proposal 
coupled with a call to hold down 
government spending. His mes- 
sage, a reiteration of the policies 
of the outgoing Administration, 
was virtually ignored on Capitol 

Ford also proposed an increase 
in the social security payroll tax 
rate that would more than offset 
any income tax reduction for most 

Meanwhile, with considerable 
shuttling back and forth between 
Washington, D.C., and Plains, Ga. 
the legislative program of the new 
Administration is being shaped and 
priorities established. 

Most members of the 95th Con- 
gress were not in office eight years 
ago, when a Democratic president 
was last in the White House. Espe- 
cially in recent years, legislation 
has been shaped under the con- 
frontation pressures of presidential 
vetoes, veto threats and votes to 
override vetoes. The proposed $4 
billion addition to public works 
funds that are now exhausted or 
committed would in effect bring 
the funding up to the level of a 
bill Ford vetoed a year ago. 

Two forthcoming procedural bat- 
tles in the Senate could have sub- 
stantial effect on the legislative rec- 
ord of the 95th Congress. 

The new Senate majority lead- 
er, Robert C. Byrd of West Vir- 
ginia, has proposed a rules 
change designed to close a loop- 
hole in the present procedure for 
cutting off a filibuster. 
It would leave intact the basic 
(Continued on page 8) 

Agencies Back 
Policy on Right 
To Join Unions 

A statement of principle recom- 
mending that its member agencies 
recognize the right of their workers 
to join unions has been adopted by 
the board of directors of the Na- 
tional Assembly of National Vol- 
untary Health & Social Welfare 
Organizations, Director Leo Pedis 
of the AFL-CIO Dept. of Commu- 
nity Services reported. 

Perlis, a member of the board's 
committee on labor relations in 
health and social welfare agencies 
which proposed the recommenda- 
tion, said the statement of principle 
was adopted unanimously at a De- 
cember board meeting. The assem- 
bly's 37 member agencies include 
organizations such as the United 
Way, YMCA, YWCA, Salvation 
Army, National Urban League, 
(Continued on Page 3) 


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Saturday, January 8, 1977 

No. 1 

Meany Asks Quick Action 
To Bolster U.S. Economy 

MEMBERS OF THE CARPENTERS construct a reviewing stand in front of the White House for 
President-elect Jimmy Carter's inaugural parade. Members of other unions — including transporta- 
tion, services, hotel and restaurant, theatrical and building trades — are also involved in preparations 
for the Jan. 20 inaugural celebration. 

Parting Shot: 

Safety Cost Studies 
Continued by Ford 

By James M. Shevis 

President Ford, who has long opposed strict health and safety 
regulations in industry, got in a parting shot at the nation's workers 
by extending a controversial Executive Order requiring federal 
agencies to issue inflation impact statements for proposed standards 
of the Occupational Safety & Health Administration. 

The order, which would have 

expired Dec. 31, 1976, has been 
sharply criticized by organized la- 
bor as a major factor in delaying 
adequate job safety and health stan- 
dards. In a letter last fall to Labor 
Sec. W. J. Usery, Jr., AFL-CIO 
President George Meany charged 
"it has resulted not only in insuf- 
ferable delays, but perverted the 
purposes of the Occupational Safe- 
ty & Health Act to that of a pro- 
tective operation to shield employ- 
ers from its legitimate conse- 

Since the Executive Order took 
effect in November 1974, only 
two health standards have been 
Issued by OSHA — one govern- 
ing worker exposure to coke oven 
emissions and another applying 
to cotton dust exposure. 

The Oil, Chemical & Atomic 
Workers challenged the legality of 
the inflation impact statement re- 
quirement in a suit charging that 
the original health and safety act 
does not spell out the need for such 
statements and that they run coun- 
ter to the meaning of the legisla- 

Subsequently, the AFL-CIO and 
its Industrial Union Dept. jointly 

filed a similar suit. A decision on 
both suits is pending in U.S. Dis- 
trict Court in Washington. 

Ford's extension order, issued 
during the President's vacation in 
(Continued on Page 7) 

Union Shop 
Test Won at 
Coors Plant 

Golden, Colo. — A directly affili- 
ated local union of the AFL-CIO 
here has won a significant victory 
over the Adolph Coors brewery 
firm in the area of union security. 

DALU 366, confronted by Coors 
management with a 33-year-old 
state law requiring that 75 percent 
of a union's members must indicate 
they want a union-security clause 
in their contract before negotiations 
on it may begin, turned in a 92 
percent vote favoring such a pro- 

The union, currently negotiating 
(Continued on Page 3) 

$4 Bimon 

Works Bm 

America's workers look to Con- 
gress and the Carter Administra- 
tion for "prompt and effective ac- 
tion" to stimulate the economy 
and bring down unemployment, 
AFL-CIO President Meany said. 

Meany's New Year's statement 
called for investment in the future 
of America, through such job- 
creating measures as public works, 
housing, public service jobs and 
training for unemployed youth. 

"For eight years, American 
workers have been the scapegoats 
of economic game plans designed 
to increase unemployment to cool 
inflation." But "despite three re- 
cessions in eight years," Meany 
said, the strategy "didn't work" 
and the inflation rate is higher 
than it was in 1969. 

The labor movement "expects" 
that there will be quick action to 
reduce unemployment. But "many 
other steps must be taken to solve 
the nation's multitude of problems," 
Meany added. 

He termed national health se- 
curity "an absolute must" because 
"health care costs are so outland- 
ishly high that millions just can't 
afford to be ill." 

The construction industry remains 
"in a catastrophic depression" while 
"millions can't afford a decent 

Meany suggested that "reducing 
interest costs would provide both 
homes and jobs, not only on the 
job sites but in all the industries 
providing material to build and 
equip homes." 

(Continued on page 8) 

$33 Billion Increase in Health Costs 
Fails to Remedy Gaps in Service 

Health care spending over the past two years has increased by $33 billion, or 31 percent, the Health, 
Education & Welfare Dept. reported. 

But despite the sharp increase, "many U.S. citizens cannot get health care when they need it," Bert 
Seidman, director of the AFL-CIO Dept. of Social Security, charged. 

HEW's estimates cover personal health care, such as hospital care and physicians' services, as well 
as public health programs, re- 

search, and facilities construction. 
The government study showed that 
health expenditures as a portion of 
gross national product grew from 
7.8 percent in 1974 to 8.4 percent 
in 1975 and to 8.6 percent in 1976. 

In contrast, Seidman noted, 
Canadians have a national 
health insurance program cover- 
ing the entire population without 
any deductibles that required 
them to spend only 7.2 percent 
of their GNP on health last year. 

Seidman observed that last year's 
health care expenditures of $139.3 
billion meant an outlay of $638 for 
every man, woman, and child in 
the country, or about $2,550 for 
an average family of four. 

"There is only one answer to the 
unrelenting escalation of medical 
costs — a universal comprehensive 
system of national health insurance 
with effective cost and quality con- 
trols and appropriate incentives for 
efficient organization and delivery 

of health care," he said. 

Seidman said that the Health 
Security Act supported by the 
AFL-CIO would achieve those ob- 
jectives, and urged President-elect 
Carter to recommend early con- 
gressional enactment of legislation 
containing the basic principles of 
Health Security. 

In a network radio interview, 
Labor News Conference, Seidman 
said that although the AFL-CIO 
(Continued on page 8) 

Page Two 


Study Shows 
Job Creation 
Major Need 

It would take an estimated 7.4 
million new jobs to lower the na- 
tion's unemployment rate to 6 per- 
cent by 1980, a new Commerce 
Dept. study reports. 

A decline to 5 percent unem- 
ployment by the end of the decade 
would require the creation of 9.5 
million additional jobs, and a cut 
in joblessness to 4 percent would 
require 11.4 million new jobs, the 
study observes. 

Prepared for the government by 
the Institute for Demographic & 
Economic Studies, the study in- 
cludes projections of employment 
changes required in each state to 
bring all states to the same jobless 
levels. Projections are made for 
jobless rates of 4 percent, 5 per- 
cent, and 6 percent. , 

The projected expansions allow 
for both new entrants and re-en- 
trants to the labor force and for 
absorption of unemployed work- 
ers. The data used in the projec- 
tions are state and local employ- 
ment statistics for May 1976 and 
state population projections for 

The number of new jobs re- 
quired to cut joblessness to 6 per- 
cent by 1980 ranges from 2,000 in 
Wyoming to 1.2 million in Califor- 
nia. Some 738,000 new jobs would 
be needed in New York over the 
next four years. Florida would 
have to create 782,000 jobs, and 
Michigan 503,000. 

A decline in unemployment to 4 
percent by 1980 would require 
proportionately more jobs — about 
1.6 million in California, 1.1 mil- 
lion in New York, and 950,000 in 

rOflM' Con, ^ 

^filr r n 

|r To« OUR n 

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TEXTILE WORKERS, long the victims of "brown lung" disease, 
demand stiff federal standards to reduce cotton dust on the job. 

Court Ruling Threat 
To Safety Inspection 

The Labor Dept. is seeking an immediate appeal to the Supreme 
Court to overturn a federal court order barring government job safety 
inspectors from entering a workplace without a search warrant. 

The ruling by a three-judge U.S. District Court panel in Idaho 
threatens to undermine a key section of the Occupational Safety & 
Health Act that allows federal com-^ 

pliance officers to inspect working 
areas without advance notice to 

The decision was issued in a suit 
against the Labor Dept. initiated by 
an electrical, plumbing, heating and 
air conditioning firm in Pocatello, 
Idaho, Barlow's, Inc. 

The judicial panel ruled that 
inspection of workplaces without 
a warrant violates the Fourth 
Amendment to the Constitution. 

The judges further ruled that 
Occupational Safety & Health Ad- 
ministration inspectors are "forever 
and permanently restrained and en- 

Alex Rose Dies at 78, 
President of Hatters 

New York — Alex Rose, president of the Hatters and an influential 
figure in New York state and city politics, died at 78 after a year 
of ill health and a lifetime of accomplishments. 

AFL-CIO President George Meany and Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirk- 
land, in a joint tribute, termed Rose a staunch battler "for human 
decency and justice and for the^ 
welfare of working men and women 


Rose, an immigrant from Poland 
at the age of 15, started work as a 
$6-a-week sewing machine operator 
in a New York millinery shop. He 
served in World War I as a volun- 
teer in the British-formed Jewish 
Legion in the Middle East, and then 
returned to his trade and his union. 
By 1927, he was ^n international 
vice president of the Hatters suc- 
cessfully fighting to keep the union 
free of Communist and racketeer 
attempts to gain influence. In 1950, 
he was elected president — at a time 
when changing styles and cheap- 
wage imports were already starting 
to decimate the industry. 

The union's new president. 


named by the executive board to fill 
out a term that runs until the next 
convention in November, is Nicho- 
las Gyory, who has been secretary- 
treasurer. Gyory was shop chairman 
at the Brooklyn plant of the Hat 
Corp. of America during an 11- 
month strike in 1953. His place as 
secretary-treasurer will be filled by 
Gerald R. Coleman, an economist 
and member of the New York City 
Planning Commission, who has 
been executive secretary and vice 
president of the union. 

Rose wore another hat as 
well^^s leader and chief strate- 
gist of the state's Liberal Party, 
which has often held the balance 
of power in city and state elec- 
tions. It has sometimes endorsed 
Democrats, sometimes backed 
Republicans and other times run 
its own candidates against both 
major parties. 

A front-page obituary of Rose in 
the New York Times spoke of him 
as "a man who performed major 
and minor political miracles." 

His last public appearance was at 
a Liberal Party campaign dinner 
with Jimmy Carter seated at his 
side. And only his illness prevented 
him from going to Albany last 
month to cast an electoral vote for 
Carter as one of a joint slate of 
Democratic and Liberal Party presi- 
dential electors. 

In the trade union arena, his 
battle in recent years has been to 
slow the erosion of an industry 
badly hurt both by imports and a 
decline in sales. 

joined" from attempting to conduct 
inspections on Barlow's premises. 

The case grew out of a refusal 
by the firm's owner, Ferrol G. Bar- 
low, to permit an OSHA inspector 
to enter the working area of his 
plant in September 1975. OSHA 
subsequently obtained a court order 
compelling Barlow to open this fa- 
cility to an inspection. 

But even after the order was pre- 
sented to Barlow, he refused to al- 
low the inspection, and brought a 
constitutional challenge before a 
three- judge court. 

The judges conceded in their 
opinion that congressional investi- 
gations have made "a persuasive 
case for *need' in the health and 
safety fields." 

The judges said they were not 
questioning the intent of Congress 
in enacting the safety law, but only 
"the alleged affront to the Fourth 

The panel also rejected the La- 
bor Dept.'s contention that the 
court lacks jurisdiction until Bar- 
low exhausts administrative pro- 
ceeding before the Occupational 
Safety & Health Review Commis- 

As a result of the ruling, As- 
sistant Labor Sec. for OSHA 
Morton Com said that his agen- 
cy is no longer conducting in- 
spections in Idaho. 

Corn said he was "deeply con- 
cerned" about the implications of 
the decision. 

"Under our present system of 
scheduled inspections," Corn said, 
"we visit establishments that can be 
expected to have significant num- 
bers of hazards to employee safety 
and health." 

But, he said, "it is difficult to 
imagine any administrative * system 
directed at preventive measures that 
could anticipate with any greater 
degree of accuracy the hazards we 
might encounter in any given work- 

The ruling was hailed by oppo- 
nents of effective job safety and 
health protection for workers. 

Rep. George Hansen (R-Idaho), 
who heads a national "Stop OSHA" 
campaign for the American Con- 
servative Union, termed the deci- 
sion "a great New Year's present 
to the businessmen and farmers." 

Several other Fourth Amend- 
ment challenges to the OSHA law 
are pending in federal appeals 
courts. And the Supreme Court has 
before it challenges to the law's 
civil penalty enforcement proce- 
dures which provide for the impo- 
sition of fines for safety violations 
without jury trials involving Sev- 
enth Amendment rights. 

OSHA Proposal: 

Cotton Dust Limits 
Scored as Ineffective 

A proposal to gradually reduce worker exposure to disabling 
cotton dust adds up to further foot-dragging by the Labor Dept., 
the Clothing & Textile Workers charged. 

The Occupational Safety & Health Administration proposal calls 
for lowering the federal exposure level from the present 1,000 
micrograms of cotton dust per'^ 

cubic meter of air to 200 micro- 
grams over a seven-year period. 
Until that level is reached, workers 
would have to wear respirators on 
the job. 

Sol Stetin, senior executive vice 
president of ACTWU and head of 
the union's textile division, said the 
proposal demonstrates OSHA's 
continued failure to protect the 
health of the nation's half-million 
textile workers. 

He termed it '^a continuation 
of a policy of heartless neglect 
of worker health and shameful 
subservience to a powerful in- 
dustry which has resulted in post- 
poning needed tightening of the 
cotton dust standard for the past 
four years." 

Exposure to cotton dust has long 
been recognized as the cause of 
"brown lung" or byssinosis, a 
chronic respiratory disease that is 
often seriously disabling. Byssinosis 
also -has been linked to other dis- 
eases, including chronic bronchitis 
and emphysema. 

OSHA's timetable for the pro- 
posed standard would require work- 
place engineering controls to reduce 
exposure to no more than 500 
micrograms 90 days after the new 
rule goes into effect; to 350 micro- 
grams within four years, and to 
200 micrograms within seven years. 

Respirators and work practices 
to supplement the engineering con- 
trols would have to be used imme- 
diately to reach the 200 microgram 
level, OSHA said. 

All exposure limits would be 
measured in terms of an eight-hour 
time-weighted average. And the 
standard would cover about 800,- 
000 workers in industries covered 
by the federal job safety law, in- 
cluding textiles, general industry, 
construction, maritime and parts of 

Stetin said that the "belated pub- 
lication of the proposed OSHA reg- 
ulation" is the result of a federal 
lawsuit the union initiated in Jan- 
uary 1975 to compel the Secretary 
of Labor to implement a new stan- 

In that suit, the union called for 
the standard to be set at 100 micro- 

grams, which it considers to be the 
lowest feasible limit. 

The union cited studies showing 
byssinosis a threat even at the 200 
microgram level. 

In 1974, the National Institute 
of Occupational Safety & Health 
had recommended to OSHA that 
the cotton dust exposure limit be 
reduced "to the lowest feasible 
level, but in no case as high as 200 
micrograms." OSHA said the pro- 
posed standard was developed "in 
part" on the NIOSH recommenda- 

Stetin expressed particular con- 
cern over the seven-year delay in 
lowering the limit by engineering 
controls to the 200 microgram 
limit, meanwhile requiring work- 
ers to use respirators. 

"OSHA admits that respirators 
are ^generally the least satisfactory 
means' of employee protection," 
Stetin noted. "Respirators cannot 
be relied on to protect workers ex- 
cept on a limited, short-term basis. 

"The OSHA proposal would re- 
quire workers to wear respirators 
eight hours a day, every working 
day for a period of seven years," 
he said. "This is an intolerable 
burden and contrary to the intent 
of the law, which obligates the em- 
ployer to provide a safe work- 

- OSHA will begin public hearings 
on the proposed standard Apr. 5. 
Based on past OSHA performance, 
it is unlikely a final standard will 
be promulgated within a year. 

Job Safety Provisions 
In Most Major Pacts 

Nine of every 10 major collec- 
tive bargaining agreements — those 
covering 1,000 workers or more — 
include on-the-job safety and health 
provisions, the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics reports. 

About one-third of the agree- 
ments provide for worker-represent- 
ed safety committees. About 22 
percent of the contracts call for 
safety inspections, one-third for 
company-paid physical examina- 
tions and nearly half for safety 
equipment, BLS said. 

Aluminum Firms Urged 
To Act on Cancer Risk 

Pittsburgh — The Steelworkers called on the aluminum industry 
to, quickly J develop programs that could reduce the rate of lung 
cancer among alumjn^n) wprkers. 

The USWA made the request after the Aluniinum Association 
released preliminary findings of a study shoWing'tHat al^ipiniim 
workers run a higher than normal^ 
risk of developing lung cancer. The 
study covered a period from 1946 
to 1973 and covered about 23,000 
workers employed at least five 
years in aluminum smelters. 

Although this is a preliminary 
report, the USWA said, "sufficient 
information is now available to 
warrant stepped-up environmental 
and medical monitoring" in selected 
areas of aluminum plant operations. 

Physical examinations with the 
use of latest techniques for early 
detection of cancer should be initi- 
ated and should be monitored by 
the union, the USWA said. It noted 
that the cancer risks are highest 
among aluminum workers in pot- 
rooms, paste and carbon rooms and 
cast houses. 

"In-depth medical surveillance of 
these workers could provide early 
information on the effectiveness of 
various engineering controls that 
have been implemented or will be 
implemented in the future," the 
union said. 

The preliminary findings of the 
study were reviewed at a meeting 
of industry and union representa- 
tives and investigators for the Na- 
tional Institute for Occupational 
Safety & Health. A final report on 
the study is set for next March. 

The USWA said the final report 
will be reviewed by union staff 
representatives and local union of- 
ficers to determine future policy 
and action. 


Page Three 

Trade Commission Unanimous: 

Shoe Imports Found Harm ful 
To U.S, Industry f Workers 

For the second time in less than a year, the U.S. International Trade Commission unanimously found 
that foreign imports are seriously injuring American shoe workers and producers. 

The 6-0 vote was hailed by union and employer leaders of the shoe industry as "an important step 
in the right direction." A decision is now pending on what kind of relief — quotas, tariffs or a combina- 
tion of both — the commission should recommend to the President. Either President Ford or President- 
elect Carter will have 60 days in 

which to act on the ITC's recom- 

The AFL-CIO urged the ITC to 
take "realistic action" by regulating 
shoe imports that have taken a 
heavy toll in American jobs during 
the past decade. 

Last April, Ford had rejected 
recommendations proposed by 
most of the ITC members to con- 
trol shoe imports. Three of the 
six commissioners called for 
higher import tariffs and two 
others urged a tariff rate-quota 
system. Only one commissioner 
called for nothing more than a 
continuation of trade adjustment 
assistance — the course taken by 

Since Ford's last rejection of the 
majority recommendation of the 
ITC, the Trade Act has been 
amended by a rider to the 1975 
Tax Reform Act. The amendment 
provides that if the President re- 
jects the recommendation of at least 
three commissioners. Congress can 
override his decision. 

In a letter to the ITC, AFL-CIO 
Research Director Rudy Oswald 
stressed that "realistic action in- 
volves regulation of imports, not 

the granting of adjustment assis- 
tance alone." 

Oswald pointed out that adjust- 
ment assistance, which is available 
under the 1974 Trade Act for 
workers who have been displaced 
by imports, has not protected the 
70,000 jobs wiped out in the do- 
mestic shoe industry during the 
past decade. 

"Only the establishment of 
quotas on imports of shoes will 
save the jobs of thousands of 
Americans in the shoe industry," 
as well as the many others in re- 
lated industries, the letter stated. 

The federation also submitted a 
list of 50 American communities 
that have lost a total of 10,000 shoe 
worker jobs in the 12-month period 
up to last April. 

A supplemental list presented to 
the ITC shows that since April 
1976 there were 80 new applica- 
tions made for trade adjustment 
assistance covering an additional 
12,000 shoe workers who have lost 
jobs to imports. 

But shoe manufacturing is one 
industry where there is ample proof 
that neither adjustment nor assis- 

Federal Agency Scored 
On Train Marker Rule 

Rail unions have charged the federal agency responsible for rail- 
road safety with being either "utterly incompetent" or "complete 
lackeys of management" in a dispute over safety devices on freight 

Jim Snyder, safety chairman of the Railway Labor Executives' 

Association, representing 20 rail 

unions agree not to press for 
specific legislation to require 
lighted markers that are highly 
visible on freight trains. 

"I suppose we learned our lesson 
the hard way," Snyder said. He 
charged that the Federal Railroad 
Administration acknowledged that 
Congress wanted "to provide train 
crews with a means by which to 
determine the presence of another 
train on the same track," but FRA 
"has done absolutely nothing" to 
comply with the congressional in- 

Snyder said "it is shocking" that 
FRA would not require adequate 
lights on the rear of freight trains 
even though they run on the- same 
tracks and are subject to the same 
hazards as passenger trains. He 
said the FRA proposal is for "re- 
flective material" that can be seen 
one mile on tangent (straight) track 
with an unobstructed view on a 
clear weather day. 

"We doubt seriously," Snyder 
said, "that any marking is needed 
to see something one mile on a tan- 
gent track with an unobstructed 
view on a clear weather day." The 
law, said the RLEA, "is aimed at 
problems that arise during weather 
conditions that restrict clear visi- 
bility." The statement also noted 
that "tracks have curves and hills, 
but nothing in the rule deals with 
such hazards." The rule also does 
not make any provision for inten- 
sity specifications" for either lights 
or reflective materials to be used. 

The RLEA is in favor of the use 
of stroboscopic lights in emergency 
situations to alert the crew on a 
following train. "Strobe" lights 
are visible around curves and re- 
flect off of tracks, trees and houses. 

unions, blasted the Federal Rail- 
road Administration for failure to 
propose an effective regulation to 
provide safe rear-end markings on 
freight trains. 

Snyder, who also isi legislative 
director of the United Transporta- 
tion Union, said the unions are 
"shocked at the total lack of safety 
consciousness of FRA" on this 

The RLEA statement noted 
that when rail safety legislation 
was before the last Congress, 
FRA spokesmen told the rail 
unions that "safe and effective 
rear-end markings would be 
forthconiing by regulation." 
Only then, Snyder said, did the 

Pamphlet Explores 
Compensation Laws 

The provisions of stzie 
workers' compensation and 
unehiployment compensation 
laws as of Jan. 1, 1977, are 
summarized in a new AFL- 
CIO publication. 

The publication's four pages 
cover in extensive tables the 
detailed provisions of all 
state laws including benefit 
amounts, duration of beitefits 
and other significant areas. 

Workers' Compensation and 
Unemployment Insurance Un- 
der State Laws, Publication 
No. 36T, is available from the 
AFL-CIO Pamphlet Division. 
Single copies are free; up to 
100 copies the charge is 3 
cents per copy; over 100 the 
cost is $2 per hundred. 

tance has solved the injury caused 
to communities, workers or em- 
ployers, Oswald noted. 

"In many of the small communi- 
ties where shoe factories existed, 
there is no alternative employ- 
ment," the letter observed. "Nor 
are there such alternatives in New 
York City with its high unemploy- 
ment rate." 

Despite the problems, Oswald 
said, there is a longstanding failure 
of the U.S. government to pay at- 
tention to the needs of its people 
in the shoe industry. 

He charged that the Council on 
Wage & Price Stability showed a 
complete lack of knowledge about 
the failure of adjustment assistance 
in recent testimony before the ITC, 
which last month reopened an in- 
vestigation into the impact of shoe 

The council's advice on the "in- 
flation" impact in regulating shoe 
imports is based on unrealistic and 
theoretical assumptions, Oswald 

Shoe workers are not theoretical, 
nor is unemployment, he stressed. 
American consumers are taxpayers 
and jobholders, as well as job-seek- 
ers and wage earners. 

"We think American shoe work- 
ers should have the right to be 
consumers too, though evidently 
the council does not," Oswald ob- 

"This nation," the letter to the 
ITC stressed, "has a right to pro- 
duce shoes and to employ its work- 
ers. We believe this government has 
a responsibility to the people in 
this country who work for a liv- 

The United Shoe Workers and 
the Boot & Shoe Workers have 
joined with industry representatives 
in petitioning the Trade Commis- 
sion to set an annual import limita- 
tion based on the average of imports 
for the years 1973-75. 

The union-industry coalition is 
also seeking separate quotas for 
non-rubber shoe imports from 
Taiwan, Korea, Spain, Brazil, the 
nine European Economic Commu- 
nity countries, and all other coun- 
tries as a group. 

Philip Hart 
Mourned as 
Great Senator 

Sen. Philip A. Hart, who died 
Dec. 26 at the age of 64 in Wash- 
ington, "was, by every measure, 
one of the great senators in the 
history of the United States," AFL- 
CIO President George Meany de- 

In a telegram to Hart's widow, 
Meany said that organized labor 
mourned with her and her eight 
children the loss of "an inspiring 
leader and a faithful ally in the 
fight for human justice. 

"Certainly there can be no higher 
standard of compassion, leadership, 
and integrity in public service than 
the standard set by Phil Hart," 
Meany said. 

Hart, a Michigan Democrat who 
served 18 years in the Senate, was 
an early leader in the civil rights 
and consumer movements. He did 
not seek re-election in 1976 because 
he was suffering from cancer. 

DEMOCRATIC HERITAGE Award of the American Jewish 
Committee is accepted by President I. W. Abel, right, of the 
Steelworkers in New York. He was congratulated by Peter J. 
Strauss, left, president of the committee's New York chapter, and 
President Bayard Rustin of the A. Philip Randolph Institute. 

Volunteer Agencies Set 
Policy on Union Rights 

(Continued from Page I) 
Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and the 
Red Cross. The AFL-CIO is also 
a member. 

"Most agencies, I think, will 
respond affirmatively to our re- 
quest to adopt policies confirm- 
ing the right of their employees 
to join unions of their own 
choosing and to bargain in good 
faith," Perils said. 

The board also approved recom- 
mendations that the agencies train 
their personnel in dealing with un- 
ions and bargaining problems and 
procedures in a "positive and 
friendly manner," and "to make 
arrangements for national interven- 
tion, when necessary, for the pre- 
vention of impending conflict." 

Pedis noted that the board's rec- 
ommendations were in line with a 
statement adopted by the AFL-CIO 
Executive Council almost nine 
years ago. The statement of prin- 
ciple represents the culmination of 
a discussion on union organizing 
efforts among social service agen- 
cies that began after non-profit, 
charitable organizations were in- 
cluded within the provisions of the 
National Labor Relations Act in 

A number of AFL-CIO affiliates 
have organized or sought to orga- 
nize employees of social service 
agencies, Perils noted. And while 
the Dept. of Community Services 
has not participated in these activi- 
ties, Perlis said, "we have made it 
clear that human care organizations 
have a responsibility to respect the 
right of their employees to join 
unions of their own choosing and 
to bargain with them in good faith. 

"We have made it clear also 
that union organization and col- 
lective bargaining make as much 
— if not more— sense for non- 
profit agencies for profit-mak- 
ing corporation^." 

The assembly's board appointed 
the labor relations committee last 
May after it was proposed by 
Perlis. The committee's purpose 
was to develop guidelines for mem- 
ber agencies in responding to union 
organizing efforts. The six-member 
panel was chaired by Sara-Alyce 
Wright, executive director of the 
YWCA's national board. 

In its recommendation for train- 
ing programs on collective bargain- 
ing, the committee approved a plan 
for a two-day labor-management 
seminar for appropriate national 
staff and board members of mem- 

ber agencies. 

The seminar, to be held later this 
year, will focus on two distinct 
roles of national agencies, the com- 
mittee said, "namely, the agen- 
cy as employer and the agency as 
consultant to local affiliates on mat- 
ters of management-labor relations. 

Union Shop 
Test Won at 
Coors Plant 

(Continued from Page 1) 
a new contract with Coors, got out 
1,452 of its 1,473 eligible voters 
to vote on whether to retain the 
union shop clause that has been 
part of its contracts since 1957. 
In the Dec. 20-22 balloting, 1,361 
members voted for the provision, 
as against 90 who opposed it. 

As a result, Coors is no longer 
challenging the union-shop clause, 
and contract negotiations are con- 
tinuing. The local's old agreement 
expired on Dec. 31, 1976. 

For more than 30 years, the 
Colorado Peace Act, which spells 
out the voting requirement on un- 
ion security contract clauses, was 
interpreted by unions and employ- 
ers alike to have no bearing on 
intrastate companies and unions. 
Last June, however, the Colorado 
Supreme Court upheld its applica- 
bility to collective bargaining within 
the state. That ruling is being ap- 
pealed to the U.S. Supreme Court. 

Workers at the Coors plant are 
the first at a major Colorado com- 
pany to satisfy the act's require- 
ments regarding union security 
since the state court's decision. 
Employees of some smaller firms 
were unable to meet the 75 percent 

DALU 366 countered Coors's 
direct-mail campaign to persuade 
workers to vote down the union- 
shop clause with a spirited effort 
of its own. The union called meet- 
ings of shop stewards to educate 
them on the act's provisions, which 
are similar to those of so-called 
right-to-work laws, and they in turn 
instructed other union members. 

Local 366 President James Sil- 
verthorn and Business Agent Ken- 
neth DeBey were assisted by AFL- 
CIO Field Representatives Jay D. 
Patrick and David Sickler in con- 
ducting the campaign. 

Page Four 


Investing in America 

AMERICA MUST HAVE FAITH in itself and its people; it must 
^ invest in the future. That means stimulating the economy with 
job-creating programs — public works, housing, public service jobs 
and training for unemployed youth. 

The economic results are obvious. People are put back to work. 
Their consumer spending power creates additional jobs in the 
private sector, thus increasing government revenue and cutting 
government costs for welfare and unemployment compensation. 

Throughout the last election campaign, President-elect Carter and 
an overwhelming majority in the new Congress clearly demonstrated 
their understanding that full employment and full production are 
essential to the balanced economy the nation so desperately needs. 

So, the American labor movement expects there will be prompt 
and effective action that will slash unemployment and improve 
the economic climate. But it recognizes that many other steps must 
be taken to solve the nation's multitude of problems. 

Health care costs are so outlandishly high that millions just can't 
afford to be ill. National health security is an absolute must. 

Millions can't afford a decent home and the construction industry 
is in a catastrophic depression. Reducing interest costs would pro- 
vide both homes and jobs, not only on the job sites but in all the 
industries providing material to build and equip homes. 

The nation's cities and states are near bankruptcy and their 
citizens are denied essential services, like police and fire protection, 
and the children of the cities are denied their right to a good educa- 
tion. There must be effective, immediate federal assistance to the 
states and cities. 

MILLIONS OF WORKERS earn so little on a full-time job that 
they are forced to seek welfare supplements. The nation must have 
a minimum wage that will put these families above the poverty level. 

The tax system is basically unjust, with an unfair share of the tax 
burden heaped on the shoulders of those who work while the 
corporations and the wealthy pay little or nothing. We must have 
tax justice based on the sound principle of ability-to-pay. In addi- 
tion, the tax incentives to American banks and corporations to 
export American jobs to other lands must be eliminated. 

The nation's basic labor law, now 30 years old, is in need of 
major overhauling. Included in such a revision should be repeal 
of Section 14(b); extension of coverage to all workers not now 
protected; elimination of the unequal treatment of workers in the 
construction industry; elimination of built-in delays which deny 
justice to workers; and the provision of effective remedies against 
employer violations. 

There are many other problems that must be faced — laws that are 
inadequately enforced, like OSHA; laws that are complicated by the 
intervention of too many conflicting governmental agencies, like 
pension reform; laws that drastically need revision and moderniza- 
tion, like the unemployment and workers' compensation acts; and 
laws on which action has almost been completed by the Congress, 
like consumer protection. 

The New Year can be, and we are convinced must be, one of 
solid accomplishment in all of these areas. That is our goal. And 
we intend to do everything we can to achieve it. 

— From AFL-CIO President George Meanfs New Year's state- 


Let's Go! 

Impact on Food Supplies: 

Price Rises by 
Hurt Developing 


Official Weekly l^uhlicatioii 
ol the 

American Federation ol Lahor aiul 
Congress o( Industrial Organizations 

GnouGi- Mi-.ANV, Presidcni 
I.ANI- KlRKl.AND. Sccretai y-TiC(ismei 

\\\\\\ Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Hoiisewright 
Mai tin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
*Clyde M. Webber 

Executive C'oiificil 
I. W. Abel 
Max Green berg 
Matthew Giiinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wiirf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanlev 
Charles H. Pillard 

• Deceased 

Director of Piihlicafions: Saul Miller 
Mann{^in}> Editor: John M. Barry 
Assistant Editors: 

= John R. Oravec 

David L. Perlman 

James M. She vis = 

AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W. 
Washington. D.C. 20006 
Telephone: 637-5032 
SiiliHcriptioiis: $2 a year: 10 or more. SI. 50 a vear 

1 Vol. XXII 

Saturday, January 8, 1977 

No. 1 1 

^ The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

§ dtL\trial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in jflUBOR PRESS| 

5 any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 

= advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


By Gus Tyler 

THE REAL VICTIMS of the oil price rise are 
not the United States, despite the discomforts 
of soaring costs for gas, nor even Europe and 
Japan, despite the heavy burdens imposed on their 
economies, but the nations of the Third World 
who are not oil-rich. For these latter, the higher 
cost of petroleum means outright starvation. 

It is now clear that unless the badly malnour- 
ished nations of the world increase their capacity 
for food production, they will be destroyed by 
hunger. In 1970, these nations had a population 
of 440 million. By 1980, the numbers will be 
greater and the hunger will be greater: population 
is growing and the rate of increase in food produc- 
tion has been slowing down. 

The OPEC decision to raise petroleum prices 
hits these countries in many ways. 

First, these indigent nations will have to pay 
more for fertilizers that are derived from oil or 
oil by-products. With their limited funds, they 
YfiW have to cut back on their purchase of fertil- 
izers and, consequently, on their production of 

Second, these same poor countries count on oil 
for a source of energy to run whatever manufac- 
turing facilities they have. The sale of these fac- 
tory products provides the limited foreign exchange 
that these countries count on to buy food products 
in the world market. As their manufacture falters 
because of the oil shortage, their capacity to buy 
food fails. 

Third, the oil-rich countries are using their huge 
incomes to buy foods on the world market. Their 
purchases are forcing up the prices and are cut- 
ting into the food supplies of their poor neighbors. 

The North African and Mideast countries of 
OPEC, for instance, have a population growth of 
more than 3 percent a year. But in the last seven 
years, their rate of cereal production has been 
going down. 

They are not bothering to use their potential to 
grow things either for domestic or world con- 
sumption. Instead, they are using their oil money 
to buy food — at the expense of their hungry cou- 
sins of the Third World. 

Under present trends, by 1985 the cereal 

deficit in countries like India, Bangladesh, Indo- 
nesia, Nigeria and the Sub-Sahara will run to 
about 200 million tons. Even if the great grain ex- 
porters of Canada and the United States wanted 
to help, they couldn't. 

"Such a large transfer of food, largely from 
developed countries, could well be unmanageable 
physically or financially," notes a February 1976 
report of the International Food Policy Research 

While there are some Americans who derive a 
masochistic delight from OPEC price rises, seeing 
in these moves the avenging advance of the poor 
Third World against the rich West, the truth of 
the matter is that the oil-rich sheiks and shahs are 
not really the "Third World" and that their greed 
for money and power is literally starving most of 
the Third World peoples . to death. 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

Steel Local Plays 
Santa to Hospital 

Danville, 111. — At the Veterans Adminis- 
tration hospital here, Steelworkers Local 
1478 is as welcome as Santa Claus. Every 
year since 1948 the local has given the hos- 
pital a Christmas contribution of what it 
needs most — money. 

This past Christmas, the 900-member 
local presented the hospital a $1,600 check, 
bringing the Steelworkers' total contribution 
over the years to $73,243. 

Andrew Soltis, Local 1478's recording 
secretary, said the union raises the money 
each year by sponsoring a Thanksgiving 
turkey raffle. The money will be used this 
year to pay for cable television for the 

"It's a tremendous offering,'* Wes Sell, as- 
sistant to the hospital's director, said. "What 
makes it unique is that it has gone on with 
such consistency for 28 years." Local 1478 
members are employed at the American Can 
Co. in Chicago. 


Page Five 

How to Buy: 

Families Face Another Year 
Of Persistent Price Inflation 

By Sidney Margolius 

WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT m living costs 
and conditions for 1977? We figure you had 
better prepare for another year of persistent infla- 
tion, although not as severe as in 1973-74. 

A year ago we forecast that living costs would 
rise 5 to 6 percent in 1976. The actual increase in 
the 12 months ending in October was 5.3 percent. 

For 1977 we estimate that living costs will rise 
on average another 5-6 percent. While not as 
sharp as the recent double-digit inflation, a persis- 
tent 6 percent inflation can do serious damage to 
both young families and older workers looking 
forward to retirement. 

For example, the average worker with three de- 
pendents by October 1975, had spendable weekly 
earnings (after taxes) of $151.85. In terms of 1967 
buying power, this was worth $92.25 in real wages. 

This loss was serious enough compared with 
the average $96.64 in buying power in 1972 
before the inflation gathered strength. But this 
year real wages have dropped again. Despite an 
increase to $159.22 in current spendable earn- 
ings, that average after-tax pay now is worth 
only $91.88 in 1967 dollars. 

A persistent 6 percent is equally severe on older 
people. Take a moderate retirement budget for a 
couple recently estimated to cost about $7,000 on 
a national average. At a 6 percent rate, in five 
years that same modest standard will cost $9,400; 
in 10 years, $12,500. 

Actually the persistent and sizable inflation has 
resulted in a massive transfer of money from con- 
sumers and wage-earners to corporate profits. A 
Wall Street Journal survey found corporate earn- 
ings by mid-1976 running 33 percent ahead of the 
year before with some large companies such as 
General Motors reporting record earnings, and 
many oil companies reporting additional increases 
of 23 to 40 percent on top of 1975 gains. 

Knowing what to expect can help you adjust 
your own buying and money management to de- 
fend your family at least to some extent against 
the inroads of further inflation. 

The major cost of living problems you will need 
to deal with in 1977 are: 

• A new wave of inflation in energy costs, with 
even heating and utility bills, and gasoline costs, 
especially if the present Administration succeeds 
in its plan to decontrol gasoline prices before 
leaving office on Jan. 20. 

• High housing costs, with the average new 
house now at $51,000 and older houses averaging 
$39,000, thus effectively pricing the many young 
people born after World War II out of the market 
for single-family homes. 

• A resurgence of higher food prices, especially 
in the second half of the year as meat prices rise 
after the recent temporary heavy supplies and 
lower prices. 

• The persistent increase in medical costs; up 
9 percent again in 1976 for a total increase of 90 
percent in the past 10 years. 

How are other families adjusting to inflation? 
Some revealing shifts in buying habits have taken 

They're serving smaller portions and con- 
trolling kitchen waste. Earlier this year the U.S. 
Dept. of Agriculture estimated that food con- 
sumption per capita was the lowest in seven 

Mostly consumers have cut down on animal- 
related foods, especially of meat, but also of 
poultry, eggs and animal fats. Actually we con- 
sumed a little more beef in 1976 but less pork. 
But this trend will change in 1977 because pork 
is now cheaper while beef will cost more. 

We're eating more cheese and fresh fruits and 
vegetables and drinking more milk. So the buying 
shifts, even if cost-induced, seem to be nutrition- 
ally beneficial. 

Use of sugar and coffee also have been reduced. 
Coffee had gone up from $1.38 a pound can in 
1975, to $2.47 by the end of 1976, and is now 
over $3 a pound in many supermarkets, with fur- 
ther increases in sight for 1977. 

Consumers also are more carefully comparing 
fresh, canned and frozen versions of the same 
produce, and often buying directly from farmers. 

larger sizes and bulk. While cutting down on 
coffee, they're not only using more tea but buying 
tea bags in the 48 and even 100-count boxes. 

With home bread baking increasing, stores re- 
port more sales of 25-pound bags of flour. Fami- 
lies also are buying more institutional sizes of 
staples such as gallon cans of vegetable oil, 40- 
ounce jars of peanut butter, etc., at savings often 
of 1 5-20 percent. 

In general, with a few exceptions such as frozen 
pizzas, consumers are doing more of their own 
cooking. Perhaps most significant is increased buy- 
ing of ingredients for baked goods — flour, dry 
yeast, etc. The trend to home baking has reduced 
purchases not only of fresh baked goods, frozen 
cakes and packaged cookies, but even of higher- 
price mixes, trade sources report. Apparently peo- 
ple who usually bought fresh baked goods have 
turned to mixes, and users of mixes, to baking 
from scratch. 

Other convenience foods such as **hamburger 
helper" have been affected. There are fewer brands 
in the stores and less interest in these new ways to 
pay more for dried noodles anS potatoes. But 
sales of the cheaper convenience foods such as 
canned beans and soups have remained high. 

Even dogs are adjusting; eating more of the 
cheaper dry foods instead of the gourmet pet foods 
heavily promoted in recent years on TV. 

Copyright 1977 by Sidney Margolius 

Keyed to Carter- Congress Measures: 

Greater Drop in Joblessness 
Seen as Feasible This Year 

W/^ITH ACTIVE SUPPORT from Congress, 
" unemployment can be brought down this year 
by more than the 1 .5 percent projected by Presi- 
dent-elect Carter, ^AFL-CIO Research Director 
Rudy Oswald said. 

In the face of an official unemployment rate of 
8.1 percent, Oswald said a 1.5 percent reduction 
appears "too modest" a goal. 

The mix of job-creation and economic stimu- 
lus that the new Congress and the incoming 
Administration are aiming for could produce 
an unemployment rate as low as 6 percent by 
the end of next year, Oswald said. And, he 
added, the resulting increased productivity, ex- 
panded economy and fuller utilization of man- 
^ power and plant capacity would lower the cur- 
rent "unacceptable" 5 percent inflation rate. 

» Oswald stressed that public service jobs, train- 
ing programs, public works construction and a 

^ solid boost for housing would be a "more direct 
means of putting people to work than tax cuts" 

* and would have a lower cost impact on the fed- 

eral budget. Many of those efforts could be rapid- 
ly put into motion, he said, citing the huge back- 
log of public works needs — many of them small 
projects "that can be started within 60 days after 
approval.'' He said that within six weeks after 
Congress overrode President Ford's veto of a $2 
billion public works bill, applications for more 
than $29 billion were filed. 

Questioned by reporters on the network radio 
interview Labor News Conference, Oswald said 
that if there is a tax cut, as many are now urging, 
it should be heavily weighted toward the low- and 
middle-income brackets, where there is a "dire 
need for income and would quickly spur the 
economy." And a tax rebate, he pointed out, would 
hold even greater advantages than a tax cut by 
immediately boosting buying power while leaving 
budget surpluses for the future. 

Jobs, Oswald declared, remain the AFL-CIO's 
number-one priority, and that effort must be 
coupled with policies and programs, such as those 
spelled out in the Humphrey-Hawkins bill, that 
will develop a sustained full employment economy. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

AS THE CARTER ADMINISTRATION takes the reins of power, 
^ a great debate is shaping up which may reveal much about the 
direction America takes in the years ahead. 

On the surface, the issue will be whether to stimulate the slumpn 
ing economy primarily through a tax cut or job-creation programs. 

But more basically, the decisions will reflect choices over 
whether those who already have enough will get even more. Or 
whether the nation will act with a sense of purpose to begin cre- 
ating decent and stable jobs, to begin building enough housing, 
to begin the reconstruction of the cities, to move toward a great 
and compassionate society. 

President Ford and his economists, obsessed by inflation and 
"federal spending," leave behind them a heavy toll of human and 
economic waste. 

Their policies gave most families in America a taste of unem- 
ployment. They left the nation with an official jobless rate of 8.1 
percent as of November. Labor estimates that more than 10 million 
people are unemployed. The building trades count the skilled crafts 
jobless rate at 27 percent nationally and as high as 50 and 60 per- 
cent in some cities. Black teenage unemployment tops 40 percent 
in many ghetto areas. Some young people have not worked for years 
and have no job experience or work habits. 

A national consensus has been gathering force behind the need for 
the Carter Administration and Congress to act quickly. 

America has done it before. When President Roosevelt took office, 
the highest priority was to put people to work. Public employment 
jobs were created for 4 million people in two months. The WPA 
had nearly 3 million people at work in half a year. PWA had people 
building schools, roads and water and sewer systems. 

Today, the situation may not be as desperate but great needs 
exist. The pared-down public works bill passed over Ford's second 
veto last August included only $2 billion for state and local public 
works. Yet the Commerce Dept. received project proposals for $29 
billion. These proposals for schools, libraries, storm sewers and 
such are small — $5 million or less — and must be started within 60 
days after approval. 

Each $1 billion spent on public works creates an estimated 40,000 
jobs directly and 20,000 jobs indirectly. If all the proposals were 
funded, 1.8 million jobs would be created. 

PUBLIC SERVICE EMPLOYMENT is another fast and eco- 
nomical way to put people to work. The existing program has an 
appropriation of $2.8 billion and employs 260,000 workers. Con- 
gress has authorized 500,000 jobs, so the program could be quickly 
expanded with an additional $3.2 billion along with the guarantee 
that no current local public employees be displaced. The Council 
on Employment Policy wants this program expanded to a minimum 
of 1 million jobs. 

Training programs, such as the Job Corps, can be quickly ex- 
panded to help equip unemployed youth for jobs. 

Housing programs already passed by Congress await only the $5 
billion appropriation to get going. A proposed Urban Development 
Fund would launch the reconstruction of the central cities. 

But business has other ideas. A group of 15 corporate executives 
is urging a $23 billion stimulus. They want $15 billion in perma- 
nent tax cuts, $5 billion in direct job creation and $3 billion in 
investment credits. 

Many economists point out that a tax cut is the weakest and 
costliest way to boost the economy. It is of no immediate help to 
the jobless or the low-paid; it is spread out geographically and not 
to areas in greatest need; and it is banked by many. 

The permanent tax cut also is becoming a favored device of con- 
servatives to reduce federal revenue and thereby starve current social 
programs and defeat new ones. 

Thus the coming debate will help decide the nation's course. 
What America needs is jobs and a good start toward a more rational 
economic system. 

THE MIX OF JOB-CREATION and economic stimulus, shaped 
by a "more favorable Administration" and actively supported by 
Congress, may show President-elect Carter's pledge to cut unem- 
ployment by 1 .5 percent next year to have been "too modest," 
AFL-CIO Economist Rudy Oswald, center, said on Labor News 
Conference. Questioning him were Sara Fritz of United Press 
International and Tom Joyce of Newsweek magazine. The AFL- 
CIO public affairs interview is aired Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Page Six 


Carter Victory Highlights Labor's Year 

By John R. Oravec 

High unemployment and rising prices 
dogged American workers through much 
of 1976, the nation's bicentennial year. The 
Ford Administration's economic policies, 
meanwhile, brought underfunding of vital 
social programs as well as continued ero- 
sion of workers' paychecks. 

Labor-supported legislation coming out 
of Congress was shortcircuited by presiden- 
tial vetoes. Some were overridden; but in 
most cases, Congress failed to muster the 
needed two-thirds majority. 

Against this backdrop, labor and other 
groups of Americans that had taken a buf- 
feting from the Ford Administration work- 
ed energetically to put Jimmy Carter in the 
White House — along with the election of a 
progressive Congress. 

Here are highlights of the year as re- 
ported by the AFL-CIO News: 


President Ford's Christmas season veto 
of the construction site picketing bill he 
had promised to sign outraged the labor 
movement and forced the resignation of a 
valued Cabinet member. AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent George Meany said Ford caved in 
to right-wing political pressures. President 
Robert A. Georgine of the Building & Con- 
struction Trades Dept. expressed sadness 
and indignation that Ford had gone back 
on assurances given both "publicly and 
privately." And John T. Dunlop re- 
signed as Secretary of Labor, saying that 
Ford's broken promise destroyed the "trust, 
confidence and respect" needed in labor- 
management-government cooperation. 

Economic problems continued to plague 
the nation as 131 of its 150 major employ- 
ment centers were classified as having 
"substantial" joblessness. A congressional 
staff study warned that the Administra- 
tion's budget policy could cause a severe 
setback in recovery from recession, keeping 
economic growth low and unemployment 

People: Russell T. Conlon was elected 
secretary-treasurer of the Operating Engi- 
neers, succeeding J. C. Turner, who earlier 
became president of the lUOE. David Sul- 
livan, president-emeritus of the Service 
Employees, died at age 71. 


The AFL-CIO Executive Council made 
full employment its top priority goal, urg- 
ing Congress to immediately begin develop- 
ing a balanced jobs and economic growth 
program based on a nine-point guide draft- 
ed by the federation's Economic Policy 
Committee. At its mid-winter meeting, the 
council also found the Ford Administra- 
tion's policies sorely lacking on jobs and 
social needs and most other areas of na- 
tional concern. Charging that the govern- 
ment "seriously understates" the nation's 
high unemployment situation, the federa- 
tion said that the jobless rate in January 
was closer to 10.6 percent than the 7.8 per- 
cent reported by the Bureau of Labor Sta- 

People: President Angelo Fosco of the 
Laborers and Charles H. Pillard of the 
International Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers were elected vice presidents of 
the AFL-CIO. Vice President Joseph D. 
Keen an retired after more than 20 years 
on the council. W. J. Usery, Jr. was sworn 
in as the new Secretary of Labor. Joseph 
Pollack was elected to succeed William A. 
Gillen as president of the Insurance 


A new full employment bill introduced 
in Congress by Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey 
(D-Minn.) and Rep. Augustus F. Hawkins 
(D-Calif.) immediately received the support 
of organized labor and a number of public 
interest groups. The legislation set a na- 
tional goal of bringing the adult unemploy- 
ment rate down to 3 percent within four 
years, in addition to stimulating economic 
growth. The Joint Economic Committee of 
Congress warned that the Administration's 
tight budget policy threatened to under- 
mine the fragile economic recovery. 

People: David J. Fitzmaurice was chosen 
president of the Electrical, Radio & Ma- 
chine Workers to succeed Paul Jennings 
who would resign June 1 because of ill 
health. George Hutchens was elected by 
the lUE board to succeed Fitzmaurice as 
secretary-treasurer. Matthew DeMore, re- 

tired secretary-treasurer of the Machinists 
and first vice president of the National 
Council of Senior Citizens, died at age 73. 


The AFL-CIO launched an all-out fight 
against Administration and congressional 
attacks on food stamps, warning that the 
program was the only defense against hun- 
ger for millions of Americans. Federation 
President Meany called on the Agriculture 
Dept. to withdraw a plan that would cur- 
tail food stamps for 1 1 million persons, 
including millions of working poor who 
would be dropped from the program en- 
tirely. The BLS reported that a typical 
urban family needed an income of $15,479 
in 1975 to maintain a moderate standard 
of living, an increase of 8 percent over the 

More than 3,000 delegates participated 
in the Building & Construction Trades 
Dept. national jobs conference, assailing 
Ford for his vetoes of job creation bills 
while the unemployment rate in the crafts 
held at depression levels. Employers short- 
changed workers $93.7 million in wage- 
hour violations uncovered by government 
investigators during the first nine months 
of fiscal year 1976. Organized labor 
pledged full support of the Rubber Work- 
ers in their strike of the major tire makers. 

People: Ralph A. Legion became secre- 
tary of the International Brotherhood of 
Electrical Workers, succeeding Joseph D. 
Kfenan, who retired. At the Graphic Arts 
International Union, Eugene M. Boerner 
became executive vice president and 
Joseph Hellman secretary-treasurer follow- 
ing a series of retirements, including Exec- 
utive Vice Presidents John Connolly and 
William J. Hall and Sec.-Treas. Wesley A. 
Taylor. Myra Wolfgang, a vice president 
of the Hotel & Restaurant Employees, died. 


Labor's proposals prepared for both the 
Democratic and Republican platform 
committees urged a firm commitment to 
full employment at home and support for 
freedom throughout the world. A House 
subcommittee voted a 10-3 endorsement of 
the Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment 
bill after Ford attacked the labor-backed 
measure. During the first three months of 
the year, physicians' fees rose at an annual 
rate of 14.2 percent and hospital service 
charges at a rate of 20.1 percent, a govern- 
ment study found. The consumer price 
index rose four-tenths of 1 percent, but 
real spendable earnings declined again. 

People: Anthony Weinlein was elected 
secretary-treasurer of the Service Em- 
ployees, succeeding George E. Fairchild, 
who retired. Orville W. Jacobson assumed 
the presidency of the Railway Carmen 
after Anthony L. Krause retired. Golda 
Meir. Israel's former prime minister, re- 
ceived the AFL-CIO Murray-Green 
Award. Ros-^^ Fitzgerald Kennedy, mother 
of the late President, received a special 
award at the federation's Community Ser- 
vices conference. George E. Gill, executive 
vice president of the Communications 
Workers, died. 


Retail prices shot ahead six-tenths of 1 
percent, fueled by sharp advances in food 
and ga-^oline. Real earnings rose 1.2 per- 
cent, but were still below the 1971 rate. A 
governmeht-fihanced study found that 
union workers earn substantially more 
than non-union workers doing the same 
iobs, but this difi'erential has a negligible 
impact on inflation. Two federal courts 
thwarted Ford Administration attempts to 
bypass Congress and cut back food stamps 
to the needy. Meanwhile, the Supreme 
Court struck down amendments to the 
Fair Labor Standards Act that extended 
wage-hour protections to public employees. 
Unemployment in th'" United States was 
higher than in any other industrialized na- 
tion, the BLS reported. 

The U.S. delegation to the International 
Labor Organization walked out of a con- 
ference to protest recognition given to a 
Palestine terrorist group. Clothing and tex- 
tile unions consummated a merger to form 
the Amalgamated Clothing & Textile 
Workers Union and immediately launched 
a nationwide boycott of the J. P. Stevens 

People: President Clyde M. Webber of 
the Government Employees died at age 56 
and Executive Vice President Dennis 

Garrison was sworn in to complete his 
unexpired term. The Meat Cutters elected 
Harry R. Poole as president and Samuel 
J. Talarico as secretary-treasurer to suc- 
ceed retiring President Joseph Belsky and 
Sec.-Treas. Patrick E. Gorman. Gorman 
assumed the post of chairman of the ex- 
ecutive board. 


Jimmy Carter easily won the Demo- 
cratic nomination for President on the 
first ballot at the party's convention in 
New York and chose Sen. Walter F. Mon- 
dale as his running mate. The AFL-CIO 
Executive Council unanimously endorsed 
the Carter-Mondale ticket and Meany im- 
mediately pledged the full support of the 
federation and COPE to help assure victory 
in November. 

A 12-union coalition won a new three- 
year agreement for nearly 1 00,000 workers 
at General Electric Co. plants across the 
country, providing substantial improve- 
ments in wages and benefits. Westinghouse 
Electric Corp. agreed to similar terms 
shortly after for more than 40,000 workers. 
Congress overrode Ford's veto of a job- 
creating public works bill that the AFL- 
CIO termed "the first step toward breaking 
out of recession." Union craftsmen across 
the country took part in Fourth of July 
celebrations marking the nation's bicen- 
tennial observance. 

People: David W. Johnson was elected 
executive vice president of the Postal 
Workers. L. D. Porter was appointed di- 
rector of AFL-CIO Region II following 
the retirement of Woodrow G. Pendergrass. 

Deaths: Nat Goldfinger, organized la- 
bor's leading economist and AFL-CIO 
research director, of cancer at age 59; 
Victor Feather, former general secretary 
of the British Trades Union Congress, and 
Arlon E. Lyon, former president of the 
Railroad Signalmen. 


The nation's job picture took a turn for 
the worse as the government's official un- 
employment rate rose three-tenths of I 
percent to 7.8 percent. Meanwhile, corpo- 
rate profits in the April-June quarter surged 
33 percent over the year-ago period in a 
survey of 541 corporations. The Republi- 
cans nominated Ford as their standard- 
bearer in the presidential election; he 
picked conservative Sen. Robert Dole of 
Kansas as his running mate. 

Jimmy Carter spelled out his program 
for getting America back to work at a 
meeting of the AFL-CIO General Board, 
which pledged labor's "united, tireless 
efl'orts" in the presidential election cam- 
paign. A coalition of labor, consumer and 
public interest groups sought to halt a 
price increase of natural gas approved by 
the Federal Power Commission. 

People: Charles L. Brodeur was elected 
over incumbent Kenneth M. Edwards as 
president of the Lathers. The Elevator 
Constructors elected Everett A. Treadway 
as president to succeed R. Wayne Williams, 
who retired. John N. Russell took over 
Treadway's old post as secretary-treasurer. 

Deaths: Peter T. Schoemann, retired 
president of the Plumbers & Pipe Fitters; 
Alexander H. Uhl, reporter and co-founder 
of Press Associates, Inc., the labor news 
service, and Franz E. Daniel, former as- 
sistant organizing director of the AFL-CIO. 


Congress voted final approval of a wide- 
ranging revision of federal tax laws that 
would tighten some loopholes and loosen 
others. Democratic presidential nominee 
Jimmy Carter launched his campaign at 
Warm Springs, Ga., with a pledge on 
Labor Day to bring the nation full em- 
ployment and a healthy economy. The 
Rubber Workers ratified new contracts 
with the Big Four tire companies to end a 
series of strikes that began Apr. 21. The 
Meat Cutters also ratified new three-year 
agreements with major meat packers 
across the country. Retail prices rose five- 
tenths of 1 percent for the third straight 
month, while the real take-home pay of 
workers declined three-tenths of 1 percent 
over the preceding month. Meanwhile, the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that the 
jobless rate in 32 of the 81 large urban 
areas in the nation exceeded 10 percent. 

People: The Molders elected Carl W. 
Studenroth as president to succeed retiring 

Anton J. Trizna, and Bernard Butsavage 
was elected executive vice president. 


A new threat of higher inflation and 
rising unemployment was a clear signal for 
needed change in the White House, Meany 
declared, as the election campaign intensi- 
fied. Labor Dept. studies showed that 2.7 
million workers exhausted all unemploy- 
ment insurance without finding jobs dur- 
ing 1975 and the first half of 1976. The 
Census Bureau reported that the number 
of Americans living in poverty rose by 
2.5 million during 1975 to 25.9 million. 
The AFL-CIO agreed to guarantee up to 
$800,000 of an NAACP bond to appeal 
a civil rights damage suit in Mississippi. 
The Bakery & Confectionery Workers won 
a two-year struggle for an agreement with 
the Russell Stover Candy Co. Congress k 
overrode Ford's veto of a $56.6 billion 
appropriations bill for the Departments of ; 
Labor and Health, Education & Welfare. 
Meany again questioned if Ford Adminis- j 
tration politics were the cause of further 
delays in new job safety and health stan- * 
dards. A labor-sponsored rally in New f 
York drew 100,000 persons for Jimmy 
Carter's campaign wind-up. f 

People: The executive council of the 
Railway & Airline Clerks named Fred J. 
Kroll to succeed C. L. Dennis, who was 
stepping down as president after 13 years. 
The Government Employees elected Ken- 
neth T. Blaylock as president, Joseph D. 
Gleason executive vice president, and 
Nicholas J. Nolan secretary-treasurer. 
William H. Wynn was elected secretary- 
treasurer of the Retail Clerks to succeed 
retiring Peter Hall. James D. Adler was 
elected as president of the South Carolina 
AFL-CIO over incumbent Sinway Young. 

Deaths: Former Sen. Paul H. Douglas 
of Illinois and retired President Joseph 
Belsky of the Meat Cutters. 


Jimmy Carter was elected the 39th 
President of the United States, with strong 
support from labor and minority groups. 
D'^mocrats retained big majorities in both 
the Senate and House, and expanded their 
lead in governorships to 37 states. More ^ 
than 70 percent of congressional and ' 
gubernatorial candidates endorsed by 
COPE were elected. In a post-election 
analysis, Meany attributed Ford's defeat to 
his faulty economic policies and veto 
record. Twelve AFL-CIO unions joined 
in reactivating the Food & Beverage Trades 
Dept., with President James T. House- 
wright of the Retail Clerks as president 
and President Daniel E. Conway of the 
Bakery & Confectionery Workers as secre- 

People: J. Joseph Vacca was elected 
president of the Letter Carriers to succeed 
retiring James H. Rademacher. Bernard 
C. Hilbert succeeded Charles R. Pfenning 
as president of the Train Dispatchers. Rudy 
Oswald was named research director of the 

Deaths: Labor historian Philip Taft and 
Tran Quoc Buu, president of the Vietna- 
mese Confederation of Labor before the 
Communist takeover. 


The nation's unemployment rate climbed 
back to 8^.1 percent while wholesale prices 
increased at an annual rate of 7.2 percent. 
The layofl" rate for workers rose for the 
third consecutive month, reflecting a fur- 
ther slowing of economic recovery from 
the continuing recession. Thomas P. 
O'Neill, Jr., who will be Speaker of the 
House in the 95th Congress, pledged to 
give priority to job-creating programs. 
AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland said 
labor's voice will be heard in foreign trade 
Dolicies to stem the tide of job-eroding 
foreign imports. The Supreme Court re- 
iected a suit by the Electrical, Radio & 
Machine Workers seeking equal sick 
benefits for women workers for childbirth. 
The lUE won new agreements for 30,000 
workers at General Motors Corp. and for 
22,000 workers at RCA Corp. F. Ray 
Marshall, labor economist and professor at 
the University of Texas, was nominated by 
President-elect Carter as Secretary of La- 
bor. Meany noted that Marshall had 
worked closely with organized labor during 
his "long and distinguished career" and 
pledged the AFL-CIO's cooperation. 


Page Seven 

Hall Asks Wider Probe: 







Tanker Spills Tied 
To Foreign Flags 

America's over-reliance on foreign-flag vessels makes meaningful 
ship operational safety standards and enforcement impossible, Sea- 
farers President Paul Hall charged in a letter to Senate Commerce 
Committee Chairman Warren Magnuson (D-Wash.). 

Citing the recent marine disasters involving the Liberian-flag 
tankers Argo Merchant, Sansinena 

and Olympic Games, Hall termed 
present oil transportation system 
"inherently deficient" and "woe- 
fully inadequate to protect the ma- 
rine environment and the American 

Because vessels registered under 
foreign flags are largely removed 
from American control, there is 
presently little that can be done to 
assure foreign compliance with ship 
operational safety standards, Hall 

"Unless we have a U.S. oil 
transportation system under U.S. 
supervision, beginning at the 
design stage and continuing 
through operations, our environ- 
mental goals will be frustrated," 
he warned. 

Hall said it is unfortunate that it 
has taken a series of major disasters 
to make obvious the need for cor- 
rective action. 

Magnuson has scheduled hearings 
into the recent marine disasters in- 
volving Liberian-registered ships in 
U.S. waters. The Sansinena exploded 
in Los Angeles harbor after un- 
loading petroleum. The Argo Mer- 
chant ran aground spilling its oil 
cargo off Nantucket, and the Olym- 
pic Games wis held responsible for 
spilling oil in the Delaware River. 

Liberia offers one of the "flags 
of convenience" that enable U.S. 
firms to avoid taxes, escape U.S. 
labor law and ignore domestic safe- 
ty standards. Hall urged that the 

Senate Commerce Committee hear- 
ings not be limited to the marine 
disasters. Instead, he said, the com- 
mittee should undertake a compre- 
hensive examination of America's 
oil transportation system. 

Despite the fact that the oil is 
used to fuel America's industry, 
paid for by American consumers, 
and threatens America's waters and 
resources. Hall said, the oil trans- 
portation system "is not a U.S. 
system. In fact, approximately 96 
percent of the oil transported to the 
United States is carried aboard 
foreign-built registered, and man- 
ned vessels. Only about 4 percent 
of our oil is carried on American- 
flag ships." 

Hall noted that the oil cargo bill 
passed by Congress in 1974 but 
vetoed by President Ford would 
have reserved the carriage of up to 
30 percent of America's oil imports 
for U.S.-flag ships. 

"The major opponents of this 
legislation were the same oil 
companies who are the largest 
owners of Liberian-flag vessels," 
Hall noted. 

While the use of U.S.-flag ships 
would not eliminate the risk of 
future pollution accidents. Hall said, 
"an oil transportation system in- 
volving U.S.-flag ships will mean 
that, for the first time, the United 
States will have a larger measure of 
control and influence over the car- 
riage of oil. thereby minimizing 
environmental risks." 

Labor Dept. to Answer 
Steel Election Queries 

The Labor Dept. has set up a task force to provide technical 
advice on the conduct of the Steelworkers election Feb. 8 in response 
to requests from the union and candidates for the union's presidency 
and other offices. 

Bernard E. DeLury, assistant secretary for labor-management 
relations, also offered to provide 50^^ 

compliance officers, two in each of 
the union's 22 districts in the 
United States, to instruct tellers 
from the 4,900 Steelworker locals 
on the requirements of the Land- 
rum-Griffin Act. The 600 Canad- 
ian locals are not covered by the 
U.S. law. 

On the day before and election 
day itself the compliance oflficers 
will be available at district offices 
to answer questions and to handle 
tally sheets at the union's Pitts- 
burglji hQadquarters. 

The department's assistance 
"will not involve either supervi- 
sion or pre-election investiga- 
tion,'* the statement said, because 
the department believes that "the 
law requires the union conduct 
its own election." 

Molly Fitch Dies, 
Former CIO Aide 

Molly Lynch Fitch, who was 
secretary to the late Philip Murray 
when he was president of the CIO, 
died of cancer at the age of 65. 
She was a resident of Tampa, Fla., 
but during her final illness was a 
patient at Georgetown University 
Hospital in Washington, D.C., 
where she once had worked as a 

Mrs. Fitch served as secretary to 
Steelworkers President David J. 
McDonald in the union's Washing- 
ton office after Murray's death. 

The Labor Department's an- 
nouncement of its task force came 
after U.S. District Judge Alfred 
Kirkland in Chicago ruled that a 
suit filed by Steelworkers presiden- 
tial candidate Lloyd McBride, 
charging his opponent Edward 
Sadlowski with illegally using em- 
ployers' and corporate money to 
finance his campaign, should be 
heard in the Cook County Circuit 
Court. Sadlowski had asked the 
federal court to assume jurisdic- 

McBride's suit asked the^ court 
to block Sadlowski's use^ 'iif ' ehi- 
ployer money and that his cam- 
paign should be made to disclose 
the total amount and sources of the 
funds collected. 

USWA President L W. Abel, 
who will retire after his term ex- 
pires in May, issued a statement 
declaring that he resents the grow- 
ing influence of people "outside 
the union and outside the labor 
movement . . . employers and an- 
tagonistic millionaires who resent 
the successful record of this union 
and want to weaken it in the fu- 

Abel said "the provision against 
employer money in our union elec- 
tion is a wise provision. It is based 
on decades of harsh experience 
that employers, whether or not 
they have contracts with our union, 
seek with dollars to exert influence 
on the formulation of program and 
policy of our union . . ." 

FINAL CABINET-LEVEL appointees are introduced by President-elect Jimmy Carter at Plains, 
Ga. From left are James Schlesinger, to be federal energy chief; Theodore Sorensen, nommated as 
Central Intelligence Agency director, and Joseph A. Califano, Jr., named to head the Dept. of 
Health, Education & Welfare. 

New Regulations on Pension Plans 
Include Time-of-Service Definitions 

The Labor Dept. issued final minimum standards for pension plans covering approximately 33 mil- 
lion workers. 

The regulations, which define hours of service, years of service, and breaks in service, represent 
"the most important and comprehensive regulatory efl'ort" yet issued under the 1974 Employee Retire- 
ment Income Security Act, said William J. Chadwick, administrator of the Labor Dept.'s pension 
and welfare benefit programs. 

"They will enable plan spon- 
sors to adopt new pension plans 
and amend and restate existing 
plans in full compliance with 
ERISA," Chadwick said. "As a 
result, the private pension system 

will be strengthened, and the 
rights of participants and bene- 
ficiaries will be secure." 

The regulations define key terms, 
such as an hour of service, and im- 
plement key statutory concepts, 
such as the year of service and the 
one-year break in service. Chadwick 
said the terms and concepts set 
forth in the regulations explain how 
an individual's eligibility to partici- 
pate in a plan is determined, the 
individual's nonforfeitable or 'vest- 
ed' right to his or her retirement 
benefit, and the accrual or accumu- 
lation of that benefit as a result of 
plan participation. 

The regulations, published in the 
Dec. 28, 1976, Federal Register, 
carefully spell out how employers 
must determine the number of hours 
a worker has been employed. Under 
ERISA, an employee is given credit 
for a year of service if he or she 
has worked at least 1,000 hours in 
a 12-month period. But calculating 
eligibility on this basis has proved 
difficult for many employers, and 
alternative methods were sought. 

The new regulations give em- 
ployers a number of methods for 
determining hours of service. They 
also permit the use of an "elapsed 
time method," a method that many 
plans had been using prior to pas- 
sage of the 1974 pension law. 

The elapsed time method, which 
is often more liberal in determining 
vesting requirements, "is favorable 
to employees and less costly to ad- 
minister," Chadwick said. The 
method permits employers to keep 
records on "the appropriate periods 
of time" worked — such as the dates 
of an employee's hiring and de- 
parture — without keeping track of 
the actual number of hours worked. 

The elapsed-time proposal will 
not be permanently adopted, 
however, until the public has had 
a chance to comment on it. 

New Booklet Offered 
On Home Solar Heating 

A booklet dealing with solar 
heating of homes has been issued 
by the Dept. of Health, Education 
& Welfare. A free copy of Solar 
Energy and Your Home may be 
obtained by writing the Consumer 
Information Center, Dept. 646E, 
Pueblo, Colorado 81009. 

Chadwick observed that the La- 
bor Dept. has now completed two 
of three basic sets of regulations 
required by plan administrators for 
bringing plans into compliance. 

The first major regulations were 

for reporting and disclosure. Mini- 
mum standards were second. The 
third set of regulations, covering 
summary plan descriptions, are ex- 
pected to be published early in 
1977, Chadwick s^id. 

Safety Cost Studies 
Continued by Ford 

(Continued from Page I) 
Vail, Colo., changes the name of 
the inflation impact statements to 
"economic impact statements," but 
their objective remains the same: 
"to improve decision-making by re- 
quiring agencies to consider the 
economic impact of their regula- 
tory and legislative proposals." 

Even OSHA officials acknowl- 
edge, however, that the White 
House order has fallen short of its 
goal. An intra-agency confidential 
memorandum admits that the in- 
flation impact statement process "is 
not having its desired intent of im- 
proving agency decision-making." 

The statements are developed 
only "after decisions as to which 
substances or safety hoards are to 
be the subject of rule-making have 
been made," the memo states. 
"Thus to date the IIS process has 
not had an impact in the area of 
priority setting." 

In his letter to Usery urging re- 
peal of the order, Meany charged 
that the requirement for inflation 
impact statements sucking the 
life out of an orderly and expedi- 
tious standard development pro- 
cess," and vowed that organized 
labor would do "all within our 
power to remove this albatross" 
from pSHA. 

Steelworkers President I.W. Abel, 
citing "bureaucratic delays" by the 
Labor Dept. in carrying out Ford's 
order, pointed to interminable de- 
lays by OSHA in issuing a pro- 
posed job health standard that 
would reduce worker exposure to 

Abel, who heads the AFL-CIO 
Industrial Union Dept., charged 
that the delay in standard-setting 
caused by the inflation impact state- 
ments is intolerable. But, he added, 
the matter is made even more out- 
rageous by the Administration's in- 
sistence that a dollar value be 
placed on the number of lives saved 
so that it can be compared with the 
cost of compliance with the stan- 

Abel urged OSHA to go ahead 
with its public hearings on the lead 
standard, scheduled for Mar. 15 in 
Washington. The proposed standard 
would change the present OSHA 
permissible exposure limit from 200 
to 100 micrograms of lead per 
cubic meter of air, based upon an 
eight-hour time-weighted average. 
The Steelworkers represent work- 
ers in smelters, chemical plants, and 
other workplaces where airborne 
lead can be found. 

While OSHA has submitted a 
position paper to the Carter transi- 
tion team urging retention of the 
inflation impact analysis require- 
ment for proposed OSHA stan- 
dards, there is no unanimity within 
the agency on its degree of efi*ec- 
tiveness. Abel observed that one of 
the offices within the Labor Dept. 
found the inflationary impact state- 
ment on the proposed lead standard 
unacceptable and said it could add 
a full year to the setting of the final 

Abel -said the -SteelwOfki^rs' hail 
obtained a recent memorandum to 
OSHA Director Morton Corn from 
David Bell, acting chief of OSHA's 
Office of Environmental Inflation- 
ary & Economic Impact, indicating 
that even massive additional effort 
on an inflation impact statement 
well might not yield any significant- 
ly improved results. OSHA issued 
its lead standard well over a year 

The Labor Dept. bureau object- 
ing to the inflation impact statement 
requirement is the Oflfice of the As- 
sistant Secretary for Policy, Evalu- 
ation & Research,, according to the 
Bell memo. Noting significant non- 
compliance with the present stan- 
dard, the memo expresses agree- 
ment on the "desirability of more 
perfect information on the cost/ 
benefit of the proposed regulation," 
but states that "it appears that such 
data is not within the range of pres- 
ent medical knowledge, and cannot 
be responsibly estimated from avail- 
able data." 

Page Eight 


New Congress Opens: 

Job-Creating Bills 
Pressed in House 

( Continued from Page 1 ) 

requirement that the votes of 60 
of the 100 senators are needed to 
limit debate. But it seeks to assure 
that once cloture has been voted, 
the Senate can complete action on 
the legislation without nmning into 
further delaying tactics. 

The Senate Rules Committee is 
also holding hearings on and con- 
sidering proposals for modifications 
of a committee reorganization plan 
drafted by a bipartisan panel that 

Public Unions 
Hit Ford on 

The executive board of the AFL- 
CIO Public Employee Dept. has 
charged the Ford Administration 
with juggling figures to justify the 
contracting out of work performed 
by federal employees. 

It said a study by the General 
Accounting Office has punctured 
cost estimates used by the White 
House Office of Management & 
Budget to determine whether the 
government could save money by 
firing employees and hiring private 
contractors to do the work. 

The Public Employee Dept. said 
the study showed that the 0MB 
"statistical manipulations seriously 
underestimated the true cost to the 
government for contracting-out." It 
called on the incoming Carter Ad- 
ministration "to review this thinly 
veiled attempt by the Ford Admin- 
istration to line the pockets of pri- 
vate industry." 

In another resolution, the depart- 
ment took note of the financial ills 
of the U.S. Postal Service and of- 
fered cooperation to a seven-mem- 
ber Postal Study Commission that 
will make recommendations to 
Congress and the President. 

The PED urged the commission, 
however, to reaffirm "the basic 
principle of universal postal service 
at reasonable rates." 

was headed by Sen. Adlai E. Stev- 
enson III. 

It would reduce the number of 
Senate committees from 31 to 15 
and limit a senator's committee as- 
signments. A number of groups 
with legislative interests, including 
unions, are unhappy with various 
parts of the proposal and some 
changes are likely. 

In the 1974 session of Congress, 
the House considered and finally 
rejected a major reshuffling of its 
committees and adopted instead a 
much more modest package of 

The Rules Committee is sched- 
uled to report to the Senate on 
Jan. 19, and meanwhile assignment 
of new senators to committees is 
being held up. 

On the House side, newcomers 
and veterans alike are jockeying 
for assignment or reassignment to 
presigious committees, or to those 
dealing with legislation most im- 
portant to their constituencies. 

In another area. Congress ap- 
pears ready to give the new Presi- 
dent a limited authority to reorga- 
nize the Executive Branch of gov- 
ernment — one of Carter's campaign 

Rep. Jack Brooks (D-Tex.), 
chairman of the House Govern- 
ment Operations Committee, met 
with Carter and said legislation 
will be introduced to allow the 
President to propose reorganiza- 
tion changes that would take ef- 
fect automatically unless either 
the House or Senate voted dis- 
approval. Similar powers have 
been given to other presidents. 

Carter's Cabinet nominees and 
others he has proposed for high 
government posts must still be con- 
firmed by the Senate. But past 
precedents indicate that most of 
the nominations will be cleared 
soon after inauguration day. 

Meanwhile, the ballots cast by 
presidential electors were formally 
counted and announced to a joint 
session of Congress. 

The winner, unsurprisingly, was 
Jimmy Carter of Plains, Ga. 

Health Services Lacking 
Despite Hefty Cost Hike 

(Continued from Page I) 
has fought to win approval of 
Health Security since the Sixties, it 
won't insist that the system "come 
into effect overnight." Agreement 
on a phase-in "over a period of 
years" is possible, provided it can 
be done "in an efi'ective and fair 
way," he said. 

But, he stressed that there can 
be "no compromise on . . . the 
basic principles involved in the 
Health Security program." 

HEW attributed the sharp growth 
in health expenditures over the 

LLS-l Nj^o 

o — • o 


ui5» ° 

<0 3 2 

<(e a. 

• ~" -T 



past two years to "unprecedented 
medical-price increases," noting 
that such prices rose an average of 
12.5 percent in fiscal 1975 and 
10.2 percent in fiscal 1976. Prior 
to 1975, the highest annual in- 
crease was 6.9 percent in 1971, 
about half the 1975 rate, the gov- 
ernment said. 

Hospital charges led all other 
categories in price increases, rising 
13.4 percent in both 1975 and 
1976, HEW said. Physicians' fees 
rose 12.8 percent in 1975 and 11.4 
percent in 1976. Prior to these last 
two years, the highest increase for 
physician fees was 7.5 percent, 
HEW noted. 

Jewish Federation Cites 
L.A. Union Leader 

Los Angeles — William R. Rob- 
ertson, executive secretary-treasurer 
of the Los Angeles County AFL- 
CIO, has been named 1976 recipi- 
ent of the Hollzer award given an- 
nually by the Jewish Federation, 
Council of Greater Los Angeles. 

Robertson, who has had a long 
career in the labor movement, re- 
ceived the award for "fostering 
racial and religious harmony in 
Southern California." Mayor Tom 
Bradley received the award in 1975. 


Byrd^ Baker Chosen 
New Senate Leaders 

Senate Democrats and Republicans chose new leadership teams 
at the start of the 95th Congress, and there was high drama in both 
party caucuses. 

Democrats elected Robert C. Byrd of West Virginia as majority 
leader by acclamation, after Hubert H. Humphrey withdrew from 
the contest in a show of party * 

unity. Later, Senate Democrats 
voted unanimously to create a new 
post that will give Humphrey a 
place in the leadership ranks. 

Byrd's victory had been antici- 
pated; the early pledges of support 
he had collected from his fellow 
senators held firm despite Hum- 
phrey's subsequent declaration of 

The big surprise was on the 
Republican side, where Howard 
T. Baker of Tennessee won the 
minority leader post by a single 
vote. He upset Robert P. Griffin 
of Michigan, 19-18. 

The double leadership change 
was brought about by the retire- 
ments at the end of the last Con- 
gress of Majority Leader Mike 
Mansfield (Mont.) and Minority 
Leader Hugh Scott (Pa.). 

Byrd had been assistant leader 
under Mansfield and had earned 
high marks among his colleagues 
for the hard work, attention to de- 
tail and sensitivity to the body of 
unwritten rules that enables the 
Senate to function eff'ectively. 

Humphrey, who was the Senate 
majority leader before Lyndon B. 
Johnson tapped him as his vice 
presidential running mate in 1964, 
had been sidelined this past fall 
with cancer surgery and chemical 
treatment. He stayed in the race, 
he told his supporters, in a desire 
to be a member of the inner group 
of congressional leaders that will 
share with the White House the 
shaping of the Carter Administra- 
tion legislative program. 

The post Humphrey's colleagues 
set up for him — as deputy presi- 
dent pro tempore of the Senate — 
will give him a place in the leader- 
ship group, as well as the added 
stafi", office and other fringes equal 
to that of the majority leader. The 
title and benefits will also go to 
any future senator who has served 
as President or Vice President. 

On the Republican side. Griffin 
had been the odds-on favorite to 
win the minority leader post. He 
had been assistant whip under 
Scott. Sen. Barry Goldwater of Ari- 
zona had announced his candidacy 
but then withdrew after concluding 
he couldn't win. And Baker, who 
twice ran unsuccessfully against 
Scott, hesitated until the last minute. 

In terms of voting records, there 
appeared to be no ideological dif- 
ferences between the two candi- 
dates. Both are mainstream Repub- 
licans, but Baker was nominated by 
liberal Sen. Charles Mathias of 

Maryland and apparently won with 
the support of most of the fresh- 
men Republican senators. He is a 
son-in-law of the late Everett Mc- 
Kinley Dirksen of Illinois, who for 
many years was the Senate Repub- 
lican leader. 

Without contests. Senate Dem- 
ocrats named Alan Cranston of 
California as party whip, or assis- 
tant leader. Republicans gave that 
post to Ted Stevens of Alaska. 
Daniel K. Inouye of Hawaii was 
picked as secretary of the Demo- 
cratic caucus. 

House Democrats last month had 
designated Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., 
of Massachusetts as Speaker of the 
House and picked James C. Wright, 
Jr., of Texas to replace O'Neill as 
majority leader. 

When the House convened Jan. 
4, O'Neill was elected Speaker in a 
pro forma contest with the House 

Meany Urges 
Quick Action 
On Economy 

(Continued from Page I) 
His New Year's statement spoke 
of the near-bankruptcy of the na- 
tion's cities and states and cutbacks 
in essential services including police 
and fire protection and education. 

Of Americans who have full- 
time jobs, Meany noted that many 
earn so little they must seek welfare 
supplements. **The nation must have 
a minimum wage that will put these 
families above the poverty level." 

Tax justice remains an unmet 
goal on labor's agenda, he said. 
Workers bear "an unfair share of 
the tax burden" while many cor- 
porations and wealthy individuals 
pay little or nothing. Further, tax 
incentives that encourage the export 
of jobs to other lands "must be 

Meany urged that energy in- 
dependence "become a fact, not 
a slogan." He warned that the 
United States remains susceptible 
to "oil blackmailers" and that re- 
liance on profit incentives for 
American industry to produce 
more merely boosts profits for 
one industry "at the expense of 
the nation's future." 

He called for a major overhaul 
of the nation's basic labor law, to 

• Repeal of Section 14(b) of 
the National Labor Relations Act, 
which allows states to prohibit un- 
ion shop agreements. 

• Extension of NLRA coverage 
"to all workers not now protected." 

• Enactment of construction site 
picketing legislation to end "un- 
equal treatment of workers in the 
construction industry." 

• Procedural changes to elimi- 
nate "built-in delays which deny 
justice to workers." 

• Stronger, more effective reme- 
dies against employer violations of 
the law. 

Meany's message pressed also for 
more effective job safety and health 
enforcement, simplification of pen- 
sion law administration, modernized 
unemployment and workers' com- 


Republican leader, John J. Rhodes pensation and improved consumer 
of Arizona. | protection. 

UNESCO Prodded 
To Further Reforms 

New York— The Committee for an Effective UNESCO declared 
"there is still much work to be done" before the United Nations 
agency "fulfills its mandate and abandons politics for education, 
science, and culture." 

Established last year to help correct the growing politicization of 
UNESCO — the UN Educational,^^ 
Scientific & Cultural Organization, 

the committee issued a statement 
citing a number of issues which it 
said the agency still needs to re- 

Among these were further anti- 
Israel resolutions passed at 
UNESCO's biennial conference in 
Nairobi, Kenya, last October; a res- 
olution to compel certain non-gov- 
ernmental organizations, including 
the International Council of Scien- 
tific Unions, to purge scientists rep- 
resenting the Republic of China and 
a proposal to develop and sanction 
government surveillance and control 
of the media, of communication and 
artistic activities. 

"All of these are ominous augu- 
ries of trouble ahead," the commit- 
tee declared. Yet, it noted, some 
progress toward depoliticization of 
UNESCO was made at the meeting. 

"The committee applauds the de- 
ferment of the mass media issue to 
the next general conference and its 
further study by a group of ex- 
perts,'* the panel observed. 

"The committee notes the ab- 
sence of any resolution linking 
Zionism to racism, and wishes to 
convey a note of congratulations to 
the delegations that registered their 
unmistakable opposition to such a 

The panel recommended that, in 
light of UNESCO's recent actions, 
the United States government pay 
its 1975 back dues to the organiza- 
tion to encourage it to "continue 
working in a constructive direction." 
It stipulated that "no further pay- 
ments should be made, however, 
until there is clear evidence that 
further steps are being taken to 
depoliticize the organization." 

The committee's members include 
a distinguished group of national 
scholars, including several Nobel 
laureates. Teachers President Albert 
Shanker assisted in creating the 
committee. Former labor reporter 
and union editor Arnold Beichman, 
now a political science professor at 
the University of Massachusetts, is 
a member of the panel. 

Vol. XXII 

Saturday, January 15, 1977 "^^^^ 

No. 2 

Labor Calls for $30 Billion 
Package to Cut Joblessness 

10 Million Jobless : 

Job Safety 
Faces New 

Job safety and health protec- 
tion of American workers suffer- 
ed a double setback from Presi- 
dent Ford's order extending 
inflation impact statements on 
proposed safety standards and a 
federal court's decision blocking 
workplace inspection without a 
search warrant, AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent George Meany said. 

Although Ford had only 20 days 
remaining in his term as President, 
he extended for another year the 
Executive Order requiring the Oc- 
cupational Safety & Health Ad- 
ministration to continue the use of 
impact studies. 

Meany said that Ford took the 
action "without publicity, disguised 
under a new title and virtually at 
the last minute." 

Labor safety experts have termed 
the inflation impact statements — 
now titled economic impact state- 
ments — a device to slow down the 
implementation of new federal 
safety standards. 

"These statements, which place 
a dollar value on the lives and 
well-being of Americans, have 
repeatedly blocked rapid and 
equitable enforcement of OSHA," 
Meany stressed. 

He said the AFL-CIO will urge 
President-elect Jimmy Carter to 
rescind "this inhumane, anti-work- 
er order." 

Meany said the federation will 
also seek to have overturned the 
Idaho federal court order blocking 
(Continued on Page 6) 

Labor Questions Plan 
On New Senate Units 

The AFL-CIO expressed "serious objections" to portions of a 
plan to reorganize Senate committees, but agreed that some changes 
are needed to improve legislative efficiency. 

A bipartisan study group, headed by Sen. Adlai E. Stevenson (D- 
111.), drew up the proposal to cut the number of Senate committees 
and reshuffle jurisdiction. It is be- 

JOB BARRIERS to the handicapped were discussed at a meeting of Dr. Henry Viscardi, left, chair- 
man of an upcoming White House Conference on Handicapped Individuals, AFL-CIO President 
George Meany, and Harold Russell, chairman of the President's Committee on the Employment of 
the Handicapped. Dr. Viscardi explains the use of a novelty telephone, designed and built at a work- 
shop for the handicapped. Meany is co-chairman of the labor-industry council for the conference. 

Unemployment Rate 
Unchanged for Year 

By James M. Shevis 

The year 1976 ended almost exactly as it began for the nation's 
unemployed, as the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported a jobless 
rate of 7.9 percent in December, one-tenth of 1 percent higher than 
the January 1976 level. 

While last month's rate was two-tenths of 1 percent below the 
November pace, the* BLS report 

held mostly disheartening news for 
millions of Americans without jobs. 
Hard-core unemployment — jobless- 
ness of 27 weeks or more — con- 

ing considered by the Senate Rules 
Committee, which is under orders 
to report to the full Senate by Jan. 
19. Meanwhile, permanent assign- 
ment of senators to committees has 
been held up. 

In a statement to the Rules Com- 
mittee, Legislative Director Andrew 
J. Biemiller explained the AFL- 
CIO's objections to some of the 
specifics of the reorganization plan. 

He said the federation is opposed 
to abolishing the Joint Economic 
Committee, a House-Senate panel 
that fills a unique role even though 

it doesn't deal directly with legis- 

Biemiller termed the Joint Eco- 
nomic Committee, which was estab- 
lished by the Employment Act of 
1946, the congressional equivalent 
of the President's Council of Eco- 
nomic Advisers. He noted that its 
studies have provided useful eco- 
nomic forecasts, assessed the costs 
of unemployment and examined 
strategies to achieve full employ- 

"It is the only Senate com- 

(Continued on Page 6) 

tinned to climb, while the number 

of discouraged workers rose sharp- 
ly, and the goods-producing sectors 
of the economy reflected depres- 
sion-type unemployment levels. 

"Anyone who seeks to interpret 
today's government figures as en- 
couraging must ignore this key fact: 
the over-the-month reduction in un- 
employment was almost entirely 
among adult men who abandoned 
the labor force," AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent George Meany said of Decem- 
ber's job statistics. 

"Obviously America's unem- 
ployment problem is not cured 
when workers grow too discour- 
aged to even look for jobs." 

The BLS report reflected a full 
year of virtual economic stagnation 
for the nation's workers. While be- 
low the year's highest level of 8.1 
percent in November, the Decem- 
ber rate was only one percentage 
point under the 1975 recession 
peak of 8.9 percent. 

Officially, 7,558,000 workers 
were unemployed last month, 211,- 
000 fewer than in November. But 
BLS's calculations do not account 
for those persons too discouraged 
to seek work and others who take 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Price Index 
Up Sharply 

Wholesale prices rose nine-tenths 
of 1 percent in December, reflecting 
a double-digit annual rate of 10.8 
percent, as prices for farm and food 
products soared, the Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics reported. 

Last month's increase was the 
fourth consecutive large monthly 
rise in the government's wholesale 
price index since last summer. 

Prices for farm products aver- 
aged 3.7 percent higher, after de- 
clining in four of the five previous 
months. Prices for processed foods 
and feeds rose 2 percent over the 
month, more than three times the 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Carter Plan 
Falls Short 
Of Needs 

The AFL-CIO has called for 
a $30 billion program of eco- 
nomic stimulus based on direct 
job-creating programs, declaring 
that President-elect Carter's lim- 
ited proposals do not measure 

"America's key economic 
problem is unemployment and 
the solution is jobs," the legisla- 
tive subcommittee of the federa- 
tion's Executive Council declared 
following a meeting at AFL-CIO 

The AFL-CIO plan would create 
about 2 million jobs for workers 
now unemployed. 

The federation announced its 
economic-stimulus program three 
days after Carter made public the 
outlines of his proposals to spark 
the economy. While many of the 
details of the Carter plan were not 
revealed, the package generally 
failed to measure up to labor's ex- 

The legislative subcommittee 
said that Carter's plan to spread 
a $30 billion stimulus over a two- 
year period beginning on Oct. 1 
'is too small, takes too long, and 
is too ill-advised" to give the 
economy the boost it needs. "We 
consider this a retreat from the 
goals which we understood Presi- 
dent-elect Carter to have set dur- 
ing last year's campaign," the 
panel said. 
Labor's program calls for the ex- 
penditure of $10 billion in acceler- 
ated public works projects, $8 bil- 
lion in additional public service 
employment, $8 billion in housing 
development, $2 billion in youth 
employment and training programs, 
and $2 billion in "countercyclical" 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Bigger Jobs Program 
Backed by Marshall 

By David L. Perlman 

President-elect Carter's choice for Secretary of Labor, F. Ray 
Marshall, told a Senate hearing that he favors a bigger public works 
jobs program and a smaller tax cut than the incoming Administra- 
tion has advocated. 

Marshall said he argued within the circle of Carter advisers for 
a larger economic stimulus pack-'" 

age, with emphasis on expanded 
public service employment and 
labor-intensive public works jobs. 

He succeeded in getting the tar- 
get for public service jobs raised 
somewhat, Marshall told the Sen- 
ate Labor Committee at his con- 
firmation hearings. But he was 
disappointed that the program 
unveiled by Carter didn't include 
"a much larger package of public 

works and housing" instead of the 
"less effective" stimulus of a tax 

Marshall, a University of Texas 
professor and manpower expert be- 
fore he was tapped for the Carter 
cabinet, said he considered reduc- 
tion of unemployment as the na- 
tion's "most important domestic 

(Continued on Page 7) 

Page Two 


FIRST OF SIX SEMINARS on collective bargaining for affiliates of the AFL-CIO Public Employee 
Dept. is addressed by PED President William H. McClennan, who stressed the increased use of 
economic data to shape effective contract proposals for member unions. The first three-day confer- 
ence was held at the George Meany Center for Labor Studies outside Washington. The remaining 
sessions will be held at various locations throughout the country. 

BLS Sees Slower Growth Rate 
For Workforce in Next 15 Years 

The U.S. workforce, which has been expanding at unprecedented rates since World War II, is ex- 
pected to slow down its growth rate during the next 15 years, according to a study by the Labor Dept.'s 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

In an article titled "New Labor Force Projections to 1990" in the current Monthly Labor Review, 
BLS estimates that the slower growth rate will be due largely to a smaller number of youths reaching 
working age between 1975 and 


The authors of the article are 
Howard N. Fullerton, Jr. and Paul 
O. Flaim. Fullerton is a labor econ- 
omist in the Division of Labor 
Force Studies of BLS. Flaim is di- 
vision chief. Also contributing to 
the article was Paul M. Ryscavage, 
a division economist. 

The article estimates that the 
workforce should grow at an an- 
nual rate of 1.9 percent in the 
latter half of the 1970s and only 
1.1 percent a year during the 
1980s. This would compare with 
a rate of increase of 2.3 percent 
during the first half of the 1970s. 
Behind this slowdown, the arti- 
cle states, is a sharp drop in the 
birth rate during the 1960s. This 
means there will be fewer youths 
reaching working age in the 

The authors estimate that the 

civilian labor force will expand by 
9.1 million in the latter half of the 
1970s, reaching 101.7 million by 
1980. The civilian labor force stood 
at 92.6 million in 1975. (For the 
month of October 1976, the civilian 
labor force was 95.3 million.) 

The estimated increase in the lat- 
ter half of the 1970s should com- 
plete the absorption into the labor 
force of persons born during the 
post-World War II "baby boom." 
The labor force is projected to rise 
to 108.6 million in 1985 and to 
113.8 million in 1990. 

The increase in labor force par- 
ticipation by women workers is ex- 
pected to continue, although at a 
lower rate, through 1990. The num- 
ber of women in the labor force in 
1975 — 37.0 million — is expected to 
rise another 11.6 million by 1990, 
an increase of 1.8 percent a year. 

During the first half of the 

Stevens to Reinstate 
Fired Union Supporter 

Roanoke Rapids, N.C. — The anti-union J. P. Stevens & Co. has 
signed a consent agreement providing for the rehiring of a worker 
illegally fired from her job here in April 1975 for union activity. 

In addition, the agreement stipulates that Mrs. , Helen Newsome, 
a spinner at one of Stevens's textile plants in Roanoke Rapids since 
before it was purchased by the firm^ 
in 1956, will receive $7,000 in back 
wages with interest. 

The agreement was announced 
at a National Labor Relations 
Board hearing on charges against 
Stevens brought by the Clothing & 
Textile Workers. The union has ac- 
cused the giant textile firm of fail- 
ure to bargain in good faith follow- 
ing ACTWU's victory in an NLRB 
representation election in August 

In the consent agreement, the 
company also agreed to post notices 
in the plant for 60 days that it will 
not do anything that unlawfully 
interferes with workers' rights un- 
der the National Labor Relations 
Act, and will not threaten employ- 
ees or discharge them because of 
their support of the union. 

Stevens, the nation's second larg- 
est manufacturer of textile prod- 
ucts, is the object of a national 
consumer boycott, supported by the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council, civic, 
community, ethnic, and trade union 

The NLRB has found the com- 
pany guilty 15 times since 1963 of 
illegal firings, coercion of employ- 
ees, bad-faith bargaining, and other 

violations of the NLRA. The firm 
has been judged guilty of contempt 
three times by U.S. Courts of Ap- 

In another action, ACTWU ac- 
cused Stevens of further NLRA 
violations involving workers at 
the company's Greenville, S.C., 
Whitehorse plants. NLRB Re- 
gional Director Reed Johnson in 
Winston-Salem, N.C, issued a 
complaint based on the union's 
charges that Stevens "interfered 
with, restrained and coerced" its 
employees in the exercise of their 
rights, and continues to do so. 

Johnson scheduled a hearing on 
the charge for Feb. 8, 1977, before 
an NLRB administrative law judge 
in Greenville, S.C. 

Stevens is accused of firing a 
worker for union activities, threat- 
ening employees with plant closure 
if the union came in, enforcing an 
invalid rule prohibiting workers 
from union solicitation on non- 
work-time in a non-work area, 
threatening an employee "that if 
she supported the union she should 
quit,'' and interrogating an em- 
ployee about her position on join- 
ing a union. 

1970s, the female labor force grew 
at a rate of 3.2 percent a year. The 
projected slowdown is based on an 
estimated drop after 1980 in the 
number of women in the ages at 
which persons enter the labor force. 

The number of men in the labor 
force in 1975 — 55.6 million — is ex- 
pected to grow by 9.6 million be- 
tween 1975 and 1990, or by 1.1 
percent a year. Despite the slower 
growth for men than for women, 
men are still expected to comprise 
57 percent of the labor force in 

In terms of age composition, the 
civilian labor force growth be- 
tween 1975 and 1990 is expected 
to be heavily concentrated in the 
central age groups. The number of 
persons in the 16-24 age group is 
expected to decline in size by 1990. 

The labor force group age 20-24 
should grow very rapidly until the 
early 1980s, at which point it too 
is expected to decline. The number 
of women age 20-24 in the labor 
force is projected to have the great- 
est growth between 1975 and 1980 
but to recede rapidly after 1985. 
Men in that age bracket should in- 
crease until 1980 and then decrease 
during the early 1980s. 

The median age of the labor 
force — 36 years in 1975 — is ex- 
pected to drop to 34.9 years by 
1980 and to increase to . 3 6. 5 years 
in 1990. 

The prime age labor force — 
persons 25-54 — is expected to ex- 
pand at an annual rate of 2.1 
percent during the late 1970s, 
2.4 percent in the early 1980s, 
and 2.1 percent thereafter. By 
1990, all persons born in the 
"baby boom" period will be in 
the prime ages. The proportion 
of the labor force accounted for 
by prime age workers is expected 
to increase from 61 percent in 
1975 to 65 percent in 1985, and 
to about 70 percent in 1990. 

The authors predict the economy 
should have the potential for in- 
creased productivity, and the na- 
tional unemployment rate should 
tend to be somewhat lower than 
in recent years. 

They also predict that the ca- 
pacity of the labor force to carry 
out social responsibilities should be 
enhanced during this period. This 
is because of projected changes in 
the ratio of non-workers to work- 
ers — the "economic dependency" 
ratio. This should drop from 125.4 
in 1975 to 111.4 in 1990. Those 
figures represent the average num- 
ber of non-workers for each 100 
labor force members. 

Tariff Rate Quotas i 

Shoe Unions Assail 
Mild Import Remedy 

The International Trade Commission has recommended too mild 
a remedy to curb the excessive flow of shoe imports into the U.S. 
market, the presidents of two shoe worker unions said. 

John E. Mara of the Boot & Shoe Workers and George O. Fec- 
teau of the United Shoe Workers warned that the ITC's proposal 
would fail to effectively prevent 

low-wage foreign shoe imports from 
displacing additional American 

After a unanimous finding by the 
six-member commission that for- 
eign imports were causing serious 
injury to U.S. shoe workers and 
producers, four ITC members call- 
ed for the establishment of "tariff 
rate quotas." 

This system would allow the 
importation of 265.6 million 
pairs of non-rubber shoes a year 
at the current low duty rate av- 
eraging about 10 percent. Imports 
above that quota would be taxed 
at 40 percent for the following 
three years, but the rate would 
drop to 30 percent in the fourth 
year and to 20 percent in the 
fifth. The quota would die after 
five years. 

An estimated 400 million pairs 
of shoes were imported at 10 per- 
cent duty rate during 1976. 

Expressing concern over the mild 
remedy suggested by the four com- 
missioners, Fecteau and Mara said 
the tariff rate quota system 'Ms in- 
consistent with the degree of serious 
injury found unanimously by the 
ITC. ' 

They noted that the unions and 
U.S. shoe producers sought a more 
effective remedy in the form of 
quotas that would put an absolute 
ceiling on the volume of imports. 

The proposed tariff-quota system 
would still permit foreign producers 
to deluge the American market with 
low-wage, poor quality shoes "at 
the expense of the jobs of Ameri- 
can workers," Mara and Fecteau 

In testimony at ITC hearings last 
month, union and industry repre- 
sentatives pointed out that expand- 
ing foreign imports over the past 
decade caused the closing of 274 
American shoe plants and wiped 
out nearly 70,000 American jobs. 
While some of those workers man- 
aged to find jobs in other industries 
and others retired or died, about 

27,000 remain unemployed, the un- 
ion-industry group said. 

Under provisions of the 1974 
Trade Act, the President will have 
60 days to review the ITC recom- 
mendation. If the President rejects 
or modifies the ITC's proposal, 
Congress can override the presiden- 
tial decision and the commission's 
recommendation would go into ef- 

The proposed quota is likely to 
have limited impact on European 
exporting countries, chiefly Italy 
and Spain, but should heavily affect 
such countries as Taiwan, South 
Korea and Brazil, whose exports 
to the United States have increased 
rapidly in recent years. 

The Commerce Dept. reported 
that U.S. shoe imports during the 
first 11 months of 1976 amount- 
ed to 376.2 million pairs, valued 
at $1.3 billion. This is a sharp 
increase over the 290.4 million 
pairs, valued at $1 billion, that 
came into the U.S. market dur- 
ing all of 1975. 

The recommendation of the ITC 
majority was more in line with the 
suggestions made at the December 
hearings by U.S. shoe retailers and 
importers. While the unions and 
domestic shoe manufacturers urged 
the commission to set direct quotas 
country by country and by shoe 
classifications, the retailers called 
for the quota-tariff system of al- 
lowing a certain amount of imports 
at the low duty rate. 

Overman Heads 
Kansas AFL-CIO 

Topeka, Kan. — John Overman, 
directing representative of Ma- 
chinists District 70, has been elect- 
ed president of the Kansas AFL- 
CIO by the state federation's ex- 
ecutive board. 

Overman fills the unexpired 
term of Carl Courter, who resign- 
ed to accept a position as a media- 
tor with the Federal Mediation & 
Conciliation Service.^ 

Meat Cutters Seeking 
Parity in Iowa Beef Pact 

Chicago — ^The Meat Cutters have launched an all-out effort to 
raise wages in a new agreement at Iowa Beef Packer^, Inc., to the 
level prevailing in the rest of the meat packing industry. Both wages 
and benefits at IBP are well below the average paid by other com- 
panies under union contract. 

The existing contract covering * " 

2,000 members at the IBP plant at 
Dakota City, Neb., expires Jan. 22. 
IBP also operates plants at West 
Point, Neb.; Emporia, Kan.; Ama- 
rillo, Tex.; Fort Dodge and Deni- 
son, Iowa; LuVerne, Minn., and 
Columbia Food Division plants at 
Wallula, Wash., and Boise, Ida. 

The thrust of the campaign for 
wage parity is being spearheaded 
by a top-level committee of un- 
ion, which pointed out that the 
substandard wage and benefit 
levels at IBP threaten the condi- 
tions of workers employed by 
other companies under union 

The situation at IBP is no longer 
tolerable, the union said, stressing 
that "economic justice for our 
members at Iowa Beef and those 
employed by other companies . . . 
leads us to one conclusion: 1977 
is the year that IBP's low-wage and 
low-fringe benefit levels should 

come to an end." 

Contract goals calling for fair 
and equitable wages and assistance 
in negotiations from the Federal 
Mediation & Conciliation Service 
underscore the union's hope of a 
just settlement, the Meat Cutters 

It also expressed hope that IBP 
will agree to provisions that are 
fair to its employees and "will as- 
sure that neither cattlemen, the re- 
tailers, nor the public will suffer 
any inconvenience or hardship." 

Iowa Beef is the nation's largest 
producer of pre-cut and packaged 
beef distributed by retail outlets. 

Members of the IBP campaign 
committee appointed by Meat Cut- 
ters President Harry Poole are Sec- 
Treas. Samuel J. Talarico, Vice 
Presidents John E. Boyd, Charles 
Hayes, Stephen Coyle, Leon 
Schachter, and District Director 
Irving Stern. 


Page Three 

AFI^CIO Stimulus Plan: 

$30 Billion Package Urged, 
Carter 's Program Falls Short 

( Continued from Page 1 ) 
funds to help the nation's local 
governments emerge fully from the 

"The program should be built 
upon a solid base of job creation 
as the most effective way in which 
the federal government can provide 
the needed stimulus in terms of 
dollars and at the same time as- 
sure that each dollar has a quick 
and measurable impact on jobs and 
public investments vital to the na- 
^ tion's interest," the federation sub- 
committee said. 

Members of the subcommittee 
are Presidents I. W. Abel of the 
Steelworkers, Sol C. Chaikin of the 
Ladies' Garment Workers, James 
T. Housewright of the Retail 
Clerks, Paul Hall of the Seafarers 
and Martin J. Ward of the Plumb- 
ers & Pipe Fitters, all AFL-CIO 
vice presidents. 

The AFL-CIO program contrasts 
sharply with Carter's economic 
stimulation package. For one thing, 
labor's plan is weighted more to 
direct job-creating programs than 
to tax cuts. The Carter plan calls 
for up to $11 billion in tax rebates 
and special social security payments 
the first year, with a $4 billion per- 
manent tax cut for low- and mod- 
erate-income persons. 

Another major difference in 
the two plans is that the AFL- 
CIO program would pump $30 
billion into the economy during 
the current fiscal year, rather 
than over a two-year period as in 
the Carter plan. 

"No one program alone will be 
sufficient to put America back to 
work," the federation subcommit- 
tee said, "but direct federal pro- 
grams such as public service em- 
ployment and public works pro- 
grams are more effective job cre- 
ators than tax reductions." The 
stimulus from tax cuts and rebates, 
it said, would be far more costly 
and move at a much slower pace 
than the measures recommended 
by the AFL-CIO. 

Reliance on tax cuts and rebates, 
as in the Carter plan, is the least 

effective method of stimulating the 
economy and reducing unemploy- 
ment, the AFL-CIO declared. 

Carter's program calls for $12 
billion to $16 billion in economic 
stimulus during the current fiscal 
year and another $13 to $16 billion 
during the 1978 fiscal year. About 
80 percent of the first year's mea- 
sures are in the form of tax cuts, 
however. In the second year of the 
Carter package, spending on jobs 
programs would rise from less than 
20 percent in fiscal 1977 to be- 
tween 40 and 50 percent of the 
total annual cost. 

