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The Mechanics ' Magazine, 
Museum, Register, Journal, ... 




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THE 

MECHANICS' MAGAZINE, 

MUSEUM, 

AVD 

GAZETTE, 

JULY 6th — DECEMBER 28th, 1850. 

EDITED BY J. C. ROBERTSON..... ., 



VOL. LIII. 



' Crowns hare their compus; length of days their date ; 
Triumphs their tomb ; ftlicity her fite ; 
or nought but earth can earth make us partaker. 
But khowlxoob M4K£1 a kiko most likb his Makm." 

Skaktpere (Collier's Edition). 



lUMiHim: 

ROBERTSON AND CO., 
.JIECHANICS' MAGAZINE OFFICE. 

(No. IM, PLEBT-8TREET.) 

AGENTS :— FOR MANCHESTER, F. WISE, 3, COOPER-STREET; 

EOINBUROH, J. SUTHERLAND; 

GLASGOW, W. R. M'PHUN AND DAVID ROBERTSON: 

DUBLIN, MACHIN AND CO., 8, D'OLIER STREET; 

PARIS, A, & W. GALIGNANI, RUE VIVIENNE; 

HAMBURGH, W. CAMPBELL. 



1850. 

/Google 



Digitized by' 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEW PATENTS GRANTED FOR 
ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, AND IRELAND. 



Name, 



AblOB .. 

Adono 
Aim Im . . 



Atibtrycf 



Aiid«noii. 
Anderion.. 



Sabject. 



.f} 



Atwood 
Aild.... 



Btbingtoa .. 

Bachhoffaer f 
■nd Defnet. J 

Baddelej 

Bddwin andl 
CoUier.... J 

Bdl 



r .•.. / 



BtnuM. 
BirelAj 

Bvber. 

Btflow. 

Barlow and 

Baiiow.... 

BatMsan • • . . 

Baiter 

*Baart 

Baalfon ,, «» 

Baattie 

Bectaoo 



• • • • ^ 



BeU... 

BaadaU 

Baanett ..,. | 

BaKurd 

Barnaul aad 



DareaSOa 



:?} 



Pbek 



Increasing draught 
ehinmaya 

Cigars , 

Bricks, tiles, &e 

Electric teU^phs ..... 

Producing light 

Applying magnetic 
power to motiTe pur- 
poses.. 

Spectacles 

Soap-making 

Kantical instruments • • , 

Copper tubing 

Steim engines and boilers. 

Prerenting incrustation 1 
in boilers / 

Obtaining light and |ieat. . 

Ornamental earthenware. . 

Carpeta 

Heating orens 

Paper 

Axles, azle»bozes, &c. . • . 
Smelting iron ; rotary ? 

engines and fans. « . . ( 
Reels, standa and desk \ 

seals / 

Spinning cotton 

Railways i 

Ufe-boats 

Lifting apparatus 

Bricks and tilaa 

Taking and measuring 1 

angles J 

Steering vessalf 

Watercloseta, pumps, 1 

and cocks j 

Waterdoaeta, and gaal 

and air-traps J 

Agrienltural implements .. 
Doors, window-shutters \ 

and blinda J 

Pneumatio springs 

Boots and shoes 



Bogland. 



Scotland. 



Ornamenting surfaces. . 
Centrifugal apparatus. . 
Folding maohine 



July 
Not. 
Not. 
Nor. 

October 

Nov. 

NoV. 

Dec. 



7 Not. 

19 Dee. 

17 October 

12 Dec. 

12 Not. 
30 Not. 

5 Sept 

30 Not. 
17 October 



2 Not. 
12 Dec 
10 October 



6 Sept. 
23 July 

25 July 
23 Not. 
12 Dec. 

3 October 

4 Dec 

22 July 
31July 

7 Not. 



16 October 



Not. 
Sept. 



Ireland. Page 



31 July 



18 Sept. 



22 July 

• . • . 
.... 

29 July 
14 October 

14 Aogust 



359,200 

100 

440 
420 
400 

280 

440 
519 
400 
260,280 
499 

380 



.. .• 


490 


. . . • 


320 


« • • V 


480 


• • • • 

LAn^st 


400 
440 
200 


.. •• 


200 


.... 


440 


• • . . 


320 


» October 


80,360 


• • •• 

• • . • 
• . • • 


379 
480 
299 


. . • • 


179 


• . • • 


200,359 


. . • • 


79 


.... 


79,180 


• • •• 


440 


.. •• 


480 


• •.« 


280 


• • •• 


460 


• • •• 
«• •• 


79 

100 
980 



Digitized by 



Google 



IV 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF NEW PATEMTt. 



Name. 



indl 



Blakemore 

Bojcfctt 

Smith 



Booth 
Booth 

BoHl 

Borland 

Bottari 

Bower end 1 
Fortune •• / 

Bradford 

Bridgmen 
Brisbene . 
Brooman . 
Brooman . 
Brooman . 
Brooman . 
Brooman. 
Brown . • , 
Brown . • , 
Browne . 
Browne , 
Bmce • . , 
Bnrch •• . 

Bart 

Bary ... 
Bnrj ... 
Buy ... 



Snlject. 



Cadby.... 
Cartall.... 
Chabert .. 
Chameroy 
Christen .. 

C^hriitie .. 



Clere 

Clark and 1 
Mapple •• J 

Clanaacn .... 4 

Cljbarn ...... 

CoaU 

Cochrane andl 
Francis. • • • | 

ColegraTe 

Connop • • • • ^ 

CotgreaTO ,« < 

Cowper 

Cox 

Crawford 

Cross 

CrosskiU 

Crosaley, Coi 
Uer, & Had. 



Ploughs , 

Producing and applying 1 
beat ; engines, and V 
pnmpe.. J 

Obtaioing power 

Gas 

Bricks 

WeaTing machinery .... 

ElcTating ilaids 

Screws, bolts and nails . . 

Locks and fastenings .... 
Treating fatty matters. . . . 

Looms 

Abdominal supporters . . 

Typ«« 

Parifying water 

Railways 

Agricaltaral machines . . 

Metallic casks 

Lifl and force pamps .... 

Disinfecting 

Wea? ing, io, 

Rotary engines 

Printing carpets 

Window blinds 

Preparing and spinning 
Cleaning and spinning silk 
Preparing, spinning, &c. . 

Masical instmuents .... 

Yams 

Washing and drying linen. 

Paving 

Cylinder printing 

Preparing, carding andl 

spinning j 

Metallic casks 



England. Scotland. 



Electric telegraphs 

Bleaching and preparing 1 

y«ni« J 

Wheel camsgoft 

Turning and cutting wood. 
Propelling, steering, and 1 

ballasting; pistons, > 

lirebara, and sleepera J 

YaWes, 5cc 

Casting sand for paving 1 

and bailding J 

Draining and cuUiTatin; 1 

land / 

•Rles 

Aerated watera 

Drying paper 

Textile fabrics 

Mais 



►1.1 



Printing yams. 



30 Not. 

3 October 

15 July 
12 Not. 

30 No?. 
2 Not. 

19 Dec. 

23 July 
22 July 

19 Sept. 

31 July 

19 Sept. 

7 Not. 

7 Dec 
17 July 
19 Not. 
10 October 

24 October 
22 August 
28 Sept. 
30 Not. 
10 October 
10 October 



12 August 

30n'oV. 
22 August 
19 Sept. 

7 Not. 

7 Not. 

12 Not. 

16 August 

2 Not. 
16 Not. 

5 Sept. 

3 July 
10 July 



19 Dec. 

lb jily 

5 Sept. 

6 August 

28 Sept. 



19 July 



30 Sept. 



26 July 



Ireland. 



18 October 
13 Not. 



13 Not. 



13 Not, 



14 Not. 
23 Sept. 

14 October 



19 Not. 



7 August 

16 Sept. 
A.. 



Pegc. 



440 

280 

60,80 
400 
440 
379 
499 

79 
79 



• • • . 


359 


. . •• 


240 




100 


6 Sept. 


179.280 


.... 


240 


.... 


380 


.. •• 


480 


.... 


60 


.. .• 


420 


. • . • 


800 


.... 


340 


.... 


160 


.... 


280 


.... 


440 


. . •• 


299 


.... 


299.359 


.... 


520 




140 


. • . . 


519 


.... 


440 


.... 


160 




240 




380 


.... 


380,519 


.... 


400 


.... 


140 




379.519 




41<^,359 


• . •■ 


200,359 


.... 


20 


.... 


40 


.... 


520 


.... 


499 


16 October 


160.360 


.... 


40 


.... 


200.260 


. • • • 


120 



280 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPHABBTICAL LIST OF NBW PATENTS. 



Name. 



Subject. 



CanoinghAm ... I Reefing tails 



Datyaon...... 

De la Bam de 1 

Naotrail.. J 

Dent 

Dick 

DinadalA 

Diion .....*•. 
D'OrviUe audi 

ParUDgton. J 
Duckworth •••• 

Dunbar 

Doan 

Duron 



Beclea 

Edmonda « • • • 

Edwards, An- 
seU, and 
Heyns .... 

Ehnalie and 
Smpson • • 

Erard 

Ererest • . . . 



Woollen fabrics. 



Fairbalm 

FkiriMirB and*^ 
Hetberington f 
Fernihongh ..•• 
Fentainemorean. 

Fowler 

Fmklinskj.... 
Fr^he 



Gosaage 
Gosaage 



• • • • "^ 



Qrant 

Oratriz 
Gray 



Ufosn* • • • 
Greenongh 
Oraanoogh 
Garlt .... 

Gwynae •• 

Gwjnne •• 



Haddan 

Haky . 
HaU... 



Hamilton .... 

Hamlum and ( 

Wcema...* C 

Hardiog 



Lime kilns 

Propelling carriages • . 

Compasaes 

Steel and gas • . 

Artificial palatea and gama 
Monlding iron 

Finishing thread or yam 

Chicory 

Sospeoding carriages . . . 

Motire power 

Tamtablea, presses, &... 



MotiTc-powerand pamps. 

Sheathing ahips and pro* 1 
tecting powder, &c. . j 

Pianofortes 

Commodes and water- 1 
doaets j 

Cranea and lifting machines 

Spinning, wea? ing, &o.. 

MotiTe power 

Solphate of soda and adda 

Steam engines, &c 

Pnblie carriages.. 

Obtaining power 



Obtaining metala, &c. . . . 
Concentrating snlpharic 1 

acid / 

Heating and regulating 1 

temperatare. ...••.. j 
Yelveu and piled fabrics. . 
Supplying water to boilers 
Preparation of peat. 

MotiTC power 

Chairs, conchea and seats. 
Extracting silrer, 

MotiTo power . . 

Soger 

Carriages, wheels, and 

brickwork 
Looma 
Looms 
Sawing, catting and 1 

boring wood j 

Warming and Tcntilating, 
HockKng and carding. • . 



England. 



30 Not. 

2 Not. 
2 Not. 

17 July 

22 Aogost 

24 October 
19 Dee, 

14 Not. 

23 July 
26 Dec. 
19 Not. 

19 Sept. 
17 July 

7 Not. 

30 Not. 
12 Sept 

7 Dec. 

7 Not. 

31 July 
10 October 

17 Oct. 
5 Dec. 
12 August 

17 July 

20 Dec. 

24 Oct. 

26 Dec. 
31 July 
10 Dee. 
31 July 

21 Not. 
10 October 

5 August 



3 July 
14 Not. 

28 Sept. 

25 Not. 
17 October 



Scotland. 



Angoat 
October 
October 



3 July 



14 October 

9 August 
12 October 
17 Sept. 



31 July 
7 August 



28 August 



20 Not. 



Ireland. 


Page. 


.... 


440 


.... 


379 


.... 


379 


.... 
.... 


60 
160.180 

359 
340.359 


. . .. 


499 


.... 


400 

79 

520 

490 


.... 


240 
60 


.... . 


380 


.... 


440 


.... 


220 


.... 


480 


.... 


380 


13 Sept. 


100,280 


.... 


300 
80 
320 
460 
140 


.... 


60 


.... 


500 


.... 


340,359 


.... 
.... 
.. . • 

. a • . 

6 Aag.{ 
24Ang«tt 


520 
100,180 
500.359 
100,260 

420 

300 
120,180 

200 
180,280 


• • * . 


19 


.... 
.... 


400 
260 


• • . . 


280 


• • •• 


440,520 


• • •• 


203 



Digitized by 



Google 



J 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF KEW PATENTS. 



NAme. 



Harratt 

Harria 

Hajden 

Haieldine .... 

Helbranner . . i 

Highton 

HiU 

Hinley 

Hoby 

Hob7 

Hodge I 

Hodgkinaoa.... 

Hall 

Holland 

Holliday 

Hornaby . . . • ) 

Horafall & James 

Hotkiog 

Honldsvorth .. 

Hovarth 

HoweUa 

Huddari 

HnrwoOd .... 
Hatchioaon .... 
Hytiam , 

lUiogworth.... 

Jackaon 

Jacoba < 

Jetmlngf ,,,. \ 

Johnson . . . . ] 
Johnson 

Kane j 

Keates 

KeelyaodWUO 

kioson .... J 

Kingaford .... 

Knowlea 

KorU 

Laird andl 

Cowper .. t 

Lamport 

Lancaster. • • • ) 

Lotagdoh and 1 
Tabberer . . J 

liegru 

Leish 

. Lertw 



Subject 

Rolling iron. •••... 

Barometers 

Drawing frame regulator. . 
Wagona, carta, «nd Tans . 
Excluding air, dust and ) 

noise from apartmenta 5 

Electric telegraphs 

Preparing cotton 

Castors 

Railwaya 

Railwaya • . . 

Steam enginea and agri- ) 

cultural machinea . • ) 
Pnrnacea, and pig-iron . . 

Steam enginea. 

Umbrellaaand parasols..* 

Lamps 

Agricultural machines, > 
steam engines, & boilers ) 

Roiling iron 

Valfes, pumps, &c 

Iron and metals 

Raising nap or pile 

Gun carriagea 

Cigars 

Grinding com 

Sawsets, mallets, &c 

Match and taper dipping.. 

Preparing 

Heckling 

Printing, colouring, and / 

shading ) 

Waterproofing canvas ( 

and leather 3 

Fixing colour* on cot- ) 

ton, &c ^ 

Steam engineb, boilen,&c. 

Chain, castors, and } 

presses • 5 

Rollers and cylinders .... 

Looped fabrics 

Refrigerating 

Charcoal 

Dyeing 

Loading and unloading \ 
ships . / 

Raising weights 

Firearms, cannon and) 
percussion tabes. ... 3 

Looped fabrics • . 

Disinfectltig, manures, &c. 
Preparing and tpinninff . . 
Sewing-machines • • .... 



England. 



28 Sept. 
19 Dec. 
to October 
23 July 

31 July 

is'july 
5 Dec. 
3 July 
7 Dec. 

3 July 

2 Nor. 
12 August 
22 August 

July 3 

19'NoV. 
26 Sep. 
H Nov. 
12 Dec. 

29 August 



31 July 

22 August 

24 Oct. 

23 July 

17 October 
12 Dee. 

5 Anguat 
16 August 



3 July 

9 Not. 

19 Not. 



16 Not. 

3 July 
12 Sept. 

7NoT. 



SootUnd. 



11 Not. 
21 Auguat 



16 August 
14 Auguat 

6 Sept. 
28 August 

14 August 

11 Not. 
28 August 



15 Not. 

4 Oct. 
• • •« 

ISNoT. 

• . • • 
2 Sfept 

21 August 

. . . • 

a58ept. 



Ireland. 



Page. 



17 Oct. 
ISJilly 



16 



Aug.{ 



17 July 



3 August 



3 Augnat 



280 

499 

300 

79 

100,319 

180.^60 

60 

460 

20,80 

480 

20 

379 

140,180 

160 

180 

20 

260 
420 
260 
400 
480 
179,180 
200 
519 
260 
100 

160 

80 

340 

70 

320,520 
480 

120 

140,359 

200 

20 

400 
420,520 

420 

260 

19,180 

220 

200 
359 
380 



Digitized by 



Google 



ALPUABBTICAL LIST OP NBW PATENTS. 



Vll 



Name. 


Subject. 


England. 


Scotlsnd. 


IreUnd. 


Pege. 


Looy 

liebhaber .. | 

Lienan 

LiUie 

Lucaa 

MaMey 

Maefie 

MacNaogbt.... 

MeNiooU ..{ 

Main 

Mdr 


LocomotlTea* trailera, &c.. 
Blasting rocks, workiiig > 

marble, &c«.. • S 

Purifying and filtering \ 

oUs and liquids j 

Motire power .......... 

Telegraphic and print- 1 

ing apparatus J 

Soan 


3lJuIy 
14 Not. 

• • *« 
5 Sept. 

7 Not. 

8 bctober 
.... 

• . . • 

.... 

8 Not, 

11 Not. 

12 Dec. 

16 Not. 
12 Not. 
12 Dee. 
10 Aug. 

12 Not. 

5 Bept. 

2 Not. 

2 Not. 
12 Not. 

7 Dec, 

17 July 
24 October 
10 August 
17 October 

.... 

24 October 

22 Julj 
12 Dec 

7NoV. 
7 Dec. 

19 Sept. 

9'idy 

23 July 

23 July 
22 August 
22 August 
22 August 
22 August 
29 August 


7NoTi 

.... 

3lOetiiber 

iO October 
10 July 
16 August 

7 Not. 

.... 

.... 

. • «• 

.... 

.... 
25 October 

• • •• 

.... 
.... 

.... 

14 October 
14 August 

5N0T. 

.... 
.... 
.. •• 

28 October 

• . . • 
.... 

^ . . • 

31 July 
.... 

8 AuguU 

.... 

.... 
«... 

20*August 

• « .. 


.... 

.... 


100 
400 

519 

199 

380,500 

280.359 

80 

180 

519 

400 
519 


Sugar and charcoal 

Steam engines and gauges. 
Raising and oottTeyingl 

Printing machintfy 

Figured musUns, dte..... 

Indigo... 

Cleaning rice, gnUn, and 1 

seeds J 

Sdsiors and thimbles.... 

Preparing cotton, &e 

Artifiotel marble and stone 
PreserTini^ Tegetable 1 
substances. .. ; j 

Scouring and finiihing .. 

Washing and drying .... 
SiainiT naner ......••.. 


Maraaa 

Martin •[ 

Marsden •••••• 

Maaon and 1 
C<^lier.... J 

Masaiah 

Maison ....<[ 

Matber nndf 
Edmeaton../ 

Matber, 1 
Mather, and } 
HaleaowskyJ 

Matthew! 


480 
420 
406 
489 
140 
400,500 

200 

379 
379 


Medburst 


€ras meters 


400 


"- { 

MelTitte 

Mercer. ....... 

Meyer 

Miehiela 

Mid&iels 


Treating sheeps' fleeces 1 

on the animals J 

Railways and locOmotiTes. 

Preparing cotton 

Looms ..••••........ 


479 
60 

340.359 
140.180 

320 

500 


Preparing potatoea for seed 
Coal and gas ........•• 


Minington ..| 

Mills 

MorewoodandY 
Rogera.... J 

Moriey 

MorreU 

Mortimer 

Naamyth and\ 
Barton.... j 

NeUson 

Newton 


Corn-cleaning and flour- 1 

dressing machine «. j 

Steam enginea and pumps. 

Coatbg metals with metals 

MotiTc power and pumps. 
Magoetio needle 

CaUco printing •• 

Raisbgweighto 

Caoutdiouo 


340 

79 

480 

500 
380 
480 

240 

180 
40 


Newton ....'< 

Newton 

Newton ...... 


Zinc, oxides and aUoysl 

of metals J 

Cutting files 

Refining gold 


79,180 

79 
160 


Newton 

Newton 


Sbips* magasines 

Refrigerating . • ;• 


160 
160 


Newton •«.... 
Newton 


Ships and boilert 

Cutting types 


160.1M 
179 



Digitized by' 



via 



ALPHABBTICAL LI8T OP NEW PAT£NTS. 



Name. 


Subject ( 


England. 


Scotland. 


IreUnd. 


Psge. 


Newton 


Hat bodies 


26 Sept 
10 October 
19 Not. 
7 Dec. 
12 Deo. 

12 Deo. 

23 Not. 
19 Dec. 
12 Not. 

19 Dec. 
9*NoV. 

• • . a 

20 Dee. 
7 Dec 

24 October 

12 Sept. 
22 July 

• ^ .. 

3 Jnly 

3 July 

31 Jaly 

13 August 
2 Dec. 

. • .. 
12 Sept 

22 August 

7Dtc. 

5 Sept. 

5 Deo. 

19 Not. 

31 Jqly 
10 October 
30 Nov. 

7'Not. 
9 Not. 

16 Deo. 

19 Sept 

24 October 


30 July 
8 October 
18 October 

.... 
.... 

.... 

16 October 

18 Not. 

22 August 

21 October 

4'8ept. 

28 June 
2 Sept. 
7 Sept 

I October 

II Not. 

. • . • 
.... 

14 August 

6'n'»t. 

29 Sept 
12 July 

.... 

• • a • 

30 Sept 

• a • • 


niiiiiiiiiniiinniiin; Mii; i^iwuwwwi 


179 


Newton 

Newton 

Newton 

Newton ...... 

Newton 

Newton ..../ 

Nickels ...... 

Nlnd 

Nye 


Dyeing yam and weaTing. 
Mannfactoring yarns .... 
Coating for wood, iron, 6cc. 
Steam and other engines. . 
Cnttiog and dressing stone 
Hnrdlesy fences andl 

wire- work j 

Woollen and other fabrics. 
Sugar, cntting and rasping 
Hydranlic machinery .... 

Steel 

Candles and wicks 

Candles and night lights. . 

Coke and gas .......... 


259,359 
300.36t 

420 

480 

480 

480 

440 
500 
400 


Odkmimnex • • • • 

Ptlmer 

Palmer 

Paawells nndl 
Dnbochet.. / 

Papps !.'!!!'.!! 

Pascal 

Peterson 

Paxtoa 


499 

359 
400 

520 


Musical instrnm^-nts .... 

Coring smoky chimneys.. 

Textile materials 

Eloofs 


500 

479 

340 

220,260 

79 


Percy and 1 
Wiggin....; 

n^tttip- 

Pim 


Metallic aUoys 

Cntting tnrnips 

Boilers and fnonels. ..... 

Steam machinery 

Umbrellas and parasols . . 

Spinning and doubling .. 

Punching metals, andl 

springs J 

Filters 


360 

20 
20,260 


Firmon ....... 

Rttar 


100 
140 


Piatt 

Poole 1 

Price aud 1 
W.r:i.hcid./ 

PriesUey andl 
Hnrst ..../ 

Preiser 

Proiser { 

Protlieroe .... 

R-yner....,,,. 
Raid 


460 
80 

220.260 


Preparing and spinning . . 

Supplying water to boilers 
Tubes, clearing tabes,! 
and feeding boilers . . J 
Oxide of sine and paints... 

Psring..... 

Weaving 


260 
160 
359 
519 

479 
280 


Remond 


BnTelopes ............ 


360 


Rennle .... ', 


Qss retorts 


200.180 


Riepe 

Riplej { 

Rithton 

Ritchie 

Ritchie. 

Robbins 

Roberts 


Refining steel 


280 
460 


Dreising and finishing 1 

cloth / 

Water-clOfeets and urinals. 
Preparing and carding. . . . 

StoTes 

Railway carriages 

Textile fabrics 


420 

100 

300 

440,500 

260 

80 


Robinson 

Rock 


Lifting fluids, steering, ftc. 
Carriages •......• 


380 
400 


Rodham andl 

Hoblyii.... / 

Rogera 

•••• 1 


Condensing and purify- 1 
ing smoke, and gases. J 

Ptetfnelmidehareoal.... 

Twisted gun tod pistoll 
barrels ••.... ...... j 


520 

240,359 

340 



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AIIMIAnETICAL LIST OF NEW PATENTS. 



IX 



Name. 



Subject. 



Rotdi 
Soteh 



Rowlej 



Royca 



..•I 

RnlTofd, Mar^l 

•oa and Pinch J 

RiiMeU 



Samuel. 
Seal.. . 
Scott .. 
SoQtt . 
Shaw . 
Sbemn. 



Shepard . . . . j 

Sbe|riierd andl 

Button.... j 

ShicfS andl 

Heginbottom j 

Sbore 

Sidebottom 



SiYfMter 

Slate .. 

SUCe.... 

Smith .. 
Smith •• 



••{ 



SpOlcr.... 

Starr .... 
Steele . • • . 
Stefuson 



StOM*. 



Swiodelli.... / 

Titkam tod 
Cheethui... 

Tkjlor 



MeUleh . 

ThomptoQ • 

Thomcyeroft . 

Tiiterteii 

Toittoy ..... 
TrtttlM •,... 



Soap 

Separating mattert 

Saltpetre 

Dresfl pins, fasteningi, 1 

and oroamenti j 

Grinding and cleaning 1 

com J 

Bathf and wash TesseU • . 
War steamen 



Railvaj and tteam engines 
Spinning and twisting. . . . 

Pigments 

Docks, sHps, &e 

Railwajs 

Redoing sngar 

Blectro-magnetie appa* 1 
ratos J 

Telegraphs 



Textile ftbrics 

Dressing flonr 

Loom* 

Setting and shaping V 

hardened steel J 

Canal navigation. ....... 

StoTes, fnmaces, chim-) 

nej.pots, 8cc. ...... \ 

Polding paper 

Steam engines, &o.. 

Alnm, cement, and yo-) 

latile liquids S 

Cleaning and grinding) 

wheat 3 

Bookbinding 

Coatiog metals. .••••.••. 

Plaz spinniDg • . • . . 

Treating peat and ob.1 
taining products thero- I 

from J 

Obtaining prodneti from 5 

Dret ) 

Cotton and fibrous ma- 1 

terUb / 

Dreaa pins, faatenings 1 

and omamentt • J 

Hydraulic machinery I 

and steam engines • • j 
Cutting, staining, sil?er-> 

ing, and fixing glass. 3 
Cutting, digging and / 

turning up earth • . . . ) 
Crank axles.. ....•••••• 

Hydraulic clocks 

Dredging machines ..... . 

MaUcts, saws«U and tooU. 



England. 



31 July 

24 Jane 
22 Aug. 

30 No?. 
12 Dec 



10 Oct 



5 Sept. 

24 July 
9 Nov." 
3 August 

17 October 

24 Oct. 

23 No?. 

2 Dee. 
14 Nor. 



17 Jaly 

2 Not. 

2 Not. 

17 July 
& Sept. 

12 Not. 



3 July 
9 Aug. 



14 Not. 

2 Not. 
19 Dec. 

3 July 
22 Aug. 

12 Aug, 

12 Dec* 

3 Oct. 

19 Not. 

31 July 



Scotland. 



3 July 



12 Not. 
20 Sept. 



18 Sept. 



7 Not. 
29 July 

17'jttly 
23 Sept. 



7 Not. 



17 July 



16 Sept. 



• * • • 

• • •• 



Ireland. 



Aug. { 



17 Jnty 



7 October 



Pd«e. 

100,80, 

200 

80 

160 

4iO 

480 

80 
299 

519 
199 
79 
400,260 
120 
320 

340 
440 

460 

400 
260 



379 

S79 

60 
199 

400,500 

179 

20 

140 

80 

359.360 



14 Sept./ 






400 

379,519 
500 
20.80 

160 

140.260, 
280 
480 
280 
480 
100 



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ALPHABETICAL LIST OP NEW PATENTS. 



Name. 

Tucker / 

Tunwr....',. / 
TnxTord . . . . | 

Vtlck 

VirUUt ....{ 

Vidle / 

Voyes 

"Wtrmont..,,,. 

Watson 

Watt 

White I 

Wild / 

WilkiM 

Williams 

Williams 

Wilson 

Mlmshurst .. | 

Winter 

Wood 

Wood 

Wood I 

Woodbridge../ 
Woods 

Yoang I 



Subject. 

Gearing, cleansing «iid> 
propelling ressels. ... \ 

Oeneratiog and apply- 1 
ingbeat / 

Agricnltural machinei 1 
and steam engines . . J 

Grinding 

BztracUng cobnring 1 

matters / 

Air, steam, gas todi 

liqnid meters • / 

Paper hangings 

Dyeing wool » • . • . 

Hat plash 

Inland narigatioa 

Bmising, cmsbiag andl 

expressing joice •••• j 
Structures for retaining 1 

water • J 

Lighting 

Buttons 

Furnaces 

Alum and ammonia 

Steam engines, propel- 1 

ling.«tc / 

Metallic vessels 

Carpets 

Fuel..; 

Figuring and ornament- 1 

ing woten fabrics. ... J 
Rivets, bolts and screw 1 

blanks / 

Paving 

Treating bituminont mi- 1 
nerals / 



England. 


• • • • 


7Dec 


4 July 


.... 


17 July 


9 Not. 


7 Dec. 


2 Nor. 
2 Dec. 
5 Sept. 


31 July 


17 Aug. 


7 Nor. 

17 Oct 

7 Dec. 

7 Dec. 


12 Nor. 


3 July 

10 Oct 

7 Dec. 


11 Dec 


5 Sept 


30 Nor. 


17 Oct. 



Scotland. 



15 Nor. 



14 October 



13 August 



Ireland. 



Par. 



24 June 



3 Sept 



7 October 



520 

479 

20 

359 
60 

400 
480 

379 

460 

200,180 

100 

160 

380 
320 
480 
479 

400 

20 

299.80 

470 

480 

200,260 
440 

320»S59 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

No. 1404.] SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1850. [Price Zd., Stamped, 4d. 

Edited by J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-street. 

GRIMSLET'S PATENT IMPROVEMENTS IN THE MANUFACTURE 

OF BRICKS AND TILES. 

Fig. 11. 



^xsmnmiM^ 




Fig. 12. 



Fig. 13. 




Fig. 14. 



Fig. 15. 



pr 


. ® 


} 


f 


Ko) I 


loll 


g 




w 


lEB 


> 


1 


A 
-co m- 


, ■ m 


i-T. 






TOL. Lni. 



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GmmtLBT's PATBKT IMPKOTEMBNTS IN THB MAMUFACTURB OF BRICKS AND TILBB. 

(Pfttent dated December 10, 1849. Patentee, Thomas Orinuley, of Oxford, Sculptor. Spedficatioii 
enrolled June 10, 1850.) 

8peeiflcaHoH» 

Winilif. Mj iBTentioii oonaists of certiin improTementa in nuchinerj for the nuna- 
iikctar^ it bricki and tUai. 

Fig. 1 if B tide eleTation» and fig. 3 b front Tiew of b machine adapted to the making 
of brieki of the partieolar fonna aeparately ahown in flg. 2. The brick here deli- 
neated ia made concare on ita upper aorfaee, and on one of its sidea and on one of its ends 
there are formed groorea a a, wliile on the other side and end it liaa projecting tongnea h b, 
ao that when seroral rowa of such bricks are placed side by side and end to end, the tongues 
of each brick take into and fill the groovea of the two next adjoining bricks, or vice vertS, 
Each brick liaa also three or more holes cc made right through it from end to end, which, 
besides being attended with a ssTing of material, serre to fadlitate both tbe drying and the 
firing. A A is the principal framework of the machine; B a chamber for clay ; J a die 
plate; and a a (see fig. 3) a core or mandril in the mouth of this plate, by which the longi. 
tudinal holea cc, before mentioned, are produced. C is the piston of the cylinder, which 
is worked by means of the rack D and pinion B { F a pinion which geari into a spur wheel 
O, affixed to the same shaft as the pinion E i and F* a crank handle by which the driviog 
power is applied to the pinion P. H H ii a traTcUing bed, composed of a number of pistes 
or boards, which are pnahed in beneath the cylinder one after the other, aocordioi^ as they 
are required to receire the moulded materials on iuuing from the die plate J. K K K are 
a set of rollers which hsTC their bearings in the framework A A, and carry the plates or 
boards of the trayelling bed. L L are a set of amaller rollers, which couTey the moulded 
clay from the die plate J on to the travelling bed ; theae rollers may be dispensed with 
when the lower edge of the die plate ia near to the bed. A^ A> is an additional framework 
(a front Tiew of which ia given separately in fig. 4), which is mounted on the top of the 
principal framework A A, and carries the cutting apparatus. This apparatus consists of a 
aeries of frames N, N, N, each carrying a steel wire n, ii, ii. O O are guide plates, placed 
one on each side of the frame A* : thrae plates hare a act of alota n\ »?, ti^, cot in them, 
which correspond with the number of the frames N, N, N, and are placed immediately 
underneath them, so tliat when the frames are allowed to drop down for the purpose of the 
wires n, n, n, cutting the moulded clay into the proper lengths, the wires fall into the slots, 
and are made thereby to descend in a waving line, and consequently to cut the ends of 
the bricks in a waved line, instead of straight through (aa tbey otherwise would be if 
there were no guides). The waved line, which ia represented in the figure, corresponds 
to the groove and tongue formed on the edges of the brick, aa before explained. As each 
plate or board becomea filled with the moulded bricks or tiles, it is removed, and fresh 
ones supplied underneath the cylinder, as already explained. 

Should it be desired to make the grooves and tonguea of a circular curve corresponding, 
for example, to the top concave aurface, I employ a cutting apparatus — such as is repre- 
sented in figs. 5 and 6, the former being a side elevation, and the latter a front elevation of 
it. A A are two side standards or supports, which carry a cross spindle B, upofi one end 
of which there is fixed a crank-handle C. D D are a set of cutters, which are affixed to a 
frame attached to and moving along with the spindle B ; each of the cutters is bent at a, a, a 
into the form which it ia intended to give to the grooves and tongues. The cross spindle 
B occupies a position immediately over the travelling bed and parallel with the line in which 
the moulded clay is travelling, and at such a distance above it that, as the cutters are made 
to oscillate from one side of the machine to the other, they may be made, by turning the 
crank handle C, to pass through the moulded mass, and cut it into the required lengths. 
Aa the cross spindle B may be moved higher up or lower down in the standards A A (its 
bearings being fixed in slots in these standards), the curvatures given to the groove and 
tongue can rmdUj be made to correspond with the concave surface of the brick. 

[The patentee next describes another form of cutting apparatus, in which a simple 
cutter is used, but ite movements are eflPected and regulated by the progression of 
the moulded materiBls. 

Fig. 11 to 15, both inclusive, exhibit another arrangement of machinery for presaing 
clay through dies into the form of bricks or tiles. Here, as in the preceding case, an uni- 
form and continuous discharge of the moulded clay from the die- plate, in a state ready for 
being cut into lengths, is produced. A A is the clay chamber, which is affixed upon a frame- 
work B. C C are two rollers which have longitudinal teeth and grooves of a peculiar shape 
out upon their peripheries, and are mounted in such relative positions that the teeth or pro- 



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OBDCBLET'b DIFBOTEMBHTS m the HANTTFAOTUBB OV BBIOKS AXD TILB8. 3 



Jw. 



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•i. 



I: 



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d 

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r £• 



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OBZHSLET's IMFBOVBirBirrS in the ICAKUFAOTUfiB OF BBICKS AKD TILES. 

Jeetioni of the one roller ihall getr or take into the grooret In tbe other. The hearingt of 
these rollers are made capable of being moved by means of screws at D, so that their teeUi 
may be made to gear more or less doMly into their corresponding grooTCS according as the 
day to be moulded is more or less free from grit. £ is the die-plate of the madiine, F 
the hopper, 6 a sliding frame which rests upon and is affixed to the upper edge of the day 
chamber by means of jointed linkSf G'G', by which it is allowed to slide freely backward 
and forward upon its seat. H H are two small rollers which hare their bearings in the 
sliding frame O, and are interposed between the teeth of the rollers C C, and the ends of 
the sliding frame to prevent any escape of day at that part. The teeth of the rollers are 
(as shown) straight on one side, but ennred on the other side, and this shape b given to 
them in order that the smaller rollers may keep oonstantly in contact with tne sides of the 
teeth of the rollers C C ; the eonrezity or enrratnre on the one side of the teeth forming a 
compensation for the differenee in length between the teeth of the rollers in different pMi- 
tions, which difference arises from the outer ends of the teeth moving in a larger drde 
than thdr inner ends. Clsy being fed into the hopper, it is drawn down by the teeth of the 
rollers, and when the chamber is full it can only find a means of esoape through the die- 
plate. The smaller rollers dways keep in dose contact with the teeth of the rollers, whidi 
causes an oscillating or to and fro moaon to be given to the sUding frame 6, and Urns kei^ 
the day constantly feeding into the roUen. 

Fig. 24. 




Fig. 25. 



Fig. 26. 




The machine, when employed without a die plate, may be used for emshiog, bieaUng up, 
and pugging the clav to be subsequently used in making bricks and the finer qualities of 
tUes ; the peculiar form of the teeth admitUng of the rollers working very close upon eadi 
other. -o * r 

Seeondfy. Mj invention consists in covering sudi bricks or tiles as are emptoyed in the 
construction of drdns, sewers, and other conduits of liquids and liquid matters with a 
glazing upon those parts of thdr surfaces over which the Uquid or Uquid matters are 
designed to flow, by which the force of the current flowing through the drains or sewers wUl 
be mudi less impeded, while the structure wiU at the same time be rendered more huting. 
A bnck, of the form first hereinbefore described (and represented in fig. 2), would, for 
example, be covered with the glssing upon the upper concave surface. I employ for this 
purpose any of the common sorta of glasing now used for covering the lurf^ of earthen- 
ware by vitrification. 



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INSUBMERQIBLE BOATS. — WATEB-TIOHT COMPABTlfENTS. 5 

Tkirdlff. My inTeiitioii contitts of certain improrements in the mode of drying sod 
firing brieka and tilea. Fig. 24 ia a plan, fig. 25 an end elevation, and fig. 26 a longitudinal 
KctioQ (all the fignrea being partly ia aection) of a kiln oompoied of fonr compartmenta 
A, B, C, and D, in which the bricks or tiles are first partly dried and then fired. E E are 
tbe fiamaoea, of which there are two sets for each of the compartments (A, B, C, and D,) 
which are thus fixed from both ends. F F is a passage between the two chambers formed 
at each end of the kiln, which serves for getting to the famaces at the inner ends of the 
firing chambers. O is a drying-room, which is formed over the top of the kiln and com- 
mnidcates with the firing chambers by openings or doors in the roof of the latter. The 
method of working thia kiln is as follows : 

Snppoaing the whole of the chambers to be filled with bricks or tiles, and that those in 
the diamber A are to be *' fired ;" the fires are lighted at both enda of the chamber. The 
heated Tapovrs pass np through the bricks or tiles at the two ends, then descend through 
those placed in the central part of the chamber and escape by openings or flues formed 
below tbe floor of the chamber, whenoe they are cooTcyed into the other chambers ; after 
circnlatiog through which in the same manner (namely, ascending at the two ends and 
descending in the middle), they are allowed to escape from the last of the series into the 
drying- room. Each chamber has its separate openings into tbe chimney, and ita separate 
flues lending into the other chambers ; and the whole are fitted with dampers so that any 
diamber can be made to couMnunicate to, or be stopped from communicating with, the 
ottiers at pleasure. By being thua enabled to work any two or three, or the whole of Uiese 
diambers at the aame time, a great saTing of fuel ia effected, aa in the first place it is only 
necessary to fire the chamber or chambers intended to be put in actual use, and the firing 
of these diambert serres to dry or prepare the materials in the other chambers to be fired 
ia ^elr turn. 



nrtvBicsnoiBLs boats.— watbr-tioht compaktments. 



There is perhaps more merit in adopt- 
ing and practically exhibiting tbe useful 
inventions of another than in being the 
originator of them ; thus Mr. Bonney's 
insnbmergible vessel does him equal 
credit, at least, whether the idea of water- 
tight compartments at the sides of a 
▼easel waa from the first his own, or 
whether he profited by an article in the 
Mechanics* Magazine of October 7, 
1848. Iq p. 351 of that publioaiion, 
amongst other notes of improvements in 
shipbuilding devised by Sir Samuel Ben- 
tharo, it is stated, that *' the sides of a 
ship, and the bulkheads themselves, 
should be composed of a kind of eis« 
Icm." 

Sir Samuel in all his contrivances endea- 
voured to continue as many advantages 
as possible ; thus these cisterns, or water- 
tight cases, as he designed them, would 
afford great strength to the vessel, and, 
under ordinary circumstances, Uiey 
would be '* used for water, for dry pro- 
visions, or for other articles of store," 
but that they might " in cases of emer- 
gency be emptied of their contents, and 
uus give a very material additional 
amount of buoyancy to the vessel." 

Mr. Bonney has also given stability to 
his safety yacht by the means indicated 
by Sir Samuel, p. 352, of the same num- 



ber of the Magazine, namely, that " the 

Seat quantitjr of iron now used as bal- 
It, and nowise contributing to strength 
of structure, should in all shins be made 
to form a part of the vessel itself, so as 
to give it strength." Mr. Bonney has 
adopted this principle in his iron keel 
and keelson. 

This gentleman appears not to have 
extended his ideas or improvement be- 
yond boats, small craft, and yachts ; Sir 
Samuel conceived that water-tight com- 
partments along the sides of vessels and 
in their transverse bulkh^s, were ap- 
plicable as well to ships of the largest 
size, and equally advantageous for ves- 
sels of war, for merchantmen, and for 
navigable vessels generally, large and 
small, and whatever might be the de- 
scription of service required from them. 

Water - tight compartments have 
already saved manv iron-built vessels 
from destruction ; they afford means of 
bringing a vessel at pleasure, more or less, 
by the head or stem ; they are continu- 
ally held forth in recommendation of 
vessels possessing them, as affording 
acknowledged means of security ; they 
are enjoined b^ Act of Parliament in 
regard to all iron-built steamers — ^vet, 
stranee to say, they are not adopted in 
vessels built of wood. 



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6 



BFFB0T9 OF SHOT ON IROH SHIPS. 



It wai, bowerer, in resfeli bnilt en* 
tirelj of wood thtt water-tight comptrt- 
inenta were fint introduced — in the ex- 
perimenUl Tessels boilt by Sir Samnel 
Bentham in the year 1795. The advan- 
tages of thoee compartments, and of the 
fixed buliibeads forming tbem, as exem- 
plified in those vessels, were laid before 
the Committee on Finance, 1798; and 
it is certain that thej contributed materi- 
ally to the strength of the Dart^ as sutad 
in the official Reports of. Shipwright 
Officers, 1803, and of the Surveyor.^ the 
Navy. The importance of this improve- 
ment has since that time been alto re- 
peatedly brought to notice in a variety of 
publications ; yet to this dav it has not 
been adopted in vessels built of wood. 
To what eireumstance can this neglect 
of water-tight compartments be attri- 
buted? 

Is extra cost in the construction of 
a vessel apprehended ?— If this be the 
objection, it is fallacious. The quantity 
of timber necessary for fixed bulkheads 
can in no way contribute more to 
strength than in the formation of such 
partitions; they tie together the bottom 
of a vessel, its sides, and the decks, rad 
thus prevent racking. 

Is it any supposed inconvenience ?— 
Bulkheads of some sort are usual in ves- 
sels for all services. Bulkheads forming 
water-tight compartments may be dis- 
posed in any part of a vessel as may be 
most convenient for stowage or for habit- 
ation ; they may be only transverse as 
in Sir Samners schooners, or thev may 
be both transverse and longitudinal, as in 
the Arrow and the Dart, 

Is it that they cannot be made water- 
tight P— What is there to prevent itf 
Why is it more difficult to construct a 
close-fitting' partition than the outer 
shell of a vessel ? Why less easy to 
caulk an internal surface of wood than a 
vessel's hull? 

Is it that a wooden vessel never has a 
dangerous single hole pierced in her bot- 
tom by a rock, never has a rotten 
plank that lets in water at some one par- 
ticular place P Nautical records and the 
daily papers lell of manv a vessel bulk 
of wood, that has foundered in oonse- 
qoence of some such partial defect in her 
hull; of many more instances where 
stores have been damaged by the spread 
over a whole cargo of some partial leak- 
age- 



Or is it that a habit of adherence to 
eld methods of construction, has been 
the bar to this innovation ? If this be 
the obsUcle, it may be hoped in this age 
of progress, that old methods will be dis- 
carded in naval architecture, as they 
have been in so many other arts. 

But whatever objections to water-tight 
compartments may have presented them- 
selves to any of your readers, a statement 
of those objections in your pages might 
bring to light what now is in obsciirity ; 
—might bring unseen difficulties to view, 
and tans tend to the contrivance of some 
mode by which they might be obviated.* 
M. S. B. 



■Fra ot a ov shot on laoic svtps. 
"The first experiment for testibr the 
effect of shot and ihell on tbs sides of iron 
vessels, took place on Wednesday week, at 
Portsmouth, under the superintendence of 
Cq>t. Chads, on board the BxeeUeni. The 
Conmiander-iB-Chief, Admiral the Hon. Sir 
Bladen Ciq^, Rear-Admlral Prescott, and a 
number of naval and military officers were on 
boardher. A laige butt, being a copy of a sec- 
tion of the 8imiam*M main deck, had been 
mtde in the dockyard, repreaentiiig tiie two 
sides of an iron vessd , each side of the strength 
and contisteney of one of the large iron 
steam-ships. This butt was erected on the 
mud, at a diitanoe of 460 yards from the 
J7jreeir«ii/,— and the practice took pUce at 
high water ; from guns of several calibre and 
various cliarges of powder, both shot and 
shell were fired. At intervals between the 
firing, boats visited the butt, to examine the 
eieeis of paftleular shot on the iron work. 
It was found that, on tiie side whkh the 
shot entered, a large and tolerably round 
hole was made in the iron plate, the cireum- 
ferenoe being much j^ged, and the edge 
turned inward. On the opposite side, where 
the shot passed out, the hole wss Iwrger, and 
also jagged, the edge of the whole turned 
outwards, with occaiionally some rivets 
started. Some of the shot on entering, and 
from striking sgainst the angles of the iron 
ribs, were broken in pieces, the frsgments 
pasriog out at the opposite side, making 
holes of variotts rites and formations. Shells 
also appeared to have a destructive effect on 
the kon-werk in oreatiag spHnters, and the 

• It may b* riglit to tUte tlMt tbe preceding 
obaervatkmi were in our hands prior to the lue 
Umenuble wreck of the Oriom. How the water- 
tight compartmentt with which that vettel la $aid 
(o have been provided Cdled in their ol|eet, U a 
point which remain! for Inqnixy; of tho truth of 
what hat been taid on this head, we Jure great 
douM. BD.M.M, ^ 



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FBIXX)60PHY OV FEBB BX'IUIOTKHf— TBEOBT AND PfiiOTICl* 



piaeei or aImII paaring out thraigh the pUtei 
at t^ opposite Aide— th« off dde in all cases 

snffuimg moat Of coarse, neither shot nor 
shell, nor grape nor canister, wonld lodge in 
iron ▼easels, aa wonld be the case in wooden 
Teasels. To test the effect of the splinters 
inside the teasel, a slight plank bulkhead 
had been ran np between the Iron sides of 
the btttt. Tbis was foond entirdy shat- 

The aboTe cited experiment, made at the 
snggestioD of Admiral Sir Charles Napier, 
eannot bot be considered as of vastimport- 
ance to the mercantile no less than to the 
«riljtar)r marine ; it goes to establish that, 
not only the hull of an iron vessel would 
be subject to great danger in action with 
an enemy, but also that her sails, rigging, 
interior fittings, and crew, would be 
destroyed by splinters of metel. 

On reference to Number 1813, p. 853, 
of the MechimM Magazine^ ix will be 
seen that the recent experiments at 
Portsmouth are such as were recom- 
mended to the Comptroller of the 
Navy by Sir Samuel Bentham, so long 
ago as the year 1810. Then, at the 
same time that be was indicating that 
navigable vessels had been already built 
of metal, and that he was of opinion 
Uiat this material '* might be largely 
employed in the construction of ships 
for the navy," he did not fail to repre- 
sent that " the effect of shot upon 
m§ta2 is a point which would require 
experiments, in order to ascertain the 
difference that would result in conse- 
quence of the non-elasticity of metal 
when struek by shot; particularly in 
regard to the size and shape of the aper- 
ture made, to vrhat extent beyond it 
the meul wonld be likely to be torn, the 
kind of splinters that would be carried 
within bcmrd, Ac. Such experiments 
would be easily made by firing shot of 
different siies, and with different velo- 
cities, agamst blates of metal of different 
kinds and different thicknesses; which 
plates, however, should be affixed to a 
body floating upon water, in order that 
they might have the same advantage 
of that slight recoil on the water which 
would exist in regard to metala employed 
in vessels for sea service." 

The reeent experhneiits at Portsmouth 
seem lo leave no room for cavil, except- 
ing that the butt Was tij/hfed one on the 
nmd, 90 that it was deprived of ••the 



advantages of slight recoil ;*^ and as the 
Committee on Navy Estimates, 1848, 
reported that officers who had com- 
manded iron steam vessels under fire 
wore '' unanimously in favour of their 
fitness for war/' it still seems desirable 
that further experiments should be made 
against a butt floating on water. The 
question, however, seems to have been 
virtually set at rest by the Portsmouth 
experiments; and had Sir Samuel's pro- 
posal in 1810 been adopted at that time, 
instead of this late day, the nation would 
have been saved not far from a million 
sterling thrown away, it may be said, on 
iron vessels of war. 

The importance of the recent expe- 
riments at Portsmouth to the wtercaniile 
marine is confined to periods of hostility 
with foreign nations; but in times of 
war, in what seas would iron built ves- 
sels venture ? The stroke of a single 
shot against an iron hull would amount 
to almost certain perdition, and rather 
than run the risk, her colours would be 
struck on the first summons of an enemy. 
No longer would a coaster, if of iron, 
hazard a combat in self-defence; the 
always heavy item of insurance during 
war would of course greatly exceed for 
an iron vessel the rate thought sufficient 
for one of wood. In regard to the aux- 
iliary defensive force of die country now 
counted on as surely availab'tc from the 
mercantile marine, it could no longer be 
depended on from such portions of it as 
are built of iron. 

In the Portsmouth experiments, as 
stated above, there is a circumstance 
which points to the need of further trials 
to ascertain the fitness of iron for such 
parts of a vessel as her timbers or beams. 
The plates of iron were always pierced 
by shot and shells, so that no doubt re- 
mains on this head, but where a missile 
struck against angle iron it was the ball 
that was broken into splinters. 

BLS.B. 



paiLosopRT or wimm sxtimctiok.— thv- 

ORT AMD PRA.0TI0B, — PHILUPS' WIMM 

AHiriHILATOm. 

"One Off the most extraordinary of all our 
modem diicoveriet (provMed It btotv thoroaghly 

Sir,— It is pretty well acknowledged, 
88 an established fact, that by the excln- 



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PHILeSOPBt 6Xr FIBB BXTtKOnOK^-HrHEOBT AXD Ffi^CTIOE. 



lion of air— tbe common supporter of 
combaBtion— fire will be extinffuished ; 
and a great deal of ingenuity has been 
employed to discover the best and rea- 
diest mode of excluding air for this 
object The popular metnod (from the 
time of the flood, at least,) has been by 
the application of water — a process tho- 
roughly efficient, when properly per- 
formed, with this ad?antage, that the 
effect is certain, whether the materials 
are in the state of flame or ineande^- 
eence, and re-ignition is prevented. Nu- 
merous means have been proposed for 
increasing the extinguishing power of 
water by the admixture of salt, alkali, 
clay, &c., which leave an incrustation 
after the water has been evaporated by 
the heated surface. Attempts have been 
made to effect the exclusion of air by 
the introduction of steam, carbonic acid 
gas, &c. Mr. Phillips more recently 
proposed the use of a humid vapour 
rapidly and easily generated ; but this, 
like steam, only extinguishes flame, 
leaving the incandescent materials ft*ee 
to re- ignite, to which their hot and dry 
condition is peculiarly favourable. 

Mr. Phillips* plan is before the public 
by the printed prospectuses issued by 
the Annihilator Company, and by his 
lectures and expenments at the Vaux- 
hall Gas-works. The Number of 
Dickens' " Household Words'* for June 
15th las^ contains a verv fair and amusing 
description of Mr. Phillips* eueeeesjui 
performance at FauxhaU^ and, by a cu- 
rious coincidence, the Mech. Mae. of 
the same date gives an account of the 
signal failure at Woolwich, In the 
former case the fire was made, both in 
character and evtent, to suit the powers 
of the annihilators ; while in the latter 
case the fire was of the ordinary charac- 
ter, and such as has continually to be 
dealt with in practice, and for which the 
anr.ihilatore proved wholly unfit. 

The ratio in which fire is multiplied 
by time increases varionsly according to 
circumstances, but always in geometric 
cal proportion ; a fact of which Mr. Phil- 
lips appears to be ignorant, as he states in 
his prospectus, that "a fire extinguish- 
able by one gallon of water will, in flve 
minutes, require one hundred gallons, 
and in ten minutes one thcmand gal- 
lons" — making the progressive increase 
of the fire in the first five minutes one 



hundred per cent, but in the second flve 
minutes only nine per cent ! — an error 
of serious moment in propounding a 
plan for flre-extinetion. 

The extinction of flre by the exclusion 
of air, although correct in theory is ex- 
tremely difficult, frequently impossible 
in practice. When a flre has broken 
out in a close apartment, and it has been 
possible to prevent ihe entrance of air 
and the escape of smoke, the flre has 
been self- extinguished; and several suc- 
cessful operations of this kind have 
come under my' notice, especially in 
rural districts aestitute of fire-engines. 
The idea of extinguishing fire by ex- 
cludiuff air, after a draught has been 
created, and a free ii^ux of air taken 
place, is preposterous. In Mr. PhUKiis* 
prospectus, nowever, it is stated that in 
the event of fire in a railway train (in 
the open air) " a couple of annihilators 
carried in the luggage-van will imme- 
diately stop all mischief I*' In the con- 
clusive experiment at Woolwich, the 
fire was raging fiercely in the shop when 
the humid vapour was discharged into 
it from the annihilator ; but a hundred- 
fold greater quantity of fresh air was 
rushing in at tne same time through the 
door and window ; no excbuien of air 
could possibly take place, and the anm^ 
hilator was consequently totally useless, 
although the fire had been burning but 
five minutes. Mr. Phillips, in his pro- 
spectus, says that after a fire has been 
burning ten minutes, " it is seldom that 
the efforts of the firemen are efficacious 
in preserving the premises in which the 
fire breaks out, although they may pre- 
vent its communication to the adjoining 
buildings." The erroneousness of this 
suteraent b sho?m, by the fact that of 
the 838 fires in the metropolis during 
the year 1849, 582 were extinguished in 
their infancy, and in no less than 228 
cases in which the fire had been burning 
from 20 to 40 minutes, the fire was ex« 
tinguished, and the efforts of the fire- 
men were efficacious in preserving the 
nremises in which the fire broke out 
It continually happens that fires break 
out in the lower part of a house, which, 
together with the staircase is enveloped 
in flames before the conflagration is ois- 
covered. Or the fire may be raging in 
a remote part of an extensive range of 
warehouses or workshops, where the fire 



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BILBT AKD OO.'S CAPSTAN. 



9 



hat attained a great head and free 
draught of air before the mischief is 
pcroeired; in such cases the fire be- 
comes a large one, howerer prompt the 
arrival, or sooeessful the application of 
remedial measures; the fire was a large 
one before it was dis^yrered. 

It is said " we have a well-appointed 
fire-brigade, with mains, fire-plugs, car- 
riage and floating ensines of great power^ 
wofted bj men of known skill and in- 
trepidity, still the amount of property 
ana life destroyed by fire in this country 
in any given year is truly awful. How 
does this happen?^' The answer is — 
firom laie dUeoverv of the mischief. In 
all eases where a fire is discovered early 
enouffh to be extinguished bv the fire- 
ammilatcr'-h single pail of water is 
sufficient for that purpose, and the me- 
tropolitan firemen never bX\ to efiect its 
extinctJoDt in addition to which they are 
eminenUv successful in a great num- 
ber of instances where annihiiators 
would be entirely useless. Mr. Phillips, 
in his lectures, admits that the adoption 
of his aimihilatort would not supersede 
any of the present arraneements of 
water, hose, or fire engines ; their services 
being as necessary as ever to extinguish 
the red heat, and prevent re-ignition, and 
preserve adjoining premises from de- 
struction I What then becomes of the 
boasted exemption from damage by 
water t If water is " imperatively ne- 
cessary to extinguish the red heat ** at 
kst, why not emplov it to extinguish 
the flame which it will do at the same 
time, at first? 

Mr. Phillips' glowing picture of the 
immense advantage of the fire-onntAt- 
lator is founded upon the supposition 
that the annihilator is on the spot, and 
that the fire-engine has to be sent for. 
Now common fairness demands that both 
should be upon the same footing, both 
present, or both to be fetched, and the 
superiority of the annihilator then 
vanishes. One nail of water skilfully 
applied, is superior in iU extinguishing 
TOwers to one of Mr.Phillips' annihilators. 
The C9$t of a machine fur projecting the 
water is about the same, with the ad- 
vantage of being useful at all times for 
a great variety of purposes ; any quan- 
tity of water may oe had for nothing, 
and its application continued until its 
services are no longer required. The 



annihilator is expended in a few seconds, 
and must become cold before it can be 
wun charged — every charge costing 
flte shilling* I 

In a prospectus now before me, the 
annihilator is strongly recommended for 
the purpose of extinguishing fires in 
chimnies (red heat) I Would it not be 
equally prudent and more, much more 
economical, to prevent fires in chimnies 
by regular cleaning ? 

Notwithstanding Mr. Phillips' asser- 
tion, that " water u oomparativelv power- 
less upon violent flunes, and there- 
fore inadequate to the task it is called 
upon to perform," we shall very shortly 
see such an improvement in the appli- 
cation of this element as will afford the 
inhabitanta of the metropolis an amount 
of protection against fire, similar to that 
enjoyed for some time past in Philadel- 
phia, Hamburgh, Liverpool, Oldham, 
aod elsewhere. 

In conclusion ; if water, after all, is 
really '* powerless upon violent flames," 
what effect can be expected from huwUd 
vapour under similar circumstances ? 

I remain, Sir, yours respectfully, 
Wic. BADDBLar. 

29, Alftttd-ttreet, Iilinfton, Jane 27, 1890. 



BILBT AND OO.'S CAPSTAN. 

Sir,~Permit us to submit to vour 
notice a brief description of a new form 
of Ships' Capstan, devised by Messrs. 
Bilby and Co., of Nelson Dock, Rother- 
hithe, who in employing us to roanu- 
£u:ture it, have expressed a wish to 
render its advantages available to tlie 
public. 

The capstan is placed on the quarter- 
deck, or on anv pUtform elevated a few 
feet above the deck, and is connected bv 
a bevel- wheel and pinion below it, with 
a winch handle worked by several men. 
The capstan-head is thus left free to re- 
ceive a rope in any direction, the men 
are saved the labour of travelling round 
with the spokes, and of leaping over the 
rone at every turn, and the space re- 
quired for working is greatly reauced. 
We are, Sir, 

Your obedient servants, 
CaABLaa Collinob and Co. 

65, Bridge-road, UmlMth, July 2, 1850. 



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10 

popb's itop talyb. 

( Regiitored Under Uie Act for tha ProtocUon of Artlelet of Utility. MoMrt. WUIiam Popo and 
Soo, of the E4g«waie ro«d, Snglneen, laTontea, Mid Propcieton. 




A is the Tal?e-box ; VY the valves, 
6oth of which open downwards; B a 
cross lever that acta on either valve 
according as it is pressed down at 
eiUier side hj the spindle G ; D handle 
to the spindle C; ££, springa at- 
tached to the top of the valves, bj 
which they spring back to their pUces 




after the preasare of the lever B on 
either valve as removed; F a vul- 
caniied eollar of India-rubber, by 
which a water and air-tight Junction is 
made between the spindle G and box A } 
F, a meul pin, by which the spindle is 
prevented from sliding on the flange of 
the box A. 



WBSTMINSTER BKIDOB. 



Oar readers will have seen from the newt- 
papers, that the bog disgraoefal state of this 
bridge has again been under the considera- 
tion of the House of Commons. The 
Tmttees of the bridge bad brought a Bill into 
the House at a later period of the sesaioB 
than Is conformable to the standing orders, 
for ** improting and repairing '* the exist- 
ing bridge, and the Standing Order Com- 
mittee, had recommended that the utuel 
order of proceeding should be dispenied 
with In lU fkvour. Sir Robert Inglis 
ppposed the recommendation of the Com- 
mittee, on the ground that the Bill was at 
direct variance with the Report of a 



Select Committee of the House four yeara 
ago, aocording to whidi the bridge was 
beyond the possibility of repair, and ought 
to be at once and altogether removed. M r. T. 
L. Hodges, one of the trustees of the bridge*, 
assured the House that this was merely 
an **eHablimg** Bill — that apprehensiona 
were entertained of *' such a rapid sinking 
of the arahes as to render the trafle over 
the bridge inconvenient, if not dangerous,'* 
and that all that was asked for was power 
to provide "a temporay passage (bridge) 
over the river, vAi/e th§ bridge wot imilffr 
rtjMdr or b^iitg rtbuUi "—it not being <« pH 
deeUMi " whether ** it should be repaired or 



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WBflfMIKSTBR BBIDOE. 



11 



rabttat" And M the BOl WM tUowed to 
bt bitraght in, tnd read e firat time. Bat 
Sir Henry Inglii not liking the complexion 
of the ease — gmeeting shrewdlj that there 
WM cw xe a l id mnder the ** eaaUing " pre- 
text, a real intention of rebiilding the bridge 
on iti present site (to which many of the 
T^iMteca are known to be Indmed)— and 
Mtobooaiagfto aee the Report of the foraner 
OoMBlttee of the Ho«fte eo trifled with— 
retnmed, on a nibieqaent ereniog, to the 
daife ; and mo?ed, that the Bill ahonld be 
l ei wiud to a Setoet Coaaiittee— which ia 
lantaflaovnt to throwmg It altogether OTer 
for the present. In this coarse he wu sop- 
ported by seTcral other members, and alti- 
Butely the aootion for a fieleot Ck>mmittee 
WIS carried by the large mijority of 138 to 
15. 

The public are greatly indebted to Sir 
Henry laglis. Thtfe is now a certainty that 
the whole matter wiU once more andergo a 
thoroagh and impartial investigation, which 
we doabt not will be foand to confirm to 
the follest extent the statements and opi« 
■Sens of the former Committee on the subject. 
General Sir Howard Douglas (who was a 
member of that Committee, and took an 
asdve pari ia its proceedings)! puUidied 
afterwards, in the form of a pamphlet,* his 
reasons for concurring with the Committee—* 
which was unanimous— in thinking that the 
bridge ahonld be altogether abandoned ; and 
we cannot, perhaps, do better at the present 
time than bring some of its more prominent 
paragraphs under the eyes of our readers. 

The original faulty construction and pre- 
sent irreparable conditbn of the bridge are 
thns clearly and forcibly depicted by Sir 
Howard : — 

" Westminster Bridge was built aboat the 
middle of the iMSt century, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Charles Lftbelye. The bottom 
eourves of the piers wefe laid, or boilt, in 
floating Tetselt, called chests or caissons, 
wlddi, wheo so loaded, were conducted to 
their proper positions, and there sunk upon 
the natural aHutlal bed of the rirer pro- 
perly reduced to a lerel, after the superin- 



UIDICUICtll 



UtIZQpolitan Bridget and Wettmincter Im> 
bU. By BIr Howard I>ongla«, Bart, M.P. 
S7 pp. m. IMV." 



cumbeat mud, or other matter, had been 
rumored I the bottoms of the ehests or 
caissons thus fbroung, when the sides were 
taken away, the platforma or fouadationa of 
the maaoory, unsustained by underpiling, 
or any other support than that of the grwrel 
and sand on which they reated. The aerious 
defeota and dangers of this mode of pro* 
ceediag speedly appeared.* 'In the months 
of May and June, 1747, the western 15- 
feot pier of the bridge was perceifed to 
settle Tory gently at first, but so much 
fisster towards the end of July, 1747, that 
It waa thought absolutely necessary to tako 
off the balustradea, paring, and part of the 
ballaat that lay oter the said pier, and the 
two arohea adjoining ; but by the eoatinu- 
ation of the settling of this pier, those 
arehes lost thehr regular semicircular figure ; 
—considerable openings in their joints 
showed those arches to be in some danger i 
and some of their stoties, both in fronts and 
soflits, were split and broken— -one of them 
actually fill out, and another waa taken out 
to prerent ita falling down.' Thus, befbru 
the bridge was completed. It became neees- 
sary to take down and rebuild two archea $ 
and at diflerent periods since, the whole of 
the structore has more or less settled or 
girea wsy ; and notwithstanding the eostly 
works t now in progress ; to* secure the 
foundations from any further subsidence, 
and the abatraction oif some thousand tone 
of material from the roadway, parapets, 
and spandrds, Westuduster Bridge has 
again settled, and Is uoqoestionably in a rery 
iuecure, If not In a highly perilous state* 
The mora remote dangera of this defectire 
mode of lajing the fimndationa of piera, 
wera to a certain extent kept in abeyance so 
long as the river remained undisturbed, in 
that somewhat artificial state in which it waa 
when the bridge was oonstruoted. But no 
sooner was that conditioa altered ; firat by 
opening the great arch of London Bridge, 
then by remoTing the London Water-works, 
and ultimately by taking away old London 
Bridge, than all the defeota of this mode of 
eonstraction became very sensible, and the 
danger daily greater. By remoTing the dam 
which had so long obstructed the natural 
outfall of the airer, as well aa the upward 
passage of the tidal carreat, the raloclty of 
the stream both ways has been iaereaaed, 
the section of the bed of the rit er consider- 
ably altered, while all the ciroumstanoes 

* Labelye's Beport, 
f From 1810 to 1838 this bridge cost in repaln 
8S,097I. 6t. S^d. From 189S to 1844 tht amount 
waa •S.aou., and an additiona) turn of U,Bf9t^ 
was required for farther worka. Ibm proparty 
belonging to tbe bridge only realises 7,464/. lis. 8d. 



a year. 



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WBSnitMSTBK BBIDOE. 



wUeh eonttitiite itaUUty, hare undergone, 
and are atill undergoing, great modtficationa. 
If to the remoTalof the obitractiont, which 
may be oonddered aa the main canse of 
theae cluuigea, there be added the conitmo- 
tion of the embankmenta, aneh aa that 
which extendi along the river front of the 
Parliamentary Palace, and the nnmerona 
wharfi which protrade into the dunnel, 
diminiahing ita breadth and diaplacfaig Tait 
▼olnmea of ita watera, it will be evident 
that not only ii the rdocity of the current 
greatly augmented, bat ita direction par- 
tiaDy ehai^;ed, old paasagea being doied 
and new onea formed. The aand which need 
to lodge on both banka ia in lome plaoea 
nearly all gone, leaving gravel and rabbiah 
in its place, and at o^er parti pestUential 
mad banki appear, where formerly there 
had been comparatively clean and deep 
water." 

* • « 

" The attempt to iecnre the old fonnda- 
tiona from farther inbiidence hai been made 
by driving rowa of iheet-piling into the blue 
day roond the old oaiaaoni, aa a girdle, in 
order to prevent the materiali of the natural 
bed of the river from being nnderwathed by 
the enrrent, or iqaeezed oat by the weight 
of the bridge into the gradoally deepening 
water ^ cooraea ; bat notwithstanding the 
ikiU and ability with which this expedient 
has been devised and applied by an eminent 
engineer,^notwithstanaiog the removal of 
between twenty and thirty thousand tone of 
material from the roadway, parapets, and 
spandrels, and even an extension of the 
lengths of the piers, some of these oontinae 
to sink ; and it may safely be pronounoed 
that it is beyond tkie resources of science or 
of art to render the elongated bat still de- 
fective foundations capable of bearing the 
weight of a new superstructure, especially 
with an enlarged roadway. 

*' To increaae the width of the bridge, by 
additional archea laid upon the new portions 
of the piers, would lead to new and formi- 
dable dangers. This would, in fact, be 
building a new bridge, ten or twelve feet 
wide, by the aide of the old one ; and how- 
ever these might be worked into each other, 
they never could be consolidated into one 
well-balanced, perfect system. Four-iifths 
of the width, and a oorreapondiog portion 
of the weight of the bridge, would atill bear 
upon the defective basea ; and when fnrtlier 
aettlements take place, the collateral struc- 
tures being at one end only of the piers, far 
from aiding to retain the bridge in an up- 
right poaition, the firmness and stability of 
their foundations, not permitting them to 
sink with the parts to which they are attached, 
would cause the faces of the latter to decline 



fh>m a vertical plane, and introduce croes 
itraina, which, iuperadded to the other do- 
rangementi, would infallibly complete the 
ruin of the bridge. 

*' The great diminution of the load taken 
from the spandrels, aa already stated, has 
not prevented the progreasive settlement or 
subddence of the piers, while it has Tery 
materiallyWIeranged the equilUirium of the 
archea severally, and their mutual thruata 
throughout the bridge. The removal of ao 
much loading from the crowns, is a periloua 
experiment, since it exposes the voussohrs 
to violent diocks from the passage of car- 
riages, often heavily laden, immediately 
above them, whereas the Touaioiri were 
before protected from inch concuiiions by 
the intervention of maasea of material which 
serve to check and deaden the vibration. It 
may, therefore, be pronounoed with the 
utmost certainty, that lowering the roadway 
down to the extrados neariy, in order to 
give Westminster Bridge appearances and 
advantagea for which it was not originally 
deaigned, nor scientifically adapted to re- 
ceive, must effect aeverely a structure which 
waa previoualy in danger; and it may be 
added, that the great and indiapensable 
object of a horisontal and wider carriage- 
way can only be obtained by building a new 
bridge. 

** An intricate analysis is required to de- 
termine the nature of the curve wliich the 
roadway over an arch should have, in order 
that the whole system may be duly equili« 
brated : the relative hdghta of the extradoa, 
taken vertically at different points on the 
curve line of the arch, depend upon the 
curvature, and inversely on the cube of the 
sine of the inclination of the voussoir joint 
to a horisontal line ; and therefore an ardi 
equilibrated with a given height at the 
crown, is no longer ao when eqaal depths of 
loading over the whole have been taken 
away. This is now the case with West- 
minster Bridge : moreover, the unequal 
snbsidenee of the piers having deranged 
the voussoirs and distorted the figures of the 
adjoining arches, the partial removal of the 
masses of materials which originally servMl 
to balance and strengthen them at the parte 
denominated " the joints of fracture," in 
which arches are most apt to fail, is an 
experiment which science forbids. A. semi- 
drcular arch of voussoirs of equal weight 
will not atand if the centres be struck before 
it is properly balanced ; and even with every 
pouible care and precaution, such ardies 
are found to settle at the crowns and rise at 
the hances ; and there can be no doubt that 
the removal of so much material from the 
spandrels of the bridge, however this may 
lessen the vertical pressure on the pieriy 



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WSflnORSTIB BBIDOX. 



18 



bu grmUy dlminblMd the Mbmtf of tha 

'*Tbe bridge hii timk bodily dnoe it 
wBi built; and in lOffle parts as mneli as 
km feet. The aerenteen-feet pier haa 
reeentij aettled nine indiea, and ia three 
faiebea ont of the perpendieolar. Saeh, in 
laet, haTe been the derangementi oceaaioned 
by tiiia aettlement that it haa been fbnnd 
neoeaaarj to reeet three conrsea ef the 
ferentj-two feet ardi, near the crown, and 
to introdnoe a new course in lien of that 
which had dropped. Upon opening the 
•pandrela of the bridge, aeriona crai^ were 
osoorered in tiie centre arch, and the aroh 
adjoining, which actnally appeared to have 
separate fktmi other parte of the itmctnre. 
Dm ainldng of the piers has farther loosened 
the arch stonea on either side, and the dis* 
tortion of the arehea is now more ob?io«i8. 
The nniform surface of the aoilta in some 
of the ardiea haa been destroyed by the 
protmsion of the roussoirsy some of which 
have be«i fractured or cmahed, so that parte 
have fallen ont ; and lastly, sinoe the load 
waa taken off from the bridge, the aettle- 
ment haa oontinned snffldenUy to demon- 
strate that no reliance can be placed on the 
effcacT of that expedient." 
• ♦ m m 

" The cracks at the joints of the fracture 
in the weat spandrel of the centre, and in 
the east spandrel of the 68-feet ardi, are 
the moat alarming waminga that haTe ap- 
peared of impenSng danger. Since that 
time (1838), 135,540l. haTc been expended 
in attempts to prcTcnt the damage from ex- 
tendtog; and mudi it is to be regretted, 
that except in so far as the materials may be 
employed in the construction of a new 
bridge, the whole of that sum hu been laid 
ont in Tdn ; for though the cracks have 
been filled up, the equilibrium has not been 
restor ed, and the danger proceeds : all the 
ptera have yielded more or less ; and whether 
the quantity or amount of settlement be 
great or small, it cannot be expected that 
the pnblic can have any confidence in the 
stability of a structure so evidently insecure, 
and which depends entirely on expedients 
which have, in fkct, failed, and in the effi- 
cacy of which the projector declarea that hia 
eonfidence ia shaken. There is a point be* 
jond which the settlement and declension 
ef piers cannot proceed without ruin to the 
•djoming arehea ; and those which, though 
fistorted and unbalanced, stilt stand upon 
piera that have sunk considerably, obliquely, 
and unequally, and which conUnue, up to 
tiiia time, to sink, cannot be far from that 
point. Some of the arehea have obviously 
tnt the balanced form ; and had it not been 
far a peonliarity in the constniotion of the 



bridge, the masonry above the vooaaoira 
being made to radiate in the direction of the 
arch stonee (which, however, betraya aome 
want of confidence on the part of the arehi- 
teet in the atability of the bridge) thoae 
; have fallen." 



Assuming, then, that the bridge must be 
taken down (to prevent ita fUling down), 
the next point to be considered ia, the pro- 
per aite fbr a new bridge. Sir Howard 
Douglas is for rebiUlding It above the New 
Houses of Parliament, between Lambeth 
Staira and MiUbank ; but aa that would 
leave the whole of the large and important 
districts between the above line and Waterloo 
Bridge without any carriage communication, 
he propoaea that there ahould at the aame 
time be erected, near to Chariog-croas, " a 
substantial carriage bridge, instead of the 
comparatively useless, and perhaps iamg9» 
rent* foot bridge whioh haa been inqpended 
there with so much ingenuity." His views 
on these points, and on other metropolitan 
improvements connected therewith, are emi- 
nently deserving of attention :— 

'* A new bridge cannot be conatrueted on 
the present site without previously removing 
the old one ; and this would involve an ex- 
pense of at least 40,000/. in ereetbig a tem- 
porary bridge, to avoid stopping altogether 
the communication between the Borongh 
and Westminster, whilst the new work ia 
proceeding. There is no room for a new 
bridge b^een the Parliamentary Palace 
and the present bridge, for these are already 
in contact ; and the conatmction of a bridge 
anywhere below the present site (say from 
Maudslay's premises to Manehester-build- 
iDg>)» would occasion a very great outlay in 
providiag new approadiea. But if, leaving 
Westminster Bridge in its present state, aa 



* The Author giret, in t long note to hit pamphlet, 
many cogent reasons for Questioning the ■tabillty 
of this bridge, and generally, indeed, of all suspen- 
sion bridges. The late fTightftal accident at Angers, 
coupled with the nearly as Ihtal one at Yarmouth, 
two or three years ago, calls loudlvfor that better 
investigation of the su^ect which ft is now said to 
be undergoing at the hands of a French Govemment 
CommisMon. The Hungerford Bridge, it is true, 
stood a tolerably severe trial on the occasion of the 
late river procession of Prince Albert to open the 
Coal Exchange, and gave no signa of yielding. But 
the number of persons admitted on the bridge at 
the time was not great, and they moved about very 
little. Had a sudden rush been made to either end 
or side from any cause whaterer, so a* to produce a 
tread of the multitude isochronous with the pendu- 
lous vibration due to the system on which the 
bridge is built, it would, almost to a certainty, have 
broken down. 



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WEsmmsTifi BBmes* 



a tmnporary eommwiieitioii* a new bridge 
ware oonatmeted from Lambeth Stairs to 
the nearest part of the opposite bank, no 
expense for new approaches wonld be in- 
enrred, a direct oommnnication with West- 
miniter wonld be established, and a magni- 
fioeat entranoe into the capital formed at an 
interesting and Tenerable part. The rirer- 
faoe of the new Parliamentary Palace wonld 
be seen to great ad?antage, and, no longer 
disfigured and obsenred on the other flank 
when the distasteful structure which now 
defaces it shall have been remoTcd, the 
edifice standing gracefully and boldly out, 
would form a iMsautifiil object upon the 
eoncare sinuosity of the rirer, extending 
thenoe to BUckfriars Bridge and Somerset 
House, which, for this purpose, should be 
reclaimed from its present unwholesome and 
disgusting state by the proposed embank- 
ment and terraee, which it were easy to 
show is an interference with the state of the 
river much required at that part,— and thus 
that pestilential locality would be trans- 
formed altogether into a beautiftil and 
highly embellished portion of the metro- 
polis. 

" From the Westminster end of this new 
Lambeth Bridge, a street should be opened 
to lead directly to Shaftesbury - terrace. 
Baton and BelgraTc-squares, or to commu- 
nicate with some part of that which is now 
being executed under the prorisions of a 
late Act, &c. ; and another formed by the 
rirer bank to Victoria Tower and White- 
hall, passing between Westminster Abbey 
and the ParUamentary Palace. 

'* Entering the court-end of the town by 
this magnificent portal — St. Margaret's 
Church ronoTed, in conformity with the 
unanimous reeommendation of a Select Com- 
mittee, from the immediate vicinity of a 
splendid and ample place of worship, which 
requires not the idd of an adjoining church, 
and the relics which lie around that incon- 
gruous building, exhumed — the western 
face of the quadrangle, by which, according 
to the present design, it is intended to 
enclose Westminster Hall, set back, to give 
greater space between it and Henry the 
Serenth's Chapel ; — Parliament - street 
widened, by remoylog the block of build- 
ings between it and Kiag-street — Downiog- 
strset finished —-and the Board of Trada 
completed ; a majestic communication would 
be formed between the Regal and Parlia- 
mentary Palaces; and if Whitehall- street 
may not, or cannot be straightened through- 
out, those buildings at least should be 
thrown back, whiofa, on approaching Tra* 
fslgar-tquare, obtrude, more immediately 
on the left, to destroy its symmetry. 

« Tivi scYoral circumstances and «M<Qifeet 



upon wUoh thii eompnlie«alf6 pfoposttioM 
is based, are now before the public. — ^Th« 
insUbility of Westminster Bridge, and the 
necessity of conatmcting another ; the pro« 
jeot for building a substantial oarriage 
bridge and Tiadaet at Hungerford instead of 
the Suspension Bridge, and for estaUishUig a 
main terminus In connection with it on tho 
Surrey side ; — the olqeetionable projeot for 
opening a direct oommuniestion between 
Luabeth and Chelsea by a $u^HHMum 
bridge;— the embankment of the rifer at 
that part— the Bill for making a street 
between Buckiagham Pslaee and the Hooaea 
of Parliament— the remoral of the HaUa of 
Court to aome adjohiing locality, or to a 
vicinity deemed mora appropriate, all ahow 
that this is the time for taking thMe propo- 
sitions into immediate and enlarged oonal- 
deratioB, aa foimlng together one oompre* 
bansire pn^nct. 

First, let it be determined where new 
Westminster Bridge is to be placed. If on 
the present site, no credit will be done to 
the public taste ; the beauty and effect of 
the new Padiamentary Palace will be spoilty 
and very inadequate proTision made for the 
public conTCnience. If on any other atte« 
none appears so convenient as that whioh 
hu been suggested. In this case a new 
street should be made by opening Wood- 
street and Great Peter-street, lea£ng dear 
of Westminster Bridewell to Shaftesbury- 
terrace. A communication between the 
west end of Westminster Abb^ and Buck- 
ingham Palace wonld, no doubt, be a very 
Important improvement; but it may weU 
lay over for a more convenient season: 
whenever taken In hand, it it obvioua it 
should be exeonted by enlarging and improv- 
ing TothUl-street and part of York-street, 
entering St. James's Park near the Ste- 
tionary House. With respect to a commu- 
nication between Buckingham Palaoe, the 
Houses of Pariiament and Weetmlnster 
Abbey for state occasions, or national 
solemnities, no more magnificent street can 
be formed than that whidi, from the Horae- 
gnards, leads to New Palace-yard, by such 
a atreet as Parliameatstreet miglit be made 
when opened by the removal of the south 
side of Bridge-street. 

'* These great works may evidently be 
oambined in a manner to aeeomplish, with 
some modlfioationa, the inlentiona of their 
several projectors ; and, at the same timet 
promote the general tonvenienoe of the 
publie» while they embsUlsh and improve 
the capital of this great country." 

Although the Select Committee is sp- 
pointed to investigate the case cf the West- 
Bfidgo alonoi they wlU hardly be 



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ftbb to do jostioe to it without eabracing 
the whole rafajeet of tho pontal commimiet- 
tioM between the two lidei of the riTer in 
its ooone through the metropolis. The 
propriety of any new site which may be 
adopted most, of eonrse, depend on the 
snfficieney of the meani of transit provided 
at other points ; and there are other bridges 
besides Westminster which have suffered, 
end are Ml fat a ooine of progressire dila« 
pidation, from the late increase in the Telo- 
city of the river, consequent on the remoral 
of Old Lendoa Bridge. We allude parti- 
cularly to Blaelrfriars Bridge, whieh, though 
but recently repaired at a great expense, 
exhibits already unmistskeable signs of a 
serious undermfaiing process being at worlc. 
The oeatre arch has sunk no less than tiirae 
inches, as any person may sstisfy himself by 
following with his eye the lines of the cor- 
niee and parapet. If means are not speedily 
adopted to stop this course of things, we 
shall, hi a few years, hare the ruinous 
story of the Westminster Bridge over again. 



K7FBCT8 OF ATMOSPBRUIO SUiCTKIOrPT 
WOS TH« WIUS OF THE If AOWBTIO 
TBLBGAAPH. 

Hie Be9u§ Seieniiflqme, for December last 
(torn. xxxtL, p. 436), contains sn interest- 
ing article by M. Baumgartner on the sub- 
ject of the effects of atmospheric electricity 
upon the wires of the magnetic telegraph. 
l]ie fdlowing are the most interesting of 
hb results: 

1. The needle rarely coincides with the 
point which is determined by its astatic 
^ato and the tension of its suspension 
thread; almost alwa3rs it deristes more or 
less from this point ; which proves that it is 
taflueneed by an electric current 

2. The variations are of two kinds ; there 
sie some which reach SO"", others extend 
ow i'^or 8'. The first are less frequent; 
they differ so often in direction and inten- 
sity that it is impossible to deduce a law for 
theai. On the contrary, the small deria- 
tioBs appear oonnected by a very simple 
bw. 

The observations made at Vienna, and at 
Grttz, appear to show that, during the day, 
(he electric currents move from Vienna, and 
from Gratz, to Semmeriog, which Is more 
ckvated. This direction is inverse during 
ths niy;ht. It appears that this change of 
finetion takes place after the rising and 
•sttxBg of the sun. 



15 

3. The regular current is less disturbed 
by the irregular eurrente when the air is dry 
and the sky serene, than when the weather 
a rainy. 

4. In genera], the current is more intense 
with short than with very long conductors ; 
often even the current of the longer chain 
IS opposed to the current of the shorter 
ehain. 

Where there is a difference of btensity, 
this difference is far greater than that which 
oouM originate from the resistance of the 
longer conductor. 

When the sky is cloudy, and the weather 
stormy, there are frequently observed in the 
electric conductor, currento which are suffi- 
cienUy btense to affect the telegraphic indi- 
cators, which sre, however, far from having 
extreme sensitiveness. 

When they were pkudng the oondueting 
wfres of the Northern Telegraph line, f^ 
Vienna, the workmen frequently complained 
of a kind of spums which they felt in hand- 
ling the wires. These spasms ceased as 
soon ss they took the precaution not to 
touch the wires with naked ha^ds. These 
spasms were most frequent and intense fai 
Styris, the highest region of the line. Thus, 
near Kranichfeld, a workman received a 
shock sufficiently violent to overturn him 
and paralyse his right arm. 

The aotioB of the atmospherio electricity 
on the telagraph is stronger on the approach 
of a storm, and not unfrequently the wires 
theasselves, and the poles which support 
them, are destroyed by electric discharges. 
M. Baumgartner dtes several examples 
fas support of what has just been said. On 
the 17th August, 1849, a storm which had 
burst forth at OUmuU extended to Frielits ; 
that is to say, to a distance of ten miles. A 
workman employed at this latter station, in 
putting up the wires, experienced a shock 
which overturned him, and he experienced 
a real bum of the fingers which touched the 
wire. At this time the sky was perfectly 
serene at Frielits. 



8PB0IFI0ATION8 OF KKOLISH PATBNTS KN- 

MOLLED DURING THS WUK BNDINO 

lULT 5th, 1850. 

WiLLiAsr Palmbu, Sutton-etreet, Cler- 
kcBwell, Middlesex, manufacturer. Fitrim- 
pro99m€ni$iH tke OMmt/aefiirf ^eandlet, 
Ump§, and mieki. Patent dated June 29, 
1840. 

This invention relates ; firstly, to the ma- 
nufacture of candles ; secondly, to the ma- 
noiaotnre of candle lamps ; and thirdly, to 
the manufacture of candle wicks. 

1. The patentee employs rosin or some 
other resinous matter mixed ^th tallow. 

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EKGLI8H SFEOIFIOATIOKS EKBOLLED DtJRTKO THE WEEK. 



or non-acidified ctndle ttaffi and uses one, 
twO) or more wickf , wbieh have the pro- 
perty of taming out of the flame while 
buroiog, 80 aa to avoid the neceaaity of 
annffing, and thereby render candlea, com- 
poaed of auch materiala, capable of being 
bamed in eandle lampa. He atatea, that 
he ia aware that candlea compoaed of roain, 
or aome reainona anbitance and tallow, have 
been made, bat with ordinary wicka, which, 
in conaeqaenoe of their reqairing to be 
oonatantly anoffed, neoetaitated thdr being 
bnrned oat of a lamp, like ordinary oandlea. 
The reanlt of thia mode of homing canaed 
them to prodace a gerat quantity of 
amoke, which rendered their nae very ob- 
jectionable. Hie mode of preparing the 
materiala ia u foUowa i— 1 part by weight 
of roain, or other reainona aabatanoe, ia 
mixed with 8 parte by weight of hard tal- 
low, or non-aoidified candle atoff, and (by 
preference) 1 part by weight, of ? egetable 
wax. To 1 owt. of thia mixture ia then 
added 3 Ibi. of American potaah in aolmtion, 
and 5 Iba. of Titriolic add ; after whidi the 
whole ia boiled for five minntea, and anb- 
aeqaently waahed with warm water. 

2. Inatead of making the parte of a can- 
dle lamp, — that ia to aay, the noixle, the 
atem and the foot, aa heretofore of braaa, or 
tinned iron, which are comparatively ez- 
penaive metala — Mr. Palmer makea them 
ont of aheet iron ; for which pnrpoae the 
noxsle and foot are atamped oat of aheet 
Iron, and the atem la compoaed of a tnbe of 
the aame material ; the whole are to be aol- 
dered or braxed together. 

3. The variona improvementa in the ma- 
nofactare of candle wicka are,— 1. An im- 
provement in the machine, patented Jane 
9, 1849, for coating candle wicka with tal- 
low and keeping them aeparate, which con- 
aiata in making the tnbe (containing the tal- 
low), and the noaxle, &c., in aeveral piecea, 
which are conneeted together by acrewa, 
ao that the noaxle may be removed when 
required withoat caaaing the reat to re- 
volve. 2. MflJcing mah-Ughta in auch man- 
ner that the raahea ahall tam oat of the 
flame. For thia parpoae the whole of the 
exterior la peeled off, except on one aide» 
inatead of on two oppoaite aidea, aa haa 
hitherto been caatomary, and the neoeaaary 
preponderance on one aide la thoa obtained ; 
or the whole of the exterior may be peeled 
off and the preponderance given to one 
aide by coating it with biamath or charcoal, 
mixed with paate to the conaiateney of paint. 
3. Giving the preponderance to one aide of 
cotton cord wioka, neoeaaary to caaae them 
to tarn oat of the flame when baroing, by at- 
taching to tbem or gympingtbem with a atrip 

' ' - cartoon, or other hard fabric, or by 



coating it on one aide with the mixtare belbre 
mentioned. 4. Making wicka ont of a fabric 
cat Into atripa, which haa been previonaly 
coated, while atretched, with the mixture 
before mentioned. 5. Making wicka out 
of atripa of velveteen, or other aimilar 
&brio having one aarface aofter than the 
other, whereby the neoeaaary Indination to 
turn out of the flame will be given to them. 
6. To avoid the want of uniformity of re- 
aiatanoe of the gymping thread, ariaing from 
the diminiahing lixe of the red aa the work 
prooeeda, Mr. Palmer propoaea to wind It 
Uke a cop on a atem, the other end of whidi 
ia attached to a rigger, which aunroonda the 
tnbe through which the wick paaaea. 7* 
Saturating the wick before gymping with 
tallow: they are aubaequently paaaed 
through an eye to remove the aaperiflaoaa 
tdlow. Flat wicka are rounded, after aatu- 
ration, by paaaing them when odd through 
an eye. 8. Cutting fabrica into atripa, to 
form wicka by meana of a knife, which Is 
foroed through or drawn aeroaa them againat 
a atraight edge, that retaina them in poaltion 
during the operation. Hie machinery for 
working the cutter, the atraight edge end 
the feeding-in table, are of the ordinary con- 
atraction, and worked by hand. 9. An im* 
provement in the wick-holdera, which was 
the aabjeot of a patent granted to the aame 
gentleman, June 9, 1849. It conaiata ha 
the addition of Inclined tubular wick- 
holdera to the aocketa. 

CMm§, — 1. The manufacture of candleat 
aultable for candle lampa, by combining tal- 
low, or non-acidified candle atuff and roain, 
or aome reainoua aubatance with one, two, or 
more wicka, which have the property of 
tuming out of the flame when buming. 

2. Making the parte of candle lampa of 
aheet iron. 

3. The aeverd peculiar modea of making 
candle wicka. 

William Baklow, Blackheath, C.E., 
and William Hknrt Barlow, Derby, 
C.E., ybr improvetnentM in the permanent 
waye qf rnlwaye. Patent dated January 
3, 1850. 

The patenteea deacribe and daim — 

1. Caatiog the bearera of that part of the 
permanent way where there are awitchea or 
croaainga with two or more chaira. 

2. Supporting the linea of rails by meana 
of tranaverae and longitudioel bearera com- 
bined, having two or more chaira caat 
thereon. 

3. Riveting trough - rails to bearera, 
which are connected by tranaverae piecea to 
maintain the gauge. 

4. Conatracting railway tum-tablea, which 
are supported at the centre by a screwed pin, 
and of iron plates riveted together, and to 

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SKOUSH 8PECIFI0ATIOK8 BNBOLLED DtUINO THB WKEX. 



17 



a Bumber of T pieces of iron arranged radi- 
ally aronod the centre, and within an iron 
ring, which is famished on the underside 
with rollers. 

Job Sidbbottom, Pendlebary, Lancaster, 
nanager, /or cer/oin improvemenis intfeam 
CHIf iaet. Patent dated January 3, 1850. 

This inrention consists in connecting a 
system of lerers and adjustable gearing to 
the gorernor and to the throttle ralre and 
air-pump of a steam engine, in order that 
when it shall hare attained an undue Telo- 
city, its fiirther motion will be arrested by 
the dosing wholly or partially of the valfe, 
uid by the admission of air into the con- 
denser ; also, in an arrangement of appa- 
ratus f^iereby the increased Telocity of the 
gorernor shall cause a bell to ring, for the 
purpose of indicaUng this circumstance to 
the engineer. 

Thomas Liohtfoot, Broad Oak, Ac- 
eringtOBy Lancaster, chemist, /or tiMproM- 
BieBlff In prhUmff and dyeimff /abrie§ qf 
eoiiom and oiktrfibnmi maieHak, Patnt 
dated January 3, 1850. 

1 . Hie fiibrics are to be partially bleached, 
by boiUng from fiTe to seren hours in water, 
with 2 OS. crystaUhied carbonate to each 
pound of fibre. It is next washed, dried, 
and steeped In sulphuric add mixed with 
water <^ a strength of l^^Twaddel's hydro- 
meter, then washed and dried again, after 
whidi the fibres are immersed in a mixture 
eonsisting of i ox. of pearlash, 1^ pints of 
water at a temperature of 110** Fahr., and 
2 OS. of oUtb oil (to eadi 1 lb. of fibre), 
until absorption takes place. They are 
subsequent^ dried in a store, and subjected 
twice to the first operation, and dried again. 
Tliey are then made to diaorb dean water 
at 110** Fahr., to the extent of li pints for 
each 1 lb. of fibre. Tliese two operations 
(absorption and drying) are each repeated 
alternately dght times, after which the fibres 
are steeped or padded in a solution of li oss. 
oi pearlash to 4 pints of water, dried and 
saturated with acetate of ahiraina. This 
mordant is fixed by wsshing ; after which 
the fibres are ready to reodre the colour. 
Instead of the preceding process, the pa- 
tentee states that the same result may be 
obtained by saturating the fibres with a 
solution of any of the metallic bases, such as 
salta of magnesia, tin, copper, nickd,or co- 
balt ; or with a solution of an alkali, or an 
alkaUne solution,of a metallic oxide, such as 
ahiminated soda, or aluminated potadi, oxitle 
of tin, in a solution of lime, soda, or potash, 
&c. The orchil or cudbear is prepared for 
printing by mixing it with gum-senegal, and 
is appUed to the fabric, and subsequently 
steamed in the usud manner. The fabric, 
when composed of Tcgetable fibres entirdy, 
may be subjected, after it is woven, to the 



preparatory process; but if composed of 
vegetable and animd colours combined, the 
vegetable fibres must be prepared by them- 
selves previously to weaving them with the 
others. If orchil or cudbear alone is used, 
then the colour is brightened by passing the 
fabric through an dkaline solution ; but if 
other colours are used, which would be 
injured by the alkali, then those portions of 
the fabric on which the orchil or cudbear 
has been printed are printed over with an 
dkaline scMutMn, thickened to the requued 
oondstency. Or 24 os. of hydrate of mag- 
nesia, or 12 OS. of caldned magnesia may be 
mixed with 1 gallon of colour before printing. 

2. The improvement in dyeing vegetable 
fibres consuta in preparing them by either 
of the processes before described, and dyeing 
them with orchil or cudbear, in the same 
manner as wool or silk has hitherto been 
dyed with the same colour. 

daimi.-^l. Printing orohil or cudbear on 
to fabrics composed wholly or partially of 
cotton, Imen, or other vegetable fibres, pre- 
pared in the manner before described, and 
also the use of magnesia oombmed with 
orchil or cud-bear. 

2. Dyeing vegetable fibres, prepared, as 
described, with orchil or cudbear. 

AUBZANDBB BkODIB CoCHBANB, JuB., 

and Abchibald Slatb, Dudley, Worces- 
ter, engineer. Jbr 4mpr<n>€metU» tn ike 
mamtfiietura ^ troB piSpet w iubet. Patent 
dated January 8, 1850. 
The patentees describe and daim— 

1. A mode of guidmg the intemd pat- 
tern of moulds by affixing it to the top of a 
rod, whieh slides in a guide plate on the top 
of a tube, and carries a piston at bottom, 
whereby any osdllation or unsteadiness of 
motion of the intemd pattern as it is sue- 
cesnvdy lifted up is prevented. 

2. A Biethod of ramming in the sand, by 
caushig the ramming-in tube to indose the 
guide rod, and communicating to it (the 
ramming-in tube) a redprooating and stow 
rotary motion by the intervention of toothed 
gearing from any suitable prime mover. 

3. Drying moulds, by placing above the 
pit in which they are contamed a furnace 
and Mowing -apparatas, and within each 
mould a veil^cd cylinder, communicating at 
bottom with the interior and exterior of the 
mould, through which hot dr is driven. 

4. Removing the prodncte from retorta or 
ovens in which cores have been dried, by 
means of pumps, fans, or other mechanical 
means. 

5. Coating cast iron pipes with glass by 
covering the ddes of the core with a compo- 
sition which will melt by the heat of the 
molten metd. For this purpose it is pro- 
posed to grind up together ISO parte flint 
glass, 20 parts soda, and 12 parte boradc. 



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BKOLISH SPEOinOATIONS ENROLLED OTJBIKa THE WEEK. 



Thif miztare may be either applied in a dry 
iUte to the core, by previooAly coating the 
latter with a gamming eolation and datting 
the powder 0Ter» or it may be bnuhed orer 
the ioriace in a moiat state. 

6. A machine for bending ap the ikelp 
in the mannflictare of wrooght iron tabei, 
which Gonsiati of a anitable framework oar- 
ryhig at bottom a main driTing shaft with 
two cranks, placed in the same direction, 
which commnnleale an alternately raising 
and falling motion to a bed plata. Upon 
this bed plate is fixed the bottom or moTC- 
able die, which, at the entrance end, is of 
an open gutter shape, gradnally dimiidshiog 
in size towards the opposite or exit end 
until it assames the appearance of a semi- 
circle. The top die is fixed and made to 
correspond to the lower one. In front of 
the machine, where the lower die is widest, 
there is monnted a pair of feeding*in rollers, 
which, at each fall of the bed plate, ia 
caused to make a partial re? olution by 
means of a ratchet wheel keyed on the axle 
of one of them, in which acts a paul in con- 
nection with one of the cranks. Tliis inter- 
mittent motion, or partial fCTolution of the 
feeding*in rolkirs, is communicated to a pair 
of finishing rollers, which are monnted in 
the other end of the framework, opposite 
the contact end of the lever die. These 
rollers are grooTsd so that the space between 
them forms a complete circle. Hie skelp is 
introduced by thefeeding-in rollers between 
the dies, and as it is sncoessiTely pushed for- 
ward it is gradually bent up until it it de- 
livered to the finishing rollers, which oom- 
plete the operation. 

Albket CbaokbllWatsblow, London- 
wall, lithographer, /or imp r QV i t u n ti m ike 
meant aul tqiparahu fir ohUthiiB§ tofim 
(if wriHnff§, dramin§9^ wad eiher du^gftM. 
(A communication.) Patent dated January 
3, 1850. 

The improfements sought to be seourud 
under this patent are» 

1. A peculiar construction of lithographic 
press, in which the presaer roller is made to 
traTel over the stone with the paper inter- 
posed. 

2. A portable copying press, which oon- 
rists of a suitable support, on iHiich the 
autography paper is laid, aboTC that the 
paper, and oTcr the last another piece of 
paper, which is maintained in pontion by 

Sins or otherwise, while pressure is applied 
y a roller or atraight edge. 
No claims are niade in this specification. 
Hbnrt Doumino, Hearsley, Bolton, 
Lancaster, brick and tile manufacturer. 
For eirUm improvimente in maekmerj^ or 
eytparMitu for mmm/meturing trieki, Ulee, 
and other eimiiar artieteefrom eUsy or other 
pUetic wmkrUk. Petent dated Jan. d, 1850. 



The patentee describes and daims— 

1. The ^>plication to the front of a pug 
mill, but eccentric to it of a rerolving table, 
with recesses or hollows therein, which me- 
eessiTcly receives the bricks as tiiey are 
moulded, and carries them round to be 
lifted out of position by hand or maohinery» 
and removed. 

2. Working the two pistons of i pug mill 
by rods connected to cranks keyed opposits 
to one another on either ride or a worm cut 
on a horisontal shaft. A toothed whed 
keyed on the driving shaft gean into the 
worm, and communicates motion to the 
pistons, one of which advances while the 
other recedes, so that a continuous stream 
of clay is forced through the milU 

3. Compressing and soUdUying the day, 
after it haa been formed into the desired 
shapes, by means of pistons acting in moulds, 
which are worked by a osaehini sissilar to the 
one Ust described. 

4. Two modifications of the preceding 
machine, in which the pistons and moulda 
are worked by cams and levers. 

John Rbad, Park-terrace, Klng's-road, 
Chelsea, gentleman. For tmprevemente in 
extracting Jluide from onlmo/, vegetahlef 
and mineiral eubetaneeef and in eo wtpre e ein g 
the eame. Patent dated June 29, 1850. 