In its statement, the federation 
subcommittee said it was "especial- 
ly disturbed" by the 5 percent tax 
credit for corporations contem- 
plated by the Carter Administra- 

"As we understand the proposal 
outlined by Mr. Carter's aides, it 
amounts to a wage subsidy for al- 
ready tax-pampered corporations," 
the panel said. 

"Corporations need customers, 
not tax gifts," the AFL-CIO de- 
clared. "The programs we propose 
will make customers out of two 
million now jobless — and that is 
not only the humanitarian way to 
approach the problem, it is the 
common sense way." 

Changes in corporate tax poli- 
cies are the "least desirable" of 
any possible stimulative pro- 
gram, the subcommittee observed. 
"While business investment is 
important for the economic re- 
covery, such investment will only 
be forthcoming if the economy 
is spurred to a vigorous growth 
in consumer demand." 

Additional tax cuts to corpora- 
tions would not lead to more busi- 
ness investment, the panel said, 
noting that the $5.2 billion cut in 
corporate taxes in 1975 had no sub- 
stantial effect on new business in- 
vestment. Furthermore, any perma- 
nent changes in tax rates ought to 
be tied to overall tax reform, the 
subcommittee warned. 

The subcommittee rejected the 
argument that its jobs-creating 

Budget Panel Chairman 
Stresses Jobs Priority 

The influential House Budget Committee will be a more liberal 
body in the 95th Congress and will be headed by a chairman who 
told reporters that his f\rst concern is the nation's unemployed. 

All seven new merhbers added to the committee by the Demo- 
cratic caucus are considered likely to support job-creating programs. 
And one of the more conservative'^ — 

Democrats on the committee during 
the previous Congress lost out in a 
bid for reappointment. 

As chairman, the caucus picked 
Robert N. Giaimo of Connecticut 
— by a 139-129 margin over Thom- 
as L. Ashley of Ohio. Brock Adams 
of Washington, who was chairman 
in the 94th Congress, has been 
named Secretary of Transportation 
in the Carter Cabinet. 

The new Democratic committee 
members are Representatives David 
R. Obey (Wis.), Joseph L. Fisher 
(Va.), Donald M. Fraser (Minn.), 
William Lehman (Fla.), Paul Si- 
mon (111.) and Norman Y. Mineta 
(Calif.), with a combined COPE 
record of 373 "right" to 53 "wrong" 
votes, and freshman Jim Mattox 

By contrast, Republicans filled 
vacancies with four conservatives 
with a COPE record of 61 "right" 
and 300 "wrong" votes. The GOP 
additions to an already solidly-con- 
servative Republican membership i York, the senior member. He re- 

Burgener (Calif.) and Ralph S. 
Regula (Ohio). 

Democrats hold a 17-8 majority 
on the Budget Committee. 

Still to be acted on are the mem- 
bers and chairmen of other com- 
mittees, who have been nominated 
by the Democratic Steering & Poli- 
cy Committee but must still be 
elected by the full Democratic 

Several challenges are expected 
to the Steering Committee recom- 
mendations, including a contest 
over new appointments to the Ways 
& Means Committee. The commit- 
tee deals with taxation, health 
security, unemployment insurance 
and social security. 

Nominations to the House Rules 
Committee, another influential com- 
mittee, are made by the Speaker of 
the House. The choice of Speaker 
Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., for chair- 
man was James J. Delaney of New 

are John H. Rousselot (Calif.). 
John J. Duncan (Tenn.), Clair W. 

places Ray J. Madden of Indiana, 
who is no longer in Congress. 

measures would be inflationary, 
noting that 10 percent of the na- 
tion's workforce and 20 percent of 
its productive capacity remain idle 
as a result of the worst recession 
since the 1930s. 

Details of the federation's eco- 
nomic-stimulus program: 

• Expansion of the existing ac- 
celerated public works program 
passed last August over President 
Ford's veto. A $10 billion expan- 
sion in this program would create 
jobs quickly and help hard-pressed 
state and local governments make 
necessary improvements, the AFL- 
CIO declared. Each $1 billion 
spent would create about 40,000 
jobs directly and about 20,000 
more indirectly, it said. 

Some 25,000 proposals for 
public works projects amounting 
to $24 billion already have piled 
up at the Commerce Dept., the 
legislative subcommittee ob- 
served. It pointed out that all 
must be started within 90 days 
after approval. 

• Expansion of public service 
employment under Title 6 of the 
Comprehensive Employment & 
Training Act. Currently, $2.8 bil- 
lion is appropriated and some 260,- 
000 workers are employed under 
Title 6. An additional $8 billion 
would expand the program to pro- 
vide 800,000 additional jobs at the 
state and local level. 

• An $8 billion expansion of 
federal housing programs to allevi- 
ate the nation's housing shortage. 
The AFL-CIO recommends the ap- 
propriation of $5 billion already 
authorized for the contribution of 
"tandem plan," below-market inter- 
est-rate financing. 

In addition, the federation rec- 
ommended $3 billion in legislative 
authority and budgetary appropria- 
tions for subsidized housing. The 
funding would provide for starts of 
new and rehabilitated housing con- 
centrated among elderly and low- 
income Americans and account for 
an estimated 325,000 additional 

• A $2 billion expansion of 
youth employment and training 
programs to alleviate the special 
unemployment problems of young 
workers. Existing programs such as 
the Jobs Corps and summer youth 
programs could be stepped up to 
produce about 250,000 new jobs, 
the AFL-CIO said. 

• An additional $2 billion to 
help alleviate the impact of the re- 
cession on the nation's state and 
local government. Such cyclical aid 
is given local governments to help 
them maintain basic services and 
avert layoff's of public employees. 
The subcommittee estimated this 
kind of assistance would save some 
100,000 jobs in financially pressed 
local communities. 

FULL SUPPORT is pledged to members of the Hotel & Restau- 
rant Employees on strike against Miami Beach resort hotels by 
Edward T. Hanley, the union's president. Hanley announced on 
the picket line that the international has allocated $200,000 to 
fund weekly strike benefits, and that more funds would be avail- 
able for strikers if needed. 

Miami Hotel Strikers 
Pledged Full Support 

Miami — President Edward T. Hanley of the Hotel & Restaurant 
Employees pledged to striking workers at resort hotels here and in 
Miami Beach the "full support," both financial and moral, of the 
international union in their strike for higher wages and improved 
fringe benefits. 


Hanley, who is taking part in the 

negotiations with the hotel owners 
said the international would pro- 
vide Local 355 with $200,000 in 
strike funds. More will be provided 
if needed, he said. 

Meanwhile, the strike that be- 
gan on Christmas Day spread to a 
ninth large hotel, the Beau Rivage 
in Bal Harbour. Maids, bartenders, 
bellhops, waiters, and other hotel 
service workers left their jobs on 
Jan. 10, and set up picket lines. 

A major issue in the dispute is 
over the return of strikers to work 
without reprisal from the owners. 
Some of the struck hotels have 
taken advantage of Florida's so- 
called "right-to-work" law that per- 
mits the hiring of non-union em- 
ployees during strikes. 

Local 355 is seeking to renew a 
contract that expired last Septem- 
ber. The union seeks a three-year 
agreement providing pay increases 
ranging between 12 and 13 percent 
in the first year, 9 and 10 percent 
the second, and an unspecified 
amount in the third year. 

Union negotiators also want in- 
creased hospitalization insurance, a 
guaranteed $1.50 tip for maids 
working conventions and tour visits, 
and a $3 per month per worker 
employer contribution toward a 
group legal services program. 

Of the 32 hotels represented by 

AFL-CIO's Program 
To Stimulate Economy 

Added Spending Additional 

(in billions) 

Accelerated Public Works $10 

Public Service Employment 8 

Housing Programs 8 

Youth Employment and Training _ 2 
Countercyclical Funds for 

State and Local Government 2 






* This program is geared to maintaining services and avert- 
ing public employee layoffs. It would save some 100,000 
jobs in financially pressed local communities. 

the South Florida Hotel & Motel 
Association, a total of 17 have 
reached agreements with the union. 
Some 10,000 workers are affected 
by the dispute. 

Hotels and resorts involved in the 
strike are the Doral Country Club, 
the Doral, Sheraton Four-M Am- 
bassador, DuPont Plaza, Carillon, 
Eden Roc, Deauville, Shelbourne, 
and the Beau Rivage. 

Price Index 
Up Sharply 

(Continued from Page I) 
November average for items in this 

Industrial commodity prices, 
however, rose only three-tenths of 
1 percent in December after jumps 
of 1 percent in November and 1 
percent in October. The smaller rise 
for industrials was partly due to a 
decline for the fuels and power 
group, BLS said. 

Prices for natural gas turned 
down sharply after increasing rapid- 
ly for several months. Also, prices 
of rubber and plastic products, tex- 
tile products and apparel, chemi- 
cals, and miscellaneous products 
rose less than in the previous 
month. Prices for metals and metal 
products and lumber and wood 
products rose more than in Novem- 
ber, however. 

Among farm products, prices 
rose sharply for hogs and Viw^ poul- 
try after decreasing for several 
months, BLS said. Prices for fresh 
and dried fruits and vegetables also 
rose after declining in November, 
while prices of green coffee, cocoa 
beans, and tea rose more rapidly 
than in the previous month. 

In the processed foods and feeds 
group, prices for roasted coffee, 
pork, and fish rose at a faster rate 
than in November. Prices for pro- 
cessed poultry also went up after 
declining the month before. 

Changes in wholesale prices gen- 
erally are reflected at the retail level 
in weeks or months depending on 
the item. 

Page Four 


^The Solution Is Jobs^ 

WE HAVE REVIEWED the economic stimulus program an- 
nounced by President-elect Jimmy Carter. While many of the 
details have not been revealed, the general size, shape and timing of 
Mr. Carter's proposals are clear. 

We believe the two-year package is too small, takes too long and 
is too ill-advised to give the economy the stimulus it needs. We con- 
sider this a retreat from the goals which we understood President- 
elect Carter to have set during last year's campaign. 

America's key economic problem is unemployment and the solu- 
tion is jobs. Reliance on tax cuts and rebates, instead of job-creating 
legislation, is to use the least-effective method. The stimulus from 
these tax cuts and rebates is far more costly and moves at a much 
slower pace than the program we recommended. 

We are especially disturbed by the corporate tax gift contem- 
plated by the new Administration. As we understand the proposal 
outlined by Mr. Carter's aides, it amounts to a wage subsidy for 
already tax-pampered corporations. It is a gift without any guar- 
antee that additional jobs would be created. Corporations need 
customers, not tax gifts. 

The programs we propose will make customers out of two million 
now jobless — and that is not only the humanitarian way to approach 
the problem, it is the common sense way. 

We reject the argument that putting America back to work is in- 
flationary when 10 percent of America's workforce and 20 percent 
of the nation's productive capacity lies idle. This is the economic 
stimulus program the AFL-CIO will submit to the Congress in order 
to reduce unemployment: 

A major federal initiative, of at least $30 billion in federal job- 
creation programs, is needed to make any dent in the unemployment 
picture this year. Such stimulus would amount to about 1.5 percent 
of 1977 gross national product and represent an increase in fed- 
eral budget outlays of less than 10 percent. 

The program should be built upon a solid base of job creation, 
as the most effective way in which the federal government can 
provide the needed stimulus in terms of dollars and at the same 
time assure that each dollar has a quick and measurable impact 
on jobs and public investments vital to the nation's interest. 

Changes in corporate tax policies are the least desirable and the 
least effective of any possible stimulative program. While business 
investment is important for the economic recovery, such investment 
will only be forthcoming if the economy is spurred to a vigorous 
growth in consumer demand. Additional tax cuts to corporations, 
especially in view of the large business tax cuts made during the last 
eight years, would not lead to more business investment. As a mat- 
ter of fact, the $5.2 billion cut in corporate taxes in 1975 has not 
had any substantial impact on new business investment. 

Therefore, the AFL-CIO supports a federal stimulative program 
of $30 billion in direct job-creating programs, consisting of $10 
billion in accelerated public works, $8 billion in additional public 
service employment, $8 billion in housing, $2 billion in youth em- 
ployment and training programs, and $2 billion in state and local 
government countercyclical funds. The result would be nearly two 
million additional jobs. 

— From a statement by the AFL-CIO Executive Council Legisla- 
tive Subcommittee. 


Official Weekly Hiihlic ation 
of the 

American Federation ol Labor anJ 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

GiiOKGi- Mr. ANY. President 
I.ANi- KntKl.AND, Secretarv-Treasmer 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
loseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
*Clyde M. Webber 

Executive Coimcil 
I. W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Walts 
Edward 1. Hanle> 
Charles H. Pillard 

* Deceased 

E Director of Hiihlications: Si\{\\ M'\\\cv E 

= Mnnamifii: Editor: ]ohn M. Biwry S 

E A.ssistafit Editors: S 

E John R. Oravec David L. Pcrlnian James M. Shcvis E 

1 AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixtecnfh St.. N.W. | 

I Washington. D.C. 20006 E 

I Telephone: 637-5032 | 

S SiibscTiplioiis: S2 a year: 10 or more. SI. 50 a year S 

I Vol. XXII Saturday, January 15, 1977 No. 2 | 

E The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

= diLUrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in LABOR P RESS! 

S any of iis official publications. No one is authorized to solicit ^KuuUl 

S advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. ''^ 


^Wrong Equipment!' 

Looking at the Record: 

McCarthy Disputes Columnist 

By Gus Tyler 

EUGENE J. McCarthy, former senator 
from Minnesota and recent candidate for 
president on an independent ticket, has written 
me a letter in reply to a column I did on his pro- 
posal to organize a "third party" by joining hands 
with a collection of assembled conservatives in 
the George Wallace, Buckley, et al. camps. 

McCarthy's move would not have been news- 
worthy if he were just another conservative. But, 
for more than 20 years, the man from Minnesota 
was a consistent liberal in both House and Sen- 
ate. Hence, his turn-around seemed noteworthy. 

In frying to explore his motives, I noted that 
in 1960 he had ingratiated himself (he thought) 
with Johnson by making a nominating speech 
for Adlai Stevenson that was really part of a 
stop-Kennedy move; that he (McCarthy) ex- 
pected the vice presidential nod from LBJ in 
1964; that, in disappointment, he lent his name 
to the New Left in 1968; and that he has been 
playing the spoiler since. 

By my own fairness doctrine, I now turn the 
floor over to Gene who writes: 
"Dear Gus, 

I know there is little profit in writing to news- 
paper editors or columnists. . . . Fm breaking my 
rule in your case, regarding your piece . . . en- 
titled 'McCarthy Wants 3rd Party — No Matter 
What Kind It Is.' 

I will not go into your misrepresentation of my 
conception of open politics and independent po- 
litical movements, or the development of policies 
of more than two parties. I will note, however, 
three points which are beyond confusion. . . . 

1 . Your statement regarding my nomination of 
Adlai Stevenson is absolutely false. 

2. The statement that, after Johnson became 
president, I felt the number two spot was owed to 
me, again, is absolutely false. 

3. You state that in 1968 I was the front man 
for the New Left, this is also false and you should 
know that. 

Best wishes, (signed) Gene McCarthy.'' 

For the record, it is proper to have McCar- 
thy's comments in the public prints. 

On the first point, historians should have his 
view, to weigh it against the testimony of the 
rathelr sizable group that was at work in 1960 to 
stop Kennedy. 

On the second point, it is McCarthy's view of 
his own motivations against the view of all those 
who watched him work expectantly to nose out 
his fellow Minnesotan, Humphrey, in 1964. 

On the third point, the public record is only 
too clear for all those who watched the New Left 
settle on McCarthy after shopping around for a 
man to carry their anti-Vietnam banner against 
LBJ and, later, against HHH. 

Perhaps McCarthy, like most folk, is not the 
best judge of his own deepest motivations. 

Most important, however, he did not take the 
opportunity to deny the main, point of my story; 
namely, that he is talking about a third party with 
a conservative base. 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

Meany Condemns 
Backdown by France 

AFL-CIO President George Meany de- 
clared that "the cowardly action" of the 
French government in freeing Abu Daoud, 
the Palestinian militant suspected of having 
planned the attack on Israeli athletes at the 
1972 Olympic Games in Munich, "merits 
the contempt of the civilized world." Seven- 
teen persons were killed in the attack. 

"In what amounts to recognition of ter- 
rorists," Meany said, "France has demon- 
strated more concern for pleasing the Arab 
oil blackmailers and insuring sales of aircraft 
to Arab nations than it has shown for human 
lives and human decency. 

"The United States of America must make 
clear to the government of France and every 
other free nation that this country will never 
give support or sanction to terrorists or toler- 
ate those who do." 


Page Five 

Job Incentives Sustained: 

Experiment in Income Support 
Refutes Myths on Working Poor 

AMERICA TODAY has an estimated 3 million 
"working poor" — people who, despite their 
proven willingness and ability to hold jobs, take 
home so little money that they and their families 
still live in poverty. 

Such poverty among working people should 
come as no surprise. While the federally set mini- 
mum wage is $2.30 an hour — $4,784 a year for 
a full-time worker — the federally set poverty line 
is $5,500 a year for a family of four. 

And when recent increases in the cost of living 
are taken into account, that $5,500 actually is 

The net result of all these numbers is that 
hundreds of thousands of workers who put in 
full 40-hour weeks, 52 weeks a year, still come 
out poor. They want to work, they go out and 
find work, they work as long and hard as mil- 
lions of other people and they still are poor. 

There probably are as many suggestions on 
how to help these people as there are people who 
need help, but one idea that has been discussed 
over the past few years continues to draw broad 
interest. A study by the Dept. of Health, Educa- 
tion & Welfare gives the concept — a guaranteed 
income for all workers — a big boost. 

It's pretty generally accepted that the reason 
people are poof* is that they don't have enough 
money. But, conservative politicians argue, if you 
give people money for doing nothing they'll lose 
all incentive to work and end up as leeches on 

The new HEW study took a head-on look at 
this theory and came up with some fascinating 
results. In a nutshell, HEW found that if regular 
cash grants were given to working poor people, 
the overwhelming majority of them would con- 
tinue to hold down jobs just as before — they'd 
just live a more decent existence. 

The HEW study was titled the Rural Income 
Maintenance Experiment — a social experiment in 
negative taxation. The rural study was a follow- 
up to a similar investigation conducted a few 
years earlier in New Jersey involving urban work- 
ers. The results of both studies were remarkably 

Using a variety of formulas based on famUy 
income, HEW's most recent study involved 809 
randomly selected poor rural families in Iowa 
and North Carolina. HEW gave them monthly 
cash grants averaging $125, thereby increasing 
family income by about 25 percent. 

Unlike a plan once advanced by Richard Nix- 
on, the study noted that "participants neither had 
to register for work nor . . . accept offered em- 
ployment to receive payments." 

What would be the result of this largesse? 
There was concern, the HEW study noted, that 
''an income-conditioned cash transfer will induce 
able-bodied, so-called working poor husbands to 
'quit work and live off of welfare.' " But, in fact, 
HEW announced after the results were in, "the 
findings of this experiment should mitigate this 

How did these people behave, these people get- 
ting "something for nothing?" According to 
HEW, the following occurred over the course of 
the three-year experiment: 

• "No evidence appeared of husbands quit- 
ting entirely to live on the experimental pay- 

• School performance and nutrition of chil- 
dren improved for a significant number of fami- 
lies involved in the experiment. 

• "Wives (were) less likely to work than in 
the absence of payments (staying home with their 
children instead), but the effect on the families' 
hours of work (was) small since wives' hours of 
wage work in low-income families tend to be 

• "Slight evidence appeared" that the benefits 
improved "psychological well-being, presumably 
through providing a greater sense of security to 

There is little argument that there are some 
basic flaws in the nation's welfare system. What- 
ever- the soJution — be it direct cash assistance^ -as 
in the HEW experiment or some other method — 
there can be little question that people willing to 
put in 40 hours doing work that is useful to so- 
ciety deserve something better than a life of pov- 
erty. (PA!) 

More Than Conservation Needed: 

Nation Lacks Energy Policy 
In Face of V^orsening Crisis 

gy crisis is worsening, the United States has 
yet to shape the kind of policy needed to fuel a 
vigorous and growing economy, AFL-CIO energy 
specialist Frank Pollara warned. 

Stressing that such a policy must deal effective- 
ly with guaranteeing a secure source of oil and 
natural gas in the immediate and short-range fu- 
ture, Pollara urged that conservation measures be 
the cornerstone of that policy. He said the Ford 
Administration's attempt to force conservation 
through higher consumer prices has failed, noting 
that although the prices of gasoline, heating oil 
and electricity have "practically doubled . . . there 
has been no significant reduction" of use. 

Pollara, who is a special assistant to the AFL- 
CIO officers, said that "mandatory legislation" 
aimed at better-mileage automobiles, machines 
and appliances that use less energy and more effi- 
cient building insulation would be far more effec- 
tive than pricing consumers out of the market. 

But "conservation, by itself, is not going to 
solve our energy problem," Pollara stressed. 
"We must increase, as well as conserve, our 

Questioned by reporters on the network radio 
interview Labor News Conference, Pollara pre- 
dicted that over the next 20 to 30 years, coal and 
nuclear power will "gain increasing importance 
as the two basic sources of energy." These fuels, 
mined and used under effective regulations, can 
produce environmentally clean energy, he said. 

If there were to be another oil embargo, he said, 
"we would be in far worse shape as a nation than 
we were in 1973." At that time, he said, the U.S. 
was importing less than 6 million barrels of oil a 

day. Today the nation imports more than 7 mil- 
lion barrels daily, he noted. 

Conservation must be the cornerstone of any 
energy policy that is shaped, Pollara said. But con- 
servation by itself will not solve the country's 
energy problems. 

For the longer term, America needs to concen- 
trate on development of other energy sources, 
such as solar, geothermal, liquefaction and gasifi- 
cation of coal and biomass, he said. "Any one of 
these might well prove to be the energy of the 
future," he added. 

"But for the immediate future — the next 15, 
20, or 30 years or so — coal and nuclear are the 
energy sources that we will have to depend on to 
replace our declining supplies of oil and natural 
gas," he said. 

Pollara said the era of cheap fuel is over and 
that fuel bills will continue to rise. 

"I would say that gasoline prices are going to 
continue to rise — I see increasing prices ahead for 
all forms of fuel. 

"Unfortunately, price ceilings have been lifted 
on heating oil, and heating oil prices have now 
risen above what they would be under controls," 
said Pollara, noting that the Ford Administration 
is also proposing to lift controls from gasoline. 

Pollara rejected the contention of "many of the 
opponents of conservation that we must increase 
our energy supplies at least as fast as our growth" 
to maintain our living standards. Labeling that 
theory a myth, he cited the findings of a Ford 
Foundation study that the United States could 
stem the "growth of energy usage" by as much as 
4 percent and still have a growing economy, a 
prosperous economy and full employment. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

WHY IS IT THAT almost all those oil tankers that have been 
foundering in American coastal waters recently and dumping 
their gooey messes along the shores seem to be from Liberia? That's 
the West African nation that has no natural harbor but "operates" — 
on paper, at least — the largest merchant fleet in the world. 

Well, for 40 years American maritime laws specifically have 
stated that the nation shall maintain an adequate American-flag 
merchant fleet owned, operated and manned by American citizens. 

But the lawyers and corporate executives of the big international 
oil companies long ago figured out how to create a foreign subsid- 
iary, sell their tankers to it and hoist foreign flags on the runaway 
ships. They frankly admit it's much cheaper that way. By getting 
around American law, the American shippers of foreign goods into 
American ports can avoid American taxes, American wages and 
American safety standards. 

For as many years as there have been niaritime laws on the 
books, American labor has been warning the Congress and vari- 
ous administrations — Democratic and Republican — that the na- 
tion must act to save its merchant marine. 

Organized labor has warned repeatedly that the disappearance 
from the high seas of the American merchant marine created a seri- 
ous threat to national security, to American jobs and to the tax 
revenue of the Treasury Dept. Congress and various administrations 
have listened politely ^but have done virtually nothing about it. 

During World War II, this nation built up its merchant marine 
to the extent that it may be truthfully said that U.S. ships carrying 
U.S. troops and supplies saved the free world from being overrun by 
Hitler, Mussolini and the Japanese warlords. But when the war 
ended, most of the merchant fleet was put in "mothballs." And there 
it has remained to rust and rpt away. 

The oil lawyers and corporate executives have argued that na- 
tional defense needs are adequately protected by what they call 
"effective control" of the foreign-flag ships by Americans. The "flag 
of convenience" arrangement goes all the way back to 1944, when 
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., was Secretary of State under President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt. Needless to say, the "arrangement" has been 
tremendously profitable to shipping interests and the producers of 
oil and steel, as well as a number of other products. 

ONE OF THE PRACTICES of the oil lawyers and corporate 
executives over the past quarter century has been to transfer Amer- 
ican-owned ships to foreign registry under this "flag of convenience" 
arrangement. The result has been that the United States has vir- 
tually no merchant marine left and the vast majority of merchant 
ships that enter American ports fly the flags of such nations as 
Liberia, Panama and Honduras. 

Critics of the "flag of convenience" arrangement — such as the 
AFL-CIO Maritime Trades Dept. — argue that many of the foreign- 
flag ships are permitted to operate until they break down and that 
their multinational crews and officers are ill-trained, undermanned 
and sometimes unlicensed. 

This is not to say that all of these foreign-flag ships are in bad 
shape; they are not. It is to say that the United States has little or 
no control over the operation of such ships in American waters and 
has uncertain access to them in a national emergency. 

And as far as the labor movement is concerned, there is every 
reason in the world to be alarmed over the loss of maritime jobs 
and skills. U.S. companies know they can man foreign-flag ships 
with non-European and non-American seamen who get $120 a 
month (with virtually no other benefits) as compared with Amer- 
ican seamen who receive $700 or more a month, plus fringe 

Hopefully, the current Senate Commerce Committee investigation 
into oil tanker groundings and breakups will be a first step toward 
new legislation in the 95th Congress that will put the United States 
back in charge of its shipping once again. 

DESPITE THE WORSENING energy crisis, a national policy 
still needs to be shaped to sustain a vigorous and expanding 
economy, Frank Pollara, center, said on Labor News Conference. 
Pollara, special assistant to the AFL-CIO officers, was ques- 
tioned by Michael Posner, left, of the Reuters news agency and 
Justin McCarthy of Press Associates, Inc. The program is aired 
Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Pape Six 


* = 

Labor Cites Problems: 

Senate Units Plan 
Draws Objections 

THE AFL-CIO SOCIAL SECURITY Committee reviews prospects for social security and related 
legislation in the new 95th Congress. Some of the committee's 16 members are shown here with 
Machinists President Floyd E. Smith, chairman, and Bert Seidman, director of the AFL-CIO Dept. 
of Social Security, at right. Also on the agenda were discussions of the White House Conference 
on Handicapped Individuals to be held in May, welfare reform, and social insurance programs. 

Trade Commission Told Imports 
Threaten U.S. Color TV Industry 

Chicago — More U.S. color television plants will be forced to shut down, causing the layoffs of thou- 
sands of additional American workers unless feder al action is taken to stem the flow of imports from 
Japan, union and industry representatives warned. 

Testifying at regional hearings of the U.S. International Trade Commission here, a union-industry 
coalition said rising foreign imports threaten the survival of domestic color TV manufacturing. 

Witnesses presented data to the * ^ . , T~ o . , 
ITC showing that color TV imports ^^"^ ^^^^ «^ ^ relentless 

onslaught of imports." 

have surged from a 1 6 percent share 
of the U.S. market in early 1975 
to more than 40 percent by the end 
of 1976. 

The thrust of the testimony was 
presented in cooperation with COM- 
PACT — the Committee to Preserve 
American Color Television — which 
includes the AFL-CIO Industrial 
Union Dept., nine of its affiliates, 
and five American manufacturers 
of TV sets and components. 

lUD Sec.-Treas. Jacob day- 
man, a co-chairman of COM- 
PACT, told the hearing panel 
that "the men and women who 
are or were employed in this in- 
dustry are hurt, angered and con- 
fused by our government's in- 

In filing for an ITC investigation 
of color TV imports earlier. Clay- 
man said that many of the 65,000 
jobs in the American industry had 
already been wiped out by the for- 
eign takeover of the U.S. market. 

Under provisions of the 1974 
Trade Act, the petitioners must 
prove that the imports are causing 
"serious injury" to the industry and 
its workers before the ITC can rec- 
ommend a remedy to the President. 
The President can accept, modify 
or reject the recommendation, al- 
though Congress has power to over- 
ride a rejection. 

The union-industry coalition is 
seeking to have a quota imposed on 
the color TV imports. 

Mayors Score Allotment 
Of Public Works Grants 

The U.S. Conference of Mayors charged that the Ford Adminis- 
tration's plan to distribute nearly $2 billion for public works proj- 
ects favors grants to less-populated suburbs over larger cities with 
high unemployment rates. 

The mayors' conference has asked Congress to investigate the 
planned disbursement as outlined in 

December by the Commerce 
Dept.'s Economic Development 
Administration. Congress passed 
the public works appropriations 
bill over President Ford's veto. 

Several large cities, such as Pitts- 
burgh and Seattle, are being totally 
ignored and others will receive only 
token grants, the mayors' group 
pointed out. 

Mayor Kenneth A. Gibson of 
Newark, NJ., president of the con- 
ference, said that a review of the 
grants clearly shows smaller juris- 
dictions are receiving a dispropor- 
tionate share of the funds. 

As an example, he pointed out 
that Palm Desert, Calif., with a 
population of less than 5,000, re- 
ceived a $2 million grant. But 
Pittsburgh, with a population of 
more than 500,000, is scheduled 
to receive nothing. 

In addition, Gibson said, three 
large cities in the state of Wash- 
ington — Tacoma, Spokane and Se- 
attle — will receive nothing, while 
the town of Bonney Lane, Wash., 
with a' population of less than 
3,000, is in line for a $3.8 million 

Among other larger cities not 

scheduled to receive public works 
grants are Toledo, Ohio; Yonkers, 
N.Y.; Chattanooga, Tenn., and Ok- 
lahoma City, Okla. 

Also left off the Commerce 
Dept.'s list for grants is Scranton, 
Pa., which according to a recent 
survey by the AFL-CIO Building & 
Construction Trades Dept., had 
28.2 percent of its building trades 
workers unemployed. 

The Commerce Dept.'s Econom- 
ic Development Administration was 
supposed to allot public works 
funds according to a locality's un- 
employment rate and population, 
Gibson said. 

But EDA, Gibson charged, re- 
sorted to a "stacked logarithm ap- 
proach" on top of other criteria, 
"which tilted the allocation of 
funds to smaller units of govern- 
ment, rather than the real scale of 

Applications for public works 
funds from large and small locali- 
ties totaled $24 billion. Legislation 
that has the support of the House 
leadership in the new Congress 
would pump an additional $4 bil- 
lion into accelerated public works 

Allen W. Dawson, executive vice 
president of Corning Glass Works 
and co-chairman of COMPACT, 
warned in his testimony that unless 
there is action to limit imports, "this 
nation will gradually become a 
giant warehouse filled with import- 
ed goods that no one can afford to 

Other industry representatives 
said more production jobs will be 
lost with the collapse of the U.S. 
color TV manufacturing as the 
Japanese exporters threaten to take 
monopolistic control of the Ameri- 
can market. 

Richard Deason, business man- 
ager of Local 1031 of the Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Electri- 
cal Workers, told the hearing 
that membership of his local in 
the Chicago area dropped from 
30,000 to 15,000 in four years due 
to layoffs caused by TV imports. 

And President Donald Ray of 
Flint Glass Workers Local 1006 
described the hardships of his 1,500 
members in Albion, Nfich., after the 
closing of a Corning Glass Works 

"Every day in Albion I see the 
suffering caused when American 
jobs are sacrificed to unfair foreign 
competition," Ray observed. 

The testimony of Amory Hough- 
ton, Jr., board chairman of Cor- 
ning, underscored Ray*s observa- 
tions in noting the severe economic 
impact that the plant closing has 
had on the community of 12,000. 

'To frame the issues confronting 
the U.S. television industry today 
in terms of free trade versus pro- 
tectionism is not only grossly in- 
accurate, but insensitive to the 
plight of thousands of skilled crafts- 
men," Houghton stressed. 

dayman stressed to the hearing 
panel that adjustment benefits for 
workers laid off because of imports 
will not solve the trade problem. 
Unions look on adjustment assis- 
tance as "death benefits" for lost 
jobs, he said. 

He pointed out that workers are 
also consumers and would have to 
pay for adjustment assistance and 
unemployment benefits for lost jobs 
through their taxes. 

"As consumers, we do not like 
the idea of paying a tax bill that ap- 
pears to total more than $20 billion 
to support each additional percent 
of unemployed," dayman stressed. 
"I cannot imagine that there are 
any savings to consumer-taxpayers 
that can be realized by giving up 
our color TV industry." 

(Continued from Page 1) 

mittee which concerns itself with 
long-range economic planning," 
Biemiller stressed. He said it 
would be "a mistake" to merge 
it with the Budget Committee as 
the Stevenson panel proposed. 

Biemiller also expressed the ob- 
jection of AFL-CIO unions to 
abolishing the Post Office & Civil 
Service Committee and making it 
part of a catch-all Governmental 
Affairs Committee whose jurisdic- 
tion would range from freedom of 
information to supervision of con- 
gressional office buildings. 

He said the existing committee 
has an impressive record of inno- 
vation and accomplishment in the 
specialized areas of federal pay 
comparability, civil service retire- 
ment, postal reorganization and 
oversight into the operations of the 
U.S. Postal Service and the federal 
civil service. 

The AFL-CIO also saw no rea- 
son for moving jurisdiction over 
regional economic development 
programs to the Agriculture Com- 
mittee. The logical place, Biemiller 
said, would be in the proposed En- 
vironment & Public Works Com- 
mittee which would have jurisdic- 
tion over other public works func- 

Biemiller exepressed puzzlement 
over limitations on the proposed 
Human Resources Committee, 
which would embrace most of the 
jurisdiction of the present Labor & 
Public Welfare Committee. 

"It makes no sense" to carve out 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics and 
shift its supervision to the Commit- 
tee on Government Affairs, Bie- 
miller said. That would make it 
the only Labor Dept. agency that 
falls under a separate Senate Com- 

Likewise, Biemiller opposed fur- 
ther fragmentation of jurisdiction 
over pension legislation by giving 
the Budget Committee "policy over- 
sight" over public and private pen- 
sion programs. He noted that there 
already is a Joint Pension Task 
Force that includes staff members 
of both the Senate Labor Commit- 
tee and the Senate Finance Com- 

Other sections of the AFL-CIO 
statement were critical of proposed 
jurisdictional shifts involving irri- 
gation and reclamation programs 
and atomic energy development 
and regulation. 

A division of atomic energy mat- 
ters between two or more com- 
mittees could prove "a significant 
hindrance" to achievement of en- 

ergy independence, Biemiller said. 

The AFL-CIO made clear, how- 
ever, its endorsement of the con- 
cept of reducing the number of 
Senate committees and subcommit- 
tees and its backing of various pro- 
cedural changes that have been 
recommended by the Stevenson 

These included flexibility to set 
up ad hoc committees to deal with 
legislation that falls within the 
jurisdiction of two or more Senate 
committees. Also praised was a 
plan for computer aid in schedul- 
ing meetings to minimize conflicts 
with other committees on which the 
same senators serve. 

Besides reducing the number of 
Senate committees by about half, 
the plan being considered by the 
Rules Committee would cut down 
substantially on the number of sub- 

Biemiller noted that the number 
of subcommittees has more than 
tripled since the last major re- 
structuring, in 1947. 

Meany Cites 
New Threats 
To Job Safety 

(Continued from Page 1) 
routine inspections by OSHA com- 
pliance officers. 

The decision by the three-judge 
panel, Meany said, "is totally con- 
trary to the long established princi- 
ple that no employer has any con- 
stitutional right to kill or injure 

The judges ruled last month that 
OSHA inspections of workplaces 
without a warrant violate the 
Fourth Amendment to the Consti- 
tution. And the U.S. District Court 
for Idaho has since rejected a re- 
quest by Labor Sec. W. J. Usery, 
Jr., to stay the ruling. 

As a result of the injunction, 
OSHA has ceased all inspections of 
workplaces in Idaho. 

Meany said the federation "will 
take all steps necessary" to assure 
that the government will have the 
right to make job safety inspec- 

"The AFL-CIO can not and will 
not remain silent," Meany stressed, 
"while workers are killed or in- 
jured because of profit and loss 
charts, or because any employer 
believes he has the sole, unsuper- 
vised right to determine the health 
and safety conditions under which 
his employees work." 

AFGE Turns on Heat 
To Win Safety Battle 

The federal government finally found a better way of gettmg up 
steam, but it took a lot of prodding from a union to bring it about. 

Employees of the General Services Administration — the govern- 
ment's housekeeping agency — no longer have to scamper to safety 
after having touched off a roaring blaze with a torch made of a 
broom handle tipped with oil-soaked^ 
rags and applied to coal that had 

been drenched in igniter fluid. 
That's the way four of the steam 
boilers used to heat GSA buildings 
in Washington had been started — 
until the Government Employees 

The person applying the torch 
had 32 seconds to escape by climb- 
ing a six-foot ladder and the AFGE 
and its safety director, Ted Merrill, 
insisted that there had to be a safer 

A representative of the Occupa- 
tional Safety & Health Administra- 
tion was called in after the AFGE's 

repeated protests and recommended 
that the agency find a means of 
igniting the coal by "remote opera- 
tion." He said the "by-the-book" 
method that GSA had used for 
some 43 years was "spectacular" 
but also hazardous. 

The agency then tried to get the 
union off its back by using super- 
visors to do the job, but the AFGE 
took the position that even super- 
visors are not for burning. 

TTie government agency then con- 
ceded, and agreed to put into effect 
immediately a new boiler lighting 
method that does not involve direct 


Page Seven 

Differed with Strategy: 

Marshall Urged More Jobs; 
Opposes Lower Youth Wage 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Programs to achieve this, he 
pledged, would be given "the high- 
est priority" in the Dept. of Labor. 

The secretary-designate gave soft- 
spoken, polite and firmly unequivo- 
cal replies to a series of pointed 
questions from conservative sena- 
tors, principally Sen. Paul Laxalt 

Didn't he agree that the mini- 
mum wage is an obstacle to youth 
employment, Marshall was asked, 
and would he try to work with 
organized labor to obtain a waiver 
of the minimum wage for people in 
the 16-24 age bracket? 

"No," Marshall replied, he 
doesn't favor a lower minimum 
wage for youth and he sees no ad- 
vantage in the resultant increase 
of unemployment among older 
workers so that younger workers 
could be hired at lower pay. 

Did he have a position on re- 
peal of the right-to-work Section 
14(b) of the Taft-Hartley Act, 
Laxalt asked. 

"Yes sir, I favor repeal of 
Section 14(b)." He noted that 
unions are required to give fair 
representation to all workers in 
the bargaining unit, members or 
not, and he saw no reason why 
all workers should n^t share the 
cost of representation. 

Further, Marshall said, he 
doesn't think states should use anti- 
union positions to attract industry 
— as has been the case with "right- 
to-work" laws. 

He agrees with the construction 
industry picketing and collective 

bargaining bill that former Labor 
Sec. John Dunlop put together — the 
measure that resulted in Dunlop's 
resignation after President Ford 
broke his word and vetoed it. In 
reply to a further question, Mar- 
shall said he would also favor 
common site picketing rights in a 
separate bill even though he pre- 
ferred the package. 

On the minimum wage, Marshall 
thinks the $2.30 pay floor should 
be raised "to at least $2.70," just 
to compensate for inflation, and he 
would study the pros and cons of 
moving it up to $3. 

He questions the requirement 
for economic impact statements 
before job safety and health stan- 
dards can be set — a requirement 
imposed and extended by an Ex- 
ecutive Order of President Ford. 

Marshall said also that he con- 
siders consumer boycotts a legiti- 
mate union weapon, noting that no 
one is compelled to comply with a 
union's request not to buy a prod- 

Apart from job creation, Mar- 
shall gave this list of priorities if 
he is confirmed as Secretary of 
Labor: To combat discrimination; 
to improve productivity as a means 
of improving real income and 
achieving full employment without 
inflation; protection of worker 
safety and health; development of 
job training opportunities to meet 
the nation's needs; more effective 
matching of workers and jobs by 
the employment service; strength- 
ening of collective bargaining in 
both the private and public sectors; 
representation of his views to the 
President "to present the strongest 

Meany Hits Outsiders 
On Steel Election Funds 

AFL-CIO President George Meany declared that raising funds 
from outside the trade union movement to finance a union election 
is "unethical" and "can rob union members of their rights to an 
election free of influence from employers and other outsiders." 

Meany's comment came in support of Steelworkers President 
I. W. Abel in the current election"^ 
campaign in the steel union for a 
new president and other officers. 
Abel is retiring at the end of his 
term in May. 

Abel has condemned fund-raising 
by presidential candidate Edward 
Sadlowski, director of the union's 
District 31, from employers out- 
side the steel industry and others 
"outside the union, and outside the 
labor movement." A suit has been 
filed by Sadlowski's opponent, 
Lloyd McBride, director of the un- 
ion's District 34, charging that such 
fund-raising violates the union's 

Meany said he had never uttered 
an opinion about any election in 
any constituent union of the AFL- 
CIO but that events in the Steel- 
workers election "make it impossi- 
ble for me to remain silent at this 

"Many people completely out- 
side the labor movement — business- 
men, academics and professional 
people — are being actively solicited 
by mail for funds for one candi- 
date in that election," Meany said. 
"In addition, cocktail parties which 
have attracted businessmen and so- 
called limousine liberals have been 
held in many cities to solicit outside 
money for that candidate." 

He pointed out that "three so- 
licitors of this outside money — 
John K. Gailbraith, a retired Harv- 
ard economics professor, Joseph 
Rauh, a Washington lawyer, and 
Victor Reuther, who has never had 
any connection with the Steelwork- 

ers union — have also engaged in 
unrestrained attacks on the present 
officers of the union and on the 

Meany added that "it is deeply 
disturbing that democratic unions, 
which had to fight so many legal 
and legislative obstacles for so 
many years to free themselves from 
outride domination, once again 
face an effort to control their poli- 
cies and program by monied inter- 
ests outside the union." 

He urged all Steelworkers to 
study the candidates and issues 
and vote on election day, Feb. 8, 
to name the leaders of "one of 
the finest unions in America." 

Meany's views were strongly af- 
firmed by A. Philip Randolph, a re- 
tired vice president of the AFL- 
CIO and dean of America's black 
labor leaders. He said the Steel- 
workers' union under Abel is "sec- 
ond to none in advancing racial 
and economic equality" and warned 
of "outside elements" who will seek 
to control the union's policies. 

In Pittsburgh, the Steelworkers 
announced that under the union's 
nominating procedures in which lo- 
cal unions nominated candidates 
between Nov. 8 and Dec. 10, 1976, 
McBride received 2,901 nomina- 
tions to 521 for Sadlowski. Similar 
margins were reported for the can- 
didates for secretary, treasurer and 
two vice presidents on each slate. 
There are election contests as well 
in 15 of the union's 38 districts. 

case I can to reduce unemploy- 
ment;" improve the management of 
the Dept. of Labor. 

In response to questions, Mar- 
shall refused to endorse a blanket 
ban on public sector strikes, either 
in the federal government or state 
and local governments. He stressed 
the need to develop alternatives, 
especially in the public safety area. 

He believes in collective bar- 
gaining in the public sector, 
Marshall said, and "the only way 
bargaining can work is if one 
side doesn't have complete con- 

Marshall said, however, that he 
has not as yet formed an opinion 
as to whether local and state work- 
ers should be brought under the 
National Labor Relations Act. 

He told the committee that he 
has separated himself completely 
from two government and founda- 
tion-aided research centers which 
he had helped found and, to avoid 
any possible conflict of interest, 
would not return to either after his 
term as Secretary of Labor. 

He stressed that he will retain 
his concern over the problems of 
rural poverty and he considers im- 
proving conditions in rural areas 
an important element in solving 
problems of the cities. People 
should have the option to stay in 
rural areas, he urged, and not be 
forced to city slums out of neces- 

Marshall told questioners that he 
doesn't consider his role to be an 
"advocate" of organized labor's 
positions. In the past, he said, he 
has enjoyed a "good, long and con- 
tinuous" relationship with many 
unions and the AFL-CIO. He con- 
siders it his obligation to "listen" 
to the views of both labor and em- 
ployers. He expects disagreements, 
"but I don't expect that to rupture 

Marshall's appointment was 
praised by Committee Chairman 
Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (D-N.J.), 
ranking minority member Jacob K. 
Javits (R-N.Y.) and other commit- 
tee members. He was formally in- 
troduced at the hearing by his home 
state senator, Lloyd Bentsen (D- 

The Labor Committee and the 
full Senate is expected to act on 
confirmation soon after President 
Carter's inauguration, when his 
Cabinet, selections will be formally 
suljnrlitted to Congress. 

AT CONFIRMATION HEARINGS on his scheduled appoint- 
ment as Secretary of Labor, F. Ray Marshall tells the Senate 
Labor Committee that he considers reducing unemployment the 
nation's most pressing problem and favors government spending 
for direct job-creation, rather than tax cuts. 

Ford Defends Record 
In Farewell Message 

President Ford told Congress that the nation is in better shape 
than when he took office in mid- 1974, extended gracious good 
wishes to his successor, and reiterated a trickle-down tax policy he 
claimed would encourage business to expand and provide more jobs. 

In tone, Ford's final State of the Union report reflected the 
strengths and weaknesses of his ab-^ 

breviated term of office. 

He reminded Congress and a na- 
tionwide television audience that 
he had assumed the presidency af- 
ter the elected Vice President and 
President had both "resigned in 
disgrace" and when the integrity 
of the nation's constitutional pro- 
cess was being questioned. 

Now, Ford noted, power is 
again changing hands, ^'naturally 
and normally." The only soldiers 
marching in the street, he said, 
will be in the inaugural parade. 
"The opposition party doesn't 
go underground . . . and our 
vigilant press goes right on prob- 
ing and publishing our fault and 

But while Ford was warmly ap- 
plauded by a Congress in which he 
had served for a quarter of a cen- 
tury as a representative from Mich- 
igan, his domestic proposals had al- 
ready been dismissed as irrelevant. 
The power to propose would shift 
in a week's time to a new President. 
And the Ford Administration's pre- 
scription for a still-ailing economy 
ran counter to the program on 
which the overwhelmingly Demo- 
cratic Congress had run. 

High Court Appeal Fails 
On Ship Container Pact 

The Supreme Court has let stand a National Labor Relations 
Board ruling that invalidated part of a container-loading agreement 
the Longshoremen had negotiated with a shippers' association. 

Although the agreement has since been renegotiated in deference 
to the NLRB ruling, the union appealed to the Supreme Court. It 
tried to reverse a federal appellate 

court that had upheld the NLRB in 
a 2-1 decision. 

At issue was whether the ILA 
could negotiate a requirement that 
certain types of ocean-cargo con- 
tainers be loaded or reloaded in 
the dock area by ILA members. 

The union contended this was a 
legitimate work preservation action, 
of a type the Supreme Court had 
allowed in an earlier decision. But 
the NLRB and the courts held oth- 

Under a new agreement reached 
last October with North Atlantic 
shippers, employers are encouraged 
to put together consolidated con- 
tainer cargoes at pierside facilities. 

The contract also specifies the min- 
imum size of a container work-gang 
at Atlantic ports. The new agree- 
ment was not affected by the Su- 
preme Court's action. 

In other action, the Supreme 

• Agreed to decide whether a 
returning veteran is entitled to cred- 
it for time spent in military service 
in computing his pension benefits. 

• Declared unconstitutional a 
New York state law requiring con- 
tractors performing work for state 
or local governments to give job 
preference to citizens who had re- 
sided in the state for at least one 

Ford again called for reductions 
in both taxes and spending, includ- 
ing cuts in corporate income tax, 
elimination of taxes on stock divi- 
dends and other measures "to stim- 
ulate investment." 

He spoke optimistically of "the 
nation's recovery from the reces- 
sion" and sought to explain away 
the economy's sag in recent months 
as the result of political uncertain- 
ty, "part of the price we pay for 
free elections." 

Ford expressed disappointment 
that more hadn't been done to 
achieve energy independence, but 
again reiterated his belief that big- 
ger profits — "incentives" in Ford's 
term — should be given to oil and 
gas producers. 

In the international area, Ford 
painted a glowing picture of what 
he considers major progress to- 
wards world peace and said he 
leaves to his successor "a world in 
better condition." 

He expressed satisfaction that 
the United States has "avoided pro- 
tectionism" in foreign trade, de- 
spite the recession: . . v. 

Ford stressed the need to keep 
America strong, warned against a 
shift in the strategic balance against 
the United States and urged a mili- 
tary budget looking ahead "to the 
1980s and beyond." 

He wished President-elect Car- 
ter, "working with a substantial ma- 
jority of his own party, the best of 
success in reforming the costly and 
cumbersome machinery of the fed- 
eral government." 

Ford acknowledged the problem 
of presidential abuse of the Execu- 
tive power, but he expressed con- 
cern that Congress has gone too far 
in the other direction, especially in 
the foreign affairs field. 

He glossed over the nation's 
economic ills — the high unem- 
ployment and continued inflation 
bequeathed to the new Adminis- 
tration. "There is room for im- 
provement as always,'' Ford said, 
but ''the State of the Union is 

In a few days, he acknowledged, 
it will be Jimmy Carter's turn "to 
outline for you his priorities and 
legislative recommendations." 

As for himself, he will return to 
private life "with gladness and grat- 


Page Eight 


Under Foreign Flags: ^ 

Tanker Hazard Laid 
To Untrained Crews 

Untrained crews as well as unsafe construction make foreign-flag 
tankers a hazard in American waters, the AFL-CIO Maritime 
Trades Dept. charged. 

Paul Hall, president of the MTD and of the Seafarers, told a 
Senate Commerce Committee hearing that strict design and con- 
struction standards should be vig-"^ 

orously enforced for all vessels — 
foreign-flag and American-flag alike 
— which carry oil. The Coast Guard 
should keep any non-complying 
tanker from entering U.S. waters. 

But that's only "the first step," 
Hall said. "The greatest threat to 
our environment is posed not by 
the vessel itself but by the nature 
of the crew on board the vessel." 

Hall contrasted the training pro- 
gram run by the SIU, the subse- 
quent programs to upgrade skills 
and the Coast Guard examination 
requirements with the hiring prac- 
tices of ship operators who register 
under a foreign flag *'to escape 
American taxes, American labor 
and American safety standards." 

Both Hall and Herbert Brand, 
president of the Transportation In- 
stitute, said an important step for- 
ward would be enactment of an oil 
cargo preference law that would 
reserve a portion of America's oil 
imports for tankers built in the 
United States and staffed with 
American crews. 

Such a bill was vetoed by Presi- 
dent Ford, but Hall warned that 
"we will continue to run an un- 
necessarily high risk of future oil 
spills if we continue to rely on flag- 
of-convenience vessels with their 
untrained seamen to carry a sub- 
stantial portion of our oil." 

Hall said about 96 percent of oil 
brought to the United States is car- 
ried in foreign-flag vessels, mostly 
registered in nations such as Libe- 
ria which provide "flags of conve- 
nience" with little or no regulation. 

In fact, he stressed, the actual 
owners are usually American oil 

Brand, whose institute is made 
up of some 130 U.S. marine trans- 
port firms, said safety and environ- 
mental standards will be hard to 

enforce as long as foreign-flag op- 
erators know the United States is 
dependent upon their vessels. 

Two Ford Administration offi- 
cials appeared to differ on the vigor 
with which the United States should 
react to the recent series of oil 

Russell E. Train, administrator 
of the Environmental Protection 
Agency, said the traditional ap- 
proach of seeking international 
agreement for oil tanker regula- 
tion has largely failed. 

He suggested that "the time has 
arrived" for this nation to take "a 
more aggressive approach." 

But William T. Coleman, Jr., the 
outgoing Secretary of Transporta- 
tion, cautioned against unilateral 
action by the United States. He said 
that would amount to "gunboat" di- 

Committee Chairman Warren G. 
Magnuson (D-Wash.) made clear 
his desire for immediate action to 
reduce the threat of oil spills. 

"The technology exists to make 
the shipment of oil almost fail- 
safe," Magnuson said at the open- 
ing of the hearings. "If it's going 
to cost, weYe just going to have to 
pay the cost. But we're going to 
act somehow, right now." 

Hall warned the committee al- 
so of another potential problem 
—oil spills from foreign drilling 
rigs operating on the Outer Con- 
tinental Shelf. He saw a "danger 
that the recent series of accidents 
and spills will be duplicated" with 
"irreparable ecological harm." 

Here, too, he noted, foreign drill- 
ing rigs are operating "without 
complying with American standards 
and without any requirement that 
they employ trained American 
workers while in our waters." 

Over the Side 

Gulf Settlement Sets 
Oil Workers' Pattern 

Denver — The Oil, Chemical & Atomic Workers approved a two- 
year agreement with the Gulf Oil Corp. that OCAW President A. F. 
Grospiron said would serve as a pattern for reaching contracts with 
the rest of the petroleum industry. 

The Gulf pact, which will provide some 3,000 workers initial pay 
increases of 9 percent followed by 

second-year raises of 75 cents an 
hour, averted a possible nationwide 
strike of the union's 60,000 refinery 

Reached on Jan. 7 shortly before 
the union's 13 local contracts with 
Gulf were set to expire at midnight, 
the agreement appeared to be in 
jeopardy for a day or two as a re- 
sult of a misunderstanding on pen- 
sion benefits improvements. Gros- 
piron notified all bargaining units 
on Jan. 12, however, that "a com- 
plete and full understanding" on 
the pension item had been con- 
cluded with Gulf. 

The first-year wage increase un- 
der the new Gulf contract will raise 
workers' pay an average 67 cents 
an hour to an industrywide hourly 
average of $8.07. By Jan. 8, 1978, 

Unemployment Rate Unchanged^ 
Long-Term Joblessness Rises 

(Continued from Page I) 
part-time jobs because full-time 
work is not available. When these 
workers are factored in, Meany 
said, a "realistic measure of unem- 
ployment" would show more than 
10 million jobless men and women 
and a national jobless rate of 10.7 

The number of "discouraged" 
workers — counted quarterly, 
rather than monthly — averaged 
1,016,000 from October to De- 
cember, an increase of 199,000 
over the third-quarter average, 
or about the same level as a year 
earlier, BLS said. About 80 per- 
cent of the discouraged workers 


P3 a- 


indicated job-market factors, 
rather than personal factors, as 
their reason for not seeking em- 

Job-creating legislation "is no 
longer debated by either the new 
Executive or Legislative Branch," 
Meany said. "The only debate is 
over how best to do the job." 

He said the AFL-CIO believes 
the "most effective, fastest-moving, 
surest route" is the economic stim- 
ulus program announced on Jan. 
10 by the legislative subcommittee 
of the federation's Executive Coun- 
cil. The program, which is keyed 
to direct job-creation rather than 
tax cuts, will be pushed strongly 
by the AFL-CIO in Congress, he 
said. (Story, Page 1.) 

The jobless rate for adult men in 
December fell three-tenths of 1 
percent to 6.2 percent as many of 
them simply dropped out of the 
labor force. This movement was 
paralleled by declines in unem- 
ployment among male household 
heads and married men. White 
workers also showed an improve- 
ment in unemployment, with their 
rate falling from 7.4 to 7.1 per- 
cent. The rates for other major 
demographic groups — adult women, 
teenagers, and blacks — ^remained 
about the same as in November. 

Total employment rose by 222,- 
000 to 88,352,000 in December as 
the labor force grew by 11,000 to 

95,910,000. The number of work- 
ers employed part-time involuntari- 
ly fell 24,000 to 3,400,000, the 
first substantial decrease since last 

The average duration of jobless- 
ness was 15.7 weeks in December, 
up slightly from 15.6 weeks in 
November. The number of persons 
out of work 27 weeks or longer, 
however, rose 67,000 to 1,412,000 
over the month. 

Nonfarm payroll employment 
rose by 257,000 in December to 
79,957,000, adjusted for seasonal 
workforce fluctuations, BLS said. 
Most of the increase — 227,000 jobs 
— was in the service-producing sec- 
tor of the economy, with the rest 
in goods-producing industries. 

Analyzing the 2 million in- 
crease in the number of nonfarm 
payroll jobs over the past three 
years, AFL-CIO Research Direc- 
tor Rudy Oswald observed that 
the gain was mainly in services, 
state and local government, and 
retail trade. 

"Meanwhile, the goods-produc- 
ing sectors are still in a depression," 
said Oswald. "Construction employ- 
ment is down 766,000 or nearly 
20 percent from the levels of three 
years ago. Manufacturing employ- 
ment is down 1,230,000, reflecting 
a decline in each of the major man- 
ufacturing sectors except for petro- 
leum and coal products." 

the average hourly wage will rise 
to $8.82, exclusive of possible shift 
premium pay. 

Evening and graveyard shift dif- 
ferentials will rise from 20 and 40 
cents an hour, respectively, to 45 
and 90 cents an hour in the first 
year of the contract and to 50 
cents and $1 in the second year. 

Gulf also agreed to increase its 
contribution toward the premium 
of a family hospitalization and 
medical insurance plan by $12 per 
month the first year and $10 per 
month the second year. 

The company agreed to raise 
pension benefits to a minimum of 
$12 per month multiplied by an 
employee's years of service, up from 
$10 under the old contract. 

Gulf also agreed to establish 
a "high-level" safety and health 
review committee and to train 
the union members of joint 
health and safety boards at its 

The new agreement covers 3,022 
workers in 13 units at nine Gulf 
facilities. About 2,000 workers are 
employed at the firm's huge Port 
Arthur, Tex., refinery. Other loca- 
tions are Santa Fe Springs, N.M.; 
South Norfolk, Va.; Riverton, 
Wyo.; Toledo and Cleves, Ohio; 
Detroit; New Haven, Conn., and 
Staten Island, N.Y. 

Panel Predicts 
Slow Pickup 
In Productivity 

Productivity, or output per hour 
of work, is expected to grow over 
the months ahead but at a lower 
rate than is characteristic of the 
initial stages of a production recov- 
ery, the National Center for Pro- 
ductivity & Quality of Working Life 
said in its annual report to the 
President and Congress. 

Productivity declined in six of 
seven consecutive quarters between 
1973 and 1975. But with the so- 
called recovery that started early in 
1975, it began to resume its upward 
trend, the report observed. None- 
theless, it said, some "unsettling 
factors" remain: 

• Last year's productivity was 
still below the level it might have 
reached had the growth rate not 
been interrupted by the 1973-75 

• Although productivity is ex- 
pected to continue to grow as the 
economy expands, "it may do so at 
the lower rate than is characteristic 
of the middle and later stages of 
business recovery." 

The center's directors include 
AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirk- 
land, Steelworkers President L W. 
Abel, President Robert A. Geor- 
gine of the Building & Construction 
Trades Dept., and C. L. Dennis, 
former president of the Railway & 
Airline Clerks. Others include La- 
bor Sec. W. J. Usery, Jr., and for- 
mer Labor Sec. John T. Dunlop. 

AFTRA Nears 
Accord With 
Mutual Radio 

New York— The Television & 
Radio Artists neared a settlement 
with the Mutual radio network, 
ironing out all major differences 
and extending their old contract on 
a day-to-day basis. 

AFTRA Executive Sec. Sanford 
L Wolff said upon his return here 
from talks with Mutual manage- 
ment in Washington that "all that 
remains is the writing of an agree- 

The union's old contract, cover- 
ing some 30 domestic staff news 
persons and editors and over 30 
freelance news and sports commen- 
tators employed worldwide, expired 
on Dec. 31. AFTRA had planned 
to withhold its members' services 
starting New Year's Day, as man- 
agement pressed several takeaway 

Wolff said his talks with Mutual 
officials had produced "enough sig- 
nificant progress" for workers to 
continue on the job while a new 
agreement is hammered out. 

Abel 4th Labor Leader 
To Get Freedom Medal 

President L W. Abel of the Steelworkers was awarded the 
Medal of Freedom at White House ceremonies, one of 22 
Americans chosen by President Ford to receive the nation's 
highest civilian honor. 

Abel is the fourth trade union leader to receive the award. 
Previous winners are AFL-CIO President George Meany, for- 
mer President A. Philip Randolph of the Sleeping Car Porters 
and former President David Dubinsky of the Ladies' Garment 

This year's recipients included Vice President Rockefeller, 
Lady Bird Johnson, Gen. Omar Bradley, Arthur Fiedler, 
Archibald MacLeish and Joe DiMaggio. 

The Medal of Freedom was originally established in 1945 
to honor persons for meritorious acts of service during World 
War II. Its scope was broadened by President Kennedy in 
1963 to honor persons for meritorious contributions in areas 
of national security or interest, world peace, culture and pub- 
lic and private service. 


issued weekly at 815 Sixteenth St. N. W. 
Washington. 0. C. 20006 12 a year 

seeond Class Postaia Paid at washinitan. D. c. Saturday, January 22, 1977 

No. 3 

Carter Pledges Best Effort 
To Achieve Nation 's Goals 

Policy Cuts 
Mark Ford's 
Last Budget 

By James M. Shevis 

A lame-duck President Ford in 
his final week in office asked 
Congress to approve a $440-bil- 
lion budget for the fiscal year be- 
ginning on Oct. 1 that would 
eliminate or cut back a number of 
hard-won social, education, and 
employment programs. 

Many of the proposed cutbacks 
are rehashed versions of Ford 
measures rejected by Congress dur- 
ing his two and one-half years as 

Ford's budget, followed a day 
later by his annual economic re- 
port to Congress, reflected his long- 
standing philosophy of reducing 
federal spending for social welfare 
programs while providing incentives 
for business. 

"I have proposed, and repropose 
this year, a marked slowdown in 
the rate of growth in government 
spending," Ford said in his budget 
message. His budget nevertheless 
is $28.8 billion higher than the esti- 
mated 1977 budget and assumes a 
deficit of $47 billion. 

While cutting back on social and 
welfare programs, the Ford budget 
would boost federal spending for 
defense, research and development, 
energy, and health. The last how- 
ever, reflects no change in Ford's 
opposition to national health in- 

To the contrary, Ford declared 
in his report on the economy: 
'1 hope we will not choose . . . 
a comprehensive national health 
insurance system, since this will 
only weaken the incentives for 
improvement and efficiency that 
are now emerging." 

In his final economic report be- 
(Continued on Pai:>e 7) 

BUILDING & CONSTRUCTION Trades Dept. float wends its 
way along Pennsylvania Avenue as the presidential inaugural 
parade proceeds to the Executive Mansion for review by Jimmy 
Carter. The theme of the 50-foot-long float, "Building America's 
Future," symbolized the "urgent necessity to rebuild our cities," 
BCTD President Robert A. Georgine said. 

iVeu? Committee Set Up: 

Organizing Mission 
Stressed by Meany 

AFL-CIO President George Meany, terming organizing an "essen- 
tial obligation" of the trade union movement, asked the cooperation 
of organizing directors of affiliated unions in developing the federa- 
tions newly established organizing coordinating committee. 

The plan was announced during a two-day conference attended by 
organizing directors or principal** 

officers of 41 affiliated unions and 
the AFL-CIO's trade and industrial 
departments. The participants were 
asked by Alan Kistler, director of 
the federation's Dept. of Organiza- 
tion & Field Services, to prepare to 

Oil Workers Widen 
Refinery Settlements 

Denver — ^New agreements with companies employing more than 
half of the Oil, Chemical, & Atomic Workers' 60,000 refinery- 
worker members have been approved, including pacts with several 
major firms. 

OCAW President A. F. Grospiron said the union has now reached 
new two-year contracts with 1 8 ^ 

companies, including Texaco, Gulf, 
Atlantic Richfield, Shell, Amoco, 
Standard Oil of Ohio, Mobil and 
Union Oil of California. The Gulf 
settlement was the first to be con- 
cluded, and has served as the pat- 

Meanwhile, the union served its 

first strike notice over national is- 
sues on Continental Oil Co. because 
of the firm's reluctance to meet the 
Gulf pattern. Unless Conoco meets 
terms of the pattern by Jan. 24, 
Grospiron said, OCAW would 
strike at three of the company's 
sites and at a facility of its sub- 
(Continued on Page 3) 

take advantage of an anticipated 
"more favorable climate" for union 

Meany, addressing the closing 
session, said the AFL-CIO is pre- 
pared to help its affiliates through 
the federation's own staff — "people 
who are trained in organizing and 
in the fields related to organizing" 
— as well as through labor educa- 
tion programs to help organizers 
from affiliated unions improve their 

It's the duty of America's un- 
ions, Meany declared, to give the 
nation's unorganized workers an 
opportunity "to be represented, 
to take part in collective bargain- 
ing, and to become part of this 
union movement" 

Meany acknowledged that "orga- 
nizing is more difficult" than in an 
earlier era and must overcome 
"more sophisticated opposition." 
Today's union-busters, he said, call 
themselves labor-management con- 
sultants and are professionals "in 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Asks End to Drift, 
Divisive Barriers 

By David L. Perlman 

Political power changed hands in a stirring demonstration of con- 
stitutional democracy's endurance as President Jimmy Carter pledged 
in his inaugural address his best efforts to build a stronger, more 
prosperous and more compassionate nation. 

The specifics of President Carter's program will be unveiled in 
tht weeks ahead — through legisla- "' 
tive proposals to Congress, by his 

recommendations for changes in 
the Ford Administration budget, 
and in the executive actions taken 
by the White House, the Cabinet 
departments and the regulatory 

Carter chose to use his inaugu- 
ration to bring a politically di- 
vided nation closer together and 
to complete the healing of the 
raw wounds of the Nixon-Agnew 

He opened with a tribute to his 
predecessor, Gerald R. Ford, who 
had been thrust into the free 
world's most powerful office and 
who passed it on to his elected suc- 
cessor with grace and dignity. 

The new President's inaugural 
address set broad goals and sought 
the help of the American people 
to accomplish them. 

"We cannot afford to drift," 
Jimmy Carter said. 

Government, he declared, must 
be "both competent and compas- 

When his term of office has 
ended, Carter said, his hope is that 
"barriers that separated those of 
different race and region and reli- 
gion" will have been torn down. 

Also, he stressed, "that we had 
found productive work for those 
able to perform it" and assured 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Real Wages 
Over Year 

The buying power of Ameri- 
can workers made no headway in 
1976 as real spendable earnings 
rose by a negligible one-tenth of 
1 percent over the year and con- 
sumer prices continued to climb, 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics re- 

Real spendable earnings — take- 
home pay after allowance for in- 
flation — averaged $92.19 a week 
for a worker with three depend- 
ents in December, compared with 
$92.02 in December 1975. Last 
month's average was not much 
higher than the $91.32 averaged for 
the calendar year 1965. 

Meanwhile, the government's con- 
sumer price index rose another 
four-tenths of 1 percent in Decem- 
ber, about the average monthly in- 
crease over the past nine months. 

Food prices were up two-tenths 
of 1 percent during the month while 
prices of other commodities in- 
creased five-tenths of 1 percent, 
and service charges went up four- 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Indiana Labor Helps Spur 
State ERA Ratification 

Indianapolis — Indiana ratified the Equal Rights Amend- 
ment, the 35th state to take the action. Thirty-eight states must 
ratify the measure, which would bar any discrimination under 
law based on sex, for it to become the 27th Amendment to the 

The ratification campaign in the Indiana legislature had the 
active support of the State AFL-CIO, which had testified in 
favor of the measure during House and Senate hearings. 

After the House ratified the measure, the first vote in the 
Senate was deadlocked 25 to 25. But a call from First Lady 
Rosalynn Carter a few days before the inauguration convinced 
Democratic Sen. Wayne Townsend to switch his vote and the 
ERA was approved 26 to 24. 

The legislatures of four other states — ^North Carolina, 
Nevada, Florida and Georgia — are scheduled to take up the 
ERA question in the next few months. The AFL-CIO is work- 
ing with state central bodies in the effort to win final ratifica- 
tion before a March 1979 deadline. 

Page Two 


MARITIME TRADE UNIONS demonstrate against the use of unsafe foreign-flag shipping by 
American firms, focusing their protest on the sunken remains of the tanker Sansinena in Los Angeles 
harbor. The Liberian-registered ship exploded Dec. 17, killing seven persons and causing an estimated 
$12 million damage in the harbor area. The battered bow of the Sansinena is in the center background. 

Workers ^Real 
Wages Show 
No Progress 

{Continued from Page I) 
tenths, of 1 percent, BLS said. , 

More than half of the increase in 
service costs was due to a 2.6 per- 
cent rise in charges for natural gas 
and electricity. Medical care ser- 
vices rose six-tenths of 1 percent 
over the month. 

Prices of most commodities other 
than food increased in December. 
Apparel prices rose five-tenths of 1 
percent, used cars 1.7 percent, new 
cars six-tenths of 1 percent, and 
fuel oil and coal 1.4 percent. These 
increases were larger than in No- 
vember and accounted for more 
than half of the month's rise in 
nonfood prices. 

Higher prices for beef, eggs, cof- 
fee, poultry, fresh fruits and vege- 
tables, and restaurant meals were 
the main reason for the increase in 
the foods component of the CPL 

For the 12 months ended in De- 
cember, the CPI rose 4.8 percent 
compared with 7 percent in 1975 
and 12.2 percent in 1974. The in- 
crease in food prices averaged put 
Over the year to six-tenths of 1 per- 
cent, and contrasted with the 6.5 
percent rise in 1975. 

The nonfood commodities group 
posted price increases averaging 
5.1 percent for the year, compared 
with 6.2 percent in 1975. Service 
charges rose 7.3 percent in 1976, 
less than the 8.1 percent rise in 

NLRB Chairman Backs 
Task Force Proposals 

Chairman Betty S. Murphy of the National Labor Relations 
Board has formally recommended that the board adopt and prompt- 
ly implement 61 of the 69 recommendations made by its special task 
force to expedite its caseload. 

She urged that priority be given to the panel's recommendation 
that the NLRB develop procedures 

for holding representation elections 
on scheduled dates and impounding 
the ballots for later counting in the 
event of a dispute over the validity 
of an election. 

The task force, in its interim 
report last November, observed 
that "the great virtue of this pro- 
cedure is that it enables a regis- 
tration of the employees' choice 
at the time when interest and mo- 
mentum in both the union and 
employer camps are at their peak. 
While knowledge of the outcome 
may be postponed, the parties 
know that they will not again 
have to mount another election- 
eering campaign." 

Mrs. Murphy pointed out that 
about 80 percent of elections are 
conducted without dispute and that 
the vote-and-impound procedure 
would affect the remaining 20 per- 
cent in which there is disagreement 
over some aspect of the election. 

The chairman said she did not 
endorse eight of the 69 task force 
recommendations because she was 
uncertain of the administrative feas- 
ibility of some or whether some of 
the others were within the scope of 
the panel's mandate for purely pro- 

APWU Names Parrish 
As Secretary-Treasurer 

Chester Parrish will succeed Jack Love as secretary-treasurer of 
the American Postal Workers Union. The changeover is effective 
Jan. 31, when Love retires after more than 25 years as a local and 
national union officer. 

Parrish is president of the motor vehicle craft of the APWU and 
was president of the former Post 
Office Motor Vehicle Employees 
before it merged with the Postal 
Clerks and other unions in 1971. 

After Love announced his desire 
to retire for family reasons, APWU 
President Francis S. Filbey pro- 
posed Parrish to fill the vacancy 
and the union's executive board 
gave its approval. Parrish will serve 
until the next election of APWU 
officers, in October of 1978. 

Parrish had been a national of- 
ficer of the Motor Vehicle union 
since 1962 and had served as its 
secretary-treasurer before his elec- 
tion as president in 1968. 

He will be succeeded as head of 
the motor vehicle craft division by 
Leon S. Hawkins, currently admin- 
istrative vice president of the craft. CHESTER PARRISH 

cedural suggestions. 

At its first quarterly meeting of 
1977, task force members divided 
into three committees to review 
matters that it had reserved for 
further consideration. The group's 
27 members, all labor-law attorneys, 
include representatives of organized 
labor, management, the academic 
community and NLRB officials. 

The AFL-CIO is represented on 
the task force by Laurence Gold 
and Patrick C. O'Donoghue. Gold 
is the federation's special counsel. 
O'Donoghue is a member of a 
Washington, D.C., law firm that 
serves as general counsel to the 
Metal Trades Dept. and to several 
AFL-CIO affiliates. 

iVeti; Committee Set Up: 

Organizing Mission 
Stressed by Meany 

(Continued from Page 1) 

the business of frustrating the or- 
ganizing efforts of workers." 

Under the new plan, Kistler 
would serve as chairman of a panel 
of organizing directors who would 
serve as a coordinating committee. 

The coordinating committee 
would meet regularly, perhaps quar- 
terly, but subcommittees would be 
continuously active in a number of 

It would work with AFL-CIO 
regional directors to initiate coordi- 
nated organizing campaigns, ana- 
lyze management anti-union tactics, 
consider organizing problems and 
potentials on a regional, industry 
or company-wide basis. Its recom- 
mendations would be sent to orga- 
nizing directors of all affiliates for 
comment and consideration. 

At least once a year, a formal 
conference of all union organiz- 
ing directors would be held. And 
the Dept. of Organization & Field 
Services would serve throughout 
the year as a clearinghouse on or- 
ganizing developments for all af- 

"I am delighted to see this com- 
mittee developed and endorse its es- 
tablishment," Meany told the con- 

Most of the two-day conference, 
held at the AFL-CIO headquarters, 
was devoted to workshops. Some 
dealt with the nuts and bolts of or- 
ganizing campaigns. Others covered 
such areas as training of organizers, 
labor's '*image" and its impact on 
organizing, coordinated campaigns, 
the role of labor's central bodies, 
strike situations and boycotts. 

Kistler, in his opening remarks 
to the conference, cited a slippage 
in union organizing success in the 
private sector during the recession- 
burdened Nixon-Ford years. 

He expressed the hope that a 
new Administration will bring both 
an expansion in jobs and "construc- 
tive reform" of federal labor law, 
all resulting in an opportunity for 
union growth. 

Kistler acknowledged that there 
are certain problems peculiar to va- 
rious groupings of workers, such as 
white collar organizing, building 
trades and the public sector. But he 
stressed the desire of the conference 
for the continuing cooperative ap- 
proach to organizing to provide 
**cross-fertilization" of ideas and 

The goal, he said, is not merely 
to end a slippage in organizing but 
to bring "a dramatic turnabout." 

The potential of cooperative or- 
ganizing approaches was stressed 
also by Paul Hall, president of the 
Seafarers, who is chairman of the 
AFL-CIO Committee on Organiz- 
ing. He gave as an example a highly 
successful coordinated organizing 
and bargaining program in the off- 
shore drilling industry. 

Nicholas Zonarich, organizing di- 
ector of the Industrial Union Dept., 
and other participants spoke of the 
inadequacies of the National Labor 
Relations Act in protecting the right 
of workers to organize and bargain. 

Meany noted that the AFL- 
CIO itself has no "jurisdiction" in 
organizing. "We cannot tell you 
where or whom to organize," he 
reminded the international union 
officials. But except where affiliated 
unions are competing in an orga- 
nizing campaign, the federation will 
help with services and manpower. 

"Organizing has always been a 
priority objective of the American 
labor movement," Meany said. 
Making trade unionism available to 
unorganized workers is both "a ma- 
jor responsibility and a continuing 
obligation" of the AFL-CIO and 
its affiliates. 

Court Nullifies Attendance Rule 
On Hocal Candidates for Election 

The Supreme Court has nullified a long-standing meeting attendance requirement set in the Steel- 
workers' constitution for candidates for local union office. 

Its 6-3 decision did not flatly bar all meeting attendance requirements, but it strongly indicated that 
unreasonable restrictions that have the effect of limiting candidacy for office are likely to be 

Candidates for local office in 
the Steelworkers have had to have 
attended, or been excused from 
attending, at least half of their local 
union meetings during the three 
previous years — the interval be- 
tween local elections. 

The requirement did not apply 
to candidates for international 
office and the court decision has 
no bearing on the current elec- 
tion campaign to fill the USWA's 
top offices. 

At issue in the Supreme Court 
case was whether the USWA atten- 
dance rule was within the "reason- 
able qualifications" that the Lan- 
drum-Griffin Act allows a union to 
set as a condition for holding union 

The Labor Dept., acting on a 
1970 complaint stemming from a 
local union election in Terre Haute, 
Ind., filed a Landrum-Griffin suit 
challenging the requirement. A fed- 
eral district court upheld the valid- 
ity of the rule, finding that it was 
intended to assure that candidates 
for office have a demonstrated in- 
terest in union affairs and the back- 
ground to fulfill their duties if 

The U.S. 7th Circuit Court of 
Appeals disagreed with the lower 
court and also with the 6th Circuit 

appellate court which had upheld 
the meeting attendance rule in a 
different case. The Supreme Court 
then agreed to review the decision, 
noting the conflict between the two 
appellate courts. 

An AFL-CIO brief defended the 
right of the Steelworkers and other 
unions to set such a requirement, 
which can be met by any member 
willing to be active in the union. 

The requirement was put and re- 
tained in the union's constitution 
by vote of convention delegates, the 
AFL-CIO noted, and "neither dis- 
criminates against dissidents nor 
favors incumbents." 

The federation urged the Su- 
preme Court to consider the test 
of reasonableness the ability of 
union members to comply with the 
requirements if they so wish, rather 
than the number who do so. 

The Supreme Court majority, 
however, said that an attendance 
rule that had the effect of limiting 
candidacy for office to a tiny por- 
tion of the union's members could 
not be considered a "reasonable" 
qualification, even if there were no 
ulterior or unlawful motive. 

Justice William J. Brennan, Jr., 
wrote the opinion for the six-mem- 
ber majority. Justice Lewis F. 

Powell, Jr., dissenting also for Jus- 
tices Potter Stewart and William 
H. Rehnquist, read the attendance 
requirement as intended for the 
"legitimate and meritorious" pur- 
pose of encouraging attendance at 
meetings and requiring candidates 
for office "to demonstrate a mean- 
ingful interest in the union and its 

In the case that reached the 
Supreme Court, he noted, the 
local had frequent turnovers of 
officers in recent years, "there 
was no history of entrenched 
leadership and no evidence of 
restrictive union practices pre- 
cluding free and democratic elec- 

The Labor Dept. has not at- 
tempted to define the type of meet- 
ing attendance rule it considers per- 
missible under the Landrum-Griffin 
Act, and the Supreme Court ma- 
jority acknowledged that this leaves 
a degree of "uncertainty." But the 
court said that Congress, in enact- 
ing the Landrum-Griffin Act and 
using the term "reasonable" in de- 
fining allowable qualifications for 
office, "clearly contemplated exactly 
such a flexible result." 


Page Three 

Sets Unity Tone: 

Carter Vows Effort 
To Advance Nation 

(Continued from Page 1) 
equal treatment under the law "for 
the weak and the powerful, the rich 
and the poor." 

Then the man from Plains, Ga., 
a political unknown to most of the 
nation just a year ago, walked with 
his family from the Capitol to the 
White House — the sometimes rival 
centers of political power in Amer- 
ica — as the vast crowds lining the 
streets cheered and millions more 
shared the occasion through their 
television screens. 

Before Carter took his oath of 
office from Chief Justice Warren 
E. Burger, Walter F. Mondale 
was sworn in as Vice President 
of the United States. 

The former Minnesota senator, 
a political protege of Hubert H. 
Humphrey, has developed a close 
relationship with the new President 
that lends credence to Carter's 
promise that Mondale will have an 
active role in the shaping of Ad- 
ministration policy. 

Mondale's role is expected to be 
particularly important in defining 
the relationship between Congress 
and the White House — a sensitive 

Iowa College Unit 

Des Moines, Iowa — ^Blue-collar 
workers of five Iowa state schools 
and colleges voted overwhelmingly 
for representation by the State, 
County & Municipal Employees. 

The workers are employed at 
the University of Iowa, Iowa State, 
University of Northern Iowa, the 
Iowa School for the Blind, and 
Iowa School for the Deaf. They 
perform maintenance, grounds- 
keeping, and general custodial 

Of 2,616 eligible employees, 
1,964 voted for AFSCME and 
1 1 1 for no union. It was the sec- 
ond major victory for the union 
among Iowa state employees. 
Earlier 1,500 Dept. of Transporta- 
tion workers chose AFSCME as 
their bargaining agent. 

area under the best of circum- 

For the first time in eight years, 
a President will be dealing with a 
Congress controlled by his own 
party. Further, the Democratic ma- 
jority in the House and Senate is 
of near-record size. 

But Carter's slim majority of vic- 
tory had few political coattails and 
no one expects the House and Sen- 
ate to rubber-stamp White House 

They will be shaped and modified 
in the legislative process — some- 
times strengthened and sometimes 
watered down. Judging by the 
Johnson years, differences will be 
largely resolved behind the scenes 
and the veto confrontations that 
marked the Nixon-Ford years will 
be largely avoided. 

Within the rhetoric of the Pres- 
ident's inaugural address, his close 
associates see a promise of activism 
tempered by a realization that many 
of America's problems defy easy so- 

In a Washington hotel lobby, on 
the eve of the inauguration, a close 
Carter aide was asked about a sec- 
tion of the inaugural address con- 
ceding that "we can neither answer 
all questions nor solve all problems. 
We cannot afl'ord to do everything, 
nor can we afford to lack boldness 
as we meet the future." 

Did that mean the new Adminis- 
tration was already trimming its 

''No," was the reply. The real- 
istic acknowledgement that it is 
not possible to do "everything" 
that may be desirable will not 
be used "as an excuse not to 
make the effort." 

As Carter himself expressed it in 
his inaugural address, "we must 
simply do our best." 

And so, with that promise, Amer- 
icans of all walks of life joined 
their prayers and hopes with those 
of their new President, sharing 
Jimmy Carter's desire for "our 
people to be proud of their govern- 
ment once again." 

Senate Postpones Vote 
On 3 Cabinet Nominees 

The Senate held up its approval of three of President Carter's 
Cabinet appointees while speedily confirming the appointment of 
10 other Cabinet and high-level White House officers. 

Delayed temporarily because of objections by certain senators 
were the nominations of Ray Marshall as Secretary of Labor, Joseph 
A. Califano as Secretary of Health," 

Education & Welfare, and Griffin 
B. Bell as Attorney General. Their 
confirmation, however, was vir- 
tually assured early next week. 

Marshall's confirmation was de- 
layed by Sen. Paul Laxalt (R-Nev.), 
Sen. Orrin G. Hatch (R-Utah), and 
others who objected to some of 
his views on labor issues. Earlier, 
in the Senate Labor Committee's 
vote to recommend confirmation by 
the full Senate, Laxalt was one of 
two conservative Republicans to 
oppose Marshall's appointment be- 
cause of his endorsement of repeal 
of the "right- to-work" Section 14(b) 
of the Taft-Hartley Act and his 
support for construction site picket- 
ing rights. 


The committee's vote to rec- 
ommend MarshalFs confirmation 
was 13 to 2, with Laxalt and Sen. 
Richard Lugar (R-Ind.) casting 
the negative ballots. Lugar indi- 
cated that he considered Marshall 
generally too favorable to orga- 
nized labor's views. 

Califano's nomination was de- 
layed because Sen. Robert W.- 
Packwood (R-Ore.) wanted an op- 
portunity to express his opposition 
to the nominee's position on federal 
funding of abortion for low-income 
women. Califano opposes federal 
spending for that purpose. Bell's 
confirmation was withheld because 
of objections from Sen. Edward W. 
Brooke (R-Mass.) and other civil 
rights advocates who wanted time 
for further study of Bell's record. 

Meanwhile, Carter is expected to 
submit soon a new choice for direc- 
tor of the Central Intelligence 
Agency. His original choice, Theo- 
dor C. Sorensen, withdrew after 
mounting opposition had made his 
confirmation doubtful. 

JIMMY CARTER and his wife Rosalynn wave to well-wishers on their mile-and-a-half walk from 
the Capitol to the White House following his inaugural address at the Capitol after he was sworn in 
as 39th President of the United States. 

Oil Workers 
Reach New 

(Continued from Page 1) 
sidiary, Douglas Oil. 

The Gulf agreement calls for 
initial raises of 9 percent and 
second-year raises of 75 cents per 
hour across the board. Other im- 
provements include increases In 
evening and night shift differen- 
tials, higher minimum pension 
benefits, and improved employer 
contributions to health insurance 

Other companies that have signed 
new agreements with OCAW are 
Charter Oil; Asamera Oil (U.S.); 
Kern County Refinery in Bakers- 
field, Calif.; Fletcher Oil & Refin- 
ery, Wilmington, Calif.; Gary West- 
ern, Inc., O.K.C. Refining Corp.; 
Sinclair Oil Corp., Sunland Refin- 
ing Corp.; San Joaquin Refining 
Co., Cenex in Laurel, Mont., and 
BP Oil, Inc., a subsidiary of Stand- 
ard of Ohio. 

Texaco employs the largest num- 
ber of OCAW members with whom 
a new agreement has been reached, 
8,300. Amoco employs 6,900, Mo- 
bil 4,900, Shell 4,400, Atltantic 
Richfield, 3,850, Gulf, 3,000, Un- 
ion Oil of California, 2,125, and 
Standard of Ohio, 900. 

Joblessness in 17 States 
Tops National Average 

More than a third of the states had jobless rates higher than the 
national unemployment rate in November, further evidence of the 
economic difficulties besetting the nation. 

The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that 1 7 of the 49 states 
reporting had rates above 7.4 percent in November, the nation's 
official unemployment rate before 

adjustment for seasonal fluctuations 
in the workforce. Seasonally ad- 
justed, the November rate was 8.1 

Unemployment rates continued 
to be highest in the northeastern 
and Pacific states and in Florida 
and Michigan, BLS said, with 
most of these states reporting 
joblessness of 8 percent or more. 

Fifty-two of the 196 major met- 
ropolitan areas in the BLS monthly 
survey also had unemployment 
rates of 8 percent or more in No- 
vember, including 11 areas with 
unemployment rates above 10 per- 

In another report, BLS said that 
unemployment increased by almost 
200,000 over the October-Decem- 
ber quarter last year, raising the 
official jobless rate from 7.8 to 8 
percent, seasonally adjusted. Em- 
ployment rose by 185,000 to 88.1 
million over the same period. 

The proportion of the popula- 
tion employed, 56.9 percent, was 

'We Haven't Changed a Bit!' 

down one-tenth of 1 percent from 
the level in each of the two previous 
quarters, BLS said. 

The government also reported an 
increase in the number of so-called 
discouraged workers during the 
fourth quarter of 1976, a devel- 
opment contrasting with a down- 
trend in the first three quarters of 
the year. At one million, their num- 
ber was about 150,000 below the 
third-quarter 1975 peak level. 

Discouraged workers are persons 
who have given up looking for em- 
ployment because they believe there 
are no jobs for them. Nearly three- 
fourths of the fourth-quarter in- 
crease in their number occurred 
among women, BLS said. The in- 
crease was proportionately greater 
among whites than blacks, although 
blacks continued to account for a 
disproportionate number of the to- 
tal — 26 percent. 

BLS also said that joblessness 
during the fourth quarter increased 
among adult men, principally for 
blacks, while most other demo- 
graphic groups showed little or no 
change. The jobless rate for adult 
men averaged 6.3 percent, com- 
pared to 6 percent in the third 
quarter of 1976. 

For white male workers 20 years 
and over, the fourth-quarter jobless 
rate rose one-tenth of 1 percent to 
5.7 percent. But for adult black 
workers the unemployment rate in- 
creased to 11.6 percent from the 
July-September period, a rise of 
1.6 percent. 

Professional Unit 
Picks Steelworkers 

Newport News, Va. — The Steel- 
workers won a major collective bar- 
gaining election among professional 
and technical employees of the 
Newport News Shipbuilding & Dry- 
dock Co. here, USWA President 
I. W. Abel announced. 

Of 1,014 workers who voted in 
the election, 778 chose the Steel- 
workers as their representative 
while 213 voted for an independent 
union, and 21 for no union. 

Page Four 


A Celebration of Democracy 

TF7HEN SHORTLY AFTER noon on Jan. 20 Jimmy Carter 
^ became the 39th President of the United States he was cele- 
brating not only a personal triumph but the triumph of a system 
of government. 

The system was put on full display at the Capitol as it is once 
every four years with all the ceremonial touches and flourishes in 
keeping with a republican form of government. The Legislative 
Branch, the Judicial Branch and the Executive Branch — old and 
new — and the citizens fortunate enough to squeeze into the 
restricted area as well as millions of television watchers witnessed 
the ultimate demonstration of democratic strength — the peaceful 
transfer of power to a new Administration. 

The presidency remains the most powerful temporal office in the 
world and the President of the United States the leader of the Free 
World. The peaceful passage of the office from one man to another 
on the basis of a free election is all the more to be noted in this 
era of disappearing freedom and liberty around the globe. 

It is within the power of the President to influence the course of 
democracy over the next four years, to extend its time-tested strength 
and dedication to help bring peace, freedom and social justice or to 
fall back to a narrow, limited base while an oppressive totalitari- 
anism continues to spread its shadow over the world. 

The inauguration of President Carter demonstrates to the world 
that an opposition party can present its case in a democratic sys- 
tem and emerge victorious at the polls; that on a designated day 
an Administration that has held power for a number of years 
peacefully and in an orderly manner turns over the reins of power 
to the victor. 

This testimonial to the strength of the American democratic sys- 
tem is of great importance to the newer nations who in their search- 
ing and groping for an effective system of government have wan- 
dered too often into authoritarian and totalitarian byways. 

THE INAUGURATION, a solemn, quadrennial rededication to 
democracy, is also celebrated in parades and dancing, galas and 
parties, fireworks and exhibitions, all giving zest and verve to Ameri- 
can democracy. 

President Carter, as the only nationally elected public official, 
speaks for America as the current inheritor of a great democratic 
tradition, the tradition that. rests on the tenets: 

"That all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their 
Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, 
liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights 
governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers 
from the consent of the governed." 

Jan. 20, 1977 is a fitting affirimation of the year-long celebration 
of the Bicentennial of 1976. For it presents in very specific terms 
the reality of democracy in which all Americans of every station 
and political belief can join without reservation. 


Official Weekly Piihlication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

GtORGC Mrany, President 
I.ANii KiRKl.AND. Secretary-Treasurer 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
♦Clyde M. Webber 

Executive Council 
I. W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanley 
Charles H. Pillard 

♦ Deceased 

= Director of Publications: }A\\\qv = 

5 Managing Editor: John M. Barry = 

S Assistant Editors: = 

5 lt>hn R. Oravec David L. Perlman James M. Shevis = 

I AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixleenlh St.. N.W. | 

I Washington, D.C. 20006 | 

I Telephone: 637-5032 | 

5 Siih8eripti<Hi8: $2 a year: 10 or more. $1.50 a year 1 

I VoL XXII Saturday, January 22, 1977 No. 3 | 

= The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- V.^^iTrnuTTr,-^ 

= dustrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in j fl LABOR PR ESS] 

= any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit W|; [aBHtll 

^ advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


'Mr. President . . 

IBS Turnabout: 

A Tax 

That Amounts 

To Welfare Aid for the Wealthy 

By Gus Tyler 

IN THE MORNING, the Internal Revenue 
Service published a new regulation. Within 
24 hours, the regulation was revoked. The star- 
tling turnabout is testimony to the power of at 
least one group of wealthy gentlemen who enjoy 
living on a federal welfare program. 

The particular items will escape the notice of 
most citizens because, as in other tax matters, the 
details are devious. The case in point referred to 
partnerships and other noncorporate organiza- 
tions that are treated as if they were corporations 
for tax purposes. 

In the past, such partnerships and noncorpo- 
rate organizations enjoyed a distinct advantage. 
If, for instance, one of these outfits wanted to get 
a mortgage, they could do so without anyone as- 
suming personal liability for repayment. The art 
term for such a mortgage is "nonrecourse." If the 
business for which the money was borrowed goes 
bad, then the lender has no "recourse." 

That, in itself, is no mean advantage to the 
borrower. But, in the hands of a sharp busi- 
nessman, the loss can be turned into a gain. 
For tax purposes, the loss is then written off 
against other incomes to reduce or even to wipe 
out the tax liability of the ^^partner" in this 

This ploy has been very popular with real es- 
tate developers. They borrow money; they invest 
in a proposition that shows paper losses; they 
don't have to pay on the mortgage; they use their 
"losses" to reduce the sum they owe to Uncle 

In effect, these real estate developers are living 
on welfare. They are getting federal relief in the 
form of relief from the payment of taxes. 

This scandal has been stirring some congress- 
men to ask for a change in the law. Recently, 
courts have been questioning the equity of the 

In the light of mounting criticism, the Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, Donald Alexan- 
der, had an item published in the Federal Regis- 
ter that was a "notice of proposed rule making" 
aimed at changing the preferred status of partner- 

ships and noncorporate businesses in regard to 
their tax status. 

Within a matter of hours, the real estate devel- 
opers turned on the heat. Within a few more 
hours, Sec. of the Treasury William E. Simon re- 
scinded the "notice." 

The reason for the reversal was the claim of 
the developers that the regulation would halt 
nearly all investment in low- and middle-income 
housing in the United States. Simon's assistant 
secretary for tax policy, Charles Walker, said the 
regulation was reversed because "we were not 
aware of the way they impacted on the business 

In plain language, unless Uncle Sam is ready 
to excuse real estate developers from paying taxes 
like the rest of us, these gentlemen won't build 
houses for plain folk who need them. 

No doubt these developers would resent being 
told that they are welfare cases, living on a hand- 
out from Uncle Sam. But, indeed they are. And 
with far less justification than all those lesser folk 
who live from hand to hunger. 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

A Major Import 
— Unem ploymen t 

Our nation's industrial base has continued 
to be eroded by the staggering increase in 
imports which has forced thousands of 
workers out of their jobs. 

During 1976 . . . more than 50,000 job 
opportunities for American workers in the 
color television industry were lost. ... In 
one short year, imports have managed to 
subjugate more than 40 percent of the U.S. 

Other countries have managed to export 
their products and their unemployment to 
the United States. 

— /. W. Abel, president of AFL-CIO In- 
dustrial Union Dept., to the U.S. Interna- 
tional Trade Commission, Jan. 18, 1977, 


Page Five 

Carter's Inaugural: 

A New Dedication, a New Spirit 

The following is excerpted from President 
Carter's Inaugural Address. 

THIS INAUGURATION ceremony marks a 
new beginning, a new dedication within our 
government, and a new spirit among us all. A 
president may sense and proclaim that new spirit, 
but only a people can provide it. 

Two centuries ago our nation's birth was a 
milestone in the long quest for freedom, but the 
bold and brilliant dream which excited the found- 
ers of our nation still awaits its consummation. 
I have no. new dream to set forth today, but 
rather urge a fresh faith in the old dream. 

Ours was the first society openly to define 
itself in terms of both spirituality and of human 
liberty. It is that unique self-definition which 
has given us an exceptional appeal — ^but it 
also imposes on us a special obligation — to 
take on those moral duties which, when as- 
sumed, seem invariably to be in our own best 

Our government must at the same time be both 
competent and compassionate. 

We have already found a high degree of per- 
sonal liberty, and we are now struggling to en- 
hance equality of opportunity. Our commitment 
to human rights must be absolute, our laws fair, 
our natural beauty preserved; the powerful must 
not persecute the weak, and human dignity must 
be enhanced. 

Ford's Farewell: 

Within us, the people of the United States, 
there is evident a serious and purposeful rekin- 
dling of confidence, and I join in the hope that 
when my time as your President has ended, peo- 
ple might say this about our nation: 

That we had remembered the words of Micah 
and renewed our search for humility, mercy and 

That we had torn down the barriers that sep- 
rated those of different race and region and 
religion, and where there had been mistrust, built 
unity, with a respect for diversity; 

That we had found productive work for those 
able to perform it; 

That we had strengthened the American fam- 
ily, which is the basis of our society. 

That we had ensured respect for the law, and 
equal treatment under the law, for the weak and 
the powerful, the rich and the poor; 

And that we had enabled our people to be 
proud of their own government once again. 

I would hope that the nations of the world 
might say that we had built a lasting peace, based 
not on weapons of war but on international pol- 
icies which reflect our own most precious values. 

These are not just my goals, but our common 
hopes. And they will not be my accomplishments, 
but the affirmation of our nation's continuing 
moral strength and our belief in an undiminished, 
ever-expanding American dream. 

A Natural, Normal Transition 

The following is excerpted from President 
Ford's State of the Union message delivered to a 
joint session of Congress Jan. 12, 1977. 

AS A PEOPLE, we discovered that our Bicen- 
• tennial was much more than a celebration of 
the past; it became a joyous reaffirmation of all 
that it means to be Americans, a confirmation 
before all the world of the vitality and durability 
of our free institutions. 

I am proud to have been privileged to preside 
over the affairs of our federal government during 
these eventful years when we proved, as I said in 
my first words upon assuming office, that "our 
Constitution works; our great republic is a gov- 
ernment of laws and not of men; here, the people 

The people have spoken; they have chosen a 
new President and a new Congress to work 
their will; I congratulate you — ^particularly the 
new members — as sincerely as I did President- 
elect Carter. In a few days, it will be his duty 
to outline for you his priorities and legislative 
recommendations. Tonight, I will not infringe 
on that responsibility, but rather wish him the 
very best in all that is good for our country. 

During the period of my own service in this 

Corporate Tax Breaks Hit: 

Capitol and in the White House I can recall many 
orderly transitions of governmental responsibility 
— of problems as well as of position, of burdens 
as well as of power. 

The genius of the American system is that we 
do this so naturally and normally. There are no 
soldiers marching in the streets except in the in- 
augural parade; no public demonstrations except 
for some of the dancers at the inaugural ball; the 
opposition party doesn't go underground but goes 
on functioning vigorously in the Congress and the 
country, and our vigilant press goes right on 
probing and publishing our faults and follies, con- 
firming the wisdom of the framers of the First 

Because the transfer of authority in our form 
of government affects the state of the union, and 
of the world, I am happy to report to you that the 
current transition is proceeding very well. I was 
determined that it should: I wanted the new Pres- 
ident to get off to an easier start than I had. 

This gathering symbolizes the constitutional 
foundation which makes continued progress pos- 
sible, synchronizing the skills of three indepen- 
dent branches of government, reserving funda- 
mental sovereignty to the people of this great 

New Trade Policies Pressed 

T^HE NATION must implement foreign trade 
policies to strengthen its economy with the 
same sense of urgency as other nations have in 
competing for world markets, AFL-CIO interna- 
tional economics expert Elizabeth Jager said. 

Stressing that U.S. tax laws continue to en- 
courage U.S. firms to close plants here and pro- 
duce the same items overseas, Mrs. Jager pre- 
dicted that the fight to end the tax credit and tax 
deferral breaks now given to the profits U.S. firms 
earn overseas will be renewed in the 95th Con- 
gress. She said that the tax laws, as they are now 
written, are an incentive to expand overseas in- 

"The tax goodies, in some instances, are even 
greater than the cheap labor benefits in some 
countries," declared Mrs. Jager, an economist in 
the AFL-CIO Dept. of Research. She appeared 
on the network radio interview Labor News 

Mrs. Jager said that the adjustment assistance 
provision of the 1974 Trade Act is really too little 

and too late to effectively offset the damage done 
to U.S. jobs and U.S. production by runaway 
companies and heavy imports. Noting that some 
unions call adjustment assistance "burial insur- 
ance," she pointed out that "the possibility of find- 
ing another job in a country where one out of ten 
people can't find work is slight." She said the idea 
is based on a full employment economy, which 
"made a lot of sense" when it was proposed 20 
years ago, but cannot work effectively in a vastly 
changed world. 

She said that the recent oil spills that are threat- 
ening the environment and industries of both the 
East and West Coasts of the United States are 
another example of damage to the U.S. economy 
by "an industry that has gone abroad to escape 
U.S. taxes, U.S. standards, U.S. unions." She said 
that "the runaway ship was one of the first run- 
away industries after World War IL" 

She said that events the maritime unions have 
warned about for many years are now "coming 
home to roost" in the oil spills and as a result, a 
new combination of interests is developing be- 
tween the unions and the environmentalists. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

DO THE ONCE-GREAT CITIES of America have a future? 
This question is being faced at last and a consensus seems to 
be growing that the nation desperately needs a national urban policy. 

The first good thing that will help the cities will be federal action 
to promote economic growth and reduce unemployment. For a 
major factor behind the crisis in many cities has been the prolonged 
Nixon-Ford recession of recent years. 

According to the Congressional Budget Office, the aggregate 
budgets of state and local governments moved from a $10 billion 
surplus in the second quarter of 1972 to a $12 billion deficit in 
the second quarter of 1975. 

In desperation states and cities have laid off workers; they have 
cut public services across the board; they have raised taxes to their 
constitutional limits. 

The Joint Economic Committee of Congress has estimated that 
in 1975, state and local governments enacted about $3.6 billion in 
tax increases, cut services by $3.3 billion and delayed or cancelled 
some $1 billion in capital construction. Thus the hard-hit states and 
cities were forced into negative budget actions of about $8 billion 
because of mismanagement of the national economy. 

Adding to their problems was the fact that, as the recession 
worsened, Nixon and Ford cut back $4.5 billion in urban pro- 
grams and an additional $7 billion from programs to aid the poor, 
the jobless and the medically indigent. 

President Carter and the heavily Democratic Congress are com- 
mitted to federal action to stimulate the economy. But there are 
underlying trends which have been weakening the cities, and it is the 
problems related to these trends that are becoming better defined. 

AN URBAN INSTITUTE study identified the major demograph- 
ic trends as: a shift in regional economic vitality from the North- 
east and North Central to the West and South; a decline and 
changing make-up of central city population; the persistence of 
large, low-income minority ghettos in and around most of the big 
central cities. 

The institute's study, "The Urban Predicament," focused on five 
major issues aff'ecting the quality of city living: finance, housing, 
crime, education and transportation. 

The urban experts recommended a variety of government 
intervention to aid the cities: a better balanced regional distribu- 
tion of federal investments that create jobs; more revenue-sharing 
for cities; automatic countercyclical aid to blunt the impact of 
national recessions; greater federal responsibility for welfare aid 
and a larger state role in financing education. 

On the more immediate level. Rep. Henry S. Reuss (D-Wis.), 
chairman of the House Committee on Banking, Currency & Housing, 
has announced formation of a Subcommittee on the City. Reuss 
intends to push for a national urban policy. He has proposed that 
the Carter Administration convene a meeting of state and local 
representatives, along with union and business leaders, to formulate 
such a policy. Further, he wants Carter to name a coordinator of 
cities in the White House to deal with urban issues crossing agency 

President Carter during the campaign called for a comprehensive 
urban strategy to deal with the problems of the cities. 

Thus there seems to be a growing understanding that the cities 
of America will, indeed, have a future. 

ECONOMICALLY SOUND foreign trade policies are essential if 
the United States is to compete in the world market with other 
nations, AFL-CIO Economist Elizabeth Jager said on Labor News 
Conference. Mrs. Jager sharply criticized present U.S. tax laws 
that give American firms incentives to locate abroad, taking jobs 
with them. She was questioned by Robert Cooney, left, of Press 
Associates, Inc. and Tom Joyce of Newsweek magazine. The 
AFL-CIO produced program is aired Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Page Six 


ROLLING BACK IMPORTS is essential for the survival of the American color television industry 
and the jobs of its 90,000 workers, President I. W. Abel of the AFL-CIO Industrial Union Dept. 
testified before the International Trade Commission. Abel was joined at the ITC hearings by lUD 
Sec.-Treas. Jacob dayman and representatives of lUD affiliates,^ whose members face job losses be- 
cause of rising foreign imports that have already captured 40 percent of U.S. color TV market. 

Rail Unions 
Starting New 

A new round of negotiations in 
the rail industry got underway as 
seven unions served notice on the 
nation's major railroads they will 
seek higher wages and improved 
fringe benefits beginning in January 
1978. Eight other unions were in 
the process of formulating their 
bargaining goals. 

Notices were filed by the United 
Transportation Union, Railway Sig- 
nalmen, Maintenance of Way Em- 
ployees, and the four shopcraft un- 
ions that make up the AFL-CIO 
Railway Employees' Dept. — the 
Carmen, Boilermakers & Black- 
smiths, Firemen & Oilers, and the 
International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers. 

The notices, filed under Section 
6 of the Railway Labor Act, signal 
the start of bargaining on an agree- 
ment to replace the current one 
that becomes amendable Dec. 31, 
1977. Yet to serve notice are the 
Locomotive Engineers, Railway & 
Airline Clerks, Machinists, Sheet 
Metal Workers, Railway Super- 
visors, Yardmasters, Train Dis- 
patchers, and Transport Workers. 

UTU, the Signalmen, and Main- 
tenance of Way Employees are 
seeking wage increases of 15 per- 
cent in each of three years, as well 
as improvements in holidays, vaca- 
tions, insurance, and such benefits 
as away-from-home expenses. The 
shopcraft unions have asked for a 
15 percent wage boost in each year 
of a two-year contract, plus various 
fringe-benefit improvements. 

About 500,000 railroad work- 
ers, both operating and nonoper- 
ating, eventually will be involved 
in the bargaining. Negotiating on 
behalf of the industry is the Na- 
tional Railway Labor Confer- 
ence, to which most of the na- 
tion's 50 Class I railroads belong. 

The unions settled with the in- 
dustry two years ago for a package 
of wage and fringe-benefit increases 
estimated at 41 percent over a 
three-year period. 

Asbestos Firm, Union 
Join in Cancer Research 

New York — An occupational cancer therapy and research center 
has been established at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine here 
through the joint support of the Asbestos Workers and the Johns- 
Manville Corp. 

The center will concentrate on the early diagnosis and treatment 
of mesothelioma, a cancer of the 
chest and abdominal cavity, often 
caused by exposure to tiny asbestos 

The research and therapy pro- 
gram at the center is being financed 
by a joint $500,000 donation from 
the union and the company. Asbes- 
tos Workers President Andrew T. 
Haas and President John A. McKin- 
ney of Johns-Manville announced. 

Haas said the joint eff'ort of un- 
ion and management is vital in the 
fight against job-related diseases 
that threaten workers in all indus- 

He said that while federal job 
safety and health enforcement 
laws are essential elements in the 
protection of workers, they "do 
not represent a total solution to 
the threat of human pain, suffer- 
ing and death inflicted by the 
work environment." 

The Mount Sinai program, Haas 
said, "is an example of what can 
further be done in a spirit of labor- 
management cooperation to reduce 
and ultimately eliminate the need- 
less tragedy of job-related illness." 

Both Haas and McKinney point- 
ed out that the union and com- 
pany had cooperated in a previous 
venture in the 1960s which helped 
finance a study by Mount Sinai 
researchers into the hazards of 
sprayed asbestos in the construction 

The Mount Sinai center is co- 
directed by Doctors Irving J. Seli- 
koff and James F. Holland. Both 
are widely known in the field of 
occupational cancer research and 

Mesothelioma, which is usually 
fatal, had been considered a rare 
disease until recent years. 

Dr. Selikoff noted that between 

lAM Signs Auto Mechanic Training Pact 

The Machinists have signed a 
half-million dollar contract with the 
Labor Dept. to recruit and train 
1,500 new apprentice mechanics in 
the auto and truck repair field dur- 
ing the next 12 months. 

lAM President Floyd E. Smith 
said the contract provides for the 
establishment of a national appren- 
ticeship coordinator at Machinists 
headquarters in Washington and 
field coordinators in New York, 
Detroit, Chicago, Atlanta, St. 
Louis, San Francisco, and Seattle. 

The coordinators will work to 
implement standards of apprentice- 
ship and registration of apprentices 

at the local level with about 5,000 
firms in the auto and truck repair 
industry with whom the union has 
collective-bargaining agreements, 
Smith said. 

Noting the nation's continuing 
demand for skilled auto and truck 
mechanics, he said an estimated 
50,000 new mechanics are needed 
annually to keep up with the grow- 
ing vehicle population and to take 
over for older mechanics who re- 
tire or leave the trade. 