The madiine which forms the subject of 
this patent consists of two perforated hori- 
sontal cylinders, termed ** extracting boxes," 
open at both ends, which ate i^aced one in 
front and the other bdiind a horisontal 
steam cylinder. The piston rod passes 
through the piston and through stuffing 
boxes in the Irent and bade covers of the 
iteam cylinder. Each end of the piston 
rod is fitted with a "ram," which worics to 
and fro in its respective extracthig box. 
The rams are made hollow, and with the 
fore ends perforated to allow of the passage 
of the extracted fluid. The outlets of the 
"extraethig boxes" are provided with por- 
forated hollow '* end plates," fdiidi may be 
Indeed and made to bear against theee open- 
ings,so as to offer resistance to the compres- 
sion of the substances while under operation, 
or may be moved away from them to allow 
of the exit of the compressed substauces. 
The movement of the aid plates is effscted 
by two systems of levers. The perforations 
in the rams, end plates, and the extracting 
boxes are covered with some suitable ftibric 
for the purpose of filtering the fluids that 
are expressed, and which escape through 
channels provided for that purpose into a 
suitable receptacle. Each of the extracting 
boxes is provided with a hopper, placed on 
the end near the steam cylinder, for foedtng 
in the aubstances to be compressed. 

CiettRf. — 1. The employment of the ex- 
tracting boxes, rams, and cod plates, eom- 



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WBBKLT LIST 09 NBW XM0LT8H P1TSHT8* 



19 



Wned into a Machfaie for otraetteg fluldi 
from animi], Tegettble, and mineral inb- 
tttneei, and for compreiiing the tame. 

2. The application of iteaoi direct to the 
eitraetlon of flnidi and compression of snb- 



SpeeiJUMiion Jhi^, hui not EmrolUd, 
Louis Cjuairu Charpillok, Roe de 
LezamlKMurf » France. Far hmpm/^muMU 
in l9ck9fir gwM amd fi»M9. Patent dated 
Deeember 29, 1849. 



KBCxirr AManicAN fatimts. 
(Selected from iii%Ffnklim'J9umai,) 
Pon AN iMPROYSlfSIIT IN APPARATUS 

Fon DiSTiLLiNo Sea-watbe. Johm Erie*" 
mm 0nd R. B, P^km. 

The patentees saj, — " Oar invention con- 
sists of a boiler, to be worked at yery low 
pressure, with horizontsl flue-tabes so situ- 
ated, relatiTely to the door for sappljing the 
fuel to the grate, that the opening of this 
door will expose the flae tubes to view, and 
sdmit of cleaning out the soot that unavoid- 
ably ooUecta in, and which would otherwise 
choke them. 

** Also, in connecting the steam chamber 
of the aaid boiler with the upper end of a 
eondenser, by a flexible pipe attached to a 
bmmet or dome, which rests on and closes 
a large aperture at the top of the boiler, in 
the manner of a safety vslve, that it may 
answer the manifold purposes of steam pipe 
eonnectioD, safety val?e, steam dome or 
chamber, hand hole, for giving access to the 
inside of the boiler, and for aseertsining by 
inspection the height of water in the boiler. 

'* Also, in condensing the steam, by caus- 
ing it to pass between two vessels, the inner 
one kept cool by the flow of water through 
it, and the other by the evaporsting action 
of the atmosphere on moist cloth or other 
porous substance surrounding it, that the 
required condensation may be efiectively 
sttained in very warm climates. 

'* Alao, in employing, in combination with 
^ boiler and the condenser, a water feed 
pipe having a double connection, one with 
fte boiler and the other with the condenser, 
whereby the same feed pipe supplies the 
boiler sod condenser. 

" And finally, in combining with the 
boOcr and the feed pipe a feed cistern with 
a eork or other light float, which, when the 
water is at the required hdght in the boiler, 
will be forced up close to the aperture of the 
fced pipe, and thus cut off the supply. 

Cknm, — " What we claim as our inven- 
tion in the before described apparatus for 
the distillation or production of fresh water 
•1 board of ahlpa or other vessato, is oon- 



neoting the steam boiler with the eondenasr 
by means of a flexible pipe, substantially as 
described, in oombination with the valve- 
joint oonneotion of the bonnet or steam 
dome oovering the hand hole in the top of 
the boiler, substantially as described, where- 
by this connection is rendered of manifold 
uses, as described. 

" We also claim condensing the steam by 
passing it in a spaoe between two vessels, 
the inner one kepi eool by a eorrsot of 
water, and the external one surrounded by 
woollen or other porous substance to be 
kept in a moist slate, to condense the steam 
by the evaporating dket of the atmosphere 
on the moistened surface surrounding the 
outer ease, substantially as described, where- 
by the apparatus is especially adapted to 
very low Utitodes, as described. 

'* And finally, we claim the food pipe for 
supplying water to the condenser, and for 
feeding the boiler, substentially as described, 
in combination with the cistern that con- 
ducte the feed water to the boiler, and pro- 
vided with a float for regulating the flow of 
water from the feed pipe, substantiaUy as 
described, wheraby the apparatus is ren- 
dered self-feeding without liability of de- 
rangement, as described." 

Fob an Improvbd Means for Work- 
ing Sails. William A, Ro9§. 

The patentee says,—" My improvement 
in, or addition to, the parte employed about 
the foresails of sloops or schooners, or the 
jibs of these or other vessels, or any other 
fore-and*aft sail, when the foot of the sail is 
stretehed flat or straight by a boom, consists 
in the addition of a rope, so fitted that it 
prevente the sail from sticking or stretehing, 
so as to tear at the diagonal line or point of 
shortest distance between the after end of 
the boom and the bolt rope of the sail, 
thereby facilitating the furling or stowing of 
the sail when lowered, and aiding in setting 
the sail when hoisted. 

Claim. — ** I claim as my invention, the 
attechment of a rope to the bolt rope of a 
sail, to act as a downhaul in lowering, and 
to sheet the sail home when hoisting, such 
rope passing by sheaves or blocks, or In any 
convenient manner, from one end of the 
boom to the other, so that it operates to 
ralease the cringle, snd relieTC the sail when 
lowering, and replace the cringle, and sheet 
home to the sail when hoisting, substentially 
as described. 



WaSKLT LIST OF NEW BNGLISH PATENTS. 

William Lancaster, of New Bond-street, Middle- 
sex, gunmaker, for improvementi in the m«na- 
fkcture of fire armi ana cannon, and of peieasslon 
tul»et. July 3 ; six monthi 

John Co(^ Haddan, of Bloomabury-tqaare, In 



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WBSKLI LIST OV BNGUBH PITBNTS AND DESIGNS. 



tlM eounty of Middlesex, dvll engineer, for im- 
prorements in the eonetrueUon of carriages and of 
wheels, and in brickwork. July 3 ; six months. 

Francis Edward Colegrare, of Brighton, Esq., for 
improvements in the valves of steam and other 
engines in causing the driving wheels of locomotive 
engines to bite the rails, and also in supplying 
water to steam boilers. July 3 ; six months. 

Charles PhiUips, of the city of Bristol, engineer, 
fi»r Improvements in aoparatus or machinery for 
cutting turnips and other similar substances as 
food for cattle. July 3; six months. 

Richard Homsby, of SpftUegate Grantham, in 
the county of Lncoin, agricultural implement mar 
nulketnrer, for improvements in machinery fot 
sowing eom and seeds, and in depositinff msnure 
in thrashing machines, in machines for depositing 
or winnowing com, and in steam engines and 
boilers for agricultural purposes. July 8; six 
months. 

James Thomson, of Glasgow, civil engineer, for 
Improvements In hydraulic machinery, and in 
steam engines. July 3; six months. 

Bichaid Winter, of New Cross, in the county of 
Kent, gentleman, for improvements in metallic 
vessels for meaiuiing and holding liquids. July 
t; lizmonUiB. 



James Ward Hoby, of Blaokheath, engineer, for 
certain improvements in the construction of p«rts 
of the permanent ways of railways and in shying 
iron. July 3 ; six months. 

Rftul Bapsey Hodge, civil and mechanical engi- 
neer, of Adam-street, Adelphi, for improvements 
in obtain descriptions of steam engines, and in the 
apparatus and management for cultivating and 
manuring the soil, and In treating the produce 
thereof. July 8; six months. (Partly a eonunu- 
nioation.) 

Wakefield Pirn, of the town or borough of Kings- 
ton - upon > Hull, engine; and boiler maker, for 
certain improvements In the construction of the 
boilers and funnels of steam engines. July 3 ; six 
months. 

Charles Starr, of New York, in the United States 
of America, for improvements in bookbinding. 
Julys. 

James Kingsford, of Essex-street, Strand, Esq., 
for improvements in refdgeratlng and freezing. 
JiUy 3 ; six months. 

Weston Tuxford, of Boston, in the county of 
Lincoln, for improvements in machinery for crush- 
ing or pressing land, and for shaking straw ; also 
improvements in applying steam power to agri- 
cultural machinery. July 4; six months. 



WIBU.T LIST OV DB8I0N8 FOK A&TICLB8 OF ITTILITT RB0I8TIRID. 

Date of No. in 
Beglstra- the Re- 

tion. gUtor. Proprietors' Names. Addresses. Sutjecta of Design 

June S6 2353 Stephen Sharp....^...... Stamford 



2353 
S354 
27 2355 



Wef>b and Greenwav ... Birmingham 
lohn- 



28 2358 



29 2857 



..•M.M.M.M..M...... Lump-sugar cutting i 

. ...M.M.....MM.M.... Cupboard fastener. 

James ft George John- 

........ Paisley .^...•.......•o..m..........m Cutting apparatui for bonnet 

tops. 
Arm- 
..M.... St George -street, Wellelose- 

iqaaie ....».*....f.......M.».... A door tnd apparatus tat 

closing the opening of ships' 
scuttles. 
Anthony Bttrick... ...... Highbane, Sunderland ....m... Travelling bag or portman- 



Hopwood and 
strongs 



July 1 2858 Charles Cowper 



» 8359 

2 2360 

8 2361 

4 2362 



Henry Alfred Jowett 



James Woods ».... Stow karket, Suffolk 



Southampton -buildings. Chan- 
cery-lane ......M..... An addition to a braiding 

machine. 
Sawlejr^ Derby Parts of a signal lamp. 



George Simpson • 
William Walker . 



. Spurrier-gate, York 
. Manchester « 



».M... Bruising and grinding mill. 
».».... The York coat or paletot. 
M.M... Ventilating chimney tube. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Deseriptlon of Grimsley's Patent Improve- 
ments In the Manufheture of Bricks and 
Tiles— (leiM eiifraeiN^«) —,-^»»»»^,^,»—^ 1 

Insubmergible Boats.— Water-tight Compart- 
ments .m.m.m..m.mm.m....m..mm..m...m.m..»m. 5 

Eflbets of Shot on Iron Ships... ............ ........ 6 

Philosophy of Fire Extinetion.-^Theory and 
Practice. By Mr. W. Baddeley 7 

Deseriptlon of Messrs. BIlby and Co.'s Cap- 
stan M..M.M...M..M....».M.*»......*.M......M.....M 9 

Description of Pope's Stop Yalve— (wUA tn- 

^r0eMI^)....MM..M......M........M.M... M.M... 10 

Westminster Bridge.— Metropolitan Bridges, 
and Westminster Improvements. By Sir 
Howard Douglas, Bart , M.P.— (revjtw)...... 10 

EflfeeU of Atmospheric Electrioltv upon the 
Wires of the Magnetic Telegraph.^ 15 



Spedflcations of English Patents Enrolled 
during the Week:— 
Palmer ....M....M.....MCandles, Lamps, and 

Wicks 15 

Barlow and Barlow ...Railways .m....».m... IS 

Sidebottom „ Steam Engines 17 

LIghtfoot ....» » ...Printing and Dyeing 17 

Cochrane and Slate...Iron Tubes 17 



..Copying Presses ., 
..Bricks and TUes..... 



Waterlow ., 

Doming 

Read Extracting Fluids, 

Specifications Due, Imt not Enrollea :— 

Charpillon »• Gun-locks ....^....m. 

Recent American Patents :— 

Ericsson and Forbes.. Distilling Sea- Water 

Ross Working Sails......... 

Weekly List of New English PateoU 19 

Wceklv List of Designs for Articles of UtUity 
Registered ......«......; 20 



IS 
18 
18 

19 

19 
19 



LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by Joeeph Clinton Robertson, of No. 166, Fleet-street, 
In the avrot London.— Sold by A. and W. Oalignani, Rue Vivienne, Paris; Machin and Co.» 
DmbUo i W. €. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh. 



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MUSEUM, REGISTEE, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

No. 1405.] SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1850. [Price Zd,, Stamped, 4d. 

Edited by J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-street. 

FERGUSON'S IMPROVED GUN-CARRIAGE. 




ISg. 3. 



Pfe. 4. 





Fig. S. 



Pig. 5. 



Fig. 6. 





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32 

vBmftVfov's mpRoriB «irM*oAm»ueB. 

(Regifteied under the Act fi>r the Proteetlon of Artielei of Utility. Meun. C. A. and T. Fengnaoo, 

Haft-house, Mill-wall, Proprteton.) 
SiR| — Great would have been the gratification of the late Brigadier- General Sir 
Samuel Bentham, could he but baye witnetied the almost dail? realisation that 
takes place of many of the ingenious plans which be propounded, or the require- 
ments which he called for, both in ciyil and military engineering. The MedumicM* 
Magazine for June 15 (toI. Hi., page 468), contains the general's statement of the 
properties that should eharaeteriie a good gwH carriage : via., that when it is re- 
quired to train the gun forward " the w«i||ht of the gun and carriage shall be 
transferred instantaneously from the broad bearing on which it rests, on to rollers, 
80 placed as that it shall l>e easily trained forward or aft, and that, on letting go the 
handspike, ^e effect of the rollers shall instantly cease, and the gun remain 
steadily fixed by its own weight in the position to which it has been brought." 
By a somewhat remarkable coincidence, tne ?ery same number of your Magazine, 
announces the registraiian by Messrs. C. A. and F. Ferguson, of an improyed 
gun-carriage possessing all the advantages contemplated by Sir Samuel Bentham. 
since the time at which he penned his varied *' notes,'* the general and extensive 
employment of heavy guns on slide carriages has convioced most persons conversant 
with the practice of naval gunnery, of the serious deficiencies of tne system hitherto 
in use, and the urgent necessity for some practical improvement to fkoilitate the 
working of these tremendous pieces of ordnance with gi^ater ease and safety. The 
improved gun-carriage of Messrs. Ferguson seems to supply every deficiency — to 
meet every possible requirement. 

Fig. 1 is a side elevation, and fig. 2 a rear-end view of a 68-pounder gun, 10 feet 
long and weighing 95 cwt, mounted upon Messrs. Ferguson's improved carriage ; 
fig. 3 shows the mting apparatus detached, and fig. 4, an end view of the same ; 
fig. 5 is a front, and fig. 6 an edffe view of their improved compressor. A is a strong 
shaft or spindle passing through kneed gudgeons C, attached to the lower edges of 
the brackets ana the after edge of the rear-block, uniting them strongly together. 
BB are links affixed to the shaft A, and having between them rollers B. At the 
outer ends of the shaft A are levers D, furnished with ring links F, to receive the 
hooks of the gun-tackles. In figs. 1 and 2, the gun-carriage is shown as resting 
upon the slide ; but on attaching the gun-tackles to the links F, and drawing the 
levers D forward (into the posidon shown b^ figs. 3 and 4), the rear end of the 
carriage and both friction blocks are lifted off the slide and the carriaffe supported 
upon Uie four rollers, fore and aft ; on continuing to pull the gun- tackles, the gun 
is trained forward with great facility. The shaft A working in the gudgeons C, as 
a fulcrum, forms simultaneously a leverage and propelling aetion, so direct, that 
in working the heaviest guns it is all that could be desired. Both rollers being 
affixed to the shaft A, and working together, ensures simultaneous action, and main- 
tains a true bearing on the slide which adds greatly to its stability,— a most im- 
portant point, esj^ecially in a sea way. At the same time it provides an effectual 
remedy tor any irregularity of the men when "rousing out'^ the gun, and also 
provides against the contingency of accidents to the tackles, as should one be injured 
or shot away, the working of the gim will not be much impeded, until such time as 
it ean be replaced. The compressers G (shown deuched in figs. 5 and 6) are a vast 
improvement over those hitnerto employed ; they are made with the iron plaoed 
edgewise, and are therefore stronger with less weight of metal than those in com- 
mon use; being more economical in manufacture, and greatly superior in use. 
Having no ribs or other projections, Messrs. Ferguson's compressors do not interfere 
with the working of the gun-tackles which pass them freely ; their use dso, permits 
some three or four inches to be saved in the length of the rear blocks of the gun- 
carriage. These improvements of Messrs. Ferguson's, are generally considered the 
most important that have been made in this department, since the first introduction 
of slide gun-carriages, and will no doubt come rapidly into use in this highly im« 
portant branch of marine artillery. I remain, Sir, yours respectfully, 

William Baddblbt. 
S9, Alfireditreet, lalington, June 25, 1830. 



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VATAI* AmOHITIOTirRB<-EWBOT8 OV DIVFBRBMOB OF IMMBmSIOV. 



The same vessels having at some 
times been considered the best sailing 
fesseb in the Navy, at other times the 
unrst, Sir Samuel Bentham took some 

eina to aseertain how snch a diflferenoe 
the etthnation of their properties had 
arisea, and foired that it was most fre- 
qoently eoBseqnent on their more or 
UBS immersion in the water. At the 
pment day, too, it often happens that 
ttie sailing qualities of a ship are at one 
time higlily vaunted, at another as much 
disparaged. Sir Samuel ^ou^t that 
examples talien from former ships wen, 
OB account of the alwence of preference 
or prejudice in regard to them, the most 
useful ; the following abstracts f^om in- 
ismiation he collected may, therefore, 
without reference to vessels of the pre- 
sent day, show how greatly the sailing 
of a ship depends on the degree of her 
hnmernon. 

The Landam, in the Isst century, 
sailed so well on the American station, 
that it was universally thought no 00- 
gnn ship should thereafter be built that 
was not like the London i accordingly the 
IVmm, the Impregnable^ and the Wmd- 
•mr CmUU were built from her draught, 
ma very Londtm was paid off in 1794, 
as the wof9i $mling sh^ in tkefUei, At 
tfie time theLondon sailed so well, she was 
i^hif when so miserably ill, very deep. 

The Prince and the ImpregneUe al- 
ways sailed ill ; they were ahoaye deep. 

The Triumph and the FaUmU were 
built from the draught of the French 
BnimMe. The Valiant, at first going 
to sea, sailed rather in a superior style — 
te Triumph sailed very ill— the cry 
was ^t she diffisred from the Valiant, 
and dMt was the cause of her bad sail- 
iBff ; " she had been measured and found 
Is be no less than three inches broader 
than the VaHant, and that great differ- 
CBce accounted for the lad sailing of the 
Triuw^h,*' But the Triumph, after- 
wards on the American station, sailed 
better than every other ship, and the 
VaUoMt, in 1790, was one of the worst 
saOhig ships in Lord Howe*s fleet. The 
Trnauph when she sailed ill was deep, 
when uie sailed so well was light. The 
Vakamt when she sailed ill was deep. 

The (Janaila sailed so well that the 
M^eeiie, Captain, and Orion were 
kaiit from her draught Ingoing down 
Ghaaoely <m her way to the nestlndieiy 



the OftoM, with a fresh essterlv wind, 
went only 8 knots ; she had at feast six 
times as much sail set as some of the 
other 74-gun ships, yet she with diffi- 
culty kept way with them ; her ports 
were then 4 feet 10 inches out of water. 
At Barbadoes, as much ballast and other 
weight was taken out of her as amounted 
to 120 tons ; and on the passsse home 
her casks were not filled with salt water, 
80 that when she arrived in England her 
ports were feet 4 inches out of water, at 
which thne, with studding sails set, she 
went 13 knoto. Her difi^erence in rate of 
aailing, with equal strength of wind and 
equal quantity of sail, but more or less 
immersed, was 

8 knots deep, her ports being only 
4 feet 10 inches out of water. 

13 knots light, her ports being fi feet 
4 inches out of water. 

The second time the Orion went to 
the West Indies, her ports were 5 feet 
8 hiches out of water ; she went into the 
Cheeapeak to complete her water ; the 
pilot that carried her in said his boat 
would certainly beat the ship— (the Vir- 
ginia pilot boats were noted for sailine 
well) — particularlv as it was smooth 
water and the wind a-beam. The boat 
was then going 7 or 8 knots ; the ship 
10 knots, £ouni she was towing all her 
boats, and on that account her main-sail 
was not set. — ^The pilot was amased i but 
was told that on going out again his 
boat would |beat the ship. Accordingly, 
in gobg out, the same boat passed the 
ship — the pilot was still more amased, 
for his boat was in the same state 
as before, and he could see no alter- 
ation in the ship ; but the ship in going 
in was light, when coming out 7 inches 
deeper in the water. 

The same ship, the Orion, when in 
Lord Howe's fieet, in 1790, was one of 
the worst sailing vessels, and not wea- 
therly; she was then deep. In Lord 
Hood's fieet, in 1792, she was looked at 
with astonishment ; she beat everything, 
brigs, cutters, frigates, ships of the line, 
in a most wonderful degree ; she was 
then light 

The Canada when she sailed so well 
as to have been a model ship was light ; 
she was deep when, in coropiny with the 
Alexander, that ship was taken, and the 
(kinada was in danger of being so also, 
when the captain was advised to lighten 

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THOUGBia ON laiTEB. 



her ; he did bo, and the effect was imme- 
diate^ — she sailed &8ter, and so escaped. 

One of the ships abo?e mentioDed, 
the Prince^ having always been deep, 
and having always sailed ill, instead of 
trying the effect of lightening her, was 
made the subject of a very eosUy experi- 
ment, that of cutting her across in mid- 
ships, and lengthenmg her 17 feet, the 
addition being between her two halves. 
It was difficult to conceive what the 
abject of this experiment was, since there 
were other 90-gun ships in the service 
of the same proportion of length to 
breadth that was given to the Irrinee 
when lengthened, nor was any reason 
for the alteration stated in any official 
document, other than that she was a bad 
sailor; but whatever might have been 
the point to be ascertained by her elon- 
gation, it would have been essential Uiat 
we ship in other respects should have 
been in the same state as before the 
lengthening her; on the contrary, at 
the same time that this alteration was 
made, a considerable addition was siven 
to the breadth of her rudder, and uso to 
the depth of her false keel. After she 
went to sea again, the offieert who had 
to report on her qualities, expressed bis 
uncertainty as to which of the alterations 
her improvement was to be attributed to^ 
but spoke of it as having arisen princi- 
iMdly from her being now less immersed 
in the water than she had been before 
the alteration. 

Sir Samuel brought officially to the 
notice of the Admiralty the uselessness 
of that experiment, seeing that it was 
not confined to one particular object. — 
The same disregard to confining experi- 
ments to a single object still remains — 
still nullifies almost all that relate to the 
aualities of navigable vessels. It is true 
tnat when the rate of a Gk>vemroent 
steamer has to be ascertained, she is 
often tried with her full lading on board, 
or with other equivalent weights ; but the 
simple experiment of trying the differ- 
ent rates of progress of the same vessel, 
when immersed to different depths 
seems as yet to have been altogether 
neglected. The most advantageous depth 
of a vessel for locomotion is, however, 
of great importance for private traders 
m well as for vessels of war, since on 
that circumstance materially depends 
the proprietv of giving requisite bulk to 
a vessel bj her depth, or by her lenffth. 
M. S« 6. 



THOUOBTS ON ICATTBK,— BBIMO TBI SUB- 
STAKCB OF A. LBCTURB DBLIYXRBD TO 
TBB DUNBTEB MUTUAX IMPBOTBMBMT 
SOCIBTT. BT MB. W. STMOMS. 

Almost every person understands what 
is meant by the word " Matter," and yet 
it seems impossible to give a satisfactory 
definition of the term ; and the study it 
the nature and constitution of matter Is 
a subject in which the ablest philoso- 
phers lose Uieir depth. Although it is 
so palpable to the senses of the most 
ignorant, yet the studious and learned 
are soon lost in metaohvsical uncertain- 
ties, and can only indulge in shrewd 
guesses, or are constrained to say — ** We 
do not know,** in answer to many ques- 
tions connected with matter. 

Matter has been defined as " every- 
thing we see,'' as " that which occupies 
space and resists force," and again, as 
" that which is the object of our senses." 
I have searched for a more satisfactory 
definition of the term, but I have not 
been able to find one : perhaps as i 
a one as either of the above would I 
"Everythhig.** 

Matter makes itself known to us by 
the following properties : — iffx/fnnon. 
Figure, ImpmMtrabiUtyf DivitUnlii^, 
Inertia^ and Attraeiion, These are 
called essential properties, as belonging 
to all kinds of matter at sll times. 

BxtmuUm mav be otherwise ex- 
pressed — as size, Dulk, msgnitude ; and 
It means the quality of occupying a cer- 
tain portion of space. Figure is syno- 
nymous vrith form, shape, &c., and 
decides the amount of extension. It is 
well for us to endeavour to conceiye of 
these two qualities abstracted from and 
independent of the matter with which 
we ^nerally find them associated, and 
it is m this manner they belong to geo- 
metrical figures. 

Impeneirabilitjf, or tdidtty, means 
that no two portions of matter can occupy 
the same space at the same time. At-- 
though this has always been called sq 
essential property, and perhaps cannot 
be denied with regard to matter in bulk., 
it has been questioned whether it be n 
property of the ultimate atoms, as vre 
shall see more fully soon. This quality 
must not be confounded with kardne^^^ 
The air is as impenetrable and as aolici 
aa that wall, although I can push cny 
hand readily through the air, and eaniaot 
make the least impression with it on tla« 
wall; the reason of this is, the pariielen 

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THOUOHTS ON HATTEB. 



25 



of the air move readilj out of the waj, 
while the inrtieles of which the wall is 
composed are kept together by the pro- 
perty of hardness, which may be denned 
to be the power that keeps the particles of 
eert^o bodies from being readily and 
easily removed or separated into parts. 
I need not refer to some apparent con- 
tradictions of this property, such as 
driTing nails into timber, &o., as the 
reason of such instances of penetration 
most be evident to every observant mind, 
as arising from the removal of certain 
particles to make room for others ; hot 
I am inclined to believe that the reason- 
ings of a living philosopher have thrown 
dimbts on such an explanation being 
receivable in all instances. 

The next property is divisibility; that 
is, the capability of being divided. Ex- 
perience proves that matter possesses 
this property to an inconceivable extent. 
I woald not say to an infinite degree, 
for this is improbable, if not impossible ; 
for no namber, however great, of infi- 
nitely small atoms, could occupv a sen- 
sible portion of space. There is a vast 
difference between inconceivably and 
inilnitelv small. There are many fami- 
liar and interesting illustrations of this 
quality, such as the thickness of the 
water composing a soap bubble, which 
has been stated not to exceed the two 
million five hundred thousandth of an 
inch — a fraction easier expressed than 
conceived. fTwo million five hundred 
thousand incnes would be nearly forty 
mfks.) Tou can dissolve sulphate of 
hujUi in a million times its weight of 
water, and can then perceptibly detect 
its nreaence by chemical means in the 
smsJlest drop of the water. Other in- 
stances may be referred to, but these are 
deemed sufficient ; but it is a quality that 
I wish to impress on your minds, as we 
shall have to refer to it again. 

Jburtia literally means iftaeiiviiy ; it 
signifies the tendency of matter to con- 
timie either in a state of motion or of 
rest ; it renders fly-wheels of service in 
machinery, makes cannon-balls so de- 
stracUve, enables little boys to slide on 
the ice, and is the cause of the dreadful 
raOway accidents we sometimes read of. 
It has been suggested l>y Grove, that 
inntia is a consequence of the attraction 
of gravitation, which is another general 
property of matter, and was the great 
oaeoveij of the illustrious Newton — on 
^ikh diieovery hinges the whole seienoe 



of astronomy ; It means the mutual at- 
traction which all masses of matter, how- 
ever large or small, have for each other. 
It is the cause of the weight of bodies, 
which is the amount of attraction that 
every material object has to the centre 
of the earth. 

The other kinds oi attraction are — 
eohssion, which is the power that holds 
particles tc^ther so as to form massses, 
a power which varies considerably in dif- 
ferent kinds and conditions of matter, and, 
as before stated, is the cause of hardness, 
tenacity, &e. : chmnical attraction^ or 
affinity, which is the attraction of dissi- 
milar portions of matter, and may be 
illustrated by a glass of soda-water, the 
efiervesoenee of which is caused by the 
attraction or affinity being greater be- 
tween urtario acid and soda than between 
carbonic acid and sods. Attraction, in 
some one or other of its shapes, is the 
cause of all the ever- changing but per- 
petual phenomena of the material world. 

Thus I have, in an imperfect manner, 
referred to the general properties of 
matter ; and it is only as a repository of 
these properties or qualities that we know 
of its existence. At the commencement 
I stated that matter may l>e described as 
" evervthing ; " but there are some per- 
sons who assert that everything is no- 
thing, and it seems difficult to prove the 
contrary. Some of the ancients consi- 
dered matter as eternal ; but they had 
not tlie light of Divine revelation. We 
may imitate that sublime passsge in 
Genesis, where light is brought before 
us for the first time, and describe the 
creation of matter in the same concise 
terms — " Grod said let there be matter, 
and matter was;** it sprang into exist- 
ence out of nothing, at the Almighty 
word ; and what is it but the embodi- 
ment of the Divine thought P It owes 
its character for stability to the omnipo- 
tence and constancy of its Creator ; and 
when he originated the material nniverse, 
he gave to each minute particle its dis- 
tinctive and individual, as well as its 
universal and general properties ; these 
it has kept entire and unchanged through 
all its numberless vicissitudes. 

It would be impossible to bring before 
yon Bishop Berkeley's theory in a man- 
ner to make it plain ; it requires to be 
read and re-read, and thought about and 
read again, to get a glimpse of his mean- 
ing: and I tnink I am warranted in 
saying, it would be a task worthy of the 



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36 



THOtJOHIS OH VATTEB. 



deepest thinker and grettest stadent in 
existenoe, to explain it in a popular lee- 
ture, so at to be understood by persons 
who have not made it the object of pre- 
▼iona atodr. His theory ia founded on 
the aaaertion, that we have no proof of 
the existence of matter but in oar own 
pereeptiooa ; his own words are — ** All 
the ohoir of heaven and furniture ot the 
earth have not any subelstenee without a 
mind ; their being is to be perceived or 
luiown ; eooseqnently. so long as they 
are not actnallv peroetved by me, or dio 
not exist in the mind of any created 
spirit, they mnst either have no existence 
at all, or else subsist in the mind of some 
eternal apirit*' A writer on Bericeley 
says—" Ton admit that your existenee 
and your power of pereeiving, as well 
as the perceptions by which me second 
makes you know the first, are ultimately 
to be traced to the will of the Creator. 
You cannot figure to yourself the uni- 
form nature m the perceptions which 
you receive aa coming direcdy from the 
Creator, but you suppose a power of 
imparting them to be made inherent in 
a certain substratum which you call 
matter. But if you adroit that it is in 
the power of the Creator to furnish you 
direct! V with those ideas of space, figure, 
&c., which to you constitute the material 
world, without any intervention of which 
you can form a positive conception, how 
do you Iraow that he has not done so f 
The answer must be, that there is no 
snoh knowledge J and this is the point 
on which Berkeley haa never been, andy 
it is not too bold an assertion to say, 
never can be refuted**' In another place 
it ia said—" The system of Berkeley is 
briefly this: matter does not exist inde* 
pendently of our sensations, but concep- 
tions of a material world are produced 
by the operation of the Deity upon our 
understanding, and the material world 
exists only in the Divine intellect, who 
awakens in as eertain senaooos ceneep- 
tions in a definite order, whidi order is 
what we oaU the coarse of natore/' 

Dr. Johnson said he reAited Berkeley 
by stamping hia fbot ; but he only de- 
monstrated that he had not compre- 
hended Berkeley's meaning ; for stamp- 
ing one's foot onlv illnstrates the solidity 
of matter, which is one of its properties, 
or one of our modes of perception. 

The general notion of the uldmtte 
atoms of matter appears to be that of 
ineonceivabiy small particles with a de« 



fined and permanent shape, and perh^ 
most persons have the idea <4hst these 
atoms are round; others suppose that 
various kinds of matter have different 
shapes; thus, one may be triangular, 
another square, and a third round. It la 
a necessary consequenoe of this theory 
to suppose that generally, if not always, 
these atoms do not touch each other, bat 
have intervening spaces between them, 
otherwise cold, or pressure would not 
cause matter to contract, nor heat, on 
the removal of pressure, cause it to ex- 
pand, which experience proves is the 
case. In the liquid form these atooaa 
are fi^e to move about each odier, and 
in gases and vapours they must be at n 
considerably greater distance from eaok 
other, and yet there muat be a mutual 
dependence and relation; but, if this 
theory be correct, the greater part of 
every gas consists of space. In the 
state of gas, oxygen occupies about 2,000 
times more space than it does in a state 
of solid combination. I would remind 
you that the particles we are now talking 
of must be inconceivably minute ; pro-* 
bably so small that, could we imagine the 
smallest anim^culs possessing sufficient 
intelligence to construct a microscope 
adapted to their tiny organs, it is pro* 
babie they would not tnen attain the 
sight of an atom of matter. 

Faraday has atueked this doctrine, 
and he defines matter as " Consisting of 
centres of forces surrounded with atmo- 
spheres of power; or having powern 
attached in and around than." It 
perhaps requfarea some power of abstmo* 
tion to be M>le to form a just oonceptioQ 
of this definition. I will endeavonr in 
give an outline of his argument ; bat lo 
understand this, it is necessary to know 
something of electrical conduction. Moot 
peraons know that, in relation to electri- 
city, substances are divided into oondoe- 
ton and non-conducton ; the first, as the 
name implies, conducting electricity, or 
allowing it to pass readily through theniy 
while non-conductors oonsideraMy retard, 
and some of them nearly stop ita pa»- 

in the former view of matter, we have 
seen it described as consisting of parti* 
cles with spaces between them ; imagine 
a vessel filled with shot, but each shot 
not touching ita neighbours, and water 
poured l>etween the shot; the shot would 
then represent the atoms, and the water 
the apace. In representing a gas, say 



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TH0U0HT8 ON MATTXB, 



at 



osygen, in this way, if we suppoie the 
Aot to be the 85th of in inch, etch 
little fphere would be nearly 7 feet from 
die next. Certainly it ii difficult to con- 
ceive of one of the most useful, active, 
and poaitive elementa in nature, being 
compoaed of lo great a proportion of 
notmng, and I do not know how other- 
wiie to expreaa it according to thia 
theory; onlesa we consider heat to be 
mattery ateam most also be described aa a 
little water and a great deal of nothing, 
and the steam engine wonld owe its 
gigantic atrength to the wonderful power 
cf thia nonentity. If space ia the only 
coottnnoiis part oi oxygen, which ia a 
non-eonduetor, the natural eonolnsion is 
that apaoe itaelf ia a non*oonductor. 

The following is an extract from 
Faraday: " If the ?iew of the constitu- 
tion of natter referred to, be aasumed to 
be correct, and I maj be allowed to 

rik of the particlea of matter, and of 
qtaoe between them, aa two Cerent 
thinga, then space must be taken as the 
only eontinnous part Space will per- 
mcale all masses of matter in every 
dire^kn, iaolathig each atom from its 
neigfabour. Then take the case of a 
peee of shellac, a non-conductor, and 
It would appear at once from such a 
view of ita atomic constitution that 
space ia an inaalator ; for if it were a 
conduetory the shellac could not insulate 
whatever might be the relation aa to con- 
ducting power of its material atoms. 
Next take the oaae of a metal constituted 
according to the alomie theory, in the 
saae manner. The metal ia a oonductor, 
bat bow can this be exoent spaoe be a 
coadnetor ? for it ia the only continuous 
part of the metal, and the atoms not 
only do not touch (by the theory) but aa 
we ahall aee presently, muat be assumed 
to be a eonaiderable way apart. Space, 
therefore, muat be a oonductor, or else 
^ metala could not conduct It would 
Kcm, therefore, that in accepting the 
erdinry atomic theory, space may be 
proved to be a non-oonductor in non- 
coadneting bodiea, and a conductor in 
coodoeting bodiea; but the reasoning 
cads in this, a subversion of that theory 
sbogether ; for if space be an insulator 
it cannot exist in conducting bodies, and 
if it be a conductor it cannot exist in 
iasnlatiog bodies." He then instances 
psiaairinm and some of its compounds, 
vhiok certainly present very striking 
in fupport of his theory. 



Potaaaium is a metal discovered by Davv 
as the base of potash or potassa, which 
is a combination of potassium and oxy- 
gen I like all other metals it is a con- 
ductor of electricity, while potassa is a 
non-conductor. Now, it is a singular fact 
that a piece of pure and solid potassium 
containa less of itself than a piece of 
potassa of the same aiae, which containa 
besides the metal oxygen and water. 
For tho sake of illustration, we will sup- 
pose 40 ounces of potassium would fill a 
quart, you may add to it 8 ouncea of oxv- 

Kn (which in the gaaeoua form would 
about 40 gallons), and 9 ounces of 
water, and then iuMcad oi fiUine the 
quart, the mixture would be leaa uan a 
pint and a half; or to put the same into 
chemical langtiage, if a given bulk of 
potassium contains 45 atoma, a piece of 
potassa of the same siie oontains 70 
atoms of potassium and 210 atoms of 
oxvgen and hydrogen. It evidently 
follows, by the old theory, that there 
must be much more spaee than matter 
in this metal, and as it is a oonductor, 
space must also he a conductor. To any 
one who has followed through this argu- 
ment, the oontradiction wiui respect to 
electrical conduction must be evident 
To meet this difficult/ Faradav has 
adopted the theory before mentioned, 
that the final constituents of all material 
obgecta consist, not of inconceivably 
small, impenetrable, defined partielea, 
but of centres of forces, whkh> like 
mathematical points, have no magnitude, 
but the extent of the spaoe over which 
the forces of each individual atom ope- 
rate may be extremely variable. As an 
illustratton, we may take a candle ; im»> 
gine the flame to repreaent one of theaa 
infinitely email eentrea, ^e efl^, or 
operation, or force of it ia manifested 
throughout the room by the light it sends 
to the utmost comer, and we imagine 
this to represent one atom of nutter 
(only vott must remember what has been 
said aoout the siaeof these minute parti- 
cles) ; by the old theory another atom 
could only approach it, and must remain 
outside the room, but by admitting the 
truth of the theory, I hare endesToured 
to explain, i can bring two centres of 
forces into immediate contact, and the 
foroes themselves can be mutually 
blended and conjointly diffuaed, as we 
see is the case with the light emanating 
from two candles. If we place them aa 
inch or a yard aparti the spaee bet« 



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38 



THOVOHTS ON ICATIXB. 



Hbm if stiU flUed with ligbt; lo if then 
eentret of forces are more or less dif- 
fused, they form bat one contiDHons 
mass of matter in its aggregate state ; and 
henee the particles of the most subtle 
gas may be said to tooch each other as 
much as the particles of the densest 
metal, which seems more consistent with 
experience and obserration. With re- 
gard to the shape of the atoms, as it is 
cTident thej may be compared to ex- 
tremely elastic bodies, their form wonld 
Tarf wi^ ctfcumstances, but probably 
their tendency would be to assume a 
spherical figure. This riew of matter 
seems to discard the doctrine of its im- 
penetrability, and who can denr that two 
particles of matter do actually occupy 
the same space at the same time, for, as 
we have said, 280 parts by weight of 
hydrogen and oxygen can be out into 70 
parts of solid potassium, and then the 
whole of the mixture will only Uke up 
the room of 45 parts of potassium? 
This view of the penetrability of matter 
seems almost necessary in connectioa 
with organic chembtry. No doubt you 
are all aware that e?ei7thinff around us, 
and our own bodies as well, are com- 
pounds made up of two or more elements, 
so named from the fact that they have 
neyer been decomposed, or resoWed into 
oUier kinds of matter. All the materials 
of this globe, at least all that have as 
yet been submitted to the searching 
scrutiny of the chembt, the treasures of 
the mineral world as well as the infinitely 
Taried forms of the animal and the Tege- 
table kingdoms, may be resoWed into 54 
elements or distinct Tarieties of matter, 
each of which has its own indiTidual 
peculiarities Uiat constantly attend it and 
obtinguish it from its neishbours ; 41 of 
these are metals, 20 of which have been 
discovered during the last fifty years, 
and some of them, as you may naturally 
conclude, are very rare. The great 
bulk of ihe animal and vegetable world 
b composed of carbon or charcoal, and 
three gases, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitro- 
gen ; but 1 am now trespusing on che- 
mbtry; it b necessary, however, to 
illustrate what I was about to refer to, 
to say, that these elements mix in very 
various but definite proportions to pro- 
duce the substances that surround us. 
Sugar b composed of 12 atoms of car- 
bon, 9 of hydrogen, and 9 of oxygen ; 
thus, SO simple atoms are necessarv to 
compose one atom of sugar; pernqw 



some persons maj think it would be as 
well to say that it is composed of four 
of carbon, and three of hydrogen and 
oxygen, as the proportions sre the samei 
but a study of organic chemistry would 
show that thb b not the case. Now if 
these little stoms are clustered together 
like thirty marbles, or, on the supposi- 
tion Uiat diil^rent kinds of matter nave 
difierent shapes, we may imagine a 
sinffle particle of sugar built up of 
twelve minute marbles, nine little dice 
and nine diamonds, then what a compo- 
site little thing an atom of sugar must 
be; we may fanov it ever ready to 
tumble to pieces. If it be so with sugar 
with only its 80 atoms, how must it be 
with bile, one atom of which, according 
to Leibiff, is made up of 166 simi^ 
atoms. If I have succeeded in givung 
jrou a dear notion of Faraday's mean- 
ing, you will perceive it b far easier to 
conceive one of these complex atoms; 
instead of imagining 20 or 100 incon- 
ceivably minute, but well defined and 
extremely hard simple atoms clustered 
together, and each existinff in the com- 
pound atom in its individual identity, 
and occupying its own portion of space ; 
is it not easier to suppose so many cen- 
tres of forces, whion of themselves 
occupy no portion of space, coalescing 
and yielding their distinctiveness of 
character to give one collection of pro- 
perties, and one character to the com- 
pound atom ? 

There b another class of the affec* 
tions of matter which are not generally 
regarded in the same light as the univer- 
salproperties to which I have already 
referred : I mean light, heat, and elec- 
tricity. These are sometimes called the 
imponderables, as being a kind of subtle 
matter without weight ; thus we speak 
of the electric fiuid. Sir Isaac Newton 
described li^ht as matter emanating from 
the sun, and thb opinion seems to have 
been generally received for some time ; 
it b called the Corpuscular Theory; its 
opponent b called the Undnlatory 
Theory, and supposes a universal ether, 
and that the various phenomena of light, 
&c., are produced by undulations or 
waves in thb ether, as sound b produced 
by a peculiar undulation or vibration of 
material objects. 

Grove has broached another theory. He 
considers thb mysterious but all-important 
triumvirate of light, heat, and dectrieitw 
as belonging to the genendandmiivernl 



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THOUGHTS ON MATTER. 



29 



properties of matter. He deseribes them 
as Tarious modes of motion or develop- . 
raents of forces, which may be resolved 
from one to the other ; thus — heat pro- 
daces motion in the steam-engine, motion 
prodnees eleetrioity in the electrifying 
iiMehine, aod viee vend, in electromag- 
netic maebines, motion prodooes light 
and heat in the lucifer match. In nis 
lectures at the London Institution, Grove 
ezhiUted an Miparatus, by which, from 
the action of nght, he produced motion, 
eleetricity, heat, magnetism and chemf- 
eal action. All this could be more 
clearlj and interestingly expUined with 
the aid of apparatus which it is one of 
the objects or this institution to provide, 
as far as its fbnds will allow. It is only 
Ter^ partial and imperfect views of these 
sobjeets that I have the opportunity of 
taking, but, if I may be allowed to ex- 
press an opinion, I feel very much in- 
clined to this notion of Grove's, that the 
imponderables should be deprived of 
tbdr supposed independent existence and 
be classed with the properties of matter. 

According to these views, what we 
eall matter, consists of an embodiment 
of the following properties : £xtension. 
Figure, Solidity, and Divisibility ; these 
may be called passive properties, and 
then, joined with them, are the positive 
and active properties. — Attraction in 
its various forms, and the development 
of I^ht, Heat, and Electricity. Inertia 
and Indestructibility may be called nega- 
tive qualities. 

I ought perhaps to have introduced 
indeslractibility before ; it is a fact, that 
however matter may be changed in its 
form and appearance, it is never de- 
stroyed — ^portions of these candles have 
disappeared, but they are oqly changed 
Into water and gas : part of Nit'hat we have 
eaten to-day has been passing' from our 
lungs every moment that we have been 
in this room, but it is not destroyed — it is 
now in the air, it will go forth, and will 
again, sooner or later, be fixed ih a solid 
form by being abstracted from the atmo- 
sphcve by vegetables. It \i possible 
tnat the very carbonic acid we now 
expel from our lungs may float about in 
the air until it reaches our own cabbages, 
and be then absorbed by them, and again 
eaten by us; and thus matter runs through 
its perpetual changes. 

Let us imagine the biography of an 
atom of qtfboii ushered into existence 



by the Almighty word, ages before the 
creation of Adam. It underwent un- 
numbered vicissitudes ere this world and 
system arrived at a mature state of orga- 
nization and life ; perhaps at length ic 
formed a portion of some gigantic cro- 
codile, whose remains may be now slum- 
bering in the British Museum, but which 
then sported in the vigour of life. Pass- 
ing through his system it was ejected 
from his lungs and floating in the air, 
came in contact with a magniflcient 
fern of the preadamite world and was 
fixed in a vegetable form. Some mighty 
catastrophe befals this part of the globe, 
and this graceful specimen of the vege- 
table world, with thousands of others, 
is carried into a lake, and in process of 
time is embedded in the bowels of the 
earth. There it lies, while millions of 
its fellow atoms continue th(*ir never- 
ceasing changes, and mighty events are 
writing their own history on the surface 
of our globe in characters to be deci- 
phered in after ages b^ the geologist. 
Animal and vegetable life ceases from 
causes only known to the Great Ruler 
and Disposer of every particular atom, 
as well as of the whole universe ; but, 
although every thing is now death-like, 
nothing is destroyed— all the materials 
of which this world was originally created 
exist, but now all is without form and 
void, in a state of general ruin^the atom 
we have singled out still existing in 
the interior" of the globe. The Spirit 
of God now moves, and the new creation 
arises— ^'not that any matter is now 
created, but life is again put into motion — 
our earth emerges frem its millcnial 
winter and its spring-time is ac^ain ar- 
rived — the active properties of matter 
are busy with renewed vigour, vegetables 
spring up, animals again show them- 
selves, and at last Man is made; he runs 
through 6,000 years' of his eventful 
history, and then this atom of carbon is 
moved about for the first time by some 
brawny collier in Wales, and it finds its 
way here. Crack a piece of that coal, 
and you expose to view many particles 
of carbon which may have gone through 
the vicissitudes I have imagined. Let 
us follow this atom a little farther ; sup-* 
pose it to be one of those now passing 
out through the chimney into the atmo- 
sphere — it may be wafted before long to 
the spicy groves of the Tropics, there 
again to assume a vegetable shape and 



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spray's patent SAUKOtfETEB. 



come btok to tie embodied in a nutmeff ; 
and as it his now comforted ns by its 
heat, it may then, after gratifying our 
palate, and forming a part of our body 
as it did of the crocodile someilOiOOO 
Tears ago, pass into the atmosphere and 
be cauffht by some lonff enduring oak, to 
await the Anal doom of all things. 

I have indulged in an imaginary his- 
tory of one atom, but it is founded oti 
fact) and may have been a thousand 
times more varied^ and as I have repte- 
sented to be with one atom, so it has 
been, and will be with millions on mil- 
lions, a million times mdtiplied and re- 
muldplied. Each keeps the laws pre- 
scribed at its creation, and each is followed 
bv the all- seeing eye of its Creator. 
What an idea it must gi?eus of His infi- 
nite wisdom and power I But this minute 
▼iew is only one side of the question ; we 
should think of the extent of the uni- 
verse of matter ; and we requfare the 
powers of the poet, as well as the searoh- 
ings of the philosopher, to give an adequate 
idea of this part of the subject Try to 
eoncei ?e of what we have stated as belong- 
iiig to every single atom of matter, all its 
properties, and then its sixe — so small 
that, probably, each one is not the mil- 
lionth part of an animal a million of 
whom would hardly be perceived by us. 
It is impossible for us to di?e into such 
depths, and we are equally incapable of 
soarinff aloft, and forming a just concep- 
tion of the extent of matter. Imagine 
yourself in adjacent Park ; pluck a blade 
of grass ; consider its elaborate organisa- 
tion ; try to form some estimate, if vou 
can, of the number of atoms in it ; tnen 
think of the number of blades of grass 
in the Park, together with the other 
forms of organist matter — ^as the leaves 
of the trees, insects, each hair on the 
back of every deer, ftc. ; imagine Eng- 
land equally flill of matter, as carefully 
and incomprehensibly elaborated; then 
the world : and what is the world to the 
suns — to the Solar System, which is all 
matter, and probably equally organized, 
and as full or interesting variety and life 
as our earth 1 Then rise higher, and the 
whole Solar System inconceivable as its 
extent is to us) sinks into an insignificant 
spot in comparison with the suns and 
systems diat our telescopes reveal to us ; 
and we know not but that even these 
may be onlv but a small fraction of the 
khigdom cf matter (-HUid jet i(l is less 



thsn a handful in the estimation of its 
great Creator, and it is but the sca^ld- 
ing — the stage for the development of a 
ht more important order of being — the 
world of spirits to which We belong 1 



SPAAT's PATBIIT SALIV 01 




A is A spherieil vessel eono^ted 



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■TB^Vfl PJOmCr LTTBBtOATOll. 



31 



to die Mler by Uie pipe and itop* 
eoek B| is B thermometer, whieb 
ii pbced in t ebamber momited on 
the top of the spberioat yessel A. 
If wAier be aliowed to flow fteelj from 
the boiler into the veiael A, end through 
the pipe D, nntU the whole hai come to 
the Miing point of the wtter nndef the 
ordinarj prearare of the etmoephere, 
then tne temperatare Indietted by the 
thermomeler at that Ittatant will alio 
faidiaite the density or aaltneas of the 
water in ttie bolkri 

araAT^s patIbiit LUBmiCATom. 







/ 


,- 

--';•' 


't 


.<!'. 


K 




■ 


-^ 




_... ■ 




L-- — 


J-- 



Id 



Hie aliOTlQ figure represents a helical 
leotioB af this impmfed lubricator. A 
B a t^t^ for hoMing the oil or olh^r 
Mbacftlteg ftttbstaikce ; fi a ncrewed stem 



by which it is attaehed to the eyllfldef: 
C is a conical ?alTe, which is fitted into 
the mouth of the cup A, and senres 
to prevent both t^e entrance of dirt 
or the escape of steam; D is the 
spindle of the YaWe, which Is made hol- 
low and bored truly inside, for the recep- 
tion of a tube £, which hu attached to 
it the spindle and handle F. The tube 
£ is accurately fitted both Into the stem 
By and into the Yal?e-spindle S^ and 
capable of being moved up and down 
within them I O is a helical sprhig whidi 
keeps the valfe up against its seat, 
and H a second helical spring which 
keeps the tube £ pressed up within the 
spindle of the valve. The lubrleating 
material is introduced in the first in- 
stance into the cup by pressing down the 
valve C, and when it hi desired to lubri« 
cate the piston of the enginci the han- 
dle F is pressed down, which causes a 
small hole a, formed in the side of the 
tube £, to come below the end of the 
hollow spindle of the valve; the oil 
then flows through it into the interior 
of the tube, and thence through the stem 
of the cup into the cylinder ; upon lifting 
the hand» the heUeal spring U oaosea 
the tube to ascend and stop the flow of 
the oil. 

FILBBAM'S SMOKa-PRBTBimilG OHIMimT- 
POT* 

[Reglitered under the Act for the Protection of 
Articles of Utility. WjUiam PUbeam, of Acton- 
•treet, Gray'i-inn Road, Builder, Proprietor.] 

Figure I is an elevation in section 
of this chimney-pot. AA is the brick- 
work of the chimney ; BB the outer 
case of the pot, and CC, an inner 
one. Between B and C there are 
formed passages or flues, DD; £E£ 
are deflecting leaves, which are flied in 
inclined positions within the inner case 
CC ; FFF are apertures which sre formed 
in the sides of the inner case, and cere* 
munieate with the passages DD, and are 
open to the eiMmal attnosphete both At 



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32 



THE SMALL ABMS OF TESBBLS OF WAB. 



top and at bottom. Should a emrent of 
air enter at the bottom of the flue, it as- 
cends in the inner esse, and carries the 
smoke np along with it, while, if the 
Fig. 1. 




wind should blow down into the mouth 
of the pot, it is intercepted by the de- 
flectors and carried off into the atmo- 
sphere through the apertures FFF, and 
the passages DD. 

THK SMALL ARMS OF VKSSBLS OF WAR. 

Although naval force is generally con- 
sidered as consistinff of vessels and ships 
armed only with wnat are called great 
guns; yet, in point of fact, portable 
arms are also furnished to Uiem, and 
have on many occasions been used with 
great advantage, at the same time with 
great fi^ns. 

A ship, though armed with a hundred 
guns, if aground, or in certain states of 
Uie weather, or in other cases of acci- 
dental occurrence, may be incapable of 
throwing shot from the great guns so as 
to reach the enemy in certain directions. 
In such cases, the effective force of the 
vessel will be limited, or nearly so, to 
the destructiveness of such portable im- 
plements of warfare as each combatant 
can carry about and apply to use by his 



muscular foroe ; besides which it is prin- 
cipally from such implements that soc- 
eess is looked for on the frequent occa- 
sions of boarding an enemy's vessel, or 
resisting his attempts to board our own. 

For vrarfiure of this description, be- 
sides the various sorts of cutting weapons, 
as cntksses, swords, pikes, durks, my- 
onets, axes, &C., misnles are em^oyed — 
as rocketsy hand-grenades, and snot fired 
fnm moskets, rifle-guns, pistols, &c ; it 
cannot therefore but be of considerable 
importance to inquire into the efficacy of 
these portable instruments of destruc- 
tion, the more so as they seem to have 
been (like the great guns used for naval 
warfare) originally the same as those 
used for service on land. Inquiry wonld 
probably show that little has been at- 
tempted to adapt portable arms to the 
peculiar circumstances of naveU warfare. 

The destructiveness of an implement 
for cutting will depend on the shape and 
form of its edge, on the position of its 
centre of gravity, on the commodioas- 
ness of its handle, and on its weight being 
suited to the muscular strength and 
dexterity of each individual combatant 
Should, therefore, its edge, or the whole 
weapon, be made straight or curved — ^in 
a convex or a concave line P In what 
part should be the centre of gravity ?— 
What is the form best suited to piercing 
as well as cutting ?— What is the best 
form of handle Uiat &vours the surest 
grasp, and best protects the hand ? — 
What difference should there be in the 
weight and size of such arms, with a 
view to their appropriation to men of 
different degrees of stature and of 
strength ? Not one of these points baa 
as yet been properly ascertained, and all 
of them are suitable subjects for experi- 
ment. 

Portable fire-arms for naval service 
afford ample scope for experiment, as to 
their different degrees of portability 
especial! V :— what sise and weight of a 
light ana little- cumbersome arm, like a 
pistol, would be the most destructiye, 
yet capable of being carried about the 
person, and leavingthe hands free for 
other services ? Whether some other 
variety of fire-arm might not be more 
useful on ship-board than the musket ? 
Whether some portable arm, within the 
muscular power of a single man, might 
not be provided with some support when 
in action, especially for taking aim and 



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FKNN S OTMAMETEB. 



93 



agiimt recoil ? Although porUhility be 
a very enential consideration in regard 
to the fltneaa of an arm for boarding an 
enemy's Tessel, jet might not some 
portable fire-arm, more destructiTe than 
the small arms in use, be devised as a 
defence against an enemy's boarding ? 
What are the missiles, such as hand- 



grenades, rockets, Ace, or new ones that 
might be devised, which could be thrown 
by hand or from portable fire-arms, 
which would be most injurious to an 
enemy's vessel by setting it on fire or 
otherwise ? — Frtum the Unpubliiked 
MSS. cf Ihe late Brigaditr* Oeuerai 
Sir Samuel Btntham, 



Finn's rbgistikkd ctmambtkk. 
R^glttered Under the Act fbr the Protaction of Article! of Utility. Joiepli Fenn, of Newgate-itreet, 
London, Tool-noAker, Proprietor.] 
Kg.!. Pig. 2. 




The object of this invention is to en- 
able architects, archaelogists, and others 
to make readily accurate copies of the 
outlines of capitals, cornices, and other 
architectural ornaments, by actual ap- 
plintion to the objects themselves ; and 
certainly nothing more convenient or 
suitable for the purpose can well be 
fanagioed. Fig. 1 is an elevation ; fig. 2 
ii a cross section, and fig. 3 shows this 
iBstrament in use; AA are two side 
pieces which are held together by screws, 



BB ; CC sre two cross bars which are 
inserted into a slot formed between the 
side pieces ; the space intervening between 
the cross bars, CC, is filled with a number 
of thin laths, DD. When the instru- 
ment is applied to any moulded or irre- 
gular surface, the Istbs, DD, slide back, 
and take the form against which ihey are 
pressed. The inside surfaces of the side 

Sieces, AA, are covered with leather, so 
lat the laths may be retained in any 
position in which they are placed. 



TIDn's FATKNT KAILWAT SIGNALS. 
(Patent dated Norember 2, 1849. Specification enrolled May S, 1850. Patentee, Laden Vldie, Paria.) 

Abstract of Specification, 
The object of this invention is, to indicate to railway and steam -boat travellers 
the station at which the train or vessel is stopping or about to stop ; and also to 
enable them to communicate with the guards when required. 

Figs. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, and 8 represent the two principal apparatuses contrived by 
the patentee. 

In 1^. 1, a is a cloth, on which are inscribed the names of the stations, and which 
it to be wound up on the drums 6 and b^, when passing in the inside of the vehicle, 
byaoBUof threesUdiogpullies c,e,c. Each drum is put in motion by a spring, 



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M vidie's patbxt bailwat signals. 

whfoh i» bent Id eaaslng the shaft d to rotate. This shaft Is prorided with a befd- 
wheel i, fig. 2, having a oateh to prerent it receding. The ipriog, the barrel/, and 
na?e g are free to travel to and fro on the shaft d; but the nave g is fixed thereon. 
The roution of the barrel / gives the necessarr movement On each side of the 
barrel / are eogs, fff', and when the barrel / ii moved towards the drum b, lbs 
cogged {MTt f comes in contact with the catoh ifr, set on the drami and compels the 
latter to tom< Whcni on the contrary, the barrel / is drawn baiBk to the opposite 
side, the cog/ leaves the catch k^ which allows tlie doih to be anroUed, and Uie 
other cog^' is made to bear against the fixed catch /• The motion of the barrel is 
obtained oy means of the lever A, put In motion by taming the screw t to and fro, 
which poshes the pieoe^, to which the lever A is joined. Each dram, b and b\ is 
provided with a similar apparatus, and the lever t, acting in a similar manner, but 
in a contrary direction, it is sufficient for a journey up or down when the train is 
starting, to turn the screw t on the right or on the left side, to cause the actinf^ of a 
drum spring, which is bent in before or after ; and, at the same time, the action of 
the spring of the other drum is suspended. 

To prevent the cloth f^om sUckening when left to itself, on the other extremity 
of eacn axis d, by its nave m, is fixed a weaker spring, having Its barrel n fixed to 
the dram, which always nuintains this last at a certain degree of tension. 

To stop the cloth at the required words, and to change the kst, there Is placed 
between each bill or printed waraer an Iron cross-piece aS having ite •xtr«mi'ia4 
jutting out on each side, and made to reach the forks/. 

A crank lever 9, put In motion at one end by a rod 0, Is provided on the other 
end with a groove 7, which, by describing the segment q, oF takes off the rod «^, 
and draws along the cloth of a length sufficient to disenMge the rod a^ of the fork 
s^. This last fork is set on an axis which permiu It to osolUate between two atoppioff 
points. fh>m the position in which It is represented, to one place similar to that w 
the other fork «, and towards which eidier a counterweight or a small spring will 
suffice to bring it back as soon as the rod a^ leaves It. The lever a, returaing to the 
opposite side, allows the cloth to go down, without the rod o^ bemg stoppecT by the 
fork t but the rod tf* being connected with the groove, and obliged to follow it within 
the segment described by It, is compelled to stop on the said fork s'. The Utter, on 
account of the tension or the cloth, and being, besides, assisted by ite own inclina- 
tion, returas to ite preceding position as soon as the groove, by continuing to descend, 
allows it to do so. The lever ^ can at that moment ascend towurds another rod 
without meeting the one it has just brought with it. 

It is therefore necessary to have two grooved levers and two forks on each axis, 
in order to operate slmulteneously on the two extremities of each rod, and two similar 
apparatuses are required to conduct the cloth^ either in one way or in another. To 
change the motion of this part of the mechanism, it Is sufficient, when the position 
of the springs are altered (and the spring which Is to act bent in), to hook one or 
the other ot the crank levers p, q to the rod 0, which, for that purpose, is provided 
with holes at convenient disUnoes. 

By a modification of the mode before described, a sufficient number of plates, 
connected together, may be used instead of cloth. 

In figs. 5, 6, 7, and 8, the names of the places, or any other indications, are written 
on separate plates, which are caused successively to appear and to return to their 
proper places. They are constructed of thin plates of metal, and their edges 
embossed to form a kind of frame, and to give them more stiffbess, and are placed 
in a box a, at equal and convenient distances, in parallel grooves fitted on eacn side 
of the box, but having their lower part widened, in order to facilitete the ingress of 
the plates. The box a works on two edged rails 6, set on the frame /», as well as 
the covering of the apparatus. Each groove is made to present itself sucoesslTely 
above the noteh c of the groove d^ in which the plates which are contained in xhm 
box a are made to descend and ascend one after the other. The nut or eog e, placed 
on the upper part of the box a, and, teking into the threads of the moving shaft/ 
gives motion to the box a. * 

The worms of the above-mentioned shaft /, which are represented in fig. a, mar 
be circular on the three^fourths of ite length, and made helixwise on the o5ier part 
where they are msde to join the next thteads. In this fig* the oog e Is represeatedf 



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VIOIS'8 PATSRT SAILWAT BIONALS. 



M 



Kg. 1. 



Kf . 2. 




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36 VIDIK'S patent railway SIGKAIiS. 

between the two threads in the shape of a rhomb, to facilitate ita motion between 
the straight and incliniog parts. When the apparatus is in a state of rest, the shaft 
/ presents to the nut e the middle of the circular part of its worm, and it therefore 
can be. made to turn a quarter of a revolution, for example, on account of the 
oscillation of the train, without altering the position of the other parts of the appa- 
ratus ; but if it is caused to turn more, it presses a tumbler ^ on a lift A, suspended 
between the two arms t of a le?er balance ; the other arm^ of the said balance lever, 
by means of the two connecting rods A:, cause the rings ( /, / to travel to and tto^ 
which envelop two guides m, fitting on each rail, and Mtween which each plate is 
made to descend in the grooves (L 

The inside part l^ of these rings, which prevents the plates from falling in the 
fproove d during the motion of the box a, is slightly rounded on its upper part, and 
juta out slightly also above the rail at the place where it crosses the notch e, in order 
to avoid more oerUinly any stoppage. 

The connecting rods k are made to act on the rings /, /, / bv means of sprinss 
placed in a tabular piece o, instead of having the connecting roos attached direetly 
to these said rings /» A ^ by which contrivance the ^reat nicety requircMl to bring and 
maintain the ring8|i^ /, /, at a convenient elevation is avoided. The bidance lever can 
therefore, after having conducted the rin^ /, /, /, to a proper stop, continue ita jour- 
nev by bending in the springs to a sufficient extent capable or obviating the irre- 
gularitiei and wear of OMchinery. ^ 

The tumbler g^ after having pressed the lift h of the required amount, meeta on 
the last with a part which is cylindrical and concentric to the shaft f, and continoes 
therefore to advance, maintaining at the same time the balance lever in the same 
position. At this part of the rotative motion, the shaft/ is to connect within the nut 
e the slanting part of ita thread, which causes the box a to move ; and it is daring 
that time also that the shaft / brings another plate in the place of the former one 
above the notch e and the groove a. The tumbler g continuing to turn, causes the 
lift h to reascend, and the arms j of the balance lever to descend, conjointly with 
their connecting rods and the rings on which the new plate is resting. 

When the journey is performed, and the train is to return, it is merely neceaaary 
to turn at every station the shaft/ in the opposite direction, to bring the names of 
the stations or wamer in a contrary position. 

Figs. 9 and 10 represent the means of transmitting the motion, before described, 
from one vehicle to another. A shaft, q, is set at one of ita extremities in the hole 
r, prepared within the shaft/, fig. 5, and gears into the last by means of a cross- 
piece, which is connected to the fork «. The axis, q, passes to the forepart of the 
vehicle through the bearer t, fig. 9 and 10, and is bent uke a crank-arm. The shaft 
which is to communicata the motion given by the conductor to the fore-part, is <nni- 
structed by means of disconnected pieces on the back part of each of the vehicles. 
The prolongation of that shaft is taken off, and thrown in the npper open part of 
the support /, and causes, by means of its cross-arm, ti', the crank-arm of toe fol* 
lowing vehicle to turn. 

The apparatus may be placed on the side of the vehicle, the door of which is not 
to be opened during the journey, instead of placing the apparatus in the middle of 
^e vehicle. The apparatus is put in motion by two bevel wheels and a transversal 
axis. To simplify tne mechanism for transferring the motion from one side to the 
other, the lateral wheel is set either higher or lower than the other, and the trmns- 
versal axis is made to pass freely through the said wheel, the nave of which is made 
to rotate on a bearing. To each end of the nave there are fitted two forks, similar 
to those represented at the extremity of the shaft/, fig. 5. When the apparatoa is 
to be brought from right to left, it is sufficient to push the axis through tne wheel. 
The end of this axis, which, in contact with the fork^, is made to catch the fork aet 
on the right side of the nave of the wheel, and the end which was in contact with 
the fork of the left side, catches in its turn the shaft/ The apparatus represented 
by figs. 1 and 2, would be better set on one of the sides than m the middle olf a 
vehicle, because the names can only be seen on one face, unless they are repeated, 
and the cloth made to work three times more. If the apparatus is caused to aet bj 
means of a rod and an exoentrie set on a cylindrical shaft, it suffices to reverse these 



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NOTKS ON THE THEOBY OF ALGEBRAIC EQUATIONS. 37 

two list; if, however, it is desirable to set the apptratns in the middle, it would be 
easy to hs?e it put ia motion bj a square lever. 

The apparatus may be made to act from the deck of a vessel into the cabins, bj 
means of a horixontal or vertical axis, or by any other convenient and known 
mechanism. 

The patentee proposes to give notice, from the inside of the vehicle, to the guards 
of the trains to open the door, by the apparatus represented in figs. 3 and 4 ; ic is a 
board painted white, on which is written the word ** Open." The board u slides in 
a box ^ painted bUck. A spiral spring placed in the frame of the board u, causes 
it to project from the box r, as soon as a passenger by pulling the string of the lever 
z, lowers the stopper v. This catch, v, is set between the arms » and y. The box 
coDtaining the written board u, is fixed transrersely in the vehicle, and the pieces 
• and y on the door ; so that the shutting of this last causes the board u to re-enter 
the box /, without any more trouble ; a similar apparatus may be set on each side of 
the vehicloy in which case the same string will be tied by its two ends to two crank- 
levers, and the two boards m, will communicate to each other the movement by the 
eonnectiog spindles to, and the balance lever set between these spindles wj it will 
be sufficient to shut only one door to force the two boards into their proper places. 
Every kind of wriUen communication can be given by the apparatus before de- 
scribed. A board with painted words may be used when there are but few stations. 
To the circumference of which is fixed a cog wheel, which gears into a small wheel 
fixed m the motive shaft, at each revolution a word or notice will be exhibited i the 
other words being concealed or outside the vehicle. 

For the claims, see vol. lii., p. 377. 



VOTES ON THB TBBORT OF ALOIBRAIO laUATIOMS. BT JAMIS OOCKLI, BSQ., M.A., 

BABRISTBR-AT-LAW. 
(Continued from toL UL, p. 490.) 

Third and Concluding Serki. 
IIL--CUBIC EQUATIONS, work, the process which I gave, at pages 
The venerable and dbUnguished ma- ^^^ ?%^« last (52d) Tolume of 
thematidan Me. James Locxhabt, of <Ws Journal, for ascerUining the nature 
FWlSS.^^^ of Ae roots of cubic equations, 

die honour of sending me a copy of a -^r. 6.— What is the nature of the 
little work, which he has recently pub- roots of the equation 
hshedy on the " Nature of the EooU of »• «•• j. «• i n > 

Numerical Equations."* I propose to ' -z#- + 34r-i-Q? 

apply to three examples, taken from his (Lockhabt, p. 6, line 3.) 
My process, applied to this oabio, gireSi— 

^ " " given cubic has two unreal roots. The 

last step of the above process might 
have been omitted, since, whenever the 
quantity corresponding to that marked 
with the obelisk(t) is positive, the final 
result is so. When that quantity is 
negativ it is not always necessary to 
work out the final result. Mere inspec- 
tion will often suffice to inform us of the 
sign which that result will take. 

Ex, 7. — What is the nature of the 
roots of the cubic 

*> + 24x»-30jr+10-0? 
^^Mjmdon. Wnt«ibyC.«HlJ.Adl.rd,B«tho. (LOCKHABT, p. 10, Ex. 6, lineO.) 



-« 


•3 


-3 


-2 


-2 


-2 


.. 


.» 


— 


4 


-6 


6 


9 


-9 


9 


"■" 


2)5 




-5 


1-5 


-3 
-5 

t 15 




(l-5)«- 


2-25 
17-25 


hence, the 


result being 


positive, the 



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88 



N0TI8 ON THB THBOitT OF XLOBBRAIO BQtTAZIOKS. 



Oor work here is 



24 
24 

576 
-90 



-30 
24 

^720 
90 



666t 2)-810 



-406 



30 
24 

720 
900 

.^isot 

666 

5S280 
666 



-119880 
(405)«- 164025 

It if not necewary to proeeed further 
even thin this. Mere inipection shows 
thiit two of the roots are unreal. I may 
here ohserre that, whenever the qnanti* 
ties eorresponding with those which, in 
this kst example, are marlted with obe* 
lidLS, have the same sign, the given enbic 
has two unreal roots. 

Ew. 8. What is the nature of the roots 
of the cubic 

»«-10s>-fl2«-4-0? 
— <LooKHAmT, p. 10, Bz. 6| line 4.) 
-10 12 —12 

-10 -10 -10 



100 


1-120 


120 


36 


- 36 


144 


64 


2)- 84 


64 




- 42 


96 
144 



-1*536 
We need go no ftirtfaer. We at once 
see that die final result wfll be poritiye, 
and, conseqnentlyy that the given cubic 
has two unreal roots. In eadi of thew 
three examples of Mr. Locxhabt we 
have the reUtion 

3e«-*; 
Lb this relation — and, I may add, is 
that which causes the number 66G to 
occur in the left-hand columns of 1^. 7 
and Em. 11 — designed or casual P 

The following example — one of 
Stubm*s — is treated bv my eminent 
friend, Professor J. R. xouno, at p. 34 
of his researches, ** On the General 
Principles of Analysis,*' the First Part* 
of which has lately appeared. 

• PnUitlied by a C. »p(Uer, 102, HolborB-liUl. 
Price Two ShiUioffi and Slkpenee. 



£x.9. What is the nature of the loots of 

jr* + lU*-102x^ 181-0? 
—(J. R. YouKo, Prine. qf AmtU., Part I., 
p. 34.) 

11 -102 543 

n 11 11 



121 
-306 

"427 



-1122 
1629 

2)-275l 

-1875 -5 



(1375,6)«- 




31017 
8862 
17724 

-1892037 
1892000*15 



-36-75 
and, the result being negative, ail the 
roots are real Although in some oaseo 
our process mav be raUier lengthy, it is 
always easjf and certain. 

I deeplv regret to find, from a " No- 
tice" on the cover of Part I., that the 
publication of Professor J. R. YoiTHo'a 
most interesting and valuable work On 
tk$ Chneral Prine^les qf Anafysis is 
for the present suspended, from the 
want of a suflkiieiit number of sub- 
scribers. I trust thatj when this obstacle 
to its continuance is more generallj 
known to the mathematieal world, the 
difficulty wiU be speedily obviated. To 
the tone of feeling which pervades the 
concluding naragraph of the ** Notice** 
alluded to, 1 cannot forbeur fh>m here 
payhiff my tribute of reqpect 

I take another example, ftrom p. Sf of 
Professor Youbq's woA. 

Em. 10. Determine the nature of the 
roots of 

4x»-9«« + 6x-4=0. 
Multiply this equation by 2, and make 
2«-y. Then we have 

^-4-5y«+6jf-8-0; 

the roots of which are of the same nature 

as those of the equation in x. Hence 

-4-5 +6 -2 4 

- 4-5 -4-5 



225 
18 



2*25 



18 
90 

108-0 
36 

72 



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VMUSa 8F10IFI0ATI0NS WKtHOSIMD DtTBina fn WEEK. 



flid» the qvanddet at the bottom of the 
right And left hand colamna being both 
pMitire, thegiyen equation has two un- 
real roots. Hence we see that, in the 
present ease, it is useless to work the 
middle column. In fact, in all cases, it 
will be better so far to vary the rule, 
which I gaye at pp. 489—490 of the 
hMt (52Bd} volume of thb Maguine, as 
to b^n with the extreme columns, and 
oolj to work the middle column when 
the results of those extremes, carried as 
to as in the last example, are of different 
signs. 

The following equation (quoted firom 
Mr. Lookhart), is treated hj Professor 
Toinf0 at p. 80 of his work above men- 
tioned. 

Es. 11.— What is the nature of the 
roots of 

122*- 120«> + 326:r-. 127^0? 
Sinee 12*3 x 2*, mnltiply this aquation bj 
18 Tor 2x3>), and make Gi-^jf, and the 
resutiiig eqnadon is 

9*-* 6Qy* 4- 978r - 2286 -0. 

Here we have 

^60 978 -6958 

-60 -60 - 60 



3600 
2934 

666 



-58680 
-.20674 



411480 
956484 



2)-38106 -545004 

-19053 

For ocmvenienoe, I shall perform the 
residue of the process below : 
545004 
666 

3270024 
3270024 
3270024 



-362972664 
(19053)>»363016809 
We now see that the given equation 
haa two unreal roots. Although the 
numbers here employed are large, yet, 
there being nothing tentative in our pro- 
cess, we are sure of arriving at a saHnac- 
tory result. 

In the equation which constitutes ex- 
ample 3 of the last of these Notes (see 
Mweh. Maff,f vol. lii. p. 489, col. 1), for 
9 nad 3. 

Jamxs CocxLa. 

t, Pmim^oiiii, Temple, 
July 6, 1860. 

Pof<fen|M.— July 9, 1850. With re- 



fercnee to a passaga in Art. (5.) of p. 7 
of Professor J. R. Youifa*s new work, 
alluded to above, I take the opportunity 
of observing that, in the years 1847-8 
(and some little time before the period 
there mentioned) I had contemplated the 
anplication, to the Theory of Equations, 
ot GoBiPERTZ*8 method of porismatising 
Algebraic Expressions. This will be seen 
on referring to pp. 409 — 410 of vol. 
xlvii., and to pp. 181 — 3 of vol. xlviii. of 
Uie Mechanicr Magazine, In saying 
thus much, I must not be understood as 
laying any claim to Professor Youvo's 
beautiful investigations on the roots of 
numerical equations. 

Jambs Oocelb. 



SPBCIFIOATIONS OV BNOLISB PAIUKTS BN- 
ROLLBD DURING THB WBBK BNDIMO 
JULY 10th, 1850. 

Datib Blair WnrrB, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, M.D. For on imprinted mode qf 
baUoiHrng and eUmimg omrgo im \9hip9 vid 
other veeeele. Patent dated Jolt 8, 1850. 
Dr. White proposes to place m the hold 
of a ship or other vassal four hagi , two 
OB eaoh side of tks keeleon, are eomposed 
of stoat canvass coated inside with gutta 
percha, or otherwise rendered air and water- 
tight, and coated ootsida with coal tar, or 
impregnated with some poison to repel the 
attacks of Termin. The bags are to be far- 
ther protected by being inclosed in netting, 
and seeorsd bj tackle to the sides of the 
hold, to prevent them sarging fore or (ikft. 
On each side of the keelson there is a pipe 
which, passing threogh the stem, opens into 
the water beneath the line of floatation, and 
is provided with a cock. Each bag oomma- 
nicates with the tnbe on its side of the kel- 
son by means of a flexible pipe, 10 that the 
two sets are separate and distinct; and it is 
provided with air holes at top to allow the 
air to escape when it is being filled. When 
it is desired to fill the bags, the cocks are 
opened in the stem, and the water allowed to 
flow Into them throagh the way* tabes. The 
branch flexible tabes are each nipped toge- 
ther by instraments resembling nnt-crackers, 
£ added inside to prevent communication 
etween the bags of each. By thia arrange- 
ment the ship may be trimmed as reqaired. 
When it is desired to carry sach cargo as 
apirits, btc.t the water is pnmped oat and 
commonication cat oif between the bags 
and the external water. In cases of wreck 
the bags may be emptied, when from the 
fact of their being distended by the tackle 
thmr will contain a certain amount of mxt 
and serve to buoy the vessel. The pump 



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40 



WBBKL7 LIST OF BN0LI8H VATE3XTB AND DB8I0NS* 



employed to empty the bags of water, or to 
fill and empty them with gooUt , ii made 
with the lower extremity forked. One of 
the forlLB communicates by a cunred pipe 
with one or other of the way tubet, and the 
other leada ontiide the TetieL The piston 
is placed in the forlc communicating with 
the bagSy so that in worlcing, the water will 
only haye to be lifted just aboye the line of 
floatation of the yessel. The pump barrel 
passes aboye the deck, and is profided with 
a branoh pipe which may be closed or 
opened as required, when the goods are 
filled into or removed from the bags. To 
preyent sand from depositing in the pump 
and choking it, the patentee employs an 
agitator which is attadied to the bottom of 
a rod extending the whole length of the 
pump, and proyided with a handle at top. 
Robert Millioan, Harden, Bingley, 



York, manuftioCnrer. Fbr en imprwid 
mode of irtaling eertaim floated warp or 
w^ftt or both, for tkepwrpoee qfprodmeimg 
omameniedfaMee, Patent dated Merdi 18. 
1850. 

The patentee states that if, for example^ 
it is desired to produce a light red rose 
on a dark grey alpaca, the mere printing of 
it on will not be sufficient to produce the 
desired effect, in so far as regards the dis- 
tinctness of the design and yiyidness of 
the colour. He therefore proposes to float 
in carefully a warp or weft of a texture and 
colour suited to reeeiye the tint, according 
to the design required to be printed. 

CZoim.— Printing in bright, clear, dencate 
colours on a warp or weft, carefully floated 
into a fiibric according to the pattern, which 
is better suited to reeeiye the colonn ^'•n 
the ground of the fabric. 



WBBKLT LIST OF VMW BNOLISH PATXMTS. 



AMnA Vincent Newton, of Chanceiy-luie, Mld- 
dleeex. meebanieal drvigbtemaii, for improvementt 
in the preparation and mauufterare of caoutetioino 
or India rubber. (Being a commanlcatlon.) Juljr 
9; aix month!. ^ , . « . « 

Robert Bumney Crawford, of Warden Paper 
Kin, Northumberland, paper maker, for an im- 



provement 
monthi. 



in drying paper. Jaly 10 ; alx 

UKHlUia. 

Jacob Connop, of Hyde Park, Middlesex, mo. 
tieman, for improvemente in meltbif, mouldfnff 
and catting land, earth, and argillaceoai ioK 
•taoeee for paying , buUding, and Tariona other 
vMiul purpoMf. July 10 ; six months. 



WXBKLT LIST OF DK8IONS FOB A&TIOLBS OF UTILITT RBOISTUIBD. 

Date of Vo. in 
aegittra- the Ac- 
tion, gister. Proprietors' Names. Addresses. Subjects of Design. 
Joly 4 2S6S John Ashford ............ Birmingham.........^................ Umbrella rail and water-box 

for church and chapel pew 
^ _. . , carriage, and other doort. 

5 1364 Joseph Fozall and Co... Thanes' Inn»...... m..»... The triurofimte pen. 

„ 2365 Charles WUford .»....„ Brompton ............................ Botary steam engine. 

6 2366 William Collins, Jun... Glasgow...^..... Security enveiope. 

,, 2367 Thomas Pardon Hull ......».».».•..•...». » Portable bureau. 

9 2368 Thomas Tate8.M m. Birmingham.........^..... Presenre-pot for mustard. 

pickles, and other articlee. 
„ 2369 Anna Maria Breton .... Lower Berkeley>street ........... Embroidering frame. 

10 2370 James Carter f Lamb's>buildings, BunhUl-row.. \ 

and < y Nautical state-cabin basin. 

Johnson Wood...^.... ( 103, LeadenhaU-street, City....^ j ^^ 

CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBEB. 

Deecrlptlon of Ferguson's Improyed Gun Car- Description of Fenn's Begistered Cymameter 

rtMn-^wUh engravinM) 21 —{ufUh engrovinot) „ „... 3g 

Nayal Architecture.— EffecU of Difference of Description of Vidle^s Patent Bailway Signals 

Immersion. BytheLate Brig.-General Sir —iwiihtngravingt) »„ «... S3 

Samuel Bentham 23 Notes on the Theory of Algebraic Equations. 

Thoughts on Matter. By Mr. W. Symons 24 By James Cockle, Esq., M.A., Barrister at- 

Descrlption of Spray's Patent Sallnometer— Law „,„„ „ Sy 

{wUh engraving) ^ 30 Specifications of English PatenU Enrolled 

Description of Spray's Patent Lubricator— during the Week :-> 

(with €Mgrtu>ino*) 81 White stowing and Ballasting Ships 39 

Description of Pilbeam's Smoke - preventing Milllgan Printing Fabrics..... ..». 4o 

Chimney-pot— <wJfA «n^aptiioff) 81 Weekly List of EnglisU PatenU ..,.. 40 

The Small Arms of Vessels of War. From the WeeklT List of Designs of Articles of UUltty 

UnpublishedMSS. of Sir Samuel Bentham.. 82 Begistered ., „... 40 



LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by Joseph Clinton BoberUon, of No. 166, Fleet-street, 
in the Ci^of London.— Sold by A. and W. Oalignanl, Bue ViYienne, Paris; Maohin and Co., 
Dublin ; W. C Campbell and Co., Hambargh. 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 



No. 1406.] 



SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1850. [Price 3rf., Stamped, id. 
Edited by J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-street. 



DR. NEWINGTON'S NEW PATENT AGRICULTURAL MACHINES. 



Fig. 4. 



^rat* mr. 



Fig. 2. 



Pig. 6. 




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4S 

DB. NIWnrOTON'S HEW PATKMT A0M0Ui;rUB4L MAOBINBl. 

£P»t«nt dated Jmiiuit 1 1, 1850. Patentee Samuel Newington, of Knole, Txant, ICD. Spedfleation 
enroUedJuljll.lSM.] 

Thb high reputation which Dr. Newington has already acanired as an improrer 
of agricultural iottrumenta, will be found well sustained by the additionid eontribu' 
tions whieh fbru the Mibjeot of his present patent. These consist — 1. Of an im- 
proved hand-dropping drill, suitable ibr tilling and sowing. 2. A nodification <^ 
the preceding machine) by which it is adapted to manuring. 3. Another modifica- 
tion whereby It is adapted to both sowing and manuring ; and, 4. An improved 
subsoil pul?crlier. We eztraot the following deseriptioo of these machinei from 
Dr. Newington's specification t*^ 

Tk9 Improvd i^<M i)ropping DrilL 
Fig. 1 is m cross atetiSli) fig. 2, a plan, »n6 fig. 8 a back view of this machhit. AA Is 
a framework, cettiisting of two aptkht stylss connected together by means of cross rails, 
BB ; CC are seed boxes which are Mcnred io the framework by means of screws, DD ; 
and £B are eoulters QwO, three, or in%re)« tm^ for each seed box, which *e attached to a 
slotted bearing piece F» 1^ taeaal of sirewi and nnti as shown. Bach seed box, ahoold 
of coarse be on a line with iU CDrresponiliii| doulter, and the distance between the seta of 
boxes and conlters maslbe regulated (by ftneaftis of the screws and nata aforesaid), aodording 
to the width desired to be milalained beHreek the rows of seed. 66 are twe Whe^ upon 
which the drill is meUntidU and 1 1, ceupUftg boxes, by Which those wheels may be con- 
nected to, or diBoonaeeted from the agle H, so as to allow of the machine beiag wheded 
about from place to alaai Mhout pfOdadng any action upon (he seed*deposltin| part of 
the maiAlnery, axeepi waen ttfee cadpltng bdkes are In gear with the Wheels ; KK are two 
rose or crown wheels with taslh of a Yandy^k shape aflixed to the axle H, irttfek, on the 
rotation of the axle oommanicate an altematftig motion to the bar L, which has ito bearings 
in slota formed in the framework. Flat spacai are left between the teeth of the rose wheels 
which allow of the bar L, and the vibrating plates 6, standing at rest, for the instsnt while 
the seeds are being dropped eat of the eapeiiiiH Thm wh eels , KK, era sa proportioned in 
else to the bearing-wheels 66, that a shift of the bar L is prodnoed every 4 inches, which 
the bearing wheels travel over, and evsij shift of the bar caaies a deposit o^ seed to take 
place from tiie whole el the seed boxei by means of the arrangsmeak to be nskt described, 
and which ere separately represented In fig. 4 and fig. 5 ; Fig. 4 being a veithMl section 
of one of the seed boies» and fig. I a plan of the same. A* is a pipe or Spoat, whidi 
Is inserted into a hale in the bottem of the seed box, the lower end of which, when in 
ito place In the machine, falls wlthiA the daft of the coulter as rcf^resented hi figs. 1 and 3 ; 
ft is a plate which osdllatea upon the centre c, and is provided with two holes, or cup- 
shaped seed recesses, d d^, which are so disposed, that when the plate is made to move 
from one side to the other, they come immediately over the top of the spoat A*, and allow 
of the seeds which areeontaineid in the caps falling through the spout. Apian of the plate 
ft is given separately in fig. 6, where the black lines show it in the position which it occu- 
pies at one end of the stroke In one direetioa, and the dotted lines ita position at the end of 
the stroke in the reverse direction. E^ is a tail piece, which is formed on the plate ft, and 
takes into one or other of the rectangalar notehes,//, formed in a plate affixed to one aide 
of the oadllating bar L, so that when that bar is made to oscillate by the machinery being 
wheeled over the surface of the ground, the seed recesses, d d', come aitematdy over the 
spout and drop their contenta ; P is a guard which Is screwed to the front of the seed box 
(occupying a place immediately over the mouUi of the spout A'), and has a row of bristles, 
A A, affixed to each side of it, which serve to sweep off without bruiaing or iojarkig any 
surplus seed which may be contained in the cups, d d^. When the machine is drswn over 
the ground by means of the handle M, the ceuiteri form farrows into which each deposit 
of seed is r^^arly dropped at measured distances apart, and the earthing over the aeeda 
is accomplished by mesns of blades* NN» affixed to back the ends of the eoalters. 

T%e Hmd Dr^ppimg DHU as applUd <0 JAmaHa^. 
Fig. 7 is a vertical section $ fig. 8, a pkn of the drill as thtis modified. O ii a hopper 
for containing the manure which extenis across the machine from side to side ; P a bar, 
wliich has ita bearings in slota formed in the ends of the hopper, and is connected to the 
vibrating bar L, by means of arms, RR, so that the bar P paitakes of the same movementa 
aa the bar L i pp Is a plate or strip of metal which is affixed to Una side of the bar P, 
and has Ito lower edge serrated, so thai as it vibiatea ft causes the manure to fiow in a 
regular and continuous stream from a longitudinal opening formed in the bottom of the 



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DB. NBWIN0T0M*8 HBW PATIKT AOtltOULTOIllL KAOBIXES. 



48 



happtr;p*p^ •!• wirti attftohtd to 11m bar P, to ptetwit the nantM ftvm beeoming 
dmked or jtuning in the «pper pert of the hopper ; R* !• t regnUtiog plate whieh !• ed- 
jaitable bj the aerewt 88, and by whieh the longitvdiaal opening fai the hopper for the 
I of the aaeanreeube made of toy ii«e to anit the quantity of mannre it it wiahed to 



Vlf. ;. 



Fig. 10. 




Tki Hm^DrUl atUipied io hath Anataf emi MmwHmsf. 

VIg. 9 lea plan, end flg. 10 • front eleratioii of a donble machine aa thna modHled. 
Tha fraaMwork of tUa maehine ia neceaaarily mneh atronger than that of tlie aingle maehinea 
hifne deaeribed, but the prineij^ of action and the moting perta are nearly the aane. 
▲ A ia the fraaaavork ; B B the raila to which the aeed bozea C C are attached. The aeed 
boxea are ahown aa attached ta tlie front of the maehine, in order tliat the moving parte 
vhich produce the diatribution of the manure may stand qoite dear of thoae which regulate 
the &I1 of the aeed. O is the manure hopper, which ia provided with a aliding bar P, and 
rcgikting plate inaide of it, aa before described. K K are the rose or crown wheels 
vmch giro motion to the vibrating bar L, which again givea motion both to the sliding bar 
P aad to the Tibratiog cup plates of the seed boxes. T T represents a system of leverage, 
by whieh the attendant can throw the bearing wheels oat of gear with the shaft, and allow 
fte machine to travel without either diatribuSog manure or aeed. No coulters or earthing 
bhdea are fitted to this modification of the machine, but they may be added if required. 

[The parts on which the aowing action of the improved drop drill depends may also be 
readily added, and adapted to various cultivating implementa and machines In ordinary use, 
sadk aa ooltivatorai aeurifien, &e.] 

The Sub-Mil Puherlzer. 

TUa ia apr aved aab4oil pnlveriier may be employed either for stirring the aurface of tl^e 
■oil, or for atirring both the surface and the lab-soil at tiie same time. A perspective view 



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44 



IBON 8T1UM BOILBBSy VeriUi OOPPBB B0ILEB8. 



Of tUt implMMiit It gboi in fif. 11 1 A if the baam, B « front eovlter, or tln«» wUch ii 
ProfUUd with a eattinf edge at front from a to ^ and terminatet in a chiael point at the 
lower end. C C are other eimilar ooultert, or tinet, whieh are attached to a slotted bar or 
gnide D, which it attaohed to the beam and the lower end of the haodlet, E E, by meant of 
an iron clip F, which admitt of the slotted bar or gaide being raised or lowered to any enit- 
able height according as it it detired to malce them enter to a greater or lett depth, whereby 
a free pattage it left for the uprooted weedt and the working of the implement doet not 
become impeded. The gnide wheel 6, alto admitt of a timilar adjnttment of he^ht. The 
whole of the tinet may be tet to enter the fame depth into the earth or the two hinder onet 
may be tet deeper and ttir and pnlTerise the tab-toil along with the tnrfaoe toiL 

The implement jntt described may alto be employed for hoeing pnrpoeet for eartiiing 
up potatoet, or at a teed tower and mannre dittribator ; when need for hoeing« the oooltert 
are armed with mofeable tharet, tnch at repretented in fig. 12, and when for earthing mp 
potatoet the two hinder tinet are remofcd, and a donble tlure of the detcription repretcmted 
in fig. 13, it atUched to the tlotted bar D. 

Fig. 14 it a tide ele?ation of a tine, and fig. 15 a plan of a hoeing thtre, thowing a 
metlwd of connecting the two together, to that they may pretent little or no obstacle to 
the instmment in paning through the ground. A is a slot, formed in the tole of the tine, 
into wliieh the fore part x x of tbe there it inserted. The share it made tlightly ooncaTe, 
and filed with the con?ez side uppermost. The tine also is cunred, so that the heel B and 
front C shall be on a level, or nearly to. 

For towiog teed, or for dittribudng manure, either of the implementt repretented in 
figt. 1 and 7, after baving their handlet remoTod, may be attached to the slotted gnide bar 
D (fig. 11), in which case they would form a horte implement for towing or for manuring, 
or for performing both operationt dmultaneously. If the seeds are to be drilled into the 
ground, the coulters for drawing the furrowt are affixed to the tlotted guide bar. 



IllOK ITBAlf BOILBRS, Vtffllt OOPPBA BOILinS. 

{From an Jwuriean Corrttpondtul.) 



It hat been for many years, and ttill 
is, the practice of tcientific meUi to 
recommend copper in preference to 
wrought iron, for boilers to heat water 
or ower flaidt, on the ground of llie 
tuperior conducting power of the former 
OTer the latter metal ; and it will doubt- 
lets appear strange to many, that a doc- 
trine so generally receiTed should now, 
for the first time (known to the writer), 
meet with the most unqualified dissent. 
The superior oonduoting poww of cop- 
per over iron admiu of no doubt, and yet, 
upon this confestedly eorreet iMsis, has 
been raised the most fallacious doctrine 
which the whole range of seientific engi- 
neering of the present age can produce. 
It is scarcely possible to imagine the 
enormous amount of money wasted, and 
worse than wasted, in this country alone, 
by the use of copper instead of iron in 
the boilers of steam boats, to say nothing 
of locomotives. Four boilers were re- 
centlv put into an United States steamer, 
whicn cost 120,000 dollars, and weighed 
140 tons, while iron ones, according to 
Professor Renwick, would have cost only 
84,000 dollars, and have weiffhed only 
t2 tons; thus, in addition to Uie 86,000 



dollars useless first cost, there is an use* 
less weight of 56 tons also. 

That such an enormous outlay should 
be sanctioned may well excite snrpriae, 
founded, as it is, upon an engineering 
blunder, did we not remember another 
which kept its ground for some time in 
England, the much valued invention of 
Blenkinsop, in the early days of railroad 
engineering.* 

In the ease with these and many 
other boilers (more partieuhurly Govern* 
ment ones), the heaviest, dearest, and 
weakest material is employed, for rea- 
sons, which, sooner or mer, rnnsl appear 
too ohildish to be entitled to notiee. 

The experiments which have been 
made, proving that copper is a better 
conductor of neat than iron, are princi- 
pally those of M. Biot, and M. DetpreU. 
On a bar of eaeh metal being plunged 
into a bath of mercury or of molten 
lead, it was found that although the 
temperature of each was of course almost, 

• TbU invtatlMi eonalrted in pleoieg co^s upen 
tiM rail* Md wheels, to get a foot-hold, at it wen. 
baving tirtt aMomed that the •* bite" would not be 
•ufflcient to prevent thewhe^ gelAg round without 
moving the canlage forward. 



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TRS TBBBDO MAVALU. 



45 



if not tbtolutely identictl, tt the imall- 
at apprecuible distance from the bath, 
yet toe eopper, being the best conduc* 
tor of heaty sept it to itself, or would not 
fvadily jMrt with it, while the iron was 
SB inferior one in oondneting power, in 
eoiiieq[iienee of parting wiu it more 
rapidly. The term "good eonductor*' has 
diercfore been applied erroneously, be- 
ttose it was intenaed to convey the idea 
that it would convey or conduct the heat 
or caloric of the fire, through itself, 
into the water on the other side— which 
does not applj to copper but to iron; 
which is connrmed by the facts which 
are well known, thai the absorbent and 
rediathe powers are tUwt^s equal m the 
sewu metal, and are far greater in iron 
than in copper, while the latter metal is 
in the same ratio the best reflector ; for, 
reftsction ie iaversely as radiaiion, as 
proved by Leslie and others. The power 
of reflection then, appears to control that 
of radiation, &c., to confine the caloric 
within the metallic (copper) surfaces, or 
at least within that depth in which the 
power of reflection lies. 

With these facts before us, together 
with othen proving beyond a doubt that 
ill other thmgs Ming the same, more 
water is evaporated in the same space 
of time in iron than in copper boilers, 
with the same amount of fiiel : it is not 
MMible that the present absurd and fsl- 
McioQs Mgmnents can stand another year; 
md their downftdl most be hailed with 
jdcMure bj all who love the truth and 
prwress oi science, and will inevitably 
wad to the perfecting of boilers, made of 
that still most noble of all the metals, 
VM — glorious Mtm. 

Copper bring a better reflector than 
inn, is then, in oonsequence, inferior ss 
a absorber of caloric, and for the same 
Riaen also aa a radiator, but superior as 
t eonductor, that is, as a retainer; for 
it appears that it is difficult for the calorie 
to get into copper (as compared with 
inm), and equally difilcult to get out of 
it again when it has once got in, and 
therefo r e it expands within it, so that in 
s locomotive boiler, with copper tubes of 
> a moderate length, the end of the tubes 
next the smoke-box, may be conveying 
away the heat from the end next the 
Avsaoey — a state of things which it 
Whovea our railway engineers and direc- 
tan to knA after, aa one of the elements 
of extrawaganoe, in that moat eoonomi- 
eal boiler. 



Iron absorbs beat oo mtieh more ra« 
l^dly than copper, that omuv explosiona 
nave oceurred which would not, had 
copper been used ; although thia ia ad- 
mitted, it is a little too bad to praise 
copper for this also, that it will not let a 
boiler blow up, when everything con- 
sidered, it ought to blow up, if a sood 
fire and a good medium through which 
to convey its caloric into the water have 
any virtue in them. Copper cannot be 
a good medium through wnich to raise 
steam and a bad one to blow up with i 
that ia rather too much, yet the arau- 
ment meana thia if anything ; neverthe- 
leas, it is admitted that this ia not the 
mund on which any dependence ean 
be placed, because, whenever such a 
cataatropbe has happened it has arken 
from a defective arrangement of the 
boiler— in fact the greatest drfed Aat 
can properly occur in the desiffning of 
a bcAler— the want of eomplete and 
thorough circulation of the water within 
it — on precisely the aame principle as 
the circulation of hot water in pipes, for 
the purpose of wanning building. No 
boiler of such a construction as here 
recommended ever blew up from the 
cause alluded to, aa it is well known that 
water is a far better conductor of caloric 
than any metal, in the proportion (ac- 
cording to the experiments of Mr. Parkes 
of SngUnd), of above 20 to 10. 

T. A. R. 

New Toifc, Jaly S, 1849. 



TBI WBUDO NATALIB. 

It appears from Mr. Felon's observa- 
tions respecting the teredo navalla and 
other sea worms, that their ravages are 
not prevented by impregnating wood 
with poisonous solutions, — that thtyfeed 
on wood, woody fibre having been disco- 
vered in the body of the teredo ; and he 
concludes that small quantities of poisons 
do not affect them. 

In Sir Ssmuel Bentham's *' Naval 
Papers," No. VL, page 18, it is said— 
'* I have understocKi that impregnation 
with oil has been used with good effect 
for the preservation of wood against 
decay, as well as against the destructive 
action of the sea worm ; and some expe- 
rimenU I made at Plymouth Dockyard 
many years sgo^ gave reason to expect 
that thia mode would be advantageoua." 

Not any note remains of those experf^ 



46 



ELBOTBO-MACHTRIO RI0IKK8. 



BMDtf unoDgH Sir Sanrael's ptpers; 
but the mtoo«r in which they were 
fnade, at his desire, bj Mr. Jenner, of 
Plymouth Doekwd, was as follows : — 
Several pieeet of wood, similar in kind 
and siie, were taken to be experimented 
on ; half the number of them were im- 
pregnated with common cheap oii, the 
other half left in their natural state ; the 
whole of them were sunk, close by one 
another, in a pool of water where the 
sea- worm was known to eommit its 
ravages ; the experimental pieces of 
wood, ajfter having been immersed in 
the sea water for a considerable length 
of time, were taken up, when the uh" 
prepared wood was found to be very 
much worm-eaten, but the pieces impreg- 
nated with oil were untouched, and in 
every respeet leund. 

If the diflRirent sea-worms feed upoa 
wood, may it not l>e possible tnat, 
although mineral poisons do not injure 
dbem, yet that it may l>e either distaste- 
ful to their palates, or may be incompa- 
tible with raeir neans of eomminutiBg 
wood so as to prepare it for their food f 

Might it not be worth repeating Shr 
Samuers experiments, by impregnating 
wood with diflR^rent kin<tf of low-priced 
oibP— -trahi oU, for instance, coal tar, 

&C.P 

A gentiemaoy who made numerovs 
observations respecting the diHS^rent set 
worms at Sheerness, found that piles and 
woodwork there that had been paid with 
coal tar, in a great degree resisted their 
destructive attacks. 

M. S. B. 



FnOPVLSION— MAOIMTOSH'8 
SUBtnTVTB rOA THB BOABW. 