If the program proves successful 
to all parties, it is renewable if 
funds are made available from 
Congress, Smith noted. 

1930, when the disease was first 
diagnosed and 1960, only three 
cases were recorded at Mount Si- 
nai. "Now we have that many 
cases in a week,'' Selikoff said. 

Asbestos-related cancers often 
take more than 15 years to fully 
develop, and cases now being de- 
tected reflect the uncontrolled in- 
dustrial exposure occurring decades 

In addition to workers involved 
in the mining and manufacture of 
asbestos products, high levels of 
exposure have been experienced by 
construction and shipyard workers. 

Selikoff and Holland said that 
the program offers a promise of 
significant findings that could pos- 
sibly lead to the control of the dis- 

The program will first seek to 
determine who is likely to develop 
mesothelioma and why, then to de- 
termine the best means for preven- 
tion of the disease, and finally to 
develop effective treatment and 
hopefully a cure. 

Remedies Ineffective: 

Trade Panel Told 
Of Job Destruction 

Organized labor's fears that the 1974 Trade Act would not remedy 
employment problems of American workers have proved well 
founded as imports continue to eat away their jobs, President I. W. 
Abel of the AFL-CIO Industrial Union Dept. told the International 
Trade Commission. 

He urged the Carter Administra- 
tion in ITC testimony to move 
quickly to roll back the volume of 
color television imports which has 
already claimed 40 percent of the 
U.S. market. 

Abel said imports threaten the 
survival of the American color TV 
industry and the livelihoods of its 
90,000 workers. 

"Our nation's industrial base has 
continued to be eroded by the stag- 
gering increase in imports which 
has forced thousands of workers 
out of their jobs," Abel stressed. 

Testifying in behalf of a labor- 
industry coalition to preserve U.S. 
color TV manufacturing, Abel 
pointed out that although 15 es- 
cape clause cases have been com- 
pleted since passage of the Trade 
Act, only once did the govern- 
ment provide needed import re- 
lief. That one exception dealt 
with import limitations on spe- 
cialty steels. 

"Such a record is particularly 
devastating in view of the current 
trade imbalance," Abel said, noting 
that the U.S. trade deficit for the 
first 11 months of 1976 was more 
than $5 billion with nearly $1 bil- 
lion of that coming in November 

"Other countries have managed 
to export their products and their 
unemployment to the United 
States," he said. "As a result, the 
American worker has suffered seri- 
ous injury" as thousands of com- 
panies have laid off workers and 
many have been forced to shut 

Citing the official government 
unemployment rate of nearly 8 
percent, Abel observed that one of 
every 13 American workers is to- 
tally unemployed and others are 
forced to work part-time. 

"The recession has contributed 
to the plight of the American work- 

— . 

er," he said, "but in industries such 
as steel, footwear and television, 
imports are clearly the substantial 
cause of that injury." 

Abel predicted that unless there 
is action to provide for relief against 
imports, the American color TV 
industry will be killed off within 
three years. 

Testimony presented for Presi- 
dent Charles H. Pillard of the In- 
ternational Brotherhood of Electri- 
cal Workers attributed the loss of 
20,000 jobs of IBEW members to 
imports of foreign-made television 
sets since 1960. 

Pillard'g testimony also noted 
that while U.S. demand for color 
TV sets increased more than 52 
percent since 1966, jobs of IBEW 
members in the industry have shown 
a consistent decline. 

President George M. Parker of 
the Flint Glass Workers told the 
ITC that more than 5,000 members 
of his union have been displaced 
by low-wage imports. 

The extinction of the American 
color TV industry would have even 
a wider impact than just on his 
union's membership, he warned. 

The United States has already 
sacrificed too much of its electron- 
ics and television industry through 
so-called fair trade practices with 
foreign countries, Parker said. 

''If this modern, highly tech- 
nical and capital intensive indus- 
try that was literally developed 
in this country is not permitted 
to survive, is there any hope for 
any American industry?" he 
asked the panel. 

Also testifying at the hearings 
were representatives of the Elec- 
trical, Radio & Machine Workers 
and the Glass Bottle Blowers, which 
are among the nine lUD affiliates in 
the labor-industry Committee to 
Preserve American Color Televi- 

Court Upholds Fringe Benefit Rule 
Applied to Non-Union Contractor 

The Supreme Court refused to exempt a construction contractor from an agreement negotiated by 
the Carpenters that required payments to fringe benefit trust funds for all hours worked on a jobsite — 
including work done by a non-union subcontractor. 

A contractor in Salem, Ore., had challenged the requirement and refused to make payments cover- 
ing hours worked by employees of a non-union subcontractor on a federally-financed housing project. 

The contractor argued that any ' ' ~ 

payments into the funds covering 
the hours worked by non-union 
employees would be illegal under 
the Taft-Hartley Act since such 
workers wouldn't be eligible for 
benefits from the funds. 

Because the construction job was 
covered by the Davis-Bacon Act, 
the subcontractor paid his workers 
the prevailing area wage plus an 
additional amount to match the 
value of fringe benefits that were 
customarily provided through un- 
ion-management welfare funds. 

This Davis-Bacon payment by 
the subcontractor was cited by the 
contractor as justification for his 
refusal to make the payment for 
hours worked into the union-man- 
agement trust funds. 

Fund trustees, who sued for pay- 
ment, contended in a brief to the 
Supreme Court that requiring pay- 
ments on the basis of total hours 
worked is both lawful and neces- 
sary to maintain the solvency of 
the funds. 

They stressed a distinction be- 
tween the obligation to individual 
workers, such as wages and the 
contractual obligation of financing 
a program funded on an assump- 
tion of payments for all hours 
worked. A comparable situation, 
the brief suggested, would be a 
pension plan in which contribu- 
tions made on behalf of employees 
who leave before qualifying for 
vesting nevertheless remain in the 
fund and are necessary to keep it 
financially sound. 

The Supreme Court, in an opin- 
ion by Justice William J. Brennan, 
Jr., agreed that there is nothing il- 
legal in an agreement requiring 
payments for hours worked by em- 
ployees of a subcontractor as well 
as employees of the prime con- 

The section of the Taft-Hartley 
Act alleged to bar such payment, 
Brennan wrote, was intended to 
prevent employers from bribing un- 
ion representatives and to prevent 

union officials from extorting 
money from employers. He found 
no such element involved in this 

As for the argument that the 
Davis-Bacon Act was being frus- 
trated, Brennan noted that the 
law's purpose is to protect em- 
ployees from substandard earn- 
ings by fixing a floor under wages 
on government projects. '^That 
objective is clearly not frus- 
trated' when contractual arrange- 
ments between employers and 
their employees result in higher 
compensation and benefits," 
Brennan said. 

The lone dissenter, Justice Byron 
R. White, accused the court major- 
ity of trying "too hard to save the 
contract" and avoiding a "common 
sense" conclusion that it imposes an 
illegal penalty on the use of non- 
union subcontractors. 


Page Seven 

Reflects Ford Philosophy: 

Lame-Duck Budget 
Asks Program Cuts 

(Continued from Page 1) 
fore regaining the status of private 
citizen, Ford claimed that he is 
leaving behind a reaccelerating 
economy that can be expected to 
continue if his "prudent fiscal pol- 
icy" of federal spending restraints 
is pursued. 

He also urged removal of do- 
mestic gasoline prices from federal 
control and, the day before turning 
over the Presidency to his succes- 
sor, directed the Federal Energy 
Administration to send a decontrol 
proposal to Congress where it faces 
heavy opposition from labor and 
consumer groups. 

Ford's economic report estimates 
that real gross national product — 
the total output of goods and ser- 
vices adjusted for inflation — will in- 
crease 5 to 5.5 percent in 1977, 
down from the 6.2 percent for 
1976 but a faster pace than the 
growth rates in each of the last 
three quarters. "Unemployment will 
still be unacceptably high during 
the year," Ford's Council of Eco- 
nomic Advisers said in an accom- 
panying report, falling to "near 7 
percent" — depending on the growth 
of the labor force. The 1977 infla- 
tion rate "is expected to remain in 
the 5 to 6 percent range," the CEA 

While the details of his economic 
policy remain to be spelled out. 
President Carter has said he will 
ask for programs to lower the na- 
tion's current official jobless rate of 
7.9 percent to 6.5 percent by the 
end of this year. Carter is expected 
to submit his budget revisions to 
Congress sometime in February. 
Then Congress will have its say. 

Ford's proposals for budget 
cutbacks in social, welfare, and 
employment programs include a 
phasing out of the emergency 
public service jobs program un- 
der Title VI of the Comprehen- 
sive Employment & Training Act, 
elimination of the accelerated 
public works program, a $2 bil- 
lion cutback in food stamps and 
child-nutrition programs, and re- 
duced funds for jobless benefits. 

The outgoing Administration 
called for slashes in social security 
benefits by phasing out payments 
to students, preventing lump-sum 
retroactive benefit payments for 
those who retire after age 65, and 
tightening retirement benefit quali- 


In the education field. Ford 
urged no new capital contributions 
for direct student loan programs 
and cuts would be made in such 
student assistance programs as Na- 
tional Defense Education Act, col- 
lege work-study programs, and sup- 
plementary opportunity grants. 

The impact aid program for 
school districts with large numbers 
of federal employees would be cut 
in half if Ford's proposals were 
enacted, and reductions also would 
be made in school aid programs for 
bilingual education and right-to- 
read literacy programs. 

Ford recommended the closing 
of eight public health service hos- 
pitals and reduced spending on 
health programs for the poor and 
the elderly. 

Altogether, Ford listed 101 
proposed "restraints and termina- 
tions" that would affect millions 
of Americans still battling the 
worst recession since the 1930s. 

On the income side, the Ford 
budget anticipates that receipts, 
mainly from taxes, will total $393 
billion in fiscal 1978, an increase 
of 1 1 percent. 

In a look beyond the coming 
fiscal year. Ford estimated that re 
ceipts will rise to $587 billion in 
1982, an average 10.6 percent 
yearly increase, as inflation moves 
taxpayers into higher tax brackets. 

Ford's proposed budget and eco- 
nomic recommendations also as- 
sume a program of tax cuts for all 
families and for businesses over the 
next five years. He called for a 
permanent increase in the personal 
income tax exemption from $750 
to $1,000, a higher income allow- 
ance, and a series of permanent 
tax-rate reductions that would pro- 
vide tax relief for individuals of 
$10 billion in 1977 alone. 

To encourage business invest- 
ment. Ford renewed his call for a 
permanent reduction in the cor- 
porate income tax from 48 to 46 
percent, as well as legislation to 
extend the 10 percent investment 
tax credit and the increased cor- 
porate surtax exemption provided 
by the 1976 Tax Reform Act. He 
also renewed his recommendation 
of accelerated depreciation for in- 
vestment in new plants and equip- 
ment undertaken in areas where 
joblessness is 7 percent or higher. 

Growth in Real GNP 
Continues to Slacken 

The nation's "real" gross national product, on a downward 
skid throughout 1976, rose only at an annual rate of 3 percent 
over the October-December quarter, the Commerce Dept. 

The fourth-quarter increase — insufficient to generate the 
jobs needed to keep up with normal labor force growth — was 
the lowest rise in real GNP since the 3.3 percent advance 
posted during fourth-quarter 1975. Real GNP is the value of 
the total output of goods and services adjusted for inflation 
since 1972. 

Economists consider a 4 percent rate of growth in real GNP 
the break-even increase needed to accommodate the nation's 
expanding labor force. 

The slowdown in the rate of growth during the final three 
months of 1976 marked the third straight quarterly decline 
over the year. Real GNP rose sharply at a 9.2 percent rate in 
the first quarter, then slid to gains of 4.5 and 3.9 percent in 
the second and third quarters, respectively. 

Expressed in dollars, real GNP last year totaled $1,265 
trillion dollars, or $73.3 billion more than the previous year. 
The increase reflected a 6.2 percent rise over the 1975 total. 

The Commerce Dept. also reported that inflation worsened 
in the final quarter of 1976, rising from a 4.4 percent annual 
rate in the third quarter to 6.2 percent. 

ONE-MAN SHOW OF PAINTINGS produced during the past 20 years is currently on exhibition 
at the George Meany Center for Labor Studies. The artist, George Meany, gives a personal msi^t 
on his work to Betty Goldfinger, top photo, the widow of the late AFL-CIO research director. At 
the bottom, Meany tells reporters about his pastime while a television crew films the showmg . 

Meany Exhibits Results 
Of Painting for Pleasure 

George Meany, the painter, paints for diversion and relaxation. 

"It's so relaxing," the AFL-CIO president said, "that I can even 
forget about the economy." 

Twenty-seven of his paintings are on display at the George 
Meany Center for Labor Studies in Silver Spring, Md. The exhibi- 
tion represents a part of Meany's * 
output of oils and acrylics during 

the past 20 years. 

Meany does his paintings usual- 
ly from photographs that he has 
taken with a small camera. 
He iS: a self-taught painter who 
does not try to pattern his works 
after other artists w old masters. 
He says he does not want to be 
disciplined to any particular 
mode, but prefers to experiment 
in a number of areas. 

However, some of the paintings 
that carry a *'G. M." signature could 
be mistaken as the work of Grand- 
ma Moses. 

Although working predominantly 
in still lifes, landscapes and sea- 
scapes, Meany has also ventured 
into abstracts and whimsical por- 

One of his oil abstracts is based 
on his doodlings during a 1973 
meeting of the Productivity Com- 
mission. "It was a boring meeting" 
that produced little, he noted, but 
he expressed pleasure at the re- 
sulting painting. 

Another abstract in the exhibi- 
tion which Meany said he dashed 
out in less than an hour was titled 
by his grandson, who labeled it 
"You Ate It, Ralph." 

Meany said he works on his 
paintings in the solitude of a spare 
bedroom in his home, preferring 
to be left undisturbed. And in this 
privacy, he often becomes so en- 
grossed in his painting sessions that 
he even tends to ignore his cigars. 

In addition to working from 
photographs, Meany has at times 
made use of postcard scenes and 
pictures from newspapers. One 
seascape, titled Bermuda Race, was 
painted from a black-and-white 
news picture that appeared in the 
New York Times. After making a 
charcoal drawing of the sailing 

scene, he converted it into an oil 
on canvas. 

Over the past 20 years, Meany 
has produced about 60 oil and 
acrylic paintings, most of which 
have been given to members of his 
fahiily and close friends. 

Of all his paintings, Meany's 
favorite is a still life of a bouquet 
of roses that he produced in 1960. 
His most recent work is a land- 
scape in acrylics of a flood control 
pond at the studies center. 

In an interview with a reporter 
the night his exhibition opened 
Meany said that although he draws 
extensive enjoyment from painting, 
"I'd rather be known as a labor 
leader than a painter." 

New Director 
And President 
Named by LID 

New York — The League for In- 
dustrial Democracy has elected la- 
bor historian Thomas R. Brooks as 
its new president and named Arch 
Puddington as the organization's 
executive director. 

Puddington replaces Judy Bar- 
dacke, who left the LID after serv- 
ing five years as executive director 
to join the staff of Sen. Daniel P. 
Moynihan (D-N.Y.). 

Puddington, 32, spent the last 
five years at the A. Philip Randolph 
Institute, where he served as re- 
search director and program direc- 
tor. He has written on labor, poli- 
tics, and race relations for several 

Brooks, the LID's new president, 
succeeds Nathaniel M. Minkoff, 
who resigned after serving many 
years in the post. 

Hail Decision 
On Upgrading 

The Air Traffic Controllers have 
hailed a Civil Service Commission 
decision to upgrade pay scales at 
more than 40 busy air traffic con- 
trol facilities in the nation. 

PATCO President John F. Ley- 
den said that although the new 
classification standards don't resolve 
all compensation problems affecting 
controllers, "they do represent a 
major breakthrough in the effort to 
bring' controllers' compensation in 
line with their responsibilities." 

The commission announced on 
Jan. 13 that eight facilities would 
be elevated to General Service (GS) 
14 pay levels from the current GS 

13 and that 37 other facilities 
would be upgraded to levels below 
GS 14. 

The last time pay scales at Fed- 
eral Aviation Administration con- 
trol facilities were upgraded was 
in 1968. PATCO represents about 
16,000 controllers at more than 
450 FAA installations through- 
out the country. 
The union said that the number 
of controllers who will be reclas- 
sified for the higher wage scales 
is not yet known. An agreement of 
understanding that PATCO reached 
withe CSC last November indicated 
that about 2,100 controllers were 
in line for upgrading. 

Depending on length of service, 
the annual wage scale of a GS 13 
government employee ranges from 
$24,308 to $31,598. Those in GS 

14 earn $28,725 to $37,347. 
Although some top-rated con- 
trollers earn more than $31,000 a 
year, Leyden noted earlier that far 
more are in lower grade levels and 
that the average annual wage for 
PATCO members is in the $18- 
20,000 range. 

Leyden said PATCO will con- 
tinue to press for other needed re- 
forms in working conditions and 
for the removal of air traffic con- 
trollers from the civil service wage 

Page Eight 


All Incumbents Returned: 

New Chairmen Set 
For 8 House Panels 

Eight House committees will have new chairmen this year, the 
result of retirements or election defeats. 

Unlike two years ago, when a reform movement swept the 
caucus, all incumbent chairmen were renominated by the Demo- 
cratic Steering & Policy Committee and approved by the full House 

Democratic caucus. : ; — : 

of Connecticut as chairman of the 

important Budget Committee in a 

contest with Thomas L. Ashley of 


There was still likely to be at 
least one major caucus battle over 
the appointment of subcommittee 
chairmen of major committees. 

Rep. Robert L. F. Sikes of Flor- 
ida is running into substantial op- 
position for reappointment as chair- 
man of the Military Construction 
subcommittee of the Appropriations 
Committee because he was repri- 
manded by the House last year on 
a conflict of interest charge. 

An attempt to substitute a north- 
ern liberal for a southern conserva- 
tive proposed by the Steering Com- 
mittee as a new member of the 
Ways & Means Comrnittee failed 
at the Democratic caucus. 

With six new members to be 
chosen, many liberals were con- 
cerned that this most important 
of the legislative committees 
would not have a majority in 
support of such goals as tax re- 
form, health security, strength- 
ened social security and im- 
proved unemployment insurance. 
But in the caucus balloting, they 
failed to substitute David L. 
Comwell of Indiana for the 
Steering Committee choice, Ed 
Jenkins of Georgia. 

The Senate, meanwhile, was 
awaiting a new version of a com- 
mittee reorganization plan that was 
initially drafted by a special com- 
mittee headed by Adlai E. Steven- 
son III of Illinois. The Senate 
Rules Committee has been revising 
the plan and was scheduled to send 
its recommendations to the Senate 
floor by Jan. 26. 

Until final action is taken, new 
senators are being given only tem- 
porary committee assignments. 

Except in the Budget Commit- 
tee, where seniority is not appli- 
cable because of the rotating 
membership, each of the new 
committee chairmen is the most 
senior member seeking the post. 

The Steering Committee picked 
and the caucus confirmed Morris 
K. Udall of Arizona as chairman 
of the Interior Committee. His 
predecessor, James A. Haley of 
Florida, retired from Congress. 

Harold T. Johnson of California 
had committee seniority over Udall, 
but he gave it up to take over the 
chairmanship of the House Public 
Works & Transportation Commit- 
tee. The previous chairman, Robert 
E. Jones of Alabama, retired, and 
the next most senior member was 
the new House majority leader, 
James C. Wright, Jr., of Texas. 

Udall's choice of Interior paved 
the way for Robert N. C. Nix of 
Pennsylvania to become chairman 
of the Post Oflice & Civil Service 
Committee. There was opposition 
to him in the caucus but he won the 
confirmation vote, 161-92. The pre- 
vious chairman, now retired, was 
David N. Henderson of North 

The new International Relations 
chairman will be Clement J. Zab- 
locki of Wisconsin, who was up- 
held by a 182-72 vote against an 
attack led by Benjamin Rosenthal 
of New York, who charged he was 
hostile to aid to Israel. Thomas E. 
Morgan of Pennsylvania had been 
the long-time chairman before his 

Other new chairmen confirmed 
were John M. Murphy of New 
York, to succeed Leonor K. Sulli- 
van of Missouri as chairman of the 
Merchant Marine Committee, and 
Neal Smith of Iowa, replacing Joe 
L. Evins of Tennessee as head of 
the Small Business Committee. On 
both these committees, more senior 
members passed up the chairman- 
ship so they could head major sub- 
committees of other committees 
more important to their districts. 

The caucus also approved the 
Democratic leadership's nomination 
of James J. Delaney, the senior 
member of the Rules Committee, 
to succeed Ray J. Madden of Indi- 
ana as chairman. Earlier, the cau- 
cus had elected Robert N. Giaimo 

Workers Pick Carlough 
For BLO Committee Post 

Geneva — President Edward J. 
Carlough of the Sheet Metal Work- 
ers has been elected workers' vice 
president of the 9th session of the 
Building, Civil Engineering & 
Public Works Committee of the 
International Labor Organization. 


o - o 


ZD) U 


oo a. 


NEW SECRETARY OF LABOR, Ray Marshall, was the guest of the AFL-CIO Executive Council 
at a luncheon in Washington. At the informal day-before-inauguration get-together, he chats with 
federation President George Meany and Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland. 

Catch'Up Pay Increases in Store 
For Congress^ Key Federal Jobs 

Government executives, members of Congress and federal judges will receive catch-up pay increases 
on Feb. 19 unless either the House or the Senate passes a resolution of disapproval before then. 

The increases, slightly smaller than amounts proposed by a salary review commission on which 
AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland served, were submitted to Congress by President Ford be- 
fore he left office. 

Ford at the same time strongly 
urged Congress to enact another 
recommendation of the salary re- 
view panel — a strict code of con- 
duct that, to avoid possible con- 
flicts of interest, would greatly 
restrict the opportunity for out- 
side earnings by members of 
Congress and government offi- 

Ford said that he had personally 
discussed the recommended salary 
increases and code of conduct with 
his successor. Ford announced that 
Carter "authorized me to say that 
he fully supports my recommenda- 
tions" on both salary levels and the 
code of conduct. 

The officials directly affected 
have received only one 5 percent 
increase since 1969; a recom- 
mendation submitted in 1974, an 
election year, was rejected by the 

NLRB Caseload Hits 
New Peak for Quarter 

A record number of cases was filed with the National Labor 
Relations Board during the fiscal '^transition quarter," July to Sep- 
tember 1976, as "our caseload continues without letup," NLRB 
Chairman Betty S. Murphy said. 

Workers, unions, and business firms filed 13,011 cases of all 
types during the three-month peri- 

od, compared with 12,393 in the 
same quarter a year earlier, the 
NLRB said. The agency's regular 
fiscal year ended last June 30 and, 
with other government agencies, 
commenced again on Oct. 1 as the 
government switched over to a fis- 
cal year that will end this Sept. 30. 

Murphy said she expects some 
55,000 unfair labor practice charges 
and representation election petitions 
to be filed in the current fiscal year. 

In the July-September period, 
9,200 unfair labor practice 
charges and 3,811 petitions for 
the NLRB to conduct employee 
secret-ballot representation elec- 
tions were filed with the agency. 
During the three months, the 
NLRB conducted 2,103 elections. 
In 48 percent of the elections, 
workers chose unions to repre- 
sent them. 

Most of the agency's caseload is 
processed and disposed of at its 
regional offices around the country. 
The five-member board itself issued 
115 decisions in contested unfair 
practice cases and disposed of 110 
cases in the representation election 

Of 6,223 unfair practice charges 
brought against employers, the 
NLRB said 2,526 were filed by 
AFL-CIO affiliates, 2,671 by indi- 
viduals, 1,013 by unaffiliated un- 
ions, and 13 by other employers. 

Of the 2,977 charges of unfair 
practices brought against unions, 
1,211 were filed by employers and 
employer associations, 1,715 by in- 
dividuals, 22 by AFL-CIO affiliates, 
and 29 by unaffiliated unions. 

At the end of the quarter, 823 
cases were pending decision by 
board members, compared with 674 
pending on July 1, 1976, and 651 
on Sept. 30, 1975. Of the 823 
cases pending before the full board, 
564 involved unfair practices and 
259 representation petitions. 

The total of 19,173 cases of all 
types awaiting disposition at various 
procedural levels compares with 
17,996 at the end of June 1976. 

Unfair practice charges account- 
ed for 14,256 of these cases. The 
rest involved petitions for various 
types of representation elections, 
union-shop deauthorization, amend- 
ment of certification, and clarifica- 
tion of bargaining units. 

Under the plan submitted by 
Ford, members of Congress would 
get a raise from the present $44,- 
600 to $57,600; the Vice President 
would advance from $65,000 to 
$75,000, with similar raises for the 
Chief Justice and Speaker of the 
House. Cabinet members would be 
raised from $53,000 to $66,000 but 
assistant secretaries would get a 
substantially bigger raise — from 
$44,600 to $57,500. 

The lowest level of policy execu- 
tives would be raised from $39,600 
to $47,500 — a move that would 
automatically raise the pay of 
about 25,000 top-level career fed- 
eral employees who in recent years 
have not been able to collect their 
full comparability increases be- 
cause of the ceiling set by execu- 
tive pay scales. Many of them will 
move immediately up to the $47,- 
500 ceiling. 

The changes would not affect the 
salary of the President, which is 
set by law at $200,000. 

A broad-based citizens' group, 
including a number of labor mem- 
bers, recently published a full-page 
advertisement urging congressional 
concurrence with the new salary 
scales and adoption of the proposed 
code of conduct. 

It cited as evidence of the 
need for higher salaries extreme 
difficulties in filling key posts at 
the National Institutes of Health, 
resignations of senior civil ser- 
vants in top posts a the Social 
Security Administration and Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board, 

Labor Board Marks 
30 Millionth Vote 

Thirty million Americans 
have voted in union represen- 
tation elections conducted by 
the National Labor Relations 
Board, and the agency is plan- 
ning a celebration of the mile- 

The 30 millionth vote was 
cast by an employee of the 
Millers Fall Paper Co. in 
Massachusetts, in an election 
won by the Paperworkers. 

The NLRB, which has con- 
ducted some 300,000 such 
elections over the past 42 
years, will mark this one with 
a dinner in Washington on 
Mar. 2 that will be addressed 
by prominent officials from 
both unions and management. 

difficulties in filling major re- 
search directorships and an un- 
precedented number of early re- 
tirements by government execu- 
tives whose pay has been frozen. 

Kirkland was a member of the 
steering committee of the group 
that placed the advertisement — a 
body whose members included such 
diverse public figures as Urban 
League Director Vernon E. Jordan, 
Jr., Columnist William Buckley, 
Jr., and League of Women Voters 
President Ruth C. Clusen. 

Signers included union Presidents 
Murray H. Finley of the Clothing 
& Textile Workers, John H. Lyons 
of the Iron Workers, Martin J. 
Ward of the Plumbers & Pipe Fit- 
ters, Glenn E. Watts of the Com- 
munications Workers and Leonard 
Woodcock of the Auto Workers. 

Miami Hotel 
Workers Okay 
Strike Accord 

Miami — Striking workers at re- 
sort hotels in the Miami area re- 
turned to their jobs following ap- 
proval of a new master bargaining 
agreement with the South Florida 
Hotel & Motel Association. 

Under the agreement, reached on 
Jan. 14 with the aid of a federal 
mediator, members of Local 355 
of the Hotel & Restaurant Employ- 
ees will receive pay increases of $3 
a day for tipped employees and 
$3.75 a day for nontipped employ- 
ees over a three-year period. 

Edward T. Hanley, the union's 
president, who took part in the 
negotiations, described the agree- 
ment as "a fair settlement for 
everyone.'' He said he was "par- 
ticularly gratified that the hotels 
will put all the striking workers 
back on the job." Return of the 
strikers to their jobs without re- 
prisal from the owners was a major 
issue in winding up the dispute. 

The strike that began on Christ- 
mas day spread to nine large hotels 
in the Miami-Miami Beach area. 
Union negotiators sought and won 
a guaranteed amount to be added 
to a maid's daily wage for cleaning 
each room during a convention or 
tour visit. 

The blanket contract, which will 
cover about 5,000 maids, bellhops, 
waiters, and other hotel service 
workers, also included other bene- 
fits. A number of other hotels had 
settled with the union earlier. 

Vol. XXII 

Saturday, January 29, 1977 <-^^3 

No. 4 

Labor Bids Congress Act 
On Plan for 2 Million Jobs 

Union Foes 
Fail to Stop 

Ray Marshall was sworn in as 
Secretary of Labor in President 
Carter's oval office after a right- 
wing coalition of senators delayed 
but failed to block his confirma- 

The University of Texas pro- 
fessor, who has headed major 
research projects in rural poverty, 
minority problems and job train- 
ing, was confirmed by a 74-20 vote 
after nearly five hours of debate. 

Most of the time was taken by 
allies of the National Right to 
Work Committee, which had 
launched a vehement attack on 
Marshall's opposition to laws that 
ban the union shop, his declared 
belief that Section 14(b) of the 
Taft-Hartley Act should be re- 
pealed, and his endorsement of 
construction site picketing rights. 

Marshall's personal qualifications 
and integrity were not challenged; 
most who voted against his con- 
firmation made clear their oppo- 
sition was strictly ideological. 

The right-wing attack was aimed 
at the labor movement and its "in- 
fluence" in Congress and the Ad- 
ministration. It, in turn sparked an 
eloquent rebuttal by Sen. Hubert H. 
Humphrey (D-Minn.). 

Sen. John G. Tower (R-Tex.) had 
launched a diatribe against unions, 
and Humphrey rose to reply: 

have not heard him raise his 
voice about the power of the fi- 
nancial community, which has 
much more power in this country 
(Continued on Page 8) 

JOB PROGRAMS are the best and least expensive form of stimulus to get the American economy 
moving again, AFL-CIO Legislative Director Andrew J. Biemiller testified at House Budget Com- 
mittee hearings. From left, Assistant Legislative Director Kenneth Young, Biemiller, Research Direc- 
tor Rudy Oswald and Urban Affairs Director Henry Schechter. 

For Non-Profit Publications: 

Labor Press Seeks 
Postage Rate Limits 

The International Labor Press Association and the AFL-CIO 
joined in urging Congress to impose a ceiling on postal rates for 
non-profit publications, declaring that rising postal charges threaten 
the very existence of such publications. 

ILPA Sec.-Treas. Allen Y. Zack, testifying before the federal 
Commission on Postal Service,^ 
called for a statutory limit on the 

preferred rate for qualified non- 
profit publications of not more than 
50 percent of the charge for com- 
parable commercial publications. 

"The solution to the myriad 
problems affecting the Postal Ser- 
vice is not ever higher postal rates," 
Zack said. "That is a non-solution, 
a Catch 22. Higher rates result in 

New Secretary Backs 
Apprentice Expansion 

Secretary of Labor Ray Marshall would like to see apprentice- 
ship training expanded into additional industries and job skills. 

He considers it by far the most effective form of "meaningful 
training." But Marshall cautioned in a television interview that 
there is a limit to the number of apprentices that can be absorbed 
in the construction trades and other 

traditional programs. 

He suggested that such mass pro- 
duction industries as auto manufac- 
turing might make more use of ap- 
prenticeship to develop skilled 

Another candidate for appren- 
ticeship slots, Marshall suggested, 
is the fast-growing health care field. 

^'Apprenticeship is well suited 
for training non-physician health 
professionals,'' he said on the 
ABC network's Issues and An- 
swers program. 

The new Secretary of Labor, who 
was interviewed several days be- 
fore his confirmation by the Sen- 
ate, firmly rejected the suggestion 
that unions might be hostile to any 
expansion of apprenticeship pro- 

Quite the contrary, Marshall re- 
torted. "Organized labor strongly 
supports apprenticeship programs 
. . . more than any other kind of 

He acknowledged that there has 
been concern, especially during the 
(Continued on Page 7) 

declining volume, and declining 
volume necessitates further rate in- 

Zack, who submitted a letter 
to the panel from AFL-CIO Leg- 
islative Director Andrew J. Bie- 
miller associating the federation 
with his testimony, said that a 
preferred rate structure for non- 
profit publications ^s a legiti- 
mate and necessary public ser- 
vice responsibility of a postal 
service, and should be subsidized 
by the federal government." 

The Commission on Postal Ser- 
vice, whose members include for- 
mer Letter Carriers President James 
Rademacher and Executive Vice 
President David Johnson of the 
Postal Workers, was set up by Con- 
gress last year to make recommen- 
dations for restructuring the postal 
system. Its report to Congress is 
due Mar. 15. 

Zack said that in a country as 
large as the United States reason- 
able and equitable postal rates are 
vital to the nation's well-being. 

"In a democracy, the right to 
free speech and press is meaning- 
less if an excessive price tag on 
postage prevents exercise of those 
freedoms," he declared. The prob- 
lems posed by escalating postal 
rates are not unique with the labor 
press, Zack stressed, but are shared 
by all non-profit publications, in- 
cluding those of churches, educa- 
(Continued on Page 7) 

Carter Urges 
Allocation of 
Natural Gas 

President Carter asked Congress 
for emergency legislation to allo- 
cate scarce natural gas supplies and 
relieve shortages that have forced 
the closings of factories and schools 
in a number of states. 

The legislation would allow in- 
terstate pipelines, whose rates are 
subject to federal regulation, to ob- 
tain additional gas at uncontrolled 
prices from pipelines that operate 
only in a single state. 

The President's energy adviser, 
James Schlesinger, said the price 
impact on consumers would be 
small and the President would be 
empowered to restrain "excessive" 
price increases. 

He termed the proposed legisla- 
tion "a minimum biir designed to 
end a wave of layoffs and plant 
closings and avoid the controversy 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Asks Lifting 
Of Ceiling 
On Budget 

By David L. Perlman 

The AFL-CIO asked Congress 
to lift its self-imposed budget 
ceiling so that 2 million more per- 
sons can be put to work this year 
through expanded job programs. 

Legislative Director Andrew J. 
Biemiller told the House Budget 
Committee that the AFL-CIO's 
$30 billion economic stimulus 
plan is the quickest, least costly 
way to reduce unemployment. 

The tax-oriented Carter Ad- 
ministration 't>rogram ^^simply 
won't do the job," he said. While 
tax rebates and a new windfall 
of tax credits for business may 
be politically attractive, Biemiller 
stressed that the economy's great 
need is for more paychecks. 

Any new stimulus to the econ- 
omy must be preceded by a con- 
gressional resolution modifying the 
budget components and totals that 
Congress adopted last September 
for the current fiscal year, which 
runs until Oct. 1, 1977. The thrust 
of the AFL-CIO testimony was 
that new ceilings should be set that 
would speed the pace of a lagging 
economic recovery. 

"Unemployment is a time bomb 
ticking in the foundation of this 
society," Biemiller warned. He 
noted that the slight reduction in 
the most recent unemployment rate 
came about largely because 120,- 
000 more adult men "became too 
discouraged to even look for jobs." 

Labor's criticism of the Carter 
economic program shouldn't be 
read as "a break with the President 
we supported for election," Biemil- 
ler told the committee. 

(Continued on Page 8) 

Kirkland Underscores 
AFL-CIO Independence 

New York — Labor is frankly disappointed by the apparent shape 
of the Carter Administration's economic program and looks to Con- 
gress to improve it, AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland said. 

His speech to a Jewish Labor Committee dinner honoring Ladies' 
Garment Workers President Sol C. Chaikin spelled out an indepen- 

dent role for the AFL-CIO during 
the Carter Administration. 

"We have to continue to work 
and fight and bring pressure to 
bear just as we did before," he 
stressed. "We are disappointed in 
the Carter proposals and we said 
so publicly because we have an 
obligation to our members and to 
the jobless in America. We couldn't 
let them believe that this package 
would do the job when we know 

full well that it won't." 

Kirkland took sharpest exception 
to the Administration's intent to 
seek lower corporation taxes — "tax 
cuts that won't create a single job 
or feed a single unemployed work- 
er's family." 

Corporations need customers, not 
tax credits, Kirkland said. "And 
they'll get customers when the mil- 
(Continued on Page 6) 

P«go Two 


LEAFLETS URGING CONSUMERS not to buy J. P. Stevens & Co. products are distributed on a 
downtown street by members of the Cleveland Joint Board of the Clothing & Textile Workers. The 
campaign is part of a nationwide boycott against the southern-based firm seeking economic justice 
for its 44,000 workers, many of them blacks and women earning low wages. 

Boycott of J. P. Stevens Products 
Gains Momentum in Major Cities 

New York — The consumer boycott of J. P. Stevens & Co. products gathered momentum through- 
out the country as the Clothing & Textile Workers stepped up its campaign to secure economic and 
social justice for some 44,000 employees of the notoriously anti-union firm, the second largest textile 
producer in the country. 

Over the past three months, the union has accelerated its boycott activities by conducting leafleting 
campaigns in such major American 

cities as Detroit, Philadelphia, Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Boston, Pittsburgh, 
and Cleveland. The largest demon- 
stration by far was this week's ef- 
fort in New York's Times Square. 

. The boycott has the complete 
support of the AFL-CIO, and 
ACTWU President Murray H. Fin- 
ley pledged that it will continue un- 
til Stevens ceases to violate labor 
laws, civil rights and other statutes 
in dealing with employees at its 85 
plants and negotiates a contract at 
Roanoke Rapids, N.C., where 3,500 
company workers voted for union 
representation two and a half years 

Eventually, Finley said, the un- 
ion plans to open boycott head- 
quarters in 27 cities. 

The leaflet blitz is only one phase' 
of ACTWU's overall campaign to 




Wins Stay of 
OSHA Ruling 

Supreme Court Justice William 
H. Rehnquist has temporarily stayed 
a federal district court order that 
would have extended a ban of all 
federal job safety inspections. 

In effect, this means that Occu- 
pational Safety & Health Adminis- 
tration compliance officers will be 
allowed to continue inspections of 
workplaces without first obtaining 
a search warrant in all states but 

• However, Rehnquist let stand that 
part of the lower court decision that 
prohibits any OSHA inspections in 

A three-judge federal court panel 
in that state ruled last month that 
OSHA inspections without a war- 
rant violate the Fourth Amendment 
to the Constitution. 

The Labor Dept. had sought a 
general stay of the Idaho ruling 
pending an appeal. Rehnquist said 
OSHA inspections will be permitted 
to continue in other jurisdictions 
until ho gets a response from the 
company that challenged, the in- 
spections, and until he or the full 
court issues a further order. 

establish the right of Steven's work- 
ers to union representation. The 
union, which resolved to have the 
showdown with the company at 
last June's merger convention of 
the Textile Workers and the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers^ is also 
pressing its case in the courts and 
before the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board. 

But the boycott represents a ma- 
jor, new tactic in labor's 13-year 
organizing battle with the firm. And 
ACTWU says it has dug in for the 
duration, however long that may 

''We're just getting into high 
gear," said Jacob Sheinkman, the 
union's secretary-treasurer. "We 
don't Jopk upon this fight as SQrne- 
thing that .will be over in thre^ 

In its leaflets, ACTWU is asking 
the public not to buy textile prod- 
ucts manufactured by Stevens. The 
products, often sold without the 
Stevens name, include towels, 
sheets, tablecloths, draperies, blank- 
ets, carpeting, and other textile 
items. The AFL-CIO's Union La- 
bel & Service Trades Dept. has 
distributed a "boycott guide" which 
lists many of the brand names that 
identify the company's products. 

Among the better known 
brands are Utica and Mohawk 
(sheets, pillow cases, and blan- 
kets), and Tastemaker and Gulis- 
tan (carpets). 

Besides Stevens's long record of 
union-busting, the leaflets also stress 
working conditions that cause 
"brown lung," a respiratory disease 
associated with breathing cotton 

6-Cent COL Hike 
Due Steelworkers 

Pittsburgh — Some 400,000 work- 
ers in the basic steel industry will 
receive a 6-cent hourly cost-of-liv- 
ing raise on Feb. 1, and an addi- 
tional 30,000 workers in the can 
industry will receive a similar pay 
adjustment Feb. 15, Steelworkers 
President I. W. Abel announced. 

Earlier adjustments under COL 
clauses in the union's 1974 settle- 
ments with the steel and container 
industries netted the workers a total 
of S 1 . 1 3 an hour. 

dust. The literature also charges 
that the company's low wage scales 
amount to "economic exploitation" 
of its workers, many of whom are 
black. Most of the company's plants 
are situated in North and South 
Carolina and Georgia, the bulk of 
them in small towns. 

A major goal of the ACTWU 
boycott is to bring Stevens to the 
bargaining table to work out a con- 
tract covering workers at its seven 
plants in the Roanoke Rapids area. 
Workers there voted for union rep- 
resentation with the TWUA, be- 
fore it merged with ACWA, in a 
National Labor Relations Board 
election in August 1974. Yet after 
some 60 meetings with union nego- 
tiators since then, the company 
hks' ^lidceed^ci in avoiding a c6n'- 
tract by engaging in mere "surface 

Last July, an NLRB regional di- 
rector issued a complaint based on 
the union's charges that Stevens 
has "negotiated with the union in 
bad faith and with no intent of en- 
tering into any . . . collective bar- 
gaining agreement" at Roanoke 

Stevens, whose annual sales 
are about a billion dollars, has 
engaged in a systematic pattern 
of labor law violations to the 
point that AFL-CIO President 
George Meany has described the 
firm as ''the number one labor- 
law breaker in America." 

Since 1963, the company has 
been found guilty by the NLRB 15 
times for illegal firings, coercion 
of employees, bad-faith bargaining 
and other unfair practices and has 
been judged guilty of contempt 
three times by U.S. appeals courts. 
The appellate decisions were up- 
held in each instance by the Su- 
preme Court. 

In addition, the company has 
been found guilty of race and sex 
discrimination in hiring, price fix- 
ing, industrial piracy, calculated 
underpayment of property taxes, 
and extensive violations of federal 
safety and health standards in its 
plants. In a Watergate-type case in- 
volving wiretapping of a union or- 
ganizer's motel room, Stevens de- 
cided not to defend itself, and paid 
$50,000 to settle a damage suit. 

AFL'CIO Affiliates: 

Union Conventions 
Scheduled for 1977 

Below is a list of conventions scheduled for 1977 by AFL-CIO 
national and international affiliates and state central bodies. Changes 
and additions will be reported. 




Mar. 28-30 


Baton Rouge 

Apr. 17 

Mechanics Educational 

Niagara Falls, N.Y. 


May 9-13 

Jewelry Workers 

Miami Beach 

May 11-14 

Utility Workers 

Miami Beach 

May 16 

Plate Printers & Die 



May 18-20 



May 24-27 



May 27 

Ladies' Garment Workers 

Hollywood, Fla. 

June 5-10 

Office & Professional 

Los Angeles 


June 6 

Flint Glass Workers 

Hollywood, Fla, 

June 6 

Leather Goods, Plastics 

Miami Beach 

& Novelty Workers 

June 6-8 


Hot Springs 

June 13-15 

Grain Millers 


June 13-15 



June 13-16 

Insurance Workers 

New Orleans 

June 13-18 

Glass Bottle Blowers 

St. Louis 

June 20 

Boot & Shoe Workers 

Miami Beach 

June 20-23 



June 20-24 

Communications Workers 

Kansas City 

June 27-July 1 

Newspaper Guild 


July 19-21 

Stove Workers 

Newark, Ohio 

July 20-23 



July 25-29 

Retail Clerks 


Aug. 1-6 

Aluminum Workers 

New Orleans 

Aug. 5-7 



Aug. 8-12 


Vancouver, B.C. 

Aug. 8-12 

Oil, Chemical & Atomic 

Los Angeles 


Aug. 8-12 

United Garment Workers 

Kansas City 

Aug. 10-12 


Salt Lake City 

Aug. 14-19 



Aug. 15-17 



Aug. 18-20 



Ana 00 lf\ 

1 ypograpnicai union 


Aup 26-28 

1 CllllI VV Ul IVCl o 

Sept. 5-9 

Rrifi^h TraHpQ TTninn 

T^lpjpVnnnl FnalanH 


Sept. 8-10 

North Dakota 

Grand Forks 

Sept. 18-21 


St. Paul 

Sept. 18-23 


Las Vegas, Nev. 

Sept. 19-22 

Allied Industrial Workers 

Bal Harbour, Fla. 

Sept. 21-23 



Sept. 26-28 



Sept. 26-29 



Sept. 26-30 

Transit Union 

Washington, D.C. 

Sept.i28:-30 • 

ConnecticBt .'. 

New Haven 

Oct. 3-7 

Transport Workers 

New York 

Oct. 6-8 

West Virginia 


Oct. 10-12 



Oct. 10-14 

Telegraph Workers 


Oct. 12-14 



Oct. 18-19 

Public Employee Dept. 

Washington, D.C. 

Oct. 24-28 


Portland, Ore. 

Oct. 27-28 

Industrial Union Dept. 


Oct. 31 -Nov. 4 



Nov. (no date) 

Leather Workers 


Nov. 7-11 

Flight Engineers 

Hong Kong 

Nov. 30-Dec. 2 

Building & Construction 

Los Angeles 

Trades Dept. 

Dec. (no date) 

Food & Beverage Dept. 

Los Angeles 

Dec. 3-5 

Metal Trades Dept. 

Los Angeles 

Dec. 4-7 

International Labor Press 

Los Angeles 


Dec. 5-6 

Union Label & Service 

Los Angeles 

Trades Dept. 

Dec. 5-7 

Maritime Trades Dept. 

Los Angeles 

Teachers Win L. A. College Unit 

Los Angeles — ^Teachers in the 
5.200-member Los Angeles com- 
munity college system have picked 
a unit of the American Federation 
of Teachers as their bargaining 
agent. The system represents the 
largest single group of community 
college teachers in the nation. 

The Los Angeles College Guild, 
AFT Local 1521, received 1,996 
votes to 1,617 for the California 
Teachers Association. AFT now 
has won both contested community 

college elections since California's 
Rodda Act became effective last 
April The new state law permits 
collective bargaining for teachers 
from kindergarten through junior 
college. The union's first win was 
last October at El Camino Commu- 
nity College. 

Virginia Mulrooney, the local's 
executive director, said the local's 
bargaining priorities are equitable 
working condiitons" and "quality 
education for our students." 


Pai^e Three 

^Running to Keep Up^t 

Recession Causes 
Fringe Benefit Lag 

New York — Workers made little progress in negotiating new 
fringe benefits during the nation's economic slump, striving instead 
to maintain job security and to offset their losses in purchasing 
power, AFL-CIO economist John Zalusky told a Conference Board 
seminar here. 

''Labor has been running like"^ 
hell just to keep up during the 
70s," Zalusky observed. "And, in 
many ways, we haven't kept up," 
he said, noting that real wages are 
no better now than they were in 
the late '60s because of eroded pur- 
chasing power. 

The focus on immediate un- 
ion negotiating goals, he predict- 
ed, will be on basic econom- 
ic needs — improving escalator 
clauses, more time off the job, 
improvements in pensions so that 
workers can afford to retire, and 
improvements in hospitalization 
to keep pace with rising medical 

Zalusky told the 400 participants 
at the one-day conference on Re- 
thinking Employee Benefit Assump- 
tions that labor shares manage- 
ment's concern for rising medical 
fees and hospital costs. 

He pointed out that medical 
costs have been rising much faster 
than the general rate of inflation, 
pushing up the premiums of ne- 
gotiated health insurance plans as 
insurers have been unable to con- 
trol costs. Nor have labor and 
industry been successful in holding 
down the rising costs of medical 
packages, he noted. 

The only way out of this dilem- 
ma is a broad-based national Health 
Security program, Zalusky stressed. 

"Such a program, by making pre- 
ventive medicine readily available, 
would decrease costs by catching 

serious ailments early," he observ- 
ed. "Our present approach is one 
of reimbursing workers for sick- 
ness rather than paying for the 
maintenance of good health. It is 
casualty insurance and not a health 

Zalusky said that labor has not 
seen much support for Health Se- 
curity from industry, even though 
it would be beneficial to manage- 
ment, its own workers and the en- 
tire nation. 

"If this program is not legislated 
in the next few years, we will have 
to continue to improve health care 
as we have in the past — at the bar- 
gaining table," he said. 

"In the short run, I see im- 
provements being sought in the 
basic medical package and great- 
er emphasis being applied to 
medical care for workers on lay- 
off, dental care, prepaid prescrip- 
tions, eye care and hearing aids. 
These additions to health insur- 
ance programs are relatively in- 
expensive individually," he said. 

He also noted that union nego- 
tiators have shown more interest in 
gaining prepaid legal plans and 
group auto insurance. 

But the immediate emphasis will 
be on negotiating an adequate wage 
package, and "really big fringe ben- 
efit improvements," he said, "will 
have to wait for the prospect of 
more stable economic conditions." 

Steel Union Fights Delay 
On Coke Oven Standard 

The Steelworkers have joined with the Labor Dept. in seeking 
to vacate a court order that seriously weakens a new coke oven 
safety standard. 

Just days before the standard was to become effective on Jan. 20, 
the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Philadelphia )grantei the ba^io 
steel and coke 'industries a delay in'^^ - 
implementing some crucial provi 
sions of the regulation. 

The standard was developed by 
the Occupational Safety & Health 
Administration last October, after 
years of delay, to reduce worker 
exposure to cancer-causing coke 
oven emissions. 

Some parts of the standard, in- 
cluding a gradual phasing-in of en- 
gineering controls and certain work 
practices, did go into effect on 

But the court issued an interim 
stay in blocking other parts of 
the regulation that the USWA 
considers vital to the protection 
of the nation's 22,000 coke oven 

These delayed provisions include 
a comprehensive monitoring pro- 
gram to measure worker exposure 
to emissions, providing workers 
with respiratory protection and spe- 
cial clothing, and air quality and 
hygiene controls in lunch rooms 
and locker rooms. 

When fully implemented, the 
standard would by 1980 reduce 
worker exposure to coke oven emis- 
sions to 0.15 milligrams of benzene- 
soluble particulate matter per 
cubic meter of air over an eight- 
hour period. 

The request for the appellate 
court delay was filed by the Ameri- 
can Iron & Steel Institute and the 
American Coke & Coal Chemical 
Institute. Most major steel compa- 

nies and coke producers are mem- 
bers of the associations. 

USWA President I. W. Abel 
charged at the union's coke oven 
conference in Toronto that the steel 
companies are totally disregarding 
the hazards coke oven workers fact. 

"The callous, indefensible posi- 
tion of the industry in trying to 
block and delay and prohibit an 
effective coke oven standard is a 
throwback to the early days when 
industry treated machinery and 
equipment with more respect than 
its workers," Abel said. 

He cited medical studies showing 
that workers involved in coke pro- 
duction are 10 times more likely to 
get cancer than other groups of 
workers. He also noted that coke 
oven workers are dying at a rate 
of 240 a year. 

This means that for the six years 
since the USWA began its all-out 
battle for a coke oven standard in 
1971, Abel said, "about 1,300 coke 
oven workers will ultimately die of 
cancer and other occupational ill- 

Despite the grim statistics, he 
added, "the industry seeks more de- 
lay, and if possible they will try to 
get the courts to throw the standard 
out completely." 

Steel companies filed a broad- 
based challenge to the standard 
immediately after it was issued last 
year. The request for an appeals 
court stay of certain provisions was 
filed later. 

AT WHITE HOUSE reception the day after his inauguration, 
President Carter warmly welcomes AFL-CIO President George 

. . . the right to speak . . . the 
right to vote ... the right to 
strike — to withhold their labor 
when conditions of their employ- 
ment are not acceptable." 

The two-day conference heard 
other speakers in government, aca- 
demia, and the publishing field dis- 
cuss the theme. "The U.S. and the 
USSR After Detente." Other sub- 
jects explored were the Helsinki ac- 
cords, the progress of SALT talks, 
the North Atlantic Treaty Organi- 
zation, and captive nations. AFL- 
CIO President George Meany has 
been honorary chairman of the 
Captive Nations Committee for sev- 
eral years. 

U.S. Urged to Replace 
Thony' Detente Policy 

The United States must rid itself of ''this phony policy" of 
detente with the Soviet Union, and shift to a foreign policy of open 
diplomacy, "a diplomacy of truth and strength, understandable by 
both friend and foe," President Joseph T. Power of the Plasterers & 
Cement Masons declared. 

Addressing a conference spon- 
sored by the National Captive Na- 
tions Committee, Power said: 

"We should have a new foreign 
policy after a detente that does not 
exist. The policy of detente that we 
have followed negates every posi- 
tive step that we could make to 
help defend and enhance freedom 
at home and abroad." 

In reality. Power asserted, de- 
tente between the United States and 
the USSR has never existed. De- 
tente has been an illusion, a hoax 
that has worked almost solely to 
Moscow's advantage, he charged. 

The Soviet Union's leadership 
has never rejected its stated objec- 
tive of world domination, he ob- 
served, and continues to arm itself 
to the teeth. The Kremlin is out- 
spending the United States by 3 to 
1 in military areas and, except in a 
few important areas .of weaponry,^; 
has outstripped the United States, 
he charged. 

Power said the United States 
continues to let itself be deceived 
by Soviet promises of honorable 
conduct in negotiations on many 
issues related to peaceful coex- 
istence. As a result, he said, Mos- 
cow achieves an undeniable ad- 
vantage in every area of agreement 
reached, whether in SALT (stra- 
tegic arms limitations treaty) I or 
at Helsinki where in 1975 the 
U.S., Russia, and 33 other nations 
agreed to closer cooperation in Eu- 

While Americans debate the so- 
called merits of detente. Power 
said, the Soviets pursue military and 
political adventures in Third World 
countries and with the newly des- 
ignated "national" Communist par- 
ties in Western Europe. 

The American worker and the 
trade-union movement have a 
direct interest in American for- 
eign policy since "we want all 
workers everywhere to enjoy a 
standard of living comparable to 
ours," Power said. "They must 
have elementary rights, the right 
to assemble and associate freely 

Ask Retention 
Of Import Lids 

Pittsburgh — The Steelworkers 
urged President Carter to stand 
firm against foreign pressures to 
remove existing import controls on 
specialty steel. 

USWA President L W. Abel 
warned that the lifting of import 
quotas would be a clear threat to 
the jobs of thousands of specialty 
steel workers. 

"By using up their quotas and 
then demanding that restraints be 
lifted so they can ship even more 
stainless and tool steel into this 
country," Abel said, '^foreign pro- 
ducers have signaled their deter- 
mination to further penetrate Amer- 
ican markets with their govern- 
ment-subsidized products." 

The USWA said that specialty 
steel imports in 1976 were about 5 
percent higher than the year be- 
fore, even though the White House 
imposed limitations at mid-year. 
Former President Ford took the 
action after the International Trade 
Commission found the imports 
caused ^'substantial injury" to the 
American industry and its worker. 

Although final figures are not ex- 
pected until late February, data for 
the first' 1 1 months of the year in- 
dicate that specialty steel imports 
will exceed 200,000 tons. This com- 
pares with 192,000 tons in 1975. 

In some product lines the import 
penetration is expected to be pro- 
portionately higher, the union said. 
Imports of hot-rolled stainless 
steel, for example, will likely be 50 
percent higher than in 1975, and 
cold-rolled stainless sheets are ex- 
pected to show a 35 to 40 percent 

Because of government subsidies 
of foreign Steel producers, Abel 
said, excessive imports of specialty 
steel have put the American econ- 
omy at a sharp disadvantage in in- 
ternational trade. 

"If America loses on this issue, 
we risk a serious economic setback 
with more unemployment," Abel 

Philadelphia Reporters 
ure Broun Award 

Investigative reporters Acel Moore and Wendell Rawls, Jr., re- 
ceived the Newspaper Guild's Heywood Broun Award for a series 
of articles in the Philadelphia Inquirer exposing brutality, corrup- 
tion and murder at Pennsylvania's Farview State Hospital for the 
criminally insane. 

This is the second consecutive 


year and the third time in four 
years that reporters for the In- 
quirer have won the Guild's top 
journalism prize. 

The 36th Broun award, which in- 
cludes a check for $1,000 to the 
winners and a citation for the news- 
paper, was presented at a luncheon 
during the Guild executive board's 
winter meeting in Washington. The 
award is given annually as a me- 
morial to the union's founding pres- 

In selecting the Moore-Rawls 
entry from a record 142 contest 
submissions, judges said that their 
effort "reflected an extraordinary 
diligence, persistence and pro- 
fessional skill." 

The work of Moore and Rawls 
resulted in a series of continuing in- 
vestigations that are leading to re- 
forms in the commitment and treat- 
ment of people at the state hospi- 
tal, the judges noted. 

The articles revealed that for 
decades patients at Fairview had 
been brutalized and even murdered 
while the complaints of inmate wit- 
nesses were ignored because they 
had been certified as criminally in- 

"These articles are in the tradi- 
tion of the work of Heywood Broun 
in illuminating the condition of an 
inarticulate and defenseless segment 
of society," the judges said. 

Honorable mention citations were 
given to Myron Farber of the New 
York Times and Amos A. Kermish 
of the Cleveland Plain Dealer. Far- 
ber's citation was for a series un- 
covering up to 40 curare deaths a 
decade ago in a New Jersey hospi- 
tal that led to a murder indictment 
of a surgeon allegedly involved in 
the deaths. Kermisch's entry dealt 
with the exposure of corruption in 
the Cuyahoga County engineer's 
office that led to the indictment of 
four persons. 

The judges for the competition 
were Fred J. Graham of CBS 
News, Jack W. Germond of the 
Washington Star and William V. 
Shannon of the New York Times. 

Moore, who started his news- 
paper career as a copyboy with the 
Inquirer in 1962, has been active 
in Philadelphia Local 10 affairs. 
Rawls, also a former member of 
the local, had been with the Phila- 
delphia newspaper from 1972 until 
he recently joined the Washington 
bureau of the New York Times. 

Pago Four 


A Crucial Year 

WHILE WE RECOGNIZE that unemployment is not going to 
be eliminated this year, we view a goal of reducing unemploy- 
ment by 1.5 percent in calendar 1977 as unnecessarily modest. This 
year — 1977 — is crucial to the solution of the unemployment prob- 
lem. That is why Congress should begin a bold offensive against 
massive unemployment — a program built on the solid base of job 
creation which is demonstrably the most effective, least costly, 
quickest method of reducing unemployment. 

Anything less than a $30 billion program emphasizing job crea- 
tion would sacrifice the opportunity tq make a significant dent in 
unemployment this year. Such a major stimulus program is neces- 
sary if the economy is to achieve even the modest goal of a 6 per- 
cent growth rate. 

Despite the rosy glow of former President Ford's Economic 
Report, the facts are that no improvement was made in the un- 
employment rate during 1976; the rate of growth in the GNP has 
declined for the third straight quarter; and the unusually harsh 
winter is certain to compound the sad unemployment and growth 

According to the December Congressional Budget Office report, 
four factors have caused what CBO called "the Disappointing Re- 
covery" — lagging consumer spending, inadequate investment in 
plant and equipment, a weak housing industry and financial belt- 
tightening by state and local governments. That CBO report also 
estimated that a program similar to that outlined by the Carter 
Administration would result in less than a half-of-one-percent re- 
duction in the unemployment rate. 

UNEMPLOYMENT IS a time bomb ticking in the foundation 
of this society. America cannot afford much more "good news," 
such as the most recent unemployment figures where the rate de- 
clined largely because 120,000 adult males became too discouraged 
to even look for jobs. 

The unemployment situation is a stagnant swamp of wasted hu- 
man lives. In virtually every category — adult men, adult women, 
blacks, whites, household heads — unemployment is, at best, no 
worse than a year ago. Only among teenagers was the jobless rate 
more than one-tenth of a percent lower at the end of 1976 than it 
was at the beginning, and even that "improvement" left the rate 
disastrously high. 

In three years the economy has lost nearly 2 million construction 
and manufacturing jobs. This has seriously weakened the economy 
by eroding its goods-producing base. This country must begin to 
recapture the skills and productivity of these workers or face con- 
tinued economic problems for decades. And that, too, is a goal of 
our program. 

A quick fix — such as a stimulus program based on tax rebates 
and tax cuts — simply will not do the job that must be done. De- 
spite its obvious attractiveness politically, individual tax rebates 
and cuts cost much more per job created and work much too 
slowly to be effective this year. 

The workers we represent would rather have full paychecks de- 
rived from continuing employment than a couple bucks less a week 
withheld from their taxes. The unemployed would rather have a 
job and continuing paychecks than a one-shot rebate of $50 or $100. 

— From AFL-CIO testimony before the House Budget Com- 
mittee, Jan. 25, 1977. 


Official Weekly Fnhlication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Gr:oKGi: Mr. any. President 
I.ANi- Kn<Ki.AND, Sccietai y-Treasuiei 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarilo 
Floyd E. Smith 
lames T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
*Clyde M. Webber 

Executive Council 

I. W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanlev 
Charles H. Pillard 

♦ Deceased 

Director ol Publications: Saul Miller 
Mana^ini* Editor: John M. Barry 
Assistant Editors: 
lohn R. Oravec David L. Perlman James M. Shcvis 

AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W. 
Washington. D.C. 20006 
Telephone: 637-5032 

Siihscriplioiis: $2 a year: 10 or more. SJ.SO a year 


Saturday, January 29, 1977 

No. 4 = 

= Ttte American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

= dtistrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in 

S any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 

= advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Under Carter Administration: 

Improved Climate Developing 
For Union Organizing in South 

By Gus Tyler 

BECAUSE THE UNITED Auto Workers won 
a bargaining election at the General Motors 
plant in Monroe, La., just about six weeks after 
the election of Jimmy Carter, the union victory is 
tied in with the Democratic victory at the polls. 

In elementary logic courses, this fallacy in rea- 
soning is referred to as post hoc, ergo propter hoc 
(after something, therefore because of something). 
It is really impossible to establish any causal re- 
lationship between the vote for Carter and the 
vote for the UAW. 

And yet, in a sense, the two events are aspects 
of the same social movement, with each event 
adding to the impetus of the other. 

The UAW win is not the first election victory 
of a union in the South. Hundreds of bargaining 
contests have been won in the last several decades 
by many unions. 

The significance of the auto union vote, how- 
ever, lies in the fact that in the three previous 
ballotings in southern GM plants, the auto union 
lost. This was its first such victory. 

The union win was far from a landslide — 323 
to 280 votes. And even this close victory loses 
some of its glamour when it is realized that the 
company agreed in advance to play a purely neu- 
tral role in the contest. 

Despite this, there are cheers in labor ranks be- 
cause the UAW won in a community that is eco- 
nomically rural and socio-politically conservative. 
In other words, the union won in the Old South. 

In this sense, the outcome of the union elec- 
tion, like the outcome of the earlier primary 
contest between Carter and Wallace, is a mea- 
sure of the changing cultural patterns of Dixie. 

But, before such union "victories" become 
effective, other changes are needed. Although the 
UAW has won a first round, it has not yet won 
the bout. After a union is certified, it must then 
conclude a contract. 

While this may be a relatively easy undertaking 
for the UAW since it enjoys established contrac- 
tual relations with GM in other parts of the coun- 
try, other unions will find — as they have found — 
that winning an election is not necessarily a pre- 
lude to winning a contract. 

The southern pattern has been for companies to 
"bargain" the unions to death, after the union 
wins the election. First, the company tries to con- 
vince the labor board that the company is bar- 
gaining "in good faith," while doing everything it 

can to give nothing — under the guise of giving 

If the company loses the round with the re- 
gional board, it goes before the national bo^rd. 
If it loses that round, it goes before the regional 
court, and then a higher court, and then the high- 
est court. 

When it loses at all levels, after years of pro- 
tracted ploys, it may still refuse to comply, ex- 
cept under duress amidst delay. 

Here a Carter administration may make the big 
difference, a change in the climate, not only among 
southern workers, but in the national agencies and 
in the federal courts. 

When that happens, American labor is apt to 
experience a resurgence similar to that in the 
Rooseveltian days— but, this time, mainly in the 
South. And that, in turn, will have profound im- 
pact on voting patterns in the futures "^^^^^ 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

On Symbols 
And Substance 

Certainly it is fitting to symbolize in the 
high offices in this country Ihe fact that this 
is a multiracial society, a democratic society 
of equal rights and equal status for all. I 
don't discount that symbolism, and I would 
have hoped that working people and their 
contributions to society were represented in 
it. But behind those symbols, we are con- 
cerned with the substance of what they pro- 
duce and what they represent in terms of 

Out of this perhaps has come a useful 
and wholesome lesson at this fitting stage for 
the next four years for the new Administra- 
tion. And that lesson is that the outcome of 
an election and the rise of new political 
leadership does not relieve the trade move- 
ment of any of its burdens or solve any of 
our problems. 

We have to continue to work and fight 
and bring pressure to bear just as we did be- 
fore. And we're going to have to continue to 
do our own job ourselves and keep our pow- 
der dry — that, after all, is the meaning of a 
free trade union movement. 

— AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland 
at Jewish Labor Committee dinner, Jan. 72, 


Page Five 

Nations' Resources Vary: 

Labor's Third World' Efforts 

Aimed at Filling 


The following is excerpted from "A Guide to 
^ the Third World/' by Irving Brown, AFL-CIO 
international representative, which appears in the 
" January 1977 AFL-CIO American Federationist. 

THERE IS NO SINGLE common denominator 
for what is termed the "Third World" but 
rather a varying, discordant, sometimes bewilder- 
ing and disunited number of nations (usually re- 
^ ferred to as "the 77") seeking first and foremost 
, their own national security, whether economic, 
' political, social, or military in nature. 
V The major considerations of American labor in 
relation to the peoples, the unions, and govern- 
-X ments of this "Third World," take into account 
essential facts about these areas. 

\ • There are countries with a relatively long 
history of political independence and sovereignty, 

* especially in Latin America. However, such na- 
, tions are not independent economically since ex- 
^ ternal forces control, dominate or otherwise in- 
' fluence the political development of the country 
^ in combination with indigenous entrepreneurs and 
" bankers. Nor can one ignore the vestiges of early 
I colonial domination which remain in the form of 

ruling elites who dominate the indigenous popu- 
l lation — as the Indians, native to Latin America. 

• There are many nations of the world where 
colonialism has only recently been cast off. This 

^ is especially true in Black Africa and most acute 
' in southern Africa, where colonialism and apart- 
heid regimes still hold sway. In Rhodesia and 
" South Africa the struggle for political liberation is 
^ still the overriding consideration that determines 
American labor's basic association with these lib- 
^ eration movements. 

^ • The levels of economic development within 
the "Third World" are uniformly low. Notwith- 

' standing, there are great differences among and 
within these nations. Great gaps exist between 

- what can be called rich and poor nations or be- 
tween the industrialized North and the markedly 

- less industrialized, more agrarian South. There is, 
as well, a widening gap between the rich and the 
poor within these nations. 

• This leads to new distinctions between what 

* can be called the poor poor nations and those that 
can be called the rich poor nations — best epito- 
mized by the developing petroleum countries 

. where internal capital resources are not lacking — 
or at least are not lacking to the degree that they 
are in the poor, poor nations. 

• Therefore, different rates and levels of eco- 
nomic and potential industrial development among 
these nations result in differences in their require- 
ments for capital investment and financing needs, 
as well as uneven abilities to absorb and utilize 

^ Union's Goals Cited: 

capital investment. 

# No matter when independence may have to 
come to these nations, their economies lack the 
basic infrastructure for industrialization and mone- 
tary stability that permit even relative economic 

• The consequences of this lingering depen- 
dency are especially acute for labor. Large seg- 
ments of the laboring population do not have the 
necessary skills or cultural orientation to partici- 
pate in industrialized society. 

THROUGH ITS THREE major institutes in 
Africa, Asia and Latin America, American labor's 
activities have been directed primarily toward 
achieving some of the objectives that have been 
stressed in the challenge of effective application of 
international aid. Labor's programs involve the 

The need to develop a trained working force for 
the new nations so that available capital invest- 
ment can be absorbed properly and efficiently with 
due regard for the social priorities of modern eco- 
nomic life and with an eye toward developing 
markets of internal consumption in those nations. 

Agriculture is a major area with the biggest 
percentage of population in most of the "develop- 
ing" countries; in order to achieve a developed 
economy which guarantees firstly basic needs and 
secondly a base for industrial development, com- 
mensurate with the capacities and potential of the 
LDCs, specific, far-reaching programs of agrarian 
reform must be evolved. 

An important goal is that of . achieving the unity 
of the nation and the building of a national in- 
digenous economy which cuts across tribal and 
feudal lines. 

Developing trade union leaders capable of 
directing their own affairs with the capacity to 
participate in the economic planning of their 
countries, which includes the setting of priori- 
ties in the administration of international aid, is 
fundamental to meaningful development. 

Capital investment, whether internal or exter- 
nal, must serve to assist in the promotion of 
democratic institutions which involve both labor 
and management through the creation of tripartite 

There is a pressing need for international, inter- 
governmental bodies, dealing with trade and de- 
velopment to involve labor and management par- 
ticipation (in both the industrialized and non- 
industrialized countries) if there is to be an im- 
plementation of basic resolutions that have been 
and will be adopted in such key areas as inter- 
national trade, commodity price stabilization and 
allocation of technical assistance funds. 

AFGE Buoyed by Carter Views 
On Improved Federal Service 

FOR THE FIRST TIME in nearly a decade, the 
nation's largest union of federal workers is 
optimistic about major progress toward its long- 
standing goals of "equity, comparability and im- 
provements of the merit system," President Ken- 
neth T. Blaylock of the Government Employees 

Blaylock said that President Carter appears 
dedicated to improving government operations 
and is committed to planks of the Democratic 
platform that are key to the union's goals. He 
^ specifically singled out curbing federal contracting- 
^ out practices and amending the Hatch Act to give 
federal employees the political freedom it takes to 
* carry out an effective legislative program. 

Questioned by reporters on the network radio 
^ interview Labor News Conference, Blaylock 
. said that the union's drive on contracting-out 
is in line with "the very heart of President 
Carter's program to develop effective and effi- 
cient government — eliminating a lot of over- 
head, a lot of red tape." 

He took sharp issue with the claim of some 
^ government managers that contracting-out is an 
economy, declaring that alleged savings are only 

apparent, not real, because the money comes out 
of a different pocket. 

"In 90 percent of the cases, contracting-out 
costs the government more" than using existing 
employees and resources, he asserted. "If a con- 
tractor can pay adequate salaries and provide ade- 
quate working conditions and still make a profit," 
government managers should be able to do the 
same, with the profits accruing to the government 
in savings. 

Blaylock said the contracting-out issue will 
remain a top union priority until corrected, be- 
cause "retirement, fringe benefits, pay — all of 
these issues are of no concern if you don't have 
a job." 

Turning to Hatch Act amendments, Blaylock 
said that Rep. William Clay (D-Mo.) has already 
introduced the same measure that Congress ap- 
proved last year but former President Ford vetoed. 
He pointed out that the bill strengthens the law's 
protections for federal employees, which is as im- 
portant as giving them the right other citizens have 
to participate actively in political campaigns. 

Blaylock was questioned by Robert Dobkin of 
the Associated Press and Harry Conn of Press 
Associates, Inc. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

THE LITANY OF America's woes has been repeated so often it 
has become something of a cliche. And President Carter may 
well have been aware of that as he described his hopes for America 
not in proposals for specific programs, but as a visionary. 

Who today, after all, is unaware that more than 10 million work- 
ers are jobless; that inflation is eroding the pay envelopes of those 
fortunate enough to have work; that the tax system favors the 
wealthy; that blame for society's ills is placed routinely on the 
shoulders of those most victimized, the poor and the working poor? 

The list of America's problems and injustices is endless, and 
it was Jimmy Carter's realization and acknowledgement that there 
was something terribly wrong, that some basic changes had to be 
made, that led to his election. 

The American people have suffered through eight years of rule 
by big business-dominated, greedy, often corrupt leaders. They 
have watched the New Frontier of John F. Kennedy and the Great 
Society of Lyndon B. Johnson fall to the "years of greed" of Richard 
Nixon and the "winter of sleep" of Gerald R. Ford. 

Carter assumes office following eight years of misrule and non- 
rule, saddled with a budget designed by his predecessor more for 
political effect than economic reality. He is facing a difficult up- 
stream push against a tide that has been eight years building. 

AN INDICATION OF what Carter's initial strokes in that long 
upstream journey will be came from Stuart Eizenstat, the Georgian's 
chief domestic policy adviser during the transition period. Eizenstat 
prepared a 100-page draft agenda for domestic legislation to be 
pursued by the Carter Administration and detailed for a group of 
reporters some of its contents. Among the items that Carter will 
consider his top priorities, Eizenstat said, are: 

• An economic stimulus package ranging from $25 billion to 
$32 billion over the next two years, composed of lost tax revenue 
and federal spending. Its chief features include a one-shot tax rebate 
this year, permanent tax cuts for low and moderate-income persons, 
federal spending to create 800,000 jobs by late 1978 and a perma- 
nent payroll tax credit for employers. The AFL-CIO quickly criti- 
cized the program for being too small, taking too long, and not 
concentrating enough on job creation. 

• Tax reform, an issue on which the previous Congress did a lot 
of work but not enough to satisfy a number of critics, the new Presi- 
dent among them. Eizenstat said Carter hopes to have the work on 
new legislation finished by fall, although the bill might not go to 
Congress until next year. 

• Consolidation of several energy functions into one new Energy 
Dept. Responsibilities in the energy area are divided among so many 
different government agencies that critics — Carter included — ^feel 
consolidation is necessary. 

• Welfare reform, where Eizenstat said draft legislation is ex- 
pected this spring but actual introduction could be "considerably 

• An energy and environmental package, including recommenT 
dations on strip mining, the outer^ continental shdf," oil Skills and 
wildlife habitats. Eizenstat said the tentative deadline for the pack- 
age is Apr. 20. 

The top Carter aide listed a number of domestic proposals. 
They ranged from aid to cities to tighter requirements for regis- 
tration and disclosure by lobbyists to an expanded youth employ- 
ment service corps that would include the Job Corps and other 
existing programs. All, Eizenstat said, are Carter Administration 

Only time will tell whether the new President is able to follow 
through on his plans for America. After eight years of steadily 
declining fortunes and two years of campaign-platform pledges from 
Carter, the people are anxiously waiting. 

LONG-STANDING GOALS of equity, comparability and a 
stronger merit system for federal workers have a better chance in 
the 95th Congress and under the Carter Administration than in 
the past decade, President Kenneth T. Blaylock, center, of the 
Government Employees, said on Labor News Conference. He was 
questioned by Harry Conn, left, of Press Associates, Inc., and 
Robert Dobkin of the Associated Press. The AFL-CIO public 
affairs program is aired Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Page Six 


Government Restrictions Cited: 

HUMAN RIGHTS AWARD of the Jewish Labor Committee was 
presented to President Sol C. Chaikin of the Ladies' Garment 
Workers at a dinner in New York. AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane 
Kirkland, right, told the gathering that the labor movement has 
always stood against oppression and "those who would crush the 
human spirit." 

Kirkland Underscores 
Labor's Independence 

(Continued from Page 1) 

lions of unemployed have jobs 

As for the argument that "we 
must move forward slowly" to 
maintain business confidence, Kirk- 
land termed it "baloney." 

"For the last eight years, what 
business wanted, business got. And 
what did all the rest of us get? 
Three recessions, the worst inflation 
in peacetime history, the highest 
interest rates in 100 years and the 
worst unemployment since the 
Great Depression." 

He said labor will go to Congress 
in the belief that many of its mem- 
bers "share our commitment to a 
healthy, expanding economy" and 
to the expanded public works, pub- 
lic service and housing programs 
needed to .bMng it aboat. : x 

Kirkland made clear that the 
AFL-CIO's concern in the Carter 
Administration is over the sub- 
stance of programs. 

"That's why we worked so 
hard" in the election campaign, 
Kirkland said. "Not to get jobs 
in the Administration, not to 

Pacts Reached 
With All But 
2 Oil Firms 

Denver— The Oil, Chemical & 
Atomic Workers have reached 
agreement on new contracts with 
all major American petroleum firms 
except Standard Oil of California 
and Sun Oil Co., OCAW President 
A. F. Grospiron said. 

In all, 38,000, or nearly two- 
thirds of the union's refinery- 
worker members, are covered by 
the two-year agreements. The pacts 
generally follow the pattern set by 
the union's initial agreement with 
Gulf. The Gulf settlement provides 
wage boosts totaling 18 percent 
over the life of the contract, plus 
improvements in pension benefits 
and other fringe areas. 

A last-minute agreement with 
Continental Oil Co. on Jan. 24 
averted a scheduled strike of 550 
refinery workers in four states. The 
union's only strike on national 
issues was at Standard of Califor- 
nia's El Segundo refinery. 

secure tokens or symbols, but for 
policies and programs." 

Both he and Chaikin had served 
on a special subcommitee of the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council to 
study legislative programs and 
goals, Kirkland noted. 

"We had hoped to be able to ap- 
plaud and pledge our full support 
for the first economic proposal of 
the man we had supported so 
strongly for the presidency. We had 
expected a strong program of eco- 
nomic stimulus and we had pre- 
sented our views to the members of 
the President-elect's economic team 
in detail." 

Instead, he told the gathering, 
"the bold words of last fall have 
given way to hesitant, timid pro- 
grams. . . . And the result is just 
not good enough." > , . 

Along with other speakers, he 
praised the selection of Chaikin for 
the Human Rights Award and cited 
the unswerving opposition of the 
Jewish Labor Committee to all 
forms of tyranny since it was 
founded in 1934, "to fight the wave 
of fascism in Europe." 

JLC President Jacob Sheink- 
man, who is secretary-treasurer of 
the Clothing & Textile Workers, 
also addressed the dinner. Messages 
of congratulations came from a 
host of prominent persons, includ- 
ing both President Carter and Vice 
President Mondale. 

Perkins Appointed 
To COPE Position 

AFL-CIO President George 
Meany has announced the appoint- 
ment of John Perkins as associate 
director of the federation's Com- 
mittee on Political Education suc- 
ceeding Joseph Rourke, who had 
been with COPE since 1964. 

Perkins, of Elkhart, Ind., joi.ned 
the Carpenters Union there in 1952 
and served as business manager of 
his local for 1 1 years. He also was 
an officer of the Indiana State 
Building & Construction Trades 
Council and held various offices in 
the local AFL-CIO central council. 

In 1968, Perkins joined the 
COPE staff as area director for the 
states of Illinois and Indiana. He 
was transferred to the national of- 
fice in Washington as assistant di- 
rector in 1971. 

Labor Fights Uphill Battle 
In Most Developing Lands 

Governments of so-called developing countries hold the key to the growth of trade unions and to 
labor stability among their people, the executive director of the AFL-CIO Asian-American Free Labor 
Institute asserts in the current issue of the American Federationist. 

Morris Paladino observes in the AFL-CIO monthly magazine that while most Third World govern- 
ments have ratified the International Labor Organization conventions on workers' freedom of associa- 
tion, the right to organize, and the 

right to bargain collectively, a close 
examination of the reality of the 
situation reveals an uneven record 
at best. 

"Many regimes, including 
those professing adherence to 
democratic principles and pub- 
licly extolling the virtues of trade 
unions, restrict union rights to 
the point of crippling them,'* 
Paladino declares. His article is 
based on a paper he delivered to 
an international symposium in 

In Asia, as in other areas of the 
world, union growth is at varying 
stages of development with the out- 
look brighter in some countries 
than in others, Paladino observes, 
noting that the same can be said of 
developed nations. AAFLI assists 
in the development of Asian trade 

The test of government willing- 
ness to guarantee trade-union rights 
can be found in a country's labor 
legislation and in the realities of its 
enforcement, he points out. The 
common thread running through 
prevailing laws and their enforce- 
ment in developing countries is re- 
strictiveness, Paladino finds. 

"And governments have misgiv- 
ings and fears regarding another 
trade-union right which is not codi- 
fied in ILO conventions — the right 
to strike," he adds. 

The right to strike is a funda- 
mental right of free workers, Pala- 
dino stresses, and if it occasionally 
results in excesses, "this must be 
seen for what it is — growing pains 
— just as trade unions must initially 
expect reactionary employer atti- 

Every labor movement resorts to 
strikes more in its early stages of 
development than in. later years, 
Paladino notes. As trade unions 
mature and gain confidence, they 
demonstrate an increasing aware- 
ness of the relation of demand?: to 
loss of income due to strikes, he 

Arbitration, mediation and 
conciliation are constantly un- 
dergoing government experiment 
as alternatives to the right to 
strike, but "they cannot and 
should not replace the collective 
bargaining process and the right 
to strike," Paladino declares. 

Another aspect of restrictiveness 
that stifles trade-union growth is 
legislation prohibiting host-country 
unions from organizing workers at 
multinational corporations. One of 
the principal incentives for a multi- 
national firm to extend its opera- 
tions to developing countries is the 
availability of cheap labor. 

"Developing countries offer 
incentives to multinationals in 
the belief that they create jobs, 
train workers, bring in much 
needed capital and transfer tech- 
nology to the country," Paladino 
observes. "They may do all of 
these, but with a mixed impact 
on the national economy." 

Often, when labor costs increase 
even moderately, a multinational 
moves on in search of a new source 
of cheaper labor, leaving the coun- 
try with many semi-skilled and 
skilled unemployed workers. Em- 
ployees, therefore, should have full 
freedom to influence the standards 
under which they work for multi- 
national companies through strong, 
responsible unions, just as they do 
with domestically owned industries, 
Paladino asserts. 

Governments in Third World 
countries frequently are the largest 
employer, since many industries are 
nationalized and large workforces 
are employed directly by the gov- 
ernment. Here is an opportunity for 
such governments to advance trade 
unionism, Paladino observes. 

"If governments are to encourage 
the growth of trade unions and the 
stability of labor relations through 
the collective bargaining process, 
then they should begin by recog- 
nizing that they, too, have an obli- 
gation to deal on an equal basis 
with unions representing govern- 
ment employees at local and na- 
tional levels," he says. 

Even after all its fundamental 
rights are guaranteed, however, the 
struggle of the trade union in a 
developing nation is just beginning, 
Paladino emphasizes. There is 
much that trade unions can do to 
stimulate their own development. 

Many emerging trade unions 
are serving their members by 

sponsoring clinics and hospitals, 
establishing credit unions and 
workers' banks, and setting up 
literacy and adult education pro- 
grams as well as vocational and 
skills training programs. 

Yet, in the end, Paladino reiter- 
ates, governments of emerging 
countries hold the key to enabling 
unions to pass through their initial 
stages of development to the point 
where they are mature vehicles of 
workers' aspirations. Governments 
must come to understand that, in 
promoting the development of dem- 
ocratic trade unions, they are en- 
suring that shared goals of eco- 
nomic, social and political develop- 
ment are closer to being achieved. 

"They are ensuring that individ- 
ual workers have a strong voice in 
their own destiny, that the gates of 
hope for a better future are open, 
and that men do not find them- 
selves at the mercy of others hav- 
ing no choice but sooner or later 
to rebel in desperation,'' Paladino 

Labor Studies Center 
Schedule for February 

The February schedule at the George Meany Center for 
Labor Studies, Silver Spring, Md., includes two institutes for 
full time officers, staff and field representatives of all AFL-GIO 
unions. They are: 

Women Workers: Issues and Problems — Participants will 
study the economic facts about women who work; laws affect- 
ing employed women, including the Equal Pay Act and Title 
VII of the Civil Rights Act; ways to increase women's interest 
and leadership in union activities; training, promotion and 
affirmative action programs. From 4 p.m. Sunday, Feb. 6, 
through Friday, Feb. 1 1 . 

Colkctive Bargaining II: Major Issues and Trends — Partici- 
pants will study economic arguments in negotiations, bar- 
gaining trends, sources of economic information, costing of 
economic benefits, cost-of-living clauses, pensions and health 
and welfare benefits, prepaid group legal services^and educa- 
tional benefits. From 4 p.m. Sunday, Feb. 21, through Friday," 
Feb. 25. 

Five union groups will use the Silver Spring campus for 
staff training during February. They are: 

Government Employees — Jan 31 to Feb. 4, Feb. 14 to 18, 
and Feb. 28 to Mar. 4,, for national representatives. 

Clothing & Textile Workers Union — Jan. 31 to Feb. 3, for 
a staff conference. 

Communications Workers — Feb. 13 to Mar. 4, for training 
new staff members. 

Building and Construction Trades Dept.— Feb. 6 to 11, 
safety training program. 

The Newspaper Guild — Feb. 21 to 25, annual meeting of 
field staff, administrative staff and officers. 

Machinists — Feb. 28 to Mar. 3, for officers of federal 
machinists' locals. 

Leaders of AFL-CIO unions studying for a college degree 
in labor studies will be on campus the first week in February 
for their semi-annual week-in-residence. Courses include Col- 
lective Bargaining, Labor Law and Legislation, the Labor 
Movement Past and Present; Labor and the Political System, 
and three general education courses in Effective Writing, 
Introduction to Sociology and Science in Cultural Perspective. 

In addition, participants in the Studies Center's programs — 
along with all Washington area trade unionists — are offered 
free programs of entertainment on Wednesday nights, made 
possible by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts. 
The February schedule includes an evening with theatrical 
director Norman Gevanthor, Feb. 2; a jazz trio, Feb. 9; a 
popular song duo, Feb. 16, and scenes from Broadway 
comedies, Feb. 23. 

Further information on these or other institutes and pro- 
grams may be obtained from Fred K. Hoehler, Jr., director, 
George Meany Center for Labor Studies, 10000, New Hamp- 
shire Ave., Silver Spring, Md. 20903. Phone 301/431-6400. 


Tmge Seven 

House Committees 

The House committees listed below usually have the broadest 
impact on labor's legislative program. New committee members are 
identified by asterisks. 

Education & Labor 


Carl D. Perkins (Ky.), Chairman 
Frank Thompson, Jr. (NJ.) 
John H. Dent (Pa.) 
John Brademas (Ind.) 
Augustus F. Hawkins (Calif.) 
William D. Ford (Mich.) 
Phillip Burton (Calif.) 
Joseph M. Gaydos (Pa.) 
William Clay (Mo.) 
Mario Biaggi (N.Y.) 
Ike F. Andrews (N.C.) 
Michael T. Blouin (Iowa) 
Robert J. Cornell (Wise.) 

Paul Simon (111.) 
Edward P. Beard (R.I.) 
Leo C. Zeferetti (N.Y.) 
George Miller (Calif.) 
Ronald M. Mottl (Ohio) 
Michael O. Myers (Pa.)* 
Austin J. Murphy (Pa.)* 
Joseph A. LeFante (N.J.)* 
Theodore S. Weiss (N.Y.)* 
Cecil Heftel (Hawaii)* 
Baltasar Corrada (Puerto Rico)* 
Dale E. Kildee (Mich.)* 

Albert H. Quie (Minn.) 
John M. Ashbrook (Ohio) 
John N. Erlenborn (111.) 
Ronald A. Sarasin (Conn.) 
John Buchanan (Ala.) 
James M. Jeffords (Vt.) 


Larry Pressler (S.D.) 
William F. Goodling (Pa.) 
Bud Shuster (Pa.)* 
Shirley N. Pettis (Calif.)* 
Carl D. Pursell (Mich.)* 
Mickey Edwards (Okla.)* 

Banking, Finance & Urban Affairs 

Henry S. Reuss (Wis.), Chairman 
Thomas L. Ashley (Ohio) 
William S. Moorhead (Pa.) 
Fernand J. St. Germain (R.I.) 
Henry B. Gonzalez (Tex.) 
. Joseph G. Minish (N.J.) 
Frank Annunzio (111.) 
James M. Hanley (N.Y.) 
Parren J. Mitchell (Md.) 
Walter E. Fauntroy (D.C.) 
Stephen L. Neal (N.C.) 
Jerry M. Patterson (Calif.) 
James J. Blanchard (Mich.) 
Carroll Hubbard, Jr. (Ky.) 
John J. LaFalce (N.Y.) 
Gladys Noon Spellman (Md.) 

Les AuCoin (Ore.) 
Paul E. Tsongas (Mass.) 
Butler Derrick (S.C.) 
Mark W. Hannaford (Calif.) 
David W. Evans (Ind.) 
Clifford Allen (Tenn.) 
Norman E. D'Amours (N.H.) 
Stanley N. Lundine (N.Y.) 
Herman Badillo (N.Y.)* 
Edward W. Pattison (N.Y.)* 
John J. Cavanaugh (Neb.)* 
Mary Rose Oakar (Ohio)* 
Jim Mattox (Tex.)* 
Bruce F. Vento (Minn.)* 
Doug Barnard (Ga.)* 
Wes Watkins (Okla.)* 


J. William Stanton (Ohio) 
Garry Brown (Mich.) 
Chalmers P. Wylie (Ohio) 
John H. Rousselot (Calif.) 
Stewart B. McKinney (Conn.) 
George Hansen (Ida.) 
Henry J. Hyde (111.) 
Richard Kelly (Fla.) 

Charles E. Grassley (Iowa) 
Millicent Fenwick (N.J.) 
James A. S. Leach (Io\va)* 
Newton I. Steers (Md.)* 
Thomas B. Evans, Jr. (Del.)* 
Bruce F. Caputo (N.Y.)* 
Harold C. Hollenbeck (N.J.)* 

Ways & Means 

Al Ullman (Ore.), Chairman 
James A. Burke (Mass.) 
Dan Rostenkowski (111.) 
Charles A. Vanik (Ohio) 
Omar Burleson (Tex.) 
James C. Corman (Calif.) 
Spm Gibbpri^ (Fi^.y ' VV 
Joe b. Waggonner, Jr. (La.) 
Otis G. Pike (N.Y.) 
J. J. Pickle (Tex.) 
Charles B. Rangel (N.Y.) 
William R. Cotter (Conn.) 
Fortney H. Stark (Calif.) 

James R. Jones (Okla.) 
Andrew Jacobs, Jr. (Ind.> 
Abner J. Mikva (111.) 
Martha Keys (Kan.) 
Joseph L. Fisher (Va.) 
Harold E. Ford (T^nn.) . 
'IC^n Holland' '(S^^^ ^ 
William M. Brodhead (Mich.)* 
Ed Jenkins (Ga.)* 
Richard A. Gephardt (Mo.)* 
Jim Guy Tucker (Ark.)* 
Raymond F. I^ederer (Pa.)* 


Barber B. Conable, Jr. (N.Y.) 
John J. Duncan (Tenn.) 
Bill Archer (Tex.) 
Guy Vander Jagt (Mich.) 
William A. Steiger (Wis.) 
Philip M. Crane (111.) 

Bill Frenzel (Minn.) 

James G. Martin (N.C.) 

L. A. Bafalis (Fla.) 

William M. Ketchum (Calif.) 

Richard T. Schulze (Pa.)* 

Willis D. Gradison, Jr. (Ohio)* 

Public Works & Transportation 

Harold T. Johnson (Calif.), 

Ray Roberts (Tex.) 
James J. Howard (N.J.) 
Glenn M. Anderson (Calif.) 
Robert A. Roe (N.J.) 
Teno Roncallio (Wyo.) 
Mike McCormack (Wash.) 
John B, Breaux (La.) 
Bo Ginn (Ga.) 
Dale Milford (Tex.) 
Norman Y. Mineta (Calif.) 
Elliott H. Levitas (Ga.) 
James L. Oberstar (Minn.) 
Jerome A. Ambro (N.Y.) 

Henry J. Nowak (N.Y.) 
Robert W. Edgar (Pa.) 
Marilyn Lloyd (Tenn.) 
John G. Fary (111.) 
Ted Risenhoover (Okla.) 
W. G. Hefner (N.C.) 
David L. Cornwell (Ind.)* 
Robert A. Young (Mo.)* 
David E. Bonior (Mich.)* 
Allen E. Ertel (Pa.)* 
Bill Lee Evans (Ga.)* 
Ronnie G. Flippo (Ala)* 
Nick J. Rahall II (W. Va.)* 
Bob Stump (Ariz.)* 
Douglas Applegate (Ohio)* 


William H. Harsha (Ohio) 

James C. Cleveland (N.H.) 

Don H. Clausen (Calif.) 

Gene Snyder (Ky.) 

John P. Hammerschmidt (Ark.) 

Bud Shuster (Pa.) 

William F. Walsh (N.Y.) 

Thad Cochran (Miss.) 

James Abdnor (S.D.) 

Gene Taylor (Mo.) 

Barry M. Goldwater, Jr. (Calif.) 

Tom Hagedorn (Minn.) 

Gary A. Myers (Pa.) 


Marshall Would Expand 
Apprenticeship Concept 

THE LABOR PRESS'S CASE for a statutory limit on postal rates for non-profit publications was 
explained to the two labor members of the Commission on Postal Service, David Johnson, left, ex- 
ecutive vice president of the Postal Workers, and James Rademacher, right, former president of the 
Letter Carriers, by Allen Y. Zack, secretary-treasurer of the International Labor Press Association. 
The commission must report to Congress by Mar. 15 with recommendations for solving the Postal 
Service's financial problems. 

< * ■ — 

Labor Press 
Asks Ceiling 
On Postage 

(Continued from Page 1) 

tional, veterans, service and farm 

Zack also urged the commission 
to recommend to Congress the full 
funding necessary to continue the 
stretch-out in second- and third- 
class rates enacted by Congress in 
1973. Separately, in a letter to Di- 
rector Bert Lance of the Office 
of Management & Budget, he called 
upon the Carter Administration to 
restore the $225 million needed for 
this purpose that was left out of 
President Ford's lame-duck budget. 

If the funds are not included in 
the budget, Zack wrote Lance, non- 
profit publications would face an 
immediate 500 percent increase in 
postal costs, forcing many to cease 

Zack also told the commission 
that ILPA opposes undermining the 
Postal Service by allowing private 
industry competition for the most 
profitable sectors of the postal bus- 
iness., r;. ^.-.f; i,. noii'-bi 'jrli 'In -.(•• 

"We believe it to be the height 
of stupidity to consider replacing 
the reliable, dedicated, proven post- 
al workers with unproven, un- 
skilled, minimum-wage workers ex- 
ploited by private, profit-making 
corporations," he said. 

'Tor years, this country subsi- 
dized low postal rates through very 
low wage scales for postal employ- 
ees," he observed. "We do not con- 
sider it 'progress' to revert to that 
system to satisfy the demagogic 
rhetoric of the right-wing by insti- 
tuting so-called 'free enterprise, 
private competition' to what ines- 
capably must be a government ser- 

His remarks were reinforced by 
James J. LaPenta, director of the 
Laborers' federal-public service di- 
vision, who attacked a scheme set 
forth in a Postal Service study last 
month under which deliveries 
would be curtailed to three days a 
week and the number of post oflices 
drastically reduced. 

Meany Art Exhibit 
To Run Through Feb. 11 

The one-man show of paintings 
by AFL-CIO President George 
Meany will be on exhibition 
through Feb. 1 1 at the Meany Cen- 
ter for Labor Studies in Silver 
Spring, Md. 

There are 27 oils and acrylics in 
the exhibition, a part of the more 
than 60 paintings Meany has pro- 
duced over the past 20 years. 

(Continued from Page 1) 
period of high unemployment, that 
an unrealistic number of appren- 
tices would be trained when there 
is not enough work to go around. 
And he said unions would be con- 
cerned "if you tried to lower the 
standards" for apprenticeship. 

"We need to pay attention to all 
those things," Marshall said, and 
prepare to meet skill shortages that 
may develop as the economy re- 
turns to full employment without 
expanding apprenticeship so fast 
"that you undermine the conditions 
of people who are already trained." 

He suggested that the present 
need "is to try to expand appren- 
ticeship into new areas and not 
concentrate on those that are rela- 
tively saturated now." 

Questioned about the Carter Ad- 
ministration's economic stimulus 
package, Marshall said he was satis- 
fied that the expansion of public 
service jobs would be as rapid as 
could be done while assuring that 
the jobs and job training provided; 
through federal funds would be 

During his confirmation hearings, 
Marshall had made clear his prefer- 
ence for more public works fund- 
ing rather than over-reliance on tax 
cuts. On the Issues and Answers 
program, he expressed his belief 
that the Administration has "a flex- 
ible approach" and if its plan 
doesn't stimulate the economy suf- 
ficiently it would "add to the pack- 

Asked about the impact of what 

an interviewer irhplied was a high 
wage settlement in the oil industry, 
Marshall said he hadn't had a 
chance to examine it in detail. But 
he noted that the economic impact 
on oil prices would be minimal 
since the entire labor cost in the 
oil industry "is only about 10 per- 
cent of total cost." 

Later, at a White House briefing 
after he was sworn into the Cabinet, 
Marshall announced a new program 
to find jobs for at least 200,000 of 
the 558,000 jobless Vietnam war 

It includes reserving for Vietnam 
vets 145,000 of the 290,000 new 
public service jobs the Administra- 
tion is asking Congress to fund. 
Private firms would be given train- 
ing subsidies to encourage them to 
hire 50,000 to 60,000 veterans, es- 
pecially the disabled. An additional 
2,500 would be given training 
through outreach programs. 

Bilik to Direct 
lUE Organizing 

Al Bilik, a veteran union orga- 
nizer and a former president of 
the Cincinnati AFL-CIO, has been 
appointed director of organization 
for the Electrical, Radio & Ma- 
chine Workers (lUE). 

For the past six years, Bilik has 
been assistant to the president of 
the State, County & Municipal 
Employees for organizing. He also 
is a former staff" member of the 
Allied Industrial Workers. 

FRED J. KROLL, president of the Railway & Airline Clerks, 
discussed international affairs with AFL-CIO President George 
Meany at a luncheon in Washington for labor attaches, govern- 
ment officials dealing with international labor agencies and 
unionists active in the field. 

Page Eight 


$30'Billion Package: 

Labor Asks Action by Congress 
On Program for 2 Million Jobs 

Three to Go 

Marshall Confirmation 
Rebuffs Conservatives 

(Continued from Page 1) 
Carter doesn't seek or expect 
Congress to give rubber-stamp ap- 
proval to his program," Biemiller 
said. And "unlike his predecessors,*' 
he doesn't subscribe to the "do- 
nothing" school of government eco- 

Joining in presenting the AFL- 
CIO's program were Research Di- 
rector Rudy Oswald, Urban Af- 
fairs Director Henry Schechter and 
Assistant Legislative Director Ken- 
neth Young. 

The federation's testimony ac- 
knowledged that full employment 
won't be reached this year. But 
it described the President's an- 
nounced goal of a 1.5 percent 
drop in the jobless rate as '^un- 
necessarily modest." 

The economy has been "seriously 
weakened" by the loss of nearly 2 
million construction and manufac- 
turing jobs over the past three 
years, Biemiller said. 

The most effective remedy, he 
urged, is a major expansion of pub- 
lic works, public service employ- 
ment and anti-recession grants to 
state and local governments. 

Like the tax cuts sought by the 
Administration, these added ex- 
penditures would increase the defi- 
cit. But the direct job-creating pro- 
grams "return more to the govern- 
ment in the form of tax revenues 
and reduced social costs." 

On the contrasting job stimulus 
of tax cuts versus public works, the 
AFL-CIO cited estimates by the 
Congressional Budget Office that a 
$20 billion tax cut would create 
about 600,000 jobs at a net cost to 
the Treasury of more than $14.5 
billion. But the same number of 
jobs could be created through pub- 
lic works programs at a net cost to ' 

the government of about $5 billion. 

The Administration's economic 
proposals were formally spelled out 
to the Budget Committee by the 
President's top economic team — 
Bert Lance, director of the Office 
of Management & Budget, Trea- 
sury Sec. Michael Blumenthal and 
Charles Schultze, chairman of the 
Council of Economic Advisers. 

The biggest part of its first-year 
economic stimulus would be a $50 
rebate for each taxpayer, most de- 
pendents, and persons receiving 
social security benefits. It would 
amount to a single-shot $11.4 bil- 
lion payout. 

Business would be given a $900 
million tax savings this year, rising 
to $2.7 billion in the next fiscal 
year. The two-year program was 
priced by the Administration at 
$31.2 billion. It anticipates increas- 
ing public service jobs from the cur- 
rent 310,000 levle to 600,000 by 
the end of this year and would add 
$4 billion to public works funding, 
most of it in the second year. 

Schultze said the Administration 
plan should bring the BLS unem- 
ployment rate down to between 6.7 
and 6.9 percent by the end of this 
year. It was 7.8 percent last De- 

The AFL-CIO statement took 
strong exception to the proposed 
tax aid to business: 

"There is not one sound eco- 
nomic justification for giving busi- 
ness a tax cut at this time, either 
in the form of a wage subsidy or 
an increase in the investment tax 

For the past eight years, Bie- 
miller noted, the dominant view 
was that business always had to be 
given "something." So corporations 
' as a result bear a smaller share of 

the tax burden, business profits are 
up, "and the rest of the country 
has gotten the highest combined un- 
employment and inflation since 
World War II." 

Business investment can best be 
generated by increased consumer 
demand, the AFL-CIO stressed. 

'^Instead of another tax gift, 
we believe it is time to give busi- 
ness 2 million new customers, 
and that is what our program 
would do." 

"Another $10 billion in local 
public works funds would generate 
some 700,000 direct on-site jobs," 
the AFL-CIO testified, "and some 
350,000 to 700,000 additional jobs 
in industries providing materials, 
supplies, transportation and the like 
for the projects." 

An additional $8 billion for 
public service employment would 
eventually add 800,000 jobs; fur- 
ther assistance to cities and states 
would avert new rounds of lay- 
offs and cuts in needed services. 
New and expanded youth train- 
ing and Job Corps programs 
would improve the future as well 
as the present employment pic- 

The AFL-CIO statement pressed 
also for a bigger federal investment 
in housing, with a double return of 
homes at affordable prices and jobs 
in construction-related fields. 

Not all of the $30 billion in the 
AFL-CIO economic program would 
actually be spent in the current 
fiscal year, and some of the amount 
is already a part of the current 

But Biemiller urged the commit- 
tee to grant budget authority for the 
full $30 billion program "to dem- 
onstrate the commitment of the 
Congress to a strong recovery." 

(Continued from Page I) 
than any group of organized work- 
ers," Humphrey said for openers. 

"Organized labor in this country 
has stood for the defense of this 
nation, a strong defense. 

"Organized labor has stood for 
the health care of the American 
people ... for unemployment com- 
pensation . . . for social security 
. . . for rural electrification . . . 
against child labor." 

As for the concern expressed by 
Marshall's opponents that the un- 
organized workers would not get a 
fair shake, Humphrey suggested 
that unorganized workers have long 
been the beneficiaries of the gains 
achieved by unions, and labor's 
battle "for public health, child care, 
school lunches" has helped "mil- 
lions of people who never get in- 
side of a union hall." 

He summed up before an atten- 
tive Senate: "All I am simply saying 
is that organized labor basically has 
been good for this country." 

The debate opened with both 
Senate Labor Committee Chairman 
Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (D-N.J.) 
and the committee's senior Republi- 
can, Jacob K. Javits (T4.Y.), prais- 
ing Marshall as exceptionally quali- 
fied for the Cabinet post. 

Then it was the turn of the ultra- 
conservatives, who had insisted on 

Carter Seeks 
Allocation of 
Natural Gas 

(Continued from Page 1) 
over the issue of permanent decon- 
trol of natural gas prices. 

In an unrelated action, President 
Carter cancelled a last-minute move 
by his predecessor to end federal 
controls on gasoline prices. The 
issue needs further study. Carter 

Shortly before he left office, 
President Ford signed an order that 
would have lifted gasoline price 
controls on Mar. 1, unless either 
the House or Senate passed a reso- 
lution of disapproval within 15 

The AFL-CIO and consumer 
groups had opposed the decontrol 
action, warning that it would in- 
crease costs to consumers and de- 
press the economy. 

A substantial group of House 
members joined in- sponsoring a 
resolution of disapproval, but 
Carter withdrew the Ford decon- 
trol plan before the issue came to 
the floor. 

the unusually lengthy debate which 
resulted in making Marshall the last* 
Cabinet member to be confirmed. 

Two others whose confirmation, 
had been held up were approved 
earlier in the week — Joseph A. Cali- 
fano to be Secretary of Health, Edu-' 
cation & Welfare by a 95-1 vote,^ 
and Griffin B. Bell as Attorney 
General, 75-21. 

Sen. Paul D. Laxalt (R-Nev.), one^ 
of two members of the Labor Com- 
mittee to oppose confirmation,^ 
stressed that the attack was on 
Marshall's "policy positions," and 
definitely not on his competence" 
or integrity. He then launched into 
a defense of "right- to- work" laws^- 
and an attack on common site 

Sen. William L. Scott (R-Va.)' 
said he objected to Marshall's "sup- , 
port of collective bargaining for 
public employees" and to his ex-> 
pressed belief that in the public 
sector "the only way collective bar-^ 
gaining could work would be if one^ 
side does not have complete control 
of the relationship." 

Two freshmen Republicans* 
joined the attack. Orrin Hatch of 
Utah complained that Marshall's^ 
views appeared "totally in line with 
organized labor" and California's^ 
S. I. Hayakawa said he is bothered 
"most of all" by Marshall's opposi-i 
tion to a lower minimum wage for 

Fifteen of the 20 votes against 
Marshall came from Republicans, 
including Senate Minority Leader 
Howard Baker (Tenn.). Democratic 
opponents were all conservative' 
southerners, except for freshman 
Edward Zorinsky of Nebraska. 

Some Bills Just 
Don^t Measure Up 

During the debate over 
Ray Marshall's confirmation, 
Sen. John Tower (R-Tex.) ' 
made the mistake of asking a 
rhetorical question when Sen- - 
ators Harrison Williams (D- 
NJ.) and Hubert Humphrey ^ 
(D-Minn.) were around to ^ 
reply. Here's how the Con- 
gressional Record reported 
the exchange: 

Tower — Can you name me 
one major piece of labor 
legislation that has passed this 
body that has not had the ^ 
support of organized labor in 
the last 40 years? 

Williams — Taft-Hartley. 

Humphrey — Landrum- " 

Chavez Urges Court to Overturn 
Arizona Harsh Farm Labor Law 

Phoenix, Ariz. — Farm Workers President Cesar Chavez charged in federal court here that Arizona's 
four-and-a-half-year-old farm labor law prevents the UFW from effectively organizing in the state. 

Chavez told a three-judge panel in U.S. District Court the law denies the right to vote in union- 
representation elections to the majority of Arizona farm workers, bans strikes and boycotts, and makes 
it a crime for a union to raise crucial issues in collective bargaining. The effect is to reduce unions to the 
status of employment agencies, he^^ 


Chavez was the leadoif witness 
in the nonjury trial of a UFW 
suit filed in 1972 that seeks to 
have the farm labor law de- 
clared unconstitutional. The un- 
ion charged Arizona's law vio- 
lates the freedom of speech, equal 
protection and due process of 
law provisions of the U.S. Consti- 

Unlike California's landmark 
farm labor law, the Arizona statute 
does not require that union elec- 
tions must take place when 50 per- 


OB B> V* 
O 3 


Z M M 

no <3 
_ — o 

2 02: 



cent or more of a grower's peak 
workforce is employed. Nor does 
the Arizona law require that elec- 
tions be held within seven days af- 
ter a legitimate election petition is 
filed with the state agricultural em- 
ployment relations board. 

Because agriculture is a highly 
seasonal industry featuring a large- 
ly migrant workforce, the only way 
to guarantee that the majority of 
farm workers will vote in union 
elections is by requiring balloting 
only during the peak employment 
period, Chavez testified. 

"Otherwise, a minority of work- 
ers will be determining the repre- 
sentation issue for the majority," 
he said. Under the Arizona law, 
the farm labor board may schedule 
a representation election after 30 
percent of the workers of a particu- 
lar grower file petitions requesting 

The law, passed by the legisla- 
ture under heavy pressure from the 
Farm Bureau and other conervative 
interests, took effect Aug. 13, 1972. 

"Even if it were possible for the 
union to win an election under 
Arizona law," Chavez told the 
court, "the prohibitions on collec- 
tive bargaining make it impossible 
for farm workers to have a true un- 

Under the law, he said, the UFW 

cannot negotiate a grievance pro- 
cedure covering firings and suspen- 
sions, a successor clause, seniority 
system or hiring hall. In addition, 
farm unions may not bargain on 
the issue of mechanization and dis- 
placement of workers by technol- 
ogy. Union leaders who try to ne- 
gotiate on a so-called management 
right are subject to penalties of up 
to a year in prison and a $5,000 

^How can you have a union 
if you cannot even grieve if a 
worker is fired unjustly?" Cha- 
vez asked. He pointed out, too, 
that the Arizona statute prevents 
farm workers strikes by enabling 
growers to obtain 10-day cooling- 
off periods in the event of a 

Given the highly seasonal nature 
of Arizona agriculture, Chavez 
said, such a restraining order would 
effectively prevent strikes as the 
harvest will have ended and most 
workers will have moved on to 
other jobs by the time the 10 days 
are over. 

The law also prohibits the dis- 
tribution of leaflets and engaging in 
oral communication in support of 
a union-sponsored boycott, Chavez 
observed, "and that is a violation of 
our First Amendment rights of free- 
dom of speech." 

Vol. XXII 

Issued weekly at 815 Sixteenth St.. N. W. 
Washington. 0. C. 20006 12 a year 

Second Class Postaie Paid at Washinfton. D. c. Saturday, February 5, 1977 

No. 5 

Meany Urges Sharp Boost 
In Funds for Public Works 

THE ENERGY CRISIS and its impact on the economy are discussed by Labor Secretary Ray 
Marshall and AFL-CIO officers, members of the Energy Committee and heads of federation con- 
stitutional departments as severe winter weather caused widespread closings, shutdowns and layoffs. 

Marshall Acts to Aid Jobless : 

Fuel Shortage Idles Millions, 
Chills Economic Recovery 

By James M. Shevis 

The fuel shortage triggered by the coldest American winter in decades threatened to bring a total 
halt to the nation's already glacial economic recovery as factory and business shutdowns added some 
3 million workers to the unemployment rolls. 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall pledged swift federal aid to workers forced off the job in those areas 
hardest hit by the crisis. The relief includes an additional $10 million in Comprehensive Employ- 
ment & Training Act funds for the ^ 

six states suffering most from the 
severe weather and energy short- 

While most economists felt it 
was too early to gauge the long-term 
economic consequences of the Big 
Freeze of 1977, the immediate im- 
pact of the unusually cold weather 
was clear: 

• In the hardest-hit areas of the 
nation — the northern industrial 
states, the border states and the 
South — factory layoffs mounted 
as supplies of natural gas dwindled. 

Natural gas provides energy for 
half of American homes and 40 
percent of the nation's industries. 

• Thirteen states declared an 
emergency and took steps to con- 
serve fuel supplies by closing 
schools, ordering businesses to cut 
their hours of operation, and re- 
questing both commercial and resi- 
dential users to lower thermostats 
to 65 degrees or below. 

• New York City declared a 
health emergency. Philadelphia's 
Mayor Frank Rizzo cut some es- 

Teachers' Union Wins 
Los Angeles Election 

Los Angeles — Public school teachers here have elected United 
Teachers-Los Angeles as their exclusive bargaining agent by a ma- 
jority of nearly two to one. 

An affiliate of both the American Federation of Teachers and the 
National Education Association, UTLA as a bargaining unit will 
represent the largest public educa-*^ 

tion unit — 31,517 employees — out- 
side New York City. 

UTLA won 12,882 votes to 
3,755 for Professional Educators of 
Los Angeles. Another 3,165 voted 
against any union representation, 
and there were 1,154 challenged 

ballots — far too few to change the 
outcome of the election conducted 
by the California Educational Em- 
ployment Relations Board. 

It was a clearcut victory for col- 
lective bargaining for teachers, a 

(Continued on Page 2) 

sential services after the city-owned 
Philadelphia gas works ordered its 
biggest users to use no more gas 
than needed to keep pipes from 
freezing. Buffalo, N.Y., which of 
all American cities probably has 
taken the worst winter beating, got 
help from 500 National Guards- 
men in battling snow and ice. 

• As of the end of January, the 
Federal Power Commission re- 
ported that 8,900 plants had closed 
because of gas curtailments alone. 
Meanwhile, the natural gas crisis 
threatened to get worse in coming 
weeks. FPC Commissioner John H. 
Holloman III, said that "if Febru- 
ary's weather stays as cold as Janu- 
ary's, it could mean these factory 
slowdowns will continue right 
through summer." 

• Alternate fuels also were run- 
ning short as demand peaked, es- 
pecially in the eastern half of the 
nation. FPC Chairman Richard L. 
Dunham said the nation's capacity 
to keep up with demand over the 
past month has been strained to 
the limit. The U.S. bought electric- 
ity from Canada to avert shortages. 

New York and Pennsylvania 
were declared federal disaster 
areas, and other states were seeking 
such designation for the relief it 

(Continued on Page 8) 

Presses Program 
To Stimulate Jobs 

By David L. Perlman 

The AFL-CIO termed public works funding the cornerstone of 
economic recovery and urged House and Senate committees to 
approve a much bigger program than the Carter Administration 
has proposed. 

AFL-CIO President George Meany told the House Public Works 
Committee that a $10 billion pro- 

gram is needed to overcome de- 
pression-level unemployment in the 
construction industry and give a 
boost to the entire economy. 

His testimony rejected as "far 
too little" and overly "timid" the 
Carter Administration request for 
a $4 billion program stretched out 
over two years. 

Labor's proposal, Meany said, 
would put 700,000 persons to 
work at job sites and nearly as 
many off the site. And in con- 
trast to the tax-oriented Admin- 
istration stimulus proposal, the 
program would leave a legacy of 
new or repaired schools, public 
buildings, water systems, streets 
and health care facilities that 
cities and states need. 

Meany's testimony at the House 
hearings was presented by AFL- 
CIO Legislative Director Andrew 
J. Biemiller, who also testified 
along similar lines before the Sen- 
ate Public Works Committee. 

Earlier, President Robert A. 
Georgine of the AFL-CIO Building 
& Construction Trades Dept. and 
representatives of affiliated unions 
told the House committee of the 
worsening plight of the workers 
they represent. 

"Nothing is so demeaning, so de- 
grading, so humiliating as to be un- 
employed in a society which prides 
itself on industriousness," Georgine 

He noted that the economy is 
(Continued on Page 7) 

Natural Gas 
Bill Passed 

Congress gave speedy approval 
to an emergency natural gas al- 
location bill that President Carter 
said would help assure that 
homes don't go without heat 
"while natural gas continues to 
be used for lower priority uses." 

The legislation authorizes the 
President to allocate gas from 
one interstate pipeline to another 
to meet critical home and health 
needs. It also allows interstate pipe- 
lines to buy emergency supplies of 
natural gas at the higher prices 
charged by producers who have re- 
fused to sell their gas at the fed- 
erally-regulated prices that apply 
to interstate pipelines. There are 
no price controls on natural gas 
that is not sent across state lines. 

Carter's message to Congress 
made clear that this stop-gap 
legislation would not end the 
shortages or "significantly relieve 
the economic hardships'' resulting 
from plant closings and curtail- 

He stressed the importance of 
keeping thermostats turned down in 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Senate Kills Bid to Keep 
Post Office Committee 

The Senate rejected a labor-backed effort to preserve its Post 
Office & Civil Service Committee and moved toward passage of a 
reorganization plan that would reduce the number of committees 
and subcommittees. 

AFL-CIO President George Meany had joined the federation's 
postal and government employee^ 
unions in urging the Senate not to 

abolish "the only forum available" 
for the nation's 2.8 million federal 
and postal workers. 

By a 55-42 vote, the Senate 
defeated an amendment to pre- 
serve the committee that had 
been offered by Sen. Quentin N. 
Burdick (D-N.D.) with broad, 
bipartisan sponsorship. 

The Senate did make some 
changes in the sharp curtailment 

of committees and subcommittees 
initially proposed by a special panel 
headed by Sen. Adlai E. Stevenson 

The Senate Rules Committee re- 
stored five committees proposed for 
abolition before sending the bill to 
the floor. One of these was the 
Joint Economic Committee, which 
the AFL-CIO had urged the Sen- 
ate to retain. In testimony before 
the Rules Committee, Legislative 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Page Two 


Rights Group 
Cites Wilkins 
On Retirement 

The Leadership Conference on 
Civil Rights honored its retiring 
chairman, Roy Wilkins, and elected 
his longtime associate, Clarence M. 
Mitchell, to succeed him. 

Mitchell heads the Washington 
office of the NAACP and has been 
legislative chairman of the Leader- 
ship Conference, a coalition of 
more than 130 civil rights, church, 
labor and civic organizations com- 
mitted to human rights. The AFL- 
CIO is one of its affiliates. 

He is highly regarded as a legis- 
lative strategist and along with Wil- 
kins had a key role in the break- 
through civil rights legislation of 
the 1960s. 

Wilkins, who is retiring as execu- 
tive director of the NAACP, was 
honored at a luncheon held during 
the annual meeting of the Leader- 
ship Conference. 

It was a warm, appreciative 
gathering. Bayard Rustin presided. 
Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey CD- 
Minn.) delighted the capacity audi- 
ence by discarding a prepared text 
and giving a vintage Humphrey off- 
the-cuff speech. AFL-CIO Legisla- 
tive Director Andrew J. Biemiller 
completed the tribute by presenting 
Wilkins a book made up of letters 
of good wishes from leaders of the 
conference's affiliated organizations. 

To succeed Mitchell as legislative 
chairman, the conference elected 
Ron Brown, director of the Wash- 
ington Bureau of the National Ur- 
ban League. 

An afternoon session of the an- 
nual meeting dealt with problems of 
the inner-city poor and included 
workshops on jobs, housing and 

lUD Safety Director 
Named to Advisory Unit 

Sheldon W. Samuels, occupa- 
tional safety and health director of 
the AFL-CIO Industrial Union 
Dept., has been appointed to the 
Labor Dept.'s Standards Advisory 
Committee on Agriculture. Sam- 
uels term runs to June 30, 1978. 

The 15-member committee ad- 
vises the Occupational Safety & 
Health Administration on standards 
development and policy to protect 
farm workers from job injury and 

LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE on Civil Rights honored its 
retiring chairman, Roy Wilkins, during its annual meeting in 
Washington. Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey (D-Minn.), the principal 
speaker at the tribute, looks on as AFL-CIO Legislative Director 
Andrew J. Biemiller presents Wilkins with a book of letters from 
the conference's affiliated organizations. 

Teachers' Union Wins 
Los Angeles Election 

(Continued from Page 1) 

concept PELA has totally opposed 
since its formation as an indepen- 
dent organization in 1971. 

AFT President Albert Shanker, 
in a telegram to UTLA Presi- 
dent Hank Springer, said the 
election victory marked "a day 
that Los Angeles teachers have 
long waited for." 

"The whole purpose of attaining 
teacher unity in Los Angeles was 
to move toward full collective bar- 
gaining," he said. "We are confi- 
dent that unity, cooperation, and 
strength will continue to pay off as 
UTLA goes to the bargaining table 
to fashion an outstanding contract." 

UTLA was founded in 1970 
through merger of the Los Angeles 
Teachers Union and the Associa- 
tion of Classroom Teachers-Los 
Angeles of the NEA. 

PELA tried unsuccessfully to 
block legislation — California's 
Rodda act which became effective 
last year — which gave school staffs 
the right to decide by secret ballot 
which union, if any, they want to 

Harbrant Fills Key Post 
In Food, Beverage Dept. 

Robert F. Harbrant has been appointed executive director of the 
newly activated AFL-CIO Food & Beverage Trades Dept. The 
appointment, effective Feb. 1, was announced by department Presi- 
dent James T. Housewright and Sec.-Treas. Daniel E. Conway. 

Harbrant, 34, has been on the staff of the federation's Union 
Label & Service Trades Dept. since 

1967 and has served as executive 
assistant to its secretary-treasurer 
for the past two years. 

In his new post, Harbrant's re- 
sponsibilities will include organiz- 


ing, public relations, political and 
legislative activities, and the forma- 
tion of regional councils. He will 
also be involved in representing the 
interests of workers in the food and 
beverage trades within organized 
labor, as well as other areas. 

Harbrant handled a number of 
similar functions with the union 
label department. He also had 
been involved in the establishment 
of a consumer boycott section, 
purchasing, education, convention 
planning and publicity activities for 
the annual AFL-CIO Union-Indus- 
tries Show. 

Twelve unions joined in reacti- 
vating the Food & Beverage Trades 
Dept. last November with the sup- 
port of the federation. The depart- 
ment had been inactive for more 
than 10 years. 

The department's affiliates rep- 
resent about 2 million workers di- 
rectly employed in the foods and 
beverage industry. Its first conven- 
tion is planned for December 1977. 

represent them in negotiations with 
school management. 

Until now, both UTLA and 
PELA met with Los Angeles Board 
of Education officials to discuss 
teachers' wages and job conditions, 
although UTLA, with nearly 17,000 
members, had the largest number 
of delegates on the joint committee. 

Now UTLA will be the exclusive 
bargaining representative for all 
teachers, leaving the future of 
PELA in doubt. 

Springer issued a call for unity in 
the giant school system, urging 
teachers to set aside their differ- 
ences and "join together so we can 
confront the issues that face Los 
Angeles education." 

UTLA has been in the forefront 
of the fight for collective bargain- 
ing legislation in California spon- 
soring the first such bill in the legis- 
lature in 1971. The bill was killed 
that year but the concept of col- 
lective bargaining for teachers did 
not die with it. 

In 1 972 a bill passed both houses 
of the legislature in the wake of a 
heavy lobbying effort by UTLA. It 
was vetoed, however, by Gov. 
Ronald Reagan but collective bar- 
gaining for teachers was just a gov- 
ernor away. 

In 1975 the Rodda bill was 
hammered out and last year was 
signed into law by Gov. Edmund 
G. Brown, Jr. 

On Import Quotas : 

Shoe Firms, Unions 
Ask Carter Action 

American shoe manufacturers and unions urged President Carter 
to impose effective controls on shoe imports in an effort to recoup 
jobs that have been lost in recent years to the flood of foreign foot- 
wear into the U.S. market. 

A recommendation by the U.S. International Trade Commission 
calling for tariff rate quotas does-^ 

not go far enough to offset the job 
losses, the union and industry rep- 
resentatives said. They said the 
ITC remedy is "not consistent with 
the degree of serious injury from 
imports found unanimously by the 
commission twice in one year." 

Under the ITC proposal, 266 
million pairs of shoes could be im- 
ported each year at low tariff rates 
averaging about 10 percent. Im- 
ports in excess of that number 
would be taxed at a higher rate, 
thereby adding about 10,000 jobs 
to domestic shoe production, the 
ITC estimated. 

The union-industry statement 
proposed a system of straight 
quotas that it estimated would 
create 30,000 to 35,000 more 
jobs than under the ITC for- 

The creation of the additional 
jobs is necessary to remedy the loss 
of more than 70,000 jobs because 
300 shoe factories were forced to 
close since shoe imports began to 
accelerate in 1968, the petitioners 
pointed out. 

The statement was signed by 
President John E. Mara of the Boot 
& Shoe Workers, President George 
O. Fectcau of the United Shoe 
Workers and President Mark Rich- 
ardson of the American Footwear 
Industries Association. 

The system of import quotas fa- 

vored by the union-industry group 
is "the best answer to the serious 
problems created by the rising tide 
of imports which have done such 
severe damage to our industry, our 
jobs and our communities," they 

Although conceding that a tariff- 
quota system could be an improve- 
ment over "the present intolerable 
situation," they said substantial 
modifications are necessary in the 
ITC proposal to preserve the re- 
maining 165,000 jobs in the do- 
mestic shoe industry and an addi- 
tional 100,000 jobs left among 
domestic suppliers. 

With imports taking over more 
than 50 percent of the U.S. retail 
shoe market, the union-industry 
group pointed out that more than 
a quarter-million jobs are at stake 
in 37 states. 

"The social costs of an ineffec- 
tive remedy would be incalcu- 
able," the statement said, point- 
ing out that previous plant 
closings in small rural areas have 
had a devastating impact on 
thousands of families, hundreds 
of small businesses and on the 
tax base of communities. 

The President has 60 days from 
the date he receives the ITC's rec- 
ommendation to act on the remedy. 
If he rejects or reduces the remedy. 
Congress could override his action 
with a simple majority vote. 

Adequacy of Carter Plan 
Questioned in Congress 

Members of congressional committees considering President 
Carter's economic stimulus proposals have expressed some of the 
same doubts the AFL-CIO has raised. 

The Administration has sent its top economic team of Bert 
Lance, director of the Office of Management & Budget, Treasury 
Sec. W. Michael Blumenthal and^ 

Chairman Charles Schultze of the 
Council of Economics Advisers to 
Capitol Hill to testify on behalf of 
the program. 

At House Budget Committee 
hearings. Chairman Robert N. 
Giaimo (D-Conn.) questioned why 
there wasn't more money for direct 

DETENTE HAS WORKED almost solely to Moscow's advan- 
tage, President Joseph T. Power of the Plasterers & Cement 
Masons told a Washington conference sponsored by the National 
Captive Nations Committee. Power, at the speaker's platform, is 
flanked by Geoffrey Pattie, a member of the British Parliament, 
left, and Prof. Lev Dobriansky of Georgetown University's eco- 
nomics department. Ernest Lee, director of the AFL-CIO Dept. 
of International Affairs, is at right. Power said America needs a 
foreign policy of open diplomacy to replace detente. 

job creation, and indicated a like- 
lihood that his committee would 
add funds. 

Other committee members voiced 
similar sentiments. Rep. Elizabeth 
Holtzman (D-N.Y.) found "not 
enough stimulus in the jobs area," 
and Rep. Robert Leggett (D- 
Calif.) told the Administration 
team that '*a number of us here are 
thinking of more stimulus." Rep. 
Parren Mitchell (D-Md.) question- 
ed the limited public works expan- 
sion in view of a backlog of $24 
billion in project requests from 
states and cities. 

At a subsequent Ways & Means 
Committee hearing, the Adminis- 
tration's tax rebate and especially 
its tax cuts for business came in for 
some sharp questions. 

"Isn't your tax rebate program a 
terribly inefficient way to create 
jobs?" Rep. Otis Pike (D-N.Y.) 

As for giving business firms a 4 
percent credit on social security 
taxes, committee members from 
both parties suggested that only 
firms that actually increase employ- 
ment should be in line for any tax 

Administration officials, in reply 
to questions, steered away from 
drawing a precise budget line and 
threatening a presidential veto if 
Congress went beyond it. 

Schultze said the Administration 
wasn't fearful of a new wave of in- 
flation if Congress exceeded its 


Page Three 

Below Previous Year: 

'76 Contracts Bring 
Average 8.39^ Raise 

Union-negotiated contracts covering 1,000 or more workers last 
year provided wage increases averaging 8.3 percent in the first year 
and 6.4 percent a year when measured over the life of the agree- 
ment, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. 

The pay boosts, which do not include possible gains under cost- 
of-living escalator clauses, compare* 
with 1975 averages of 10.2 percent 

in the first year and 7.8 percent a 
year over the contract term. 

The 1976 data reflect gains 
under 787 collective bargaining 
settlements covering about 4 mil- 
lion workers, BLS said. Most of 
the workers covered by these set- 
tlements were in the auto, con- 
struction, trucking, apparel, elec- 
trical equipment, and rubber in- 

In key contracts, those involving 
5,000 or more workers, the same 
downward trend showed up, BLS 
said. Wage and fringe-benefit in- 
creases provided by such contracts 
averaged 8.5 percent for the first 
year and 6.6 percent annually over 
the life of the contract. This com- 
pares with 11.4 and 8.1 percent, 
respectively, in 1975. 

Fourth-quarter gains alone also 
were down compared with in- 
creases negotiated in the previous 
three-month period, BLS said. First- 
year adjustments provided under 
settlements reached in the October- 
December quarter averaged 7 per- 
cent, as against 10.1 percent in the 
third quarter. The average over-the- 
term raise under major contracts 
negotiated in the fourth quarter was 
4.7 percent a year, compared with 
7.3 percent in the third quarter. 

Other highlights of contracts 
reached in 1976: 

• The average duration of the 
787 major agreements was 32 
months, compared with 30.4 
months when the same parties pre- 
viously negotiated. 

• In the manufacturing sector 
of the economy, wage increases in 
new settlements averaged 9 percent 
in the first contract year and 6 per- 
cent annually over the life of the 
agreement, compared with 9.8 and 
8 percent, respectively, in 1975. 

• In non-manufacturing indus- 
tries, pay adjustments averaged 7.6 
percent in the first year and 6.7 
percent annually over the life of 
the contract, compared with 10.4 
and 7.8 percent, respectively, in 

Film Showing 
To Benefit UFW 

Vice President Walter Mondale 
and a dozen labor leaders are join- 
ing in sponsoring a Washington 
showing of "Bound for Glory," a 
film based on the autobiography of 
folksinger and onetime union or- 
ganizer Woody Guthrie. 

Proceeds from the Feb. 8 show- 
ing at the Jenifer Theater will go 
to the United Farm Workers. 
Guthrie helped organize migrant 
farm workers during his travels 
over the country in the 1930s de- 

Besides UFW President Cesar 
Chavez, sponsors of the Washing- 
ton benefit include Presidents Ken- 
neth Brown of the Graphic Arts 
Union; Daniel Conway, Bakery & 
Confectionery Workers; David Fitz- 
mauricc. Electrical, Radio & Ma- 
chine Workers; Robert Georgine, 
AFL-CIO Building & Construc- 
tion Trades Dept.; Albert Shanker, 
Teachers; Floyd Smith, Machinists; 
J. C. Turner, Operating Engineers; 
Glenn Watts. Communications 
Workers; Jerry Wurf, State, County 
& Municipal Employees; Charles 
Perlik, Newspaper Guild, and Di- 
rector Alan Kistler of the AFL- 
CIO Dept. of Organization & Field 

• Construction industry settle- 
ments provide wage boosts aver- 
aging 6.1 percent both in the first 
year and annually over the life of 
the contract, compared with 8 and 
7.5 percent, respectively, in 1975. 

The size of the 1 976 settlements 
appears to have been influenced by 
the possibility of additional pay in- 
creases under escalator clauses, 
BLS said. Contracts with such 
clauses, which covered 57 percent 
of the workers under major agree- 
ments concluded last year, pro- 
vided for annual pay hikes of 5.7 
percent over the life of the con- 
tract. Contracts without COL 
clauses provided for annual in- 
creases averaging 7.3 percent. 
These compared with gains of 7.1 
and 8.3 percent, respectively, in 

During 1976, new COL escala- 
tor provisions were introduced in 
51 settlements covering 281,000 
workers, mostly in the rubber and 
apparel industries, BLS said. Sim- 
ilar clauses were dropped in 10 
agreements affecting 84,000 
workers. Escalator clauses now 
cover about 61 percent, or 6 mil- 
lion, of all workers in major bar- 
gaining units, the bureau said. 

In the current quarter, 202 ma- 
jor agreements covering 606,000 
workers will expire or permit re- 
opening of wage provisions, the re- 
port noted. Key bargaining areas 
include the petroleum refining, food 
store, and stone, clay and glass in- 

About 900,000 workers will re- 
ceive deferred wage increases aver- 
aging 5.2 percent during the cur- 
rent quarter under provisions of ex- 
isting major agreements. 

TIMES SQUARE DEMONSTRATION in New York supporting economic and social justice for 
J. P. Stevens's 44,000 textile workers in the South is led by President Bayard Rustin of the A. 
Philip Randolph Institute, left; Clothing & Textile Workers Sec.-Treas. Jacob Sheinkman, center, 
and New York City Council President Paul O'Dwyer. Thousands of leaflets were passed out urg- 
ing New York consumers not to buy products manufactured by Stevens and sold in city department 
stores. Similar boycott demonstrations were staged in a number of cities across the continent. 

Court Denies Religious Objector 
Exemption From a Union Shop 

A U.S. district court in California has ruled that the provision of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights 
Act requiring an employer to make reasonable accommodation to an employee's religious beliefs vio- 
lates the First Amendment and is therefore unconstitutional. 

The decision involves an employee of North American Rockwell Corp. in Los Angeles who refused 
either to join or pay union dues to Auto Workers Local 887 under the local's union security clause 
with the company. Kenneth Yott, 

a member of a small religious sect, 
said his religious beliefs prevented 
him from joining any union. 

Yott subsequently was dismissed 
from his mechanic's job in January 
1969 and filed an action for rein- 
statement and back pay under Title 
VII on grounds he had been unlaw- 
fully discriminated against. 

But the claim was rejected by 
Judge Manuel L. Real of the U.S. 
District Court for Central Californ- 
ia, who ruled: 

"The excuse of an employee 
from union membership or the 
payment of union dues as a con- 
dition of employment because of 
his religious objection affords that 
employee a privilege not other- 
wise available to those employees 

whose religious beliefs or lack of 
religious beliefs provide no such 

Rockwell's agreement with Local 
887 contained an agency-shop pro- 
vision that went into effect in Octo- 
ber 1968. During the trial, Yott 
for the first time suggested to Rock- 
well that he would accept as an ac- 
commodation to his religious beliefs 
any one of three alternatives: a job 
outside the bargaining unit, exemp- 
tion from the union-security clause, 
or reinstatement at his old job at a 
lower rate of pay, permitting the 
company to dispose of the differ- 
ence as it saw fit, presumably to 
pay Yotfs union dues. 

Rockwell argued that Yott's pro- 
posed accommodations were un- 

Carter Planning Steps to Expand 
Monitoring of Wages and Prices 

President Carter edged a step closer to government intervention in wages and prices, but Admin- 
istration officials insisted he does not intend to seek controls or authority to impose controls. 

In a message to Congress outlining his economic recovery program, Carter said he "will soon 
announce a substantial strengthening of the Council on Wage & Price Stability." 

The council is the successor to the Cost of Living Council that functioned during the period of 
wage-price controls in the Nixon 

Administration. But its duties are 
limited to research and economic 
analysis, with no powers to roll 
back prices or wages. 

Carter said he wants the pres- 
ent council to ^^perform a more 
active job of monitoring wage 
and price developments." He ex- 
pressed a belief '^that both busi- 
ness and labor will be willing to 
cooperate by giving us voluntary 
prior notice of important wage 
and price increases." The AFL- 
CIO has expressed strong oppo- 
sition to imposition of wage and 
price controls. 

The President also said he has 
asked all Cabinet officers "to eval- 
uate continuously the inflationary 
impact of their departments' pro- 
grams and regulations." 

In at least one important area — 
job safety and health — so-called in- 
flationary impact statements re- 
quired by the Ford Administration 
have both delayed and weakened 
enforcement of the law, the AFL- 
CIO has charged. 

At a White House briefing. Chair- 
man Charles Schultze of the Presi- 
dent's Council of Economic Ad- 

visers indicated that the Adminis- 
tration had in mind a form of "jaw- 
boning" — speaking out against what 
it considers "excessive" wage or 
price actions. 

Schultze insisted that the Presi- 
dent has "no thought" of asking for 
even standby control authority at 
this time, and anticipates voluntary 
cooperation from labor and busi- 
ness. But Schultze added that if 
such cooperation isn't forthcoming, 
the Administration will "have to 
look at other measures." 

The President did not get into 
the area of wage-price stability in 
his first "fireside chat" to the Amer- 
ican people, a report on his first 
two weeks in office and his broad 
plans for the months ahead. 

He announced that his energy 
adviser, James Schlesinger, is di- 
recting the preparation of Adminis- 
tration proposals for a national en- 
ergy policy, to be ready for sub- 
mission to Congress by Apr. 20. 
He also reiterated his intention to 
ask Congress to establish a new 
Cabinet-level Energy Dept., to com- 
bine the efforts of a multitude of 
separate agencies and "bring order 
out of chaos." 

Carter defended the economic 
stimulus program he sent to Con- 
gress as "a balanced plan" to re- 
store the nation's economic health. 

He said his "primary concern" 
is more jobs and contended that 
the tax rebates the Administration 
is proposing represent "the only 
quick, effective way to get money 
into the economy and create those 

The President promised early 
Administration proposals for tax 
reform and welfare reform. 

He pledged, in cooperation 
with Congress, to put forth "a 
program of comprehensive tax 
reform before the end of this 
year." He said the goal would be 
"a fairer, simpler system." 
Carter said the welfare system 
"needs a complete overhaul." He 
announced that Labor Sec. Ray 
Marshall and Health, Education & 
Welfare Sec. Joseph A. Califano, 
Jr., "will work with Congress to 
develop proposals for a new system 
which will minimize abuse, strength- 
en the family . . . emphasize ade- 
quate support for those who cannot 
work, and training and jobs for 
those who can." 

reasonable for various reasons, but 
that in any event the "accommoda- 
tion" provision of Title VII is un- 

The court agreed, declaring that 
the government is required by the 
First Amendment to remain neu- 
tral when faced with a conflict 
such as that between Yott's reli- 
gious beliefs and the union security 

Any sacrifies that Yott may be 
forced to make because of his reli- 
gious objections to unionism can- 
not be alleviated by governmental 
action in view of the "clear com- 
mand of the First Amendment" to 
make no law respecting an estab- 
lishment of religion. Judge Real 

In ruling that the company was 
not guilty of discrimination. Judge 
Real said that giving Yott a job 
outside the bargaining unit could 
only be a temporary solution in 
view of the intense and ongoing or- 
ganizing efforts of Local 887. As 
for exempting Yott from the union- 
security clause, such an action 
would not be a true accommoda- 
tion since it would require the 
union to forego implementation of 
its statutory authority to provide 
for a union shop. Real said. 

Finally, the court said that re- 
turning Yott to his former job at 
lower pay would not be reasonable 
because it could make the union 
subject to being sued for failure to 
adhere to its fair representation 
duties under the Taft-Hartley Act. 

In another religion-related 
case, the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board rejected First Amend- 
ment freedom-of-religion claims 
of the Cathoh'c Archdiocese of 
Los Angeles and found that the 
archdiocese had illegally refused 
to bargain with Local 3448 of 
the American Federation of 
Teachers. The AFT won a rep- 
resentation election last May 
among lay teachers at 26 arch- 
diocese high schools. 

The NLRB found that the arch- 
diocese, by arguing that the board 
has no jurisdiction over it because 
it is a religious institution, sought 
to relitigate issues "which were pre- 
viously considered by the board . . . 
to be without merit." In another 
action, the NLRB directed an elec- 
tion among teachers at 273 parish 
elementary schools operated by the 
Archdiocese of Philadelphia. 

Page Four 


Jobs aod Public Works 

nPHE AFL-CIO HAS HAD a long history of support for acceler- 
ated public works in order to meet the need for quick, pin- 
pointed job-creating economic stimulus, while building, repairing 
or improving facilities which represent investments in the future of 

Time and time again opponents have charged these programs 
took "a long time to start up," took "too long to complete" and 
"wasted taxpayers' money on make-work projects." 

Experience under the present program proves conclusively, even 
at this early date, that this program — adequately funded — can and 
does do exactly what we contend and not what oppenents fear. 
Look at the record: 

First and most significant, has been the overwhelming response. 
The appropriations bill was enacted last Oct. 2 and within 45 days 
the Economic Development Administration received 25,000 project 
proposals totaling $24 billion, 12 times the amount available. The 
proposals were for projects ranging from schools, libraries and play- 
grounds, to fire stations and water and sewer lines. 

These 25,000 requests were not capricious, wasteful or **pie- 
in-the-sky'* attempts by states and localities to get money. Appli- 
cants had to prove that on-site work would begin within 90 days, 
would fit in with existing local development plans and programs 
and would promote and advance longer range plans. Individual 
projects could cost no more than $5 million each and must be 
completed within two years. 

To assure quick action, the act spelled out a rigid time schedule 
for the Economic Development Administration. The agency had 
only 30 days to issue rules and regulations and 60 days to issue a 
final decision on each application. 

The $2 billion was enough to fund only 1,988 projects out of the 
25,000 proposed. Those 1,988 will, according to EDA, generate 
142,000 direct on-site jobs and all that money will be spent in 
areas with an average unemployment rate of 12.3 percent. 

OBVIOUSLY, more money for this program means more jobs 
and more funds to build, repair and improve a wide range of im- 
portant and needed public facilities. And the jobs would be many 
more than just those on the job site. 

Based on available EDA data, we estimate that another $10 
billion in this program would generate some 700,000 direct on- 
site jobs; and some 350,000 to 700,000 additional jobs in indus- 
tries providing materials, supplies, transportation and the like for 
the projects. And, of course, thousands of additional jobs would 
be generated as the added income and purchasing power spreads 
throughout the economy. 

According to the Commerce Dept., in every year but one since 
1967, the real volume of outlays for state and local construction 
has declined. In 1976, state and local government spent $32.1 bil- 
lion on public construction (including federal aid). After adjusting 
for inflation, this represents a rate almost 30 percent below 1967 

We urge the Congress to take a substantial step toward the 
restoration of the health and vitality of the American economy, by 
increasing the size of this program and sending it on its way as 
quickly as possible. 

— From testimony by AFL-CIO President George Meany before 
the House Public Works Committee. 


Official Weekly Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Geokgl Miiany, President 
Lant. Kirkland. Secretary-Treasurer 

Paul Hall 
I*aul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
♦Clyde M. Webber 

Executive Council 

1. W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Director of Publications: Saul 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanle> 
Charles H. Pillard 

• Deceased 


= U^hn k. Oravec 

Managing Editor: John M. Barry 
Assistant Editors: 
David L. Perlman James M. Shevis 

I AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W. | 

I Washington. D.C. 20006 | 

I Telephone: 637-5032 | 

5 Siil>scriplioii8 : S2 a year: 10 or more. $1.50 a year e 

I VoL XXII Saturday, February 5, 1977 No. 5 | 

= The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

= dustrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in jfl LABOR P RESSj 

= any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit VEJ|5i|[j] 

= advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. ^ 


'Okay, Start 'Er Up!' 

Dilemma for Undernourished: 

Florida Freeze No Disaster 
For Profits of Citrus Growers 

By Gus Tyler 

TPHE RECENT FREEZE in Florida will ruin 
about one-third of the state's citrus crop. 
Coming at a time when millions of people around 
the planet are starving to death, the frost in the 
great orange area appeared as a deep tragedy. 

Within a matter of days, however, the Florida 
Citrus Commission announced its delight. The 
frigid weather was a godsend. 

^'Nature had bailed us out of a bumper 
crop," announced a spokesman for the com- 
mission. "The growers were going to lose 
money, but now the problem has been taken 
care of and an oversupply situation has been 

Before the ice came, the Florida citrus growers 
were in a state of peril. Man and nature had done 
their work too well. The orange crop this year 
was expected to surpass that of last year by some 
1 8 percent. 

In a rational world, this cheery fact would have 
been greeted with glee. Oranges are good for man 
and more oranges are better for man. The fruit is 
tasty, thirst-quenching, nutritious, bursting with 
vitamin C. 

In human terms, the consumption of more 
oranges could mean better health to many Ameri- 
cans and a way to stay alive for many people in 
less fortunate lands. 

But in the world of the citrus grower, the fewer 
oranges the better. The growers were faced with 
a vice called abundance; they now proclaim the 
virtue of scarcity. 

No doubt, the spokesman for the citrus grow- 
ers, who hails disaster as a delight, will be seen 
by many as an insensitive, inhumane money 
grubber. In the flesh, however, he is probably not 
unlike most of us: an average guy doing the aver- 
age thing. 

IT'S NOT THE MAN who is at fault. To use 
that old-fashioned phrase from one of Qifford 
Odets's early plays: "It's the system." 

Under our "market" system, oranges — or pota- 
toes or cotton or ham — are not produced for con- 
sumption but for sale, not for people but for 
profit. If there is too much of anything, you de- 

stroy it, or withhold it, or pray that Nature will 
do the dirty work for you. 

In the days of the Great Depression of the 
'30s, cotton growers welcomed the boll weevil, 
their one-time mortal foe. Potato farmers dumped 
their potatoes into the ocean. Little pigs did not 
go to the market; they were slaughtered and 
buried beyond human retrieval. 

All this was happening amidst hunger. And 
now this is happening with oranges while millions 
go undernourished. 

We can overcome our present scarcities if we 
want to. But how great is our will to do so in a 
market system that makes scarcity both desirable 
and necessary? 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

No Tears Shed 
For Gas Profits 

I cannot believe that the natural gas pro- 
ducers need our tears to be shed upon their 
financial statements, because each of them is 
having banner years. . . . The oil companies, 
which are in the main the natural gas pro- 
ducers, will truly gain millions and billions 
of dollars from the American consumer by 
utilizing this shortage • . . 

Every time this nation faces a severe en- 
ergy shortage, the major gas and oil pro- 
ducers cry out for deregulation . . . 

In the last few years, there has been 
mounting evidence that large amounts of 
known natural gas supplies have been de- 
liberately withheld from production . . . 

Congress can and must be in a better 
position to determine the merits of deregu- 
lating the price of natural gas — not be forced 
into it by a shortage partially manufactured 
by the industry's own hands. 

— Sen. Howard M. Metzenbaum (D-Ohio) 
during Senate debate on emergency natural 
gas bill Jan. 31, 1977. 


Page Five 

Humphrey Spells Out Role: 

All Workers, Needy Benefit 
In Labor's Fight for Progress 

During the Senate debate on the confirmation 
of Labor Sec, Ray Marshall, an attack on orga- 
nized labor was launched by a number of Repub- 
lican conservatives led by Sen. John Tower of 
Texas. Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey (D-Minn.) rose 
to defend the labor movement and its support of 
Marshall. The following is excerpted from Hum- 
phrey's remarks. 

r^RGANIZED LABOR in this country has 
stood for defense of this nation, a strong 

Organized labor has stood for the health care 
of the American people. It stood for workmen's 
compensation. It stood for unemployment com- 
pensation. It fought for social security when the 
political party of the senator from Texas (John 
Tower) voted against it unanimously when it was 
first initiated under Franklin Roosevelt. 

It fought for rural electrification for our farm- 
ers. It has supported our farm legislation. Orga- 
nized labor has fought for better working condi- 
tions and against child labor. 

And may I say that after we get all through 
talking about these labor bosses, who live in their 
plush offices, they look like candidates for the 
poverty program compared to some corporate 
executives in this country, and I do not think we 
need to run them down, either. 

All I am simply saying is that organized 
labor basically has been good for this country. 
This country has the best of labor-management 
relations. This country has high productivity. 
The standard of living in this country for the 
unorganized worker is due in a large measure 
because of the efforts of organized labor. 

The Fair Labor Standards Act, does not help 
organized labor. It helps the unorganized worker. 
And a good paycheck is what this country needs, 
and when workers get a good paycheck they spend 
it and they get it into the mainstream of American 
commerce. ^^^^^ *«• * 

I do not happen to know Dr. Ray Marshall per- 
sonally as well as I would like. I know of his fine 
exemplary record. And I hope to goodness he is 
for organized labor. I hope he understands the 
importance that in a democracy, unions are vital 
as a part of the economic system of this country. 
I hope that he will try to see that more people 
get a better break in life and a better wage, and 
if that means organizing and collective bargaining 
I am for it just as I am for a farm cooperative. 
And what does a farm cooperative do? It gets 
better prices for farmers. What does a union do? 
It gets better wages for workers. 

I do not think we need to go around here wor- 
rying that America is going to go to the bow- 

Shifi in Momentum: 

wows because there happens to be some organized 
labor. As a matter of fact, organized labor has 
stood in the forefront of this country's efforts in 
war and peace. And it has fought for things that 
mean a great deal to the children. 

From the earliest days organized labor 
fought for public education. That is from the 
days of the Knights of Labor to this very day. 
From the earliest days it has fought for public 
health, child care, school lunches, programs of 
nutrition, all the things that mean something to 
millions and millions of people who never got 
inside a union hall. 

And I am amazed that the senator from Texas 
feels that his distinguished fellow Texan, Dr. Ray 
Marshall, would not be a good Secretary of Labor, 
simply because he has some support from union 

I know there have been some crooks in the 
labor movement, but may I say there have even 
been some people who have stolen from the 
church treasury; but we do not abandon our re- 
ligion or our churches. There have been a few 
who have disgraced the legal profession, even 
some that have disgraced politics, and some who 
have disgraced the medical profession, but we do 
not condemn the whole system because of the 
transgressions of the few. 

IT IS FAIR TO SAY that with all of the limita- 
tions of organized labor — and like any group that 
is organized, it exercises power — in the main, it 
has not only looked out for itself, but it has 
looked out, as Scripture says, for "the least of 

It has cared about the child of the unorganized 
as well as the organized worker. It has cared about 
infant and maternal health programs. 

This is what the struggle is all about in this 
country, whether or not the average citizen in 
America is going to have a decent standard of 
living. The day that organized labor stands in the 
way of that I will be its enemy and its opponent. 
But I have found organized labor to be on the 
side of the weak; on the side of the poor; on the 
side of the sick, and on the side of the handi- 

Who has come in here and testified day after 
day and year after year for programs to aid the 
physically and mentally disabled in this coun- 
try? Who has put their political muscle behind 
those programs? Organized labor, as one of the 
groups in America, thank God. 

I am very proud to have had a long association 
as a friend of the labor people of America. I be- 
lieve they have done much for this country. 

Political Changes 
Brighten Organizing Outlook 

TPHE NEXT SEVERAL years hold the best 
prospects in a decade for union membership 
growth, both in total numbers and as a percentage 
of the U.S. workforce. 

That appraisal was made by Director Alan 
Kistler of the AFL-CIO Dept. of Organization & 
Field Services, who said the new leadership in the 
Congress and White House should produce a 
more favorable political attitude and an aware- 
ness of economic realities. He said that President 
Carter's "emphasis on jobs" as a key step to help 
"restore economic sanity to the nation" will help 
cut back the severe unemployment rates and the 
"great reservoir of fear" that can be exploited by 
employers in resisting unionization. 

Kistler said that the recently formed AFL- 
CIO organizing coordinating committee will 
provide a regular mechanism in which federa- 
tion affiliates can update and sharpen organiz- 
ing skills and techniques, assemble information 
and background, and pool staff and other re- 
sources in concentrated organizing efforts. 

He turned aside the suggestion that the co- 
ordinated effort was shaped to combat any gains 

or adverse effects of the so-called National Right 
to Work Committee or any other group. 

"If there is any relationship, it is one of 
sequence, not of cause and effect," he declared, 
stressing the "need to continually pursue our or- 
ganizing mission — to constandy evaluate ways to 
improve our performance in that mission." Kistler 
was questioned by reporters on the network radio 
interview Labor News Conference. 

Kistler acknowledged that the momentum of 
organizing has been slow over the last decade for 
both AFL-CIO unions and those outside the fed- 
eration. He said that in addition to a weak economy 
and less favorable political climate, "the growth 
of the breed of professional labor-management 
consultants — union-busters, in a very real sense," 
has been a major factor in that development. He 
said these professionals specialize in "thwarting 
workers as they attempt to organize — through the 
procedures of the National Labor Relations Board 
and the built-in delays of the law." 

He called for "substantial, constructive, posi- 
tive reform" of the National Labor Relations Act, 
coupled with "vigorous, intensive investigations 
and more effective remedies." 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

THE CLOSING OF A GLASS WORKS in a sleepy Michigan 
town would hardly seem to be the stuff of which major domestic 
and international problems are made. 

But when Corning Glass padlocked the doors of its Albion, 
Mich., plant last year, throwing its workers into the street, the 
incident was just one more ripple in a swelling tide of problems 
for American working people and the nation's foreign trade policies. 

The 1,500 workers in Albion and hundreds of thousands more, 
from shoe workers in Maine to clothing workers in California, lost 
their jobs because their plants closed. The plants were shut down, 
in most part, because their owners were not able to compete with 
mounting imports from abroad. And the stream of imports con- 
tinues virtually unabated, unchecked — encouraged, in fact, by gov- 
ernment policy. 

That same public policy, as embodied in the Trade Act of 
1974, ostensibly contains provisions designed to protect Ameri- 
can workers — if not by saving their jobs, then at least by pro- 
viding them with ^^trade adjustment assistance" so they may learn 
new skills and find new jobs. But, in the view of most of the 
workers who have been displaced, things just aren't working. 

The problem is obvious, the solution more difficult — but not 
impossible — to grasp. The problem of the American television man- 
ufacturing industry, and some suggested remedies, embody the crisis 
confronting millions of American workers. 

In 1960, there were more than 25 domestic companies manu- 
facturing television sets. Imports accounted for fewer than one in 
20 sets sold in the United States. 

By the end of 1976, an estimated 75 percent of all black and 
white sets sold in the United States were foreign-made and imports 
of color sets rose to an estimated 40 percent of all those sold in the 

Government figures show that employment in the American TV 
industry — workers directly manufacturing TV receivers — fell from 
62,500 in 1966, its peak employment year, to about 41,000 in 1976. 

There are no specific figures for job losses in industries depen- 
dent upon TV manufacture, but the government acknowledges that 
1.5 jobs are created for every one job in manufacturing. For every 
1,000 workers who actually put the sets together there are 292 
workers making components, 85 rubber and plastics industry work- 
ers, 124 logging, wood and furniture workers, and so on. 

These numbers add up to a warning by television manufacturers 
and unions that, unless something is done about imports, another 
65,000 jobs in direct manufacturing and component production, 
plus thousands more in "support" industries, could be lost in what 
remains of the domestic color TV industry. 

THE SAD STORY of what has happened in TV could be re- 
peated — and has been — in several other U.S. industries. 

Labor and management in the shoe industry are fighting to save 
what remains of the American footwear business, arguing before 
the U.S. International Trade Commission that nearly 300 plants 
employing more than 70,000 workers have closed over the last 

The auto industry has lost thousands of jobs. So have the clothing 
industry, the machinery industry, the electronics industry, the steel 
industry and more. 

Testifying before the ITC, Steelworkers and AFL-CIO Indus- 
trial Union Dept. President I. W. Abel complained that the 
Trade Act simply isn't working — at least not on behalf of work- 
ing people. 

Organized labor has no desire to erect a wall around the United 
States, barring importation of any product that conceivably could 
be manufactured in the United States by American workers. But, 
at the same time, labor believes there must be some meaningful 
government action to protect the livelihood of workers. 

If virtually all other industrialized nations can set effective im- 
port quotas, labor asks, why can't the United States? 

THE NEXT SEVERAL YEARS hold the best prospects in a 
decade for union growth. Director Alan Kistler, center, of the 
AFL-CIO Dept. of Organization & Field Services, said on Labor 
News Conference. He was questioned by Sara Fritz of United 
Press International and Dale McFeatters of the Scripps-Howard 
Newspapers. The program is aired Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Page Six 


Workers Lose Out: 

INFORMATIONAL PICKETS of Government Employees Local 
916 demonstrated outside the gates of Tinker Air Force Base in 
Oklahoma City until management agreed to bargain on issues it 
earlier had declared "non-negotiable." 

Federal Employees Use 
Picketing to Spur Talks 

Oklahoma City — ^An informational picket line set up outside the 
gates of Tinker Air Force Base here succeeded in getting manage- 
ment back to the bargaining table after all other reasonable efforts 
by Government Employees Local 916 failed. 

And a complaint against an AFL-CIO Metal Trades Council has 
been dropped for setting up a simi 

lar picket line at the U.S. Naval 
Shipyard in Norfolk, Va. 

The AFGE picket line demon- 
stration continued for six days as 
Local 916, which represents 15,000 
federal employees, protested the 
"deteriorating labor relations pro- 
gram" at the base. 

The local withdrew the pickets 

Carter Urged 
To Strengthen 
Federal Safety 

The Government Employees 
urged the Carter Administration to 
make sweeping changes in job 
safety and health programs to pro- 
vide long-needed protection for fed- 
eral workers. 

The AFGE said in a position 
paper presented to the Carter tran- 
sition team that the government's 
safety program for federal sector 
employees suffers from indifference 
and lacks the necessary funds and 

Many of the protections of the 
Occupational Safety & Health Ad- 
ministration available to workers 
in private industry are not extended 
to government workers, the AFGE 
pointed out. 

Among its many shortcomings, 
the AFGE said, the federal sector 
safety program fails to give govern- 
ment employee representatives the 
right to accompany OSHA compli- 
ance officers during inspections or 
to have access to monitoring rec- 
ords of toxic substances in work- 
place environments, and contains 
no requirement for rapid process- 
ing of worker complaints on job 
safety and health hazards. 

The AFGE urged the new Ad- 
ministration to press for full OSHA 
protection for federal workers and 
full funding and staffing for safety 
enforcement, to direct agency offi- 
cials to comply fully with safety 
provisions, and to appoint a White 
House staff member to serve as a 
liaison between federal agencies 
and government employee unions. 

from gates at the giant aircraft en- 
gine facility after the base manage- 
ment agreed to drop an unfair 
practice charge against the union 
for setting up the picket line in the 
first place. 

The dispute developed over 
managements refusal to bargain 
over a number of issues that it 
declared '^non-negotiable'' and 
refused to include in a three-year 
contract worked out last Septem- 

Even after the Dept. of Defense 
ruled in November that 12 of the 
16 issues in question were "manda- 
tory subjects for bargaining," the 
Tinker management continued to 
resist the union's efforts to reopen 

Paul Ketcherside, president of 
Local 916, said management's 
prime objections centered on two 
articles to be included in the con- 
tract providing for certain union 
rights and promotion provisions. 

With the withdrawal of the 
picket line, negotiations resumed 
with the assistance of the Federal 
Mediation & Conciliation Service 
until a new deadlock ensued. The 
local is now pursuing further ac- 
tion through federal impasse pro- 

The Tinker picket line, as far as 
the AFGE headquarters can deter- 
mine, is the first ever by a union at 
an American Air Force base. 

In Norfolk, the Tidewater Fed- 
eral Employees Metal Trade Coun- 
cil at the naval base has been seek- 
ing a new contract since August 
1975. The council set up its infor- 
mational picket line last Noveriiber 
after 15 months of negotiations 
failed to result in any meaningful 

Administrative Law Judge Sam- 
uel A. Chaitovitz ordered a Navy 
Dept. complaint against the coun- 
cil dismissed after ruling that the 
picketing did not "actually interfere 
or reasonably threaten to interfere 
with the operation" of the govern- 
ment shipyard. 

The council's contract dispute is 
now also at the impasse proceed- 
ings stage. 

Exports Fail to Overcome 
Job Loss from Trade Policy 

American workers are paying for the nation's faulty foreign trade arrangements with their jobs — 
not only when imports exceed exports, but even during periods of trade surplus. 

And the job erosion continues today as the federal government pursues outmoded and unrealistic 
trade policies, Elizabeth R. Jager writes in the current issue of the Federationist, the AFL-CIO's 
monthly magazine. 

"U.S. government machinery has"^ 

not worked to the advantage of 
U.S. workers," Mrs. Jager stresses. 

"Unlike many nations of the 
world, the United States has no 
built-in barriers of national pol- 
icy or walls of tariffs and quotas 
on manufactured products. It 
has no extensive requirements 
that products be manufactured 
within the United States or poli- 
cies to assure future U.S. tech- 
nological strength." 

Mrs. Jager, an economist with the 
AFL-CIO Dept. of Research spe- 
cializing in foreign trade, traces the 
changing pattern of U.S. exports in 
last three decades. 

During the 1950s, she notes, the 
United States exported mostly prod- 
ucts; in the 1960s, it exported auto 
and machinery factories. And now 
during the 1970s, it is exporting en- 
tire plants with the very newest 
technology — often even before such 
factories exist in the United States. 

This results in direct job losses, 
Mrs. Jager observes, with a broad 
economic impact on large and 
small communities and a wide range 
of occupations. 

"In a declining economy, or in 
an area where new jobs are not de- 
veloping, the fact that new plants 
are not being built, affects the build- 
ing trades and service workers of 
all kinds," she notes. 

She also points out that imports 
increased at a faster pace than U.S. 
exports between 1967 and 1974. 
And during the first three quarters 
of 1976, imports rose 24.4 percent 
to $94.7 billion, while exports rose 
only 7 percent to $83.3 billion. 

In addition, the U.S. share of 
total world manufactured ex- 
ports has declined from 21 per- 
cent in 1960 to about 15 percent 
in early 1976, Mrs. Jager re- 

'The mismatch of exports and 
imports — both geared to different 
reporting systems — has cost jobs 
and production in virtually every 
manufacturing industry from aero- 
space to textiles." 

However, U.S. trade exports and 
policy spokesmen point with pride 
to the rising volume of manufac- 
tured exports in the 1970s and big 
dollar surpluses even though job 
development has not kept pace. 

"America is proud of aircraft ex- 
ports," she notes, "but American 
workers know there are fewer em- 
ployees in aircraft than there were 
over 25 years ago." 

Mrs. Jager also cites the impact 
on U.S. jobs from investment out- 
flows overseas, the accelerating and 
unplanned transfer of technology 
and from exporting needed raw 
materials and intermediate products. 

And while the loss of production 
and technical jobs has been tilting 
the nation toward a service-orient- 
ed economy, U.S. jobs continued 
to be eroded in shipping, airlines 
and other service trades. 

In stressing the need for stronger 
U.S. regulation of foreign trade, 
Mrs. Jager notes that organized la- 
bor supports negotiation with other 
countries — "not giveaways." 

Labor seeks to change the rules 
of the treaties and arrangements 
that are injurious to America and 
its people, she observes. 

"Negotiations should be based on 
the real world, not the fancies of 
yesterday's economic theories. Some 
other nations have the same view," 
she adds. 

Mrs. Jager also points out that 
the 1974 Trade Act has not been 
enforced effectively to protect 
American industry or its workers 

from injury caused by unfair for- 
eign trade practices. 

She describes trade adjustment 
assistance — a Trade Act provision 
to make benefits available for im- 
port-related layoffs — "a bureaucrat- 
ic nightmare" for 500,000 U.S. 

"That many had applied by Sept. 
30, 1976, for trade adjustment re- 
lief. About 161,302 workers had 
been certified to try to collect pay- 
ments. And only 153,000 collected 
anything at all." 

Mrs. Jager warns that the 
United States should not confuse 
economic competition with its 
concern for the developing coun- 
tries and the expansion of fair 
labor standards throughout the 

"We live in a world of managed 
economies, among friends and foes 
alike," she points out. "We cannot 
continue to support a laissez-faire 
trade policy. 

"The multinational corporations 
have amply demonstrated that they 
have a higher calling than the na- 
tional interest of the United States." 

She stressed that the government 
must adopt realistic trade policies 
and arrangements that effectively 
deal with the changed world econ- 

Maritime Trades Back 
Tankers for Alaska Gas 

The Maritime Trades Dept. urged rejection of a Federal Power 
Commission judge's recommendation that the best way to get 
Alaskan natural gas to the lower 48 states is through a trans- 
Canada pipeline, and instead endorsed an American proposal that 
would ship the gas to a California port by tanker. 
MTD President Paul 

Hall said 
that the American proposal by El 
Paso Alaska Co. would deliver the 
much-needed gas at an earlier date 
than the Canadian pipeline. He also 
argued that the El Paso plan would 
create 750,000 man years of Amer- 
ican employment and contribute 
$10 billion in taxes to the U.S. 

^'If there is anything our econ- 
omy needs more than these jobs, 
I don't know what it is," Hall 

A NEW HEADQUARTERS for the National Rural Electric 
Cooperative Association in Washington will be built by union 
construction workers, reflecting the long association between the 
organization and the labor movement. NRECA represents 1,000 
consumer-owned electric cooperatives. The new eight-story build- 
ing will cost $8.2 million and should be completed in 20 months. 

said. "Since 
consumer is 
would be foolish 

the American gas 
paying the bill, it 
not to invest 

that money in American jobs and 

Hall, who is also president of the 
Seafarers, said that liquefied natural 
gas carriers designed for the project 
would be the most sophisticated and 
safe commercial vessels ever built. 
Similar vessels already have passed 
their sea trials with flying colors, 
he said. 

"These LNG carriers are all 
double-hulled, have collision-avoid- 
ance radar, bow thrusters, auto- 
matic and redundant fire fighting 
systems, closed cargo systems with 
inert gas instead of oxygen," he 
observed. "They exceed Coast 
Guard specifications for safety of 
cargo and navigation." 

Hall said the ships would be built 
in America and manned by Ameri- 
can crews, injecting an additional 
$2.2 billion into the American 

"I am confident that the FPC, 
President Carter, and the Congress 
will decide to keep our gas under 
U.S. control," he said. "I only hope 
the decision will be made as soon 
as possible so we can get started. 
Every day of delay is another day 
of the hardships caused by the 
growing shortage of natural gas 
throughout the nation." 

FPC Judge Nahum Litt made his 
recommendation favoring the Ca- 
nadian pipeline on Feb. 1. He 
termed the El Paso proposal viable, 
but second-best to the pipeline. 


Page Seven 

False Economy Hit: 

Postal Unions Urge 
Mail Service Reform 

The heads of two AFL-CIO postal unions told the federal Com- 
mission on Postal Service that far-reaching changes must be made 
in the U.S. Postal Service as it is presently organized if improved 
mail service is to come about. 

J. Joseph Vacca, president of the National Association of 
Letter Carriers, said that if the' 
USPS is going to revert to its con- 
stitutionally mandated purpose of 
service "it will be necessary to re- 
place the management attitudes of 
profit over service that are perva- 
sive in the present USPS." 

Vacca also warned that further 
attempts to pressure greater pro- 
duction from postal workers "will 
assuredly result in a counter 
pressure from the workforce. The 
employee morale of USPS today 
is not greatly different than it 
was in the years immediately 
preceding the national work stop- 

Both Vacca and President Fran- 
cis S. Filbey of the Postal Workers 
told the panel that experimental 
programs, such as shutting down 
small post offices, represent false 
economy and only result in dete- 
riorated service. 

"We are opposed to the closing 
of small post offices under what- 
ever guise the closing takes place," 
Filbey said. "We suggest instead 
(that) serious consideration be 
given to revamping them by elimi- 
nating the position of postmaster 
and having them operated by a spe- 
cial postal clerk, a category of em- 
ployee already existent in larger 
post offices. 

"As for fourth-class post offices, 
we are convinced that they could 
easily be replaced by rural letter 
carriers," he said. 

Vacca said that proposals such 
as closing small post offices, reduc- 
ing delivery days, and extending 
routes might all superficially in- 
crease productivity, "but the price 
paid in service is much too high." 

He also observed that postal 
workers' productivity has increased 
dramatically since the 1970 Postal 
Reorganization Act was adopted. 

Citing the annual report of the Post- 
master General for the 1976 fiscal 
year, Vacca said overall produc- 
tivity reached an all-lime high last 
year of 131,318 pieces of mail per 
employee — higher than in any other 

Both men recommended nomina- 
tion of the Postmaster General by 
the President, with confirmation of 
the Senate, instead of the present 
system of appointment by the Board 
of Governors. They also called for 
abolishing the Board of Governors,, 
noting that the panel as presently 
constituted is not truly representa- 
tive of the American public. 

"We would favor the continu- 
ation of the Board of Governors 
only if it were established as a 
tripartite group with representa- 
tion of postal labor unions, mail 
users, and the general public," 
Filbey said. 
Vacca said that Congress is 
enough of an overseer of the USPS. 
"Let them act as the unofficial 
Board of Governors." 

Filbey urged the commission to 
take a careful look at the present 
method of establishing postage rates 
by the Postal Rate Commission. He 
said APWU had no strong feelings 
as to whether or not the Postal Rate 
Commission should be continued, 
but that some agency outside.of the 
USPS should have the authority to 
regulate rates. 

Vacca cane"9''for the abolition of 
the Postal Rate Commission, de- 
scribing it as an "absolute drag" on 
USPS's operations. 

In addition, Filbey asked the pan- 
el to make a thorough study of the 
USPS mechanization program and 
its efi'ect on operators, "both the 
noise factor and the pressure on 
employees by the establishment of 
almost impossible standards." 

TYPESETTING AND PRINTING equipment dating back to the early 1800s is viewed at the 
Smithsonian Institution by officers of the Columbia Typographical Union No. 101, which is observ- 
ing its 162nd anniversary. From left are Secretary-Treasurer Robert Petersen, Vice President Jesse 
Manbeck and executive board member William Boarman. 

Shows Sharp 
Gain for '76 

Productivity in the nation's pri- 
vate business sector grew faster in 
1976 than in any year since 1962, 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics re- 

Output per hour worked by all 
persons grew 4.5 percent last year, 
or more than double the rate of in- 
crease in 1975, BLS said. The sharp 
increase in productivity in 1976 oc- 
curred despite a fourth-quarter 
slowdown to a gain of only 1 .5 per- 
cent, seasonally adjusted. 

In its annual review of produc- 
tivity and costs, BLS said that the 
rise in output — 6.8 percent for the 
year as a whole — was the largest 
since 1965, and the 2.3 percent in- 
crease in hours paid for was the 
largest increase since 1973. 

The 1 .5 percent increase in pro- 
ductivity during the October-De- 
cember quarter reflected a 3.2 per- 
cent increase in output and a 1.7 
percent rise in hours of all persons, 
BLS said. The 1.5 percent increase 
was the smallest quarterly rise in a 

Meany Urges Sharp Boost in Funds 
For Job-Generating Public Works 

(Continued from Page 1) 
supposed to have been in a recov- 
ery phase since March 1975, pull- 
ing out of the depths of the reces- 
sion. But construction jobs have 
not stopped declining, and there 
are 134,000 fewer construction 
workers employed than when the 
economy supposedly turned the 

Georgine cited a survey by con- 
struction unions in 54 cities in all 
parts of the country which showed 
a national average of 27 percent 
out of work during the early Jan- 
uary survey, but jobless rates as 
high as 67 percent in New York 
and 48 percent in Philadelphia. 

Meany's statement said a large- 
scale public works program is es- 
sential to end "the mess brought 
about by eight years of economic 
mismanagement and a policy of 
creating high unemployment in 
order to fight inflation." 

He told the committee that 
the program the AFL-CIO is 
urging would put people to work 
and give the economy a much- 
needed impetus "long before 
there is any significant impact on 
the federal budget." Meany 
noted that letters of credit are 
issued before payments are due, 
and are translated promptly into 
''weekly paychecks and increased 
consumer spending." 

Jack Curran, legislative director 
of the Laborers who testified for 
President Angelo Fosco, termed 
the unemployment level for con- 
struction workers '^intolerable" and 
said many experienced workers 
have abandoned the industry. 

Operating Engineers Legislative 
Director John Brown, speaking for 
President J. C. Turner, stressed the 
strong stimulus to the entire eco- 
omy that a $10 billion public works 
program would bring. 

The case for a large-scale expan- 
sion of public works funding was 
reinforced by testimony that after 
the $2 billion Congress appropri- 
ated last year had been allocated, 
there were still 22,000 applications 
from cities and states seeking an 
additional $24 billion for needed 

John W. Eden, the outgoing As- 
sistant Secretary of Commerce who 
handled the allocations, told the 
committee that the $2 billion ap- 
propriation is financing 1 ,988 proj- 
ects in areas with an average unem- 
ployment rate of 12.3 percent. 

Before a new authorization pro- 
gram can be enacted, Congress has 
to amend the budget resolution it 
adopted last September for the cur- 
rent fiscal year, which runs until 
Oct. 1. The AFL-CIO, in earlier 
testimony before the House Budget 
Committee, urged Congress to 

open up the budget to finance a 
package of economic stimulus pro- 
grams designed to create jobs for 
2 million unemployed workers. 

Biemiller's testimony before the 
Senate Public Works Committee 
stressed that the projects funded 
are of lasting value, not "make- 
work" jobs. He gave this break- 
down of the $2 billion allocated 
from last year's appropriation: 

• Police and fire stations, res- 
cue facilities, jails, prisons and 
other detention facilities are being 
built through 133 projects using 
less than $100 million. 

• 268 contracts were approved 
for nearly $375 million for con- 
struction, remodeling or repairs of 

• Just over $400 million went 
for 475 water and sewer systems, 
water treatment and storm drain 

• For less than $500 million, 
469 projects for courthouses, town- 
halls, municipal offices, libraries, 
parking structures and community 
centers were given the go ahead. 

• 49 contracts for hospital fa- 
cilities, clinics, nursing homes and 
health care centers totaling $62 
million were approved. 

• 224 grants totaling $179 mil- 
lion for construction, repair or re- 
building of streets, roads and 

Oldest Local Marks 
162nd Anniversary 

Local 101 of the International Typographical Union is the grand- 
daddy of them all — at least as far as any continuing local union in 
the United States is concerned. 

Established in Washington, D.C., as the Columbia Typographical 
Society on Jan. 7, 1815 — that was during the Administration of 
President James Madison — it is now ^ 

observing its 162nd anniversary. 

It still retains a part of its old 
title, Columbia Typographical Un- 
ion No. 101, and boasts of being 
''America's oldest labor union." 

Other labor organizations were 
formed earlier — typographical so- 
cieties in New York and Boston 
and the Cordwainers in Phila- 
delphia, for example. But none 
has functioned continuously to 
this day as has the Washington 
printers local. 

The local was founded with an 
initial membership of 19 printers 
and pressmen. The uniorr^s wage 
scale in 1815 was 11 cents an hour 
for a 60-hour workweek. 

In adopting the union's constitu- 
tion and bylaws, the founders set 
the dues at 25 cents a month and 
apprenticeships for three years. At 
first, only residents of Washington 
were eligible for membership, and 
new members had to be approved 
by a two-thirds vote. 

As far as fringe benefits went, 
the local provided for a $3 a week 
sick payment to members of three 
months or more. But its rules also 
provided for a fine of 25 cents for 
any member who refused to serve 
on a designated committee. And 
anyone who showed up drunk or 
brought liquor to a union meeting 
could be fined up to $5. 

An "unfair list" was established 
in 1 8 1 6 to reprimand members who 
worked for less than the approved 
union scale. 

In 1824, the "society" displayed 
a flare for public relations by hav- 
ing all its members participate in 
an Independence Day celebration. 
They mounted a small printing 
press on a horse-drawn carriage 
and printed copies of the Declara- 
tion of Independence that were dis- 
tributed to the public. 

Ruth Succeeds Cole 
As Machinists' Editor 

The Machinist, prize-winning 
newspaper of the International As- 
sociation of Machinists, has a new 
editor for the first time in 30 years. 

Gordon Cole has retired and his 
long-time associate, Dean Ruth, has 
been appointed to succeed him. 
Both have been with the news- 
paper, originally a weekly and now 
published monthly, during most of 
its existence. 

Cole has joined the staff of the 
George Meany Center for Labor 
Studies as media specialist for trade 
union communications. 

In 1834, the union proposed the 
formation of a General Trades Un- 
ion — a forerunner to the Greater 
Washington AFL-CIO council. 

And in 1946, it lodged a protest 
against government agencies con- 
tracting-out work — a battle that 
government employee unions still 
are involved in today. 

When the construction of the 
Washington Monument got stalled 
by the lack of funds, the society 
pledged a $1,000 contribution in 
1849 to help finance the resump- 
tion of construction. There is a 
plaque inside the monument com- 
memorating the union's contribu- 

In 1852, the National Typo- 
graphical Union was organized, 
but the Washington organization 
refrained from joining the na- 
tional union — which eventually 
became the ITU — until five years 
later. At that time, it replaced 
the word "society" with "union." 

Today, Columbia Typographical 
Union has a membership of several 
thousand. Most of its members are 
employed by the Government Print- 
ing Office; others work for large 
and small printing firms and news- 
papers in the Washington area. 

Food Stamp 
Cut Cancelled 
By Bergland 

Agriculture Sec. Bob Bergland 
formally cancelled a Ford Adminis- 
tration order that would have 
dropped some 5 million persons 
from the food stamp rolls and re- 
duced benefits for millions of others. 

The slash in benefits had been 
blocked by a federal court order 
obtained by a coalition that in- 
cluded 26 state governments, the 
U.S. Conference of Mayors, 53 un- 
ions, 22 church groups and leading 
civil rights organizations. 

Earl Butz, who was Ford's Sec- 
retary of Agriculture at the time, 
complained to reporters that the 
Administration attempt to cut the 
food stamp rolls was sandbagged 
by some "bleeding hearts" who went 
off" in search of a "soft-headed 

Bergland said the Ford order was 
being withdrawn so that the new 
Administration could shape its own 
food stamp policy, "free of any 

Page Eight 


Jobless Rolls Mount : 

Fuel Shortage Chills 
Economic Recovery 

(Continued from Page 1) 
brings from Washington. President 
Carter sought and received from 
Congress emergency legislation to 
deal with the allocation of natural 
gas supplies to areas most in need 
of the fuel. (Story, Page 1.) 

In terms of layoffs, Ohio has 
been hit hardest by the cold- 
weather fuel shortages. Gov. James 
Rhodes said that over a million 
Ohioans have been put out of 
work temporarily by the energy 
crisis. State Development Director 
James Duerk said that joblessness 
could "increase dramatically" by 
the end of this week. 

As the layoffs mounted, the La- 
bor Dept. announced it was mak- 
ing available immediately $10 mil- 
lion in emergency funds to help the 
half-dozen states that have borne 
the brunt of this year's brutal win- 
ter. The funds .will be used to hire 
workers for snow removal, reduc- 
tion of ice in harbors and seaways, 
fuel transportation, emergency re- 
pairs, and winterization of houses. 

The emergency allocations to the 
states include $3.3 million to New 
York, $2 million to Pennsylvania, 
$1.8 million to Ohio, $1.5 million 
to New Jersey, $744,100 to Vir- 
ginia, and $617,000 to Maryland. 

The Labor Dept. also directed 
administrators of state employment 
security agencies in these and 12 
other states to cut "red tape" and 
speed payment of unemployment 
benefits to workers idled by the 
winter crisis. 

Marshall instructed the state em- 
ployment security agencies of all 
18 states to put into effect emer- 
gency "mass layoff" procedures for 
handling insurance claims. In addi- 
tion, he asked employers for lists of 
persons laid off and ordered a lib- 
eral policy of backdating claims 
and the waiver of work registration 
as a requirement to collect unem- 
ployment insurance benefits. 

The 18 states are New York, 
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, 
Maryland, Virginia, Alabama, Flo- 
rida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, 
Kentucky, Minnesota, Mississippi, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Tennessee, and West Virginia. 

The rising demand for jobless 
insurance benefits promised to 
put further pressure on state un- 
employment compensation 
funds, many of them already in 
debt due to the effects of the lin- 
gering 1973-75 recession. Even 
before the latest energy crisis, 21 
states had borrowed some $3.6 
billion from the federal govern- 
ment to keep their funds from 
going bankrupt, and nine or 10 
others anticipated the need for 
loans before the end of this year. 

While the nation's January job- 
less rate probably would not fully 
reflect the extent of current unem- 
ployment, an increase in the Feb- 
ruary rate appeared a virtual cer- 
tainty. Officially at 7.8 percent in 
December, the unemployment rate 
is based on a Labor Dept. survey 
taken monthly during the week 
that includes the 12th. In January, 
the sampling was made between 
Jan. 9-15. Thus, the unemployment 
rate issued by the department on 
Feb. 4 does not mirror true job- 
lessness during the January cold 

Just as clear was the near-term 
impact of cold-weather economics 
on the inflation rate and the na- 
tion's gross national product. Most 
analysts lowered their estimates of 
a 6 percent first-quarter real GNP 
growth rate by 1 or 2 percentage 
points and raised their forecasts on 
the cost-of-living increase during 
the January-March period by about 
the same margin. 

Charles Schultze, chairman of 
President Carter's Council of Eco- 
nomic Advisers, told the Cabinet 
that higher consumer costs for 
heating will range from $2 billion 
to $5 billion this winter. 

Data Resources, Inc., of Cam- 
bridge, Mass., estimated a 22 per- 
cent rise in the cost of household 
operations in the current quarter. 

Chase Econometrics, Inc., esti- 
mated that altogether the cold 
weather will cost Americans about 
$8 billion in higher fuel bills, in- 
creased prices for fruits and vege- 
tables, and income lost through un- 

UN Urged to Censure, 
Expel Czechoslovakia 

The AFL-CIO called upon the United States to press a motion 
of censure and expulsion of Czechoslovakia in the United Nations 
for human rights violations against Czechoslovak citizens seeking 
to have their government live up to accepted international human- 
rights standards. 

Federation President George"^ 

Meany charged in a statement that 
the Czech regime's "vicious perse- 
cution" of its own citizens consti- 
tutes "gross and cruel violations of 
the most fundamental human 
rights" and "warrants the condem- 



» 3 g 


nation of the civilized world." 

The AFL-CIO protest came in 
the wake of an official State Dept. 
warning to the Czech government 
for its arrest of leaders of a group 
of Czechoslovak citizens who signed 
a manifesto entitled Charter 77. 
The document, which was delivered 
to the Communist authorities on 
Jan. 6, cites the systematic pattern 
of oppression and fear that rules 

"Charter 77 establishes beyond a 
doubt that Czechoslovakia today is 
not a civilized nation governed by 
law, but one great concentration 
camp for the punishment of inno- 
cents, run by the criminals at the 
point of Soviet guns^" Meany de- 

"If basic human rights mean 
anything at all to the United Na- 
tions, Czechoslovakia must be call- 
ed to account before the General 
Assembly, and the public testimony 
of the gallant signers of Charter 
77 must be heard in that world 

King Winter 

Legislation Cleared 
On Gas Emergency 

(Continued from Page I) 
homes and places of work. 

The AFL-CIO supported the al- 
location concept, but had urged 
that the President be given power 
to allocate gas from single-state 
pipelines to the interstate market 
at the federally-regulated price. 

A letter sent by AFL-CIO Presi- 
dent George Meany to chairmen of 
House and Senate committees deal- 
ing with the bill stressed that la- 
bor's support of the emergency 
measure "should not be misinter- 

Meany said the AFL-CIO's op- 
position to deregulation of natural 
gas prices — as sought by the big 
oil and gas producers — remains 

He warned that deregulation 
would have a "devastating" infla- 
tionary impact on the entire econ- 
omy and "create catastrophic 
financial hardship for the con- 

The House initially voted to set 
a special ceiling price on emergency 
purchases of natural gas from 
single-state sources, but the final 
version dropped any dollar amount. 
The bill gives the President authori- 
ty to prevent excessive price-goug- 
ing in the sales. 

While the emergency legislation 
passed both houses easily, there was 
sharp debate over what is sure to 
be a future congressional battle — 
whether to deregulate natural gas 
prices permanently on the assump- 
tion that the opportunity for still 
bigger profits would prompt more 
exploration and drilling, and that 
higher prices to consumers would 
discourage "wasteful" uses of gas. 

Consumer groups opposing de- 
regulation have charged that pro- 
ducers have deliberately held back 
on available supplies in the expec- 
tation of bigger profits if controls 
are lifted. 

Sen. Howard M. Metzenbaum 
(D-Ohio) told his colleagues that 
"almost every governmental agency 
that has inquired into this subject 
has come to the conclusion that 
there is indeed a deliberate with- 
holding of natural gas from the 
marketplace in an efl'ort to force 
deregulation of the price." 

He noted that 13 of 14 largest 
natural gas producers in the United 
States are rriajor oil companies, 
which have been reaping windfall 
profits from repeated energy crises. 

The Federal Power Commission 
in recent years has granted repeat- 
ed price increases on "new" drill- 
ings of natural gas. 

The deregulation issue has 
been a perennial battle in Con- 

gress. During the Eisenhower 
Administration, Congress actual- 
ly passed a deregulation bill, but 
it was vetoed after a senator dis- 
closed an attempt to bribe him 
to support deregulation. 

In another emergency move. 
Treasury Sec. Michael Blumenthal 
waived requirements of the Jones 
Act to allow a limited number of 
foreign-flag tankers to carry lique- 
fied natural gas from Alaska to 
East Coast ports. The Jones Act 
requires shipments from one U.S. 
port to another to be carried on 
American-flag ships. 

Senate Kills 
Post Office 

(Continued from Page 1) 

Director Andrew J. Biemiller stress- 
ed that it is the only body con- 
cerned with long-range economic 

And the full Senate approved by 
a one-sided margin a motion to 
preserve the Special Committee on 
Aging, one of a group of non-legis- 
lative committees that hold hear- 
ings and conduct studies to spot- 
light problems. The National 
Council of Senior Citizens had 
strongly urged its retention. 

Pending, as the AFL-CIO News 
went to press, was a motion by Sen. 
George McGovern (D-S.D.) to pre- 
serve the Select Committee on Nu- 
trition, also a non-legislative body. 

Other changes also were possible 
as the Senate continued considera- 
tion of the reorganization plan 
which is intended to lessen the con- 
flicting time demands on senators. 

Under the bill, no senator 
could serve on more than two of 
the 15 standing committees and 
one joint or special committee. 
Nor could any senator serve on 
more than three subcommittees 
of a committee of which he is 
a member, or chair more than 
one of the subcommittees. 

The AFL-CIO testimony en- 
dorsed the goals of Senate reorgani- 
zation, noting that the number of 
subcommittees has more than 
tripled since the last major restruc- 
turing in 1947. 

New appointments to Senate 
committees have been held up 
pending final action on the com- 
mittee reorganization plan. 

To allow committees to function 
at full strength, temporary appoint- 
ments have been made. 

The House has completed its 
committee organization, including 

Finley Hails 
Boycott Aid 
By Japanese 

Tokyo — Support of Japan's trade 
unions for the boycott of J. P. 
Stevens & Co. products is a major 
aid in efforts to organize the 45,000 
workers of giant anti-union textile 
firm, AFL-CIO Vice President Mur- 
ray H. Finley told the Japanese 
Confederation of Labor (Domei). 

Addressing Domei's 13th nation- 
al convention here as a representa- 
tive of the AFL-CIO, Finley ex- 
pressed appreciation for the back- 
ing Japanese labor gave in the 
Farah boycott that led to union 
representation at Farah clothing 

Finley, president of the Clothing 
& Textile Workers, also detailed for 
the 1 ,000 Domei delegates econom- 
ic problems facing American work- 
ers caused by the recession and the 
imbalance in foreign trade. 

In his keynote speech to the con- 
vention, Domei President Seiji 
Amaike called for the unification 
of all private sector unions in Japan 
into one national confederation. 

Domei is Japan's largest labor 
federation with its 28 affiliated un- 
ions and a membership of 2.2 mil- 
lion. But a number of other private 
sector unions are affiliated with 
Soyo, another major confederation, 
while others are not affiliated with 
either Domei or Soyo. 

Turning to national economic 
policies, Amaike urged the Japanese 
government to adopt an economic 
recovery program that would pro- 
vide tax cuts of 1 trillion yen, or 
about $3.5 billion. He also outlined 
Domei's goals for a 1 3 percent wage 
increase in coming negotiations. 
Wage increases for Domei members 
averaged 8.8 percent last year. 

Bid to Keep 

the selection of subcommittee chair- 

Seniority generally governed, but 
the Democratic caucus refused by 
a 1 89-93 margin to agree to the re- 
appointment of Rep. Robert L. F. 
Sikes of Florida as chairman of the 
important Military Construction 
subcommittee of the House Appro- 
priations Committee. 

Sikes had been censured by the 
full House last year for a conflict 
of interest and failure to disclose 
stock ownership. 

After he was denied the chair- 
manship. Rep. Gunn McKay of 
Utah was approved for the post. 

Within the House Commerce 
Committee, liberals succeeded in 
electing Rep. Bob Eckhardt of 
Texas to fill a vacant chairmanship 
of the Consumer Protection sub- 
committee. He won the post over 
a conservative committee member 
with higher seniority, David E. Sat- 
terficld III of Virginia. 

While the Senate was debating 
the committee reorganization, an 
amendment was proposed which 
would have vetoed the pay raise 
scheduled to take effect Feb. 19 for 
government executives, members of 
Congress and federal judges. 

The raise, based on recommenda- 
tions by a salary review commission 
on which AFL-CIO Sec.-Treas. 
Lane Kirkland served, was pro- 
claimed by President Ford before 
he left office under a once-every- 
four-years procedure that puts it 
into effect after 30 days unless 
either the House or Senate disap- 
proves. The proposed pay raise has 
been endorsed by President Carter. 

The Senate voted 56-42 to table 
the motion by Sen. James B. Allen 
(D-Ala.) to cancel the pay raise. 

Add Funds 
For Jobs 

By David L. Perlman 

The House and Senate Budget 
Committees have asked Congress 
to raise this year's spending ceil- 
ing in order to finance a bigger 
job-creation program than the 
Administration has proposed. 

Both committees called for an 
additional $4 billion this year for 
accelerated public works— double 
the amount the President has 

In close tandem, the House Pub- 
lic Works Committee has already 
drawn up the legislation authoriz- 
ing the additional funds, to be acted 
on as soon as the budget ceiling is 

Until a new ceiling is set, Con- 
gress is bound by the spending 
limits established in the previous 
Congress. Thus action on the bud- 
get resolution is the first legisla- 
tive step. 

The tentative timetable calls 
for a House vote on the new 
budget ceiling on Feb. 23 and a 
vote on the public works bill the 
following day. 

The House Budget Committee 
proposed a package of job stimu- 
lants that it predicted, in an accom- 
panying report, would reduce un- 
employment by about 1 million this 

The Senate panel, which an- 
nounced its recommendations short- 
ly before the AFL-CIO News went 
to press, put together a slightly 
more modest package with some 
different components. But its ver- 
sion, also, would generate more 
jobs than the Administration plan. 

One of its provisions, not con- 
tained in the House version, would 
help pay fuel bills for low-income 
families. Separate legislation would 
have to be passed to put any such 
program into effect. 

Both committees voted to adjust 
the budget totals to allow the full 
$13.8 billion in tax rebates and re- 
ductions proposed by President 

The House Budget Committee 
emphasized that "the precise com- 
ponents of these rebates and re- 
ductions will be determined by Con- 
gress after a tax bill is reported by 
the Ways & Means Committee.'* 

Its report noted that experience 
with the 1975 tax rebate "has pro- 
duced widespread skepticism that 
rebates and reductions can spur 
sufficient economic activity to re- 
duce unemployment rates signifi- 
cantly in any acceptable period of 

Therefore, the committee ma- 
jority urged, Congress should "pro- 

(Continued on Page 8) 

Vol. XXII 

Issued weekly at 
815 Sixteenth St., N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 20006 
$2 a year 

Second Class Postage Paid at Washington, D. C. 

Saturday, February 12, 1977 

No. 6 

im% Windfall Profit Tax 
Asked on Fuel Suppliers 



LARGEST INCREASE in voter registration and voter participa- 
tion from 1974 to 1976 won Norfolk, Va., a top national award as 
the "votingest" city in communities with a population in excess 
of 250,000. Displaying the award from the America- Vote '76 
organization are Norfolk COPE volunteers, from left, Kathy 
Abbass, Mary Ann Foutz, Betty McClane and Faye Hicks. Efforts 
of COPE and the League of Women Voters were credited with 
the gains in voting participation in Norfolk. 

Union Leaders Persecuted: 

Repression in Chile 
Assailed by Meany 

Chile's current military regime is no different than Communist 
governments where human rights are concerned, and the repression 
and harassment of Chilean trade unionists is testimony to the fact, 
AFL-CIO President George Meany declared. 

In a letter to Chile's labor and social security minister who had 
sought Meany's help in securing the^ 
release of a prominent Cuban polit 

ical prisoner, Meany said that the 
viewpoint of American labor to- 
ward Chile stems from painstaking 
interviews and research by AFL- 
CIO representatives who have vis- 

La bor Backs A bolition 
Of Electoral College 

The AFL-CIO urged a constitutional amendment for direct elec- 
tion of the President as the only way to assure that the candidate 
who gets the most votes will win the election. 

Legislative Director Andrew J. Biemiller reaffirmed the federa- 
tion's support for the amendment proposed by Sen. Birch Bayh (D- 
Ind.). It would abolish the electoral 
college system and award the presi- 

dency to the candidate with the 
most votes if they amounted to at 
least 40 percent of the ballots cast. 
If no candidate reached 40 percent, 
a runoff would be held between the 
top two vote-getters. 

Biemiller's testimony was pre- 
sented by Legislative Rep. Kenneth 
Meiklejohn at Senate Judiciary sub- 
committee hearings. It stressed how 
easily the will of the people could 
have been thwarted in recent elec- 
tions and urged remedial action 

before the next presidential elec- 

A small shift of votes in one 
or two states could have changed 
the outcome in three of the last 
five presidential elections, the 
AFL-CIO testified, and the na- 
tion's highest office would have 
gone to a candidate who did not 
receive the most votes. 

Biemiller noted that Gerald Ford 
would have been elected over Jim- 
my Carter by a shift of only 8,354 
(Continued on Page 2) 

ited that country and from Chilean 
trade unionists with whom the fed- 
eration has maintained contact over 
the years. 

"In that light, we have con- 
demned the excesses of the Allende 
regime as well as those of the 
Pinochet regime as they have af- 
fected human rights and trade-un- 
ion freedoms," Meany wrote Sergio 
Fernandez Fernandez. (Text, Page 
2.) "I regret to say that we have 
seen precious little cause for re- 
joicing at the alleged efforts of the 
Pinochet regime to safeguard such 

Gen. Augusto Pinochet heads the 
military junta that overthrew the 
Marxist government of the late 
President Salvador Allende Gossens 
in 1973. 

Fernandez wrote Meany asking 
him to use his good offices to help 
free Huber Matos, a former revo- 
lutionary leader in Cuba who broke 
with Castro over communism. 
Matos was branded a traitor, and 
has languished in a Cuban political 
prison the past 17 years. 

Meany said that Fernandez's 
reference to the current Chilean 
government's anti - Communist 
posture thinly disguises the con- 
sistent repression of human rights 
(Continued on Page 2) 

Labor Stresses Need 
For Equal Sacrifice 

Natural gas and fuel companies should be taxed 100 percent 
of their "windfall profits" from the energy shortage they helped 
create, the AFL-CIO urged at House hearings. 

Legislative Director Andrew J. Biemiller and Research Director 
Rudy Oswald sharply challenged the tax "incentives" for corpora- 
tions sought by the Carter Admin- 
istration. They told the House Ways 
& Means Committee that the con- 
cept of equality of sacrifice may 
demand an opposite approach. 

^Instead of a tax cut to corp- 
orations," Biemiller suggested, 
"tax the windfall profits the gas 
and fuel companies are raking in 
out of people's misery." 

Biemiller's testimony was pre- 
sented by Oswald, who had also 
appeared before the same commit- 
tee earlier in a panel discussion by 
leading economists on the tax por- 
tions of the Administration's eco- 
nomic stimulus program. 

The AFL-CIO testimony termed 
tax cuts the "least effective" way 
to stimulate the economy and main- 
tained that any rebates should be 
limited to the neediest families. 

Money put into direct job crea- 
tion will do a lot more to reduce 
unemployment than tax cuts and 
rebates, Biemiller stressed. But if 
rebates are granted, they should go 
to "those who face the impossible 
choice of spending for fuel or 

Oswald cited a Congressional 
Budget Office study estimating that 
the $22 billion tax cut proposed by 
the Administration would create 
about 660,000 jobs within a year. 

The same number of jobs, the 
study showed, could be generated 
by a $9.5 billion public works pro- 

Biemiller told the committee that 
the proposed $50 rebate will be 
eaten up by extra fuel costs and 
energy-related price increases. 
"Workers would be far happier if 
this committee were considering a 
bill that would establish tax justice, 
instead of one that has an illusion 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Natural Gas 



The Interior Dept. began in- 
vestigating charges that some nat- 
ural gas producers have withheld 
large amounts of the fuel during 
the nation's winter emergency as 
the Wall Street Journal and other 
sources reported that many are 
sitting on huge reserves waiting 
for gas prices to rise. 

"If the price were right," the 
Journal said, "thousands of pro- 
ducers who are sitting on undrilled 
reserves would be gearing up to 
supply more gas to help ease new 
shortages that seem certain to ap- 
pear with the first freeze of next 
winter." The newspaper quoted 
David H. Foster, the executive vice 
president of the Natural Gas Sup- 
ply Committee, a Washington- 
based lobbying group for the na- 
tion's gas producers: 

"There are 7,000 natural-gas pro- 
ducers out there waiting for a 
signal that will provide them with 
the incentive to get the rigs and 
lease the land." Such a signal, 
Foster and other gas producers say, 
would be deregulation of gas prices 
by the Federal Power Commission. 

While in theory deregulation 
would prompt more exploration 
and drilling in hopes of bigger 
profits, labor and consumer groups 
charge that the move would not 
add to the nation's gas reserves, but 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Survey Shows 199^ Gam 
For Corporate Earnuigs 

American businesses posted another quarter of profit gains in 
the last three months of 1976, averaging a 19.1 percent increase 
over the same period a year earlier, the Wall Street Journal reported. 

In a survey of 470 major corporations, the newspaper found that 
the fourth-quarter increase was far below the 41 percent rise in the 
first quarter of last year or the 33'^ 

percent gain in the second quarter 
but higher than the third-quarter 
increase of 17 percent. 

The October-December earnings 
also reflected a 65 percent increase 
above the 1975 first period when 
the nation's worst recession since 
the 1930s was at its lowest. 

The Journal said that profits 
would have been higher but for the 

unusually cold and early winter. 
The chief losers were steel, chemi- 
cal, paper and textile producers. 
Oil companies and, utilities per- 
formed well, however, as did auto 
firms, chain stores, electrical-equip- 
ment manufacturers, and banks. 

General Motors maintained its 
profitability record, registering a 
(Continued on Page 7) 

Page Two 


SEVERAL THOUSAND of Virginia's public employees marched on the state capitol to press for 
a collective bargaining law and to head off further cuts in state funds for schools. Taking part in the 
massive demonstration in Richmond was a large delegation from the State, County & Municipal 
Employees and members of the Fire Fighters. The Virginia supreme court recently ruled that cities 
and counties in the state do not have the right to bargain with their employees. 

Meany Denounces Chile^s Rulers 
For Violations of Human Rights 

(Continued from Page 1) 
and trade-union freedoms in 

"The excesses committed by your 
government in the name of anti- 
communism are typical of the most 
tyrannical fascist regimes of our 
century," Meany charged. As for 
Matos and the thousands of others 
who suffer in Communist concen- 
tration camps, Meany told Fernan- 
dez that the American labor move- 
ment is concerned for all political 
prisoners including "those who suf- 
fer the same ignominious fate in 
the detention camps and jails of the 
Pinochet regime still in existence in 

"The campaign for the release of 
Huber Matos will be waged force- 
fully by persons and organizations 
who legitimately invoke the appli- 
cation of human rights everywhere, 
in Cuba as well as in Chile," Meany 

He called upon the Chilean gov- 
ernment to restore human rights 
and trade-union freedoms in Chile 
and stop its interference, repression 
and harassment of democratic trade 
unions that seek to represent the 
country's workers. 

"When your government ceases 
its persecution of trade-union lead- 
ers and permits unrestricted trade- 
union organizing, allows free and 
unsupervised trade-union elections 
to take place at all levels of the 
Chilean trade-union movement and 
restores the right to collective bar- 
gaining, then, and only then, will 
there be basis for believing that 
Chile subscribes to *the universal 
value that human rights should 
merit,' " Meany said. 

Two months ago, Chile freed 
Chilean Communist Party leader 
Luis Corvalan Lepe in exchange 
for the release of Vladimir Bukov- 
sky, the Soviet human-rights leader 

HRDI Gets New Grant 
To Train, Place 20,000 

The AFL-CIO Human Resources Development Institute will help 
train and find jobs for 20,000 unemployed workers in coming 
months under a $6 million federal contract renewal, Labor Sec. 
Ray Marshall announced. 

Working through its 56 local field offices, Marshall said HRDI 
will develop most of the jobs with^ 

the cooperation of state and local 
governments, federal agencies, the 
National Alliance of Businessmen 
and other organizations involved in 
job training and job development. 

Included in the program will be 
about 1,000 minority youths who 
will be placed in apprenticeships in 
the building and construction trades 
after they are tutored to pass en- 
trance tests. The youths will be 
recruited and trained through sub- 
contracts with 21 local building 
trades councils which operate Ap- 
prenticeship Outreach programs. 

The one-year contract also pro- 
vides for HRDI to work with state 
and local manpower planning coun- 
cils in creating additional union job 
opportunities for Vietnam-era vet- 
erans. And efforts will also be made 
to find jobs for 600 ex-offenders 
and prisoners on work release pro- 

HRDI Executive Director 
Charles Bradford reported that the 
AFL-CIO manpower arm will also 
operate jointly with the NAB a 
summer youth program this year 
for about 5,000 youngsters in 53 

cities across the country. 

The Vocational Exploration Pro- 
gram is the outgrowth of a nine- 
week pilot project that was co- 
sponsored by HRDI and NAB last 
summer. The experimental effort 
served nearly 300 disadvantaged 
youths in 18 cities. 

Under seven previous Labor 
Dept. contracts, HRDI devel- 
oped more than 138,000 job op- 
portunities and placed nearly 
70,000 persons in jobs, the Labor 
Dept. said. 

Of those placed, more than 35,- 
000 were classified as disadvan- 
taged, 25,000 were Vietnam-era 
veterans, and more than 2,500 were 
ex-offenders or prisoners on work 
release. Blacks constituted 43 per- 
cent of the placements, Spanish- 
speaking persons 13 percent and 
other minorities 2 percent. 

HRDI was established by the 
AFL-CIO in 1968 to make fuller 
use of the labor movement's re- 
sources to recruit, train and find 
jobs for unemployed or under-em- 
ployed workers through Labor 
Dept. programs. 

who became known in the West for 
exposing the Soviet practice of 
committing dissidents to mental 
hospitals. In his letter to Meany, 
Fernandez said that the Pinochet 
regime had offered to free all polit- 
ical prisoners if the Soviet Union 
and Cuba would do the same. 

While Corvalan was let free, 
through the mediation of the U.S. 
and Swiss governments, Cuba has 
not responded to Chile's proposal 
that Matos be fre^d in exchange 
for the release of Jorge Montes, a 
former senator and a member of 
the Chilean Communist Party. 

Meany said there was a certain 
irony in Fernandez's reference to 
Soviet jails since members of a 
number of accredited international 
investigative bodies have visited 
Chilean detention camps in their 
inspections in Chile. 

^^One can only assume that 
there indeed does exist a Chilean 
Gulag," Meany observed. "The 
repression and harassment of 
Chilean trade unionists today is 
painful evidence that your gov- 
ernment is no different than the 
oppressive regimes you publicly 

Meany said that the Pinochet 
regime's harassment campaign and 
threats of physical violence against 
Chilean democratic trade union 
leaders is no different than the 
campaigns being ruthlessly waged 
agaist dissidents such as Solzhenit- 
syn, Bukovsky, and Sakharov in the 
Soviet Union, and the 257 cosign- 
ers of Charter 77 in Czechoslovakia. 

Meany's Response 
To Chilean Minister 

The following is the reply of AFL-CIO President George Meany 
to a letter from Sergio Fernandez Fernandez, Minister of Labor and 
Social Security of Chile. 

Our viewpoint vis-a-vis Chile is now, and always has been, 
marked by a singular objectivity: the defense of human rights and 
trade union freedoms in that unfortunate nation. Our viewpoint is 
not the result of "Marxist propaganda" nor of "those who let them- 
selves be influenced by it," as your letter states, but grows from 
painstaking interviews and research conducted by our representa- 
tives who have visited Chile and from Chilean trade unionists with 
whom we have maintained contact over the years. In that light, we 
have condemned the excesses of the Allende regime as well as those 
of the Pinochet regime as they have affected human rights and trade- 
union freedoms in your country. I regret to say that we have seen 
precious little cause for rejoicing at the alleged efforts of the 
Pinochet regime to "safeguard such rights." Your reference to the 
anti-communist posture of the Chilean government that would dis- 
guise the consistent repressing of human rights and trade-union 
freedoms in Chile is immediately transparent. The excesses com- 
mitted by your government in the name of anti-communism are 
typical of the most tyrannical fascist regimes of our century. 

I find your mention of Soviet jails ironic in light of references 
made to the Chilean detention camps visited by members of a 
number of accredited international investigative bodies and named 
in their respective formal reports. One can only assume that 
there indeed does exist a ChUean Gulag. 

Your reference to the fate of Huber Matos, who languishes today 
in a Cuban political prison, brings forcefully to our minds the docu- 
mented persecution, jailing and torturing of Chilean trade unionists 
equally as innocent as Matos, guilty of nothing more than their firm 
belief in freedom and democracy. 

The repression and harassment of Chilean trade unionists today 
is painful evidence that your government is no different than the 
oppressive regimes you publicly denounce. The campaign of 
harassment and threats of physical violence against such courageous 
and democratic trade union leaders as Eduardo Rios, Guillermo 
Santana, Ernesto Vogel, Samuel Gallardo, Enrique Mellado, An- 
•tonio Mimiza, Tucapel Jimenez, Hernan Pinto German, Pedro Ci- 
fuentes, Manuel Bustos, Louis Alegria and countless others whose 
only "crime" is an unselfish and valiant effort to defend the inter- 
ests and well being of Chilean workers is no different than the cam- 
paigns being ruthlessly waged against so-called dissidents, such as 
Solzhenitsyn, Bukovsky and Sakharov in the Soviet Union, and the 
257 co-signers of Charter 77 in Czechoslavakia. 

You can be assured of the "concern of the United States for the 
fate of those thousands and thousands who suffer in communist 
concentration camps" and of the extension of that concern for those 
who suffer the same ignominious fate in the detention camps and 
jails of the Pinochet regime still in existence in Chile. 

The campaign for the release of Huber Matos will be waged 
forcefully by persons and organizations who legitimately invoke the 
application of human rights everywhere, in Cuba as well as in Chile. 

The AFL-CIO, for its part, demands the restoration of human 
rights and trade union freedoms in Chile and the cessation of the 
various forms of interference, repression, and harassment em- 
ployed currently by your government to prevent democratic trade 
unionists from representing their v^orking class constituency in 

When your government ceases its persecution of trade-union 
leaders and permits unrestricted trade union organizing, allows free 
and unsupervised trade-union elections to take place at all levels of 
the Chilean trade union movement and restores the right to col- 
lective bargaining, then, and only then, will there be basis for be- 
lieving that Chile subscribes to "the universal value that human 
rights should merit." 

Constitutional Amendment Backed 
For Direct Election of President 

(Continued from Page 1) 
votes — despite Carter's 1.7 million 
vote plurality in the popular vote. 
All it would have taken, he said, 
would have been a change of 3,687 
votes from Carter to Ford in Ha- 
waii and a similar switch of 4,667 
votes in Ohio. 

That would have given Ford 270 
electoral votes to 263 for Carter. 

Biemiller's testimony expressed 
particular concern at the possibility 
that a three-candidate contest could 
throw the presidential election into 
the House of Representatives, un- 
der a procedure that gives each 
state a single vote, regardless of 
population, and invites political 

It pointed out also that in the 

past three presidential elections, 
"faithless" electors have cast votes 
for someone other than the candi- 
date who received the most votes in 
their states. 

Biemiller noted that several 
senators have proposed amend- 
ments that are intended to deal 
with some of the objections to 
the electoral system. But unlike 
the Bayh amendment, he stressed, 
they would be elected President 

One of the alternative approach- 
es, Biemiller said, was advanced by 
former President Nixon. It would 
have allocated the electoral vote of 
each state on a proportional basis, 
instead of the present winner-take- 
all formula. As an example of the 

plan's weakness, Biemiller noted 
that in the 1960 election it would 
have given the presidency to Nixon 
even though John F. Kennedy had 
more popular votes. 

The original electoral college was 
intended to produce the indirect 
election of a President by a body 
of distinguished citizens. 

That concept was quickly aban- 
doned, but the electoral vote sys- 
tem remains as an impediment to 
voter selection of the President. 

The time for action is "long past 
due,'' Biemiller concluded. "We 
hope, and we urge, that this con- 
stitutional amendment may be put 
before the people for ratification 
in time for it to go into effect in 
the next presidential election." 


Page Three 

Problem Worsens: 

Discouraged Job-Seekers 
Affect Unemployment Rate 

By James M. Shevis 

Unemployment in January, based on a survey made in the second week of the month, declined 
half a percentage point to 7.3 percent, the government reported, but the improvement must be taken 
with a large grain of salt, the AFL-CIO warned. 

"Obviously, these figures — compiled during the week of Jan. 10 — are outdated ^nd obsolete 
because of the worsening weather," Federation President George Meany declared. If anything, he 
said, the latest jobs statistics "con- ^ 
stitute clear evidence the economy 
remains stagnated, with despair in- 

Meany pointed out that nearly 
450,000 workers dropped out of 
the labor force last month, a 
huge decline that the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics did not attempt 
to interpret in its release on the 
January employment situation. 
The probable explanation, Meany 
suggested, is that "most joined 
the ranks of those too discour- 
aged to look for work because 
the economy is not creating new 

Discouraged workers — those who 
give up looking for jobs because 
they feel none exists for them — are 
not counted on a monthly basis by 
BLS. Their number is reported 
quarterly and even then is not fac- 
tored into the government's calcu- 
lation of unemployment. Nor does 
BLS account for workers involun- 
tarily employed part-time because 
they cannot find full-time jobs. 

"Since the government has no 
up-to-date figures on those too dis- 
couraged to seek work, even our 
realistic measure of unemployment 
is not current," Meany said. "But 
we do know that the unemployment 
rate is at least 10 percent and is 
undoubtedly higher. And this rate 
does not include the hundreds of 
thousands of workers idled because 
of the weather and natural-gas 

The AFL-CIO method of calcu- 
lating joblessness counts as unem- 
ployed one-half of those who are 
involuntarily employed part-time 
and all of the "discouraged work- 
ers." In January, BLS reported 
3,320,000 persons at work part- 

time for what it calls "economic 
reasons." Discouraged workers, 
whose number in the first quarter 
of this year will not be disclosed 
until the first week of April, totaled 
about 1 million at the end of 1976. 

While the 444,000 decline in the 
size of the nation's work force 
remained largely unexplained by 
the government, BLS Commissioner 
Julius Shiskin told members of 
Congress the bitter cold weather 
that set in after New Year's may 
have had something to do with it. 
But when asked for an estimate of 
cold-related layoffs, Shiskin replied 
that present data were too "soft" to 
provide any meaningful figure. 

Yet, although BLS's January sur- 
vey preceded most of the severe 
economic disruptions associated 
with the unusually cold weather and 
the consequent fuel shortages, cold- 
er-than-normal temperatures during 
the survey week had a clear nega- 
tive impact on construction workers. 

"Even seasonally adjusted, em- 
ployment in construction dropped 
another 65,000 jobs, re-emphasizing 
the need for a major expansion in 
public works," Meany observed. 
The bad weather also may have 
contributed to a decline in the 
average work week, from 36.2 
hours in December to 35.8 hours in 

"Those who were working ac- 
tually earned about $3.61 less a 
week than a month ago, at a time 
when fuel and food bills are rapidly 
increasing," Meany pointed out. 
"These figures demonstrate that 
America needs a job-creation pro- 
gram that will restore hope to the 
unemployed and paychecks that are 
the only lasting stimulus to the 

Winpisinger to Succeed 
Smith as lAM President 

William W. Winpisinger will assume the presidency of the 
Machmists on July 1 to succeed JAM President Floyd E. Smith, 
who is scheduled to retire. 

Winpisinger, 52, an lAM vice president since 1967 and head of 
the union's headquarters staff for the past four years, emerged un- 
opposed from a month-long nom- 

inating process. The union said that 
no other potential candidate was 
nominated by 25 or more locals as 
required by the lAM constitution. 
Nominations closed Jan. 31. 

Smith, 64, who has headed the 
920,000-member union for the past 
eight years, will step down June 30. 
He will turn 65 later this year. 

Sec.-Treas. Eugene D. Glover, 
54, and five incumbent vice 
presidents were returned to office 
without opposition as a result of 
the nominating process. And four 
new vice presidents were elected 
to fill vacancies. All terms of 
office are for four years. 

Winpisinger, a former automo- 
bile and diesel mechanic, joined 
JAM Local 1363 of Cleveland in 
1947. He was appointed a special 
organizer for auto mechanics in 
Lorain County, Ohio, in 1951. He 
later became an JAM field repre- 
sentative handling organizing, arbi- 
tration and negotiations in Michi- 
gan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and New 

In 1965, Winpisinger was named 
the lAM's automotive coordinator 

and later became the first head of 
the union's transportation depart- 
ment, covering railroads, airlines 
and automotive repair. 

Winpisinger is also president of 
the Institute of Collective Bargain- 
ing, an advisory committee member 
of the Federal Committee on Ap- 
prenticeship, a trustee of the Na- 
tional Planning Association * and 
serves on the finance committee of 
the Democratic National Commit- 

The four new vice presidents 
who will assume office July 1 are 
Justin Ostro of Hartford, Conn.; 
George Poulin of Washington, 
D.C., Dominic Berta of Chicago 
and Stanley Jensen of San Fran- 
cisco. All are currently lAM field 

The retiring vice presidents are 
Robert Simpson of Long Beach, 
Calif.; Francis Meagher of Seattle 
and Fred Purcell of Cleveland. 

The five incumbent vice presi- 
dents winning re-election are Mike 
Rygus of Ottawa, Tom Ducy of 
Chicago, Sal laccio of New York, 
Roe Spencer of Dallas and John 
Peterpaul of Washington. 

The decline in the work force, a 
break in the pattern of the past 
year, gave the nation a labor force 
of 95,516,000 last month. Total 
employment rose by 117,000 jobs 
to 88,558,000 and this, combined 
with the decrease in the size of the 
work force, pushed down jobless- 
ness by 561,000 to 6,958,000. 

But the January figures do not 
reflect the wave of plant closings 
and attendant joblessness that 
rolled through the economy as a 
result of fuel shortages from mid- 
month on. The February employ- 
ment survey, taken this past 
week, will show a jump in the 
jobless rate of "at least one full 
percentage point," forecast John 
Kendrick, the Commerce Dept.'s 
chief economist. 

Nancy Teeters, chief economist 
for the House Budget Committee, 
told the panel that some economists 
are predicting a February unem- 
ployment rate of as high as 9.2 per- 
cent. The nation's jobless j rate at 
the lowest point of the recession. 
May 1975, was 9 percent. 

Meanwhile, initial claims for un- 
employment compensation benefits 
— running well over half a million 
each week during January — were 
expected to bulge as a result of the 
cold-weather, energy-related lay- 
offs. And two more states, Tennes- 
see and West Virginia, triggered on 
an additional 13-week period of 
jobless benefits as their insured un- 
employment average rates rose 
above 5 percent. 

Adult workers benefited mosdy 
from the early January decline in 
official joblessness, with the unem- 
ployment rate for men dropping 
from 6.2 to 5.6 percent and the 
rate for women going from 7.4 to 
6.9 percent, BLS said. Declines 
were recorded for teenagers, from 
19 percent to 18.7; for whites, from 
7.1 percent to 6.7; for blacks, from 
13.4 to 12.5 percent; for household 
heads, from 5.1 to 4.8 percent; for 
full-time workers, from 7.5 percent 
to 6.7. 

The average duration of unem- 
ployment remained essentially un- 
changed in January at 15.5 weeks, 
down from 15.6 weeks in Decem- 
ber. Hard-core unemployment — 
joblessness of 27 weeks or more — 
affected 17.5 percent, or 1,245,000, 
of the unemployed. 

The average weekly earnings of 
production workers fell over the 
month to $179.12 from $182.73 be- 
cause of fewer hours worked. 


ALABAMA TRADE UNIONISTS and concerned citizens take 
labor's consumer boycott of J. P. Stevens products to the people 
of Birmingham, distributing fact sheets and literature on the giant 
textile firm's exploitation of workers and anti-union activities. 
State AFL-CIO President Barney Weeks, center, explains to tele- 
vision reporter that purpose of the boycott is to bring Stevens to 
the bargaining table and achieve justice for Stevens workers. 

J. P. Stevens Charged 
With New Violations 

Winston-Salem, N.C. — J. P. Stevens & Co. has been hit with 
charges of further violations of labor law, this time at the com- 
pany's plants in Wallace, S.C. 