A few days sgo we had the opportanity 
of iBipesting, at Messrs. Jolmson, Cub. 
SBtU, tad Co.'b Cyeiops Steel Works, a 
ramarkabla inprovement effseled in the 
BMchinery for propelliDg steaaa vessels. It 
is the invention of Mr. Maointosh, and is 
manufactared at the Cyclops Stesl Works. 
The propeUers hithsrto in ass have beoi 
invariably made from cast metal, and when 
at rest or in motion ^re a perfect strew, 
alwaif$ at the mms pitch. The improved 
fleiible propeller (Madntofh'a) to which we 
refer, is made of steel well hammered and 
tempered, and set at an angle on the revolv- 
ing ahaft. When at rest it is a perfect 
plane, bat wfien in action it fsrms a screw, 
and, by the flexibility of the steel, bssobms 
aflaer or aee ar ssr pilsh aoooidinf to the 



strength of the adverse action of the water 
through whish it moves. This drcvmstanos 
imparts to the vessd and maohioery an 
easy action, especially in roui^ and heavy 
■eas, which has never been attained by the 
rigid screws now in use. PropeUers mann* 
factored according to this patent are not 
more than half tbe weight of those made of 
cast metal, though the forgings are the 
largest yet attempted to be made from steeL 
It hat iNBen ascertained by experiment that, 
in pohit of speed, there is a gain of at least 
SO per cent. In heavy seas or rough wea- 
ther this propeller can be easily hoisted on 
board by means of a simple block and 
tackle, thus saving the expense of the ma- 
efainery now need for raising tlie cast metid 
ones } and, from bring siaHeiiMe and toagh^ 
dees away with the risk of breakage wUeh 
neesssarilj eosnes in the moving of a onaa- 
bersome pieee of oast metal. In cost there 
is a saving of about 60 per cent. This il 
oonaidered to be one of the greatest improvn- 
ments jet made in marine propulsion* Se- 
veral of these propellers have already been 
manufactured, and the Lords of tiie Admi- 
ralty have ordered a trial to be made on the 
B«e government vessel at Portsmonth.-^ 
ShtfUld Timet, 



BLBOTAO-M AniTBTIO BWOIKXB. 

The notion of obtaining an effocdve mo- 
tive power from dectro-magnetlsm ia BtUl 
so great a favourite among ingenious specn- 
enlators, that too mneh publicity cannot be 
given to the following statements and enlea- 
lations on the subject by Mr. Robert Hunt, 
tlie Keeper of Mhiing Becords In the Mu- 
seum of Economic Geology. They are 
extracted from a lecture recently daUTsrad 
by Mr. Hunt before ^ Society of ArU t— 

The author l^s It down as a ixed law, 
whether in reference to the eleetrie Ught^ 
heat, or motive foroe, tkai fur omjf §kHm 
rmtiu froiuetd, a ^iesn pmnHip if 9mm% 
wtMimriml mm$i h§ eomtwmed tn the haiitrw* 
As it ia nsesssary to bum a certain quantity 
of coal to produce the required horse power 
in a steam engine, so is it necessary to efleot 
a similar change in a certain quantity of the 
elements of a voltaic battery to produce any 
given electro-magnetio force. The reaolt of 
many hundreds of experiments, deduced in 
all cases from magnetic arrangementa, glr- 
iog the maximum effect, with the least con- 
sumption of material, vrss as follows t-^ 

A grain of sine consumed in the battery 
Indnoed an electro-magnetio fbree onpnble 
of iiMngeOlbe. 1 foot hight wherasM, ia 

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BLBOTBO-lCAeifBTIC BMOIMES* 



47 



the boOera of the Confih itetm engine, 
1 grain of coal prodnced iteam power capa- 
ble of lifting 14S Ibe. through the lame 
ipaoe. 

The deetro-magnetlc force can be pro- 
duced with the greatest economy in those 
batteries where Uie chemical excitement is 
tiie greatest. One horse power is obtained 
in an electro-magnetic engine of any given 
oonstraetioB at the cost relati?ely of 45 IIm. 
of sine in a Grore's battery, and of 75 Ibe. 
of rine in a Daniell*8 battery — showing that 
a great mistake Is made in endeaTonring to 
obtain skmly-aeting, i. e., coostant batteries, 
ss they are called— to work electro-magnetie 
iBfUiee. 



f The action of electro-magnetism fkrmgk 
tpmet is next discnssed by Mr. Hont, and 
the results deduced by him, from many 
hundreds of experiments, are as follows : 

The armature being in the first place 
broDght into contact with the magnet, was 
fixed to one end of a beam, and the weights 
in the opposite scale necessary to remore 
the armature was the measure of the force 
exerted. By an easy adjustment, the con- 
tact of the magnet was afterwards preTcnted, 
and the foroe exerted was weighed off in 
the same way. By this it will be seen that 
the attraoliee Ibroe of an eleetio msgnet 
diminishes with the distance with astoiUsh- 
ing rapidity :— 



Contact 



1-S50th 
ot an Inch. 



MSftth 
diUo. 



18. 

26. 

40. 

22. 

14. 
100. 

98. 
300. 
320. 
150. 
120. 
220. 



. 13 . 
. 12 . 
. 25i. 
. 10 . 
. 8 . 
. 64 . 
. 62 . 
.175i. 
An . 
, 84 . 
. 65 . 
. 90 . 



. 11 ... 
. 10*... 
. 20 ... 

, 94... 
.7 MO. 
. 50 ... 
. 49 ... 
.129 ... 
.132 ... 
. 6H... 
. 49 ... 
. 50 ... 



l-Mth 
ditto. 

. 74. 



1-62nd 
ditto. 

. 74.. 
. 6*.. 
. 12 .. 

. H.. 

6 5 1-5. 



l-SOth 
diUo. 



l-SSth 
ditto. 



ItSth 
ditto. 



6». 



14 . 



. 34 . 
> 32 , 
.110 . 
.1114. 

. 35 . 
. 47 . 



30 
28 
84 
86 
50 
26 
40 



.. 9 
.. 44 

.. 4 . 
..25 . 
..21i 
..63 . 
..64 . 
..35 
..20 
..36 






44. 
»4. 



20 ,••,..20 

51 50 

50 50 

Zo .,.,.. £A 
17 14 



The results of experiments made with one of BIr. Hjorth's engines, and furnished by 
thst gentleman, were as follows :— 



IMstane« of pbtoa 
naylindar, In inchM. 

1 

14 

«4 

8 

4 

5 



Attractive force Angle of direction of nuunietie 

la lbs. aroiidupois. foroe whh the faoe of cylinder. 

160 42* 84' 

140 50* 12^ 

124 60« 57' 

88 er^" 22' 

80 72* 39' 

72 75^ 58' 



In tUi it will be seen that the force is measured at the distance of an inch in the lint 
|laee, wliereas, by reference to Mr. Hunt's Table, it will he seen that the great loss of 
r is at distances under the l-25th of an inch. Mr, Hont next drawa attentloo to the 
I obteined by Dr. Scoresby and Mr. Joule, which were as follows :— 



Baiecrf lerolation of 
■ugnet per minute. 

Hot ri40 

1180 

80 

102 

114 

122 



Foroe of 
Current. 

. 920 • 

. 850 . 

. 850 . 

. 670 . 

.13300 . 

.10000 . 



Zloe destroyed per 
hour, lagrsiae. 



tn the inToatigations which Mr. Hunt 
kasMads, he has proved that the moment a 
«ipal is tefe Ib motion it loiei pownr, tmd 



Pounds lifted 1 foot 
hif h per hear. 

205 91,100 

.... 190 17,820 

.... 190 8,800 

.... 161 9.000 

.... 291 10,030 

.... 228 12,672 

he giTOi the following as tiie meaas i 
experiasents showing tids lose >— 



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48 SCREW. PBOFEIiLINa AND ITS IKYSMTOfifl. 

Fone of Canent Force of Cunwit the infenUoii Into me hi all its Tariom as- 

Magnet mt re.i. Magnet in motion. pUcation. and adaptationf. 

2232 920 It was not made known to the jnrora, bj 

2232 850 gome strange oTersight, that Mr. Taylor 

1381 850 WIS, at the tine the trials were going on, in 

3381 678 possession of Shorter's original models and 

2081 1300 drawings, which dearly proTe that Mr. 

2035 1000 Shorter waa the inventor and owner of the 

Whenever any magnetic body is made to ••propeUer," and not Mr. Smith w Mr. 

move in front of a magnet, the magnet im- Lowe, whose elaima have been oonteated in 

mediately loses attraoti?e foroe; the mean two or more triala. 

of a great many experiments being as Mr. Taylor has a smaU model, which 

follows : — formerly was the property of the late Mr. 

Aiir&etiv€ F^frw of Magmtis, Edward Shorter, which was exhibited before 

Sir Robert Seppings, Snnreyor of the Navy, 

^\^^ ^° "^^ In the year 1830, by him, at Somerset Honae. 

. - ' ». ' This model ftilly demonstrates the Inrentlon 

J;2 In •■ «Wm«d by Mr. Lowe.— The shaft lies in 

"J ^g a line with the keel, passing through the 

75 ' ** ai Teisel below the water line, having a pro- 

^* J^ peller with two vanes attached to it, work- 

fj • it ing between a mdder-post and stem-poat. 

" ^" Mr. Taylor U also in possession of hia 

In condnsion, Mr. Hnnt contends that curved vane propeller, a section of a screw 

with any form of voltaic battery now known, which was applied to his modeU t it oorr«- 

the application of dectro-magnetUm, as a aponds precisdy with Lowe's description of 

motive power, U dmoat hopeless within any the propdler, as it U given in his specifica- 

moderate limiU of expense. tion, though nnlike that which is repre- 

A grdn of sine produces, on the best tented by the drawing attached to it. 

form of electro-magnet, a force equd to Captain Carpenter is also in possession 

lifting a weight of 80 lbs. 1 foot high ; but of one of Shorter's origind curved vaned 

aa thia power diminishes so rapidly through propellers, which, when placed side by dde 

spaoe, and as it again diminiahed the mo- ©f Lowe's origind propeUer, and compared 

ment motion U estobUshed, the highest with his spedficatiou, wodd convince any 

Sower it is capable of exerting ii| pracUce intelligent jury that the invention was 
I 40 lbs., whereas a grain of cod exerts a Shorter's, and not Lowe's, 
power equd to 143 lbs. Zinc cosU 216d. The origind drawings show tiiat Shorter 
per cwt., cod less Uian 9d.— tiierefore the |„ed hU patent propeller over tiie bows by 
cost of working a magnetic engine would, outriggers, which Lowe has had tiie an- 
nnder any conditions now known, be very jadty to sUte in his patent, " fdled," 
much more than one hundred times more which is not the fact, as it can be proved 
expensive than tiM cost of workbg a steam- f^m certificates, letters, and documenta, 
englm, transmitted to Mr. Shorter from Admird 
— ♦ — Bickerton, and otiier navd officers, who 
sc&Kw pmoPBLLTNO witncsscd his experiments in tiie year 1802, 
SCREW pmoPBLLiwo. ^^^ ^^ ^^ sucocssful in propeUing diips at 
ToBnffiHeeri, Ship-ownm^, andaliPertmu ^ satisfactory speed, so far as that portion 
Mt^reHid in lAt ^crt is PropiUtr. of his invention was concerned. 
Whersas, there has been much conflicting Witnesses of the highest respectability 
evidence, and great deception praetiaed in can be brought forward to prove that theae 
endeavouring to prove who is the just and models and drawings were publldy exhibited 
rightful ddmant for the screw propeller, it before the 24th of September, 1^338, the 
is only right and proper, for the sake of date on which Lowe's specification was en- 
truth and justice, that the following infer- rolled. Therefore, as Lord Denman stated 
mation should be made known t before a jury in a trid, Lowe v. Penn, in 
The jury in each trial have not been able the Court of Queen's Bench, February 25th9 
to elidt justice, in consequence of nothav- 1841, "That if this bvention had been 
log heard the evidence of Mr. Taylor, who used before, or specifically described before, 
was the partner of the late Mr. Edward so that the initrument could be made from 
Shorter; alao of Captain £. 1. Carpenter, the description of it, then the party claiming 
R.N., who made important experisaents witii oodd not be called the inventor, or be en- 
Shorter's propdler, with a view of bringing titled to a patent." As It can be provedi 



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FLOATING CAISSON GATR AT PLYMOUTH DOCKYARD. 



49 



OB nnaoabtea Antbority, that the iiiTeiiUon 
bai been m dearly eiplained and deeeribed 
by Mr. Taylor and Captain Cirpeoter, at 
51, Oraoechnrch-itreet, City, on the modela 
above sUted, that any ordinary engineer 
eonld hare made the " Propeller/' and have 
fitted a Bteam Tcaael with it from the deacrip- 
tion they gaTO of it before Lowe'a Bpeciilca- 
tlon waa enroUed, H ia dear that the advan- 
tagea ariaing firom the inrention belong to 
Shorter, or hie hdra and anooeeaora, and to 
tiioteperaona whoee indoitry eaoaed it to be 
Btlieea by the pnbHe. 

It la therefbra highly dediable that there 
g^ fl^yi be another trial, in order that the 
rightfol owner may be aeoertained, ao that 
m^tmmn and peraona hutereated in the pro. 
pellflr nay not hare to pay for the right of 
patent of an in?ention whieh belonga to the 
miblie, that jnatiee may be done to all per. 
■one intereated in the intention, that the 
propdler may earry with it a tmthfkl Wa- 
tofTto poaterity, inateed of a fdae dia- 
raoter, In iriiidi light it now atanda before 
theworid. 

Engineera makingaa extra charge to per- 
aooa for the propeller, In eonaeqnence of 
te patent right, mnat aee the neoeiaity of 
hating another trid, aa it ia a charge which 
wodd dwaya be liabie to U dUpnted on 
the gro«nda of injnatioe, ao long aa the 
patent right appeara to be hdd by perms 
not jnatly entitled to it. 

Wnm yonr moit obedient and hnmble 
Serrant, 
J. J. O. TATLon, 
PcfM/M qf the mod9 qf 
skipping tmd wuhipping 
the Propeller in- board 
through a welUhoU or 
trtmi. 

N.B. Mr. Lowe waa an apprentice of 
Mr. Sborter'a, and worked for him aa a 
joemeyman for yean, and nntU within a 
Ww days of hU death, which toolc place 
fbbnury 4th, 1836, aged 76 yean. 

M, Gracechorchtimt. Ciiy, July M, IWO. 



VLOATIVO CAISSON OAT» AT FLTMODTH 
DOOKTABO. 

We gave aome time ago (toI. xliz., p. 441) 
a deaeription of the floating caiason gate 
dedgned by Sir Samnd Bentham for the 
Gieat Basin at POrtsmonth, and erected 
vnder hia immediate luperintendence. A 
dmilar work haa jost been completed for 
the new worlds at Keyham (conneoted witl^ 



the Plymonth Yard), by Messrs. WUiiam 
Fairbaim and Sona, of Manchester. We 
extract the following account of it from a 
locd paper : 

The eaiaaon ia a hnge hoUow iron box of 
the form of the entranoe to the lock, per- 
fectly flat at the sides, 82 feet 6 faichee long 
at the top, only 13 feet 6 inchea wide, and 
of the enormooa d^th or hdght of 42 feet. 
The lower part of thia box is formed into 
an air chamber, or what may be termed the 
Imgs of the caisson, by a strong iron deck 
whteh is carried from side to side at a hdght 
of abont 12 feet from the bottom, and made 
perfectly air-tight. The capacity of thia dr 
diamber ia ao adjoated that when tlie cdsson 
is imoMraed in water, the eonflned air exerta 
a buoyancy a Uttle in exceas of the totd 
wdght of the caisaon ; and as by means of 
dnice falves the water ia allowed to enter 
the Inside of the eaiaaon and fill it from the 
top deck of the air chamber npwarda to the 
lord of the water ontdde, whatever that may 
be, it foQowa that at any point of the tide, 
and with any depth of water greater than 
that whieh would float it, the cdaaon wodd 
awim a fsw inchea dear of the meaonry. 
The total depth of the oaiseon is about 5 
fbet greater than the depth of the water at 
the entranoe to the look at high spring tide, 
and thia space is made aTdlable for the 
meana employed for sinking and mo? ing the 
oaiseon. A water-tight tnik ia formed In 
this part of the caiason capable of holding 
60 to 70 tons of water supplied to it from 
the water-main of the dockyard; and It 
depends upon the presence or abaenoe of 
this qusntity of water in the upper tank 
whetlMr the eaiaaon remains firmly resting 
on the masonry and clodag completdy the 
entrance to the lock, or floata a few inches 
clear of the floor ready to be hauled by 
capitans into the receas in the earthwork 
which haa been prepared. 

The ingeoioas manner in wh*ch the buoy- 
ant principle ia taken advantage of consti- 
tntea the most meritorioua fedure of thia 
acheme, for the emlasion of the smdl quan- 
tity of water confined in the top tank (which, 
by means of an ordinary Tdve placed in ita 
bottom, la accompliahed in about two mi* 
nutea) diapenaes with the laboriona and 
expendve proeeaa of pumpiag, whMk ba& 
ninun^ to be resorted to. 



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50 



IMPBOTBD PI»AN OF CONtTAUOTIMO TBMPOftA.&T BUILDINGS OF LAftGI AftBA. 
BY W. B. THOMPtOir, BBO., CB. 



The pltn of oomtruetioo Bbout to be 
described was origintUy designed for the 
great building to be erected in Hjde 
ParlL for the Exhibition of 1851, bat not 
formally submitted to the Commission- 
ers intrusted with the management of 
that undertaking (though mentioned 
privately to some of its members) ; and 
it is now published from an impression 
that it may be found advantageous in 
other cases where a large spaee is re- 
quired to be covered in, for some tern-* 
[K>rary purpose, free firom any obstmc- 
tioQ to sight, or ooramunieation from in* 



terior division walls, or roof ties and 
trussing. A building on this plan does 
not aspire to the character of being 
" flre-proof ;*' and its designer must 
confess that he is at loss to discover the 
wisdom of promising the world that the 
building for the ferUiooming fixhibitioR 
shall be perfectly safe from fire, when 
for ten times less than the sum it will 
take to ereet such a flre*proof stmetore, 
any fire-office in town would Insure tfM 
entire affiur — building, goods, and all. 
But he confidently submits it to the jtid^* 
ment of his professional brethren as 





1 


^ . 


Wg.l 


I. 


f 


•» 










^ I 


J. 




" 


























. 


, 













1- 


. 




















r 










- 


; L 
















— 














J 



































— . . 


r» 
















ft 














- 












- ' - 










_, 








— 








" ■' 




1 






M 








e 









Fig. 4. 



jzn 



superior to anything yet proposed for 
simplicity and cheapness, for the ease 
and rapidity with which it may be put 
up and removed, and for its general 
sightliness and perfect efficiency. The 
Commissioners are said U> have adopt^ 
the glass-house plan of Mr. Paxton, 
but (to say nothine of other objections) 
that will cost at least three times the 
money.* 

The novelty of the present plan of con- 
struction consists in placing all the work 



* Mr. Paxton't eontrmH price is stated to be 
S5,000/. Extra work to be cbarsed for as usual ; 
and at unuU this will very likely doable tbe 
amount. 



supporting the roof on the outside be- 
tween the parallel lines of roof. Some 
idea of its appearance may be obuined 
by supposing a number of railway station 
roofs placed side by side, and then turned 
upside down, so as to bring the whole of 
the ties, &c., to the ouuide. Fig. 1 
represents a plan of a portion of the roof; 
fig. 4 is a section on the line £ F, show- 
ing the trussed girder or joist, on the 
lower nart of which tbe couples of the 
roof abut, and from the upper part of 
which they are tied, as shown in fig. 3. 
Fig. 2 shows the timber couples which 
connect the iron side columns (proposed 
to be placed forty feet apart) trans- 



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OM THB OOXPABAnYB XBBITB OF IBOM AUD WOOD FOB SHIP-BUIIiDINO. 61 

in tiie ooMmereial world, timt has been lo 
long enjoyed. 

It it probable that Great Britain can- 
not eompete with many other portiooa 
of the globe, in the conatruotion of low- 
priced wooden TeiielB, and that ere long 
onr shipwright's yards, will be merely places 
for repairing damaged Tessels, rather than 
for bnilding new ones ; whereas, if we bend 
onr energies to the snccessfiii applieation of 
hron for the purposes of ship-bnildiDg, it Is 
likely that we should command the market 
in ship-bnilding, and poueis a commercial 
fleet of the highest order. 

Let us assume that there are no prqu- 
dices to orercome ; and no objections, real 
or imaginary, to be removed, and coolly 
eonsider tbefreilatiTe benefits that may accrue 
fiom the emplovment of the respectiTe ma- 
terials. We will eonsider the advantage to 
the State, of using the one or the other. 

In the bnilding of a first-class oak sblp, 
of 500 tons, we shall require about 700 tons 
of timber In the rough. That timber occu- 
pied It acres of land, on an arerage 75 
years, and is worth more than 1,200/. as it 
stands, growing, before any labour of an 
artisan has been bestowed on it ; or in other 
words 1,200/. it the value of the raw mate- 
rial, before it is mannfaetnred. The hull, 
when finished for launching, will be worth 
6,000/. ; the valne of the raw material being 
one- fifth, or 1,200/. ; and of labour and pro- 
fits, four.flfths, or 4,800/. The value of 
the raw material for an iron ship of the 
same sise would be about 50/., — being the 
royalty paid to the owner of the soil for the 
liberty to work the iron ore, limestone, and 
eoal ; the labour and profit would be nearly 
6,000/., say 5,950/ ; and we shall then hare 
an iron ship costing 6,000/. — of which the 
raw materiid costs less than half per cent. 

Some persons may estimate the value of 
iron and oak vessels at less, or at more, 
than the foregohig figures, which may not 
be the exact value of the respective classes, 
but they are sufficiently near the truth to 
exemplify the real facts. 

We have then a vessel of 500 tons costing 
6,000/., whether of wood or iron. The oak 
vessel would not last, on the average, more 
than 15 years, and would require to be re- 
paired in that time probably five times, at 
an expense of say 300/. each time, or a total 
of 1,500/., and this maybe regarded as a 
Tery moderate computation, but it would 
increase the cost of the oak ship to 7,500/., 
which, if aold for old timber at the end, 
would fetch 250/., leaving 7,250/. to be 
divided over fifteen years, snd we shall have 
473/. as the annual cost of the oak ship of 
500 tons, exclusive of interest or capital. 
We vrill compare this with the iron Tsssal 



vertely acron the ridges of the roofs. 
The couples ehowD in flg. 3, and the 
trussed girder in fig. 4, run in right 
sngks to each odier, and impart to the 
roof a stability not possessed by roofs of 
the eommon eonstrtiction. This stability 
is qnite independent of the walls, or of 
the fixing of the columns at the bottom. 
The eolnmns pass up through the roof 
to the level df the top of tne trussed 
girder fig. 4; and every column is so 
worthed into the framework of the roof 
that it cannot have the least lateral mo- 
tioo. Tbia roof would have the same 
kind of Btabflity aa that posseased by a 
tab l e i t he lega eorrespooding to the 
eoinmna. In all common roofo the walk 
have to bear tbe htteial strain-^not thcj 
diroit of the couples, but the side thrust 
produced by the wind; and it will be 
graited that vralls capable of sustain- 
ing so large a roof so large as that re- 
quired for the exhibition will require to 
be exceedingly massive. In the present 
roof tbe walls are not called on to do any 
work of the kind — tbe roof would stand, 
as it were, on its own feet 

Another advantage of the new roof is, 
that it presents a fine vaulted appearance, 
perftwtly free firom all beams, joints, and 
ties. 

The designer proposed to oover his 
roof with sheet lead, as tbe cheapest 
temporary covering. The cost of the 
^eet leM necessarv to cover such a 
building would be about 20,000/. ; but 
then it would produce, for re-melting, at 
least 17,500/. Zinc would cost about 
10,000/.; but its value, as old metal, 
would not pay tbe additional labour of 
laying it down and taking it up. 

R. W. T. 

July 17, 18S0. 



ow nn coMrAAATiTB MBBrrs of mow 

▲Jfn WOOD FOR SmF-BUILDlWO. BT 
BDWtN O. TaSOBLLXS, BStt., O.B.* 

The subject of building Iron vessels, is 
one that may well claim the attention of all 
who are Interested In the prosperity of 
6rest Britain. 

SoeoesB In this branch of our industry, 
Bsy be r^arded as one of the means, by 
vhieh we may avert the consequences of 
tiie alterations in onr Navigation Laws, — 
dreaded by many as calamities: and by 
whidi we may maintain that pre-eminence 

* Fran the last Annual Kepor$ of the Boial 
CotavaU POIyteehnk SoeSety. 



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52 ON THB OOMPAIUTiyB MBBITS OF IBOH AND WOOD FOB 8HIP-BU1LDUIO. 



of Om lima liia ooitiiic 6,000/. t which, on 
the iTerige, miy be fiirly eattmiled to lut 
tweaty yein: end miy require in thit 
time to be repaired ten timet, it an expense 
of 100/. eich time, making the first eoit 
ind rq^Min 7,000/. ; the vilne oC the old iron 
ihip It the end of twenty yeira, miy be 
eitimited it 600/., giving ni f«,400/. to be 
difided by twenty yein, ind we ihiU hiTO 
320/., 11 the innnil coat of in iron feiiel 
of 500 torn, ezdniife of interest or oipitil : 
therefore we lee thit the coat to this conn* 
try of naing otk veaaela, miy bt expreaied 
by the Bgiu«a 473, and the coat of naing 
Iron Tcueia by the fignrea, 320, or if we 
lUow for errora in the ittempt to form m lo- 
ennte ipproiimition, we hi?e itili a greet 
adTintige in fironr of iron if we plioe 4 it 
the llgnre 3,ind expraeatheoikTeaaelby4« 

Bnt in iron Tiaael of 600 tone r^;iater, 
wonld carry 100 torn more than the oik 
TMiel with the aame diaplicement ; nor la 
thia ill, the ipeed of the iron Tcaael woold 
be mnch greater, end it will mn 6 milea, 
whilit the oak goea Si, or doing as much 
in eleren montha, aa the oak doea in twel?e, 
or earning 12/. whilat the oak Teaael earna 
11/. Again; in the time oocnpied in re- 
paira, the iron ahip wonld not be detained 
two weeka in the year on the a?erage; 
whereaa one month in each year mnat be 
aUowed for the aggragate repidra of an oak 
ahip, or 15 montha out of the whole time ; 
the money ?alne of which la abont 600/. } 
whilat the loai of time by the iron Teaid 
wonld be only 40 weeka, or 10 montha, the 
loas of time being equal to 266/. We have 
an advantage, thai, of one-aizth aa to atow* 
age and one«twelfth aa to apeed, making a 
•aving of one-fourth on 30ff., or reducing 
the ooat of carrying by an Iron veaael to 
22t, 6if., irreapectiTe, of courae, of the wagea 
and Tictuallmg, which would be alike in each 
oaae, compared with 40f., the ooat of carry- 
ing by an oak veaael ; beaidea thia, we mnat 
eatimate the aaving in time for repairs, which 
we aee ia aa 266/. for iron compared with 
600/., aa the value of the time consumed in 
delay whilat repairing the oak veasd. 

Then if we can carry for 22«. Otf. what haa 
heretofore coat ua 40f., would not the adop- 
tion of iron veaaeb keep for ua the adf anta- 
geoua poaition in commerce which we have 
long enjoyed ? 

But it may be argued that the premiaea 
are unsound, and therefore the conclusions 
are false ;^that an iron vessel cannot be as 
safe as an oak one, and therefore never can 
aueceed; in fact, after rU, '* there is no- 
thing like oak 1" WeU, let us examine ike 
anbject in all the beeringa within our reach, 
and perbapa we ahall conclude that, after 
all, " there ia nothing like iron /" 



We ahaH ind aome exeeUeni pmetical 
remarka by John Grantham, a Liverpool 
ahip-buUder ; he aaya— 

" What are the objecta moat deeired by 
the merchant in the choice of a ahip ? theae, 
I conaider, are— 

** lat. Strength, combined with light- 
neaa. 

"2nd. Great capacity for stowage. 

•<3rd. Safety. 

«'4th. Speed. 

«<5th. Durability. 

** 6th. Economy in repaln. 

** 7th. Coat. 

** 8th. Draught of water. 

' ' I trust I ahaU be enabled to prove that 
iron veaaela poaaeaa advantages, mder aU 
theae heada, in ao eminent a degree ai ta 
render them anperlor to wooden vM8els,and 
address mysdf toeach point in Its ra^ective 
order :^- 

*< 1st. Strength, combined with U^ 
ness: 

'*This subject involves two oonilden- 
tlons — the strength of the materials, and the 
mode of uniting them. 

*' The great strength of malleable iron to 
resist strains in every dlrectioii la wefl 
known, but to those who are not cooTen an t 
with the subject, the ex*.ent to which this 
advantage may be carried out Is not at first 
apparent, or how the material oaay, ftvm 
comparatively small piecea, be so oombined 
In large masses as to form the pondarons 
body of a ship ; and they are thna too apt 
to prescribe a limit to its use. An oplnlosi, 
indeed, is now very generally eotertainod 
that iron may be suitable for small craft, 
but is inadequate for the oonstmotlon of Tea. 
seb of heavy burthen ; this, however, la navp. 
position so erroneaua, that the reverae wonld 
be much more correct ; for large veaaela will 
afford the beat practical demonatratioii ol 
the Buperiority Of iron for ahlp-bnUdiiig. 
In the application of timber, obatmotioiii 
increase in a ratio proportioned to the m< 
creased sise of the vessel to be built. Ho« 
often has the ship-buiJder the greateet dUft 
culty in obtaining timber to init the TariBi 
curves of our finest ^ps ? How oflao I 
the country despoiled of its noblest cmim 
meats by the tempting prices he is oon^ 
polled to offer for its magnificent oaks ? tb 
largest of which are frequently inauflfi^oa 
for his purpose. How are bis braina rstcke^ 
and his patience tried, in aeeking for crooks 
timber necessary to frame a sharp floor, q 
square bilge 1 How often ia he obUjg«^ 
though he knowa it to be injurious, to noai 
the framea for which no timber can be fonn 
aniBciently large, to enable him to aToi 
aucb defecta ?— and ia not this one onmM 
amongat others, why our buildlng*jnrdn «| 



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XNQLISH 8PE0IFI0ATIONS ENBOLLSD DUftlMG THS WXXK* 



53 



Mipty. while oar ports are filled with thipe 
firom oth» natioDS, in which timber ii more 
pkntifol, and the choice more exteniiTe ? 

*' But how standa the case when we tnm 
to iron ; where is tlie frame, eren of the 
most intricate form, that our smitlis cannot 
mould ? Where the frame or beam so large 
that iron cannot be fonnd of which to fashion 
it, and that too, if need be, withont a scarf? 
Here there are no knots, bo sap, no cutting 
aeroM the grain« Here there is no useless 
timber, placed merely to fill in, or to cross 
batta. Here erery hich of material is of 
■er^ioe, and every scrap applied to some 
Bsefislend. 

" Iron has also to a high degree the power 
of resisting compression. Timber, it is ad* 
mitted, has great power to resist tension in 
the direction of the grain, bnt is Terj deft- 
cieut in strength across the grain ; and its 
power to resist compression is also tery 
limited, especially when it is exposed to 
moisture. 

" Again ; timber, after being some dme in 
use, holmes brittle, and is but little dis- 
posed to bend. 

** Good malleable iron, on the contrary, 
may be bent doable, eren when cold, and 
does not become brittle with age, except 
when conferted into an oxide. The ease 
also with which iron beams and frames can 
be wrought, and the facility of obtaining 
them of any dimensions in one piece, OTer- 
oomes one of the greatest difficulties in ship- 
building. 

" I hsTo before stated, that the power to 
increase the stiifness of the huU, when built 
of iron, is unlimited, and proTided the shell 
has originally been made sufficiently thick, 
additional strength may at any time be 
given to the frame. 

'* The objections arising from the use of 
fastenings of a material so totally different 
from tbat of which the hull is composed, 
arc entirely removed in iron vessels : in the 
first place, the outer shell of the vessel is 
composed of a series of plates, so riveted 
together that its strength it nearly equal to 
what it would be were it possible to fbrm the 
whole of one plate ; this shell is independent 
of all indirect means for preserving its com- 
pleteness ; it forms one grand whole, of the 
same material throughout, and tbat of the 
strongest kind. This shell is stiffened, as 
before described, by ribs crossing the joints 
of the plates at shcrt dbtances apart, and 
giving an additional security. Beams, koees, 
bulkheads, all are brought together in one 
firm mass, and united by numberless short 
unyielding rivets. I idaj venture, indeed, 
to say, that more real serviceable fastening 
is often employed in the space of a few 
inchca in an iron ressel than is in most 



instances brought to bear oa 
beam of a timber-built ship. 

(7b b9 eon/foiied.) 



oiM entire 



THB CTM^MBTIK. 

Sir,— Seeing in this day's JTsdl. Mi^., 
a description of tlie above invention as re- 
gistered by Mr. Fenn, I must request per- 
mission to claim the banking as my own— i 
iMntUng by-the-bye, now just tweatj-fivt 
years old, but one of whieh I have no just 
eause to be ashsmed. 

Such of your readers as have aoeosi to 
your eariy volnmea, may see at page 94 of 
vol v., a very accurate description of this 
invention, being an improvement upon a 
plan, emanating in the first instance firom 
another correspondent. 

I remain, Sir, yours respectfully, 

Wm . Babdblbt. 

i9, Airred-ttz«et, Islington, July IS, 18M. 



SPBOIFICATIOMa OF BNOLISH FATBMTt 

■NnoLLBD nomtN» THB WBBK, BMDmO 

JULY 18, 1850. 

RiCHABO Smith, Clitberoe, Lancaster, 
manufacturer. Fbr emrttAm impr o9m mm i9 
<« honu/or weawmg. Patent dated January 
17, 1850. 

The improvements oomprshended In tho 
specification of this patent are as follow :«— 

1. Two drums or pulleys are keyed on 
the axles of the driving and tappet ahafla of 
the loom, whidi are placed in the ssme ver- 
tical right line, and between them there is a 
wedge-formed break, supported at one end 
of a horisontal rod, which ia eonneeted to a 
lever that oscillates on a pin fixed to the 
side of the frame. The t&rfaees of the 
wedge sre coated with leather or other suita- 
ble substance. Thia lever is in communi- 
cation with the weft detector and stop-piece 
through the intervention of certain mechani- 
cal arrangements, so that, when oooasioii 
requires, Uie wedge break ia forced in be- 
tween the drums, snd made to bear against 
their peripheries. At the same tinie the 
driving shaft is shifted from the fast to the 
loose pulley. The reverse motion of the 
spring lever, when the loom is to be set 
to work, liberates the drums by sUowteg a 

Siral spring, which is attached at one end to 
B break and at the other to the frame, to 
act upon tlie break, and draw it back. 

2. The batten carries a horisontal rod, 
which is fitted at each end with a lever, the 
top of which is curved so that it auy take 
into the race. Under the batten there is a 
spring, in order that as the forssar beats up, 
the pendant ends of the levers may eome m 
contact with it and be fiMcoed outwards, while 



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BWOLISH SPECIFICATIONS BNBOLLBD DUBIMa THE WEEK. 



tlie upper or bent ends will he forced forward 
into the race, and hold the shuttle to pre- 
vent its rebound. In front of the bent ends of 
the levers are springs which come in contact 
with the shuttle. When the lower ends have 
passed clear of the first- named spring, and 
the batten is brought back, then this reverse 
motion will cause the curved ends to take 
out of the race, and leave the shuttle free to 
receive the pick motion. When the shuttle 
misses boxing, the levers will enter farther 
Into the race, and allow the rod to revolve. 
This rod carries the stop-piece, which will 
thereby be brought down, and at the batten 
beats up will come in contact with the stop. 
Claims, — 1. The use of a wedge-formed 
break capable of acting against the periphe- 
ries of two drums or pulleys— one keved on 
the axle of the main shaft, and the other on 
the axis of the tappet shaft — such drums or 
puUeyi being aided to the loom for the 
purpose of being worked in conjunction with 
the wedge- formeid break. 

2. The use of a wedge-formed break capa- 
ble of acting upon the peripheries of the 
drums or pulleys, placed on the driring side 
of the loom, and upon that side of the 
drivlngcentres. 

3. The use of a wedge-formed break con- 
structed in two parts, which are capable of 
turning on a fixed centre, and of being 
brought into contact with the peripheries of 
the two drums or wheels by the action of 
levers or other mechanical arrangement. 

4. The use of the projecting piece [con* 
neeted to the oscillating lever], turning on 
its centre, capable of being acted on by the 
spring lever, whereby the drums will be 
liberated by the action of the spring thereon. 

5. The application of the levers to the 
stop rod, capable of being so acted on as to 
prevent the rebound of the shuttle, but wiQ 
allow it to enter without the opposition of 
springs or other mechanical contrivances, 
and remove the pressure from the shuttle 
when the picking motion is about to be 
made. 

6. The application of the levers and 
springs to the stop rod for the purpose of 
working the stop piece. 

Matthkw Urlwxn Sbars, Burton Cres- 
cent, St. Pancras, commission agent. .Fbr 
€tn improved eonstruetion of gun» and 
cannons, and mantffaeiure qf carhidgei 
fbr the loading or charging the same. 
Patent dated Janusry 11, 1850. 

The improvements which the patentee 
describes and claims are : — 

1. Making the barrel of an enlarged 
bore well-bevelled edges at the breech end, 
and to screw Into a short barrel which Is 
fixed to the stock, and is provided with a 
longitudinal slot that terminatet in an ob- 



long opening of suflldent stxe to admit of 
the introdu<^on of a cartridge. This short 
barrel is turned true Inside to allow of what 
is termed the " sliding barrel '* moving 
easily, but air-tight, within it. The sliding 
barrel is provided with a handle, whereby it 
may be made to open or close the charging 
chamber, and to lock, In the latter caae. Ita 
fore edges are bevelled off, so that when 
pushed up dose to the breech end of the 
barrel It shall form a kind of valve with Oie 
latter. To insure the junction of the two 
ends being tight, a diaphragm of brass la 
Interposed between them, behind whldi 
there is an '* air-chamber," through which 
the needle guide passes. The air contaiaed 
within the chamber prevents or diminiabea, 
in consequence of its resiliency, the reooU 
of the gun ; and Its expansive force — in- 
creased by being heated, through the explo- 
sion of the cartridge — augments the foroe 
with which the bullet is expelled. The 
sliding barrel carries the needle guide, 
which projects through a Aaphragm into the 
air-chamber and containi the needle-holder. 
A spiral spring, of a foroe of about 161bc, 
is coiled around the needle-holder, and tends 
to push it out. The spring holder Is drawn 
back by means of a catch, having a handle 
projecang through the barrel, unt^U a sodret, 
fixed to the fore end, takes Into a second 
catch or detent connected to the trigger. 
When It is desired to load the gun, the 
sliding barrel Is unlocked and drawn back 
to open the charging chamber, the cartridge 
is placed hi the barrel, the needle-holder 
being previously drawn back to the half or 
full cock. The slidhig barrel is then pushed 
back into the first position and locked. T6 
fire the piece the trigger is pulled to rdease 
the needle-holder, which is then pushed for- 
ward by the action of the spring, penetrates 
the powder, strikes against the percussion 
cap, and thereby explodes the cartridge. 
The patentee describes some modifications of 
these arrangements, and their application to 
cannons— the principal novelty in the latter 
being the employment of toothed gearing to 
effect the movement of the sliding barrcL 

2. The cartridge is composed of a small 
cylinder of paper filled with gunpowder, and 
closed at the fore end by a disc of mill, 
board. The percussion cap is fixed in the 
middle of this disc, in order that the needle 
may strike against it. The paper Is coated 
on the outside with tallow or grease, and 
attached to the bullet by cotton threads. 
The bullet Is made of the same diameter at 
the bore, and with two or three rings on its 
periphery to fit into the grooves inside the 
barrel, so as to cause it to turn on its axis, 
and to prevent the esoape of any of the 
^ases which may be evolved. 



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BNOLI8H 8PBCIFI0ATION8 BKBOLLEB DURING THS WBSX. 



55 



Jonr MiLWAiN, MiaolMtCer, joiotr. 
Jlr artaim impro99mmt$ appUeabU to /At 
tUtmf §f io9r», wimdo%a9f mni $kmiUr$ 
Fttflut daUd Jaoiurf 12, 1850. 

Th« ebJMt of this ioTention Is to prerent 
tkft ntranoe of boIm or dust into an apoit- 
imt whon the doort, wiodows or shnttori 
tie dottd. Tbo following an the arrange- 
iMBta propoeed to be adopted for thii por- 

1. To the bottom of the door there It 
•IttdMd a alip of brass, which carries two 
pjessB of Tnlcaniscd India-rabber or gntta 
periha. Iliese pitoes are attached at bot- 
tom to another slip of brass which earriee 
01 the nnderside a strip of ▼n]oanis*d India- 
rabbsr cztending the whole length of the 
door. Between the two strips of brass 
tbsre sre two cams, turning freely on two 
pins, wbieh are conneeted to a horisontal 
fsd. The lower parts of the cams rest 
ipsn the top of the second brass plate, 
wfaieh esrrise nndemeath the long strip of 
la^nibber. The inner end of the rod 
been agshiet a set screw, let into the jamb, 
M thit when the door is cloeed the rod will 
be poshed inwards, wiierebf the lower ends 
of the earns witf be depressed, so as to force 
the brass plate downwards, and, also, the 
ladia-rabher into doee contact with the 
floor. When the door is opened, the hori- 
aeatal rod being withdrawn firom oontaet 
with the end of the screw, the cams will no 
Ifloger aet npon the brass plate, and the 
reiffieocf of the two ^eoes of India-rubber 
v31 some into op era tion, which will have 
the sfeet of drawing back the second brass 
plate and the strip of India-rabber, which 
it csrriss, from contact with the floor. The 
Mt Mnw may be ad|jnsted to any length in 
its bearing, no as to regalale the distanoe 
wUsh the horiiontal rod ig paehed, and, 
ftroogh the intervention of die cams, the 
sitant to whidi the strip of India-rabber is 
to be eompnssed. Instead of employing 
csBs to depress the plate and strip of Indin- 
nhber, it is stated that the same reeult may 
bs obtained by sobstitating for them two 
seto of toggle jointed levers in combinatloo 
with the horiiontal rod as hefbre. 

2. To close the jointo of sash windows, 
Mr. Ifihrain employs « moveable plate of 
boss, wUeh is ized to the top rail of the 
lower cash, and earriee on the outside sur- 
ges a strip of vnlcanized India-rabber, and 
«a the inside two loops, the sides at which, 
opposite to the brass plate, incline inwarde. 
Behind the brass plate there are two springs, 
ohieh thnut it outwards, and a horizontal 
fod which slides to and fro in guides. This 
fed is fitted with two pins, which take into 
the looipe. The sash fraste on the side 
vbeee Ibe loops ere deepest has a recess out 
biitisMiohmaBMrthat the back, against 



which the end of the horisontal rod resto, 
inclines forward from the bottom upwards. 
By this arrangement it will be seen, that 
when the window Is shut down, the springs 
will act against the bram plate and force the 
India-rabber into contact with the lower 
rail of the top sash. But when the window 
is to be opened by raising the lower sash, 
the end of the horisontal rod will slide along 
the incUned back of the recess, and be con- 
sequently moved inwards, which will causa 
the pins to move along the inside of the in- 
clined bscks of the loops, whereby the braes 
plate will be forced inwards, and the India- 
rabber withdrawn from contact with tho 
lower rail. The arrangement jnst deseribed 
is applicable to such windows only es are 
opened by raising the lower sash. In the 
ease where both sashee are to slido up and 
down ; then the inclined back of the raoees 
is made movenble and keyed on a spindle 
(extending the breadth of the two sashes)i 
the other end of which carries a strip of 
metal prcjeoting upwards. The lower part 
of the styto of tiie top sash, on Ude side is 
provided with on incline surfhoe whiehf 
when it is pushed downwards, acta npoo 
the metal strip prc^eodng upwards, and 
foroee it baek, whereby the moveable buck 
of the recess will be pushed forward, so u 
to eause the horisontal rod to move inwards^ 
upon which the strip of India-rid>ber will bOf 
as in the foregoing instance, witlidrawn 
from contact wiUi the lower rail of the top 
sash. 

3. Instead of any of the preeediag sslf- 
aeting arrangements, the jointo may be 
closed by a subsequent operation of the 
hand, by connecting the spindto of a knob 
or handle to the moveable brass plate. A 
mide screw is cut on this spindto, which to 
made to take into u screw nut flzed in tho 
frame, so that by turning the handle in one 
direction or the other, the braes plato will 
be moved inwards or outwards, and the strip 
of Indto-rubber brought into or withdrawn 
from oontaot accordingly. 

4. To dose the jointo of French windows, 
tho patentee proposee to attach to eaoh of 
the styles a strip of India-rabber, extending 
from the top to the bottom, iriiich, when 
they era cloeed, are compressed into grooves 
or recesses eut to receive them in the inside 
ofthefirame. The two half checka era each 
itted at the outer end with two strips of metal 
extending from the top to the bottom, which 
indoee a strip of vulcanised India-nAber or 
gutte pereha. which projecto beyond them, 
so that when the window to doeed the two 
strips of India-rubber abut against thdr 
opposite half checks, and are oompreeeed 
between them and their reepeeiive casee. 

Gfcimr.— 1. The use of moveahto strips 
of India rabber or fl^tU peroha applied to 



56 



BNOZJBH BPB0IF10AT10K8 EMBOLLBD DUBIKO THE WEEK. 



the jointf of windowi» doori, or ihatten for 
the purpoica before let forth (preYenting 
the entry of dnit or noiie into apartmenti), 
which are let in motion by doling the doon» 
•hntteri, or windowi, or by a lubieqnent 
operation of the hand. 

2. The mode of applying India-mbber or 
gntta peroha to French windowi, or other 
entraneei, which open after the maonor of 
what ii termed folding doon for the pnrpoM 
of doling the jdnti. 

Jambi McDonald, of Cheiter, coach- 
naker. Tw etrtain improvtmtnti im ik§ 
mode of applying ml or grease to wheele 
emd axlea^ tmd to maehinergt and in eon- 
neeiing the epringe qf wheel cerriagee with 
ike axlee or oMle boxee^ January 11, 1850. 

Claime.^\. An air-tight oil box, in 
which the oil ii inpplied to the joomali by 
meana of a wick, and certain arrangementi 
fbr keeping ont dnit and coUectbg the inr* 
plniofl. 

2. Conitmcting and connecting the 
ipringi and axle bozei of railway carriagea 
and wagoni in inch a manner that the 
ipringi and carriagea may hare a imall 
amount of motion independent of the axle 
boxei without itraining the ipringi or axlei. 

John Fatbxe, Snrrey-itreet, Strand, 
Commander in Her Mijeity'i Navy. For 
improoemenU in steering apparatus. Patent 
dated January 11, 1850. 

The novdty of Captain Fayrer'i iteering 
apparatni coniiiti in the application of a 
break to a pulley keyed on the axle of the 
Iteering wheel for the purpoie of arreiting 
the motion of the rudder when required. 
The break ii compoied of a band of metal 
which ii lined with a number of piecea of 
wood, and nearly endrclei the pulley. One 
end of the break ii made fait to lome luit- 
able fixture in the deck underneath the 
pulley. The other end ii connected by an 
adjuitable icrew point to one end of a lever 
on which the iteenman treadi when deiired« 
10 ai to cauae the piecei of wood, indde the 
break, to come into fordble contact with 
the drcnmferenoe of the pulley, and to pre- 
vent or retard iti further revelation, whereby 
the rudder will be retained in poiition. The 
break may be connected to a lever on either 
aide of the wbed, lo that when there are two 
men at the wheel they may both be able to 
act upon it. When not in uie, the break 
ii kept off the puUey by the action of a 
weight impended to one of the leven. 

^atm.— The lo arrangiog of apparatua 
in combination with a iteering wheel, that 
the Iteenman may, by hii foot, bring a 
break into action, to retain or aid in retafai- 
ing the rudder in any poiition into which it 
miy be brought by the iteering whed. 

Bbmnbtt ALPmBD BuBTOK, of the firm 
of Bennett, Burton, and Burton, of JohnV 



place, Hollind-itreet, Southwark, engineer. 
J^ certain improvements in apparains eee- 
neeted with sewers, drains, emd cesspools g 
also in suction and ddivery pipes, and in 
connecting such pipes or heie; the appara" 
ius connected with sewers, drains, and eaw- 
pools being applicable to other Uke jmr- 
poses. Patent dated January 11, 1850. 

1. Mr. Bnrton'i improvementi in lo far 
ai they relate to lewen, eoniiit of a aelf- 
acting lewer fluihing apparatua. In the 
lide wall of the lewer there li a pin, on 
which tumi looidy a ihort lever, heavier at 
one end than the other. The light md of 
the lever ii carried downwardi, and bean 
againit a projection on the flnih - gate, lo 
that when the latter ii cloied it will keep it 
10 againit the premre of tiie aoeumnlating 
water on the other aide. The weighted end 
of the ihort lever takei into a dot cut in 
the lower end of a verticd rod, which ii at- 
tached at top to one end of a horisontal 
lever that oidllatea firedy on a phi in the 
aide wdl of the lewer. The other mid of 
the horixontd lever carriea a rod which ia 
provided with a float at bottom. Thia rod 
and float are impended in a wdl, built in 
tiie dde wall, which communlcatei at bottom 
with the aewer on the dde where the water 
acoamulatei. Suppodng the fluih-gate to 
be doied, and kept lo by the ihort lever, 
then the water will gradually riie in tlie 
lewer and in the aide weH, devate the 
float, and depreii the alotted rod at tiie 
other end of the horixontd levw, ttntil 
the top of the dot oomei in contact with 
the weighted end of the lever and depreaaea 
it, thereby lifting up Uie other end out of 
the way of the flmh-gate, which will Uien 
be luddenly fbroed back by the preaiure of 
the accumulated water, on which the flnih* 
ing will take place. The orifice at the bot- 
tom of the well ii made of inch lixe that 
the aewer shall be emptied before it, in 
order that the flnah-gate may doie, ai it 
would do, from the manner in which it is 
hung, when no longer forced back by the 
preaiure of the running water, before tlie 
Ihort lever ii brought into the fint poiition 
by the deacent of the float in the wdl. 

2. A idf-acting apparatm for flniMng 
guUeys, ii deicribed, which ccmditi of a 
reiervoir fixed above a drain, and doied by 
a trap door which hai a tendency to do lo, 
and remain in a horixontd poiition through 
the action of a weighted lever sBxtA to 
that aide of it where it ii hinged to the ride 
of the wall of the reiervoir. The oppodte 
dde of the trap door ii provided on the top 
face with a itaple, into which takes a eaten 
attached to a wdghted lever, whereby the 
trap door will be maintained in a horixontd 
position, BO aa to dose the reaervolr nntU 
the oatch is withdrawn firom the staple by 

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tka aeeaiiiUitkNi of water in t wdl mMtk 
OMiinttiiieatei at bottom with the reicrfoir, 
and eoBUina a iloat. This float it flztd on 
tha top of a Tcrtieal rod, whiofa aa it it 
drawn npwards bj the rising; of the float, 
gradnally lifta np the light end of the eateh 
later, in conaaquenee of tbia Utter taking 
into a alot ent in the lower part of itfWherabj 
the eateh will be withdrawn from the ataple, 
and the tnp door will snddenty fall down 
and allow the snperinenmbent water to flaah 
the drain. The orifioe in the well ia eon- 
traetad, in order that the raaerroir maj be 
•■ptled before it, and the trap door brought 
into n horiaontal poaition b^ore the float 
iaaeanda, whlefa when it doea ao, will eanae 
the eateh to take into the ataple aa at first 
starting. The aenrioe pipe opsna into the 



3. To effect the intermittent flashing of 
honse drains by the OTerflowiog of the d^* 
lam, the patentee propoaea to adapt to the 
top of the drain two branch pipea, whieh 
commnnicate reapectifely, by means of 
falrea, with two eiatems, or with each half 
of a eiatera divided into two. Each Talre 
ia cQBineeted by a ehain to either end of a 
horiaontal lerer, which osdllatea freely on a 
pin between the two cisterns, and carriea at 
ita centre a alotted rod, into whieh tekea a 
pin on the aideof ashootnadar the OTorflow 
pipe. Tha top of the alotted rod iawdghted, 
in order that it may aet aa a tumbler; and each 
and of the later is provided with a ball or 
float. Aa one dstem is flUed, the ball will 
gradnally riae nntil ite valTe ia opened, and 
the alotted rod ia bronght beyond the per- 
pcadienlar, when the weight at top will 
eanae it to fall on the other aide, and rarerse 
the position of the shoot ao aa to convey the 
water into what was previonaly the empty 
ciatam. Instead of the ahoot in the |Hre- 
eedinf arrangementa, the outlet of the over- 
flow pipe may be fitted with a carved pipe 
having two ontlate, and provided at its point 
of joi^tion with a two-way cock, the spindle 
of whieh ia connected to the tambler, which 
will, aa it ia moved from one side to the 
other, diaage the position of the cook, and 
caaee the water to flow into either cistern 
alteraataly. Or, the ontlet of the overflow 
pipe asay be provided with a fleiible pipe, 
which will be shifted from one cistern to the 
other aa the tambler falls to one side or 
ether. Or, the dstem may have a knife 
edge extending all along ite onder surface, 
on which it Mcillates. The o vet flow pipe 
opens over the centre between the two cis- 
temay each of which is provided with a 
reeeea in the upper part of opposite sides, so 
that when one ditem ia full, the water will 
riae in the recess of that dstem, and sud- 
denly tilt it over on that aide, whereby the 
spindla of ita valve will come into contaot 



with a pin projeoting from tiie branch pipe 
of the drain on that side, whieh will force it 
upwards, and thereby open commuaieation 
between the two. The water will then flow 
ioto the empty dstem until the same opera- 
tion ia repeated on this ride. 

4. The patentee proposes to close pipes, 
employed to convey matters from cesspools, 
&c., which are composed of vnlcaniied 
India-rabbar, by riveting thereto four metal 
plates, with spaces between them. Two of 
these bdng oppoeite ones, are fitted with 
arms which project in reverie directions. 
When it is required to dose the tube, the 
two armed plates are pressed against the 
other two, whereby it will be nipped, as it 
were, between them. 

5. Instead of using tubes of leather, vul- 
canized India-rabber, or gutte percha, Mr. 
Burton employs tubes of thin sheet iron, 
which he renders partly flexible by making 
them in lengths, and connecting these toge- 
ther, with spaces between each two, by 
enclosing the jointe in short tubes of greater 
diameter than the others. A short piece of 
India-rabber tubing endoses the whole, and 
is made fast at each end to one of the iron 
tnbea by wire or otherwise. When it to 
deshred to unite two flanged tubes, one of 
them is prorided with four levers, the heeto 
of which are caused to press the flange of 
the second against that of the first by slip- 
ping a triangular ring over tiiem. Or, two 
pipes may be united by atteehing to one of 
them, by means of a piece of India-rabber 
tubing, a abort length of pipe, which forma 
with the other a bayonet joint. 

6. An apparatus, is described, for emptying 
cesspools without allowing any of the nozf- 
ous vapoun to escape into the atmosphere, 
which consists of a framework mounted on 
wheels, in order that it may be easily moved 
from place to place. It carries a cylinder, 
about thirty-six inches in diameter, which 
is provided with a tap at bottom to admit of 
a pipe bdng adapted thereto when required. 
The cylinder to furntohed with a piston, 
packed air-tight, which carriea a toothed 
rack. The frame carries a spindle baring a 
handle at each end, on whieh to keyed a 
pinion that geara into a toothed whed of 
comparativdy large dtometer, which geara 
into the toothed rack. When it is derired 
to empty a cesspool, a flexible pipe is car- 
ried down into it, and connected at the 
other end to the tap, which to opened. The 
handles are turned so as to raise the ptoton 
and create a vacuum underneath it, Into 
which the mattera will ran. When the 
cylinder is full the tap is shut, the tube 
diaconneoted, and the cylinder removed to 
whera it to to be discharged of its eontenta. 
Ctaimi, — 1. The general arrangementa 
and combinations of parts, as described in 



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BNGLISH 8PE0IFI0ATION8 ENSOIXED DUBIKa THE WESK. 



the tpeoiiication and represented in the 
drawings which acoompanj it| for flashing 
•ewers, drains, and gnUeys^ 

8. Tlie mode of making joints and eon- 
neeting metal pipes, so as to render them 
partly flexible ; also the method of coaneet- 
ingidpes [rigid]. 

3. The mode and apparatos for emptjing 



John Glasgow, Manchester, engineer. 
For etritdn trnprovemtnti in maekinf^ or 
^ffparahufar ikMring, tkt^g, puneMn^, 
md eompruiing wntak. Patent dated 
January 12, 1850. 

The apparatus which forms the subject of 
this patent is intended to manufacture 
spikes, bolts, or rivets, &o., and eonsists of a 
horizontal steam cylinder which contains a 
piston, the rod of which carries at the outer 
end a stamping die. Underneath the cylin- 
der there is a horizontal shaft, which cstrries 
at one end last and loose pulleys and at the 
other two cams. The shaft is made to ro- 
tate by an endless band from some prisse 
mofer. One of the cams works in a slot 
eut in the lower part of a sliding plate, 
which carries at top the receiTing die, and 
mores up and down, by the action of the 
flam, in fkont of the stamping die, supported 
in the end of the piston-rod. Behind the 
sliding plate is supported the catting plate 
which is on a ItrrA with the receirhBg die 
when the latter is at its highest point. The 
second tilm works a horisontal lerer con- 
aected by a Tertical rod to a second hori- 
Bontal lerer, or jingle, which is thereby 
worked to and fro in a tube In the same 
fight line as the one rumfaig throi:^ the 
oentre of the piston-rod. In front of the 
sliding plate, but in the same horiiontal 
plane u the cutter, there is a stq>. The 
moifiif operandi is u follows: An iron rod, 
prcfiously heated, is introduced into the 
receifing die, when the sliding plate is at its 
highest point, until ite further progress is 
arrested by the stop, the distance between 
which and the sliding plate determines the 
length of the bolt, &c The descent of the 
sliding piste, while the cutter remains Im- 
moTcable, shears off a portion of the rod 
and brings it opposite the stamping die on 
the piston rod. The attendant tUen admits 
•team behind the pisten, which driTes the 
stamping die forward, and eompresses the 
iron between it and the jingk, which bears 
against the other end of the piece of iron, 
and prcTents it being driven out of the 
receiving die. The steam is now cut off 
from behind the piston and admitted m 
front to draw the die back. The rcTolntion 
of the second cam acts upon the system of 
levers, and causes the jingle to adranoe and 
thrust the finished bolt out of the reeeiting 



die. The sliding plate afterwards as e en d fl , 
and the operation is repeated. The •teem 
▼alfcs may be worked by eccentrics inatend 
of by hand. The patentee, who states tiist 
by (dianging the reeeiTing and staoopiiiK 
dies, this machine may be applied to tin 
punching and otiierwiee ^png of metide, 
describes next an appatatus for manufheter* 
ing screw nuto, whidi censisU of an oeeD- 
Isting lever worked by a crank on a wheel 
which is driven horn, a prime saover. TUb 
lever, which is broader at bottom then aft 
top, oscillates upon a pia ia the lower part, 
so that each side ef the bread portion alter*> 
aately rises and falls* To each side there 
is attached a vertical rod, which oirriea at 
bottom, a punch and cutter. Under ea^ 
set of instrumente is an anvil, in vrliieh 
there it a guide-piece grooved horizontally, 
and having a vertical eut. In fttmt of the 
guide-piece there is a stop* A squase piece 
ef heated iron is iatrodaoed into the groove 
aatil it abuto against the stop ; tiie cutter 
and punch then descend, tlie first agaiael 
tlie front of the gaide-pieee, and the ether 
into the vertical cut-^whereby a portion wiH 
be sheared off and a hole punched ia the 
part which remains in tlie gidde-pieoe. The 
rod is then pushed Ibrwwrd, sad the next 
piece, with the hole hi it, sheared off. The 
dittaaces betweea the stop and the ead of 
te guide-piece, the latter and the vertleal 
hde, are regulated so that the piece of troo, 
with the hole in it, mi^ be cut off la tlM 
form oi a square. Tbds piece of iron It 
subsequently removed to another maeUae 
where it is subjected to the weU-kaowA 
•peration for tapping lismale screws. 

Gleiflif.— I. The mode of q;>plyfaig tlie 
e xp ansive force of steam, air, or oaier elaa- 
tio fluid, to the actuating of tools, maclii- 
aery, or apparatus for sheerfaig, shaping, 
puaehing, aiid c o mp re ss h ig metals hf 
means of a piston-rod and piston moving 
in a cylinder under the influeace of steam 
air, or other elastio fluid. 

2. The general arrsngemente of machi- 
nery or any modifications thereof. So long 
•8 the essential characteristics of the Inven- 
tkm are retained. 

ALFuan Coopaa, of Bomiey, Hants, 
grocer. For improtementf in $leatn ond 
othn power enginei, and in the appUeaiion 
ihertaf io motive purpoeu; tOeo in the me- 
ikod qf and mochinery far orreeting or 
okecking tkeprogrea qf heomoHoe engineo 
etnd eorriogetm 

CMme, — 1. A rotary engine; and, 2. A 
new method of applying motive power to 
land and marine locomotive engines— of 
both which we shall give a full description 
In a f^rtnre Number. 
William Gaoaoa Hkhut Tavntok, 



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JDXQUSB SPEOmOATIOVS IVBOLLED DTJBIKG THE WEEK. 



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■tfB/t In obimmng §md ^pljfhtg motive 
p^mer, mmd m m wumu to luttrtoim the 
Urmtiih^tkeiiumutok^eMtUe. Patent 



The ** impronaMBts U obtaielDg uid 
O fi l i iiif mottf« power," reUte to the 
temtmirion of lUpe' wliidleseet tktt ere 
worked by roddtig leten, end to • mode of 
voffkiBg ahipe' rndden and punpa, and are 
ae follow:— 

1. Die barrel of the windlaaa la sapported 
in bitfring^i and carriea at the centre a 
ratihet wLeet, aa nanal, into which take 
peola. The panl poet earriea at top the 
cre« head or rocking lerer, which li con- 
nected by two pendent rods to the eyes of 
two eboeke, whidi reepectifely encircle a 
boee on either lide of the ratchet wheel. 
Eaik boas carriea a toothed wheel, and a 
eeeond wheel with a lerrated or indented 
circamference. Sach of the eyes carries a 
pinioB, whidi gears into the toothed wheel 
oppottte to it, while between the boss of the 
pbdoQ and the serrated wheel there is inter- 
poeed a wodge-shaped piece, which is serra- 
ted on a portkm of ita face opposito the 
SCI r ate d wheel. When one end of the rock- 
ing lerer la depreased, the cheek on that 
slds slides round, the boss of the eye 
dsecends, and the pinion which it carries 
rotates on ita axis while the barrel remains 
inimoTable, and the wedge descends by its 
own weight, or by snitable mechanical ar- 
ranfeasonts. Bnt when this end of the 
rocking lerer ascends, then the pinion 
doea not rotate, and the wedge is liMrcibly 
comprosaed between its boss and the ser- 
rated wheel, whereby the barrel will be 
canaed to sakt a partial rcTolation. 

S. To increase the speed or power of the 
windlaaa, the chains connecting the rocking 
Itvtr and banel are to be lengthened or 
shortened accordingly ; for this purpose the 
chains (which are made fast to the cross 
head, chose together, and fall on either side 
of it), are each made to pass over a pin. 
These pins are fixed in any pair of two lines 
of holes made in the crosshead, which diverge 
fimn the poinU of attachment of the chains. 

3« ▲ screw is cnt upon the axle of the 
steering wheel, and takee into a worm wheel, 
which is keyed on the centre of a horizontal 
eyfinder. Two ropea are wound in different 
direetioBa on the cylinder, one on each lide 
of the worm wheel, and pass under separate 
puHeya to the rudder head, where they are 
made fSut. By turning the steering wheel 
in one or other direction, one of the ropes 
will be wound on and the other unwound 
lirom the cylinder, and, consequently, the 
helm put up or down. 

4. The plunges s of two pumps are con- 
mte d to QfforiHio tnda of a rooUng terer, 



whidi is prorided with a pendant tail-piece 
having a slot cut in it. A slide takes into 
the slot in the tail piece, and ia made fisat 
on the crank of a shaft which carriea at one 
end a toothed wheel gearing into a pinion 
keyed on an axle that is provided with winch 
handles at each end. The pumps are worked 
by turning the iHnch handles, or by moving 
the rocking lever up and down. When 
additional speed is required, the rocking 
lever and winch handle are worked simnl- 



The "means to ascertain the strength 
of chaina and ships' cablea" consists of two 
pairs of wheels placed at from 15 to 90 
nthoms asunder. Bach pair Is keved on a 
atrong axle which ia supported in bearings. 
Between the pairs of wheels there is a wheel 
haying teeth on a portion of Its oeriphery 
only, which u worked by a rockmg lever 
and other arrangements similar to tiioee 
described under the first head. This par- 
tially, toothed wheel worka into a toothed 
rack which sUdee underneath, and is made 
fast by a short rope to an endless chain or 
rope, or to two ropea or chains, which pass 
round pulleys keyed on the axlea of the 
wheels. Around each of the wheels there is 
coiled a rope. The pendant ends of the 
two ropes at each pair of wheels are attached 
to a slotted bar, to which any convenient 
number of weighte may be atteched. The 
rocking lever is worked until the toothed 
wheel has arrived near the end. The chain to 
be tested is then connected to short chains 
attached to the axles, and the working con- 
tinued until the plain portion of the peri- 
phery of the wheel comes over the toothed 
i*ck, which will then be released, and allow 
tho weighte to descend and act upon the 
pairs of wheels by rapidly uncoiling the ropes 
wound thereon, which will cause the axlea 
to vrind on the chain, which will thereby be 
tested by being subjected to a sudden jerk 
or strain. The force of the strain will de- 
pend upon the weights applied to the pairs 
of wheels, and the difference between the 
diameters of the wheels and the axles. For 
instence, if the weight hung on each cross 
bsr be equal to one ton, the diameter of the 
wheel 25 feet, and of the axle 1 foot, then 
the totel amount of force thus suddenly 
applied will be 50 tons. 

No claima are made in thia spedftcation. 

SpeeifieotUme Dice, hut not BnroiM. 

Hbnrt Cowino, Stamford-street, Black* 
friars, gentleman. Fbr improvemente in 
obtaining motive power, ana in eieam and 
other pUmghi; in land carriagee, in Jire- 
enginee, in raiting water for draining and 
other agricultural purpoeee, and in appa- 
ratue for evaporating eaceharine and other 
UpMo. Patent dated January 17, 1850. 



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WBXKLT LIST 07 BK0U8H SATBNTS ASD DB8IONB. 



Jocmni Nri, MiU-poAdi Wluurf, Pbrk- 
iMd, OU Kent-road, migfaMer. Far im* 
fr99€mmt9 m A^4tmUie maekinerjf, partt 
^ which mtichinerf ar€ mppUcmhlt to wtcam 
mi§iim md mtidUm^rp for drMmg p</«f . 
BitMt dated Janaary 17, 1850. 

RoBBKT Ba»bor, Chatham-place, Lock's 
Flolda, Ssnej, metal melter. For etrttam 
r in mri^Mtd /«•/, m^ im Mt- 



ehhurp Moi /or mamtfketurkig ike eeaie. 
Patent dated January 17, 1850. 

Andrkw Baeclat, Kilmarnock, N. B., 
engineer. For improvomtntt in 9meliin§ of 
iron and other oroi, and in the wkanufmetwrt 
or working <^ iron and other metaio, and 
in certain rotary emginee and fans, medU- 
nery, or afparaime ae eoaneeted tkaremith. 
Patent dated Janoarj 17, 1850. 



WBKKLT LIST OF KSW SNOLI8H PATBlfTS. 



Jamtt Hill, of italeytrldgt, Cbetter, cotton- 
■plnneTi ton imvroTtmonu in or applicable to cor- 
tain maohlnot for preparing cotton, wool, and other 
flliroiM lulMtanoet Iw tpinning and doubling. 
Ji^ 15 i six months. 

Tempett Booth, of Ardwiek, LancMter, gon 
maanflicturer, for certain improvementa in the 
method of and ^iparmtut for obtaining and apply- 
ing motlTo power. Jnly 15 ; liz monthi. 

Edward N. Smith, of Weat Brookfleld, Maaaa- 
ohnaetta, in the United States of North Ameiiea, 
for a machine to fold paper. July 17. 

Edward John Dent, of the Strand, Middlesex, 
chronometer -maker, Ux improvements in com- 
pnaeea for nsTigatlon, aurreylng, and aimilar pur- 
poses. July 17 ; six months. 

WUUam Herbert Oosssge, of Stoke Prior, Wor- 
cester, chemist, for improYoments in obtaining 
certain metals from some compounds containing 
such metala, and in obtaining other products by 
the use of certain compotmdi containing ; 
July IT; aixmontha. 



Jean Julea VariUat, of Rouen, Pmnee, mann- 
facturing chemist, for Improvements in the ex- 
traction and prepwatioa of colouring, tanning, and 
saocbarine matters from various vegetalde tub- 
stances, and in the apparatus to be employed 
therein. July 17; aixmontha. 

John Melville, of Upper Harley-atreet, Middle 
aex, esquire, for certain Improvements in the con- 
struction of railways and locomotive engines and 
carria<;e8. July 17; aix montha. 

Henrietta Brown, of Long-lane, Bermondsey, 
widow and executrix of the late Samuel Brown, 
for improvements in the manufacture of meti^Qie 
casks and vessels. A communication. July 17. 

John Silvester, of West Bromwich, Staflbrd, 
whitesmith, for Improvements in straightening, 
flattening, setting, and shaping hardened steeL 
July 17 ; six months. 

Ezekiel Edmonds the younger, of Bradfbsd, 
Wiltshire, cloth manufkcturer, for improvementa 
In the manufacture of certain detcriptions of 
woollen fabrics. July 17 ; six months. 



WBXKLT LIST OF DB8I0N8 FOK ARTICLB8 OF UTILITT KBGI8TIRKD. 

Date of No. in 
Registra- the Re* 

tion. gister. Proprietors' Names. Addresses. Subjects of Destg o. 

William Oamett......... Tarporley, Cheshire ...m.... m. Spring for a saddle. 

William Crosskili........ Beverley Works, near HuU.„... Feeding apparatus for thxaah- 

ing machmes. 
Deane, Dray, ft Deane. King Wlliiam-atreet.M. ...... ...... Steam boiler. 

WilUam Raynard Lane Strand ^ Economic peroolator. 

William Thomaa Loy... King-atreet, Westminster^....... Tudor raxor guard. 

Rlehard Robinson »•». Beifost......MM..«...M..M.M.M...... High o«nbustion lUmaee. 

R. Oray and Sons Uddingstooe, Glasgow m. ........ Draw-spring lever. 

Richard Howson and 
Henry Howson ........ Maachester..............^.^....M.M Differential screwing appan- 

tus for presses. 

Thomas Key............... Charing-CTOts .M.........M. Regimental cased serpent- 

diede. 



IS 


SS71 


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nn 


It 


SS74 




1575 




S576 


IS 


S577 


16 


2378 



2S70 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Deterlptlon of Dr. Newlngton's New Patent 

AgKKOltnral Machines— (ipllik tngraving*),,,. 

Iron Steam Boilers e. Copper Boilers ».... 

Teredo Navalis.-Plan of the late Sir Samuel 

Bentham for Preventing ita Ravages « 

Macintosh's Substitute for the Screw ............ 

Electro-Magnetic Engines „ m....... 

Screw Propelling.— ^horter's Propeller. By 

Mr. J. J. O. Taylor .. 

Floating Caisson Gate at Plymouth Dockyard 
Description of a Plan of Constructing Tempo- 

rary Buildings of Laige Area. By R. w. 

Thompson, Esq., C.E.--<»ia engravingi) ... 
On the Comparattve Methods of Iron and Wood 

for Ship-building. By Edwin O. Tregelles, 

The Cymameter ... .« *.*." ..l'.r.*.r.r«n! 

Specifications of English Patents Enrolled 
during the Week :-> 
Smith... .M.M Looma.M.M.M.M......M. 55 



45 

45 

45 

49 



51 
55 



Seara Guna ......m. 

MUwain Closing Doors 

McDonald..........„.MLubrioators .......m.... 

Fayrer ...^.....^.....MSteerlng Apparatus... 

Burton Flushing Sewers, 5^ 

Glssgow„ „ Shearing Metals . ... ... 

Cooper .M...Steam Engines.^ ...... 

Taunton .............. Windlasses, Pumps, 

Rudders, and Cable 

Testers .,.«.... 

Specifications Due, but not Enrolled :— 

Cowing ..Motive Power, Drain- 
ing, and Evaporat- 
ing 

Nye » ...Hydraulic Machinery 

Barber ^Artificial Fuel 

Barclay ..................Smelting Iron ...».^ 

Weekly List of English Patenu 

Weeklv List of Designs of Artidet of UtUity 
Roistered •..m.w.m.,m.m*..m........m..*m.m«m. 



54 

55 

se 

56 
5« 
5« 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

N«. 1407.] SATURDAY, JULY 27, 1850. [Price Sif., Stamped, 4d. 

Edited bj J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-street. 

BBRTHON'S PATENT CLINOMETER AND ALTIMETER. 
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 




Fig. 5. 




TOL. Lni 



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6S 

BIKTHON'i PAISMT OLXNOMBTBm AMD ALTIM BTBK.>»(nS AKTB P. 505.) 

All previom raeobanioal oontrivanoes, inoluding every kind of peodulirai eied 
for the purpose of showing the trim of a ship, &o., are so affected by its motion in 
a sea-way, that no accnrate indications can he obtained* And any instrument in 
which a sinffle fluid is eniployed, is necessarily so long as to be very inoonrenient. 

Mr. Berthon's Patent Clinometer combines the advantages of extreme accuraey, 
even in Uie worst weather, with the moat convenient and eompaot dimensions, being 
only from twelve to twenty inches long, besides being very ornamental to the bulk- 
head of a cabin, &o. 

We shall explain the construction of tiiis instrument by referring first to the mer- 
curial or water clinometers previously known. In these, a pipe or glass tube, fixed 
fore and aft in the ship, is turned up a little at both ends, and the horisontal part 
being filled with fluid which comes about half-way up each of the vertical portions, 
a scide isplaced against one or both of the vertical tubes, graduated into equal divi- 
sions. Then, if it be inclined so that one end is raised above the other, say one inch, 
the fluid falls half an inch in that tube and rises half an inch in the other, when 
the two surfaces are again on a level. Thus an elevation or depression of one inch 
produces only Ao^ an inch range upon either scale. Therefore, unless the horisontel 
part be very Ions;, the range is too limited to detect any small change of inclination 
of the ship^ keel. 

Now, in the improved clinometer, the range is multiplied by thirteen, which accu- 
rately marks the trim of the largest ship to a quarter ol an inch. 

Fig. 1 is an external elevation of the instrument. A A is a basement of ftncrr 
wood, polished, upon which stands the superstructure B B. Between the pilasters C C 
appears the index tube A, in which a red fluid stands to the mark £ & when the 
ship is on an even keel| but rises or fslls according as she is by the head or stem, 
ana the extent is shown in feet and inches upon the scale on either side. 

Fig. 2 shows the internal arrangement. V and jy are two glass bulbs, about an 
inch in diameter, connected together by the capillary tube £, which varies from ten 
to eighteen inches in length. D contains mercury only, with the air admitted above. 
jy has mercurj below, mth coloured water superimposed upon it, wbioh rises to Uie 
middle of the index tube when the instrument is horizontaL 

The sectional area of the index tube is about l-26th part of that of the bulba'--the 
mercury thirteen times as heavy as the red water (wuch contams a Uttk sulphuric 
acid). S is a serew, which compresses a short piece of vulcanised India-rubber 
passed over the top of the index tube, and which, when screwed up, prevents the 
entrance or exit of air, and keeps the fluids steady when the instrument is carried 
about. Suppose the bulb D to be elevated one inch, then the mercury falls in it a 
quarter of an inch, and rises the same distance in I^ (flowing dong the capillary 
tube). But in doing so, it displaces upwards the saoEie bulk of water, which raises 
the column in the index tube 6^ inches, or 13 times as much as when simple tubes 
with <me fluid are used. 

Again ; the capillary tube being fine, allows the mercury to pass but very slowly, so 
that such a lengtn of time must elapse before any change is apparent, that in a heavy 
s^ the extremes are not shown, but a steady mean is preserved, which corresponds 
with what would be the exact line of keel in smooth water. 

Smaller, and placed athwart ships, it indicates the mean list or inclination. The 
same instrument, made to act more quickly, is a most convenient and accurate level 
for all purposes on shore. 

Tke AlHmeter. 

Two views of this instrument on the opposite sides are given in figs. 3 and 
4. A A is a framework of a quadrantai form, on one side of which is a 
mercurial indicator consisting of two buiba, B and B", eoanected by a horixontal 
tube and a vertical capilliary tube, which asoends from the bulb B'. At C there is 

* Any InfiffiiuUloii conettniiiff the tnpplj of the abore inttnnaeiit otn be obtained by lefinenee to the 
tafiotor and patoitee, B«v. B. lb Becthoa, lanham, Hants. 



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bebthon's patent olinohetbb and altzxbtbb. 6S 

I steel stop-cock, with a small leyer D on the plag, which when pressed hr the 
finger opens it. The spring E closes it affaio when the finger is raised; fis a 
telescope which is attached to the other side of the frame A A, and made to turn 

rn a pivot at G, describing a portion of a circle upon the metal quadrant piece 
This piece has fine holes drilled in it at equal distances along a circular line, of 
which the centre is the centre of the pivot of the telescope. These holes are pUced 
St a fixed whole numher of deffrees apart (say five degrees), and are marked 
aeeording^j 0, 5, 10, 16, 20, &c Upon tne telescope at R It a fine point L, which 
stands ont laterally from a short spring, and may be placed in any one of the 
holes of the auadrant. The mode of using the instrument is as follows : 

Let l^e scue of the tube be eraduated in decrees, and minutes, and quarters of 
rahmtes. Then if the bulbs be about half an inch diameter, the tube A' one-eighth 
of an inch diameter and 9 inches long, and the vertical tubes quite capillary, and 16 
or 17 inches long, the result will be as follows: — The fluids (mercury and spirit) 
being about 15: 1 in density, an elevation of five degrees will make the spirltirise 
15 hiches (nearly) very rapidly when the stop-cock is open, and proportionally for 
smaller elevations. 

Now when the point L of the telescope is in the hole O, and the spirit at O, an 
ckjtct seen at the centre of its field of view will be on a level with the eye, and the 
height of any object above that up to five degrees may be ascertained bv the height 
of Uie spirit, Dy simply elevating the whole instrument till it appears in tne oentre of 
the fiela. But if tilted much more, the spirit will come out at the top of the tube ; 
iff then, the object be above five deerees in elevation, und under ten, let ihe point 
L of the telescope be inserted in the nole marked 5, and the object <A>8erved through 
it. The spirit will now dve the excess above five desrees. If more than ten, and 
imder fifteen, put the point in hole 10, when the spirit will give the excess Move 
ten degrees, and so on. 

The instrument, when rested on a steady support on land, may be used without 
doaiog the stop-cock : but at sea, the stop-cock is indispensable. 

The altitude of the sun, or other heavenlv bodv in respect to which the observa- 
tion is to be taken, being approximately estimated, the point of the telescope is put 
into the hole next below the supposed altitude. The instrument is then held in the 
two hands, with a finger of the rieht hand placed near tfie lever of the stop-cock. 
When the observer has got the object upon the centre of the field, he opens the 
slop-cock by pressing the lever, and, adapting his motion to that of the ship, he keeps 
the telescope upon tne object for two or three seconds (as in shooting flying), and 
dwn suddenly closes the stop-cock by rabing his finger. The spirit now remains at 
fibe point it reached when the stop-cock was closed, and this, added to the number 
of denees marked by the hole in which the point of the telescope is placed, is the 
sUtnde of the object observed. 

As the insertion of the horizontal column of mercury In the tube connecting the 
two bulbs (B BO may possiblv interfere with the result, a compensation for this may 
be effected by making this tube bent, as represented at or, y, z in fig. 5 — the portion 
jf being of ratlier more than twice the sectional area of « and z, and the proper stream 
tfarongn y^ regulated by the extent to which the spring stop-cock is opened by a 
stop g. Thus, suppose the instrument to be suddenly moved horizontally in the 
(firectioo of the arrow, this would cause the mercury to act by its inertia in the 
OMioaite direction, were the communication simple, and not reflex ; but the reflex 
tnbe ^, containing as much mercury as x and z together, counteracts their joint 
dket by allowing (or rather tending to allow) the same quantity to pass in the other 
diiectjon, and thus the inertia of the mercury in y will neutralize that of the mercury 
iaxand x. 

Ab temperature, in extreme cases, may affect this instrument, a compensation may 
be made for this by adapting a sliding scale to the vertical tube, to be set according 
to the temperature at the time beinff. 

When the altitude of the heavenly body is very great, a small prism or refleotor 
may be placed at the eye-glaas of the telescope to throw the hnage upward, as in the 
tnaMit imtnuneot. 

a2 



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64 



ttlMTt TO tHIP-BVILDSES. #mok TRB UlTPVBLIIRBB MIS. OF THB LATB B&IO.-OBir. 
■IB lAMUBL BBMTBAM.* 



StCMfity againit Leakage, — Suppose 
the deck of a vessel to be st a height little 
above the water-line, and that this deck, 
as well as the planking of the side some 
little way down under water and up to 
this deck to be made tight against the 
exit of air from the inside, as of water 
flwm the outside, such a vessel virould, in 
most cases, be insubmergible, since the 
only additional weight tendins to sink it 
would be occasioned by any leakage of 
water firom the bottom which might 
come into the space previously occupied 
by air. If the lading were of a kind to 
occupy much space in proportion to 
weight— that is, if it were of little spe* 
cific gravity compared to water — there 
would remain but little space to receive 
water of leakage ; if the lading consisted 
of matter of greater specific gravity than 
water, there must be a great deal of 
space filled only with air, and so long as 
tnat air could not escape, water could 
not come in to occupy the place of air ; 
it could, indeed, be compressed by water 
from l^age, and inasmuch as water 
might thus come in the vessel would 
siuK proportionablv, but not enough to 
occasion the vessel to be entirely sub* 
memd. 

'Ae water and air-tight deck must be 
at a height sufficient to enclose air enough 
to insure against the submersion of the 
vessel. It is evident that any subdi- 
visions of the hold by transverse or other 
bulkheads made water-tight throughout, 
up against the deck, as well as down 
upon the bottom, and air-tight at the 
upper part, would afford additional secu- 
rity, as against partial leaks. 

With a view to affording this security, 
all hatchways or other openings through 
this deck into the hold must he provi£d 
with coverings, air-tight as well as water- 
tight, and they should be very readily 
applicable. 

The space above the water-tight and 
air-tight deck would in most cases be 
covered, for the accommodation of the 
crew ; a part of it would, of course, be 
allotted to the apparatus for navigation : 
there also would okb artillery, or olher war- 
like implements ; some of which, should 



* These Notes were made preparttory to a second 
*'NaYaI Essay" by Sir Samuel, the subject of which 
was intended to have been the stiucturt of naviga* 
ble 



further security require it, might be 
thrown overboard, as u so often dooe, and 
thus add buoyancy to that which the air- 
tight hold would afford. 

Stability or SliJneti.'^A great deal 
of ballast Is thought necessarv, to give 
stiffness to vessels of the usual form, — 
an article expensive in itself, causing 
delay in taking it in and out, ooenpying 
space and capacity virhich might be 
better appropriated to provisions or use- 
ful lading ; ballast, beside, has been one 
cause of a ship's foundering at sea, as 
the pigs not being fixed, are liable to be 
displaced in bad weather. 

That stability may be given to a vessel» 
without being encumbered with ballast, 
was exemplified in the Arrow and the 
Dart ; they were both of them worked 
into Portsmouth Harbour without any 
ballast, thouffh they had their cables and 
anchors on deck. 

The extension of the breadth up- 
wards, or tumbling out of the hull of 
the ^rroto and the Dart, was to give 
stability or stiffness to the vessels, and 
that in a deme increasing with their in- 
clination — that is the power to eounter- 
aet further inclination, increasing more 
and more as the vessel inclined the 
more. The increase of breadth in time 
vessels continued upwards to beyond the 
angle to which a ship is ever liable to 
heel ; ships of the usual form, on the 
contrary, incline the easier tlie more 
thev are inclined. 

Bitts to go only to the deck beneath, 
and to be strengthened by a shore in- 
stead of a brace. Openiiun under the 
gang-boards at the top of the side to 
serve as chimneys, leading, some fVom 
the hold, others from the different 
decks alternately ; these openings to be 
formed so as to exclude water or dirt. 

Fore and aft pieces on the deck entire 
(as the beains of the upper deck), to 
form the comings of hatcnways ; trader 
these, pillars; and between the pillars 
diagonal braces. 

Pillars should be hollow, to serve for 
ventilation ; therefore perhaps rather of 
iron, and provided with valves and 
pistons, by which foul air, or, when 
necessary, water might be extracted. 
Even the pillars forward and aft at right 
angles to the rising line should be hollow 
as well as the perpendicular ones in 



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HINTS TO SmP-BUILDEBS. 



65 



onkbhips. Tbefe batting against and 
tied to the beams of the upper deck, and 
tlw fln-keebon, would fonn a trussed 
beam against racking. 

Beams at the first buildrog of a Teasel 
should be coaked to the timbers on each 
aide, to the clamp underneath, and to the 
water-way above. They should be trussed 
in midships wherever trusses can possi- 
bly be admitted, and tied down to the 
floor timbers by a series of pillars con- 
nected together by straps. 

All bolkbeads trussed, to prevent 
laeking. 

Deeks fastened with double - drift 
taper-haded treenails instead of spikes. 

Decks straight athwart ship, as well as 
Ibre mod aft 

The working of capstans by bars to 
be diseoniinued ; winches to be tised in 
their stead, so as not to interfere with 
pillars or trusses. 

For strength, the keel and bottom of 
a vessel should form a bow^ the deck the 
girHM. To fasten the string to the ends 
o( the bow, as the middle strakes of 
the deck are cut by the hatchways, and 
as the strakes on the sides of the hatch- 
ways do not come to the stem and stem, 
the beams afore and abaft the hatchway 
should be very broad, so as to form a 
transverse planking connected to the 
•tnkea of the deck by ooaks. 

In the ease of a vessel of mat length 
in proportion to its depth, where the dis- 
tance between the bottom and the upper 
deck might not be sufficient to form a 
tie that could be depended on, for the 
prevention of hogging, the masts with 
their stays, instcM of being a source of 
weakness might be made to afford 
strength in the same manner as a brace 
afibrcb it to a beam. 

It is too frequent in the selection of 
the timbers that compose the frame of a 
ship, that serupulous attention is paid to 
the choice of trees sufficiently large to 
admit of forming all the edges of the 
timber die square, whilst the important 
eirenmstaoee in regard to strength, the 
direction of the fibres of the wood, is 
msde but a secondary consideration. 

Augers, Treenails, §•(?. — The present 
angers do not cut the wood clean, but 
tear and bruise it so as to facilitate the 
entrance of water. This mav be pre- 
vented by a side cutter to the borer. 

The treenail in use is parallel, and the 
whole length of it passing through the hole 



which the head ought to fill up, the hole 
is gutted, so that the bead cannot but be 
slack enough to admit water. This is 
prevented, by making the treenails 
roimc^ with a drift, and a taper head. 

There arc various pigments or com* 
positions that would resist the moisture 
of the wood used in shipbuildingi by the 
application of which substances to the 
hole or to the treenail its efficiency, as a 
fastening, would be very much increased; 
even white lead sufficiently diluted with 
tar or calareous cements, such as quick- 
lime with oleagenous matter, if applied 
at the instant previously to driving the 
treenail, would fix it very firmly a^^nst 
any strain to draw it out.* 

CoalLs might lie of metal as well aa 
wood; for example, abort tubes of 
copper, 4 inches long, 3 inches diameter, 
and a quarter of an inch only thick; 
but in most cases wood is on many ac- 
counts the preferable material. 

Pegs or small treenails for boats might 
be made with conical heads, like the larger 
treenaila ; indeed, heads are still more 
necessary for pegs than even for large 
treenails. 

Sheathing, — Lackering the interior of 
eopper sheathing has been discontinued 
without any good ground for the abandon- 
ment of this practice, either scientific or 
economical. It is well known, that by the 
working of a ship, or in other ways, the 
seams of sheathing are often opened, 
and that rents are frequently made in it ; 
a passage is thus made for water between 
^e copper and the ship, and thus the 
corrosive action of sea-water has place 
on both sides of the sheathing, although 
it be only on the interior surface that 
the decomposition of the metal is advan- 
tageous by destroying animal life, and 
otherwise keeping the surface of the 
sheathing clean. 

CAatn-p/a^.— One of the peculiari- 
ties of the Arrow and the Dart was, that 
their chain-plates were fixed through the 
thick strake along the range of the deck 
of the vessel, instead of being fixed to 



* Mirlne glue it an InYention of « sulMe<{iient 
date ; but Sir Samuel, In bU " Naval Essay/' 
page 1S4, in speaking of raw bidet for tbe sbell 
of small vessels, be said " especially its Imper- 
meability be increased by a coating of caoutoboue,** 
and *' ibis substance mlgbt also in large Yettelt be 
on many occasions adTantageonsly applied In com- 
bination witb otber subsUnces to tbe production 
of tbe tame elliBct, at in tbe ttoppage of leakage," 
*e. 



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M ON THB OOMPARATIVB MBBHS 07 IBON AND WOOD FOB SHIF-BUILDINO. 



ohaanelf projeetiog in the usdaI mode 
from the top sides. 

By this mode of flnng ehmin-plates 
they are attaehed firmly to the part of 
the vessel best able to support them ; and 
in oonseouenoe of the form of those ves- 
sels the shrouds were extended to the same 
angle as in a vessel of the ordinary con- 
strue tion, notwithstanding the chain - 
plates did not project beyond the vessel's 
side. 

The advantages of thb improvement 
in point of expense arise from a saving 
of materials and workmanship for the 
construction of the ordhoury channels \ 
but the disencnmbering a ship's side 
from useless prcrjeetions is of higher im« 
portance — it saves entanglement with 
similar projections from the sides of 
other ships, and it enables guns to be 
worked without impediment from the 
shrouds ; indeed, in some eases, artillery 
nuy be placed where there is no chan- 
nels, in situations where otherwise it 
could not be admitted of. The chain- 
plates themselves too, when fixed as in 
those vessels, are not liable to Uie usual 
injury from the rolling motion of the 
ship or otherwise} so that during the 
many years the Arrow and the Dart 
were in constant active service, not any 
one of their chain-plates so fixed hsid 
ever been broken. 



OK TRB OOMPAaATIYB MIBIT8 OF IBOK 
▲MD WOOD FOa SHIF*BUILOIMO. BT 
BDWIM O. TBBOBLLB8, BSQ., O.B. 
(Concloded from pife 5S.) 

"The Aojra/ Oeorge, one of the iron 
steamers ranning between Liverpool and 
Glasgow, a vessel of uiiisubI length in pro- 
portion to her beam, when loaded with about 
] 50 tons of dead weight, besides her enghies 
and coals, got on a rock near Greenook, at 
Ugh water, and wu left there during a tide 
wttbont sustaining any ii^ary i she rested 
nearly on her centre, sod all who saw her 
were of opinion that no timber vessel oonld 
have remained in that position without 
breaking her back. 

" Captain ChapUn, who has had upwards 
of twenty years' eiperience in steam navi- 
gation, and who was for some time manager 
of Wooddde Ferry, in the course of tome 
remarks on the strength of iron vessels, says, 
* I asay give you a ease in point t the Cfeve- 
lend, bout by yon, got ashore amongst the 
rocks on an ebb tide, when she was 1^ high 
and dry for seven hours, hanging entirely by 



the heel and forefoot, without soetaining 
iojory either in the hall or engine.' 

'*2iid. Stowage: 

<* The shell of a timber-built vessel is so 
mach thicker than that of an iron vessel, 
that with the same outside dimensions, the 
latter is frequently 18 inches wider, and 18 
inches deep^ in the hold, than the former ; 
taking the most favourable part of a vessd, 
namely, in the centre of uie length, in a 
vesiel of 200 tons, the proportion in favour 
of the iron vessel will be as 5 to 6, but In 
the ends which are drawn finely off, ^ 
disparity is much increased, makii^ the pro- 
portion of the whole contents about aa 6 to 
4 ; supposfaig, therefbre, that a vessel built 
of timber could stow 800 tons, she wouM, 
if made of iron, have room for 250 teas. 

"3rd. Safety: 

** In addition, however, to their extraor- 
dinary strength, iron vessels affwd protec* 
tion, both to life and property, against the 
most awful accident that can befall a ship 
at sea ; namely, against fire. I adndt that 
it can signify little to unfortanate passen- 
gers of what material the hull of a veasel is 
made, if her cargo, deck, cabins, and masCa 
are consumed, as no one who might escape 
the confiagration could then remain In bar. 
But with ordinary preoautions, H would be 
nearly impoasible for a fire to take plaoe or 
to gain head in the hold of an Iron ahip, 
provided the hatches were properly seemed. 

'Mth. Speed : 

<*The material being much Hghtar to 
attain the aame strength, and oooapylng leaa 
space, the model of Sm vessel may no made 
finer, and better adapted for high speed, 
without a corresponding loss in amount 
of stowage and carrying qualities ; and iron 
vesseb, as they have more buoyancy, are 
not so liable as timber-built vessels to pitoh 
when in a heavy sea : these assertions are 
not the result of mere theoretical specula- 
tions, but are derived from a long course of 
observations, guided by the opiniona ef 
many practical men who have become con- 
verts to the adoption of iron u a preferable 
material to wood In the oonstrnctlon of 



««5th. DurabiUty: 

" It is as yet impossible to assign any 
period for the duration of iron vessels in 
salt water, inasmuch as they have not been 
tried for a sufficient time to enable us to 
ascertain this point with precision ; the want 
of this proof must, however, be considered 
favourable from the fact', that were their 
decay as rapid as that of wooden vessels, 
such a result would already have become 
manifest. 

'* The instance of the Aaron Mmtbf will 
be in the reeo n eotkm of many t she wm 



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OBI XHB OOMPABATIYB MEBITS OF IBON AMD WOOD TOR BHIP-BUIIJ>IMd. 67 



linlSaSt hMbeeDtlteraiitalyMi* 
pk^ed io fratli tmd mU water, and is stotod 
to be in ^ood oondilion. The Qo rry e wn 
kM beM abent dgbt yean in lalt water, and 
ia not yet pareeptibl J kqored by decay. But 
tbe Iron veaaela of tbe Clyde probably for- 
■iah «• with mora decided proofs than any 
otbn of the dnrabUity of the material in 
«lt wntar. It is well known that soaae of 
the trsft bnilt of those fessals were ettremely 
dighl, jet it is tmly snrprisinf , when the 
; mbbing on the banlu to whieh they 

b considered, how Uttle eflTeet 
I to predoeenpon them } so sUght, 
todeodf is the apparent decay when the tea- 
sd is in nse, and so mooh slower is its pro* 
pesi than is dhiUttd by iron when applied 
to ether pnrposee in salt water, that many 
who hsvo obeenred the fact are led to snp- 
peee that soaao oconlt er preeerralhre law is 
■I spsration, pecnttar to iron ao emptoyed« 
A sfaniler efbot is said to bo obeerrable on 
the Iran raOa of a railway } the corrosion of 
wfaidi appears to be miieh leaa rapid when 
they are netod npon by carriagea passhig 

than when they are lying in 




to rsqnifa 
me. lahoi 



<'We BOW tnm to the consideratloii of 
the dnrahOity of timher-bniH ahipa < and 
when, I wonld Mk, In the eatalogne of oh. 
jietfona, nnl or ftmoied, to iron ships, is 
then MO to be fonnd emal to that dreadf al 
t to wooden r ss s Js, the dry tot ? the 
lofwUeh an too weU nndaratood by 
any lengthened re- 
[ ahonld not, howsfsr, do 
to my snfagect dkl I pen It over In 
Mb age hn been without ita noe« 
trvM, ito qna^erles, and ita inftdlibla rem*. 
An fir the dry rot} and no period baa been 
n p ro d ne tif o of them n that in whkh we 
in } Iwt, fhm aU I can perceiYe, this plsgno 
is n pnfalant as erer. How many stately 
naami an moiddering away nnder thia de« 
itonetin Tisltaticn, while their ine and 
fneefhl isrme conceal the tfcacherons enemy 
Unl 

'6th« Repairs 3 

<The nsnal cakmktkm lor a timber-bnilt 
r is, that the espenn of repairs will 
In In or twelve yean ha?e equalled the first 
seet. In a w«ll«bnilt iron steamer, repaira 
win not, I belief e, ban become n scass ary 
witkin ^at period, proTided the tcsmI hn 
■St boa ii4«'^ ^7 acoideniB ; and under 
any dnuaaatanon, I feel oonfident it wiU be 
) ezpeoeiTe to keep in repair the copper 
king alone of a wooden fessel, than to 
( the whole repairs In the huU of an iron 



'7A. Coett 

* No one, it may be hen remarked, can 
'■aning and laissntlag the low state 
b Unt conntry of what maybe termed mer- 



cantile naral ardiitectnn, in wkleh men of 
sdenoe meet with little or no enooursgeoient 
to attempt improfemeoti, and have become 
weary of a system which for many yean bn 
brought them no return. But let us hope 
for better thlnga in iron ship-buildiDg ; let 
us trust that both owners and builders will 
sn that their ioterest lies, the former in 
procuring good sound Tssnls, and the latter 
in a price that will Imtc no eioun for im* 
perfect work. 

"Prom a careful consideration of the 
qneetlon of cost, I ha?e arrlfcd at the fol- 
lowing conclusions : — 

"1st. That a good aerfioeable iron sailing 
▼eesel, not ezceedlng 300 tons burthen, will 
be equal in coat to an Bngliah«built twain 
yeara' timber ship of the same aiternai 
dimensions, without including the prin of 
copper sheathing for the latter. 

" 2nd. That iron Tcesels of aboTC 300 
tons hsTc the adyantage of being nther len 
ezpensifc than wooden vesnls. 

** 3rd. That for erery large merchant ?ee- 
sd, iron will be found to be much less es* 
pensi?e than wood. 

"4th. That iron sea-going steamera bear 
alao about the same proportion, according 
to their different aisea. 

"5th. That iron Tnads for riten may be 
built at a light openn, but n built, an 
unfit for sea-ser?ice. 

"This estfanate U to be considered to 
apply only generally, aa the coet of dthn 
wood or iron Tcesels is ruled by the ooet of 
the materials and the style of finishing. 

"8th. Draft of water: 

" Iron sailing fcsnls may be built of any 
nquiaite depth and sharpnesa for holding 
on in a sn-way, but whm a light draft is 
essential for a peculisr serrice, it may be 
attained to a gmter extent by the an of that 
Bsetal than by timber i this adnntsge, of 
course, arises from tbe wdght of iron neces* 
ssry in the construction of a fessel being 
much IcM than the weight of wood required 
for the eame purpose.'' 

In the for^ioing remarks, by John Gran- 
tham, alludon ia made to bulk-heads, which 
are an important proflrion in caw of Inkage 
from striking on rocks or other causnf 
the bulk-hei2b an water-tight partitiona, 
going com^etely acroM the hold of the 
ahip, difiding it into four, or fife, or more, 
independent parte, ao that if a leak occurs 
in one, the water only riaes to a certain Icf el 
in that division of the fessel without affect- 
ing the rest, and a fessel thus arranged may 
foyage a thousand adles in ssfety, with a 
large leak, and without requiriajg to be 
pumped. 

We must not conceal from oanelfw, that 
a strong pnjudlre or alarm exists, on 
tof thaabemttonsof thaes mp ant 



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68 ON THE COMPABATIYE MEBTT8 OF IBON AND WOOD FOB 6HIP-BUILDIN0. 



bttt Udfl diffievKy it eomidered to be oom- 
pletdy oreroome by proper meanirei for 
correctiog the errors. We are indebted to 
Profetfor Airy for this onward and impor- 
tant step in the march of improTement. 

We have quoted largely from the work on 
Iron ihip-bnilding, we might gi?e mnoh more 
with profit, bnt prefer reoommeoding the 
work to the pemial of those who are im- 
pressed with the importance of the subject 
as a national question, on whidh J. Gran- 
tham, at p. 68, writes as follows :— 

'* There could not bea better period than 
the present, when the foundations of every 
oommereial system seems to be shaken, and 
men are looking round in dismay at the 
dep r es si on that weighs down erery braneh 
of trade, there could not be a better period 
for oonsidering, with deep attention, a ques- 
tion such u ti^, and endearouring to draw 
from it some assistance towards ^CTiating 
the general distress. 