The director of the National Labor Relations Board's 1 1th region, 
headquartered here, issued a complaint based on charges of the 
Clothing & Textile Workers that the^ 

company interfered with, restrained, 
and coerced its 1,000 Wallace em- 
ployees in the exercise of their 
rights under the- National Labor 
Relations Act from "on or about 
Oct. 14, 1974, and continuing to 

Rehnquist Lifts 
Idaho Safety 
Inspection Ban 

Federal inspections of workplaces 
have been resumed in Idaho by the 
Occupational Safety & Health Ad- 
ministration after a U.S. Supreme 
Court order indefinitely suspended 
a lower court injunction that ban- 
ned OSHA inspections in the state. 

A three-judge federal district 
court panel ruled in December that 
it was uconstitutional for OSHA 
compliance officers to inspect work- 
places without first obtaining a 
search warrant. 

But Supreme Court Justices Wil- 
liam H. Rehnquist on Jan. 25 
granted the Labor Dept. a tempo- 
rary stay of the injunction, allow- 
ing inspections to continue in all 
jurisdictions other than Idaho. 

Then on Feb. 3 Rehnquist lifted 
the ban on inspections in Idaho 
pending a high court review of the 
case. However, Rehnquist left the 
lower court order in effect covering 
Barlow's, Inc., a Pocatello firm that 
challenged the OSHA inspections. 

Ferrol G. Barlow, owner of the 
heating, plumbing and electrical 
contracting firm that employs about 
35 workers, sued the Labor Dept. 
on the ground that unannounced 
OSHA inspections violated his 
rights under the Fourth Amend- 
ment's prohibition of "unreasonable 
search and seizure." Barlow re- 
fused to admit a federal safety and 
health inspector into his plant even 
after a court order was obtained. 

In his latest Supreme Court or- 
der, Rehnquist termed the 1970 
Occupational Safety & Health Act 
"presumptively constitutional as are 
all such acts," and said that it 
should remain in effect pending a 
final decision by the high court. 

The Stevens firm, which has al- 
ready been found guilty of illegal 
labor practices by the NLRB 15 
times, must respond to the latest 
accusation at an Apr. 25 hearing 
by an administrative law judge in 
Wilmington, N.C. , 

Just last month, the NLRB issued 
another in its long list of complaints 
against Stevens for unfair practices 
at its Whitehorse plants in Green- 
ville, S.C. 

The complaint against Stevens at 
its Wallace plant specifically charges 
the company with: 

• Instituting an invalid rule bar- 
ring employees from distributing 
union literature during non-working 
time in non-working areas. 

• Threatening workers that law 
enforcement authorities would be 
called in to enforce the invalid no- 
distribution rule. 

• Engaging in surveillance of its 
employees while they distributed 
union literature. 

• Threatening discharge or other 
reprisal because of union activities. 

• Ordering an employee not to 
read union literature during non- 
working time in a non-work area. 

Noting that in December 1974 a 
majority of the employees selected 
the Textile Workers union — since 
merged with the Amalgamated 
Clothing Workers into the Clothing 
& Textile Workers — as their bar- 
gaining representative, the com- 
plaint charged that since that time 
Stevens "continues to refuse to bar- 
gain" with ACTWU and is attempt- 
ing to "destroy its majority" among 
the workers. 

Stevens is the target of a nation- 
wide consumer boycott by orga- 
nized labor and concerned citizens 
because of its long record of fla- 
grant union-busting activities. It is 
the second largest textile manufac- 
turer in the country with 44,000 
employees at 85 plants. 

Workers at the company's seven 
plants in Roanoke Rapids voted for 
union representation in August 
1974, but the company has en- 
gaged in mere "surface bargaining" 
on ACTWU's contract proposals. 
An NLRB hearing on charges that 
the company is refusing to bargain 
in good faith at Roanoke Rapids is 
presently in recess. 

Page Four 


No Substitute for Jobs 

THE WORKERS we represent know that an additional $50 for 
each family member is no substitute for a job. They know a 
rebate will be eaten up by the extra money this winter will cost 
them in additional fuel and food prices. 

Those who have lost their jobs because of this horrible winter 
will not be made whole by a $50 bill per family member. They 
aren't going to be able to buy something extra — the type of con- 
sumer demand that is necessary to reduce retail inventories in order 
to spur producers into producing more goods in order to put people 
back to work. 

The workers we represent obviously would like to pay less in 
taxes, but they want jobs more than a few bucks extra in each 
week's paycheck for those fortunate enough to have jobs. The pro- 
posed tax cut is no substitute for a tax law that distributes the tax 
burden equitably. Our members don't see any real saving in getting 
a few dollars more a week when the tax laws continue to demand 
that they pay far more than their fair share of taxes. 

Workers would be far happier if this committee were considering 
a bill that would establish tax justice, instead of one that has an 
illusion of helping the little guy. 

We are especially irate at the proposal to give corporations yet 
another tax gift. The concept of giving a corporation its pick of 
tax breaks — "pick the wage subsidy or investment tax credit, 
whichever is the most profitable to you" — is galling, to say the 

We have heard various alibis for this proposal — "corporations 
need something to make them happy" or "this will provide jobs." 
The first is a rationalization. The second is untrue. And we buy 

IF THE COMMITTEE does feel the need for an immediate tax 
law, instead of a comprehensive revamping of the tax laws to 
achieve tax justice, we have two suggestions: 

First, give the $50 each to those who need it most — not to me, 
not to the members of Congress, not to the nation's millionaires. 
Give it to those who face the impossible choice of spending for 
fuel or food — the choice of keeping warm and going hungry, or 
eating while freezing. 

Second, instead of a tax gift to corporations, tax the windfall 
profits the gas and fuel companies are raking in out of people's 

President Carter, in his fireside chat, called for equality of 
sacrifice in order to meet this winter's crisis. We agree. But our 
members have lost their jobs by the hundreds of thousands. Their 
children are being deprived of education because schools are 
closed. Their homes are cold. Their future is endangered. Their 
sacrifice is very real. 

What about the natural gas companies? How is it a sacrifice for 
them to boost prices and profits? Equity demands that they do not 
profit from the suffering they imposed on the American people by 
withholding natural gas until they got the price they wanted. A 100 
percent windfall profits tax would certainly insure equality of sac- 

— From AFL'CIO testimony before the House Ways & Means 
Committee on the Administration's tax proposals. 


'Can't Seem to Shake Them!' 

Official Weekly Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

George Meany, President 
Lane Ku^kland, Secretarv-Tteasmer 

Executive Council 

I'aiil Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
So! C. Chaikin 
*CIyde M. Webber 

L W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanley 
Charles H. Pillard 

• Deceased 

Director of Publications: Saul Miller 
Managing Editor: John M. Barry 
Assistant Editors: 

= John R. Oravec 

David L. Perlman 

James M. Shevis = 

1 AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W. | 

I Washington, D.C. 20006 | 

I Telephone: 637-5032 | 

5 Suhseriplioiis: $2 a year: 10 or more. $1.50 a year = 

I VoL XXII Saturday, February 12, 1977 No. 6 | 

5 The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

= dustrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in ifl LABOR PRESS| 

£ any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 

S advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. y 

^mniiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii liiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiil 

Adult Education Growing: 

College Costs a Major Factor 
In Students' Higher Age Level 

By Gus Tyler 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY is about to move 
massively in the direction of adult education, 
oflfering full-time and part-time classes and credits 
to people well above the traditional college age. 
In doing so, this prestigious institution of learning 
is confirming a well-defined trend in higher edu- 

Men and women above the age of 24 are very 
likely to make up a majority of the students on 
college campuses within the next 10 years. That is 
the conclusion of the American Association of 
State Colleges & Universities, based on a study 
they ran on the changing age level of students in 
our schools of higher learning. 

The projection applies to full-time students. If 
part-time students were included, then the older 
age group would predominate higher education 
even earlier and in greater numbers. 

The enrollment of younger students (18-19) 
has not increased at all between 1970 and 1974. 
The number has been frozen at about two and a 
half million. Indeed, in 1973, the number fell 

In the same period, the number of full-time 
students aged 25 to 29 has risen from under 
one million to about one and a half million — 
about a 50 percent increase. The students aged 
30 to 34 have risen from 410,000 to 720,000— 
almost a 75 percent increase. 

Students aged 35 and older have also become 
an important factor on the college scene. Al- 
though available figures only cover the years from 
1973 to 1974, they show a remarkable one-year 
jump from 787,000 to 1,025,000. 

The findings do not come as a total surprise to 
me, in part because of a recent experience with 
adult education. 

Since I was to teach a class for Long Island's 
Adelphi College this fall, I was interested in who 
and how many would turn out in response to an 
invitation to adults to sign up for this college 
level schooling, with some credits granted for life 
experience and further credits for solid serious 
work in the classroom. 

The people who set up the meeting expected 
about 20. Attendance exceeded all expectation. 
Once the count reached 75, they stopped counting 
and busied themselves trying to handle the over- 

flow. Just about all were in the above-25-year-old 
category. (My students ran from age 30 to 75.) 
What are the reasons for this "aging" of our col- 
lege population? 

The reason fewer young people enroll is only 
too painfully obvious. Schools are becoming pro- 
hibitively expensive, including the once tuition- 
free public colleges. The outlay hardly seems 
worthwhile in these times when PhD's are driving 
cabs to make a living. 

Older students are drawn to higher education 
for a variety of reasons. First, there are those who 
have completed their undergraduate work and 
who are staying on for more study to back up 
the four-year investment they have already made. 

Then there are those adults who want to get 
ready for a second career — either out of boredom 
or out of fear for their present position. 

Finally, there is a more affluent body of adult 
men and women who want to make better use of 
their leisure time, either to make a living or to 
enjoy living. (In many cases, these adults can af- 
ford to go to school where younger people can 

And, as Dr. William J. McGill, Columbia's 
president, noted, schools push the adult education 
as a lucrative source of income for institutions 
that have been hard hit financially in recent years. 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

Unmet Needs 
Of Handicapped 

We add up all the advances made in be- 
half of handicapped people — advances in re- 
habilitation, in employment, in medical care, 
in acceptance on and off the job. And then 
we add up all the needs still unmet — high 
unemployment, underemployment, prejudice, 
lack of accessibility, lack of transportation, 
lack of training. 

And finally we arrive at our own "bottom 
line." How does it look? It looks better than 
it used to, but not good enough. 

— Carpenters President William Sidell at 
a labor-management conference on the han- 
dicapped, Palo Alto, Calif. 


Page Five 

Legal Strategies Limited: 

Burger Court's Rights Retreat 
Underscores Role of Politics 

By Bayard Rustin 

THE ERA THAT BEGAN with the 1954 
Brown decision, which declared segregated 
schools unconstitutional, has ended. No longer 
can the civil rights movement count on favorable 
decisions from the Supreme Court. Transformed 
by the appointments made by Richard Nixon, the 
court, under Chief Justice Warren Burger, has 
established a new trend that breaks sharply with 
its earlier course when it led the nation in fighting 
racial discrimination. 

For some time the court has been handing 
down rulings that some experts believe would 
have made it difficult, if not impossible, to win 
many of the landmark civil rights cases of the 
1950s and 1960s. Though the rulings have 
often been procedural or technical and have 
even come in some cases which had nothing to 
do with racial or sexual discrimination, their 
implications are deeply disturbing to civil rights 

What the court has done is three-fold. First, it 
has made it harder to bring suits on behalf of a 
class composed of all others in a similar situa- 
tion — a technique that is frequently necessary to 
remedy civil rights violations. Second, those who 
get into court may find that they don't have a 
legitimate claim of discrimination. The Burger 
court has given a narrow interpretation to federal 
civil rights laws and the Constitution's guarantees 
of equal protection. Finally, the court is now 
stressing the need for proof that there was an 
actual discriminatory "intent" or "purpose" as 
opposed to clear proof of discriminatory "impact." 

In January, the Court applied the "intent" rul- 
ing to a case challenging exclusionary suburban 
zoning. The court said that it was not inherently 
unconstitutional to refuse to change zoning regu- 
lations whose real effect is to block racially inte- 
grated housing. According to the court's reason- 
ing, for such discrimination to be unconstitutional, 
there would have to be proof of intention to 

Regardless of the motives in this particular 
case, there can be no doubt that many suburbs 

In Economic, Fuel Squeeze: 

have deliberately manipulated zoning regulations 
to keep blacks out. They have now been encour- 
aged to believe that it is safe to continue dis- 
criminatory zoning because it will be difficult, if 
not impossible, to prove an intention to discrimi- 
nate. The court decision has created additional 
barriers for those who are working to achieve 
racially integrated housing patterns. 

As the zoning decision indicates, it is becoming 
increasingly improbable that new and significant 
civil rights victories can be won in the courts. 
Indeed, where court decisions make a difference 
to racial progress they are more likely to have a 
negative impact. The great judicial and leigslative 
victories of the 1950s and 1960s will not be over- 
turned, but new court decisions are likely to pro- 
tect existing patterns of inequality and privilege. 

THE QUESTION is no longer whether litiga- 
tion or political action offers the best avenue to 
progress for black Americans. Rather it is how 
the black community and others committed to a 
just society will react to a new and troubling situ- 
ation. Will defeats or lack of progress in the legal 
sphere lead to political defeatism, apathy, and 
despair? Or will a clear political strategy, as 
sophisticated as the legal strategies that won the 
great victories in the courts, be able to bring re- 
newed vitality to the civil rights movement? 

The adverse turn taken by the Supreme 
Court does not mean that racial progress must 
come to an end. For a long time, the important 
victories of the civil rights movement have not 
been dependent upon judicial decisions. The 
civil rights legislation of the sixties was a politi- 
cal victory, as was the economic progress that 
resulted from the Great Society programs. 

Although the legal protection of rights remains 
essential, the most important needs of blacks to- 
day cannot be won in the courts. No court deci- 
sion can guarantee full employment, rebuild the 
cities, or establish effective job training for unem- 
ployed youth. The retreat of the Supreme Court 
from civil rights activism emphasizes more than 
ever the necessity of politics if we are to reach 
our goals. 

Increased Federal Support 
Pressed to Ease School Crisis 

THE NATION'S SCHOOL system, often an 
early victim of economic downturn, is caught 
in the worst squeeze since the 1930s, President 
Albert Shanker of the American Federation of 
Teachers declared. 

This winter's school closings forced by the nat- 
ural gas shortage are only the latest of a series 
of setbacks, Shanker said, noting that the closings 
were unavoidable because gas was the only fuel 
the heating systems could use. He said that even 
before the severe weather hit this winter, sky- 
rocketing fuel costs were the "single biggest 
money problem" for schools, and have "eaten up 
more of the taxpayer's increased tax dollar" than 
any other item. 

Questioned by reporters on the network radio 
interview Labor News Conference, Shanker scored 
the low priority given to education, citing "cut- 
backs in higher education and the elimination of 
library services and guidance and counselling ser- 
vices." He said that as a result, "the educational 
gains made in the Kennedy and Johnson adminis- 
trations have been completely wiped out" in many 
parts of the country. 

Shanker said that the near-term solution to the 
crisis in education "is jobs, and involves at least 
a two-part program on the part of the federal 
government." He called for direct job-creation in 
public works and other construction and public 
service areas that would put the unemployed back 
to work and help restore the tax base that has 
been severely eroded during the long period of 
high unemployment throughout the workforce. 
The effort, he said should be coupled with direct 
help from the federal government to the schools, 
with emphasis on full implementation of Title I 
of the Elementary & Secondary Education Act. 

That program, which concentrates on poor and 

disadvantaged children, "has never reached more 
than half of the children that it is supposed to 
reach," he said. Putting Title I into full operation, 
he said, "would add $1 billion to education and 
restore many of the cuts that have been made." 

Shanker said that the 150,000 teachers cur- 
rently unemployed could be put to work as 
earners and taxpayers in that program. He said 
that whUe the declining birth rate does produce 
fewer children to be taught, that doesn't mean 
that those teachers are surplus. 

He said it is extremely wasteful to have unem- 
ployed teachers collecting jobless benefits when 
they could be helping the many children still 
packed into over-sized classes. 

Many of these children are not learning because 
of the crowded conditions and they will undoubt- 
edly drop out of school still being functionally 
illiterate, Shanker said. As a result, many of them 
would be carried on society's welfare roles for the 
rest of their lives, he warned. 

"If we were to really educate children in this 
country — not on the basis of luxury, but on a 
common sense basis — you wouldn't be cramming 
30 to 35 youngsters in a classroom," he observed. 

"We should bring some of those unemployed 
teachers into the schools, give some of these stu- 
dents instruction on an individual basis — at least 
to the point where they can read, write and 

It is wrong to assume that the nation "was 
doing a good job" in education "during the 1950s 
and 1960s" when there was a shortage of teachers 
— "no one claims" that we were, he declared. 

Reporters questioning Shanker were Ann Mc- 
Featters of the Scripps-Howard Newspapers and 
Robert Cooney of Press Associates, Inc. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

IS THERE REALLY a natural gas "crisis?" It's a crisis, cer- 
tainly, for the more than three million unemployed workers in 
the eastern states whose plants have been shut down. 

It's not much of a crisis — so far — for homeowners. It's an in- 
convenience, like the gasoline shortage during the Arab oil boycott. 
But, despite the discomfort, one will not "freeze" at 65 degrees — 
or 60 or even less. 

Experts agree that the nation is rapidly using up its natural gas 
reserves and must go to Alaska and out into the oceans to get more. 

What about right now? Did the gas producers just get tired of 
hollering for deregulation of interstate prices and decide to hold 
back supplies? Yes and no. 

Yes, some producers are confining gas sales to the producing 
states where interstate federal regulations do not apply. Thus the 
producers can charge whatever the intrastate market will bear. 
But, no, it isn't that simple. 

For years, since the end of World War II, the big gas firms have 
been over-promoting sales of natural gas to industry. It may seem 
the height of folly to shivering easterners, but natural gas is being 
burned up under industrial boilers in the Southwest and other gas- 
rich areas to produce other energy: electric power. 

The reason they don't use oil — even foreign oil — or abundant 
coal, is that the gas companies, to capture these industrial markets, 
gave substantial discounts to their big consumers. 

And big consumers don't care, in most cases, what kind of fuel 
they use. All they want to know is: what does it cost per million 
British Thermal Units (BTUs)? 

Some industries, such as the fertilizer industry, have to use 
natural gas. But probably most big customers — such as General 
Motors and U.S. Steel — have energy plants that can be converted 
back and forth to use whatever is the most convenient fuel. 

If the local gas company gave them a big discount in the sum- 
mer time — when homeowners are not using gas — these industries 
burned natural gas under boilers and for other industrial uses. 

That's only good management. And there's no national energy 
policy that tells the industries or the gas companies that gas must 
be conserved for its highest use: home heating. So the gas compa- 
nies dump their gas supplies into industrial markets in the summer. 

Sen. Howard Metzenbaum (D-Ohio), whose state has been the 
hardest hit by the gas "crisis," wants Interior Sec. Cecil Andrus to 
investigate whether the natural gas producers have deliberately with- 
held supplies. The senator said Andrus could then cancel, or 
threaten to cancel, federal leases with companies that are not pro- 
ducing at full capacity. Metzenbaum figures one-fourth of U.S. 
natural gas supplies come from federal lands. 

In the House, Representatives John E. Moss (D-Calif.), chair- 
man of the subcommittee on oversights and investigations, and 
John D. Dingell (D-Mich.), chairman of the subcommittee on 
energy and power, warn that permanent deregulation would only 
result in '^significantly higher prices and an unacceptable infla- 
tionary shock.'* 

They say that deregulation will not speed up gas deliveries to 
end present maldistribution and could possibly encourage producers 
to hold back supplies in the hope of even higher prices. 

Whatever is to be done, it seems clear the emergency legislation 
passed by the new Congress will not solve the long-term problem. 

President Carter's energy assistant, James R. Schlesinger, ob- 
served: "The bill will not solve the shortage. It will permit mini- 
mum supplies to continue to flow to residences and to other essential 

It will not put anyone back to work in states where factories 
have shut down. That's going to require a tough national energy 
policy by the Congress and enforcement by the Executive Branch. 

AN EARLY VICTIM of the economic downturn, the nation's 
school system is caught in the worst squeeze since the Depres- 
sion, Teachers President Albert Shanker, center, declared on 
Labor New Conference. He was questioned by Robert Cooney 
of Press Associates, Inc., and Ann McFeatters of the Scripps- 
Howard Newspapers. The AFL-CIO public affairs program is 
aired Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Page Six 


Union Backs 
Ban on Chrome 
From Rhodesia 

Steelworkers' jobs don't depend 
on imports of Rhodesian chrome 
and there is no reason to continue 
to break a United Nations embargo 
against Rhodesia, the union said. 

USWA Legislative Director John 
J. Sheehan urged a Senate Foreign 
Relations subcommittee to reim- 
pose a full ban on trade with the 
minority-controlled Rhodesian gov- 
ernment. The embargo was weak- 
ened in 1971, when Congress made 
an exception for chrome ore im- 
ports on the argument that no other 
reliable source existed and specialty 
steel production would be threatened. 

Sheehan noted that chrome ore 
imports from Rhodesia were re- 
duced heavily last year because of 
the worsening situation in southern 
Africa and no ore has been im- 
ported since last March. 

But supplies from other sources 
have been adequate, he said and no 
jobs have been lost or threatened. 

Sheehan urged enactment of a 
bill that would both restore the 
embargo and also assure that the 
United States will not import from 
any other country steel products 
that contain Rhodesian chrome. 

He urged quick action by Con- 
gress as "tangible evidence" to the 
African nations of a ^'renewed na- 
tional commitment to human 
rights" at the start of a new Ad- 

AMERICAN LABOR'S representatives at a 30-nation Interna- 
tional Labor Organization conference dealing with construction 
industry problems were President Edward J. Carlough of the 
Sheet Metal Workers, left, and President Martin J. Ward of the 
Plumbers & Pipe Fitters. 

Chavez Scores Delays 
Under California Law 

Sacramento, Calif. — California's farm labor law is being frus- 
trated because the state agency enforcing it hasn't acted quickly to 
certify union elections and decide unfair labor practice complaints, 
the United Farm Workers charged. 

UFW President Cesar Chavez and a delegation of 150 farm 
workers brought their complaints ^ 

directly to the Agricultural Labor 
Relations Board in a 90-minute 
meeting. The union cited elections 
held more than a year ago whose 

Senate Vote Wiping Out 
Post Office Committee 

The AFL-CIO supported its postal and government employee 
affiliates in urging the Senate not to abolish the Post Office & Civil 
Service Committee, the only legislative forum for 2.8. million fed- 
eral and postal workers. Labor's position was rejected when the 
Senate on Feb. 2 voted 55-42 to table, and thus kill, an amendment 
by Sen. Quentin N. Burdick (D-N.D.) to a committee reorganiza- 
tion bill. 

Albourezk (S.D.) 
Allen (Ala.) 
Anderson (Minn.) 
Burdick (N.D.) 
Church (Ida.) 
Clark (Iowa) 
Culver (Iowa) 
Durkin (N.H.) 
Eastland (Miss.) 
Gravel (Alaska) 
Haskell (Colo.) 

Brooke (Mass.) 
Case (N.J.) 
Domenici (N.M.) 
Goldwater (Ariz.) 


Democrats 32 

Rollings (S.C.) 

Humphrey (Minn.) 
Jackson (Wash.) 
Johnston (La.) 
Kennedy (Mass.) 
Magnuson (Wash.) 
Matsunaga (Hawaii) 
McClellan (Ark.) 
McGovern (S.D.) 
Mclntyre (N.H.) 


Javits (N.Y.) 
Laxalt (Nev.) 
Mathias (Md.) 


Melcher (Mont.) 
Morgan (N.C.) 
Moynihan (N.Y.) 
Nunn (Ga.) 
Randolph (W.Va.) 
Riegle (Mich.) 
Sarbanes (Md.) 
Sasser (Tenn.) 
Sparkman (Ala.) 
Talmadge (Ga.) 
Williams (N.J.) 

Schweiker (Pa.) 
Stevens (Ala.) 
Thurmond (S.C.) 

Bayh (Ind.) 
Bentsen (Tex.) 
Biden (Del.) 
Bumpers (Ark.) 
Byrd, H. (Va.) 
Byrd, R. (W.Va.) 
Cannon (Nev.) 
Chiles (Fla.) 
Cranston (Calif.) 
Eagleton (Mo.) 


Democrats 28 

Ford (Ky.) 
Glenn (Ohio) 
Hart (Mich.) 
Hathaway (Me.) 
Huddleston (Ky.) 
Inouye (Hawaii) 
Leahy (Vt.) 
Metcalf (Mont.) 
Metzenbaum (Ohio) 

Muskie (Me.) 
Nelson (Wis.) 
Pell (R.L) 
Proxmire (Wis.) 
Ribicoff (Conn.) 
Stennis (Miss.) 
Stevenson (111.) 
Stone (Fla.) 
Zorinsky (Neb.) 

Baker (Tenn.) 
Bellmon (Okla.) 
Chafee (R.I.) 
Curtis (Neb.) 
Danford (Mo.) 
Dole (Kan.) 
Garn (Utah) 
GriflSn (Mich.) 
Hansen (Wyo.) 

Republicans 27 

Hatch (Utah) 
Hatfield (Ore.) 
Hayakawa (Calif.) 
Heinz (Pa.) 
Helms (N.C.) 
Lugar (Ind.) 
McClure (Ida.) 
Packwood (Ore.) 
Pearson (Kan.) 

Percy (111.) 
Roth (Del.) 
Schmitt (N.M.) 
Scott (Va.) 
Stafford (Vt.) 
Tower (Tex.) 
Wallop (Wyo.) 
Weicker (Conn.) 
Young (Tex.) 

Announced Against: DeConcini (D-Ariz.) 

Absent and not announced: Bartlett (R-Okla.), Long (D-La.) 

results have never been certified and 
unresolved complaints of unfair la- 
bor practices, including the firing 
of union supporters. 

The UFW contends that the state 
board has been too lenient with de- 
laying tactics by employers and too 
responsive to political pressure from 
an oversight committee of the leg- 
islature that the union considers 

Earlier, in a telegram to the 
board, Chavez said the intent of the 
law would be Violated if the agency 
adopted a stringent interpretation 
that would deny economic strikers 
the right to vote in union represen- 
tation elections after Feb. 28. 

The original law specified that 
persons who were economic strikers 
when the law took effect could vote 
in any election held during the next 
18 months. 

Chavez pointed out that no elec- 
tions were held and the law was 
unenforced for an eight-month pe- 
riod last year when funds were ex- 
hausted and the legislature delayed 
additional funding. 

The "clear intent" of the law was 
to allow strikers to vote in the rep- 
resentation elections, Chavez stress- 
ed, and to deny them that right be- 
cause of employer-instigated delays 
in holding elections would be to re- 
ward growers for their misconduct. 

ILO Construction Panel : 

Guidelines Drafted 
On Industry Stability 

Geneva — A 30-nation conference held by the International Labor 
Organization called for determined efforts by governments and in- 
dustry to provide greater stability of employment and earnings to 
construction workers. 

The nine-day session of the ILO's Building, Civil Engineering & 
Public Works Committee establish- 

ed policy guidelines for levelling 
out the boom-bust cycles of the 
construction industry and overcom- 
ing the seasonal factors that also 
oblige workers to lay down their 
tools and pull in their belts. 

"We were able to reach some 
good conclusions," Edward Car- 
lough, president of the Sheet Metal 
Workers, said of the unanimous 
recommendations drafted by un- 
ion, employer and government del- 

Carlough and Martin Ward, 
president of the Plumbers & Pipe 
Fitters, formed the AFL-CIO 
team at the session. Both were 
placed by their fellow worker 
delegates on the key steering 
committee that programmed the 
session's work. 

Speaking at the closing meeting 
as the worker-designated vice chair- 
man of the conference, Carlough 
praised the "attitudes of fairness 
and accommodation" shown by the 
government and employer represen- 
tatives in their effort to reach with 
the workers a "common purpose 
for the industry." 

An agreement was won by the 
workers to call on the ILO Govern- 
ing Body to start in motion the pro- 
cedures for an international pact to 
upgrade working and related con- 
ditions in the construction industry. 

Such pacts, whether in the form 
of treaty-like conventions or formal 
recommendations that the ILO*s 
132 member states must attempt to 
implement, establish the minimum 
international job and social stan- 
dards that workers and their fami- 
lies should enjoy. 

These pacts "get the implemen- 
tation machinery moving," Car- 
lough stressed. "Otherwise recom- 
mendations made by industrial com- 
mittees such as ours can remain 
meaningless because governments 
do not act." 

Carlough worked with a commit- 
tee set up to study ways to stabilize 
employment and earnings, while 
Ward drew an assignment with a 
second group that focussed on the 
construction industry's need to pro- 
yide proper training for workers 
and management. 

There is much to be done in 

SONGS OF WOODY GUTHRIE, the folksinger and onetime 
organizer of migrant workers, were recalled by President Cesar 
Chavez, left, of the Farm Workers and Director Alan Kistler of 
the AFL-CIO Dept. of Organization & Field Services at a show- 
ing of a film based on Guthrie's life. The showing of the new 
film, "Bound for Glory," was sponsored by a number of AFL- 
CIO union officials in Washington as a benefit for the UFW. 

training for middle management 
jobs, Ward said in an interview. He 
stressed that "incompetence in this 
area creates uneconomic job con- 

In its conclusions, the committee 
said that a major training objective 
is to provide a foundation on which 
the worker "can build a career in 
the construction industry and adapt 
himself with a minimum of difficul- 
ty to future technological changes." 

Initial training for entering the 
industry should be followed up by 
programs aimed at "progressively 
preparing workers for promotion up 
to supervisors and managers," the 
panel said. 

A major contribution to great- 
er stability in the construction 
industry, the committee found, 
would be for national and other 
public authorities to draft pro- 
grams for their construction proj- 
ects on both medium and long- 
term bases. Every effort should 
be made to ^'maintain a basically 
even flow of public construction 
work on the basis of the estab- 
lished and published programs," 
it urged. 

The committee stressed that it is 
now technologically possible to have 
"continuous year-round employ- 
ment in most operations in the 
building industry." By helping 
workers to develop high levels of 
skills to enhance their versatility 
"adjustments to cyclical, seasonal 
and structural changes can more 
readily be made," it said. 

San Francisco 
Teachers Win 
Citywide Vote 

San Francisco — The American 
Federation of Teachers won its sec- 
ond major representation election 
in California in about a week, de- 
feating an affiliate of the National 
Education Association for the right 
to become exclusive bargaining 
agent for San Francisco teachers 
and other professional employees. 

AFT Local 61, the San Francisco 
Federation of Teachers, received 
2,469 votes to 1,871 for the Class- 
room Teachers Association. Forty- 
eight votes were for no union. 

About 5,000 city teachers and 
educational professionals are in the 
bargaining unit. In a congratulatory 
telegram to the AFT local. Teach- 
ers President Albert Shanker de- 
scribed the San Francisco Federa- 
tion of Teachers as "a model of 
teacher unionism in the West" and 
predicted it would "succeed in ham- 
mering out a fine contract." 

Both the AFT and NEA affiliates 
viewed the election as the most 
important California contest be- 
tween the two national teacher or- 
ganizations since the state's new 
bargaining law for school employ- 
ees took effect last year. A week 
or so earlier, an AFT affiliate won 
the right to represent Los Angeles's 
31,517 teachers but the organiza- 
tion — United Teachers of Los An- 
geles — is a merged unit affiliated 
also with NEA. 

James Ballard, president of Lo- 
cal 61 and an AFT vice president, 
hailed the San Francisco victory as 
"proof that when teachers are given 
a clear choice, they choose the un- 


Page Seven 

Construction Pact Valid : 

Job Referral Plan 
Upheld by NLRB 

The National Labor Relations Board ruled that construction 
unions may lawfully maintain and enforce a contractual hiring- 
hall provision that gives priority in job referrals and layoffs on the 
basis of a worker's length of service with employers covered b\ 
the agreement. 

In its finding, the board upheld - 

an NLRB administrative judge's 
1976 decision regarding the validity 
of the seniority clause. 

The board noted that establish- 
ment of an exclusive referral sys- 
tem between unions and employ- 
ers was expressly permitted under 
Section 8(f)(4) of the National 
Labor Relations Act. 

The NLRB decision was shaped 
by Chairman Betty S. Murphy and 
Members John H. Fanning and 
Peter D. Walther who thus dis- 
missed unfair labor practice charges 
brought by individuals against Lo- 
cal 68 and 354 of the International 
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 
and two electrical-contracting asso- 
ciations in Colorado and Utah. 
Member Howard Jenkins, Jr. dis- 
sented while Member John A. 
Penello did not participate. 

Under their collective-bargaining 
agreements with the two associa- 
tions, unions gave preference to ap- 
plicants for referral who had work- 
ed one or two years in the last four 
years for signatory employers over 
other applicants without such work 

The cases involved the Interstate 
Electric Co. in Utah and the 
Howard Electric Co. of Denver. In 
the former case, an NLRB judge 
found that the seniority provision 
between the union and the firm did 
not discriminate between referral 
applicants on the basis of their 
membership or non-membership in 
the local union. 

In the Interstate case, the board 
majority ruled that the union did 

not discriminate against workers, 

"As is clear . . . Section 8(0(4) 
expressly exempts from the struc- 
tures of the act and makes lawful 
an exclusive referral system under 
which priority in job referrals may 
be *based on length of service with 
such employer.' " A key to the 
board's decision was interpretation 
of the word "employer." 

It has long been recognized that 
"employer" includes all employers 
who have joined together and bar- 
gained with the union on a multi- 
employer unit basis. The board's 
decision put aside this limited read- 
ing of the term and interpreted 
"employer" as including any em- 
ployer who, although not a member 
of the multi-employer association 
with which the union negotiated the 
agreement, has agreed to be bound 
by such agreement while perform- 
ing work in the union's area of 
geographical jurisdiction. 

In the Denver case, the board 
disagreed with its administrative 
law judge who earlier found IBEW 
Local 68 in violation of the NLRA 
by applying its length-of-service 
clause. The board cited the ration- 
ale in its Interstate decision: 

"The record discloses that ap- 
plicants ... are referred to avail- 
able jobs regardless of their mem- 
bership or non-membership in re- 
spondent union," the board said. 

Oral arguments were heard last 
July, with the IBEW and the 
AFL-CIO Building & Construction 
Trades Dept. filing friend-of-the 
court briefs. 

Grain Millers' Solidarity 
Gains Clinton Corn Pact 

Clinton, Iowa — Solidarity paid off for the workers at the Clinton 
Corn Processing Co., this city's largest industry. 

They're working under a Grain Millers union contract again after 
five months of open shop conditions. Management had cancelled 
the union's dues checkoff when the previous contract ran out. But 

nearly all of the workers in the hdir-^ 

and expanding the number of sal- 
aried employees outside the bar- 
gaining unit. 

But when negotiations appeared 
hopelessly stalled, the production 
workers voted overwhelmingly to 

gaining unit continued to pay their 

Management had made obvi- 
ous preparations for a strike, in- 
cluding bringing in a non-union 
construction firm from the South 

Profits Survey 
Finds 19f^^ Gain 
For Quarter 

(Continued from Page 1) 

29 percent increase in the fourth 

The Journal said that fourth- 
quarter profits generally were 
dampened by a slower gain in over- 
all economic activity. The 3 per- 
cent rise in real gross national prod- 
uct in the last three months of 1976 
continued a steady downward trend 
that held throughout the year, it 

Farm equipment manufacturers 
posted the largest fourth-quarter in- 
crease, 182 percent. Next in the 
Journal's survey were the chain 
stores, up 31 percent. Automakers, 
utilities, and tool and machinery 
firms averaged gains of 28 percent. 
Petroleum firms and banks were up 
25 percent, as were electrical equip- 
ment manufacturers. 

That vote. Grain Millers Vice 
President Lloyd J. Freilinger told 
the AFL-CIO News, "convinced the 
company we were for real." 

The outcome was a new three- 
year contract, which the workers 
ratified by a decisive 585-53 margin. 

It provides retroactive wages and 
cost-of-living increases, substantial 
improvements in pensions each year 
of the contract, higher Hfe and 
health insurance benefits, a dental 
insurance plan for the first time, 
and annual wage improvements plus 
an uncapped cost-of-living provi- 

Vacations were improved — to a 
maximum of six weeks — and shift 
differentials were raised in each 
year of the contract. An arbitration 
agreement was reached covering 
disciplinary action the company had 
taken during an unauthorized strike 
that had erupted when the old con- 
tract was still in force. 

And, unmourned by the city's 
union members, most of the non- 
union construction workers brought 
into the plant have now departed. 

some 50 million disabled Ameri- 
cans, nearly 12 million between the 
ages of 1 6 and 64 have a partial or 
total work disability. 

"The 1970 census reported that 
59 percent of the general popu- 
lation was regularly employed 
while only 42 percent of the 
group which classified themselves 
as handicapped were regularly 
employed — a 17 percent dispari- 
ty," he noted. 

Urging the conference partici- 
pants to join together in eliminating 
this disparity. Swift said: 

'The disabled alone should not 

shoulder the burden of attempting 
to erase discriminatory practices." 

Other participants included Wil- 
liam Gilbert, AFL-CIO Region VI 
driector; Larry Smedley, assistant 
director of the AFL-CIO Dept. of 
Social Security, and Max Wolf, 
assistant regional director of the 
Ladies' Garment Workers. 

AFL-CIO President George 
Meany and John R, Opel, president 
of the IBM Corp., are co-chairmen 
of the Industry-Labor Council. 
President Charles H. Pillard, of the 
International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers serves with Swift as 
co-vice chairman of the council. 

LABOR-INDUSTRY EFFORTS to promote equal job opportunities for handicapped workers 
were explored at a western states conference in Palo Alto, Calif. Speakers at the conference 
included, from left, Dr. Henry Viscardi, chairman of the White House Conference on Handicapped 
Individuals; A. Dean Swift, president of Sears, Roebuck & Co.; William Sidell, president of the 
Carpenters, and Charles A. Anderson, president of Stanford Research Institute. 

Progress for Handicapped Workers 
Not Good Enough, Sidell Declares 

Palo Alto, Calif. — Although significant progress has been made in labor-management efforts to as- 
sure equaUty in the job market for handicapped workers, the "bottom line" is that it's still not good 
enough. Carpenters President William Sidell told a conference at Stanford Research Institute here. 

The meeting, which brought together 200 representatives of unions and management, was the sec- 
ond of four regional sessions sponsored by the Industry-Labor Council of the White House Con- 
ference on Handicapped Individ-'*^ ~~ 


Sidell cited the advances made 
in behalf of handicapped people 
in overcoming high unemploy- 
ment, underemployment, preju- 
dice, lack of accessibility, lack of 
transportation and lack of train- 

But he stressed that this progress 
is still "not good enough." 

He suggested that there is a need 
to "help to break down some of 
the stereotypes that still stand in 
the way of acceptance of handicap- 
ped people. As an example, he said 
that some people believe that hand- 
icapped people could never work in 
the construction trades because 
they'd get hurt. But Sidell pointed 
out that there are many jobs in the 
construction industry that could be 
filled by handicapped individuals 
without any danger to their well- 

He also noted that the stereotype 
of the handicapped worker as a 
person in a wheelchair ignores the 
fact that there are many kinds and 
limitless degrees of disabilities 
among handicapped individuals. 

Following Sidell's keynote ad- 
dress, the meeting was divided into 
workshop sessions on recruitment 
of qualified handicapped individu- 
als, accommodations to permit 
them to work, the eff'ect on estab- 
lished benefit plans of the employ- 
ment of greater numbers of handi- 
capped persons, and afiirmati-ve ac- 
tion plans to employ and advance 
the handicapped. 

A report reflecting the labor- 
industry consensus from the re- 
gional meetings will be presented 
to the White House Conference on 
Handicapped Individuals to be held 
in May. 

Dr. Henry Viscari, Jr., chairman 
of the White House Conference, 
told participants at the Palo Alto 
meeting that "this conference seeks 
no special privilege for the re- 
tarded, mentally restored nor the 
physically handicapped. It does 
seek equality, fairness and mutual 
working together." 

A. Dean Swift, president of Sears 
Roebuck & Co., who serves as co- 
vice chairman of the Industry La- 
bor Council pointed out that of 

Union Women Press 
Child Care Program 

Philadelphia — The executive board of the Coalition of Labor 
Union Women renewed its call for a massive federal commitment 
to provide day care for the 6 million children of working mothers 
who need it. 

The board at a three-day meeting here stressed that child care 
legislation should include the use of 

sponsors who are prepared to offer 
quality programs and that public 
and private non-profit programs 
meeting federal standards should be 
eligible for government funds. 

Child care programs have suf- 
fered severe setbacks in the past 
several years because of vetoes by 
former Presidents Nixon and Ford 
and continued opposition of the 
past Republican Administrations. 

The 69 representatives from 21 
unions attending the board meet- 
ing also endorsed legislation to 
prohibit discrimination in fringe 
benefits resulting from disability 
due to pregnancy, childbirth and 
related conditions. 

Until such legislation is enacted, 
the board urged women to work 
through their unions in pressing for 
the elimination of discriminatory 
clauses in negotiated agreements. 

In other action, the board: 
• Reaffirmed CLUW's support 
of the right to abortion, stressing its 
opposition to any anti-abortion con- 
stitutional amendments and other 
measures that would ban the use of 
Medicaid funds for abortions for 

working women and the poor. 

• Endorsed the Clothing & Tex- 
tile Workers' boycott of J. P. Stev- 
ens & Co. products, including 
sheets, pillow cases, carpets, table 
linens, hosiery, towels, blankets and 
other items. The coalition has 
agreed to cooperate with boycott 
coordinators around the country in 
collecting signed pledges from in- 
dividuals as part of the anti-Stevens 

• Adopted guidelines on appren- 
ticeship and training research sur- 
veys in an effort to encourage un- 
ions to broaden opportunities for 

• Called for an immediate in- 
crease in the federal minimum wage 
to $2.65 a hour and to $3 next 
Jan. 1 . The current minimum wage 
is $2.30 an hour. 

The board also heard a report 
from the coalition's ERA task force 
which is spearheading the CLUW 
drive for ratification of the Equal 
Rights Amendment. The report 
credited organized labor with play- 
ing a major role in pushing through 
ratification of the ERA in the In- 
diana legislature recently. 

Page Eight 


Fewer Committees: 

Reorganization Plan 
Approved by Senate 

The Senate approved a committee reorganization plan, paving 
the way for permanent assignment to committees — a task usually 
completed in the first week of a new Congress. 

The drastic reduction of committees originally proposed by a 
panel headed by Sen. Adlai E. Stevenson (D-IU.) was substantially 
modified before the Senate voted 

89-1 approval. But it retained ma- 
jor provisions intended to cut down 
on the conflicting demands on a 
senator's time — and thus make the 
Senate more efficient. 

No senator will be able to serve 
on more than two major commit- 
tees, and on no more than three 
subcommittees on each of them. 
And no senator will be assigned to 
chair more than one subcommittee 
of each of his committees. 

The effect will be to reduce 
the number of subcommittees 
substantially, since the new rules 
will not leave enough senators 
able to serve on those that cur- 
rently exist. The average senator 
now serves on 18 committees and 
subcommitees. At the same time, 
the limit on chairmanships means 
that most junior senators will re- 
ceive assignments as subcommit- 
tee chairmen — a prerogative pre- 
viously of their more senior col- 

The reorganization gave the In- 
terior Committee both a new name 
and important increased jurisdic- 
tion. It will be called the Commit- 
tee on Energy & Natural Resources. 
It will encompass regulation of na- 
tural gas and oil production which 
previously was in the Commerce 
Committee. It will take on the 
oversight of peaceful uses of atomic 
energy previously in the Joint Com- 
mittee on Atomic Energy, and it 
gains authority over hydroelectric 
power from the Public Works Com- 

Some committees are completely 
abolished, including the Post Office 
& Civil Service Committee which 
postal and government worker un- 

ions and the AFL-CIO had sought 
to save. Others include Aeronauti- 
cal & Space Sciences, District of 
Columbia, Joint Committee on 
Atomic Energy and several minor 

The Select Committee on Nutri- 
tion & Human Needs, originally 
scheduled for immediate abolition, 
was given a compromise one-year 
extension. That was agreed to after 
the Senate rejected a two-year ex- 
tension sought by its chairman, 
Sen. George McGovern (D-S.D.) 
who argued the need to complete 
pending staff studies. 

After the year is up, the com- 
mittee will be folded into the Sen- 
ate Agriculture Committee — one of 
a number of jurisdiction shifts. 

The work of the Post Office & 
Civil Service Committee and the 
District of Columbia Committee 
are shifted to the Government Af- 
fairs Committee, previously known 
as Government Operations. 

The Senate's Labor & Public 
Welfare Committee becomes the 
Committee on Human Resources, 
but its jurisdiction is largely un- 
changed. It will continue to deal 
with education, welfare and la- 
bor-related issues. 

Most other name changes are 
easily identifiable; thus the Public 
Works Committee is now the Com- 
mittee on Environment & Public 

The lone vote against the reor- 
ganization was cast by Sen. Quentin 
N. Burdick (D-N.D.) as a final pro- 
test against the abolition of the 
separate Post Office & Civil Service 

Boxed In 

■c^oB Losses^ 

Barkan Spells Out Case 
For Easier Registration 

It is time to enact a universal voter-registration law, Al Barkan, 
director of the AFL-CIO Committee on Political Education, de- 
clared in a recent Newsweek magazine column. 

Debunking the myth of voter apathy, Barkan says that Americans 
will vote if it is made easier for them. He lays the responsibility of 
registering voters squarely with the^ 
federal government. 

"Any eligible citizen should be 
entitled to enter the voting booth 
on Election Day, his or her regis- 
tration having been duly handled, 
without aggravation or inconveni- 
ence, by the government," Barkan 
asserts in the magazine's Jan. 24 

As an interim step to universal 
registration, Barkan observes, the 
trade-union movement has support- 
ed enactment of registration-by- 
mail laws which 16 states have 
adopted in the past two years. 

"But the labor movement seeks 
a quantum leap beyond registra- 

Interior Dept. Sets Investigation 
Into 'Shortages ^ of Natural Gas 

(Continued from Page 1) 
would simply permit producers to 
reap higher earnings from supplies 
they have deliberately withheld 
from the market. 

Whether natural gas shortages 
are real or contrived is a question 
consumer and public-interest groups 
have sought an answer to for the 
past eight years. Cecil Andrus, the 
new Secretary of Interior, said his 
department has asked the U.S. 
Geological Survey to increase its 
efforts to determine how much oil 
and gas reserves the nation actual- 
ly has, rather than rely on figures 
supplied by oil companies as in the 

A Newsweek article quotes 



0> tB 2 

<« sg" 



PS g. 



James F. Plug, director of the 
Energy Action Committee, on gas 
decontrol in testimony before a 
House subcommittee recently: "The 
oil and gas companies have no in- 
terest in dealing with the current 
emergency. The more people who 
are cold and out of work and out 
of school, the easier it is to stam- 
pede the nation into a deregulation 

Natural gas is perhaps Ameri- 
ca's most important fuel, heating 
40 million homes and fueling 40 
percent of the nation's industries. 
The gas is drawn mainly from 
wells in Louisiana, Texas, and 
Oklahoma, as well as from off- 
shore rigs. 

Until 1954, the wellhead price of 
natural gas was free of control. 
That year, the Supreme Court or- 
dered the FPC to set the wellhead 
price of gas sold to interstate pipe- 
lines. The commission has kept 
the price as low as 52 cents per 
1,000 cubic feet. As a result, specu- 
lation that producers have withheld 
gas from interstate commerce while 
making it more available for the 
unregulated intrastate market has 
been rife. 

According to the Journal, the 
proportion of new reserves dedi- 
cated to the interstate market has 
fallen drastically. In 1975, the lat- 
est year for which statistics are 
available, only 13 percent of re- 
serves were earmarked for inter- 
state transmission. If interstate gas 

were fully decontrolled, prices 
could be expected to rise quickly 
to about $2 to $2.50 a thousand 
cubic feet, about the level of intra- 
state prices, the Journal noted. 

Domestic production of natural 
gas peaked in 1972 at 22.8 trillion 
cubic feet and is not expected to 
climb back to that level until 1990. 
Meanwhile, the fuel sits there, un- 
tapped, in huge reservoirs. The U.S. 
Geological Survey estimates that 
total undiscovered natural gas re- 
sources in the nation are between 
322 and 655 trillion cubic feet. 

tion by mail," he notes. "We 
look at Canada and other nations 
where the government says to the 
citizen, *Don't worry about regis- 
tration, we'll handle that — all 
you have to do is show up at the 
polls and vote Election Day.' 

"We look at the fact that citizens 
in these nations do show up Elec- 
tion Day in percentages far higher 
than our own. We think this is ex- 
actly how it should, and would, 
work here." 

The Nov. 2 presidential election 
drew a record number, if not per- 
centage, of voters to the polls, Bar- 
kan observes. Over 80 million per- 
sons voted, about 80 percent of 
those who were registered to vote. 
Millions more would have turned 
out, Barkan says, if they had been 
able simply to get in line and make 
their choice known. 

Strong evidence exists to support 
his belief, Barkan says. In Wiscon- 
sin, a recently enacted state law 
permits voters to forget about reg- 
istration entirely and simply show 
a driver's license or other proof of 
age and residence to be allowed to 
vote. Voter participation in the 
state last November was 10 points 
above the national average of 54.4 

In Minnesota, under a similar 
state law, the voting performance 
Nov. 2 was more than 20 points 
above the national average and the 
highest in the nation. 

McBride Claims Victory 
In Steelworkers^ Contest 

Lloyd McBride has been elected to succeed I. W. Abel as 
president of the Steelworkers, according to unofficial but 
nearly complete returns. 

McBride's claim of a "decisive victory" in the referendum 
balloting held in more than 5,000 locals in the United States 
and Canada was backed by independent newspaper tallies. 
McBride put his victory margin over Edward Sadlowski at 
over 75,000 "by the most conservative estimate." The total 
number of votes cast was expected to be close to 550,000. 
McBride is the USWA St. Louis district director; Sadlowski 
is director of the Chicago-based district. 

McBride and his successful running mates for the union's 
top offices will be installed June 1, for four-year terms. He 
called on all USWA members "to close ranks behind our 
union's negotiating team, led by President L W. Abel," in the 
basic steel bargaining that is about to begin. 

Tax Sought 
On Windfall 
Fuel Profits 

(Continued from Page 1) 
of helping the little guy," he said. 

Labor heartily endorses Presi- 
dent Carter's call for equality of 
sacrifice to meet this winter's crisis, 
Biemiller testified. 

"Our itiembers have lost their 
jobs by the hundreds of thou- 
sands," he said. "Their children 
are being deprived of education 
because schools are closed. Their 
homes are cold. . . . Their sacri- 
fice is very real." 

He contrasted that with natural 
gas companies that have increased 
prices and profits. "Equity demands 
that they do not profit from the 
suffering they imposed on the 
American people by withholding 
natural gas until they got the price 
they wanted," Biemiller insisted. 

"A 100 percent windfall profits 
tax would certainly insure equality 
of sacrifice." 

Oswald stressed that "there is 
no economic justification for giving 
business a new tax windfall — either 
in the form of a wage subsidy or 
an increase in the investment tax 

It won't put anyone to work, he 
told the committee. Further, "corp- 
orate profits have fully recovered 
from the recession" and business is 
paying a smaller share of the tax 
burden than in the past because of 
all the "incentives" given in recent 

Oswald noted that the AFL-CIO 
supported a tax cut two years ago 
as part of an emergency program 
to keep the recession from becom- 
ing a full-scale depression. But 
during that period, he pointed out, 
there was little choice. The Ford 
Administration was opposed to di- 
rect job-creation programs and ef- 
forts by Congress in this direction 
"were continually hamstrung by 

House, Senate 
Panels Boost 
Job Funding 

(Continued from Page 1) 

vide for additional direct spending 
for jobs." 

Apart from public works, the 
House Budget Committee proposed 
spending levels higher than the Ad- 
ministration request in these major 

• An additional $200 million 
would be given to cities and states 
to compensate for recession reve- 
nue losses — a total of $800 million 
in added money. 

• The public service jobs pro- 
gram would be geared to expand 
from the present 310,000 level to 
720,000 by fiscal 1978. This year's 
funding would remain at the 600,- 
000 jobs goal of the Administra- 
tion, but the added second-year 
authorization would help states and 
communities plan ahead. 

• For an assortment of youth 
programs, including expanded Job 
Corps training, and for older Amer- 
ican programs, the Budget Com- 
mittee proposed a ceiling that is 
$700 million over the President's 

• It also added $300 million for 
waste-treatment facilities and $400 
mi lion for repairs to rail beds. 

Altogether, the committee would 
provide for an additional $3.5 bil- 
lion in outlays as compared with 
the Administration's $1.8 billion 
estimate, and budget authority to 
obligate $14.7 billion additional as 
contrasted with the $5 bilHon Ad- 
ministration stimulus. 

Vol. XXII 

Issued weekly at 
815 Sixteenth St., N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 20006 
$2 a year 

Meany Asks 
Shoe Import 

By John R. Oravec 

The AFL-CIO has urged Presi- 
dent Carter to impose effective 
controls on job-destroying shoe 
imports, which have already taken 
over nearly half of the U.S. mar- 
ket and threaten the survival of 
the American shoe industry. 

Federation President George 
Meany pointed out in a letter to 
Carter that twice in less than a 
year the U.S. International Trade 
Commission found unanimously 
that foreign imports are causing 
serious injury to U.S. shoe produc- 
ers and workers. 

Instead of recommending direct 
quotas on imports that shoe unions 
had called for, Meany noted that 
the majority of the ITC's six-mem- 
ber panel proposed a tariff rate 
quota system. 

Quotas on imports, Meany 
said, 'Vould be the most effec- 
tive and least expensive remedy 
for workers, employers, consum- 
ers and taxpayers." 

Under the five-year ITC propo- 
sal submitted to Carter on Feb. 8, 
265.6 million pairs of non-rubber 
shoes could be imported every year 
' at the current low duty rate that 
averages about 10 percent. Imports 
above that quota would have a 
tariff of 40 percent for three years, 
but the rate would drop to 30 per- 
cent in the fourth year and to 20 
percent in the fifth. The quota 
would die after five years. 

Meany told Carter that the ITC's 
tariff rate quota plan would have 
no substantial effect unless the 
tariff rate is raised by 50 percent- 
age points, no exceptions on im- 
ports are permitted and the tariff 
level is held for at least five years. 

"Anything less amounts to slow, 
but certain death of the industry 
and a substantial loss of jobs," 
Meany warned. 

Tracing the serious impact of 
foreign-made shoes on American 
producers and workers, Meany 
noted that shoe imports have 
risen from 21 percent of the U.S. 
market in 1968 to about 50 per- 
cent this year. 

During that nine-year period 
alone, Meany pointed out that 
about 70,000 jobs in the U.S. shoe 
industry have been lost. The more 
than 100 plant shutdowns and re- 
sultant layoffs have affected hun- 
dreds of communities throughout 
the country, he said. 

"These job losses also affect jobs 
of workers in supplying industries 
and local government workers, 
since the tax base of the commu- 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Consumer Parley Puts 
Focus on Fuel Crisis 

By James M. Shevis 

The national debate over the energy crisis that put hundreds of 
thousands of Americans out of work this winter dommated the' 
annual conference of the Consumer Federation of America, with 
top Carter Administration spokesmen warning that mandatory mea- 
sures may be necessary if voluntary efforts to reduce energy con- 

Second Class Postage Paid at Washington, D. C. 

Saturday, February 19, 1977 

No. 7 

Crafts Launch New Drive 
For Site Picketing Rights 

Slated On 
House Bill 

STEEL WORKERS PRESTOENT I. W. Abel, right, joins USWA District Director Lloyd McBride, 
left, and U.S. Steel Vice President J. Bruce Johnson for a discussion before negotiations on a new 
three-year contract with the steel industry began in Washington. On the basis of unofficial returns in 
ihe_ recent USWA election, McBride will become the uruon!s president-when Abel-retires June J^:;:^ 

Negotiations Open: 

Job Security Heads 
Steel Contract Goals 

Job security, better wages and improved fringe benefits headed 
the bargaining agenda for the Steelworkers as the union opened 
1977 negotiations for a new contract with the basic steel industry. 

Topping the union's list of goals is what it calls a "lifetime 
security program" that would guarantee a steelworker a job and a 
level annual pay irrespective of 

circumstances outside his control, 
such as recession-induced layoffs. 

USWA President I. W. Abel, 
who heads the union's negotiating 
team, told a joint news conference 
that the lifetime security concept 
means "a job for life at a decent, 
respectable income for life/' Abel 
is due to retire June 1 and his ap- 
parent successor is District Direc- 

sumption fail. ^ 

Without being specific, White 
House energy chief James R. 
Schlesinger told delegates to 
CFA's Consumer Assembly '77 
that the government might have 
to adopt ^^mandated" measures 
to enforce fuel conservation. 

Schlesinger, who warned that the 
world has only a 30-year supply of 
natural gas and oil left, said that 
Americans are living on "borrowed 
time" after a century of wasteful 

use of the fuels. 

Schlesinger, the key speaker at 
the three-day meeting, stressed that 
conservation will be the corner- 
stone of the Administration's com- 
prehensive energy policy to be un- 
veiled by Apr. 20. In his address to 
the 500 representatives of consum- 
er groups from across the country, 
Schlesinger hinted that the govern- 
ment's program may involve some 
kind of price regulation. 

(Continued on Page 7) 

tor Lloyd McBride of St. Louis, 
who defeated District Director Ed- 
ward Sadlowski of Chicago for the 
presidency on the basis of unoffi- 
cial results in the USWA's recent 
elections. (Story, Page 7.) 

The steel talks, covering more 
than half a million USWA mem- 
bers at some 200 steel com- 
panies, began initially with the 
10 largest producers, which em- 
ploy nearly 340,000 workers. 
The union's Basic Steel Industry 
Conference presented its bar- 
gaining agenda to the companies 
at a meeting in Washington, 

The talks are being conducted 
under the Experimental Negotiat- 
ing Agreement (ENA) that bans an 
industrywide strike, providing in- 
stead for arbitration of unresolved 
national issues. First used in the 
1974 negotiations, ENA guarantees 
minimum wage increases, continu- 
ation of the union's cost-of-living 
escalator clause, and past practices 
such as the union shop and check- 
off provisions. The parties reached 
full agreement in the 1974 negotia- 
tions without resorting to the arbi- 
tration step. 

While ENA rules out a strike 
over national issues, it permits 
strikes at the local level over local 
issues. Both sides found ENA so 
successful three years ago, they 

(Continued on Page 8) 

Jobless Rates 
Post Increase 
In 33 States 

The unemployment rate increased 
in 33 states during December, with 
16 states equaling or rising above 
the unadjusted national rate of 7.4 
percent for the month, the Bureau 
of Labor Statistics reported. 

It was the second month in a row 
in which two-thirds of the states 
reported increases, BLS said. Mean- 
while, the Federal Energy Admin- 
istration said that while joblessness 
due to the energy crisis is easing, 
10 states still had significant un- 
employment problems due to gas 

In its report on state and metro- 
politan area joblessness, BLS said 
that unemployment continues to be 
most severe in the heavily indus- 
trialized Northeast, the Pacific 
states, Michigan, and Florida. Alas- 
ka reported the nation's highest 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Leaders of 
building trades unions hailed the 
introduction of a new construc- 
tion site picketing bill and opened 
a drive for its enactment this year. 

Its sponsor is Rep. Frank 
Thompson, Jr. (D-N.J.), whose 
House Labor-Management Rela- 
tions subcommittee has scheduled 
hearings for the first week in 

One witness for the bill will 
be Labor Sec. Ray Marshall. He 
told a news conference here that 
he will testify for site picketing 
legislation because it will ''equal- 
ize the bargaining situation for 
construction workers" by giving 
them trade union rights compar- 
able to those of other groups of 

Earlier, addressing a labor-man- 
agement conference in Washington, 
Marshall expressed the hope that 
Congress will pass a common site 
picketing bill "in a hurry." 

Marshall noted that every Presi- 
dent since Harry Truman and every 
Secretary of Labor in the same 
period had expressed support for 
construction site picketing legisla- 
tion. The need for the legislation 
stems from a 1951 Supreme Court 
decision based on the assumption — 
a wrong one, in the view of many 
familiar with the construction in- 
dustry — that subcontractors and 
contractors working on the same 
job are arms-length enterprises 
rather than partners on a common 

Robert A. Georgine, president of 
the Building & Construction Trades 
Dept., expressed the hope that the 
news media and commentators will 
take the trouble to find out for 
themselves what the issues are and 
what the Thompson bill provides 
instead of accepting uncritically the 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Marshall Backs Rights 
Of Public Employees 

By David L. Periman 

Collective bargaining in the public sector is "as essential as in 
the private sector," Labor Sec. Ray Marshall said. And while the 
Administration is still "examining proposals" for legislation, there 
is "no question" in his mind that federal, state and local workers 
should all have collective bargaining rights. 

Marshall's remarks were made to^ 

a Washington conference on public 
sector labor relations that featured 
both labor and management par- 
ticipants, including the presidents 
of three AFL-CIO unions. 

The Secretary of Labor made 
clear that he doesn't consider any 
group of American workers to be 
second-class citizens in terms of the 

right to union organization and col- 
lective bargaining. 

Farm workers were originally 
excluded from the National La- 
bor Relations Act '^for purely 
political reasons," Marshall noted. 
But he sees ^^no legitimate rea- 
son'^ to continue to exclude 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Page Two 


New Alliance 
Spurs Energy 

A bipartisan group of national 
leaders has formed an Alliance to 
Save Energy and enlisted promi- 
nent Americans from diverse fields 
in a campaign for energy conserva- 
tion and independence. 

AFL-CIO President George 
Meany is one of three union lead- 
ers serving on the policy-setting 
board of directors. Also on the 
board are Communications Work- 
ers -President Glenn E. Watts and 
Auto Workers President Leonard 
Woodcock. In addition, Air Line 
Pilots President John J. O'Donnell 
is an advisory board member. 

The Alliance chairman is Sen. 
Charles H. Percy (R-Ill.) and Sen. 
Hubert H. Humphrey (D-Minn.) is 
co-chairman. The bipartisan make- 
up is continued with the two hon- 
orary chairmen, former President 
Gerald R. Ford and Vice President 
Walter F. Mondale. 

A joint statement by Percy and 
Humphrey stressed that the energy 
saved through conservation is an 
enormous untapped resource "that 
can reduce our dependence on ex- 
pensive foreign oil and dwindling 
domestic energy supplies." 

Energy savings through strict 
conservation practices and "invest- 
ments in more eflficient buildings, 
transportation facilities, industrial 
processes and electrical generation" 
could save $70 billion in energy 
costs by 1985, they declared. 

2 Unionists on Panel 
For Fire Training 

Fire Fighters Sec.-Treas. Frank 
A. Palumbo has been appointed to 
the Advisory Committee on Fire 
Training & Education for the Na- 
tional Academy for Fire Prevention 
& Control 

Also named to the committee was 
Charles E. George of the union's 
Louisiana state affiliate, the Profes- 
sional Fire Fighters Association. 

SUPPORT FOR LABOR in its fight against a proposed "right-to- 
work" law in Idaho was pledged by Gov. John Evans, right, at a 
bean-and-barbecue dinner sponsored by the State AFL-CIO. 

Jobless Rates Higher 
Among Less-Educated 

It still holds true that the more education a worker has the better 
are his chances of finding and keeping a job, the Labor Dept. affirms. 

A special Labor Dept. study correlating workers' educational 
attainment with labor force participation concludes that those who 
have not completed high school are more likely to be unemployed 
or to drop out of the labor forced' 

altogether than workers who have 
finished a secondary education. 

In March 1976, workers with 
one to three years of high school 
education had a jobless rate of 13.5 
percent, the government study 
showed. Those who had completed 
high school but had received no 
further formal schooling had an 
8.2 percent jobless rate, while 
workers with one to three years of 
college training had a 6.3 percent 
rate and college graduates a 2.8 
percent rate. 

NLRB Ruling Reversed 
On Hospital Picketing 

A federal appellate court ruled that construction disputes are not 
covered by a law that requires unions to give 10 days notice before 
striking or picketing a health care facility. 

The notice requirement was added to the National Labor Rela- 
tions Act at the same time that employees of non-profit health 
facilities were brought under the=^ 
labor law*s protection. 

In the case that reached the U.S. 
Court of Appeals for the Seventh 
Circuit, the National Labor Rela- 
tions Board took the position that 
any picketing on the hospital 
grounds was covered by the notice 
requirement, even if it was not 
aimed at the hospital and did not 
interfere with the hospital's ability 
to provide health care services to 

A three-judge panel of the 
appellate court held unanimously 
that this interpretation was 
wrong and refused enforcement 
of the NLRB's order against a 
local of the International Broth- 
erhood of Electrical Workers at 
Marshfield, Wis. 

The union had picketed the elec- 
trical contractor hired by the hos- 
pital and carried picket signs that 
read: "Our only dispute is with the 
substandard wage, substandard 
benefits paid to employees of 
Thomas Electric," the contractor 

Such picketing was clearly legal 
even before Congress amended the 
law to cover all hospital workers, 
and the appellate court concluded 
that the only congressional intent 
in restricting picketing was to avoid 
sudden disruption of health services 
to patients. 

Chief Judge Thomas E. Fair- 
child, who wrote the decision, said 
he found no indication in the com- 
mittee reports or the House and 
Senate debates on the bill of any 
desire to regulate union activity 
by nonhealth care employees al- 
ready covered by the National La- 
bor Relations Act. 

Nothing the law changed, he 
noted, created any increased dang- 
er of disruption of health care ser- 
vices by persons who are not em- 
ployees of the hospitals or nursing 

While a 10-day notice require- 
ment may not be "an oppressive 
burden" on a union, he added, "we 
are also aware that any regulation 
imposed on a union's ability to 
strike or picket deprives workers 
of important rights." 

Congress didn't intend to de- 
prive these workers of rights, the 
court found, and the NLRB was 
wrong in holding otherwise. 

In a footnote, the appellate court 
said that the case before it did not 
require consideration of whether 
employees engaged in work "nec- 
essary to the present operation of a 
health care institution, but not di- 
rectly employed by that institution, 
should be considered health care 
employees" who therefore would 
be covered by the picketing restric- 

Interestingly, workers with no 
high school training at all had a 
jobless rate of 9.8 percent, about 
3.5 points lower than workers with 
one to three years of high school. 
Explaining this apparent anomaly, 
the Labor Dept. said that workers 
with no high school background 
tended to be older and to have 
more seniority and work experi- 

The rate of labor force partici- 
pation of workers with just an ele- 
mentary school education, however, 
was only 38 percent. While the low 
participation rate partially reflects 
the large number of older, retired 
workers in this group, it also re- 
flects a higher level of discourage- 
ment among less educated workers, 
the Labor Dept. said. 

Even among male workers in 
the prime labor force age group 
of 25 to 54, those with only an 
elementary school education have 
participation rates in the mid- 
80s, compared with 95 percent 
for the college-educated. 

The labor force participation rate 
for the nation as a whole in March 
1976 was 60.8 percent. Workers 
with one to three years of high 
school had a 52.1 percent partici- 
pation rate, those with high school 
diplomas 67 percent, and college 
graduates 79.3 percent. 

The government noted, however, 
that unemployment stemming from 
lack of education may be on the 
way out as an important economic 
phenomenon, since the educational 
level of the American workforce is 
steadily rising. 

The median education level of 
the labor force in March 1976 was 
12.6 years, up from 12.2 years a 
decade earlier. Also, about 75 per- 
cent of the labor force had high 
school diplomas in March 1976 
while about one-third had com- 
pleted at least one year of college. 


The Sen. Hart listed in a roll- 
call in the Feb. 12 issue of the 
AFL- CIO News as having voted 
against labor's position on the issue 
of retaining the Senate Post Office 
& Civil Service Committee was Sen. 
Gary W. Hart of Colorado. He 
was inadvertently identified in the 
rollcall as from Michigan, which 
was the home state of the late Sen. 
Philip A. Hart. 

In Conservative Legislature: 

Idaho Unions Battle 
New R-T-W Move 

Boise, Idaho — Organized labor is rallying support to block legis- 
lation that would outlaw the union shop in Idaho as "right-to-work" 
forces seek to capitalize on a conservative swing in the state 

Unions have succeeded in keeping one "right-to-work" bill bottled 
up in the State Affairs Committee^ 
of the House for more than a 

month in the current session of the 

And Gov. John Evans, the form- 
er lieutenant governor who assumed 
office after former Gov. Cecil An- 
drus became Secretary of Interior, 
pledged his continued opposition 
to the anti-union measure at a 
State AFL-CIO rally here. 

'*You can rest assured I'm 
with you all the way," Evans 
told Idaho's trade unionists. 
Evans, a long-time foe of ^'right- 
to-work" measures, cast a decid- 
ing vote against an earlier at- 
tempt to outlaw the union shop 
while serving in the legislature in 

Several attempts during the 1950s 
and 1960s to enact the anti-union 
measures were rebuffed in the state 

State AFL-CIO President Robert 
W. Macfarlane led a large delega- 
tion of union members at public 
hearings to register labor's protest 
against the proposed legislation. 

More than 1,500 trade unionists 
from all parts of the state came to 
Boise in buses and car pools to 
bolster the state labor federation's 
fight against the bill. 

Many of the out-of-town union 
members brought along bed rolls 
and were put up overnight at the 
Boise Labor Temple. Others were 
invited to sleep at homes of fellow 
union members in the Boise area. 

While labor succeeded in block- 
ing House Bill 67 from being re- 
ported out of committee, another 
"right-to-work" measure — H.B. 118 

was sent to the House floor. 
That bill provides for a voter ref- 
erendum next Nov. 8 on banning 
the union shop through an amend- 
ment to the state constitution. 

The state AFL-CIO is contesting 
the constitutionality of H.B. 118 
on the ground that voter initiatives 
can be placed on the ballot only 
through the petition process. 

Organized labor has received the 
support of the state's leading news- 
paper, the Idaho Statesman, in the 
battle against "right-to-work" leg- 

In a lead editorial on Feb. 10, 
the Statesman termed the anti- 
union legislation ^'a thinly dis- 
guised effort on behalf of a 
cheap labor climate in this 
state," stressing that it would 
benefit neither employers nor 

'The issue was brought into Ida- 
ho by the National Right to Work 
Committee," the editorial noted. 
"The campaign is being orches- 
trated by imported public relations 
specialists. It is not a spontaneous 
movement of Idaho workers." 

The Statesman said that the pro- 
posed law would be of no benefit 
in attracting new industry to state, 
but would hold down wages of the 
state's citizens. 

"The legislature should reject 
the right-to-work bill and move on 
to other business," it stressed. "Ida- 
ho does not need such a law to 
help keep pay low. Right-to-work 
would be a backward step in a state 
that has enjoyed reasonably good 
labor relations." 

Price Rise Continues 
At Wholesale Level 

Wholesale prices rose agam in January, portending future in- 
creases in the cost of living. 

The government's wholesale price index went up five-tenths of 1 
percent, about the monthly average for fourth-quarter 1976, the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. 

BLS was quick to note, however, 
that the January increase in whole- 
sale prices does not reflect the full 
price impact of the severe winter 
weather that affected much of the 

Prices for most commodities 
surveyed in the January report 
were those in effect as of Jan. 
11, BLS said. Fuel and power 
prices since then have meant 
higher costs for both consumers 
and industrial users. 

Prices of industrial items moved 
up somewhat more than in Decem- 
ber, while farm products increased 
less, BLS said. Prices for processed 
foods and feeds moved down slight- 
ly after increasing in the previous 
two months. 

The cost of farm products moved 
up 1.1 percent last month as grain 
prices rose for the first time since 
June and vegetable prices moved 
up after falling in both November 
and December. The January in- 
crease was down sharply from a 2.6 
percent jump in December. 

The rise in industrial commodity 
prices was led by an increase of 
nine-tenths of 1 percent in both the 
metal products and the machinery 
and equipment groups — the most 
heavily weighted categories in the 
industrial commodities component 
of the index. 

Fired Stevens 
Worker Wins 
Baek Wages 

Greenville, S.C. — A former em- 
ployee of J. P. Stevens & Co. was 
awarded $3,711 in back pay here 
after a National Labor Relations 
Board administrative law judge 
found he had been illegally fired by 
the giant textile firm. 

James F. Eddleman, whom Stev- 
ens let go at its White Horse plant 
here last June for his union activi- 
ties, won the award under terms of 
an agreement reached . Feb. 8. 
Charges of unfair labor practices 
against Stevens over the incident 
were filed by the Clothing & Textile 
Workers union. 

NLRB Judge Ralph Winkler also 
directed Stevens to refrain from 
further unfair labor activities of this 
nature and to end its interference 
in its employees' rights to join or 
form labor organizations. 

The ruling was the latest in a 
string of decisions against Stevens, 
viewed by ACTWU and the AFL- 
CIO as the nation's number one la- 
bor law violator. 


Page Three 

In Public Sector: 

Marshall Stresses 
Bargaining Rights 

(Continued from Page 1) 
them, and ''no insurmountable 
obstacles" to giving them bar- 
gaining rights, either under 
NLRB jurisdiction or through a 
separate mechanism. 

The practical problems of col- 
lective bargaining, especially in the 
local and state segments of the 
public sector, were explored in the 
two-day program that balanced un- 
ion and management speakers. It 
was sponsored jointly by the Amer- 
ican Arbitration Association's Dept. 
of Education & Training and the 
Labor-Management Relations Ser- 
vice of the U.S. Conference of 

Union speakers acknowledged 
that the financial crunch on cities 
has made collective bargaining's job 
more difficult, but they rejected the 
view that unions should therefore 
slink away from the bargaining 
table because the coffer is empty. 

Both President Jerry Wurf of 
the State, County & Municipal 
Employees and President Albert 
Shanker of the Teachers lashed 
out at city governments that try 
to make scapegoats of their em- 
ployees instead of looking for 

And Fire Fighters President 
William H. McClennan said that 
his union has found that a lot of 
cities with no insurmountable finan- 
cial problems "are making believe 
they are as broke as Mayor Beame" 
of New York when they get to the 
bargaining table. And their officials 
"get angry when we don't accept 
their word at face value." 

McClennan, who is also head of 
the AFL-CIO Public Employee 
Dept., said that in many communi- 
ties and a number of states the big 
problem is "getting to the bargain- 
ing table" in the first place. 

He spoke scathingly of the situ- 
ation in Virginia, where the state's 
Supreme Court finds public sector 
bargaining illegal because it is not 
specifically authorized by legisla- 
tion, and where the governor 
promptly warns that he will veto 
any collective bargaining bill that 
the legislature might pass. 

And to go even beyond that 
"Catch 22" situation, McClennan 
noted, the federal Hatch Act and 
comparable state laws severely re- 
strict public workers and their un- 
ions from working politically to 
bring about change. 

Shanker, who addressed a lunch- 
eon session, said the public sector 
is in financial trouble because the 
private sector of the economy is in 
trouble. When construction is down 
and unemployment is up, he said, 
the public sector feels the squeeze. 
But if unemployment can be 
brought down, "all these pressures 
on the public sector are reduced." 

The lesson that teachers and 
other public workers are learning, 
Shanker said, is that "we must get 
involved in private sector policies 
to protect our own interests." 

Both he and Wurf, who ad- 
dressed a dinner session, cited fed- 
eral assumption of welfare costs as 
an overdue reform that would re- 
lieve a costly burden on cities. 

Full federal financing of welfare 
would have wiped out New York 
City's $1 billion budget deficit, they 

Wurf, in his prepared remarks, 
charged that "with a few notable 
exceptions" public officials "looked 
for scapegoats" instead of talking 
about solutions. "You would have 
thought that every street sweeper 
and social worker and health in- 
spector in New York City drove 
around in a chauffeur-driven lim- 

Instead, he suggested, the New 
York crisis could have been used 
to educate the American people 
about the special problems of urban 
centers — problems like a steadily 
eroding tax base due to the flight 
of middle and upper income citi- 
zens to the suburbs, problems like 
the loss of 510,000 jobs ... and 
the increasing need for services 
from an urban population that is 
more and more made up of the 
very old and the very young, the 
poor and the underprivileged." 

McClennan spoke also of the 
scapegoating of public workers, 
and of a ''scurrilous" attack on 
public employee unions by the 
National Right to Work Com- 
mittee "and its front organiza- 
tion, the so-called Americans 
Against Union Control of Gov- 

He read from a solicitation letter 
signed by Sen. Jesse A. Helms (R- 
N.C.) seeking contributions to help 
"stop the union bosses from terror- 
izing our communities and seizing 
control of our local government." 

Such "ridiculous" attacks "are 
poisoning the atmosphere in hun- 
dreds of communities," he warned. 

School Administrators 
Mourn Walter Degnan 

New York— Walter J. Degnan, founding president of the School 
Administrators, died Feb. 12 after he suffered an apparent heart 
attack at the union's headquarters here. He was 68. 

Degnan headed the AFL-CIO School Administrators & Super- 
visors Organizing Committee for several years before it was chartered 
by the federation last year as the^^ 

American Federation of School 

He was elected at the founding 
convention to a three-year term as 
the union's first president. The 
AFSA is composed of 54 locals 
and represents nearly 10,000 prin- 
cipals and school executives across 
the country. 

In a message to his family, AFL- 
CIO President George Meany and 
Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland said that 
Degnan was "a true believer in 
America's public schools and a 
sound trade unionist. He proved 
time and again how vital organized 
teachers and school administrators 
were to achieving quality, inte- 
grated education." 

Degnan served the New York 
City school system as a teacher and 
principal from 1930 until retiring 
in 1973. In the 1960s, he also was 
president of the High School Prin- 
cipals Association and later the 
Council of Supervisors & Adminis- 
trators in the New York public 
school system. 

The council, which eventually 
became Local 1 of AFSA, negoti- 
ated its first contract in 1969 cov- 
ering the city's school administra- 
tors and executives. 

A funeral mass was offered for 
Degnan at Immaculate Heart of 
Mary Church in Scarsdale on Feb. 
15. Burial was in St. Raymond's 
Cemetery in the Bronx. 

A START has been made in public sector bargainmg, but much more needs to be done, Fire Fighters 
President William H. McClennan told a labor-management conference in Washington. Others on the 
panel, seated from left, are Paul Salmon, director of the Association of School Administrators; Paul 
Quirk, president of Local 509 of the Service Employees and secretary of the Massachusetts Alliance 
of Public Employees; Herb Abshire, president-elect of the National Public Employer Labor Rela- 
tions Association, and moderator Kenneth Moffett of the Federal Mediation & Conciliation Service. 

Study Finds Need for New Agency 
To Plan for Nation's Future Growth 

Orderly economic development requires the establishment of an independent federal agency to 
oversee planning for the nation's future growth, a top-level governmental advisory committee sug- 
gested after a year-long study. 

The Advisory Committee for National Growth Policy Processes examined a wide range of prob- 
lems facing the country in an effort to set up guidelines for making "the system" work better. 

Among its major recommenda-'^ 

tions, the advisory panel called for 
the creation of a National Growth 
& Development Commission as 
an independent agency in the Ex- 
ecutive Branch. 

The commission ^'should have 
a broad mandate to examine 
emerging issues of middle and 
long-range growth and develop- 
ment, and to suggest feasible al- 
ternatives for Congress, the Pres- 
ident and the public," the ad- 
visory group said in its report, 
titled Forging America's Future. 

The advisory committee, consist- 
ing of 19 noted Americans, met 
monthly throughout 1976 to review 
vital issues and to draft its report. 

Organized labor was represented 
on the panel by Sec.-Treas. Jacob 
Clayman of the AFL-CIO In- 
dustrial Union Dept., President 
Charles H. Pillard of the Interna- 
tional Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers and President Leonard 
Woodcock of the Auto Workers. 

Others on the panel came from 
business, universities, consumer 
groups, the professions and local, 
state and federal government. 

In a preface to the report, Arnold 
A. Saltzman, chairman of the panel, 
said the committee found that fed- 
eral policy-making suffers from two 
key deficiencies: 

• A lack of coordinated policy, 
evidenced by the tendency of the 
nation to tackle problems piece- 
meal with frequently disappointing, 
or partly counterproductive results. 

• A lack of foresight, that 
causes a reaction to problems after 
they become acute, instead of 
averting or easing them. 

"If we are to cope successfully 
with the complex and interrelated 
problems of the late 20th Century," 
the panel said, "it is imperative that 
we both improve the capacity of 
government to look into the future 
— anticipating the problems, in- 
stead of merely reacting to them — 
and also the ability of government 
to think comprehensively when pre- 
paring policy choices." 

America should not become a 
planned society, the report said, but 
national planning for the future is 
vital to head off crises. 

In the long-run, intelligent plan- 
ning will actually reduce burden- 
some governmental intervention in 
the private sector, the report said. 

"Much governmental interfer- 

ence in the economy now consists 
of ad hoc reactions to situations 
which have become acute because 
they have been ignored until they 
become intolerable. With the bene- 
fit of foresight, the committee ex- 
pects that any necessary govern- 
ment intervention will be more con- 
sidered, more timely, less heavy- 

In assessing the relations of the 
United States with other countries 
and its position in international 
commerce, the report said that both 
the nation and the world have 
changed greatly since 1960, but 
that government has not kept pace. 

'Trade expansion has in- 
creased our prosperity, but rela^ 
tively less than that of nations 
with more integrated economic 
policy-making," it said, point- 
ing out that America's growth 
rate was the lowest of any in- 

dustrialized nation since 1960 
except for Britain. 

The report further noted that the 
United States has become more 
vulnerable to foreign economic 
pressures since 1960 because of the 
nation's increased dependence on 
imported raw materials. 

The committee also outlined 
wide-ranging roles for Congress, 
the White House and governmental 
agencies in the planning process, 
stressing the need for "the greatest 
degree of public participation and 
to encourage multiple centers of 
data and policy analysis." 

A key section of the report ex- 
plored the need to set up a national 
planning structure for vital raw 
materials and commodities. It also 
proposed policy guidelines should 
the nation establish economic stock- 
piles to offset the dependence on 
foreign sources of supplies and 
vulnerability to cartel action. 

Religious Groups Back 
J. P. Stevens Campaign 

New York— The Clothing & Textile Workers received the sup- 
port of five major church groups here in pressing the union's drive 
to achieve economic justice for J. P. Stevens & Co. workers. 

The church groups, working through the Interfaith Center on Cor- 
porate Responsibility, filed shareholder resolutions with the com- 
pany demanding disclosure of ^ 
information about minority-hiring 

practices at Stevens and about its 
labor policies and practices. 

Stevens has resisted efforts by 
ACTWU and its predecessor un- 
ion, the Textile Workers, to orga- 
nize its workers since 1963. The 
goal of the resolutions is to "en- 
courage public accountability of 
the corporation in the area of equal 
employment opportunity" and to 
"provide necessary data for the 
making of intelligent and informed 
investment decisions." 

Filing the resolutions were the 
Board of Global Ministries of the 
United Methodist Church, the 
Catholic Foreign Mission Society 
of America, the Franciscan Mis- 
sionaries of Mary, the Institute of 
Christian Doctrine, and the Fran- 
ciscan Justice and Peace Office. 

The groups are soliciting proxies 
in support of their resolution for 
consideration at Stevens's annual 
shareholders' meeting on Mar. 1 
here. The largest number of shares 

is held by the Methodist panel. 

In a separate action, the Board 
for Homeland Ministries of the 
United Church of Christ announced 
its support of the union's boycott 
against Stevens products. 

Meanwhile, added support for 
the ACTWU boycott came from 
the National Coalition of Amer- 
ican Nuns in Chicago. Attacking 
the company's record "of depriv- 
ing American citizens of the ben- 
efits of the labor law," the nuns 
group declared: 

"Until the church united rises up 
against recrimination for those who 
try to organize for fair wages and 
working conditions at J. P. Stevens, 
there will be no justice for these 

Stevens, the nation's second 
largest textile manufacturer, has 
been found guilty by the National 
Labor Relations Board and U.S. 
courts of flagrantly violating fed- 
eral labor law in a long string of 

Pago Four 


New Life for Site Picketing 

SITUS PICKETING legislation has been introduced by Rep. 
Frank Thompson, Jr. (D-N.J.) to allow unions in the construc- 
tion industry to peacefully picket all gates at a common construction 
site. It would allow them to publicize their disputes with any one or 
more of the contractors jointly engaged in construction at that site. 

The bill would restore to the nation's 4.1 -million building and 
construction tradesmen the same rights and privileges enjoyed by 
workers in all other industries. 

The legislation would not permit strikes or picketing in breach 
of a collectiye bargaining contract. It would not permit strikes or 
picketing to keep employees off the job because of their sex, race, 
color, creed, or national origin. It would not permit strikes or 
picketing to keep unionized employees off the construction site 
when they come to install manufactured equipment. 

All the legislation does is to give construction workers the right 
to advertise a legitimate grievance at a construction site, and nothing 
more. It is a right that every other organized worker m America has. 

Other safeguards include a 10-day notice to all other unions and 
principal employers at the job site, and written authorization from 
the parent union prior to picketing. 

The bill would decrease costs by eliminating the effects of lower 
productivity, work slowdowns and illegal strikes which now stem 
from the construction workers' lack of legal redress and resultant 
frustration. A legitimate means would become available to the 
worker to express his grievances. 

UNIONS IN THE building and construction industry should have 
the right to publicize peacefully, by picketing, the fact that an 
employer subcontracts part of a job to a non-union subcontractor 
who might have won the bid because he is substandard, not only 
in wages but in safety and other considerations. 

Presidents Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon and 
Ford each had spoken in favor of efforts to end the inequitable dual 
standard for picketing by construction unions. 

President Ford last year reneged on his word to former Sec. of 
Labor John Dunlop, and to the American public and vetoed the 
legislation he had advocated. The legislation Ford vetoed passed 
the House by a vote of 230-178, and the Senate by a vote of 52-43. 

That veto marked an abject surrender by a President of the 
United States to the political pressures brought by the ultra-con- 
servative wing of his party. 

So Congress has to do its job again; The Thompson bill is needed 
to end a festering injustice — one that should have been remedied 
years ago. 

Its passage will help restore also a stable collective-bargaining 
relationship in the construction industry, a relationship that has 
been slowly eroded by open shop employers intent on destruction 
of unions and union conditions. 


Official Weekly Piihlicalion 
of the 

American Federation ol Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

Geough Ml- any, President 
Lane Kirki.and, Secrerary-Tieasiner 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
rioyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
♦Clyde M. Webber 

Executive Council 

I. W. Abel 
Max Green berg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanle> 
Charles H. Pillard 

• Deceased 

5 Director of Pnblicofions: Sin\\ M'iWqy 5 

5 Managini^ Editor: John M. Barry E 

E Assistant Editors: S 

S John R. Oravec David L. Perlman James M. Shevis 1 

I AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St.. N.W. | 

1 Washington. D.C. 20006 | 

I Telephone: 637-5032 | 

E Suhscrlptioiis: $2 a year; 10 or more. $1.50 a year E 

I VoL XXII Saturday, February 19, 1977 No. 7 | 

S The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

= dnstrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in 

S any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 

S advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


^Likewise, Fm Sure!' 

Just Another Gimmick: 

Thurmond's Electoral 'Reform' 
Worse Than Existing System 

By Gus Tyler 

EVERY TIME there is a move on to get rid of 
our antiquated system of picking the Presi- 
dent through the Electoral College and to elect 
our Chief Executive by a direct election, someone 
comes along with a proposal that looks like a 
reasonable reform but is actually much worse than 
our present indefensible system. The "reform" is 
generally referred to as the "proportional system." 

The idea in this gimmick is to divide up the 
Electoral College vote in each state on the basis of 
the "proportion" of the popular vote won by each 
candidate. For instance: 

At present, if a candidate wins the popular vote 
in New York State by a margin of one vote out 
of several million cast, all 41 electoral votes of the 
state go to the winner. Under the "proportional 
system" the electoral votes would be split just 
about evenly between the two candidates. 

This year, the "proportional system" is pro- 
posed by Sen. Strom Thurmond (R-S.C.) who won 
his fame in 1948 when he broke away from the 
national Democratic party to run for President on 
the States Rights ticket, popularly referred to as 
the Dixiecrats. 

On the face of it, the proportional system 
seems eminently fair. But, in practice, it can 
produce results that totally distort the demo- 
cratic results to pervert the wUl of the electorate. 
If the proportional system had been applied in 
the past, three presidential candidates who lost 
the election would have won. 

In 1896, William Jennings Bryan would have 
been elected President although his Republican 
opponent, William McKinley, had a popular win- 
ning margin of more than 4 percent. In 1960, 
Richard Nixon would have been elected although 
John F. Kennedy would have been the front run- 
ner. In 1880, Democrat Winfield S. Hancock 
would have beaten James A. Garfield, although 
the former lost the popular vote. 

The system turns out these nonrepresentative 
results because the electoral vote does not mirror 
the popular vote. Small states have an inflated 
strength in the Electoral College because, no mat- 
ter how tiny the population, they get three elec- 
tors for the state. (Alaska has one electoral vote 
for every 101,000 people while New York has 
one for every 445,000 people.) 

In addition, voters in states with small voter 

turnouts have greater clout per voter than those 
in states with big turnouts. Thus the more than a 
million votes cast in 1976 in Oregon were worth 
only six electoral votes while the mere 769,000 
cast in Mississippi were worth seven electoral 

The states that do best under the proportional 
system are those that are most lop-sided in their 
politics — the so-called "one-party" states. 

If a small state with a low vote turnout is also 
lop-sided in its political preference, then this 
pigmy has more power than many a giant. Con- 
sider the case of the District of Columbia, for 
instance, in the 1976 election: 

With a population of 756,510, the District cast 
only 171,818 votes in the presidential contest — a 
turnout of less than 25 percent of the citizenry. 
Yet, because the results were lop-sidedly Demo- 
cratic in this small "state," the winner under the 
proportional scheme would have had an electoral 
vote margin of 1.919. 

This one district, consequently, would have 
given Carter an edge large enough to wipe out 
Ford's victory in 1 2 other states with a total popu- 
lation of well over 20 million. 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

The Two Ends 
Of the Pipeline 

There is a gas crisis. There is a gas short- 
age at our end of the pipeline. But there is 
not a shortage at the other end of the pipe. 
There is plenty of gas out there. The ques- 
tion is: Why aren't consumers getting it? 

The producers have had reason to believe, 
over the past few years, that deregulation 
was just around the corner . . • and have 
kept the gas in the ground awaiting higher 
prices. How do we get the gas out of the 
ground? Just make it clear that national de- 
regulation is not around the comer. This 
will get trillions of cubic feet of natural gas 
out of the ground. 

— James F. Flag, director and counsel, 
Energy Action Committee, at Consumer As- 
sembly *77. 


Page Five 

'A Lot of Holes': 

Employer Tax Credit Proposal 
A Hollow Promise to Jobless 

The following editorial appeared in the New 
York Times Feb. 13, 1977, titled "The Job Tax 
Credifs Hollow Promise,'* 

THERE'S A BRIGHT new fashion in social 
engineering now pirouetting on the congres- 
sional runaway. It's called the job tax credit and 
its purpose is to enlist private industry in the effort 
to cut hard-core unemployment. Listen to the ap- 
plause: Rep. Abner Mikva, the Illinois Democrat, 
argues that it will have a "more direct effect on 
high unemployment areas than other economic 
proposals now being considered." Sen. Richard 
Schweiker, the Pennsylvania Republican, compares 
it, gleamingly, with "unimaginative, worn-out" 
public job programs. 

Why is everyone getting so carried away? 
Fashionable or not, the job tax credit seems to 
us to have a lot of holes in it. 

Job tax credits would serve as incentives for 
business to hire more workers. For every eligible 
employee on the payroll, a firm would receive a 
tax credit equal to some portion of the employee's 

The Carter economic stimulus package contains 
one such job credit option. In lieu of extra invest- 
ment tax credits firms could subtract from their 
tax bills 4 percent of their contribution to Social 
Security. That adds up to about $25 for an em- 
ployee earning $10,000. But counting all workers, 
the Carter job tax credit would yield a tax break 
of only about a penny an hour. It would hardly 
provide much incentive to increase hiring. Messrs. 
Mikva and Schweiker have much more in mind. 

They want to concentrate the impact by limit- 
ing the credit to new employees — ^perhaps only to 
disadvantaged job seekers — and raising the tax 
break to 10 or 20 percent of their wages. Given 
the blessing of Chairman Al Ullman, some version 
of the credit for new jobs is bound to be tacked 
onto the House Ways & Means Committee bill 
now in the works. 

A basic appeal of the job tax credit is that, 
unlike public employment which might involve 
make-work, the beneficiaries are almost certain 
to be productive. If a company has no real use 
for extra workers, even a 20 percent credit 
against wages wouldn't induce added hiring. 

Inflation Toll Cited: 

Sen. Schweiker also sees it as an end run around 
the barriers raised by the minimum wage for the 
young or chronically unemployed. A credit on 
wages is, in essence, a wage subsidy. Hence a 
firm's actual cost in paying the $2.30 hourly mini- 
mum might be reduced substantially. 

A close look at the job tax credit concept, how- 
ever, reveals weaknesses that outweigh its 
strengths. If credits are to apply only to new work- 
ers, someone must certify eligibility and establish 
whether the workers are "new" or simply replac- 
ing others. That someone — the Internal Revenue 
Service — is technically up to the task, but the 
administrative cost would be considerable. 

Beyond the management question are ques- 
tions of fairness and efficiency. A credit restrict- 
ed to new hiring would reward only companies 
that are expanding. Growing regions of the 
country would receive subsidy infusions denied 
to the most troubled regions. Is it in the public 
interest to reduce the taxes paid by, say. Gen- 
eral Motors but not American Motors? Or to 
send money to Texas but not to Pennsylvania? 

If the program were likely to put tens of thou- 
sands of the hard-core unemployed on private pay- 
rolls, these questions might, in conscience, be over- 
looked. But economic research provides no reason 
to be optimistic. On the contrary, creation of so 
many jobs for such potential workers requires in- 
dustries to use workers instead of machines. Heavy 
industries, it appears, need powerful incentives to 
make this trade, in part because the requirements 
of modem technology are rigid and probably also 
because dealing with organized workers is trouble- 

THUS THE JOB TAX CREDIT is not likely 
to provide enough incentive to induce many in- 
dustries to add workers to their assembly lines. 
The credit might work better in service industries, 
which pay low wages. But even among them, 
studies disclose no clear sensitivity to modest 
changes in labor costs. 

Simple justice demands that the federal govern- 
ment take more responsibility for the hard-core 
unemployed, the victims of stagflation. But in our 
view, the job tax credit is not the way to do it. 

Minimum V^age Improvements 
Pressed to Aid Working Poor 

AN IMPROVED MINIMUM wage is the only 
' hope for America's lowest-paid workers, 
whose income has lagged far behind the pace of 
inflation and the wage levels of most others in the 
workforce, AFL-CIO Research Director Rudy 
Oswald declared. 

The current $2.30-an-hour federal minimum is 
now less than half the rate needed for the mini- 
mum standard of the Labor Dept.'s city worker's 
budget, Oswald stressed. He pointed out that those 
at the bottom of the wage scale get a raise only 
when the legal minimum is improved, and since 
Congress has not acted since 1974, a full-time, 
year-round federal minimum wage job pays less 
than the government's own poverty level. 

Oswald renewed the call for immediate action 
to boost the minimum wage to $3 an hour and 
to index that wage to the average annual wage 
each year to assure that the wages of the lowest- 
paid workers don't continue to fall further and 
further behind. 

Practically all unionized workers currently re- 
ceive more than $3 an hour, so they would not be 
affected by increasing the minimum wage to that 
level, he said. 

"Those workers who would be affected are 
those who have no bargaining power — those at 
the bottom of the wage scale — household domes- 
tics, in some cases, those who work in some 
laundries and restaurants, some really low-wage 
industries," Oswald said. 

"Without a change in the minimum wage, they 
don't get wage increases. During the recent infla- 

tion, and at other times, they have not been able 
to keep pace with what's been happening in our 
economy. That's why we've asked for this change." 

The AFL-CIO economist said on Labor News 
Conference that the federation is also seeking 
separate legislation to set the standard work week 
at 35 hours and the overtime rate at double time. 
He said the increased penalty for excess hours is 
needed to make the "deterrent effects of the over- 
time standards" really work. 

Oswald rejected contentions that the updatings 
in the Fair Labor Standards Act sought by the 
AFL-CIO would trigger a new round of inflation, 
force employers to lay off workers or discourage 
the creation of new job opportunities in the pri- 
vate sector. He said that opponents, such as the 
U.S. Chamber of Commerce and employer asso- 
ciations, have raised those same claims every time 
Congress has moved to improve the minimum 
wage law since it was first adopted in 1938, but 
the record shows that none of those things ever 
happened as a result of minimum wage unprove- 

Oswald said that the outlook for favorable ac- 
tion on minimum wage improvements is much 
better in the current Congress than it was in the 
last session, when it was "hampered by a Presi- 
dent who cast more vetoes than any other Presi- 
dent in recent history." 

Reporters questioning Oswald on the AFL-CIO 
produced public affairs program were Lloyd 
Schwartz of the Fairchild Publications and Tom 
Joyce of Newsweek magazine. The program is 
aired Tuesdays on Mutual radio. 

Labor Joins In: 

Consumer Education 
Projects Expanding 

By Sidney Margolius 

IN A NUMBER OF STATES, labor officials are joining with 
schools, colleges and community organizations to help operate 
the most thorough nationwide effort yet to provide urgently needed 
consumer education for both school students and adults. 

In the first year of this new national consumer education effort, 
the federal Office of Consumer's Education (OCE) has financed 66 
diversified projects in various states, selected from 839 applications, 
for a total of $3 million. The OEC recently has been accepting ap- 
plications for another $3 million worth of financing of grass roots 
projects, with the deadline Mar. 10. The government grants are used 
to supplement cash and other resources supplied by the community 
groups running the educational projects. 

WhUe somewhat over half the projects are being sponsored by 
traditional educational institutions such as schools and colleges, 
the OCE sees its effort as different from much of the traditional 
consumer education in schools. Such classes usually are related 
to homemaking, business education or industrial arts. 

In this new concept, school students would get consumer educa- 
tion in a wide variety of subject areas, such as consumer math in a 
regular math course. 

But just as important, the projects include consumer education 
for adults, and especially those with special needs or those trying to 
manage on relatively small incomes. The nonschool groups include 
senior citizens, handicapped people, industrial workers, and low 
income families. 

They share common consumer problems, of course, such as high 
food costs, but have their own special problems. The classes, con- 
sumer information clinics and service activities in which these spe- 
cial groups are. now engaged, are aimed at developing the knowledge 
needed to cope with their special problems. 

Several of the projects seek to teach consumers their legal rights. 
One, operated by the Tampa, Fla., Legal Services, helps answer 
individual legal questions but also tries to educate the public through 
group discussions of rights and responsibilities. 

Another project, in Flagstaff, Ariz., is concentrating on consumer 
legal education for low income people. 

An interesting program sponsored by the New York City Com- 
munity College, called "seniors teaching seniors," is training older 
people to be consumer educators. This is a job at which seniors can 
be very useful arid effective with their long experience in surviving 
depressions and inflations. 

Several projects are helping native Americans and Spanish-speak- 
ing groups solve urgent consumer problems. In the west, the Coali- 
tion of Indian Controlled School Boards is developing a consumer 
education program for reservation schools. 

SEVERAL PROJECTS are aimed at helping handicapped con- 
sumers, such as the deaf. Also noteworthy are projects being de- 
veloped to help people returning to society. The Southern Illinois 
University Dept. of Family Economics is planning consumer educa- 
tion for prison residents and parolees. The University of Alabama is 
sponsoring a project for prerelease mental patients. 

A project under way in San Francisco, which is potentially useful 
for other communities, is concerned with health education. It aims 
especially to educate consumers against useless and sometimes even 
harmful quack medical products and services. 

In general the projects have been designed so that the methods 
and materials they develop can be used in other communities and 
schools around the country. Thus, the $3 million authorized so 
far by Congress for each of the three years should have a very 
useful ripple effect. 
As directly useful as the services flowing from these pilot projects 
may be to the individual groups, another value is what the country 
as a whole is going to learn about specific consumer information and 
service needs. The community groups and educators running these 
projects may learn as much from the people being educated as they 
will from the teachers. 

Copyright 1977 by Sidney Margolius 

THE ONLY HOPE America's lowest-paid workers have for a 
raise is an improved minimum wage. Research Director Rudy 
Oswald, center, declared on Labor News Conference. Questioning 
him were Lloyd Schwartz, left, of the Fairchild Publications and 
Tom Joyce of Newsweek magazine. 

Page Six 


WARM WELCOME from Labor Dept. employees marked President Carter's first visit to a gov- 
ernment agency. In a brief talk, the President pledged there will be "no backing down" on enforce- 
ment of the Occupational Safety & Health Act. 

Strikers Win $1 Million Back Pay 
From Anti-Union Garment Firm 

San Francisco — ^Back pay and benefits, estimated to be worth more than $1 million, await some 
85 employees who went on strike July 15, 1974, at the Great Chinese American Sewing Co. 

The award by the National Labor Relations Board upholds in large part the decision of Admin- 
istrative Law Judge David G. Heilbrun that the sewing company and its principal owner. Esprit 
De Corp, were guilty of numerous violations of federal labor law. 

The board adopted the unique 
remedy of ordering the two firms to 
"make whole'' all workers who were 
"discriminatorily terminated" when 
Esprit closed down the sewing com- 
pany two days after the employees, 
members of the Ladies' Garment 
Workers, walked out on strike. 

They are required, under the 
order, to pay each of the employ- 
ees the equivalent of their usual 
wages "until such time as each 
secures, or did secure, substan- 
tially equivalent employment with 
other employers." If the sewing 
company is reopened, the em- 
ployer is ordered to offer the 
workers reinstatement to their 
former jobs or substantially 
equivalent employment. 

In addition to the back wages, 
Esprit will be required to pay 6 
percent interest on the lost wages 
and any hospitalization costs incur- 
red by the employees or their fam- 
ilies during the period of unem- 
ployment, and to make up the em- 
ployees' lost shares in the compa- 
ny's profit-sharing plan. 

Heilbrun had recommended or- 
dering the employers to reopen the 
closed sewing company, but the 
board rejected that remedy, calling 
it "unduly burdensome" and "un- 
necessary." The policies of federal 
law are served, it said, by its "full 
make-whole order covering the em- 
ployees of the terminated plant." 

ILGWU Attorney John L. An- 
derson has appealed that portion 
of the board order to the U.S. Cir- 
cuit Court of Appeals in Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

The board found that Esprit's 
unfair labor practices had been "ex- 
tensive and pervasive, preventing a 
free election," and ordered the com- 
pany to bargain with the* ILGWU 
at the union's request, including 
bargaining on the decision and ef- 
fects of the plant closure on the 

The ILGWU had won the sup- 
port of the employees in a whirl- 
wind campaign in which one work- 
er was fired. The employees were 
threatened with discharge for sup- 
porting the union and with having 
their paychecks withheld unless 
they surrendered the union authori- 
zation cards they had signed. The 
employer offered a pay raise in 
still another effort to persuade the 
employees to abandon the union 

and threatened that the plant would 
be closed unless they gave up the 

When the employees sought out 
the union and decided to go on 
strike, the company shut down the 
sewing company plant. It transfer- 
red some of its operations to the 
Esprit plant. Many of its operations 
then, and a larger proportion now, 
have reportedly been transferred 
out of the United States to India 
and Taiwan. 

The board f uUy sustained Heil- 
brun's finding that closing the 
sewing company was in retalia- 
tion for the employees' support 
for the union. Heilbrun found 
that Esprit owner Douglas Tomp- 
kins's explanation was ^^no more 
than faintly concealed resentment 
that the work force chose . to 
strike after his personal appeal 
for solidarity." 

Board Member John H. Fanning 
dissented from the conclusion of 

the other two panel members, 
Chairman Betty Southard Murphy 
and Peter D. Walther, to reject 
Heilbrun's recommended order to 
reopen the sewing company. Fan- 
ning argued that Esprit continues 
to perform the sewing company's 
operations but with domestic sub- 
contractors. Esprit had indicated 
that, despite its losses, it was willing 
to continue the sewing company if 
only the employees desisted from 
their union activities, he said. 

Labor Backs Concept: 

Federal Unit Urged 
For Policy Planning 

The National Planning Association, a non-profit research and 
policy organization with strong labor representation, unveiled a new 
proposal for national planning aimed at improving the long-range 
decision-making of the federal government. 

While the AFL-CIO members of NPA's board of trustees and its 
labor policy committee agreed in^ 

principle with the plan and en 
dorsed the organization's statement, 
they differed in approach on cer- 
tain technical matters. 

The statement, for example, pro- 
poses a comprehensive strategic 
planning office in the Oflfiice of 
Management & Budget. 

But the 24 union representa- 
tives who signed the statement 
observe in a footnote that the 
planning office should be at- 
tached to the Council of Eco- 
nomic Advisers, as proposed in 
the Humphrey - Hawkins Full 
Employment & Balanced Eco- 
nomic Growth bill. Auto Work- 
ers President Leonard Woodcock 
also agreed that OMB probably 
would not be the best home for 
planning activities. 

"The planning office should not 
be tied to an operating agency," 
the AFL-CIO representatives assert. 
"Furthermore, the long-range plan- 
ning function will get much more 
thorough and effective attention 
from the Joint Economic Commit- 
tee than from the Senate and House 
Budget Committees which are nec- 
essarily involved in short-run 
budget problems." 

The NPA statement proposes 
that the planning should be di- 
rected toward strengthening the 
market economy by such measures 
as "forward planning for the avail- 
ability of manpower and use of re- 
sources, fostering high employment 
and economic growth without in- 

American Wage Value 
Highest, Survey Finds 

Geneva — An international survey of the purchasing power of 
wages shows American cities on top. 

The study by the Union de Banques Suisses, a banking chain 
headquartered here, reveals workers' pay goes farther in New York, 
San Francisco, Chicago, and Los Angeles than in 36 other major 

cities of the world. 

Workers ' Buying Power 
In Major Cities of World 

Purchasing power in major world cities, expressed in terms 
of number of hours a person must work to buy a market 
basket of typical goods and services, is reflected in the follow- 
ing table. The source is the Geneva-based banking chain, 

Union de Banques Suisses. 







San Francisco 








Los Angeles 




New York 


Sao Paolo 
















Rio de Janeiro 




Panama City 




Mexico City 












Hong Kong 












Tel Aviv 
















Buenos Aires 


The survey expresses average 
purchasing power of workers in a 
number of occupations in terms of 
the number of working hours it 
takes to earn enough to buy a typi- 
cal "basket" of goods and services. 
The data were obtained last May 
and June. 

Cities in communist countries 
were omitted because of the pau- 
city of economic data forthcoming 
from their governments. 

San Franciscans needed to work 
65^4 hours to buy the goods and 
services upon which the survey was 
based. The number of hours of 
work needed to buy the same bas- 
ket of items in Chicago was llVs. 
In Los Angeles, the number was 
IIVa and in New York, 763/4. 

By comparison, workers in Bue- 
nos Aires — at the bottom of the 
list — had to work 7 or 8 times 
longer than New Yorkers and San 
Franciscans to acquire the same 
goods and services. 

Some 7,500 wage and price fac- 
tors went into the study. Workers 
surveyed were bus drivers, auto 
mechanics, construction workers, 
machinists, textile workers, primary 
school teachers, production chiefs, 
bank cashiers, and secretaries. The 
basket of goods and services in- 
cluded foodstuffs, clothing, house- 
hold goods, auto prices, rents, and 
public transport fares. 

flation, providing consistency and 
rationality in the government's 
rules and programs, and establish- 
ing policies to ensure effective com- 

The new planning office, as en- 
visaged by NPA, would be charged 
with drawing together existing frag- 
mented longer-range planning in 
federal departments and agencies 
and developing information and ad- 
vice on alternative policies and 
their comparative efficiencies, costs 
and benefits. A similar office is pro- 
posed to serve Congress. 

The AFL-CIO stressed its sup- 
port for democratic planning but 
observed that the NPA statement 
"fails to emphasize sufficiently the 
need for broad-based democratic 
participation in the planning pro- 
cess." National planning must in- 
volve not only the Office of the 
President and Congress, but also 
state and local governments, private 
interests and organizations, and the 
general public, the federation de- 

Describing the planning system it 
proposes, the NPA said that plan- 
ning studies might show, for ex- 
ample, that improving physical fit- 
ness would be one of the best ways 
to proceed toward the goal for bet- 
ter health. 

"The means for achieving this 
are primarily private and voluntary, 
with government providing incen- 
tives such as recreation facilities 
and education," it noted. 

NPA's proposed planning pro- 
cess would not "create a blue- 
print for the future" that would 
impose restrictions on policy- 
making and hamper the nation's 
ability to adapt to changing cir- 
cumstances, the statement ob- 

Instead, NPA said, the proposed 
national planning would increase 
social and economic productivity, 
increase the efficiency of the use 
of resources, increase economic 
growth, and help develop effective 
policies to eliminate or reduce re- 
cessions, inflation or "stagflation." 

Larry Itliong 
Dies, Former 
UFW Official 

Delano, Calif. — Larry Itliong, a 
retired vice president of the United 
Farm Workers and a battler for 
farm worker rights since the 1930s, 
died at Presbyteri^ Hospital in 
San Francisco on Feb. 8. He was 

Itliong began his trade union 
career as a farm labor organizer 
during the depression years, work- 
ing on campaigns in Monroe, 
Wash., and Salinas, Calif. He also 
was involved in organizing cannery 
workers in Seattle. 

In the 1960s, he served as an 
organizer with the AFL-CIO Agri- 
cultural Workers Organizing Com- 
mittee, which later merged with 
the National Farm Workers to 
form the UFW. Itliong retired from 
the UFW in 1972. 

In a message to his widow, Nel- 
lie, AFL-CIO President George 
Meany and Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirk- 
land said that Itliong "was a sin- 
cere trade unionist whose devoted 
service to his fellow farm workers 
will be long remembered." 


Page Seven 

Conservation Needs Stressed: 

Consumer Conference Puts 
Spotlight on Energy Crisis 

(Continued from Page 1) 
'The free market is not neces- 
sarily the ideal mechanism to make 
large adjustments over a short peri- 
od of time," he said, pledging that 
the Carter Administration will pro- 
tect consumers against fuel price 
adjustments that might significantly 
upset incomes. 

Federal Energy Administrator 
John F. O'Leary, also addressing 
the assembly, warned that the cur- 
rent natural gas shortage may con- 
tinue through October and could 
become even worse in winters to 

O'Leary said the crisis may 
last that long because of the need 
to refill depleted storage supplies 
'^f natural gas in preparation for 
next winter. "And indeed," he 
declared, "next winter, and the 
next winter, and the next winter 
it's going to be worse." 

Other high-level Administration 
officials, including Commerce Sec. 
Juanita M. Kreps and Transporta- 
tion Sec. Brock Adams, discussed 
*he critical nature of the energy 
situation in addresses to the dele- 
gates. And a special symposium 
explored 'The Natural Gas Crisis: 
Fact, Fiction, and Political Alterna- 

Kreps said that new laws may be 
necessary if voluntary efforts fail 
to make furnaces, home appliances, 
and other devices use less energy. 

Asked whether she would sup- 
port legislation to require perfor- 
mance standards for energy-con- 
suming devices similar to those 
planned for automobiles to re- 
duce the amount of gasoline 
used, Kreps replied: "It may 
come to that. . . . We may very 
well have to mandate those stan- 

During the panel discussion on 
I the natural gas crisis, James F. 
! Flug. director and counsel of En- 
ergy Action Committee, charged 
that producers are holding back on 
supplies until gas prices go up. 

"People now are beginning to 
understand," said Flug. "It's a mat- 
ter of economics. The gas produc- 
ers get more money by selling to 
the intrastate market than the na- 
tional market. Also, producers have 
had reason to believe, over the past 
few years, that deregulation was 
just around the corner." 

Flug said that the producers are 
not content with a just and reason- 
able price. "They want more. They 
want all the traffic will bear," he 

I Disagreeing with most of what 
Flug said. President George H. 
Lawrence of the American Gas 
Association claimed there is a real 
shortage and that deregulation is 
needed to give producers an incen- 
tive to explore for more supplies. 
He said there has been a drop in 

CLC Broadens Battle 
Against Wage Controls 

Ottawa — The Canadian Labor Congress has launched a third 
phase of its campaign against wage controls amid growing indica- 
tions that the federal government may lift them before the scheduled 
Dec. 31, 1978, expiration date. 

The first phase of the CLC campaign was a "Why Me" advertising 
and public relations program, ' 

aimed at drawing public support 
for its stand that the anti-inflation 
program discriminated against 
wage earners and people on fixed 

After that failed to persuade the 
federal government to drop the 
program, the CLC held a national 
day of protest last Oct. 14 when 
more than a million workers took 
the day off work to register their 

Now, in the third phase, the CLC 
is asking the provincial govern- 
ments not to renew the agreements 
under which they extended the con- 
trols to cover their own public em- 
ployees. The agreements are due 
to expire Mar. 31 of this year. 

"Ottawa seems unwilling to 
accept the fact that wage and 
price controls are crippling the 
economy," CLC President Joe 
Morris said in a Jan. 28 state- 
ment. "Perhaps the provinces are 
more willing to listen to reason." 

Three days later, the CLC execu- 
tive committee met with Prime 
Minister Pierre Trudeau and sev- 
eral members of his cabinet — the 
first such meeting since the national 
day of protest. 

They discussed the state of the 
economy and the possibility of tri- 
partite discussions among labor, 
government and business on phas- 
ing out the controls. 

And while government spokes- 
men so far have set no new date for 
lifting controls. Finance Minister 
Donald Macdonald told a federal- 
provincial finance ministers' con- 
ference it could be "any time'* after 
January 1978. 

The CLC stand has already 

drawn support. Quebec's Parti- 
Quebecois government has an- 
nounced its provincial anti-inflation 
board will be stripped of its en- 
forcement powers. And Manitoba's 
labor-backed New Democratic Par- 
ty government says it will renew 
the agreement only if the program 
is changed drastically to make it 
more equitable. 

During the third phase of its cam- 
paign, the CLC and its affiliates are 
pointing out the hardships that have 
resulted from cutbacks in govern- 
ment spending on education, health 
and social services. 

exploration and drilling from 56,- 
000 oil and gas wells in 1956 to 
26,000 in 1972. 

The three Cabinet officers who 
addressed the assembly — Kreps, 
Adams, and Agriculture Sec. Bob 
Bergland — assured delegates of 
a greater voice for consumers in 
the Carter Administration. 

Adams said he will actively seek 
the help of the public — "the people 
who travel the roads, the airways, 
and the railways" — in developing 
a national transportation policy and 
in solving national transportation 
problems. He said he plans a series 
of "transportation town meetings" 
in nine cities, starting Feb. 23 in 
Boston, to get consumer input into 
departmental policy. 

Bergland said he wants con- 
sumers "involved in the food 
policy decision-making process 
within the Department of Agri- 
culture itself," rather than simply 
being advisers. One action he 
might take to make this possible, 
Bergland said, would be to add 
an assistant secretary for food, 
nutrition, and consumer affairs. 

Kreps said she would like to see 
the Commerce Dept. actively pur- 
suing policies that will benefit con- 
sumer groups, reviving the "strong 
tradition of participation in con- 
sumer matters that existed during 
the 1960s, when Commerce as a 
department played a major role in 
the development of the Fair Pack- 
aging and Labeling Act and the 
Motor Vehicle Safety Act." 

Asked for her views on the estab- 
lishment of an independent federal 
consumer protection agency, Kreps 
said she was "open" to the pro- 
posal, but with this caveat: "I 
would only hope that, if we go to 
a department of consumer protec- 
tion, we combine that department's 
operations with some interdepart- 
mental coordination" of consumer 
activities within all other federal 

Among labor participants in 
this year's Consumer Assembly 
were Sec.-Treas. Jacob Clayman of 
the AFL-CIO Industrial Union 
Dept.; Evelyn Dubrow, legislative 
director of the Ladies' Garment 
Workers; Lois Felder, co-director 
of community relations for the 
Retail Clerks; Lou Gerber of the 
Communications Workers' legisla- 
tive staff, and Arnold Mayer, 
legislative representative of the 
Meat Cutters. 

^One for You and One for Me!' 



WHITE HOUSE ENERGY CHIEF James R. Schlesinger is 
greeted by Sec.-Treas. Jacob Clayman of the AFL-CIO Industrial 
Union Dept. just before Schlesinger's address to Consumer Assem- 
bly, the annual conference of the Consumer Federation of Ameri- 
ca. Clayman is a CFA vice president. Looking on is Glenn 
Nishimura, director of Arkansas Consumer Research. 

McBride Slate Sweeps 
Top Steelworker Posts 

The slate headed by Lloyd McBride has won all five international 
offices in the Steelworkers election, according to an unofficial vote 

The count, announced by McBride campaign headquarters, was 
based on reports phoned in from 90 percent of the USWA's local 

unions. The official counting of the * 
local union tallies was to begin Feb. 
19 at Steelworkers headquarters in 
Pittsburgh. At the USWA's request, 
the tabulation will be done by the 
Dept. of Labor. 

According to the McBride 
committee's count, he received 
57.7 percent of the vote in the 
4,772 locals counted. In numbers 
McBride polled 324,531 votes 
for president to 238,152 for Ed- 
ward Sadlowskl. His margin 
was 48,349 in the United States 
and 38,030 in Canadian locals. 

McBride is director of the 
USWA's St. Louis district and Sad- 
lowski is director of the Chicago 

Running with McBride and re- 

New Contract 
Granted lUOE 
For Training 

The Operating Engineers have 
been awarded a new 18-month La- 
bor Dept. contract to train about 
700 jobless and underemployed 
workers in 12 states. 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall said 
that under the $L8 million contract 
renewal, lUOE will subcontract the 
training to local unions and joint 
apprenticeship councils. 

Under the agreement, 200 train- 
ees with limited or no skills will be 
indentured as newly registered ap- 
prentices. Special emphasis will be 
placed on minorities, veterans and 

Another 60 experienced workers 
in the industry will be trained as 
heavy equipment mechanics and 
435 with limited skills will be up- 
graded to qualify as operators of 
heavy construction equipment. 

The 12 states covered by the 
agreement are Colorado, Connecti- 
cut, Florida, Illinois, Indiana, Mass- 
achusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, 
New Jersey, Rhode Island, Tenn- | Human 
essee and Virginia. 

Under six earlier Labor Dept. 
contracts, the lUOE trained 4,724 
workers. Of these, 1,204 were in 
apprenticeship entr>' programs and 
3,520 were in upgrading programs. 

ported as winners with pluralities 
ranging from 56.5 to 62 percent of 
the votes tallied were: 

Lynn R. Williams of Toronto as 
secretary. He is a USWA district 
director, active in both the Canadi- 
an Labor Congress and the Interna- 
tional Metalwofkefs'^Federation. He 
is chairman of the IMF World 
Nickel Conference. 

Frank S. McKee of Los Angeles 
as treasurer. He is a former open 
hearth worker at Bethlehem Steel 
who is both a district director and 
coordinator of the Nonferrous In- 
dustry Conference. 

Joseph Odorcich of McKeesport, 
Pa., as vice president for adminis- 
tration. He is a former coal miner 
who is a USWA district director 
and head of the union's Coke Oven 

Leon Lynch of Memphis, Tenn., 
as vice president for human affairs, 
the post he has held since last Sep- 
tember when he was appointed by 
the Steelworkers executive board. 
He started as a member of an East 
Chicago, Ind., local and has been 
a member of the USWA field staff, 
based in Memphis. He is the first 
black to serve as an international 
officer of the union. 

After official certification of their 
election, the new officers will be 
installed on June 1 . The incumbent 
officers who are retiring at the con- 
clusion of their terms are President 
I. W. Abel, Sec.-Treas. Walter J. 
Burke and Vice President John S. 

Mine Safety Bill 
Introduced in House 

Sen. Harrison A. Williams, Jr. 
(D-N.J.) and 25 co-sponsors in- 
troduced a bill that would impose 
strong new safety standards on all 
mining operations and shift mine 
safety enforcement from the In- 
terior Dept. to the Labor Dept. 

He said it would be given pri- 
ority consideration by the Senate 
Resources Committee, 
which he heads. In the last Con- 
gress, a mine safety bill passed the 
House and was approved by the 
Senate committee. But the session 
ended before the full Senate took 
it up. 

Page Eight 


House Hearings Set: 

New Drive Opens 
For Site Picketing 

(Continued from Page 1) 
descriptions given out by anti-union 
and right-wing groups. 

The attacks on the bill, he said, 
have come largely from anti-union 
organizations that use scare tactics 
to raise funds. The situs picketing 
legislation, Georgine suggested, **has 
been a financial windfall for many 
of them." 

It was conservative pressure 
that caused President Ford to 
break the promise he had pub- 
licly given that he would sign the 
bill after it was amended to meet 
his specifications. 

Ford's reversal made inevitable 
the resignation of Secretary of La- 
bor John T. Dunlop, who had a 
leading role in shaping the bill that 
was sent to the President and who 
said he testified for it at the Presi- 
dent's direction. 

Georgine stressed to reporters 
that the bill does not permit strikes 
for any illegal purpose, ye said 
present restrictions on picketing 
force building trades unions to 
"stand by idly while they are be- 
ing destroyed" through subcontracts 
given to non-union firms. 

"All this legislation permits is the 
legal right for construction workers 
to advertise a legitimate grievance 
at a construction site," he said. "It 
is a right that every other organized 
worker in America has." 

The bill Ford had vetoed in- 
cluded provisions dealing with col- 
lective bargaining procedures in the 
construction industry that the Ad- 
ministration contended would less- 
en the number of strikes. 

Thompson told the House that 
his bill doesn't include that portion 
of the vetoed bill, noting that it 
had been added in the last Con- 
gress "as the price of support by 
the then Republican Administra- 
tion, support which ultimately 
turned out to be illusory anyway." 

But Thompson stressed that 
"there are numerous safeguards 
against abuse in the bill" and that 
the situations under which picket- 
ing is permitted are carefully con- 
fined to labor disputes at a single 
construction site for clearly lawful 

The bill is so construed, he said, 
that picketing cannot extend be- 
yond "the economic allies of the 
employer with whom they have a 
primary dispute." 

He noted also that a local un- 
ion planning to picket a job site 
must give a 10-day advance no- 
tice to all the contractors and 
local unions at the common con- 
struction site, and obtain the 
authorization of the national un- 
ion with which the local is affili- 

Marshall told reporters that his 
meeting at Bal Harbour with the 
BCTD executive council covered a 
number of areas in addition to 
common site picketing. 

He said council members had a 
number of suggestions and com- 
ments on the occupational safety 
and health law and on pension reg- 
ulations. Marshall said in both 
these areas he considers it impor- 
tant to enforce the laws without 
excess red tape or harassment. 

Tighter Curbs Proposed 
To Stem Shoe Imports 

(Continued from Page 1) 

nity has been destroyed," he ob- 

It would be unrealistic to ignore 
the 265,000 jobs in American shoe 
production and related industries 
that are endangered by the flood of 
imports while Congress • is being 
urged to adopt special programs to 
create needed jobs, he added. 

"We urge you to regulate shoe 
imports as soon as possible with ef- 
fective actions," Meany stressed. 

Earlier, the United Shoe Work- 
ers and the Boot & Shoe Workers 
joined with industry representatives 
in telling Carter that the mild rem- 
edy recommended by the ITC was 
inconsistent with its finding of seri- 
ous injury cause by imports. 

In its report to the President, 
the ITC noted that shoe imports 
rose from 181.5 million pairs in 
1968 to 307.5 million pairs in 
1973. Although the annual import 
rate eased a bit in 1974 and 1975, 
a new surge of foreign-made shoes 


Mm S 
<nco 3 




was recorded 4ast year as imports 
for the first nine months of 1976 
amounted to 289.8 million pairs. 

The commission also reported 
that since its last investigation, shoe 
imports have increased by 80 mil- 
lion pairs. The ratio of imports to 
domestic production has risen from 
28 percent in 1968 to 83 percent 
during the first nine months of 
1976. This means that the number 
of imports almost equals the 
amount of U.S. -produced shoes in 
the American market. 

Under the 1974 Trade Act, Car- 
ter will have until Apr. 8 to act on 
the ITC recommendations. If he 
rejects or modifies the recommen- 
dation, Congress can override the 
presidential decision. 

Opponents of stronger import 
regulation have often used the ar- 
gument that foreign countries 
would retaliate against U.S. prod- 
ucts if America imposed stricter 

But Sen. William D. Hathaway 
(D-Me.) who represents a major 
shoe-producing state, noted re- 
cently that many countries that 
now export shoes to the United 
States currently forbid shoe im- 
ports into their own countries. 

Korea and India — two coun- 
tries that export shoes to the 
United States — have a total em- 
bargo on shoe imports, Hatha- 
way pointed out. He also noted 
that Sweden, Australia, Japan 
and a number of European 
countries impose stringent quota 
restrictions on shoes. 

"The United States already has 
the most liberal policy toward shoe 
imports," Hathaway said. "Other 
countries have been protecting 
theirs for years, and will continue 
to do so." 

LEADERS OF THE AFL-CIO Building & Construction Trades Dept. dealt with a broad range of 
legislative issues and met with Labor Sec. Ray Marshall at a meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. Depart- 
ment President Robert A. Georgine presides at this session. 

Job Security 
Key Goal in 
Steel Talks 

(Continued from Page 1) 
agreed to use it again this year. 
One of its main purposes is to 
avoid the threat of a national shut- 
down of the industry that would 
encourage its customers to stock- 
pile steel, thus creating a "boom- 
and-bust" cycle. 

Besides lifetime security, the un- 
ion is seeking a "substantial" wage 
increase beyond the 3 percent raise 
guaranteed by ENA and an im- 
proved formula for calculating 
cost-of-living increases. Other bar- 
gaining goals include expanded in- 
surance programs, increased pen- 
sion benefits, a 32-hour workweek, 
and larger supplemental unemploy- 
ment benefit payments. 

The union reacted sharply to a 
report of the federal Council on 
Wage & Price Stability that cau- 
tioned against job security pro- 
grams and implied that steelwork- 
ers were the nation's highest paid 
industrial workers. 

Otis Brubaker, the union's re- 
search director, charged in a letter 
to the council last month that the 
CWPS report was "a crass and un- 
warranted attempt to interfere with 
our forthcoming negotiations." 

Current agreements expire on 
Aug. 1 for USWA members em- 
ployed in the 10 major companies: 
U.S. Steel, Bethlehem Steel, Repub- 
lic Steel, National Steel, Jones & 
Laughlin Steel, Armco Steel, In- 
land Steel, Youngstown Sheet & 
Tube, Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel 
and Allegheny Ludlum Industries. 
U.S. Steel employs the largest num- 
ber of Steelworkers, 117,400, with 
Bethlehem next, 69,200. 

Pamphlet Reviews 
94th Congress 

A detailed report on the 
record of the 94th Congress 
on issues important to labor 
is now available from the 

The 122-page pamphlet, 
prepared by the Dept. of 
Legislation, covers a two-year 
period described in a fore- 
ward as marked by "legisla- 
tive stalemate'' resulting from 
"unprecedented abuse of the 
veto power." 

Single copies of Labor 
Looks at the 94th Congress, 
Publication 77-R, are avail- 
able free. Larger quantities 
are 50 cents each, or $45 for 
100. Orders should be sent to 
the AFL-CIO Pamphlet Di- 
vision, 815 16th St, NW, 
Washington, D.C. 20006. 

NLRB Rulings Uphold 
Multiplant Bargaining 

The National Labor Relations Board issued a decision preserving' 
the principle of national multiplant bargaining between Westing- / 
house and the Electrical, Radio & Machine Workers. 

In a second ruling, an NLRB administrative law judge held that^ 
White- Westinghouse Corp. had caused a 10-week strike > by I 
workers last year because the firm* 
refused to bargain with the union 

on a national basis. The strike was 
settled last October but the issue of 
White's attempt to crush national 
multiplant bargaining remained a 
threat to the union's strength. 

In the Westinghouse case, the 
NLRB dismissed a petition by 
an employee of Westinghouse's 
Charlotte, N.C., plant seeking 
decertification of lUE Local 186 
and withdrawal from participa- 
tion in collective bargaining with 
the union nationally. The petition 
was supported by Westinghouse. 

The board ruled that the Char- 
lotte plant could not pull out of the 
national bargaining arrangement 
because "the record establishes a 
controlling history of multiplant 
bargaining resulting in the estab- 
lishment of a single multiplant unit 
embracing all those plants of the 

33 States Post 
New Increase 
In Jobless Rate 

(Continued from Page 1) 
jobless rate in December — 12 per- 
cent, up from 11.2 percent in No- 

The mid-Atlantic states of New 

employer in which/ the union 
through its conference board has 
been recognized as the exclusive 

In the other case, NLRB Ad- 
ministrative Law Judge Robert 
Giannasi ruled that White-Westing- ^ 
house must bargain with lUE na- 
tionally as exclusive representative ^ 
of 3,200 workers employed at five 
plants formerly owned by Westing- 
house. White Consolidated Indu^ 
tries, the parent firm, acquired the 
appliance plants from Westinghouse 
in 1975 but refused to bargain 
nationally with lUE after pledging 
to do so. It changed its position 
after lUE members struck and 
eventually reached a new national 
agreement with the union. 

Giannasi ruled that White 
''stands in the shoes" of Westing- 
house since it bought the five- 
plant unit from Westinghouse, 
and has continued operation 
"with no significant change." In 
his ruling, the NLRB judge 
found that the strike was not 
caused by the union but by 
White-Westinghouse's refusal to 
comply with the law by insisting 
on bargaining with each plant 

lUE, which became the only 
union to have a national contract 
with White following its settlement^ 
last fall, represents the company's' 

York, New Jersey, and Pennsyl- i workers in Locals 401 and 491 in, 
vania all reported joblessness in ex- i Edison, N.J., Local 680, Miami- 

cess of the national rate, and four 
of the six New England states ex- 
perienced unemployment of 8 per- 
cent or more over the month. 

Of the nation's 200 largest 
metropolitan areas, 71 had job- 
less rates above the national 
level, with 13 reporting jobless- 
ness of 10 percent or higher. 

In its report to White House 
energy chief James Schlesinger, the 
Federal Energy Administration said 
that as of Feb. 13 the Commerce 
Dept. counted 586,500 workers in 
19 states out of work due to the 
natural gas shortage. That was 
down from the government esti- 
mate of 1.2 million at the peak of 
the crisis. 

Ohio had the most severe un- 
employment problem, with 150,000 
workers still out of jobs because of 
the weather-related gas shortage. 
New York ranked second with 75,- 
000. Severe problems also were re- 
ported in Alabama, Georgia, Indi- 
ana, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Ten- 
nessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 

Fort Lauderdale; Local 711, Mans- 
field, Ohio; Local 714, Newark, 
Ohio, and Local 746, Columbus. 

Teachers Launch 
Quarterly Journal 

The American Federation oi 
Teachers has launched a new quar- j 
terly journal, the American Educa- 

The publication, which replaces 
Changing Education, features arti-^ 
cles of professional interest to ^ 
teachers and other educational pro- 
fessionals. Changing Education had^ 
been published as a supplement to 
the union's monthly newspaper. 

Gail Miller is acting editor of*' 
both the newspaper and the new 
magazine. AFT President Albert 
Shanker, in a foreword to the journ- 
aPs first issue, said that the union 
intends to provide a professional^ 
magazine "of quality and interest 
to that very large group of profes-' 
sionals and others . . . concerned 
with American education." 

Vol. XXII 

iMuetf we«kly at 818 8lxteMith St.. N. W. 
Wuhlnfton. D. C. 20008 $2 ■ ytar 

SMond Class Postags paii at washinitan. D. c. Saturday, February 26, 1977 

No. 8 

Council Presses Campaign 
For Key Legislative Goals 

Improved Outlook 
For Passage Cited 

ADMINISTRATION GOALS are discussed by Labor Sec. Ray Marshall at his meeting with the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council at Bal Harbour, Fla. From left are Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland, Mar- 
shall, President George Meany, and Vice Presidents L W. Abel and Jerry Wurf. 

'Carter Fills 
Some Gaps in 
Ford Budget 

President Carter sent Congress 
a revised budget for the fiscal year 
beginning Oct. 1 that would restore 
many of the cuts in social welfare 
programs recommended by his pre- 

The Carter version of the na- 
tion's 1978 budget calls for expen- 
clitures of $459.4 billion and reve- 
nues of $401.6 billion, both figures 
substantially larger than Ford's pro- 
posals last month. 

Carter asked Congress for an 
additional $19.4 billion, saying it 
was needed to finance his planned 
national energy policy, restore eco- 
nomic growth, and fund social pro- 
grams for the underprivileged. 

The revised budget makes pro- 
(Continued on Page 8) 

NLRA Overhaul Needed: 

Major Drive Seeks 
Labor Law Equity 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO has launched a major cam- 
paign to overhaul the National Labor Relations Act so that workers 
once again can have a "fair chance" to organize and bargain col- 

The drive to update the 42-year-old Wagner Act to restore 
equity to labor-management rela-^' 

tions" was spelled out in a state- 
ment on labor law reform unani- 
mously adopted by the federation's 
Executive Council and in a resolu- 
tion calling for a special assessment 
to set up an AFL-CIO task force 
to help revision and reform. 

Five areas of concern were 
listed by the council that are in 
need of correction — areas of 
^^glaring procedural and remedial 
deficiencies" to assure that the 

Congress Acts to Raise 
Budget for Jobs Effort 

By David L. Perlman 

Both the House and Senate voted to raise the spending ceiling 
for the fiscal year already in progress so that more money can be 
pumped into job-creating programs. 

The higher budget ceilings, significantly above the additions that 
the Carter Administration had proposed, had labor's strong endorse- 
ment. AFL-CIO Legislative Direc-'^ 

tor Andrew J. Biemiller had urged 
approval as "a start in the effort to 
obtain full employment." 

Some differences must still be 
xesolved in a House-Senate confer- 
ence. But both versions allow for 
up to $4 billion in new funds to be 
allocated this year for accelerated 
public works projects — twice the 
level sought by the President. 

The House promptly followed 

through by calling up for certain 
passage a bill authorizing that 

In the key job-creating areas, the 
House added $14.9 billion in 
budget authority to the supposedly 
"final" budget ceiling Congress 
adopted last September for the fis- 
cal year that started Oct. 1, 1976. 

This compared with $4.9 billion 
in additional budget authority origi- 
(Continued on Page 6) 

original promise of the Wagner 
Act will live again. 

The council pointed out that 
twice since 1935 Congress has 
placed strict limits on the ability 
of workers to, organize free from 
employer coercion — the Taft-Hart- 
ley and Landrum-Griffin acts. The 
result has been "to create a gross 
imbalance in favor of those em- 
ployers bent on frustrating the 
right of workers to organize." They 
now hold the upper hand, the 
council declared, "just as surely as 
they held it prior to the Wagner 

Employers have substituted un- 
ion busters in business suits with 
attache cases for goon squads of 
the Thirties and sharp lawyers and 
Madison Avenue propagandists for 
brass knuckles, but the "constant 
is that the employer has the re- 
sources and he uses them to buy 
experts to get the job done." 

Citing the violation of workers 
rights with "virtual impunity" 
through involved procedural delays 
in the NLRB and the courts, the 
council said "there is no excuse for 
a continuation of the present situa- 
tion. There are no complex legal 
mysteries to be solved. . . . The act 
can and will work," if the most 
glaring deficiencies are corrected. 

The council noted legislation in- 
troduced by Rep. Frank Thompson 
(D-N.J.), chairman of the House 
Subcommittee on Labor-Manage- 
(Continued on Page 2) 

By Saul Miller 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL-CIO has called for a broad pro- 
gram of change in the nation's basic labor laws, in its approach to 
social insurance programs and in the ground rules for political 

A series of statements adopted by the federation's Executive 
Council in the opening days of its mid-winter meeting here detailed 
specific legislative objectives geared to new leadership in the 95th 
Congress and the White House. 

The scope of the AFL-CIO program, President George Meany 
told a press conference, indicates that the federation feels ^Ve 
have a chance in the Congress and in the White House. ... It 
indicates that we feel the time is good." 

But Meany noted disagreements with the Carter Administration 
on the economic stimulus package and on its plans for prenotifica- 
tion on wage and price increases, a step which he characterized as 
a "foot in the door" to wage and price controls to which the feder- 
ation is "absolutely, completely opposed." 

The AFL-CIO president stressed that there is no communications 
problem with President Carter despite differences on programs and 
that Carter has kept his commitment to the AFL-CIO that "his 
door would be open, that the lines of communication would be 
open, that he would talk to us any time, on any subject that we 
thought was important." 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall, who spoke to the council at its open- 
ing session on Administration priorities and problems facing the 
trade union movement and the nation, told reporters that the rela- 
tionship between the AFL-CIO and the Administration is a good 
one, that union people are used to and expect differences and that 
while there are varying priorities, "the things that are holding us 
together are more important" than any differences. 

Meany praised Marshall as being "very well equipped" for his 
job, commenting that "I think he is going to make a very good 
Secretary of Labor." 

The major focus of the policy changes spelled out by the council 
was on overhauling the National Labor Relations Act to give work- 
ers once again a "fair chance" to organize and bargain collectively. 

The drive to update the Wagner Act was coupled with proposals 
to provide coverage under the national law for public employees 
(Continued on Page 3) 

4 Bills Vetoed by Ford 
Get Immediate Priority 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO pressed Congress to clear up 
its "unfinished business" by quickly passing four major bills that 
had been vetoed by former President Ford. 

All are "of extreme importance to the labor movement," the 
Executive Council said. Its statement listed these measures for the 
"immediate attention and prompt<^ 
enactment" of Congress: 

• Construction site picketing 
rights, which would accord build- 
ing trades workers the same union 
rights that industrial workers have 

"The 94th Congress passed this 
bill after being assured that Presi- 
dent Ford would sign it," the coun- 
cil noted. "But, for political reasons, 
Mr. Ford broke his word and vetoed 
the bill." 

The AFL-CIO statement declared 
that "simple justice" calls for its 

• Hatch Act reform, so that fed- 
eral workers and others paid from 
federal funds can exercise "political 
rights accorded all other citizens." 

The labor-supported bill would 
lift the stringent penalties now 
imposed on federal workers for 
partisan political activity but 
leave in place strong safeguards 
protecting them against political 
coercion or pressures. 

• Oil cargo preference legisla- 
tion that would require that a por- 
tion of imported oil be carried in 

(Continued on Page 6) 

Page Two 


LABOR'S PROGRAM on a broad range of issues was spotlighted by the AFL-CIO Executive 
Council in a series of policy statements adopted at its mid-winter meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. 
Here the council members listen to a report from President George Meany. 

Public Employees, Farm Workers 
Backed in Bargaining Rights Drive 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Equal justice under the labor relations law for public employees and farm 
workers is a prime objective of the AFL-CIO in seeking changes in the National Labor Relations 

The objective was spelled out by the Executive Council in a statement emphasizing that these two 
groups are the largest presently excluded from coverage of the NLRA. 

The problems of those ^'never 
granted any federal protection 
for their collective bargaining 
rights" are as pressing and ^'even 
more complex" than those work- 
ers covered but not receiving 
proper protection, the council 

It added that "we will seek 
speedy passage of legislation pro- 
viding full collective bargaining 
rights" for federal government 
workers, declaring that executive 
orders providing limited labor-man- 

agement relations "are no substi- 
tute for a specific statute." 

Collective bargaining for state 
and local workers is currently a 
hodge-podge of state and local 
laws, a few providing full rights, 
most highly inadequate and in 
many areas non-existent. Attempts 
to pass federal legislation to bring 
them under the NLRA, the council 
noted, face a potential roadblock 
thrown up by the "Nixon-Burger 
Supreme Court" in a decision last 
year interpreting the Constitution 

Action Urged to Ease 
Problems of Disabled 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The upcoming White House Conference on 
Handicapped Individuals needs to deal effectively with the prob- 
lems of disabled persons on and off the job, the AFL-CIO Execu- 
tive Council declared. 

The May conference, which has the support of both labor and 
management, "must come to grips 

with such basic problems as dis- 
crimination based on disabilities, 
the need for improved social in- 
surance and health care protection 
for the handicapped, as well as 
widening their employment oppor- 
tunities," the council said in a 

Instead of dealing in general- 
ities, it continued, conference 
participants should help "spark 
immediate action programs aimed 

Justice Institute 
Proposal Backed 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Legislation 
creating a National Institute of Jus- 
tice, an independent federal re- 
search agency to improve the law 
and its administration, was endorsed 
by the AFL-CIO Executive Coun- 

The institute would focus on 
such areas as consumer protection, 
availability of legal services, protec- 
tion of privacy from official intru- 
sion, and accountability of public 
officials for action affecting individ- 

The council said that a lack of 
leadership by the Nixon-Ford Ad- 
ministration has taken a heavy toll 
on legal institutions, causing an add- 
ed burden on workers, their fami- 
lies, minorities and the poor. 

Legislation providing for the in- 
stitute was recommended by the 
Commission on a National Institute 
of Justice. AFL-CIO Vice President 
Glenn E. Watts is a member of the 

at correcting the present ills that 
beset handicapped citizens." 

The council said that organized 
labor is well aware that good health 
and the ability to work are essential 
to every wage earner. It pointed 
out that illness, accidents and dis- 
abilities reduce earning power, 
threaten economic security and lim- 
it opportunities for advancement. 

"Wage earners suffer the direct 
effect of disability and their families 
suffer the consequences," the coun- 
cil stressed. 

"Organized labor's goal is clear: 
a job for every American who is 
able and willing to work. This must 
include millions of the handicapped 
who could be gainfully employed 
at decent wages." 

The council said labor's leader- 
ship is essential in meeting the 
needs of all handicapped union 
members and all disabled citizens. 
It urged the full support of AFL- 
CIO unions and state and local cen- 
tral bodies in the efforts of the In- 
dustry-Labor Council for the White 
House Conference. 

AFL-CIO President George 
Meany is co-chairman of the coun- 
cil and Federation Vice President 
Charles H. Pillard is co-vice chair- 

The labor-industry panel has held 
regional meetings to record the 
views of unions, management and 
the handicapped, which will be pre- 
sented at the conference sessions. 
The panel's report will be made to 
Congress and President Carter fol- 
lowing the conference. 

so as to call into question federal 

The council said the federation 
and affiliates representing public 
employees intend to develop a pro- 
gram to meet the court's interpreta- 
tion and secure the necessary sup- 
port of the White House and Con- 
gress. One option, it said, "is to in- 
clude in every federal grant pro- 
gram the requirement that the re- 
cipient state or local governments 
accord employees covered by such 
grants full collective bargaining 

Through this option or an al- 
ternative, the council said, *Ve 
are confident that the means will 
be found to secure collective 
bargaining for state and local em- 
ployees." In the interim it called 
for local and state central bodies 
to continue to press for state and 
local laws. 

For farm workers the council 
said the AFL-CIO will propose 
NLRA amendments that "meet the 
peculiar needs of the agricultural 
industry," indicating it will base 
its approach on the California farm 
labor law. "There never was justi- 
fication for treating agricultural 
workers as second-class citizens, 
and we intend to end the discrimi- 
nation as soon as possible." 

Emergency Supplement: 

Jobless Benefits Bill 
Clears First Hurdle 

A House Ways & Means subcommittee has voted to extend and 
strengthen a recession-born program of supplemental jobless insur- 
ance benefits for the long-term unemployed. The legislation, which 
now goes to the full committee for action, comes close to the AFL- 
CIO's proposals. 

The emergency program has al-^^^ 
lowed workers in states with the 

highest unemployment rates to re- 
ceive up to 65 weeks of jobless 
benefits under a combination of 

Its termination "would leave a 
million jobless workers with no in- 
come and adversely affect the en- 
tire economy," the AFL-CIO Ex- 
ecutive Council said in a statement 
issued before the subcommittee 

At subcommittee hearings, 
AFL-CIO Legislative Rep. Rob- 
ert McGlotten had stressed that 
long-term unemployment is still 
too severe to revert to the "nor- 
mal" limit of 26 weeks of state 
benefits plus up to 13 weeks of 
extended benefits during periods 
of relatively high joblessness. 

The emergency law, due to ex- 
pire Mar. 31, has added a third 
layer of federal supplemental ben- 
efits (FSB) for the long-term unem- 
ployed in the states with the highest 
jobless rates. In states with an in- 
sured unemployment rate of at least 

5 percent, workers who lost their 
jobs could draw benefits for up to 
52 weeks. And in states with over 

6 percent insured jobless, the max- 
imum is 65 weeks. Since insured 
unemployment doesn't take in 
everyone looking for a job, a 5 
percent insured unemployment rate 
is approximately equal to 6 per- 
cent unemployment by the usual 

The Administration had pro- 
posed limiting the maximum total 
benefits to 52 weeks and continu- 
ing the program for only nine more 
months, plus a three-month phase- 

But the subcommittee voted a 
full year*s extension, with an addi- 
tional three months for the phase- 
out. And it continued the 65-week 

McGlotten's testimony for the 
AFL-CIO had urged that the FSB 
program be triggered on and off by 
the national level of unemployment 
instead of the constantly fluctuating 
state jobless rates. 

The Labor Dept. reported that at 
latest count 27 states had insured 

$3 Wage Floor Sought 
To Aid Working Poor 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Congressional action to increase the mini- 
mum wage to $3 an hour is essential to bring low-paid workers 
above the government's poverty level, the AFL-CIO declared. 

The hike in the wage floor should be tied to an automatic mecha- 
nism to maintain the minimum thereafter at 60 percent of the aver- 
age hourly earnings in manufactur-^ 
ing, the Executive Council said. 

A $3-an-hour minimum would 
also make an important contribu- 
tion to economic recovery, the 
council stressed, by increasing con- 
sumer spending which would stim- 
ulate employment in essential in- 

The council warned that at- 
tempts to legislate a youth sub- 
minimum wage must be rejected by 
Congress, that such subminimums 
would only increase joblessness 
among household heads. 

^'Behind a facade of concern 
over teenage unemployment," the 
council said, "promoters of a youth 
subminimum wage want to create 
a large pool of cheap labor to be 
exploited by unscrupulous employ- 
ers. A youth subminimum wage 

would be discriminatory, unfair 
and cause further economic hard- 

Three other improvements must 
be made in the Fair Labor Stand- 
ards Act after a $3 minimum has 
been established, the council said: 
universal coverage of all workers; 
doubletime for overtime on a daily 
and weekly basis to induce employ- 
ers to hire additional workers 
rather than to schedule overtime, 
and reducing the standard work- 
week to 35 hours. 

The current minimum wage of 
$2.30 an hour for most workers 
provides an annual income, based 
on an average work year, about 
$900 below the government pov- 
erty level for a family of four. 

unemployment rates high enough to 
meet the FSB requirement. But it 
estimated that the number will be 
down to 11 by the end of Septem- 

The subcommittee retained the 
state triggers but added a metro- 
politan area trigger that would en- 
able a community with high un- 
employment to qualify for FSB 
even if the state as a whole doesn't. 
The AFL-CIO had expressed sup- 
port for such an area trigger. 

Under the subcommittee bill, a 
labor market area with an actual 
unemployment rate of 7 percent — 
total unemployment, not just in- 
sured unemployment — ^would qual- 
ify for the 5 2- week benefit maxi- 
mum. An area with 8 percent job- 
lessness or higher would qualify for 
the 65-week level. 

McGlotten had urged that the 
program be funded out of general 
revenue and that the large sums of 
money "owed" by the Unemploy- 
ment Compensation Trust Fund to 
pay for the program to date be 

The subcommittee bill would fi- 
nance the remainder of the FSB 
program from general revenues, but 
would not excuse the debts to the 
fund for benefits already paid out. 

Drive Opens 
To Overhaul 
Labor Law 

(Continued from Page 1) 
ment Relations, and said "this mea- 
sure addresses itself to some, but 
not all, of the concerns we have 
with the current imbalance in the 

It said the federation will item- 
ize the problems and propose 
workable and equitable solutions. 
The statement called for speedy 
hearings and fast action to reach 
the goal of '^equity and prompt 

The council said it would off"er 
recommendations in the following 
areas of NLRA revision: 

• A fair chance for workers to 
organize — Expedited NLRB elec- 
tions, preliminary injunctions for 
employers discriminating against 
workers exercising their right to or- 
ganize and for illegal refusals to 
bargain after such elections. 

• Repeal of Section 14(b) — 
This section, which permits states 
and employers to combine to de- 
prive workers of their rights to 
make their own choice as to 
whether they will seek a union se- 
curity provision through bargain- 
ing, should be removed. 

• Streamlining procedures and 
reducing delays — Increase the 
membership of the NLRB from 
five to nine members so it can 
streamline its procedures and re- 
duce the time for a final decision 
in unfair labor practice cases. 

• Eff'ective remedies — Compar- 
able remedies for employer viola- 
tions similar to the injunction and 
damage suit procedures now avail- 
able to them and banning govern- 
ment contracts to firms that violate 
employee rights. 

• Definitional changes — The 
NLRB and courts have insufficient 
guidelines to congressional intent 
resulting in erroneous decisions, es- 
pecially in successor cases when a 
business changes hands. 


Fmge Three 

Council Presses Key Legislative Goals 


Meany Cites Improved Prospects 
Under Nation ^s New Leadership 

(Continued from Page 1) 

and farm workers, to increase the 
minimum wage to $3 an hour with 
a formula to keep it current as liv- 
ing costs increase, and to secure 
quick congressional action on four 
measures passed by the previous 
Congress and vetoed by President 
Ford — site picketing rights for con- 
struction workers, reform of the 
Hatch Act, strip mining protection 
and a share of oil import cargoes 
for American ships. 

In the political area, the coun- 
cil called for public financing of 
congressional elections and other 
changes in the federal election 
laws as well as providing for 
voter registration at the polls on 
election day. 

In the social insurance field the 
council urged amendments to im- 
prove the operation of the new pen- 
sion law, extension of benefits to 
workers who have exhausted un- 
employment compensation, federal 
standards for workers' compensa- 
tion, renewal and improvement of 
the food stamp program, due pro- 
cess in jobless benefit disqualifica- 
tion and support for the White House 
conference on the handicapped. 

The council strongly supported 
the positions and actions of Presi- 
dent Carter in support of human 
rights, set up a special committee 
to review public broadcasting and 
to recommend future AFL-CIO 
policy, stressed the need for a 
stronger merchant marine, voiced 
support for a boycott asked by the 
Carpenters against Bancroft Manu- 
facturing Co. and memorialized for- 
mer Vice President Peter T. Schoe- 
mann and federation Research Di- 
rector Nathaniel Goldfinger. 

Meeting with political directors 
of AFL-CIO unions as the COPE 
Administrative Committee, the 
council heard reports on the 1976 
election campaign and plans for the 
1 977 elections in a number of states 
and cities as well as to fill congres- 
sional vacancies. 

At his press conference, Meany 
said that labor's disagreement 
with the Carter Administration 
on the economic stimulus pack- 
age is a "reasonable" difference, 
that the Administration has come 
down "too heavily" on the use 

of tax cuts and that people in the 
upper income brackets should 
not "get $50 that they can flip 
at the first head waiter they see." 

He told reporters that "by and 
large the appointments (in the Car- 
ter Administration) are good" al- 
though he said he personally be- 
lieved that the appointment of Paul 
Warnke as disarmament negotiator 
is a "bad choice." 

Meany praised Carter as "abso- 
lutely right" in letting the Soviet 
Union know "that we are dedicated 
to human rights everywhere in this 
world" and that the United States 
can continue to have a relationship 
with the USSR without dropping 
"our principles." 

Queried about the Administra- 
tion's plan for prenotification on 
wage and price increases, Meany 
said "it would destroy collective 
bargaining if you are compelled to 
notify the federal government" 
months in advance and "give them 
some responsibility for a settle- 
ment." This would destroy labor's 
flexibility at the bargaining table, he 
emphasized, and would set up the 
next steps of voluntary guidelines, 
government-imposed guidelines and 
finally wage-price controls "and 
that's a disaster we can document." 

Meany said that some people 
in the Administration ^^would like 
to go this route. A fellow by the 
name of Alan Greenspan (head 
of the Council of Economic Ad- 

visers in the Nixon-Ford Admin- 
istrations). He is still there, but 
he's changed his name to Charlie 
Schultze (Carter's head of the 
CEA). He'd like to go this route 
and he's very timidly approach- 
ing it." 

Meany said that the answer is 
to put people back to work, that 
"the most inflationary thing now 
is unemployment" and high interest 

On the necessity for labor law 
reform Meany reviewed the history 
that led to passage of the Wagner 
Act and the later Taft-Hartley and 
Landrum-Griffin amendments and 
declared that "we want to get the 
labor law back to what was intend- 
ed in 1935 when we wrote the 
Wagner Act, where there would be 
an equal opportunity for both sides." 

He said that President Car- 
ter's attitude toward the labor re- 
form proposals should not be in- 
fluenced by a "sense of debt to 
organized labor. I think it should 
be influenced by a sense of jus- 
tice to organized labor and to 
the American worker." 

The AFL-CIO has not asked 
Carter "to get out in front" on the 
labor law overhaul and has asked 
for no commitments in advance. 
Labor will present him with evi- 
dence why he should sign the legis- 
lation when it passes Congress and 
will try to convince him of its nec- 
essity, Meany said. 

Public Financing Urged 
For Congress Elections 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL-CIO will work for "the earliest 
possible enactment of public financing of congressional elections" 
on the basis of the success of the 1976 presidential election 

"It is now time to take the next step," the federation's Executive 
Council declared, so that all the in 

herent abuses of campaign financ- 
ing by the wealthy can be elimi- 

Public financing of the 1976 
presidential election ^^passed with 
flying colors,'^ the council said, 
and the AFL-CIO is "proud to 
have worked for the legislative 

Registration at Polls 
Sought for All States 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — A federal law providing for voter registra- 
tion "at the polling sites on election day" should be enacted to 
remove existing barriers to citizen participation in elections, the 
AFL-CIO said. 

The time has come for a federal universal voter registration 

law'* that will permit all unregis 
tered citizens to go to the polls elec- 
tion day "with adequate proof of 
age and residency" and register 
and vote, the Executive Council 
declared in a statement. Similar 
laws should be enacted for state 
and local elections, it said. 

Noting the long record of AFL- 
CIO involvement in improving the 
election laws to eliminate barriers 
to voting, the council said that 
some success had been achieved at 
the state level where 16 states have 
approved registration by mail. "We 
intend to continue these efforts," 
the council said. 

The effectiveness of registration 
at the polls on election day was 
demonstrated last year in Wiscon- 
sin and Minnesota. In Wisconsin 
more than 200,000 previously un- 
registered eligible citizens registered 

at the polls on election day and 
voted, raising voter participation 
more than 10 percentage points 
above the national average of 54.4 

In Minnesota more than 22 per- 
cent of the 1.9 million persons who 
voted registered at the polls on elec- 
tion day, and the state's voting 
performance was 7 percentage 
points higher than in 1972. In both 
states, the council noted, "there 
was no serious incidence of fraudu- 
lent voting; administrative problems 
were minor; additional costs were 
negligible, and the myth of Voter 
apathy' was laid to rest." 

The council called on Congress 
and the President to act "expedi- 
tiously on this proposal" so that all 
artificial impediments to voting are 
finally removed. 

breakthrough" that enacted par- 
tial public financing of presiden- 
tial primaries and full financing 
of the general election. 

Organized labor, the statement 
stressed, wants "to get out of the 
business of making campaign con- 
tributions. This activity has been 
forced on us by the need to offset 
the contributions made by the 
wealthy and by business interests. 
We settled for the present narrow 
provision because it was our prac- 
tical legislative assessment that no 
more could be accomplished." 

The council said the AFL-CIO 
will "work with all who share our 
goal" for public financing of con- 
gressional elections because elec- 
tions should be decided on the mer- 
its, "not on the ability to raise 
money or the size of a candidate's 

In addition, the council said, a 
number of other amendments are 
needed to further perfect the Fed- 
eral Election Campaign Act in time 
for the 1978 election. It noted the 
following problem areas: 

• The paperwork required of 
candidates and political committees 
is overly burdensome. 

• The expenditure limits for 
presidential candidates are unrealis- 

• Legal technicalities stand in 
the way of candidates who wish to 
speak to their supporters. 

• Unnecessary barriers obstruct 
state party participation in the pres- 
idential election. 

• The law is plainly too complex 
in many particulars. 

AT NEWS CONFERENCE after a session of the AFL-CIO 
Executive Council at Bal Harbour, Fla., President George Meany 
fields questions from reporters covering the council meeting. 

Policy Review Mapped 
On Public Broadcasting 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — An extensive review of the 10-year experi- 
ence of public broadcasting will be conducted by a special AFL- 
CIO Executive Council committee to help plan future federation 

The council said it is time to re-evaluate AFL-CIO policy in 
public broadcasting in view of la-^ 

bor's consistent eff"orts to expand 
the services of the Corporation for 
Public Broadcasting and the local 
stations that comprise the system. 

The establishment of CPB by 
Congress was designed to encour- 
age the development of a "non- 
profit broadcasting system that 
could offer the American people 
a diversity of high quality program- 
ming free from the constraints of 
political and commercial influence," 
the council pointed out. 

The statement said that although 
much has been done to insulate 
public broadcasting from political 
control, "too little attention has 
been paid to the influence which 
corporate sponsors or so-called *un- 
derwriters' wield over the system." 

The council said it was troubled 
also "by the steadily increasing use 

of foreign-produced material which 
now dominates major prime-time 
programming distributed by the sys- 
tem and broadcast by many indi- 
vidual public stations," rather than 
encouraging greater American cre- 

Recent actions of the CPB, 
the council stressed, ^^encouraged 
the diversion of federal, state and 
local tax money to support media 
productions abroad. These activi- 
ties cannot, and should not be 
tolerated by American taxpayers 
especially at a time when public 
funds are sorely needed to create 
jobs and alleviate unemployment 
in this country.'* 

The council committee will also 
include representatives of affiliated 
unions active in the broadcast field 
to evaluate current CPB practices. 

Carter Praised for Stand 
On Human Rights Issues 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL-CIO strongly endorsed Presi- 
dent Carter's position and actions in support of international 
human rights. 

Carter, in the month or so he has been in office, has spoken 
out forcefully against Soviet treatment of dissidents, including 
Nobel Peace Prize winner Andrei Sakharov, and has made 
human rights a central concern in his Administration. 

^^By speaking out unequivocally on specific cases of oppres- 
sion, as well as in general terms, he has established for his 
entire Administration the principle that human rights consti- 
tute the line at which diplomatic expediency must stop," the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council observed in a statement here. 

^^The spodight of public attention and the most vigorous 
expression of the free world's concern are today the only 
sources of safety, protection, and hope for those extraordinary 
men and women who struggle and suffer for the most ele- 
mental means of free expression in the Communist world," 
the council said. 

^^World peace is not threatened, but advanced, by our asso- 
ciation as a nation with their struggles." 

The council statement said that abuses and threats to basic 
human rights are ^'the most searching issues that divided the 
world today, and the clearest tests of American ideals and 

Where human rights are concerned, whether in South 
Africa, Chile, Uganda or the Soviet Union, the council said, 
''there are no longer any purely internal affairs," a quotation 
from Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn's address at a 1975 AFXr-CIO 
dinner honoring the dissident Russian novelist. 

Page Four 


Bargaining Rights for All 

nn HE AFX,-CIO has for many years supported extending collec- 
tive bargaining rights to all workers, particularly the two largest 
groups presently excluded from coverage under the National Labor 
Relations Act — public employees and agricultural workers. 

Our proposals for immediate changes in the NLRA make it 
abundantly clear that even those workers presently covered by the 
law are not receiving proper protection. But the problems of those 
never granted any federal protection for their collective bargaining 
rights, such as public employees and agricultural workers, are 
equally pressing and even more complex. 

We will seek speedy passage of legislation providing full col- 
lective bargaining rights for federal government employees. Exec- 
utive orders providing limited labor-management relations for 
federal workers are no substitute for a specific statute. 

State and local employees seeking the right to bargain collectively 
face a potential roadblock erected by the Nixbn-Burger Supreme 
Court. The AFL-CIO and its affiliates representing public em- 
ployees intend to develop a legal program that will: 

1. Meet the present court's interpretation of the Constitution. 

2. Meet the needs of public employees. 

3. Secure the necessary support from the White House and the 
congressional leadership. 

One option is to include in every federal grant program the re- 
quirement that the recipient state or local governments accord 
employees covered by such grants full collective bargaining rights. 
Through that option, or an alternative, we are confident that the 
means will be found to secure collective bargaining for state and 
local employees. In the interim, our state and local central bodies 
will continue to press state and local governments for appropriate 
collective bargaining laws. 

We intend also to see to it that our brothers and sisters in the 
agricultural industry get equal justice. Based on the experience 
under the California Agricultural Labor Relations Act of 1975, 
the AFL-CIO will propose NLRA amendments that meet the 
peculiar needs of the agricultural industry, such as the need to 
hold elections during the peak harvest season. 

There is ample precedent for variations in the law recognizing 
industry differences that affect labor relations, such as the provision 
for pre-hire agreements in the construction industry. There never 
was justification for treating agricultural workers as second-class 
citizens, and we intend to end that discrimination as soon as pos- 

— Statement by the AFL-CIO Executive Council, Feb, 22, 1977, 
at Bal Harbour, Fla. 


Official Weekly Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

George Me any, President 
Lane Kirki.and. Secretary-Treasurer 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
♦Clyde M. Webber 

Executive Council 
L W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Angelo Fosco 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanley 
Charles H. Pillard 

• Deceased 

E Director of Publications: Saul M'iWqt S 

5 Manafiinfi Editor: John M, Barry 5 

= Assistant Editors: = 

1 John R. Oravec David L. Perlman James M. Shevis 1 

s = 

I AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W. | 

I Washington, D.C. 20006 | 

I Telephone: 637-5032 | 

S Subscriptions: $2 a year: 10 or more. SI. 50 a year 1 

I Vol. XXII Saturday, February 26, 1977 No. 8 | 

= The American Federation of Labor and Congress of In- 

= diistrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in jfflLABORPRESS| 

= any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit mM^^^M 

5 advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


'Would You Mind Sitting in the Middle?' 

Ripoti' Schools Spread: 

Fast Buck Diploma Mills Mar 
Adult Education Achievements 

By Gus Tyler 

THE ENROLLMENT OF millions of adults in 
college degree programs is one of the most ex- 
citing developments in American education in 

For many men and women, these courses are a 
new start in life. For many others, the learning is 
a personal blossoming, a voyage of self-discovery. 
For schools, these grownups in the classroom are 
a rich new vein of income. For teachers, adult ed- 
ucation means jobs and, more significantly, serious 
students who can draw on their own life experi- 
ences to enrich the learning process. And for the 
nation, the education of these citizens means a 
more productive society — economically, political- 
ly and culturally. 

I say all this as a teacher who has drawn inspi- 
ration from association with men and women who 
in their 30s and, if you please, in their 80s, are 
reborn in the classroom. Right now, I am teaching 
a course of politics at Adelphi College with a chal- 
lenging mix of students: a detective sergeant, an 
ex-con, a social worker, a retired school teacher, 
a young textile entrepreneur, a rug merchant, a 
New York City cop, a county agency exec, among 
others. To the written word, they bring a throb- 
bing third dimension from the depths of their pul- 
sating lives. 

But, as in so many good undertakings, 
there is always the ripoff artist, the self-seeker 
who takes hold of a worthy social cause to turn 
it to unworthy personal gain. And that's what's 
happening to much adult education. 

One of the most scandalous of these ripoffs is 
the misuse of adult education on military bases, 
where millions of GIs are enticed to take worth- 
less courses to attain useless degrees at the ex- 
pense of government money or GI educational 

"Many college and university programs offered 
on military bases are so poor that they would be 
classified as diploma mills were they subject to 
close educational scrutiny," write two Texans, 
Kenneth H. Ashworth, the state's commissioner 
of education, and William C. Lindley, dean of 
continuing education at the University of Texas 
in San Antonio. 

The courses are not taught for information or 

inspiration but for income. They are run many 
miles away from campus and away from all , 
kinds of educational facilities. The classroom 
work is minimal. Credits are given for all kinds - 
of things that are in no way connected with a 
course of study — ^like a random work project. 

The schools just love big enrollments in these , 
courses. "Since the federal government pays most 
of the costs, such programs are a convenient 
source of quick income," write the authors in ^ 
Change, the magazine on Higher Learning (Feb- • 
ruary 1977). Not satisfied with this "bread," some , 
schools demand gravy from their students, asking 
for sums between $50 and $200 for "evaluation ^ 
fees," by which the schools assign credit for life 
experience or for military courses. 

ONE SCHOOL outside Texas expects to pick • 
up close to $2 million this year from five military 
installations in Texas. Another school, a small pri- • 
vate college that was about to go bankrupt, is 
picking up about $700,000 in a dozen spots in * 
eight states. 

Military brass on the base push the courses. " 
Some officers do it to pick up a degree here and 
there to further their own career advancement. 
Others do it so they can boast of the many ' 
courses they sponsor to accumulate more Brownie 

The serviceman does not find out how he has • 
been tricked until years later, when he applies for 
a job only to find out "that the degree is nothing ' 
but a worthless paper certificate for which he has , 
used up all or part of his GI benefits." 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

Full Measure of Quality ! 

g / Ingredients of Ail 
Union Prodncts 


% =^ 

Union Services 



Page Five 

Aimed at Employer Abuses: 

Updating of Federal Labor Law 
Needed to Restore Union Rights 

The following is excerpted from a statement by 
the AFL-CIO Executive Council, Feb, 22, 1977, 
at Bal Harbour, Fla. 

TPHE WAGNER ACT of 1935 clearly estab- 
lished the public policy of the United States 
in labor relations as: "encouraging the practice 
and procedure of collective bargaining" and "pro- 
tecting the exercise by workers of full freedom 
of association, self-organization, and designation 
of representatives of their own choosing." 

That act was based on the innocent belief that 
most employers would respect the clearly stated 
rights of their employees. The 1935 statute, there- 
fore, simply set out in two brief paragraphs the 
basic rights of workers: (1) the right to decide 
for themselves if they want union representation, 
and (2) fundamental protections against infringe- 
ment of that right by their employers. It estab- 
lished the National Labor Relations Board to 
administer the law, but granted it only the most 
limited enforcement powers. 

Twice in the last 42 years, Congress placed 
strict limits on the ability of workers to exer- 
cise their right to organize free from employer 
coercion. The stated purpose of the Taft-Hart- 
ley and Landnim-Griffin amendments was to 
correct an imbalance in the law. But the result 
has been to create a gross imbalance in favor 
of those employers bent on frustrating the right 
of workers to organize. 

Those employers now hold the upper hand in 
labor relations just as surely as they held it prior 
to the Wagner Act. The promise to workers of a 
fair chance to organize where there is employer 
opposition is as far from being realized today as 
it was in 1934. 

Worker protections geared to the conditions 
of the 1930s are inadequate in the face of em- 
ployer tactics of the 1970s. Gone are the employ- 
er's goon squads and the billyclubs; today's union- 
busters wear business suits and carry attache 
cases. Sharp lawyers and Madison Avenue prop- 
agandists have replaced the straightforward coer- 
cion of brass knuckles with carefully calculated 
devices designed to destroy, without leaving any 
visible bruises, the desire of workers to organize. 
The one constant is that the employer has the 

Weak Enforcement: 

resources and he uses them to buy experts who 
get the job done. 

Employers violate the rights of workers with 
virtual impunity. They disregard those rights se- 
cure in the knowledge that procedural delays will 
prevent the NLRB from enforcing the law for 
several years. Employers know that if that day 
of reckoning eventually arrives, the price of set- 
tling up will be cheap. They count on the fact 
that by that time the workers will have come to 
believe that the act's promises of protection are 
just words on a piece of paper. 

For the workers who commit themselves to the 
task of self-organization and negotiation of a first 
contract confronted by all-out employer opposi- 
tion, it is as if the Wagner Act and the past 42 
years never existed. Workers have their "rights" 
under the law, but "rights" do not feed families. 
They see what happens to their fellow union sup- 
porters who are fired by the employer and must 
wait years for legal restitution. They see that the 
promise of collective bargaining can be dragged 
through the board and the courts for years and 
never become a reality. 

THERE IS NO EXCUSE for a continuation 
of the present situation. There are no complex 
legal mysteries to be solved. Writing a new law is 
unnecessary. The existing law is based on the 
sound principles of worker free choice of a rep- 
resentative and of free collective bargaining. The 
act can and will work if the most glaring pro- 
cedural and remedial deficiencies are corrected. 

We are not alone in having reached this con- 
clusion. Rep. Frank Thompson, chairman of 
the House subcommittee on Labor-Manage- 
ment Relations, after lengthy hearings in 1976, 
has introduced H.R. 77 in the 95th Congress. 
This measure addresses itself to some, but not 
all, of the concerns we have with the current 
imbalance in the NLRA. 

We will bring to the Congress an itemization 
of the problems which exist and will propose 
workable and equitable solutions. We believe 
speedy hearings and fast action in both Houses 
are long overdue and that members of both 
Houses share our goal of equity and prompt 

Unfair Employment Practices 
Add to Plight of Handicapped 

ENFORCEMENT of the federal mandate for 
programs to assure handicapped Americans 
equal opportunities for jobs has been hampered 
by a shortage of Labor Dept. inspectors and 
other personnel to monitor employment practices, 
Associate Director Lawrence Smedley of the 
AFL-CIO Dept. of Social Security declared. 

Smedley said that the upcoming White House 
Conference on Handicapped Individuals will seek 
to spur national awareness of the problems and 
potentials of handicapped Americans, and shape 
recommendations to the President and Congress 
that will "enable handicapped people to live in- 
dependently, with dignity, and to participate fully 
in all activities of our society." 

He said the AFL-CIO will be a full participant 
in the conference, along with industry representa- 
tives and private citizens. Smedley appeared on 
the AFL-CIO produced public affairs radio inter- 
view Labor News Conference. 

The handicapped suffer the highest unem- 
ployment rates of any group, Smedley stressed, 
and despite the ban on discriminating against 
the fiandicapped, many employers tend to "take 
the easy way out" and pass over handicapped 
workers when they fill jobs. 

He said that employer fears that hiring the 
handicapped will trigger higher health costs or 
create other job-related problems are very un- 
fortunate and unjustified. He said that the con- 
ference will seek to "dispel such myths and fears." 

Smedley pointed out that "the evidence we 
have shows that handicapped workers make good 
employees — there is less turnover, there is less 
absenteeism." He noted that the law doesn't de- 

mand that employers make extensive or expen- 
sive modifications of the workplace, but only 
"reasonable accommodations." And, he added, 
"most handicapped people don't require any 
modifications to be able to work." 

While unemployment is a severe hardship for 
any worker, Smedley said, it is a "tragic situation 
for handicapped persons who, if they do not have 
assistance in finding a job, can very well face a 
lifetime" without a job. "We are not trying to 
give the handicapped preferential treatment in 
securing jobs," he said, but an "equal chance to 
compete for jobs on an equal basis with other 
groups in the population." 

Smedley also noted that there is a tendency 
among some employers to exploit handicapped 
workers by paying them low wages and even re- 
sorting to violations of the minimum wage law. 
But the handicapped worker is often hestitant to 
complain to the employer about the abuses for 
fear of losing his job and knowing it would be 
difficult to find another because of the discrimina- 
tory hiring practices, he said. 

"Obviously, where they have a union and a 
union contract to protect their job security, that 
isn't the case," Smedley pointed out. 

Most union contracts have provisions to pro- 
tect workers disabled on the job so they can re- 
turn to work after recovering. Although they may 
not be able to continue the same job, the con- 
tracts provide for retraining for other jobs and pro- 
tection against layoff, he noted. 

Reporters questioning Smedley were Rachelle 
Patterson of the Boston Globe and David Prosten 
of Press Associates, Inc. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

ONE GOOD THING about a crisis is that it creates a consensus 
that something must be done. And there is a growing demand 
that something be done about the major crisis in America today: 
more than 10 million people unemployed with 20 percent of the 
nation's industry standing idle. 

New leadership has come to the White House and to the Con- 
gress and the process is under way which will lead to decisions. 

A vacuum of national leadership had long been in the making. 
It was former Attorney Gen. John Mitchell who expressed the view 
that politicians had promised the people too much and thereby 
created expectations that couldn't be fulfilled. It was President 
Nixon who likened the American people to children and who 
became arrogant in that belief. Nixon liked to say that you can't 
solve problems by throwing dollars at them. 

The Nixon appointees continued the propaganda war against 
social programs, attacking what they called welfare "cheats" and 
foodstamp "chiselers" and the "loafers" drawing jobless pay and 
condemning the Medicare "mess." 

President Ford extended the scare campaign, warning of the 
dangers of "Big Government." 

The largely conservative news media helped perpetuate the 
myths, seeking out stories of the woman in a fur coat showing up 
for her unemployment check, or the welfare family watching color 
TV, as indicative of the whole. 

Unfortunately, many leading newspapers are reporting the cur- 
rent congressional debate over job-creation programs in the same 

The cynical contention is that members of Congress want to 
expand the public works program to about $4 billion because it 
enhances their standing with the voters back home and will get 
them re-elected via the old "porkbarrel." The projects are "make- 
work" and "leaf-raking" and "boondoggles" for people too lazy to 
get out and search for work, the conservative arguments go. 

But the longer America's recession continues, the hoUower those 
notions sound. 

The fact is that public works projects and other job-creation pro- 
grams are badly needed. The major cities and many towns have 
been deteriorating for years as outlays by state and local govern- 
ment for new construction steadily declined from $161 per capita 
in 1968 to $102 per capita in 1976. 

Congress, over President Ford's veto, appropriated $2 billion for 
public works last year. It is not enough, but it is being put to good 

About $500 million of it is enabling 468 towns and cities to 
build courthouses, town halls, municipal offices, libraries, parking 
facilities and community centers. Nearly $375 million will help 268 
communities build schools. Some 473 governments will get $400 
million for water and sewer systems, treatment plants and storm 
drains. Another 49 communities will receive $62 million for hospi- 
tals, clinics and nursing homes. And $100 million will help 133 
communities build police and fire stations, jails, prisons and other 

But most cities and towns with high unemployment lost out. 
A total of 3,300 communities sought $3 billion to buUd schools; 
3,000 towns and cities wanted $2.7 billion for public buildings; 
3,900 communities needed $3.4 billion for water and sewage sys- 
tems and 2,445 governments asked for $1.8 bUlion for roads, 
bridges, highways and sidewalks. 

These are real needs, and they explain why Congress is expand- 
ing the public works component of the Administration's economic 
stimulus package. 

The crisis in America will remain as long as so many people 
remain unemployed while so much needs to be done — and until 
their leaders respond to the real needs of the nation. 

MORE INSPECTORS to monitor employer hiring practices 
would spur implementation of federally mandated programs to 
assure equal job opportunities for handicapped Americans, 
Lawrence Smedley, center, associate director of the AFL-CIO 
Dept. of Social Security, said. Questioning him on Labor News 
Conference were Rachelle Patterson of the Boston Globe and 
David Prosten of Press Associates, Inc. The weekly radio inter- 
view is produced as a public service by the AFL-CIO. 

age 91X 


Boost in Job Programs: 

PUliLlC EMPLOYEES should have the same rights to full collective bargaining as do workers in 
the private sector, Labor Sec. Ray Marshall declared at a meeting of the executive board of the 
AFL-CIO Public Employee Dept. 

Public Employee Dept. 
Sets Legislative Parley 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO Public Employee Dept. has 
called a national legislative conference for Mar. 29-30 in Washington 
to help win passage of a nine-point program in the 95th Congress. 

The department's executive board in session here said that a 
new Congress and a new Administration hold the promise of an 
"activist federal government react- ^ 

ing with vigor to solve the prob- 
lems" confronting the nation and 
its public workers. 

The legislative conference will 
deal with a program designed by 
the board, a program that repre- 
sents the "consolidated viewpoints" 
of the 29 unions affiliated with the 
department, the board said. The 
program includes: 

• Liberalization of the Hatch 
Act which currently restricts the 
political activities of federal and 
postal service workers. 

• Development of a federal ur- 
ban policy to meet the needs of 
state and local governments includ- 
ing welfare, education, transit and 

• Collective bargaining legisla- 
tion for federal employees. 

• Collective bargaining for state 
and local government workers. 

• Proposals to improve the U.S. 
Postal Service including a federal 

States, Cities 
Hit on Social 
Security Cutoff 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — State and 
local governments shouldn't be able 
to cancel their workers' social se- 
curity coverage, the AFL-CIO Ex- 
ecutive Council said. 

Social security coverage for em- 
ployees of municipal and state gov- 
ernments is optional and more than 
200 public employers have served 
notice of their intent to withdraw 
from the system in order to reduce 
budget costs. 

The Executive Council expressed 
labor's concern at this threatened 
cutback in protection that could 
mean the loss or reduction of fu- 
ture retirement benefits for workers 
and survivor protection for widows 
and children. It would also mean 
an unfair shifting of cost to other 
covered workers to compensate for 
benefits that will remain due for 
public workers previously covered. 

"Social security protection of 
public employees should not be 
wiped out by the unilateral action 
of their employers," the council 
said. "Once coverage is elected, 
withdrawal should not be allowed." 

The council statement called on 
Congress and the Administration 
to "act immediately to correct this 
defect in the law by requiring pub- 
lic employers whose employees are 
covered by social security to main- 
tain that coverage." 

subsidy, presidential appointment of 
the postmaster general, abolition 
of the Postal Board of Governors 
and opposition to private mail de- 
livery plans. 

• Occupational safety and health 
coverage for all public employees. 

• Public sector pension reform. 

• Protection of wage-setting 
mechanisms for blue collar work- 
ers and reaffirmation of the Fed- 
eral Pay Comparability Act and 
assurance that the law will function 
as originally conceived. 

• Social Security coverage of 
public employees and opposition to 
withdrawal of coverage by state and 
local governments. 

The board also approved a 
comprehensive study of occupa- 
tional safety and health practices 
in the public sector and issued 
an evaluation of the constitu- 
tional basis for enactment of a 
federal collective bargaining law 
for state and local government 

The board pointed out that many 
of its legislative proposals are in- 
cluded in the 1976 Democratic 
Party platform and that President 
Carter is "committed to the goals 
and ideals" outlined in that plat- 

Quick Action 
Urged on 4 
Vetoed Bills 

(Continued from Page 1) 
American-flag vessels. 

The council termed the measure 
"vital" to energy independence. It 
would decrease reliance on foreign 
vessels and lessen the risk of "pollu- 
tion disasters such as those recently 
caused by 'runaway flag' ships." 

Further, the Executive Council 
said, it "would encourage private 
investment in the construction of 
vessels built in American shipyards 
by American workers to be oper- 
ated by American merchant sea- 

• Strip mining protection, which 
was twice vetoed by President Ford. 
The labor-backed bill sets federal 
standards for state laws "to protect 
against environmental devastation 
caused by the strip mining of coal, 
badly needed to meet the nation's 
energy needs." The council said the 
measure "deserves prompt passage." 

Bills based on the vetoed legisla- 
tion have been introduced in this 
Congress, the council noted. 

Since extensive hearings and de- 
bate on the issues were held in re- 
cent years and are on the public 
record, the council suggested that 
"it should be possible for the Con- 
gress to act expeditiously," pass the 
legislation "and move on to new 

The statement urged President 
Carter to sign the bills into law "as 
soon as they reach the White 

House, Senate Vote 
To Raise Budget Lid 

(Continued from Page 1) 
nally sought by Carter, and the 
Administration's later proposal for 
$5.4 billion. 

In actual outlays of money 
this year — as contrasted with 
commitments that allow work to 
proceed with assurance of pay- 
ment — the House added $3.7 bil- 
lion as compared with the origi- 
nal Carter figure of $1.7 billion 
and a subsequent $2.2 billion 

These figures should not be con- 
fused with the revisions in the Ford 
Administration budget that Carter 
sent to Congress the same week the 
House and Senate were acting on 
changes for this fiscal year. The 
Ford budget and the Carter re- 
visions apply to the fiscal year that 
will start next Oct. 1. 

Apart from the doubling of 
available public works funds, the 
House budget — and in most cases 
the Senate version as well — includes 
these major increases: 

• Funding to double the number 
of public service jobs from the cur- 
rent 310,000 level to 725,000 as 
soon as possible. To assure cities 
and states they can go ahead with 
hiring plans, two years of funding 
authority would be granted. 

• An additional $600 million for 
an assortment of youth training 
programs, many of which also will 
be utilized to help Vietnam veter- 
ans find jobs. The total is double 
the Administration's proposal. 

• An additional $925 million, 
an amount agreed to by the Presi- 
dent, for "counter-cyclical" assis- 
tance to cities and states with high 
unemployment so that needed ser- 
vices do not have to be reduced. 

Overall, the economic stimulus 
added to this year's budget trans- 
lates into about 1 million jobs on 
an "annualized" basis in which, for 
example, six summer jobs lasting 
two months each are counted as 
the equivalent of one annual job. 

The job-creating package in- 
cludes opportunities for skilled 
construction workers in the public 
works program and opportimities 
for unskilled and the disadvan- 
taged through public service em- 
ployment and training programs. 
Its counter-cyclical assistance means 
greater job security for public em- 
ployees who have been squeezed 
by local and state budget cutbacks. 

One generally endorsed change 
the House made in the accelerated 
public works program was to drop 
an allocation formula that had 
worked to the disadvantage of com- 
munities with the highest unem- 

In both the House and Sen- 
ate, Republicans sought unsuc- 
cessfully to substitute across-the- 
board tax cuts for the job-creat- 
ing and economic stimulus pack- 
age. These were beaten and the 
higher budget ceilings were then 
approved by a 72-20 vote in the 
Senate and 239-169 in the House. 

Among the differences to be re- 
solved is the Senate's allowance of 
the full $13.8 billion in tax relief 
that Carter had requested as a ma- 
jor part of his economic stimulus 
plan and a House figure some $700 
million less, reflecting changes made 
by the House Ways & Means Com- 
mittee. Also, the Senate but not the 
House included a subsidy to help 
low-income families meet this win- 
ter's high fuel bills. 

Food Stamp Extension 
Seen as Vital to Needy 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Food stamps are vital to the health and wel- 
fare of millions of needy families, the Executive Council declared 
in urging President Carter and Congress to renew and improve the 
program. The existing law authorizing food stamps expires Nov. 30. 

The council noted that while 17 million of the nation's 26 million 
poor depend on food stamps, the^ 
Ford Administration last year 
sought to cripple the program 
through "a barrage of false propa- 

Due-Process Hearings Demanded 
Before Jobless Aid Terminations 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO called on Congress and the Carter Administration to assure 
jobless workers the right to a due-process hearing prior to any termination of their unemployment 
insurance benefits. 

Millions of jobless workers are denied unemployment compensation protection each year when 
weekly benefits are cut off pending the appeal of a disqualification decision, the federation's Execu- 
tive Council observed in a state- 


"The disqualification is im- 
posed without any attempt at a 
due-process hearing," the coun- 
cil said. "We believe this due- 
process right is guaranteed by the 
Constitution and should not be 
denied to people just because 
they are unemployed." 

Under current practice, a jobless 
worker may be disqualified and 
weekly benefit payments terminated 
if a state claims examiner is dissat- 
isfied with any of his responses to 
questions about his ability, avail- 
ability, and willingness to accept 
suitable work. The unemployed 
worker must undertake an active 
search for work, and must not re- 
fuse to accept work. 

If he is disqualified for benefits, 

the jobless worker receives a writ- 
ten notice of the denial and is in- 
formed that any appeal must be 
filed within a fixed period — usually 
10 to 15 days. Jobless workers who 
fail to read the notice, or who fail 
to file an appeal within the speci- 
fied time, lose all their benefit 

Even if the jobless worker is 
given a hearing and wins the ap- 
peal, benefit payments are not re- 
sumed until after an administrative 
decision in his or her favor. During 
this period, unlimited in the fed- 
eral law, a jobless worker may be 
left destitute. 

The council pointed out that the 
Supreme Court has held that wel- 
fare recipients are entitled to a due- 
process hearing prior to termina- 
tion of their benefits, and that 

payments must be made until a 
final decision is rendered on their 
appeal. Social security beneficiaries, 
too, are accorded hearings as a 
matter of right by the Health, Edu- 
cation & Welfare Dept. prior to 
benefit termination. 

^'However, the Dept. of Labor, 
which administers federal responsi- 
bilities relating to unemployment 
insurance, has not followed HEW's 
lead," the council said. "As a re- 
sult, many unemployment compen- 
sation claimants have their benefits 
arbitrarily terminated without a 
prior hearing." 

Since the courts have failed to 
act, the council said. Congress and 
the Administration should step in 
to provide jobless workers the right 
to a hearing prior to the termina- 
tion of benefits. 

ganda and presidential orders." 

Although labor, church and other 
social action groups succeeded in 
keeping the program intact, the 
council warned that opponents will 
launch new attacks on food stamps, 
"once again charging widespread 

The AFL-CIO supports all legiti- 
mate efforts to halt the abuses, the 
council said, "but we will resist at- 
tempts to kill the program in the 
guise of reform." 

Labor will also oppose efforts to 
deny food stamps to needy strikers, 
who represent only two-tenths of 1 
percent of the program participants, 
the council stressed. 

"Attempts to deny stamps to the 
families of needy strikers are clear- 
ly designed to starve them back to 
work for daring to exercise their 
constitutional right to withhold their 
labor," the statement declared. 

"Strikers must meet the same 
eligibility and need requirements of 
other applicants and have the right 
to obtain food stamps on the same 
basis as all other needy Americans." 

In the renewal legislation, labor 
will seek to eliminate the require- 
ment for the purchase of some 
stamps in order to receive free 
"bonus stamps." Instead, partici- 
pants would get only free stamps 
to which they are entitled, making 
the administration of the program 
easier and reducing the possibility 
of abuse. 


Page Seven 

Oil Cargo Policy Pressed: 

Maritime Trades Program 
Seeks Curbs on Runaways 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — A* national maritime policy keyed to the requirements that 30 percent of U.S. 
oil imports be carried in American ships and that effective controls be placed on runaway foreign-flag 
vessels was called for by the Maritime Trades Dept. 

The department's executive board adopted a series of statements at a two-day meeting here spelling 
out the problems facing the maritime industry and proposing a series of legislative solutions. 

Adoption of the programs, the 
board said, would provide "sev- 
eral hundred thousand new jobs" 
in the maritime industry without 
new federal budget expenditures 
and would improve national secu- 
rity in terms of merchant marine 

Carrying 30 percent of U.S. oil 
imports in U.S. vessels, the board 
said in a statement, would mean 
"134,000 shipyard man-years of 
employment, 400,000 man-years of 
work in allied industries and 5,000 
shipyard jobs for the next 20 to 25 

In addition to the policy state- 
ments the board heard from a num- 
ber of speakers including Labor 
Sec. Ray Marshall who said he 
recognized the importance of the 
maritime industry to the national 
economy and to national defense. 
He stressed his concern that no one 
should get a competitive advantage 
by lowering labor standards and 
said the Labor Dept. would need 
all the help possible in enforcing 
standards such as occupational 
health and safety. 

The MTD received a pledge to 
work for an expanded merchant 
marine from Rep. John M. Murphy 
(D-N.Y.), chairman of the House 
Merchant Marine Committee, who 
assailed the "Republican White 
House" for defeating recent efforts 
to increase the number of U.S. ships 
carrying oil imports and other cargo 
and asserted his commitment to 
building a strong merchant marine. 

In addition to an increase in 
U.S. ships carrying oil imports, the 
board stressed the need for bilateral 
agreements to have U.S. ships carry 
a "substantial share" of dry bulk 

It called for an end to the prac- 
tices that allow major U.S. oil com- 
panies and other multinational op- 
erations "to dodge U.S. taxes and 
union workers by using foreign- 
flag ships." 

It urged that all tax laws that 
allow U.S. operators of foreign- 
flag vessels to receive benefits 
from foreign operations be re- 

pealed and that subsidy programs 
and other financial incentives be 
designed to achieve ^'competitive 
parity'' between U.S. and foreign 
flag fleets. 

The board called also for appli- 
cation of the Jones Act to the Vir- 
gin Islands, currently exempt from 
the act's requirements that ship- 
ping between domestic ports be on 
U.S. ships; urged continuation of 
the National Maritime Council, and 
called for an end to government 
competition with the private ship- 
ping industry. 

In other statements, the board 
meeting presided over by MTD 
President Paul Hall approved state- 

• Calling for congressional hear- 
ings to demonstrate the negligence 
of the U.S. Coast Guard in protect- 
ing the safety of life at sea and 
calling for new regulations on the 
three-watch system, inspections and 
manning standards. 

• Urging amendment of the 
Mammal Protection Act of 1972 to 
allow reasonable fishing operations 
by U.S. tuna fishermen. 

• Supporting the Trans-Alaska 

gas pipe line as the best possible 
choice to bring Alaska gas to Amer- 
ican markets including construction 
of the line and support facilities 
and a terminal in Southern Cali- 
fornia to receive liquid natural gas 
(LNG) imports. 

• Opposing an increase in tolls 
on the St. Lawrence Seaway by the 
Canadian government. 

• Urging a comprehensive fed- 
eral energy policy keyed to limiting 
the ability of oil companies to 
monopolize alternative fuel sources. 
The statement called for increased 
U.S. refining capacity and the ship- 
ment of 50 percent of all liquefied 
natural gas on U.S.-flag vessels. 

The meeting also assailed cur- 
rent U.S. trade policies and 
called for increased tariff and 
quota protection for the Ameri- 
can shoe and television industries 
as well as protection for service 

There were statements also on 
strict enforcement of safety and oc- 
cupational health standards, re- 
newal of the food stamp program 
and an increase in the minimum 
wage to at least $3 an hour. 

New Food Trades Dept. 
Outlines Key Objectives 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The formation of local councils was given a 
top priority by the executive board of the AFL-CIO Food & Bever- 
age Trades Dept. 

The new department's board meeting here announced plans also 
for the launching of a publication, set dates for its 1977 convention, 
began to map a legislative program^ 
and dealt with other questions in- 

volving the group composed of 12 
AFL-CIO unions. 

The department's role was 
spelled out by President James T. 
Housewright at a session with 
Labor Sec. Ray Marshall. House- 
wright, also president of the Re- 
tail Clerks, said the department 
will be involved "in appropriate 
research, legal and public rela- 

Pension Law Changes 
Asked to Correct Flaws 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Two years of experience under the pension 
reform law has shown the need for some amendments, the AFL- 
CIO said. 

An Executive Council statement found especially irksome the 
dual administration of the law, with responsibility currently divided 
between the Labor Dept. and the 

Treasury Dept 

This dual administration "is 
not working well," the council 
said. It urged that the law's ad- 
ministration be placed "solely in 
the Dept. of Labor." 

The council noted that the Labor 
Dept. is the government agency 
charged with "protecting the wel- 
fare of the workers,** which is or 
should be also the major goal in 
administration of the Employee Re- 
tirement Income Security Act, the 
formal title of the pension reform 

Other areas in need of corrective 
amendment were also detailed in 
the statement. 

Under present law, the council 
noted, pension funds must go 
through intricate, costly and time- 

consuming procedures in order to 
get permission to carry out some 
routine and desirable transactions. 
This could be corrected without re- 
ducing safeguards against improper 
transactions, the council suggested. 

The statement also urged an 
amendment that would reduce the 
number of pension plan termina- 
tions in declining industries by al- 
lowing a partial termination, with 
the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corp. 
assuming the past service liability 
for workers not currently employed 
while allowing the pension plan to 
continue to protect active employ- 
ees and beneficiaries. 

While urging improvements, the 
AFL-CIO statement reiterated sup- 
port for the goals of the law and 
said its protections have "proven 
beneficial to workers and their fam- 

tions activities" as well as pro- 
grams ^*to foster the development 
and growth" of its affiliates. 

Marshall told the board of the 
current priority of the Labor Dept. 
to reduce unemployment and out- 
lined the general aims of the Carter 

Housewright and Department 
Sec.-Treas. Daniel E. Conway, pres- 
ident of the Bakery & Confection- 
ery Workers, indicated that legis- 
lative, organizational, political and 
educational functions will be carried 
out by the new group. The depart- 
ment announced its participation 
in the coordinating committee re- 
cently set up by the AFL-CIO Dept. 
of Organization & Field Services. 

The board announced that it will 
hold a convention Dec. 1-2 in Los 
Angeles, a time when other federa- 
tion departments will be holding 

Robert Harbrant, the depart- 
ment's executive director, said the 
overall aim is to "speak in a clear 
and responsible way on behalf of 
unions in the service industry." He 
said the department would assist 
in jurisdictional matters where pos- 
sible as part of its role to coordi- 
nate the best interests of its affili- 

The board approved a set of 
rules governing local councils and 
called on locals of affiliated unions 
to "respond affirmatively and 
promptly" to help build strength 
across the country. 

The board also approved a plan 
to back legislation that would pro- 
duce a coordinated research pro- 
gram to promote and improve hu- 
man nutrition through use of wheat 
and wheat products and backed a 
bill to set up a national tourism 
policy study. 

OIL CARGO BILL that former President Ford vetoed last year 
will be a major legislative goal of the AFL-CIO Maritime Trades 
Dept. President Paul Hall, who heads the Seafarers, presides over 
the department's executive board session in Bal Harbour, Fla. 

Soviet Merchant Fleet 
Seen Increasing Lead 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO, warning of a threat from the 
Soviet buildup of its merchant marine, called on American leaders 
to strengthen the deteriorating U.S. merchant fleet. 

"The Soviet drive for dominance of the seas at the expense of 
the commercial health and military posture of all the nations of the 
free world is a matter of grave con-^ 

cem, ' the federation's Executive 
Council declared in a statement. 

"A healthy U.S.-flag merchant 
fleet is crucial to the vitality of our 
national economy." Compared with 
the Soviets, "we are losing ground,'* 
the council said. 

^^Unless our maritime strength 
is rebuilt and reconditioned 
through modernization and new 
construction, it wiU no longer be 
able to serve as a major force in 
our international trade and to 
support our naval forces in time 
of need," it said. 

The council urged the nation's 
leaders to take action to guarantee 
an ocean transportation capability 
sufficient to serve defense needs in 
time of national emergency, ade- 
quate to serve U.S. ocean transpor- 
tation needs in the interest of the 
economy, and equal to the task of 
maintaining the U.S.-flag presence 
in the oceans of the world as an 
instrument of U.S. international po- 
litical policy. 

The buildup of the Soviet mer- 
chant marine directly follows the 
USSR's massive expansion of its 
navy, which already outstrips U.S. 
forces in number of craft, the coun- 
cil observed. In the past decade, the 
Soviet merchant fleet has doubled 
in size to 17.8 million deadweight 
tons, while the U.S. fleet declined 
slightly to 14.9 million, the council 

By 1980, the Soviets project in- 
creasing their fleet to 22-23 million 
deadweight tons, the AFL-CIO 

Mutual Network 
Locks Out IBEW 

Arlington, Va. — Mutual Broad- 
casting System, Inc. locked out 37 
union broadcast technicians and en- 
gineers in terminating its contract 
with Local 1 200 of the Internation- 
al Brotherhood of Electrical Work- 
ers, the union reported. 

Local Business Manager Larry 
Rimshaw said Mutual took the uni- 
lateral action Feb. 22 after IBEW 
members had rejected the com- 
pany's final proposal to cut its net- 
work technical staff in half over the 
next 1 8 months and to a quarter in 
the subsequent 1 8-month period. 

As a result of the MBS action, 
the AFL-CIO has withdrawn its 
weekly public affairs interview. La- 
bor News Conference, from the 
Mutual radio network. The pro- 
gram will continue to be broadcast 
over other stations not affiliated 
with Mutual. 

noted. The reason for the rapid ex- 
pansion, the council charged, is to 
protect and further Soviet interests, 
many of which are in direct conflict 
with the West. 

Russia will continue to seek 
advantage from Western decline 
around the world through two of 
her most useful instruments of pol- 
icy, her merchant and fishing fleets, 
the AFL-CIO warned. 

"The American merchant marine 
is confronted with a situation in 
which western shipping interests 
face a competitor which is unique 
in size, power and political strength, 
based on a state monopoly with re- 
gard to its own trade and domi- 
nance in bilateral trades," the coun- 
cil asserted. "It is futile to assume 
that commercially operating private 
shipowners are in a position to cope 
with such an opponent." 

Union Label 
Campaign Set 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — An increased 
effort to generate public support 
behind buying domestic, union- 
made products was approved by the 
executive board of the Union Label 
& Service Trades Dept. 

Support of the union label cam- 
paign, the board said, will help 
stimulate the economy and create 
job opportunities if coupled with 
greater government attention to the 
problems of job loss as a result of 
imports and relocation of produc- 
tion facilities overseas. 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall told 
the board he would try to make 
the case for a reasoned trade policy 
which preserves domestic jobs clear 
throughout the Administration. 
Marshall discussed the current high 
level of unemployment and ex- 
pressed an understanding of the 
relationship of unregulated imports 
and joblessness. 

Earl D. McDavid, the depart- 
ment's secretary-treasurer, told the 
board that nearly 2 million per- 
sons have been shut out of the la- 
bor force for reasons related to im- 
ports. He added that thousands of 
manhours have been lost in the 
construction industry because of 
plant relocation overseas. 

In addition to stepping up its 
union label campaign, the depart- 
ment said it will continue to pub- 
licize the union label efforts of each 
of its affiliates. 

Page Eight 


Real Earnings Plunge: 

Retail Price Spurt 
Worst in 18 Months 

By James M. Shevis 

The federal consumer price index rose at a seasonally adjusted 
annual rate of nearly 10 percent last month, the fastest clip in 18 
months, the Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. Actual price in- 
creases may have been much higher, the government said. 

In reporting changes in retail prices for January, the bureau 
warned that because some prices-' 

were collected early in the month, 
particularly those for food, the CPI 
did not reflect the "full price im- 
pact of the severe winter weather 
that affected much of the nation in 
late January." 

BLS took last month's price sam- 
pling on Jan. 4, 5, and 6 before the 
Deep Freeze set in. This month's 
survey, the results of which will not 
be released until Mar. 18, was taken 
on Feb. 1, 2, and 3. 

If an acceleration in the infla- 
tion rate were not bad enough, 
the average worker also suffered 
a decline in purchasing power in 
January, as real spendable earn- 
ings fell 1.1 percent from the 
December level, the sharpest one- 
month slide since January 1974 
when a similar decline occurred. 

Meanwhile, the Commerce Dept. 
reported separately that economic 
growth in the final three months of 
1976 was even slower than initially 
reported, with real gross national 
product rising at an annual rate of 
2.4 percent rather than 3 percent. 

The drop in real spendable earn- 
ings put take-home pay after allow- 
ance for inflation at $91.20 a week 
for the average worker with three 
dependents. This was 98 cents less 
than in December, 40 cents less 
than January 1976 and even below 
the $91.32 average for the calendar 
year 1965. 

BLS attributed the 1.1 percent 
decrease in real earnings to higher 
payroll and income taxes and lay- 
offs caused by the coldest January 
in the nation's history. 

The increase of eight-tenths of 1 
percent in the consumer price in- 
dex — the largest one-month gain 
since July 1975 — was double the 
December rise and compared with 
advances of three-tenths of 1 per- 
cent in September, October, and 
November. If retail prices were to 
continue to rise at the January rate, 
the nation would have an annual 
inflation rate of 9.6 percent. 

The jump in food prices, nine- 
tenths of 1 percent, was the steepest 
since an identical increase in Octo- 
ber 1975. Charges for services also 
rose nine-tenths of 1 percent, the 
most since a 1.1 percent increase in 
January 1976, while prices of non- 
food commodities increased seven- 
tenths of 1 percent, the largest rise 
since an eight-tenths of 1 percent 
advance in July 1975. 

BLS reported January price in- 
creases for most types of foods pur- 
chased in grocery stores. 

Among nonfood items, prices 
were up for most commodities ex- 
cept gasoline. Fuel oil and coal 
increased 2 percent over the month 
— an annual rate of 24 percent. 

Higher property taxes and nat- 
ural gas rates accounted for more 
than a third of the increase in the 
services component. Property taxes 
rose 3.9 percent over the month, 
reflecting property reassessments or 
tax rate increases in many cities, in- 
cluding Los Angeles, Cleveland, and 
New York. Natural gas prices were 
up 2.3 percent over the month, or 
at an annual rate of more than 27 

Where There's Light . . . 

Carter Budget Cancels 
Many of Ford's Cuts 

(Continued from Page 1) 

visions for Carter's economic-stim- 
ulus package to lower unemploy- 
ment and promote economic 
growth. The package provides for 
$15.7 billion in tax reductions and 
increased outlays this year and 
$15.9 billion next year. 

The budget revisions also allow 
for a $50 per capita rebate on per- 
sonal income taxes, an increase in 
the standard deduction, business 
tax cuts proposed by the Adminis- 
tration, expanded training and em- 
ployment programs, increases in 
public works funding, and addi- 
tional money for countercyclical 
revenue-sharing grants to state and 
local governments. 

In a message accompanying the 
budget revisions. Carter said the 

Improved Job Security Provisions 
Head CWA Bargaining Thrust 

The Communications Workers, concerned about a workforce decline of nearly 100,000 over the 
past three years, set better job security as the number-one goal in its bargaining this year with the 
telephone industry. 

CWA President Glenn E. Watts told a news conference the union will push for a reduction in 
hours with no loss in pay or more days off each year to spread the available work, thus keeping 
more workers employed. 

The union, which represents 
about 500,000 employees in the 
industry, will bargain nationally 
with the American Telephone & 
Telegraph Co.'s Bell System, 
Western Electric, Bell Labora- 
tories, and AT&T's Long Lines 
Dept. in talks scheduled to open 
in Washington this spring. 

Watts told newsmen the industry 
can well afford an hours reduction 
because its productivity has risen 
at an annual rate of 6.6 percent 
since 1970, a rate well above that 





for the economy as a whole. 

"We want to get our fair share," 
Watts said. "We want to claim a 
partnership of opportunity with a 
productive and expanding industry." 

Watts said that the number of 
workers employed by the Bell Sys- 
tem fell from 1,022,608 in Decem- 
ber 1973 to 927,309 in December 
1976, a reduction of 95,299 em- 
ployees. "That is a shocking figure," 
he said. 

Other goals drawn up by CWA's 
74-member Bell System Bargaining 
Council during a three-day meeting 
include an adjustment of present 
wage inequities between men and 
women employees in the industry, 
a substantial wage boost, an im- 
proved cost-of-living allowance, 
pension improvements, better acci- 
dent and disability insurance, and 
a realignment of job titles. 

CWA holds 32 contracts with va- 
rious AT&T units, all of them ex- 
piring on Aug. 6. About 55 percent 
of the workers covered by the pacts 
are women. 

In announcing the union's 1977 
bargaining goals. Watts said that 
the CWA hopes for an early settle- 
ment, but plans precautionary steps 
in the eventuality of a strike. He 
said the union will commission an 
independent study of the conse- 
quences of a national telephone 

strike this year and will take an 
early strike vote — "well before the 
expiration" of current contracts. 

He warned that a potential strike 
issue looms in the area of pensions 
where the union is seeking cost-of- 
living adjustments for retired work- 
ers. If it came to a strike. Watts 
predicted a walkout would have 
a substantial impact on company 
earnings and operations. 

The union's last strike against the 
industry was in 1971 when workers 
stayed off their jobs for six days. 
In 1968, the union struck for 18 

In seeking "a realignment that 
would treat all employees more 
fairly," Watts said the union 
would focus on the need to up- 
grade many jobs that historically 
have been considered '^female 
jobs," jobs such as operator, ser- 
vice representative, and clerk. 

He said a recent CWA study 
showed great disparity in wages 
paid men and women for compar- 
able work. 

CWA and the Bell System first 
bargained nationally in 1974. After 
a master agreement is reached, lo- 
cal bargaining committees will ne- 
gotiate separately on items of spe- 
cial concern to the 32 individual 
operating companies. 

1978 budget "is essentially still 
President Ford's budget," but the 
revisions "are important first steps 
toward a federal government that 
is more effective and responsive to 
our people's needs." 

The $19.4 billion increase over 
Ford's budget would boost the fed- 
eral deficit to $57.7 billion, or $10.7 
billion more than Ford's plan. 

The Carter revisions restore $7.9 
billion of $12.4 billion in spending 
cuts proposed by Ford in a number 
of social, education, and employ- 
ment programs. Another $2.4 bil- 
lion in new Carter initiatives would 
go primarily to offset an increase in 
estimated interest on the federal 

Eight billion dollars more rep- 
resents the job-creation package 
unveiled by Carter last month, 
while the remaining $1.1 billion of 
the overall $19.4 billion budget in- 
crease constitutes re-estimates of 
items in the Ford budget resulting 
from more up-to-date information 
on likely program costs. 

The $7.9 billion restoration of 
funds in the social welfare area 
would put back money for pro- 
grams such as Medicaid, Medi- 
care, education, food stamps, vet- 
erans' benefits, child nutrition, 
and public service jobs. 

Carter also put in abeyance 
Ford's recommendation for increas- 
ed social security taxes, and intro- 
duced measures to help control 
"unacceptable" inflation in medical 

In the energy field. Carter pro- 
posed budget revisions to reflect 
greater emphasis on conservation, 
development of non-nuclear power 
sources, and on an expansion of the 
nation's petroleum storage pro- 

Carter also proposed a $300 mil- 
lion reduction from the Ford bud- 
get in actual defense spending and 
a $2.7 billion cut in Pentagon ap- 
propriations. While trimming the 
military budget slightly. Carter kept 
in a $125 million item to improve 
the readiness of the North Atlantic 
Treaty Organization. 

Labor Presses 
For Job Injury 
Aid Standards 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL- 
CIO renewed its recommendation 
for federal standards governing 
workers' compensation insurance, 
declaring they are essential to pro- 
vide an adequate program for all 
injured workers. 

'Today, many injured workers, 
their dependents and, in some cases, 
their survivors, are forced to the 
courts for protection through third- 
party suits for damages, because of 
inadequacies in state workers' com- 
pensation programs," the Execu- 
tive Council noted in a statement 

"Enactment of federal standards 
would eliminate many inadequacies 
in the present system and establish 
a nationwide system of adequate, 
equitable workers' compensation, 
restoring it as the exclusive remedy 
of injured workers and making un- 
certain and often inequitable alter- 
nate remedies unnecessary." 

For many years, the council ob- 
served, the AFL-CIO has recom- 
mended universal coverage and a 
broad range of other improvements 
in workers' compensation. Despite 
the determined efforts of state fed- 
erations to improve the system, "we 
are convinced that federal stan- 
dards are needed to provide an 
adequate program of workers' com- 
pensation for all workers," the 
council said. 

Bancroft Co. 
Products on 
Boycott List 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The Execu- 
tive Council has endorsed the Car- 
penters' boycott of Bancroft Man- 
ufacturing Co. products — alumi- 
num doors, sashes and other ex- 
truded aluminum home building 
items — because of the firm's refusal 
to negotiate a fair agreement with 
its workers. 

Bancroft employees at plants in 
McComb and Magnolia, Miss., who 
chose the Carpenters in a 1971 Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board elec- 
tion, have sought for more than 
five years to work out a settlement 
with the company. After years of 
attempting to get the company to 
negotiate and the NLRB to enforce 
the law. 500 Bancroft production 
and maintenance workers at the 
Magnolia plant walked off the job 
on Jan. 16. 

The council noted that Bancroft's 
mistreatment of its workers and its 
flagrant violation of labor law were 
documented in congressional hear- 
ings last year. The abuses had such 
an impact on workers, the council 
observed, that only one-third of 
those who voted in the representa- 
tion election were still working 
when the strike started last month. 

Bancroft had refused even to 
come to the bargaining table until 
1976 when the NLRB general 
counsel threatened the company 
with contempt proceedings. 

In expressing support for the 
striking Carpenters, the council 
called on all AFL-CIO union mem- 
bers to observe the Bancroft boy- 
cott and urged the labor press and 
Union Label & Service Trades 
Dept. to promote labor's effort. 

GOP Wins Bergland's House Seat 

Republican Arlan Stangeland won 
election to the House from the 
rural Minnesota district that had 
been represented by Bob Bergland 
before he joined the Carter Cabinet 
as Secretary of Agriculture. 

Nearly complete returns gave him 
a comfortable 71,200 to 45,300 
lead over Democrat Michael J. Sul- 
livan, a former legislative aide to 

Bergland and Vice President Walter 
M. Mondale when he was a senator. 

Two other special elections are 
scheduled to fill House vacancies re- 
sulting from Cabinet appointments 
— in the Georgia district that had 
been represented by Ambassador to 
the United Nations Andrew Young 
and the Washington state district of 
Transportation Sec. Brock Adams. 

Labor Drafts New Agenda 
On Nation's Critical Needs 

Vrfcl YYTT 815 Sixteenth St., N. W. 
▼ Ul. Washington. D. C. 20006 

S2 a year 

Saturday, March 5, 1977 

Second Class Postage Paid at Washington. D. C. 

No. 9 

VLADIMIR BUKOVSKY, the exiled Soviet dissident, thanked the American labor movement for 
its long-standing campaign for human rights throughout the world at a meeting with the AFL-CIO 
Executive Council in Bal Harbour, Fla. From left are Federation Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland, 
interpreter Vladimir Telnikoff, Bukovsky and President George Meany. (Story, Page 4.) 

Protest Hits 
J. P. Stevens 
Labor Policy 

New York — The illegal hiring 
practices and anti-labor policies of 
J. P. Stevens & Co. came under 
heavy attack here Mar. 1 by hun- 
dreds of AFL-CIO union members 
and a wide range of religious groups 
during the company's stockholders' 

More than 2,000 pickets marched 
and chanted demands for social 
justice for workers in Stevens'^ 
southern textile plants, encircling 
the Stevens Tower headquarters 
near Times Square during the 
stockholders' meeting. 

Throughout the demonstration 
and stockholders' meeting, church 
representatives and trade unionists 
roundly and repeatedly leveled at- 
tacks and criticism at the hiring 
(Continued on Page 11) 

New Cabinet Post: 

Carter Plan Backed 
For Energy Agency 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO endorsed the Carter Adminis- 
tration's plan to consolidate the nation's present fragmented energy 
bureaucracy into a new Cabinet Dept. of Energy, saying that such a 
restructuring is "badly needed," and will provide "a better and more 
efficient mechanism for creating and implementing energy policy." 

In a statement adopted by the^ 
Executive Council here, the feder- 

ation said that development of en- 
ergy sufficient to meet the coun- 
try's needs is "one of the most 
serious domestic problems facing 
America in the years ahead." 

"How America copes with the 
situation will have an overwhelm- 
ing effect on the nation's economic 
well-being," the council said. 

Carter submitted his proposal to 
Congress on Mar. 1, and estimated 

Meany Spells Out Case 
For Labor Law Reform 

By James M. Shevis 

The AFL-CIO's drive to restore balance, fairness, and equity in 
the nation's basic labor laws should not cause a moment's concern 
for employers who have obeyed the National Labor Relations Act, 
Federation President George Meany declared. 

"In fact, what we propose will benefit you," Meany told represen- 
tatives of industry attending a: — 

Washington dinner commemorating 
the 30-millionth vote cast in a Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board elec- 
tion. "For the employers who will 
resist us are cutthroat competitors 
of every decent corporation in 
America," he said. "They compete 
by exploitation, and it is exploita- 
tion of human beings that we are 
determined to halt." 

The Mar. 2 dinner, which also 
honored the NLRB's 32 regional 
directors who conduct the board's 
secret-ballot elections, drew 1,500 
leaders of government, labor and in- 

Meany told the gathering that in 
the 42 years since the Wagner Act 
was enacted, unscrupulous employ- 
(C on tinned on Page 10) 

that the new department would re- 
quire about $10.6 billion and some 
20,000 employees in fiscal year 
1978. The department would ab- 
sorb the functions of three existing 
agencies — the Federal Energy Ad- 
ministration, the Federal Power 
Commission, and the Energy Re- 
search & Development Administra- 
tion — "whose missions overlap and 
sometimes conflict." 

The department also would as- 
sume the energy-related duties now 
performed by some 20 other fed- 
eral agencies, including the Inter- 
state Commerce Commission, the 
Securities & Exchange Commission, 
and the Depts. of Defense, Interior, 
Commerce, Agriculture, and Hous- 
ing & Urban Development. 

Carter told reporters that the 
proposed new department would 
make it possible ^*to evolve quick- 
ly an energy policy," which he 
said he would make public by 
Apr. 20. 

White House energy chief James 
Schlesinger is expected to head the 
new department. 

In endorsing the Administration's 
plan, the Executive Council urged 
the President to set in motion a 
comprehensive program that "will 
move the nation on the road to 
energy security." 

"This is not a time for muddling 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Broad Program 
Set in Key Areas 

By Saul MiUer 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Policies designed to deal with unemployment, 
energy, welfare, health, crime and other problems affecting the lives 
of American workers were placed on the national agenda by the 

The federation's Executive Council called on Congress and the 
Carter Administration for a series of actions to help bring the poli- 
cies and programs to realization and strengthen the nation's eco- 
nomic, social and political institutions. 

As the council wound up its six-day midwinter sessions here after 
dealing with 48 resolutions, many accompanied by carefully devel- 
oped background papers, AFL-CIO President George Meany sum- 
med up: 

^^Everything that affects American lives we have an interest in. 
• • . The American labor movement ... is changing to meet the 
changing conditions in the American economy." 

Earlier the council had called for a broad program of change in 
the nation's labor laws, in its approach to social insurance and to 
the political process. 

In the international arena it reaffirmed its strong opposition to 
apartheid and called on South Africa and Rhodesia to begin the 
transition to majority rule. 

It reaffirmed also the AFL-CIO's traditional concern for a strong 
national defense in supporting full funding for the B-1 bomber pro- 
gram, and it welcomed Russian dissident Vladimir Bukovsky, em- 
phasizing the on-going concern for human rights and opposition to 
all forms of totalitarianism and oppression. 

Meany underscored the position, telling reporters in reference to 
Soviet dissidents that the idea that their conditions can be improved 
by *'being nice to the Soviet Union ... is completely ridiculous. It's 
like saying that you can improve the conditions of the inmates of the 
jail by drinking champagne with the jailer." 

To make a start on solving the problems of unemployment, the 
council called for a $30 billion economic stimulus program that 
would provide two million jobs, including substantial increases in 
existing programs for training and employment of youth and new 
programs to help ^^solve the structural unemployment problems of 
young people." 

It commended President Carter's request for additional funds for 
housing as a reversal of Ford and Nixon policies, but said more 
needs to be done, offering a six-point program and opposing finan- 
cial "reforms" that would reinforce tight money policies. 

A renewed call for tax justice, the closing of loopholes and pref- 
erences was coupled with a program to revitalize the economies of 
the large older cities and the need for a federal commitment to low- 
cost, efficient public transit systems that will improve urban mobility 
and create jobs. 

The AFL-CIO's support of healthy, fair trade that will build a 
strong economy, opposition to the export of American jobs and in- 
dustry and the need for relief for injury already sustained were 
spelled out along with proposals to renew the expiring multifiber 
agreement with modifications designed to stop further job loss and 
market disruption. 