** As a national subject, it will be found 
to possess more claims to attention than are 
at first apparsnt." 

Theee observations were written in 1842, 
and apppear equally applicable in 1849; if 
this question be rightly considered, and 
ftdrly tried, during the ensuing seven years, 
it wUl not be needfrd to write elaborate trea- 
tises, to prove that for ship-building '* there 
is nothing like iron!" 

The application of iron to form a nest, or 
series of boats, may be very valuable for 
passenger ships, six such boats might lie on 
the deck of a steamer, one under another, 
ocenpying only the space of one, by having 
the thwarts made to unship, and be ready at 
hand, to be brought into action in a minute 
during an emergency. Sis boats, each 
weighing about half a ton, would carry 180 
to 200 persons, and a system of this kind is 
ezoeedfaigly important for all passenger ships, 
whether steamers or others. 

It cannot be denied that the accident 
which befell that magnificent ship, the Oreai 
BriUin, in Dundrum Bay, did much to 
cheek the progress of this improvement ; 
but whilst it is admitted that this disaster 
checked the earnestness of our merchants to 
avail themselves of iron vessels. It nny be 
pointed out as a triumph in tlie achieve- 
ments of science. Costly as was that ship 
in iron, it would have been vastly more so 
if it liad been built of wood ; and it is pro- 
bable that if it had run ashore, as did the 
iron ship, it would have gone to pieces In 
less than a week, instead of braving fearful 
storms for seveial months ; and eventually 
floated off tiie beach, yielding to the judi- 
cious appliances of the talented engineer 
who had the charge of her construction. 
The few cases of foUure in iron vessels are 
««<i«i« lubllihedi whUat some of the very 



remarkable instances of escape are i 
recorded t in addition to the Instanoee nl- 
ready quoted, may be mentkmod the aocident 
which befoll the TMot,9L flue Iron eteanor 
that was buUt by the Neath Abbey Inm 
Company, to ply between Bristol and Port 
Talbot I one morning Uils vessel was leavfai^ 
Bristol river with a cargo, and beiag oauglit 
aground, was left by the tide, supp orte d by 
the head and stem, lying oompkialy noroai 
the river on her side, and was left so dry an 
for a boat to float under her t in this wmU 
tion she remained a whole tide until tho 
water rose, when the engfaies resusaed their 
duties, and conveyed her away uninjured to 
Port Tslbot. 

In considering the beneflt obtalnod by 
using iron in preference to wood, vre ; 
not forget that the leakage of an iron i 
is scarcely appreciable, and If leaks ( 
they are commonly very easily dis co fure d and 
stopped, so that there la no bilge wafesr; n 
consideration of great importance in onrry- 
Ing com and other kinds oif food. 

Itis tme that there may exist strong pre* 
judioes to be overcome; so there wen 
against steam vessels, as firaught wi& dan- 
ger of many kinds; so thm were also 
against the introduction oi iron lieama In- 
stead of wood for steam enginee ; there are 
engineers now living who remember tUs 
change, and the prejudices; bow dUBealt It 
would be to avoid the snapi^ng of the beam 
if the engine struck on the spring benns, 
how frightful would be the calami^ of the 
cast-iron besm of a pumping engine fidUac 
Into the engine-house, or of the other end 
tumbling down tlie shaft of the mine 1 Many 
such prognostloationa were Bsade, and oobm 
realised ; but does any engineer and aonnd 
mechanic contemplate the idea of ravertinf 
to the wooden bc«m, with its east>iron cape 
and wrought-iron straps? An excellent 
engine-beam of enormous strength might 
be made of wrought-iron platea, but tha 
attempt would be almost vain to form a 
framework of wood, however elaborate or 
well designed, that should be equal to tha 
strength of the caat-iron beama now need 
for the enginee in Cornwall. 

If Iron wero not applicable for engine 
beams, the engines of Comwall must of 
necessity be much smsUer in thdr dimen- 
sions and power ; the deep mines could not 
be drained, nor their wealth developed ; and 
so it may be said of iron for the uae of ves- 
sels ;~ without it we shall remain stationary, 
or retrograde, amonst nations in the maroh 
of commerce — but if we avail ouraelvee of 
the vast advaatages placed within our 
reach, we may again become proverbial fbr 
intelligence and proeperlty. 
FTMMhay, near Brirtol, Sih «f » BM. 1S«. 



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SOCIETY OP ABTS' PRIZES. 



69 



PBISU AWAmDID BT TBI tOCIBTT OP 
AETt AT TBB ANNUAL DISTEIBITTION OF 
1850 IN TBB BBOnONI OF TEADB, MA- 
NUFAOTUBBB, ABO M8CBAN1CI. 

jy-OM Addreu by the Onmeii, 
The gold medal of the Preiideot, for im- 
proremeott in the machinery or proceaaei 
enployed in the enltif ation or preparation 
of aogar in the British Coloniea, lua not been 
awarded; bnt the new oane preti of Mr. 
Benemer, — for which that gentleman will 
raoeiTe the Sodety'a large gold medal, 
thoBgh applying only to one part of the 
proeeai in whidi a general improrement 
woBld appear to be contemplated by Hia 
Royal Highneta, haa the aaerit of introducing 
a ptiaeiple at once bow and of great beanty 
into that p r oaai a ; while, by redndng the 
wei^t and eBmbroBancfa of the machinery, 
BMidi haa been done by Mr. Beaaemer to- 
wBrda remoTing the main obatade for im* 
prorement in the workhig machinery of the 
c ol oniea of the tropica ; tIb., difficulty of 
tnmiport. 

The eondenaer of Mr. Slemena— a gentle* 
aaan already well known both to the mecha- 
nical world and to the members of the 
Society for aereral inventions of a Tcry high 
order«>haa also the merit of being the deve- 
lopment of a new principle, and u such, as 
wefl aa for tbe ingenious manner in which 
that novelty haa bera carried out in the 
detail of oonstnictioo, it has been deemed 
by ^e Council worthy of the large gold 



Am am ezam|de of an article of manufac- 
ture, in the production of which all attempts 
had hitherto been nnsnccessful, but which 
hsa at laat been accompliahed just when most 
needed. Is to be noticed the full-siaed bath, 
In Stourbridge clay, of Meaars. Ruffbrd and 
Flndi, for which your gold Isis medal has 
been awarded to these gentlemen. For the 
prodoetioB of this article a prise was, at 
the apecial suggestion of the President, 
offered by the Society In the session of 
1846-47, with a view to the assistance of 
the movement for people's baths and wash- 
houses, then in its infancy. 

The goblet which last year the Council 
announced as being in preparation from the 
designa of Mr. Maelise, R. A., In accordance 
with the provisions of the Swiney Bequest, 
has been perfected, and the cup haa been for 
lome time before the Society. The Council 
kA that they can congratulate the Society 
OB having in this cup obtained a work of art 
worthy of the fame of Mr. Maelise and of 
the intentiona of the late Dr. Swioey. 

rThB Addrcaa condudee by annooncing the 
foDowfaig special prise list for 1851 :— 

Jim CottMil oprr, in tbe name of the So- 



ciety, the large medal and 25/. for the best, 
and the Society's small medal and 10/. for 
the seoood best treatise on tha objects exhi- 
bited in the section of Raw Materiala and 
Produce. 

A large medal and 251. for the best, and 
a small medal and 10/. for the aecood beat, 
treatise on the objects exhibited in the sec- 
tion of Machinery. 

A large medal and 25/. for the best, and 
a small medal and 10/. for the second best, 
treatiae on the objecta ahibited in the aec- 
tion of Manufsctures. 

A large medal and 25/. for the best, and 
a assail medal and 10/. for the aeoond best, 
treatise on the objecta exhibited in the sec- 
tion of Fine Arte. 

Each treatise must occupy, and not ex- 
ceed, 80 pegea of the sise of the '' Bridge- 
water Tkeatises." 

The Society wUl alao award ita Urge 
medal and 25 guineaa for the beat general 
treatise upon the Exhibition treated com- 
mercially, politically, and sta t istica l ly ; and 
small medala for the beat treatises on any 
special object or dau of olijeota exhibited. 

The treatises for which rewards are given 
are to be the property of the Society, and if 
deemed suitable for publicatloo, should the 
Council see At, they will cause the ssme to 
be printed and pubUahed, and will award to 
the author Uie nett amount of any profita 
which may arise from the publication after 
the payment of the expenaea. 

The treatiae to be delivered at the Sodety'a 
house, on or beforo the 30th of June, 1851. 

In announcing this list, thero Is no inten- 
tion on the pert of the Council to confine 
the rewards of the Society to the aubjecta 
named there, though, for the reasons given, 
th^ do not anticipate that oommunicatlona 
of interest on other sufaijecta will be sub- 
mitted.] 

Subjoined is tbe list of prises presented 
by Lord Colbome, the presentation in each 
aection being preceded by a short expUna- 
tory speech : 

In thi Section of Trade and Manu/aeturm. 

To Messrs. RuiFord snd Finch, for 
their porcelain bath In one piece, the gold 
Isis medal.— For design, see Meek. Jf«f ., 
vol. Ui., p. 409. 

To Messrs. M'Nair and Co., for thdr 
coating for electric telegraph wires, the 
silver medal. 

To Henry Bessemer, for hit sugar-cane 
preu, the gold medal— AfecA* Jlisf., vol. 
li., p. 381. 

To C. W. Siemens, C.E., for his regene- 
rative condenser, the gold medal.— AftcA. 
Mag., vol. li., p. 287. 

To George Heaton, for his plan for pre- 
venting oscillation in locomotives, tiie Isis 



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MACDONALD's patent IMPR0VBMENT8 IN LUBBICATINO 



gold medal.— JIfeeA. Mag»t toI. iItIU., p. 
477. 

To W. H. Henry Smith, C.E., for hit 
flexile breakwater and lighthouiea, the Itlt 
gold medal.— JIfeeA. Maff,, toI. li., p. 550. 

To Aatolne F. O. Cliudet, for \^ glaii- 
c«ttiii|aiachiiiea, the lUfer medal. 

To Thomaa Sjaon Ctmdyi for his pyro* 
pneumatio stoTO, the ailfer medal. 

To John Imrmy, for hia iaYeatlgatloii of 
the aetion of the erank, the alher modal. 

To Dnooaii Maekeuie, for hia reader fbr 
Jaoqnard Looms, the iQfer medaL— Ifee^ 
Jtf^.y Tol. L, p. 138. 

To W. MelTine, for hit aphonetio doek, 
the iiKer medaL 

To W. Pole, for hit infoitigttioa of tho 
ootioxi of the crank, the ailYer medaL 

To Comditti John Vatley, Ibr hia IM^ 

Soved air>pimip, the ailTor modaL-*-Jfee^ 
|W.,ToLtiT.,p.817,858. 

To Franeia B. ColoKravo, ftir hia ^rfsg 
saddle jtrtb, tho Isis sUto^ medaL 

To Goodhue, CHnton, and Go., for thefar 
method of constmctfaig metalUo attach* 
ments to minora! snbstimoes, the honorary 
testimoniaL 

To J. B. M'Donan, for Us vlbratittg 
Arddmedeatt drOl-stock, the honorary tes- 
timonial. 

To James Teteh, M.D., R.N., for his 
medioo-ehimrgioal ambvlanoe, the honorary 
testimoniaL 



MAODOMALD's PATBMT IMPnOTBllSlfTS IK 

LvnuoATiira iiAOBimmT, axd nr 
■Fmnie oAmmiAMo— (sn Aim p. 56.) 

SpeeykatUm. 
The Inbrieatiiig of maohiiiery, a«ch as 
the journals or surfaces of the axles of 
ndlway carriages, has hitherto been 
generally effbcted by the use of certain 
compositions in a thick or pasty state, 
and no method of applying on or j^rease 
in a liquid state to machinery sulgect to 
the Yiolent actions and concuuions to 
which the bearing parts of the axles of 
railway earriages and wagons are subject, 
has hitherto been adopted. The oil or 
liquid nease hitherto used has also been 
applied by manual application, and at 
intenralsy or in a wasteful manner. 
Now, my in?ention hss for its object 
the applying oil or Hquid grease to the 
bearing, or rubbing surfaces of the machi- 
nery of the axles of railway carriages in 
a constant and uniform supply, as the 
same is required, and the safing any 
surplus oily so as to prerent all waste. 



This I effect by the ap^ioation and 
adaptation of an air-tight oil box with 
suitable arrangementa for supplying the 
oil to the axle in tho requisite quantities, 
and excluding the dust from the axle box, 
as hereinafter described. My iuYention 
relates seoondly, to a mode of connecting 
the springs with the axles or axle boxes 
of radway carriages and wagons. In 
railway otfriages and wagons, as ordina- 
rily oonstmeted, the springs bearing the 
body of the carriage are connect^ with 
the axle boxes, either rigidly or in suoh 
manner as to exclude any freedom of 
motion or play between the spring and 
the axle box ; the oonaoquenoe dT whiili 
is a degree c^ strain <» twist upon the 
carriage spriiMf, axle b<»| and axle. The 
second part of my iuTenlioB is direirted 
to obviating this objeotion, and conaisiB 
in adapting a ball or spherical bearing 
point and snrfMe between the under 
part of the apring and the upper part of 
the axle box, in auch manner that the 
spring with the carriage attached, and 
the axle box with the axle attached 
thereto, may haTC a oertun amount of 
Dree motion, or motion indep^ident id 
each other, and that tfaerebr jthe atrain 
to which the parts as ordinarilT con- 
structed are subgcct may be diminished. 

The accompanying fignrea ahow the 
improrement aboTO rcfemd to •■ q»plied 
in practice. 

Fig. 1 Is an end view of the aik box, 
looking faito the box fhym the end next 
the wheel, representing also a section of 
thejoumal and the brass step. 

Fig. 2 ii an end Tiew of the axle box 
firom the outside, representing also the 
axle guard and the spring, and the top 
of the oil cistern. 

Fig. 3 is a sectional engraYing, ahow- 
ing the axle box, the oil cistern, the 
brass steps, and the spring fastenings. 

Fig. 4 is a view of the axle box, kiok- 
ing from al)0f e it, and showing the pooi- 
tion of the oil cistern aa apj^ied to the 
axle box. 

In each figure the same parts are in- 
dicated by the same letters. 

A is the journal of the axle, on whieh 
rests the brass step G, and the letters 
gg^ represent the brass rim, which reata 
on the shoulder of the journal at^^; 
aa, small tubes or nipples for the sup - 
ply of oil from the air-tight oil box, 
through the apertures a^a^^ in the brmM 
step to the journal ^ B istbc nafc of the 



\ 

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XIOHINEBT* AMD IN SPBIMa CABSUOES. 



11 



wheel ; CCO, tbe axle box ; ee, rims to 
bold tbe axle packing; x«, axle paeking; 
«i «', aer«w for withdrawing the surplus 
oil; M)» the axle guards; BE, the 
oraai bar, which oonnects the axle guards 

VSg. 1. 



under tbe axle box, and thus fastens tbe 
carriage to the axle box ; F, tbe oil 
cistern ; /, the air-tight lid ; /^/S the 
holding-down spring ; G, the brass step ; 
H, a ball for the spring fastening to work 

Fig. 4. 




OB ; I, the plate on which tbe ball H rests ; 
K, the spring fastening which works on 
the ball H ; LL, the cheeks of the spring 
fastenitig ; m in m m, the spring plates. 

This air-tight oil or liquid grease 
Tcsael may be constructed of sheet iron, 
or other suitable material, and applied, 
affixed or attached to the axle box, and 
connected with the other parts of the 
machinery in any convenient manner ; 
or in case of carriages not yet con- 
structedy or of carriages being supplied 
with new axle boxes, it may be cast in 
the axle box and form a part of the same. 
Li the applieation of my infentioo to 
laveady nade, ^tia, to the ez- 
^ of lailw^i^ the oil 



vessel may be made of such a form as 
majr suit the description of axle box to 
which it is to be applied. 

The form I have applied to railway 
passenger- carriages is shown at F, in 
the accompanying fieure. The valve 
cover, or lid /, througii which the oil is 
supplied from time to time, mav be re- 
tained in its place, and kept air- tight, 
either by a spring, /*/*, a screw, or 
other means. The spring shown in 
tbe figure admits of the air-tight lid 
being raised for the supply of oil. At 
the bottom of the cistern are certain 
openings for feeding the oil or liquid 
grease to the bearing of the journal, 
Arough Bippl«e> or small tabes faiteiied 

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SLECTBIOAL EXPEBIMBNT. 



to tbe eisterD» as shown at no, with cor- 
retpoodiDg openings in the brass step to 
allow the oil or grease to pass to the 
joomaly asata^ax. 

In these openings or nipples, or small 
tubes of the oil cistern, I place a wick 
of cotton, or other saitable fibrous or 
porous material, drawn or packed so 
tightly in the nipples as to regulate the 
supply to a certain limited quantity per 
hour, according to the circumstances of 
the case. 

The sise of the opening in the nip* 

fles, when two openings are used, which 
generally employ, is-^ths of an inch in 
diameter, having from 280 to 300 threads 
of cotton of a oommon lamp wick inserted 
in each hole. This I find to answer 
extremely well for a railway passen- 
ger*carriage having a journal of from 6 
to 8 inches long, and 3 inches in dia- 
meter, and in good order. Should the 
oil or liquid grease be supplied to the 
journal in excess of the nquisite con- 
sumption, the surplus will be preserved 
and collected at the bottom of the axle 
box, as at «, and may be from time to 
time withdrawn by unscrewing the tap 
screw, e^. For the purpose of exclud- 
ing the dust from the loumal, the brass 
step may be made to bear, not only on 
the journal in the usual manner, but to 
overlap the inside shoulder of the axle 
and to extend to the nave of the wheeli 
and to bear on the shoulder of the axle 
by a rim, ^, leaving a space between 
such rim and the part of the brass 
resting on the journal, as shown in the 
sectional view fig. 3. 

The axle box may also be constructed 
so as to overlap and enclose the inside 
shoulder of the axle, and to come very 
close to the face of the nave of the wheel 
at hh. With the same view of exclud- 
ing as much as possible tbe dust, the 
bottom part of the axle box may be 
formed with one or more rings, c c, east 
on the inside, so as to form a space for 
the introduction of a suitable material 
for packing the spaces ««, or one of 
them ; this elastic packing, whether of 
cotton, hemp, worsted, sponge or other 
material being extended round ihe un- 
derside of the shoulder of the axle and 
to meet the rim of the brass step ff, 
before described. 

The brass step may also be so formed 
as to overlap the shoulder of the axle, 
and prqjeot into a groove formed in the 
lace of the nave, or the axle b<a may be 



formed so as to project into one or more 
grooves in the nave, by one or more 
feather-edged rim or rims; or one or more 
rings of metal nuv be fastened to ihe 
shoulder of the axle, and provided with 
projecting rims, which may be endoeed 
m the axle box by corresponding grooves 
encircling the same, so as thereby to 
exclude as completely as possible the 
dust from contaminating the oil or liquid 
grease supplied from the air-tight vessel 
to the journal, as already described. 

In the arrangement shown in the 
figures of my new mode of c<mneet- 
ing the springs of railway carrisfes with 
the axles or axle boxes, a ball H, of 
steel or other suitable material, fits into 
a plate I, fixed on the top of tbe axle 
box, and also into a plate K, attached to 
the underside of the spring, wbidi is 
called the snrinff fastening, a eertain 
space being left between each plate for 
tne motion of the carriage spnng. In 
lieu of this ball, a spherical point nipple 
or bearing surface may be employed, 
and may he formed as part of the spring 
fastening, so as to work in a correspond- 
ing cup formed in the axle box, or in 
the plate fixed on the axle box ; or this 
spherical point, nipple or bearing snr- 
face may be formea on the top of the 
axle box, or on the plate fixed on tbe 
axle box, and may work on a corre- 
sponding cup formed in the underside of 
the spring fastening. 

By thus allowing a certain amount of 
free motion to the springs, and through 
them to the body of the carriage without 
twisting the axle box, the strain in the 
axle bearings may be in a great measure 
prevented. Also, by means of the ar- 
rangement just refeired to, facilities are 
afforded for what is commonly odled 
** the lifting of railway -carriages for the 
purpose of being examined, cleaned, or 
repaired." On removing the eroas-bar, 
££, the carriage, with its spring attached, 
may be quickly raised and disconneeted 
from the axle box without the delay of 
disconnecting the rigid spring fastenuig« 
in ordinary use. 



■LBCTAICAL SXPBmiM BUT. 

Sir,— Professor Oersted has shown that 
an electrical current pasting along a oon . 
dnctor will induce magnetbin in inm ; and 
Faraday has shown that a magnet will in. 
daee a carreat of eleetriolty in a oondaolor & 
bat I am not aware that U hv bean obsarvea 

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BOILIB EXPLOSION AT NORTHAMPTON. 



7S 



that ft ewroit of deetridtr pusiiig along a 
ooDdoetor will, In proportion to its power, 
mder aensible a portion of the latent elec- 
tridtj contained in any pieee of iron placed 
witfiin its inflnenoe. I therefore beg to 
can the attention of yonr readers to the 
nanh of the following experiment :— 

I oonstnicted an electro-magnetic ooil 
with 500 feet of No. 16 covered copper 
wire, with a cylindrical opening an inch and 
a half in diameter extending longitudinally 
throngh the centre of it. Within this open- 
ing waa placed a handle containing 3 lbs. of 
fine iron wire, which, when a cnrrent of 
eleetridty waa passed through the copper 
wire, formed a compound induced magnet. 
Tlie eoil, with an electro-magnetic contact- 
breaker, waa then placed in connection with 
a DaaicU'e battery, when, on touching the 
ooflBponnd magnet with a piece of metal, I 
pereetred a alight apark. I then wrapped 
the Bsagnet in i£out twenty folds of dry sUk, 
and on presenting a piece of metal, again 
obtmned a succession ot sparks, proyiog that 
it was not owing to any electricity commu- 
nicated from the coil. 

I then removed the bundle, and inserted 
a bar of iron, 18 inches long and li in dia- 
diameter, from which I obt^ied sparks, but 
in a very much slighter degree. 

I wish to ask whether this phenomenon 
has been preriously obserred by any of your 
nnmerous readers and correspondents, aa I 
have not seen it mentioned by any of the 
nmieroua writers upon electrical science. 
I am. Sir, jours, &c., 

C.S. 
Bomford, July 19, 1S50. 



THX CTlfAlfXTXR. 

8ir, — I fear the registration protection 
for the manufactore of the cymameter by 
Mr. Fenn (Mech. Mag., No. 1405), wiU 
not hold good. It is now at least ten years 
since I sent for insertion in your Magazine 
the description of a similar instrument, 
sare that instead of thin latht, mine was 
composed of pieces of wire of equal length 
daai^yed between two plates of brass. My 
description did not appear in your pages, aa 
yon atated in your notice to correspondents 
•t the time, because a similar instrument had 
some years /?revto«rs/|f been described in the 
MtekmUes* Magasme by another correspon- 
dent. Neither Mr. Fenn nor I, therefore, 
can claim the iuTentlon, though as far as wt 
knew, we were the contrivers. I may add 
that I have found my instruments very 
nsefU for taking Tarious contours, &c., and 
also for roughly ascertaining the curvatures 
of lensaa and specula, if Mr. Fenn will 
rafor to your 6th vol., pagea 57 and 94, he 



win find the deseription of the original here 
aUudedto. 

I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

N. 8. Hbimbkbk. 
Sidmoatb, July 17, 1850. 



BOILBR EXPLOaXOK AT KOBTHAMPTOK. 

Sir,— I have the painful intelligence to 
communicate, of another steam-boiler ex- 
plosion, which was accompanied with the 
loss of Ufe. 

The enclosed sketdies are those which 
were hastily made for illostrathig the figure 
of the fraetare, before the jury; and in 
hopea that the pubUdty of this calamity 
may in some degree prevent acddenta (if 
indeed this can be strictly termed suoh) 
in future, I have the pleasure to forward it 
for that purpoae, and a newspaper contafai- 
ing a report of the inquest. 

I am, dear Sir, yours respectftUIy, 

Joa, Stbnsok. 
InqnoiL 
(From the Norihan^iom Meremy,) 
On Wednesday. July 1 7, an tnqnett was held at the 
Guildhall, on the body of Henry Chamben, who 
waa killed by the bursting of a boiler at Mr. Ad- 
nitt's steam works. 

Thomas Worsdall sworn. I lire in Court No 8, 
Wellington-street, and have been employed at 
stoker at Mr. Adnitt's works. Deceased had the 
eare of both Mr. Adnitt's steam-engines, for seven 
years to my knowledge. I had left him about three 
minutes yesterday when the accident happened In 
the engine-house. The engine was then standing, 
and had been so for ten minutes or a quarter of aa 
hour. It had been goingfor about ten minutes that 
day, but no more. The pump would not work which 
forces the water into the boiler ; in consequence of 
that he stopped the engine. He had first tried to 
alter the valve while the engine was going. It was 
teatime. and I went away to stop another engine. 
There is no water gauge, but tape. Deceased tried 
the Ups, and so did I, and there seemed to be 

Slenty of water. There are two taps, and water 
owed ttom the top one. We then consider all 
Is right, and that there is plenty of water. A s soon 
as t had stopped the other engine I was going back 
to the deceased, and had my foot on the tlireshold 
when the explosion took place. 

Bv a Juror. The boiler had been out of repair. 
On Monday she leaked a tittle, and Mr. West's men 
had been in it They caulked the upper part of the 
tube, and said they thought they had made it 
secure. 

Mr. Joseph Stenson, engineer, sworn. Under 
the Coroner's order I have examined the boiler. 
On going into It I found the tube, in which the fire 
is made, flraetured and bent down along Its upper 
surfkce. It had evidently burst from the pressnio 
of the steam on its external circumference. The 
water appears to have been too low in the boiler, 
and the upper part of the tube bore indicaUons of 
having been overheated. The water must have 
been low to have ailmltted of that. The top 
part of the flue or tube has evidently been bare and 
red hot. Wblle in a rod-hot state the tube would 
be less able to bear the pressure of steam, and the 
consequence was a fracture equal to about half the 
diameter of the tube, the fhwture being in a line at 
right angles to the length of the tube. The point 
of fracture Is at the junction of the third and fimrth 
plates from the front, at that point meet eufejeet to 



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BOHSB BtPLOSKW AT VOBTHAMFTOM. 



aa liiteiiM hMt, b«lflff IntntdtaMly over tb* iMMk 
end of the ftiniece bars. The fracture Is ihoini la 
the drawiogt which I hive made for {llastraUon. 
[The drawingi were exhibited to the Jury, and ex- 
pleiaed wHk great aecuracy the nature of the In- 
jorr. Fig. 1 It a lonfitudlnal eeotloB of the 
boiler : fig. S a tranirerse section of it to the state 
In whldi it was befbre the expkMion ; and fig. S, 
a transrerse section after the explooloa. F the 
friraaee door, D the dead-i>1ate» the flre4«n from 
whieh, as Ihr as a, were t feet long; Hthe position 
of the man hole, and D the front of the safetj- 
▼alre.] Tbt lead plug was melted. The height of 
the water level Is nol what It should be, and the 
fimn of the boiler a dangerous one, unless the tube 
be of giaatsr thickness than it was in this case. I 



the plates too thlm ftr a tabs of such laiga 
under ordinary circumstances, and ex- 
tremely dangerous when bsre of water. The two 
gauge cocks are too near together to glre a oorreet 
Indication of the height of water. There should 
have been three : and I consider a glass water gaofs 
to be indiipeosabte to the taflsty of steam-boilers, 
and especially to boilers of this class. The Iroa Ia 
this tube should have been frOl half an Inch thick. 
Instead of ive-sixteenths, which it is. The Quality 
of the iron appears to be of fair average, rart of 
the tube appears to have been red-hot i and as a 
fruthsr proof of Its having been overheated, I have 
of the hemp and red lead which I fsund 



eaiUked into the Joints along the upper portion of 
■ - "^ • * ; ind tai * 



the tube. This hemp Is bumt i 



Kg. 1. 




Pig. 2. 




fig* 3. 




soate part of it was so burnt I could not carry It 
away. At all the joints I found hemp and red lead i 
showing that at some previous time the heller had 
been leuy, and repaired in a temporary way. It is 
the way which would be adopted to repair an Iniury 
of thiskind ; but it shows also that at some previous 
ttane the boUcr had been heated red-hot. I found 
the engine had been working at a pressure of 451be. 
OQ the square Inch. Thespuulleof the safety valve 
was net free la its action. Thle is important, be- 
cause it would give an undue pressure on the boiler. 
It was considerably corroded. The force of the 
steam had blown open and broken the frunDaoedoor, 
and had Mown away 18 inchee of brickwork at the 
other end of the tube. The force pump seems to 
have been in an iaefllcicnt state, and was under- 
going an examination by the supcnrintendent at the 
time of the accident. The defective state of the 
pump would aeeonat for the deficiency of water la 
theboUer. Suppoehig the boUertohave been filled 
at eleven, and no water snpaUed In the Interim, the 
. . ._. atlirthaexplosloaatfattr 

m alM tka 



ttmt (ten mtantes) during whfch the tngfae waa at 
work. 

Emanuel West, blacksmith, of Bridge-street, was 
employed bv Mr. Adnitt to repair Uie boiler on 
Monday ni^t. It leaked at two or three of tha 
jofaits, and he caulked It with red lead and hemp. 

Mr. Adnitt sworn. Deceased had the oumaM> 
moot of the engine nine years ; ever since It Emm 
been up. He had previous experience, and waa 
with Mr. Adkins previously. The boiler waa put 
in when the mill was erected. There haa navar 
been any accident with this boUer befoie. It waa 
quite new when I boo^ttt of Mr. Pafabafra, of 
Manchester. It wae teeted up to I SO lbs. on tlia 
square inch. Deceased had the superlatendeoaa 
of the mill and the engine. They were imder hia 
entire control. When the engine was put up glaaa 
tubes were used, but they buitt many times aa< 
deceased wae scalded in ooaseqaeaeei aad ib^ 
were then disused. I cannot aoootmt for the state- 
ment of Worsdell, that at four o'clock the watar 
iowed from tile top tap. 1 triad It ai tsa myaalt 
aadttthmdUlMt^Mfa. "7"«i^ 



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EXPEBnaVTAL TRIP. 



Mr. Stenion ta!d when the tube wu ezeeeelvely 
heated it might force the water out. if the Up were 
wide opeo, although the tube itself might be bare. 
He added, that he considered the force pump the 
primaiT cause of the accident. It was a new one, 
and of very imperfect workmanahlp. It would 
nerer work tUI it was greatly altered. 

Mr. Gaatineau, one of the superintendent engi- 
neers of the London and North Western Railway 
Company, aald the glasa gauge was much the saflsst. 
They had no trouble with them on the railway. 

The Coroner having summed up, observing that 
the incantion of the deceased himself was the pro- 
bable caose of the aoddent, a Verdtet of Aeeidental 
Death, cauMd by the explosion of the boiler from 
larailiciency of water, was returned. 



MR. BEhL'B PATENT BALLOON. 

The metropolitan public have been ra- 
eenUy fayoared with two ezhibitioni of thif 
balloon — a patent for which was taken oat 
NoTember 83, 1848, and tpeoifted in doe 
courte (see Meek. Mag., May 26, 1849). 
Aceordfaig to the newspaper acooonts of 
fliese ezhibitlonsi they prore that tlie in- 
fentor has Uie power of guiding his balloon, 
at win, in any direction he pleases. We 
SBVstgnard oar country readers against being 
deoeHed by these statements. Mr. Bell can 
do no such thing. — ^We were not present at 
hn first ascent, bat we witnessed his last ; 
and what we saw was this. We saw the 
balioon, which is of the shape of an enor- 
mous sausage, raised by the gas with which 
it was charged, to the height of aboat 1000 
feet, and then take a norUi-westeriy oowse, 
wiick WM the directum qf the wind at the 
time ; aaad which coarse it kept as long as 
it remainad in right. Instead, too, of passing 
endwise throagh the air— as it was CTidently 
intended to do from the shape giren to it^- 
it went hroadeide on with the wfiid. We saw 
some flappers at work from the basket— a 
taO, too, which wagged occasiooally— bat 
we did not pmeiTe, and do not beUere, that 
slth« flappers or taU exerted the slightest 
bdiaBnce on the floating mass to which they 
were attached. 

for anything, then, Mr. BeQ has done, 
or, we yWily beUere, is capable of doing by 
Us apparatos, the art of crostation is just 



suFSBioB ounirr pob botanical 

8PBCIMBNB. 

8fr,«-I Mad yo« a method which I hare 
adopted of fastMiiDg algao, ferns, and other 
bstanieal specimens on paper, and which 
■91, 1 tiunk, be accepted by many of yoar 
leieBtific readers as mach soperior to the 
plsas eoaaoBOnty in ose. It consists simply 
in layiag She specimen en the paper, and 
pmsing a oamsl-hair pencil, dipped in collo- 
fas* aofOBS the stem, when a colourless 
jiastant is prodvoed; tt^esior to gam in 



75 

this ren>ect, that it it not affected by mois* 
tare, and likewise in its drying almost in- 
sUnUneoasly. It will be found that a large 
quantity of collodium causes the paper to 
pucker in an unsightly manner ; bat this, 
and other minor details respecting the 
strength of the collodium, &c., a little prac. 
tioe will soon make manifbst. 
I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

OOTAYXUB CrAWFOBO. 

Scaibro*, June 17, 1850. 



AIB-TIOHT BULK*HBAD8« 

Sir,— In your Magazine of the 6th inst., 
a claim is set up for General Bentham as 
having been the first proposer of water- 
tight bulk-heads in the nary; this is not 
correct. It had been previously not only 
proposed to the Admiralty by Capt. Shank, 
but it had been adopted by the Bosrd ; and 
the TYiai was built in 1790, as will be seen 
by reference to " Steel's Elements of Naval 
Architecture," page 161. 

I am, Sir, yours respectfully, 



Ipswkb, July 18, 1850. 



• * 



THB BLBOTBIC LIGHT. 

We are glad to learn, from the Newcastle 
and Sunderland papers, that the recent ex- 
hibitions in the north by Mr. Staite have 
resulted in the adoption of his light by tlie 
Commissioners of the River Wear, as the 
means of permanently illuminating their 
South Pier Lighthouse. '< All the night exhi- 
bitions," say these papers, *' having been 
completely satlsfkctory, Mr. Staite deter- 
mined upou glting a mid-day exhibitidki 
from the top «f the above lighthouse. On 
Friday, the 7th of June, in the fhce of the 
sun-beam, the light burst forth at half-past 
three o'clock, with a magical and starUing 
effhlgence, casting palpable shadows in the 
face of the very orb of day. The most scep- 
tical must have been satisfied by this severe 
and unparalleled test ; and the impression 
left on the minds of the spectators was that 
of astonishment and delight." 



H.M.8. '* 1IB8PB&ATB.'' 

ThtDeeperate steam.sloop, tried down the 
rftrsr on Thursday last, was built at Pem- 
brokCf and fitted with engines, of 400-horse 
power, by MessrB.Maudslay, Sons, and Field. 
She made a number of experimental trips be- 
tween the Nore and Mouse Lights, to asoer« 
tain her speed snd test her machinery. The 
result of a series of four runs, at full power, 
Irofli light-ship to light-ship, gave a ; 



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ENGLISH SPEGIFIOATIOVS SNBOLLBD DUBIKO THE WEEK. 



speed of lOf knoti per hour through the 
water* with 38 rerolntioni of the engine per 
minnte. One pair of engines was then dis- 
oonnected, and the triab repeated, giving 
8*8 knots, and an engine speed of 38 revo- 
Intions as the rate when worlced at half 
power. The trials occupied nearly foarteea 
conseontiTe hours, during which the work- 
ing of the engines was amply tested, and 
prored highly satisfsetory. The hollers 
were worked at 8 lbs. pressure, and the 
barometers showed a steady Tacnnm of 27 
inches. The Testel was loaded to a mean 
draught of 14 feet 2 inches, and at the con- 
clusion of the experiments was left at Sheer- 
ness Dockyard to be made ready for sea. 



spioiriCATXONa or bnolisr patbnts 

BNROLLKD DUKINO THB WEXK, BMDINO 
JDLY 24, 1850. 

RoBBKT Babbbb, Chatham-place, Lock's 
Fields, Surrey, metal-melter. For certain 
improvements in artificial fueh and in ma* 
ehinerjf need /or manufacturing the eame. 
Patent dated January 17, 1850. 

1. Refuse tan bark is proposed to be 
moistened with water, and then trodden 
down under the feet of horses until it is 
reduced to a pulpy state ; after which it is 
to be compressed into the required form, 
sueh as bricks, &o,, in suitable dies or 
moulds, and dried. These bricks are to be 
placed in a basket of open work or wire, and 
dipped in rosin oil undl they are sufficiently 
saturated, when they are to be left to hang 
for some time to allow the surplus oil to 
drain off. 

2. The tan, in an unprepared state, is to 
be put with the requisite quantity of rosin 
into a copper heated externally until the 
rosin melts. The rosin and tan are then to 
be mixed together, and removed to be 
moulded into shape while in a plastic state. 

3. The surfaces of the dies or moulds 
which come in contact with the mixture are 
to be enamelled, to prevent its adherence 
thereto. 

Claime.^l, The mode of treating tan and 
rosin oil for the manufacture of artificial 
fuel. 

2. The employment of tan, in an unpre- 
pared state, with rosin, for the production 
of artificial fuel. 

3. The improTcment in machinery used 
in the manufacture of artificial fuel, which 
consists in enamelling the dies or moulds 
employed. 

[We included this in our last, among spe- 
cifications ** due but not enrolled." Such 
wss tbe literal fact ; the patent being dated 
the 17th of January, 185'f, and the specifica- 
tion due on the 17th of July last, on which 



day no sueh specification had been lodged. 
On the day after, howerer, the patentee did 
enrol the specification, of which the preceding 
is an extract ; and, in the Tain hope of resus- 
citating the lost patent by a false redtal, ha 
states in the preamble that the patent was 
dated on the 18th, and not on the 17th, its 
real date. We know not whether the iuTen- 
tion is of any value ; but if it be, ail the 
world is now free to use it.] 

Gborob Simpson, Buchanan - street, 
Olasgow, civil and mining engineer. Fbr a 
certain improvement or improvements in ike 
machinery, apparatus, or means of rmieinf, 
lowering, supporting, moving, or transport* 
ing heavg bodies. Patent dated January 19, 
1850. 

Mr. Simpson describes and claims — 

1. Various modifications of machinery in 
which the buoyancy of hollow vessels is ap- 
plied to the raising, supporting, moving, and 
transporting of heavy bodies — such as lifting 
canal boats from a lower to a higher levd, 
instead of by locks. When a heavy body is 
to be lowered, the buoyancy of the hollow 
vessel is to be gradually destroyed by admit- 
ting water into its interior. 

2. The application of compressed air as a 
support for ndlway turn-tables, &c. 

3. The employment of compressed air 
vessels to sustain swing or swivel bridges. 

4. Raising sunken ships by connecting 
them to vessels filled with water, and also 
sunk, into which air is to be forcibly in- 
jected, whereby the water will be expelled 
and the vessels rendered buoyant. 

Macobbgor Laird, Birkenhead, gen- 
tleman. For improvements In the construc- 
tion of metallic ships or vessels, and in ma- 
terials/or coating the bottoms ^iron ehipe 
or vessels, and in steering ships or vessels. 
Patent dated January 19, 1850. 

The patentee states, that in consequence 
of his not having had sufficient time to ma- 
ture the whole of his invention, he disclaims 
the latter portion of the title of his patent ; 
namely, that which we have here printed in 
italics. His improvements in " the con- 
struction of metallic ships " are as follows : 

1. The '' meUUic ships" are to be sheathed 
with corrugated plates, the corrugations of 
wbieh are parallel, and extend longitudinally 
from item to stem. The fore and aft plates 
have their corrugations of gradually-dimi- 
nishing sixe, so that the bows and stem are 
smooth. The pistes are riveted to the frame 
with the corrugations in tbe same right line, 
in order that they may appear to be the con- 
tinuations one of the other. The vessels are 
strengthened by having riveted to their in- 
side or outside a number of lu^ow iron 
frames bent into the required shape, which 
at the tame time inerease their buoyancy. 



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77 



2. n« ihlpt or boats are to be built in 
■ectiona, prorided with flangei , which allows 
of their being united together by screw bolts 
and nnta, wiUiout the necessity of employing 
skiUod labonr for this purpose. Tbe joints 
are to be rendered water-tight by interposing 
between the flanges, pieces of Talcsnised 
ladia-rabber. 

3. Tbe decks of iron ships are proposed 
to be eoTcred with asplialte. 

4. In order to enable our iron ships to 
earry oil, grain, or cargo in bnlk, Mr. Laird 
propoaea to constmct it with a longitudinal 
bnlkbead, extending from stem to stem, and 
in the same TerticaJ plane as the keel, and 
with seroral cross balk-heads. Tbe dlTlsions 
of the Teasel are made to commnnieate with 
one anotlier, and proTided with man-holes. 

Clmms, — 1. Constructing ships or ressels 
with cormgated metal and hollow iron 
frames. 

2. Conatmctlng metal ships or boats in 
•ections, to facilitate their being easily put 
together, and to form larger or smaller sizes 
na required. 

3. CoTcring with asphalte the decks of 
ahlpa, composed wholly or partly of metal. 

4. Construeting metal ships with longi- 
tndinsl and cross bulk-heads, to enable them 
to earry oil, grain, or cargo In bulk. 

WuxiAif Wood, Orer Darwen, Lanoa- 
abire, carpet manufacturer. For improve- 
wmU* in the wunufaeiwrt ^f earpett and 
other fairicB, Patent dated January 23, 
1850. 

The improvements which form the sub* 
Jeet of this patent relate ; firstly, to a mode 
of projecting wires into the shed, for the 
purpose of manufacturing piled fabrics; 
secondly, to a method of manufacturing 
terry and other piled fabrics, when the pile 
is produced from the weft. 

1. On one side of the loom there is a 
trough which is partially covered by a flat 
piece, having one of its edges turned up to 
form a curved back. A slot is cut in the 
bottom of the trough st one end, into wbieh 
a picker takes, which hss s smart forward 
motion given to it at certain interrsls, by 
means of levers acted on by a cam on the 
main shaft. The rods, which are made with 
a flat projecting piece at one end, are placed 
in Um trough, and successively thrown into 
tbe shed by the picker. The rods are pre- 
vented from going too far by the resistance 
of a buffer of leather, Indian rubber, or 
other elastic material, placed at the opposite 
side of the loom, against which they strike, 
and are prevented from rebounding by being 
slightly depressed when they leave the 
trough, through tbe action of a spring, so 
that the ends of the rods shall at the re- 



bound come in contact with a similar piece 
of Indian rubber placed below the opening 
of the trough. The trough it provided with 
curved guides, placed at regular distances 
apart, which serve to conduct tbe rods into 
the trough. As the weaTing proceeds, the 
rods are successively drawn out by means 
of hooks attached to a pitch chain made to 
rotate from the main snaft These hooks 
catch the flat ends of the rods, draw them 
out, and deposit them on a support, which 
transfers them to the guidea, and thence to 
the trough. To eut out the rods, they are 
made with longitudinal grooves, and a cutter 
is made to travel to and fro In them, where- 
by the pile will be cut. 

2. In weaving fabrics, such as f^tians, 
in which the pile is produced by the weft, 
the length of the pile is necessarily short 
and dependent on the distance apart of the 
warp threads. To remedy this diaadvsn- 
tage, tbe patentee coils one or more grains 
helically round the weft, so that when the 
pile is cut the length will depend upon the 
number of coils. Tbe fabric is woven in 
the ordinary manner, with the exception that 
a soft shoot is thrown in at the back. 

Cleimf.*-1. Tbe mode of weaving terry 
and other like fabrics, also the method of 
withdrawing and cutting out the rods. 

2. The use of helical weft in weaving pile 
fkbrics, in which the pile Is made from the 
weft ; also the employment of a soft shoot at 
the back. 

Waltur Wbsthup, Wapping, Middle- 
sex, miller and biscuit-baker. For improte* 
ffiffi/s in eleanmff and grinding com or grain, 
and in drmring meai or flour. Patent dated 
24th January. 1850. 

The patentee describes and daims, — 

1. An apparatus for separating the sound 
from broken grsin, and from extraneous 
matter, which consists of a revohriog cylin- 
der, slightly inclined out of the horisonfal 
plane, which is perforated with lines of ob- 
long snd circular holes, sufficiently large to 
allow the dust, broken grain, &e., to pass 
through, but not tbe whole grain. This 
eylinder is enclosed within an outer casing, 
and is keyed on a shaft driven from any 
suitable prime mover. The exterior peri, 
phery of the cylinder is provided with lon- 
gitudinal ribs, having Inclined projectors 
attached to them, which, as the perforated 
cylinder revolves, sweep the dust, &c, from 
the inside of the casing into a shoot, whence 
it escapes into a receptacle provided for it. 
The grain is in the first Instance lifted into 
tbe cylinder by tbe ordinary apparatus em- 
ployed for such purposes, and Issues from 
the revolving cylinder, after being sepa- 
rated from tbe defective grains, weeds, and 



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ENQLISH SP£CIFICATIONS ENBOLLED DUBIKO TBE WEEK. 



other extrtneoos matters on to an endless 
trareUiDg band that conducts to the smiit 
machine. 

2. The smut machine consists of a rerti- 
cal shaft which revolves within a casing and 
carries a namber of horizontal tables, 
placed at eqnal distances apart ; and between 
each two of these tables there are Tcrtical 
fuM. The casing has inside a number of 
ribs which are just underneath the edges of the 
tables, one to each, but so as to leave space 
enough for the passage of the grain between 
the sorftu^es. The shaft cairies at top a 
conical table, fluted, serrated, or roughened 
on its upper surface, on to which the grain 
is deposited by the endless traTclUng band. 
This conical table carries the grain under a 
set of brushe* which partially clean it and 
sweep it on to the first horizontal table. 
The horizontal tables, the fans, and ribs, 
are covered with thin iron plates, and the 
periphery of the cylinder is perforated like 
n nutmtt-grater, to produce roughened sur- 
Ikces. The centrifugal action of the shaft 
throws the grain against these surfaces, 
wherebv the smut will be partially rubbed 
oflT, and will escape through the proration 
in the cylinder ; after which the grain will 
IsU over the first table and pus between it 
and the first rib on to the second table, and 
io on throughout the series. During its pas- 
lage between the edges of the tables and 
the ribs, it will be subjected to a smart rub- 
bing. The grain, and such portions of the 
•mut or dust as have not escaped through the 
perforationi, is to be, when it arrives at 
the last of all, swept into a chamber, wherein 
it is submitted to the action of a strong 
current of air, which will have the effect of 
driving the smut, &c., into the air or a re- 
ceiver. The cleansed gndn is conducted 
on to an inclined sieve, the meshes whereof 
are of a size sufficimt to allow the smaller 
ones only to pass tiirough, while the larger 
ones will idide down into a separate recep- 
tacle. 

3. The improTcments in grinding, consist 
in employing two pairs of stones, placed one 
under the oUier, and mounting this runners, 
which are the lower ones, on the same hol- 
low vertical shaft. The grinding surfMses 
of tiie runners are made conical, like the 
frustum of a cone, and those of the fixed 
stones are curved to correspond. The fixed 
stones are supported in adjostable bearings, 
to allow of the space between them and the 
running stones being regulated as required. 
Between the two pairs of stones there is a 
vertical wire gauze cylinder, through which 
the vertical shaft passes. To this portion 
of the shaft there are attached several sets 
of bnuhet iriiioh keep in contact with the 



inside of the wire gauze cylinder, throu^ 
out their revolution with the shaft Tbe 
grain is sapplied to the first or top pair of 
stones, whereby a portion will be ground, 
and only partially so ; after whidi it is 
conducted to the cylinder, through the sides 
of which the meal will be driven by the 
action of the brushes. The partially eround 
grains are conducted to the second pair, 
where they will be completely pulverized. 
The object of thb arrangement is to prevent 
the flour which has been ground being sub- 
jected to the same process again, and conse- 
quently injured. The runners are made 
with hollows, which communicate witii the 
hollow shaft for the purpose of admitting 
air between the grinding surfaces. The sup- 
ply of grain to the stones Is regulated by 
means of a sliding pipe, attached to the 
shoot, which is moved up and down to in- 
crease or diminish the distance between it 
and a horizontal disc as required. The ver- 
tical shaft which carries the runners and the 
brushes is driven through the Intervention 
of toothed gearing from any prime mover. 

4. The flour-dressing ^iparatns consiits 
of a vertical cylinder with wire gauze or 
silk, through which passes a verticu revolv- 
ing shaft that carries a number of horizontal 
tables and brushes between each two of 
them. The brudies are kept In contact wiUi 
the inside of the cvlinder, and as the meal 
is supplied, they drive the flour through the 
sUk or wire sides, while the bran and ofial 
falls from the table until it is wholly separated 
from the flour — when it is swept into a shoot, 
whence it passes into a suitaUe receptacle. 

Ch&iztophik Niokblb, York - road, 
Lambeth, Surrey, gentleman. fbrl«!prove- 
mmt9 in ike wumufaetMre of woollm mid 
other fabrict. Patent dated Jan. 23, 1850. 

Mr. Nickels describes and claims,— 

1. The employment in weaving terry or 
piled fabrics of a number of hooked rods, 
in place of the ordinary wires used to 
form the loops, which are supported in the 
under part of a bar extending across the 
work. When Hie warp is raised, this bar is 
shogged forwards, so u to retain tiie waip 
threads on the hooks while tiie shed u 
lowered and the binding weft thrown ; after 
which the bar is shogged backwards to cause 
the hooks to take out of the loops, and be 
ready to repeat the operation. 

2. Instead of cutting the pile of terry 
and other like fabrics, it is proposed to 
obtain the same results by gnndhig of the 
top ; for this purpose it is subjected to the 
action of a cylinder having a rough-file sur- 
face or coating of emery, glass, or cutting 
grit, upon its periphery. A rapid rotary 

la communioatftd to the cylinder. 



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79 



3. Mr* Niekds girei an nndiiUtiiig 
•ppctnoMet mwihlfaig that of Brm u l i 
ei^eti, to piled fabrics, by paaiiiig to-and- 
fro npon ita lorfaoe a nuinber of edgaa 
pkced at certain diitances apart, and paral- 
lel to eaeb other. 

JoiiPH LoNO, jAMii LoMO, both of 
Little Tow«r-itre«l, London, mathematieal 
iaitrament-inakeri, and Riovaeo Pattin- 
mr, Nelaon-iqnare, Snrrej, angliieer. Jbr 

a«y fir Utirimg i^»t wkiek i» «2fe &p* 
pHMbli to viem and otk^r intiruminti and 
mnkhkfrjf for okt^Mmg jMieer. Patent 
4itedJannar7 84, 1860. 

[We ihaU gire a fell deaeriptlon of this 
iifentioB, win m^mna^^ in ov next] 



SpteifieatUmi Jhn, hut not BmnlUd. 

WuLiAM BiADON, jan.,TMmton, Somor- 
aet, gentlevan. Pbr layr eeea i fn/* im eon- 
MflHf mwQf er d^ eony e eft if aaieile, mid 
produeit qf eamiu»tim Jrom Uovm er 
grgiMt «*Mf in 9 $ m tH a H »^ reomt tmd refl- 
<iMeet. Patent dated Janoary 19, 1850* 

Aucuarn RnnrHUA, Leioeater*itraet, 
Laioeater-a<|nare, Middleaest ehenalit Jbr 
en imp rep0 m mt in j r r t forfaf aihjbi^ hM* 
eaikng jNnj^eaat , emi in ^ p mrmh m firJUim^ 
hi0 9iU md 9ik€r Hptidt^ PMent dited 
JannarjS4,18M. 



WBBXIiT UST OF DMICXt VOR AETIOUia OV VTILITT BIOISTUBD. 

Otfeeof No. In 
Bagtotn-th« R»- 
tkm. gtttor. Proprietors' Namei. AMmmoi. SuI^ecU of Dotif n. 

July 17 2380 Arthur Saxnntl Hobton Kew ^ m.» .m Contractiof and 

dubmL 

ChailM Ledger ».....-... Sheflteld^. .....^....m Table eatlery. 

jMsee Diaet «»m.~...« Biahop Weannoath.M.M ^ Denieitte mingii 

Isaee and Campbells... tt. Jamee't-etreet, Pall Mall, 

and n, Hifh-atieet, Chatkam Barraek, eeUefi, ai 
pertaMeftnnMuie. 
John SduflaU, of the \ 
irm ef Jookaa and 
Cbrktopher loho- 
fleU, and WBUam 
Barker, millwi1ght,iii 
the employ of the lald 

flf m •••««« •«»»a««»ee««ea«eea 

WlUlam Randel ^ Birmingham. 

Fianeola Jnles Ltrin 
Xlge^.*.*....*.......^-. Atthnr-atreet Weal, I^dan .^ Balta. 

Ana Bwnlngton ^,^^ jhalleehniy-ereacent, PlaUeeM. Beaating ■ppantaa. 



19 fsai 



St UH 



,Conibrook, Hutana, Man- 
^ Chester ^^ » 



2S85 

taae 



2S87 



pertaMa 

Vaoe plala and entteta 
' faapfag and < 

woods. 

. Hook and eye. 



WXBKLT L18T OF NBW XMOLIIH PATSNTa. 



Hauy Beaaemer, of Baxter-house, Old 8t. Pan- 
cns-road, Mlddleeex, civil engineer, for certain 
infieTementa in flgnring and oraamenttng sur- 
MS, and in the blocks, plates, roUen,tmp)ementa, 
sad ■arhtntry employed therein. July 22 ; six 



iiBMS Bradford, of Torquay, Deroaahlfe, Jew- 
sflsr, Jbr improTemeata ia loeka and other Men- 
isn. July 22; aixaontha. 

nomas WiUa, of Bow, Middlasaz. eei 
nr faaprorements in steank-asginea and ia i 
J^22; sfarmontha. 

ios^ Paxtoo. of Chatawerth, Derby, geetle- 
■ea, lor certain improTemente in roofti iiuy 22 ; 
riz months. 

Leonard Bower, of Birmingham, Warwick, 
■■nifsetnrer, and Thomas Fortune, of Harbome, 
BMbid, meahaaic, fm certain inqtrored machinery 
At manaftemriag aevews, bolls, rirets, and nails. 
ialytS: sfic aoiuha. 

Wimam Baetaon, d Briek-lane, St. Luke's, Mld- 
tetx, biise ftniiiilei, for improTemeata in water- 
rhiila, pamne, and eoeks. July 23 ; sin months. 

WQttim Sdwaid Newton, of Chaneery-lane, Mid- 
, ciril engineer, fbr improTeaants In ob- 



tilalBg, preparing, and applyiiig link and other 
v«liaa maiali, and In the ozidea tbaraof ; and In 



the application of sine, or ores containing the 
same, to the preparation or manufkcture of certain 
metals or a]l<^s of metals. July 23; six months. 
A communication. 

George Haaeldine, of Laot-streat, gonthwack, 
Surrey, carriage-builder, for improrementa in the 
construction of wagona* carta, and vans. July 
23: six months. 

Henry Constantino Jenniags, of Gieat T^er- 
street, London, practical cheinlst, for imprave- 
ments in rendering cauTai^ and other fbbrica and 
leather. water-prooL July 23; six months. 

WUIIam Edward Newtoa, of Chaneary-lane, 
Middlesex, civil en^eer, Cor inumvemante la ma- 
chinery for cutting files. July 23; slxmontha. A 
communication. 

George Dunbar, Esq., of Paris, for impeove»anla 
in suspending caniages. July 23; sixmootha. 

Langston Scott, of Moorgate-etreet, London, 
wine-merchant, for improvements in a mode or 
modes of preparing certain matters or sohetaneea 
to be used as pigments. July 24 ; six moncka. 

Charles William Bell, of Manchester, Laaaaster, 
for improvements in apparatus connected with 
wat e r e l oaets, dralne, and eesspools, and gas and 
alMiapa. Jnly 23 ; iln nmntha. 



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80 



LIST OF 8O0T0R FATBNTS FKOlf 22hD OF JVSE TO 22!fD OF JULY, 1850. 



wmUm Wood, of Over Darweo, LancMhlre, 
carpet manuflMtarer, for Improvementt in the ma- 
nuneture of carpeta and other Ikbriet. June Sf , 
alx monthi. 

Moaei Poole, gent., for inprorementt In machi* 
neiy for pandiing metalt, and in the conatruotioa 
of apringi for oaniagea and other ntea. June S8; 
aixmontha. 

Peter Armand Leeomte de Fontainemorean, of 
4, Sottth-etieet, FInalmrjr, Middlesex, for certain 
improTementa in the manufooture of lulphate of 
ioda, muriatic, and nitric adda. (Befaig a com- 
mnaication.) July 8 ; fix monthi. 

Thomas Dickson Botch, of Drumlamford^house, 
Xaq., for an impcored mode of manuiheturing aoqi. 
JuWS; six months. 

WHUam Cormack.60, King-street, Danston-road, 
Haggerstone. Middlesex, chemist, for certain im- 
pfovemenU in puriiytng gas, also applicable In 
obtaining or separating certain products or mate- 
lUb flrom gas, water, and other simtlar fluids. July 
10; four months. 

Robert Andrew Macfle, of Lirerpool, Lancaster, 
sngai-ieflner, for improrements in manaihcturing, 



refining, and preparing sugar, also ImproremeBta 
in maoufkcturing and treating animal charcoaL 
July 10; six months. 

Richard Roberts, of Manchester, Lancaster, en- 
gineer, for ImproTements in the manufoctaie of 
certain Textile fobrics. In Machinery for wea.riag 
plain, figured, and terry or looped fobrics, and in 
maehinery or maiatns for cutting TelTeta and 
other fobrics. July 18 ; four months. 

John Sterenson, of Roan-mtlls, Dungannon, Hax 
spinner, for certain improvements in machtaary for 
spinning flax and other subatancea. July 17 ; six 
months. 

James Thomson, of Glasgow, Lanark, drfi en- 
glneer, for improvements in hydraulic mafthlnwy 
and in steam engines. July 17 ; six months. 

Tempest Booth, of Ardwick, Lancaster, gum- 
manufMturer, for certain improremenu in the 
method of, and apparatus for, obtaining and apply- 
ing motive power. July 19; six months. 

Peter William Barlow, of Blackheath, Kent, eirfl 
engineer, and William Henry Barlow, of Doby, 
dvil engineer, for improvements in the pennaaent 
ways of Railways. July 28 ; six months. 



LMT OF nilBH FATBNT8 FROM 21tT OF 
Thomas Dickson Roteh, of DrumlamfordJiouse, 
Ayr, Esq., for improvemenU in separating various 
matters usually found in certain saccharine, saline, 
and Uqueotts snbstaocea, (Being a communication.) 
June 84. 

James Hard Hoby, of Blackheath, Kent, Esq., 
for certain improvements of parts of the permanent 
way of raOways, and in ahaping iron. July 15. 



JUNE, TO THB 19tH OF JULY, 1850. 

Francis Tongue RuflTord, of Presoott-house , Wor- 
cester, fire-brick manufocturer ; Isaac Marson, of 
Oradley, Worcester, Potter ; and John Fineh, of 
Pickard -street. City-road, Middlesex, manufacturer, 
for Improvementa in the manufacture of batlia and 
wash tnbs or wash vessels. Jolv 17. 

George Jackson, of Belfott, Ireland, flax spinner, 
for improvements in hackling machinery. July 17. 



£rrala In Mr, Bum^i Pap§r o» Perspeelies.— Last col. page 506, line 8, for <* error,** read *' errors :" ia 
B507,col,8,linel, ft>r "bcj^read '"*— "' ^ ^ '^ *■ 






... 'lie." TkeJigurtprinUdin Prop, 2t htUmgt to Prop, ^, omAtkmi 

8, to Prop, 2 ; in page 508, col. 1, line 8, the word " of" should be inserted aAer *' repreaenta- 

the word '* and" In line 45, should be omitted : in col. 8, line 17, for ** these," read " those," and 



in line 84, for " indistinctly," read *' indistinct." 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

Description of Mr. Berthon's Patent CUno- Trial of H.M.8. *< Desperate" ».^^^^^^ 75 

Gen. Sir Samuel Bentham .'.. 64 <»nrlng the week .-. 

On the Comparative Merits of Iron and Wood ^r^^ « Artificial Fuel — 76 

forShlp-Bmttding. By E. C. Tregelles, Esq., ?lTi"^ "ifc7ft£ S^T^ ^***"«« • — '• 

aB.-Hfcoiwli««#l) „.„.:. 66 J**5 MetaUteSliips 76 

Priaes Awarded by the Society of Arts at the w^^« Sf^f* "Xi"^'"ir"*':r'r '^ 

Annual Distribution of 1850 In Trade. 2S'?*P * — geaningft Grinding Grain 77 

Manufoctures, and Mechanics 69 Nickels .^....^ Woollen F«)rlcs.., ^ 78 

Spedflcatlon of Maedonald's Patent Improve- Longsand Pat- 

menu in Lubricating Machinery, and in tendon ......Steering Apparatus ........ 78 

Spring Carriages.— (iciM ea^ffviN;^*) 70 Specifications Due, but not Enrolled — 

^S^^^^SS^::::::::::-^^^^^ V, LtJaV-'SSJ-'^"*"'^- g 

IS!?P^?S*SSl*oL^£{!};^^^^^^^^^^ W WeeWy LU^of-rK.ign;Tf"Am^-i-^^^ ;• 

A^ht^nl^yiiH^'*"*'**®^^"'*" \l Weekly LUt of'En"giuii"pi7ou\*::::::i 70 

^;^h2. i^^J" ' If Monthly LUt of Scotch PatenU 1 80 

The Electric Light 7 5 Monthly List of Irish Patents ..IH. 80 

^^i?Si*^^^^'J;ir^"^,l!"t^*'''**'5*Jy'*^*»C""«®" Robertson, of No. 166. Pleetstreet. 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 



No. 1406.] 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 1850. [Prioe 3d:, Stemped, 4d. 
Edited by J. C. RobertMn, 186, Fleet-rtnet. 



MESSRS. LONG'S PATENT CURVILINEAL STEBRING APPARATUS, 
VICES, JACKS, ETC. 

fig. 1. 




Fig. 12. 




fOL. un 



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. 8i 

1CSI8K8* LOKa'l PATBKT OUKTILINSAL LSTBB STEBRINQ APPAEATUI, TICBS, 

jApiLf, pro,, (•pii ANTP, 9. f 9.) 

The " Cunrilineal Lever," which forms the master feature of all the iiiipro?ed 
instruments included within the scope of this patent, is a most ingenious though 
simple apnlieation of the spiral to purposes of le?erage, and one which oi^ raanj 
ohyious ad?antages. We eopy the fbUowing explanatory detaib from the specifi- 
eation of the patentees : — 

Our inTention in so far ti it regard* iRStrqip^nti §04 inachinery for itaering ships, con- 
sists in the adaptation thereto or embodiment therein of an improved system of lererage, 
whereby an uniform maximum of aselhl e^ect ipay be obtained from inch inttmmenta and 
machinery with as little drawback from slipping or reaction as may be. 

Fig. 1 is a perspectiTo view of a steering apparatus, constmctad according to this system. 
A. is the mdder head ; B, a horizontal cof^ped segment attached to A. ; C is a vertical wheel, 
such as is in ordinary use, which is mounted in a framework D i and E is what we call 
a " eurvilineal lever," which is attached to the wheel, and works into the cogs of the 
segment B. 

The peculiar sort of curve to be given to this lever, E, and the mode of practically pro- 
ducing it are shown separately in fig. 1*, fig. 8 'and fig. 3*. The first thing to be deter- 
mined is the extreme diameter to be given tp the ourvilineal lever, and that will depend on 
the width of the cogs of the segment B*» and of the ipaoes between them. Supposing 
the cogs to be 4 inobes wide, and the intermediate spaces also 4 Inches wide, or the distance 
firom centre to centre to be 8 inches, then the extreme diameter of the curvUineal lever 
should be twice that, or 16 inches, so that by one entire turn of the wheel, C, and con- 
sequently of the lever -plate P ( in either dhreotion), the cog|ed segment* B. will be 
moved round to the extent of 8 Uiohes, and fpur revolutions of the wheel will bring 
the rudder ftrom its centre to an angle of 45^, which is the extent of divergency generally 
required in steering* (If greater divergencv Is required this may be obtained by the addi- 
tion to the segment B of one or more additional cogs at each end)* The extreme diameter 
of the eurvlliaeal lever having been thus obtained, w next thing to be done is to strike a 
circle of that diameter and divide U^e eiroumference of the same Into any number of equal 
parts or segmeuts, as 16, 89, 64, &e. The greater the number of sections, the more 
minutely exact will be the curve produced i but (or all practical purposes sixteen will be 
found sufficient, as exemplified in fig. 1*. 

A spsce equal to the joint depth of the coga of tiie s^ment B, and of the lever B, 
which is to work mto them, is then to be marked off on the divisional lines. A, B, C, D, &c, 
and that space is subdivided transversely into as many equal parts (namely, sixteen,} as the 
circle may have been divided into, as is also exemplified in fig. 1. If then a line be drawn 
from the point A', in the circumference of the circle through these divisional lines succes- 
sively, and inclining continuously towards the centre, in such ratio as to intersect each line 
at one-sixteenth nart nearer to the centre than tiie intersection immediately preceding, the 
curve so obtained, will terminate at R, and represent the outer line to be given to the cur- 
vilineal lever £. But to find the different centres of the separate portions of the general 
curve A, R, belonging to each division, the workman must proceed as follows : — Let him 
draw from the point A a segment through the centre of the circle, fig. 1*, and then a 
similar segment from the point B ; the point where the two segments intersect one another 
will be the centre frosa which the portion of the general curve A, R, laying between A and 
B must be described. And so on throughout the sixteen (or any like number of) divisioni, 
the separate centres from which the successive portions of the curve A, R» are to be 
described, will be the points cf intersection of two Megments drawn through the centre of 
the circle, fig. 1*, from the p(dnts BC, CD, DE, &c. It it farther neoessaiy, io order thaf ~ 
the bever should have an equal and IhU bearing throughout on the cogs, with which it ind 
locks, that it ahould be bevelled at the sides, »nd increased in the depth, in a ratio con 
sponding exactly with that of the interior inclination of the line of cnrvature. Fig. : 
shows the bevel to be given both in the case of the cogi being taken up on the outside, an 
of their being taken on the in«ide of the curvilineat lever. The dark.^hAded part tt^vi 
sents the bevel required in the A>nner ease, and the dotted Unes that required in the Utto 
Fig. 3* is a sectional plan, illustrating the bearings of the cogs and lever in respect to i 
other. 

In all cases the centre of the curvilineal lever should be exactly ( 
wheel into which it works, when su^i wheel is placed horixonta"~ 



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Fig. 1*. 



7^ 



Fig. 15. 




84 THE UNITED BTATEd' MAIL 8TBAMEB "PACIFIO.*' 

b Tertioftl, then tlie top of the wheel and centre of the lever ihonld eoincide. To whitever 
■ngle the nidder is bron^t under theee olrcametances, by the action of the whed and lerer, 
it wilL remain fixed at that angle, and can only be moTed in eithw direction by a renewed 
applioatbn of the hand (or other power emplojed) to the iteering wheeL 

CfimHlintai Lever Vice, 
Pig. 9 exemplifies the application of the ennilineal lerer employed in the steering q>pa- 
ratttses, before described, to a Tice. A. is a slide plate of a T form in its cross section, 
whidi is made fast to a basement B. C'C are the two jaws of the Tice, the former of 
which is a fixture, and made in one piece with the slide-plate A, and the latter alidee on 
the top ridge of A.. D is a enrrilineal lever constructed on the principle before explained, 
which is attadied to a spindle centred in the back of the moTcable jaw and inclined 
to the slide-plate at an angle of about 20^ to 25^. £ is a handle by which the lever 
is turned. FF are a series of cogs afllxed to the upper surface of the top ridge of the 
slide-plate A., and bevelled like those of the cog wheel B, b^re described. According as the 
handle E is tomed to the right or left, the enrvilineal lever takes into or is withdrawn from 
the spaces between the cogs F F, and the moveable jaw C* is made thereby to advance 
towards or recede from the fixed jaw C . 

CfurvUinedt Doubie-aetkm Grab. 

Fig. 12 is a firont elevation ; fig. 13 a back elevation ; and fig. 14 an end view of a double- 
action crab or purchase constructed on the same principle (but which may be constructed 
with a single action only). A is a barrel round which the chain works as usual ; B^B' two 
vertical cog wheels which are affixed to the ends of the barrel ; D^D' curvHineal levers 
which work into the cog wheels B^B', and are attached to wheel frames C^C (for which 
solid plates may be substituted if preferred.) E'E' are pinions fixed behind the frames 
C^C, and on the same axes, both of which gear into a toothed whed F, mounted between 
the vertical cog wheels B^B*. G is a crank handle, which, being applied to the axis of F, 
actuates the enrvilineal levers, and through them the cog wheds B^B', which turn tiie 
windlass. 

OKm/meo/ J^fthag Jack. 

Fig. 15 exemplifies the application of the enrvilineal lever to the improvement of the 
common lifting jack ; A is the box ; B the slide plate or lift, which is provided on one side 
with teeth or cogs ; and C is the enrvilineal lever, which reste in an inclined recess made 
in the back of the box, and turns on a spindle e; D is a crank handle, by which the lever 
is turned, and caused to act on the cogs of the lift B. 

(The specification contains also exemplifications of the appUoation of the ourvilineal 
lever to spanners, ships' windlasses, cranes, &c.] 

Fhret. We daim the improvement in instmmente and machinery for steering ships, repre- 
sented in fig. 1, end the various modifications thereof exemplified ; that is to say, in so fiu' 
as regards the employment therein of the enrvilineal lever E, such lever being constructed 
according to figs. 1*, 2*, and 3*, and the directions hereinbefore given in relation thereto. 

Seeand. We daim the application of the said enrvilineal lever to vices and other madii- 
nery for obtaining power, as exemplified. 



THE UKITBD STATBi' MAIL 8TIAMBK " PACXPIO." 

New Totk, May S5th, 1850. 

To the Editor qf the London Meekaniee* Magazine. 

Sir, — I have determined to write you The New York and Liverpool U. S. 

an account of the steamer Pacific, be- Mail Line of Steamers, of which this 

lieving that the same will be acceptable forms one,* originated with £. E. Collins, 

to your numerous readers, coming, as Esq., now the agent of the Company. 

you know, from an unprejudiced source. With Mr. Collins also originated the 

The Pacific leaves here this day for general outline of the various peculiari- 

Liverpool, and is undoubtedly the finest ties of arrangement, the most oDvious of 

specimen of naval architecture and ma- 

rme engineering which has ever left • The tteamere belonging to this Une are the 

U.«»esbores; m .ucj. I commend her to ^^l^:^^*^^^'^\X$;^x^^ 
your notice ana lund regards. expzMtly for the American Gorermnenl aeivioa. 

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THB tJKITED STATES' XAIL STSAUEB *' PACI9I0." 



85 



wbich — for it strikes the eye of every 
beh<dder— is, the entire absence of bow- 
sprit and jib-boom. Her model was 
designed by Mr. Collins, and is the resalt 
of his extensive experience in that line 
of business, which he has successfully 
fdlowed f(Hr a number of years in this 
dty. She was built under his immediate 
inspection and directions, by Mr. Jacob 
Bell, the widely- celebrated ship-builder 
of New York. 

The Pacific rates at 3,100 tons, Ad* 
minify measurement On her spar deck 
she is 200 feet long; her breadth of 
beam is 45 feet, and length of hold 32 
feet. 

Mr. Collins was ably assisted by the 
seientific sl^U and persevering energy of 
one, whose premature death at the early 
itfe of Uiirty-one, has deprived him of 
the renown so justly his due, and his 
eoimtry of one of the most promising of 
her engineers— whose modest and unas- 
suming manners could not foil to endear 
him to all who had the pleasure of his 
acquaintance, as will, I am sure, be rea- 
dily acknowledged by those gentlemen 
whose establishments were visited by 
BIr. John Farron, when in England and 
Scotland, previous to entering upon his 
great undertaking. 

The boilers sre four in number, each 
22 feet long by 18 feet 8 inches wide, 
and 13 feet 4 inches high; they are 
divided into four compartments or boxes, 
whose aggregate widtn is 10 feet 8 inches. 
These boxes are filled with tubes placed 
in a vertical position, with the water in- 
side of them ; there are 34 of them in 
width and 37 in depth— making a total 
of 1258 tubes in each boiler ; the wing 
boxes contain each 8 tubes in width, 
4 feet 6 inches long, and the two middle 
boxes 9 tubes each in width, 5 feet long ; 
the water spaces between them are 6 
inches in the clear, and the outer water 
legs are 8 inches on the clear ; the tube- 
plates, top and bottom, are half an inch 
thick ; the rest of the boiler is of three- 
eighth of an inch iron, bolted every 
9 inches throughout the water spaces, 
and stayed throughout in the like sub- 
stantial manner at top and bottom, both 
of which are arched. 

At the back of the tube -chamber there 
is a hanging water bridge, and beyond 
that a damper plate, to contract the draft 
previous to entering the smoke pipe from 
pne angle of each boiler. There are two 



fiimaoes in each tube-chamber (making 
eight in each boiler), the one placed over 
the other ; the bottom grate is 7 feet and 
the top one 5 feet long, which gives an 
aggregate area of 512 feet of grate sur- 
face. There are no blowers, as the fuel 
intended to be consumed is bituminous : 
the grated have a water bridge at the 
back, but the top one stops short of the 
bottom one ; thus leaving a large space 
for up-take and the commingling of the 
heated air and gases — the general result 
of all which is a very complete and perfect 
combustion. This arrangement is due 
to the late En^neer- in- Chief of the 
Company (Mr. John Farron), and, al- 
though strongly opposed at first, has 
given the roost complete satisfaction. 
The patented water door of Mr. Isaac 
Ayres is attached to each of the 32 furna- 
ces of the 4 boilers ; and, to complete 
the description of the boilers and their 
economic arrangement, I must sdd the 
patented blow-off valve of Mr. Charles 
W. Copeland, the designer of the engines, 
and one of the firm of the Allaire Com- 
pany who built them. This blow-off is 
one of great importance to iron boilers, 
and consists simply of a check valve,, 
which is opened bv the operation of the 
check valve of the feed-water placed 
below it, so that every time the feed- 
water enters, any determined quantity 
of blow-off escapes, regulated by means 
of a screw to lengthen or shorten the 
bottom stem of tiie blow-off check- valve 
where it is struck by the top of the feed- 
water check valve at each ascent. 

The engines (two in number) are 
of the ordinary side-lever kind. The 
cylinders are 96 inches diameter, with a 
9 feet stroke of piston : instead of slide 
valves for the aidmission of steam into 
the cylinders, and providing for its 
escape into the condenser, there are 
double beat valves similar to some of 
those used on the Cornish engines. The 
largest of the steam ones is 17^ inches, 
and that of the exhaust 19i inches diame- 
ter. The great advantage of these valves 
consists in the ease with which they are 
worked, and consequent littie power that 
is expended in lifting them, as one man 
at each engine is found sufficient for the 
largest class. The valves are worked by 
the patented valves and changing gear of 
Mr. Robert L. Stevens, which is of a 
very simple construction, and by means 
of which 'the steam can be cut on at any 



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THE tJNlTED frtlM^* «AtL STEAmEB '* PACETIO.'* 



part of thfe stroke. The firamibg of the 
engines is of wrought iron, except the 
entablature, which is of cast iron as 
usual ; these parts are well stayed, hori- 
lontally, by diagonal stays of wrought 
iron. The entablature is also stayed to 
the top ahd bottom of the cylindei* — the 
former part of which is besides stayed 
bacic to the base, which relieves the joint 
at the bottom of the cylinder and sole- 
plate from a severe strain, often fatal to 
American steamers ; indeed, the framing 
generally is novel to them, and in no- 
uiing less than omitting both diagdnal 
stays together whene?er they intersect ; 
on the contrary, each one is allowed td 
act freely from end to end, as it should. 
The framing will appear light to English 
engineers, as also will the piston-rodt 
and bearings generally, considering ha t 
her engines are calculated to ha^e steam 
of 20 lbs. pressure; but American en- 
gineers have some peculiar notions in 
these matters, which at another time I 
may enter upon and defend. The side 
beams are of cast iron, and 23 feet 
6 inches between the centres. The con- 
necting-rods are 21 feet long from the 
end centre of the side-lever to the centre 
of the crank- pin. 

The paddle wheels are 85 hei diame- 
ter over the floats, and II feet 6 inches 
on the face ; there are 28 split paddleto 
to each wheel, 82 inches wide, and the 
dip is 8 feet 8 inches when her draught 
of water is 19 feet 7 inches. 

The main saloon and ladies' cabin aft, 
and the dining saloon forward of the 
engine-room and smoke pipe — ^but who 
shall describe them? Cast iron and 
wood I can get along with, but French 
Arabesque decoration (with the license 
of a few human figures), mirrors, Bro- 
eatelli marble uble slabe, Louis Qua- 
torze furniture, rosewood, satin wood, 
and other beautiful woods, gilt and brass 
ot'naments, embroidery, chairs, sofas, 
and carpets, damasks and veWets of the 
most gorgeous hues, lounges and set- 
tees, toilets of marble, panels superbly 
painted with the arms of every state in 
Europe, and those of England and Ame- 
rica on one side, and America and Eng- 
land on the other (properly quartered, I 
suppose,) produce the most gorfi^eous 
effect, and are perfectljr indescribable (at 
least by me). The ceiling is tinted in 
calamine, and variously enriched ; but 
Hew, if any, polychromes are introduced. 



The lower saloon is lighted through hXL 
lanterns, magnificently ornamentea with 
stained glass, which, reflected in the 
various mirrors, must be seen to be 
appreciated. The drapery of the state- 
rooms I will positively have nothing to 
do with ; it has already crazed half the 
ladies who have seen ft, and cost their 
husbands I don't know how many thou- 
sand dollars. The Company, and Mr. 
George Piatt, the designer of all this 
mischief have much to answer for. 

The Pacific, with hfer coal on boar^ 
drew 18 feet 6 inches of water on a level 
keel ; and so she left on her trial trip 
on the 20th, and returned on the 2l8t 
of this present month of May. She ran 
up the Bay of New York* from Fort 
Lafayette and Fort Gibson, a distance of 
seven English miles, in 88^ minutes, or at 
the rate of eleven miles per hour against 
a stiff head wind, ana a three milea 
ordinary current, increased by a freshet 
in the Hudson ; by the log she ran over 
14 knots with 14 revolutions of her 
wheels, carrying from 14 to 17 lbs. of 
steam, cutting off at somewhat less than 
|ialf stroke, and with the throttle valve 
but one-fourth to one-third open. 

Her speed through still water I calcu- 
late at one mile per hour for each revolu- 
tion of her wheels per minute, as the 
result of observation of her rate of going, 
and she was calculated to make 14 revo- 
lutions at the commencement and 18 at 
the end of her passage; and there is 
every reason to believe that she win 
accomplish this, as she has thus far at 
least Justified the expectations of ber 
enterprising owners. 

The cost of this magnificent steamer 
is about 115,500/. sterling. 

Her chief engineer is Mr. Jamea 
Thompson, who is ablv supported by 
six assistants, and is well worthy of the 
situation he occupies. Mr. Smith suc- 
ceeded the late Mr. John Farron as en- 
gineer-in-chief to the Company, and is 
uie worthy successor of a worthy man. 

Her commander is Ezra Nye, Esq.; 
of whom nothing more need be said, at 
least by me, as there are few transatlan- 
tic travellers who do not know him aa 
one of the most skilful navigators and 
gentlemanly men that ever commanded 
an American packet- ship or steamer — to 
whom, and his four able officers and his 
pliant crew, passengers, and ship, I bid 
God speed, as I must close tois long 



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epbde en ihe lefltes her pier to breast 
tne Atlantic wates, and do her meed to 
rob odt the lines of detnarkation which 
wnarate the people of the Old and New 
Worldg, and carry civilisation with trade 
and commerce — ner handmaids— to e?ery 
human being on the fkce of the earth ! 
T.A.E. 

BUOTAMT DOOK'OATBS. 

Iffjndleiotts artieles in newspapers are 
often prejndieial to the persons they are 
intended to t er?e, of which thepraise of 
the Keyfaam caisson, in the Timet of 
the 4th nit., affords an example * That 
article conreys the idea that Mr* Scamp 
his claimed as his inrention the giving 
hnoyancy to a caisson by means of air 
s<Dt a faie d In it; and also the pressing 
down of the stroctore hj a weight of 
water receWed into cisterns having 
▼dves in them, and farther, the giving 
perpendicular sides to the caisson — not 
sny one of which inventions can it be 
sopposed that Mr. Scamp himself would 
have smted as having originated with 
him. Mr. 8/s merit is thus likely to be 
doubted in regard to other particulars 
which really may have been his own 
eeaceptions — and though he has over- 
IvoiEed in the Keybam caisson some 
coilateral advantages obtainable from 
soch a piece of mechanism, neglect of 
them shonld rather be ascribed to others 
than lo him, since he ought to hate been 
fnmiibed with the desideraia to be pro- 
tided for faeilitatinff traffic on that im- 
portant part of the Boyal Dockyard^ the 
wharf faj the sea-side. 

On Mr. Scamp'a account it is much 
to be regretted that the writer of the 
article In the 2^iisist above referred to 
was not better acquainted than he 
appears to have been with the antece- 
d^t eaissons, since the caisson at Key- 
bam Is on the same principle as that 
devised by Sir Samuel Bentham, in the 
year 1798, for closing the entrance to 
the basin in Portsmou3i Dockyard, f and 

• This w« bare already pointed out.— see tmte 
p. 49.—Zx>. Meek. Mag. 

f •* Tke Nem Workt at Kepkom.^Fot some time 
yart a very faitemtiiiff and satisfootory series of ex- 
perimeiiU at this yard, to test the strength to other 
opabOities of the large wroutht iron caisson which 
km Jut been completed by Mestrs. William Fair- 
bain aaS Sons, of Manchester, for the south en- 
tzBsee to the new basin. As considerable noTelty 
MS gnat Sagenuity bava been arineed in the design 
«f this caisson, it may interest the scientific public 



8? 



since all the purposes attained by the 
Keyham caisson are effected in the same 
manner as in that at Portsmouth. 

The caisson at Keyham is described in 
the Times as ** a liuge hollow irott box 
of the form of the entrance to the lock, 
pcrffectly flat at the sides." "The 
lower part of this box Is formed into an 
air-chamber." *« The capacity of this 
air-chamber is so adiusted that when the 
caisson Is immersed in water, the con- 
fined air exerts a buoyancy a little in 
excess of the weight of the caisson ;" ** it 



to hare a short account of the principle of action, 
and of the nature of the test to which it has been 
subjected. It is only right, too, now that the suc- 
cess of the scheme is placed beyond donl)t, that due 
merit should be awarded to lU originator, Mr. Wil- 
liam Scamp, AsstsUnt Dhrector of Works to the 
Admiralty, who h«s realised a very important im- 
provement upon the ordinary form of vessel used 
for the purpose of closing the entrances to docks and 
basins. 

" The leading dimenslotts of the monster eaitton 
have already been given in this Journal. It is, in 
fact, a huge hollow iron box of the form of the 
entrance to the lock, perfectly flat at the sides, 
» feet 6 inches long at the top, only IS feet 
6 inches wide, and of the enormous depth or height 
of it feet. The lower part of this box il formed 
into an air-chamber, or what may be termed the 
lungs of the caisson, by a strong iron deck, which 
Is carried from side to side at a height of about 
12 i^et fhmi the bottom, and made perfectly air- 
tight The capacity of this air -chamber is so 
a^usted that when the caisson is immersed in 
water, the confined afr exerts a buoyancy a little in 
excess of the total weight of the caisson ; and as, by 
means of sluice valves, the water is allowed to enter 
the inside of the caisson, and fill It from the top 
deck of the air-chamber upwards to the level of tha 
water outside, whatever that may be, it follows that 
at any point of the tide, and with any depth of water 
greater than that which would fioat it, the caisson 
would swim a few Inches dear of the masonry. The 
total depth of the caisson is about 5 feet greater than 
the depth of the water at the entrance to the lock 
at high spring tMe, and this space is made avail- 
able ror the means employed for sinking and moving 
the caisson. A water-tight tank is formed in thia 
part of the caisson, capable of holding GO to 70 tons 
of water supplied to it from the water-main of the 
dockyard; and it depends upon the presence or 
absence of this quantity of water in the upper tank, 
whether the caisson remains firmly resting on the 
masonry, and closing completely the entrance to 
the lock, or floats a few Incnes clear of the floor, 
ready to be hauled by capstans Into the recess in 
the earthwork which has been prepared. 

" The ingenious manner In which lit. Scamp 
has availed himself of this buoyant principle con- 
stitutes the most meritorious featiue of his scheme, 
for the emissions of the small quantities of water 
in the top tank (which, by means of an ordinary 
valve placed in its bottom, is accomplished in about 
two minutes) has enabled him to dispense with the 
laborious and expensive process of pumping, which 
has to be resorted to in the case of the ordinary 
caisson every time a vessel passes to or from the 
lock. It may be stated, that had the ordinary cais- 
son been adopted at Keyham, the pumping would 
have required at each removal a force of from thirty 
to forty men for a space of two hours. In the pro- 
portioning of the parts of the caisson, the Aaml- 



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BUOTAHT DOOE-OATBS* 



follows thtt tt tny point of the tide, and 
with tny depth of water greater than 
that which would float in it, the caisson 
would swim a few inches clear of the 
masonry." 

A description of the Portsmouth cais- 
son appeared in No. 1317 of the Meeh. 
Mag.f where it is stated to ha?e been 
** built much in the form of a nayigable 
vessel;" that "at the height of 20 feet 
the vessel is covered with a deck." Thus 
buoyancy to a greater amount than 
necessary was given to the caisson, but 
by ballast any required degree of im- 
mersion was obtamed; usually it was 
kept " at an immersion of somewhat 
less than 20 feet, whereby as soon as 
there is 21 feet water at the entrance 
the dam will have risen one foot, which 
is sufficient to clear it out of the 
groove." 

Thus it is evident that the way in 
which buoyancy is given to the Keybam 
caisson is precisely the same as was first 
employed half a century ago, and still 
continues to be employed in the caisson 
for closing the basin in Portsmouth 
Dockyard. 

For sinking the caisson at Eeyham, 
again, the same expedient is resorted to 
that Sir Samuel devised for sinking the 
Portsmouth caisson. The Times says of 
that at Keyham, " A water - tight Unk 
is formed in this part of the caisson, 
capable of holding 60 or 70 tons of 
water, supplied to it ft-om the mains in 
the dockyard, and it depends on the 
presence or absence of this quantity of 
water in the upper unk whether the 
caisson remains resting firmly on the 



rally aTailed themselves of the experience of Mr. 
Fairbairo, of Manchester; and the result has proved 
that the caisson embodies within itself an amoant 
of strength adeqnate to resist withoat injury the 
most severe strains. In the course of the experi- 
ments the caissons had twice resisted, in the pre- 
sence of the CapUUn Superintendent, Lord John 
Hay, and all the Government Officers and Contrac- 
tors, the pressure on one side of a depth of water 
of not lesa than 36 feet inches. This brought 
upon the caisson the enormous strain of not less 
than 1,400 tons; and yet this deflection taken at 
the middle, and at a point when there were 76 feet 
5 inches clear between, the bearing was barely 
five-eighths of an inch. The ultimate resistance 
of which the caisson is capable, according to Mr. 
Faiibaim's calculation, is fully 7,000 tons. 

" It has been generally admiUed that Mr. Scamp's 
arrangement of ciUsson is a very marked improve* 
ment, and one which, ttom its simplicity of action 
and the quickness with whieh it can be worked, 
is likely to be very extensively adopted." 



masonry, and closing completely dio 
entrance to the look, or floats a few 
inches dear of the floor." In the Ports- 
mouth caisson this purpose was effected 
simply by allowing the tide to flow over 
the deck at the height above mentioned, 
but confined to the one side or to the 
other of the caisson by a longitudinal 
bulkh^ui, according as it was required to 
keep the water in or out of the basin ; 
and as Sir Samuel stated, '* what little 
addition of weight it will require to keep 
the vessel from rising out of the ffroove 
at the time of high water is to he ob- 
tained by letting water into one or more 
of the cisterns formed in the vessel 
immediatelv under the decks. This 
water would of itself run out of ^ 
cistern at the time of low water, even at 
neap tides, by means of the penstocks 
or valveSf as shown in the profite.'* Thus 
in the Portsmouth caisson provision was 
made for getting rid of this water by its 
own gravity through valves from the 
cisterns, in the same way that it is allowed 
to escape from the tanks in the caisson 
at Keyham ; how then can it be attri- 
buted to Mr. Scamp as a valuable inven- 
tion of his that he has been enabled *' to 
dispense with the laborious and expen- 
sive process of pumping ?*' It is fiirther 
said in the Times, that this operation 
'* has to be resorted to in the case of the 
ordinary caisson every time a vessel 
passes in or out of the lock. It may be 
stated that had the ordinary caisson been 
adopted at Keyham, the pumping would 
have required at each removal a force of 
from thirtv to forty men for a space of 
two hours. It is said, indeed, to be true 
that the old caissons for closing the 
basin at Sheemess did require fh>m 
thirty to forty men from one to two 
hours, and sometimes as many as sixty 
men; but it was in the avoidance oi 
need for pumping that Sir Samuel's 
caissons ditTered most from the caissons, 
or more appropriately as he denomi- 
nated them, *' Floating Dams,*' that had 
theretofore been constructed. 

He foresaw, however, that on a cer- 
tain occasion, though likely to be of very 
rare occurrence, it might be possible 
that pumping would have to be resorted 
to; namely, "if after the water has 
been let in to fill the cisterns, for the pur- 
pose of preventing the dam from floating 
sX the top of high water, it should be 



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BUOtANT DOCE-OATES. 



89 



required toopen the gate on t ntddenj 
tikt water In tMt case mtist be numped 
eui of the cisterns: thii however 
would be done in much less time, and 
with fewer men, than are now necessary 
to open the basin gates on every occasion.'* 
No provision seems to have been made 
in the Kejham caisson for floating it on 
any soeh emergency ; however, it is not 
liltelj often to occur, for Sir Samuel 
after thirteen years* experience of his 
eaisaon— and that during a time of war 
—was enabled to say, m his ofl&cial 
^StateoBent of Services, 1813,** of his 
floating dams, " this occasional buoy- 
ancy is effected without pumping water 
or unloading ballast.** 

It is spMLen of as a novelty in the 
Keyham caisson, that "it is perfectly 
ilat at the sides ; this, too, is an error— 
for Mr. Mitchell, the engineer of Sheer- 
neaa Dockyard, contriv^ a caisson for 
use there, the ^oa^ of which had per- 
fectly flat sides. Two caissons were de- 
vised by that gentleman, and carried into 
execution— -the one for closing the Grav- 
ing Dock at Sheemess, the other for 
ckeing the Great Basin. Both of 
these caiasons were on the buoyant prin- 
ciple, having air-chambers, as had those 
of Sir Samuel at Portsmouth, and as has 
now the Keyham caisson — the difference 
in ^ of them (independently of form and 
materiab) being some variation, more 
or less, in the arrangement of the pipes 
and valves. Mr. Mitchell's caisson for 
the Graving Dock was constructed of fir 
timber, and of a straight form, to suit that 
material, whereby a very considerable 
saving of expense was effected. Unfor- 
tunately, neither plan nor section of any 
of Sir Samuel's floating dams can be fur- 
nl^ed, though, besides the Great Basin 
at Portsmouth, he closed the Camber 
Docks there in the same manner. The 
originals of his drawings were sent to the 
Admiralty; his office copies of them 
were left at the Navy.office when his 
office was abolished, in 1812 ; the work- 
ing drawings, of course, were forwarded 
to Portsmouth, and some or other of 
these several plans, elevations, and sec- 
tions probably still remain in the office. 

The provision of a recess for drawing 
the Keyham caisson into it, appears to 
be a superfluous work, otherwise than 
that owing to the form of the caisson it 
might be liable to topple over in the 



water of the basin. Sir Samuel's caisson, 
on the contrary, being much of the form 
of navigable vessels, was, Wke them, 
easily hauled by a guy rope out of the 
way, either within the basin itself or out- 
side of it in the harbour, if more conve- 
nient, and this without the need of 
"capstans** to haul it into any " recess 
in earthwork,** as is necessary for the 
caisson at Keyham. 

That recess at Keyham can only have 
been constructed at a considerable ex- 
pense of money, and by a sacrifice of 
much convenience in carrying on the 

general business of the dockyard. The 
epth of water at Keyham is sUted to 
be, at high spring tides, 37 feet; the 
caisson is 82 feet long— its depth proba- 
bly about 40 feet ; the recess prepared to 
receive it must consequently be of that 
length and depth. Though it is said to 
be '* in the earthwork" yet it must be 
formed by perpendicular walb of ma-^ 
9onry^ and those walls capable of sup- 
porting a pressure eoual to the great 
difference between high and low-water 
spring tides; instead, therefore, of one 
and the same double-faced wall serving 
to sustain that pressure, both as a sea 
wall and as a basm wall, there must ne- 
cessarily be a yitmr- faced wall, each face 
of it havingi equally to resist that great 
pressure. But, considerable as must be 
the cost of such a wall, it is of little im- 
portance compared to the sacrifice of 
convenience occasioned by the formation 
of this recess ; it b, in fact, a great gulf 
cutting off communication along the quay 
even when the entrance to the basin is 
closed. Not so at PorUmouth ; Shr 
SamueFs floating dam is itself a bridge, 
on a level with and close fitdng to the 
piers which at each end of it form parts of 
the sea wall and quay ; — not only a bridge 
for foot.pas8engers, but for carts, wagons, 
and all the heaviest traffic of the yard ; 
and it becomes serviceable immediately 
on replacement of the dam. Direct pas- 
sage thus obtained along the sea wall 
afforded facilities to the business of that 
important part of the yard theretofore 
unattainable; and in time of war they 
were considered as amongst the most 
important advantages of his caisson. Now 
indeed, after five-and- thirty years of 
peace, it is not surprising that a most 
urgent part of the business of a royal 
dockyard should be forgotten, — namely, 



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TH£ TEREDO NAVAUS. 



the expediting of ihips while tt the 
wharves or jetticB. 

The Keyham caisson is doubtless 
strong enough to support a bridge upon 
it, and broad enough for general traffic. 
The abYss made hj the recess might be 
coyerea over when not in use ; and the 
late progress in engineering skill renders 
such a covering of easy accomplishment. 
That progress implies, however, a sim- 
plification of the means by which any 
given effect is obtained ; it seems ques- 
tionable whether simplicity, any more 
than diminution of expense, has been 
attained by the Keyham caisson in those 
particulars where it deoarts from the 
examples afibrded by tne caissons at 
Portsmouth. 

The last observation is not, however, 
intended as applicable to the material of 
which the Keyham caisson is formed; 
iron for such a purpose is now both 
cheaper and more durable than wood, 
though the wooden caisson at Portsmouth 
lasted five-and-forty years, without hav- 
hig received any other than petty repairs, 
and, probably, at little cost, might have 
done its duty for some years longer. 

It would seem that the Iron caisson at 
Keyham has been made unnecessarily 
strong; it is capable of bearing a resist- 
ance of fully 7,000 tons, but the pressure 
on one side of it, at a depth of water of 
36 feet 6 inches, is stated to have been 
equal to only 1,400 tons. Supposing, 
for security sake, that a double degree of 
strain had been provided for, this would 
have amounted to 2,800 tons, which, 
considering that the caisson will never be 
exposed to the jarrings and vibrations to 
which a railroad bridge is subjected, 
might be deemed sufficient ; if so, super- 
fluous strength has been provided equal 
to the resistance of a strain of 4,200 tons. 
There is no other harm in extra strength 
than the cost which it occasions, and wis 
In dockyard works is little thought of, 
any more than is ever brought to account 
the interest which the public have to pay 
on all capital sunk for works in navu 
arsenals. M.S.B. 

THB TBBBDO NATALIS. 

Sir, — In your Magazine of last week 
I noticed a small paragraph on the pre J 
vention of ihe ravages of the Tered^ 
Navalis by the impregnation of timbe 
with common oil (tbe experiments were 
made by desire of Sir Samuel Bentham) ; 



closing with the remark, *' might it not 
be worth while repeating Sir aamuel't 
experiments by impregnating wood with 
different kinds of low-pricedoils f ** ^ 
Perhaps a few remarks concerning thla 
minute, but never-tiring insect, and th# 
means tried, and now in use to preserve 
the timbers of bridges, piers, and also 
railway sleepers firom its derasUtiiMr 
effects may tend to enlighten ** M, S. B.,'^ 
and not prove uninteresting to many 
readers of your valuable Magazine. 

The Teredo has been examined by 
chemists, and traces of vegetable matter 
have been found in its intestines. Phy- 
siologists have also detected woody llfalre 
by means of the microscope ) so there Is 
no doubt that it lives by gnawing and 
eating the timber ; Its ravages when U 
has once entered a pile tire exceedingly 
rapid, and never stop till it has been so 
bored through, as to be totally useless ; 
this it has accomplished in a few mootfas. 
It is classed bv physiologists at the zero 
of cold bloodea animals ; and as the cold- 
est blooded animals are the most tena- 
cious of life, tbe drug which would be 
sufficient to kill a human being, or even 
a froff, would have little or no effect 
upon it. It therefore seems that the 
most virulent poison is necessary to af- 
fect the sense or cause the death of this 
little, but formerly mighty obstacle to 
enflnneering skill. 

Pitch, tar, sulphur, and nearly all 
chemical matters which are known to be 
obnoxious to animals, or to destrov life, 
have been tried; but have all railed. 
This is to be attributed to one of two 
reasons— either that the salt-water nega- 
tives the poison, or that the poison does 
not personally a£^t the worm ; besides 
tbe sea contains so many different che> 
mical ingredients, according to the rocks, 
salts ana vegetable matters which may 
exist at any particular spots, so that 
those chemioais which might possibly 
answer well at Woolwich ot Plymouth, 
might be entirely nullified at Calcutta or 
Sydney, and vice versd. 

Mecnanical means have also been used ; 
copper sheathing was tried, but the 
teredo entered between the joints, and it 
would be almost impracticable (even 
putting the expense aside), to lay the 
plates so closely as to prevent their en- 
trance ; besides, a blow or strain would 
cause the joints to give at once. Broad- 
headed nails have also been tried, and 



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THB TEBBDO NAVALIS. 



91 



thej toeeeeded ; for although they were 
not drhroB eloteljr together, the stlt- 
water and iron formed an impenetrahle 
ooat of nut to the inaect : but this woaM 
not do on a large leale, for if the rnst 
were rubbed off from any eaote, or one 
or two oaila were not eiaetly in their 
placet, tlM pile would be dettroyed. 

Painc^a prooeaa eonsitta in soaking the 
timber ftrst in one solution and then in 
another ; the two solutions having pene- 
trated between the fibres and into the 
interstieea, form a hard and impervious 
crystallized mass. The total failure of 
Paine*s process, at Fleetwood, is to be 
attributed to the fact, that the contrac- 
tor's time having nearly expired, the 
piles were driven in too soon after satu- 
ralion ; someof them were actually warm ; 
and eonaaqueatly, before the watery mat- 
ter had tinae to evaporate and alUm the 
•ryatalliflUion to take place, the rush of 
tho tkb waahed te particles held in 
aolotiaQ away. 

CreoeoCe or oil of tar has been, and 
is dmost universally, used by engineers 
and builders for the preservation of the 
timber piles and supports of bridges and 
piers, and for r^lway sleepers. It is 
obvious that great care must be taken 
that every crack or crevice in the 
surface of the wood is thoroughly 
BMurated, and, in order that no part 
may escape saturation, the following 
pkM is adopted :— One gallon of oil of tar 
m ncciassirj pnr nahir foot for bridges 
and piers; the ptessore employed to 
force it into the pores of the wood is 
•boot 156 lbs. to the square inch ; each 
pile ia weighed before it goes faito the 
tank, and if when it oomes out its 
weight has not increased 10 lbs. per 
eobTc foot, it is put back into the Unk 
again. The cost of saturation is as near 
as possible 6d. per cubic foot; the satu- 
ration for railway sleepers is a little less 
—about 8 lbs. of oil of ur, and 5d. the 
coat per cubic £»ot. The timber should 
of eourse be saturated accerdins to the 
aaaooBt of wear and tear it is ukelv to 
asiflSef gans raliy ftrem 2 to3 inobes deep 
is aoflkieol ; aa fiur as the teredo is eon* 
eemed, dbcy would not attempt to bore 
a there were only a thin outside coat- 
ing put on ; but the saturation of 2 or 3 
inehes deep is necessary, in ease of any 
ptaoe being rubbed or chipped off. 