In the critical area of energy the council endorsed the Adminis- 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Wage Control Revival 
Draws Firm Rejection 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO Executive Council voiced 
strong support for President Carter's rejection of the notion of wage 
and price controls, and warned against any "backdoor approach" to 
economic restraints such as prenotification of wage and price 

At the same time, the council 
urged the President to do away 
with so-called inflation watch- 
dogs of the Nixon-Ford era 
such as the Council on Wage & 
Price Stability and '^inflation im- 
pact" statements, which have 
proved to be mere "gimmicks." 

"The President's rejection of 
wage and price controls was a posi- 
tive sign to the American people 
that he would not follow the false 
lead of Nixon," the council said in 
a statement detailing labor's pro- 

gram to restore the economy. 

The price increases of recent 
years, including the double-digit in- 
flation of 1974, did not result from 
excess demand, shortage of work- 
ers, excessive wage increases or 
federal deficits, the council de- 
clared. The major causes were the 
prices of fuel, food, and interest 
rates, "which the government could 
have controlled." 

"They were aggravated by the 
slowdown in the pace of productiv- 
(Continued on Page II) 

Page Two 


More Aid for 
Mass Transit 
Called 'MusV 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Expanded 
federal aid for mass transit is a 
"must" in the nation's overall pro- 
gram to improve urban mobility, 
create jobs and conserve energy, 
the AFL-CIO Executive Council 
declared here. 

The council, calling upon Presi- 
dent Carter and Congress for an 
increased federal commitment to 
public transit systems, urging ex- 
pansion of the Urban Mass Trans- 
portation Act to provide not less 
than $2.3 billion a year over a five- 
year period. 

"Federal transit aid programs 
have made an important start in 
providing urban areas with im- 
proved public transportation and 
reducing almost total dependence 
on the automobile as a major 
means of rush-hour travel," the 
council said, "but much remains to 
be done." 

To insure continuation and ex- 
pansion of those vital transporta- 
tion services, the council urged a 
revision in the formula grant pro- 
gram for operating assistance to 
assure more equitable distribution 
of federal funds on a per-rider 

In addition, the statement said, 
"the interpretation, administration, 
and application of the labor-protec- 
tion provisions included in the Ur- 
ban Mass Transportation Act and 
related programs are, and must re- 
main, the exclusive responsibility 
of the Department of Labor." 

Also, the council urged, any pro- 
gram of expanded federal aid for 
mass transit must assure that each 
level of government "shall preserve 
and promote the collective-bargain- 
ing, process, which must be left to 
local self-determination between 
the industry and the unions repre- 
senting the workers." 

'We Need a Lifeline!' 

Added Funds Sought 
For Aid to Education 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Full funding of federal aid to education pro- 
grams was pressed by the AFL-CIO as essential to the goal of "equal 
access to all levels of education for every American who seeks and 
can benefit from that education." 

To achieve equal educational opportunity, the Executive Council 
said, more funds are needed for'^^^ — 

elementary and secondary educa- 
tion, for higher education and for 
adult education. 

Its statement noted that fed- 
eral aid as a percentage of total 
education expenditures declined 
during the Nixon-Ford years, a 
period marked by repeated at- 
tempts at budget-cutting and six 
presidential vetoes of education 
funding bills. 

"This trend must be reversed," 
the council declared. 

In specific areas, the AFL-CIO: 

Postal Service Subsidy 
Asked to Restore Role 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO asked Congress to restore a 
public service emphasis to the U.S. Postal Service. 

An Executive Council statement assailed the "mistaken belief" 
that the postal service must pay its way or make a profit. It blamed 
the profit emphasis for cutbacks in services and constantly rising 
postage rates. 

Because of "seemingly endless 
postal rate increases," the council 
said, publications of unions and 
other non-profit organizations are 
being forced out of existence. 

To restore a public service em- 
phasis, the AFL-CIO called on 
Congress for legislation that would 
include 'these provisions: 

• A public service subsidy of 
not less than 20 percent of esti- 
mated postal revenues should be 
appropriated by Congress each 

• The Postmaster General, who 
now is hired by the Board of Gov- 
ernors and "insulated from respon- 
sibility to the people," should be 
appointed by the President and 
confirmed by the Senate. But to 
avoid recurrence of the political 

Cold Weather Cuts 
Housing Starts 27% 

Housing starts dropped 27 per- 
cent in January, largely as a result 
of the severe cold weather, the 
Commerce Dept. said. 

The dropoff was greatest in the 
frigid North Central states, falling 
62 percent from the December 
level. The decline was 40 percent 
in the Northeast, 24 percent in the 
South and only 1 percent in the 

patronage system, the Postmaster 
General should serve a fixed term 
and not be a member of the Presi- 
dent's Cabinet. 

• The Postal Rate Commission 
should be abolished and there 
should be congressional review of 
rate increases and service cutbacks. 

• If the Board of Governors is 
retained, it should be reconstituted 
as a tripartite board representing 
postal workers, mail users and the 
general public. It should be a full- 
time body appointed by the Presi- 
dent and confirmed by the Senate. 

• Steps should be taken to pre- 
vent further erosion of the first 
class mail monopoly of the U.S. 
Postal Service by private industry. 

• Collective bargaining for pos- 
tal workers should be retained. 
"For years, low postal rates were 
subsidized by low wages. . . . We 
will vigorously oppose any return 
to that system." 

• A ceiling should be set for 
second class postal rates of publi- 
cations of non-profit groups at not 
more than 50 percent of the ap- 
plicable commercial rate. 

The Executive Council termed 
an efficient, government-run postal 
service with reasonable rates "vital 
if Americans are to fully enjoy the 
rights guaranteed by the First 
Amendment," which includes free- 
dom of the press. 

that the "Title I" 
carries the largest 

• Asserted 
program that 

funding for elementary and secon 
dary education should continue to 
improve educational opportunity 
for the economically disadvantaged 
and not become "a generalized su- 
permarket of programs catering to 
wealthier suburban school districts." 

• Asked full funding of school 
construction and remodeling pro- 
grams, and urged special attention 
to eliminating architectural barriers 
to the handicapped and to improve 
insulation and energy conservation. 

• Expressed concern at the 
"widening gap between the costs 
of higher education and existing 
programs to help students" and 
urged maximum funding of both 
student and institutional aid pro- 

• Opposed any career education 
legislation that would "undermine 
fair labor standards and child la- 
bor laws by promoting unpaid *work 
experience' for students." A pend- 
ing bill would be acceptable only 
with an amendment to guard 
against circumvention of standards. 

• Called for enlarged efi'orts to 
meet the needs of adults through 
the education system, whether the 
object is a return to school to ob- 
tain a high school diploma, seeking 
new careers or simply expanded 

The council statement also ex- 
pressed the AFL-CIO's support for 
full funding of impact aid to school 
districts, vocational education pro- 
grams, bilingual education and aid 
for handicapped children. 

It said efi'ective federal programs 
are needed "to remove the barriers 
of race, sex, finances and neighbor- 

N.C. Histadrut Council 
Honors Golden, Mclver 

Raleigh, N.C. — Harry Golden, 
author and editor, and Harold Mc- 
lver, southern regional coordinator 
for the AFL-CIO Industrial Uniori 
Dept., were honored at a testimon- 
ial dinner here sponsored by the 
North Carolina Trade Union Coun- 
cil for Histadrut. 

Golden founded the Carolina 
Israelite in 1939, a journal that 
often attacked racial bias and anti- 
labor attitudes in the South. 

Mclver, a former Steelworker, 
has played a key role in organizing 
drives at J. P. Stevens & Co. textile 
plants throughout the South. 

To Combat Poverty: 

Federal Financing 
Of Welfare Backed 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO has called for a federally 
financed welfare program to bring 26 million Americans out of 

Poverty and its causes are national problems and require a na- 
tional solution, the Executive Council declared. States and cities 
with the heaviest burden of welfare"^ 

dependency "cannot be expected to 
carry an intolerable fiscal cost for 
welfare." Neither should fiscal pres- 
sures on states and cities "force re- 
ductions in welfare payments to the 
poor and deprived," the council 

The federation urged President 
Carter to "reaffirm the commit- 
ment" made by Presidents Kennedy 
and Johnson to eradicate poverty 
and called for: 

• A federal income maintenance 
program for those poor who are 
unable or cannot be expected to 
be employed, the program to be 
"entirely federally financed" with 
payments raised as quickly as pos- 
sible to at least the poverty level. 

• A permanent public service 
jobs program and training and 
placement services for those who 
could work in paid jobs but lack 
education or skills. 

• A strengthened unemployment 
insurance system for all workers 
with uniform and adequate national 
eligibility and benefit standards. 

• Income support for new en- 
trants and re-entrants into the labor 
force until they are properly trained 
and placed in adequate jobs. 

The AFL-CIO, the council said, 
"will continue to oppose the so- 
called negative income tax which 
calls for elimination of all other 
assistance and support programs. 
We are in favor of reducing over- 
lap and duplication and excess bu- 
reaucracy where they exist, but we 
object to program-trimming at the 
expense of the poor." 

The council said that pending 
welfare reform, there is an urgent 
need for interim and immediate 
steps to begin to relieve human mis- 
ery. These include an increase in 
the federal share of the cost of aid 
to families with dependent children 
as well as federal assumption of 
part of the cost of general assis- 
tance, allowing AFDC aid for two- 
parent families, and annual cost-of- 
living adjustments. 

Pending enactment of a na- 
tional health security program, 
the council called for federaliza- 
tion of Medicaid to provide 
fiscal relief for state and local 

"The AFL-CIO will support every 
efi'ective action to wipe out poverty 
in America. First and foremost 
must come suitable jobs at decent 
wages for all who can work. But 
for the millions who cannot or 
should not be expected to work, 
genuine welfare reform embodying 
the recommendations we have made 
is essential," the council said. 

Labor Renews 
Call for Real 
Tax Reforms 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL- 
CIO is firmly committed to tax jus- 
tice and will work with President 
Carter and Congress to achieve 
"long overdue" reforms. 

An Executive Council statement 
charged that "gimmicks and loop- 
holes that benefit only the wealthy 
and corporations" have shifted an 
"unfair" share of the tax burden 
to workers. « 

The council warned against add- 
ing new loopholes, which would 
deprive the government of funds 
needed for national defense and 
the public welfare and to rebuild 
the economy. Such "dubious tax 
schemes" as new investment credits 
and wage subsidies for employers 
are no substitute for direct job 
creation," the AFL-CIO said. 

Any new tax legislation should 
both "make the tax forms compre- 
hensible to the American people 
and restore their faith in the prin- 
ciples of equity and fairness," the 
council said. It reiterated the AFL- 
CIO's strong advocacy of a "pro- 
gressive income tax structure based 
on ability to pay." 

McClennan Elected 
To Executive Council 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Fire Fighters President William H. McClen- 
nan has been elected by the AFL-CIO Executive Council as a fed- 
eration vice president, filling a vacancy on the council. 

McClennan has headed the Fire Fighters since 1968 and he has 
been president of the AFL-CIO Public Employee Dept. since it was 
chartered in 1974. 

The vacancy he fills resulted 
from the death last year of Clyde 
M. Webber, who had been presi- 


dent of the Government Employ- 
ees. The Executive Council is now 
at full strength, with 33 vice presi- 
dents, plus President George Meany 
and Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland. 

McClennan, 69, a former Boston 
fire fighter, has served on a number 
of federal commissions dealing with 
fire prevention and training. He 
was vice chairman of the National 
Commission on Fire Prevention & 
Control, whose recommendations 
led to passage of the Federal Fire 
Prevention & Control Act in 1974. 

He led his oWn union into a peri- 
od of membership growth, played 
a major role in winning enactment 
last year of a law providing a $50,- 
000 death benefit to the survivors 
of fire fighters and police officers 
killed in the line of duty, and car- 
ried on a tradition of active union 
involvement in the annual Jerry 
Lewis Labor Day telethon for the 
Muscular Dystrophy Association. 


Page TTircc 

Council Maps Agenda of Critical Needs 

Presses Action on Problems 
Confronting Nation ^s Workers 

(Continued from Page 1) 
tration's plan to consolidate activi- 
ties into a single department and 
the adoption of a comprehensive 
energy policy keyed to conserva- 
tion, development of new supplies 
and continuing control of prices. 
It firmly opposed export of Alaskan 
oil to Japan and supported a 
Trans-Alaska natural gas pipeline 
route to assure new supplies. 

For the first time the council 
called for federal standards for 
setting utility rates to provide 
equity for low and middle-income 
families and encourage conserva- 

A call for a federally financed 
welfare program to help abolish 
poverty and ease the burden on 
states and cities, detailed recom- 
mendations on improving condi- 
tions in nursing homes based on 
an extensive report and investiga- 
tion, a pledge to secure legislation 
to prohibit pregnancy-related dis- 
crimination, a renewed demand for 
a national health insurance program 
with control of costs highlighted 
council actions in the social area. 

There were statements also call- 
ing for a sweeping overhaul of the 
criminal justice system, spelling out 
a 15-point program involving law 
enforcement, the courts and correc- 
tion facilities; action by Congress to 
come to grips with the problem of 
illegal aliens; full funding and de- 
velopment of education programs; 
commendation of state and local 
central bodies for their roles in 
school desegregation; a sharp dis- 
sent from the recommendations of 
the U.S. Civil Rights Commission 
on the operation of seniority pro- 
visions in union contracts. 

Occupational health and safety 
received attention in the form of 
renewed demands for adequate 
funding and staffing and enforce- 
ment, as did a seven-point program 
to restore the concept of public ser- 
vice to the postal system, opposition 
to air line deregulation that would 
endanger the welfare and safety of 
airline workers and passengers, and 
support for Administration requests 
for authority to reorganize govern- 
ment agencies urging consultation 
with the unions involved. 

In internal matters, the council 

Central Body 
Role in School 
Cases Praised 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — ^The Execu- 
tive Council commended AFL-CIO 
state and local bodies for their ef- 
forts to achieve school desegrega- 
tion without turmoil in many Amer- 
ican communities, and assured oth- 
ers facing potential conflict in this 
area of the federation's full support. 

"They have taken the lead in 
those communities to foster public 
understanding and support of the 
real goal — equal educational oppor- 
tunity," the council said in a state- 

"Their efforts have offset the 
campaign of those who sought to 
cloud the issue with attacks on 
^forced busing' and to divide neigh- 
bors along racial lines. 

The council extended its grati- 
tude to those state and local bodies 
that "have made such outstanding 
contributions to community peace 
and human justice," and urged oth- 
er central bodies to involve them- 
selves with equal energy to achieve 
similar results "wherever the poten- 
tial for conflict exists." 

Meany Voices Pride 
In Merger Success 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — George 
Meany said that in his 22 
years as president of the 
AFL-CIO the greatest ac- 
complishment was that ^Ve 
are still in business as the 
united organization.'^ 

Asked by a reporter to 
identify the No. 1 accom- 
plishment, Meany briefly re- 
viewed the steps leading to 
merger from early in 1953 
when as AFL president he 
first met with the late Walter 
Reuther, president of the 
CIO, and the final year in 
1955 when we "put the two 
organizations out of business 
. . . and we combined them 
into one organization." He 

"I think the greatest ac- 
complishment, and I mean 
this sincerely and I take some 
personal pride in it, is that 
for 20 years we have kept 
them together." 

received a report on the operations 
of the Internal Disputes Plan show- 
ing the continuing success of media- 
tion in handling a declining number 
of cases. The council elected Wil- 
liam H. McClennan, president of 
the Fire Fighters, to its ranks, filling 
the vacancy caused by the death of 
Clyde Webber of the Government 
Employees. McClennan serves also 
as president of the AFL-CIO Public 
Employee Dept. 

It heard a presentation by a num- 
ber of trade union leaders from the 
Panama Canal Zone on the pro- 
gress of negotiations for a new 
treaty on the canal and their request 
for support in gaining access to the 
negotiations in regard to labor pro- 

Earlier, the Executive Council 
voted a six-month special assess- 
ment of affiliated unions to finance 
the AFL-CIO's campaign to revise 
the National Labor Relations Act 
and overcome its pro-management 

The assessment of one cent a 
member per month will fund estab- 
lishment of a special task force to 
initiate and carry out programs in 
support of labor law reforms. 

At his press conferences Meany 
touched on the following points: 

• The J. P. Stevens boycott will 
be an all-out effort "not just by the 
Clothing & Textile Workers but by 
the AFL-CIO as well" to bring the 
corporation into line with the law 
and bring "social justice" to that 
part of the country. 

• If President Carter wants to 
set up a labor-management advisory 
committee "Fd be willing to give it 
another chance, another shot." He 
said previous efforts in the Nixon, 
Ford Administrations proved use- 

• The Arab boycott of Ameri- 
can corporations employing Jews is 
a "miserable approach to interna- 
tional affairs and . . . should be pro- 
hibited any way our government can 
stop it." 

• Major attention must be given 
to stopping the flow of illegal aliens 
and to prevent employers from ex- 
ploiting them with low wages. The 
humanitarian question remains of 
granting the millions of illegal 
aliens in the country some form of 

• Unemployment can be re- 
duced by giving the economy a 

"shot in the arm" through gov- 
ernment stimulus, and a full em- 
ployment economy would bring 
the budget into balance. 

• Government reorganization is 
badly needed and the Administra- 
tion deserves an "A for effort" at 
this point. 

• The AFL-CIO will take no 
action on the question of outside 
interference in the steel union elec- 
tion, because the election process 
has not been completed and will 
not be until some time in May. He 
said the council reconsidered an 
earlier position seeking a congres- 
sional investigation. 

The council voted a series of con- 
tributions to a number of organiza- 
tions including Group Health As- 
sociation of America, Committee 
for National Health Insurance, 
CARE, the New Leader, Hugo 
Black Memorial Library, Confer- 
ence on Economic Progress, Lead- 
ership Conference on Civil Rights, 
Jewish Daily Forward, Clergy Eco- 
nomic Education Foundation, Na- 
tional Urban Coalition, National 
Urban League-LEAP, Consumer 
Federation of America, United 
Negro College Fund, Joint Council 
for Economic Education, Energy 
Policy Task Force, National As- 
sembly Voluntary Health & Wel- 
fare Agencies, National Housing 
Conference, No Greater Love, 
Committee on the Present Danger, 
National Council of Senior Citizens, 
Full Employment Action Council, 
NAACP, Work in America Insti- 
tute, and the National Conference 
on Crime & Delinquency. 

The council acted on a dozen 
resolutions referred from the last 
convention, approving three in 
amended form. It set its next meet- 
ing for Washington on May 4. 

TALKING SHOP during an Executive Council break are AFL- 
CIO Vice Presidents Sol Stetin and Murray H. Finley of the 
Clothing & Textile Workers and Sol C. Chaikin of the Ladies' 
Garment Workers. 

Reforms Sought to Curb 
Nursing Home Abuses 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO called for programs to help 
the nation's elderly "remain a vital part of the community" and for 
improvements in nursing home conditions for those who are patients. 

An Executive Council statement expressed shock at examples of 
abuses and neglect uncovered by union teams that inspected nursing 
homes across the country. Findings^-^ 

of the year-long study coordinated 
by the AFL-CIO Dept. of Com- 
munity Services were presented in 
a report. 

The council called on AFL-CIO 
central bodies and community ser- 
vice committees to continue to 
monitor nursing homes in their 
communities and to work with oth- 
er interested groups to improve 

It endorsed a series of recom- 
mendations in the report, but 
stressed that "new rules and regu- 
lations alone" are not the solution 
to the problems of aging. 

Rights Commission Hit 
For Attack on Seniority 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL-CIO has charged the U.S. Civil 
Rights Commission with joining "the attack on union job-security 
agreements based on seniority." 

The Executive Council singled out two commission recommenda- 
tions contained in a recent report: layoffs by inverse seniority 
(oldest workers first) and separate 
seniority rosters by race and sex 

with layoffs made proportionately 
without regard to date of hire. 

"We consider these proposals re- 
pugnant to every notion of justice 
and fair play," the council said. 
"The view that job opportunities 
should be parceled out by race and 
sex is blind to the basic concept of 
equal justice embodied in the civil 
rights laws." 

The schemes proposed in the 
report, the council declared, add 
up to ^institutionalized discrimi- 
nation against workers who have 
by long and faithful service earn- 
ed the right to job security and 
who would be unfairly and arbi- 
trarily deprived of that earned 

The council said it was in agree- 
ment with one conclusion of the 
commission's report that recession 
and unemployment "continue to 
mock the most well-intentioned 
equal employment efforts" and with 
its call for a national full employ- 
ment policy as a major priority. 

On seniority, the council said 
that the substance of the report 
indicates that its authors "do not 
know how seniority systems work" 

under present law. Since 1964 the 
Civil Rights Act "has assured that 
workers are hired and assigned 
without regard to race, national 
origin, creed, color or sex and that 
victims of discrimination are grant- 
ed lost seniority and put in their 
rightful place in the seniority sys- 
tem. Where equal job opportuni- 
ties are protected, layoffs on the 
basis of seniority is the fairest of 
the available alternatives." 

On the commission's recommen- 
dations for government-imposed 
"work-sharing guidelines, the coun- 
cil stressed its opposition declaring 
that "such programs can be nothing 
more than poverty sharing harming 
all of the affected employees." Vol- 
untarily negotiated plans between 
unions and employers under the 
collective bargaining process for 
temporarily shorter workweeks or 
other work-sharing arrangements 
are feasible in certain situations, the 
council added. 

It said that the unchecked growth 
of illegal aliens and the export of 
jobs to other countries have "slow- 
ed the progress of women and mi- 
norities in the job market." The 
statement pointed out that these 
matters are not mentioned in the 
commission's report. 

The 56 recommendations, which 
include a call for a strictly enforced 
bill of rights for nursing home 
patients, are designed primarily to 
curb abuse, neglect or mistreatment 
of patients or to improve safety and 
patient care. Violations would bar 
homes from receiving federal funds. 

Several recommendations dealt 
with improved training and pay for 
nursing home employees, noting 
that "increased efforts to unionize 
nursing home employees should be 
undertaken to bring these workers 
necessary financial and job protec- 
tion and career opportunities that 
will facilitate improved patient 

^'America has failed to develop 
a comprehensive policy to repay 
with dignity and security the 
growing number of retired peo- 
ple who contributed so much to 
the development of this country,*' 
the council said. 

It urged an assortment of oppor- 
tunities for the elderly to live out- 
side of institutions, depending on 
their circumstances and health. 

There should be more low-cost 
public housing for the elderly link- 
ed to services for those whose 
health permits them to live alone, 
the council said. 

Nonprofit and government agen- 
cies should be a source of com- 
munity services so that senior citi- 
zens can be treated better and at 
less cost in their own homes in- 
stead of being forced into nursing 
homes. The council also endorsed 
programs that would enable elderly 
persons without close relatives to 
live in a family setting instead of an 

The council cited abuses uncov- 
ered in the nursing home surveys as 
evidence that "too often . . . profit 
comes ahead of people." It stressed 
that "there is no place for the 
ethics of the marketplace in pro- 
grams designed to meet human 

Georgia-Pacific Unit 
Picks Paperworkers 

Talladega, Ala. — The Paper- 
workers won bargaining rights at 
the Georgia-Pacific Corp. plywood 
mill here. The tally was 129 for 
the Paperworkers to 82 for no 

Page Four 


Exiled Dissident: 

SERVICE AWARD is presented to Anton J. Trizna, right, re- 
tired president of the Molders, who stepped down from the exec- 
utive council of the AFL-CIO Metal Trades Dept. Department 
President Paul J. Burnsky made the presentation at the council 
meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. 

Carter Urged to Speed 
Curbs on Health Costs 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — President Carter should move quickly on his 
proposal to curb excessive health care costs and on his longer-range 
plan for national health insurance, the Executive Council said. 

While welcoming the President's announced intention to introduce 
measures in those areas, the council said steps should be taken im- 
mediately to contain the steep in-^^^ — — — 

postponed until health care costs 

are brought under control. 

creases in hospital bills and doctor 

It stressed, however, that en- 
actment of National Health Se- 
curity legislation should not be 

Council Acts 
On Referred 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL- 
CIO Executive Council approved 
in amended form three resolutions 
referred from the federation's last 
convention dealing with rehabilita- 
tion of railroads, contracting out of 
public work and supplemental ben- 
efits under the Davis-Bacon Act. 

The council found that no fur- 
ther action was needed on three 
referred resolutions, non-concurred 
in two and held four others for fur- 
ther study. 

The resolution on railroad reha- 
bilitation said that the "AFL-CIO 
supports programs that effectively 
help the nation's railroads rehabili- 
tate their right-of-way and other 
fixed plant with appropriate safe- 
guards to insure that progress is 
made toward a safe, efficient, en- 
ergy-conserving railroad transpor- 
tation system for this nation." 

On contracting out of public 
work the council approved an 
amended resolution supporting the 
principle "that public work which 
has traditionally been performed 
by public employees should con- 
tinue to be performed by public 
employees and that public work 
which has traditionally been per- 
formed by private employees 
should continue to be performed 
by private employees." 

On Davis-Bacon amendments the 
council said the AFL-CIO will seek 
amendments "so that contractors 
who cannot provide the prevailing 
supplemental benefits must give the 
workers in cash, after all taxes are 
deducted, the actual costs to pur- 
chase similar pension plans, similar 
health and welfare plans and all 
supplemental plans that are pre- 
vaihng in the locality." 

Bukovsky Applauds Labor 
For Exposing Soviet Terror 

By Harry Conn 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Exiled Soviet dissident Vlad imir Bukovsky met with the AFL-CIO Executive 
Council here to "thank the American workers who took part in the campaign to protect me which 
ended in my being liberated." 

Bukovsky gave to the council, and later to reporters at a press conference, a grim report on the re- 
pression of Soviet workers, especially those who sought to build free and independent unions. Bukov- 
sky is visiting the United States at ^ 

The council statement noted that 
in his presidential election cam- 
paign, Carter embraced many prin- 
ciples of National Health Security 
— the labor-endorsed program to 
provide comprehensive health care 
coverage to every American while 
curbing health care inflation. 

No effective cost or quality con- 
trols are possible unless the exist- 
ing, fragmented health care system 
is thoroughly overhauled, the coun- 
cil warned. 

In considering its hospital cost 
containment program, labor will 
make sure the Administration is 
aware of the need to raise wages of 
low-paid hospital workers. The 
council pointed out that long- 
deserved wage increases for hos- 
pital workers have not been a ma- 
jor factor in the increasing costs. 

The council warned that health 
care costs will continue to soar 
until the comprehensive national 
health insurance program is en- 

It pointed out that in fiscal year 
1976 total expenditures for health 
care in the United States were $139 
billion, or about $638 for every 
man, woman and child. This was a 
14 percent increase over the previ- 
ous year and represented 8.6 per- 
cent of gross national product, more 
than any other country in the 

"Canada spends only 7.2 per- 
cent of its GNP on health,'' the 
council observed, "even though it 
has a national health insurance 
program administered by the gov- 
ernment which covers everyone 
for unlimited benefits without de- 

The council also noted that the 
Congressional Budget Office has es- 
timated that U.S. health care costs 
will rise above $250 billion by 1981 , 
or more than 10 percent of the 

Only Health Security would place 
a ceiling on these expenditures, the 
council said, and alternative propos- 
als are an open invitation to fur- 
ther escalation of health care costs. 

the invitation of the AFL-CIO. 

"American labor unions," Bu- 
kovsky said, "have proven many 
times over that for them the word 
solidarity is not a mere slogan — 
not mere rhetoric, but day-to-day 

He recalled that in 1947, "when 
nobody in the West wanted to hear 
anything about mass terror in the 
land of the recent ally, it was the 
American labor unions that collect- 
ed the testimonies of a great many 
former Soviet political prisoners 
and published the first map of the 
Gulag Archipelago." 

Bukovsky, 34, has spent much of 
his adult life in Soviet prisons and 
insane asylums because of his out- 
spoken beliefs. He was exiled last 
December in a swap at Zurich Air- 
port for Chilean Communist lead- 
er Luis Corialan. 

He said that the Soviet Union is 
"a country which is surrounded by 
barbed wire, in which slave labor 
exists, in which there is no freedom 
of movement, where the defense 
of one's rights is considered to be 
an offense against the criminal 

Bukovsky estimated that there 
are three million political prisoners 
in the Soviet Union and "only a 
person directly threatened by star- 
vation would decide on such an ex- 
treme act as a strike." 

He said that "the rare, desperate 
strikes in the Soviet Union do not 
occur in the demand of better work- 
ing conditions or a raise in pay — 
but only when the workers and their 
families literally have nothing to 

Among the examples cited were 
the weavers in Ivanov who struck 
in 1970 "when food ceased to be 
supplied by the city" and the strike 
by workers of Riga because of the 
absence of meat. 

"The Soviet Union has signed 
various international conventions 
recognizing the right to strike," 
Bukovsky said, "but it has not 
bcHhered to formulate this right in 
its own legislation. Moreover, 

strikes are regarded as a *rude, 
group violation of the social order' 
for which one can be deprived of 
freedom for up to three years. 

"This is for a completely peace- 
ful strike — merely a refusal to 
work. When it comes to other forms 
of struggle — such as sitdown or 
picketing — these are punishable 
under the article entided *mass 
disorders,' by deprivation of free- 
dom up to 1 5 years or by the death 

Bukovsky praised both AFL-CIO 
President George Meany and 
President Carter for speaking out 
on human rights. When asked by 
reporters how Meany impressed 
him, he replied: "As a rock." 

In introducing Bukovsky at the 
press conference, Meany said that 

"the only thing they (Soviet dissi- 
dents) have going for them is 
people in the outside world who 
believe in human freedom." He 

"The idea that we might im- 
prove their conditions by being 
nice to the Soviet Union to me 
is completely ridiculous. It is like 
saying that you can improve the 
conditions of inmates in a jail 
by drinking champagne with the 
jailers. I don't buy that." 

Meany expressed the hope that 
arrangements can be made for 
Bukovsky to visit major trade union 
centers so that he can tell his story. 
Bukovsky, who plans to return to 
England soon, said he hopes such 
visits can be planned in the fall. 

Full Funding Supported 
For B-1 Bomber Project 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO Executive Council called for 
full funding of the B-1 strategic bomber program to give the United 
States "the best possible bargaining position" in arms limitation 
talks with the Soviet Union. 

It called on the Administration and Congress to authorize and 
provide the full funding of $21.6 

billion needed to complete the pro- 
gram over the next 10 years. 

In his 1978 budget revisions, 
President Carter proposed a reduc- 
tion from eight to five in the num- 
ber of B-1 bombers to be pur- 
chased during the year. The cut 
would lop $280 million from the 
$2.2 billion initially requested for 
the plane. 

AFL-CIO President George 
Meany told reporters that there 
were three members who spoke 
against the statement and six or 
seven who were in strong support. 
The statement was carried on a 
voice vote. 

Meany said he would like "to see 
us come to an agreement and I 
think by keeping pace at least with 
the Soviet Union on the whole 

Rhodesia^ South Africa 
Denounced on Apartheid 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL-CIO called upon Rhodesia 
and South Africa to end their policies of segregation and dis- 
crimination, and begin "at once" a transition to majority rule. 

The apartheid policies of the two nations represent "a 
blatant and odious offense to the moral standing of the western 
world," the federation's Executive Council said in a statement. 

The social, cultural and economic fallout of apartheid, "even 
if it were politically or militarily possible to cause its end to- 
day, will have disastrous effects for decades to come," the 
council declared. 

The transition to majority rule, the statement said, "must 
guarantee to every sector and race in their societies equal 
access to every right and privilege provided by a just and dem- 
ocratic constitution." The council added that it would be well 
for other African nations to follow suit "lest the plague ex- 
perienced to date in South Africa and Rhodesia grows within 
their own nations and extinguishes the hope of freedom and 
progress in all Africa." 

The council stressed that without a rapid transition to ma- 
jority rule, a continuation of international boycotts, economic 
starvation and terrorist guerrilla actions can only mean hard- 
ship and suffering for all sections of the population of southern 

question of military capability in 
national defense we will be in a 
much better bargaining position." 

The council emphasized that its 
support of the B-1 program is not 
in terms of job creation, because 
"similar expenditures in other areas 
could provide as many and perhaps 
even more jobs." It added: 

"This is not the choice facing 
America. Without a strong national 
defense, which must include stra- 
tegic bombers, America is not safe 
and, therefore, no job is safe." 

The statement declared that "we 
yearn for the day when a major 
defense force will not be neces- 
sary. But that day has not come 
and until it arrives, America has no 
choice but to remain militarily 

That strength is based on man- 
ned bombers as well as land-based 
and sea-launched missiles because 
the strategic bomber "is unique in 
that it alone can be launched on 
warning and remain on a nearly 
invulnerable airborne alert during 
crisis situations." 

The council noted that the 
B-52 bomber, the mainstay of 
the nation's strategic deterrent 
for nearly 25 years, "is losing its 
capability" because of the "grow- 
ing sophistication of Soviet de- 
fenses." The B-1 has been devel- 
oped specifically to counterbal- 
ance the Soviet Union's advan- 
tage. Modification of the B-52s 
would cost $40 million per plane 
and ^leave the nation with a 
dangerously deficient strategic 
bomber force," it said. 

The council concluded that "like 
all Americans, we hope the new 
Administration is successful in its 
efforts to negotiate a workable and 
effective strategic arms limitation 
agreement. We believe the B-1 
bomber program is essential if the 
United States is to have the best 
possible bargaining position in these 
talks and thus hasten the day when 
major arms expenditures can be 
safely reduced." 


Page Five 

Carter'' s First Step Hailed: 

Housing Gain Held 
Critical to Recovery 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The Carter Administration's proposals for 
additional budget authority for low-income housing is a "heartening 
reversal" of Nixon-Ford policies, the AFL-CIO declared, but more 
needs to be done to revive the sagging homebuilding industry. 

Increased housing production is essential if the economy is to 
recover and the needs of low- and 

middle-income families for ade- 
quate housing are to be met, the 
AFL-CIO Executive Council said 
in a statement. 

Specifically, the council recom- 
mended the following actions for 
fiscal year 1978 that begins on 
Oct. 1: 

• Contract and budget authori- 
ty to build 100,000 low-income 
public housing units. 

• Sufficient funding authority 
to support construction of 50,000 
units per year under the Section 
236 program of rental housing for 
low- and moderate-income families; 

• Extension of the Section 312 
program of rehabilitation loans to 
limited-income housing owners at a 
$100 million authorization level. 

• Expansion and full implemen- 
tation of both the budget and the 
scope of the housing counseling as- 
sistance program. 

• Returning the effective subsi- 
dized interest rate under Section 
235 homeownership assistance pro- 
grams to the originally legislated 
level of one percent. 

• Rejection of the Ford budget 
proposal to make it harder to im- 
plement the Section 202 program 
of direct loans for housing for the 
elderly and the handicapped. 

The council said that the con- 
tinuing shortfall of housing con- 
struction below basic housing re- 
quirements is "a prime generator 
of inflation throughout the econ- 
omy." Low housing production lev- 
els also have contributed substan- 
tially to construction unemploy- 
ment, now about 15 percent. 

Excluding rehabilitation or re- 
placement of an estimated 3.5 mil- 
lion units, there is a need for 2.45 
million housing units annually, the 
council estimated. Despite a sea- 
sonally adjusted annual starts rate 
of 1.8 million in the last three 

months of 1976, only 1.55 million 
units were begun in the entire year 
of 1976, it said. 

The ccJuncil warned also about 
the tightness of mortgage credit 
and cautioned against various mort- 
gage financing schemes. 

Five times in the past 20 years, 
tight general monetary policies have 
sparked a rise in interest rates, 
leading to a sharp decline in hous- 
ing construction, followed by an 
economic slowdown or recession, 
the AFL-CIO warned. 

"Fear of the next credit crunch 
and withdrawal of savings for high- 
er yield investment has caused thrift 
institutions to issue l-to-6-year cer- 
tificates of deposit with relatively 
high rates of interest during the 
last two years," the council ob- 
served. "Consequently, mortgage 
interest rates have not gone below 
an 8.5 to 9 percent level even as 
savings have increased substantial- 

The council urged Congress to 
reject proposed legislation to allow 
federally-chartered savings and loan 
associations to reduce their mort- 
gage investments below the present- 
ly required 80 percent of total as- 

^'Such legislation would allow 
the diversion of significant 
amounts of savings funds from 
housing to other investments, 
and would consequently aggra- 
vate the cyclical declines in 
the homebuilding industry," the 
AFL-CIO declared. 

The council also expressed strong 
opposition to proposals to allow 
federally-chartered savings and loan 
associations to make variable in- 
terest rate mortgages and to other 
variations of mortgage financing 
that would result in significantly 
higher total interest payments over 
the life of the loan. 

Youth Training Pressed 
To Cut Teen Joblessness 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Youth training and employment programs 
must be expanded to bring down the nation's excessive teenage job- 
less rate, the Executive Council said. 

In renewing its call for an immediate $2 billion infusion of funds 
to spur both public and private programs, the council cited govern- 
ment statistics indicating that one*^^ 

of every five teenagers is unem- 
ployed and one of every three black 
teenagers is jobless. 

"High unemployment for 
young Americans wastes human 
resources, breeds frustration and 
often leads to anti-social activi- 
ty," the council observed. "Ade- 
quate job creation and training 
for all youth is essential for a 
constructive beginning to adult 

The council noted that enroll- 
ment of young men and women in 
the Job Corps is only half of what 
it once was, suggesting that an ex- 
pansion of Corps' Civilian Conser- 
vation Centers could help meet the 
nation's conservation needs. 

And although summer youth 
programs provided jobs for about 
875,000 young people last year, 
many more summer jobs are need- 
ed, the council said. It also called 
for eff"orts to expand the Neighbor- 
hood Youth Corps program under 
the Comprehensive Employment & 
Training Act. 

As vital as the youth job training 
programs are, they must not result 
in job losses or impaired oppor- 
tunities for adult workers, the 
council stressed. 

"Schemes that transfer job op- 
portunities from adults to youths 
are not a solution to the unemploy- 
ment problems of either youths or 
adults," the statement declared. 

Labor and management should 
also give renewed attention to 
youth programs to provide oppor- 
tunities in new fields through job 
training and apprenticeships, the 
council said. 

Union-initiated and union-op- 
erated training and apprenticeship 
programs in new fields can be 
vital in helping youths gain mar- 
ketable skills for future job open- 
ings, the council said. 

It also urged AFL-CIO unions 
to follow the example of those af- 
filiates already engaged directly in 
such programs or in cooperation 
with the federation's Human Re- 
sources Development Institute. 

EXPRESSION OF THANKS for labor's support of the No Greater Love organization is made by 
baseball star Johnny Bench at the Executive Council meeting in Bal Harbour, Fla. The organiza- 
tion assists children of servicemen killed or missing in action in Southeast Asia. From left are AFL- 
CIO Sec.-Treas. Lane Kirkland, Vice President S. Frank Raftery, President George Meany, 
Carmella LaSpada, chairman of the organization; Vice President John H. Lyons, and Bench, who 
is president of No Greater Love. 

Danger Cited 
In Proposed 
Airline Rules 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The AFL- 
CIO will oppose proposals and pol- 
icies that would impair government 
regulation of air transportation or 
jeopardize the welfare and safety of 
airline passengers and workers. 

The federation's position was 
contained in a statement adopted 
by the Executive Council that said 
changes proposed in federal air 
policies would represent "an abdi- 
cation of the federal government's 
responsibility to insure safe, effi- 
cient air service at reasonable 
prices." They would affect the sta- 
bility of the air transport industry 
and the job security of over 300,- 
000 airline employees, the council 

The proposals, the council point- 
ed out, would emasculate the 
scheduled airline network provided 
in the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 
and "substitute a mistaken reliance 
on so-called free market competi- 
tion." Such a reversal of policy it 
termed "misguided and short- 

The proposed changes would 
threaten air service to many smaller 
cities, encourage cutthroat pricing 
in some markets and higher prices 
in others, encourage cost-cutting in 
safety provisions, jeopardize airport 
construction and discourage mod- 
ernization of aging airline fleets, 
the statement warned. 

"The AFL-CIO firmly believes," 
the council said, "that the federal 
government has a fundamental re- 
sponsibility to insure the orderly 
development of a national air trans- 
portation system that provides safe, 
reliable and economic service to all 
regions of the country and to foster 
labor and financial stability in the 
airline industry." 

Painter Training 
Funding Approved 

A joint labor-management train- 
ing committee has been awarded a 
new $706,980 Labor Dept. contract 
to provide 570 jobless veterans and 
minority workers skill upgrading 
and preapprenticeship training in 
the Painters. 

Under the one-year contract re- 
newal with the National Joint 
Painting, Decorating, Drywall Ap- 
prenticeship & Training Committee, 
252 persons will be trained to quali- 
fy as apj5rentice Painters. Another 
320 will take courses to acquire 
journeyman status. 

Effective Administration 
Sought for Safety Law 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The federal job safety law — under attack by 
right-wing elements and unscrupulous employers since its enactment 
in 1970 — can be made workable through proper administration and 
enforcement, the Executive Council declared. 

The eflfectiveness of the Occupational Safety & Health Act, the 
council said, was weakened in the^ 

Nixon and Ford years through in- 
adequate budgets, short staffing, 
misordered priorities, sloppy proce- 
dures, poorly drafted regulations 
and unnecessary delays. It charged 
that additional attempts to politicize 
the Occupational Safety & Health 
Administration have further under- 
mined the law. 

While organized labor has been a 
consistent critic of OSHA's admin- 
istration and enforcement, '*our 
aim is to make a good law work 
through proper administration," the 
statement declared. 

The council said it was encour- 
aged by President Carter's stated 
support of the safety law and com- 
mended his recommendations that 
OSHA regulations be drafted in 
clear, understandable language. 

"Nothing is more essential to the 
public support of this law than un- 
derstanding what it is designed to 
do," the council stressed. 

It also called on Carter to rescind 
an Executive Order that Ford re- 
newed shortly before leaving office 
as repayment to business interests 
who supported him in the election. 
The order, E.O. 1 1821, which re- 
quires OSHA to submit economic 
impact statements on proposed 
standards, places a dollar value on 
the lives of workers and has 
blocked development of needed job 
safety and health regulations, the 
council charged. 

The Secretary of Labor also 
should fully enforce sections of the 
law covering federal agencies, the 
council said, so the government can 
set an example for private employ- 
ers in the safety and health area. 

The council pledged labor's con- 
tinued support in Congress for full 
funding and staffing of OSHA pro- 
grams and for enforcement of the 
Toxic Substances Control Act 
which was enacted last year. 

Legislation Asked to Bar 
Pregnancy-Related Bias 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — "The AFL-CIO regards the prohibition of 
pregnancy-related discrimination as essential to the ultimate equality 
of women in the workplace." 

That summed up the position of the Executive Council in a state- 
ment calling for federal legislation to make sure that women affected 
by pregnancy "are treated equally 

with other employees." 

The council took note of the re- 
cent Supreme Court decision which 
held that Title VII of the Civil 
Rights Act does not necessarily 
prohibit discrimination against preg- 
nant women. "The court may have 
ignored it," the statement contin- 
ued, "but the facts of life are that 
discrimination against pregnant peo- 
ple is discrimination against women 

The council said that pregnant 
women have been refused responsi- 
ble jobs, fired, forced to take un- 
paid leave regardless of ability to 
work and refused the right to ac- 
cumulated sick leave or vacation 
leave for pregnancy-related ab- 
sences. In the court case they were 
denied disability benefits available 
to all other temporarily disabled 


The statement declared that preg- 
nant women "should be allowed to 
work as long as they and their 
doctors believe they are able to do 
so. When they are unable to work, 
they should be granted all benefits 
and privileges given other workers 
not physically able to work." 

The council noted that adoption 
of such legislation "may increase 
the cost of certain fringe benefit 
programs" and that proper provis- 
ion for adjusting to these increased 
costs must be given to labor-man- 
agement negotiators. 

The statement called for con- 
gressional action and presidential 
approval of legislation prohibiting 
discrimination based on pregnancy 
and related conditions as soon as 

Page Six 


Jobs for Economic Growth 

UNEMPLOYMENT REMAINS America's No. 1 economic prob- 
lem. Officially, 7.3 percent are unemployed but, by our calcula- 
tions, the true figure is 1 0 percent. 

Economic growth slowed down during the last three quarters of 
1976 and will be depressed in the first quarter of 1977 by the severe 
winter conditions. 

To meet America's needs, the AFL-CIO proposes the following 

• A major commitment by the Congress to stimulate the econ- 
omy this year through direct job-creating measures. The President's 
program, which places major emphasis on tax cuts and rebates in 
order to create jobs, is too small, would work too slowly and 
cannot be targeted to the areas and industries where the need for 
jobs is greatest. 

Oor proposal, which totals $30 billion in direct job-creating 
programs, can be put into operation speedily, will immediately 
help those currently jobless and wUl move the economy toward 
full employment without delay. Our stimulus package amounts 
to about IV2 percent of gross national product and would increase 
budget authorizations by less than 8 percent. 

These programs would provide some 2 million direct jobs and 
hundreds of thousands of additional jobs as the purchasing power 
they create spreads throughout the economy. 

• Congressional direction to the Federal Reserve Board to pro- 
vide sufficient growth in the supply of money and credit to enable 
the stimulus program to work. Lower interest rates are necessary to 
bring the construction industry out of its depression and up to levels 
needed to meet national requirements. 

Congress must also direct the Federal Reserve Board to allocate 
available credit for such high-priority programs as housing, state and 
local government needs and business investment in essential plant 
and equipment, while curbing the flow of credit for land speculation, 
inventory hoarding and investments in foreign operations. 

• Adequate governmental planning to forestall future shortages 
and bottlenecks which contribute to inflation. Antitrust action should 
be used to encourage competitive pricing throughout the economy. 

Moving the economy toward full employment will also mitigate 
inflationary pressures from under-utilized plant and equipment and 
an under-employed workforce. 

• Support of the President's rejection of wage and price controls. 
We call upon him to reject any backdoor attempts to do the same 
thing, such as pre-notification of wage and price changes. The Presi- 
dent should also rescind Ford's Executive Order requiring Inflation 
Impact Statements. The Council on Wage & Price Stability, a dismal 
failure, should be abolished. 

— From an AFL-CIO Executive Council statement on the na- 
tional economy, adopted Feb. 24, 1977 , at Bal Harbour, Fla, 


Official Weekly Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

George Meany, President 
Lane Kirkland, Secretary-Treasurer 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 
James T. Housewright 
Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
Angelo Fosco 

Executive Council 
I. W. Abel 
Max Greenberg 
Matthew Guinan 
Thomas W. Gleason 
Jerry Wurf 
George Hardy 
William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Charles H. Pillard 

Hunter P. Wharton 
John H. Lyons 
C. L. Dennis 
Frederick O'Neal 
S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanley 
William H. McClennan 

Director of Publications: Saul Miller 
Managing Editor: John M. Barry 

= John R. Oravec 

Assistant Editors: 
David L. Perlman 

James M. Shevis = 

AFL-CIO Headquarters: 815 Sixteenth St., N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20006 

Telephone: 637-5032 

Subscriptions: $2 a year; 10 or more, $1.50 a year 


Saturday, March 5, 1977 

No. 9 i 

= The American Federation oj Labor and Congress of 

= Industrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in 

= any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 

= advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


The Salesman 

Explosive Mix: 

Job-Poor Cities of Northeast 
Get New Wave of Immigrants 

By Gus Tyler 

A GRIM GAME of musical chairs is being 
played in the United States with disastrous 
consequences for the cities of America's North- 
east. The game involves millions of people who 
are entering and exiting distressed urban areas. 
The single most troublesome aspect is the inpour- 
ing of immigrants from Asia and South-of-the- 
Border into cities whose economy has been 

The facts about this perilous process were pre- 
sented by Herbert Bienstock, New York's regional 
district commissioner of the Bureau of Labor 
Statistics, before a recent conference of the Amer- 
ican Immigration & Citizenship Conference. 

The first fact is that the Northeast has not been 
keeping up with the growth of jobs in this grow- 
ing country with its expanding population. Thus, 
from 1950 to 1975, non-farm employment has 
grown nationally by 70 percent; the biggest growth 
is in the West, where jobs have expanded by 145 
percent, and in the South by 1 10 percent. In the 
Northeast, jobs have grown by a minuscule 30 

In the one year from June 1975 to June 1976, 
three of the four regions of the country (West, 
South, North Central) increased total employment 
by more than 2 percent. The Northeast did not 
grow at all. 

But it is into the Northeast, with its diminish- 
ing job opportunities, that the immigrants pour 
— today as in the past. Thus in 1970, the North- 
east had almost twice the percentage of foreign- 
born as the country as a whole: 4.7 for the 
nation and 8.4 for the Northeast quadrant. 
The facts become even more stark when the 
focus falls on New York: the percentage of for- 
eign-born in the state was almost three times the 
national percentage (1 1.6) and in New York City, 
the rate was four times as high (18.2). 

In 1975, immigrants continued to locate in the 
Northeast, especially New York State and City. 
In that one year, more than 22 percent of all 
immigrants coming to the United States settled in 
New York State and almost 15 percent in New 
York City. 

While newcomers enter, carrying with them the 
historic upset of the uprooted, established popula- 
tions (both white and black) exit from the North- 

east. Thus between 1970 and 1974, 55,000 more 
blacks left than entered the Northeast and 869,000 
more whites left than entered. The outmigrants 
went to the South and the West. 

The new immigrants are not the traditional 
stock that can readily move into established neigh- 
borhoods of Italians, Germans, Jews, Poles or 
Puerto Ricans. (There are now more Puerto 
Ricans leaving for than coming from their island.) 
Now the newcomers are from Asia (34 percent 
in 1975) and from Latin America (24 percent 
in 1970). 

The end result is that the Northeast is an ex- 
plosive mix of unstable elements under mounting 
pressure, where many of our greatest cities are 
so many Pompeiis sitting on volcanoes about to 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc . 

New Weapons 
— Same Job 

^Today's ^labor-relations consultants' use 
different weapons and tactics. They carry 
briefcases instead of clubs and brass 

^'But their job is the same — frustrate 
human hopes and nullify human rights. And 
they get away with it almost scot-free. 

"As I am sure you know, the AFX,-CIO 
Executive Council has decided we will no 
longer tolerate this state of affairs. We are 
resolved to do everything in our power to 
correct them. 

"We are not looking for a new labor law. 
We are perfectly confident that the present 
law can be made to work by correcting the 
most glaring procedural and remedial de- 

"Common sense dictates that the law 
should cover all who need its protection — 
without exceptions or exclusions — and that 
its enforcement should be swift, fair, im- 
partial, and effective." 

— AFL-CIO President George Meany at 
a dinner marking the SO-millionth vote in 
National Labor Relations Board elections. 


Page Seven 

No Single Answer: 

Variety of Programs Needed 
To Deal with Poverty's Causes 

Following is a background paper on welfare re- 
form prepared for the AFL-CIO Executive 

FROM 1960 to the early 1970s the number of 
people living in poverty fell by 15 million. But 
since then the number has increased by three mil- 
lion, leaving an estimated 26 million Americans 
forced to live below the poverty line. 

More than 12 percent of the American peo- 
ple are poor, including almost 38 percent of 
families headed by a female under 65 years of 
age. The suffering of these people has been 
compounded by prolonged high unemployment, 
runaway inflation and the Nixon-Ford Admin- 
istration's heartless and incessant attacks on 
programs to help the poor. 

Under the nation's largest welfare program, Aid 
to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC), 
average payments are less than half of the poverty 
level. As the costs of food, .clothing, shelter and 
medical care continue to soar, the gap between 
welfare payments and a decent standard of living 
continues to widen. 

Chaos abounds in the current system. Support- 
ive services are inadequate. Caseloads are often 
staggering, regulations are confusing and proce- 
dures are complex. Social service workers and 
caseworkers who are supposed to determine eligi- 
bility for welfare payments cannot now adequately 
serve the needs of their clients. 

With a full-time equivalent of 10.5 million 
workers unemployed last November, only 3.1 mil- 
lion were receiving unemployment insurance. State 
employment services, set up to help all people 
find suitable employment, have demonstrated an 
inability and unwillingness to help the poor, the 
undereducated and the unskilled. Similarly, CETA 
and other employment and training programs have 
been able to help only a fraction of the disad- 
vantaged and unemployed. 

Medicaid, originally conceived as a program to 
provide comprehensive health services to the 
needy and low-income people who could not 
afford sky-high health insurance premiums, has 
been cut back in almost all states. These cuts 
involve restricting eligibility or curtailing bene- 
fits or both. Twenty-eight percent of the poor are 
not covered by Medicaid at all. Thus the specter 
of sickness and debt hangs over the unemployed 
and the poor. 

There must be a commitment by the federal 
government to provide a minimum decent stan- 
dard of living for all Americans and employment 
opportunities at decent wages for all who are able 
to work. Wherever possible, this should be done 
by restructuring and creatively building on exist- 
ing programs. 

The nation's welfare system was intended to 

Congress Pressed on Renewal: 

serve as a last line of defense for people who can- 
not work or who should not be expected to work. 
Instead, welfare has had to assume the burden of 
an ineffective national employment policy, a falter- 
ing educational system, inadequate social insur- 
ance and inadequate job development and train- 
ing programs. 

Three distinct groups of poor people must rely 
on the inadequate welfare system: (1) those whose 
life circumstances do not allow them to work in 
paid jobs (the very young, the very old, the sick 
and disabled and those who must care for young 
children); (2) those who could work in paid jobs 
if proper training, job development and placement 
services were available, and (3) those whose 
wages are too low to keep them out of poverty. 

The recommendation in the statement of the 
Executive Council for overall welfare reform 
would meet the needs of the first two groups. 
The third group, the working poor, work full 
time, often at the most difficult and least desirable 
jobs and still are not paid enough to keep them- 
selves and their families from poverty. To right 
this cruel injustice, the AFL-CIO has urged an 
immediate increase in the minimum wage to at 
least $3 an hour, covering all workers, and with 
provision for adjustment annually for changes in 
average hourly earnings. The plight of the work- 
ing poor would also be eased by the proposals 
the AFL-CIO has made for improvements in the 
food stamp program. 

PROPONENTS OF such proposals as the neg- 
ative income tax fail to recognize the multiple 
causes of poverty as well as the varied characteris- 
tics of those who are poor. Such monolithic ap- 
proaches obscure the need to eliminate the inade- 
quacies in other social institutions. They focus on 
the goal of simplicity rather than equity and ade- 
quacy for the recipient. 

Experience has shown that efforts to achieve 
adequate financial support for the poor in a 
single program pit those persons v^ho are re- 
ceiving income from wages, or could if they 
were properly trained and enough jobs were 
available, against those who must rely on the 
support payment. They result in low benefits 
for those who can't work but they are struc- 
tured to make payments to large numbers far 
above the poverty level. 

Instead of such misguided schemes as the nega- 
tive income tax, the specific targeted programs 
are needed to meet the needs of America's poor. 
No single program can meet the different needs 
of the working poor, those who cannot work and 
those who need training and assistance to obtain 
paid jobs. That is the only kind of welfare reform 
which will begin to wipe out poverty in America. 

2 Million Jobless Face Cutoff 
Of Extended Federal Benefits 

nnWO MILLION long-term jobless workers 
stand to lose sorely-needed unemployment in- 
surance benefits in the year ahead unless Congress 
renews the stop-gap legislation to "cope with de- 
pression level employment," Assistant Director 
James O'Brien of the AFL-CIO Dept. of Social 
Security warned. 

O'Brien said that if the Federal Supplemental 
Benefit program is allowed to run out Mar. 31, 
some 550,000 workers who have been jobless for 
a long period and have exhausted all protection 
under the more limited state programs will im- 
mediately be completely shut off from the federal 
protection. Another 1.5 million will exhaust their 
state entitlement during the year and be left with 
no further protection, he noted. 

O'Brien stressed that the FSB extension bill 
now before the Ways & Means Committee is aim- 
ed only at keeping the emergency program alive 
for another year and is not the thorough overhaul 
of the unemployment compensation system that 
the labor movement believes must be made. 

He renewed the AFL-CIO's call for quick 
approval of emergency FSB protection, and 

urged that Congress wait for the report and rec- 
ommendations of a national commission ^^es- 
tablished to make an overall study of unem- 
ployment compensation" rather than "rush 
through permanent legislation that would alter 
the system." 

O'Brien said on Labor News Conference that 
the AFL-CIO will try to strengthen the extension 
bill so that the extended benefits trigger will be 
based on national unemployment levels rather 
than state unemployment levels, as the 1974 law 
provides. However, he noted, the House bill does 
propose an important improvement of the current 
law by providing that even though the statewide 
unemployment rate is below the trigger level, the 
"extended benefits program would be available in 
pockets of high unemployment within the state." 
He said the local labor market trigger will bring 
much more equity into the program. 

Reporters questioning O'Brien were Lloyd 
Schwartz of the Fairchild Publications and Robert 
Cooney of Press Associates, Inc. The radio inter- 
view is produced as a public service by the AFL- 

Congressional Campaigns: 

Election Financing 
Ready for Next Step 

nnHE 1976 PRESIDENTIAL election provided the first test of the 
-I- public financing of federal elections. Public financing passed 
with flying colors. 

The AFL-CIO is proud to have worked for the legislative break- 
through that enacted the partial public financing of presidential 
primaries and the full financing of the general presidential election. 

Presidential public financing was a major step in the right 
direction. But it is only a limited first step. 

Organized labor has made no secret of the fact that we want 
to get out of the business of making campaign contributions. This 
activity has been forced on us by the need to offset the contributions 
made by the wealthy and by business interests. We settled for the 
present narrow provision because it was our practical legislative 
assessment that no more could be accomplished. 

The successful experiment in presidential public financing shows 
that it is now time to take the next step. We will therefore press the 
Congress to extend public financing to congressional elections. The 
inherent abuses of campaign financing by the wealthy are no less 
serious in congressional elections than they were in presidential 

Indeed, the Supreme Court's 1 975 decision in Buckley v. Valeo, 
holding that legislative limits on total campaign expenditures and 
on the amount candidates can spend from their personal fortunes 
are constitutional only if linked with public financing, has accentu- 
ated the need for such financing. 

Elections should be decided on the merits, not on the ability to 
raise money or the size of a candidate's bankroll. 

We recognize that there are many problems to be solved but 
we believe that they can be solved. We will therefore work with 
all who share our goal for the earliest possible enactment of 
public financing of congressional elections. 

A number of related amendments are needed to further perfect the 
Federal Election Campaign Act. These changes should be made in 
time for the 1978 election in conjunction with the enactment of 
congressional public financing. The paperwork required of candi- 
dates and political committees is overly burdensome. The expendi- 
ture limits for presidential candidates are unrealistic. Legal techni- 
calities stand in the way of candidates who wish to speak to their 
supporters. Unnecessary barriers obstruct state party participation 
in the presidential election. The law is plainly too complex in many 
particulars. These defects limit free communication during elections 
and stifle active citizen participaton. They should be corrected. 

— Statement by the AFL-CIO Executive Council, Feb, 22, 1977, 
at Bal Harbour, Fla, 

Removing the Barriers 
To Voter Participation 

The AFL-CIO has long sought improvements in federal election 
laws that would increase citizen participation in the democratic 

The labor movement cannot be fully satisfied until all artificial 
impediments to voting have been removed. The time has come 
for a federal universal voter registration law that will permit all 
unregistered citizens to go to the polls election day — with adequate 
proof of age and residency — register there and vote. We also urge 
similar laws for state and local elections. 

— From a statement by the AFL-CIO Executive Council, Feb, 23, 
1977, at Bal Harbour, Fla. 

UNLESS CONGRESS renews the 1974 emergency unemploy- 
ment insurance program due to run out the end of March, 2 
million long-term unemployed workers who have exhausted state 
benefits will be left with no jobless aid, James O'Brien, center, 
assistant director of the AFL-CIO Dept. of Social Security, 
warned. Questioning him on Labor News Conference, the AFL- 
CIO public affairs interview, were Lloyd Schwartz, left, of Fair- 
child Publications and Robert Cooney of Press Associates, Inc. 

Page Eight 


PRESIDENTS OF the Service Employees and the Steel workers 
confer during the AFL-CIO Executive Council session — AFL-* 
CIO Vice Presidents George Hardy, left, and I. W. Abel. 

Trans- Alaska Gas Route 
Held ^Clearly Superior' 

Bal Harbour, Fla.— The AFL-CIO urged the Carter Administra- 
tion to approve the proposed Trans-Alaska gas route to assure the 
"expedited availability" to the lower 48 states of natural gas supplies 
that will increase the nation's energy self-reliance. 

The Executive Council said at its meeting here that of the three 
proposals now under consideration 

by the Administration for moving 
Alaskan gas to the rest of the coun- 
try the Trans-Alaska gas route is 
"clearly superior." It is also the 
only one that would be entirely 
under U.S. control, it said. 

The other two lines involve gas 
pipelines across Canada. The Trans- 
Alaska route would largely parallel 
the Alaska oil pipeline across Alas- 
ka. Important employment benefits 
would accrue from the Alaska gas 
line, the council noted, but "the 
need to obtain secure supplies of 
gas for the lower 48 states as soon 
as possible to meet the present 
shortage clearly transcends all other 

The Carter Administration will 
decide later this year which of the 
proposals it will support, then for- 
ward its recommendation to Con- 
gress for approval. 

The Trans-Alaska route would 
involve the construction of a com- 
plex of gassification and liquefac- 
tion facilities as well as a fleet of 
liquified natural gas vessels to carry 
the gas to the West Coast. The line 
would employ over 44,000 con- 
struction, trade, and shipyard work- 
ers during the peak construction 
phase, the council noted. 

"In addition, the Alaska gas line 

— because it would use many of the 
facilities built for the Alaska oil 
pipeline — could be constructed 
sooner than the two competing 
routes across Canada," the council 

In another statement, the coun- 
cil urged the Administration and 
Congress to stand firmly against 
industry proposals to export 
Alaskan North Slope oil to Ja- 
pan. The oil companies, which 
were encouraged to produce the 
oil with help from Congress, 
argue that refinery, pipeline, and 
tanker capacity are not adequate 
to deliver the fuel to U.S. mark- 

This is a lame excuse, the coun- 
cil declared charging that the in- 
dustry failed to respond to the need 
to expand those facilities in an ef- 
fort to gain higher profits through 
sale of the oil to Japan. 

"The oil companies will drop 
their proposal to export Alaskan oil 
and will begin the needed refinery, 
pipeline, and tanker construction 
when ... it is clear to them that 
Americans will not allow this sacri- 
fice of national interest for oil 
company profits," the Executive 
Council declared. 

Remedies Prescribed 
For Ailing Inner Cities 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The federal government should do more to 
revitalize inner-city neighborhoods and help the people who live in 
them, the AFL-CIO Executive Council urged. 

Labor's proposed arsenal of remedies includes job programs that 
pay a double dividend, such as public service employment and pub- 
These provide needed'' 

lie works 
municipal services and public facili- 
ties as well as income for the peo- 
ple put to work. 

The Executive Council also urged 
modifications in federal housing 
and community development pro- 
grams in order to channel . assis- 
tance to the areas with the most 
serious economic problems. It said 
such areas should also be given 
preference in awarding government 
contracts and locating government 

A recent study of the Commu- 
nity Development Block Grant pro- 

When You Buy a Home . 

Look for the 

HIM iMiL M* itmn riuii •irr . ui-cit 

gram, now up for renewal by Con- 
gress, showed that the older indus- 
trial cities in the North and Mid- 
west will be getting a smaller share 
of community development money 
while smaller communities with rel- 
atively few problems will get more. 

The council proposed an alloca- 
tion formula to remedy that trend 
and said the Dept. of Housing & 
Urban Development should not ap- 
prove local programs unless low 
and moderate-income families are 
the chief beneficiaries. 

It asked Congress to set up pro- 
cedures for loans and loan guaran- 
tees as emergency help to cities 
confronted with a fiscal crisis. 

And it asked presidential leader- 
ship to enlist all levels of govern- 
ment, private industry and labor 
"for targeted training, investment 
and employment in central cities." 

'Badly Needed'; 

Carter Proposal Endorsed 
For Cabinet Energy Agency 

(Continued from Page 1) 
through," the council said, criticiz- 
ing the 94th Congress and the pre- 
vious Administration for the "timid 
and hesitant" steps they took to 
free the country from dependence 
on foreign oil. 

"They treated the energy matter 
gingerly as if it were a fragile 
thing that would shatter if direc- 
ly confronted," the council's 
statement observed. "The time is 
long past for complacency and 

Heading the list of elements that 
the AFL-CIO feels are essential to 
the development of a sound energy 
program is conservation. The coun- 
cil estimated that adoption of tough 
and stringent conservation meas- 
ures could reduce the nation's en- 
ergy consumption growth rate from 
4 percent to well under 2 percent. 

Per capita consumption of en- 
ergy in the United States is twice 
that of countries such as Switzer- 
land, Sweden, West Germany, and 
others, the council noted. Conser- 
vation does not mean a diminution 
in the quality of life, it observed. 

"It does mean using energy effi- 
ciently," the AFL-CIO statement 
said. "It means the manufacture 
of automobiles that get more mile- 
age per gallon of gasoline, the retro- 
fitting of existing homes and build- 
ings and the construction of well- 
insulated homes and buildings that 
drastically reduce energy consump- 
tion, and the designing and build- 
ing of home appliances that use 
only small quantities of energy. 

"Nor does conservation mean 
no growth," the council said. 
"We hold no brief for those 
pushing conservation as part of 
a no-growth philosophy. Growth 
in the economy and conservation 
of energy can, and must, go 

Conservation, while essential, will 
not by itself solve the nation's en- 

ergy problem, the council warned. 
New supplies of energy must be 
found. Oil imports and oil and 
natural gas prices must be regu- 
lated by the government. And Con- 
gress should break up the oil mo- 
nopolies that have prospered while 
the country suffered from the en- 
ergy crisis. 

In detailing its recommendations, 
the Council urged speedy develop- 
ment of coal reserves and nuclear 
power as the energy sources upon 
which the U.S. must rely in the 
immediate future. 

"Continued development of the 
liquid metal fast breeder reactor 
program must be pursued," the 
council declared. "This is essential 
to the nation's long-term energy 

Oil and natural gas are declin- 
ing resources, the council said, but 
the country has about 450 billion 
tons of coal reserves. This is more 
than 700 times the nation's annual 
usage of about 600 million tons, it 
pointed out, and 2.6 times as much 
oil as is available from the entire 
world's known petroleum supplies. 

Nuclear power is expected to 
grow from 2 percent of current 
total energy supply to over 20 per- 
cent by the end of the 20th Cen- 
tury, the council said. It urged 
every effort to accelerate the de- 
velopment of coal and nuclear pow- 
er while protecting the environ- 
ment and maintaining stringent 
safety and health standards. Mean- 
while, the United States should de- 
velop oil and gas reserves on the 
U.S. outer continental shelf and 
other sources of energy such as 
solar, geothermal, biomass, shale 
oil, coal liquefaction and gasifica- 

Since private industry cannot 
develop the energy sources re- 
quired for the nation, the AFL- 
CIO urged establishment of a 
massive five-year, $100 billion 

dollar program to achieve energy 
security through direct loans, 
loan guarantees, and other finan- 
cial assistance to private industry 
and public bodies unable to se- 
cure private capital. 

America's dependence on impor- 
ted oil is greater today than in 
1973, the council observed. "It is 
more vulnerable to the price that 
the Oil Petroleum Exporting Coun- 
tries set for its oil. That price may 
well determine America's level of 
economic activity and the rate of 

To cope with the issue, the AFL- 
CIO recommended that oil imports 
be taken out of private hands and 
placed in the hands of the govern- 
ment. The government would de- 
termine the amount of oil to be 
imported, negotiate its price with 
the individual oil producing coun- 
tries, and provide for its allocation. 

At the same time, the council 
called for the accelerated stockpil- 
ing of oil to give America protec- 
tion against future oil embargoes. It 
also stressed the need for continued 
regulation of oil and natural gas 
prices, warning that decontrol 
"would place an intolerable burden 
on the American consumer." 

The public is at the mercy of 
giant oil monopolies whose com- 
plete control of petroleum from 
wellhead to marketing represents 
"an incredible influence over the 
nation's well being," the council 
charged. "Clearly, the oil compa- 
nies are pursuing only their self- 

The council urged Congress to 
enact legislation forcing the com- 
panies to divest themselves of their 
total hold on the industry, "so that 
the companies may no longer pro- 
duce as well as refine, transport and 
market petroleum," and to prohibit 
a company from owning competing 
sources of energy. 

Youth Programs Stressed in Call 
To Reform Criminal Justice System 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The entire criminal justice system must be overhauled if America is to solve its 
ever-growing problem of crime, the AFL-CIO declared in outlining a 15-point reform proposal. 

Immediate action is needed to renovate law enforcement agencies, the courts and correctional facili- 
ties, the Executive Council said. 

But most essential "is a need to restore a climate of morality and ethical conduct," the council 
stressed in praising President Car- * 
ter's eff'orts to set an example for 

all Americans to follow. 

"The answer lies not in more 
and more jails, but in directing 
society's efforts against crime 
with an unswerving commitment 
to justice and the eradication of 
social ills that underlie the in- 
crease in crime," the council said. 

While expressing concern over 
the increase in violent crime and 
so-called victimless ofl^enses, the 
council rejected as unworkable the 
extreme proposals of some who 
would lock up the criminal and 
"throw away the key.*' 

Labor's program for reform of 
the criminal justice system calls for: 

1. Efi'orts to prevent juvenile 
crime through adequately funded 
programs in education, training, 
job placement, counseling and a 
federal youth conservation corps. 

2. Diverting youthful offenders 
from correctional facilities to ex- 
panded and well-supervised com- 
munity treatment programs. 

3. Treatment in health care, so- 
cial services and counseling for 
those accused of non-violent and 
victimless crimes. 

4. Transferring children who 

have not committed criminal of- 
fenses from correctional institutions 
to community-based treatment cen- 

5. Increased staffing and training 
for police departments and im- 
provements in correctional institu- 
tions. Law officers also must have 
improved wages, along with full 
rights to union organization and 
collective bargaining. 

6. Direction of law enforcement 
priorities to the prevention of most 
serious crimes first, and then to 
non-violent and victimless crimes. 

7. Development of citizen volun- 
teer corps under official authority 
and supervision to promote crime 
prevention in neighborhoods and to 
forestall vigilante actions. 

8. Increasing the number of 
judges, in addition to improving 
their training and pay. Selection of 
judges should be based on legal 
competence, character and temper- 

9. Legislation to provide for long 
prison terms for violent crimes and 
isolating these offenders from po- 
tential victims. 

10. A study of capital punish- 
ment by a presidential commission 

to determine if it is a deterrent to 
violent crime and if there is dis- 
crimination in its application. 

11. Full funding of community 
education programs and related ef- 
forts that deal with disruptive stu- 
dents and to correct early childhood 
learning problems associated with 

12. Reform of the prison, bail, 
probation and parole systems. This 
would include education programs 
for offenders, properly supervised 
work-release projects, handling of 
prisoner grievances, separating 
youth from adult offenders and 
equity for the poor in the bail-bond 

13. Expansion of community 
programs for job training and 
placement of ex-offenders, such as 
those sponsored by the federation's 
Human Resources Development In- 
stitute and other labor groups. 

14. Federal legislation requiring 
police to check on purchases of 
all handguns and to prevent the 
sale of firearms to felons, minors 
and the emotionally disturbed. 

1 5. Increased involvement of un- 
ion members in community efforts 
designed to prevent crime and im- 
prove the criminal justice system. 


Page Nine 

Damage from Imports Cited: 

U.S. Urged to Gear 
Trade Policy to Jobs 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The United States must develop a balanced 
foreign trade policy that is geared to the nation's need for jobs in a 
growing economy, the AFL-CIO declared. 

Unless foreign trade policy and overseas investment practices are 
reshaped by the White House and Congress, the Executive Council 
warned, the American economy 

will remain vulnerable to foreign 

The council statement and a 
biackground paper spelled out the 
problems evolving from existing 
trade policy and outlined a program 
designed to improve trade relations 
throughout the world. 

"The AFL-CIO supports 
healthy, fair trade that will build 
a strong American economy," 
the council stressed. "We oppose 
the continued export of Ameri- 
can jobs and industry, which has 
undermined the economy." 

The council called for a legisla- 
tive overhaul of the 1974 Trade 
Act and for strict enforcement of 
laws to better safeguard American 
firms and workers from serious in- 
jury caused by low-wage imports. 
It also called for the repeal of cer- 
tain sections of the Trade Act that 
permit the flow of imports without 
tariffs and the export of American 

The United States suffered a se- 
vere turnaround in the balance of 
trade in a single year, the council 
pointed out. An $11 billion surplus 

Revisions in 
Textile Import 
Pact Sought 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — A modified 
five-year Multifiber Agreement to 
better minimize production and em- 
ployment disruptions caused by tex- 
tile and apparel imports should be 
renegotiated, the Executive Council 

Under the existing international 
agreement that expires at the end 
of the year, the council noted, im- 
ports have increased substantially 
in recent years while employment 
in the U.S. textile and apparel in- 
dustry has declined. 

Key revisions sought urged for 
the new agreement to include: 

• A reduction in the permissible 
annual growth rate of imports from 
6 percent to 3 percent, in line with 
developments in domestic markets. 

• Limiting flexibility provisions 
that allow year-to-year carryovers 
in ceilings and borrowing from fu- 
ture ceilings or other categories 
where shipments are lagging. 

of exports over imports in 1975 
shifted to a $5.9 billion deficit in 

And the Commerce Dept. has 
since reported a deficit of $1.67 bil- 
lion in January after seasonal ad- 
justment — the worst one-month 
trade imbalance on record. 

The council said new legislation 
is needed to regulate the export of 
items in short supply and called 
for closing tax loopholes and incen- 
tives for multinational corporations 
to shift investment, technology, pro- 
duction and jobs abroad. 

Trade adjustment assistance — 
compensation for workers who lose 
their jobs to the increasing flow of 
imports — must be overhauled to 
assure that the affected workers re- 
ceive the benefits, the council said. 

But trade adjustment assistance 
itself is nothing more than a wel- 
fare program and not a solution to 
the nation's foreign trade problem, 
the council stressed. 

It urged the repeal of outdated 
provisions of the nation's trade 
laws, stressing that exemptions 
should be handled on a case-by-case 
basis. It also called for the federal 
government to negotiate treaties to 
end the exploitation of workers in 
foreign trade zones. 

"Negotiations with other nations 
should be based on the needs of the 
U.S. economy, not on political ex- 
pediency,'' the council said. 'The 
goal must be an expansion of trade 
based on fairness, reciprocity and 
mutual benefit." 

Although codes of conduct for 
multinational corporations are 
necessary, the council observed, 
they are no substitute for strict 
enforcement of U.S. laws that 
prohibit bribery of foreign offi- 
cials and participation in eco- 
nomic blackmail to undermine 
U.S. foreign policy. 

The council also called for: 

• More effective regulation of 
trade with Communist countries. 

• Import quotas on imported 
shoes, color television sets, textiles, 
men's and women's clothing and 
rubber products. 

• Limiting the loans, guarantees 
and insurance operations of the 

• Repeal of Title V of the Trade 
Act that permits $3 billion of im- 
ports of many products from low- 
wage countries without any tariffs. 

ACTION PROGRAM of the new AFL-CIO Food & Beverage Trades Dept. was shaped by the 
department's executive board at Bal Harbour, Fla. In the foreground, backs to camera, are Daniel 
E. Conway, secretary-treasurer of the department and president of the Bakery & Confectionery 
Workers; President James T. House wright, who also is head of the Retail Clerks, and Executive 
Director Robert Harbrant. 

Disputes Plan 
Success Tied 
To Mediation 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Mediation 
continues to be an effective means 
of settling disputes under the AFL- 
CIO plan with 57 percent of the 
cases filed settled in this manner, 
the Executive Council was told. 

A report on the Internal Dis- 
putes Plan from January 1962 to 
date and for the year 1 976, showed 
that the number of cases filed con- 
tinued to decline from 125 in 1974 
to 118 in 1975 and 77 cases last 
year. In the 15-year period 1,741 
cases have been filed. 

Of the 1976 cases, umpires' de- 
terminations were made in 42 with 
violations found in 29, no viola- 
tions found in seven and six cases 
pending. Of the 18 appeals from 
decisions, two were referred to the 
council and in both cases the deci- 
sions were set aside or modified. 

In 1976 there were 20 non-com- 
pliance complaints, 10 new ones 
and 10 pending. Compliance was 
achieved in three cases and 17 are 
pending before council subcom- 
mittees. Over the 15-year period 
there have been a total of 1 26 non- 
compliance complaints. 

Over the years of the plan's op- 
eration, 13 affiliates have failed to 
comply with decisions in 23 dif- 
ferent cases, and sanctions au- 
thorized by the plan were imposed. 
In 10 instances compliance was 
later achieved and sanctions re- 
moved. At present there are three 
affiliates under sanctions: Air Line 
Pilots, Typographical Union, and 
Graphic Arts Union. 

Utility Rate Standards 
Sought to End Inequities 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Federal standards on utility rates to provide 
relief for low and middle-income families and encourage conserva- 
tion have been called for by the AFL-CIO. 

Citing the glaring inequities in utility rates that favor the large 
industrial user over the residential customer, the Executive Council 
called for action at both the federal^ 
and state level. 

IT WAS ALL MINNESOTA when a delegation of Postal Workers officials met with Vice President 
Mondale at the White House to discuss the union's legislative goals. From left are Mondale; Forrest 
M. Newman, administrative aide for the Qerk Craft Division; APWU Legislative Director Patrick 
J. Nilan, and Qerk Craft President John A. Morgan. All are originally from Minnesota. 

At the federal level, it urged the 
Administration and Congress to 
support legislation to set up manda- 
tory standards for state utility com- 
missions for setting electric and 
gas utility rates — standards to "nar- 
row the gap" between residential 
and industrial and commercial rates. 

At the state level, the council 
said that until such legislation is 
enacted, state commissions should 
be urged ^'to reform their rate 
structures to provide a measure 
of relief through lower and more 

Carter Renews 
Support for 
Consumer Unit 

The new executive director of 
the Consumer Federation of Amer- 
ica reported at the close of its an- 
nual conference that President 
Carter has renewed his support 
for a federal consumer-protection 

Kathleen F. O'Reilly, who suc- 
ceeds Carol T. Foreman in the 
post, said that Carter reaffirmed his 
support for the consumer agency 
at a Feb. 14 White House meeting 
with seven consumer leaders. 

O'Reilly, formerly CFAs legis- 
lative director, termed the Presi- 
dent's latest expression of support 
for the agency "extremely gratify- 
ing." A native of Detroit, O'Reilly 
also served as CPA's counsel. She 
is a graduate of the Georgetown 
University Law Center. 

Foreman, who resigned to be- 
come a consultant to Agriculture 
Sec. Bob Bergland, had held the 
top CFA position the past three 

O'Reilly's election came at CPA's 
annual meeting following the or- 
ganization's annual Consumer As- 
sembly. Lee Richardson, a Louisi- 
ana State University economics 
professor, was re-elected to his sec- 
ond consecutive one-year term as 
president of the consumer group. 

CFA, which is supported by the 
AFL-CIO, is an umbrella organiza- 
tion representing grass-roots con- 
sumer groups. 

equitable rates for the average 

The council pointed out that over 
the last three years electricity rates 
have risen 47 percent and natural 
gas rates for home heating have in- 
creased 82 percent. The inequities 
in the rate structure, it said, "are 
reflected in the fact that residential 
customers pay about 64 percent 
more per kilowatt hour of electrici- 
ty than industrial users pay. In ef- 
fect, residential consumers and oth- 
er small users are subsidizing large 
industrial users" and residential 
users "have the least power to resist 
rate increases." 

Rate structures that most com- 
monly charge a lower rate for in- 
creased use of electricity and na- 
tural gas remove the incentive to 
conserve, the statement said, urging 
consideration of "lifeline" rates or 
the sale of a minimum amount of 
electricity or natural gas at a low 
rate, and "time of day pricing," 
which would charge more for elec- 
tricity during the hours of the day 
when demands are greatest. This 
would encourage conservation and 
help hold down rates for the aver- 
age consumer. 

The council added that the re- 
structuring of rates to encourage 
conservation and to make rates 
more equitable should not cause a 
rate increase to other residential 

Carter Supported 
On Reorganization 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — Con- 
gress should give the Presi- 
dent the government reorga- 
nization authority he has 
asked, the AFL-CIO Execu- 
tive Council said. 

The Administration 5ill, 
based on powers given previ- 
ous presidents, would let a 
proposed reorganization of a 
government agency take ef- 
fect unless either the House 
or Senate voted disapproval. 

But the council urged the 
Carter Administration to con- 
sult with the AFL-CIO and 
unions of federal employees 
in developing its plans. It said 
these sources represent a 
helpful "reservoir of experi- 

Page Ten 


SWEEPING REFORM of the nation's basic labor law is needed 
to correct the present imbalance that favors employers over 
workers, AFL-CIO President George Meany declared at a dinner 
marking the 30-millionth vote cast in National Labor Relations 
Board elections. Expedited procedures, more effective remedies, 
and quicker processing of representation election petitions and 
unfair labor practice charges head the list of improvements labor 
seeks, Meany said. 

Court Refuses to Delay 
Coke Oven Standards 

Philadelphia — The U.S. Third Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in 
favor of the Steelworkers in refusing to extend a delay in implement- 
ing four crucial sections of the new coke oven health regulations. 

The court had granted industry a temporary stay on the four pro- 
visions two days before the federal standard to curb worker exposure 
to cancer-causing coke oven emis-<?^ 

sions was to go into effect on Jan. 

Certain key parts of the Occu- 
pational Safety & Health Adminis- 
tration standard, including a grad- 
ual phase-in of engineering controls 
and work practice guidelines, did 
go into effect on schedule. 
i - Jhe American Iron & Steel Insti- 
tute and the American Coke & Coal 
Chemical Institute requested the 
court to continue the stay. The de- 
layed sections provide for compre- 
hensive monitoring of coke oven 
emissions, employer-supplied respi- 
rators and protective clothing for 
coke oven workers, and air quality 
and hygiene controls in lunch 
rooms and locker rooms. 

When the standard is fully 
phased in during the next three 
years, it will limit coke oven emis- 
sions in working areas to 0.15 mil- 
ligrams of benzene-soluable particu- 
late matter per cubic meter of air 
over an eight-hour period. 

But the two employer associa- 
tions are also challenging the entire 
standard in the same appellate 
court. The USWA said it was grati- 
fied at the court's action vacating 
the temporary stay on the four sec- 
tions and called on the two industry 
groups to withdraw their request 
for a review of the entire standard. 

In its arguments before the 
court, USWA said the steel com- 
panies and coke producers failed 
to make a meaningful effort to 
meet the requirements of the 
four sections of the standard. 

The union's attorneys pointed out 
that technology is readily available 
and OSHA had given the compa- 
nies adequate time to comply with 

Rubber Workers Fill 
Key Staff Positions 

Akron, O. — Rubber Workers 
President Peter Bonmiarito has an- 
nounced a series of staff changes, 
including designation of Bob G. 
Long as organizational director and 
Jack Moye as assistant to the presi- 

Also, Patrick Glenn was named 
assistant director of the Pension & 
Insurance Dept., and Harold W. 
Jenkins was designated special 
representative for education and 

the first phase of the standard. 

The USWA has been vigorously 
campaigning for the development 
and implementation of a stiff coke 
oven standard since 1971. Medical 
studies cited by the union have 
shown that coke oven workers are 
10 times more likely to get cancer 
than other groups of workers. 

At NLRB Dinner: 

Meany Pledges Strong Fight 
For Overhaul of Labor Law 

(Continued from Page 1) 

ers have pulled out all stops to 
thwart its intent. The aim of the 
law is to encourage "the practice 
and procedure of collective bargain- 
ing," he said, yet "between the in- 
tent and the reality there is a colos- 
sal gap of empty promises, delays 
and frustrations, and the gap has 
grown instead of shrinking." 

Passage of the Taft-Hartley Act 
in 1947 and the Landrum-Griflfin 
Act in 1 959 has weakened the origi- 
nal Labor Relations Act, and 
strengthened the hand of those em- 
ployers who seek to frustrate work- 
ers' right to organize and bargain 
collectively, Meany said. 

"For workers who face that 
kind of opposition and still seek 
to organize and negotiate their 
first contract, it is as if the Wag- 
ner Act never existed and the last 
42 years never happened. They 
fact; the law of the jungle and the 
power of professional union- 
busters and strikebreakers just 
as surely as their grandfathers 

The AFL-CIO will do "anything 
in our power" to redress the imbal- 
ance, Meany declared. 

"We are not looking for a new 
labor law," he told the audience. 
"We are perfectly confident that the 
present law can be made to work 
by correcting the most glaring pro- 
cedural and remedial deficiencies." 
Meany said the AFL-CIO will doc- 
ument its complaints and submit 
clear recommendations to Congress 
for solutions that are "equitable 
and fair." 

He hailed the 30-millionth NLRB 

Labor Studies Center 
Lists March Schedule 

The George Meany Center for Labor Studies will offer five 
programs in March for full-time officers and staff members 
of AFL-CIO affiliates. Five national and international unions 
will also use the center's 47-acre campus at Silver Spring, Md., 
for their own staff training programs as will the Building & 
Construction Trades Dept., the AFL-CIO Dept. of Education, 
the Asian-American Free Labor Institute and the Pennsylvania 
State AFL-CIO. 

The March schedule for the center: 

Arbitration I: Preparation and Presentation. From 4 p.m., 
Mar. 13, to Mar. 18. 

Psychology for Union Leaders — Mar. 13-18. 

Collective Bargaining I: Negotiating Techniques — From 4 
p.m., Mar. 20 to Mar. 25. 

Public Relations Workshop — From 4 p.m., Mar. 20 to 
Mar. 25. 

How to Improve Leadership Skills — From 4 p.m., Mar. 27 
to Apr. 1 . 

The AFL-CIO Dept. of Education will host the annual 
meeting of education directors of all national and international 
unions Mar. 6-9. 

The Pennsylvania State AFL-CIO will bring 120 local union 
legislative chairmen to the campus Mar. 9-12 preparatory to 
visiting Congress. 

The Building and Construction Trades Dept. will conduct 
another of its Job Safety Programs which it co-sponsors with 
the National Constructors Association, Mar. 20 to 25. 

The Asian- American Free Labor Institute will be on campus 
for a 10-day conference of its field staff. 

Unions making use of the campus during March include the 
Communications Workers, Machinists, Government Employ- 
ees, Flight Attendants, and Railroad Signalmen. 

One off-campus program is scheduled for the month, an 
institute for building trades business agents at the University 
of Alabama, Birmingham. Topics will include labor law, health 
and safety at the work site, jurisdictional disputes. From 4 
p.m., Mar. 6 to Mar. 1 1 . 

More information about these and other labor studies pro- 
grams may be obtained from Fred K. Hoehler, Jr., director, 
George Meany Center, 10000 New Hampshire Ave., Silver 
Spring, Md. 20903. Phone 301/431-6400. 

election ballot as "a significant mile- 
stone in American labor-manage- 
ment relations." A letter to NLRB 
Chairman Betty S. Murphy from 
President Carter said that the secret- 
ballot elections provided under the 
Wagner Act have "contributed to 
building a system of peaceful in- 
dustrial relations that is the envy 
of the world." 

Speaking in Carter's behalf. La- 
bor Sec. Ray Marshall said the 
occasion afforded Americans an 
opportunity to "take some pride in 
what has been accomplished in this 
country." Yet, while the Wagner 
Act brought democracy to industrial 
relations, there remain flaws in the 
country's labor law, he said. 

"There is general agreement 
among practitioners of industrial 
relations that we need to speed up 
the process of elections as well as 
the handling of unfair labor 
charges," he said. "And we need 
to extend collective bargaining to 
those who really need it most — the 

R. Heath Larry, vice chairman of 
U.S. Steel and head of the National 
Association of Manufacturers, also 
spoke at the event. 

Since Congress in 1935 estab- 
lished the procedure for govern- 
ment-supervised secret-ballot elec- 
tions in which workers choose 
whether they wish to be represented 
by a union, some 300,000 elections 
have been held, with nearly 90 per- 
cent of eligible voters participating. 

When the Wagner Act became 
law, about half of American labor 
disputes were over union recogni- 
tion issues and employee organiza- 
tional rights. Today, the NLRB es- 
timates, fewer than 1 percent of all 
strikes stem from this cause. 

The first election ever held under 
the Wagner Act took place on Dec. 
12, 1935, among employees of 
Wayne Knitting Mills in Fort 
Wayne, Ind. By a vote of 516 to 
401, the workers chose the Hosiery 
Workers as their bargaining agent. 

The union later became part of 
the Textile Workers Union of 
America, which last summer merged 
with the Clothing Workers to form 
the Amalgamated Clothing & Tex- 
tile Workers Union. 

John C. Seidel of Fort Wayne, 
who voted in that first NLRB elec- 
tion, was at the dinner as a guest 
of ACTWU. Seidel worked as a 
knitter for the company from 1917 
until 1953 when most of the mill's 
knitting operations were relocated 
in the South. 

Also attending the dinner were 
Adolph Benet, the last president of 
the Hosiery Workers; Harold Rieve, 
son of the late Emil Rieve, first 
president of the Textile Workers, 
and Marion Groce, director of 
ACTWU's Indiana-Kentucky Joint 

As best as the NLRB can deter- 
mine, the 30-millionth vote was cast 
in an election held last Dec. 16 
among employees of the Millers 
Falls Paper Co., in Millers Falls, 
Mass. Workers chose the Paper- 
workers to represent them in col- 
lective bargaining with their em- 

Representing the workers at the 
dinner were Joseph J. Garbeil, pres- 
ident of the newly established 
Millers Falls local, and Raymond 
LaPlante, the Paperworkers' New 
England vice president. Congratu- 
lating both the union and the com- 
pany, Meany had this advice: 

listen to each other, weigh 
each other's needs and goals, 
work out a mutually agreeable 
contract that is just and fair to 
both sides. That was what the 
framers of the National Labor 

Relations Act wanted when they 
drafted the law 42 years ago. 
Today, that is stUl the soundest 
prescription for sound, harmoni- 
ous industrial democracy.** 

But, Meany added, unfair em- 
ployers have spent 42 years evading 
the law with virtual impunity. 
"Union-busting is a thriving indus- 
try, because flouting the law is 
'cost-effective,' " Meany said. "Em- 
ployers make more when they vio- 
late the law than when they abide 
by the law. 

"J. P. Stevens, in fact, has done 
more violence to the law with *con- 
sultants' than Tom Girdler was able 
to do with goons." Girdler, a for- 
mer president of Republic Steel, 
was a notorious anti-unionist of the 
1930s. Stevens, the nation's second 
largest textile manufacturer, has re- 
sisted unionization of its workers 
since 1963 in the face of 15 NLRB 
findings that it has violated the Taft- 
Hartley Act by refusing to bargain 
or by firing and intimidating em- 

Spelling out labor's goals in its 
campaign to overhaul the NLRA, 
Meany said the AFL-CIO wants 
expedited NLRB elections, repeal of 
Section 14(b) of the Taft-Hartley 
Act that permits states to outlaw 
union security agreements, general- 
ly streamlined NLRB procedures, 
an increase from five to nine in the 
board's members, an end to govern- 
ment subsidization of employers 
who consistently and repeatedly vio- 
late federal labor law, and effective 
remedies for employer violations. 

'^n addition to the changes I 
have outlined," Meany said, "we 
intend to ask Congress for one 
more change to correct an injus- 
tice that has been a blight on 
American society far too long. 
We want to see every worker in 
America covered by the National 
Labor Relations Act." Many 
workers, notably public employ- 
ees and farm workers, are out- 
side the law's protective provi- 

"Common sense dictates that the 
law should cover all who need its 
protection — without exceptions or 
exclusions — and that its enforce- 
ment should be swift, fair, impar- 
tial and effective," Meany said. 

Unions Picket 
Mutual Radio 
Over Lockout 

Arlington, Va. — ^The Television 
& Radio Artists set up picket lines 
at the Mutual Broadcasting System 
headquarters here after accusing the 
radio network of illegally firing four 
AFTRA members and locking out 
several others. 

The 40 AFTRA members partici- 
pating in the unfair labor practice 
strike joined 37 members of the In- 
ternational Brotherhood of Electri- 
cal Workers, who walked out under 
similar circumstances a week earlier. 

Both unions have filed charges 
against Mutual with the National 
Labor Relations Board. 

AFTRA said that no economic 
issues are involved in the dispute 
with Mutual. The IBEW said the 
network locked out its members 
after they had rejected a company 
proposal on a new contract that 
would severely cut back jobs and 

The AFL-CIO has withdrawn its 
weekly public affairs interview. La- 
bor News Conference, from the 
Mutual network as a result of the 


Page Eleven 

Labor ^ Minority Policies: 

J. p. Stevens Blasted . 
At Company Meeting 

(Continued from Page 1) 
policies and anti-union activities of 
the company, demanding that Stev- 
ens cease blocking efforts of its 
employees to unionize and stop 
discriminating against minorities. 

The demonstration officially un- 
derscored the Clothing & Textile 
Workers' nationwide consumer boy- 
cott of Stevens products as the 
company maintained its anti-union 
record when majority stockholders 
voted down two resolutions seeking 
' disclosure of information on the 
firm's labor policies and minority 
hiring practices. 

The two resolutions were filed 
by the World Division of the 
Board of Global Ministries of 
the United Methodist Church, 
the Catholic Foreign Mission So- 
ciety of America, the Institute 
of Christian Doctrine, the Fran- 
ciscan Missionaries of Mary and 
the Franciscan Justice and Peace 

Throughout the long four-hour 
meeting, speaker after speaker call- 
ed for social justice and equality 
for all Stevens employees. 

William DuChessi, ACTWU ex- 
ecutive vice president, said that "if 
it takes 10 or 20 years, Stevens is 
going to be made to live up to the 
law and recognize the aspirations 
for all Stevens employees." 

DuChessi later called upon James 
D. Finley, board chairman of Stev- 
ens, "to do the right thing without 
the threats of discharge or wire- 
tapping and other intimidations." 

Coretta Scott King, widow of 
Martin Luther King, Jr., joined the 
march around Stevens Tower and 
added her support for the two reso- 
lutions, recalling that her husband 
had said during the Montgomery 
bus protest in 1956: 

"Our struggle is not towards put- 
ting the bus company out of busi- 
ness, but towards putting justice in 

A vote for the equal opportunity 
resolution, Mrs. King said, "will 
signify your agreement with my 
husband's sentiments." 

Representatives of the church 
groups also denounced the com- 
pany's policies and repeatedly 
pressed the demand calling for 
social justice for the employees. 
These church groups, working 
through the Interfaith Center on 
Corporate Responsibility, filed the 
shareholder resolutions seeking dis- 
closure of minority hiring and la- 
bor practices at Stevens. 

Most of the votes cast in support 

of the disclosure resolutions came 
from religious and educational in- 
stitutions that held blocs of stock 
as part of investment portfolios. 
Before the vote, New York State 
Controller Arthur Levitt announced 
that he would vote the 121,000 
shares of Stevens stock owned by 
the state employees retirement sys- 
tem for the resolutions. 

Management held the over- 
whelming majority of proxies, how- 
ever, and the resolutions garnered 
only about 5 percent of the vote. 
But they served their intended pur- 
pose as a forum to focus attention 
on the company's law-flouting prac- 

The textile chain had sought to 
avoid listing the resolutions on its 
proxy statements but the Securities 
& Exchange Commission insisted 
on it. 

Also on hand were a number of 
workers from J. P. Stevens plants 
who directly refuted misleading 
statements by the company's board 
chairman and gave first-hand testi- 
mony to the stockholders on the 
substandard working conditions, 
intimidations, firings and other tac- 
tics employed by the firm to pre- 
vent them from joining a union. 

Summing up the reaction of 
many of the church and labor rep- 
resentatives at the meeting, AFL- 
CIO Regional Director Michael 
Mann deplored the 18th Century 
tactics of the company, declaring 
that "it's a question of human 

Mann pointed out that Stevens, 
the nation's second largest textile 
manufacturer, had been found guil- 
ty in case after case by the Na- 
tional Labor Relations Board and 
U.S. courts for flagrantly violating 
federal laws designed to protect the 
rights of workers. 

The company's attitude was 
made clear to the church groups 
and trade unionists when Board 
Chairman Finley ordered a 
speaker *^to just sit down and 
behave,'' and later declared that 
he could '^sit here and overrule 
anything. We do not operate by 
Roberts Rules of Order. We have 
J. P. Stevens rules of order." 

When one stockholder asked the 
corporation head how much the 
company had spent on litigation 
arising out of its labor policies and 
on back pay and penalties ordered 
by the NLRB, the answer was: 
"That's a private deal between me 
and the lawyers." 

Jobless Rate in 21 States 
Above National Average 

The average unemployment rate in 21 states and the District of 
Columbia exceeded the 7.7 percent national average last year, the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics reported. 

In addition, eight of the nation's 10 largest cities experienced a 
jobless rate that was higher than the 1976 national average, BLS 
said. " 

Severe unemployment was con- 1 Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, 
centrated in the Northeast and the I Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jer- 
sey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oregon, 
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Ver- 
mont, and Washington State. 

New Jersey's jobless rate, 10.4 
percent, was the highest in the na- 
tion, followed by New York, 10.3 

Among urban areas, San Diego, 
Calif., registered the highest un- 
employment rate for the year, 11.8 
percent. Joblessness exceeded 10 
percent also in Buffalo, Newark, 
New York, and the San Francisco- 
Oakland area. 

Pacific Coast states, the government 
said. The lowest jobless rates were 
in the smaller states, especially in 
the nation's central section. 

Joblessness tended to be highest 
in large metropolitan areas and ur- 
ban centers, BLS observed. Of 30 
major metropolitan areas, 18 re- 
ported jobless rates above 7.7 per- 
cent in 1976. 

The 21 states with rates above 
the national average were Alaska, 
Arizona, California, Connecticut, 
Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, 

DEMONSTRATORS protesting union-busting policies of J. P. Stevens & Co. circle the company's 
headquarters in New York where the annual stockholders' meeting was held. Holding the banner 
are, from left. New York City Council President Paul O'Dwyer, Mrs. Coretta Scott King and Mrs. 
Ola Harrell, a former J. P. Stevens employee who came from Roanoke Rapids, N.C., to join the 
protest. Behind her is civil rights leader Bayard Rustin. 

High Court Curbs Right of Unions 
To Enforce Clause Preserving Jobs 

A 6-3 Supreme Court majority has limited the right of construction unions to enforce collective 
bargaining agreements containing work preservation provisions that the court agrees are legal. 

At issue was whether a New York Pipefitters local had engaged in a legal primary strike against 
the subcontractor who sought to violate the provision, or whether it had conducted an illegal second- 
ary boycott against a "neutral" general contractor. 

The general contractor required 

the subcontractor to install a fac- 
tory-built heating and air condition- 
ing system in which the internal 
piping was already cut and thread- 
ed. The subcontractor sought to 
comply, even though his contract 
with the union specified that pipe- 
threading and cutting would con- 
tinue to be done at the job site. 

A 1967 Supreme Court ruling 
held such work preservation 
clauses legal, and the present 
court did not dispute the legality 

of the provision in the Pipefitters 

But the majority took the posi- 
tion adopted by the National Labor 
Relations Board that since the gen- 
eral contractor specified the use of 
pre-threaded piping, there was noth- 
ing the subcontractor could do 
about it and therefore the union's 
refusal to install the equipment 
could only be interpreted as being 
aimed at the general contractor, a 
"secondary" target. 

Wage Control Revival 
Draws Firm Rejection 

(Continued from Page 1) 

ity advance and the waste and in- 
efficiency that resulted from gov- 
ernment policies to engineer slump 
conditions, which were pursued in 
the name of combating inflation," 
the AFL-CIO asserted. 

The Nixon-Ford gimmicks 
failed to come to grips with the 
basic supply and bottleneck fac- 
tors that ignited price increases 
in the 1970s, thus permitting 
oligopolies to maintain and even 
push their prices upward in the 
face of the slack in the economy, 
the council said. 

Terming it a "dismal failure," 
the AFL-CIO called for abolition 
of the Council on Wage & Price 
Stability which has "played a prop- 
agandistic role of attacking union- 
won wage increases." 

The Executive Council renewed 
the federation's call for massive 
federal stimulation of the economy 
to lower unemployment, saying a 
$30 billion job-creation program is 
needed to make any real dent in 
current joblessness. Such stimulus 
would amount to about 1 .5 percent 
of gross national product, and rep- 
resent an increase in federal budget 
outlays of less than 10 percent, the 
council said. 

The AFL-CIO program would 
create 2 million jobs directly and 
hund eds of thousands of others as 
purchasing power increased, the 
council said. The federation's pro- 

gram would expand the accelerated 
public works program by $10 bil- 
lion; the public service employment 
program by $8 billion, providing a 
total of one million service jobs; 
governmental housing programs by 
$8 billion; youth employment and 
training programs by $2 billion, 
and countercyclical aid to state and 
local governments by $2 billion. 

The AFL-CIO plan also recom- 
mended congressional direction to 
the Federal Reserve Board to pro- 
vide sufficient growth in the money 
supply and credit to enable the 
stimulus program to work. 

Other recommendations included: 

• An immediate increase in the 
minimum wage to $3 an hour, with 
a provision for an automatic mecha- 
nism setting the wage floor at 60 
percent of the average hourly earn- 
ings in manufacturing. 

• A comprehensive energy pol- 
icy to establish American indepen- 
dence from foreign oil. 

• Adoption of policies and laws 
affecting international trade and in- 
ternational investment to meet the 
interests of the people of the United 
States and the economy at home. 

• Adequate governmental plan- 
ning to forestall future shortages 
and bottlenecks that contribute to 
inflation. Antitrust action should be 
used to encourage competitive pric- 
ing throughout the economy, and 
full employment should be the na- 
tion's goal. 

The Supreme Court majority re- 
versed an appellate court decision 
that upheld the union and rejected 
the NLRB position. The appellate 
court said there were various means 
by which the subcontractor could 
have reached an agreement with the 
union that would have allowed the 
work to continue, and thus the dis- 
pute was a primary one. But the 
Supreme Court dismissed that as 
too speculative and held the NLRB 
was in a better position to judge 
the facts of the case. 

In a sharp dissent, Justice Wil- 
liam J. Brennan, Jr., stressed it was 
the subcontractor who had breached 
his agreement with the union and 
the union's pressure was legally di- 
rected at him. 

Joining him in dissent were Jus- 
tices Thurgood Marshall and Potter 

Marshall also joined with Bren- 
nan in an overview of the issue 
which made these points: 

"Technological change has threat- 
ened the stability of jobs in a num- 
ber of industries. Workers in those 
industries are understandably con- 
cerned about the possibility that 
new technological advances or in- 
creased reliance on prefabricated 
materials will render their skills 
superfluous and eliminate their jobs, 
and have sought reassurance against 
those fears from employers through 
collective bargaining." 

It could be argued, Brennan 
wrote, that it would be better to let 
technological change proceed "un- 
hampered by the demands of la- 
bor," but that isn't for the courts to 

Congress, he stressed, has adopted 
a national labor policy "for niaa- 
agement arid labor voluntarily to 
negotiate for solutions to these sig- 
nificant and difficult problems." 

Brennan concluded that the 
court majority had undermined 
this policy by, in effect, allowing 
an employer to welsh on his col- 
lective bargaining agreement by 
shifting the onus to another party. 

"This is surely a serious setback 
for national labor policy, and hard- 
ly conducive to labor peace," he 

Page Twelve 


At House Hearings : 

Building Trades Seek Equity 
In Job-Site Picketing Rights 

Construction unions and the AFL-CIO pressed at House hearings for swift passage of a common site 
picketing bill patterned after the legislation that President Ford vetoed last year. 

It would allow picketing of a construction site by a union having a dispute with one of several sub- 
contractors working on the same job. A frequent cause of dispute is the use of a non-union subcon- 
tractor on an otherwise all-union job. 

There are no comparable pick- 
eting restrictions on unions in 
other industries, and President 
Robert A. Georgine of the AFL- 
CIO Building & Construction 
Trades Dept. said the bill em- 
bodies the "fundamental prin- 
ciple" of "equal justice under 
law" in labor-management mat- 

Georgine said contractors are 
using the ban on picketing to re- 
place union workers and shift to 
non-union operations. "It has made 
the building trades unions and 
members legally powerless to pro- 
tect themselves" while giving em- 
ployers "a virtual license to destroy 
unions with impunity." 

The picketing restrictions stem 
from a 1951 Supreme Court deci- 
sion which took the view that pick- 
eting a subcontractor at the jobsite 
violates the Taft-Hartley Act ban 
on secondary boycotts by infringing 
on supposedly neutral employers 
also working on the job. 

But the "realities of the con- 
struction industry," Georgine testi- 
fied, are that all of the subcontrac- 
tors and their employees work 
together as a team and there are 
no "neutrals" involved. 

Subcommittee Chairman Frank 

Thompson, Jr. (D-N.J.), who spon- 
sored the bill, said the hearings 
will be relatively brief since the 
issues have all been fully debated 
in past years. 

He announced that he will add 
to the bill he introduced the con- 
struction industry collective bar- 
gaining legislation that was a part 
of the vetoed bill. It had originally 
been shaped by former Labor Sec. 
John T. Dunlop, in consultation 
with union and management lead- 
ers, to minimize the number of 
local strikes. 

Ford said he would sign the 
picketing bill if it included that 
section, but he broke his word 
and Dunlop resigned from the 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall is al- 
ready personally on record in sup- 
port of both the picketing and bar- 
gaining sections of the bill. 

AFL-CIO Legislative Director 
Andrew J. Biemiller reiterated the 
federation's strong support of the 
bill. In a letter to Thompson, Bie- 
miller termed repassage of the ve- 
toed bill the "unfinshed business" of 

One of the nation's leading civil 
rights leaders, Clarence Mitchell, 

Steelworkers, Crafts 
Agree on Disputes Plan 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The Steelworkers and the AFL-CIO Building 
& Construction Trades Dept. have agreed on procedures for set- 
tling any disputes resulting from a 1972 merger that brought a group 
of construction workers into the USWA. 

That was when the Allied & Technical Workers, better known as 
District 50, affiliated with the Steel-^" 

workers after having left the Mine 
Workers over a decade earlier and 
functioned as an independent union. 
District 50's diverse membership 
included some construction work- 

Steelworkers President I. W. Abel 
and BCTD President Robert A. 
Georgine said most problems that 
have arisen since then have been 
resolved satisfactorily under an in- 
formal agreement that the USWA 
wouldn't try to expand its construc- 
tion jurisdiction and the building 
trades wouldn't interfere with the 
bargaining rights acquired by the 
Steelworkers in the District 50 

To deal more adequately with 
problems that remain, a more 
detailed written agreement was 
worked out. In a joint announce- 
ment, Georgine and Abel said it 
showed that the trade union 


5f — o 

o w» 

movement can successfully re- 
solve its internal problems ^'with- 
out any external pressure." 

The agreement specifies that the 
Steelworkers will not organize em- 
ployees of construction industry 
contractors not already under con- 
tract with the USWA. 

On existing construction con- 
tracts held by the USWA, the Steel- 
workers will seek in contract re- 
newals "payment of wages and eco- 
nomic benefits as comparable as 
possible to wages and economic 
benefits paid under contracts of the 
Building Trades Dept. unions in the 
area where the work is performed." 

The ^reement stipulates that in 
areas where employers bargain 
through an association, the Steel- 
workers have a conditional right to 
organize non-union contractors who 
are in competition with those under 
contract to the USWA or to the 
building trades, subject to prior 
discussion with the Building & Con- 
struction Trades Dept. 