Several specimens of timber said to 



have been saturated with creosote, but 
perforated by the wortt,have been brooght 
from different places, but on full in- 

auUies being made, and on examining 
le piles from which they were out, n 
appeared that in one case a piece had 
been sawn from a pile several inchea 
thiek for the purpose of fixing a stay, 
and of eourse tne neart of the ^le being 
exposed the teredo entered some time 
after the sample was cot ; while in not 
a few cases the specimens have been cut 
from guide piles accidentally left, and 
which of course were never saturated. 

The only drawback to using this solu- 
tion for railway bridges is its highly 
inflammable nature. The burning w 
the bridge over the Uak will be frerti in 
the memory of moat of yeor readers ; 
this was impregnated with oil of tar, and 
some workmen boring boles with recUhoi 
irons the bridge took fire, and so rapid waP 
ita progress, that before any asristanee 
could be obtained, the whole bridge was 
in flames fk'om one end to the other, and 
was ultimately burnt down. From the 
fact that this was a total loss to an in- 
surance-office in London, and also that 
they have no data or eaperienee in thia 
kind of risk to enable them to fix a per 
centage, many of the offices refuse to la* 
sure railway bridges impregnated with the 
same stuff u the Usk one, at aay priee^ 
even should Mr. Phillipa Uve en the 
spot with tlie same annihilalers aa he used 
at Woolwich. Whether thfo can be con- 
sidered of any vital Importance or not, 
engineers are tboron^nly aware now, 
that timber properly impregnated with 
oil of tar is quite impervious to the 
boring of the teredo navalis, for in no 
one instance has it failed, but, on the 
contrary, when piles impregnated with 
other solutions liave been completely 
eaten awav, the piles impregnated with 
the oil of tar drivea alongside have 
been examined and feand to be aa free 
from the teredo navalla aa when fiiaft 
pmtdown. 

I am, Sir, 
Tour most obedletit servant, 
T. P. J. 

city, July 26, I860. 



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92 

TBB ** HTBBO-CABBONy" OR RB8IN AND WATBR OAS.^BZT&AOSDINABT IXPOtURX. 

CFrom a Paper by .Dr. A. Fjt; Profetior of Chemistry, King's College, Aberdeen, In the Jornnat 
of Got Ughting, No. 0, for 10th July.*] 



It if well known that when water ii paned 
OTtr Iron at a red heat, ezoladed from air, 
it la decomposed ; oxide of iron it formed, 
and hydrogen gas is erolted, the parity of 
whldi depoidson the kind of iron employed. 
Were the iron clean and pure, then pure 
hydrogen wonld be the resnlt ; bat this very 
sudom occars in practice, becaase, not only 
does the iron contain foreign ingredients, 
bnt it is soiled also by the hands and tools 
of the workmen in the factory from which it 
Is procared, in the state of filings or tam- 
ings. Hence it is that the spedfic gravity 
of the gas which it yields is considerably be- 
yond that of pore hydrogen, and the appear- 
ance of the flame is diiferent. The light 
afforded is extremely feint. 

When water is passed over carbon, either 
as coke or charcoal, at a red heat, and ex- 
daded from air, decomposition ensaes, and 
a gaseons flaid escapes, with regard to tb» 
natare of which different opinions hafc 
existed. It was at one time sapposed to be, 
and indeed in works on chemistry it has been 
described, as a mixtare of a Tariety of gases, 
the prindpal of which is light hydro-carbon, 
better known as marsh gat, eoai-mmM gat, 
and /Sre-donip. More recently-performed 
experiments, howerer, hsTC proTed that it 
does not contain hydro-carbon, or at most 
bat a trifling qaantity of it. In a paper 
pablished by me in the '* Edinburgh Philo- 
sophical Journal,'' Joly, 1837, it is shown 
that the gas produced by this process is a 
mixtare of hydrogen, carbonic oxide, and 
carbonic add, the proportions Tarybg ac- 
cording to the heat and other circamttances. 
In these trials I found that the carbonic add 
was about 18 per cent. After remoTing it, 
the remainder was of specific graWty 470, 
and consisted of a mixture of hydrogen and 
carbonic oxide, in about equal proportions. 
By combustion it yielded «arbonic add and 
water, the light afforded being extremely 
feeble. As the gas, after the removal of the 
carbonic acid, was of spedfic grsTity 470, it 
must haTO been, before Its remoTsl, of spe- 
cific grsTlty about 660. 

Allowing the correctness of the results 
now stated, it is CTldent, that when water is 
brought Into contact with iron and carbon 
at a red heat, in the same yessel, the gas 
evoWed will be dther hydrogen alone, pro- 
Tided the whole of the oxygen unites with 
the Iron ; or It will be a mixture of hydro- 
gen, carbonic oxide, and carbonic acid ; the 
proportions yarying according to the surface 

• Barlow. 82, Bueklersbary. 



of carbon and iron exposed, and to tiie fed- 
lity with which the vapour of the water It 
brought Into contact with the one or ^ 
other. Of course the spedfic gravity wHI 
alto vary according to droamttaaces. I 
have already sdd that both carbonic oxide 
and hydrogen bum with a very feeble flame 
and give very little light. The appearance 
of the flame of the mixed gases will, of 
course, vary according to the proportiflnaB. 

The following experiment was made, with 
the view of asoertainbg the illuminating 
power of the gas prepared from water by tiie 
process recommended by Mr. White, though 
not exactly with the same arrangement. 
The retort used was stuffed with charcoal 
and scrap iron, which were brought to the 
proper temperature after the door of the 
retort was secured. Water was then allowed 
to flow in, the supply being regulated by a 
stopcock. The gas given off was meatared 
in the usual way. From 7ilbs. of water 59i 
cubic feet of gas were evolved, the spedfic 
gravity of which was 574. By lime water 
the condensation amounted to 16*5 per cent. 
Indicating, therefbre, that quantity of car* 
bonic acid ; that is, about one- sixth of its 
volume. Had the specific gravity been 
taken after abstracting the carbonic add, it 
would have been found to be very nearly the 
same as that formerly mentioned, that Is, 
between 470 and 500. The gas burned wiUi 
a very feeble bluish flame, yielding carbonic 
acid and water. With a flame 5 inchee long 
from a jet with an aperture of l-33rd of an 
inch, the consumption was 1 foot in 32 min. 
30 sec. ; that is, 1*84 foot per hour. 

The next set of experiments waa made on 
resin, with the view of ascertaining the 
qaantity and quality of the gas which it 
sffords, by decompodtion at different de- 
grees of heat. The resin was mdted cau- 
tiously, and poured into the reservohr con- 
nected with the r^rt, previously brought 
to the same heat as that requisite for 
the manufiM^ture of coal gas. By a pro- 
per contrivance it was kept warm and tulfi- 
dently fluid to enable it to floweaaily. 6 Iba. 
2oz8. yielded 61 feet of gas ; that Is, verj 
nearly 10 feet from the pound. The gaa waa 
of spedfic gravity 640. Lime water Indi- 
cated 10 per cent, of carbonic add. With 
a jet l-33rd of an inch in diameter, and e 
5-inch flame, the durability was 50 min. ; 
that is, 1*2 feet per hour. By the photo- 
meter the jet gave the light of 2*2 caadlea 
per foot. The Argand with 56 holes, con- 
suming 5 feet per hour, (pve the light of 2*45 
candles per foot, 



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9t 



lUi gaii being of ipeoiAo grayitj 640, a 
Mbie fbot woald weigh 343 gn. The gis, 
therefore, in all, weighed nearly 3 Ibt . ; eon- 
eeqneatlj upwardi of one-half of the resin 
employed waa waited by the depodt of car- 
boo hi the retort, and by the diatUlation of 
fcdatOooiL 

• • • • • 

I oome now to oonalder the qnaUty of the 
water-resfai gai, or, aa it is very improperly 
called, the hydrocubon gas, and ita Talne 
for the pvrposes of illandnation. This gas 
is generated by the decomposition of water 
and of resin In separate retorts ; the former 
befaig decomposed by heat, the latter by 
heat with the aid of carbon and of iron. 
The gaa thns produced is merely a miztnre 
of resin gas--^at is of a gas resembling 
coal gas in its composition — and of hydro- 
gCB, with Tariable proportions of carbonic 
oxide and carbonic add, according as the 
water is decomposed. I regret that I can- 
not give the resnlts of the mannfkotvre of 
the gaa by the apparatns erected under the 
snpaintendence of Mr. White, as I fhlly 
expected to haTC been able to do. In 
the diflerent attempts which I made to 
ascertain the quality of the gas msnufac- 
torad by that apparatus, several drenm. 
stances occu n ed to pre? ent me flrom arriTing 
at tiie tmtii. In the first trial I found the 
gas of Ugh illuminating power, M U ires 
mfUTW€rdM aeirtained thai iallow wa$ 
mdxed wiik ik€ ntin; in what proportion I 
did not hear. At my next ^isit the gaa 
waa nmde by naing both retorts, employing 
resfaa for the one, and water for the other ; 
bnt it was afterwards discoTcred that ike 
wmUr retort wet not in action^ eonse- 
qnently the gas collected was entirely that 
from the decomposed resin, or a mixture of 
resin and tallow. 

I do not, howerer, consider this of great 
co ns equence. I have ascertained the quality 
of resin gas, of gas from mixture of resin 
and tallow, and of water gas, s^aratefy, 
and as these, by Mr. White's process, are 
generated in separate retorts, we mutt con- 
sider the gaa thrown into the gasometer to 
be Bierely a mixture of those mentioned in 
variable proportions, according to the pro- 
portions of the artides employed in their 
manufacture, and the rapidity with which 
the one and the other is decomposed. We 
esn thns arrive at the quality of the hydro- 
carbon gas, as it is cdled, and its conic- 
qucnt expense for the purposes of illumin- 
ation, as compared with other sources of 
Ughts as, for instauce, with coal gat. 

At resin is composed of C. 10, H. 7, O. 
1, the utmost that it can yield of olifiant is 
49 ; of light hydrocarbon, about 28 from 
7Sof resin ; that is, about 64 per cent of 



the former, and about 37 per cent, of the 
latter. But resfai never yields oUflant only ; 
independent of carbonic add and oxide, tiie 
gas is a mixture of olifiant and of light by- 
drocarbon, with perhaps a slight admixture 
of uncombined hydrogen. The gas, when 
it contains about 6 per cent, of carbonic 
add, varies hi specific gravity from about 
570 to 660. I have never found the con- 
densation by chlorine to exceed 8 per cent., 
thus making the composition to correspond 
with the specific gravity ; for a gas oom- 
posed of 8 of olifiant and 92 of Ught hy- 
drocarbon would be of spedfic gravity a 
Uttle above 600. I have no doubt that 
resin gas, when frto from carbonic add, 
will be found to be of about that specific 
gravity. I have stated the specific gravity of 
the water gas, as generated by Mr. White'a 
process, to be about 574. Suppodng that 
it is mixed with an equid volume of reshi 
gas, then the spedfic gravity ought to be 
about 580, or somewhere between that and 
600 ; that is, presuming the absence of oar- 
bonic add. Suppotbg the per centage 
of carbonic add to be about 6, then the 
specific gravity would be about 680. 

I must confess that I am at a loss how to 
reconcile this with the very remarkable 
sUtement made by Mr. White, that the gas 
manufactured from reHn and water is of 
spedfic grarity 924, and contains 12i per 
cent, of olifiant. A gas having 124 P^ 
cent, of olifiant, the remainder being water 
gas or light hydrocarbon, would not exceed 
650 in specific grarity. His gas, therefore, 
must dther have contained much more oU- 
fiant— indeed, have been composed almost 
entirdyof olifiant-— or must have had a very 
large admixture of carbonic add or carbonic 
oxide. Resin gas did not in my trials ex- 
hibit beyond 8 per cent of olifiant The 
high spedfic gravity of his gas must, there- 
fore, have been occasioned by csrbonic add 
or carbonic oxide, perhaps by both ; the 
latter of which is valnlest for the purpose 
of illumination, and the former detri- 
mental. 

With regard to the illuminating power. 
I have never been able to manufacture gas 
from retin alone with more than 8 per cent 
of olifiant Mr. White states that, by his 
improved process, he gets the gas from reein 
and water with 12^ per cent of olifiant. 
How is it pouible that, by the addition of 
resin gas to another gas of lower spedfic 
gravity and illuminating power, he gets a 
gas of higher illuminating power and greater 
gravity ? To me it is a puzzle. 

That there is a large admixture of car- 
bonic add in Mr. White's gas, when he 
takes the specific grarity, appears certain. 
He layi that now there is bat little carbona- 



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BETGLIBH SPBCIFICATtOKS SKfiOUJd) DtTfilKd ISB WSBE. 



ceoas deposit in the retort, owinc to the 
pecaliar mode of arrangemeiit ado admis- 
sion of the hjdrogen and carbonio oxide. 
Now, as by the manner of decomposing the 
water, oxide of iron is formed in the retort, 
it is erident that the whole of the oygea of 
the water is not conferted to carbonio 
oxide by its onion with carbon ; the specifio 
grarity of the gas, therefore, which is OTolved 
Arom the water ought to be below 522, 
which is that of a mixture of equal Tolnmes 
of carbonic oxide and hydrogen ; but, sup- 
pose that it is not much mIow tiiat, and 
that no carbonic acid is present, then to get 
from resin and water a gas of spec&o 
gravity 924, containing olifiant, with the 
residue composed of equal Tolumes of hr- 
drogen and carbonic oxide, which it should 
be were aU the oxygen disengaged as car- 
bonic oxide, there ought to be about 87 per 
cent, of olifiant. Supposing that Mr. 
White's gas was a mixture of olifiant, car- 
bonic acid, and water gas, which contains 
equal Tolumes of carbonic oxide and hy- 
drogen, that the water gas is about 522 
specific grsTity, and that the olifiant was 
12^ per cent., then, to hate it of the specific 
grayity 924, it should be about 12*5 olifiant, 
52 water gas, and 35 carbonic add. Were 
the carbonic acid remOTed from this gas the 
specific gravity would then be a little above 
600, most probably the real specific gravity 
of the if^ammable gas obtained from resin 
and water together. 

With regard to the illuminating power of 
the water resin gas, Mr. White has stated 
that ** it is 26*5 per cent, superior to Man- 
chester cannel gas, and 20*5 per cent, to 
the Salford cannel gas." . . . 

By the chlorine test, independent of du- 
rability, the illuminating power of Mr. 
White's gas, containing 12'5 of olifiant, 
ought to be fi4 per cent., instead of 26'5 
and 20*5, beyond that of the coal gases he 
mentions. Of course, if we take durability 
also into account, the value should be 
greatly beyond that. 

The specific gravity of the Manchester 
gas at the time I tried it was 451. The 
durabilities, with the same burner, are as 
the square roots of the specific gravities. 
Taking durability into account also, the 
illuminating power of Mr. White's gas 
ought to be at least 90 per cent, greater 
than that of the Manchester gas. 

It is evident from this, either that Mr. 
White's gas must be one tui generis , or that 
there is some strange inaccuracy in the 
mode of ascertaining the quantity, and of 
testing its qualities. Can it be that the 
quantity of gas evolved, say 10,000 feet, of 
specific gravity 924, from 6 cwt. of resin 
and 24 galloos of water, and which I have 



said b a mixture of olifiant* lighi hydA>- 
oarbon, carbonic add, and carbonic oxide, 
with perhaps a little hydrogen, was the 
quantity indicated by tiie meter, immedi- 
ately after the sas escaped from the retort, 
and was then of the spedfic gravity stated, 
and that, after it had stood over water in 
the gasholder for some time, and by whieh 
it would lose its carbonic add, it them con- 
tained 12*5 of olifiant ? If so, the quantity 
of gas valuable for the purpose of illumina- 
tion must, by the abstraction of oarbonie 
acid, be far below what Mr. White states. 
Be that as it may, till Mr. White describes 
more minutdy than he has done, his method 
for finding the quantilj and quality of his 
gas, I must adhere to the condusions which 
the trials I have now recorded warrant ; viz., 
that the quantity and quality of gas, after 
bdng properly purified, will be found to be 
far inferior to what Mr. White has stated ; 
that in all probability the quantity of gas 
from resin will in practice not exceed 8 or 
9 feet per pound, Uiat is, about 1,000 feet 
per cwt. ; that the gas after being purified 
will be of specific gravity not much beyond 
600; the condensation by chlorine not 
beyond 8 or 9 per cent. ; a foot of it not 
giving more than the light of from 2i to 3 
cand&s. If so, then, when that gas is mixed 
with about its own volume of water gas, no 
doubt the quantity will be increased, but to 
the serious deterioration qfthe %lhaninoiin0 
power. That of the water may be said to 
be fit/, or a very near approach to it ; con- 
sequently the reduction m the illuminating 
power of the other will be just in proportion 
to the addition ; indeed, were it not that the 
water gas adds to the quantity, and perhaps, 
from the peculiar mode of generating it, 
also adds to the specific gravity, of which, 
as an indication of the value, some have % 
high opinion, I strongly suspect that Bfr. 
\^ite had better dispense with it altogether, 
and thus save the trouble and expense of 
manufacturing, and of storing and trans- 
mitting to the public, an article which, for 
the purpose of illumination, is, as now 
generated, absolutely useless. 



8PK0IFI0ATI0NS OF SN0LI8H PATBRTt 
BKEOtLin DUnilfO THE WSBK, BNDIKO 
AUGUST 1, 1850. 

Thomas Schofixld, Cowbrook, Hnlme, 
Manchester, fustian dyer and finisher, and 
Henry Hoeabin, Royton, Oldham, fustian 
cutter. For improvements in maehinery /or 
cutting fustians and certain other fabries 
to produce a piled surface. Patent dated 
January 26, 1850. 

Hitherto it has been customary to pr^ 
duoe the pile by stretching sboat two jirds 



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95 



of the length of fastian, Sec., in a frame ; 
the workman then introdncea the cutter 
into one of the races, and cats it np as far 
ai he can reach. He repeats the operation 
on all the races snccesdYelj, and then 
stretches a fresh two yards or the fabric ; 
so that supposing the fustian to be thirty 
yards long, fifteen distinct operadons wonla 
require to be repeated. Great lots of time 
and manual labour thus ensues, as well u 
an irregularity in the appearance of the 
fnstian at the termination and commence- 
ment of each cut. To remedy these disad- 
TTOitages, the present patentee proposes to 
p«»B tike fhstian oTer and under two sets of 
rollers, and over a driving roller. The two ends 
are nnited, so ad to form a kind of endless 
band. The rollers are supported in bearings 
hi sndi manner that the distance between 
them may be increased or diminished as re- 
quired, to keep the fustian distended and 
tight upon the driving roller. As soon as the 
arrangements are completed — that is to say, 
the seam of the endless band in front of the 
workman, and the driving roller out of gear 
with the shaft — he introduces the cutter into 
one of the races, and depresses a lever by his 
foot, wUch brings the roller and shaft into 
gear, and consequently causes tbe endless 
band of fustian to travel round, whereby 
the race is cut and the pile formed. 
When tliis is completed, tbe machine is 
stopped and the cutter introduced into the 
second race ; and so on throughout the series, 
until the whole }s finished. Two or more 
cutters may be fixed to one handle, and the 
workman can use one in each hand. 

Cfotm.^The mactiinery for moving or 
drawing the fisbric towards or against the 
cutter. 

Thomas Berobr, of Hackney, gentle- 
man. .Fbr in^9rovemenii in the manufac' 
iure ofiim-ek. Patent dated Jan. 26, 1850. 
{l^teifUation).—** 1 would at the outset 
sts^, that although I shdl hereafter describe 
the use of caustic alkali upon rice, I do not 
daim the same, Inasmuch as Mr. "Wlckham, 
of Nottingham, took out a patent for this 
objeet in the year 1824. In carrying out 
my invention, I find it advantageous to 
steep the rice in the first instance in suo- 
ceuion in three or four separate solutions 
of the caustic alkali (soda preferred) of tlie 
fiiUowing strength; viz., from 190 to 220 
grains of pure soda to every gallon of water. 
1 then proceed as follows : — A ton of rice 
having been thoroughly steeped in three 
or four separate solutions (of about 300 
gallons each) of the caustic alkali, and 
drawn off, it is now to be ground as fine as 
possible by means of levigators, with cold 
water to the consistence of thick cream or 
paste ; to this is to be added one pint of 
spirit or oa of turpentine, with sufficient 



cold water to make up the bulk to about 
2,000 gaUons ; the whole is to be well stirred 
for three hours, after wliich it is to be 
passed through a series of coarse flannels, 
felt or sponge, until all the refuse is depo^ 
sited upon the flannel or filtering medium ; 
or it may be left quiet for about half an 
hour, when the starch suspended in the 
water may be drawn off firom the refuse 
matters. 

" These starchy waters are always to be 
passed through fine lawn sieves, prior to their 
being allowed to deposit the starch in the 
settling vessels. The application of water 
may be repeated. If it is thought desirable, to 
separate further quantities of starch from 
the refuse. As soon as the starch is per- 
fectly deposited in the settling vessels It is 
to be collected, and, if alkaline, neutralized 
with dilute sulphuric acid, adding dght 
ounces of sulphate of zinc to every 112 
of starch ; it is now, after well stirring, to be 
boxed and finished in the usual way. 

** The above is the process I prefer and 
have found most efficacious, simple, and 
least expensive, but the metallic salts in 
general, also sulphate of soda (especially 
if combhied with lime-water), turpentine, 
alum, and a current of electridty, will seve« 
rally be found effectual In place of the tor- 
pentine and sulphate of zinc. I do not 
therefore confine myself to the process de* 
scribed, nor to the quantity of either of tiie 
agents employed, nor to any particular oom» 
bination of them. 

** Wheii currents of electricity (however 
produced) are employed, the application 
should be continued for about two hours on 
each occasion, and the same is to be passed 
through fluid starch, as electric currents are 
commonly passed through fluids ; and I stir 
the fluid starch all the time of Applying such 
currents. 

<* I use a Smee's battery, of six cells, 
about 5 inches bv 7 inches when acting, to 
produce 5 cwt. of starch, and I have found 
li desirable to apply the electricity first to 
the rice when ground with water, and Ustiy 
to the starch previoua to its being boxed. 

** Another part of my invention consists 
of the application of a barrel or vessel oon- 
tdning tiie rice and alkali solution, and 
oaused to revolve by any oonvmient means 
at the speed of about one revolution per 
minute, which I have found to be very effi- 
cacious in extracting the gluten out of the 
rice ; the size of the barrel I prefer is 5 feet 
in diameter, and about 5 feet in length, 
which will contain a ton of rice ; and the 
300 gallons of alkali solution I have found, 
allowing each solution to remain upon the 
Hce three hours wliile the barrel is at work, 
to be amply sufficient. 

<* I do not oonfine myself to the ufe of a 



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btrrel, u a vetiel of other fonn wHl antwer 
the purpose ; or, in place of causing Uie Tea- 
sel to refolve a stirrer caused to rerolfe 
whilst the vessel stands still, will pro- 
duce a like effect ; but I prefer the Tcssel to 
revolve. 

'• What I claim is— 1. The manufocturing 
starch from rice by using turpenUne and 
sulphate of sine as described, and also the 
atraining the starchy waters and boxing the 
starch in those stages. 

'* 2. The use of metallic salts, also sul- 
phate of soda, turpentine, alum and electri- 
city, whether separately or in combination 
in the manufacture of starch. 

" The use of flannel, felt, and sponge, as 
a medium for separating the refuse matters 
from starch. 

'* 4. The application of mechanical stir- 
ring, or the rotation of the vessd containing 
rice when being steeped in a solution of 
caustic alkali, or other solutions used whea 
making starch from rice." 

Thomas Riohaadson, Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, Chemist. For imprwmmmtt9 tn the 
nuMufaetmr§ ^f Bpwm and other magneiian 
9aU$i aUo<iltim and tuiphate of ammonia. 
Patent dated January 26, 1850. 

1. Mr. Richardson takes' rough Bpaom . 
or an impure solution of sulphate of mag- 
nesia, and mixes with it a precipitating 
agent — ^by preference magneda. The mix- 
ture is well agitated and heated ; it is then 
allowed to stand, in order that the impuri- 
ties may be precipitated, and decanted off. 
The pure solution is next evaporated, antU 
it concentrates to from 50** to 60« Twaddle's 
hydrometer, and is subsequently plsced on 
one side to crystallise. Strontia, baryta, or 
lime, may be used instead of magneda as a 
precipitating agent, but not with the same 
advantage as it would combine with the 
ammonia in the solution. When either of 
the sulphurets, before enumerated, is to be 
employed as the precipitating agent it must 
be used In solution. Instead of using the 
substances (rough Epsom and magnesia) 
in solutions, they may be ground up toge- 
ther io a moist state, and the Epsom sub- 
sequently dissolved out. Carbonate of 
magnesia is obtained by calcining the mag- 
nesia employed in the purifying process. 
To produce a double salt of magnesia and 
ammonia, gas water is mixed with a pure or 
impure solution of sulphate of magnesia, 
and boiled until rendered neutral. The 
mixture is allowed to crystallise, and the 
salt is to be used as a manure. Or sulphate 
of magnesia, in a damp state, may be sub- 
jected to a current of ammoniacal gas, pro- 
duced by the distillation of gas water, 
guano, or other ammonia-giving substance* 
If required, the gas water is to be neutral- 
ised by the addition of sulphuric acid. 



2. The improvements in the manufacture 
of alum consist in the employment of (say) 
eight pits, the first and last of which oon- 
municate with one another, and with the 
intermediate ones, which also communicate 
with each other by means of a vertical pipe 
that rises Inside one of them, and is fitted 
with a tap at top, while its lower end is 
curved, and opens into the lower part of 
the next pit, and so on throughout the 
series. Above the mouths of the pits there 
is a horisontal pipe, communicating with 
the water reservoir, wUch is provided with 
a number of cocks, one for each pit. When 
the pits are diarged with shale, &o., water 
is admitted into the last, where it remains 
for some time till the substance is exhausted. 
Fresh water is admitted, and liquor then 
flows into the first, where it remains some 
time to effect a like purpose. Afterwards 
fresh water is admitted, to cause the liquor 
to flow into the second pit in the aeries, and 
BO on until it has reached the required 
degree of strength : it is then drawn off 
by a cock at the bottom. When the con- 
tents of the pits sre exhausted, they are 
sucoesslvely replaced by a firesh supply. 

3. The patentee proposes to manufaeture 
sulphate of ammonia by employing the 
double salts produced according to tlie 
method described under the first head of the 
spedfioadon, snd subliming it in the usual 
way. 

Claiwu, — 1. The employment of magne- 
sia, strontia, baryta or lime, or of the 
sulphurets of strontium, barium, sodium^ 
oaagnesium, ammonium or ealdum in the 
manufacture of Epsom or other magneaiaa 
salts. 

2. The improvements in manufsetnring 
alum. 

3. The mode of manufacturing snlpbata 
of ammonia. 

WiNCBBLAS LS BaAOK DB TrAUZ DB 

Wardbn, of Liege. For certain it n p rove^ 
menti in loowufor weaving linen and eottom 
clothe, and in machinet for preparing the 
pom for tuch clothe bffbre entering the 
loom, and in a machine for finiehing grog 
and bleached linen clothe. Patent dated 
January 26, 1850. 

BaroQ de Warden specifies and claicna— 
First. An improved oonstruction of loom 
for weaving linen doth, the prindpal novelty 
in which consists in the employment of two 
smoothing rollers in the shuttle for equal- 
ising the delivery of the weft and of conical 
grooved spools. 

Second. An improved construction of loom 
for weaving broad and sail doth. 

Third. An improvement in the conatrao- 
tion of warping machines. 

Fourth. A machine of a peculiar con- 
struction for winding on linen warps. 



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ENOLTBfi SFEOinOlttOKS XttBOtXED DUBINQ (THE WfiXK. 



97 



F&fth. An improred machiDe for lerib- 
Uisf • deaningt and dretilng doth. 

8Utlu The applieatioii of pamioe-ftone 
to tba dreaaiiif of liaen. 

SevmUu The application of dressed warps 
to ^e ma&vfiictnre of linen and sail doth. 

Bi^tlu An arrangement of machinery 
for softening wafts hy heat* 

Nbitk. Nine different improremenis in the 
masnl^etiire of lo(med fahrics; namely, 
1. Heating the yam before its entering into 
the needles. 2. The production of patterns 
by the interrention of the feeders of two 
^fsreDt-tised threads. 3. The working of 
ooe feeder slacker than the other, and moT- 
log the presser-bar in order! to prodoce 
a ^'bond^" (knotted or bnckler.like) 
labilo. 4. The application of two guides to 
eadi feeder, fbr the purpose of prodndng 
a fsbrie with snrfiioes of two different mate« 
rials. 5. The employment of two rows of 
necdlrs to prodvce a rib top. 6. The mann- 
fMtore of imitation Cacbmere by dressing 
the wr^mg instead of the right tide of knit- 
ted cloth. 7. The winding, doubling, and 
twisting of the yam in one and the 
ssBkC fraoM, and during the operation of 
wearing. 8. The employment of an oscil- 
ktiag detent in combination with a bell- 
crank lerer escapement to stop the working 
of the loom when the weft breaks. And 9. 
Making the needle-plate with two or more 
rows of holes, for the purpose of manufac- 
turing doth of higher numbers than has 
been producible by the looms heretofore in 
uas. 

Eownc Hbtcock, Leeds, York, mer- 
chant. Fbr eerttAm impr wtmmU im ihe 
JbMOmg end irming wooOen elotki. Pa- 
tent dated January 26, 1850. 

The object of this iuTcntion is to steam- 
preas wooDen doths without stretching the 
warp ti&reads, or creasing them indelibly 
frooa Ust to list The patentee employs a 
firaase, which supports a steam plate perfo- 
rated in the centre only ; aboTC this plate is 
the presser, whidi is mo? ed up and down in 
guiM by BD^eans of toothed gearing. A 
doth is laid on the steam plate, and on that 
the woollen doth, with the sdfsges resting 
on the perforated sides, and turned up: 
sereral lengths of doth are thus disposed of, 
and the plate then brought down. The 
steam is turned on, and will penetrate the 
woollen doths, but will be prerented from 
escaphig by the edges compressed between 
the presser and the unperforated portions of 
the steam plate. When the cloth has been 
sufUdently steam-pressed, the presser is 
raised, and the one end is held between a 
pair of pineher-bars extending the width of 
the steam plate, and suppoited in a frame 
whldi traTels to and fro in toothed racks. 
By thtoarrpgeaent the fteam- p rened doths 



are withdrawn from orer the steam plate, 
and thdr plaoe supplied by fresh ones, and 
the operation repeated. Or, the creasing of 
the doths may be prcTcnted by folding them 
to and fro in the ateam plate, with Um folds 
projecting beyond the presser, which will, 
consequently, not be subjected to the action 
of steam or pressure. 

CEortei.— Finishing and dressing woollen 
cloths by steam pressure, without stretching 
the warp threads or creashig the doUts from 
Ust to list. 

John Dalton, of Hillingworth, cslico- 
printer. For eeri^in improvemenii in and 
igfpUcabie to machinery or apparatui for 
bleaching, dgeing, printing, and finithing 
textile and other fabrice, and in the engrav- 
ing of copper rotten, and other metallic 
bodiee. Patent dated January 26, 1850. 

This invention consists in the manufacture 
of cylinders or bowls composed of wooden 
discs Mid gutU percha, and their employ- 
ment, instead of those in general use, for 
the purposes mentioned in the title of the pa- 
tent, whereby (it is stated) greater strength, 
resisUnce, and durability are obtained. Mr. 
Dslton takes a shaft of the requisite length, 
*and fixes an iron disc at one end. He next 
takes a number of wooden discs, coTered 
with plastic gutts percha, and places them 
on the shaft, taking care that the gndn shall 
run in opposite directions. When a suffi- 
cient number of discs hsTC been thus fitted 
to make a cylinder of the desired length, 
they are firmly pressed together, and an iron 
disc fitted to ttie other end of the shaft. 
The periphery is coated with gutta percha, 
and when cold is turned trae in a lathe. 
These rollers are to be employed in any of 
the processes mentioned where the tempera- 
ture does exceed 100^ Fahr. ; and also as 
printing rollers, whereby the use of blankets 
and lapping will be dispensed with. The 
iron shsfts, to SToid heating, are supported 
in bearings composed of brass, lined with an 
alloy consisting of 1 part antimony, 2 parts 
lead, 7 parts ti^, and 10 parts sine. 

The patentee recommends as a lubricator 
for this purpose a mixture of 2 parts tallow, 
1 part black lead, and 1 part sulphur. 

Cylinders thus made may be employed in 
printing both sides of a fabric, and as sup- 
ports for metal rollers while bdng engraved, 
so as to give slightly, and prevent their being 
indented ; also for covering Uiem with var- 
nish, before the engraved parts are subjected 
to the action of nitric acid. Instead of 
metal bearing!, glass or earthenware may be 
used. 

Ciaime,^!. The novel combination of 
materials for, and their application in, the 
oonstraetion of cjlinders or bowls with coat- 
ing of gutta percha. 

2. The adaptation and applioatloo of theae 

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98 



SNOLISH 8FECIFI0ATI0H8 8NB0LLSD DUBXKa THB WEIK. 



Improred rollers In maehinery or tpptratof 
for bleadiing, dyeingt printtng, and finith- 
iog, or for any part of theie prooeaaet. 

3. The ooni traction of apparatoa for print- 
hg on both aidef . 

4. The application of the improred roUeri 
In the mode and for the porposes described. 

BnwABD RiBPB, Finsburj-sqaare, Mid- 
dlesex, merchant. For ivmrovemenU in 
the mmitfacture qf 9ieel, (A. commanica- 
tlon.) Patent dated January 29, 1850. 

1. Ifr. Riepe places 280 lbs. of pig iron 
in a puddlinf furnace, and heat^ it till it 
melts : then throws in from 12 to 16 shovel- 
ftils of cinder slack, and partially closes the 
damper. When the iron begins to trickle 
^own, 40 lbs. of pig iron are olaoed on cin- 
der beds near the bridge, ana the damper 
dosed. When this last melts and begbs to 
trickle down, it is raked into the melted 
metal below. The damper is then three 
parts opened, and Uie heat continued until 
It boils, and Uie well-known blue flames 
dioot through the cinder slack. The heat 
Is maintained at cherry red, the damper 
opened, and the mass puddled to and fro 
vnder the dnder slack. When the mass 
begins to granulate and the grains to fuse, 
tiie damper is closed and the operation 
watched ; when the boiling ceases, the mass 
assumes a waxy appearance. The fires are 
then stirred to keep up the temperature, and 
a portion taken out in a ball, and tilted or 
otherwise hammered Into shape. In the 
case of pig iron made from scrapy ore he 
adds only 20 lbs. of pig iron, instead of 
40 lbs., at the latter part of the process ; i^d 
when using refined Welsh iron, he strews 
the floor of the furnace with 10 lbs. of best 
dry granulated day, and covers the metd 
with a like quantity of clay. 

2. The patentee casts pig iron, or aUoys 
of pig iron and wrought iron, into bars, with 
notches to facilitate their breaking. They 
are then covered with clay, and arranged 
with spaces between. The fUrnace under- 
neath is lighted, and all the apertures dosed 
except the flue and a small one, which is 
temporarily dosed, but may be opened when 
required, to allow of a sample being with- 
drawn to ascertain how the operation pro- 
ceeds. When the conyerdon of the iron 
bars is effected, they are removed, and the 
dinkers, &c., knocked off. 

3. Or the iron may be placed in a fire- 
proof cylinder of stone or eathenware 
which is heated by a furnace placed under- 
neathy and has its two ends closed with a 
pipe attached to each. The fire is lighted, 
and the iron heated to redness. The pipes 
are then opened, and the dr will pass 
through, and, from the manner in which the 
bars aro arranged, will come into contact 
with all thdr ddes. When the annealing 



is completed, the iron Is cooled dowB sad 
removed. 

CKoMns.— I* [As regards the e on v en km 
of pig iron into sted.] Relating the beat 
in the fioishhig { the exclusion of atmospbe- 
ric air from the fnass s the use or addftion 
of pig iron at the latter part of the prootss. 

2. Converting pig iron or alloys of pig 
iron and wrought iron into sted by exposb^ 
them to the action of day at a proper teai- 
perature. 

3. The peculiar method of annealing 
bars of pig iron, or idloys of pig iron and 
wrought iron, by exposing them to atmo- 
spheric dr when at red heat. 

PoNALO Bkatbon, of Qreen-ftreet, 8tip- 
ney, mariner. For eerto^n hmpromtmenU 
In taking, meamrinff, and computing an^m. 
Patent dated January, 29, 1850. 

Mr. Beatson describes— 

1. ** An universal dtimeter," or instra- 
ment for taking dtitudes both at sea and on 
shore. And 

2. An instrament for finding on board 
ship, from the altitude of the sun, the lati- 
tude and apparent time. 

We shall give In an eariy Number a ftdl 
description of both instroments, with en- 
gravings. 

RioBAAD RonBRTS, Mancheiter» engi- 
neer. Forimprovmnenttintkenum^f^ietwre 
qf c&iam textiU fairieii in mnekintrgftr 
w$ttving plain, figured, tmd terrp or ioqped 
fakria; and in wuxkinerif or eg^pwratuefor 
cutting vehete and other faMmm Patoat 
dated January 29» 1850. 

The first part of tills lBventia& ocasisti in 
producing a downy qipearanoe in pBe-ont 
fabrics by cutting the loops of nnequd 
lengths, either by udng wires of difeient 
sIsM so that the k>ops may be of difierent 
lengths, or by cutting the loops on altemate 
ddes of the wires, or by weaving the two 
fabrics fsce to lace, and dividing the fibres 
dternatdy nearer to one than to the other. 
The second part con^rehends some twenty- 
four improvements in looms, the Jacquard 
induded, which would need illustratlvQ draw- 
ings to render any description of them inld- 
ligible. A third part refers to the apparatus 
and mechanicd arrangementa employed in 
weaving looped fabrics, and to the pladng 
and withdrawing the wires. 

John Masom, Rochdale, and Maak 
Smith, Hey wood, both in Lancashire, ma- 
chine-;makers. For certain improvementi 
im fnaehinerg or tgfparatua for p/reparimg, 
^jfimung, and weamng cotton and other teg- 
tile materiale, and ako impr&vemaUe in the 
method ^f preparing game or threade, and 
in the ntachinerg or tq^paratue emplagedfor 
euch pmrpoeee. Patent dated January 29, 
1650. 
Among the aaott notioeabk issptofcmants 

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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 



No. 1409.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 10, 1850. [Priee Zd., Stamped, 4if. 

Edited by J. C Robertson, 166, Fleet-etreet. 

BEATSON'S PATENT INSTRUMENTS FOR TAKING, MEASURING, 

AND COMPUTING ANGLES. 

Flff. 1. 




▼OL. ini. 



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lot 

BBATSOn'b PATBITT TN8TAUMSNT8 F0& TAEINO, MSASUmiNO, AMD OOMPUTINO 
AMOLBI.— (ttB AMTB ». |8.) 

Tk€ Unhmr$€U AUimeitri 

Fie. 1 ifl a side elevttion of thii instminetit A ii t brotd ring of brass, to one 
side or the back of wbiob a tetotoope, C, is affixed in a horisooUl lloe ezactlj coin- 
cidiDg witb the centre of die ring. B is a glass tube of abont the sixteenth of an Ineh 
in the bore, whieh is let into a groore made in the front of the ring, and extends all 
round with the exception of abont an inch or two, where a segmental air-tight junc- 
tion piece, F, of metal is inserted between the two ends of the tube, whicn are left 
open, and communicate freely with the piece F. The tube is about half filled with 
mercury (or other suitable fluid) which forms itself into a continuous thread of a 
crescent shape, with a fixed quantity of air between the two cusps. As long as the 
two fluids are left at liberty, they may of course be shifted round to any parts of the 
circle ; but in the middle of the junction-piece F, there is a vaWe V (not seen in the 
figure) inserted, which is worked by a spindle £ and thumb- piece E', from the 
opposite side of the instrument ; and when this valfe is closed, the motion of the 
fluid to either side of that valve is from that moment necessarily stopped. The eye- 
piece of the teleeeope is orovided with darkened fflisses, to safe the eye from the 
glare of the sun, and the neld of view is divided in the centre by a wire, to show the 
Rne of oollimation. On the front of the brass ring A, immemately outside of the 
grooye containing the glass tube| and on opposite . sides of the telescope, there 
are two quarter circle scales, R ana L, engrayed. Both of these scales have their 
aero points on the same line with the axial line of the telescope, but the numbers 
in R run upwards from to 90, while those in L run downwards from to 90 ; the 
90** in the one case fEL) representing the zenith and in the other the nadir. These 
scales are subdifided by two yemiers DD. The mode of using the instrument is 
as follows : The observer first releases the alcoholic or other fluid in the tube B from 
the pressure of the columns of air at each end by turning the thumb-piece E' from 
left to right; he then directs the telescope towards the sun or other object whose 
altitude it is desired to ascertain, and brinss the cross-wire into contact (so to speak^ 
therewith ; which having done, he turns the thumb-piece £' the reverse way, whi<m 
fixes the mercury at the exact level it had attained at the moment of contact, the 
column of air in fi pressing on the mercury at each end, and thus necessarily pre- 
venting the slightest displacement 

The observer next proceeds to read ofi^ the indications furnished by the two scales 
of the instrument ; he sets first down the numbers on the left-hand scale L, which 
come opposite to the top line of the fluid on the left-hand side, and then the num- 
bers opposite the top line of the fluid on the right-hand side : which done, he adds 
the two sets of numbers tt^ether, and divides by 2, whieti gives the required 
altitude. 

For example ; if the 

Left tltitode be 46*' 20' 

Sight mltitude 47'' 40" 

The sum divided .* 2)94*" 

Would give for the desh«d altitude .... 47'' 

The necessity for taking a mean of the two readings arises from the liability of 
the fluids to expansion, for were no change to take place in their thermometric con- 
dition after the contact, the numbers would remain necessarilv alike on both sides. 

The better to show to the eye the movements of the fluids m the tube, the bottom 
of the groove G mav be stained of a red or some other bright colour. 

The " Universal Altimeter *' may be contained in one framework with any of the 
ordinary sea and land surveying instruments; as is exemplified in fig. 1, where it b 
shown combined with a common sextant 

Inttnmwki Jbr Flmdimg the Latiimde and Afpareni Tm$. 
Fig. 2 is a front elevation of this instrument; fig. 3 an end view ; fig. 4 a top plan ; 



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BLBOTRIOAL KCPBBnnENT. 



103 



and fig. 5 a baek elenUioii. A is a eirde, graduated into hoarsy minatea, and aeeonda, 
which may be adjusted to any elevation hy a n«k and pinion R. B b a moyeable 
quadrant or vernier, also graduated into hours, minutes, and seconds, which is 
mounted on the face of and at right angles to A. D D are two vertical bars, which 
are attaehed by curved stays 8 S. at an angle of 66*" SO", to the aides of the hour 
drde A, and are divided into minutes and seconds up and down ftrom a common 
xero in the centre. C is a ring which is divided, like A, into hours, minutes, and 
seconds, and is slid up and down the vertical bars D D by means of the spindles T 
and thumb-pieces T^ In using this instrument, the observer first takes an altitude, 
and then finds the apjparent time on board ship, after which he reduces the declina- 
tioo to the apparent ume. He then sets the ring C to the same declination, turns 
round the moveable quadrant or vernier D until it corresponds with the time, upon 
which he raises the ring C to the true altitude, and having fixed it there, turns the 
quadrant or vernier round to 13 o'clock, and reads ofi^ the increased altitude, which 
gives the true meridian altitude. To find the aoparent time in the preceding operas 
tion« tfM observer should first take the latitude oy account at noon, and set it to the 
meridian altitude ; then reduce the declination to the approximate time and take an 
altitude ; next turn the quadrant round until the altitude cuu the arc, when opposite 
tfiereto will be found the apparent time, as also the sun's bearing. 



TBB " ELBCraiOAL BZPBBIMKirT. 



"• 



Sir, — I read with much interest the 
" Electrical Experiment," recorded by a 
Romford correspondent in vour Maga- 
sine for July the 27th. A variety of 
experiments suggested themselves as 
likely to explain the cause of the phe- 
BomtnoB; I have not, however, found 
time to carry any of them out until late 
laat night. I forward you the results of 
the moat decisive, without delay. 

My apparatus consisted of a sinale 
pint cdl of Smee*8 battery, charaed with 
a aolntlon 1 part sulphuric acid to 8 of 
water, and a good electro-magnetic coil 
madiine, vrith primary and Meamdary 
colla of the length usually employed for 
medical purposes, and a vibrating con- 
tact-breaker. 

ExptrimaU 1. — Upon setting the ap- 
paratus to work, a copper wire was 
applied to one extremity of a bundle of 
son iron wires inserted within the hollow 
if the reel, the other end behig held in 
the hud;— a stream of minute sparks 
appeared in the dark at the point of 
contact* 

Eap, 2.*-Upon uniting the two ends 
of the secondary coil, the sparks altoge- 
tiber ceased. 

Exp. 3. — A^ain disconnecting the 
ends, and repeating experiment 1, stand- 
ing upon a glass- legged stool, no sparks 
could be produced. 

• JTot*. Mmg^ ToU Utt., p. 71. 



Exn, 4. — Upon touching the extremi- 
ties of the soft iron bundle with a wire 
connected with the tmUr end of the 
secondary coil, a stream of sparks passed 
of much greater brilliancy than in the 
former cases. 

Exp, 5.— -Connecting the touching 
wire with the MiMr end of the same 
coil, the sparks ceased. 

These results are, I think, sufficient 
to diBprove the devdopment by indoo- 
tion of electricity in the onndle of wires ; 
as the spark may, in each case, be attri- 
buted to the passage of the electricity of 
the secondary coil, from the inner to the 
outer extremity, by the shortest available 
path through imperfect conductors, when 
no direct communication is established. 
The absence of the sparks in the other 
experiments would lead to the same 
conclusion. Their brightness is so much 
diminished by placing the bundle of 
wires within a glass tube in the reel, that 
I can only attribute those which do still 
pass, to imperfection in the insulation. 

I have carefully tested the wires with 
a delicate electrometer, but there is no 
indicaticm of the presence of f^ elec- 
tricity. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

G. E. D. 

P.S. — ^Your correspondent attributes 
tiie diioovery of eleotro4a%pietism to 
o2 



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104 



BETROSPECT OF THB PB0OBB88 OP A8TE0N0MY. 



Professor Orsted. Arago was, I believe, 
the first to produce a soft iron '* eleetro- 
msgnet" 

Aug. 1, 1850. 

&BTB08PB0T OF TBB PROGEXSS OF 
▲STRONOMT. 
[Fmn the Iiuiagiinl AddraM of the President 
(Sir David Brewiter) of the Edinbargh Meeting of 
the Britieh Assocletlon, Angntt, 1850.] 

Astronomy is a study which has made 
great progress under the patronage of this 
Association — a snbieot, too, possessing a 
eharm above all other subjeets, and more 
connected than any other with the deepest 
interests, past, present, and to come, of 
every rational being. It is upon a planet 
that we live and breathe. Its surface is the 
arena of oar contentions, our pleasures, and 
our sorrows. It is to obtain a portion of 
its alluvial crust that man wastes the flower 
of his days, and prostrates the energies of 
his mind, and risks the happiness of bis 
soul ; and it is over or beneath its verdant 
turf that his ashes are to be scattered or his 
bones to be laid. It it from the interior, 
too^fh>m the inner life of the earth that 
man derives the materials of civilisation— 
his coal, his iron, and his gold. And deeper 
still, as geologists have proved— and none 
with more power than the geologists around 
me — we find in the bosom of the earth writ- 
ten on blocks of marble— ^e history of 
primseval times, of worlds of life created 
and worlds of life destroyed We find there, 
in hieroglyphics as intelligible as those which 
Major lUwllnson has deciphered on the slabs 
of Nineveh, the remains of forests which 
waved in luxuriance over its plains-— the 
very bones of huge reptiles that took shelter 
nnder their foliage, and of gigantic quadru- 
peds that trod uncontrolled its plains, the 
law-girers and the executioners of that mys- 
terious community with which it pleased the 
Almighty to people his infant world. But 
though man is but a recent occupant of the 
earth, an upstart in the vast chronology of 
animal life, his interest in the Paradise so 
carefully prepared for him is not the less 
exciting and profound. For him it was 
made, he was to be the lord of the new 
creation, and to him it especially belongs to 
investigate the wonders it displays, and to 
learn the lesson which it reads. But while 
our interests are thus closely connected wiUi 
the surface and the interior of the earth, 
interests of a higher kind are associated with 
it as a body of the solar system to which we 
belong. The object of Geology is to unfold 
the history and explain the structure of a 
planet i and that history and that structure 



may, within certain limits, be the history 
and the structure of all the other planets o( 
the system — perhaps of all the other planeti 
of the universe. The laws of matter must 
be the same wherever matter is found. The 
heat which warms our globe radiatea upon 
the most distant of the planets, and the 
light which twinkles in the remotest star is, 
in its physical, and doubtless in its chemicsl 
properties, the same that cheers and enlivens 
our own system; and if men of ordinary 
capacity poasessed that knowledge whidi is 
within their reach, and had that fsidi in 
science which its truths inspire, they would 
see in every planet around them, and in 
every star ^ve them, the home of immortal 
natures— H>f beings that suffer and of beings 
that njoice— of souls that are saved and of 
souls that are lost Geology is, therefore, 
the first chapter of astronomy. It describes 
that portion of the solar system which is 
nearest and dearest to us, — the cosmopolitan 
observatory, so to speak, from which the 
aatronomer is to survey the sidereal universe, 
where revolving worlds and systems of worlds 
summon him to investigate and adore. There, 
too, he obtains the great base lines of the 
earth's radius to measure the dlstsnces and 
magnitudes of Uie starry host, and thus to 
penetrate by the force of reattm into thoee 
infinitely distant regions where the imagin- 
ation dare not follow him. But Agro- 
nomy, though thus sprung from the earth, 
seeks and finds, like Astraea, a more conge- 
idal sphere above. Whatever cheera and 
enlivens our terrestrial paradise is derived 
from the orbs around us. Without the 
light or heat of our sun, and without the 
uniform movements of our system, we should 
have neither climates nor seasons. Dark- 
ness would blind and famine destroy every- 
thing that lives. Without influences from 
above, our ships would drift upon the ocean, 
the sport of nind and wave, and would have 
less security for reaching their deatination 
than balloons floating in the air and subject 
to the caprice of the elements. But while 
the study of Astronomy is essentisl to the 
very existence of social life, it is instinct 
with moral influences of the highest order. 
In the study of our own globe we learn that 
it has been rent and upheaved by tremen- 
dous forces — ^here sinking into ocean depths, 
and there rising into gigantic elevations. 
Even now. Geologists sre measuring the riee 
snd fall of its elsstio crust ; and men who 
have no faith in science often lesm the truth 
to their cost, when they see the liquid Arc 
rushing upon them from the volcano, or 
stand above the yawning crevice in which 
the earthquake threatens to overwhelm them. 
Who can say that there is a limit to agendcs 



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BETROSPECT OF THE PROGRESS OF ASTRONOMY. 



105 



Bke theM ? Who coald dare to attert that 
they maj not concentrate their yet divided 
energieat and rend in piecea the planet which 
imprisona them ? Within the bounds of our 
own ayaten, and in the Tidnlty of our own 
eaith, between the orbits of Mara and Japi- 
ter, there ia a wide apace which, according 
to the law of planetanr distances, ought to 
eontain a planet. Kepler predicted that a 
planet woold be found there— and strange 
to aay, the astronomera of our own timea 
fiaooTered at the beginning of the present 
century four small planets, Ceres, Pallas, 
Jono, and Vesta, occupying the Tcry place in 
our ayatem where the anticipated planet 
ought to bare been found. Ceres, the first 
of these, was discorered by Piazzi, at Pa- 
lermo, in 1801 ; Pallas, the second of them, 
by Dr. Olbers, of Bremen, in 1802 ; Juno, 
the third, by Mr. Harding, in 1804 ; and 
VeaU, the fourth, by Dr. Olbers, in 1807. 
After the discoTcry of the third. Dr. Olbera 
foggeated the idea tiiat they were the frag- 
BBcnta of a planet that had been burst in 
pieoea ; and, considering that they must all 
BaTc diTerged from one point in the original 
orbit, and ought to return to the opposite 
point, he examined these parta of the hea- 
Tcna, and thus discovered the planet Vesta. 
But tiiough this principle was in the possea- 
aion of astronomers, nearly forty years 
dapaed before any other planetary fragment 
waa diacoTcred. At last, in 1845, Mr. 
Hencke, of Driessen, in Prussia, discoTcred 
the fragment called Astrsea, and, in 1847, 
another, called Hebe. In the same year our 
eonntryman, Mr. Hind, discorered other 
two. Iris and Flora. In 1848 Mr. Graham, 
an Irish astronomer, discoTcred a ninth 
fragment, caOed Metis. In 1849 Mr. 6as- 

rls, of Naples, discorered another, which 
calla Hygeia; and within the last two 
months, the same astronomer baa discorered 
the elerenth fragment, to which he has giren 
the name of Parthenope. If these eleren 
small planeta are really the remains of a 
larger one, the else of the original planet 
mnat hare been considerable. What ita sise 
waa, would seem to be a problem beyond 
the grasp of reason. But human genius haa 
been permitted to triumph orer greater 
difficulties. The planet Neptune was dis- 
cof er ed before a ray of its light had entered 
the human eye ; and by a law of the solsr 
system just discorered, we can determine 
the original msgnitude of the broken planet 
long after it has been ahirered into frsg- 
menta, — and we might hare determined it 
eren after a single fragment bad prored its 
existence. Thia law we owe to Mr. Daniel 
Kirkwood, of Pottsrille, a humble Ameri- 
can, who, like the illustrious Kepler, strug- 
gled to find something new among the arith- 
metical relatloBt of iSn planetary elements. 



Between erery two adjacent planets there Is 
a point where their attractions are equal. If 
we call the distance of thia point fh>m the 
aun the radina of a planet's sphere of attrac- 
tion, then Mr. Kirkwood'a law is, that in 
eJttj planet the square of the length of ita 
year, reckoned in days, raries aa the cube 
of the radius of its sphere of attraction. 
This law haa been rerified by more than one 
American astronomer ; and there can be no 
doubt, as one of them expresses it, that it ia 
at least a physical fact in the mechanism of 
our system. This law requires the exist- 
ence of a planet between Mara and Jupiter; 
and it follows from the law that the broken 
planet must hare been a little larger than 
Mars, or about 5,000 milea in diameter, and 
that the length of its day must hare been 
about 57i hours. The American astrono- 
mers regard this law aa amounting to a 
demonstration of the nebular hypotheaia of 
Laplace ; but we renture to say that thia 
opinion will not be adopted by the astrono- 
mers of Bogland. Among the more recent 
diicoreriea within the bounda of our own 
aystem, I cannot omit to mention those of 
our distinguished countryman, Mr. Lassels, 
of Lirerpool. By means of a fine 20-feet 
reflector, constructed by himself, he detected 
the satellite of Neptune, and more recently 
an eighth satellite circulating round Saturn 
^a discorery which was miule on the rery 
same day by Mr. Bond, director of the 
Obserratory of Cambridge, in the United 
States. Mr. Laasels has stUl more recently, 
and under a aingularly farourable state of 
the atmoaphere, obserred the rery minute, 
but extremely black, shadow of the ring of 
Saturn upon the body of the planet. He 
obserred the line of shadow to be notched, aa 
it were, and almoat broken up into a line of 
dots; thus indicating mountaina upon the 
plane of the ring — mountains doubtless raised 
by the same internal forces and anawering the 
same ends aa those of our own globe. In 
passing from our solar system to the frontier 
of the ridereal unirerse around us, we trarerse 
a gulf of ioconceirable extent. If we repreaent 
the radius of the solar ayatem, or of Nep- 
tune's orbit (which is 2,900 millions of 
miles) by a line two rnQea long, the inter- 
ral between our system, or the orbit of Nep- 
tune, and the nearest fixed atar will be 
greater than the whole circumference of our 
globe— or equal to a length of 27,600 milea. 
The parallax of the nearest fixed star being 
aupposed to be one second, its distance from 
the sun will be nearly 412,370 timea the 
radius of the earth'a orbit, or 13,746 timea 
that of Neptune, which is thirty times as 
far from the sun as the earth. And yet to 
that distant tone haa the geniua of man 
traced the Creator'a arm working the won- 
ders of hia power, and dURising the gifts of 

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106 



BBTB08PS0T OF THE PBOGRE88 OF ASTRONOMY. 



bit lore — the heat and the light of niiis — the 
necessary elemeati of physical and intellee- 
toal life. It is by means of the gigantic 
telescope of Lord Rosse that we bare 
become acquainted with the form and cha- 
racter of those great asfemblages of start 
which compose the sidereal unirerte. Draw- 
ings and descriptiont of the more remarkablfl 
of thete nebulsB, at retolred by thit nobto 
instniment, were communicated bj Dr. 
Robinton to the last meeting of the Asto- 
datlon ; and it it with pecnliar tatisfaetioii 
that I am able to ttate that manj import- 
ant discoTeriet hare been made by Lord 
Rosse and his assistant, Mr. Stoner, daring 
the last jear. In many of the nebnlie the 
pecnliaritiet of ttmcture are very remark- 
able, and, at Lord Rotte obsenret, " teenu 
eren to indicate the presence of dynamical 
laws almost within our grasp." The spiral 
arrangement, so stronglr devebped in some 
of the nebnlsB, is traceable more or lest dit- 
tinctly in manj; bat "more freqnentlj," 
to ate Lord Rosse't own wordt, " there it 
a nearer approach to a kind of irregular, 
interrupted, annular disposition of the 
luminous nuterial, than to the regularitj 
observed in others ;" but bis Lordship is of 
opinion that those nebulae are systems of a 
Tery similar nature, teen more or less per* 
fecdf , and Tariously placed with reference 
to the line of tight. In re* examining the 
more remarkable of thete objects. Lord 
Roate intendt to view them with the full 
light of hit tix-feet tpeculum, undiminished 
by the second reflexion of the tmall mirror. 
Bf that adopting what it called the front 
vietcr, he will doubtlett, at he himtel/ ex- 
peett, ditcorer many new featnret in thot« 
interetting objectt. It is to the influence of 
Lord Rotte't example that we are indebted 
for the flne reflecting teletoope of Mr. 
Latael, of which I liaTe already tpoken; 
and it it to it alto that we owe another 
tdetcope, which, though yet unknown to 
tdenoe, I am bound in thit place etpedally 
to notioe. I allude to the reflector reoentlj 
conttructed by Mr. Jamet Nasmyth, a 
native of this citj, ahready distinguished b j 
his mechanical inTentiont, and one of a 
fismily well known to ut all, and oocopying 
a high plaoe among the artists of Scotland. 
This Instrument has its great speculum 
20 feet in focal length, and 20 inches in 
diameter; bat it differt from all other 
teleioopet in the remarkable ftdlitj with 
which it can be uted. Itt tube moret ver- 
tically upon hollow trunniont, through 
which the astronomer, seated In a little 
obterratory, with only a horiaootal motion, 
can Tiew at hit ease erery part of the 
heavent. Hitherto, the attronomer hat 
been obliged to teat hiaaaelf ai the upper 
end 0f hit Newtonian tsleaoope; andff no 



other obtenrer will acknowledge the awk* 
wardness and insecurity of bis position, I 
can myself Toucb for iU danger, haTing 
fallen from the rery top of Mr. Ramage'a 
20 Coet telescope when it wu directed to a 
point not very far from the senith. Though 
but slightly connected with astronomy, I 
cannot omit calling yonr attention to the 
great ImproTement— I may call them dit« 
ooreriet — which have been recently made ia 
photography. I need not inform thit meet- 
ing that the art of taking photographie 
ntffMtive picturet upon paper wat the iuTen* 
tion of Mr. Fox Talbot, a dittingniahed 
member of thit Attooiation. The tuperio- 
rity of the TalboWpe to the Daguerreotype 
it well known. In the latter the pictures 
are rererted, and incapable of being multi- 
plied ; while in the Talbotype there it no 
revertioB, and a tingle negattve will tapply 
a thoutand eopiet, to that bookt may now 
be illuttrated with picturet drawn by the 
tun. The difficulty of procuring good paper 
for the negatire ii to great, that a better 
material luit been eagerly aought for ; aad 
M. Niepce, an accomplithed officer in the 
French terrice, hat luccetsfully subttitated 
for paper a film of albumen, or the white of 
"^ *ttf q>read upon glast. Thit new pro* 
oett hat been brought to tuch perfectioa io 
thit city by Mettrt. Rott and Thomtoo, 
that Talbo^pet taken by them and latdy 
exhibited by myiell to the National lufti- 
tute oi France, and to M. Niepce, weia 
uniTenally regarded at the finest tiiat had 
yet beoi executed. Another procett, ia 
winch gelatine It tubstituted for albnmen, 
hat bcM infeated, and tueoettfuUy prao- 
tited by M. Poiterin, a Frendi officer of 
engineert; and by an iageniout naethod 
which hat been ininutely detcribed in the 
weekly proceedingt of the Inatitate of 
Franoe, M. Edmund Beequerel hat tao- 
ceeded in tranafiprrlng to a Dagaerreotype 
plate the priamatic tpectnun, with all Iti 
brilliant colours, and alto, though la aa 
inferior degree, the ooloan of tiie lead* 
tcape. Thete oolourt, howerer, are very 
fuj^iceout ; yet, though no ntethod of fixing 
them hat hitherto been ditcoTcred, we oan- 
not doubt that the difficulty will be aar- 
moanted, and that we thall yet see all the 
coloart of the natural world traaslenad by 
their own rayt to tarfiMet both of ailTar 
and paper. But the most important fact 
in photography which I haye now to men- 
tion, is the singular aooeleratioa of the aro- 
oess disooTcred by M. Niepce, which eaables 
him to take the picture oif a 1 
illuminated by diffused light, in a 
second, or at most in two aeooads. By tUs 
process he obtaiaed a pkAare of the saa oa 
albumea so inttaataneoatly, at to ooairaa 
the jremarkable ditoorery prerionsly made 



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PHOTOQBAPHT OK OELATIKE. 



^r M. An§9f by metnt of a silver pUte, 
tkit the nyt which proceed firom the oeatrel 
perte of the ran's dieo hare i higher photo* 
(tnie action than those which isaae from 
iU margin. .Thia interesting discorery of 
M. Arago ia one of a aeries on photometry 
vbiob that distingniahed philosopher is now 
oompied in pablbhiog. Threatened with a 
calamity which the einlised world will 
deplore^the loss of that sight which has 
dete ct ed ao many brilliant phenomena and 
penetrated so deeply into the mysteries of 
the mnterial world, lie is now completiogf 
with tha aid of other eyea than his own, 
those aplendid researches which will imosor* 
tallxe his own name and add to the scienti- 
fie glory of hie conntry.* 

It hae been long known, both from theory 
and in practice, that the imperfect trans- 
parency of the earth's atmosphere, and the 
nneqnid refiaction which arises firom dif- 
fwencea of temperature combhie to set a 
limit to the nee of high magnifying powers 
in onr telesoopes. Hitherto, however, the 
application of such high powers was checked 
by the imperfections of the iostmments 
themselTes ; and it ia only since the con- 
stmction of Lord Rosse's telescope that 
astronomers have found that, in oar damp 
and ▼arinble climate, it is only daring a few 
days of the year that telescopes of soch 
mognitode can nae anocessfolly the high 
Bugnifying powers which they are capaUa 
of bearing. Even in a cloadless sky, when 
the stara are aparkling in the firmament, 
the aatronomer is baffled by inJinenoes which 
sre visible ; and while new planeta and new 
sstellitee are being disoofered by instmments 
oompnratively small, the gigantic Polyphe- 
maa liea slnmberiog in his csTe, blinded by 
thermal cnnrents more irresistible than the 
fiiebrand nf Ulysaea. As the astronooMr, 
howefert eannot oommand a tempest to 
dear hie atmoephere nor a thonderstorm to 
Mriff it» hie only alternatiTe is to remote 
his telescope to some southern diosate, 
whsre no donde disturb the sennity of the 
ftrMamesU, and no changea of temperature 
^strict the emanations of the stars. ▲ 
(set hea been recently mentioned, which en- 
titles ne to anticipate great results from 
soch a meeaure. The Mwquees of Ormonde 
it said to bave seen from Monnt Etna, with 
bis naked eye, the satellites of Jupiter. If 
tbis be tme, what disooFeries may we not 
tqiest, even in Europe, from a large reflee- 
tsr working shot e the grosser strata of our 
stsMsphere? This noble experiment of 
itn<ieg a large reflector to a aouthem cli- 



• Ptfl AtteBs «r the expertaMntt of M. A. Potte- 
iteeMI iOt^m, mNnwd to ia the prvoedinc pM« 
«0^ ^ bt ftnad io sg b seq m n t artidei ef oar 
rRtettlre.-X».X.lf. 



107 



mate baa been but once made in the history 
of science. Sir John Herschel transported 
his telescopes and his family to South 
Africa, and daring a Toluntary eiile of four 
years' deration he enriched astronomy with 
many splendid disooreries. Such a aaeri- 
fioe, howe?er, is not likely to be made again | 
and we must, therefore, look to the idd of 
Government fbr the realisation of a project 
which erery d?ilised people will applaud, 
and which, by adding to the conqneste of 
ideoee, will add to the glory of our country. 



PHOTOOEAPHT ON GBLATINK : — MIAKa OV 
OBTAINING YBEY CLBAJl AND VBET 
TRANaPAEBNT NEGATIVE PBOOFB, CAPA- 
BLE OF BEING TEAN8FEEEED A GEEAT 
MANT TIMES ON OEDINAET PHOTOGEA- 
PHIC PAPEE. BT M. A. POITByiN.* 

In order to prepare the layer of gelatine 
on which I make my necatiTe proof, I die* 
solve in 100 grammes of water 6 grammes 
of gelatine of good quality (that which is 
met with in commerce, and which is used 
for preparing jelUee for food succeeded best). 
This sise shoald not contain salte soluble in 
water ; it diould also be as free as possible 
flrom fatty matters. To make the solution, 
I steep the gelatine In distilled water for 10 
or 15 minutes ; I dowly heat over a spirit 
lamp, and agitate continually until the 
solution is complete. If any scum forms, 
I carefuUjr remore it by mesne of blotting 
paper, which I draw oww the surface; I 
strain it through a rery fine doth, prerioudy 
damped, and I again akim the surface on 
which a few stri» form, arising, donbtlese, 
firom fiitty matters whieh escape the first 
skimming. 

The gelatine being tbua prepared, I take, 
with a graduated pipette, a deternunate 
quantity, and I run it ower a very even plate 
of glaaa placed horisontdly; a layer of 
1"*»50 is suficient ; this quantity is equi- 
valent to neerly 20 eentiosotres of solution 
for a surfsoee of hdf a plate having 13e*6 
or 17c*5. A thieker layer would not be 
injnrioua, but a thinner one might present 
some inoonveniencee. 

Before runniag the gelatine on Ae glase 
plate, a thin layer is applied to it by means 
of a cloth impregnated with a aolution of 
gelatine, rather more dilute then the fore- 
going ; afterwards, the glase plete Is gently 
heated by means of a s|3rit-lamp ; th«i thn 
solntion of gelatine is run on, and flows 
uniformly over the plate. The under eide 
of the gkss plate is again heeted, but with 
moderation, in order to give fluidity to the 
gelatine, and is allowed to cool. 

• e^mfiet lUadb«, Ne. tl« »7 May, \U$,^Chtm i § i , 
July. 1850. 



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108 



PHOTOGRAPHY ON GELATINE. 



The plate belog tbni prepared, I pliiiige It 
into a solotion of acetate of silTer, keeping 
the turfaoe eorered with gelatine underneath, 
and inclining it In the eolation until the latter 
has completely moiatened It; I then turn 
the glass plate and immene it oompletelj In 
the solution ; then I pass a rery soft pencil 
sereral times, and in different directions, all 
OTer the gelatinised sorfaoe, in order to dis- 
pel the bubbles of air which may adhere to 
it, and, before withdrawing It, I blow on the 
surface to ascertain whetiier the solution 
has moistened it all over. I then remore the 
plate, and holding it somewhat loolined, I 
pass the pencil already used oyer the whole 
surface, taldng care to corer the edge of the 
prcYious strolce with that of the following 
one. I then dry the under side of the plate 
and place It horisontally until the surfiuDe is 
dry, which requires flTe or six hours. 

I ordinarily prepare orer-night the plates 
which I intend to use on the following 
morning, and in the morning those which I 
mean to use in the evening. It is important 
that no free liquid should be left on tne sur- 
face of the plate when it is required for 
use, for the preparation would be removed 
at the placea where any remained. This 

8 reparation ahould be made out of the solar 
ght. The plate covered with the solution 
of acetate of silver should be kept out of 
the light 

The solution of acetate of silver is pre- 
pared by making a saturated aolution of 
aoetate of sUver, to whioh half its bulk of 
wrter is added. Admitting that 100 parts 
of water dissolve, at the ordinary tempera- 
ture, 0*5 gr. of acetate of silver, to prepare 
0-750 lit. of the solution which I use, I 
dissolve 2*5 gr. of aoetate of soda in 15 
grammes of water; I likewise dissolve 
3*03 gr. of nitrate of silver in 10 grammes 
of water; I add the section of nitrate of 
silver to the solution of aoetate of soda, and 
I receive the acetate of silver which is pre- 
dpitated on a filter, I wash the precipitate 
In a atream of water, then I pass through 
the filter several times 0*50 lit. of water ; 
almost the whole of the aoetate of silver 
should then be dissolved ; I afterwards add 
0*25 lit. of water to the half litre of satu- 
rated solution. 

In this operation, 8 grammes of acetate 
of silver are formed, the 0*75 lit. should 
contain only 2*50 gr., but I put in a little 
more of It to make up for any that may 
have been lost in the water of the solutions 
and of washing. The acetate of silver being 
very easily altered by the solar light, I make 
this solution as far as possible in a dimly 
lighted place. I preserve It in a bottle 
covered with black paper, and filter It every 
time I use It. 



I expose the plate prepared ti abofs 
described to the vapour of Iodine, in the 
same manner as a plate of silvered oopper ; 
only, for this exposure, aeoouat must be 
taken of the time, fbr we cannot judge of 
the tint on the surface, only the tiaie of 
exposure Is shorter than for dlvered plates. 
The iodised plate is placed In the frame of 
the camera obscure, and then I cover the 
side which is not gelatinised with a piece of 
oard-board covered with blade doth. It is 
good to allow some time to elapse betweeQ 
the iodising and the exposure to the fbeut of 
the camera ; the plate thereby gaina in een- 
dbility. I have aometimee used plates five 
or six hours after the Iodising} thej had 
lost nothing of their sendtlveness. 

The sensitivenees of theee plates Is aboat 
one-fourth of that of plates prepared witli 
Iodine and bromine. For a l a nds ea p e with 
much light and with an objeet-glass with s 
small diaphragm, the exposure in tiie 
camera may require from 80 to 100 seconds. 
Portraits, with strong lights and shades, 
may be taken in two minntes with the por- 
trait objeet-glass. I have tried the effect of 
the vapour of bromine on these plates, and 
have found that It renders them more ddi- 
cate. I have not mede sufficieot expert* 
ments to have certain data on this suhjeet. 

In order to make the image appear, I 
plunge the plate Into a solution of gallie 
acid containing 0*1 gr. of gallie add In 100 
grammes of water ; I leave the proof until 
the shadows appear sufliciently intense. 
This immersion may last an hour or an 
hour and a half. With a more concentrated 
solution of gallic add, It would requira a 
shorter time, but It would be more ^ffienlt 
to regulate Its action. At the commence- 
ment of the immersion, a positive inuce is 
formed on the surface of the gelatine. This 
Image beoomes more and more dark ; but, 
on looking through It, the parts correspond- 
ing to the shadows in nature remain vcrj 
Ught. 

To fix the proof. It is washed in ordinary 
water, and then left for about a quarter o(f 
an hour In a solution of 1 gramme of hypo- 
sulphite of soda In 100 grammes of water t 
it Is agdn washed in ordinary water, and it 
is steeped fbr the same length of time in n 
solution of 1 gramme of bromide of potas- 
sium, in 100 grammes of water. 

I wash the proof with ordinary water, 
allowing 'it to remdn in It for fifteen or 
twenty minutes ; then I wash with diatilled 
water, and allow the layer of gelatine to dry 
In the open air. It is then a very dear 
negative proof, capable of giving podtlro 
proofs, with ordinary photographic pqper, 
in the sun, in firom 2 to 10 minutes, accord* 
log to the vigour of the negative proofs It 
also comes very wdl In the shads. 



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PHOTOOBAPHT ON FAPSB. 



109 



U is wdl to reii«ir, at each operation, tbe 
tolatioBa of gi^Hc add, bjpoiulphite of 
toda and bromide of potaaiium. 

Is this operation, if tbe eolation of gallie 
aeidbe replaoed by a solntion of sulphate of 
protoxide of iron, Tory beantiAil podtire 
proolii are obtained. 



FBOrOOAAVHT OK PAPBE. — MKAIIS OF 
OBTAIKIMO TBB IMAOB IN THB CAMBBA 
OBSCURA OM DRT FAPBB.* BT M. 
BLAlf<lUABT*BTBABD. 

^ render tbe exeeotioa of photographj 
on paper Simple, snre and easj to those least 
ezperlBDoed in chemical aaanipnlations, 
shoold be the object of the efforU of those 
who wish to bring this art to iU most QsefiBl 
appHeatioB in indvstrial economy. Tbe 
lint condition Ibr entering into thia new 
order of thbgs, ia to rid the operation of 
the care which it reqnirea at tbe Ume of 
the ezpoenre. Weopen the way by giring 
harei-* 

1. llw means of operating on dry paper, 
histead of damp paper, freeing the operator 
from Hie diffienlt preparatlona which he has 
to malw at the places of exposaie. 

2. So simple a mode of preparing this 
photogenie paper, that it may be maniU^ 
tared and sold to the amatenr who doea 
aoC deaire the tronble of preparing it hUn- 
sell: 

The papers prepsred by the mesne 
hitiierto deeeribed co«ld notbebronght to 
the dry state withont afterwards taking, 
mider the action of gallic add, an nniform 
coloralion which woald efface the photo- 
lede Image, and eanse it to completely 
Sssappear. Serum has the property of ob- 
Y^rthisfaicontenlence; the followmgis 
^ mode of prepsiatien to bo adopted i— 

CoBect, by tttorfng, the dear part of 
mflk whidi has been tamed, end beat ap 
fai tide senim the white of one egg to •ach 
pint, then boa in order to remoTC aU the 
eoM matters, and lllter H«^t •^ ^^ch 
dissolTC withont heat 5 per cent, by weight 
of iodide of pousdam. The paper to be 
prnwred mnst be rery thick and steeped 
entirely in the liquid for two minutes, and 
allerwards dried by hanging it, by means of 
two pins, by two of its corners, to s line. 

This pi^aration is made in the daylight 
withoat any particular precaution < the paper 
ia lit fbr immediate use for dx montha after, 
and oertdnly after a nraeh longer time. 
When it hea to be iued, it is submitted to a 
Mcond preparation, whhsh ie done by ean- 



dldight, and as short a time as possible 
before the exposore; it is, howerer, still 
capable of glTing good results sererd daya 
after, aroiding then, as much as possible, 
IcBTing it in a high tesDperature. 

We proceed therefore in this preparation 
by oorering a glass with aoeto-nitrate of 
aUfcr oomposedof 1 part of nitrate of 
siWer, 2 parte of crystalBsable acetic acid» 
and 10 parte of distiUed water. On this 
substance is depodted one of the ddes of 
the paper, whidi is allowed to imbibo 
until it has become perfectly transoa. 
rent, which is ascertdned by rdsing it be« 
tween the operator's eye and the candle» 
after which it is dried between sererd folda 
of Tcry white blotting-paper, and left so 
until it has to be placed in the frame, behind 
a sheet of Tcry dean and dry paper, and 
between two glasses, as in the moist opera- 
tion preriously described. 

The exposure to which we afterwards 
proceed next day, rariea aocor^og to tho 
light and the power of the object-glasses, 
firom one to flTe minutes. 

On returning to work, the part of the 
paper wfaich has been presented to the light 
is depodted in a saturated layer of gi^o 
add, teking care to secure the other side 
from any trace of gallie add which would 
atein it. The image is gradoally formed, 
and finally acquires as powerfd tones as caa 
be desired ; it is then washed in a great 
quantity of water, then parte into a solntioa 
composed of 1 part of bromide of poftasdum 
and 20 parte of water, in order to dissolve 
the unreduced sdte of diver, then agahi 
washed to remove dl traeea of this broaside, 
whose acUoB, by continuing, would deatroy 
the image, and finally dried belsieen folds of 
blotting paper. 



The paper prepeied by albumen has aaa- 
logons propertice to thst in the pfeparatioa 
of which serum is used, but ia sn inferior 
degree ; like it, it remaina good for an dmost 
indefinite period after tbe preparation with 
tbe iodide, but, after having been submitted 
to the aceto-nitrate of silver, it can bo 
scarcely kept beyond next day. The proofa 
given by tbe preparation we are about to 
describe are admirable ; not ao fine as those 
on glass, they have more charma, because 
the contraste are less decided, and they pos- 
•ess more harmony and softness. We think 
that it is a real acquidtion for those who 
seek the effecte of art in tbe resolte of pho- 
tography. 

Wlnte of egg> to which have been added 
thirty dropa of a saturated solution of lodido 
of potassium fui^l two dropa of a saturated 



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110 BELGIAN METHOD Of APFLTIKO THJB HIAT SE8ULTIMO FBOM THB 

tohition of bromide of pMuiittm to Midi Pn/HumH&n ff ik§ FotUHfe Ammmt 

white of 9gg, is beftten up to a mow. It U - 

left to repose vntll tke snow retamiB to 

■Ibnmeii fn the liquid state, and thea fil- 
tered through silk or dear maslin, the albu- 

neii belBg oolleeted ins largo and quite flat 

vessel. The psper to be prepared is then 

deposited on the layer and left on it fbr a 

fiBW minntea. When it is oofered with 

albonen, it is raised by one of ito eomers, 

and allowed to drain and dry by snsptndiBg 

it by one or two oomers from a line. 

The preparation with the aeeto-nitrato is, 
' in erery respeet, the same as that described 
•Ibr the paper prepared with serum; eare 

most be taken to dry it between two folds 
• of blotting paper only when the paper has 

acquired eomplete transparency. It is put 

Into the frame for eiposure in the same 

Manner, Uie appearance of the image and 

the rest of the operation is the same < but 

the eiposure reqnlres a longer time, gene- 
rally four or fife minutes. 



The positife paper prepared with albumen 
gives somewhat leis briUiaat proofs, but of 
a richer tone, and of a more agreeaUa finish 
and transparency ; It is prepaiod in tho fol- 
lowing manner : — 

To the whites of eggs is added 25 per 
cent, (by weight) of water satorated wlA 
chloride of sodium. The white of egg is 
beaten into a snow, and filtered ea in the 
preceding preparatioB, only in this ease the 
paper is left on the albumen Isr only half a 
minute. It is then bung ap to drj, which 
is accomplished In six or eight minotas ; it 
is afterwards deposited in a vessel oontain- 
ing 25 psrto of nitrate of silrer and 100 
parte of distilled water. The paper ia hik 
in the bath at lesst six minutes, and afWr* 
wards dried fiat. 



nULfilAN iniTHOD OF APPLTINO THB BUAT &S8ULTINO PROIf THE If ANUFACTUBB 
OV OOKB TO THB OOLLATBUAL PUBPOSB OF HBATINO BTBAli-BOILEBS. 

The application of the heat of coke-OTens 
to the production of stesm is nearly uni- 
tctftsl in Belgium. It was first uied in this 
wsy at CouUlet, and other works of the 
Charleroi cotl basin. There the flames 
first passed underneath the coke oven 
through a series of horisontal flues, whence 
they were conducted beneath the boilers, 
fiot the heat of radiation was not employed 



in this method. Mr. Matlhey» 
at the Sersing Works, was the fitst who 
made use of the heal of radiatton of tWs 
charged coke oven-^thus obtaining a vury 
much larger proportion of heating puumr. 
The arrangement adopted at Seining and 
Ongr^, which has wonMdvsry succeasfMly 
since, above a year and half, ia that rapia 
asnted in aaation in the necoMpanylag «i- 




graving:— a is the boiler; b, the hetting 
fines, which surround it, and which convey 
the burnt gases into a chimney, placed at 
the extremity, which chimney rises to a 
height of about a foot, and is f^imiahed with 



sliding valves to fegulate the dtwight % c k 
a csst<^iron support Ibr the boiier* one mi 
these ia pl aoed between each coke oven ; d 
in a oylittdrioal eUauMy» fonatef the oona- 
munication between the coke oven,/, «b4 



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XAXUFAOTUBB OF COSE TO THB COLLATBBAL PURPOSE OF HEATING B0ILEB8. Ill 



■Bdiag iqiurt fitv^brick, t , which etn be 
df««B bMkwardt and forwinU by an iron 
ro4 ; #t #f are two rartioal chimaeyt in the 
tfairkiH'iee of the mtfonnr. CommttnioaHng 
with the oohe OTen» ana dosed at top by a 
aofoabb brick, there ii a tmall rectangmar 
canal of cast-iron, which conreys the air 
from the exterior to the saperior orifice of 
the chimney, d; this air senrci for the pnr- 
e of ejecting the combustion of the gas, 
aedlately on Its exit from the coke 
n. Under the boilei^ Is a thin partition 
waB, ramdog f^m end to end, so that the 
HoM lasning from the otens does not Im- 
■srtialely go In the direction of tlie chlm- 
m&ff bnl &W8 in the oontrary direction till 
Ihe end, when it turns the partition wall, 
Md to then drawn along the other side of 
the boiler towards the chimney. Abore the 
hoQer Is an empty annular space of about 
9 or 10 in,, where there is an immoreable 
layer of air, mhtn the heat is required to be 
coooentrated, and a strong draught into the 
ehlBBiiey when the boiler is required to be 
rapidly oooled for deanlng. Under each 
boOsr we hate fire orens, which are 
barged at different stated hours of the day. 
Each oven Is charged with 3 tons 5 cwts. of 
eoal, which icmains in the oren 24 hours. 
Tbe coTcsa ter the sMmnayi, f, are dosed, 
md that orer d to opeaed. We obtain 10- 
hortee power from each ooke oTen. When 
the beitor has to be cleaned out, the slide, e, 
Is dosed, the chimneys, d, are opened, and 
doors ptoced In the latMul walls, eifectiDg a 
oommnntoatloQ between the fines, b, and 
the exterior are opened, thereby occasioning 
a powerfol draught Into the chimney. The 
coke OTCBi proceed as usual. There Is a 
rsmarkable differenee in the earthy deposit 
fai the bailett now t» what it waa when the 
boOen were heiftad In the ordinary maantr ; 
then thn AiposH iras so hard and eempael, 
ttoit to had to be broken with a hammer 
Md ehSsal; wnr there to not the slighteet 
perttolo wkAeh remains attached to the 
bollera i it to all la the stote of suspended 
wid, eeelly mnoted. I attributo thto to 
the m«eh laiger heating surface. The heat 
on any particular part of the snrfsce to 
modi diminished in intensity. I shall, in a 
fbtnre communication, give some experi- 
ments on the quantity of water conrerted 
Into Tapour by the heat produced by the 
combustion of the gaies proceeding from 
the carbonisation of a given quantily of 
eoal. — B. Motimvioni Lsn, Oiifr^» 
Zdiyt. Jf <«hi | /bnme/. 



oir iMAou or tbb auir ano moon dn* 

TAXMBD ON OLAJSa BY ^HOTOOBAPBY.* 
BT 11 . KIXPCB DB SAlNT-yiCTOB. 

Hating totely heard M. Arago state at the 
Academy, that proofs of the sun had been 
taken on plates of silter, I wtohed to see 
the effect produced on a sheet of glass ca- 
tered with a layer of coaguUted albumeB, 
which, as is known, gites an interse or 
negatite proof. 

I operated in the fbilowing manner:-^ 
Hating prepared my glam plate, without 
employing any means of acceleration, I ex- 
posed it in the camera*obBcura, of which the 
object glass (I operated with an object glase 
for a fourth of the ptote) was in the direo- 
tion of the sun, the image of which I had 
placed in the ttoual focus, whieh in Ihto 
object glsM oorreeponds exactly to the pho* 
togenic focus. 

My first experiments were made as quickly 
as possible, that to to say, as quickly as 1 
eoiUd ilncoter and coter the object glass, 
operating with a diaphragm of flte millime- 
tres in dtometer. Notwithstanding thto, the 
image came too rapidly. On submitting the 
ptote to the notion of gallto aeid. It besame 
quite black, I then eeneeited the Idea of 
raising tbe dlsphragm and leating the object 
glass uncotered long enough for the image 
to appear without the aid of galUc add, and 
thto succeeded. 

Hie first pUte wu exposed fite, and the 
second ten seconds. 

Theee were the reeults I obtained i— the 
Ant plate showed a tery tisible and dtoiinot 
Image, of a blood-red colour, much deeper 
in the middto than at the edgee, as any one 
may see by examining the plate. 

The second ptote presented the same dif^ 
ferance between the oentre and the circum- 
fisrence, but with greater intensity ; besides 
which, it had a cirde beyond the imsge^ in 
the form of a glory. 

The different intensity of the oentre and 
the edge to so mndk the greater as, notwith- 
standing the effect of contrast, it is still tery 
perceptible, espectollt when examined by 
the microscope. And by the same eflbet of 
contrast. If the Image it blackened with 
gallto add, the reterse effect takes place. 

I hate made more than twenty proolh 
and almost dways with the same results. 

The reBults of these experimento era quite 
in conformity with the opinion annonnoed 
by M. Arago, that tbe photog^to rajs ema** 
Bating from the oentre of the Sun bate mora 
action than those near the edge or dreum- 
ferance. 

I tried, and with success, to take the 
image of the Moon In twenty seconds, the 



» Compim Rmdtu, No. It, Jane 3, 1800. 



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112 



WB8TMIK8TSB BBIDOE. 



Mom hik^ «t the ftillt tnd DeffSocdy ia the 
fbeos of mj olgeet glau ; and without ming 
an heliottat, I obtained a rerj round image. 
B«t the rapidity with which I operated wai 
eo great, that the Moon had not time to 
move peroeptiblj ; for I shonld say that if 
left for thir^ leoondf we ihonld hare rmther 
an oTal image. 

To obtain an image of the moon, I found 
it necessary to operate in the speediest man* 
ner, sndi as wonld enable me to take a proof 
Of a liBdsoape illnmined by diffnsed light in 
one, or at most two, saooada. 

I obtained this great rapidity by new 
aaana, which I haTc lately consigned to the 
Academy in a sealed pad^et This packet 
Ukewise contains a means analogoas to that 
wldoh M. Blanqnart has jost published* for 
operating in the dry way on paper ; I like* 
wise explain the way to prepare paper with 
albumen for positiTC proofs. I propose to 
make tiiese processes known whisn I haTC 
concluded the works with whidi I am at 
this moment occupied. 



TBI ROOFING OV THB BUfLDnfG FOR TBS 

BZBiBinox or 1851. 
Sir, — Aa I take great interest in all 
that pertains to the aa?ancement of scl- 
enoe, I shall trouble you with a few 
desultory remarks touching the great 
co?ered area in which the Exhibition is 
to take place next year, and for the com- 
pletion of which arrangements seem to 
oe already in a yery promising state. As 
it ia now understood that the roof of this 
immense structure is to be of glass, it ap- 
pears to your correspondent that, — Istly, 
the annoTing effect of a midsummer sun, 
and the aaasling and headng influence of 
its noonday rays, has not been suflKciently 
taken into cabulation, as it must be 
allowed that their effect would be any- 
thing but pleasant on the Tisitors tra- 
Tersing its interior. Also I suspect that 
some of the sculptural creations, and 
other works of art, will not in this case 
be shown to adTantaffe. But secondly, 
and especially, I wooid urge that, in case 
a storm of hail (sufficiently heavy) 
should unluckily precipitate itself on this 
brittle mass, how incalculable would be 
the resulting damage, not merely to the 
roof^ but to the articles collected for 
exhibition I Without dilating further on 
the disastrous consequences of such a 
casualty, I would suggest that the glass 
roof be completely covered over with 

•Set page MW. 



some kind of fine network, or dse a 
fabrio^ — as calico, which, beddea aetins 
as a cushion to the hail (if suoh ^onld 
Ml), would also shade off very effec- 
tively the rays of the sun. It ia not 
necessary that the fabric should be im* 
mediately contiguous to the glass (tiles 
I will call them), for it can be put at 
any varying distance from them, either 
upon slender fixed uprights (simflar to 
the brass railing skirting the counting- 
house desk), or otherwise— upon stretched 
cords, or, indeed, any way toat would be 
judged most convenient. I have no doubt 
that the contractor for the glass wOl con- 
sider the odds of such an accident suifi- 
oient in this case to induce him to 
defray the whole expense out of his own 
pocket, as the material wonld be cheap, 
and would merely want sewing together. 
Should you consider these suggesttona 
worth recordinff in your usefbil Magi- 
sine, I shall feel obliged. 

I am, Sir, yours, &c., 

Wm. H. Hallrk. 
Boxilemt Aogosti ISM. 



WRSTHINSTBR BRIDOR. 

In the M9oh, Mar. of the 6th ultimo 
you called the attennon of your readers 
to the laudable exertions of Sir Bobert 
Harry Inglis in procuring the appoint- 
ment of a C!ommittee of the House of 
Commons for the j^urpose of investi- 

fating the whole sul^ect of Westminster 
(rid^, and for carrving out the recom- 
mendations of the Report of the Com- 
mittee of 1848 : you abo extracted some 
valuable paragraphs from Sir Howard 
Douglas's pamphlet on the subject The 
Temporarv Bridge Committee recently 
appointed nas, it w said, closed its labours 
by recommending the oonstmotioii of a 
temporary bridge, at a cost of S5,000L 
or 40,000/ , and rebuilding the old bridge. 
After the large sums expended (220,000/1) 
in repairing the old bridge, it was not 
reasonable to suppose that the Com- 
mittee would reoommend any other course 
than rebuilding the bridge. Various 
plans have been suggested^ — such aa a 
bridge of timber, and cast and wrought 
iron, and stone ; but in any case, a stvle 
suited to that of the Houses of ParlU- 
oNDt seems to be recommended. The 
evidenoe which was given in the Report 
of the Committee in 1848 is decidedly 
against the adoption of any other mate- 



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WATEB-TXOHT BTTLS HEADS. 



118 



rbl tbaD stone, or of «nj other stjle 
than that suiuble to the present adyanoed 
itate of sciencey rather than retrograde 
to the ttjle adopted during the dark aget , 
when art was little understood. Let 
ns not» therefore, have a Gothic bridge. 
It is said, however, that the appearanee 
of the Honses of PU'liament would be 
sensibly affected if anj other than a 
Gotbieised bridge be bnilt; so that, be- 
eanse the arehitecture of the Houses of 
Parliament has been frittered awaj in 
small details, and its diffnitj greatly de- 
teriorated, the science of the age is to be 
compromised further for the uke of the 
Houses of Parliament I Under such cir- 
cumstances it behores the Legislature to 
consult its character and dignity by ap- 
pesling to persons the best qualifled bj 
their knowledge and experience to guide 
them from falling into the errors which 
hare emanated from theselection of a style 
of arebitecture unsuited to the representa- 
tires of a great nation, aod to the ad- 
vancement of the art of bridge-building. 
While we boast of the metropolitan 
bridges of Waterloo, London, and Sonth- 
wark as unriyalled masterpieces, let us 
avoid the errors which have been and 
mav be committed in the construction 
ana repairs of Westminster Bridge. 

AmoHiTaoTus. 
P.S.— Blackfriars Bridge is friling 
ta»t : the haunches or spandrels of the 
middle arch show alarming cracks In 
consequence. The sinking of the adjoin- 
ing pier on the Surrey side, and die sub- 
simce of the cornice and parapet, are 
considerable. Baree-loads of stone are 
being thrown into the river, thus endan- 
gering the other piers of the bridge. 



WATSa-nttHT BULK HSAB8, TBB INVBM- 
TION OF OAFTAUr SCHANKS. 

Sir, — ^Ton are aware that on perusal 
of your Magatine of the 27th ult, 
I immediatelj endeavoured to obtain 
" Steel's Eleroenu of Naval Architec- 
tore,** referred to by jour correspondent 
**• «,'* in that Number, but it was onlv 
last nls^t that an extract of the book 
was procured, giving an account of Cap- 
tain Schanks' vessel, the Trial; I hasten 
to ssy that It now appears to have been 
Captidn Schanka not General Beotham, 
who first in this country introduced 
water^tiffht bulkheads. I, at the same 
time, mat my thanks to your Ipswich 



correspondent for having enabled me to 
correct a misconception which has so 
long existed. 

That part of Steel's description of the 
Trial which relates to the water-tisht 
bulkheads, is as follows :— *< The hold is 
divided into several compartments, all 
water-tight, and so contrived that even 
ahould a plank or two start at sea in dif- 
ferent parts of the vessel, she may aftoe- 
wards be navigated with the greatsst 
security to any part of the worid.*' 

Captain Schanks being thus proved 
to have been the first indrodooer of this 
great improvement, I cannot but express 
surprise that for the long period of flfty- 
ilve years it has remain^ as it were un- 
known in the naval department, that 
Genenral Bentham should never have 
heard of its having been exhibited in 
the TVta/, and that even Steel himself 
having described the Trial should a few 
pages after, in the same book, p. 177, 
Third Edition, in speaking of Sir 
Samuel's experimental vesseb, describe 
his fixed bulkheads, and say, *'the 
idea of such bulkheads may probably 
have originated with the Chinese or 
with the ancients ;" but making neither 
reference nor allusion to what he had 
done in the Trial. 

It seems most extraordinary that 
General Bentham should never have 
heard of the water-tight compartments 
of the Trial; at the time of the con- 
struction of the experimental vessels he 
was io frequent communication with 
Lord Hugh Seymour, the then principal 
naval Lord of the Admiralty, as also 
with Sir Philip Stevens, who had pre- 
viously been long chief secretary of die 
Admiralty Board, yet these gentlemen 
never mentioned the TriaTs water-tight 
compartments ; and moreover, In 1798, 
they sanctioned General Bentham 's 
Report to the Committee on Finance, in 
which his water-tight compartments 
were particularly spoken of, though cer- 
tainly not as any invemiUm of his — for In 
truth he always disclaimed the inteniion 
of this improvement, saving it was a 
practice of the Chinese of the then pre- 
sent day, as it had been of the ancients. 

His experimental vessels were for 
many years scouted by the greater part 
of naval and dockyaiti officers, and by 
the Navy Board, and even unfkir means 
were resorted to for brinffing them into 
discredit, yet never was It ever hinted 



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114 THE ASISTOCRACT OF BNaULND 9» XRB OUUMl OF SOIENCE AKD UTSBATUBE. 



that the witer*tight comptrtmenti had 
io reeentlj been exhibited in the TrieU 
— a circumstaQce the more unaecount^ 
able, at he had adopted slidinff heeU in 
the Arrow and Dart profeasedly aa the 
inTention of Capuin Sohanka. Can it 
be that this gentleman's inventions were 
even in worse odour than General Bent- 
ham's among all who were ayerae to 
deviatioBB from established praetiee, good 
orbadP 

General Bentham could not have had 
any motive for eenoealing that water- 
tignt compartmento had been introduced 
in the TWa/, for he never pretended 
that the J were otherwise than well- 
known as a Chinese practice to English 
navigators in the eastern seas, and to 
many English shipwrights. Indeed, it 
would well have answered his hope of 
eflRsctinff improvement had he been 
enablea to quote a previous auooesaful 
instance of water-tight compartmenta in 
an English vessel, devised bj an Englirii 
naval officer. Whenever there waa 
opportunity, General Bentham officially 
brought to notice, in support of his pro- 

rils, instances in which the measures 
proposed had been previously em- 
ployed, aa his correspondence with the 
Admiralty would prove. In fict, it waa 
as much his interest as it was his incli- 
nation to exhibit, as far as his knowledge 
went, any oases in which thoee things he 
recommended had already been success- 
fully employed. 

It may be supposed that your Ipswich 
correspondent takee a deep Interest in 
naval architecture: if so, it may be 
hoped that his endeavours will be exerted 
to introduce an habitual employment of 
water-tight compartments in vessels 
built of wood as well as in iron steamers ; 
tof surely the expedient is not the Icsc 
vabable because it was first adopted by 
Captain Sehanks. 

M. S. B. 

Aufiut 7, 1850. 

THS AaiSTOOEACT OF BNOLAND V. THB 
CLAIMS or SOXBNOB AMD UTBRATURB. 

In the course of a reoent discussion ia 
the House of Cknnmons, Lord John 
Russell complained of Mr. Bright's bay- 
ing '* represented the ariatoeracy of £ng» 
land as a class forming a sort of great 
ooiMMil, like that of Venice, ^rely 
separated from the great body of the 
p s ep le M if i$$ rcmk9 w^re ttoi com* 



tinualfy recruiied from the gromi wua 
of Mf people:* And his Lordship pro- 
ceeded to aniouuivert on the subjeot 
in theae terms : ** Members of families 
which a hundred years ago were 
amongst the humblest and poorest of 
the subjects of the Crown in this coun- 
try, have, bv dint of tsJent— by dint of 
learning, whether in the professioB of 
the law or the churoh^y their serviees 
in the navy or army, or by other distin- 
guished merits — won their way to the 
highest honours of the peerage, and 
formed as proud a portion of the aria- 
toeracy as any of the peers." • • . 
" I not only hold that this supposed dia- 
tinction is unfounded in £sctr--not only 
that it is contrary to all we a now of the 
history of past ages, and of what we 
see day by dav, as will appear from an 
examination or any list of the peers of 
Enghmd-bttt I also contend that a 
belief in ita existenoe would have a 
mischievous effect, and, iastnid of 
strengthening that union of claasea in 
this country, which induces the ariato- 
eracy to believe that their fate and wel- 
fare is bound up with the welfare of the 
people, and the people to look upon the 
aristocracy as the defenders of their 
righu and privileges, would lead to a 
war of cksses and ranks that would 
cause the subversion of the constttutton, 
and of the existing state of society. 
The aristocracy of the oountry, instead 
of being desirous to separate tnemselvca 
from the people, feel that their strength 
and permanent existence depend on con- 
tinually receiving fresh accessions from 
those who by the highest qualitiee qf 
mind are abie to place ihemeeloes on am 
equality with them.** 

We should be glad to believe all this to 
be true ; but it is so only in a very limited 
sense. The reader has only to refer, aa 
Lord John suggests, to ''any list of the 
peers of England,'* to be at once con- 
vinced that the charge of exeluaiveneaa 
at which his lordship has taken offimce 
ia but too well founded. He will find in 
thia list many succeaslVil soldie^ many 
fortunate political lawyers, and many 
mere meoey>grubber8, whose only claim 
to a pUoe in the peerace was the pos- 
aessioo of enormous wealth ; but not osie 
mam of emence or litermtmre-^i^t ia to 
aay, not one man who can be aaid to 
hone bean imdebtedfor kie eUaatkm to 
hie aaientific or mararg attammmUa. 



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THE INVENTION OF THE TDBULAB BBIDOB. 



X15 



So moch then for ** the highest qualities 
of mind'* being represented in the British 
peerage. 

When, lome twenty jeirs ago, Mr. 
Bftbbftge wrote of the <* Decline of Sci- 
ence in EngUnd,** one of the principal 
eausee to whioh he attributed tma (sup- 
poied) deeliiMy was this very exclusion 
of men of science — an exclusion as im- 
memorial as meiporable — ^from the ranka 
of the nobility. "Another (remedial} 
propoeal," be saidi " has been talked of, 
— one which it may appear almost ridi- 
eokma to suggest in England, but which 
would b€ eou4nder$d torn no other couH" 
try, — it ia, to ennoble some of the greatest 
seienti&: benefactors of their country. 
Not to mention political causes, the ranks 
of the nobility are eonstantly recruited 
from the army, the nary, and the bar. 
Why should not the fkmily of that roan 
whose name is imperishabW connected 
with the steam enginebe enrolled amongst 
the nobility of his country ? (Why not, 
indeed ?) in utility and profit, not merely 
to that country, but to the human race, 
bis deeds may proudly claim comparison 
even with the most splendid of those 
aebioTed by classes so rulh In glorioui 
ifcoUcetioDS*" 

aa. scoftbrn's mxthod of pxpueatino 
suoAa. — IS IT poisonous ? 

A {Miper was read on MoncUy last, in the 
Cbemical Lecture of tlie British Association 
(Bdtnbnrgh Meeting), by Dr. Scofiem, on 
his proceu of dcporatiog sucar, whioh Isd to 
la an i waUt d disoossion. Dr. Scoffium em- 
ploys acetate of lead to oombine with the 
slhnasliioas matter, and he afterwards con- 
▼arts the lead employed into a sulphite by 
the introdnction ot snlphnrons acU. The 
•■^hite of lead is inioluble, therefore it 
dses not pass through the filters, and thus 
renoTcd (rom the sngar. Some pajrtides, 
ind ee d , will pass throogh, not amonnting, 
homver, it was stated, to the 1500th part 
of a gnda ia a pound of sngar ; and the 
l^estiew on which d iscnss i en arose was, 
vhetfaer the aalphite of lead, being insoln- 
U^iainiiOQMHW? It was admitted that, by 
Or* Scotfpm'a process, a much larger qnan* 
%off«6oed9ngari8prodaoads but it was 
afiraaad, on the other iumd, that the lead 
veald not he snficientty extracted to render 
it haniUats Dr. Qri^ry strongly snp- 
fstted the jnnocneos ? iew of the question, 
md said he had gifen quantities of the snl- 
pbite of lead to doga, without any iojuriona 
Dr. ChiisSso^ on the other hand, 

■HiBiddMii, Ahougb sniphlte ul liad ie 



insoluble by most known chemical Mgen^s, ft 
is possible that it may be renJeied boluble 
by the fluids of the intestines under the in- 
fluence of vital action. He said be bad 
known the case of a person who had, for a 
year, drunk water contaminated by an nn- 
detecUble portion of lead, without expe- 
riencing any bad effects ; but, at the end 
of that period, she was attacked with the 

Snptoms whioh poisoning by lead luTa* 
bly produces. 

Tan IKTIIITIOW OF THa TUBVLAB 

nniDoa. 
IBdMurgh Meeting qf the BntUh Ateo- 

eiation."] 

In the Mechanical Section, an interest- 
ing discussion arose on the subject of the 
party to whom the priority of the disoo- 
Tery of the principle of the tnbolar bridge 
should be assigned. The discussion arose 
in consequence of the President of the 
Association (Sir D. Brewster) baring com- 
municated the substance of a note which he 
had received from Mons. Jules Gnyot, 
claiming the priority of the invention of the 
tubolar bridge, and contending, it would 
appear, that English engineers had stolen 
the idea from njm» If engineers shouhl 
consider the junction of hoUow paraUelo»i 
pipeds the same ia principle mm the tubular 
bridge of Fairbaim's, then Guyot might 
have some claim to the invention. 

Mr. RiLNKiNK stated, that the late Mr. 
Andrew Thomson, of Glasgow, so far back 
as 1840, had constracted hoUow girders of 
boiler plates, between which were formed 
arches of brick to carry a road over the 
Pollock and (xovan Railway: nor did the 
invention of the girder lie with him even; ii 
was traceable to some time prior to this 
period, when such girders had been used to 
form bridges between blast furnaces at iron 
works. 

Major-General Sir CaAaLEs Pasi.bt 
said, that Mr. Stephenson laid claim to the 
invention of iron girders, whether great or 
small, and upon this be rested his claim to 
the inrcntion of the tnbukr bridge. He 
had seen bis first idea, which was rejected 
by the Admiralty, because of ia not afibrd. 
big space enough for the navigation of the 
Strait. His next idea was two oval tubes, 
resting upon a pillar on the Britannia Rock, 
through which the road wonld pass. He 
belief ed that up to this time no idea had 
been formed of a tubular bridge. The nei^ 
step was the rectangnUur fbrm, whidi was 
shown to be the best, by the experiments of 
Fairbairn. He thought that the particniar 
tma. was dae to Fairhaim, while he beUeved 
the origiaai idea of the tubular bridge to be 
due to Stephenson. 

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THE REALITY OP SPECTRAL APPEARANCES PROVED. 



Sir D. BRBW9TBE obsenred, that if Ste- 
phemon admits (which he seems to hare 
done) that the inrention of the girder was 
the iiiTeotion of the tubular bridge, then it 
oertainlj did follow that, jost as a telescope 
of a foot long was as much a telescope as 
that of Lord Rosae's, that the inTention was 
due to Stepheason. He did think, howerer, 
that Stephenson had claimed too mnch ; and 
the risk was, he woold get credit for leas 
than was his due. 

General C. Faslst was afraid that Mr. 
Stephenaon may hare grasped at too much, 
and might, in oonseqnenoe, get credit for 
leas than he was, in his opinion, entitled to. 

Dr. RoBiKSON remarked, that if the let- 
ters arising out of the controrersy touching 
this affair between Stephenson and Pairbaim 
were to be relied on, he certainly did think 
that Stephenson had extended his claims too 
fur. It did appear to him (Dr. Robinson), 
that vp to a late period Mr. Stephenson had 
no idea at all of any other than the tensile 
foroe, and that the resistance to a oom- 
pressiTc foroe had not yet entered his mind. 
His idea of auxiliary chains seemed to indi- 
cate as much. The grand idea of a tubular 
bridge at this time he certainly had not. 

The A8TBoifOMB& Royal (Professor 
Airy) expressed his great regret that a con- 
troTersy of this kind had beoi admitted into 
the British Association. He protested against 
all discussions of this kind, as bebg foreign 
to its olgeots, and calculated, in no sm^ 
degree, to disturb the harmony of its dell- 
berations. 

Sir D. BftiwsTSR having been boldly told, 
when in France, that the idea of the tubular 
bridge had beoi stolen by the Eoglish, he 
felt bound to defend his countrymen from 
such an allegation. He did not see why the 
discussion could not be conducted in kind- 
ness, and with the simple idea of determin- 
ing the truth. He could not sympathise 
with the Astronomer Royal in his protest 
against such discussions being entered upon 
in the British Association. 

Here the discussions were likely to be- 
oome so warm, tliat Dr. Robinson, the Pre- 
sident of the Section, brought them to a 
close, much to the regret of many present. 



THK MAONKT— INaUIET. 

Sir,— I should feel much obliged if some 
of your readers would, through the medium 
of your pages, inform a learner in electri- 
city what amount of magnetic power resides 
in the keeper of a magnet compared wiUi 
that in the magnet Itself, supposing the 
keeper not to be in actual contact with the 
permanent magnet| but haTing the poles of 
the keeper separated from thme of the per- 



manent magnet, about the distance of the 
thickness of stout paper. 

The size of the keeper may be assumed 
to be in any ratio to that of tlie magnet that 
he who will kindly give me an answer 
pleases . Hoping rery soon to haTo a replyi 

I remain to you, and all Blaetridana, 
A Fbllow-workbr of Soibmou* 



THE EBALITT of BFBCTEAL AFPXARAKCB8 
FEOVED AND TRACBO TO NATUEAL CAUSBS. 

(From " Reichenbacb's Researches on Magnetism*' 
— Dr. Gregory's Translation.) 

A case which occurred in the garden of 
the blind poet Ffeffel, haa been widely cir- 
culated by the press, and is well known. I 
shall here mention so much of it as is essen- 
tial. Ffeffel had engaged a young Protestant 
clergyman, of the name of Billing, as amanu- 
ensis. The blind poety when he took a 
walk, held Billing's arm, and was led by 
him. One day, as they were walking in the 
garden, which was at some distance from 
Uie town, Ffeflfel observed, that as often ag 
they passed orer a certahi spot. Billing's 
arm trembled, and the young man became 
uneasy. He made inquiry as to the cause 
of this, and Billing at last unwilUngly con- 
fessed, that as often as he passed over that 
spot, he was attacked by certain sensations, 
oter which he bad no control, and whidi he 
alwaya experienced where human bodies lay 
buried. He added, that when he came to 
such places at night, he saw strange {Seotiett 
uncanny) things. Ffeffel, with the view of 
curing the young msn of his folly, as he 
supposed it to be, went that night witii him 
to the garden. When they approached the 
place in the dark, Billing perceiTcd a feeble 
light, and when nearer, he aaw the delicate 
appearance of a fiery ghost-like form horer- 
ing in the air orer the spot. He described 
it as a female form, with one arm laid across 
the body, the other hanging down, horering 
in an upright posture, but without moTC- 
ment, the feet only a few hand-breadtha 
abore the soil. Ffeffel, ss the young man 
would not follow him, went up idone to the 
spot, and struck at random all round with 
his stick. He also ran through the spectre» 
but it neither moved nor changed to Billing's 
eyes. It was as when we atrike with a stiek 
through a fiame ; the form always appeared 
again in tlie same shape. Many experiments 
were tried during several montha ; company 
was brought to the place, but no change 
occurred ; and the ghost-seer adliered to Us 
earnest assertions; and, in consequence of 
them, to the suspicion that some one li^ 
buried there. At last Ffeffel had the plaoa 
dog up. At a considerable depth, they caaaa 
to a firm layer of white Hme, about as long 
and as broad as a grave, tolerably thick ; and 



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ENGLISH SPEOIFIOATIONS EMBOLLED DURING THE WEEK. 



117 



oa bmking throogh this, the bones of • 
liuiBa being were disoorered. It wu thai 
Moertained that some one had been baried 
there, and covered with a thick lajer of 
Hme, as is usually done in times of peiti* 
leaoe, earthquakes^ and similar calamities* 
The bones were tdcen out, the grave filled 
wp, the liaae miied up with earth and scat- 
tmd abroad, and the surface leveUed. When 
BilBag was now again brought to the place, 
the appearance wss no longer visible, and 
tbe nootomal ghost had vanished for ever. 
It ia hardly necessary to point oat to the 
reader what I think of this story, which 
cenaed moch discossion in Germany, because 
it came to as on the authority of the most 
truatworthy man alive, and received f^om 
theologians and psychologists a thousand 
frigbtfol interpretations. To my eyes, it 
belonged entirely to the domain of chemistry, 
and aidmitted of a simple and clear scientific 
explanation. A human corpse is a rich field 
for chemical changes, — for fermentation, 
putrefiaotion, gasification, and the play of all 
wiaimfT of affinities. A layer of dry quick 
lime, compressed into a deep pit, adds its 
own powerful affinities to organic matters, 
and lays the foundation of a long and slow 
action of these affinities. Rain water from 
above Is added; the lime first falls to a 
mealy powder, and afterwards is converted, 
hf the water which trickles down to it, into 
a tallow-like external mass, through which 
tbe external ahr penetrates but slowly. Such 
masses of lime have been found buried in 
old mined castles, where they have lain for 
eentories; and yet the lime has been so 
firesh, that it has been used for the mortar 
of new buildings. The carbonic acid of the 
air, indeed, penetrates to the lime, but so 
slowly, that in such a place a chemical 
process occurs which may last for many 
years. The occurrence in PfefFers garden 
was tiierefore quite according to natural 
bws ; and since we know that a continual 
emanation of the flames of the crystalline 
force* accompanies such proceises, the fiery 
appearance is thus explained. It must have 
continued until the affinities of the lime for 
carbonic add, and for the remains of organic 
matter in the bones, were satisfied, and finally 
brought Into equilibrium. Whenever, now, 
a person approached who was, to a certain 
d^TM> sensitive, but who might yet be or 

* The author here refen to the luminous emmar 
tiOM which are conttantly ftreaTning from magneta 
sad megaetbed hodlei— a fact long suapected, but 
only Utely established by his researches — and 
which are visible in the dark to many persons of 
great optical sensibility, and to a few even in twi- 
Bgbt. Tbe aurora borealis is but a case of this 
pbouanenon on a large scale, In which the earth is 
the emitting magnetic body.— Ed. M. M. 



appear in perfect health ; and when such a 
person came within the sphere of these phy- 
sical influences, he must necessarily have 
felt them by day, like Mile. Maix, and seen 
them by night, like MUe. Reichel. Igno- 
rance, fear, and superstition, would now 
give to the luminous appearance the form of 
a human spectre, and supply It with head, 
arms, and feet ; just as we can fancy, when 
we will, any cloud in the sky to represent a 
man or a demon. 4e • * 

Thousands of ghost stories will now 
receive a natural explanation, and will thus 
cease to be marvellous. We shall even see, 
that it was not so erroneous or absurd as has 
been supposed, when our old women asserted, 
as every one knows they did, that not every 
one was privileged to see the spirits of the 
departed wandering over their graves. In 
fact, it was at all times only the sensitive 
who could see the imponderable emanations 
fro:n the chemical change going on in 
corpses, luminous In the dark. And thus I 
have, I trust, succeeded in tearing down one 
of the densest veils of darkened ignorance 
and human error. 



SPBCiriOATIONS or BNOLtSB FATSNT8 BN- 
nOLLUD DURIMO THB WSBK BNDUfO 

AUGUST 8tb, 1850. 

Albbrt DumcLBB, Mark-lape, London. 
Fbr impravemmtti in obtmwhkg fibru from 
texHle planit, (A communication.} Patent 
dated January 31, 1850. 

TUs invention consists in subjecting strips 
of textile plants to the grinding a^ion of 
two serrated surfaces between which they 
are placed, and which have either a recipro- 
cating or rotary motion communicated to 
them by hand, or from any prime mover, 
whereby, it is stated, the fibres will be sepa- 
rated from the pulpy or other matters with 
which they ar» combined. To facilitate this 
separation, water is to be pumped on to the 
matters between the grinding surfaces. 

No claims are given In this spedfioation. 

Jambs Tbmplbtom, Glasgow, manufac- 
turer. ^Fbr eortain imprmfemenit <» aianti- 
faeiwring Jlgmred ftirie» prme^foUp ds- 
i^ned for ike produeiUm qf earpttim^. 
Patent dated January 29, 1850. 

Claimt, — 1. The manufacture of carpet- 
ing, or other figured fabrics, with a coloured 
pattern or design on one or both sides by 
means of a printed weft. 

2. The manufacture of carpeting or figured 
fabrics with a party-coloured oat-pile weft 
from a plain cloth or texture of one colour, 
and printed in different colours. 

TaoMAs BuBT, Balford, Lancaster, silk. 



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118 



BNOLISH 8PK01FI0ATI0M8 BNBOLLKD DUiUKO THR WEEK. 



wonted, and piece dyer and finisher, end 
Nathan RAittDSN, of the 11010 placet 
ealendennaii and fioiaher. Far etrtain I'm- 
prwemtniM in the eotutruetion of maehinei 
for glazing f tmboting, and JInithing wwtn 
fakriCB and p*p«r» Patent dated January 
31, I860. 

The patenteea specif j an arrangement and 
spplioation of two or more friction bowls, 
roUers, or cylinders, in eoi^ttnotion with a 
paper bowl, and also a tnode of working one 
or two pieces of fabric with two or more 
friction bowk. 

EnnMNB JosltPH Hanom Valok, Bel- 
gium, miller. For imprw9WMnt» in grind' 
ing. Patent dated January 31, 1850. 

This inTcation consists in cutting chan- 
aels or openings in the stone, and i^pting 
to the outer ends of some of them hmnels 
for the purpose of catching the air during 
the rotation of the stone, and conducting it 
between the grinding surlkces. To the outer 
ends of the other dunneb there are adi^ted 
oocks, stoppers, or hood-pieces, fbr the 
purpose of regulating the admission of air. 

Claim, — T^ use of fnnnds in combina- 
tion with channels or openings cut in the 
grinding stone. 

Thomas Auohtbrlonib, Glasgow, ma- 
nufacturer and calico printer, fbr intprove- 
wtenSi in the production iff orJiomental 
-'abriee. Patent dated February 7, 1850. 

This inrention Consists in Ornamenting 
fhbrics by affixing to their surflMMt figures or 
(Aetices cut out of other fabrics of a different 
colour and texture. Fbr this purpose a fkbrfc, 
■atin fbr inttance, is pressed under a roller, 
the periphery of whidi is cograTcd accord- 
ing to the desired figures, whereby these 
fibres are cut out, or nearly so. The 
pieces of satin are aftenrards laid on a 
strip of damp strong calico, with the right 
side down, and hate some suitable compo- 
iltioB which melts by heat^by preference 
gutta percha, dissolted hi n^htha— applied 
to the wrong side. The Ihbric to be oma- 
mented-^say, fbr ezamplct barege— whie^ 
la printiBd with outUnea or marks to indicate 
to the workmaa where the figure is to be 
applied, is stretched upon the conrex eur- 
ftice of « box, heated interfiiUy by steam, 
ne workmata then IRta up the devioe with 
a pricker, transfiire it to the heated surfiMe 
of the barege, and presses it down with a 
•tamp. Instead of printiug indications on 
the fkbric to be ornamented, it may be made 
to pass under a frame haVing a number of 
itrings stretddng fhmi side to side, and 
erosi^ each other at right angles, so as to 
form a series of squares which may senre to 
guide the workman in placing the figures* 

CMNt.*-*-!. The syiiem or mode of orna- 



menting fabrios by afixiag to their avfheas 
figures or derices, which are in relief, and 
form wholly or partially the o m a me n t atloa 
thereof. 

2. The employment of the rotary entting- 
out apparetue. 

3. The employment of the guide»firame. 
Chablbs Atrbbtom, Member of the 

Institution of Citil Bagineen, Londoo. 
For an it n pro ted apparaiue or ■ii u Mb i i^ 
/n* regulating the admietian fffeieam to ike 
egtinden qf eteam enginee. Patent dated 
February 7, 1850. 
The patentee describee end datflu-^ 

1. A peculiar construction and amage- 
ment of eccentric wheel or crank motkm« la 
order that the throw of the crank may be 
taried as required. For this purpoae, the 
central portion of the eccentric wheal Is c«t 
away and fitted at top and bottom, on the 
inside, with two screw rods, whidi carry a 
plate, throagh the centre of whldi p aia e e 
the centre of motion. By turning tiie screw 
rods so as to shift the centre of the jdete 
further fh>m or nearer to the centre 01 the 
eccentric whed> the throw of the erank wffl 
be increased or diminished accordingly. 

2. Constructing* the slide Td?e of a num- 
ber of cylindrical or annular surfaoee, whieh 
are mslntained at a certahi distance apart 
horn each other. The steam issues througk 
the spaces between the rings, and when they 
are OTOught opposite to corresponding spaoea 
In tile cuing, it passes into the steam oyiin- 
der. When the cylindrical surfkoee are bnraght 
opposite to the openings hi the cadng, the 
eupply of steam will be cut olT. 

Edwabd Hiortok, Clarence-tiUa« Be- 
gent's-park, Middlesex, enghieer. Far im^ 
provemente in eleetrie teUgraphe, and In 
maUng telegraphie eommunieoHone. Pe- 
tent dated February 7, 1850. 

Mr. Highton deacribea and ddms t 

1. An improved mode of arranghug the 
circuit. Two or more signalising instrumente 
are placed at two or more stations, end to 
eadi of them two batteries are oomiected, so 
placed hi regard to their poles as to work In 
opposite directions. The dectric effect of any 
one of the batteries may be neutralbwd by 
oonnectfaig the polei In a short circuity or 
by othekr suitable Vfteana, while the other 
battery remafais in the circuit with the rest. 

2. A mode of signalising by means of the 
absence of the electric current from the 
wires, so as to dispense with the neceselty of 
batteriet, or means of producing deotric 
currents at eadi station* 

3. A method of working electric tele- 
graphs by the InductlTe influence of dectre- 
magnets, or a Toltaic pile acted on by the 
transmissioii through it of an deetriceurfent 



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PB0CE8S OF ENOBATIKG UPON TVORT. 



119 



4. Tlia emptoyment of two eurraits of 
•fectridtj, of differant powers, to produce 
two Afferent effeets in eleotne tel^replu* 

5. Makinf the didi, which cerrj the 
lettats or ehartetert, mofeeble, instead of 
the pointers, as hitherto. 

6. Repeatiog the letters* which ooonr thi 
SBWt freqwentlT several timea. 

7. A method of somiding alanusi along a 
Bao of talecrapUe wire, 

8. Aa arranfement fbr aoinding one o«t 
of n numbor of alafttnis. 

9. The employment of pendnloms for 
Bft yV^t^ g and breaking the electric circnit. 

10. The protecting of telegraphic wires by 
eBTdoping them in masonry. 

11. A method of enclosing telegraphic 
wirea in leaden or othef ilexlble metallic 
pipes. 

12. Enamelling the exterior surface of the 
gaUU percha coating of electric wires, in 
order to fUl vp the holes which generally 
exist therein. He nbs the surfaee orer with 
naphtha or other solvent, and then smooths 
ttdown by a enshion or bmsh. 

13. A pecnliar mode of saspending the 
takgraphio wirea in the air. 

14. A method of eonstncting the sup- 
porting post, out of a number of planks 
firmly nnited together, instesd of ont of one 
piece of timber, cut taperingly, as has 
hitherto been the custom. 

15. A mode of working electric telegraphs 
hy means of earth batteries. 

16. Removing the atmospheric electricity 
which is collected during storms, or other 
atmospheric distnrbanees, by cautbg the 
Une wire, or a bar of iron connected thereto, 
prerionsly enclosed in bibulous paper or 
other fabric, to pass through a mass of iron 
filings. 

17. The employment of concaye, elleptical 
parabolic surfaces, placed at different sU- 
tlens, lor the purpose of collecting signaliz- 
ing sounds into their foci. 

Edwakd ORMBRon, Manchester, meeha- 
nScal draughtsman, and Josbpb Srsphkrd, 
Charlton -upon- Medloek, mechanical en- 
gineer. 1^ imprwtmtnU in or applieahle 
$9 apparattu for changiMg iht potition of 
emriagtM on railwayi. Patent dated Fe- 
bruary 7, 1850. 
The patentees describe and claim : 
1. A truck for shirting a railway carriage 
frem one line of rails to another, which 
eonsists of a frame mounted on wheels that 
vun on a cross line of rails, and carry an 
inclined oscillating frame, to the top of 
which are attached two lines of rails. These 
fans are cut away ofi the under side, so that 
tey may rect upon the permanent rails, and 
Ikb aa it ware a continiiation of them. 



Underneath each end of the oecillatJng fhune 
there is a set of wedges, which, when pushed 
out, ralae that end of the frame and depress 
the other on to the permanent line of rails. 
The two sets of wedges are connected toge- 
ther so that when one is pushed Out the 
other will be draum back. When it is de- 
aired to effect the remCval of a railway car- 
riage, the truck is brought into podtion, 
and the near end of the osdllallnt frame 
dcpr«iscd until its rails rest u^n &ose of 
the permanent way. The carriage is then 
pushed up and secured on the top of the 
oscillating frame, which is then brought into 
a horisontal position, upon which the truck 
is wheeled to the next line of rails, on to 
which the carriage is allowed to run down. 

2. A moveable set of rails, which may be 
brought by hand over the permanent ones, 
but will, when no longer wanted, retire into 
their first position out of the way by the 
action of a weighted lever. The top sur- 
ftces of the rails are sloped upwards, so that 
one end may rest upon and appear to be an 
inclined continuation of the permanent rails, 
while the other end will abut against and be 
on a level with the top surface of the ordi- 
nary shifting truck. 



PRocisa or bmoAavimo upok iyory. 

The process used to cover ivory with 
omsments and designs in black consists in 
engraving in the ivory itself, and then filling 
in the designs with a black hard varnish. 

To obtain finer and more regular designs, 
the ivory is to be covered with the common 
ground, and by means of the point the 
designs are engraved upon it. They are 
then eaten in by a solution formed as fol- 
lows: 

Fine silver 6 grammes. 

Nitric Acid 80 „ 

Distilled Water 125 „ 

At the end of about a half- hour, accord- 
ing to the depth to be given, it is to be 
washed with distilled water, and dried with 
bibulous paper. The design is then exposed 
for an hour to the solar Oght, and the layer 
of wan is removed by essence of turpen- 
tine. 

The design hss then a black colour or a 
dark brown, which blackens entirely at the 
end of one or two days. Other colours may 
be produced, by replacing the aolution of 
nitrate of silver by a solution of gold or 
platina in aqua regie, or of copper in nitric 
acid.— JZ^vM Seiiniifiqui, zzxv. p. 433. 



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120 



WBIKLT LIIT OF NBW SKOLISH PATKNTS. 



Joseph Shaw, of Paddock, near Huddenfteld, 
York, cloth flnuher, for improTementi in con- 
Btmctinff and working certain paf U of railways. 
AngoatS; ■iznumtlit. 

Jolin Owynne, of Landadowne Lodge, Notting^ 
liill, mecohant, for improToments in obtaining 
motive power, and in uplying the lame to giylng 
motion to machinery. (Being a commnnloation.) 
AognstS; tix months. 

Vranels Kane, of BemeiV>mewB, Middlesex, 
ehair maker, tor impro vements in reclining chairs, 
in easton tor ehaiis and other articles of fUmititre, 



and improTcments in presses. Angnst 5; six 
months. 

William CrostkiU, of BeTcrley, York, dvQ tm- 
gineer, for improvements in mills for grinding; 
splitting, pulverising, and crushing grain, boocs, 
bark, ore, and ether hard substances, and 
tor grinding paint and other soft sabstaaees, and 
for shelling or removing the skin from riee and 
other grain, and in machinery for giving mtsiy 
motion to mills, thrashing machines, and any other 
machine requiring rotaiy motion to be eommoal- 
eatedbyanyliarseorotherantmsL (Bctagscesa- 
"lon.) Augoit 6; sizmeatbs. 



.T un ov DSiMiri vok AmnoLis ov vriLtrr mBaifn&BO. 



Daleor No. in 
ftegistin- the Re- 

tioB. gtoter. Proprietors' Names. 

Aag.S U95 John8attden.MM..-M«M 



,. sne Wffliam Pataner..... 

5 1997 John Goode, Jun.^ 
,» S398 William Palmer..... 

6 1899 John Martin ........ 



7 1409 Robert Davies ....^.^..^ 

8 1401 George Cart and Sons.... 
„ 1401 Joseph Welch and John 

M a i getson — . ...... ... ... 



Addresses. 
, Birmingham....— «.—»......— ) 

. Button-street, Clerkenwell „ 
. BinninghamM.......M«M.....M 

t Brighton 

. Killyleagh MUli, Down, Ireland An 

water pipes to be applied la 
spinning flax, tow, sad 
other fibrous substaaees. 

Globe-yard, South Molton-street A pipe mount. 

Unlon-fftreet, South wark ....m— Spring folding coUegiaa cap. 

Chenpside m....m«*m...— .M.M*«fM. FoldiDg titnoher cap. 



Sul^ts of Design. 

. Set of dies for makingprsasel 
hinges. 

. Candle-lamp. 

. Swivel. 

. Sculptor's, statuary's, and mo- 
deller's revolving taMe. 

it of steam and 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 

gpedflcatton of Captain Beatson's Instrument Dr. Seoitom's Method of Depumtlng Sugar.— 

for Taking, Measuring, and Computing Is it Poisonous f^ ......».....^ ...... IIS 

Angles— <v<l* •u§ra9ing9) ^,„,»,^.» 101 The Invention of the Tubular Bridge.— Dis- 

B«tri»l Bxp«i««t. .... 108 .«.to«^«tt,^Kdl«b«n,h M«.to^^^^^ ^^ 

Retepgect rf the Progress of Astronomy. By The Magnet.— Inqnhy « ......«.«...-.!!! 118 

Sir David Brewster ^ 104 xhe RSlity of Spec^ Appearances Proved 

Photography on Gelatine. By M. A. Polte- and Tiaoed to Natural Causes, ^y Baron 

▼in— .......o...-....^....-.............— ............ 107 Reichenbach ^«.....— .-...«. 118 

Photogiaphy on Albuminoua Paper. By M. Specifications of En^Ish Patents Knroiled 

Blanqnart-Evrard —..........- 109 during the Week.*— 

Belgian Metlwd of Applying the Heat result- Dummler .-...— .........Fibrous Substanoes 117 

Ing Atom the Manufocture of Coke to the Templeton ........Carpetinff ». « 117 

Cellateral Purpose of Heating Boilers. By 1 *^^ « ..............uwpoung „...,.««. iir 

M. Monteflorelevi-<«P«* ef^ravingi) 110 ^^ «>* Ramsden .^Glaain^ Emboss- 
On the Images of the Sun and Moon Obtained „ . . ^ T^L^ — .- "8 

on Glass by Photography. By Niepce de Valck.... — ...... ......^.Grinding ... ... 118 

8aint-YiotorM.M.M..M....M.............M...M....... Ill Auchterlonie .M.MM*...Omamental FAb- 

On the Roofing of the Building of the Exhibi- '^ - — .-.-.«. 118 

tionofl861. ByMr.W.H.Hallen ........ Ill Atherton .............. ...Steam Engine ...... 118 

Westminster Bridge.— Rumoured Decbion of Highton.M.M ».»..»...... Electro-telegraph.. 118 

theCommtttee „ Ill Omerodft Shepherd ...Railway Carriages. 118 

^JiJ'J[i!«^i u^^P*****-""^* !»>▼•""«» »'„. Process of Engraving upon Ivory « 119 

Captain Schanks ...« ....« 118 Weekly Ust of New EnglUh Patents ...„ „ 119 

The Aristocracy of England v. the Claims of Weekly List of Designs for Articles of UtiUi^ 

Science and Literature 114 RegUtered „. 110 

LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by Joseph Clinton Robertson, of No. 186, IHeet-strset, 

in the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. GallgnanI, Rue Ylvienne, Paris; Maehin and Co., 
Dublin I W. €. CampbeQ and Co., Hamburgh. 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

No. 1410.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 17» 1850. [Price Zd., SUmped, 4d. 

Edited by J. C. Robertson, 1C6, Fleet-street. 

MESSES. DONKIN AND FAREY'S IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM ENGINES. 

Fig. 1. 




▼OIL. t.tfi . 



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122 

MSMRt. DONKnr AND VABST*! IMMlOVIllBim Uf STftAJt XKGINBS* 

(Patent dated Vebnuuy 9, 1850. Spedflcation eniollad Auguit 9, 1850.) 

Flriilp, Our ipediicatioii bu reference to thtt detcriptioii of ttetm enginee oommoiily 
ealled tlie '' Diac Engine/' which engine formed the subject matter of Uie four MTenl 
petenti for England following ; namelj, a patent granted to Henry DaTiei, of Stoke Prior, on 
or abont the 15th daj of Mardi, 1837 ; another patent granted to the same Henry Daviet, 
on or abont the 14th day of Jane, 1838 ; another patent granted to the aame Henry DaTiee, 
on or abont the 15th day of July, 1844 ; and a petent granted to George Daniell Biahopp, 
of Edgbatton, on or about the 2nd day of October^ 1845, of which four patenti respectlTely 
qiediieationa were duly enrolled, containing (one or other of them) a fnU description of the 
original construction of the said disc engine, and of the different improTcments which have 
beoi subsequently and heretofore made therein* Our inrention, in so far as it regards the 
said disc engine, consists, in the first place, of oertain improred methods or means of making 
the working parts thereof steam-tight, and an improred method of forming the bearing for 
the ooned end of the diagonal shaft. 

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section through or near the centre of a disc engine as thus 
improTed. Fig. 2 is a transTcrse section of the same, taken also through or near the centre ; 
and fig. 3 an under plan. A is the steam chamber or cylinder in which the disc B oscil- 
lates ; a a the steam induction ports, of which & & are the Talves ; C is the ball, which is 
attached to the disc B, and works in a seat formed for it in the oones E E and in the outer 
glands FF. D is the diagonal shaft, to which the ball C and disc B are attachedi ee are 
tiie metallic packings of &e kind described in the specification of G. D. Bishopp. 6 6 
are two inner gUnSg (not used before), which we intioduce for the purpose of better pre- 
Tenting the escape of steam from the cylinder between the ball and the cones. These glands 
(a front riew of one of which is giren separately in fig. 4) fit into recesses ee made for them 
in the cones E E, and are provided with rings or washers underneath, composed of com- 
pressed hemp or other suitable yielding material. The outer glands F F fit into the gbuids 
G G $ and ^^ are set screws, which are passed loosely through the glands F F, and ta^ into 
the cones E E, so that by turning down these set screws, the inner glands G G may be as 
tightly compressed as uMd be against the packing of the ball C all round. Or, instead of 
the preceding arrangement, the set screws ^^ may be made to screw into and through the 
outer glands F F, and their points to press upon the inner glands 6 6. The better also to 
secure the ends of the metallic packLag slips c c, we fit to the cones a ring of metal H (a 
plan and section of which are given separately in fig. 5) ; on the outside of this ring there is 
a series of notches or recesses h A, and on the top ^ge thereof another like series of notches 
or recesses ii, which last form (when the ring is in its place) a continuation of the grooves 
in the cones in which the packing slips ec are inierteid. Fig. 6 is partly a side view and 
partly a section of the ring detached from the engine, showing the notches < t on the top 
edge, and also the notches upon the outside. The tail- pieces kkof the slips take into the 
notches h A, while the top parts //fit sidewajs into the notches tt, whereby the slips are 
kept securely in their places under all drcnmstanoes. To provide against the wear- 
ing away of the ooned end of the diagonal shaft D, or the bearing in which it is stepped* 
we construct that bearing in the manner represented in iigs. 7 and 8, which is a section and 
end view of the same on an enlarged scale, with the shaft in its place, m is a metal tnbe, 
threaded on the outside at both ends, which is fitted loosely into the ball I of the driving 
crank J (fig. 1 ;) m n* are two nuts, which are screwed on to the two ends of the tube m, 
one of them, n^ serving at the same time as a reservoir for oU or other lubricating material ; 
is a lining to the tube m, which is composed of tin or some other soft metal run in whila 
in a fluid state upon a mould of the same shape as the coned end of the diagonal shaft D ; 
mdpp are recesses made on the inside of the tobe m, into which part of the soft metal 
flows, forming projecting tie-pieces, by which the lining (after the mould is withdrawn) is 
kept in ito place. Should the conical end of the diagoiul shaft become slack in its bearing, 
it can be screwed close up by the nuta n n' and when the lining itself wears, away in any 
part, it can be renewed with the greatest ease and dispatch. 

Second^, Our invention consiste of a new method of applying metallic packings to the 
disc and cones of disc engines, which may be substituted for those last referred to as 
invented by G. D. Bishopp (and either in combination with or apart firom our improved 
bearing for the conical end of the diagonal shaft.) 

Fig. 9 is an edge view, and fig. 10 a front view or plan of so much of a disc engine as is 
necessary to show this part of our invention. B is the disc; C the ball; and D the diagonal 
shaft, as before. K K are a series of springs (of brass, steel, or other suitable metal), which 
an sttaohied to each lidc of the diio, and radiato at equal diitanoet firon tiie dreoBsforaioo 

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DONKIN AND FABBT's DCPBOySlCBIfTS IN 8TBAM BN0INX8. 128 

of tht ImH to die edge of the diM. edi tpring is riFeted to tlie difo br one lide only (ai 
shown in the figures), so as to have a slight inclination outwards on the other side. As 
the dise rolls over the eones, the springs press againit the eooes with jnst sufficient force to 
keqp the joining steam tight. The springs maj be attached to the cones instead of the 
due i but we prefer the arrangement which we hare figured and described. 
Fig. 6- 

Kg. 11. 




Fig. 10. 




Thirdly, Our inrention has reference also to the disc engine, but is appUoable to that 
engine oidy when used without metallic packings, and is intended to obriate altogether the 
neoBssitj of paclcings of any sort. Fig. 11 is a longitudinal section through the centre of 
n dise engine oonstrncted according to this part of our inrention. A is the steam chamber 
or cylinders B the dise; C the ball; D the diagonal shaft; E E the cones f F F the glands ; 
and J the diiTing crank, all as before. Fig. 12 is a firont eleratlon of the crank J detached 
from tiie rest of the engine. 

The cones B E and disc B are here supposed to be perfecdy plain marUen, or only corered 
with leather, felt, or some other yielding substance. In ord«r therefore that they may be 
pressed closely together, and any escape of steam between them be thus pre? ented, we adopt 
the following arrangement :— 

The end of tiie diaffonal shaft D rests in a block or bearing v, which slides in n slot 9 
made in the craakjy being kept in iidewayfbj piss tff|Whkfa take into grooTes In jT* ^"^^^ 

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124 NOTBS ON THB THUOBt OF ALOBBBAIC EQTJATIOlfS. 

tiie Uoek' tr • pin / projeoti, which pafset through the top of the crank, and is screw- khretded 
at Its npper end for the reception of a nut u, which sets into the washer and guide w, between 
which and the top of the cranic there is interposed a spiral spring x. The action of the 
spring X has a constant tendency to drew the bearing block v, and with it the end of the 
diagonal shaft D, towards the top of the crank ; and the diagonal shaft D and disc B being 
fixed at right angles in relation to each other, it follows that the more the end of the shaft 
is drewn towards the top of the crank, the doser the disc must be bronght to the oones. 
Should there be any unerenness on the faces of the oones, or should they not be in perfect 
agreement with one another, the spring will by its own action produce the degree of adjust- 
ment or correction required. The springs can be adapted in point of strength to any degree 
of preafure by lerewing or unscrewing the nut « on ^ pin t, 
(7b b€ eanehtded m <mr next) 

H0TB8 ON THS TBBO&T OV ALQIBIUIC laUATIONS. BT JAMBS COOBLB, BtQ.> IC.A.y 

BABBI8TBm-AT-LAW. 

(Contlntied from page 89.) 

Third and Omdudinff SerUe. 

IV. CUBIC EQUATIONS. 

In the cubic 

«» + ajr» + *«+c««0 
nibititnte j^+r for x, then I have shown (Com^. Math, Jour,^ vol. li., pp. 248*9,) 
that, if i; be determined flrom the quadratic, 

(a«-3d)z» + (eft-9c)« + (*»-3a4?)-0, (1) 

the resulting equation in y will be of the solvible form 

5^{(Ajf+B)» + (3AB-A»)y«}=0 (2). 

From (1) we may obtain the relation (see CaBi6. Math, Jour,,, toI. Hi., p. 28), 

2(«« - Zh)g - - (fli - 9c) ± -/Sic* + 126» + 12a»c- 3a«&« - 54a*e. (3). 

Divide by 3 the quantity under the radical si^, and we obtain a criterion of tbe 
nature of the roots of a cubic which coincides with that given by Mr. Jambs 
LocKHART, of Fasnacloich, at p. 223 of vol. iii. of the Matbtmatieian, 

At line 3 of page 10 of Mr. Lockhabt's recent work on the <* Nature of the 
Boots of Numerical Equations,*' there occurs an example of a cubic to which I 
attempted to apply the same rule which I had successfully employed in treating 
other of his examples (vide supra pp. 37 et $eq.). Its extreme difficulty, how- 
ever, and the numerous figures necessary to be employed, together with the neces- 
sity I was at the time under of leaving town, prevented me from fully considering it. 
I wrote to Mr. Lockhabt, inclosing my operations with the Rule, which were not 
however complete, and did not, if I recollect a right, involve all the decimal figures 
included in the last term of the Example in question. I had the satisfaction of 
receiving a reply from Mr. Lockhart, dated July 16, 1850, in which he informs me 
that the example in question took him a lone time to frame, and that others have 
examined it and asked him for the result. 'Diat result he kindly transmitted to me 
worked out, and I have now the honour of laying it before the readers of the 
Meehanice* Magazine, The Note at the end of Mr. Lockhart's calculations refer 
to my queries supra p. 88, col. 1. 

Extract from a Letter from James Lockhart, Esq,, to Mr. Coehle, dated 16M July^ 1850. 

a b e 

«« x«-10x* + 10«- 2-64163101 «0 
aH» - 10000 4ca> - 10566*52404 

ISabcm, 4754*935818 46*- 4000*00000 

27c«- 188 4117886108277427 

14754*935818 

14754-9358286108277427 
the right-hand member being greater than tbe left, the two roots are imaginary. 
If c had been equal to 2*6416310, [the] two roots would have been real. 
2*64163101«-6*978214392993620U 



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OK THE FLAT KNOT. BT PB0VE8S0B DATIBS. 



135 



Note, — The equation 3c-— 6 was entirely casual ; is not the 666 in your paper 
equally so?" 

The reader will concur with me in thanking Mr. Logkha&t for his discussion of 
this Example. J. Cockle. 

S, Pump-court, Temple, August 13, 1850. 



ON TBI FLAT KNOT. BT PBOrBSSOB DATiaS. 



Many of the most ordinary phenomena 
io physics and in mechanics not only 
remain unexplained, but eyen uninquirea 
into. Take, for instance, the motions of 
the boomarang of the aborigines of New 
South Wales ; take the flight of a kite in 
the air, or the vibratory revolutions of a 
spinning top on the floor ; take, indeed, 
any of a hundred things equally simple 
in appearance, and we shall find that not 
one of them has been completely solved, 
even where the genius of a Euler has 
been taxed for the purpose. 

Analagous to these are sundry arith- 
metical and geometrical puxxles. We 
may " know the solution,^' — that is, the 
process ; but we seldom trouble ourselves 
to search out the reasons. We know 
that the process doeM (in the cases we try 
as a matter of experiment) perform 
what it professes to do ; but we rarelj 
inquire whether it mu$t inevitably do it 
in all possible varieties of case. We 
thus place them in the condition of 
all arithmetic and all geometry, before 
arilhmetic and geometry became eci- 
enees. They are treated as ingenious 
trifling, and there left to the wondering 
gaie of the "uninitiated." 

There are few mathematicians, I should 
suppose, who have not, at one time or 
other, been induced to look somewhat 

Fig. 



closely into such of these *' conundrums " 
as happened to come before them. If 
the general experience in such cases has 
at all resembled my own, there will have 
been found difficulties little anticipated, 
and often insuperable in their complete 
discussion. In hct, it would be easy to 
fix upon a dosen such that would be fiur 
more trying than the most difficult senate- 
house paper ever set : for in most cases, 
the general prmeiples of the investiga- 
tion have to be wholly discovered. 

Though the "flat knot" is far from 
being the most difficult thing of this 
kind that I have attempted, at one time 
or other to investigate, it is yet esteemed 
to be far from easy. It was proposed in 
an examination in Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, in 1838, bv Dr. Whewell, then 
Fellow, and now Master of Trinity. As 
no complete solution has, I think, been 
published, I beg to submit the following, 
which was undertaken as an amusement 
under tedious and painful indbposition. 

" A watch-ribbon is folded up into a 
flat knot of five edges; show that the 
sides of the knot form an equilateral pen- 
tagon." — Pott$*9 Euc. 8vo. ed., p. 341. 

Eor the term ** equilateral." substitute 
"regular" in Dr. Whewelrs enuncia- 
tion ; for the pentagon is equi-angular 
also. 
1. 




Ahaltsis. — Suppose it true, and that plane of the paper round the several 

ABODE is the regular pentagon, con- edges of the pentagon; so as to succes- 

structed as in Euclid iv. 11, and circum- sively reverse the faces of the paper ; and 

scribed by the circled If this knot be the parts of it which are successively 

opened out, it will be by turning the opened out will be 

ABCE by revolving about BC, in its own position. 

ACDB AE, in its new position. 

* CDBA CD 

ABDE AB 

BDSA DB • 



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126 



ON THB VLiT KNifc. BT PB0FS8S0B DAVIBS. 



Now it is readily dedocible, from what 
is done and proved in iv. 11, and from 
elementary propertieB of the circum- 
scribing circle, and the lines here drawn 
in it, that:— 

(a) All the five diagonals, AC, CE, 
EB, BD, DA are equal :— 

{b) Each of them is parallel to its 
non-contiguous side ; as CE to AB, &c. 

(c) Each of the triangles, as BCE, 
formed by the pairs of diagonals thai 
meet in one angular point C of the pen- 
tagon, and having tne opposite side of 
the pentagon for its base, is m all respects 
equal to the constructive triangle CAD ; 
each part in one to ita corresponding part 
in the other triangle. 

(d) In five trapesoids ABCE, ACDE, 
CDBA, ABDE, and BDEA, are in like 
manner wholly equal part for part 

(e) The angles of the pentagon, as 
ABC, are each divided into three equal 
parts bjr the diagonals BE, BD, drawn 
to the angular point ; each of these parts 
is equal to the vertical angle of the con- 
structive triangle CAD; and any two 
of them together are equal to either of 
the equal angles ACD or ADC at the 
base of the constructive triangle. 

Produce CD, BE ; draw EF perpen- 
dicular to BC ; produce it to meet CD in 
H ; join HB ; and draw HO parallel to 
AC, meeting EB in H. 

Since CD is produced, we have 

ACH=ADC+CAD=ACD+ACB- 
BCD ; or HCB - BCE. Also the angles 
EFC, HFC,are equal, being right angles 
by construction ; and the side CF com- 
mon : wherefore the other sides are equal 
each to each, vis. HC^CE, HF»F£ 
(i. 26.) 

But since BEC is an isosceles triangle, 
the perpendicular EH bisects the base in 
F, and BE is parallel to GH, it is easilv 
deduced that the four triangles which 
have the common point F are in all 
respects equal to one another; and hence 
that the triangle HCB is in all respects 
equal to ECB. That isi HB»BE, and 
the angle BHC- BEC. 

Now, a line FE perpendicular to BC 
in any one position of the plane which 
revolves about BC will be perpendicular 
to it in all positions ; and hence, when it 
is brought into continuity with its origi- 
nal position, or so that iu faces are 
reversed. Whence, after the partial ex- 
pansion of the knot by tummg about 



BC, the line FE will be in the position 
FH ; and because FH«^FE, the point F 
will coincide with H, and the triangle 
BEC with BHC. The side CE therefore 
coinciding with CH, and CH being the 
prolongation of CD, the condition of 
linearity is fulfilled as regards one dia- 
gonal CE of the expanded knot, and its 
a4iacent side CD. 

Affain ; because AB is parallel to CE, 
and BE to CD, we have the angles 
ABSx-ECD^CEB^CHB ; 
and hence ABH is one straight line ; and 
hence the angle GBH-ABE. And 
since GH is parallel to AC by constrao- 
tion, we have GHB^BAC-BEA. The 
triangles GBH, ABE are hence in all 
respects equal (i. 26 ;) and as when the 
plane ABCE is turned over, BE coin- 
cides with BH ; and therefore the triangle 
ABE with GBH, each part with each 
part respectively. 

The continuity of the diagonal BS, 
and its adjacent edge AB, in the partiallj 
expanded knot is hence conclusive ; and 
the trapesoid ABCE takes a continuoos 
position with respect to the trapezoid 
^CDE : their longer and shorter pandlel 
sides being simply reversed in position 
upon the edges of the ribbon. 

If the remaining part of the unfolded 
knot be supposed to accompany the 

Xned part ABCE in its revolutioa 
ut BC, then the trapesoid ABCE wiU 
be capable of revolution about A£ in ita 
new position HG. By similar reasoning 
it may then be shown to unfold into the 
position GHKL, having the longer of 
the parallel sides EC continuous of GB, 
and the shorter continuous CH ; and so 
on till all the trapezoidal segments of Uie 
ribbon be opened out. 

We have now arrived at this conclu- 
sion, that if trapezoids of ribbon all equal 
to each other, and each equal to the 
figtire formed by three contiguous sides 
and the diagonal of a regular pentagon, 
be rendered coherent at their junctions 
BC, A£, CD, AB, DE ; and then opened 
out aa above described, they will form 
one continuous ribbon. 

Scholium on ih$ Analysii, 
Viewed as a theorem, this analysis is 
complete ; and if proposed as a problem, 
to tie a flat pentagonal knot, it is so far 
complete that the construction is readily 
suggested from this analysis. We see 



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ON THE FLiX KNOT. BY FBOJfBSSOB lUVIBfl. 



m 



liow to trtce the folds upon the ribbon, 
or rather know the forms of its trape- 
soids when so divided. It may, however, 
be worth while to give that construction. 
The immediate object, however, of 
this scholium, is to enforce a doctrine 
respecting the analysis of theorems that 
I have elsiewhere enunciated. It is, that 
tk$ analysis of a theorem is the demon' 
eifoiion of one or other of ite converses. 
Thus, instead of proving that a ribbon 
folded up pentagonally, folds into a regu- 
lar pentagon, th^ truth of this is assuni- 
ed, and it is proved that the pentagonal 
tie is expansible by nnfolding into a se- 
ries of trapezoids which take positions 
coincident with the continuous edges 
of the ribbon. The direct proposition, 
that is the one proposed to be proved, 
takes the fonn-— ihat if a ribbon have a 

Fig. 



series of creases made in it, so that the 
trapezoids shall have a specific form, the 
ribbon doubled over at these creases will 
form a flat knot, the edges of the ribbon 
forming the sides and diagonals of a 
regular pentagon. 

In my view, a clear perception of 
this relation between the analysis and 
synthesis of a theorem is of great impor- 
tance towards a right understanding of 
geometrical analysis generally. 

SYNTHESIS.IIwe shall first traoe 
the creases of the ribbon, so that it ^all 
fold about them into a regular pentagon ; 
and then prove that no other creasing 
would allow the ribbon to be folded into 
any pentagon whatever, without crump- 
ling or tearing. 

(i.) To crease the ribkon. 




Let VW, XY,be the parallel edges qf 
the ribbon ; and D be chosen as the 
starting point of the folding. Take any 
distance 1)R on XY, and construct the 
triangles RSD to fulfil the conditions of 
iv. 10; and let DS meet VW in T. 
Make in succession DW, DC, CB, BG, 

GH, HK, KL, , PQ, each equal to 

DT; and the cross-lines DE, CB, ... 
MN, PQ, wm be the creases of the 
ribbon. 

To prove this we have only to estab- 
lish that BCDE is a trapezoid similar to 
that in fig. 1, or in the fig. to £uc. iv. 
11 ; and that all the other trapezoids so 
constructed are similar and equal to this, 
and disposed with respect to each other 
as in the expanded ribbon in the analy- 
sis : — both of which are such very sim- 
ple geometrical processes as to render 
unnecessary any (orther details here. 

Moreover, by a simple reversal of the 
terms of each step of the analysis (or 
the process of the unfolding) it m^ b? 
shown that when these trapezoids are 
doobfed up in 8u^ssion« they will take 



positions identical with the correspond- 
ing ones of the regular pentagon. 

Whence it follows, that a ribbon can 
be folded so as to form a regular penta- 
gon, and the positions of its creases have 
been predetermined. 

(2.) Hhe ribbon cannot be folded into 
any other pentagon, without rupture or 
duplication. 

For let us admit the least possible 
divergence from the regular pentagon : 
that is, take the most favourable case to 
the denial of the truth of our proposi- 
tion. 

Fig. 3. 




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128 



OK THE FLAT B3T0T. BT PB0FBS80B DATIES. 



Thus, let ABCDE be the regular 
pentagon into which the ribbon can be 
folded, as already shown ; and, if possi- 
ble, let the ribbon be capable of folding 
into the pentagon A'fiCDE, where A' 
is in AB produced; and draw A'C, A'D, 
A'E. 

Then since A'C, DE are portions of 
the opposite edges of the ribbon, A'C is 
parallel to DE. Also AC is parallel to 
DE by the former reasoning ; and hence 
AX, AC are parallel, or coincident. 
They are not coincident, since A' is a 
different point from A and without the 
line AC. 

The same kind of reasoning applies to 
A'£ being parallel to AE, and A'D to 
AD. 

"Whence in this case the ribbon must 
be narrowed in one part and widened in 
another, (so that the knot shall be formed 
at all,) contrary to the conditions from 
which we set out In other words, the 
ribbon must have serrated instead of 
straight edges. 

In the same way any other special 
hypothesis respecting the divergency of 
the knot from a regular pentagon, will 
lead to discrepancies of result of the same 
general kind. 

It may to some minds be more satis- 
factory, as geometrically it would be 
more elegant and systematic, to make no 
hypothesis whatever as to the nature of 
the irregularity of the supposed penta- 
gon. Nor is the proof difficult in this 
form, though its details are somewhat long. 
The conditions of such a mode of estab- 
lishing it will hence be merely indicated 
here ; via., to show that in an irregular 
pentagon the following relations cannot 
co-exist: 

' (a.) That the diagonals cannot all be 
parallel to the opposite sides, and equi- 
disUnt from them ; as AC and D£, BD 
and AE, etc. 

(6.) That the acute angle of the tra- 
peiium BCD is the supp^ment of the 
angle of the pentagon BCD; and so 
likewise with each of the other four 
cases simultaneously with them. 

SchoUunu — Perhaps there are few 
figures that possess a more interesting 
series of properties than the regular 
pentagon ; and for the most part these 
are almost isolated from the properties of 
all other regular polygons, except those 
whoBe aides sue numerical muluples of 



five. There is, indeed, one property 
which connects it with the hexagon and 
decaffon conjointly, and likewise one 
which connects it with the decagon and 
the constructive triangle. These are 
given by EucUd, xiii., 10 and 9 respec- 
tively. Some others are strewed aiNmt 
in different places ; but there are nuiij 
vet discoverable — as not a small nnmbcr 
have presented themselves to my mind, 
when efigaged in inquiries directed to 
special purposes, but collateral only to a 
general investigation of the properties of 
uie pentagon in their natural relation to 
one another. Some of these appear to 
be cardinal properties ; that is, sach as 
form the nuclei of separate olasses of 
properties. May I here reoommend 
them to the attention of younger geonae- 
ters ? I, at least, have little reason to 
anticipate the command of the time 
necessary for pursuing the inquiry. 

The division of the line itself (the 
side of the constructive triangle in iv. 
10), has attracted much attention. It is 
given as a problem in ii. 11 ; it is again 
given as vi. 30 : and at the opening of 
the Sixth Book it is designated also bj a 
name. This name is rather a phraae 
than a mere compound term, and highlj 
elliptical in its form ; and there is rea- 
son to think that even this has been cor- 
rupted in its turn, and after the strict 
signification of it had been lost — as no 
one has yet been able to supply the 
omitted words, so as at the same time to 
" make sense and grammar," either in 
Greek or English. The phrase " ex- 
treme and mean ratio*' is simply an 
absurdity, if Euclid's prerious defini- 
tions (the 5th Book) be retained. 

Many names have been proposed for 
this division of a line. Lucas de Burgo 
was so enamoured of it that he wrote a 
folio volume to illustrate that everything 
beautiful in art or nature (the human 
fij^re included) was fashioned after this 
division of a line. In his eyes it formed 
the Creator's working rule ; and he called 
it accordingly the <* Divine Section.** 
The most eligible term is, perhaps, that 
of Sir John Leslie— '< Medial Section ;** 
and I think it likely that this will be the 
ultimatelv prevailing one. It is brief, 
sufficiently expressive, and has not been 
appropriated to any other purpose, from 
which confusion could ensue. 

The property of this division, its le- 
prodocoon by augmentatioDand diminn- 



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paxtob's desiov fob the btjilbihq fob thjs exhibition of 1851. 129 



tkm 9d n^/iniium, is the best known—- 
and wtt known to de Burgo. It is, how- 
ever, but one of a most interesting 
series of properties, very few of which 
appear to nave been noticed by geome- 
ters — though they would amply repay 
the trouUe spent upon dieir investiga- 

tiOD. 

Lest, however, I should be supposed 
to be manufseturing a new version of 
«« Much-Ado about Nothing," I wiU 
desist from farther remark. 

T. S. D. 

gbootn*! HiD, Angoft S, 1850. 



MOU WORK VOR ■NOINBBRS ! 

Blaekfriars - bridge continues to fol- 
low the footsteps of its elder brother 
of Westminster, by sinking deeper and 
deeper every day. One of the piers is 
reported to have subsided from 10 to 12 
inches, and well it may, for the current 
is running through the foundstion like a 
sieve. The authorities are greatly 
akrmed, and no wonder, for most of the 
arch stones over the crown haunches 
of the centre arch have cracked right 
through. The diving-bell has been at 
work aU the week, and the divers report 
that the water has washed away the bed 
of the river below the bottom of the 

ees. As a remedy, they are throwing 
rge-loads of Kentish rag stone into the 
river for the purpose of preventing the 
wash, which, now that Old London- 
bridge has been removed, has been 
greatlv increased. The fact is that the 
bed of the river is adjustinp; or lowering 
itself to the increased inchnation given 
to it, and has sunk so low that the step- 
ping courses of Waterloo and Soutn- 
wark - bridges, which were formerly 
covered, are new visible at low water ; 
which is also the ease with the mouths or 
outlets of all the sewers which empty 
themselves into the river. Fortunately 
tor the more recent bridges of Vaux- 
hall, Waterloo, Southwark, and London, 
the change has been anticipated by car- 
rying their foundations down to the clay, 
or they would have shared a similar fate 
to Westminster and Blaekfriars. Report 
says also, that it is contemplated to use 
iron piles for the foundations of the new 
bridge of Westminster, driven by stmo- 
spheric pressure, on the late Dr. Potts's 
principle. If so, we 8^} b»ve such 



another mess as happened with the foun- 
dation of Windsor-bridge, which gave 
way from being built on a foundation of 
piles driven on Dr. Potts's plan. The 
fates of Westminster and Blaekfriars 
ought to serve as a w arning sgainst 
experimental engineering. 

Pons Asinorum. 



MR. PAZTOir's OBSORIPTION OV HIS DRSIOH 
FOR THB BUILDING FOR TUB BXHIBITION 
OV 1851. 

On the 6th inst., a masting was bdd fai 
the Town-hall, Bakewell, in tapport of the 
proposed National Exhibition for 1851. 
The Earl of Burlington presided, and hav- 
ing opened the prooeedings, was followed by 

Mr. Paxton, who said, that ant'd there 
was a iqiiabble in the newspapers aboat the 
site and plans for the proposed Exhibition, be 
had nefer turned his attention to it. It wu 
not for him to speak of the merits of his 
design ; he would lesTC the unaoimons lelec- 
tion of the six well qualified gentlemen who 
acted as the Committee to speak for itself. 
(Hear, hear.) He would confine himself to 
a few particulars regarding the dimensions 
and construction. The building would bo 
2,100 feet long by 400 broad. The centre 
aiile would be 120 feet broad, or 10 feet 
wider than the Contenratory at Chatsworth. 
When he commenced designing this building 
he knew that to vast a ttrueture as this must 
necesaariiy be made as simple as possible in 
its details, else it would be impossible to 
carry it out ; he therefore endeavoured to 
make it up with as few details as possible. 
The glass and its iron supports comprised 
the whole structure. The oolumns were 
precisely the same throughout the building, 
and would fit every part ; the same might be 
said of each of the bars ; snd every piece of 
glau would be of the same sise — nsmdy, 
four feet long. No numbering or marUng 
would be required, and the whole would be 
put together like a perfBot piece of machi- 
nery. Mr. Paxton explained tbat the water 
is brought down valleys on the roof, and 
thence down the columns ; that the water 
in no instance has further than 12 feet to 
run before it is delivered into the valleys or 
gutters ; and that the whole is so constructed 
as to csrry the water outside, snd tlie con- 
densed water inside. The building is divided 
into broad and narrow compartments, and 
by tidng these together there is litUe for the 
croH-tim of the centre to carry. The build- 
ing ia entirely divided into 24 places— in 
short, everything runs to 24, so that the 
work is made to square and fit^ without any 



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130 



FALL OF A FACTORY AT 6T00KP0BT, 30 JULT, 1850. 



small detail being left to otrry oat. The 
number of oolamna, 15 feet long, it 6,024 ; 
there are 3,000 gallery bearera ; 1,245 
wrought iron girders ; 45 miles of sash bars ; 
and 1,073,760 feet of glass to cover the 
whole. The site will stand upon upwards 
of 20 acres of gronnd, but, hj an arrange- 
ment of Mr. Paiton's, the aTailable space 
which may be afforded by galleries can be 
extended to about 30 acres if necessary. In 
so far as merit was concerned, in his (Mr. 
Pazton's) opinion, the plan occupied ' a 
•eoondary position in comparison with the 
execution of it, and which would speak 
Tolames in laTour of the higeauity, perse- 
Terance, and industry of Englishmen. Hie 
plan, as he had shown then, was simple 
enough ; but tiieir surprise, if they eoutd 
form any calculation of the gigantio sise of 
the struoture, would be great indeed, idien 
he told them that the whole would be corered 
in by the Ist of January next, and he was 
as firmly persuaded that it would be accom- 
plished to the day as he was sure that be 
was addressing that meeting. That fact alone 
would show the sicill and industry of English- 
man. He proceeded to state that the gal- 
l !rj of the buildhig would be 24 feet wide, 
and would extend a distance of nearly six 
miles. Now if, after the purposes of the 
Exhibition are answered, it was thought 
desirable to let the building remain — and be 
sincerely hoped it would not be pulled down 
nor shipped to America— if they chose to 
let it remain, see to what a purpose it might 
be applied. There might be made an excel- 
lent carriage drive round the interior, as well 
as a road for equestrians, with the centre 
tastefully laid out and planted, and then 
there would be nearly six miles of room in 
the galleries for a promenade for the public. 
With regard to the ventilation and the rays 
of light, he would say that the former was a 
very peculiar part of the plan. The whole 
building, four feet round the bottom, will be 
filled with louvre or " lufier " boards, so 
placed as to admit air, but exclude rain. 
On the inside of that there will be a canvass 
to move up and down, and in very hot wea- 
ther it may be watered, and the interior kept 
cool. The top part of the centre building 
ii pot up almost entirely for the purposes 
of ventilation ; and he thought it would be 
found that if he had erred at all in respect 
of the means of veotilation, there would be 
found too much rather than too little. By 
covering the greater part of the building with 
canvass, a gentle light would be thrown over 
the whole building ; and the whole of the 
glass at the top of the northern side of the 
building would give a direct light to the 
interior. If more light wu wanted^ the 



means of aflfording it were provided. It 
was, in short, impossible to devise a jplan 
better calculated for the purposes of li^t 
and ventilation. Since the contract had 
been taken by Messrs. Pox and Henderson, 
he had suggested to them a plan by which 
they might effect some saring of expense, 
and also promote their convenience. He 
recommended them to erect scaffold polea 
l^ the lidM of the cohiauis to supparl the 
canvass, and thus the workmen wovdd be 
enabled to constroot the buUdlag uate iti 
shelter.— 2)10% ^^^we- 



FALL OF A FAOVMIT AT STOOKPOmT, 

30 JULY, 1850. 
[On the 80tk July last, a large portion of 
a new factory, ereeted netr Stockport for 
Mr. Cephas Howard, fSsU to the grouiid« 
and caused the death of thirteen persone. 
An Inquest was subsequently held on the 
bodies of the deceased, when the jury found 
that they *' had oome to their deaths aoei- 
dentally through the partial liUling of tlK 
floors," which *' were ttgfporM by « emi 
iron bemm qfan imperfeet comtmetUm, amd 
qf an hmproptr ealeuUUUm, eontidermff ike 
weight ii had io bear,*' We extraot firom 
the proceedings at the Inquest the descrip- 
tion given of the building by Mr. Hopkin- 
sou, of the firm of Messrs. Wren, Bennett, 
and Co., by whom the building was designed 
and the iron-work furnished, and his expla- 
nation of *' the calculation " which the Ter- 
diet declares to have baen '* improper.*' 
We give also the Report made to the Jury 
on the subject by Mr. Wm. Edrbairuy C.E., 
by which, no doubt, the Jury were guided 
'to the condasion at which they arrived, and 
which will be found to contain much Taloable 
matter, of universal interest to the engineer- 
ing profession. Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 
of the accompanying engravings have been 
made from those exhibited to the Jury bj 
Mr. Hopkinson. Fig. 1 is a longitudinal 
elevation, and fig. 4 a plan of the beam 
which gave way and brought down with it 
the greater part of the five floors above; 
fig. 2 is a section of the beam through the 
oentre ; fig. 3 a section of it on the line of 
firaoture ; and fig. 5 a section of the broken 



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VAZX Of A fAOTORT AT STOOVPOBT, 80 aVLT, 1850. 



181 



Fig.l. 



! r — i^ r ^ 



^tapiC) 



n 









L 




, •• t«uLifLi:'. ' wr:: 




pOlv. We add two sketches with which 
we luiTe heen fjiTOiired from another source ; 
0M (^* ^) heing a plan, and the other 
(fig. 7), a longitudinal section of the build- 
iuig. The portion of the floors which fell 
was all that ineladed within the lines c» c, c» c, 
fig. 7, comprehending an area of about 1200 
square feet.] 

ilfr. HapltvnMoitC 9 SlatemenI, 
We were employed bj Mr. Cephas Howard 
to Ikimish drawings for the mill, and to 
superintend its erection ; we construe ted the 
wster-wheel, as well as the shafting and 
gearing $ we did not contract for the erec- 
tkm of anj part of the mill ; we had speci- 
mens of thft sixe of the mill ; the mill was 
not built according to the original drawings, 
but in acoordanoe with subsequent ones; 
the sixe of the mill was to be 140 feet long 
inside, supported by 14 regular 10 feet bays, 
the width oO fcf t, in thope compartments of 
20 feet each. The miU. was originally de- 
signed to be four storeys in height ; a portion 
was Atc storeys, where there was a o^r for 
floor bays at the west end. To superintend 
te vaetion q^ the worlpi e4[eotnaUy, we had 
«i t^ gnraad M^« IMd Gloyer, aa derk 



of the works ; I bad great confidence in him 
from prcTious knowledge, and from his con- 
duct in this matter. In case anything was 
wrong, the ultimate appeal was left to Wren 
and Bennett. This mill was intended to be 
turned in part by a water-wheel ; there waa 
a tunnel under the mill, 19 feet wide and 
22 feet high ; it waa under the whole length 
of the mill, and from the first it was intended 
that the water-wheel should be fixed in this 
tunnel; the fixing of the water-wheel in this 
place would not, according to the original 
drawings, hafe interfered with the pillars. 
The fixing of the wheel rendered it neces- 
sary to dispense with one of the pillars ; one 
entire range of pillars goes right through 
the old arch or tunnel down to the rock 
below ; first of all they were wedged in 
the arch, and then connected by tie-bars 
with each other, and the adjoining walU; 
those pillars were cruciform in section; 
where the water-wheel wss intended to 
be one pillar could not be put, because 
it was under it; we designed a plan to 
dispense with the pillar ; a Urge cast-iron 
flange beam with a curved top waa substi- 
tuted ; it was 3 feet 4i inches deep fai the 
middle ; the bottom flange wu 20| inches 
wide, and of an aferage of 3|inobe8 thick ; 
the Imgth of the heiun was 20 <set Icop 



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FALL OF A FACTOST AT 8TO0KPOBT, 80 ^ULY* 1850. 



182 



centre and centre ; the depth of the beam 
at the end was 20f inches ; the top flange 
was 9^ inches broad, bj 2 inches thick in 
the middle ; the dimensions in the drawing 
of the beam produced are correct — (see 
figs. 1, 2, 3» 4,>— the ends of the Urge beam 
were circular, forming a gland ; the beam 
was completely circular, went ofcr the pU- 
lars, and went oyer collars on each column 
prepared to recelTe It ; the diameter of the 
drde is 9^ inches inside ; we designed two 
columns to support this beam ; they were 
cruciform in section, like the other long 
ones ; thej were 23 feet long to tbe under- 
side of the beam ; thej wen aneh longer 
than the other ot^mas, at they had much 
more to carry, being 16^ inches across the 
asMdie om way, and 18^ across the middle 
tbn other way, and 2^ inches thick in metal ; 
teywere 11 inches across the transTcrse 
bars; the collar which aupported the beam 
was 18 inches in diameter $ one entire line 
of column, four storeys in height, rested 
upon the centre of the large beam, which 
also carried in boxes prepared to reodre 
them the ends of tbe two of the ordinary 
fire- proof beams, forming part of the ground- 
floor, or the floor immediately OTcr the 
cellar; these were bolted to each other 
through the large traosrerse beam, extended 
to waUs on each side, and were intended to 
prcTent the beam gifing way sideways, as 
w^ as to support the floor ; we consider 
that lateral stay was of great importance in 
maintaining the stability of the structure ; 
we determined the form and weight of the 
bMm upon calculations based upon expe- 
rience ; we should have aToided, if practi- 
cable, placing the entire weight of a row of 
columns on the middle of the beam; we 
consider that altogether the machinery, 
arches, and pillars, resting on the beam, 
would be equal to 62 tons ; that is the load 
we beliere waa constantly on the middle of 
the beam ; we also coniidered it might some 
day also be loaded with people, and that 
was the most considerable strain that could 
by possibility come upon it; that might 
increase the weight upon the centre for a 
time to 81 tons, supposing the two storeys 
of tbe four were loaded wi5i people standing 
as closely as they could be packed. From 
calculations based upon experience, I come 
to the conclusion that the beam would 
break when a weight waa upon it of 280 
tons ; I cannot gire any idea aa to the break- 
ing weight of the two pillars, which sup- 
ported the beam. They were fit to bear the 
greatest weight I erer odculated could come 
upon them. The cruciform form of pillara 
was adopted after mature deliberation, and 
for important practical reasons ; it was not 
that we oomidered tills form the itrongeit, 



or that it permitted the most 
distribution of the metal ; I beUere this Is 
still the subject of debate amongst scientific 
men ; our dediion in farour of the cruci- 
form shape was influenced by a oonsldenitioa 
that in castings of sudi extreme length, had 
they been drcular columns of the same 
weight aa these, there would hare been ttm 
greatest danger and risk of haTing the metal 
unsound, or Irregular in thJc kn eie on tbm 
sides, and at the same time there would 
hare been no opportunity of practieallj 
testing whether they were reslly sound or 
not; but in the cruciform shape we could 
eye it all round. I produce a seotioB 
(fig. 5) of one of the pUlara whidi in 
broken ; the diameter outside is 7i indiee % 
one side Is 2^ inches in thickness, and 
the other seTcn-eighths of an indi; tha 
pillar I refer to was one of the pfllars 
in the bottom storey ; It must hate . bean 
one of the three pillars of the bottom storey ; 
this pillar Is broken In two ; tiie fraotara ia 
slightly an oblique one; this defect oould not 
be perceiTcd outride the pillar ; the cruci- 
form shape of pillar allowed more room far 
the Introduotion of the water-wheel, and It 
afforded us conriderable oonrenlenee In at- 
taching the breast or slnioes of tbe watar- 
wheel ; I beUere this form of pillar has been 
used by architects of the greatest eminoioe ; 
I beUere they hare been adopted in the new 
Houses of Parliament by Mr. Barry ; the 
interior of the Manchester Athenaeum resta 
upon four columns of the same deseriptioot 
and all the pillars in the Free Trade Hall aie 
of the same description ; we wiahed to ob- 
tain as much depth aa possible In the middle 
for the beam over the water-wheel; tiie 
models for the beam and pillara were in- 
spected by us before they were caat : the 
castings were made according to the models, 
aa far aa I know ; Measrs. Williamson and 
Roberts, of Heaton Norris, fiamisbed all 
the castings, under contract with Mr. Howard; 
we were not parties to that contract, but I 
belieTC it was stipulated that the work ahonld 
be done to our satisfaction ; I inspected the 
models before the beam and pillars were 
cast ; GloTcr would inspect the castinga; we 
tested some of the ordinary besms ; we broke 
one down at 28|^tons dead weight, slung 
upon the middle ; that would be about four 
times the load it would hare to bear; tiie 
large beam waa not teated ; the reason waa 
that we had no means of slinging so heary a 
weight u ita own load; I bdie?e meaaa 
have been used in London, by hydrauHo 
power, to test such beams, but It Is not 
usual in this neighbourhood ; the large pil- 
lara were not tested ; I saw the large beam 
on the ground before It was pat up ; it waa 
the duty of tiie clerk of the works to lea that 



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>ALL 07 A FAOTOBT AT STOCKPOBT, SO JtTLT, 1850; 



138 



tn tfas easdngi were Mmnd ; after the large 
pfllart were up, I inipeeted them miniitel j ; 
I Umnd them perfeet to ontwird appearance ; 
the large beama were pat in in the begin- 
ning of September, I should fancy; I do 
not know when the erection of the arohea 
and the flooring was commenced ; the roof 
■rdies were tamed in December, and that 
work was rapidly proceeded with ; the arehes 
of an Um floors woald be completed within 
tihree monUis, and the centres deared away ; 
I am not aware that any obserration was made 
when the weight came upon the large beam 
as to whether it deflected or not ; we loolced 
along tlie beam and saw it looked straight ; 
I saw it looked straight after the arching was 
eooaplete; 1 went mysdf to the end and cast 
my eye akng it ; we considered there was so 
large a margin of strength tliattliere was no 
doobCabont ita stobility ; at the time I looked 
along the beam it was not weighted with 
macUnery. The foundation of the two pil- 
lan aup p oit e d the beam in solid rock ; there 
was no masonry, but the pillars were im- 
bedded in an iron plate 3 feet square ; the 
miQ-gearing would not add to the weight on 
tbt beam, but thcTlbration of the mill might 
hftTO an hijorious eifect upon Uie beam or 
any other part of the building ; T do net 
think it had, but it might have; I considered 
the besm was so stayed and supported that 
Tibration eonid hare no eflbct upon it ; after 
the flrat dfiwings, the site of the mill wai 
uhaugtii ; had the original design been car- 
ried ont there would have been no need of 
leanu The site of the mill was 
11 feet nearer to the rirer; that 
the alteration in reference to the 
beaaa ; the proprietors considered the alte- 
imtion in reference to the site of the mill 
an improvementa 

• • • « 

There must hare been a most tremendous 
strain upon the mill when the accident hap- 
pened ; the general atability of the mill was 
beyond all question; the common pillars 
were not tested beyond an external examin- 
ation. Hie drawings prodoced show the 
fr ac tures of the large beam; the beam is 
now nearly in the same position in which it 
was Ibund. One of tlie pillars which sup- 
ported the beam is broken off at the top 
and pushed aside ; the other remains entire. 

Mir» FlairMm'9 Report, 

Cast iron may be said to be of almost 
unitersal application at the present time in 
the constru^ion of baildings. Its use is at 
all erenta tery extended, uid the repeated 
occurrence of lamentable accidents, which 
haye hnrried numbers to their graves with- 
oit tiie Mtna ol eacaptt or a ' ' 



moment's reflection, evidences a deplorable 
want of knowledge of its general properties 
amongst those who undertake the desigahig 
and erection of buildings, and seems to call 
for the interference of the strong arm of the 
law, or, at least, for the supervision of soom 
higher authority than now exists to enforce 
obedience to those well-established princi- 
pies and facts which point out a way to its 
perfectly secure adaptation when dnly and 
accurately proportioned to the duties it nuy 
be called upon to perform. No material is 
of greater value in all the requirements of 
building, machinery, and the constructive 
arts generally ; and when employed under 
the direction of men of knowledge and 
judgment, it AUly esublishes its claim to be 
reckoned amongst the most valuable mineral 
productions of the country. On the other 
hand, when its application is undertaken by, 
or entrusted to the management of, the on- 
thinking and ill-informed, who poseese no 
knowledge of, or have not taken the trouble 
to make themselves acquainted with ita 
cohesive strength and powers of resirtanee, 
it becomes in sueh hands a most dangerous 
enemy, instead of a useAil and powerful 
auxiliary. 

The following qualifications appears to me 
necessary to the sucoessfol pursuit of his 
profession by the practical architect and 
engineer : first, a knowledge of the strength 
and other properties of the materials which 
he employs; secondly, the skill necessary 
to distribute and proportion the parts in 
such form as will insure the 'naximum of 
strength with the minimum of material; 
and lastly, in the use of cast iron and other 
metals, an acquaintance with the laws of 
expansion and contraction, in order that lie 
might be enabled— in every construction 
which requires strength, and in the security 
of which the safety of the public is involvsd 
—to reckon with certainty upon the calcu- 
lated or estimated duty of each particular 
euting. 

With these preliminary observations, and 
the more folly to ascertain the cause of the 
Ute accident, I would beg to direct the 
attention of the Jury to the scene of ita 
occurrence, and to the state in which the 
building may be supposed to have existed 
previous to the fall. It will be observed that 
a water-wheel, about 20 feet wide and 18 
feet 6 inches diameter, was placMi under 
the floor at the lower end of the mill, and 
that in order to carry Uiose portions of the 
floors immediately above it, two oolunms in 
the form of a cross, A A, and Uie large 
beam B, were introduced as a substitute for 
the usual means of support, which, but for 
the water-wheel, would have gtme down and 
rested upon the aolid rock| the mom aa the 



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1«4 



FA2X Of ▲ 7iCTQBX IS CnOOKPOBT, 10 SXStY^ 1850. 



other ptrti of the baUdhif. Tkii oo«ld notf 
howerer, be aooomplished ; tnd we moil 
now tee whet were the meant adopted to 
meet the difficoltj, and afterwards inqnire 
what thonld haye been the meani neceiaary 
to gtrestabilitj and teourity to the stmctnre 
under the circumttancet. Had the regular 
system of support followed in other parte of 
the mill been applicable in this particnlar 
spot, and had not the introdnction of the 
large beam B been necessitated b j the posi- 
ttoo of the water-whed, the stmctnre would, 
in all probability, hare been standing In per- 
fect security at the present moment. From 
this it follows that, according to my judg- 
ment, it must be admitted that the s^dent 
is attributed solely and entirely to the Csiliag 
of this beam. The water-whsel was imme* 
diately under the column which rested upon 
the cross beam. This beam was again support- 
ed by the columns, AA, 23 feet long (in the 
plan produced), each running down, one in 
front and the other behind the water-wheel, 
to the bottom of the tail race. It may be 
questionable, in some minds, whether these 
columns, of such great length, were suffi- 
ciently strong ; but on this point I have no 
doubts, although it must be admitted that 
they are not the strongest form of section, 
and that they would haye been doubly secure 
if the same amount of material had been 
thrown into the form of cylinders. The 
columns I, however, consider were suffi- 
ciently strong for the weight they had to 
support, and the eauses of the failure cannot 
thewibre be connected with them. With 
regard to the strength of this large beam, I, 
however, entertain a totally different opinion ; 
and a comparison of the load it bad to sus- 
tain with its powers of resistance will, I 
think, show that it must have been in a very 
precarious position from the commencement 
of the ard^ing of the different floors till the 
very moment of rupture. To ascertain the 
ezaot ultimate powers of resistance of a beam 
of the form and construction adopted in the 
present case, it is a question of considerable 
difficulty, owing to tbe Urge proportion of 
the body of the beam which had been cut 
out I have always entertained a strong 
dislike to beams or girders having the two 
resisting sides of tension and compression 
separated by openings of any kind, either in 
tbe shape of lattice work, or any form of 
opening which has the tendency to injure 
these two important forces. I am a strong 
advocate for a solid connection of the upper 
and lower flanges of a beam, of whatever 
form it is made, or of whatever material, and 
think that a comparison cannot be admitted 
between what the solid beam would have 
oarried (tuppo«ing the casttngs to be equally 
iovid iA mMT cMoJ, Mid Ihfi wei^^t witfi 



whidi the open beam actually broke. On 
a oareful comparison of these weights, I find 
that the beam, if it had been soUd, would 
have required a load of 280 tons in the mid- 
dle to insure fracture, whereas it gave way 
with the weight of the beams and arches, 
one row of columns and machinery, not 
exceeding 8 tons. The ratio, there(6re, be- 
tween the beam, if solid, and the beam open, 
is in this particular instance as the nnmWs 
280 to 80, or 1 to 3^, the solid beam beix^i; 
more than treble the strength. Now it 
appears ^o me that so extraordinary a dis- 
parity as this cannot under any circum- 
stances be reconcilable with the simple 
introdnction of openings in the conducting 
or middle web of the beam, and I have, 
therefore, been Induced to direct my atten- 
tion to an endeavour to discover some addi- 
tional cause of weakness, which would satis- 
factorily account for the remarkable falling 
off in the bearing powers of the beam. After 
a careful consideration and ezaminaUon of 
the subject, it is my opinion that the same 
unfortunate decision which introduced the 
obvious defect observable in the oonstructioa 
of the girder with this open web, at the 
same time brought into operation another, 
and, perhaps, even more formidable dement 
of destruction, in the cmportunities whidi it 
afforded to the effects of unequal oontractiini 
in the cooling of the casting. This dangerous 
agency it is, at times, im|^ossible to detect ; 
and on this very account it is the more im- 
perative that every form of casting should be 
avoided which is at all likely to call it into 
action. Its effects are too oisastrooa to be 
contemplated; for, in the present unfortunate 
instance we find the paltry saving of half a 
ton of metal has reduced the strength of 
the beam from 280 to less than 100 tons. 
This ii a subject of vast importance in the 
construction, forms, and sections of cast- 
iron beams, and I avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity to make public the difficulties whidi 
I have myself repeatedly experienced in tbe 
casting of large beams. On the occasion of 
casting the beams which supported the 
hydraulic presses for raising the great tabe 
at Conway, the centre breaking weight 
of each beam was, by calcnlation,\pward8 
of 700 tons ; and as each of these beams 
were absolutely required to sustain a load of 
375 tons, equally distributed, it beoaone 
necessary to use every precaution, not onlj 
as respects the strength; but also as regards 
the quality of the castings, and the adoption 
of such a form as would ensure uniftmautj 
in the rate of shrinkage which accompaiuee 
the process of cooling. To give inoreaood 
support to the upper or lower flaogea of tbe 
beam, it waa suggested to introdaca Tartkal 
ilM of the sama thiekneiB at tbe body of 



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ON THB INCBtTSTATrON WHICH FORMS IN THE BOILERS OF 8TF*AM ENGINES. 135 



the betnii at ditUncet of three feet along the 
wrfiiee oa each tide. The retalt of this 
•Iteration wai, to uae a familiar expression, 
tbe beam became*' hide- bound;" nneqoal 
shrinkage took place, and out of foar sqc- 
oessiTe castings erery one of them cracked 
ikmg the tdge of the Tertieal ribs. These 
experimenti, and others which hare been 
nade since, oonTinoe me that, in erery cast- 
inm beam, the top and bottom flanges, as 
weQ as tha body, shoold be remored as 
mach as poasible from ererything in the 
ihape of xiIm, and to arrire at the practical 
teedon of greatest strength, it should be 
esst solid wiUi smooth surface on all sides. 
In die large beam now under consideration, 
it appeara that in addition to the opening, 
along the middle, two strong Tertieal ribs with 
s shelf to receiye the two arch beams were 
introduced. Now, both of these have con* 
tributed to induce unequal contraction, and 
by that destructiTe process materially to 
iigvre the itr«igth of the beam. If this be 
the case, it would be, in my opinion, unjust 
to attribute the whole cause of (Ulure to 
the engineer having cut out considerable 
portiona of Uie metal from the centre of the 
beam« A combined tendency to destruction 
has more probably been going on, Tix., one 
from the influence of unequid contraction^ 
and the other from the injudicious conduct 
of the architect, in having by such wide 
openings destroyed the important connection 
vhiofa ahould always be maintained between 
the top and bottom flanges. I have, there- 
fore, no hesitation in stating that I have 
eome to tbe conclusion, that the unfortunate 
%f^^m*^ at the Brinksway Mill has arisen 
from the weakness of the large beam which 
npported the columns and brick arches oyer 
the wateT'Wheel. My opinion further is, 
that although the beuing powers of the 
heam bad been very materially diminished 
by tbe openings made in it, yet it appears 
tiuit it ia in some measure owfaig to the un« 
eqnl shrinkage of the casting during its 
caoinff, occasioned by these very openings, 
^at we most attribute fiilure. 



ow rmm urosuavAnoirs which vo&k in 
Txm BOUiSna aw stbau bxoimks. 

(Trwrn a letter addratsed to Dr. O. Wilson, 
r JLJL£., ^ Dr- J- Vm. lUad at the Edinbu r gh 
lUetfog of the Britiah Aatociadon.) 

On entering on this inquiry, which I did 
•Ab- mj return from the West Indies in 
Daco&bcr, 1848, and after communicating 
a short paper to the Hoyol Society ** On 
Carbonate of Ume in Sea-water," it ap- 
[ to me deairable to collect ss many 
•a possible of incrustation from 
of aftfam vessels, now so widely 



employed in home and distant navigation. 
• • • • The character and 

composition of the incrustation, whether 
formed from deposition from water of oar- 
row teas or of the ocean, I have found very 
similar — with few exceptions, crystalline in 
structure, and, without any exception, com- 
posed chiefly of sulphate of lime ; so much 
so, indeed, that unless chemically viewed, 
the other ingredients may be held to be of 
little moment, rarely amounting to five per 
cent, of the whole. 

• a • # 

To endeavour to prevent the deposition of 
the Incrusting matter or to mitigate the 
evil, various methods, it would appear, have 
been had recourse to— some of a chemical 
kind, as the addition of muriate of ammo- 
nia and sulphate of ammonia to the water 
in the boiler^without success, as might ha 
expected ;— others, of a mechanical kind, 
with partial success— as the introduction of 
a certain quantity of sawdust into the 
boiler, or the application of tallow, or of a 
mixture of tallow and plumbago to its inside, 
to prevent close adhesion, and the more 
easy separation of the incrusting matter 
either by percussion, using a chisel-like ham- 
mer—or by contraction and unequal expan- 
sion, by means of flame kindled with oakum, 
after emptying the boiler and drymg it. Of 
all the methods hitherto used, that of 
*' blowing off,"— that is, the discharging by 
an inferior stop-cock a certain quantity of 
the concentrated water of the boiler by the 
preasnre of steam, after the admission above 
of an equivalent quantity of sea water of 
ordinary density, appears to be, from the 
reports made, the most easy in practice, the 
least unsuccessful, and the most to be relied 
on. But it can be viewed only as a pallia- 
tion. Considering the composition of tha 
incrusting matter and the propertiea of its 
principal ingredient — the sulphate of lime, 
a compound soluble in water and in sea 
water, and deposited only when the water 
containing it ia concentrated to a oertdn 
degree, there appears to be no difficulty theo- 
retically in naming a preventive. 1^ cer- 
tain preventive would be the substitution of 
di^dUed or rain water in the boiler for sea 
water. Of this we have proof in the eflU 
cacy of Hall's condenser, which returns the 
water used as steam, condensed, after having 
been so used: — but, unfortunately for ita 
practical success, the apparatus is describcMl 
as being too complicated and expensive for 
common adoption. Further proof is afforded 
in the fact that the boilers of steamers navi- 
gating lakes and rivers in the waters of which 
there is little or no sulphate of lime, month 
after month in continued use;, remain free 
from incrustation. T^is I am assured is the 



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136 ECOKOMfCAL USE OF THE GA.SE0U3 ESCAPE FROM FURNACES AT lEON- WORKS. 



case with the steamers that have been plying 
several summers successirely on the lake of 
Windermere. And it may be inferred, that 
iu sea*going steamers in which sea water la 
used in the boiler — or, indeed, any water 
containing sulphate of lime, the prevention 
of deposition maj be effected with no less 
certainty by keeping the water at that de- 
gree of dilution at which the sulphate of 
lime is not separated from the water in which 
it is dissolved. From the few trials I have 
rnade^ I may remark that sulphate of lime 
appears to be hardly less soluble, if at all 
less, in water saturated with common salt 
than in perfectly fresh water. This seems 
to be a fortunate circumstance in relation to 
the inquiry as to the means of prevention, 
and likely to simplify the problem. If these 
principles be sound, their application under 
different circumstances, with knowledge and 
judgment on the part of the directing en- 
gineer, will probably not be difficult. His 
great object will be in sea-going steamers to 
economise the escape of water in the form 
of steam, and thereby also economise heat 
and fuel ; — also, when fresh water is avail- 
able to use it as much as possible ; and fur* 
ther, to avoid using sea water as much as 
possible near coasts and in parts of seas 
where sulphate of lime is most abundant. 
From the incrustation on the boilers of sea- 
going steamers, the attention can hardly fail 
to be directed to that which often forms, to 
their no small detriment, in the boilers of 
locomotive-railway engines, and of engines 
employed in mines, and in the multifarious 
works to which steam power is now applied. 
These incrustations will of necessity be very 
Tariable, both in quantity and quality, 
according to the kind of ingredients held in 
solution in the water used for generating 
the iteam. Hitherto 1 have examined two 
specimens only of incrustations taken from 
the boilers of locomotive engines, and 
a single one only from the boiler 
of|a steam engine employed on a mine 
*-a mine in the west of Cornwall. The 
latter was fibrous, about half an inch thick, 
and consisted chiefly of sulphate of lime, 
with a little silica and peroxide of iron, and 
a trace of fluorine. The former were from 
one*tenth of an inch in thickneu to one 
inch. They were laminated, of a gray colour, 
and had much the appearance of Tolcanic 
tufa ; they consisted principally of carbonate 
and sulphate of lime with a little magnesia, 
protoxide of iron, silica, and carbonaceous 
matter — the last two, the silica, and car- 
bonaceous matter, probably chiefly derived 
from the smoke of the engine and the dust 
in the air. From the engineer's report it 
would appear that the thinnest — the incrui- 
tatlon of About one-tenth of an inch— had 



formed in about a week, during which time 
the locomotive had run about 436 milea, 
and consumed about 10,900 galloni of 
water. 



■CONOlf lOAL U8S OF THB eASBOUS BSCAPB 
rROlf BLAST rURMACBB AT IBON-WOBKt. 



At the late meeting of the British 
tion, Mr. PalmbrBudd made some remarks 
in continuation of a paper which he had eon- 
tributed to the meeting at Swansea, in 1848, 
'* On the Value of the Gaseous Escape from 
the Blast Furnaces at the Tstalyfera Iron- 
works," in Wales. 

Dr. Robinson (the President), in intro- 
ducing Mr. Budd to the section, said the 
subject on which that gentleman waa about 
to speak was one of very great importance 
to the iron trade of this country. Aeoording 
to the present system, an ironfonnder in 
melting a ton of iron sent out into the at- 
mosphere about four tons weight of gaseous 
products, all of which were entirely lost. 
Now, Mr. Budd had satisfactorily proved, 
by actual experiment, that the heat whidi 
escaped from the tops of the blast furnaces 
was a matter which the iron mannfacurer 
might turn to material account in the way 
• of increasing his own profit, as well aa in 
diminishing the price to the purohaaen of 
that commodity. 

Mr. Budd stated that, since the meeting 
of the Association at Swansea, he had con- 
tinued, and with increased success, to apply 
the waste gases that escaped from the top oif 
blast furnaces to the manufacture of iron { 
and it was the result of his farther expeiiened 
applied to the whole of hia ftimaces (nine id 
number), since that period, that he nonj 
wished to submit to the section. When 
British Association met at Swansea, he 
not used the gaseous escape at any 
distance from the furnace, his stores 
boilers bekg very closely oontigi 
Further experience, however, had proTi 
that by the aid of a stack at the end of 
chain of suffident dimensions, the gaaeoi 
escape firom the furnace might be made 
travel in the most tortuous directioiia, < 
scending to the stores buUt for heatliig I 
the usual fireplaces, and traTersing 
boilers; the only condition abeolntelj 
cessary bdng that there should be an 
broken communication with the high 
at the end, into which the gaseona 
might at last pass, and by whidi it 
drawn forward, instead of passing off wast 
fully at the tunnel-head. When, howevi 
the draft was carried downward, and to loi 
distances, he had found it necessary to dtf 
into th6 top of the ftumaoe a hopper er fa 
nel, made of ihoet-iron, wfatefa Mted •» 



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" THE CITY OF PARIS " 8TBAMEB. 



137 



iMdd at the movtht of the horiiontal flues, 
md prerented them from either being «f- 
fiected by high winds, or from being choked 
np by materials thrown into the furnace. 
The reason, no doubt, why this funnel was 
not applied before was the great apparent 
tBBperatvre at the tunnel-bead. In prac- 
tiee, howerer, it was found that until the 
g a i c o m a escape mingled with the atmosphere, 
tts beating power was not such as to injure 
dheet-iroD, or eren to make it red-hot. In 
iwt» so long as there was an escape upwards, 
th« iron loniiel would not be injured. The 
damage arose during and after stoppages of 
d» tonaoe, when tiie blast was obstrueted 
IB ito passage upwards by the settlement of 
te materials in the fhrnace, so that the 
atmosphere rushed down to meet the ascend- 
ing gases, and, of course, caused a Tcry high 
lood temperature. His practice was to ez- 
dnde the atmospheric air as much as pos- 
sQile. The affinity of the gases for oxygen 
was so great that the air leakage raised the 
temperature quite sufficient for safety,whilst 
the full combustion of the gaseous escape 
would melt down the bricks in the flues, and 
dflitroj the texture of the iron tube. It was 
not pMsible for him to say what oombina- 
tioBS took place at high temperatures, where 
earbonie oxide, carbonic add, hydrogen, aud 
nitrogen, were mixed in such proportions. 
At any rate, he found a smothered combus- 
tion to be the most suitable and economical 
Ibr the purposes in view. He was happy to 
say that, at length, the application of the 
gaseous escape had been tried in Scotland ; 
ad that at Dundyran and elsewhere it was 
now in successful operation. The peculiar 
quality of the furnace coal of Scotland being 
was called in South Wales ** firee- 
' which, when put into the furnace 
coked sufficiently in its descent, gSTe 
out an enormous escape, so much so that, 
^oo a rough estimate, he calculated that 
the waste from one furnace in Scotland was 
ssffieient to heat the blast, and to raise the 
steam for three. With anthracite coal, the 
ajnimvm eifect was obtained, as it was a 
fbel of nearly 95 per cent, of solid 
but in Scotland there would be an 
surplus at the tunnel-head. He 
expected, from the well* known ssgacity of 
this Scottish people, that when truly em- 
barked in this mode of operation the greatest 
poasible use would be made of it ; and he 
would not be surprised to see heat let out, 
fike mill-power, for burning bricks and 
other similar purposes. He felt, however, 
aaxiows that the application should be made 
the superintendence of competent 
he had known several instances 
where the plan had been abandoned from 
difficulties that might easily have been sur- 



mounted under proper directions. He was 
quite aware that, by the plan he had pursued, 
the utmost heat was not extracted from the 
gases ; and that, by different means, a tempe- 
rature might be obtained capable of perform- 
ing all the operations of the forge ; and if it be 
the solid carbon of the furnace in its escape, 
as carbonic oxide, would unite with another 
dose of oxygen or saturation, there could be 
little doubt that, with properly cootsituted gas 
furnaces, there was enough at present pass- 
ing off to convert the pig-iron into bar-iron. 
He hoped some of the iron-masters of Scot- 
land would follow up this hint effectually with 
regard to theremaininr processes required 
for making malleable iron. He obserred 
that the earing at the Dundyvan Iron-works 
was stated to be about 1| tons for each ton 
of iron produced. Supposing, therefore, 
600,000 tons of iron to be the produce of 
Scotland, and supposing the Talue of the coal 
used to be 3s. per ton. the saring that would 
thus be effected on the make of Scotland, 
would amount to 112,500/. a year ; to which 
might be added 20,000/. a year of saving in 
wages and repairs ; which would make a tota 1 
saring of 132,500/, or about 4s. 5d. a ton on 
the produce of Scotland, which on the pre- 
sent price of 448. per ton, was about 10 per 
cent, on the value. If the gaseous escape 
could be extended to the uses of the forge, a 
farther saying of three tons of coal wouldbe 
effected — thus making, at least, a saringof 
208. a ton on all the iron manufactured into 
bars, sheets, and rails. 



"the city of parts'* stvamkr. 
On Saturday last, the 10th inst, Th§ 
aty of Paris, a new and powerful iron 
steam ship of 425 tons burthen, belonging 
to the Commercial Steam Narigation Com- 
pany, and intended to ply between London 
and Bonlonge, was launched from the ship- 
building yard of Messrs. Joyce and Co., of 
Greenwich. She is, we belieye, the first 
iron yessel of magnitude ever built at 
that place. Of her lines, it may be suffi- 
cient to say that they were supplied by that 
well-known and successful Goyemment 
builder, Mr. Oliver Lang, of Woolwich. 

The following are her principal dimen- 
sions : — 

Ft. In. 
Length between Perpendiculars. 165 

Breadth of Beam 23 

Depth of Hold 14 

Draught of Water 6 6 

The engines are of the collective power 
of 120 horses, and are on the direct-action 
principle. Each piston ha« two rods, be- 
tween which there is a recess in the piston 
which allows of a corrpspomling recets in 

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188 



BNaLISH SPKGIFIGATI01I8 BNBOLLBD DURDia THE WB£K* 




the oylinder eowen, and thereby permiti 
the oonnecting rods to descend oonsideFably 
lower than U practicAble in the nnglt-rod 
direct - acting engine. The arrangement 
altogether is very compact and simple, and 
reflects great credit on tlie engineers, Messrs. 
Joyce and Co* 

BPIOmOATIONS or BNOLISR PATIMTS BN- 
ROLLSD DURING THB WBBK BNDINO 

AUGUST 15th, 1850. 

John Macintosh, Berner's-street, Ox- 
ford-street, Middlesex, C.E. For improvt' 
wtenU in obtaining power, in the floating 
qf bodies, and in conveying fluids. Patent 
dated February 12, 1850. 

Mr. Macintosh's present improrements in 
« obtaining power " refer to the flexible 
rotary engine which formed the sabj^t of a 
patent granted to the saqie gentleman in 
Jane, 1848, and described in toI. 1., 
page 18. The engine, as now improTed, 
consists of a cylinder, the ends of which 
are closed by the flanges of an internal 
oylinder, wluch is made in two parts, 
with a drcolar space between the two 
ends opposite to each other, for the arm 
of the piston to work in. This arm 
is keyed on the main shaft, and the pis- 
ton works in the space between the two 
cylinders, underneath an endless steel band 
which closes the space between the two por- 
tions of the internal cylinder. The steam 
is admitted to drire the piston, and snbse- 
qnently allowed to escape by arrangements 
similar to those described in the specification 
of his former patent. 

2. Mr. Macintosh describes another rotary 
engine, which consists of two moveable cy- 
linders placed one within the other. The 
inner one is keyed on the main shaft, and 
fitted with a sliding piston, which is kept in 
contact with the interior periphery of the 
large cylinder by the action of a spring 
placed behind it. The cylinders are concen- 
tric, and their internal and external circum- 
ferences are brought into contact at the 
bottom by friction rollers — one at bottom 
and one on each side. For carriages it is 
proposed to have a rim on the end of the 
inner cylinder, and to attach the railway or 
other tyre thereto. 

3. " The iinproTements in floating bodies'' 
fonsiat in making breakwaters for the for- 
mation of harbours, of sheets of net or wire, 
which are rendered buoyant by bemg done 
over with tar mixed with sawdust, or any 
other librous and buoyant materials. Also, 
in consUucting moveable bridges, for the 
conveyance of troops across rivers or to 
ships, of a tube of India rubber or gutta 
percha bent into the form of a rectangle of 
the length reiiuiredy tnd fitted with a valve. 



Strong pieces of wood are attached to te 
inner edges of the long sides, and form the 
foot-way. When required to be used, the 
tube is to be filled with air ; and when out 
of use, it is to be rolled round a spindle 
mounted upon wheels, to facilitate its re- 
moval from place to place. 

4. *' The improvements in conveying 
fluids " consist in enckMung them in water- 
proof bags, and floating them to their det- 
tmation, and are stated to be specially 
applicable for the conveyance of fresh water 
* to ships at sea, or of sewage to a distance 
from towns. 

Lastly, the patentee describes the adapta- 
tion to drains of an air and water-tight bag, 
the lower end of which is kept cloMd by a 
weight, except when any matters fall into it. 

Ckame, — 1. The improvements in con- 
structing engines for obtaining power. 

2. Tl^ improvements in floating bodies 
for obtaining harbours, and also in portable 
bridges. 

3. The improvements in conveying fluids. 
William Blinkhobn, Sutton, Lanca- 
shire, glass manufacturer. For certaim on- 

^mtvements in machinery to be used in the 
\umufacture qf glass. Patent dated Feb- 
ruary 12, 1850. 

The present patentee proposes to employ 
a hollow casting table, the upper part and 
sides being cast in one piece, with flanges 
which are riveted to the bottom plate. A 
stream of water is to be kept running through 
this table.. In the lower part of the table 
there are ovens for the purpose of heating 
the water and the top plate to about 120*^ 
Fah., to prevent injury to the plate when 
the metal is first poured from the crucible 
or pot on to the table. When, after repeated 
castings, the top plate of the table has been 
heated, the fires are raked out, and the tem- 
perature kept down to the required degree 
by the stream of cold water running through, 
or by means of several jets of cold vrater, 
which are caused to play against the under 
surface of the top plate. The table is 
mounted on wheels which run on rails, to 
facilitate its removal from one annealing 
kiln to another. The rolling cylinder is 
supported above the table on adjustable 
tangs, for the purpose of regulating the 
thickness of the plate, and is fitted on each 
side with guides for determining the width. 
The cylinder is made to travel to and Iro on 
the table by means of a pitch chain con- 
nected to its brasses, which goes round a 
pitch wheel driven alternately in opposite 
directions by means of the ordinary revers- 
ing gear, placed in front of the kiln, and 
actuated from a prime mover. To each aide 
of the cylinder there is attached an arm 
connected to a lever which has a notoh in 
the upper fuitaoe noMTNt the kUD, into which 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



SItGtJIBfi 8FBCIFKUXI0K8 XMBOLLED DUUIMO THB WKUU 



1S9 



biM a pwJMtion oo Um under raiiiue 
« tnm iKdiwg piece attaolied to e 
piMBf orer a pnllej, and weighted at the 
flte ead. The opposite eods of the lereri 
ire ftmiibed with friction pulleyi, and the 
oormponding end of the table is fitted with 
iadiBfld pUM. At the oommencement of 
working, the table ia raised to the requisite 
4i|ie6 of teaipen)tnre» and the rolling cylin- 
dtf drawn back to the end nearest the kiln, 
ipoo which the metal is emptied on to the 
eudog table. The cylinder is then made to 
trifd ofcr the metal from the kiln, carrying 
tlte iliding piece with it, which is raised 
ibove the surface of the plate. When it 
mm at the end, the friction pnlleya ascend 
tk iasUaed planes, and, by causing the 
Bolehsd ends of the letera to be dfepreseed, 
Hberate the sliding piece, which is drawn 
bid hy tiie reaction of the weighted chain, 
u4 thereby forcea the plate into the anneal- 
iigkilB. 