Under the agreement, there will 
be a complete exchange of infor- 
mation and agreements between the 
USWA and the 17 affiliates of the 
BCTD. The parties will establish 
joint committees at the national 
level to resolve any jurisdictional 
problems. But where possible, dis- 
putes are to be resolved at local 
and district levels. Disputes not re- 
solved there will be channeled 
through the Steelworkers interna- 
tional office and the Building & 
Construction Trades Dept. 

The agreement is binding until 
Jan. 14, 1980, and will continue 
from year-to-year thereafter subject 
to annual review and renegotiation 
at the request of either party. 

testified on behalf of the NAACP 
in support of the site picketing 
bill — and in refutation of contrac- 
tors who have sought to argue that 
blacks will have fewer job oppor- 
tunities if construction unions have 
broader picketing rights. 

Mitchell told the panel that 
"there are probably twice as 
many blacks participating in 
apprenticeship programs under 
union auspices, compared to 
nonunion apprenticeship pro- 

He noted that the legislation pro- 
hibits picketing for any unlawful 
purpose such as racial exclusion, 
stressed the importance that the 
right to picket has had in achiev- 
ing civil rights, and said the 1964 
and 1972 civil rights laws would 
never have been enacted without 
labor's strong support. 

When asked why, if the situs 
picketing law would help blacks, 
as association, of minority contrac- 
tors opposes its passage, Mitchell 
retorted: "Because they have the 
same view as any other contrac- 

Georgine told the subcommittee 
that many of the protections of the 
National Labor Relations Act are 
not available to construction work- 
ers and their unions because of the 
nature of the industry. 

The non-union share of con- 
struction is growing, he testified. 
"National contractor associations 
are conducting schools across the 
United States, with lawyer-teachers 
who train union contractors in how 
to convert to non-union operations 
. . . protected by the unfair provi- 
sions of the Taft-Hartley Act." 

The curb on picketing "has 
placed all the legal weapons in the 
hands of the contractors," Georgine 
said. He then asked: "Must the 
building and construction trades 
remain silent while we are being 

The BCTD earlier announced 
that a nationwide opinion survey re- 
vealed public support for changing 
the law so construction workers will 
be given equal treatment with man- 
ufacturing workers. 

U.S. Reaffirms Warning 
On Withdrawal from ILO 

The International Labor Organization is still on notice that 
continued U.S. membership depends on the direction the ILO 
takes this year. 

A joint statement by the Secretaries of State, Labor and 
Commerce reaffirmed the two-year notice of withdrawal sent 
to the ILO on Nov. 5, 1975, with the support of worker and 
employer delegates to the tripartite UN agency. 

The notice letter reflected strong dissatisfaction with the 
ILO's transformation into a political propaganda forum by a 
coalition of Communist and Arab-allied nations. It added: 

"The U.S. does not desire to leave the ILO. The U.S. does 
not expect to do so. But we do intend to make every possible 
effort to promote the conditions which will facilitate our con- 
tinued participation. If this should prove impossible, we are in 
fact prepared to depart." 

The new statement said the issue of ILO membership "will 
remain under continuing review by a Cabinet-level committee 
where, we hope, the AFL-CIO and the Chamber of Com- 
merce will continue to play active roles." 

It affirmed that the views expressed in the 1975 letter "are 
no less valid today" and will guide "our ultimate decision in 
the critical months ahead." 

recesses. Matthew Guinan, left, is president of the Transport 
Workers and Peter Bommarito heads the Rubber Workers. 

Drive Renewed to End 
Hatch Act Restrictions 

A new drive to end restrictions on political action by government 
workers was launched by the AFL-CIO, its Public Employee Dept., 
and unions that bargain for federal and postal employees. 

Presiding over the House subcommittee hearings was Rep. Wil- 
liam L. Clay (D-Mo.), whose bill to amend the 1939 Hatch Act 

passed Congress last year but was^ 

life of the community," he testified. 

The bill would establish a three- 
member board to "hear and decide" 
complaints of improper political 
pressure. McCart said the strong 
safeguards for government employ- 
ees are essential to the bill and to 
labor's support of it. 

Letter Carriers President J. Jo- 
seph Vacca and Postal Workers 
Legislative Director Patrick J. Ni- 
lan spoke for nearly 600,000 Postal 
Service employees in support of the 
Clay bill. 

Vacca noted that the Letter Car- 
riers had challenged the Hatch Act 
as a violation of constitutional 
rights to free speech in a case that 
reached the Supreme Court in 

While a 6-3 majority of the court 
upheld the law, the union continues 
to believe it an infringement on 
freedom of speech. 

Nilan termed the Hatch Act "an 
outstanding example of legislative 

He noted that other western dem- 
ocratic nations have largely elimi- 
nated restrictions comparable to the 
Hatch Act. And not entirely by co- 
incidence, Nilan suggested, their 
rate of participation in elections is 
substantially higher than in the 
United States. 

Joseph D. Gleason, executive 
vice president of the Government 
Employees (AFGE), stressed that 
there is no conflict between the 
merit principle in government and 
"full citizenship" for the employ- 
ees of government. 

It is in the public interest, he 
said, for government workers to 
be seen and to think of themselves 
as being "not that much different 
from other citizens." 

Other AFL-CIO affiliates endors- 
ing the Clay bill at the opening day 
of the hearings were the Technical 
Engineers and the Air Traffic Con- 
trollers. The bill also was backed 
by several non-affiliated employee 

In opening the hearings, Clay 
noted that the Hatch Act was 
originally passed in response to 
revelations of ^'coercion and kick- 
backs" in federal relief programs 
and not out of any congressional 
concern about voluntary political 
activity by federal employees. 

killed by the veto of former Presi- 
dent Ford. 

AFL-CIO Legislative Rep. 
Kenneth A. Meiklejohn, the lead- 
off witness, termed the bill "a 
high priority objective" of the 
federation. The restrictions im- 
posed by the Hatch Act, he testi- 
fied, '^stultifies the political pro- 
cess and denies several million 
citizens their full citizenship 

The Clay bill would lift restric- 
tions on voluntary political activity 
of federal workers. But it would 
strengthen safeguards against put- 
ting pressure on employees to con- 
tribute to or work for a candidate 
or party. 

Its enactment is needed, Meikle- 
john said, to restore "fundamental 
rights ... to the nearly 3 million 
Americans who work for the fed- 
eral government." 

John A. McCart, executive direc- 
tor of the AFL-CIO Public Em- 
ployee Dept., said the effect of the 
Hatch Act has been to discourage 
and frighten government workers 
from being active citizens, even to 
the extent permitted by law. 

"Many feel that the safest course 
is to take no part in the political 

He said he finds it "difficult to 
believe" that Congress intended to 
deny federal employees "the same 
opportunity to fully participate in 
the political process that is available 
to all other citizens." 

Marshall Backs Site Picketing as 'Fair' 

Tells House 

Carter Will 
Sign Bm 

President Carter will sign the 
construction site picketing bill if 
Congress passes it, Labor Sec. 
Ray Marshall testified. 

He noted that President Ford 
had made a similar promise, only 
to "mysteriously" veto the legis- 
lation after it had passed the 
House and Senate "with biparti- 
san support." But Marshall made 
clear, in his testimony before a 
House Labor subcommittee, that he 
doesn't expect any such switch in 
signals from President Carter. 

Ford's veto, which led to the res- 
ignation of John T. Dunlop as 
Secretary of Labor, reflected anti- 
union hostility to the bill, Marshall 

He told the subcommittee that 
he considers the legislation ^^fair 
and equitable." He said he dis- 
agrees with the view that picket- 
ing of a common construction 
site in a dispute with one of the 
subcontractors amounts to a sec- 
ondary boycott against neutrals. 
And he thinks the present appli- 
cation of the law is "discrimina- 
tory" against construction work- 

While the collective bargaining 
section of the bill isn't "the answer 
to all the ills which have beset the 
construction industry," Marshall 
stressed that "it does provide a 
framework within which these 
problems can be addressed." 

The President's promise to sign 
the bill, Marshall said, has as its 
only condition that the legislation 
sent to him follow the pattern of 
the bill that Ford vetoed, including 
the collective bargaining section 
and an exemption for small residen- 
tial construction. 

Marshall said the battle over 
common site picketing legislation 
had assumed such symbolic impor- 
tance that it made it more difficult 
for construction unions and man- 
agement to cooperate in resolving 
the industry's "unique problems." 

The climate for cooperation will 
be better when the bill is passed, he 

Otherwise, Marshall warned, 
the festering controversy will 
continue and "efforts to bring 
about long-term solutions will, at 
best, be extremely difficult." 

Marshall agreed that the legisla- 
tion would make it more likely 
that construction sites would be 
either all union or all non-union, 
but he saw no objection to that. 
In his view, "mixing of labor pol- 
icies at a construction site is not 
conducive to industrial peace, pro- 
ductivity or good management." 

VoL xxn 

Issued weekly at 
815 Sixteenth St., N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 20006 
$2 a year 

Second Class Postage Paid at Washington, D. 0 

Saturday, March 12, 1977 

No. 10 

$3 Minimum Wage Asked 
With Link to Factory Pay 

MURAL PAINTINGS depicting the history and progress of American labor were dedicated at the 
new Labor Dept. building in Washington. From left are Thomas R. Donahue, executive assistant to 
AFL-CIO President George Meany; Labor Sec. Ray Marshall, Mrs. Walter F. Mondale, wife of 
the Vice President, and artist Jack Beal. (Story, Page 8.) 

Serious Damage: 

Panel Finds Imports 
Imperil TV Industry 

The Committee to Preserve American Color Television (COM- 
PACT) hailed the finding of the International Trade Commission 
that imports are seriously damaging the domestic color television 
industry and urged the ITC to recommend to President Carter a 
remedy that will be commensurate with the decision. 

COMPACT, a labor-industry 
coalition that had petitioned for re 

lief from the surging tide of TV set 
imports, said it hoped the commis- 
sion would recommend import quo- 
tas. Jacob dayman, secretary-trea- 
surer of the AFL-CIO Industrial 
Union Dept., and Allen W. Daw- 

More Funds Sought 
For Housing Catch-Up 

The AFL-CIO urged Congress to grant higher spending levels 
for a variety of federal housing programs, declaring the increased 
authorizations are needed to end the country's acute housing crunch. 

While the greatest need for government assistance is among low- 
income families, Director Henry B. Schechter of the federation's 
Dept. of Urban Affairs also stressed 

the need for aid to middle-income 
families that increasingly are priced 
out of the homebuying market. 

About 2.45 million new housing 
units are needed annually through 
1985 because of the high birth rate 
two decades ago and the low num- 
ber of housing starts in the last few 
years, Schechter said. And this es- 
timate of basic requirements does 
not include a special allowance for 
replacement of some 3.5 million 

occupied substandard units, he said. 

The effect of this continuing 
shortfall in housing production 
creates inflationary pressures in 
the economy, raises rents, and 
contributes significantly to high 
unemployment and underutiliza- 
tion of plant capacity, Schechter 

He presented the AFL-CIO's 
(Continued on Page 8) 

son, executive vice president of 
Corning Glass Works, the co-chair- 
men of COMPACT, said that im- 
port quotas represent "the only 
adequate relief in view of the ex- 
tensive damage done to our com- 
panies and union members by the 
rapid acceleration of TV imports in 
the past year. 

"We are confident that the 
commission will carry out the in- 
tent of Congress in passing the 
Trade Act of 1974, and recom- 
mend a realistic import quota 
formula that will revive this in- 
dustry and preserve the jobs of 
our people," Clayman and Daw- 
son said in a statement. 

The ITC met in Washington on 
Mar. 10 to decide on the remedy 
recommendation but deferred its 
decision until at least the first part 
of next week. The President has 60 
days to accept or reject the com- 
mission's recommendation. If he re- 
jects or modifies it. Congress has 
90 days to overrule him. 

Color TV imports accounted for 
42 percent of sales in 1976, up 
from 17.9 percent in 1975. The 
number of Americans directly em- 
ployed in making color TV sets de- 
(Continued on Page 8) 

True Jobless 
Rate Set at 
10.3 Percent 

Layoffs caused by severe winter 
weather and energy shortages 
helped push the nation's unemploy- 
ment rate up by two-tenths of 1 
percent in February — from 7.3 to 
7.5 percent — as high joblessness 
continued to plague the nation's 

AFL-CIO President George 
Meany observed that the latest 
Bureau of Labor Statistics report on 
unemployment shows that "the 
economy remains in the same sad 
shape it was a year ago this time." 

Meany said that the AFL-CIO's 
realistic measure of unemployment 
put last month's jobless rate at 10.3 
percent of the workforce. That fig- 
ure takes into account workers on 
involuntary part-time schedules due 
(Continued on Page 6) 

36% Price 
Rise Cited 
Since 1972 

The AFL-CIO pressed Con- 
gress for an overdue increase in 
the minimum wage to $3 an hour, 
and proposed that it be automati- 
cally adjusted each year to match 
60 percent of average hourly 
earnings in manufacturing. 

Legislative Director Andrew J. 
Biemiller told a House Subcom- 
mittee on Labor Standards that 
the present $2.30 wage floor reflects 
the economic conditions of 1972. 
Since then, he noted, both the con- 
sumer price index and the average 
manufacturing wage have risen 36 

Subcommittee Chairman John H. 
Dent (D-Pa.) has introduced a bill 
to raise the wage floor and link it 
to the manufacturing wage level, 
and Biemiller termed the 60 per- 
cent escalator "an idea whose time 
has certainly come." 

He noted that as far back as 
1949, the late Sen. Robert A. Taft 
(R-Ohio) had suggested an identical 

Biemiller strongly urged Con- 
gress to reject any subminimum 
wage for teenagers — a concept 
repeatedly advanced by employer 

Lowering wages doesn't create 
jobs, Biemiller stressed. "It creates 

Creating more unemployment 
among older age groups is hardly 
the way to bring down teenage un- 
employment, he commented. He 
noted that population projections 
show that the number of teenagers 
will decline by 9 percent over the 
next 10 years, while the 20-to-24 
age group will increase more than 
1 2 percent. 

"The teenager job problem will 
then become a young adult prob- 
lem," Biemiller suggested. Will 
those now advocating a submini- 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Job Creation Programs 
Urged Over Tax Rebates 

A House-passed tax rebate plan is "an improvement" over the 
Carter Administration proposal, but the AFL-CIO considers that 
"there are much better, more effective ways to create jobs." 

AFL-CIO Legislative Director Andrew J. Biemiller told the Sen- 
ate Finance Committee that "the most effective use of federal funds" 
would be in direct job-creating pro 

grams such as public works, hous- 
ing, public service employment, 
youth training and countercyclical 
aid to state and local governments. 

The House passed its version of 
the tax bill by a 282-131 margin 
after rejecting by a narrower 219- 

194 vote a Republican alternative 
that would have substituted a per- 
manent cut in taxes for the one- 
time $50 rebate in the bill. 

Under the House version, the 
rebate of $50 for each family mem- 

(Continued on Page 6) 

Page Two 


POSITIVE DEVELOPMENTS in efforts to combat "politiciza- 
tion" of the International Labor Organization were noted by U.S. 
worker representatives at the recent session of the ILO Governing 
Body. Taking part in the ILO deliberations were Michael Boggs, 
left, assistant director of the AFL-CIO Dept. of International 
Affairs, and Irving Brown, the federation's European representa- 
tive who is the U.S. worker delegate to the ILO. 

AFL-CIO Cites Pitfalls 
In Career Education 

Career education programs must not become vehicles for exploi- 
tation of child labor, the AFL-CIO warned at a House hearing. 

AFL-CIO Education Director Walter G. Davis said labor wel- 
comes the "positive side" of career education which helps "bridge 
the gap between schools and the world of work" and gives young 
people greater appreciation of "the * 
skill which goes into a job well 


But Davis expressed concern at 
programs that pressure children to 
make career choices at too early 
an age and lead to the danger of 
dead-end jobs or a focus on skills 
that will soon be obsolete. 

Davis told the subcommittee 
that the AFL-CIO is "troubled" 
by the extent of career education 
proposals that involve reducing 
the minimum wage, modifying 
child labor laws or weakening 
compulsary attendance laws. 

"We cannot accept the belief that 
low-paid child labor is a solution to 
the nation's unemployment prob- 
lem," he declared. "The boys and 
girls who once worked in the mines 
and textile mills were not engaged 
in career education; they were being 
shamelessly exploited." 

Davis also urged a requirement 
for labor representation on national 
advisory panels dealing with career 

"The goal of education should 
be to teach the flexibility that 

Louisiana Seduces 
Industry with R-T-W 

Louisiana is using its new 
"right-to-work" law and other 
anti-union legislation as a 
lure to business and industry. 

An advertisement in the 
Wall Street Journal boasts of 
the "business-oriented legisla- 
tion" the state legislature 
passed last year. In addition 
to outlawing union shop 
agreements, the legislature 
approved tax incentive laws" 
for industry and what the ad- 
vertisement describes as "an 
anti-obstruction law on pick- 
eting" and "beefed-up dis- 
turbing the peace laws." 

The advertisement invites 
employers seeking more in- 
formation on Louisiana's 
to write or phone the state's 
"new, progressive legislation" 
lieutenant governor. 

can help the individual adjust to 
change," he stressed. 

Davis, who was accompanied by 
Assistant Education Director John 
A. Sessions, voiced the AFL-CIO's 
opposition to a portion of a pend- 
ing bill that would allow federal 
funds to be used for developing "un- 
paid work experiences for students" 
to help them make career choices. 

"However commendable the in- 
tent," Davis said, "the AFL-CIO 
cannot support a bill which pro- 
poses to put students to work for 
no pay." He urged a House Educa- 
tion subcommittee to write into the 
bill language prohibiting such a 

U.S. Proposal Approved: 

ILO Governing Body Acts 
To Combat 'Politicization^ 

Geneva — The Governing Body of the International Labor Organization acted at its just-concluded 
session to combat the "politicization" of ILO meetings that led the United States to serve notice of 
its intent to withdraw from the United Nations specialized agency. 

Overcoming the opposition of its Communist members and their supporters, the 56-member council 
of trade union, government and employer representatives adopted a U.S. proposal aimed at blocking 
the use of the ILO as a forum for**"" 

political propaganda. 

In a second major action the 
Governing Body formally approved 
Director Gen. Francis Blanchard's 
decision to abandon his attempt to 
obtain an impartial study of trade 
union rights in the Israeli-occupied 
Arab territories because Arab ob- 
structionist tactics made a fair hear- 
ing impossible. 

The executive group's deci- 
sions were hailed by Irving 
Brown, U.S. worker delegate, as 
an "extremely positive develop- 
ment." They established, the 
AFL-CIO European representa- 
tive added, that the often disre- 
garded constitutional principles 
of a purely technical agency "can 
be applied by a coordinated ma- 

By a first vote of 34 to 17, with 
four abstentions and one member 
absent, the Governing Body ap- 
proved a change in the rules of the 
133-nation ILO's annual conference 
that would prevent the introduc- 
tion of politically motivated reso- 

The proposed rule change, which 
must be ratified by the conference, 
would submit to the judgment of 
an impartial panel of legal experts 
any projected resolution found by 
the Governing Body's officers to 
attack a member state on grounds 
unrelated to the ILO's field of ac- 

The same procedure would be 
followed for proposed resolutions 
found to contain accusations against 
a state of having flouted its ILO 
obligations without first having the 
allegations examined under the es- 
tablished procedures to assure a 
fair hearing of all complaints. 

If the experts' panel upholds the 
findings of the Governing Body of- 
ficers — who include worker, govern- 
ment and employer delegates io the 

ILO "tripartite" tradition — the con- 
demned draft resolutions would be 
declared irreceivable. 

Under this procedure the con- 
ference, or general assembly, would 
not be diverted from its constitu- 
tional tasks and would be spared 
the many hours its resolutions com- 
mittee and plenary sessions have 
had to spend on politically-loaded 

When urging the approval of the 
rule change, Brown told the Gov- 
erning Body, that the proposed new 
procedure "will help us to assure 
that nobody, no state, no group 
and no individual, can be declared 
guilty and be condemned before 
having been given a fair trial." 

It was a Communist-backed Arab 
resolution of the type that the new 
procedure would bar that ordered 
the ILO director general to report 
on the observance of trade union 
rights in the Arab territories oc- 
cupied by Israel. 

But while calling for the study 
the resolution at the same time 
branded Israel guilty of a policy of 
"racial discrimination and violation 
of trade union rights." 

Blanchard, a Frenchman, threw 

up his hands when the Arab states 
stridently opposed his intention to 
have an internationally-respected 
Norwegian jurist. Prof. Torken Op- 
sahl, undertake an on-the-spot in- 
vestigation to which Israel had 

Pyotr T. Pimenov, secretary of 
what the Soviet Union calls its con- 
federation of "trade unions," with 
a great show of indignation op- 
posed calling action on the Arab 
resolution ended. 

However, Joe Morris, presi- 
dent of the Canadian Labor Con- 
gress and spokesman for the 
worker group, assured that the 
"majority of the workers" would 
vote in favor. The vote was Si- 
ll, with 2 abstentions. 

The two important votes were on 
what was basically the same issue — 
respect for the ILO's fundamental 
principles. The return to these prin- 
ciples, including respect for due 
process and the eschewing of poli- 
tical propaganda, was the main 
condition set by the United States 
if it is to pull back its notice of in- 
tent to withdraw. The two-year 
notice comes due in November. 

Pay Parity Key Issue 
In Strike at Iowa Beef 

Dakota City, Neb. — The Meat Cutters struck the Iowa Beef 
Processors, Inc. plant here after negotiations broke down in the 
union's effort to bring the company's wages and benefits to the 
level prevailing in the ;neat packing industry. 

The 2,000 Meat Cutters engaged in IBP processing and slaughter- 
ing operations here walked out Feb. 

26. The union's old contract ex- 
pired Jan. 22, but negotiations con- 
tinued in Chicago and Washington, 
D.C., until reaching an impasse. 
With other plants in Iowa, Idaho, 

Union Contract Ends Long Boycott 
Of Los Angeles Herald-Examiner 

Los Angeles — After nearly a decade of bitter strife — strike, lockout, union-busting and boycott — 
the Los Angeles Herald-Examiner is back under union contract. 

Local 773 of the Printing & Graphic Communications Union signed a three-year contract Mar. 3 
after its 700 members ratified the agreement by a 20-to-l margin. 

The agreement provides for a general wage increase of about 7 percent a year to all the paper's 
employees. The local has across- 

the-board jurisdiction at the news- 
paper, from reporters and advertis- 
ing agents to pressmen and truck 

Other key elements of the con- 
tract provide for union recognition, 
maintenance of membership, griev- 
ance procedures and job reclassifi- 
cation. All present employees will 
also be upgraded to top scale by 
the end of the contract. 

The revival of union represen- 
tation at the newspaper is the 
outgrowth of cooperation by the 
11 unions involved in the strike 
and lockout that began in De- 
cember 1967, in addition to the 
efforts of the Los Angeles Coun- 
ty AFL-CIO. All of the unions 
concurred in the decision to seek 
a single bargaining agent for the 

In the years since the Herald- 
Examiner management locked out 
its union workers, the company 
" paid dearly as organized labor in 
the Los Angeles area instituted an 

effective consumer boycott. The 
newspaper's circulation plunged 
from about 750,000 to less than 
350,000 last year. Advertising lin- 
age fell off proportionately. 

William C. Torrence, IPGCU 
vice president who spearheaded the 
union's organizing drive at the 
paper, termed the agreement "more 
a victory of reason over madness" 
than of labor over management or 
management over labor. 

Over the years, the company 
forced the unions out through its 
lockouts and employment of strike- 
breakers. But by the time the 
IPCGU filed for a representation 
election with the National Labor 
Relations Board last year, most of 
the strikebreakers had left. Only 
three remain on the company's pay- 
roll today, the union said. 

William R. Robertson, executive 
secretary of the Los Angeles Coun- 
ty AFL-CIO, praised the efforts of 
the new local's leadership in reviv- 
ing union representation at the 

The organizing drive at the paper 
was initiated under the banner of 
the Herald-Examiner Employees for 
Better Working Conditions. The 
president of the new local, Ray 
Bragan, and Sec.-Treas. Marty 
Keegan helped found the organiza- 
tion when they were employed in 
the newspaper's circulation depart- 
ment. They left the paper last year 
to devote full time to union activi- 
ties. Negotiations for an agreement 
began several months after the 
IPGCU gave the local a charter 
last summer. 

Robertson, who for six years 
had been director of the Herald- 
Examiner Strike-Lockout Com- 
mittee, said the trade union 
movement is about to shift gears 
if the paper's management shows 
a good effort to work with its 
union employees. 

"We in labor," Robertson said, 
"will do all we can to attempt to 
get circulation built up again, and 
we will do all possible to help in- 
crease its advertising linage." 

Kansas, Minnesota, Texas, Wash- 
ington and Nebraska, IBP is the 
nation's largest producer of pre-cut 
and packaged beef for retail distri- 

But its wages and benefits are 
well below those of other meat 
packers and far behind the level 
in the pattern contract the union 
negotiated in the industry last year. 

Jesse Prosten, vice president and 
director of the Meat Cutters pack- 
ing house department, said the ma- 
jor thrust of the union's negotia- 
tions at IBP is wage parity. 

The union noted that current- 
ly the 1,600 IBP processing 
plant workers are 90 cents below 
the hourly wage standard paid by 
other large meat packers; the 400 
slaughter house workers are 60 
cents below the wage standard. 

In addition to basic wage in- 
creases, the union is seeking an im- 
proved cost-of-living formula like 
the one in the pattern agreement. 

That formula would provide a 1- 
cent an hour adjustment for each 
rise of three-tenths of a point in the 
government's 1 967 Consumer Price 

Under the old agreement with 
IBP, the 1-cent COL adjustment 
was based on a rise of four-tenths 
of a point in the 1957-59 CPI. The 
union said that IBP has agreed to 
shift to 1967 index, but insists on 
retaining the four-tenths of a point 

With the COL computed on the 
four-tenths of a point formula, the 
union said, IBP employees would 
receive 9 to 10 cents less than un- 
der the pattern agreement. 

The current walkout is the third 
major dispute in seven years that 
the union has had with IBP. 


Page Three 

Exploitation Cited: 

Steps Asked to Curb 
Flow of Illegal Aliens 

Bal Harbour, Fla. — The exploitation of illegal aliens creates 
serious economic and social strains on a society that prides itself 
on humanitarianism, the AFL-CIO declared. 

It said in a statement adopted by the Executive Council that 
'^Congress must come to grips" with the problem by enacting legis- 
lation to: 

• Make it a crime for an em- 
ployer to hire illegal aliens. 

• Adjust the status of those 
aliens with "a demonstrated attach- 
ment to the community" to allow 
them to become legal residents. 

Meany Names 


AFL-CIO President George 
Meany has named eight union offi- 
cials to a special committee to re- 
evaluate the federation's policy on 
public broadcasting. The committee 
was established at the mid-winter 
meeting of the Executive Council. 

Appointed to the panel are Pres- 
idents Frederick O'Neal of the Act- 
ors & Artistes, Albert Shanker of the 
Teachers, Hal C. Davis of the Mu- 
sicians, Charles H. Pillard of the 
International Brotherhood of Elec- 
trical Workers, Edward M. Lynch 
of the Broadcast Technicians, Kath- 
leen Nolan of the Screen Actors 
and Walter F. Diehl of the Theat- 
rical Stage Employees, and Execu- 
tive Sec. Sanford I. Wolff of the 
Television & Radio Artists. 

In setting up the committee, the 
council expressed concern over the 
increasing use of foreign-produced 
programs in prime time broadcasts 
on the tax-supported media despite 
the high U.S. unemployment rate. 

• Provide the immigration ser- 
vice with sufficient funds and per- 
sonnel to prevent illegal entries. 

• Reject efforts led by Sen. 
James O. Eastland (D-Miss.) to re- 
institute a "bracero program'* that 
would permit exploitation of cheap 
labor for farms. 

The council said the number of 
illegal aliens in the United States, 
subject of varying estimates, is in 
line with the statement of Labor 
Sec. Ray Marshall that it "exactly 
equals the number of unemployed 
in this country." 

The status of illegal aliens places 
them "at the mercy of unscrupulous 
employers who rely on fear to keep 
them from protesting low wages 
and intolerable working condi- 
tions," the council said. 

For government at all levels, it 
added, the presence of illegal aliens 
"places an extra burden on govern- 
ment services, drains tax revenue, 
distorts census figures" and creates 
law enforcement problems. 

In terms of adjusting the status 
of illegal aliens in the country, 
the council said that one criterion 
would be the number of years in 
the United States but said ^^we 
also believe any legal formula 
must take into account subjective 
criteria, such as compassion for 
families involved." 

The council called for action on 
legislation sponsored by Rep. Peter 
W. Rodino (D-N.J.), to punish em- 
ployers hiring illegal aliens. 

$3 Wage Floor Pushed 
With Factory Pay Lmk 

(Continued from Page 1) 
mum wage for teens suggest in 10 
years a subminimum for young 
adults and in 20 years a lower wage 
for persons in the 30-to-34 bracket? 

"These arguments are sheer non- 
sense," Biemiller said, and Con- 
gress should "treat them with the 
contempt they deserve.'* 

There should be only one min- 
imum wage, Biemiller urged. He 
praised Congress for having fi- 
nally ended the discriminatory 
lower wage level for farm work- 
ers. It would gut the concept of 
the Fair Labor Standards Act, 
Biemiller warned, if a lower 
wage floor were set for a mem- 
ber of a minority, a woman 
worker, a young worker or an 
older worker. 

TJie AFL-CIO testimony noted 
that the wage floor has fallen 58 
percent below the government's 
poverty line for a family of four 
and thus clearly does not yield the 
"minimum standard of living neces- 
sary for health, efficiency and gen- 
eral well-being of workers" that the 
law mandates. 

Biemiller asked Congress to re- 
ject the unsubstantiated claims of 
opponents that increasing the mini- 
mum wage brings about unemploy- 

Reports to Congress by Secre- 
taries of Labor in both Republican 
and Democratic administrations on 
the effects of minimum wage 
changes "have shown substantial 
benefits and only rare, isolated in- 
stances of adverse effects, involving 
a few small firms and very few em- 

Biemiller reminded the subcom- 

mittee that he had appeared before 
it in the fall of 1975 to testify for 
a similar bill. 

But a year and one-half later, he 
said, nothing has happened except 
that "the low-wage worker has sunk 
deeper into poverty." 

Biemiller praised a section of the 
Dent bill that would eliminate an 
employer's right to count part of 
tips received by workers toward 
the minimum wage requirement. 
"An employee should not have to 
depend on the 'generosity' of cus- 
tomers to earn at least the mini- 
mum wage," he testified. 

PARTICIPANTS in annual AFL-CIO Education Conference are briefed on labor's economic pro- 
gram by Research Director Rudy Oswald. The three-day conference was held at the George Meany 
Center for Labor Studies. 

Marshall Promises 'Believers ' 
Will Enforce Worker Safeguards 

Secretary of Labor Ray Marshall told an audience of labor educators that laws such as the Occupa- 
tional Safety & Health Act "will now be enforced by people who believe in them." 

Marshall also said he wants a full count on unemployment — not skipping over those out of wort so 
long they've given up hope. And he wants unemployment reduced to the point that "no one has 
to look for a job very long." 
Marshall was a dinner speaker^ 

during the annual AFL-CIO Edu- 
cation Conference, held at the 
George Meany Center for Labor 
Studies. He was introduced by Edu- 
cation Director Walter G. Davis as 
"an old friend of labor education." 

The Secretary of Labor's opening 
remarks bore that out. Marshall has 
taught at the AFL-CIO Southern 
Labor School and is a former board 
member of the National Institute 
for Labor Education. He spoke of 
his involvement in labor education 
programs as among his "most re- 
warding" and "most enjoyable" ex- 

As a southerner, he credited 
labor education programs and es- 
pecially the work of the AFL-CIO 
state federations as a major factor 
in "the transformation of the 

Marshall said he considered it 
his job, as one of President Carter's 
economic advisers, to assure that 
the views of workers get expressed 
and not just the positions of "banks 
and business." 

He views unemployment as the 
nation's "most important problem" 
and he considers that a 4 percent 
jobless level, which many econo- 
mists term full employment, would 
still be "too high." 

As for job creation, "we've got a 
lot of useful things to be done and 
we have a lot of people who want 
to do them." 

In the past, he observed, there 
were people supposed to enforce 
the job safety and health law who 

WARM WELCOME was extended to Labor Sec. Ray Marshall 
when he came to the George Meany Center for Labor Studies to 
address the annual AFL-CIO Education Conference. Here he 
looks at a print of one of Meany's paintings with AFL-CIO 
Education Director Walter G. Davis and Fred Hoehler, Jr., right, 
executive director of the studies center. 

"tried to subvert it" or "were after 
minnows when the whales were 
getting away." 

As for the Fair Labor Stan- 
dards Act and prevailing wage 
laws, Marshall's view is that no 
employer should be allowed ^'an 
unfair economic advantage" by 
undercutting basic labor stan- 

The Secretary of Labor conceded 
that President Carter is "not well 
acquainted with collective bargain- 
ing." But he said Carter "has a 
good concern for people" and has 
placed the activities of the Dept. of 

Labor in the "mainstream" of his 

More than 100 union educators, 
staff people and officers took part 
in the three-day program, along 
with a number of university-con- 
nected educators. 

The full agenda included sessions 
dealing with such topics as eco- 
nomic policies, college labor studies 
programs, the legislative outlook, 
staff training, local leadership train- 
ing, federal programs of interest to 
labor and reports on organizing, 
"right-to-work," farm workers and 
the J. P. Stevens campaign. 

Steel Union to Press 
Strict Lead Dust Curbs 

St. Louis — The threat of lead poisoning that thousands of work- 
ers face on the job can be eliminated if employers are willing to 
invest in existing technology to reduce exposure levels, 150 Steel- 
workers representatives were told at a national conference here. 

Workers exposed to high levels of lead dust in the workplace 
have suffered serious kidney dam-^ 
age leading to permanent disability. 

Disorders of the central nervous 
system and other diseases also have 
been related to lead contamination 
on the job. 

Lloyd McBride, director of the 
St. Louis-based USWA District 34, 
charged in an address to the con- 
ference that industry is "absolutely 
aware of what it is doing to the em- 
ployees," but that it has successful- 
ly frustrated the union's efforts to 
reduce exposure levels. 

An estimated 20,000 USWA 
members works in smelter opera- 
tions and other plants where high 
concentrations of lead dust in the 
air have been recorded. 

McBride, who is scheduled to as- 
sume the USWA presidency on the 
basis of unofficial returns in the un- 
ion's recent election, called for 
tighter federal regulations on the 
occupational exposure to lead. 

The conference was held in prep- 
aration for hearings by the Occupa- 
tional Safety & Health Administra- 
tion on a new lead standard, which 
open in Washington on Mar. 15. 
Follow-up hearings will be conduct- 
ed by OSHA in St. Louis starting 
Apr. 26 and in San Francisco on 
May 3. 

In addition to the USWA, the 
AFL-CIO, its Industrial Union 
Dept. and several federation affili- 
ates will present testimony at the 
hearings urging a marked reduction 
in lead exposure levels. 

The current allowable exposure 
limit is 200 micrograms per cubic 

meter of air over an eight-hour pe- 
riod. OSHA has proposed a reduc- 
tion to 1 00 micrograms, but unions 
are asking for even safer levels. 

Dr. J. William Lloyd, USWA 
epidemiologist, said that an expo- 
sure level "somewhat less than 100 
micrograms" is needed. Lloyd based 
his proposal on clinical studies 
showing that harmful effects may 
occur in humans at blood lead levels 
of less than 60 micrograms. 

OSHA is proposing that blood 
lead levels be limited to 60 micro- 
grams. The USWA is calling for 40 
micrograms or less. 

Employers and industry represen- 
tatives, who also will testify at the 
hearings, want the allowable limits 
kept above OSHA's proposal. 

Labor organizations scheduled to 
participate in the OSHA hearings 
include the Machinists, the Oil, 
Chemical & Atomic Workers, Rub- 
ber Workers, Auto Workers, Team- 
sters, and the Coalition of Labor 
Union Women. 

Rourke Takes Post 
With Senior Gtizens 

Joseph M. Rourke, who retired 
in January as deputy director of 
AFL-CIO Committee on Political 
Education, has been named direc- 
tor of organization of the National 
Council of Senior Citizens. 

In the newly created post, 
Rourke will serve as a labor liaison 
representative for NCSC and will 
direct the council's organizational 

Page Four 


Jobs for Youth 

YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT is a serious part of the total un- 
employment picture. Official statistics indicate that one out of 
every five teenagers and one of every three black teenagers is job- 

High unemployment for young Americans wastes human re- 
sources, breeds frustration and often leads to anti-social activity. 
Adequate job creation and training for all youth is essential for a 
constructive beginning to adult worklife. 

It is necessary, therefore, to significantly increase the nation's 
programs of training and employment for youth. The AFL-CIO 
reiterates its call for an immediate $2 billion expansion of such 
youth programs, particularly those oriented toward skills training 
and the development of good work habits. A number of existing 
programs can be increased substantially. 

The Job Corps once enrolled twice the current level of young 
men and women — about 40,000 a year — with the average train- 
ing period lasting about six months. The Job Corps currently 
includes 27 Civilian Conservation Centers in national parks and 
forest. These could be significantly expanded to meet the nation's 
conservation needs. 

In 1976 summer youth programs provided jobs for about 875,- 
000 young people. But many more summer jobs are needed. 

The old Neighborhood Youth Corps programs providing jobs 
and training for youths aged 16 to 21 helped keep many young 
people in school at least through high school graduation. NYC 
programs now conducted under the Comprehensive Employment 
and Training Act (CETA) should be expanded and new NYC pro- 
grams started. Other existing CETA national and local youth pro- 
grams should be coordinated and expanded. 

TRAINING AND EMPLOYMENT programs for young people 
must not result in job loss or impaired opportunities for adult 
workers. Schemes that transfer job opportunities from adults to 
youths are not a solution to the unemployment problems of either 
youths or adults. Youth programs should address structural prob- 
lems of training and employability. 

Renewed attention and emphasis must also be given to private 
youth training efforts by labor and management. Job training and 
apprenticeship in new occupational fields can open up new employ- 
ment opportunities for young people. 

Union-initiated and union-operated training and apprenticeship 
programs in these new fields can make an important contribution 
by helping young people gain marketable job skills in line with 
future job openings. Many AFL-CIO unions are already engaged 
in such programs directly or in cooperation with the Human Re- 
sources Development Institute. We urge all affiliates to consider 
initiating and expanding such worthwhile programs. 

We will work with the Secretary of Labor to seek new pro- 
grams to help solve the structural unemployment problems of 
young people. America needs to develop new practical programs, 
including expanded apprenticeship training, that can be put into 
operation quickly. 

With a minimum $2 billion expansion in these and other training- 
oriented public and private job programs for young people, the 
nation will begin to meet the special employment problems of 
America's youth. 

— Statement adopted by the AFL-CIO Executive Council Feb, 
28, 1977. 


Official Weekly Publication 
of the 

American Federation of Labor and 
Congress of Industrial Organizations 

George Meany, President 
Lane Kirkland, Secretary-Treasurer 

Paul Hall 
Paul Jennings 
A. F. Grospiron 
Peter Bommarito 
Floyd E. Smith 

Executive Council 
I. W. Abel Hunter P. Wharton 

Max Greenberg John H. Lyons 
Matthew Guinan C. L. Dennis 
Thomas W. Gleason Frederick O'Neal 

Jerry Wurf 

5 James T. Housewright George Hardy 

Martin J. Ward 
Joseph P. Tonelli 
C. L. Dellums 
Sol C. Chaikin 
Angelo Fosco 

William Sidell 
Albert Shanker 
Francis S. Filbey 
Hal C. Davis 
Charles H. Pillard 
Director of Publications: Saul Miller 
Managing Editor: John M. Barry 

S. Frank Raftery 
Al H. Chesser 
Murray H. Finley 
Sol Stetin 
Glenn E. Watts 
Edward T. Hanley 
William H. McClennan 

= Assistant Editors: S 

E John R. Oravec David L. Perlman James M. Shevis 1 

I AFL-CIO Headquarters : 8 1 5 Sixteenth St., N .W. | 

= Washington, D.C. 20006 | 

g Telephone: 637-5032 | 

5 Subscriptions: $2 a year; 10 or more, $1.50 a year 5 


Saturday, March 12, 1977 

No. 10 = 

S The American Federation oj Labor and Congress of 

S Industrial Organizations does not accept paid advertising in 

= any of its official publications. No one is authorized to solicit 

= advertising for any publication in the name of the AFL-CIO. 


Hook It Up 


Threat to Creative Thinking: 

Carter Wise to Abandon Plan 
For 'Open' Cabinet Meetings 

By Gus Tyler 

PRESIDENT CARTER has changed his mind 
on an earlier decision to open his Cabinet 
meetings to the press. After listening to the unani- 
mous opinion of his Cabinet members, Carter de- 
cided to continue the tradition of a closed meet- 

Those who view Carter with suspicion will find 
his latest switch to be a betrayal of his promise 
for "open" government. But is it really? 

The real danger of an "open" Cabinet meeting 
would be its peril to "open" thinking. At an open 
meeting, every word a Cabinet member spoke 
would be "on the record." As a result, each Cabi- 
net member would be obliged to talk like a public 
statue rather than as a public servant, and would 
be more involved with the image he projected 
than with the ideas he preferred. 

In the course of the thousands of confer- 
ences I have attended, I find that the worst are 
those with big press coverage. Almost every- 
body puts on his or her public mask and says 
the expected. The spectacle becomes a plastic 
performance for public consumption. 

Some of the best — the most productive — con- 
ferences are "closed," to allow those at work to 
let their "hair down." Here a conferee can let his 
mind explore the unexpected: to indulge suspi- 
cions, guesses, intuitions, unproven theories, un- 
orthodoxies, ironies, humorous asides, personal 

And precisely out of these irrational wander- 
ings from the straight and narrow come the errant 
ideas that are paths for new directions. 

Creative thinking — like all worthwhile creativ- 
ity — moves ahead by trial and error, by mistakes 
and corrections. But to play this game, it must be 
permissible to enter the unknown, venture into 
uncertainty — to make the try, to err and then try 
again to find the right way. 

But what Cabinet member is going to speak 
aberrant words in full public view where his ut- 
terance can be held up to derision? 

The best conclusions also issue from the clash 
of minds, in the heat of debate, in the refinery of 
discourse. A Cabinet meeting should be a place 
where a member can espouse a proposal and 

where his colleagues can oppose the suggestion ^ 
without any of the parties fearing that their legiti- 
mate disagreements will be interpreted as disunity 
and discord in the official family. 

The forum for such a mature dialogue can 
never be an "open" meeting where the media will ^ 
seize on even the slightest lack of unanimity to 
suggest a war within the nation's top command. 

Had the Cabinet meetings been held in the ' 
"open," it would not have taken long for the ^ 
President and his secretaries to discover that the ^ 
"openness" in form resulted in a "closedness" in 

There would have been only one way out of 
this sterile sack, if the President wished to con- 
tinue with his commitment to the presence of the 
media. The Cabinet would have to meet in secret 
to do its real work: dare to speak the unspeak- 
able, think the unthinkable, to question and quar- 
rel, to dive into the dialectic, to get the best col- . 
lectively from what should be some of the best 
brains in the country. 

Then, after the real decision was made covertly, 
the Cabinet could meet overtly and invite in the 
media to see and hear the President and his men . 
run through a rehearsed script. 

No doubt Carter will be criticized by some for - 
having reneged on his promise to hold open Cabi- 
net meetings. Yet his courageous resolve to re- 
verse himself in public preserves a system where . 
men of independence and imagination will have 
a far better chance to put their minds to creative - 
use than might have been true had they to keep 
smiling because they were before a candid camera. 

Copyright 1977, United Feature Syndicate, Inc. 

Full Measure of Quality ! 

Ingredients of All 
Union Products 

Union Services 



Page Five 

Executive Council Statement: 

Balanced Trade Policy Needed 
To Halt Drain on U.S. Economy 

The following statement on international trade 
and investment was adopted by the AFL-CIO 
Executive Council on Feb. 24, 1977. 

WITHOUT A NEW U.S. foreign trade and 
investment policy that emphasizes balanced 
and fair trade with the other nations of the world 
and America's need for jobs, the U.S. economy 
will remain vulnerable to foreign pressures. Both 
the Executive and Legislative branches share re- 
sponsibility for development and execution of 
such a new policy, and the AFL-CIO will press 
for immediate action. 

In Congress, the oversight of trade and invest- 
ment laws is as essential as new legislation. 

In the Executive Branch, foreign economic 
policy should be geared to America's needs for 
jobs in a strong, growing economy. The Trade 
Act and other legislation should be administered 
to provide for American domestic production as 
well as to encourage world trade. Fair trade and 
reciprocal relations are basic to policies that will 
help America and the world. 

The Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC), 
a government agency that insures foreign invest- 
ment of huge U.S. firms and banks, must not be 
renewed when its authorization ends in December 

New legislation is needed to regulate im- 
ports and exports in short supply through ex- 
port controls, tax policies, import relief pro- 
visions and strictly-enforced labeling as to 
country of origin. 

Trade with Communist countries should be 
regulated more effectively through improved ad- 
ministration of Title IV of the Trade Act and by 
additional legislation that recognizes the economic 
and political fact of life that private commercial 
interests cannot negotiate as effectively with 
closed and managed economies as governmental 
negotiators can. 

Provisions in existing laws, specifically item 
807 and 806.30, which result in the export of 
American jobs should be repealed. 

Provisions in the Trade Act of 1974 to aid 
U.S. production and jobs — the escape clause, pro- 
visions against unfair competition, etc. — must be 
enforced to help build strong American industries 
and save jobs. Quotas on shoes, color TV sets, 
textile products, men's and women's clothing, 
rubber among others are essential. 

Imports, exports, technology and investment 
must be reported in more detail, monitored and 
regulated. To this end, sections 608 and 609 of 
the Trade Act of 1974, which require reporting 
of exports, imports and production should be en- 
forced so that comparisons can be made. The 

International Investment Survey Act of 1976 
should also be enforced, so that foreign technol- 
ogy, investment and other transfers can be moni- 
tored and employment effects examined. 

Customs laws should be enforced, with penal- 
ties assessed fairly. More, not less, customs re- 
porting is necessary so that American trade policy 
can be made on the basis of fact. 

Foreign grant, insurance and loan programs 
should be supervised in terms of U.S. interests 
at home as well as abroad. This means that 
Eximbank loans, guarantees and insurance ac- 
tivities should be carefully limited both in 
amount and in the authority to expand the 

Title V of the Trade Act now permits over $3 
billion a year in imports without any tariffs at all 
for many products manufactured by cheap, for- 
eign labor. It should be repealed. 

Tax loopholes and incentives for multinational 
companies to move abroad should be ended, the 
tax deferral halted, the foreign tax credit repealed 
and DISC abolished. 

Adjustment assistance for workers must be 
completely overhauled to assure that workers in- 
jured by imports receive assistance. Adjustment 
assistance, which is essentially a welfare program, 
is not a solution for America's trade problems. 


1934 should be repealed. Any exemptions from 
this nation's trade laws must be proven on a case 
by-case basis. The U.S. government should seek 
treaties to end the exploitation of workers in 
trade zones in foreign countries. 

Negotiations with other nations should be based 
on the needs of the U.S. economy, not political 
expediency. The goal must be an expansion of 
trade based on fairness, reciprocity and mutual 

Codes of conduct for the operations of multi- 
national corporations are necessary, but are no 
substitute for strictly enforced U.S. laws that 
prohibit bribery of foreign officials and partici- 
pation in economic blackmail schemes designed 
to negate American foreign policy. Similarly, 
international agreements are needed to improve 
labor standards in those countries that seek to 
attract industry through the exploitation of 

The AFL-CIO supports healthy, fair trade that 
will build a strong American economy. We op- 
pose the continued export of American jobs and 
industry, which has undermined the economy. We 
shall pursue every possible relief for the injury 
already sustained, as well as new legislation to 
halt the drain on this nation's economy. 

For Poor, Elderly: 

Updating Food Stamp Program 
Vital in Battle on Malnutrition 

rpHE NUTRITION and health of 17 million 
Americans hinge on renewal of the food 
stamp program now due to expire Sept. 30, Legis- 
lative Rep. Arnold Mayer of the Meat Cutters said 
on Labor News Conference. 

Mayer praised President Carter's strong sup- 
port of the food stamp program and his move to 
restore the deep budget slashes proposed by for- 
mer President Ford, which would have "chopped 
off a third or more of the food stamp benefi- 

Mayer predicted that Congress will couple 
renewal of the program with streamlined pro- 
cedures to make administration more efficient. 
The revised program would also make it easier 
for individuals and families who qualify for 
food stamps to get them. 

He said that the complexity of establishing 
eligibility and obtaining food stamps block many 
older and poor people from the help they need 
and are entitled to have. He said that repeated 
trips to the food stamp center and the large 
amount of documentation, such as rent slips and 
income slips, now required are unnecessary and 

a major cause of the high rate of error in the 

The present requirements that recipients must 
pay for a certain amount of food stamps before 
they are issued the "bonus stamps" they are en- 
titled to is "administrative nonsense," Mayer de- 
clared. That procedure, he said, "involves an 
awful lot of stamps floating around and many 
possibilities of abuse," as well as a needless obsta- 
cle to people who should be participating in the 
program. He said that streamlining the procedures 
will be the least controversial part of the renewal 

Mayer predicted that the "campaign to dis- 
credit the program" during the Ford Administra- 
tion, led by former Treasury Sec. William Simon 
and former Agriculture Sec. Earl Butz, will be 
renewed by conservatives in the present Congress. 
But, he said, with President Carter and Agricul- 
ture Sec. Bob Bergland actively supporting the 
food stamp program, the drive to kill it will fail. 

"The program has worked rather well," he said. 
"It feeds people; it has cut back on hunger and 
malnutrition in this country;" and it has created 
business and jobs all the way along the line — 
retail, wholesale, processing and farming. 

By Press Associates, Inc. 

sponsored a dinner in the nation's capital recently to celebrate 
the 30 millionth vote cast in a representation election, a lot of peo- 
ple turned out. And, while most of them were glad there was some- 
thing worth celebrating, there was an undercurrent of dissatisfaction 
over what might have been. 

The 30 million votes being touted had been cast in elections 
conducted in the board's role as administrator of the National 
Labor Relations Act. The nation's basic labor law was enacted 
with much fanfare and high hopes in 1935. 

The law has enabled millions of workers to peacefully and demo- 
cratically decide whether or not they want to be represented by a 
union. And there's no question, not even in the minds of big busi- 
ness, that the law is good for America. 

Before the law was passed, more than half of all strikes were 
over the basic question of union recognition. The only way to gain 
employer acceptance of a union then was to bring him to the mat, 
sometimes violently. 

Now, with the NLRA, workers just walk into a voting booth and 
mark a ballot, and the issue's settled one way or the other. 

At least that's the way it's supposed to be, and therein lies the 
problem. When the law was written in 1935, it declared: "It 
is . . . the policy of the United States ... (to encourage) the 
practice and procedure of collective bargaining ... by protecting 
the exercise of workers of full freedom of association, self-orga- 
nization, and designation of representatives of their own choos- 
ing, for the purpose of negotiating the terms and conditions of 
their employment of other mutual aid or protection." 

Labor says the policy has been subverted to the point where the 
NLRA now stands as a barrier to union organization rather than a 
helpful — or even neutral — tool. 

AFL-CIO PRESIDENT George Meany, speaking at the "cele- 
bration" dinner, noted that while the NLRB has conducted 300,000 
representation elections, AFL-CIO unions can claim only half that 
number of contracts in force today. Never one to pussyfoot, Meany 
charged the numbers show that "victories won in elections are often 
destroyed without honest collective bargaining ever having taken 

The reason is that ever since the law was enacted 42 years ago 
it's been sniped at. Two major sets of amendments to the NLRA, 
the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 and the Landrum-Griffin Act of 1959, 
have placed a variety of caveats in the NLRA that have swung the 
pendulum way over to the side of the employers. 

When the law was written, workers could negotiate a "union 
shop" clause in their contracts. Now, thanks to the 1947 amend- 
ments, individual states can — and 20 states have — outlawed that 
right. Picketing rights are limited and boycott rights are limited by 
the 1959 amendments. 

But the biggest problem of all, in labor's view, is the absence of 
meaningful enforcement and penalty procedures against violators. 

To an employer, the fear of being found guilty of an unfair 
labor practice today is about equivalent to the fear of getting a 
ticket for parking too close to a corner. The NLRA's basic lack 
of enforcement clout, coupled with drawn-out NLRB procedures 
that allow months, sometimes years, to pass before unfair labor 
practice and election issues are resolved, may have done more 
damage than good to workers' efforts to unionize and stay 

Jimmy Carter won the presidency with labor's all-out efforts in 
his behalf. A sizable portion of the House and Senate membership 
also had the support of working people. 

Legislation that would correct many of the problems and inequi- 
ties in the labor law already is being prepared for consideration by 
the 95th Congress. If labor's friends go along with the program, 
the pendulum will swing back to dead center. 

DECENT DIETS for millions of Americans are at stake as Con- 
gress takes up renewal of the food stamp program now due to 
expire Sept. 30, Meat Cutters Legislative Rep. Arnold Mayer, 
center, declared on Labor News Conference. Questioning him 
were Ann McFeatters of the Scripps-Howard Newspapers and 
Michael Posner of the Reuters News Agency. The radio interview 
program is produced as a public service by the AFL-CIO. 

Page Six 


SOUVENIR TICKET to this year's Union-Industries Show is 
displayed to AFL-CIO President George Meany by President 
Joseph D. Keenan, left, and Sec.-Treas. Earl D. McDavid of the 
Union Label & Service Trades Dept. 

Joblessness Turns Up, 
True Rate Set at 10. 

(Continued from Page 1) 
to a shortage of full-time jobs and 
"discouraged" workers — those who 
have stopped seeking employment 
because they believe there are no 
jobs for them. The BLS report does 
not include these two groups. 

"America must have an im- 
mediate stimulus program that 
will put the nation on the road 
to full employment and full 
production," Meany declared. 
"America needs 50,000 new jobs 
a week just to stand still and an 
additional 25,000 new jobs a 
week to make a dent in the un- 
employment rate." 

While hundreds of thousands of 
workers were laid off during the 
worst of the freezing spell in Jan- 
uary, most of them apparently re- 
turned to work by the time the gov- 
ernment collected its February job- 
less data. 

Thus Maynard Comiez, a senior 
Commerce Dept. economist theor- 
ized, they "fell between the cracks 
of the survey week." That is, the 
workers were laid off after the gov- 
ernment's January survey was com- 
pleted, in the week of Jan. 9-15, 
and called back before the Feb. 6- 
12 period when the February statis- 
tics were compiled. 

BLS Commissioner Julius Shis- 
kin, testifying before the Joint Eco- 
nomic Committee of Congress, re- 
ported that of the 225,000 workers 

Unions Open 



Tucson, Ariz. — A coalition of 
unions, led by the Steelworkers, 
opened coordinated negotiations 
with the nonferrous metals indus- 
try here Mar. 3. 

The contracts cover more than 
50,000 workers engaged in mining 
and processing of all nonferrous 
metals except aluminum. The 
USWA represents about two-thirds 
of the workers in the industry. 

The immediate focus of the talks 
is on company-by-company negoti- 
ations with five major copper pro- 
ducers: Kennecott Copper Corp. 
Anaconda Co., Phelps Dodge Corp., 
Asarco, and Magma Copper. 
USWA contracts with the compa- 
nies, which employ 28,300 Steel- 
workers, will expire June 30. 

The current round of talks are 
the fourth since coordinated bar- 
gaining was introduced in the in- 
dustry in 1967. A strike of more 
than eight months involving 50,000 
workers preceded an agreement in 
the 1967 negotiations. Shorter and 
less widespread strikes were en- 
countered in 1971 and 1974. 

who lost their jobs last month 
210,000 were laid off because of 
the impact of fuel shortages on 

The February increase in unem- 
ployment raised the official number 
of jobless persons to 7.2 million, 
BLS said. Most of the rise occurred 
among adult men and women and 
for workers in the key manufac- 
turing and construction industries. 

The total employment figure 
climbed by almost 400,000 to a 
record 89 million, but the increase 
was more than offset by a 630,000 
worker expansion in the labor force, 
estimated at 96.1 million last month. 

The number of workers who 
usually are employed full time 
but were forced to take part-time 
work because of economic fac- 
tors rose by 220,000 to 1.3 mil- 
lion. Nearly all of the increase 
was attributed to material short- 
ages stemming from energy and 
weather-related problems, BLS 

Jobless rates for adult men rose 
from 5.5 to 5.8 percent and for 
adult women from 6.9 to 7.2 per- 
cent. The rate for full-time workers 
went from 6.7 to 6.9 percent over 
the month, while the rate for blacks 
increased from 12.5 to 13.1 per- 
cent. The rate for black teenagers 
rose from 36.1 to 37.2 percent. 

The average duration of unem- 
ployment in February dropped to 
14.7 weeks, compared with 15.5 
weeks in January, and the average 
workweek increased half an hour 
over the month to 36.4 hours, sea- 
sonally adjusted. 

The unemployment rate for the 
construction industry was 15.2 per- 
cent, for manufacturing 7.1 per- 
cent, for wholesale and retail trade 
8.7 percent, and for agriculture 
13.4 percent. 

Wholesale Prices 
Take Sharp Jump 

The government's whole- 
sale price index rose nine- 
tenths of 1 percent in Feb- 
ruary, the largest increase in 
16 months, the Bureau of La- 
bor Statistics reported. 

The increase was led by 
higher prices for food and 
fuel, which were in short sup- 
ply due to frigid weather. 
Translated into an annual 
figure, last month's rise was 
10.8 percent 

Gasoline rose an average 
of 13 percent over the month, 
while other fuels and power 
went higher than usual. Also 
up were prices for eggs, cot- 
ton, poultry, hogs, green cof- 
fee, grains and vegetables. 

For Low-Income Families: 

Added Federal Aid Pressed 
To Spur New Housing, Jobs 

Federal support for housing, particularly for low-income families, is needed today more than ever, 
President Robert A. Georgine of the AFL-CIO Building & Construction Trades Dept. told the 46th 
annual convention of the National Housing Conference. 

Not only would increased housing production help meet the growing housing shortage in the 
United States but it would also create jobs for sustained and stable economic growth, Georgine pointed 
out at a breakfast session on Capi- 

tol Hill for convention delegates 
and members of Congress. 

There is an annual need for 
2.45 million new housing units, 
yet last year's shortfall of this 
basic requirement was 650,000, 
Georgine observed. Even greater 
shortfalls were posted in 1974 
and 1975, with the result that the 
cumulative housing production 
deficiency over the past three 
years totaled 2.3 million units, he 

"As long as there is a gap be- 
tween the number of units needed 
and those provided by private in- 
dustry, public housing units will be 
needed," Georgine declared. 

'Tow-income families experience 
an increasing disadvantage in the 
housing market as long as there is 
a housing shortage and people with 
more money can pay more for 

Georgine noted that the Carter 
Administration has asked for addi- 
tional budget authority to permit 
increased program levels for Sec- 
tion 8 and public housing, and he 
urged Congress to grant the request. 

"Congressional approval of the 
requested budget authority, fol- 
lowed by appropriation action to 
make the funds available, would 
help greatly in reviving the residen- 
tial construction industry," he said. 
*Tt would also counteract the in- 
flationary impact of housing short- 

Georgine addressed the 300 del- 
egates on the final day of their 
three-day meeting. Other speakers 
represented the Carter Administra- 
tion, Congress, and the housing in- 

The National Housing Confer- 
ence, which is supported by the 
AFL-CIO, is a lobbying and re- 
search group composed of builders, 
labor leaders, government officials, 
architects and planners, church, 
welfare and minority organizations. 

senior citizens, and consumers. 

A highlight of the convention 
was the presentation of a special 
award to Sen. Hubert H. Humph- 
rey (D-Minn.) for his efforts in 
housing affairs during his con- 
gressional career. 

Sec. Patricia R. Harris of the 
Housing & Urban Development 
Dept. pledged to work for a new 
national policy to alleviate the 
country's housing shortage and to 
revitalize American cities. 

"We must affirm, as a nation, 
that a decent home is a right and 
that adequate shelter is a basic 
commodity equivalent to food and 
clothing in the spectrum of human 
needs," she told the conference. 

Harris said the new government 
policy should include "a range of 
programs designed to provide hous- 
ing assistance for low- and moder- 
ate-income groups under a variety 
of market conditions." 

Other speakers included Rep. 
Henry S. Reuss (D-Wis.), chair- 
man of the House Committee on 
Finance & Urban Affairs, and Leon 
N. Weiner, president of the Na- 
tional Housing Conference. Henry 
B. Schechter, director of the AFL- 
CIO Dept. of Urban Affairs, chair- 
ed a panel on housing needs and 

Georgine told delegates that un- 

less additional federal funding is 
provided for housing construction, 
the resulting shortage of units will 
fuel inflation and aggravate the in- 
dustry's already high unemploy- 
ment rate. The median price of 
existing homes sold last December 
rose to $39,000, 9 percent above 
the year-earlier level, while the me- 
dian prrce of new homes sold went 
to $46,400, a 12 percent rise over 
a year earlier, he said. 

Weiner characterized the hous- 
ing shortage as "a time bomb 
ticking under the American econ- 
omy — the hidden crisis of the 
'70s." The shortfaU in production 
of both sale and rental housing 
has contributed to the soaring in- 
flation in the price of existing 
housing — up 53 percent in the 
last five years, he said. 

Among the resolutions adopted 
by the conference were those call- 
ing for a series of administrative 
changes within HUD to stimulate 
housing and community develop- 
ment and to provide jobs in the 
construction industry. The mea- 
sures urged maximum utilization 
of existing funding, lower interest 
rates and down payments for both 
new and rehabilitation housing, 
and a revitalized national commit- 
ment to meet the country's housing 
and community development needs. 

Job Creation Programs 
Urged Over Tax Rebates 

(Continued from Page 1) 
ber would go to persons with ad- 
justed gross incomes of under $25,- 
000, smaller amounts for incomes 
up to $30,000 and nothing for per- 
sons above that level. Payments 
would also go to persons without 
taxable incomes who are receiving 
social security or railroad retire- 

Stiff Penalties Sought 
For Raih-oad Attacks 

The nation's rail unions expressed their support of a proposed 
bill in Congress to make violent attacks on railroad workers a fed- 
eral crime but urged stiffer penalty provisions. 

"The punishment should fit the crime," said J. R. Snyder, chair- 
man of the Railway Labor Executives' Association's safety com- 
mittee. "We feel that the only way ^ 

to reduce the problem is to impose 
sufficiently strong penalties to be a 
deterrent to a would-be vandal." 

Snyder, the legislative director 
of the United Transportation 
Union, told the House Judiciary 
Committee's subcommittee on 
crime that there has been an 
alarming rise in the number of 
attacks on railroad workers in re- 
cent years. 

On just one small segment of the 
nation's railroad system, where rec- 
ords of violence were carefully 
compiled by union officials — the 
Los Angeles division of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad — "there were 
1,292 separate attacks made on 
trains during the past four years," 
Snyder said. 

"The danger of serious injury 
and death to railroad employees 
and passengers created by these at- 
tacks is very real," he said. "We 
are not dealing with small boys 
bouncing pebbles off the sides of 

empty boxcars." 

Snyder said that a federal law is 
urgently needed because state laws 
and enforcement are "grossly inade- 
quate" to meet the task. They are 
either non-existent, poorly enforced, 
or lacking in strong deterrent pow- 
er, he said. 

The maximum penalty for mur- 
der recommended by the proposed 
bill is 15 years in prison, Snyder 
noted. "If enacted, it would be the 
only federal statute in which a mur- 
derer could not be sentenced to at 
least life imprisonment," he said. 

Snyder also recommended that 
the bill be changed so that juvenile 
offenders would be prosecuted in 
federal courts, not state courts. He 
further recommended that offenders 
between the ages of 18 and 21 be 
exempt from the Federal Youth 
Corrections Act and related statutes 
and that all persons 18 years and 
older be subject to the mandatory 
minimum penalties. 

ment benefits, or are under various 
welfare programs. 

Biemiller acknowledged that the 
AFL-CIO supported a tax cut two 
years ago as an emergency measure 
when the economy "was on the 
brink of disaster" and "the Ford 
Administration was unwilling to 
support any direct job-creation pro- 

But today's need, he insisted, 
is for programs targeted to the 
sectors of the economy and the 
localities where the unemploy- 
ment problem is greatest. 

Biemiller said the Administration 
is making "a grievous error" in its 
reliance on tax cuts rather than di- 
rect job programs. 

His testimony endorsed extension 
of the individual tax reductions now 
in the law for an additional year, 
but saw "absolutely no justification 
for business tax cuts." 

A series of "tax incentives" for 
business has dropped the corporate 
share of the nation's income taxes 
from 35 percent just 10 years ago 
to 24 percent last year, Biemiller 

His testimony was critical of 
both the Carter Administration 
plan to reduce business taxes and 
the so-called "new jobs tax credit" 
contained in the House-passed bill. 
The Administration wants to give 
business a choice between an addi- 
tional 2 percent investment tax 
credit or a subsidy on its payroll 
taxes; the House version would 
grant a tax credit based on "new 
jobs" added by a company. 

Biemiller said the House version 
is so subject to abuse and inequities 
that it amounts to "just another tax 
loophole" that "would not cut un- 
employment and should be reject- 


Page Seven 

Major Committees 
Of Senate Listed 

The Senate committees listed below have jurisdiction over a large 
part of labor's legislative program. The recent Senate committee 
reorganization changed the name of the former Labor & Public 
Welfare Committee to the Human Resources Committee. Also, the 
former Public Works Committee is now the Environment & Public 
Works Committee. New committee members are identified by 

Human Resources 

Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (NJ.), 

Jennings Randolph (W. Va.) 
Claiborne Pell (R.I.) 
Edward M. Kennedy (Mass.) 

Gaylord Nelson (Wis.) 
Thomas F. Eagleton (Mo.) 
Alan Cranston (Calif.) 
William D. Hathaway (Me.) 
Donald W. Riegle, Jr. (Mich.)* 


Jacob K. Javits (N.Y.) 
Richard S. Schweiker (Pa.) 
Robert T. Stafford (Vt.) 

Orrin G. Hatch (Utah)* 
John H. Chafee (R.I.)* 
S. 1. Hayakawa (Calif.)* 

Banking, Housing & Urban Affairs 

William Proxmire (Wis.), Chairman 
John Sparkman (Ala.) 
Harrison A. Williams, Jr. (N.J.) 
Thomas J. Mclntyre (N.H.) 
Alan Cranston (Calif.) 

Adlai E. Stevenson III (111.) 
Robert Morgan (N.C.) 
Donald W. Riegle, Jr. (Mich.)* 
Paul S. Sarbanes (Md.)* 


Edward W. Brooke (Mass.) 
John G. Tower (Tex.) 
Jake Gam (Utah) 

H. John Heinz III (Pa.)* 
Richard G. Lugar (Ind.)* 
Harrison Schmitt (N.M.)* 


Russell B. Long (La.), Chairman 
Herman E. Talmadge (Ga.) 
Abraham Ribicoflf (Conn.) 
Harry F. Byrd, Jr. (Va.) 
Gaylord Nelson (Wis.) 
Mike Gravel (Alaska) 

Lloyd Bentsen (Tex.) 
William D. Hathaway (Me.) 
Floyd K. Haskell (Colo.) 
Spark M. Matsunaga (Hawaii)* 
Daniel P. Moynihan (N.Y.)* 


Carl T. Curtis (Neb.) 
Clifford P. Hansen (Wyo.) 
Robert Dole (Kan.) 
Bob Packwood (Ore.) 

William V. Roth, Jr. (Del.) 
Paul Laxalt (Nev.)* 
John C. Danforth (Mo.)* 

Environment & Public Works 


Jennings Randolph (W. Va.), 

Edmund S. Muskie (Me.) 
Mike Gravel (Alaska) 
Lloyd Bentsen (Tex.) 

Quentin N. Burdick (N.D.) 
John C. Culver (Iowa) 
Gary Hart (Colo.) 
Wendell R. Anderson (Minn.)* 
Daniel P. Moynihan (N.Y.)* 


Robert T. Stafford (Vt.) 
Howard H. Baker, Jr. (Tenn.) 
James A. McClure (Idaho) 

Pete V. Domenici (N.M.) 
John H. Chafee (R.I.)* 
Malcolm Wallop (Wyo.)* 

A Crack in the Wall 

emotional distress or injury can 
properly be dealt with in state 
courts, but claims of employment 
discrimination cannot be a princi- 
pal underpinning of such a suit. 

Thus, Justice Lewis F. Powell, 
Jr., wrote for the unanimous court, 
employment discrimination may 
cause a union member "considera- 
ble emotional distress." But since 
there is a remedy in federal labor 
law, the state would not have juris- 

Powell stressed that the Cali- 
fornia law aUows recovery of 
damages only for emotional dis- 
tress resulting from "outrageous 
conduct." He said it would be 

"intolerable" if damages could be 
awarded merely "on the type of 
robust language and clash of 
strong personalities that may be 
commonplace in various labor 

The Supreme Court decision ex- 
pressed doubt that the verdict in 
the state court trial was based pri- 
marily on allegations of harassment 
and verbal abuse, rather than on 
claims of job discrimination. It sent 
the case back for further proceed- 
ings to determine whether evidence 
of harassment to cause severe emo- 
tional distress was strong enough 
to stand by itself, without the job 
discrimination allegations. 

REVISION OF HATCH ACT to restore full political rights to federal and postal workers was 
urged by union witnesses at House hearings. From left: Alan Moskowitz, representing Air Traffic 
Controllers; Letters Carriers President J. Joseph Vacca; AFL-CIO Legislative Rep. Kenneth A. 
Meiklejohn; Postal Workers Legislative Director Patrick J. Nilan; Government Employees Execu- 
tive Vice President Joseph D. Gleason; John A. McCart, executive director of the AFL-CIO 
Public Employee Dept., and Jim Lyons, representing the Professional & Technical Engineers. 

High Court Orders Arbitration 
Despite Expiration of Contract 

The Supreme Court ordered an employer to arbitrate a severance pay dispute with a local of the 
Bakery & Confectionery Workers, even though the dispute arose after the contract had been ter- 

Management of Nolde Brothers, Inc., permanently shut down its Norfolk, Va., bakery after the 
union terminated a contract so that it would be free to strike. The contract had already been 
extended past its expiration date. 

The company refused the sever- 
ance pay required by the contract, 
claiming that its obligation ended 
when the contract was cancelled. It 
refused for the same reason to ar- 
bitrate the issue, despite a contract 
clause subjecting "any grievance" 
arising out of the contract to bind- 
ing arbitration. 

A 7-2 Supreme Court majority 
held, however, that the principle 
of arbitration of grievances is so 
strongly established and so en- 
couraged by federal labor policy 
that it must be assumed to apply 
here in the absence of any evi- 
dence to the contrary. 

"Any other holding would per- 
mit the employer to cut off all arbi- 
tration of severance claims by ter- 
minating an existing contract simul- 
taneously with closing business op- 
erations," the court said. 

The Supreme Court interpreta- 
tion agreed with the position taken 
by the 4th Circuit U.S. Court of 
Appeals. It rejected the contention 
of a district court judge that there 
was nothing to arbitrate because the 
right of employees to severance 
pay ended when the contract was 

The Supreme Court decision IX^as 
in line with the union's legal argu- 
ment that severance pay is a form 
of "accrued" or "vested" rights 
based on services performed during 
the life of the contract. 

Another case decided by the 
court kept open the possibility of a 
large civil damage verdict against a 
California local of the Carpenters, 
but left it unlikely. 

In the case that reached the 
court, a Los Angeles carpenter sued 
his union and its business agent. He 
claimed that he had been discrimi- 
nated against in job referrals and 
subjected to "intimidation" that in- 
cluded threats, ridicule and verbal 

The plaintiff, who has since died, 
ascribed his troubles to differences 
he had with the business agent over 
union matters. 

A state judge threw out most of 
the charges, but a jury awarded the 
plaintiff $7,500 in compensatory 
damages and $175,000 in punitive 

The California court of appeals 
overturned the award, holding that 
state courts lacked jurisdiction since 
employment relations matters were 
governed by federal law. 

The Supreme Court said that a 
suit claiming damages for severe 

U.S. Control Called Key 
To Ending Tanker SpiUs 

If America's marine environment is to have the maximum mea- 
sure of protection against oil tanker accidents and catastrophic 
spills, the United States must depend on a U.S.-flag oil transporta- 
tion system that is subject to American control and operates under 
stringent U.S. standards, the AFL-CIO Martime Trades Dept. 

nies would vigorously oppose any 
U.S.-flag requirement, claiming it 
would cost consumers more in fuel 

O. William Moody, the de- 
partment's administrator, told a 
Senate Commerce subcommittee 
that American-owned flag-of-conve- 
nience vessels do not measure up to 
U.S. safety standards. 

"The owners of these vessels, 
primarily the multinational oil 
companies, register their vessels 
under the flag of Liberia or Pana- 
ma to escape American taxes, 
American labor, and American 
safety standards and require- 
ments," Moody told the Senate 
merchant marine subcommittee. 

"Unlike the crews of flag-of-con- 
venience vessels," he said, "the 
crews on American vessels have un- 
dergone rigorous training and must 
meet U.S. government licensing re- 
quirements." Moody said that 96 
percent of all U.S. oil imports are 
transported aboard foreign-register- 
ed and manned ships like the Argo 
Merchant and the Sansinena that 
met with disaster. 

Testifying on proposed tanker 
safety legislation before the Senate 
panel, Moody said that design and 
construction standards are necessary 
but that this type of legislation does 
not go far enough in terms of pro- 
tecting America's marine environ- 

He warned that U.S. oil compa- 

bills and at the gas pump. But, he 

"No one, not even the consumer 
or the government, knows for cer- 
tain what it actually costs the oil 
companies to ship their foreign- 
produced oil on their foreign vessels 
to their refiners. These subsidiaries 
and therefore their enormous profits 
are basically beyond the reach of 
American taxation." 

Study Explores 
Retraining Plans 

Results of a new study on re- 
training workers whose skills and 
jobs are made obsolete by new 
technologies is available from the 
National Center for Productivity & 
Quality of Working Life. 

The study, titled Retraining to 
Adapt to Technological Change, 
compares the advantages of on-the- 
job training with training provided 
by institutions. 

Single copies of the study are 
available at no charge from the 
National Center for Productivity 
and Quality of Working Life, 2000 
M St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 

Page Eight 


Outside Income Curbed: 

House Adopts Code 
Of Financial Ethics 

The House approved a strict new code of financial ethics that 
requires full disclosure of all sources of income and sharply restricts 
the amount of outside income a representative can receive in addi- 
tion to salary. 

After next year, no member can have outside earnings in excess 
of 15 percent of the congressional 

salary, which was just recently 
raised to $57,500 a year. 

Even within that limit, no con- 
gressman will be allowed to accept 
more than $750 plus actual ex- 
penses for making a speech or writ- 
ing an article. 

So-called "unofficial office ac- 
counts" financed by gifts that usual- 
ly went unreported will be prohibit- 
ed. Members, however, will get an 
additional $5,000 in official office 
expense allowances. 

Starting in 1978, House members 
and their chief aides will be re- 
quired to file for public inspection 
detailed annual financial disclosure 
statements showing the source and 
amount of all income and gifts total- 
ing at least $100 from any single 

The use of the postage-free 
frank Is restricted, with district- 
wide mailing to "postal patron" 
limited to six a year, to be sent 
third class. Also, mass mailings 
can't be sent less than 60 days 
before a primary or general elec- 
tion in which the congressman 
is a candidate. 

Since each house is the judge of 
its own standards, the new code 
doesn't apply to the Senate. But 
similar legislation is expected to be 
passed by its members. 

Some of the changes will result 
in sharp curtailments of income for 
members of Congress who com- 
mand large speaking fees or earn 
money from law practices or other 
business activities. During the de- 
bate, there were some complaints 
that the earnings limits didn't affect 
unearned income, such as stock 
dividends. But the restrictions the 
House adopted were seen as easing 
some of the anticipated political 

backlash from the salary increase 
that took effect this year. 

In the area of substantive legis- 
lation, job-creating bills were up 
for action in both the House and 
Senate as the AFL-CIO News went 
to press. 

The Senate had before it a House- 
passed local public works bill that 
would authorize an additional $4 
billion in grants to cities and states 
for projects that can put unemploy- 
ed persons quickly to work. 

Approval of the funding au- 
thorization appeared certain, but 
there was disagreement over the 
formula to allocate the funds to 
the states. The effect of a floor 
amendment adopted by the 
House was to reduce the share 
of funding that would go to a 
number of states with high un- 
employment rates. 

The House, meanwhile, prepared 
to move ahead with the actual ap- 
propriations for an economic stimu- 
lus program designed to create 1 
million new jobs directly, and sub- 
stantially more through a ripple ef- 

The measure would add $20.8 
billion in new budget authority for 
the current fiscal year, although 
only a part of the money would 
actually be spent in that time. 

It includes the $4 billion for ac- 
celerated public works contained in 
the separate House and Senate au- 
thorization bills and other increases 
in existing programs that were con- 
tained in the revised fiscal 1977 
budget recently adopted by Con- 

The Administration is supporting 
the bill, even though it exceeds in 
a number of areas the original Car- 
ter budget revision proposals. 

Worker Role Depicted 
In Lahor Dept. Murals 

Four large murals depicting the history and progress of Ameri- 
can labor from colonial times to the present were unveiled at the 
new Labor Dept. headquarters in Washington. 

Speaking at dedication ceremonies for AFL-CIO President George 
Meany, Thomas R. Donahue said the paintings celebrate in art the 
contributions of American workers 

to the nation, as well as tracing the 
development of their crafts. 

Donahue, who is Meany's ex- 
ecutive assistant, told the more 
than 1,000 guests attending the 
ceremony that the paintings are 
also an appropriate tribute to the 
progress of American society. 
The 12-foot square oils were 




painted by artist Jack Beal. The 
work was commissioned by the 
General Services Administration. 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall noted 
that America's workers over the 
past two centuries have helped build 
a better nation for all citizens while 
they earned a living for themselves 
and their families. 

'Tt is appropriate that these 
paintings be displayed in the public 
building housing the Cabinet agen- 
cy charged with protecting and im- 
proving the welfare of wage earn- 
ers," Marshall said. 

The canvases, which feature life- 
size figures, cover four episodes of 
American labor history — coloniza- 
tion, settlement, industry and tech- 

The works represent two years of 
research, sketches and production 
by Beal, who was assisted by four 
other artists. 

Mrs. Walter F. Mondale, wife of 
the Vice President, in delivering a 
message from President Carter 
praising Deal's work, said that art 
continues to play a vital role in 
everyday life. The American labor 
movement had a large part in mak- 
ing it possible, she stressed. 

7^ ^ Av.-^^*^ 

A HOUSING PRODUCTION SHORTFALL, together with high numbers of births two decades 
ago, have combined to produce today's sharp rate of inflation in housing prices and rents, AFL- 
CIO Urban Affairs Director Henry Schechter points out to Rep. Thomas L. Ashley (D-Ohio), left. 
Ashley chaired a House subcommittee that heard Schechter's views on authorizations for major 
housing and community development programs. 

Increased Federal Funds Sought 
To Close Gap on Housing Needs 

(Continued from Page 1) 
views at a hearing on housing and 
community development authoriza- 
tions held by a House subcommittee 
on banking, finance and urban af- 
fairs. Earlier, he submitted a state- 
ment on the federation's position to 
the Senate Banking, Housing & 
Urban Affairs Committee. 

Among measures Schechter re- 
commended to stimulate housing 
construction was a continuation of 
government ''tandem plan" financ- 

Under such financing, the fed- 
eral government subsidizes private 
mortgages with public funds to re- 
duce interest rates and encourage 
builders to raise production levels. 

Over the past two years, the Gov- 
ernment National Mortgage Asso- 
ciation purchased 274,000 home 
mortgages with below-market inter- 
est rates — generally 7.5 to 8 per- 
cent. Tandem plan funds for home 
mortgage financing began to run 
out in late 1976, and by now are 
practically used up, Schechter said. 

''Additional tandem plan fi- 
nancing to help moderate-income 
families buy homes may be 
needed to sustain the late 1976 
level of housing starts," Schech- 
ter said. ''Congress should take 
the necessary actions to make 
such funds available." 

Experience with tandem plan 
home mortgage financing suggests 

that the program can be modified 
to be more effective in meeting 
housing needs and countering 
unemployment in the industry, 
Schechter said. 

"The mortgages could be made 
available only to homebuyers of 
moderate income, who generally 
could not afford to buy a home fi- 
nanced at a market mortgage in- 
terest rate," he said. "In addition, 
the Secretary of HUD could be 
granted authority to reduce the in- 
terest rate to levels needed to meet 
the objectives of the program, and 
to allocate available funds in rela- 
tion to local housing needs and un- 
employment levels." 

Schechter also called for ade- 
quate funding authorization for 
public housing modernization and 
operating subsidies. And he urged 
HUD to process applications for 
public housing projects more ex- 

Of particular concern to the 
AFL-CIO, he said, was the admin- 
istration of the Section 202 pro- 
gram of direct loans for housing for 
the elderly and the handicapped. 

Discussing the problems of 
older American cities, Schechter 
said that the focus in the past 
two years has been on their fi- 
nancial dilemma. But the basic 
problem is reaUy the plight of 
low-income people who live in 
parts of the central cities, he said. 

182 Wealthy Persons Paid 
No Income Taxes for 1975 

Tax shelters and other loopholes in the income tax laws 
enabled 182 rich Americans with adjusted gross incomes of 
$200,000 or more to pay no income tax in 1975, the Treasury 
Dept. reported. 

The number paying no tax at all compared with 244 high 
income nontaxables in 1974, the government said, adding that 
the number should be even smaller for 1976. 

"The changes made by the Tax Reform Act of 1976 will 
largely eliminate high income nontaxables," the Treasury Dept. 
said in its report, "High Income Tax Returns: 1974 and 
1975." Yet, the government acknowledged that, "due to vari- 
ous combinations of circumstances, there are always likely to 
be a handful of nontaxables and nearly nontaxables, but the 
numbers will be much smaller." 

The department said that 41,361 persons had 1975 incomes 
of $200,000 or more, not including interest from savings ac- 
counts and other investments. Of this number, about 6,000 
had an effective tax rate no higher than the 20 percent paid 
by many fathers of three who make $11,000 a year. 

In this connection, Schechter 
commended HUD Sec. Patricia 
Harris for her position that HUD 
should be the primary link in im- 
plementing an urban policy that 
would be responsive to the cities' 
needs for coordinated economic de- 
velopment, for housing, and related 

Harris last month offered four 
examples of the type of urban eco- 
nomic development that would at- 
tack the nub of the problem of 
cities, Schechter observed. 

Two of the examples would in- 
volve specific retention or expan- 
sion of jobs while the other two 
would improve local public facili- 
ties, clear land, and complete other 
tasks in the hope of attracting pri- 
vate enterprise, he said. 

*The AFL-CIO is enthusiastic 
about the urban economic develop- 
ment initiatives of the Secretary, 
but' urges that the limited program 
resources should be employed only 
where specific arrangements for re- 
tention or expansion of jobs are in- 
volved," Schechter said. 

Imports Found 
TV Industry 

(Continued from Page 1) 
clined from 36,500 in 1971 to 
23,000 in 1975, a drop of about 37 
percent, the ITC estimated. Ameri- 
can production of black-and-white 
sets also declined over the same 

"In finding that imports have 
caused serious injury to the Ameri- 
can television manufacturing indus- 
try, the U.S. International Commis- 
sion has conclusively confirmed the 
validity of the petition for relief 
filed jointly by the members of 
COMPACT and by GTE-Sylvania, 
Inc.," Clayman and Dawson ob- 
served in their statement. They 
termed the ITC decision "an all- 
important first step" toward saving 
the industry. 

In addition to the lUD, the labor 
organizations that belong to COM- 
PACT are the Allied Industrial 
Workers, Flint Glass Workers, 
Communications Workers, Glass 
Bottle Blowers, Independent Ra- 
dionic Workers, Machinists, Inter- 
national Brotherhood of Electrical 
Workers, Furniture Workers, Steel- 
workers, and the Electric, Radio & 
Machine Workers. The coalition 
also includes four companies. 

Funds For 
Jobs Voted 
By House 

The House has voted the mon- 
ey needed to finance an economic 
stimulus program designed to ere 
ate at least 1 million additional 
jobs in both the public and pri' 
vate sectors. 

It passed and sent to the Sen- 
ate, by a 281-126 vote, a special 
economic stimulus appropriation 
totaling $23.3 billion. 

The money will be available this 
year and next for an assortment of 
programs including accelerated pub- 
lic works, public service jobs, youth 
job training, anti-recession grants to 
cities and states with high unem- 
ployment, more jobs for older 
Americans, and $50 tax "rebates" 
to the poor and elderly without sig- 
nificant taxable income. 

Before passing the funding bill, 
the House adopted three amend- 
ments adding more than $700 
million to the total recommend- 
ed by the Appropriations Com- 

The following day, acting on a 
separate supplemental appropriation 
bill, the House added $200 million 
for grants to assure that low-income 
households won't have their utili- 
ties cut off because of the sharp 
rise in this winter's heating bills. 

That amendment, initially spon- 
sored by Rep. David R. Obey (D- 
Wis.), was endorsed by the AFL- 
CIO, as were the additions the 
House adopted to the economic 
stimulus package. The Obey amend- 
ment had been approved by an Ap- 
propriations subcommittee, but de- 
leted by a 26-24 vote of the full 
committee. The House vote to re- 
store the funding was 233-170. 

The effect of the floor-added 
amendments was to bring the eco- 
nomic stimulus funding for the cur- 
rent fiscal year close to the ceiling 
set by the congressional budget res- 

While some of the ingredients 
may be different, the Senate also is 
expected to approve an economic 
stimulus appropriation close to the 
budget ceiling. In a letter to mem- 
bers of the Senate Appropriations 
Committee supporting added funds 
for anti-recession grants, AFL-CIO 
Legislative Director Andrew J. Bie- 
miller urged maximum financing of 
the economic stimulus items. He 
termed the job-creation programs 
"an essential ingredient in the effort 
to reduce unemployment." 

Normally, only programs that 
have already been authorized by 
Congress are contained in appropri- 
ations bills. But the House agreed 
to waive this requirement in order 
to include the $4 billion earmarked 
for accelerated public works proj- 

Both the House and Senate have 
approved that spending level in au- 
thorization bills, but differences 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Vol. XXII 

Issued weekly at 
815 Sixteenth St., N.W. 
Washington, D. C. 20006 
$2 a year 

Second Class Postage Paid at Washington, D. C. 

Saturday, March 19, 1977 

No. 11 

Site Picketing Bill Clears 
First Hurdle in Congress 

Panel Asks 
Color TV 
Tariff Hike 

The International Trade Com- 
mission proposed substantial tar- 
iff increases over the next five 
years on imported color tele- 
vision sets which it had earlier 
found are seriously damaging the 
domestic industry. 

But a coalition of 11 U.S. 
trade unions and color TV manu- 
facturers that had petitioned the 
ITC for relief from the flood of 
foreign sets expressed disappoint- 
ment that a majority of the com- 
mission's members did not recom- 
mend import quotas. 

"We still believe the only prac- 
tical remedy that can save the 
television manufacturing indus- 
try and the thousands of jobs 
that are presently in jeopardy is 
import quotas," said officers of 
the Committee to Preserve Amer- 
ican Color Television (COM- 

"There is a serious question as 
to whether any other remedy would 
supply the relief that is required, 
and we urge President Carter to 
take this factor into consideration 
before he makes his decision," 
COMPACT Co-chairmen Jacob 
Clayman and Allen W. Dawson 
said. Clayman is secretary-treasurer 
of the AFL-CIO Industrial Union 
Dept. Dawson is executive vice 
president of Corning Glass Works. 

The six-member trade commis- 
sion voted 5 to 1 to increase the 
current 5 percent import duty on 
color TV sets to 25 percent for 
two years, dropping the tariff to 
20 percent over the next two years, 
and to 10 percent the following 
year. By a 3 to 0 vote, the ITC 
recommended imposition of the 
same increased tariffs on imported 
black-and-white TV sets. 

Only Commissioner Italo Ablondi 
urged adoption of quotas. He pro- 
(Continued on Page 3) 

A TRIBUTE TO HUBERT HUMPHREY by a galaxy of Wash- 
ington luminaries, including Vice President Walter F. Mondale, 
drew over 1 ,000 persons to a dinner sponsored by the National 
Full Employment Committee. Humphrey is Senate sponsor of a 
bill to give the nation a full-employment economy. With Mondale 
and Humphrey are Oothing & Textile Workers President Murray 
H. Finley and Mrs. Coretta Scott King, who co-chair the Full 
Employment Committee. (Story, Page 8.) 

Hits '6 Years of ISeglecf 

Marshall Vows End 
To Job Safety Mess 

Labor Sec. Ray Marshall said one of his top objectives is to 
untangle the mess caused by what he termed "six years of neglect" 
in the enforcement and administration of the federal job safety law. 

"Next to putting America back to work," Marshall observed in 
a statement following a six-weeks study of the Occupational Safety 
& Health Administration, is the re 

sponsibility of "guaranteeing to the 
American worker an environment 
that is safe." 

Given the needed time, Marshall 
pledged to come up with even- 
handed procedures that are fair to 
workers and employers alike. 

"I wish there were a way to rec- 
tify the problems of OSHA with a 
stroke of a pen. But good adminis- 

New Jurisdiction Pact Concedes 
Field Workers to Farm Union 

By David L. Perlman 

The United Farm Workers will have unchallenged jurisdictional rights to organize agricultural field 
workers in California and other western states under the terms of an agreement ending a long and bitter 
struggle with the Teamsters. 

The agreement, announced in Burlingame, Calif., requires the Teamsters to withdraw representa- 
tion claims to workers covered by California's Agricultural Labor Relations Act and to all other farm 
workers currently excluded from 

the federal National Labor Rela- 
tions Act. The Farm Workers will 
not seek to represent workers cov- 
ered by the NLRA, such as those 
employed in processing farm prod- 

On farms where the Teamsters 
now hold bargaining rights, efforts 
will be made to get employer con- 

sent — subject to worker ratification 
— to transfer contracts to the UFW. 

Where this can't be done, the 
agreement provides that UFW 
representatives will accompany 
Teamster officials in servicing the 
contract and the Teamsters will 
formally withdraw at the con- 
tract's expiration. 

In a letter to AFL-CIO President 
George Meany, UFW President Ce- 
sar Chavez expressed his union*s 
gratitude for the extensive help the 
Farm Workers received from the 
federation and its affiliates. 

Through a special assessment lev- 
ied by the AFL-CIO in 1973, Cha- 

(Continued on Page 7) 

tration takes time to take effect," 
he said, adding that OSHA is an 
agency that needs firm administra- 
tive guidance and direction. 

Marshall said the safety law en- 
acted by Congress in 1970 is good 
legislation that was thrust on a re- 
luctant Administration — and in 
many ways, had been sabotaged 
from the beginning. 

"The tangled history of its first 
six years illustrates what happens 
when people are asked to enforce 
legislation they don't believe in," 
Marshall observed. 

He said the problem was com- 
pounded by a Watergate-era docu- 
ment revealing that OSHA officials 
contemplated using the enforce- 
ment of the act as a political weap- 
on. And more significantly, he 
noted, OSHA had never been given 
clear administrative guidelines be- 
cause those in charge had no sym- 
pathy for the basic intent of the 

'The result has been chaos," the 
Secretary said. There was no con- 
tinuity of leadership and OSHA 
suffered from the lack of a clearcut 
enforcement strategy. It failed to 
develop a good relationship with 
the public and had inadequate co- 
(Continued on Page 7) 

House Unit 
Votes 22-11 

Congress will face its first test 
on a clearcut labor issue when 
the House votes on a construc- 
tion site picketing bill that is 
vigorously supported by the 
AFL-CIO and its building trades 
affiliates, and opposed by a well- 
financed coalition of rightist and 
employer groups. 

The bill won a 22-1 1 endorse- 
ment from the House Labor Com- 
mittee, and the Democratic leader- 
ship promised to move it quickly 
to the House floor. i 

It includes a construction indus- 
try collective bargaining section de- 
signed to minimize work stoppages, 
and is almost identical to the legis- 
lation that former President Ford 
vetoed after having promised to 
sign. At the House hearings, Labor 
Sec. Ray Marshall said President 
Carter will sign the bill if Congress 
passes it. 

A Senate subcommittee has al- 
ready opened hearings on the biD 
in anticipation of House passage, 
and President Robert A. Georg- 
ine of the AFL-CIO Building & 
Construction Trades Dept. term- 
ed it the top item on the building 
trades legislative agenda. 

In his testimony, Georgine lashed 
at groups such as the National 
Right to Work Committee and the 
Associated Builders & Contractors 
for launching a multi-million dollar 
campaign to defeat the bill. 

He charged the bill's foes with 
distortions and said their real con- 
cern is that "a stronger union move- 
ment will curtail their opportuni- 
ties to secure contracts by under- 
cutting wage and labor standards." 

At issue is whether a union hav- 
ing a dispute with one of several 
(Continued on Page 8) 

Full Sanctions 
Again Applied 
To Rhodesia 

Congress authorized President 
Carter to reimpose a ban on the 
import of chrome from Rhodesia 
and return to compliance with 
United Nations sanctions against a 
country where 270,000 white set- 
tlers have denied political rights to 
6 million black Rhodesians. 

Both the AFL-CIO and the Steel- 
workers, the union most direcdy af- 
fected, had urged Congress to re- 
peal a 1 97 1 law that prevented any 
curtailment of Rhodesian chrome 
imports. The argument at that time 
was that high-grade Rhodesian 
chrome was necessary for specialty 
steel production in this country. 
But technological changes and the 
(Continued on Page 3) 

Page Two 




y Conservation 

FEDERAL INCENTIVES to spur wider use of developed solar energy heating and cooling sys- 
tems are essential in efforts to conserve conventional fuels, President Edward J. Carlough of the 
Sheet Metal Workers told a union-sponsored conference in Washington. Carlough, standing right, was 
joined by a panel of experts on the development of solar-heated air systems. 

Joint Economic Committee Asks 
Bigger Stimulus, Pay-Price Reins 

The Joint Economic Committee of Congress called for greater federal stimulus to the economy 
than that proposed by the Carter Administration. But at the same time it proposed giving the govern- 
ment power to delay wage and price increases. 

While the Administration is "acting quickly and constructively" to revive the economy, its stimu- 
lative tax and spending measures t 

are inadequate, the committee's 
Democratic majority declared. 

Warning of otherwise sluggish 
growth and continued high jobless- 
ness, it urged the addition of $11 
billion in economic stimulus mea- 
sures to the Carter package for fis- 
cal year 1978. 

The AFL-CIO has called for a 
$30 billion program this year to 
create 2 million jobs directly and 
hundreds of thousands of others 
as a result of increased purchas- 
ing power. The Carter proposal 
is for a $30 billion stimulus, 
mainly in tax rebates and reduc- 
tions, over the next two years. 

The committee's majority pro- 
posed an additional $6 billion in 
personal income tax cuts and estab- 
lishment of a $5 billion "unallo- 
cated job funds." 

It also recommended legislation 
to authorize the Council on Wage & 
Price Stability to require prenotifi- 
cation of planned price increases 
and to "delay for modest periods 

wage or price increases which could 
have serious inflationary effects on 
the economy." 

The AFL-CIO Executive Coun- 
cil at its recent meeting expressed 
firm opposition to a return to eco- 
nomic controls in any guise. The 
council described the wage-price 
council as a "dismal failure" and 
called for its abolition. 

Commenting on the JEC recom- 
mendation to delay wage increases, 
AFL-CIO Research Director Rudy 
Oswald said the panel "just hasn't 
remembered the lessons of 1971," 
when former President Nixon or- 
dered a 90-day wage-price freeze 
that led to three years of controls. 

"They seem to view controls 
as a simple panacea for control- 
ling inflation rather than getting 
at the underlying problems of 
energy, food, and other factors," 
Oswald said. 

He praised the committee major- 
ity's endorsement of such objectives 
as full employment and new federal 
initiatives in the areas of energy 

OCAW Locals Strike 
Two Sun Oil Facilities 

Denver — A second facility of the Sun Oil Co., has been struck 
by the Oil, Chemical & Atomic Workers over the firm's refusal to 
match the terms of the pattern agreement set by the union in Janu- 
ary with other major oil producers. 

OCAW President A. F. Grospiron charged that Sun "seems to 
find it very difficult to accept the^ 

fact that its employees are adult 
men and women." 

Grospiron said the company has 
refused to provide OCAW with the 
necessary information to make a 
fair wage proposal for those of its 
members who are on monthly sal- 
ary with the company. 

"By insisting on a written agree- 
ment from us that we won't ask 
them for individual employee sal- 
ary rates or information on increas- 
es for performance bonus awards, 
they insult the intelligence of their 
salaried employees," Grospiron 

The National Labor Relations 
Board has sustained the OCAW po- 
sition and ordered Sun to provide 
the union with the necessary in- 
formation it has requested. The 
company has appealed the decision. 

Sun's refusal to meet the pattern 
agreement established with Gulf Oil 
Corp., caused OCAW locals to 

strike Sun's Toledo, Ohio, plant on 
Feb. 5 and its Marcus Hook, Pa., 
facility on Mar. 9 over the follow- 
ing national issues: 

• A contract expiration date of 
Jan. 7, in line with OCAW's con- 
tracts with other oil companies. 

• A top-level health and safety 
review committee. 

• A minimum pension benefit 
of $12 per month multiplied by an 
employee's years of service, as 
other companies have agreed. 

More than 350 OCAW contracts 
have been signed in line with the 
Gulf settlement. The pacts expired 
on Jan. 7 and 8. 

The union seeks to insure uni- 
form health and safety conditions 
at all oil refineries where it repre- 
sents workers, and thus seeks the 
review committee. Two workers 
died in an explosion and fire at 
the Marcus Hook refinery last year. 

and welfare reform. But he said its 
goal of reducing unemployment to 
between 5.5 and 6 percent by the 
end of calendar year 1978 is too 

On the other hand, Oswald said 
he was happy to see the committee 
reject the contention of former 
President Ford and his economic 
advisers that the unemployment rate 
marking full employment is 4.9 per- 
cent. The AFL-CIO's definition of 
a full-employment economy is one 
in which every person who wants 
and is able to work can find a job. 

The committee's analysis of the 
President's annual economic report, 
required under the 1946 Employ- 
ment Act, observed that the Carter 
economic program, if adopted, 
should lower joblessness by the end 
of 1977 to slightly less than 7 per- 

"This will represent important 
progress, but it still will leave the 
nation very far from its goal of full 
employment," the report declared, 
adding that it now appears unlikely 
that the unemployment rate can be 
brought below 5 percent before 
1980, "and even this assumes that 
quite rapid growth can be achieved 
in 1978 and 1979." 

Real gross national product — the 
value of the nation's total goods 
and services — is expected by the 
committee to grow about 5 percent 
this year, with inflation for the year 
at about 5.5 percent and jobless- 
ness averaging about 7.3 percent. 

It described as "sl serious omis- 
sion" the lack of a housing pro- 
gram in the Carter Administra- 
tion's fiscal stimulus package, ob- 
serving that public funds to help 
the ailing housing industry al- 
ready are available, including 
some $1.8 billion in funds to sub- 
sidize mortgage interest pay- 

The committee suggested that in- 
flation may be more troublesome 
this year than last, observing that 
consumer food prices — essentially 
stable in 1976 — can be expected to 
rise "at least moderately" in 1977 
and possibly sharply if drought per- 
sists in the Plains and the West. 

"Fuel prices, especially prices for 
natural gas, also must be expected 
to rise sharply," the committee said. 
"Thus, even though wage increases 
have been moderating, and although 
there certainly is no general excess 
demand, food and fuel price in- 
creases probably will bring the 1977 
inflation rate somewhat above that 
of 1976, perhaps to 5.5 percent." 

Federal Incentives Urged: 

Solar Energy Use 
Called Competitive 

Solar air heating and cooling systems can now compete eco- 
nomically with electricity in most parts of the country, President 
Edward J. Carlough of the Sheet Metal Workers said in calling on 
Congress to pass an incentive program for the use of solar power 
and energy conservation. 

Sun-generated systems using air"^ 
rather than liquids are no longer a 
novelty, Carlough told a group of 

congressmen, senators and govern- 
ment agency representatives at a 
union-sponsored solar energy con- 

"This is a developed technol- 
ogy capable of producing energy 
and jobs," he stressed. Carlough 
said the nation does not have to 
wait for future technological de- 
velopments; existing systems are 
workable and can be put into 
use to ease the drain on conven- 
tional energy sources. 

Nearly 25 percent of all energy 
used in the country now is con- 
sumed in heating, ventilating and 
air conditioning of homes and 
buildings, he said. 

"At a relatively low cost, we 
could make a huge dent in the na- 
tion's energy consumption by modi- 
fying those systems to use solar en- 
ergy where it is feasible," Carlough 

He suggested that half of the 
single-family homes constructed in 
the United States during the past 
two years which have electric heat- 
ing, could have used solar heat. 

The Sheet Metal Workers are 
pressing for congressional passage 
of several measures sponsored by 
seven senators and 1 5 congressmen 
to promote the use of solar energy. 
This legislat'on package includes 

tax incentives and low-interest loans 
for consumers, businesses, farms 
and industry to help pay for the 
installation of solar systems. It also 
calls for energy conservation and 
solar energy plants for federal 

"The national value of a con- 
certed eff'ort in solar energy and 
energy conservation would be mea- 
sured in millions of barrels of oil — 
resulting in more favorable bal- . 
ances of payments, less inflation, 
more jobs and energy indepen- , 
dence," Carlough said. 

The construction of solar air ^ 
heating and cooling systems would 
provide large numbers of jobs, di- ^ 
rectly in construction and indirectly 
in the fabrication of components, ^ 
he observed. 

A number of experts on hand for ^ 
the Sheet Metal Workers' confer- 
ence suggested that the increased . 
use of solar energy is not only long 
overdue, but is becoming increasing ^ 
more practical because of the re- 
cent sharp rise in conventional fuel 

Solar heating systems — using 
both air and water — are currently 
being operated successfully in 34 . 
states, industry representatives said. 

A recent study financed by the , 
union forecasts that almost 2.5 mil- 
lion single-family homes will be us- 
ing solar heating and cooling sys- 
tems by 1990. 

Nursing Home Failings 
Cited at House Hearing 

An AFL-CIO inquiry into the condition of America's nursing 
homes "found both good and bad" but "the bad is very bad," 
Assistant Director John J. McManus of the federation's Dept. of 
Community Services told a House subcommittee. 

The ills of the industry are so severe, McManus said, that in- 
creased private and public financial<^^ 

support will never be enough, by 
itself, to cure them. 

Testifying before the House 
Subcommittee on Oversight & 
Investigations, McManus cited 
the Executive Council's recom- 
mendations on nursing home im- 
provements adopted at its recent 
meeting as offering some hope of 
freeing our elderly from the 
shackles of imposed exile." 

The council' called for a compre- 
hensive policy to replace the cur- 
rent fragmented and uncoordinated 
approach to the problems of the 
elderly and declared that "there is 
no place for the ethnics of the mar^ 
ket place in programs designed to 
meet human needs." 

Too often, the AFL-CIO report 
on nursing home conditions makes 
clear, "profit comes ahead of peo- 

The federation's study, begun 
over a year ago, was spearheaded 
by central labor bodies in some 20 
communities. Inspection task forces 
were formed with union volunteers 
and community representatives from 
religious organizations, senior citi- 
zen groups, and social agencies. 

The National Council of Senior 
Citizens and the Administration on 
Aging of the Dept. of Health, Edu- 
cation & Welfare provided check- 
lists which the community inspec- 
tion teams used in their visits to 
nursing homes in 14 states. As a 
result of the visits, checklists of 128 

nursing homes were completed and 
forwarded to the AFL-CIO for 
compilation in the report. 

Some nursing homes are doing a 
"fine job — and all Americans should 
be proud of the efforts that these 
homes are making on behalf of the 
sick elderly," McManus told the 
House panel. But others are profit- 
ing from human misery, he said. 

Ten percent of the nursing homes 
contacted by the inspection teams 
refused them entry, apparently pre- 
ferring "the safety of darkness to 
the light of public inquiry," Mc- 
Manus observed. He said the Amer- 
ican Health Care Association, a 
group of mainly proprietary inter- 
ests, falsely asserted to its members 
that the AFL-CIO was using the 
visits "for solicitation of union 
members of nursing home person- 

When AFL-CIO Communrty 
Services Director Leo Perils chal- 
lenged the AHCA to substantiate 
its charge, no reply was forth- 
coming, McManus said, adding: 
^'An inescapable conclusion is 
that AHCA's membership does 
indeed have much to hide." 

McManus said that nursing home 
committees are now being formed 
in a number of communities as on- 
going, service monitoring groups. 
He called for maximum effort to 
bring about a complete shift in pri- 
orities for long-term care of Ameri- 
ca's elderly citizens. 


Page Three 

Severed Have Union Ties: 

Top Staff Positions 
Filled at Labor Dept. 

President Carter and Labor Sec. Ray Marshall have completed 
the Labor Dept. "sub-cabinet," including the appointment of several 
key executives with trade union backgrounds. 

The new Under Secretary of Labor, for example, is Robert J. 
Brown, who once headed an Auto Workers' local. Two deputy imder 
secretaries are Howard Samuel, 

vice president of the Clothing & 
. Textile Workers, who will deal with 

international affairs, and Peter Hen- 
^ le, a former AFL-CIO economist, 

whose responsibility is economic 
' policy. 

Francis X. Burkhardt, from the 
staff of the Painters, is the new as- 
sistant secretary for labor-manage- 
' ment relations. 

Two other appointees, Ernest 
G. Green and Alexis M. Her- 
man, come to their new Labor 
Dept. posts from the labor-sup- 

. ported Recruitment & Training 
Program of the Workers Defense 

. League/ A. Philip Randolph In- 
stitute. Green has been confirmed 
as assistant labor secretary for 
employment and training, while 

. Herman has been named director 
of the Women's Bureau. 

Others announced for high posts 
include Eula Bingham as assistant 

^ secretary for occupational safety 
and health; Donald Elisburg, assis- 

, tant secretary for employment stan- 
dards; Carin A. Clauss, solicitor of 

. labor; Arnold H. Packer, assistant 
secretary for policy, evaluation and 
research, and Nik Edes, deputy un- 
der secretary for legislation. 

Brown, 47, has been with the 
Labor Dept. since 1966. He was 
president of United Auto Workers 
Local 41 in St. Paul, Minn., and 
held other union posts between 
1948 and 1953. He has served as 
Denver regional administrator of 
Employment & Training Adminis- 
tration since 1974. Earlier he had 
been associate administrator of 
the Manpower Administration and 
director of the U.S. Employment 

Samuel, 52, has been a vice pres- 
ident of the Clothing & Textile 
Workers and a predecessor organi- 
zation, the Clothing Workers, since 
1966. He has served on a number 
of federal advisory committees 
aimed at formulating national labor 

Burkhardt, 32, has been research 
director of the Painters since 1970, 
and at one time served as adminis- 

trative assistant to AFL-CIO Legis- 
lative Director Andrew J. Biemiller. 

Henle, 58, joins the Labor Dept. 
after four and a half years as a sen- 
ior labor specialist with Congres- 
sional Research Service. From 1966 
to 1971 he was associate commis- 
sioner and chief economist for the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics. He was 
assistant director of research for 
the AFL-CIO from 1955-61, and 
had worked for the AFL since 

Green, 35, has been executive di- 
rector of R-T-P and a predecessor 
organization since 1967. R-T-P has 
played a key role in placing mi- 
nority group members and women 
in apprenticeable occupations. 

Herman, 29, has been national