CUm,— 1. Constructing casting tables, 
Med m the manufacture of glass, in such 
■laaer as ttat their working sorfacea naay 
be'nised to and maintained at the suitable 
degree of temperature by water. a 

2. Constructing and arranging machinery, 
ottd ia the manufacture of glass, in sacli 
Mmer u that the plates shall be rolled 
ftostrr upon the casting table. 

3. Constructing and arranging machinery, 
ved hi the manuikcture of glass, in such 
nmaer ss that the plates shall be transferred 
tkreby from the casting table to the anneal- 
iifkihL 

Jamss WsBsran, Leicester, engineer. 
Ar mpro vtme u is m the produetum of ga$ 
f*r tMt fwrpo9t9 qf light. Patent dated 
Wiraary 12, 1850. 

Tkeee improrements relate to an apparatus 
&r the manufacture of coal or ronn gas, 
vUch Mr. Wd>ater terms ** a domestic gas 
gesffitor.*' 

1. This '< generator," when ooal is used, 
cvuists of three retorts, supported in a suit- 
ible letting, two of which are charged with 
coelin the usual way, with the exception of a 
psrtion of the length near the end of each, 
«Uek b separated from the rest by a perfo- 
ntod pUte, and filled with pieces of iron and 
iM lead in powder. In the upper part of 
lb Rttfaig there is a boiler, in which steam 
> SQ^cnted at a pressure a little above that 
^ the atoiosphere. The steam is conducted 
^Fipss into the small end chambers, and 
vries thence the black lead into the retorts, 
^^pasitiBg it upon their interior surfaces, 
ad ther^ preventing their being deterio- 
^ by its action. The three retorts and 
*^ are heated by one furnace. The gase- 
^piodueta and steam escape from these 
^ntorti into the third, where such por« 



tiona aa have not been transformed into gaa 
are oompletely eroWed, after which they 
paas into a condenser, where tiie steam k 
condensed, and the gas escapes to the gaao- 
meter. 

2. The '' generator " for resin-gas ia Tery 
similar to the preceding, with the execution 
that the third retort is filled with pieces of 
iron and black lead in powder, into which 
steam is admitted from the boiler, pusing 
thence into the other two retorts that are 
supplied with melted resin from a reserroir 
' in the upper part of the setting. The steam 
and gas then pau to a condenser, where the 
former is condensed, after which the latter 
escapee to a gasometer. 

Claiwu* — 1. The improTcments in the 
manufaoturs of gas from ooal, as described. 

2. The improvements in the manufacture 
of gaa from resin, as described. 

Rbad Hollidat, Huddersfteld. For 
improvementt in Awfpf. Patent dated 
February 11, 1850. 

Mr. UoUiday describes and olaims several 
constructions of lamps in which light is 
produced by the ignition of vsponr evolved 
by heating some suitable spirit supplied to 
the burner from a reservoir by capillary 
attraction. 

The following are the principal features 
of novelty — 

1. The use of two discs of cork, or other 
non-conductor of heat, to maintain the 
burner-tube in position, and impede the 
transmission of its heat to the glass or 
esrtiienware reservoir of spirits. 

2. The employment of a cock or tap situ- 
ated below the jet orifice, for the purpose of 
regulating the supply of vapour to the 
burner. Several arrangements are specified 
to be used, instead of the cock, having 
for their object a like purpose, namely, 
the regulation of the supply of vapour. 
One consists of a fixed spike, which 
passes through an openhag in the bottom 
of the burner tube, and, as the latter is 
moved up or down, increases or diminishes 
the sixe of the opening, and therefore of 
the supply of vapour. This spike also serves 
to clear the jet orifice. Or, a valve with a 
conical passage, which answers the double 
purpose of regulator and jet orifice, may be 
made use of. 

3. The employment of perforated burners 
and wick-tubes for the admission of air to 
the vapour. 

4. Enlarging the lower part of the burner 
underneath which the wick is to be spread 
out, for the purpose of increasmg the heated 
surface. Also, the use of a two-legged wick 
tube, through which the wick is drawn, or of 
two wicks for obtaining a like effect. 

5. Yarlous modifications of the preceding 



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■iTtiiiemeDti tra deicribed, whereby two or 
more Immere tie oombioed in one lamp, or 
the Ttpoiir rappUed from two or more louroee 
It centred in one light. 

6. Begnlating t^ admiBsion of air to the 
tmponr by making the burners to turn round 
the top of the wick tnbeti and perforating 
inch portlpna aa are fai contact with each 
other, 10 that when the holes are coincident 
the foppW of air will be at its mazimnm, 
whidi will be gradually decreased as the 
burner is turned In one or other direction, 
and will be totally cut off when the perfora- 
tions of the one oome opposite the unperfo- 
rated portions of the other. 



7. Sereral methods of constructing Uie 
burners and wick tubes, to admit of their 
being cast in one piece. 

8. The adaptation of an adjusting toev 
to the wick tube, to compress the fibres be- 
tween it and the side of the tube, for the 
purpose of regulating the supply of spirit 
to be Taporised. 

9. The patentee proposes to employ an 
arrangement, similar to that last mentioned, 
in pressure spirit lamps, for the purpose of 
compressing more or less the fabric through 
which tiie spirit is generally filtered sad 
supplied firom the reserroir to the burner. 



WBXKLT LIST OV DBSiaNB FOE AB.TI0LB8 OV UTILITT RiaiSTULSD. 



Date of No. in 
Bcgistn- the Be- 



AugnBt9 SMS 

10 S404 

IS S405 

18 S406 



Pioprlelora'NaflMa. Addmies. 

H. C. Windle, and W. 

D. Bljth ... WaluOl ............. 

Snaan Hooper and Co... Binnlngham ...... 

Thoi. and Chu. Clark, WolTerhampton .. 
Ci^t.W. H. Annitxoiig, Cobham, Surrey .. 



Snljacts of Dedga. 



15 Si07 D. Y. Steward and Co.. St. RoUok, Glasgow ^ 



M.. Reaistered atore t^p« 

..... Spnng hinge. 

.... Roae-tree and Sever 

girdle. 
>... Core carriage. 



WMKLT LIST OF NBW BNOL1SB FATBNTS. 



Joseph Steele, of Chancery-lane, for improTe- 
ments In coating and impregnating metala and 
metallic articles. (Beingaeommunication.) August 
9; alz months. 

Henry Meyer, of the Strand, Middlesex, gentle- 
man, for certain improTements in power looma for 
weaving. Aogost 10; six months. 

Selim Biohard St. Clair Massiah, of Aldermen's' 
walk, New Broad-street, London, for improvements 
in the manuCictare of artificial marble and stone, 
and in treating marble and stone. August 19; six 
months. 

Alfred HoU, of Greenwich, Kent, engineer, for 
improvements in steam engines. August 12 ; six 
months. 

Armand Nicolas Fr6che, merchant, residing in 
Paris, for improvements in obtaining power. August 
IS; six months. 

Charles Cadby, of Liquorpond-street, Middlesex, 



pianoforte-maker, for improvements in stringed 
musical instruments. August 12; six months. 

George Thompson, of Park-road, Regenf s-paik, 
Middlesex, gentleman, for certain improvements 
in machinery and apparatua for cutting, diggia^ 
or turning up earth, applicable to agricadtual pur- 
poses. August 13; six months. 

Samuel John Pittar, of Church-place, Clapham, 
Surrey, civil engineer, for certain improvements 
in umbrellas and parasols. August 1 3 ; six months. 

Peter Claussen, of Great Charlotte-street, Blsek- 
friars, Surrey, manufacturer, for certain improve- 
ments in bleaching, and in the preparation of 
materials for spinning and felting, and in yams 
and felts. (Beingaeommunication.) August 16; 
fix months. 

William Keates, of Liverpool, merchant, for in- 
provements in machinery for manufacturing roUos 
and cylinders used for calico printing, and other 
purposes. August 16; six months. 



CONTENTS OP 

Specification of Messrs. Donkin and Farcy's 
Improvements in (Disc) Steam Engines 
—{mUh tngravin^),,, 121 

Notes on the Theory of Algebraic Equations. 
By James Cockle^ Esq., M.A., Barrister-at- 

Law 124 

Extract Letter from James Lockhart, 
Esq « 124 

On the Flat Knot. By Professor Davies, F.R.S. 
L. and E 125 

More Work for Engineers -Continued Sinking 
of Blackfrtara Bridge 129 

Mr. Faxton's Desoriptiuu of his Design for 
the Building for the Exhibition of 1851 ...... 129 

Fall of a Factory at Stockport from Fracture of 
a Cast-iron Beam, SOth July, IS50— (tpiM cn- 
gravins') 130 



THIS NUMBER. 

Statement of Mr. Hopklnson, the !>•• 

signer ISl 

Report of Mr. Fairtiaim, Esq., C.R,^. ISS 

On tlie Incrustations which form in Boilers. 

By Dr. J. Davy IS5 

On the Economical Use of the Gaseous Escape 
from Blast Fu maces. By Mr. Palmer Budd IM 

Launch of the "City of Paris" Steamer 137 

Specifications of English Patents Enrolled 
during the Week :— 

Macintosh Flexible Rotary Engine, &c IM 

Blinkhora Glass •, ^ \U 

Webster Gas-light .«. I» 

HoIUday Lamps ». It9 

Weekly List of New English Patents ..« 146 

Weekly List of Designs for Articles of Utility 
Kegistered UO 



LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by Joseph Clinton RobcrUon, of No. 16G, Meet street, 
in the City of London.— Sold by A. and W. Galignani, Rue Vj,vienne, Paiis; Macliin and Co., 
DubUu ; W. ii. Camobell and Co., Hamburgh. 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

No. Hll.j SATURDAY, AUGUST 24, 1850. [Price Zd., SUmped, Ad. 

Edited by J. C. RobertMn, 166, Fleet-vtreet. 

MBSSaS. DONKIN AND FAREY'S IMPROVEMENTS IN STEAM ENGINES.^ 
IMPROVED EXPANSION GEARING. 
Fif. 13. 




TOL. tUi. 



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r 



142 

HBtSRB. DOKKIN AND VARST'B IMPROTftMtNTB IN 8TSAM KNGINKS. — IMPROTVD 
EXPANSION GIARINO. 

(Coaclttd*d from page 124.) 

Fhurtkijf. Oar iiiTentioa ooaiiitf of an improved method of working expinsion itlm, 
which it applicable both to the diac engine and generally to all rotary or lemi-rotaiy 
enginei. 

Fig. 13 if a crou section through the centre of a disc engine with onr improyed ezpsn- 
aion apparatus applied thereto. 

Fig. 14 is a plan of the engine with the cover and cones removed so as to exhibit the 
botto m of tiie cylinder only. A is the cylinder ; L the main shaft ; J the driving crank ; 
WW are eccentric toothed wheels of an elliptical form, which are fixed on the mdn ahaft 
L (by means of the set screw x] and work into and drive another set of similar wheels XX, 
— which Ust work the slide valves bb ; am are the ports by which steam is admitted to the 
two sides of the disc ; y^ the pipe which conveys the steam from the boiler to the ilide* 
valve box y; jr is the exhaust passage, and s^ the exhaust pipe. To adjust the apparatni, 
the engine it first set at one half of that part of the revolution at which it is desired to cut 
off the steam ; the wheels WW are then adjusted (by means of the set screw jr) so that the 
point thereof furthest from the centre of the main shaft shall be in gear with the whedi 
XX at the point nearest to the centre of the shaft on which they work ; the engine is next 
turned to that part of the revolution at which the steam is required to enter the cylinder 
and the slide valves aa adjusted (by means of the set screws </e^ and nuts ttd'), so as to be 
just on the point of uncovering the steam ports ca. Matters having been thus arranged 
and the engine set to work, we are enabled by the elliptical shape given to the eccentric 
wheels WW and XX, and the relative positions in which they are placed, to cat off the 
steam at any point whatever of the retolutlon that may be most advantageous ; and this 
beeause, for every small portion of a revolution performed by the wheels WW, the wheels 
XX, which move the slide valves bb, necessarily perform a large portion of a revolution ; 
that is to say, in consequence of the gearing point of the two sets of wheels beiog at the 
point farthest from the centre of the main shaft, a small portion of a revolution of the 
wheels WW suffices to make the slide valves, which are moved by the wheels XX, travel a 
sufficient distance to open and shut the steam ports aa. 

The face on which the slide valves work is made with grooves or recesses (as shown in 
figs. 2, 3, and 13.) in order that by the admission of steam into these grooves or recesses 
the pressure of the steam upon the back of the valve may be more or less counteracted. 

Fifthly. Our invention consists of an expansion apparatus on the same principle as the 
preceding, but adapted to steam engines of all sorts. Fig. 15 is a longitudinal section 
through the centre of so much of a steam engine of the ordinary reciprocating aort as is 
necessary to explain this application. Fig. 16 is a front view of the same with the back of 
the slide boxes removed, in order the better to show the slide valves. WW and XX are two 
pairs of elliptical eccentric wheels as before, the former of which are fixed on the main shaft 
L, and gear into the latter which work ths slide valves bb at the back of the slide box e^ of 
the ordinary slide vahe/; g^ is the steam pipe. The different parts act precisely in the 
same way as the corresponding parts in the arrangement last before described, and are also 
adjusted in the same manner. 

Sixthly, Our invention consists of a new sort of metallic packing, which may be sub- 
stituted for the hempen and other soft packings now in common use, and applied to all 
descriptions of steam engines. We make this packing of shavings, cuttings, or filings of tin, 
sine, or other soft metal, or soft metallic compound, and compress these together round the 
piston or other part required to be packed, in the same way as hemp is now ordinarily done. 
We n: thut it has been before proposed to line the bearings of journals and axles 

with soft metal, but the use of soft metidfor the purpose of making the pistons and staffing 
boxes of steam engines, steam-tight, as here proposed, we believe to be new. 

[Messrs. Donkin and Farey also describe a fluid meter constructed on the same principle 
as the disc steam engioe.] 

Claims, — Pir&t. We claim the employment of the inner or additional glands, GG, for the 
purpose of packing the ball of disc engines, the ring of metal H, for securing the ends of 
the packing slips, cc, and the peculiar sort of bearing in which the coned end of the 
diagonal shaft D is stepped, each as before described. / 

Second, We claim the employment in disc engines of the itaproved description of me- 
tallic packings represented in figs. 9 and 10, and before descritied. 

laim the construction of disc engine represented m figs. 11 and 12, and 

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DOMKIN AND FAREY's IMPnOVEMENTS IN STEAM ENGINES, ETC.^ 143 

brfwB dawribed, tiiat is to lay, in lo far •■ regards the mode or means by which the dia- 
gaul shaft D is connected at the outer end to the driving crank, and canted to keep the 
disc up to the cones, whereby the usual metallic packings are, or may be, wholly dispensed 
with. 

Pbmrik, We claim the employment in the disc engine, and in rotary and semi-rotary 
engines gmerally, of the arrangement of expansion gear represented in figs. 13 and 14, and 
before d— gfibed, that is to say, in so far as regards the elliptical ahape of the eoeentrie 
wbcde, WW, and XX. 



Pig. 15. 



Fig. 1«. 




t^fJL We flhlm the construction of the face on which the iHde vaWes work, with groores 
or rsecsies to contain stesm, for the purpose of countereeting the pressure on the back of 
the Yalte as represented in figs. 2, 3, and 13, and before desoribed. 

SiMfk. We claim the adaptation of the peculiar expansion arrangement before described, 
ts the ordinary and other steam engines, aa exemplified in figs. 15 and 16. 

Sevenths We olaim the making of the packings of the pistons and stuffing-boxes of steam 
csgtnes,-»of the shsTings, cuttings, or filiogs of tin, sine, or other soft metal, as before 
dsseribed. 

And, Bi§kth, We claim the fluid meter on the disc principle before described, in so far 
M respects tlie adaptation to such fluid metere of the sereral improTements before 
•pceified and claimed, all or any of them. 

I 2 



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MATHEMATICAL PBBIODICAUS. 



rORMATIOM or PSBBLSS OB 8HINOLB. 

Sir, — The article in your last Number 
— *' On the IncruBtatioDt which form in 
the Boilers of Steam Engines ''-^parti- 
cularly those which make use of sea- 
water, has reminded me of some facts 
which have come under my notice as a 
resident on the sea-coast, in reference to 
the formation of the pebbles or ** shin- 

fle," which constitute so excellent a 
ttlwark againit the encroac hmen ts of 
the sea. 

The common hypothesis by which 
their formation is accounted for it, that 
they are formed by the mechanical action 
of the waYCs from the debrut of the 
coasts ; and, to a certain extent, this is 
doubtless true. But there is also an idea 
somewhat prevalent among the dwel- 
lers on the shore, that pebbles grow; 
and this, it appears to me, has its modi- 
cum of truth also. 

Some three or four years since, Mr. 
Major Vidler, surveyor of Pevensey 
level, in one of his Reports to the Com- 
missioners of that level, made some 
remarks tending to show that the large 
banks of shingte to which the marshes 
under his care owe their security from 
inundation, are formed from the ruins of 
the chalk cliffs of Beachy Head, — not 
merely from the flints which those ruins 
contained, but also from the chalk itself; 
which he supposed might be carried out 
by the ebb tides into deep water, and 
being there subjected to sreat pressure, 
became impregnated with the silicon 
held in solution by the sea- water, and 
thus converted into flints, which, in 
course of time, were thrown on shore 
again. 

The Report which contained these 
ideas was published in one of the Sussex 
papers, and the theorv which they ad- 
vanced was attacked through the same 
medium, by Dr. Mantell, the geologist, 
whose '*Thoughu on a Pebble" had 
then been recently published. 

The facts, however, upon which Mr. 
Vidler founded his views, remain the 
same as before, and possibly they may 
lead to some useful result if placed be- 
fore your readers. 

I can only state them generally, and 
so far as my own obserrations confirm 
them, because I have not seen the Re- 
port I have alluded to, since the time of 
itsDublication. 

In the first place, the form of most of 



the pebbles seems to indicate that they 
were in a plastic state when first subjected 
to the action of the sea, and that they 
have become hardened by the sea- water. 

Few of them are round — most of them 
incline to a '* kidney " shape, such as 
one might expect a lump of tough day 
to assume if constantly agitated in water, 
or sometimes in and sometimes out of 
water. 

In support of this I may remark, that 
the pieces of Aresh chalk on this side of 
Beachy are identical in shape with the 
boulder flints vrith which they sre 
mingled. 

In the next plsce, I have seen, sod 
can find at any day upon the beaob, 

Sieces of chalk partially consistiDg of 
int, some of them with scarcely percep- 
tible nuclei, as if the flint-forming agency 
had only just commenced its work. 

I may add to this, that the same thing 
may be seen in various other substances, 
as clay^sandstone, green and red—coal 
— ^brick ; indeed, almost everything of mi- 
neral origin appears liable to be Ranged 
into flint under the action of the tea. 

In some cases I have obserred two 
flinty nuclei in the same specimen. 

Long- continued observation and care- 
ful experiment would probably be neces- 
sary to determine whether the change 
(supposing it to be admitted on the 
grounds I have stated) be produced by 
"pressure from without," or by an ap- 
propriative process having its origin in 
some centre of force within. 

Perhaps some of your readers esn 
throw light upon the subject. 
I am, Sir, yours, &c.. 

Jambs Rook, Jun. 

HaitiDgs, Aug. 20, 1850. 



MATHBMATtCAL PBBIODIOALS. 
(Continued from page 44S, vol. ui.) 
XXII. MisetHanea Curiaga Maiki- 
matica. 
Origin. — This periodical was com- 
menced in the eventful yesr 1745, in con- 
sequence of *' the Editor of the Chnile- 
man*9 Magazine having been solicited, 
by several ingenious Mathematicians, to 
insert into it so many of their pieces si 
would have diseusted the far greater part 
of his readers. — However, "while he 
complied with the taste of the poBti 
and gajft the politician and the patriot. 
he thought himself indispensably obliged 



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XATHEIffATIOAL PEBIODIOALS. 



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to «Misider likewise his friends of t more 

phfloooDhical disposition, and therefore 

he reaflily joined io a scheme for pub- 

liriiing such productions onoe a quarter 

in a aepwrate pamphlet.** He further 

i tmt he did this the more readilT, 

in the annual Dtomt, '* too little 

is allowed for solutions at large to 

Questions worthy of consideration: a 

defect snd iccooTenience, which it is the 

intention of this work to provide against'* 

The first volume was completed in 1749» 

Mid was dedicated '* to Jonn Bristow, of 

domber Park, in the county of Notting- 

bam, Esq. ;'* who is told in the somewhat 

fblsocne dedication, that " this collection 

of mathematieal disquisitions is designed 

to rentier the mathematics more familiar 

and intelligible, and to bring this part of 

Icaniiniff into a narrow compass, and so 

laarve naore room for cultivating the mind 

with naoral knowledge and virtue !*' Of 

tbe second volume only five numbers were 

prtnted, and as one of the articles in the 

Mat nnmber bears date, Feb. 25, 1753, 

it may reasonably be inferred that the 

mmk was discontinued about this period. 

Some former possessor of the volumes 

fiuiiishes a confirmation of the preceding 

opinion, for he has added at toe end of 

nnmber 5, vol. ii., the M.S. observations. 

'« Cam^imgUNos, ExUr The work 

b printed in small quarto, vol i. contain- 

hig xvi-h812 ; and vol. it, 186 pages. 

£dtfor. — '< Mr. Francis Holliday, 
Master of the Grammar Free School at 
Hanghton Park, near Retford, Notting- 
hamshire.** Author of a ** Treatise on 
FlujLioi»,*' &c., &c. 

ConienU, — As might be inferred from 
the drcnmstances which gave rise to this 
periodical, it is wholly devoted to mathe- 
matical subjects. Each number contains 
a series of original and selected papers, 
on most of the subjects which usually 
engaged the attention of the mathema- 
timns of that date, together with a selee- 
tioo of mathematical questions and solu- 
tions. In several of the earlier number's 
solutions are given to most of the ques- 
ttons proposed in the 0§ntieman's Diary 
and 8upplem9M for the time being ; but 
u the number of correspondents in- 
ercssed, this practice was discontinued. 
Many of the papers were of primary 
importance at the time of their publica- 
tion, and the following enumeration will 
show that some of them, even at the pre- 
sent day, possess considerable interest. 



Art. I. Of the proportion of velocity 
and forces in bodies in motion. P^L, 
Trans., No. 401. By Dr. S. Clarice. 

Art. II.— A Table of the times when 
the paths of the Satellites of Jupiter and 
Saturn become convex toward the Sun. 
Also a Method proposed for demonstrat- 
ing the Earth's Motion and investigating 
the Parallaxes of the Sun and Planets. 
By X. Y. 

Art. III. — A Demonstration of four 
Theorems for determining accurately 
the Sun's Parallax. By Mr. N. Facio 
Duillier, F.R.S. 

•»* In this paper several properties 
of the harmonieai division of the dia- 
meter of a circle are introduced, especi- 
ally that upon which Prop. 2, Dr. Sim- 
son's De Porismatibus is founded. It 
is also worthy of notice that Mr. Duillier 
applies the term pok to those points 
(with respect to the circle) which after- 
wards received the same designation by 
M. Servois, in reference to the conic 
sections generally. 

Art. IT. — ^A universal spherico-ca- 
toptric theorem, translated from the 
Latin in No. 295 of the Phii. Trans. 
By F. Holliday. 

Art. V. — Reduction of Algebraic frac- 
tions into more simple ones, and recurring 
series. By Mr. Abraham De Moivre, 
F.R.S. No. 373, PhiL Trans. Trans- 
lated by Mr. Holliday. 

*«• In addition to several useful 
theorems relating to rational fractions 
this paper also contains *' the section of 
an angle which the acute Mr. De Moivre- 
hit upon," translated from No. 374 of 
the PhiL Transactions, 

Art. VI. — A Theorem on Increments, 
with its demonstration. Translated from 
the Latin of Dr. Taylor's Msthodus In^ 
cremeniorum. By Mr. HolHday. 

*4i* This paper contains the original 
statement and demonstration of Taylor's 
Theorem, as adapted to Increments and 
Decrements generally. In the ssecmd 
corollary the Fluxions proportional to 
the evanescent Increments are introduced, 
in place of the Increments themselves, 
and hence the Theorem is deduced in 
the form in which it is usually given by 
writers on the Fluxional and JDinerentiai 
Calculus. 

Art. VIL — Tables of Annuities, 
founded on the Bills of Mortality for 
London. By Mr. B. Darting. 

Art. VIII.— Of the Maxima and 



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MATHBMATIOAL PKRtOOIOAUi. 



Mmma oeearring in the Celestial Mo- 
tSoBB. Bt thmt sagioioQt mathemmtieiaa, 
Mr. Ah. De Moivre, F.R.8. Done into 
Mngli$k from No. 300 PhU Tram. By 
Mr. Hollidaj. 

Art. IX.-— An Eney to find the San't 
horisontal parallnx hj the transit of 
Yenns over the Sun's Disc. By Mr. 
Alex. Findlay, teacher of Navigmtion at 
Aberdeen. 

Art. X. — Solutions to Sixteen Ques- 
tions from the Swppiemeni to the Gen* 
ikmaiCa Diary, uj Mr. Samuel Farreri 
of London. 

Art. XL— Solution to Ques. 904, 
Ladies* Diary for 1745. By Merones 
(Emerson). 

Art. XI L— Solutions to Three Ques- 
tions from the Qwniiemttn*§ MaganvM. 
By Messrs. Turner, Cleophilus, and 
Anglewiteh. 

Art. XIIL — An Essay ooneemlnff 
the sums of the powers of AHthmeticai 
progressions, with its application to the 
solution of Ques. 258 in the Lmdiu* 
Diary for 1746* By Spieelegus, gent. 

Art. XIV.— Solutions of Ten Ques- 
tions firom the ChniltwuaCs Diary, By 
Messrs. Robinson, Farrer, Waine, and 
Williams. 

Art. XV.— The Demonstrations of the 
Ttieorems in Art. IIL rendered com- 
plete. By Mr. Nic. Facio Duillier, 
F R. S 

'Art.'xVL— A Table of Chances for 
any number of points thrown with 1, 2, 
3, &e., up to 12 Dice inclusive, and the 
Method of Computation. By Mr. Rich- 
ard Gibbons. 

Art. XVIL— An Essay on the Pro- 
perties of Triangles inscribed in, and 
circumscribed about, two given Circles. 
By Mr. William Chappie. 

•«* This paper contaras several ourious 
and interesting properties of the inscribed 
and circumscribed cireles, amongst which 
is the well-known expression for the 
distance between their centres, via., a** 
ES-.2 Rr, here given for the first time 
by Mr. Chappie. The same subject also 
forms the subject of the Priie question 
in the Ladtes* Diary for 1746. It was 
proposed by Mr. Chappie in order to 
draw attenUon to his Essay, and was 
answered by Mr. Robert Heath, the then 
Editor of the Diary, who claims for 
himself the honour of having *' discovered 
this property of drawing triangles about 
cireles some years ago, as may be seen 



in ike Mcnihly Oraeie.*' He, howmrcr* 
acknowledges that the proposer '^baa 
^nreatly deserved, in his long aeeount of 
It in the Mueeilanaa Mat hemati ea ; and 
as Mr. Chappie does not appear to baTe 
raised any ofajeotions to tneoe remarka, 
most probably Mr. Heath's claim fo 
worthy of consideration. Mr. Laadaa 
took up the same inquiry la his Mmtka' 
imatieai Luca^ratiotu, published in 17fi5« 
and added a considerable nnoilier of 
curious properties, besides exteodieg 
some portions of his results to the oooie 
sections. His discussion oeenples tweotj- 
four quarto paj^s, but he neither mao- 
tions the rival claimants nor the works 
in which their InvestigationB appeaswd. 
From this period, the various propertiea 
were well known to the mathematioiaiia of 
this country, but do not seem to hare 
ibund their way to the eontinent; for 
they were proposed as neie to the eorro* 
spondents of the first volumes of Oer- 
^nne's AnmaleM d$9 Mmihtmatigmet for 
1810-1 L In this work several sohitiona 
to the prineipal property are given by 
L*Huillier, (wnier, and the Editors, 
who also proposed for demonstratiofi two 
porisms which had ooeurred to tbeoi 
during the course of their investiga^ona, 
both of whieh are given by Proftaaot 
Leyboum in his edition of the Lmdiaa* 
ihafy, vol. iv. pp. 840-1. Dr. Wallaea 
gave an analvtioal, and Professor Lofwrj 
a geometrical, determination of ibe ex- 
pression for the distanoe between tbe 
centres, in the paffes of the Dimry joot 
cited, and many others might be pointed 
out in various works; but by far the 
most elegant and comprehenaivo are 
those given by Professor Davies, in Prop. 
XIIL; XIV.; Harm GeatMtricm, 1885t 
and pp. 414-16, of hia Solutiami $o IfiH- 
<Ofi'« CourM. 

Art XVIIL^CaleuUdon at krgo of 
the Eclipse of the Moon, August 19, 
1746, from FlamBtead*s Tables. By 
Thomas Sparrow. 

Art. XIX.--Solution of Quea. 161, 
Ladies* Diary for 1781, whieh bad 
hitherto remained unanswered. By 
Edward Hauxley. 

Art. XX-~Of finding FluenU by 
that excellent Table in Mr. Emeraon's 
Fluxions. By F. liolliday. 

Art. XXL — Two new measures sub- 
servient to Mechanieal Practice. Trans* 
lated from the Latin of M. C. Polhem. 
By F. Holliday. 



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MATHSJCATiaiL PKBIODIOAXB* 



Art XXn.— Cooeerainf a very etiri- 
am Afltronomioal Problem for finding 
the pUee of a Comet, from having given 
the ladtndes and longitudes of four fixed 
start. By Edward Hauxley. 

Art* XXIII. --ObtervatioBf of the 
Oonet of 1748.4. By S. B(ollon), of 
(kmMdfc. 

Art. XXIY.— Concerning an octave 
on the Monochord, divided by geome- 
trical proportionals By Philo^whimsi- 
ealot (probmb^ Bmtnon). 

Art. XXV.— A Table showing tome 
of the properties of regular Polygons. 
By Pol wnus. 

Art. XXVL— The ouadrature of the 
fiipires of tangeou ana secanU, by the 
hyperbolic lofianthms. By H(olliday). 

Art. XXVU— An Essay on Fluxions, 
wh««ia the first prineiplct are eltarly 
d— lonstiated in a very easy and eoneiao 
Method, adapted to Beginners. By 
Arefaimedes. 

Arc XXVIII. — How to solve all 
manner of simple Fluxionary exponen- 
tial problems. By Edward Hauxley. 

Art. XXIX— A Table showing some 
of the properties of regular solicb. By 
Polyedra. 

Art. XXX.— This is Art XX. con- 
tiiiiied. 

Art. XXXI.^Conoeming the right 
Maeneiona and declinations of the Comet 
•f 1743-4. By 8. B(olton). 

Art XXXIL— An £way on the Ca* 
kadar, with regard to the oorreotlon of 
Iha Julian and OregoHan aeeonnts in 
the ealtbration of Easter. By H(oliiday}. 

Art XXXIII.— This is Art XXX. 
eoBtlntied. 

Art XXXIV.— An Easy Constmc- 
tftoD and Calcolatlon of a Problem for 
dtftermining the places of a Comet. By 
the Rev. Stephen Bolton, M.A. 

PrMem. 

''Four right lines being given in 
position, «»., FC, GA, HB, IC, it is 
required to find a fifth (FI), which 
skall be eot in the points 6 and H in 
aoy given ratio.*' 

A Geometrical Construction and a 
Trigonometrical Calculation are given 
by the proposer. 

Art XXXV.— Calculation at large of 
the Eelipee of the Sun, July 14th, 1748, 
for Ixmdon and Newcastle, from Brent's 
Tables. By Mr. B. Bobinson. 



147 



Art XXXVL*.Caleiiktian of the 
same, by Mr. Machia's nnmbert in 
Brent's Tables. By William Brown. 

Art XXXVII.— A Table exhibiting 
where the central Annulus is conspicuoot 
in the same Eclipse. By Mr. Thooiaa 
Cowper. 

Art XXXVIII.— A Theeram rekting 
to the comparison of the weights A 
bodies, from Prop. 20, B. iii., N§mHm'9 
Prmeipiaf demonstrated. 

Art XXXIX.— A New Propoiitloii 
in Geometry demonstrated. By Mr. 
William Chappie. 

*«• This proposition is the now well* 
known property, that '*the three per- 
pendiculars of any triangle intersect in 
the same point,'* and although taken for 
granted in the solutions of Qnes. 45, &cfi- 
tUman's Dim-y for 1743-4 ; Qoes. 360, 
Ladiu* Diary, 1745-6; the honour of a 
/onaa/ enunciation and demonstration ap- 
appears to be due to Mr. Chappie. The 
property is stated both for the acute and 
obtuse angled triangle, *' the same de- 
monstration serving for l)oth," which, 
however, is not conducted in so purely 
geometrical a manner as one could wish. 
Many proofs of this property may be 
found in roost treatises on Co*ordinate 
Geometry, especially in Dmviet^s Huitim, 
vol. ii., pp. 269-272, where six difRirent 
soludons are given) but the most ex- 
tensive discussions of the relations which 
exist between the perpendiculart, the 
segments of the sides, the angles, and 
the sides of any triangle, are to be found 
in Camot*s Cfiowuiri§ de Post/toii, and 
more recently in the Horm QsmiuMem 
by Davies and Weddle. 

Art XL.— This is Art. XXXIII. 
continued, with a set of Tables entirely 
new. By F. Holliday. 

Art XLI. — A useful and general pro- 

riition for finding Fluents. By Mr. 
Powle. 

Art XLII. — A Scholium enUrely 
new, showing how Cardan's Theorems 
for Cubic Equations are deduced, iUns* 
trated by examples. By H(ollidav). 

*•* This paper professes to be an 
improvement **of what is inserted in 
pp. 186-7 of the second edition of Ro' 
nayne't Algebra,** and merely consists 
in throwing the usual expressions for 
the roots of a cubic into infinite series by 
means of the Binomial Theorem. The 
following examples are given in illiis* 



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148 



THB BEIWCNIA TUBULAB BBIDOB* 



tradon. If 4^^ 1208a -16000; then 
« -40*03332407664. If a^*15«»4 ; 
then a* -'2679491. 

Art. XLIII.— An Enaj on the Golden 
Number; Cycle of the San; Roman 
Indietion; the Julian and Dionysian 
Periods, kc. By William Brown. 

Art. XLIV. — A Specimen of a gene- 
ral method of drawing Tangents to 
CarYea, deduced from tne Doctrine of 
Maxima and Minima. By Mr. William 
Jepaoo. 

Art XLV.— Emendations and Cor- 
rections to Ques. 15; 47; and Art. 
XXXII. By Mr. William Chappie 
and an " Unknown Hand.*' 

*•* The preceding articles are con- 
tained in Nos. I. to IX. inclusiYo; 
forming the first volume of the worlL. 

ArL XLYI— A Table of Chances, 
intended as a plain and easy intro- 
duction to Simpson's Treatise on that 
iobieot. By Mr. Richard Qibbons. 

Art XLVII.— The Investigation of 
two series furnished by Mr. Anthony 
Thaoker for pages 100 and 109 of Shirt- 
eUffs's Onaging. By Mr. F. Holliday. 

Art. XLVIll.— Tks is Art XL. con- 
tinned. 

Art XLIX.— A general proposition 
for finding Fluents. — By Mr. John 
Powle. 

Art L.*-£ssay towards a Discovery 
of the Longitude by the Variations of 
the Magnetic Needle. By Edward 
Hanxley. 

Art LI. — A construction of Loga- 
rithms. By Mr. W. BeviL 

Art LII.— This is Art. XLVIII. 
continued. 

Art LIIL— A Translation of Dr. 
Brook Taylor*8 Treatise on Increments. 
By F. Holliday. 

*»* This transUtion is continued in 
the next two numbers of the Miseel- 
kmeOf and ten propositions were com- 
pleted when the work was discontinued, 
the $eveiUh of which contains what is 
usually known as Taylor's Theorem. 

(7b b€ eoniinued.) 



THB BEirAKNIA TUBULAR BRIDOB.— IfB. 
FAIRBAIBir THB TBUB INTBNTOB. 

The last Number of the North BrUUh 
RmfUw has a very rentrktble article oo this 



sabfaet, which is said to have been writte 
by Sir David Brswster, and bears strong 
internal evidence of coming from Us power- 
ful pen. In a former notioe of the Britannia 
and Conway Tabular Bridges, the NmrU 
BritUk ascribed the whole merit of their 
invention and coBstmctloB to Mr. Robert 
Stephenson — ^indooed thereto by the follow- 
ing considerations : — 

'* We were led Into fMt miffldb by taking 
oar information from two dilTereBt 
in which the name of that eminent 
was alone mentioned. One of them^pro* 
bably copied from the other— bore no marfca 
of aathentieity ; bat the other^ bears to be 
written * by a resident assistant, with the 
permbsion of Robert Stephenson, civil en- 
gineer.' In this pamphlet the name of a 
coadjutor or ooUeague tt nem 
turned, although the naases of inlerior i 
ants, bnUders, contractors, and 
in wood, stone, and iron are liberaUy eea* 
blasoned. That this pamphlet was writtni 
not only by the permisaion of Stepheaaoov 
but waa intended to assert indireetly his 
claim to be the sole lB?entor of tnbnlar 
bridges, is placed beyond a doubt by the 
address which he delirered at the entertala- 
ment giren at Conway, in May, 1848, on 
the completion of one of the groat tabes. 
He there distinctly assumes to tie the sole 
inventor, and merely mentions the name of 
a gentleeaan as a person wkom At kmd eas- 
ploftd to test ezperimentally the theory ha 
had formed. This gentleman was Mr. Wm. 
Fairbaim, of Blanehester— an eminent nogi- 
neer, witkomt wAott ^eniiiff omd prme iitm t 
kmowUdge, dndpmtimt • Mp er immt mi im§ui 
rim (the Reviewer is now convinoad) , lAe 
tubular Mdgn in WaUi couid never kmoe 
been eenetruetedJ' 

The writer has, therefore, taken np tha 
matter anew, and gone at great length, nad 
with great ability, hito the whole ''hietorj 
of this great invention," the merit of which 
he thus honestly and magnanimonily restorea 
to Mr. Fdrbaim :— 

•• Such is the tubular bridge whkdi Mr. 
Stephenson has the nndonbted aaerit of 
suggesting. No Englishman aatieipatod 
him in this Idea, though it may appear after- 
wards that a Frenchman did. Bir. Fairbnirn 
wUlingly concedes this specillc merit to Mr. 

* *'G«fi«ral DMcripUon of the BritannU mad 
Conway Tabalar Bridget on the Chatter and Holy* 
head RaflwAf. Pobilthtd wtth the nmnitefioD of 
Robert Stephenton, Civil Engineer. By a Rraldciit 
AttitUnt. London : lSi9. pp. M. 



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THK BRITANNIA TUBUT.AR BRIBOE. 



149 



Stepbenton ; and it ii probable tbat the 
public wooM have magnified iti anoant had 
aot his ii^ttdieioiit fHendi claimed for him 
■lacfa more. Had Mr. Stephenion coupled 
the name of Mr. Fairbaim with hit own, aa 
eonjoiaed in the ezecntlon of thii great work, 
ttuj would haTe ihone together aa a doable 
atsTy oommanding the eateem of fntnre aget, 
and aeenring for their common oonntry the 
honour of IwTing produced such magnificent 
atroetvrea ; bnt the mionte inTcatigatlon of 
their individaal merita which has nowbe- 
j, maj lead to a very different 
at of fame, and pocaiblj allow 
ft atrmger to plaoe himself in the eyea of the 
world aa the earliest proposer of a tnbnlar 
bridge. 

'* It is fwy dear, from the examination 
of Mr. Stephenson himself, that the idea of 
ft tabnlar bridge was one which he was 
driven to adopt from neeessitj, and not 
firoBB any knowledge that be possessed either 
of the theory of sooh a stnctare, or of any 
a— logons worka, on the authenticity 'of 
which Im could haTe appealed to experience. 
When he tells the Committee that he is 
ta!*ffi^ that the aeheme is practicable and 
aafot he acknowledges at the same time that 
he aidopts it because ' he must confess that 
he cannot see his way at present to adopting 



' An idea, adopted as a last resonree, 
— uppor ted by theory, and untested by 
experience, is subssitted to Mr. Fairbairo, 
ond In Mt kmuU it BscoMia a ouat 
urrmmoir. Aim n nxncuTBo om thb 

AVTBOBITT or PBUICIPLIft WHICH Bn HAS 
BSTABUaHBO, AKD OP PBACTIOAL MMULTa 
WVIOH HB HAB BXPBBIMBlfTALLT OB- 

TAHTBD. Mr* Stephenson as the engineer 
of tiM railway, haa of course a general 
BBperriskm of erery thing connected with 
the bridges, corresponding occasionally with 
Mr. Fairbaim ; bnt in so far as we can find, 
and we have been most anxious in our 
search, he (Mr. Stephenson) has tuggetted 
making, and done nothing which con be 
eoneidored at a port of the giggnhe me* 
ekmumm wMck mow epome the Conwog and 
iff oiomt toepam the Uenm Straite." 

Our readers will obserre that reference 
b SBftde to the claims of a certain French- 
man as poeaPily eonflictlBg with those both 
of Mr. Fdrbaini and Mr. Stephenson. The 
RefSewer afterwards shows, however, that 
there is nothing in them. The Frenchman 
referred to is Dr. Joles Onyot, who patented 
a peculiar construction of girdrr in France 
fai 1844, and in England in 1846. 

** In his F^vnch patent he (Goypt) pro- 



po9es to construct bridges with a number of 
cells or hollow parallelopipeds, formed either 
of bars or frames of iron united by pins, or 
formed of one piece of cast iron. An 
assemblage of these parallelopipeds or cells 
would form a hollow rectangular tube open 
on all its four sides. It is of no conse- 
quence, according to Dr. Guyot, how the 
form is obtained, because it is the form of 
the hollow or oellnlar solid that derelops the 
strength of the iron, and consequently it ia 
the form which oonstltntee the inventloQ, and 
not the manner of executing it. * * 
Dr. Ouyot'sclsim, however, does not in the 
sligfateet difret t^t the righie of Mr. 
F kii 'h Ur nt who elokne only the merit of 
whmi he aeiuoUg did-^of having shown by 
experiments on a large scale, tlmt the rec- 
tangular tube woe prrferohle to the cyUndri^ 
eal and elUptieal forme^that a tube with 
its sides and top and bottom all similar 
voff not the form that ehoutd be adopted — 
and that a eeliular top and a eettular hot* 
tom different from the top were neeeesarg 
to give the requisite strength to the tubutar 
hridges.*' (Besides sU whidi) '< Dr. Guyot 
never proposed that his (parallelopipedal 
bars or frames) should bb roadb bithbb 

POB MBN OR FOR RAILWAY TRAIMB I they 

were merely intended for beama to support 

ROADWATB OR AWALOOOUt STRU0TVRB8." 

We have been altogether much gratified 
by the perusal of this article, which doea 
infinite credit to the candour, impartiality, 
and good feeling of the writer ; a gratification 
heightened not a Httle by the reflection thai 
his judgment on the points in dispute is in 
entire conformity vrith that to which we had 
ourselves been previously led by an Inde- 
pendent consideration of the case— (see 
Meehanies* Magazine, volume H., psge 
12 ) Mr. Stephenson and his partisans 
have committed themselves too absolutely, 
and, to say the truth, too audadonily, to 
the Fairbaim eaerifiee, to be expected at 
this time of day to retract ; but a retractation 
however ample, and however humble, were 
better far, than to persist in a course of mis- 
appropriation, which the more it is persbted 
in, and the more it is probed and sifted, 
will only cover him and them vrith more 
and more disgrace. 



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150 



«IOMITRICAL N0TI8.* BT T. 8. 

I. The Early O^ometrtf of the Ofeka 
and Bgyptiana, 

So much has been said on this sabject 
by almost every writer on the hiitory of 
geometry, even down t > the prefatory 
sketches in our elementary works, that 
the subject will appear at its first enun- 
ciation to promise only '' a resurrection- 
dish of stale condimenta.*' Had it been 
my intention, however, to merely repeat 
the silly narratives of the Greek writers, 
I should haye spared mTself the trouble 
of writing, and your readers of seanning, 
a single line on the subject It is rather 
my object to seek from internal eyldenoe 
than from the unsatisfactory testimonies 
of historians, who knew nothing of the 
subject-matter of their statements, what 
was the real character of the progress of 
geometry from its first rude oeranings 
and subsequent development of the most 
perfect specimens of logical skill| that 
the world has ever seen. 

I do not, however, propose to tie my- 
self down to a dose imitation of a sys- 
tematieally eomposed essay. Nor shall 
I often enter into any direot oontrover^ 
sion of the specific writings of modem 
times. I put down my own views sim- 
ply ; and if I should be ever led to dis- 
cuss the subject more minutely, it must 
be in another form and in a separate 
work. I shall be most glad, however, of 
any friendly suggestion, pointing out 
where a competent judge in such matters 
may think I am in error ; and I have no 
doubt of the liberal Editor of this Maga- 
zine afibrding every facility for discus- 
sion, whilst conducted with courtesy and 
decorum. 

The views explained in these Notes 
have been expressed verbally to many 
friends ; and m deference to their opi- 
nion, which on all occasions are entitled 
to respect, I here venture to lay them 
before the public. 

This discussion is ofiered with some 
degree of confidence, although with a 



* We are bappy to announce that the " Geome- 
try of the Line and Plane." which has ao long stood 
over owing to the Author'a indlapoaition, will be 
shortly resumed and completed. A few copies will 
be struck off for distribution amongst those of our 
readers who may desire to have the subject in a 
complete state, at the cost to which we are actually 
put ; and those who desire to possess the work in 
that state are requested to send their names to the 
Editor. 



DAVIBS, BSa., V.R.S., V.B.A., STC, 

full share of misgiving. As, from the 
nature of the subject, and the absence of 
all documentary evidence, it may be 
deemed to be entirely eonjeetural ; yet 
the internal evidence furnished by the 
work itself, the principles upon which 
it is constructed, and the natural pro- 
cesses of the human mind in abetraet 
research, will^ I hope, be allowed to 
have some weight where other and bet- 
ter testimony is wantinv. But, ^ truth, 
we have no trustworuy history of the 
aneient oeometry. beyond what is fur- 
nished by the aneient treatises them- 
selves, anterior to the notices left in the 
raathematioal eolleetions of Bappus ; for 
surely no one will contend for tne>(9«iii# 
gossip of Proclos, or still lees tibe philo- 
sophers and historians of Gh>Mee of ear- 
lier or later days, furnishing trustworthy 
materials for mathematicsl history. A 
few broad remarks may be roughly true ; 
but, at best, these only refer to eras, not 
to Uie detailed hbtory and philosophy of 
science. Except evidence derivea (rom 
the writings of a geometer can be ad- 
duced, we are in perhaps as ^voniable 
a position for the investigation as though 
a greater number of mere historians aod 
philosophera had left works that had 
reachea our own times. Perhaps such 
histories as are requfa^ might yet bo 
fbund — possibly Kke one Greek author 
in a mummy-ease, but fiir more likely \n 
the form of Arabic translations in the 
archives of the Escurial and other Spanish 
palaces. 

We must dismiss, in limine, the ab- 
surd inference so often quoted from He- 
rodotus, respecting the destruction of 
the knd on tne hmkt of the Nile being 
the origin of all notice of geometricu 
figures. All that Herodotus sutes, how- 
ever, is very probable, except hb infer- 
ence from it. The case simply amoonta 
to this :— that the king-landlord sent bis 
steward, on the representation of the 
tenant that so much land had been washed 
away, to «* survey" the property and 
adjust the rent accordingly. Possibly 
also, where landmarks had been oblite- 
rated, to restore them offidaUy from his 
own surveys, and prevent disputes be- 
tween contiguous tenants. That this 
should be assumed by Herodotus as the 
origin of geometry is perhaps not won- 
derful ; for he seems to have ooostdered 



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GEOMBTBtCAL NOTES. 



161 



as true erery Oible namtted by ihe Egyp- 
tkn priesthood; and he wai not very 
ooDTenant with any seienee, but most 
eapectally defieieDt in all abstract re- 
seareh. He saw nothing in geometrv 
but a praetieal art; and in that art itself, 
ooly a system of speoial and ingenious 
oontriTanees. 

One would alnost suppose that, from 
tiie uniTersal adoption of this opinion of 
the origin of geometry, Christian writers 
repudiated the authority, authenticity, 
or aDtioulty of the Old Testament. Is 
it possilBle that Tubal*Gain, <* a worker 
in Dries and iron," should be ignorant 
of the simple Ibrms and simpler proper- 
tiee of geometrical figures ? Is it po»- 
nble to conceive the builder of the ark, 
wiih these figures for one hundred and 
twenty years before his eyes, in his 
hands, and intentljr oeounying his mind,** 
tluKt Noah should not know the proper- 
ties of a rectangle ? Could the founders 
of the great tower on the plains of Shioar 
protect and carry on such a building 
without some such knowledge — much 
greater than that spoken of by Herodo- 
tos P None know better than practical 
workmen the elementary properties of 
^res — whether in wood, stone, or 
metal, and especially those which relate 
to figures to be fitted together, for the 
aeeoraey of which they must have some 
kind of test, which is only another name 
for a geometrical property of the figures 
eoDoemed. The logic or proof by which 
they arrived at this test is another ques- 
tion. In fict, without going to the 
Scriptures at all, the necessity for a 
Bsmewhat extended knowledge of the 
DToperties of geometrical figmres mi^ht 
nave suggested themselves to the mind 
of the traveller, in contemplating the 
pyramids, the palaces of the kings, the 
temples of the priesthood, and even the 
very dwellings in his own country where 
bb childhood had been spent. All these 
would have furnbhed instances of more 
advanced knowledge than the particular 
instance which he quotes. 

Nor is there much probability in the 
story related by Diogenes, Laertius, and 
Plutarch, respecting the wonder of the 
Egyptian king, at the sagacity of Thales, 
in proposing to measure the altitude of 
the pjnramids by means of their shadows. 
If it be true, then Amasis must have 
beoi an exceedingly simple and ignorant 
king { but his priestt, at least, would be 
1cm surprised at the heU 



None but a race of savages can be 

wholly ignorant of some properties of 
the simpler geometrical figures— nor 
even they universally and absolutely. 
Civilisation implies arts; and all arts 
imply more or less of gtametrioal knoW" 
Udg$ : whilst the latter necessarily leads 
the more active and oontemplativs minds 
to an investigation (by experiment and 
induction, perhaps, in the outset) of 
more extended properties, and for evi« 
dense of some kind or other for thoss 
already known. The pUne, the sphm, 
the cone, the prism, and the pyrsooia 
must become familiar subjects of thought, 
and their properties those of interesting 
and earnest inquirv ; as well as the tri- 
angle, the rectangle, parallel lines, the 
circle ; and ultimately, sameness of form 
and ratio of magnitudes* This may take 
place slowly, but take plaos it must. 

The testimony of the Greek writers 
is uniform as to geometry being brought 
from Egypt into Greece ) and no ques* 
tion can be raised on this head. The 
great question is, as to what kind of geo- 
nietry it wu — espeoiallv with what 
kind of evidence and modes of demon* 
stration it was supported? In short, 
what was its state u a scisnes upon its 
first importation ? 

Looking to Egypt alone, we find a 
race amongst whom the meohanioal arts 
had been highly cultivated, and that 
upon a very gigantic scale. The eon* 
sideration of equalitv as tested by two 
different objects fitting into the same 
matrix, or of two plane figurea fitting 
one upon the other, could not but pre- 
sent itself at a much ruder and earlier 
stage of art than the Egyptians had 
attained in the time of Thales. How- 
ever uncontemplative the national mind 
may be estimated, the contrary of diis 
assumption cannot be maintained for a 
moment. Then the first, the greatest, 
the fundamental principle of geometri- 
cal demonstration, follows to have inevit- 
ably been known to the Egyptians— vis., 
ihe application of onefiftwro to anothery 
or to the matrix of another. The mind 
of an Egyptian '* operative ** which 
could stop short of this, is simply incon- 
ceivable. 

But to render the device of transposi- 
tion of figures available for demonstra- 
tion, another and less obvious step was 
essential : — the assignment of the condi- 
tions that shall rende a figure determi- 
nate and invariable. For instancy t 



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152 



GEOMBTfilOAL NOTES. 



•ee that the mignitude of a circle wts 
fixed when Its radius wu giYen ; that a 
parallelogram wai given when two adja- 
cent sidei and the Inclnded angle were 
given ; or that a triangle was given when 
dther two adjacent sides and their in- 
dnded angle, or when the two adjacent 
angles and dieir inclnded sides, were 
given. 

The most natural mode of conducting 
this inquiry was thaT of which many traces 
remain in the most perfect of the Greek 
writers themselvea-4n the "Elements of 
Euclid/' It consisted in the comparison 
of two figures subjected to the same 
three conditions, by means of superposi- 
tion. Few cases, probably, would occur 
in respect to simple figures more com- 

Sz than the demonstration of i. 4, as 
; by Euclid and his commentators 
when all the steps of that demonstration 
are formally inserted.* Neither in the 
comparison of circles, and of lines in 
them u to equal, greater, or less, would 
even so much difficulty be encountered. 
Thus, some of the leading properties of 
triangles and circles (as well as of rect« 
angles, discussed in Euclid's Second 
Book), could scarcely fail to become 
known to the Egyptians ; and geometry 
M a seieneef though in a crude form 
enough, must be inferred to have been 
impwted bv the GreelLS, and not in- 
vented by ttiem. It only required ela- 
boration through the wonderful Greek 
mbd, to become what Euclid, Apollo- 
nius, and Archimedes left it 

But the principle does not terminate 
with superposition in piano, or with the 
corresponding operations in bodies of 
three dimensions. Under the general 
form of iramposition, it was capable of 
giving legitimate proof of a large range 
of propositions ; and of rendering the 



truth of others highly probable ; whilst 
the inquiries that it was calculated to sug- 
gest were both numerous and important. 

In its simplest form after actual 
supposition, we have it illustrated in 
Euc. i. 35, and some of the foUowii^ 
theorems. This is Euclid's second test 
of equality. It consists simply in this : 
that if from the figure ABCF either the 
triangle ABE, or ito ec^oal DCF *«be 
taken awav," the remainders BCFE, 
ABCD, will be of the same magnitude. 
This is really nothing more wan to 
apply to the particular case under con- 
sideration the axiom : — ^firom whaterer 
part of one figure another figure be 
removed, taken away, or transposed, the 
maffnitude of the remainder is the same. 

Another instance mav be adduced in 
respect toparallelt. Thus, let there be 
two equal angles, ABC, EDF; then, as 
is shown in me proof of L 4, the Hoes 
AB, BC, may be made to coincide with 
ED, DF ; and the comcidence will be 
entire through the whole distancea to 
which the lines may be extended. Now 
the point A may be ^aduallv tranapoaed 
from D along the hnes DE, so that in 
all the positions it can take, u A'B, it 
shall coincide with DE. But AC being 
transposed with AB to the correspood- 
ing position A'C, it must wholly logm its 
coincidence with DF at the initial stage 
of the motion of A from D. Now if we 
call A'C in anv one of its propoaitions, 
a parallel to DF, we state the same thing 
in other words, by precisely the lan- 
guage of Euclid's d5tn Definition {Sim" 
ton^s Euc). 

Again it would follow from the eqaa- 
lity of the angles EDF, A'B'C, oom. 
bined with the second axiom and t. 13, 
that the two angles FDA', CA'D af« 
together equal to two right angles. 




C tf 




• In a Mnn not« thU wUI b« Uhutnttd. 

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OEOVETBIOAr NOTES. 



IM 



Whence would follow a justification, 
more or less latisfaetory to different 
minds, of the fact enanciated in Euclid's 
12th Axiom. 

It is not intended to say for a moment 
that thb method of investigation is rigidly 
aoeurmte ; hot it is the kind of reason- 
ing that would commend itself by its 
obTiousness, to minds little tutored in 
such eTidence, and in the absence of 
any general rules for logical inferenee. 
It is, moreover, a view so intimately 
connected with that to which Euclid at 
last found himself obliged to adhere, 
that we are almost compelled to admit 
that it was out of such materials Euclid 
did actually construct his theory of 
parallels. He has, however, met the 
diffiealty by changing the order of the 
dependence of the facts, and by taking 
as an axiom a propertv more in accord- 
ance with the rigid rules that prevailed 
in the school of Plato. As an axiom, 
too, it must probably continue to be 
received, as long as geometry shall retain 
the slightest remnant of its present 
character.* 

Certain properties of parallels and 
parallelograms would thus Inpcome known 
to such inquirers as we may suppose the 
Egyptians, especially the priesthood, to 
have been. This would lead to what 
will be here taken as the third and 
closing instance : — that of $imilar plane 
and s^id figures. 

In the examination of the cases of 
triangles, only two would be found, in 
which three conditions did not a6#o^»/e/y 
Jim the triangles to be equal. The first 
when two sides and the angle opposite 
to one of them were equal respectively 
to two sides of the other, and to the 
angle opposite to one of them :t the 
second wnen the three angles of the one 
triangle were equal, each to each, to the 
three angles of the other. 

Setting aside the former of these cases 
(as ofierSig no difficulty beyond that of 
discrimination or enumeration, and the 



* Sercnl writan of late fears have revlTcd a 
jnef 9i flmner ages ; that the ditBculty wonld ba 
fot over by a diiftmt deflnUion. Amonnt these 
aev dcflaHloiis ia that of A'C, DF makUig equal 
~ I with ED. Thesa geometers encounter an 



eqral diflkaltj to the ancient one, In attempting to 
prare that A^C', DF aiiMl tk§n make equal angles 
vtth mujf •tktr Inu that mt§tt tktm. Nothing Is 
gaiiied, but something of perspicuity Is lost. 

i Tfcia ease ia no where refened to by SacUd, 
atthaacta anda eertain restrictions the proposition 



seeming departure under eertain ctreirai- 
stances from a rule otherwise general), 
the great difficulty of extending the in- 
quirv would arise from the latter. The 
result of the hypothesis now becomes 
sameness of form instead of the equality 
of the magnitudes of the sides, each to 
each. But sameness of form, though a 
ooncention easily induced, and indeed 
actually (breed upon the mind, was not a 
conception easy to define by means of 
the conditions which were essentiid, and 
the exclusion of those which were super- 
fluous, to a complete definition. Even as 
left bv Euclid, the definitions of similar 
rectilinear figures and similar polyphi- 
drons are erroneous : in both eases, by 
excess of conditions, and in the latter by 
a defect likewise. Great difficulties then 
stood in the way of earlier, and still 
greater in the way of the earliest specu- 
lators on the topic of similitude. All 
circles, probably, would be tacitly as- 
sumed as of the same form, and likewise 
all spheres : bnt if we were to conceive 
it possible that two parabolas or two 
cycloids bad been encountered by these 
pioneers in scientific geometnr, it is 
utterly improbable (indeed, all but im- 
possible) that the notion of shnilitude 
with respect to them should have occur- 
red to minds so little disciplined. On 
the other hand, the case of two triangles 
mutually equiangular, would be a matter 
of comparatively simple discussion ; and 
the similitude of two polygons, deter- 
mined by means of tneir component 
similar triangles, wouki readily follow. 
^ Thus, let the three angles of the tri- 
angle ABC be respectivery equal to those 
of DEF (that is, A to D, B to E, and G 
to F ;) and let DEF be applied to BAG 
so that £F shall fall upon BC, and take 
the position BF. Then, since the angle 



(1.) When the given angle Is either right or 

obtose. 
(S.) When the side opposlfa the glren acuta 

angle is greater than the other side. 

(S.) When it is equal to a perpendicular upon 
the third side flrom the angle opposite to 
that side. 

It is only when the third side is greater than the 
aforesaid perpendicular, less than the other given 
side, and has the given angle opposite to it acute, 
that the equality doee not necessarily subsist The 
corresponding case of similar triangles (somewhat 
awkwardly put, however,) forms JSae. vi. 7. 

Neither is the other caie (equiangular triangles) 
brouRht under notice till the Sixth Book. All 
restricted and failing cases are systematkaliy pas s ed 
over by Euclid till ha Is able to discnas tham aeoi- 

'*^^- Digitized by Google 



IM 



ACT TO EXTEND AMD AMBMD TUB ACTS BELATINO 





DSF l8 eqaal to ABO, the line D£ will 
fill upon BA, and take the position BF'; 
and tne position D'F Uien taken by DF 
beooniet fixed and inevitable. In this 
ease, then (omitting obfiotti and nnne- 
eeteary details), the angle BFiy is eqnal 
to BOA, and BEKF to BAO ; and tar 
either of these reasons jyF* is parallel to 



AO. One important point b thus i 
out respecting the eonncetioo 
parallels and similar triangles ; mod ikk 
it b easy to see might (like ite oonftis ^ 
which might have been obtained widi 
equal ease) be made a eardinal properly 
from which to deduce many othen. 
(To b€ €tmiimied.) 



ACT TO KZTBND AVD AMINO THB 4GTa RBlUtTINO TO THB OOFTaiOBT OF DBaiONat 

16th ▲uouBT, 1850, 13 and U tiotoria. 



Prtamble DeoUrts that it is expedient to 
extend and amend the Aots relating to U»e 
Copyright of Designs. 

Claase 1. Eoacto, that the RegUtrar of 
Designs, upon applioatioo by or on behalf 
of the proprietor of any design not pre- 
Tionsly published within the United King. 
dom of Great Britain and Ireland, or else- 
where, and which may be registered under 
the Designs Act, 184t, or under the Designs 
Aet, 1843, for the proTiticnal registration 
of such design voder this Aet, and upon 
being furnished with such copy, drawing, 
print, or desetiption in writing or In print 
MB in ike Judffmtmt of Me wid registrar 
9kaU 69tufieimi to idmtify tk§ partieul&r 
deHgn in retpect of which such rsgiatration 
is dssirsd, and the name of the person 
claiming to be proprietor, together with his 
place of abode or business, or other place 
of address, or the stjle or title of the firm 
under whieb he may be trading, shall register 
such design in such manner and form as 
shall from time to time be prescribed or 
approTed by the Board of Trade ; and any 
design so registered shall be deemed ** pro- 
▼blonally registered," and the registration 
thereof shall continue in force /or the term 
of one pear/rom the time qfthe smne being 
registered as qfbresaid. 

Clause 11. That the proprietor of any 
design which shall have been prorisionaUy 
-'^Istsred shall, during the continuance of 



snob registration, haTe the sole right and 
property in such design ; and that the penal- 
ties and proTisions of the said Designs Aet, 
1842, for prcTcoting the piracy of desigvs, 
shall extend to the acts, matters, and things 
next hereinafter enumerated, as fully as if 
those penalties and proTidons had been 
re-enacted In thb Act, and ezpresslr ex- 
tended to such acts, matters, and Udngs 
respeetltely } that is to say : — 

1. To the applloation of anyprotlaleBally 

registered design, or any framduleaC 
imitation thereof, to any artlele of 
manufacture or to any substance. 

2. To the publication, sale, or expocnra 

for sale of any article of mannfoetwc 

or any substance to which any pro* 

Tiiionally regUtered design shall haTS 

been appUed. 

Clause III. That during the continuance 

of such proTisional registration neither sneh 

regbtranon nor the exhibition or exposure 

of any design provisionally registered, or of 

any article to which any such design may 

hsTc been or be intended to be applied. In 

anp phest whether pnblia or prlnate, As 

which articles are not sold, or SMposed, or 

exhibited for sale, and to which the ptitk 

are not admitted graimitonsfy, or in any 

place which shall hare been prerlously cer* 

tifled by the Bosrd of Trade to be a place of 

pablic exhibition within the meaning of thb 

Act, nor the publieatlon of any aoconst or 

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TO THB COPYHIQHT OT DKSIONS. 



155 



daieriptioii of my proTitiontUf regUt«red 
dflfigQ exhibited or expoeod, or intended to 
be ochibited or exposed, in any raoh plaoo 
of ezbibitioo or exposnre, in any oatelogae, 
peper, newtpaper, periodioal, or otherwiM, 
thall prert nt the proprietor thereof from 
nfiettfing any auoh desifn under the said 
Deatgoa Acta at any time daring the oonti" 
nnnnee of tha pvofi^onal rafiatration, in 
the aame ananner and aa fnlly and affactnally 
aa if DO aoch regiatration, exhibition, expo- 
awe, or pahlieadon had been made ; pro* 
▼idod that erery artielt to which any aoeh 
doaign ahaU be applied, and whieh shall be 
exhibited or expoaad, by or with the Ucenoe 
or oonaent of the proprietor of snob design, 
shall hare thereon or attaohed thereto tha 
worda ** proviaionaUy registered," with the 
dole of r^stration.^ 

Claue IV. Pnmdea that the sale of arti- 
cles to which provisionally regiatered de- 
sigaa, &a., have been appUed ahall defnt 
oopyrigbt, bnt that the oopyright of tho 
design itaelf may be sold. 

Clanao V. That the Board of Trade may, 
by order in writing, with raapeet to any par- 
tienlar dass of designs, or any partieular 
dsaiga, extend the period for which any 
deaigm may bejJieaiiiewiWfy regiatered nnder 
thia Aot for sneh term not exceeding the 
additional term of six months as to the said 
Board may seem fit. 

Cianae VI. That the registrar of Designs, 
ttpon application by or on behalf of tha 
proprietor of any scolptore, model, oopy, 
or eaat within tha projection of the Scnlp- 
tora Oopyright Acts, and upon being for- 
nisbod with aneh copy, drawing, print, or 
deaeription, in writing or in print, as in tha 
jndgmoat of tha aaid registrar shall be 
snAotent to identify the particnlar acnlptore, 
model, copy or oast In respect of which 
registration ia desired, and tlM name of tho 
person claiming to be proprietor, together 
with hia plaoe of abode or bnsiness, or other 
plaoo of address, or the name, style, or title 
of the Arm nnder which he may be trading, 
shall lagiater snch sealptore, model, eopy, 
or caal in aoch manner and form aa shall 
tnm time to time bo prescribed or approred 
by tho Board of Trade for tha whole or any 
pari of tiia term, daring which oopyright In 
sneb aoolptore, model, eopy, or oast may 
or shall exist onder tiis Boolptore Copyright 



[* This ekaM hat obvloiuly sMcfal reference to 
the EdUMtion of ISftl—in the interett of whieta, 
indeed, the entire Act if conceived ; and one siK- 
nillcaot fact we gather from it if, that there is to be 
ne graiuUoiu admisKioo to that exhibition. If 
there be, then any artiele exhibited there, will lose 
■ny proteetion which it night have derived from 
** prorlctonel regbtiation" under this Act; the 
canbltloD must be one to whieh the public are %oi 



Clanse VII. That if any person shall, 
daring the continaance of the copyright in 
any scalptare, model, copy, or cast which 
shall have been ao registered as aforeaaid, 
make, import, or eaose to be made, im- 
ported, exposed for sale, or otherwise dis- 
posed of, any pirated oopy or pirated cast 
of any soch scalptare, model, oopy, or cast, 
in snch manner and under each dream- 
stances as would entitle tha proprietor to a 
special action on the case under the Sculp- 
ture Copyright Acts, the person so offend- 
ing shall forfeit for erery such offence a sum 
not less than £b and not exceeding ;^30 
to the proprietor of the sculpture, model, 
copy^ or cast whereof the oopyrigbt shall 
have been infringed ; and for tha recovery 
of any such penalty the proprietor of tha 
sculpture, model, copy, or csat which shall 
have been so pirated shall have aod be 
entitled to the same remedies as are pro- 
vided for the reeovery of penalUea incurred 
under the Designs Act, 1842. 

Clause VIII. That designs for the orna- 
menting of ivory, bone, papier mach^, and 
other solid substances not already comprised 
in the classes nambered 1, 2, or 3, in tha 
Designs Act, 1842, shall be deemed and 
taken to be comprised within the olaaa 
numbered 4 in that Act, and such deaigoa 
shall be so registered accordingly. 

Clause IX. That the Board of Trado 
may from time to time order that tiia oopy- 
right of any class of designs, or any parti- 
cular design registered, or which may bs 
registered ander the Designs Act, 1842, may 
be extended for snch term, not exceeding 
the additional term of three yeara, aa the 
said Board may think fit, and the said Board 
shall have power to revoke or alter any suah 
order as may from time to time appear 
necessary. [A very important and useful 
provision.] 

Clause X. Thst regulations for the regia*- 
tration of designs niay be made by Board 
of Trade. 

Clause XI. That registrar of deaigas 
may dispense with drawings, &c., In cerUin 



Clause XII. That public books in the 
Deaigns'-offioe are not to be removed with- 
out judges' order. 

Clause XIII. That judgea may order 
oopiss of dooumanta to be foniiriied to be 
given in evidence. 

Clauac XIV. That oopiea of doemmenta 
delivered by the registrar are to be sealed 
and to be evidence. 

Clause XV. That the several provisions 
contained in the said Designs Acts, so fiir 
aa they are not repugnant to the provisions 
of this Act, shall apply to the registrations 
under this Act, as fully and effbctually at " 
tbose povifions had been re^euaoted* ^ 

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156 



VI8C0TJNT DE SBBIOVNS'S IMPBOVKMENTS IN BUTTONS. 



PATENT LAW CASE. 



KXSI PEIU8 COURT, LITBRPOOL, AUO. 20. 

{Before Mr, Ju$tie€ Crss8Wbu# ami 
« Spfciai Jwy,) 

H0WA.&O AND ▲NOTHBR V. PBAOOCK. 

Tbia WM an aetioii brovgbt for the in- 
fringemeBt of a patent for weariog lilk 
frinth in a particnUr manner, described at 
'* floating tbe pile warp orer more than fire 
pickf.*' 

The pUdntiffi are lillc plnth mannfac- 
tnrera in the neighbonrhood of Mancheater, 
and took ont a patent for an alleged im- 
proTement in the mannfactnre of silk plnih 
lor carrying the pile over more than fire 
threadsi thoa enablhig the pattern to be 
▼aried, fixing the pile more strongly, and 
mannfactoring more economically. The 
defendant baring manufactured some goods 
of the same kind, the plaintiffs brought their 
action against him for infringing their patent. 
Hie defendant called a number of witnesses 
who prored that the mode of manufacturing 
ailk plush by carrying the pile warp orer 
more than fire "picks" was known and 
vaed as long ago as 1807, and before that 
period, and apecimens were produced then 
woreo. Evidence was called in reply, the 
effect of whidi was, that in the specimens 
produced, the "pile" was only "floated 
orer four picks." 

His Lordship having summed up the 
•ridence, 

The Jury found a verdict for the defend- 
ant. 

Counael for the plaintiffs, Mr. Martin, 
Q.C., Mr. Atherton, and Mr. Webster ; and 
for the defendant, Mr.. Hoggins, Q.C., and 
Mr. Cowling. 



Yiscouirr db bbrionnb s improybm bnts 
IN thb mahupaoturb op buttomb. 

This inrention consists in the manufacture 
of buttons, knobs, or other similar articles, 
which have hitherto been made from porce- 
lain or China clay, from crystallised felspar, 
common felspar, basalt, lava, pumice-stone, 
granite, sand, and free-stone sllex. 

The buttons are divided into two classes ; 
" stras/' which are transparent, and " aga* 
the*' (query, *' agate"), which are opaque* 

The str»s buttons are manufactured from 
pebbles, of crystallised felspar, which con- 
tain as little clay and lime, or lime salts, aa 
possible. These pebbles are reduced to 
powder by heating them to the degree of tem- 
perature known as " rouge cerise " (cherry 
red), and then plonging them into cold 
water. The powder ia separated from ita 

-lurities by being passed through a wire 



gause sieve, and Is next well stirred in water. 
The supernatant water ia decanted off, and 
oarries with it the clay which waa held in 
suspension, while the residuum is treated 
with a quantity of hydrochloric acid, vary- 
ing from 3 to 10 per cent., to free it from 
the oxide of iron, which would give the 
buttons a reddish tinge in the baking pro- 
cess, and from the lime or its salts, whidi 
would render them more or lasa opaque. 
The powder is subeequentlj washed with 
water, to free It from add, until it resists 
the test of litmus paper, when It is dried. 
100 lbs. of the powder is then mixed with 
2 lbs. chloride of sodium and 4 Ibe. flour 
paste, dissolved in 5 quarts of water, and 
the large particles ground small by a wooden 
roller. Thia mixture ia paseed tfarongh a 
sieve, and granulated in the same waj as 
gunpowder, and dried to a proper eonsiBt- 
ency for moulding. 

The agate buttons are made from natBial 
felapar, partly deoompoaed, but not in the 
state of " kaolin." It ia treated modi ia the 
same manner as the crystaUiaed felapar, ex- 
cept that it is mixed with a sufficient quan- 
tity of lime, or any of ita adta, whioh are 
not injurioudy affected by heat; such as 
phosphata, superphosphate, or any of tbe 
sulphates, to give it the necessary degree of 
opacity. 

Instead of sodium, the patentee states tliat 
barium or strontium may be used ; and that 
any of the qoartseous sands may be enplojed 
instesd of fdspar. 

The moulding-machfaie oonsistaof aacrew 
preu* fitted with levers and other media- 
nical contrivances. It contains aa upper 
and lower matrix, and intermediata perfo- 
rated plate, which is charged with the pre* 
pared materials. The matrices are than 
brought together, with the perforated plate 
between them, and tbe buttons thereby com- 
pressed. The socketa for the shanka, or 
the holes for sewing the buttons on, are 
formed by removing the inferior matrix, 
and lowering the perforated plate on to a 
number of projecting piecea. An iron firaaae, 
supporting a sheet of paper, is then intro- 
duced under the perfbrated plate, and the 
buttons depodted thereon by depreaaing the 
upper matrix, so as to force tiiem through 
.the holes in tbe intermediate plate. Tbe 
sheet of paper with the buttons on it, fas tbe 
same order which they occupied while in the 
mould, is then placed on a red-hot earthen- 
ware plate, which bums the paper, and 
retdns the buttons. These pistes, with the 
buttons on them, are then placed in a like 
number of elliptically- shaped muffles, wiiich 
are arranged in such manner inaide an oven 
as to allow tbe producto of combustion to 
play around them, and impart an equal 
quantity of heat on each dde. 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



ENGLISH SPECinOATIONS KKROLLBD DUBIKO THE WEEK. 157 

To fix the shanks In the tocketi, the patentee employs one of the following vitH- 
H shle oemntt: 

1. Fritted agate substance 100 parts 1 ,,, 

Crystal.. 50 .. |wyhard. 

2. Fritted agate substance 90 pfirts 1 #^ |ui. 

Crystal ..15 „ J 

3. Fritted agate substance 60 parts 1 

Calcined at 25 per cent, of pewter. .60 ,, r^ery fasible. 
Crystal 10 „ J 

It is propoMd to omameBt the buttons be tsoertaioed by the ordinary tests of aeo* 

by first ooTwing them with a mordant, sooh tate of lead and Utosiit paper), the liqvor 

M linioed oil, fte., and then dipping them is to be withdrawn, snd a tkmh qmantity 

In a powder of any of the snitablo me- supplied. The results of this purifientlon 

tnllie osides ; after whieh they are to be are sal.ammoniao and sulphate of soda 

bnkod : or, by coating them with an enamel (which remain in solution in the water), 

composed of 300 parts crystallised felspar, and an insoluble matter, supposed to be 

as free as possible from iron; 400 parts sulphuret of iron, whidi is precipitated 

nininm, aa pure as can be obtained ; 200 after the liquor has settled. 

parts pore calcined nitre, and 100 parts The sal-ammoniac and sulphate of soda 

borat . This compound is mixed with any may be separated in the ordinary manner by 

of the suitable metallic oxides, in the neces- crystallisation and eraporation. 

eery proportions, according to the colour For dry purification the patentee employs 

required to be given. lilce quantities of copperas and aalt as aboTO, 

The patentee describes, lastly, a mode of which are to be mixed with 2^ bosheb of 

oraaoMating flat surfaces of glass or other animal or regetable charcoal, and about 12 

similar substance, by employing " poncia" or 15 gallons of water, to reduce the whole 

(we presume stencil'platea) ; through the to a pulpy consistency, and the purification 

open parts of which he deposits the colour is effected as in the ordinary method of dry- 

oo the glass (previously coated with gum), lime purification. From this process the 

nad fixes it by means of steam. same products as above will be obtained, 

^ which are to be separated fh>m the charcoal 

* by the methods ordinarily in use. Or flodc 

tFBCiriCATioNS OF tNOLisR PAT.NT8 BN- ^ j^c kept saturated with the firtt-named 

nOLLlD DURING THX WXXK INDINO ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^„ ^^ ^^^^^^ 

AUGUST 22nd, 1850. ^^^ t,,^ gas iay be made to pass, and 

W11.LIAM CoRMAOK, of King -Street, with the same results as before mentioned. 

DonstoB - road, Haggerstone, Middlesex, Should other metallic salts or muriates 

chemist For impro9ementi in fiurifyimg be employed, the qusntities thereof must 

§m»t aiio appUeabU to obtaining certain be chemically equivalent to the before- 

prodmcU or mattriah from ga»'Water and mentioned proportions for copperas and 

atkmr aimiiar fluidi. Patent dated Feb- salt, but although sal-ammoniac will stIU 

raary 21, 1850. be obtained, the 4>ther resulu will diiEur 

The object of this patent is to free coal according to the nature of the substanoas 

gas from ammonia, sulphur, snd sulphuret- employed. 

ted hydrogen, and to recover theae products. Tlie process of separating the ammonia 

To effect this, the patentee employs any and sulphuretted hydrogen from the gas 

metallic salt (not a chloride), the base of water and other floida containing the aame, 

which is capable of being precipitated by it similar in principle to the operation above 

the sulphuietted hydrogen as a metallic described, sal-ammoniac and other matters 

snlphuret, and any of the salts called muri- varying with the substances employed, being 

ates, which, in combination with the acid of obtained. 

tba metallic salt, carries off the ammonia in CUiim»,^\. The combination and appU- 

the form of an ammoniacal salt. Proto- cation of the matters above named to tha 

snlphate of iron, otherwise called green purification of gas, and the obtaining pro* 

copperas, and common salt are the most ducts therefrom. 

coonomi(^ substances, and are to be em- 2. Obtaining products from gas water 

ployed as follows :— To 150 gallons of water and other aimilar flaids, ss above described, 

add 140 lbs. green copperas and 74 lbs. John Slack, of Manchester, Lancaster, 

coosmoa salt. This mixture is poured into manager. For certain improvemente in the 

a receiver, through which the gas is made mami/acture 0/ textile goode or /ahice, and 

to pass. After the substances in solution in certain machinerg or apparatue connected 

are exhausted or decomposed by the gas therewith. PatentdatedFebruary 21, 1850. 

that haa passed through them (which may Tha improvements relata to stiffening or 

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168 



SKOU8H SPKOIFIOATIONS BNBOLLKD DUiUKG TUK WEEK. 



drwaiiif goods wbile being manafaotared in 
the loom. A trough contdning *'goiii," 
or '*giim sobftitate," ii pUoed at tome 
part of the loom between that at which 
the doth is formed and the beam upon 
whidi it ia wound. The gnm is applied to 
the lower surface of the fabric by means 
of a distribnting roller, which deriTCS Its 
snpply firom another roller immersed in 
the trongh. Both roUers are put in motion 
by the loom, so that their Teloolty acoorda 
with the rate of the weaTing of the fbbrio. 

Thomas Whifvbk, of Pig's Qnay, Bride- 
wall Preeinot, aeeomntant. 9br lo^prooe- 
MMfs in m m eki m e rf Jbr r^fkhHng Me 
MH^ry of §%o4». Patent dated Febraary 
SI, 1850. 

These improTeosents consist in the appli- 
cadon of an instrument composed of a 
ratehst and ratehet-wheel, together with 
sttitable toothed wheda and a dial-plate, to 
the trap-door of ships' coal-weighing ma- 
diines, so that the number of times the door 
of the shoot is opened for the discharge of 
ooala may be registered. The patentee pro- 
poses the appHeation of a similar instru- 
ment for registering the filling of measurss 
of grain, and for indicating the number of 
times porters or carriers pass along a plank 
with goods. No drawings or daims are giren. 

CHAnLBS Anorbw, of Compstall*bridge, 
Chester, manufooturer, and Riohaud Maek- 
LAMD, of the same place, manager. Fbr 
99tiaU impr ove m mU in tke method of and 
in tk§ wtaektneiy or appmratmt for frtpoiT' 
im§ wmrp9 ybr womrinf. Patent dated 
Ibbmary SI, 1850. 

The palentee employs a beam fbr wlnd- 
iif the warps, with rery deep flanges, 
eomposed of two rings, so that when the 
wirp upon the beam is reduced to the site 
of the smaller ring, the larger one is taken 
off to prerent Tibration Si the machine. 
FhMB the beam the warp Is conTcyed through 
a reed, and through tiie trough containing 
Ike dressing, over a retolTing brush, through 
a eokmr trough, and on to a rerolTing reel 
with hollow arms, into which steam ia 
allowed to dreulate freely. A hollow case, 
also heated by stesm, is placed on the lower 
side of the red. The heat thus obuined, 
assisted by the action of a fan rcTolfing 
rapidly within the reel, is suflident to dry 
the dressed warp, which is then carried out 
to the weaver's warp beam. 

Claim, — The arrangement by which two 
separate beams, with wsrps of different 
numbers of reeds, may be warped by the 
same machinery and at the same time, 
espedally the double flanges ; and also the 
aseaos for drying the warp. 

William Mato, of the firm of Mayo 
and Warmington, of Sllfer-street, Wood, 
street, Cheapside, manufccturer. For imu 



pr ovoma ni t in oomneeHnff imboo, an 
and other turfaeoi of glato and eerfAen- 
warf, and in eonnetiing othar wtaHort wUk 
glau and earthenware. Patent dated Fe- 
bruary 21, 1850. 

In connecting pipes and tubes of glass 
and earthenware, the patentee proposes to 
hsTC metd flangea caat on the ends of the 
tubes to be united, which are connected by 
ordinary acrew couplings. The interior of 
the mouU bdng of the dedrtd shape for 
caating the flange, the end of the tnbt, 
prerioudy heated, ia insortod, aad sas- 
tdned in a Tcrtled podtlon by aseana of a 
oollar fltled to the upper part of th« mould. 
SuiBdeat metd to ftU the interior of the 
mould ia then poured trough an opening, 
and the tube is withdrawn aa aoon as the 
metd is set. An ailjustable acrew, In the 
form of a plug, flta into the tube, and forsm 
the bottom of the modd, thus prerestiBg 
the metal firom ridng indde the tube. 

The patentee does not daim exdudvdy 
the caating of metd on to glaaa or oarthsn- 
ware ;*-oollar8 for earthen bottlee for con- 
tdning aSrated waters having been pre- 
vioudy employed, but he eldma:— >The 
easting of metd jdnts on tnboa or pipes ef 
earthenware, to conneot sueh tubes, or fbr 
the connection of sueh tubes to plalsa or 
surfacea of glaaa and earthenwaroy or fbr 
connecting to each other such plates or 
surfaces of gUss and earthenware. 

Alfred vincint Niwton, of Chan- 
cery-lane, Middlesex. For iatprovemenii 
in separating and ateorUng ootid maieriak 
or iuManeee of diflereni epeeifh grmoiiiee, 
(A communication.) Patent dated February 
SI, 1850. 

These improTements relate generally to 
the separation of substances of diiferent 
spedfic grsTities, bat are exempUflod in the 
spedfication and drawings as applied to the 
separation of copper ore from other snl>- 
stances with which it is generally found com> 
bined. The ore is first crushed and brought to 
a granular state by bdng passed sueeesdvdy 
between several pairs of rollers, each pair 
in the snccesdon working doser togetiier 
than those preceding. The pulverised sub- 
stances are then passed through revolving 
sieves, lo that tbe mass may be separated 
into portions of which tiie separate pieces 
shall be as near as posdble of one sise. 
Blocks of India rubber are placed In the 
deves, which produce a leries of soft blows 
by the movement of the deves, and keep 
the mesbea firom becoming clogged. Hie 
materials thui separated are then subjected, 
while falling, to tbe action of a blait pro- 
duced by a fan, which causes the lighter 
portions to be blown forther dong tbe floor 
of a chamber In whidi are a oeriea of bins 
for tbdr reception. The blast b made to 



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BKGIJSH SPKanCATIONt RNBOLLBD DUBINO THB WEEK. 



159 



jam tkPM^ Mntni |»v?ioai to itt eomiof 
B co&tMl with the lalliiig rabtttnott, by 
wUch the evrreat U eqpuliied, 

CIbmm.— 1. Tlw employment of bloeks 
of Indie mbber, or otner eqaiTilent tnb* 
stance, for prerenting the meshes of the 
siBve from biwoming doned* 

X Plneinf aereene between the blower 
sod the lhl£ig materiel!, for the perpote 
of prodndnf an eqnal diffadon of this blast. 

Jonr Scorrsaii, 



of JBBaaes.itrMt, Mid- 
M.B. Pl9r te^proeeeMti/t M tke 
mmmfmtiwf tmd rtfMmg i^9ugun^ mtd to 
ihi hmimwmt mtd me ^f tmaitirt Maimed 
mmei m wmmf meimrt, tmd in the eomtrwe* 
Hem ^mmhee meed «• emek amd otJker nt em m* 
>ehrof. Fntent dated Febnmry 81, 1860. 
The first part of this infention has refereoee 
to a i ss a a ci patent iar employing snb-aoetate 
of leed iA the defcoatton of oane jelee, and 
is thna deaeribed i— 

Heat the juice in a anitable Iron or cop- 
per Teeael to abont 212'' Fshr., and Ukeeff 
tte aenm which riaee ; oontinne the operation 
tin the dcnnty of the boiling matter shall 
W?e incnaaed V by Beanm^'s aaccharome- 
tsr* Now remove the aonroe of heat, allow 
tke aaceharine matter to cool te abont 1*" 
^dow boiUng point, and add the anb-aeetate 
•f load in the proportion of one^aiith per 
•sit, ftineed to a peste by the addition of 



The seeond part refers to a new pigment 
vUeh Is prroarcd from snlphite of lead 
prodpitated during the boiling of sugar, aa 
shevoy bj the addition of aulphnrona add. 
This psgnaent Is while, and may be employed 
ki ilea of white lead, aa it givea a eood body 
to paintv and **coTera " well. It may be 
also prepared from any liqiid containing 
sdb-aeetate of lead. 

Thirdly, the patentee describea a new 
nhe pccaliarly adapted to the supply of 
mlphnr ows edd to supr in refining, or 
ifiids requiring to psaa one way only. It 
eoBsista of a tube, the bottom of which ia 
doaed, and the sides near the bottom per- 
ioratBd. Outaide ia fixed a band of tu1« 
caaiaed India rubber, the dastidty of 
vUch permita liquids or air to be forced 
tbnmgh Ibe peHbratioiia, bnt by contracting 
ss soon aa the pressure from within is 
tcmoTcd, effBCtnally prerents their return. 

(tamif. — 1. The employment of aub- 
saatate at lead In the defecation of cane 
jeiae, as nbore described. 

2. Hbe menufacture of sulphite of lead 
IS a pigment in the manner above deeoribed. 

3. Thm peculiar ooostruotion of Talve 
sbofe deaeribed. 

ALEXAwnnm HnoLAmo, of Paria, France, 
(mnemaB. ^^ireeTtmimim^t^oeetmemtetmpKO* 
ptOie§. PMeat dated February 21, 1850. 

OaefaBMOTMMnt Is thus stated:— Two 



cylinders (open at their outer ends) and pis- 
tons are placed in a horisontal position at the 
bottom of a vessd, whidi is to be propelled 
by the pistons ejecting water form tSie cylin- 
dera against the external water. The other 
improTomenta will be gathered from the 
olslms, which are :— 

1. The application of pistons and cylin- 
ders for tiie propelling of Tessela, atmo- 
apheric dr b«ng allowed to act fredy on 
the back of the pistons. 

2. The dr-'Cbamber at the back of the 
pistons for preventing the water from get- 
ting into the interior of the v es s e l . 

3. The inclined shoot for eausing the 
vsssdi when required, to move astern. 

4. llie flap for dosing the cylinders. And , 
5* The arrangement of double keels 

(with the two cylinders between them). 

GBonon HoLWonrnT PALMsn, of West- 
bourn Villas, Harrow* road, Middlesex, cifil 
engineer; and Joshua Horton, of iEtna 
ateam engine boiler and gasometer manufac- 
tory, Smethwiok, near Birmingham. Fbr 
itmproeewtenle in ike arrengemtnt and eon^ 
etrueOom qf gae holden. Patent dated 
February 20, 1850. 

The object of thia patent ia to diapenae 
with the preaent eumbroua and ezpendve 
mode of auauining the tops of gaa holders, 
by means of braces, trusses, girders, &c. 

The top is made horisontal, and condsta 
of an interior curb or droalar support, 
formed of two parts of strong double 4-inch 
iron, bolted together, in addition to the 
outer curb at present In use. From the 
centre pUte to the drcumference, which ia 
formed of four-gauge iron, there extend 
radial plates or arms of the aame thickneaa, 
and varying in number with the aise of the 
holder (say for a holder 100 feet in diameter, 
twdve radid plates), the intermediate apacea 
being eovered with plate iron of twdve 
gauge, firmly bolted to the inner double and 
outer single curbs, and to an equilibrium 
block of teak placed between tbem* When 
the holder is afloat, the top will be raiaed by 
the pressure of tbegaa contained in the holder, 
and will thus prevent the strain thereby 
produced from falling too much on the outer 
curba. To retain and diaeharge the rain 
which might eiiect a lodgement when the 
holder ia not in uae and the top deflected, a 
adf-acting hydraulic cup ia fitted to the 
centre of the top. Or, to obviate thia 
deflection altogether, a wooden framework 
may be raiaed inside, on which the top may 
reat when the holder ia not in uae. By not 
riveting the aide platea of the receiver to the 
lateral aupports, the downward atrain of the 
top and laterd aopporla on the aide ia 
thrown on to the foot curb. Correaponding 
to each arm in the top, a plate of metd of 
four gauge is fixed in the dde caaing, and 



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160 



WEEKLY LIST OF ENGLISH PATENTS AND DBSION8, 



the iatermediate ipice ftUed in with No. 10 
gamge. To Umm thicker platts •# e 4tU)Bhed 
the nipporti for p«)leyf,:«i&.f ^hkH sre em- 
ployed IB in the ordinary deicription of gas 
holders. \ ; ' ' 

Ctetfaw.— 1. The employment of the inner 
doable earb and eqailibriom blookt, Ǥ 
gbo^tf deicilbed* 



2. The arrangement before deaeribed, 
m k t n ku iKe straiaf oii the aide of the bolder 
H thi^w^'otf tb t)i% foet carbs. 

3. The combination and epplicetion of 
tbeee errangementi, Hi a WhoAe, but ndt ai 
regar Ja each indiTidaal part, some of then 
baTiag been prerionaly adopted. 



WBBKLr U9t OV bsgldlM Irok'AmTMLkS OF trriLITT ttBOISTIRBD. 



Data of No. in 

Rtgbrtra- th« &•- 

tlon. gUtar. 

16 2409 
19 2il0 



2412 
2413 
341« 



Proprietors' Namea. Addreues. Snbjaeta of Detlga. 

iU^;;.^.. M^^t. buarp.. Donegal-street, Beliiut ...»..»... Saekelemtor. 

Josepli Salt- ».... UxbridKe-commonM*....^.«....M Plpe-iocket die. 

Michael NeTiUe ......... Liverpool m..........mm..m.mi Joint for fiMtening aadattadi- 

ingpipei. 
,.. Baths and Waibonaei, New • 

road -^^^^,^,.,^ ValTe apparatas for batke. 

.. Manchester m.........^.... Drawing reUer. 

Tbe StttherUnd eHk. 



2411 Thomas Bulbjr 



Henry Fletoher . 
Thoma« Urookeji.. 
Lewis Lee.. 



I 1» «U Lewis Lee... 

nr — f 



.... Spital'Square, Norton Folgate». Tbe SutherUnd tOk. 
.... Woodbury, near Extter^^,,,^ OtdtlTatlng plough. 



I 



Charles Heard Wild, of St. Martin's lane, Middle- 
sex, civil engineer, for impiovementi fh certain 
structures for retaining water. August 17; six 
mMths. 

Henry Holland, of Birmin^atn, umbreDa furni- 
ture manufacturer, 'for improTementtt in tlie manu- 
facture of umtnetlai and paraaols. August 22 ; six 
mcmths. 

Edm6 Augustiti Chameroy, of Paris, for im- 
ptovements in paving streets and other surfaces. 
August 22; six months. 

Frederick Hale Thomson, of Be nier's -street, 
Uiddlesex, geniieman, and Thomas Robert Mel- 
lish, of Portland-street, same county, glass-cutter, 
for iraprovemeiits In cutting, staining, silvering, 
and fixing artleies of glass. August 22 ; six 
months. 

William Dick, of Edinburgh, professf.r of veteri- 
nary medicine, Veterinary College, Edinburgh, for 
Improvements iathc manufacture of stettlaad gas. 
August 22; six taontbs. 

. Benjamin Uot(!li. of Lowlands, Middlesex, Esq , 
for a factitious sdtpeire, and a mode by which fec- 
titlous taltpetre may be obtained for commercial 
purposes. August 22; six months. 

William Edward K aw Ion, of Chancery -lane, Mid- 
diesex, civil engineer, fbr improvemeots in refining 
gold. (Being a commUuioitioD.) August 22; six 
months. , 



NBW BN($E.UH f ATBNTi. I ! 

Will^m' Edjrard Newton, bf Chaneery-tinei Hid- 
dleeek, civil engineer, t<^ Improviements In the 
consvultioit of ships* magaaioee. (Being p oem- 
mun|iat|an . \ August 23 ; ptz monthi. ■ 

WiUiam Eg ward Newtoii of Cbancery-UnA Mid- 
dlesek, elvll Engineer, for Bnprovements in maehi- 
nvry or appaiatus for ^rodi;mg top; and ^i gen eial 
refrigerating purpoees; (Behig a oommimieatioo.) 
August 23; six months. 

William Edward Newton, of Chancery-lane, Uld- 
dleaex, cItU engineer, for improTements in the 
construction of ships or Teeeels, and in eteam 
boilers or generators. (Being a copimnnicatien. ) 
August 33; six months. 

Daniel Illiagworth, of Bradford, Yorkshire, 
%orsted qiinner, for cettaiB iBproTements ia 
.machinery for preparing all description of wool 
land hair grown upon animals^ for the carding, 
'combing, and other manufacturing proceases. 
;August S3 { six montha. i 

I Duncan Bruce, of Paspebiae* Oaspe, Canada, 
"but at present at Liverpool, Laneaster, eaqoire, tn 
certain improvements in the eonttruction of rotary 
engines. August S3; six montha. 

Richard Pressor, of Birmingham, civil engineer, 
for improvtmeats in supplying steam boilers with 
water, and in clearing out the tabea of steam 
boners. Aoguit S3; aix months. 



CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER. 



Sp^ciieatlon of Messrs. Donkin and Farcy's 
Improvements in Stsam Bnginee— (wif* m- 



gra9inpi)-{eonUmuid) ..,j. ^ 141 

On the Formation of Pebbles or Shingle. By 

Jtames Rock. Esq.,Jnn „.. 144 

Mathematical Periodioals.-*XX1 1. Miscellanea 

Gurioea Mathematiea. By Thomas Wilkin- 

sen, Esq. .„ « 144 

Th# Britannia Tubular Bridge.— Mr. Falrbaim 

the True Inventor .»... ^ „ 148 

Qeemetrieal Notes. By T. S. Davies, Esq., 

F.R.S., F.S.A., &o ^ 150 

Act to Extend and Amend the Acts relating to 

the Copyri^or Designs, IS and 14 Vic 154 

PaHsnt Law Case.— Howard and Another v. 

Peacook....^.........^ 158 

Yiieount De Serionne's Improvements in the 

Minuflwtora of Bnttone .^.^ m.m»......m 188 



Specifications of English Patents Enrolled 
during the Week:— 

Comuck Purifying Qaa ...... 157 

Slack Textile Fabrice ... 157 

WhiiTen ...Registering Appa- 
ratus ...I.......... 158 

Andrew & Marklaad ... Warpe for Weaving 158 

Mayo ......Connecting Tnbea, 

ftc - 158 

Newton .........*... Separating mnte- 

rlals of diflkrant 
graviUes, tm^^ 158 

Scoffi»m »...RefiningS«igaxv8M. 159 

Hedlard ... PropeUlog 158 

Palmer and Horton ...Oas Holders ........ 1S8 

Weekly LUt of New Eoglkh Patenu 160 

WeeUv LUt of Design! for Artidee of Utility 
Kegistered M«M«*..«..tMt*«.Mt«.*N«««*««..«n.M.M« leo 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE, 

No. 1412.] SATURDAY, AUGUST 31, 1850. [Price 3<l., Stamped, Ad. 

Edited by J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-street. 

SLATE'S HIGH VELOCITY BLOWING ENGINE. 
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 




TOL. Lni. 



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16;? 

HIirOBIOAI. 8KBT0R OF BJU>WINO BMOIMBt AKD OBftORIPTION OF ONB FOB WOBXIir« 
AT nkGH TBLOCITIBB, BT IfB. ABOHIBA&D ttA»B| dF DUPIAT* 

In intrododiiff a propotml for working blowioff enginet tt high Yelocitift the writor of 
the present peper wbhet shortly to dlreot Attention to the tarfont idunges throngh vhieh 
this deseription of engine has passed, the better to elnddate the diffienltfcsa to be orsroosae, 
and the adrantagti to bo deritW froM the >brt h o r efanngo noir p r ep o asd* 

The first records he has been aUe to ccdlect show the blowing ojUnden to be aioglo- 
aeting, or hating the power of propellii^ the blast when the piston was BMi«4qg in one 
direction ontj ; three or more of these blowing cylinders appear to hate lioca ntte^ed to 
one crank-shaft, woiked by a iratsr wheel, and thns a tolerably steady presMro of air has 
been obtained. When the gradual iaaproTements of the steam engine and the deiand for 
increased means of mannfactnre cansed it almost entirely to snperMde all other posrer, the 
blowing apparatos appears lo have been accommodated as mnch as possible to the steam 
engine, so as to afford the character of engine for the time being the folleat devdoparait of 
its power. 

In p Biwamju of ihti object the singte*tMltag atmoipheiio engloo of Newooaaen wis 
attadhod to a blowing cyllfider, wIMi propelled the air frem the nppwaidoof Iha pislan 
only and in addTtlon to the water regslator, which appaati to haTC hew known at an esvtter 
date there wss attached a i^linder now known as the v^gnAiUng tub, which wan equal to er 
larger In diameter than the blowing d^Under. In this iits lltoed a pfeaton with a rod OMwhig 
in a guide fixed on the opcto top of the reguliMng tnb^ the bottom of tbo latter being eiese, 
and having an open connection to the main from the btowtog cylinder. The piston tn As 
tub was l^ded to Hie pretsnre of blast reqidred, and in thie kAervals between tho diat^hargss 
of the biowtng cylinder, the descent of the |^ton in Ike tab kept np the dlsobarge of air 
intothoiratnrfeg^ls!tor,1l»tohialMilWifltoWm«iltn»itthtefaroaoe;th»sto iffisr,oeitf 
as possible, maklftgihe engine donble-actinf. To prevent the piston being Uown oat of 
the rsf nlatiog tnbv B large safsty-Tslve was bitoehed to the top of die rod by « atrap, long 
en6a^ to allow the desired play of the piston, and short tanoush U Mft the safety-valf e, 
or snOHer, as it is nsually termed, if the piston at any time exceeded its limits ; and the 
number of strokes of the engine was also ftfulated by Uie tub piston, as to it the cata- 
radfl Were attached. 

When the donble*aSting engioea of WMt "mm introduced, the regniatii^ tub was stiU 
retaiaed though not anarly so essential a toart of the machine as in the former instance. 

The next change thit took place i^to the general abaadonment of the water regulator 
(though some of tbese aM «CM ^ woik> ^r have been within a few years) { the renaon of 
thii ^ange was the dlscofory that the air ha aummer, already snrcbirged with moisture, 
took np an additions! quantity from pausi ng over the surface of tho water in the regidalor, 
and that this waa prejudicial to the woiSclngef the fnmacea. 

When the large area of the ariger regutatar was shut off. It wsa theB found thsit the tob 
was by no means aneh a perfedt Iregulafeor "to ft was supposed to be, as the monnntum of 
the engine passed too suddenly iaito the heai/^ piston of the tob, and throwing it up much 
beyond the height due to the pressuto of the air, caused an irreignUrity ihift waa Ofea 
more oggrarated by ita descent ; to counteradt this, a aprhig beam iTas pUced on the top of 
the tiA so as gradually to check the motoentoti of the piitooy and this had some eilect, but 
not at nil a satisfactory one. 

The next alteration which appears to have Buggested ittolf. was iie applicat&on of large 
air ctannbers, Arom twelve times to thitty tioM the area 6f libe blearing cylinder, in which 
the elsaUcity of the contpressed air acted as Mie regulator tof Ithe discharge, the tub wiUi its 
piston (being in some caato retained to work thO cataracta, laid as a telltale against the engine 
men, 4n case of their allowing the steam to dlacken and the piston to deacend. In other 
casH the tub waa dispensed with altogdther. 

We now enter upon the last ekange arhieh tiook place aoine fifteen years ago, namdy, die 
coupling of two double-acting engines, «nd double-acting blowing cylinders upon iho same 
crank shaft at right angles, so as to keep up a regular diacharge. This effect was in some 
measure obtained, but an air chamber, w what is equiviAant to it, very large caaina, were 
still Inquired to obtain what was considered anatlvrkaii»y result. 

At this point the realised improvemteto of the blowtog ei^ioe stop abort, leaViiig it stfll 
a large cumbrous and expensive machine, %iBd not capable of mOvii^ throogh iu valves 
the Mgki^ ekfiw mtdimm air, at a greater flito than the absolutely mt^-^UMHe fluid waUr, 
is moved through an ordinary pump. Und er lth es e oirenautanoes. It must be obvious that 



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slate's high vblooity blowing engine. 16S 

ate all tha eoKiiiaoriiif Uknt that haf baan ipaat oa thU daaorifitiaa of aagiM, tiMM ii 
ifeiU Qi the ezpreaaion may be applied) a wide range of discovery open. 

The immedtate cattie of the writer'a attention being attreeted to the ittproveMent of the 
bloving eagiMt wna the diflkenlty oKperieneed lo tegnletlDg one of the old oonatraetkHi of 
Uoving engine in the latter part of 1848, and baTing at the aame time oocaaion to emplof 
•ome imall 9- inch cylinden driven by tlie air of the large blowing engine, Theae amall eyUa- 
dera when driving the ahafting only, aometifflea attained a Telooily of opwarda of 200 rerohi- 
tiona per miBmei anggcating tho idea of the poMibility of raferabig thilr motion and taking in 
tfae air in plaee of blowing it oat throngfa them i there waa however a difficnl^ in the elide 
tahe wliieh did not open and ahnt Ihat enoagh. After aome eooaideration it waa agreed that 
another cylinder abonld be prepared, and the cantro port made much laigar, and the alida 
overtfaveUed nearfy half ita atroke in exoeta, whioh had the deairad effeet ; a eylioder of 9 
inehea dtaaaeter, and 1 foot atroke, having bean driven 320 revolutioM or 640 feat per 
ainnta, diaoharging the air at a. preaanre el Si Iba. par aqoie inch, thrangh a tayara of 1- 
faioh in diameter, or ^h of the area of the blowiiig piatoa. Tbto peiformaaea^ u ia weU 
known, ia more than doable that of any ordinary cagine, the total area of the ti^cvaa with 
a 9a-iBch blowing eyUnder, being at a preaaara of H Um^ aboat &2 cirealar inohea, or Ti«^ 
of the area blowing piaton. 

We are all aeqaainted with tremoar wbich ia felt even hi the beat form of the laiga-aited 
fngiaaa t bat in the esparimenta at a high valooity wi^ the imaU<4iaad apliftdeni, not t'jo 
afighteat jar waa felt or noiae heard, it U therefore pvepaaed to iaereaaa tlia apaad of the 
pittoa in actaal practice, from 640 to 750 foot par minate, the length of atroka being 2 Ibet 
in place of 1 foot, thiaia aomewhat ander the apeed of a looomotive piaton at 40 noiUea per 
hoar, which ia about 800 feet per miaate^ ao that it ia oonoeived no difficaUy can preeent 
itaelf to tbia. The propoaed apeed of 750 Caet per mimOa, ia three timaa tha naaal apaad of 
tfae praeen t blowing engioea, 250 feet per minate* 

The ooaatraction of the propoaed engine ia ahown in tfae aoeompanying figarea i fi^i 1 
is a plan, aad fig. 2, aa elevation of the engine, ahowing the pair of ateam oylindera and 
biawiag eyfedera ; AA are the ateam oylindera, 10 iaebea diameter and 2 feet stroke ; BB 
^ blowiag eyKadera. 30 inehea diameter, and 2 laat atroke, with their piatona C, fixed oa 
the aaaaa piatoa rods D, which are conaeoted to two oranks £, fixed at right anglea to aaeh 
other on the aame abaft. The riide ^ves F of the ateam oyliaders are worked by the 
e eeen t r tea G on the eraak shaft, aad the oranka H at the other enda of the same ahaft, 
work the rilde valvea I of tha blowiag oylindera. The centre port K, ptaaea dowawarda 
to an external opening for the admiaaion of the air, and the discharge porta LL deliver into 
the paaaagea M, on the top of the cylinder, which oommnnicate with the air main N, by the 
cheat O, foroaed between the oylindera. The piaton of the blowing cylinder is intended to 
be made wftthovt any packing, being a Hght hellaw caat-iroa piaton taraed to an eaiy fit ; 
and tha altde valve of the blowing oylinder to have a packing plate at the back, working 
Bgiittst the cover of the valve box, wiiA a ring of IndlaFrabber iasorted between this plata 
sad tlie back of the valve, to give a little elastioity. 

It appears that 30 inehea diameter ia aomewhere aboat the most ooavanieat siae for a 
atroke of 2 feet, and aa it ia conaidered an advantage to have tha atroke as short aa pasaible^ 
to inereaae the regalarity of the bleat), the oomparaiiTe eoat of tha diffBrent anginas whiok 
foUowa haa been taken apon tbia baaia ^(yth inch ataam oylindera and ^^ftiti iooh Mowing 
cylinders, coating together (exckiaive of tbe boilera) abont 400/., being reckoned eqaal ta 
blow one of our largeat fumacea, making 160 tona of iron per week, and having a aurplaa 
cqnal to blowing a cupola or refinery, aa ia generally allowed, aa such an engine would give 
at 640 feet per minate the aame apeed of piaton as in the experiments, very nearly 30 cir- 
ealar inches of tuyere, at a pressure of 3ilba. to tbe square inch ; the drcnlar inch ia uaed 
la apcakSag of ths area of tayore, as the Mast that any furnace ia Ukiag ia aaaally reckoned 
by limply squaring tbe diameter of the tayere, bat the preaaore ia takea on the s%aare inch. 

Tbe experiments on which these calcnUtiona were founded, having been made upwarda 
of twelve montha ago, were repeated recently, and the resolta were found to be aa nearly 
a they could be measured the same, tbe blowing cylinder had in tfae interral been driving 
Urn httbn ki tha pattern abop, and the aUde waa found periect. An indioator was appUad 
with a view to test the aosount of frietioa of the air in entering tfae c| Under at the high 
velocity, and a simple method waa adopted of aacertaining this. A tuyere waa made aa 
large aa the inlet port, and tbe engine waa driven to nearly or quite 700 feet per minute, 
ahen the gauge ahowed a preasnre of one-fourth of a pound per square inch, and aa the 
itk^km woaki t»o tha aame throagh the aame aised openiBga at other prsssarest it follows 
that the loia by friction on a pressure of blast of 5#lbs. per inch, would be ona-fifkeenth or 
fi| per oeo. loss $ at the poit in this case was one-eleventh of the area, and the port pro^ 

k2 



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1C4 DH. KOHMANDY S TliST BOOK. 

pCMd is ont^^if|iiikf U i»«tHMi*<l tktt Di« lots iroiiU «ol sisoeed 6 per oenLfr^m tbU c«ue, 
or indeed from snj other oame, as the frioHon fron propelling the air throogh t giTen sized 
toyer^. at a giTen presaore, tnast be the same in both cases. 

Fblib#it)g up the comparfMn df first eolt, w« fiod that (eitlosfi^ of %oile#s, -tAUrk tfs 
assumed the «am« fo bdlh eiserhvi takiiig into sMooont ibe oost of the engine^lHHiteVtbnB 
wtald htfmmtiDf by the proposad plan of betwoen 65 and 70 per cent* ; the cost of a pair 
of the best engines in Suffonlshire, blowing three furnaces, being 3,6S0/.» while on the 
proposed plan thejr would cost IJOOf. if high pressure only, or if big^ pr^snre' and 6oii- 
densing t,3S0f.f tnelndlng !fi each case ther engfner^bbltse. but no» tb« bOllerSi ' - ' ) 

Many srin prefer bl|^ pMiiuro onlf» on soeowit'off its alaaptteilyt but as st n^peam^- 
4ant thai • gittn (Jianii^ of aleam oao bo condensed in the same time, in the same con* 
^eoseff whether admitted in a few large jets or in a great onmber of small iets, thero U no 
fUMon whaterer why a condensing apparatus may not be attached to tlie sbort-itroke 
engine aC high teloclties; the only conditlbn bMngtfaat it'ilinsC4>4 equlvalenV to tb» poop^ 
•f fM eoglne willHMit relation 4o the sise of the oyUsdsTi Th4airpamp l« tU«'caoo.ns«at 
At^^aM^^uthi^ wilh alida ▼sAfoSr «r it may be rotary and placed rpnnd the crank- abaft, 
and thfce lyppeais to be no adtaoti^e bi a fly-wheel for such an arrangement of blowidg 
engines. ' . ' 

The speed ot the engine' should be related by a hydMslatie gofemdr, ooaaorteiflati^g 
-nMt ttve blast wafoi and «tta^ed t« the throttto ▼aWei.esMctly ttmUar to those ^isod^^as 
works for regulating the engino driving the ezhanat^rs| this would regolata the engine with 
greater delicacy* and maintain a more uniform blast than can be done with the present 
englnea ; and the rapid succession of the strokes of the tiro small blowing cylinders scftiog 
alteimateTy, would rendtiVrtie present large resertoir quite iilnMoesaavy. ) ■ 

Imposing the wdkantagtaUahBadlbr this dsaofiption of engine to be realiaed, vhlphthe 
writer has no reasM to donbtvit may be applied to asaist the present blowing engines where 
they sw oveipoworedy which isju many instances the case, as there ia no ready meana of 
increasing their power as (he works derelope themselTes, ahd greatttr calls are made tm flie 
engine ; bat In the case bf the' proposed engines, If ot any ttaoe an inemw wwq AodiRad 
another bbiMng oylindcr might be ad|ded to tbo shaf!, at • «OBBpai«tif ely sisastt ooit* 

Relsrring again to what first draw the attention of the writer to this subject, tb^ employ- 

, rnool of iina|l.eyliodera worked by the pressure of air, where it was incooTenient or imprac- 

' llcaHe to employ ahafiingi it has been found that a l2.inch air-eyHnder with 3 Ybi. ptiea- 

anio Attached to « toig* 6itndry crane, under #hi«h ld<30' iaeb fripeg are'eatt itctftioaUyeMry 

u%tn hovrs^ does tWs work of double tha numbor of men that ooald by any posfibilHy motk 

feitbrernack . . i 

^ XytsnggeaU tho pofiibility of a very considerable adrantage to railway companies, by 

the ttsa of' tbeptoposad >engin«a» as the- blowing cylinders for compressing the afr mlglit "be 

•ttaobed totbe end of the piston-rod of any of the smaU-sised ienglnes now latd hp at osnsaml 

•latlons, and tboairconveyedito the Tarious eraaeav to which .cytodera might bo»atraoi»ad 

Ibs o baa t 8S^ per «rane» wiiiioiit distorbing tber present arrangement Cor the -use of nsaiMial 

power in'eaaes of emergency. The sating of manual labour by such an arrangement will 

' MTbeaCffletimtateii by jtho ma^agars of goods departments, some of whom ar« amongst tlie 

. MOmbori^ n«d with refefenoo to thomachanieal application of the power, the ihiler^opiM 

to -haoa itha plaaatro of preiooting the Instftanion' with awotbar pa|>er at taiaoilbfttfre 



0tt. KOAMANOy's TBST BOOK.* 

The present book has its. origin in a yery bediledi twisted, gmmn(|rpalYedaad»W0T«B, 

sad atate of things. . The art8—H>f'<Adnlte. pMsaodi^-^aU artielea or cooaomption in 

tttion*and!8ophMeabonf^<^^fia^inVaded trade, ia m#|i[nfictnres» in. the artSr-rrln n 

the ]^uzi]^^,and necesttties o/. bot^ ^e rich . wofd* all that oaj^^.be made xna^.ot ^»|b- 

Mid Abepoor^ faimanlv food* medicine fur- • mtne* and. soMr ia rOduU^iwled^ /dkified^ 

Mtttfe^^-^e mekiis hthte ond tke mqnire- diiguk^d^ or dmff§^.*'^i^n(. i^ Witk 

ments of dis^ase^-^ah that can b^ mixedi aomo peopia^ tha only sure cenve4j f^r theao 

' "^ ' ' ' i." i ■■ — r — "v <■' — * ' ' '■■'■ ■ '" > 'I ' l M '* *"■ » ■ 1 '- ^ ^, ; ^^ 

' •*» me Cottflieitlil Ham Book of Ckemical 'tki A¥ts. Bf A. lfom«Q4^,^Atntb6r>af ^ Prasllcal 

Analjrala; or, Practical InstmctSooa lioc the Peter- . Intfo^iu^n to Roae'g Chemlatjnr,' «c 640 pp. 

jnlnatioa of the lotrinalo or Commercial Value of limo. Kn^ht and S^s, 'PoSp»r'lsae« ' 

tnbataneea used in Manubetures or Tradea, and iu 1 850." 



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DB. KORMAKDI 8 TRST BOOK. 



165 



■BclcBiable erik {•» the ettabUthmciit of a 
jffHet ttiedieat j[>ollce— nch M Mhtt (tWigh 
with bat Indifferent soccesi) In some del • 
»f bnt.wtb o^iert^iodttiliQg 
tht i«iilM4 antlMr «f tlM 
iMbt b^6t« 119^ mnd, |)robabIy,' etery sountfA 
tbiBlGii^ jpjqi^n— ;-tl^ beftt temedy of all is 
the diffoaion of A li^iiowMgeof tbe jncana of 
llttli««WiU» what U ffMApM from wfaol it 
iO|>hrat!catt4. 

'* It ia certAlo tbat if aophislicatioa could 
«ba.ii|Off« readUy date^ted^ ila prat tie* irooU 
■baab ii ^ 1e«a f^e^uantv lad be redhned in 
]^rotK)Htpn to the increased cbaAce of diir* 
ooTary ; tbat ia to aay, it would dimiDiib 
ftadhially M-tfaeibnaifladga <of the aoana of 
aaei9rtaltil&|^ fb« eotMstreial talat of tbi 
i^ods olf^red fbr lalc wootd become tDpte 
diiaa^*'--<Pr^, ih) Bat aa op one can be 
eipecled to become eo&faraant vith twerf 
■nKife'«r^o«imel'Oe» ot t# aarry in Ina bead 
a lnow1ed]ge of the secrets of aTl frames, i^at 
i$r and )^ been long vanted, is some source 
aCMadf^aeleaaatOf Ibr th« awanaof veiriftoa- 
lioo» i^hm detbti of Iba g«nifi«etiesa of aa< 
wfiiiU artse. As people refer to a Ready- 
Mf^tkomBt to check a calculation in arith- 
aaeitia, i>r te a t aibal dicUonary U> reaoha a 
a«mbi ill oHhograpby» so akoiM tbi^ batam 
teat-book continnally st hand, by taming to 
vbicb tbej might ascertain on an instant the 
^faodncsa oi aranF •rtiele aapplicd to tbem, 

• "W^n i»eh a work b«t aa aomnoa aa a 
b^Att or a Johnson !ri booaebolds, itwoatd 
io.jnorc tban , whole legions of medtcal 

• foto.lBsyegtara tiomakemanuficturers ati4 
«aftfa hatiear. ■ itecaniaiaMdaitliimlabiBi 



aoBsetbing of the sort in his well-known 
'• Death in the Pot " (a work, by the way, 
wUch Dr. Normandy has strangely OTor- 
looked, or, at leaat, omitted to mention;) 
iNieIC wai sa ^t^ablf got ttp to axalta 
alarm, and to mitrist^ to poplar p f e jadlces , 
— so lo6ae and reeklcsa in Ha ttatemeata^^ 
teryfng fdttia people av* tridai, and attol- 
^OtheHfAr &rdttri apparently), wW»^t 
ainall rtgAirSf to' the aetnal toeriu of eitber, 
t&at It loon ceased to be looked .on with any 
reipaot, and baa long tiaoa f aaisbad frooa 
iMSstof-bboka fhal are Mad. Dr. Nor- 
aaaady'a woik n aomctbiog tery dllTerent 



from Accam'a, being written in a more fair 
spirit, a«d aH^getbor trastwortky $ yet alitl 
it is a long wayfVom mpplying the want in 
-qaeationfjii the way we would bare it d«ne« 
Tba artiaica ara tnata4 of la idpbabetloal 
order, aM- in ao lir^ It it of tba Nady- 
reckoner aod dictionary dasa^eaty of refir- 
enca^ but it it diffuie^and biecanse of tta 
^iraaewati miifr saaa r ily balky ♦ the tesU 
snppttcd are r^ |«tiera|ly tac^ at aaienti4bo 
manlpntators alone can ^romptfy apply, 
and h^t seldom of a aimpla enough character 
foe ooaainoa Mas aiaoy modatr too, i^f 
terifykig taob srCfolB' ara givany wban, by« 
Jodicioos selection and abridgment, space 
would bare been gained to multiply largely 
tbe naasbCf of artidea natioad«-witba ais^ 
|ood test for aaflb. 

. 'V^e have spokeil cif tte fatr spbrlt in whldi 
Dr, Nora»an4y V ^otk ia conceiifd^ and of 
tbia wa aan addoaa-no-baitar pwof than an 
extract' or twi» fVodi Ma artiete oi Mirx, 
respecting which the pubUe mind has rery 
r ocently beei^ e^ceedioigly abused : — 

"The ^ity^f Aio mUk aal4ln Umdan 
and other large towns It aliHiya eativanely 
Tarbble; Thofl^adi pracliaei ia thai vary 
important alimentary svbitaaoe am of two 
kfoda^nraada by addition and fraads by 
subtraction. Th« reaaM of tba fttaotiaal 
working of theae two mlea apfNtd <t» asllk 
ia alwaya a JOM totibe oonaaiaar,' -Sablrae- 
tlonof cream, addMon of water, ol^yeMow 
coloarhig'iaatteri of esmlaiona, of beaapaeei, 
&e., to igito tba nilk a craamyor Hob ap. 
peannoe iAMk H does not really p aana n by 
ittelf. I 

'* MiffA^ awtf cAaA(, and otbav anbalanoea 
of that bind, it fa tdd^ ara aoaMtiaaea addad 
to milk t ^oi tlae Irandf ia vovid appaaivia 
ffitfcA Ut§ freptemt thorn is ^eaf r a% aifp- 
po9€d, donbtleaa on account of the facility 
with which aucb anbatancea ara detectad» 
aimBe*.oa laaring the veaael oontainiag tba 
milk at reat for a abort time, they aettla 
down as tadlmtfnt 

"Tba.additian Qr^tyn arvAfc to milk 
aoema hardly probable, at least practically, 
alnce it acarcely aif^ta the deosity of the 
ttriHr. Aeo6rdlttg lo M» Qaenmna, aa addi^ 
Hoaof notAaaatbanl^82 graifia par qsMsrt 
ol water are reqaixed to bring it W» a density 
of 1*030, which ia about the denaitj of milk. 
Th€ fraud wmld e mue q men tlf be tmprofii" 
«Ma, ff»t<f emuefumiig if aaf oeiY ^'^''y ^^ 
Meplaee."^ 



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IM DB. KOfilUKDl'8 TSST BOOK. 

• . noriB Apaqneiit tod aadoabtod— but tli«f m 

''According to M,K. Bupail and Barruel |^ ^^My cnavili of doteodom 

2 per cent, of augar added to milk are anffi- 

eient to impart a decided aagary flavoar to *'l. The nibatanees wUdi ato emplojred 

it, and e?eo 1 per cent, ia aoffident to im- for adulterating thii tnoat importsnt of a9 

part an nniuaal degree of aweetneaa — wgar, artielea of food, beaidea thoaa which ara . 

therrfore^ cun hardly bf employed to aug' enamerated in the article on Flour, are the 

ment the density of milk. folio viog : — 

Alum Obalk. 

*'The ezperimenta of M. Qnevenne aeem Snbcarbonate of niagneaia..Pla8ter. 

to proTC that the emuUUm qf hemp^ed out Sulphate of copper Lime. 

of almonds cannot be employed for adulter- Salpbate of sine Clay. 

atiog milk aa is generally suppo^ed^ for Sabcarbonate of ammonia.. Starch. 

hempaeed commnnicatea to the milk a rery Carbonate of potash .... Water. 

nnpleaaant flaTonr, and almonda rery speedily Bicarbonate of potash. • . . Pulp of |k>tBtDeB. 

fioagolate it. '* 2. The introduction of ahan in bread 

• . . • appears to be a practice of long-standing; 

''As to the adulteration of milk by the it enables the baker to give to bread made 

addition of the cerebral matter of various of flour of an inferior quality the whiteness 

wsimals, accounts of which were published of the best bread, and to add potato-flour, 

by newspspera %ova% time ago, it would ground beans and peas, to a certain extent, 

appear from the experiments which were to wheat flour, without materially alleriog 

Serformed at that time by the '* Conieil de the appearance of the bread. The use m 

alubrit^,*' ^at no such admixture could h§ alum by bakers is almost universal in this 

detected in any of the considerable number metropolis ; at any rate, I have invariably 

of aamplea of milk which were then aub- found distinct evidence of the presence of 
mitted to examination. this material in the bread which I obtained 

from various bakers, some of which are 

" Hie most frequent^ and one might aay esteemed of the highest respectability, 

the unexceptionable adulteration of the " 3. The quantity of alum In bread 

milk sold in towns consists in the addition varies however according to the qnality of 

qf water**' the flour employed, and it appears to ajct 

k^A ^ j^A^ «t.> ..ti^^.^.. ^ «i.f«* aomewhat in the same manner as sulphate 

And to detect the pnaenoe of wmter, ^^ ^ ^^^ j^ ^ ^^^^ .^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

which we make no doubt is hitermixed ^,^,^e^ to make bread with floor of inferior 

with milk to a greater or less degree, quality with less labour, and to introdnoe 

m aU Meat, D«. Normandy reeommenda the therein a greater quantity of water, b* 

aimple instrument, which may be had of proportion of alum than of the aalt of cop. 

any philoaophical inatroment maker. per is required, aioce, in fact, no appreoiable 

hvim ••i.i#/»Mi«. w aimnW. !•■«• tek* ^^^^ '• produccd, whcu the proportion of 

be milMd b p...«d iDto the tab. up to S*PP"..">S,ir.. «« fcr ?Z' l^n-S 

O, «a tb« wtaol* ii left in • ckM. end ^1 J"" " "^ «*""• '"' ^ ?'.? 

rlkoe Ibr IM or twtlre boar* in ea.iMr. *•"«•«>« •• ,»»» *f^ f <»f P*'. T«» »»« 

la torn flfteen U, tisteen te wioler. iU S""""* '°8«»'"»° "^ »'»' ''^'f' ^' "^ 

*«.tab.djJjr«bjJ*bylhe«ji-*«^ ^T^ m^y'^t toTcS .^ ^o^ 

degreea occopied by the ereaos. The tbkli«' jnl^rloe ftlT "f*"**^ iiau.c^ tuduk 

BM or atratuM of oream in pure milk ia ^^l T^ir^i^,^^ y^^^^mnJUA K* U 

tHyT^cre.* prodeoed wW be redoeed «f^b«»»«>. P«>rphjri«p, the whe. w obulned. 

!• 6* , If mixed wiMi bdf iMter, t > md if ^"°« """^ ^' "° •i"i:-;r« '^'!i?« ^^ 

tt. ON., i. 0.1, « p« e«« f tb. brtk." Sn^^1Si^iS^2LrS;Si 

Th^ fophlsticatlons of that other neoet- i^i^iittjlm of omatio potaah ia then tfifiS, 

aary of llfl^ hreadf are conaidered ffi bp i^p lyhq^ (a boije^ • littlci filterei, the fEij 



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DR. KORMANDT 8 TEST BOOK. 



Inta is tMtod witK a lolaUon of nl-am- 
bmiUm, and boitod for a fnr mintttet. If a 
pnolpilate U farmed* it is alamiaa, which 
■ay be collected on a filter, washedi per* 
ftctly dried, earefuUy ignited in a platinnm 
crncible, and then weighed. 50 grains of 
alnmina represent 332 of crystals of alum. 
** ft. JM9ik€r jnnecett, indicated by 
Messrs. Robine and Parisot, consists in 
erambling down about 2000 grains of the 
bread nnder examination, which sboald be 
soBMwhat stsle or dried, in order that it 
may be more easily orombled. The mass 
should be macented in cold water for two 
or three hours, and then squeesed through a 
dean piece of white linen. The liquor thns 
obtained should now be filtered, and the 
filtrate being placed in a porcelain capsulct 
should be e? aporated to dryness at a steam 
heat. The residuum being now treated by 
a email quantity of water and filtered, the 
operator dirides the filtrate Into two per* 



*' 6. If aqueous ammonia, or a solution 
of sal-ammonise, being poured into one of 
these portions, and solution of chloride of 
barium in the other portion, produce in each 
of them a white precipitate, it is a sign of 
the presence of alum. That product by 
ammonia, more especially, is conclusive. 

'* 7. The experiment should be performed 
in the way indicated ; for if the operator 
were merely to filter the liquor squeesed 
from the linen, end at once add solution of 
chloride of barium thereto, a precipitate or 
ailkinesa would be produced, which might 
hm mistsken for sulphate of baryta, but 
which would be cosgulatcd vegetable albu- 
men, &c The filtrate should therefore be 
first boiled or evsporated to dryness, and 
the dry mass being digested in water and 
filtered, may then be examined, as wss said \ 
or the liquor squeezed from the linen may 
be at once boUed, then filtered, and the 
filtrate may next be treated by ammonia 
and by chloride of barium, taking care to 
coneeotrate the filtrate, if too bulky, before 
testing ; but the proportion of alum is gene- 
rally large enpngh to become readily percep- 
t3>le in the nnconcenirsted filtrate when 
tested by ammonia, which produces a white 
iaky precipitate, as we said." 

Betr is one of the worst and mo«t hope- 
less emn in the book. Water (anatica may 
f^^joioe ; but we, who deem H a pky thst a 
beverage so wholesome when pure and used 
in moderation, should not^alirays^be of the 
beat, can bnt laaaent over the sophistications 
wUeh are here disclosed. 

"liia a weU-known and snthentieated fsct 
' defers in, or retaUera of beer, in 



IW 



the Tcrbose phraseolagY •! the Ael» hsTO in 
their possession, and do make nse of, mix 
with, or put into their beer, liquors, extracts, 
preparations, cslx^ end all msnner of sub- 
stances, except brown mslt. It is a pub- 
licly known fact that carts may be seen 
besring the inscription, in staring psint, of 
* — — , brewers' druggist.' Such a cart I 
have myself seen, a few days ago, standing 
in broad daylight, at mid-day, before a pub- 
lican's shop or gin-pslace. Of course I do 
not know what the contents of the cart were, 
nor whether it ccmtained any thifig t but since 
Ihe inscription psinted upon it indicated the 
trade of the owner to be that of a Irtipert' 
dru§§Mt it may fairly, I thhuk, be inferred 
that the man was a dealer in drugs for the 
use of dealers in or retailers of heer, spoken 
of in the Act ; that the publican was pro* 
hably a customer of his, or that endeavours 
were made to induce him to beeome one ; at 
any rate, the above facts prove that, sfnee 
there are beer druggists, there must be beet 
d ruggers ; consequently, that if the purpose 
of the Act be useful, the Act itself is power- 
less, and that some more efficient protection 
should be resorted to." 

" If it contains common salt, which is 
almost generally found in beer in consider- 
able and unwarrantable quantities, for the 
purpose doubtless of increasing the thirst 
of enstomers, and indoeiag tkem to oon- 
same larger quantities of the liquid than 
they otherwise would, its presence may be 
detected, and its qusntity estimated, by 
means of a solution of nitrate of sOvert 
which in that case prodaeea a precipitate 
which ia insoluble in water and in nitric 
acid. The precipitate may then be washed, 
dried, fiised in a small porcelain craeible, 
and weighed. 134 grehie of ohleride of 
silver a-M graina of oommon salt. 

** Sulphate of iron (green e s p p e tas) as 
soosetiBBee added le beer for the pnrpoee, 4t 
isedd, of ermiim$ « kmi; but whether for 
Ibis or any other pmrpose^ it is a dao^srona 
«Wtfon» whioh has, Co my oertain know« 
ledge, created inonuMeg, eholie, and otter 
symptOBss of gastro-intesthiai irrittioa. In 
order to detect the presenes of this salt, tfan 
l»eer should bo dcooisfieed m mneh aa 
posslMe by animri chanoal, fiileped, and 
the fiHraie boiiig teitod by hydrosaiphvrol 
of emmoaia, wii fkmt prodoee a black pM» 
elpitato { by feirioyinide of potasdom, a 
bkie preoipttaie. 

^ On the other hsiid* if a aohrtioo ol 
^loiido of bsrhns be added to aqolher por* 
tion of the ftltrato, a white peoclpltale of 
sqlphate of bsryta wlU bo nrodnced, which 
may be filtered, washed, dried, ignited, and 
wel^d. l]7gralBeora«lplMl»orbaryt« 



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168 



DR. NORMANDY'S TEST BOOK« 



rtpreMttfc 18^ gfiiiis'of orjafedliMd prdto- 
•tfpli4M of ll«A« 

<*TW preKtiM'Of o^m n«y be detMted 
at foltmrt :^Tke tttiptetod beer ii int lo 
be deodtorlMi m ameh » poetiMe^ by aal- 
nal chareoal; a portion of tbe fiUiate is 
tbeN pwind into e conical gbM, and a few 
drop* of ictflale of toad am pottvd io. Im 
tbe eourie of* abeot tweWe boera* or aoooert 
a preefipUale irW be peodnoad* aapedally hj 
attrrieg tbe wbole firoi*titae to time, tvbicb 
iaa ancwa i e oftoed. ThepiedpitnlewbiBb 
wM bavo eolleeted mt tb« bottom of Ibe «eal«. 
glial ia tbev aepayatad -fhiaa tbeaap«n«tMit 
H^fttor by caMM deOMtatiodt aad 80 oe 40 
drape of ralpbcrfoeeid, and ■ Ube qoantitj 
of protoanlpbate of hon e«a tbaa ponwd-on 
tbe meoonj^te of lead at the bottom of (be 
test-glasi. Bj this treatment th^ meeonate 
of mid br deeompoied and converted into 
Btttpbateof leidi wbibt tbe*llbBi«ted meoonto 
aeM, 9e-«etip«; «poB tbe protoanlpbate of 
Irainf. prpdncea a beautiful red colour." 

'For teithig tbe attKBgth of ^NNidy end all 
aortii df spfrHa, l>ir. Ifbnnnndjr reeomuvride 
tbe eAiploytnent of tbat taliiable fbttfttment, 
Fietd'i Aleofaolmeter, aold bj Meura. IiOiEi{t» 
of To«ref-bfil, ind tfcicrfbed In M^h, Af0^.» 
▼ol. iWfl., p. 479'. 

Under tbe bead o( chocolate, we find a 
terj notable case of adntteratlon recorded. 

" Cbocelate is a prq>«r»tion of tbe 
cocoa-nnt, obtained by grinding tbe nnta, 
prerionslj roasted and snelled, in an appa* 
ratos, wbieb cooatota dtber of a iat stone 
witb a steel cfiiBdeiv ot of conical stone 
rollers reTol? ing on a circplar table of tbe 
same material, or of a thtll of « peenlUr 
coQsttnction. 'Hie mtny-or tbe etone«» ite 
boated to abontSlt^ Fbbr.» uid tbe roaited 
mta YbeUed oocot-vvls are 4«biiiittcd wifb 
ittgar 10 tbe gtlndlog operation, bf.wbiob 
Ib^ai^redttoeAinteaaynipf aBMs*;wbiob 
la reoeited into moiiUB<of vaaiOM'Sbapeif.ia 
wblab il 'betdeaa it^ eeoUvfr 

'* fiaaide* oeeoa^nnta and 8«gar« (be 
■lanfifaelwrer genatal^ adda aome arrow. 
root* nenj peraona prefeuin^ tbe.obocolate 
ao prepared, became tbe oil or butter of 
ooooa is tbereby rendered eaanlaiTe and 
more dIgtatlMe. Tbe pceperalioB known 
as cocoa- p owder^ or cboeotote po#dar, wben 
geanine, consists only of cocoa-nlbs, angar» 
and anro««>root, miaedand groend togetber, 
and tben pnWerfsed, bj p a mi w g tbe masa 
tbrongb a gntiog-mill, and cooling it. 

** Cboedat«» m well aa cocoa-powder 
or iakea, prepare! et above eeid, ia one U 
tbe moat gratefbl, nomriabiDg, and eaail^ 



digeatible aHidea of food; k b^Mige^to «be 
daas of pcrfeallf albnentarf aabatittcea. 
Ua fe rtrnwia l y, bowever, ananjof the.^M* 
paratlem of the ooooe«kwl| eold owtor «ba 
nene of cboookte, of Qocea flakee* and of! 
cboeolate powder, ooaaist of a moat ditgaeu 
ing mbct«^ of bed or mnsty eoOoi^mrts«r 
with tbabr ehella^ eeame eegar of U>o itorj 
loweit qoaliW, gfowid with potatai e ta ra fc , 
oU aea^bisewKs, ooarae braaoy lomr« aaimiA. 
fat (genevaMf lallow, or enaii^ greairea)« I 
bare known eoooa powdet made of potefca 
alareb, aooaatenedwith a decoetieilof ooeoa* 
not shells, and sweetened with treeolei 
cbooolale made with Iba same oatefekda^ 
witb additions of talk>w, and of oobio. I 
bare also met with ohoaobifieini^obM<Ar« 
dost or 'red oehm bad bean ittUodVeed e» 
tbe eiteot of IZ per oeni. \ another aempio 
OBotaioed 22 percent, of peroaydo of Iron, 
tbe rest being atafcb* cocoa^nola witbf Ibeir 
abeUa, and tallow. Memrs. Jntoe, Gaattier; 
and Hsrel assert, that danabar ajad reA lead 
hare been ftrand ia eertaitt aaiapkeof *cbo- 
oolato, and tbat aeribns aSoidati bad haeia 
caosed by tbat dkbelieal adnltenitaiiii. 

'* Gen^ne efaoeotofaa is 'Cf a dark-beoam 
oolovr; that wUebbea baeit adolteratted 4t 
generally redder, tboagb this brigteor lum 
ia aometimet given to ezoelleat tiboeofaHfl^ 
cepeebUy in Spain, by maana of a litlJb 
annofito. Tbia addition is MnobfeetionnUtf^ 
provided the anwelto ia puee^ whin> kpm^ 
ever, is not alwaya-tbe caae^ 

** Gemiine obooolala sbonld diseolTo in 
tbe month withont grllt^aess^ II ebonU 
leavo a peenliar aenaaiien of f reabneaa« aad 
alter belling it witb watetv ttM emoMcm 
sbonld not form a felly wfam eoldt if il 
do4s,ataroborllonrkpramnt. TUradmiM 
tmtie of 'flonr^ or of atarch, moreover, may im 
rtfadity detected by^ibo bbw oalonv.mhiob ia 
Imparted to tbe decoetien* after tooUOfi.bf 
aebithm of iodine. a <- v. 

** Briekdutl and other om-ikp^ mmtfmre 
ire detected by incinerating a given aieigbt 
of tbe ehooolate or eeooa wadbr lexaaiin* 
btion t tkt tmparHiea remabi amot^ tbo 
aabea, and may bo eaaily^retogtiiaadft" TEkim 
■ieita Tati o n la also mad Hy detmlBd by gmb* 
logSOOfrabHof the ebeeolate inMftim« 
powder aa peaklble, ihrowit^. itinto aboni 
half a pint of oold water, ithsii^ tbe^ibab 
britkly for about ten minatta, kavbg Itj^ 
reatfor about two minattst and darantfof 
tbe Mipematent Bqiior* Tbe eavthy -matter 
wiH tben have tabaided» and will bo loft m 
eedtmenC 

' ^* The prentice of eaUmai Jatt m*y- be 
detected by the palate» for the chotolete 
generally baa, in Uiatctao, aobemy ilavowrt 
W9i when- eomaaao' bnttaiv or. oil kmhmtn 
added, it baa a rancid llavonr. Tbia la qntta 



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GEOMETRICAL NOTES, 



109 



ebarteterittle ; for batter of cocoa always 
rMMtaia pwfaitly sWOTt, 

** thm ipresfDO* ol onAMrT /a/«, or ^ 
9ii^ wnef alto be TocogniwA bj sapMifyiBg 
r pu ili wi of 4li« chocolate m follewa !•<- 
Blip abmt SOM gnrtet of the cbooobte 
mM«r tfxiariiutite/ and bdil tkem itith 
witir 9mA mam eanitie potashi Whair the . 
fie km aafioniaii^ iUato the ataaailth » 
nrfMMMr^fiMMitity of Mi*er» and fikar three 
c»lb«r tinea. The mikf filkrate,'whiah ia, 
U fact, m aulotieii* of teep^aboeld now be 
fepeMetmntedl with nitrio acUl ; thia wiU 
Kparate^ the fbit, which will float on the^ 
U^or after eooli»ir. It uiaj tbeo he cel^ 
laeM'^ii a ftUer, aod on mbbiog a email 
putio* of ft between Ibe flMgen, the odonr 
wilg^aerrflyhidhMteita or%in; bat more 
eftdEnli^ eUll, by beating it in • amaU 
oijpinla. • Pdrr hoAter of eoooa hat oo odewr; 
..M Of. the ohoeohite may be exhawtted 
bf-ealfhwrks ether, end hf et aparatteg it 
thelte #iU be lelt beMbd , and maj then he 
itaMdfed W WW faeew jM lahl. • 

**lt Chw ehecolatB haa been misad op 
«llh the jfinmrnitMU^ the WMoa*«at» the. 
ose of thO'Slceoaeope ia the best wap.ol 
ite lB cdu y H. Or, after haHog treeted a 
giveir iportiott of the ehooolate by ether* the 
naldtianwey be cKhaoeted by hot water » 
^lldh wftl eatvaet all Ibe salable poriiena 
fl&d If ate again a reiidnaoif in whiob the 
tkmf atfioel»of the groand hdska^ if eny 
h0 preeittt, may be readily eeen «ttk the 
bdp of a merai^ftg gldiai 
- ** fW 'p rt ii n c ta of ooooa * net ^hdU 
ttceheoiiatBHMeara to beinforioM ^ 
hiritfb i^Dr« U>e Mktee hibU «' Oietlowary 
ef'dvtir bAmvlhotBree* andi Mhate**' thai 
ii^lea «f chocolate ^ade at the ¥ielnal« 
Haguyeid^ . Deption^ foe flie «m of the 
mSni^ Navy» and manafMtnred by. the 
QoftPMient choeolatB vilUi were teal to 
httn fm «nadnaties» by otder of the Lorii 
of the Admiralty, noder the fbUowfaig dr* 
laiwilaiiniii 

4^1br eometfane the ehoeolate» It woeM 
eppeer, had been diatribated to aaUori and 
eeiiTteta ibr 4heir breahf att, at the rate of 
«rieoaite» didtyy^vhen eevtndof the aaen 
ddod vf its i^odnfaiig siokneee, teatl^ 
>«mI otiier itfaect , and m/ew Meat 
fatdiy* ' A.eaetfal elimination 
iir'4hn^^hoeelrte 'failed hi.detectingenyte* 
paKty eriaeluteiiene 8BfaatuMe» eseeptthat 
wmtm gdt^viattev, inoepable of mixang 
iNlh 'watir^ >aodi whioK on otomn e|nNni*h 
etitta, web fbnnd to cMvelef ndanteepidohe 
of the oocoa-bean hnsks, which, when awal' 
Mwvii^ becibne lodged in the eiUoat coat 
^ the atoiuadi and bowelt^ wb«ee they 
cwatrf i f f itatlun and aE theaymptoeiacerti* 
•aibf ^b^efal-waffBl anrgeeM. «U«atob. 



yions,' obKrrea Dr. Ure, ' that from the 
iatohiblo oonditloa of the cho«Qlats« it 
ooald be of little ase as an atticle of lbod« 
or as a dtmaleea^ sobetf tote 'for mtih, and 
that, hi fact, ikrmifm^tkt ^f U 9oere, 9m 
Mlreeeonnf, en ^mi^ecftee eriifitf ^ dift^ 
oJ^l0«|fewastfed.^ 

*^ 12; bi Rmace, the choeelate paste haa 
neiallya dittia yaniUa incoepanrtfid with it^t 
and « oensldeffahle f|«enlity of. Mgari whieh • 
Tarieefc9aienei>thirdo€ itt ^eighfc to. <e^ael 
porta, andena pod ol ToniUajia -aaidtobo^ 
saficient to iaront otoe pe^rtiaad a haAf oC. 
chneelats. Pus, genuine idiooolate imr- 
proivea hi ita flsffonr iiy Iseepingi whkh.is the 
reveme with bad or adnHe^ated checoMia 
bnt the roastsd beans aoon lose their acoma 
if left exposed to tlw.nin" 

/We mtjjht ftU maoy a cola tun wtih sddi- 
tiooe to these extraqts, equally interesting 
and awful; bntite hare footed sefiieieirt. t». 
show thst, thoai^ Dr. Konhan^ itiey harr 
missed prodacing exactly the sort of wbrtd' 
that was wanted, he hi^ j^rodo^ed oqe wImo^, 
t0 (he extent it goes, aiastr hajre.ti^ im»prA% 
Tal of e? ei;|i fair trader and, Xriei^ to aaoM 
tory impaof easeot. It is, to aay the |roth« 
with^all ita^isqlMb the ve^ best bool^ qq th^ 
subject which the English. -firois hfg, f^K, 
produced. 



«XOMXTRI0A.L N0TX8.* BT T. a. DAVlXa, 

' xta., T.tLM\, t,»,A,, irro. 

(Contlnuefl from psge iS4.) 

t The Eorkf Gmme4rg qfike Gr$fiU 

Acain, tor tbe aimitUiide of miadri- 
Intenus, it would be obviously only ne*- 
6essnry that they ebouM be.coinpoded qf 
shwifar triMigkiai tftken Ia tija «K»e 
i^dtnr. The %ai«a ihfiieelvfs •«• 
flotteiently vuggeatieo of the prooee^ 
WitlHWit written d«uUiv • * 

One of the t«ty ctrly^oheepiiDM of 
the mihd, of the relatio/fte mmoBgetintff- 
iiltiides, is that ci rtttie ; imt, it It 
ndtnlticd, in * very pretfee o* deseffb* 



'i'^TliB <Wlswmg to'tlwtaote is»nie.te«tTai 
A«St^«nd«h9uM,h0;i>Ma ii)< common witk tt^ 
pwffyg** at ▼bl^h tbe r«fere(ice to it U inaae. 
^rhe ^arliMt fbtm of <J#tnon*tTJirton \n i»»i»i ttf 
time, tn^tiffh Mruiniytioe Uia iaMnitaHiat«.iiiMt 
iatvHaWy h*T».¥»pi> thf* wlilo»»,we i»ow tenp 
reduetU a4 ab$Hri/Qm I or, st teaM, ihkt shape of Jt 
to which #« condude tlrtt the irtte^atidti •*ctOttot 
bat1>b(rtift.^MuSt1iat«HN»nMltat0atbatcaMn(^ of 
ike iirimitire-iw>a«n«oiil U^- > T^ii*^ nm¥ «VI*«ac 



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170 

able foriD^ but still essentially tnd in 
fact. Indeed, it is one of those coneep* 
tions which is as dear to the unlettered 
as to the more cultivated mind— except 
that cultiTstion shall have been expressly 
inclusive of the doctrine as a special one ) 
and there is no cause for somple in aa- 
serfing that, even amongst mathemati- 
cisns themselves, of no mean standing, 
any eoneeption at all more genera], or 
even more clear, than this vague one 
common to men of all ages, exists I A 
more precise mode of expression, eopkd 
from £ac1id, and a more recondite one 
by means of certain tests, may be given 
to it in their hands : but a more precise 
conception, and yet a more precise defi- 
nition of it may be looked for in vain, 
in the great majority of cases. Were 
other proof wanting, the constantly- 
recurring disputations on the subject 
would supply it ; but it would be easy 
to adduce ottiers more conclusive than 
even this. Of this, however, more 
hereafter. 



■tartUng to thote who take the flnal eoiantifle form 
or our reaeoningt at that in which thev necensariljr 
flnt made their appearanae ; a fancy tfften indnlged 
bj those who have nevex attended to the history of 
the gradual development of any branch of sclenoe. 

Many of .the earlier prspotitlons In " SuelitTi 
Elementt " afford tufl&clent illuttration of the me- 
thod ; and their occurring where they do, show that 
they are inevitably need there, whilst their gradual 
ellmliiatloo lo the later 6^a;te• ST tb4 ^rk (though 
never wholly), shows alM> that Euclid would have 
dUpensed with thll mdthbd of proof had it been in 
his power to d# eo. 

It wOl be snffieient to take oae efaigle theorem of 
"BnetUtt JShmenh ** by wav of tUustratioa ; and 
hence hie rery llrtt may be CD09en ; namely, i. 4 : — 

"1. For if the ttlangla ABC be Applied to the 
triaogle DBF so that the point A may be on D, and 
the straight line AB Oh 0, iherejort the point B 
thali ediaeMe with tile polat E." That li, as fhr as 
the loi^e is poaeenied, oaaiwi kut 09imide with the 
point E. 

** t. Aad AB «>in«Ml«t ^Hth t>E. htcaute the 
angle BAC is eqtial to the angle EDP, thtrefore the 
straight line AC th%ll fall e« J>F." That is, oannol 
bulfall on DP. 

" 8. Also b9camt§ ACIi eqaal to DF, thtrdott the 
point C akuU 4»im9id§ with the point F." That it, 
cannot but coincide with the point F. 

In this ftorm, fhim which the inference it changed 
t9 a diieet aoet aU •txA argamaati asseatially make 
their anpearance. It would be irapoeeible, as it 
appears to m«, for the Eayptlan geometers to hare 
stopped short of this mode of reasoning, except we 
assume their utter incapacity to reason at all. 
Moraorer, as superposition waa, of naoesaity» the 
earlieit tnada of aemparlog figuresi so also muat 
the particular node of xeasonlng which that pro- 
oesa requirts, even to the prasent hour, be the 
earlieat that was employed. The mode of dispena* 
lag witli both, hp rendering propositions already 
Mtabllshed aabsldfary to iha proof of elheia, might, 
^^'d, have in a great degree been due to iba 
iMt bat that tha Eg 



OEOHETBICAL KOTES. 



that tha Egyptian 
lalB lama appraateatlOB traa to thii teems to 



akt 



nan geometry did not 



imoet certain. 



Batioy or comparative magnitude, 
would appetf simple enough, when one 
of the magnitudes is double, triple, etc., of 
the other ; and the equality of ta-o ratios 
(or proportion) would be intelligibly 
expressed by stating that fact Tha 
mere oonfiuioB of the words ratio and 
proportion, or more frequently the sub- 
stitution of the Utter term for the 
formeri in commoii nae in this country 
(perhaps in most hnguages, as it cer- 
tainly is in many,) does not in the least 
degree confuse the elementary concep- 
tion, though it may in some degree 
confuse the expression of it to the 
mathematician. 

When, again, both the magnitudes 
are exact multiples of some other of 
the same kind, taken as a standard merit, 
the coneepnon of the ratio is equally 
int^itfible to all minds. Thus, if one 
magnitude were five times the standard- 
unit, and the other nine times the same 
unit, the idea of their tatio being that 
whidi 5 has to 9, is as distinct as can be 
desired. It is only when the two mag- 
nitudes hate no standard-unit (or com- 
mon measure), however small, that such 
persons become sensible of the want of 
universality in their view of ratio or 
proportion. The algebraist evades the 
difficulty in his own way, by saying that 
four magnitudes are proportional when 
''the first is the iame function o( the 
second that the third is of the fourth/' 
or something to the same effect It is 
only necessary to remark upon this, that 
the assumption of genetalitles by the 
mere generalisation 6f language*, is of 
exactly the same logical character as the 
assumption of the proportionality in the 
cases above supposed, from finding that 
we can take our standard-unit so small^ 
as to show the truth up to any required 
degree of approximation to toe actual 
relation of the magnitudes. If, then, in 
virtue of the generality of the meaning 
attached to symbols, the algebraist thinka 
himself justified when he includca ir- 
rational of transcendental quantities 
under his equations, we surely cannot 
wander ^at the ruder efforts of the 
pHmitite geometers should terminate in 
an analogous assumption Of the corre- 
sponding generalisation. 

It would be a mere Waste of time to 
give the details by which the mind would 
pass from this consideration of rat^o (or 
more strictly, of proportion,) to \ht uct 



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GEOMETRICAL KOTES. 



1« 



expressed In our current aoUtion re- 
speeting the preceding figures :— 

BK«KC:CB:BA:AC::FH:HF: 
FfitEDsBF. 

Geometrj at a $cienc$ requires cer-* 
U!n logical forms t and till modes of 
reasoning snail have been devised, it 
can scarcelybe deemed to be augbt else 
than what Thomas Simpson has happily 
called mere *MnspectIon." To this, 
little allusion has been made in the fore* 
going pages, except at the close of the 
note on p. 169; and in the paragraphs 
immediate]/ preceding the present one. 
That little requires, therefore, some 
further expansion here. 

Some doubt seems to exist as to the 
relative periods at which Aristotle and 
Euclid flourished. One writer, whose 
anthoritj and judgment I should ques- 
tion with considerable diffidence on a 
question of this nature, makes them 
eotemporarr, or nearljr so ; and infers 
that Eaclia knew nothing of ^e ex- 
istence of Aristotle's systematic ar-* 
rangement of the different kinds of 
syllogism. That he did not make any 
use of it is clear at a glance ; but if the 
ordinary chronology be received, we 
must look for other causes than the 
hypothetical ignorance of Euclid. In 
(mcX* It would rather appear that he alto* 
getner refused all recognition of the 
syllogism, In any other form than the 
enthytneme which he invariably uses. 
It is, indeed, probable that Anstotle*s 
secession from the school of Plato ori^- 
Bated in his enforcement upon the dis- 
ciplea of that school his own doctrines 
respecting formal Logic; and if this 
were so, it will readilv account for the 
cooserTStives of Plato's school rejecting 
everytbhig that originated with, or was 
ostensibly enforced by, the heretio- 
seeed^. The Platonista opposed tlie 
Artstdt^tian Togic to the last; and the 
purposed of '* trifling/' to which it wss 
subseqdeiltly applied, seemed to furnish 
a strdb^ argument in their favour in 
parsufog this course. ^ A more fitting 
•pporftfnity for discussing this question 
will o^eur further on in tnesc notes, and 
I shall lieiAce, hating simply stated my 
vkw of the matter in general terms, 
defer ft tilt then. 

To ttifs extettt, then, it is perfectly 
posnble that the study of scientific gee- 
DH^hthste been carried amongst 



the Egyptians ; and when we consider 
the commercial activity and constructife 
skill of the people, and the contem* 
plative leisure of the sacerdotal order, it 
can hardly be questioned as highly pro- 
bable that they must have proceeded 
thus far. Any consistent interpretation, 
too, of the Greek writers themselves, 
must involve this concession to Egyptian 
progress in the science. For insunce, 
the story of Thales and the king Amasis. 
If Thales went to Egypt as a fearnsr in 
geometry, the application of similar 
triangles (or, Indeed, any mode of solu- 
tion) to the determination of the height 
of the Pyramids, Implies that the Egyp- 
tians knew those properties before they 
taught them to tne travelling philoso- 
pher. To question this, is untamount 
to aflirmhig that he went as a teacher of 
geometry, rather than as a learner, —con- 
trary to the hypothesis and to the testi- 
mony of Diogenes - Laertius and Plu- 
tarch. Or again, how arc we to reconcile 
his knowledge of similar triangles when 
in Egypt, with the statement of Proclus, 
that he discoversd the very simple 
theorems which stand as I. 5, 1. 15, i. 
26, and iii. 81 of Euclid's Elements ; 
or again, the construction of the pro- 
blems which form iv. 2, 3, 4, 5 of the 
same work, and this, too, miny years 
afterwards f The true state of the case 
probably is.— that Thales invented the 
demonstrations of those several propo- 
sitionSf in the form that Euclid adopted 
into his Elements. They are all so 
many removes from the method of proof 
by supraposition — so many steps towards 
that ideal perfection sfter irhlch the 
Greek geometers laboured with such 
extraordinary zeal. 

The story of Pythagoras, the "heca- 
tomb^*' and the 47th proposition of 
Euchd^s First Book, is too absurd for 
the acceptance even of those who 
generally think themselves '* bound in 
honour " to believe every thing they find 
stated b^ an ancient writer. It is, how- 
ever, rejected from its other impossi- 
bilities as a complete statement, — from 
the utter contradiction between the 
recorded views of Pythseoras and the 
sacrificial offering which it records him 
to have made. His discovery of i. 47 is, 
however, tenaciously adhered to, la spite 
of this absurd adjand; sltboc^ih it is 
difficult to see the superiority of the evi- 
dence for one over the other. On the 



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GEOMETRICAL NOTES. 



17« 

Use of {t, tbe sUt^ment of Ae discovery 
bf P|thagoraii h not itnpossfbl^; but 
Q^D a cloae inspection, it seetns barely 
to itbp ihort of the impossible. 

Tbe property itself is easily, and in 
n^ny different v^ys^, reducible to the 
method of transposition, for its proof. ^ 
li is precisely such a result as iHould be 
most Ifkely to be first obtained in that 



wav ; and hence most b'kely to origlna/e 
in ine scbools of Kgybt. The conncc* 
lion of Pythagoras witn this propof;ilion 



is, hence, much more probably asslg;ied 
to be — ^that he gave a demonstration of 
it independently of transposition, and 
probably almost Identical with that which 
Euclid adopted into the *' Elements** 
Indeed, the value to be attached to such 
authorities 38 are usually quoted on these 
subjects, cannot be belter shown than in 
thestatementof Proclus, thattOi9inopidep, ' 
who lived after Pythagoras, is due ihe 
discovery of props. 12 and 23 of J?M-, 
clid*t First Boole ! On the same autho- 
rity, again, is attributed to Pythagoras 
the doctrine of incommensurables. 
If we reflect for one moment on the 
origin of incommensdrabTes (tlie adop- 
tion of a standard unit of measure) we 
thall see the uilcr absurdity of tbis 
statement. Pfthagoras might have in- 
viented methods oidiscugsitig them com-, 
ptetely^ in the manner of £ucUd*9 
Seventh ftook; or, whicb la far more 
likely, methods of evading, in his rea- 
sonings upon ratio, alt reference to a 
stanaard'Unil Under any form. He 
n^igbt haye laid down^ in fact, the prin- 
ciples upon which Eudoxus and Euclid 
finally ponstructed their svs^em of pro- 
portion, both geometrically and arith- 
metically. Indeed, if we read almost 
universally in these statements respecting 
times anterior to "Plato, •• improted the 
demonstration, or con*;trnct1on, . or me- 
thod/' as the case may be, for " invented 
or discovered the proposition,** ^e shall 
approximate much more nearly to the 
truth. 

There h not much ground for thinking 
that geometry was cultivated as apfkitO' 
eophi/ so much as a technical science^ 
before the lime of Plato, Geometet3 
were more intent upon new combinations 
ati4 tlie new discoveries which, may be 

* OneoftheRfmplenan^ r.otUftlkfft'I fMOlltet 
to have seen, U that ^Uai by JLt*-(Hp. 8& Hpwtrd 
Douglas, when a cadet in the ftojrai MilttttV CoU' 
Xwi^y In Ltybourn't Repository, K«w Beritt, vMi' 



made of ^h^ relations amongst the puts 
of a figure, than i^pon clasi^j^iiig ele- 
mentary truths and ininrovhig ettnnen* 
tary demonstrations, during the erd 
between Pythagoras and Plato. With' 
brief Intervals of a dilfetent prevaT^g 
spirit, this has been the Mstoi^ of geo- 
metry in all ag^s» and amotigst eyerr^ 
people by whom It, Has be(in cultivated. 
It indeed, we entertain a doubt^ as «•-'- 
gnrds the Greeks of that period, ibat' 
doubt must be founded on one of tb^ 
two considerations; — ' ' * .' 

(1) Its inQompatibtlity ^TlTi tb6 cha- 
racter of the Greek mind— whffch W, 
hpwever. oiily inferential after all. ' ^ 

(2) The suspicion that riiost auabllto 
the testijnopjr of Pro^lus:— sp vfgue iibd 
confused is it upon all subject? ; Md 
especially liable, from' MM poMltiqtt,"}o 
have his weak thougl» versntile ihWd 
warped by prejudices. He ^ds i' Phi-' 
tonist ; and finally becajne h^ad of Hiii 
once-illustrious school, and suceessot^'tb' 
the functions of I^aTo himself.' ^^' 
school was then Iri its lowest stirtc 6t 
decadence short of ^cttial ei^tinctibn; 
and, as former fatbe was all ihat Itsilife^' 
ciples could then boast, the mqst'wotM' 
be made of this by such men as Pf6d^. 

Notwithstanding these drawbacks WtA 
the trustworthiness of Proclus ati mAi 
ouestions, there is to be set agaiiiist tli^ 
tne testimony, direct or implied, df* i 
much less credulous and vain wrip&r^ 
Pappus. Probability, suggested ; b^ iffti' ' 
cumstances of various kinds, a)^ Icmi 
to the side of the repreaehtationi', ^ 
Proclus, in the rou^Wr senfco at Yeakt'; 
and we run little risk of efror in ad- 
mitting (h?it methodi, as sncl^' awl" 
the philosophical arrangement both of' 
subjects aod reasoning, took their' 
metnodisod forma In and from thi^ 
school of Plato. , 

, Amongst these we may certalttfy 'c«K- 
siiJer the cardinal subjects to.be^^' ^*^ 
methodising of the form of aa 
mcnt, — the discovery of the Gfeoini 
Analysis, — the dispensation with * 
mensura^les Tn treating ratio,'— fl 
tbod of exhaustions, the oonto' 
locj, an4 porisms,^^ und, fin! 

puriffcation of \\\e 'reasoning' 1 

**£femtTUs'*, from much Of ita 'feWf^^ 
cedent inooncTusiv'enes^i, 'and jfcfwt^aw 
(and to the utmost possible extettlfV 
from the prevailing Use <^f tnp'n^CjAw 

qf,transpo9jtioi|. .., ;..; | ;.. ' •;,.,.:..^;| 




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GKOMETRrCAL KOTES. 



noogh the main object of this die* 
lertntidn h reUtiye to the last-named 
topic, yet I trust, that a few short re- 
iii»rl(4upon tkc otherf, made panfn*s4, 
(some liere, and aome there,) will not 
be deeo^ed out of place, nor whoUv 
nsdeaa. They may not contain much 
thii baa. not oeen faid before by some 
geopieter. or other ; yet they are such 
as oogbt, to be more prominently put 
forward in educational works than is 
osual in the present age of mere sym- 
bolioal jpsnipulation. Since Science baa 
" don«ed her seven-leagued boots *' she 
cannot Mop to notice such useless iri- 
na]ilie& as philosophy, or method, or 
history ! 

(a) The Ugieal forms. — Dr. Simson 
pertinently remarks (note on iii. 1.) that 
"•evend authors, especially among the 
modenv matheipaticians and logicians, 
iQTdgb too severely, and sometimes 
ignofantly enough, against indirect or 
apqgogio. demonstratioris, not being aware 
ttiit there are some things that cannot 
be demonstrated any other way/* It 
baa been further sVwn, in a preceding 
ps^cu that this was, inevitably, the 
earliest /onp. in which an argument 
coald bftve been constructed for geonie- 
tdcal purposes. Though, it is equally 
ctear» uiat the simple c^ses of the direct 
Of categoric syllogism (most likely under 
toe abridged form of the enthymeme) 
iQiiat have been likewise nsed at a tery 
rarly period : yet this could in no case 
occur,, till the method of transposition 
itself wag replaced by an appeal to truths 
before establiahed or admitted, — as 
fartDing an integral portion of the argu- 
ment wen under development It does 
noL bowever, appear that any one before 
Ana'otlc completely analysed the cafcs 
of tlie syllogism ; and fully developed 
the conditions under which an inference 
iraa necessarii^ Just, The school of 
Pb40 had been established about fifty 
y^ars when Aristotle seceded from it. to 
fou^ hif own Lyceum. His logical 
sjfftem must have been complete beforb 
\^ left his aJma ma(er ; ai his own 
tescbinf lasted only twelve years, and 
hda.B^biects were universal. It is not 
impossible that even at that early sgc, 
ibe acbool of Ptato was split into fac- 
tioos, .and that faqdon would call the 
ffectrinea of Aristotle '^ conundrums,^' 
or, at least, some corresponding term of 
dmstoD} and that to teach his trwb 



173 

doctrines in his own way was the nnain , 
cause of his dissent from the body, 
amongst whom he had passed twenty j 
years qT his life. His logical system, 
however, was complete ; and to use the,, 
language of Mr.Pe Morgan, jhia ^Xi^ 
Euctitfs Fifth Book are !' the two moef^ 
uoassaiTablc treatires that have pver,been 
written."— rromp.-(^/iw. 1849. ^ ;" 
As Euclid and Aristotle were diis'cipirs 
of the same school, and tuclid 4id not! 
flourish till a reign that cpmmcpced sfjer j 
the flight of Aristotle, It would seenfi'j 
that Euclid's logical method v a type ofj' 
the logic of the Platonic schoof eve^ 
subsequent to the teaching of Aristotle.^ 
This, it need not be said, Is of tjie sim- j 
plest character ; being conflned to the ^ 
abridged categoric syllogism^ or enthy-^ 
meme: and tnis is difltcAiIt to ^ccoun^^ 
for on any other hypothesis thao that. 
Euolid wisoed to denude his logic, of all 
the peculiar attributes and Ipecial forn^sV 
that had been introduced by Arietotle-r ^ 
that the '* rawness '* of bis method in thc^^^ 
disposition of his ** mj^terigls** waj ^.^''^i 
tentional. At all eyenls we may infer the^ 
logic of Euclid to be, that of the scWC 
to which he belonged, pind which th^^j 
founder of that school had taught* 

A far more important juestion^ 
however* is the province which pri-' 
perly belonsrs to logic in mat|ieiDaticat^ 
research* The schoolmen of tne mIddlfSj 
ages attributed to logic the office Of an^ 
organon for discovery In every claSs of^ 
human knowledge; j|,usi as though ^4f< 
cause Aristotle took a wide range bif' 
subjects within the scope of nis teachk j;,^^' 
and Bkewit«e forme4 an organon for in- 
ference, it therefare foUowed that his { 
logic was. the only /organon ^f natural^ 
knowledge, whether physical or ]meta-'| 
physical. The success of the new orga^^ 
non of Bacop in unravelling the |avs of ^ 
nature, and in part those of mind.ha^^ 
led by degrees to the almost entire aty^T^ 
gation of the iise of the logical form^ o^ 
Aristotle, in all our reaearchea, whateJvp, 
and of trusting to *' the common sense of, 
mankind, and perceptive powers of ^Very^ 
individual mind/* for the CQOctuaiv^s^s, 
of every argument. \ Yet ' eveii thcscj^ 
*'common^enae arguments '* are neither^, 
more nor less than applications or the 
general principle of the Aristoleliai»syl- 
logisre), in ita roost simple and obvioul^ 
forms. It is, indeed urged that these r— 
sufficient for the purposes of the nK 



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174 BACK ELKTATOB. 

mmtieltii, and tbat it woald be useless 
for hfm to troable bimself aboot otber 
eases than those be requires. This majr 
be partlj tme (it is not wholly troe, at 
all erentSy) as far as the mere ordinary 
tfchnieal msthematielan is cuncemed, as 
hb sole ambition is merely the evolution 
of other foTTM of geometrical or arith- 
metical truth from those already exist- 
ing: but there is a class of mathema- 
ticians, of a far higher intellectual order, 
to whose intesiigation and researches, 
this " mother- wit — form*' of the catego- 
ric syllogism is no/ ''tt^j^'fn/." Perhaps 
as a rule on this subject, as on many 
others, it is best that each person should 
study logic to the extent that his own 
want of it demands. Only there is this 
danger: — that a total ignorance of the 
subject, as one of scientific method, will 
prevent a person from perceiving what 
ne really does require. He may be con- 
scious of a want ; but not know where 
to look for a correspondent supply. 

It must be strongly enforced that the 
use of logic difi^ers in one important fea* 
ture in mathematics from its use in all 
others ; though logical writers, for rea* 
sons which I cannot understand, give the 
same form to the syllogism in all cases. 
The oonclutlve form of the syllogism 
expresses the idmtiiy of two things. In 
mathematics, it expresses onlv the squcH 
Uiy of them. This latter, indeed, is put 
nnder the form identity af magnitude^ 
Or identity af the numbere resulting 
from two separate series of operations : 
bnt this form is a forced one, easily per-* 
ceived to be so, and it has probably milt* 
tated not a little against the studr of 
formal logic by the geometers of modern 
times. More than this, it is only in 
mathematics that logio has felt itself 
secure in its investigations: — its true 
province in all others being, in fact, to 
arrange every eonplicaCed argument in 
a form that shall enable us to consider 
the steps of the argument seriatim, and 
to ascertain by indisputable criteria whe^ 
ther tiich tueeeuM cenduiion tne&tVo- 
bly foUoW9 ftom the premUsi of the 
eyUogiem, With the truth of the pre- 
mises it has nothing wltatever to do : its 
sole function being that of justifying or 
Invalidating the inference drawn. let, 
distlnot and clear as we should have 
thought this principle to be, I am not 
aware of aov author who has boldly 
avowed it and oonsiatently acted on it in 



the composition of an entire woric till the 
appearance of De Morgan's "Formal 
L^c, " in 1847. 

Finally, no oonclusioB ean positivelj 
be obuined by the syllogism which was 
not virtually contained in the hypo- 
thesis of the proposition, or "jnggled 
in " by some mistake or design into the 
premises of the successive syllogisms. 
Whenever the hypothesis of the figure 
is complete, all the results of that hypo- 
thesis, however complicated or remote, 
are virtually given too ; for thev inerita- 
bly flow in continuous succession from 
it, through the medium of successive 
syllogisms. 

There is little liability to mistake in 
the use of the syllogism In geometry; 
but much more In the case of algebra. 
New conditions are liable to be imported 
into the equation by the character of the 
transforming operations, thus giving rise 
to those embarrassing members of a 
result known as "foreign factors," and 
othorwiso aflecting, both as to form and 
meaning, the result which is obtained. 
As a universal truth, however, It may be 
laid down — that nothing can be got out 
of an equation that was not Jiret put 
into it. 

This will, however, be better seen 
from a separate application to the tbco- 
rem and the problem, to which the gene- 
ral expreasions here employed will be 
readily made by the intelligent rcaier 
himself. 

(7b be continued,) 



BACK BLBTATOR. 

[Regiitered under the Act for the ProtectHm of 
Articles of UtlUty. TboDUM MoMo ttiaiH' of IT. 
Donegal-street, Belfkit, Proprietot.J 

Fig. 1 is a side elevation^ tg*8iaa end 
elevation, and fig. 8 a plan of Ala Appara- 
tus. A A is a framework which ta momned 
upon wheels, BB. CC are two noFesdUe 
platforms which ire attapended hy 
or cords, DD, so that they may be i 
or lowered nt pleMiiro by mesno 6f 
Aimo barrels £B> nnd crank 
FF. The ropee, DD, are pmeed -o^ 
pulleys, GO, affixed within a slot l _ _ , 
in the upper rail of the framefforlt« 
are connected to the crank* barfeltf' Bi^ 
in such manner that th6 dentation ^foM 

flatform causes the deeeent of the Mb«rJ 
IH are supports for retaining the auck^ 



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THB HOLYHEAD AND DUBLIN STEAMERS. 
Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 



175 



Kg. 8. 




'm AQ nprighi posUlon ; and II rollers to being to enable a person filling sacks 

adfoit 9f tbe sacks sliding easily upon tbe with grain or other substances to elevate 

supports. the sack when filled to the required 

This machine will be of considerable height for taking it upon his back with* 

nae to farmers^ millers, &c.; its object out any other assistance. 



THV AOLTHVAD AKD DDBLIlT STBAlflRf . 

Sir, » In my letter to you in May last, on present time, 1 beliere the Llewellyn lias 

iKe Holyhead steam-sbips, I stated that the not made her appearance ; and I wish the 

Gofemment had determined on relinquish- Company joy of their precious bargain : 

ing the bmiI serrice, and had disposed of they would, I hear, have been only too glad 

two of their ressels — the Llewellyn and 8t, to have got the borrowed vetiel fnsteadi 

CbfemA«-'-to the City of Dublin Company, The following is a return whVob has recently 

«b» bad unAsrtHkea the mail etntraot. appeared of the performances of the Holy- 

Tlss 'f oatebFUtBd Lkweifyn " —as the head boats for the past mouth (July) : by it 

Morminff Htmlfl has it--baiog at the time you will see the Btnuhee was at the top of the 

of agreement again hors de comdai, having tree. Indeed, I thinlc she will always merit 

broken her main shaft, the Government the high cbaraeter yon have given her on a 

were eoaapelled to lend the Company the previous occasion, in classing her amongst 

fiswtiftf Id supply bar place. Up to the the beat specimens of British steam-ships. 

Ptffmmmeei of ik9 Holyhead Moil SteamShipt^Bmehee, ^lona, Iron Duke, ond 
m. CohmbM, for July, 1850. 
Vmu^i No. Of Shortest LonfMt AveraffO 

▼cBKi. Voyagca. Voyagf, Voyage. Toyage. 

BdMhee 37 .... 3*50 .... 4*48 .... 47 

Bbkma 44 .... 4*20 .».. 4*50 .... 4*34 

JnnDuio 1 .... 4*59 .... -^ .... — 

B4.CoiHmpa.... 41 .... fll ..»• 5*26 ..»• 4*31 

Wh had, on the 13th instant, another Kingstown by the two yetsels was as fol- 

IrW oC speed between the Bantheo and her lows :•*- 
iM livil the StooHa. The former having ^' "^ 

bi«speeiany engaged tor the serrice of the B^mkee 3 50 

Lord JLIenteiiant, who came down to Holyu Seotia 3 ^Sj 

kMdI'hT the tir r**i n tr *fi > left oo n a i 'iq i isntljf " 

•I ibe omm time aa the railway boat, which Biffevence in favour Qf SeotUi Zi 
hnmned— whether intentionally or not I . • ^ - . , 

mnot aay— to be the Scotlin. It was a I have not yet been able to peruse the evl- 

■ore ii«ck-wid.neck race than on the last dence of the Committee of the House of 

tiifdr iA ^Tf 1649— the 8eoii0i ohtainhig Commons on the claims of the Railwajr 

sa advantage of 34 minutes over the Bon- Company with respect to tiie maU swvtoe, 

Hie time occupied in the run to but I understand Capt. Fraser, the Admi. 



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176 



FALL OF AKOTHBB IBOK STBT70TUBE. 



ratty Soperintendent at Holyhead, when 
examtnttd ^n U0 09bjfi*i of ^« Jbcmer, trial, 
tried hard to pro? e that the B^mih^ waa la 
better trim than the i$e9ti9^ and laid much 
itreh on tlie fact of the' litter Katinict^Ad * 
recent othrh«tt1iligr at UttfrpoiA. N6witte 
faet h, that the effMf «l ditae alUMtlooy 
wM l» diMinilh her UNrWahta audi tncTeaM 
her draigiti fTbdf'Se&iiitf jpimaixret pfttt* 
Tionilj waa 13, and at the time of th(i tdll 
only 10, while the BoiwAee was 12. Both 
are certrfnljf^ apMiid cKlpei 4>a^4be SeotiM 
if, he^oiid all •qoeition, the futest, and 
ittih tptdHMm ttf the $upp9§u i9^ 9iH mnd 
tnggeiiio falti aa one seea •dntlnvaHy In 
jOQ^al* like the HirM and tmtaiSetvie^ 
G&:eft^, can only hijttw th« «aiite Ti-^bo 
IMftfes they eap ene. - ilOMty ii <tli» lieat 

' I aw, iMfv Ttww» aBe«t 
l;m. 

Dut)Hn,' Auff. JO, T«5». 

JVo/«v— The Uphna BwdJroff. D^ke .1^- 
long to the original atock of the City of 
Dahltn C«#|ianyi the fomatr wa? ^nht 
and engine- fitted^ by Tod and McGregor, 
of Glasgow, and the latter by Wilson, 
Fawnrtt, and PYfli^Qn» qf liYCKIiooU; Both 
are ^aA/Ur adapted /or ^ore leng^^ened pa#- 
aagM t but. i^ v^m^> p»h9fi^ be difficmlt lo 
point ont a vessel of Her class which lifi 
giTen more saliifactioa than the Iron l)uie. 
The ZJtiar waa biilft in IQiiftUnd the MUana 
Ip 1849 1, both anq of iron-rthe epgioea^of 
the former on the bean.prinaple, the latter 
of th€4^<9C^l9 clftaa, but., not so sajtisf'tctory 
in thfiff warding by «P7 meam, 



fAlJt <^ JlNOTfftR tttOK. 9nivCWV9M^ 

On^cdne&day^ the 24th inst., the r<K>f 
of the •• Bricklsyers* Arms Terminus*' of 
the South- Eastern Line, which waa 400 
feet in IcngUi,. an4 dWidcd into titfo cotn- 
partf»ei»ta, <y^.of .M fipei^ span^ fell \q iit 
ground, killing one persoit i«Btfilltaii«9iM^, 
and aerionily nMlttdflg.olherf iar«Iife« A 
train had only a few^ initttites before passed 
ont of that termimif; and the pcvoedlng 
week it is stated that about 150 workmen 
bad been employed under that very roof. 
It is little short of a miracle, then, that the 
loss of ISIe was wot small. It seems that, in 
'^shttntlng*' an engine, it alightly tonched 
one oftbeieon piliars; that thktoooh broke 
the pillar» and that the breaking of tbf^ one 
pijlsx ^foi»ght the entire roof dpwn I Tf >!1 



any one contend that the pillar itself had 
^cea adeqwaildy 1ctle4piloff lo fte^tlon ?— 
Or itill aiore, would any competent eagineer 
oouMttat Ml iiuMtiforoofi mil m- tMi •» 
g$.to t>b;dflpunilmt om ttle iafsly. df mUb 
single i«p|]ldrt? ' • '^ >i • 

' ' Thete U tke leri ^^Mtlgy t6r ^'jUi^Ayt 
of the Bricklayers' Armi'timiniis, <WtJ^ 
present is not the first accident wUck dm 
beABeh the tittlo li^iitftlM.' ^Sk y w w t 'i B fo 
the samtf fo6f eante down ; aad there ean 
be liUlc apoloi^y tbr eredtb^ Ii 2^ im 
l^arly tbo.««m^ fluv»«?T-«PcP^ Ai )^' 
gat^^prindpld af Miaf jvt^iftt loM «is<o> 
iHwiw^ Stipaugto lo Diy, nowtff0r,'uar bn^Ay 
into the compefenoy o^ th^' (IbgUM^ lite 
been decided by Mr. Carter, the Coroner 
for Surrey, to be beyond the fanctiolM of 
the Jury ! " The Coroner obserred, that if 
formed no pari of ike dmip of the Jmrf H 
inquire into the etahiUty ^ the hmOimf. 
hot that their attfrntlon ought rather to bo 
dlreoied Imlbtt ncaiiandUcb li^ mmeik ito 
destruction and the death of Clit>urf«ittaafte 
man."— (Timet Kepbrf, Aug. 24.) And, 
again :— " The Coroner here addreaoed the 
Jury, and obaerr^, that i^njmrther evidtmee 
confd k$ Md^i$ced to, throw any ajdj ^i t ki n al 
lighi on tho lfan»dtion« TSm c a gi a a dih aa i f 
if any one, w«k the Only )^tm>ttiiti» oonld 
b^ blained, and therefbre ft was not deiSrifilo 
to ^i|^ hin^ Their attcntioii alioal^V 
directed only to the immeihif ««WI •€ ^ 
accident, and not to the tmUdrng Uee^f or 
the nature^ He eonetruetion.'^^{n.) Tbia 
is extraordinary doctrine ; and no donbi 
Mr. Car;^er's << t^timomar' from tha Cea* 
4ral ZUUjN^H^ Committer. ^ [ek^i/ij^ j^- 
girria. '.<W^Awf)i.|re^^wffTer»^'lpi|fni4im 
th« ^arft' tt^tka Hopa aBirfetai7.)*iidys 
question iteaf %ot-^*1iMi '«Mn^M>4ika 
Publie ge^eriUy'thtre U'to ii>«fk^litfli>ibe 
doubt. If^ howet er, Mr. Carte^> ^Mj^jjife^ 
tation of the (nncUont of a Ju^ bio oometf^ 
the eoone r t beej q po ash ro IwcaoC Ae '*an«-i, 
ner's quest ^' be abolished the better; aadlJ 
then, at all tyenta, Parliament wiU Wcoi 
peUed tci devise some , efficient taad4nery* 
for protecting the Pnblic fron) t|da ckMi o4 
''atddtutP/* 



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177 



•V Tiia MK-rHoPOLII. 



' SiK^--0(iir'Nttt»tkiii bM'kMi mIM to 
Mr. Jfoftlte^ fieport on ^ DrfeiMgt 
of the Kent and SurreT DittiicU. 

^ ¥fftFipg ?J*^^^5B ^^^ y?? ^^« 

Vf m taken la ]the Metropolitan Sewage 
qiietpodr^e'are ihdiiced to gend 7011, on 

;.G. ... ^ly. 24/A, 1849. 

'/ Wf pro^OM .t)ie «ew^r to be dttideil 
1«lo Notiooi, each having A tafficient <iie/l- 
WA' ^ generate a itated telooltjr* tMs 
«iiartep» being «biainaa bf/i/Sr^.^ eerUjfx 
tl9ti0§at.m\^nm th§ WW ivUl be pamiied 



*fit <yfciiil<i» af the •ewiie'fiptai the 



'"^"fohnldg i-mAfk amm ae*ir ilohg 
IkrIfaM «tf'dMJ Ofand^^ fintief Cunl, and 
. Mng^eo^ engke tMtf naar C0I4 Blow 
Bf^B^ nhere ^ aewvge wUI be poaped 
<mr ibe aarrounding country, or pumped 
tmb^ i ^ipe itttb tbt riter ^W^ ^M- 



' we OMMider it due to oi|rdelves to give 
ydb Aitbnr^gdlng facts, id ^ow you oAr 
ftf MiHlMl tft' tfeiia' nMter, '6ur ^kmn 
4id)«ap(Mt:li#riiiff beau retuTBtd «ilh 
th^^CemmiopMim' atamp i^i;«fl» and 
JlB^^QprK^ Qfo^ Uken of them, wmie 
l»J&Pf*»^T •^PS*^^* ^^^ fiuggested^a 
dHmot pnoeipT^. were prominently 



Ibe #ne baod, die folloving extracts from 
•or eoDciw statfoeots sent in to and 
peiotod for the Qommiasionera of Sewers 
i» August and October last, and 00 ihe 
other extraots fMos Ms. Praok Foester's 
'Ret>eri. 

Anff. Uf. 18^0. 

* ^* I htve adepiad the iiellawiag pHooipUs 
ioa Say gaidancsb?' 

**ir4* Te atidataia avUDStiiiaal and aaio- 
^mnittiag Aow, wUh the aid of ////« where 
B^esavy* in aU the tewers along their whole 
length, by which the evilt anting from pent 
up aewersge B»ay be af oi^ed." 

*'T0 constract the lewert at lae/iaa/toat 
•o proportioned to the volome of iiatd to 
b^ etrried oif by each, that the velocity of 
the earrevt shall' keep then clear of de- 

' "** TWb Itft aad shaft I pmpeae to place 

tmApUt'i^ Wider eovif,"' 

■■■1 >td 

^ Tto provlAe a' nstbnd escape by the 

' 'i^ower of gravity ^ne for storai waters and 

land floods, iatdep^tutmkf of the onKoary 

• «ew?rs.'*, "I 



^'1 beg t^teeommend Che top ef Wool- 
wfch Reach u the point for delivering the 
Mwage into the Hvef/* 

^flie eoarteof the^ msin sewer will be 
scrota Greenwibh MarShee, Trafalgar-road 
to the Ravensbonrne, acroaa Uaion-ttreet 
and Collier- atreetf where the aouth main 
line divergei. Tliis continoea by Loving 
E(hnrd'8*lane, nlaag the Old Ksnt>road to 
Sarcep Canal Bridge, along Albaoy-^street in 
^ a atraight line across to St. Mark's Church, 
'Kennington/^ 

l^roufftit liefore tlie public. Our Plans 
and Import, itamped by the Commb- 
sionert, arc at onr offices, and are at your 
Hertlcie fbtf ^*xsminstioav> 

We irr^ Sir, ynurs^ &o^ 
' , . PaiKooa &. STS^piiE^soN. 

io> li«r(>)it-ttniM, stnHd, 



I - • • ' ' • • • • , 

* 1. Tba loeUnatiMt shown la oar plans for the 
iSitt «lds ar the vtwat vkiiat ftam 7 to 4 feti Hr 
Mikuafcrece. 5 feet, ^^. For tho ^outh we hsve 
^Sy i^cdfled that h- ihalf to #liMUf to (he 

1 Ob tbo Surrey side wt only p t optpsa.oae lMt« 
vUeh vaa to to plaeed oear Cold Blow Farm, 
la. Oaly one lift la meotioDed I7 Mr. Fortttr, 



,vU., that at Bavtntbonrne, about a mile across 
Matlret-gardensf^mCold 9R># Fam. 

2«. Ht. Vonttt stages iha avenge iiMOi^aiJoa to 
be H feet per mile ; more, of course, as the volume 
Of Sotd'SaiiamiUa at mA aaoaaadro naniSoafon 

" ' yST'tlemlaiSSettnc^ ^'pr)nefp)« betwtfen iheso 
two plans, though undoubtedly thf one majf be 
worked out more fn detail than the other. 



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178 



SPSCIFICATIONS OV ■Wfll.UH FATBNT8 BHEQLLKD XI17&INO TBS 

AUOUftT 29, 1850. 



WUK, XMDUrO 



GtoROB GWTKNX, Sottez-tqiuure, Mid- 
dlesex, eiquire. For improvemenU m ike 
manu/aeture of sugar. Patent dated Feb- 
mary 27, 1850. 

Thit Intention contiitt in the emplof- 
mcnt 6f an oxide of lead, by preference 
litharge, in the clarification of tngar; for 
thit pvrpote a quantity of litharge ia moist- 
ened with water, and ground np with twice 
Its weight of sugar. The mixture, termed 
by the patentee ••saccharide of lead," is then 
pused through a sieve into the " blow iip,*» 
©r clarifying ressel containing the sugar 
iolution, which is heated to the requisite 
temperature by steam or otherwise, and aub- 
leqaently filtered. The lead is rendered 
insoluble by means of any suitable chemical 
tgent, sach as sulphuric or oxalic acid, &c,, 
and separated from the clesr liquor byfiltra- 
tion. The patentee prefers, however, to 
employ a solution of phosphate of soda and 
lime, rendered slightly acid. The propor- 
tions given are 40 lbs. of litharge to one ton 
of raw sugar. Instead of an oxide of lead 
(litharge) a basic acetate of lead may be 
used, which is formed by combining litharge 
with acetate of lead, or its equivalent of 
teetic acid. In this case the lead is reo- 
dered Insoluble by means of a solution of 
phosphate of soda and lime, rendered slightly 
•Ikaline instead of acid, as before. 

Mr. Gywnne describes lastly the applica- 
tion to the vacuum pan of a condenser, in 
combination with the air-pump, for the pur- 
pose of condensing whatever steam is 
evolved from the sugsr solution, and thereby 
preventing its escape to the air-pump. 

Claimt, — 1. The employment of oxide of 
lead in the clarification of sugar, and the 
mode of rendering it insoluble. 

2. The employment of a basic acetate of 
lead in the clarification of sugar, and the 
mode of rendering it insoluble. 

S. The improvements in the construction 
and working of vacuum pans. 

Julius Jefp&kys, Bucklersbury, Lon. 
don, gentleman. For improvementa tn pre- 
venting or removing afeeiione qf the eKeet. 
Patent dated February 27, 1850. 

Thia invention relates to Improvements in 
the construction of respirators, and con- 
iists chiefly— 

1. In substituting for the ordinary front 
of woollen fabric a number of meUllio leaves 
which overbp one another without touching, 
and between which the air U drawn or 
expelled. 

2. Instead of perforated plates to warm 
the air, it is proposed to employ rods or 
tubee, or a number of plates, tmboesed here 



and tkere to maintain them at a orall dis- 
tance apart from each otlker. 

3. The respirators are to be supported by 
metallic springs, similar to those oned for 
spectacles, which may be made to paaa over 
the ears or round the aeok to leit the oon- 
venience of the wearer. 

No Claims. 

Gborou William LtNox, BilUter- 
square, London, chain-cable manufiaetaper, 
ftndWiLLkAM ROBKRTS, foreman to Metart. 
Brown, Lenox, and Co., Mill wall. Pkr 
improvementi M working wndtaee mid otktr 
harreU, Patent dated February «8, 1S50. 

The patentees describe and claim — 

1. The application of flexible metaBfe 
bands, which are worked by levers ao aa 
alternately to contract and grip the barrel 
and to expand and release it, whereby it will 
be caused to make a series of partial revoli* 
tions. 

2. An apparatus for stopping chain eaUes, 
which consists of a shaft fitted with a groove, 
to allow the passage of the vertical linki, 
and with projections to iatereept the hori- 
sootal linka : the shaft is ^irovktod witk a 
break for the purpose of stopping or retard- 
ing iu revolution, and, conaeqnently, the 
paying out of the chain. 

Gbobob Tobco Pbpb, Qreat Maryleboiie- 
Btreet, Middlesex, C.E. For tfiipii ninmifi 
in time-keepere. Patent dated Feb. 28, IS5a 

The patentee describes and claims a time- 
keeper, which consists of a glass tube bant 
into the shape of a link. Two plugs of wood 
are placed in one of the aides, equidistant from 
a point where the tube ia fused and contraeted 
until the bore is reduced to the required dia- 
meter. A column of mercury ia then faitro- 
dnced above one of the plugs, and the two 
ends of the tube are fused together and 
closed to exclude the air. Suppodng the 
tube to be surpended In a vertlcnl poanion, 
with the mercury on a higher level than ike 
top plug, then, in consequence of thie laCter 
being impermeable to the mercury bvt per- 
meable to the column of air beneath. It will 
descend the other leg at a rate whidi will be 
regulated by the passage of air through the 
contracted portion between the two wooden 
plugs. A graduated cylinder is fixed between 
the two parallel sides, which will iodicete 
the time as the mercury successively pasaes 
the marks. Just before the mercury raaches 
the bottom, the position of the tube is to be 
reversed. 

Jambs Hall, Geecross, Stockport, Chea- 
ter, machine- maker. For eertam fa yr ee s 
mend in home for weaving. Peteat C 
February 25, 1950. 



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WEEKLY LIST OF NEW ENGLISH PATENTS. 



179 



CSotMff.— 1. Certain improted arrange* 
senU for worUsg tke akoltle, and the 
appUcaiitn of netaUio bmada to give motion 
to the picking iticka. 

8. An lBpfOfe»ent in uwinding the 
iMrp firooa the heanir and keeping it at a 
vnlfeim degree of tenelon. 

3. A aaethod oC maintaining the healda et 
n niHionn tenakNi* 

4. A node of ftopping the working of 
the loom in the e h aenoeof ^ weft, or when 
tM ihrntle laile to enter the box. 

&. Certain ioiprofenienti in roller tem- 

GmomoM RonAnm, Tavittoohy Devon , 
gqatltninn. F^ certain improfHmmtt in 
dofa mnd pmUma* Patent dated Jone 19, 

The patentee deecribea and eUima an 
iaefiroveaaent in the conetmction and ar- 
lei^eaont of elege and pattena, which 
conaista in mddng the heel-piece moveable, 
and fitting it with a spring which poshea it 
faewnrid townrda the tee pert, and cense- 
qneotly cttpa the foot so aa to remain firmly 
attai^Md thereto. When it ia desired to 
I the iootv the heel-piece is releaeed 
the pieaenre of the apring hj an 
arrangement which allowa the heel-piece to 
fallhMk. 

Matthew Cockran, High-street, Pais- 
ley, mannliMstnrer. For improvtminia in 
mmekinmy far ika produelian and emn- 
manting of fabriea and iittuaa genaralfy ,- 
paria of wkieh improvemanta are appUetStle 
to iha ragulaiian of other machinery, and to 
furpoaaa of a aimilar nature. Patent dated 
Febmary 27, 1850. 

The patentee detcribea and daima— 

1. An inproTod punching machine for 
p e fl D ii tin g the patten in the cards em- 
ployed in Jacqnard machines, and which 
■my be naed to notch or indent the *' edge 
cnrda." 

2. Tbe employment of cards for the pur- 
pose of eetuating the needles, which We 
the pattern notched or indented en their 
edgea, instead of flat perforated cards. 

3. An improved oonstmction of Jacquard 
machine, which has Cor its object an eco- 
■esny in the first cost, mnd a more Eegnlar 
SBid aceorate worliing of the needles. 

4. An improved construction of Jacquard 
printing machine, which has lor ita object 
an economy in the first coat, together with 
the power of reading the pattern on to the 
earda or aheet, in aeparate and detecticd 
cokMirt, In one eontiooona Una of needles. 

5. The application of the improved drop- 
needle arrangement to tbe regulation of the 
aopply of feed water to steam boilers, the 
working of pomps, and other pnrpoeea of n 



6. The employment of a self edjnstbg 
power lever, in which, as the reaistanee 
increases, the lever power increases in a like 
ratio. 

BuERKTOK Toon, of the Bank of Pal- 
mouth, gentleman, l^tr iwtpra ve menta im 
the mantifaetMre of araanic, auiphurie aeid, 
and the oxide of at^iwump from e^ppar amd 
other orea in which they are eanlainad, and 
alao the oxide of zinc. Pateut dated Fe- 
bruary 27, 1850. 

The pntentee describes and ekiaae the 
submitting of copper and other ores, in an 
uncalcined state, to the oxygenetiug and 
redecing action of a bleat furnace, in con- 
nection with chambers or fiuea, and tbe 
application of the spare heat from the blast 
furnace to a caldning or reverberatory fur- 
nace in connection therewith. The vda- 
tilized products evolved are carried into the 
chambers, where they are oondenaed, and 
subsequently operated npon to render them 
available for the purpoaes of oommeroe, 
while the non-volatiUMd prodneta are ob- 
tiined in the form of rfgnlua in the bottom 
of tbe farnaoe, whence they are removed to 
thecalciner. 

Specificatuma Due, hut not Enrolled^ 
John Stbphin Woolrich, of Wednes- 
bury, Stafford, chemist ; John Jambs Rut- 
•BL, of Handsworth, In the same coonty ; 
and Thomaa HnwuT RvsasL, of Wedoes- 
bury, aforesaid, patent tube manufacturers. 
For improvemanta in obtaininy cadaUmm 
and other matalct and producta from area, 
or mattera aantaiminy ihaan. Patent dated 
Febmary 21, ISSO. 



wnnsLT hiMT air kbw bnolisb patsntb. 

Altfd ViDctnt N«wton, oT ChanMry-ltne, Ifkl- 
dleMX, mechanical draaghtsman, for IroproTements 
in cutting types and other irregular figures. (Being 
a communication.) August 29 ; six months. 

George Augustus Huddart, of Brynkir, Caenar- 
TOD, Esq., for certain improvomeuts in the manu* 
faeture of cigars, and ceitain improved apparatus 
for smoking cigars. August 29 ; six months. 



LltT or OOOVOH PATBNTa FmOW 22irD JOSLT 

TO 22Nn ATOvar, 1850. 

Richard A. Brooman, of the Patent-office, 166, 
Fleet-atieet, London, Patent Agent, for tanprove- 
mentu in types, stereotype plates, aud other figured 
surfaces for printing Aram. Julv 26 ; six months. 

Donald Beatson, or Stepney, Middlesex, marine^ 
for oextain impravwDanls ia instrumenta for taking 
measuring, and computing angle*. July 20 ; six 
months. 

Joel Splller, of Battersea, Surrey, englnear, fbr 
improvements in cleaning and griouing wheat, and 
other grain. July 29; six months. 

WBIlam Bdward Nnrton, 66, ChanoenMaaa, Mid- 
dlesex, civil engineer, for improvemeots in nu- 
ehiaery or appamtoi for making hat bodies, and 
other atmUar artidet. #oly 66; aix memha. 



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WKEKI.Y UST OF ENGLISH DESIGNS. 



John Owjrune, of Landtdowne Lodge, NotHnK- 
Mil, mtitliaiit, fmr improrementt in obtaining 
motlvt poiv«r, end ia am Ijring tba aame to given 
motion to machinery. July SI ; six monthf. 

Walter Nellton, of Hyde Park-street. Glasgow, 
engineer, for Improveroente In the application of 
•taam for labing, lowtr^ig. mof iog« or traBHwrt^ 
Ing heavy bodies. August 2 ; six monthf. 

George Owynne, of Susiex-terrace, Mlddlcf«x, 
S«q., fbr Improrementi In the manufhctureof sugar. 
Auiruat 7 ; ilx monthf. 

William Cox, of Manchetter, Lancaster, cigar 
merchant, for Improvements in machinery or appa- 
ratus for manuneturing nratcd watera* or other 
•ttch Ifaiutdl. <BeIng a oammimieatlon ) August 
7 1 six months. 

WiQlam Edward Newton, 60, Chancery-lane, Mid- 
dlesex, dvil engineer, for improvements in obtain- 
ing, preparing, and applying xine, and other volatile 
aetaui ^nd. tbie oxides thereof, and In the applica- 
tion #f sine, tnd ores containing the same, to the 
prrpatatioii or raanufscture of certain metal*, or 
alloya of metftli. ( Being a communication.) Au- 
gust 8; six months. 

Matthew Gfay, of No. 3, Morrls-plaee, Glasgow, 
Lanark, practical engineer, for an improved method 
of a uTOlylng steam-boilers with water. August 9 ; 
four ni<mtb«. 

Winiam W4tt, of Glasgonr, manufiie'.urlng che- 
mist, for certaAn improvements appllcal>le to Inland 
navigation, wMch miprorementi. or parte thereof, 
are afso applicable generally to raising, lowering, or 
transporting heavy bodies. August 13 ; six months. 

George Augustus Huddard, ofBrynkir, Carnarvon, 
E<q., for certain Improvements In the manuCsetore 
of cigars. Augutt li; six months. 

Jameg Rennie, of Gowan-bank, Falkirk, Stirling, 
gantleman, for a certain improvement or improve- 



1 of gaa r«Ce 
naees, and In apparatus or madhtoery i 
tiie same. August 14 1 fix months. 

WiUUm Charles Bell, of Manchetter, Lancaster, 
for Improvements in apparatus connected wlft 
water clo seta, dndns, and cesspools, wid gaa and 
ait- traps. Auguat 14 ; aix months. 

Henry Meyer, of the Strand, Middlesex, gentle- 
man, for certain improvements in power-looms flsr 
weaving. August 14 ; six months. 

Bead Holiday, of Hoddersficld, for improve- 
ments In lamps. August 14; six months. 

William MaoNaught. of Roehdale, Lancaater, 
Migl4i««r» for eertite improvements hs stena en- 
gines, and also improvements in apparatna fv 
ascertaining and registeriog the power of th« same. 
.August 16 : six months. 

Alfred Holl, of Greenwich, Kent, for impfwa- 
ments in steam engines. August 16; six moaths. 

William Edward Newton, 66, Chaneery-laae, 
Middlesex, eivil engineer, for improvements In Oe 
construction of ships or vessels, and in st^mi oh 
gines, boOers , er generators. (Being a commail- 
catlen.) August 2U ; six mmiths. 

Edward Hlghton, of Clarence Villa, RegentV- 
park, Middlesex, engineer, for improvements hi 
electrie telegraphs, and in making talegtaphfe csa- 
munications. August 21; six months. 

Charles William Lancaster, of New Boad-stnet. 
Middlesex, gunmakrr, for improvements in the 
ooBstroetion of fire-arms, cannon, and prsjoetHes. 
and in the manufocture of percussion tnbn. Au- 
gust 21. 

William Dick, of Edinburgh, professor of vete- 
rinary medicine in the Edinburgh Veterinary Col- 
lege, for improvements in the manulkctnre of steel 
and gas. August 22; six months. 



WKSKLT LIST OF OBSIQNt FOK AKTIOLBS OF UTILITY KBOtBTSKBO. 

Date of No. In 
Registra- the Re- 

tion. glster. Proprietors' Names. Addresses. Subjects of Desigs. 

Aug. 22 2415 SelM»fleld.Brown,DavIi, 

and Halse Gresham-street, London mt The University Cravat. 

23 2416 J. Swain and Co 1. Oxford-street » ^.......^ The Syrian Paletot. 

„ 2417 J. Swain and Co Oxford-street The Syrian Jacket. 

24 241S Samuel Rooke, Junior.. Whitehall-street, Birmingham.. Oxonian Ink-pot. 

„ 2419 Bemhard Samuelson ... Banbury, Oxford. „ Beater to be used la maklBg 

butter. 
27 24S0 WiUltm G. Armstrong.. Elswick Engine Works, New- 

castle Hydraulic equaliser. 



CONTENTS OP THIS NUMBER. 



HIstorlcil Sketch of Blowing Engines, and 
Description of one for Working at High Velo- 
cities. By Mr. A. BlateHv^ €npraviHp$U, 161 
Dr. Normandv^ Test Book---(reei«ip) ............ 164 

Geometrical Notes. By T. S. Davies, Esq., 

P.R.S., P.8.A., Suh-Ceontinmed) 169 

Deseriptloa of Sharpe's Sack Elevator— <»i/A 

tngravimy) »... 174 

The Holvhead and Dnblin Steamers... ».....»... 175 

Pell of Another Iron Structure 176 

Mr. Prank Forster's Plan f^r the Drainage of 

the Southern parts of the Metropolis .» 177 

Spodfloatlons of English Patents Enrolled 
during the Week:— 
Owynne -....Sugar 178 



UStty -....M* ..<..• •••Respirators ....-...— 171 

Lenox and RoberU... Windlasses „». 176 

Pepe .„...-....„. Time-keepers -...»... 176 

Hall „.«.„.^.,.WeaviBg « 171 

RobarUr „....„C1ogs and Pattens ... 17* 

Coekran »Looms 171 

Todd Ores -.... 171 

Speclfleatlon Dne, bat not Enrolled :— 
Woolrich,Rassel, and 

Russel ...».» Metals ...-..-...-«.- 170 

Weekly List of New English Patents ^ 179 

Monthly List of Scotch Patents 179 

Weeklv LUt of Designs for Articles of Utility 
Registered .-.^ ...-.-. -.—»..-—».- »... 160 



LONDON: Edited, Printed, and PublUhed by Joeeph Clinton Roberteoa, oC No. 166, Fleet-atieet, 
in the City of London— Sold by A. and W. GaUgnuii, Rue Vlvienne, Pads; M^obla mad Ce^ 
Dnblin ; W. C CnspbeU and Ce., Hamburgh. 



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MUSEUM, REGISTEB, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE, 



No. 1413.] 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1850. [Priot Sif., SUnpad, 4il. 
Edited by J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-etreet. 



STEAM PLOUGHING. BY LORD WILLOUGHBY DE ERESBY. 




TOIt. XAL 



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182 

WU0V9nt»9 BT fTBAX. BT TBB KIOHT HONOUBABLB LOUD WILLOUOHBT PB BBBtlT. 

Many of my friends being anzions to coniider my proposed method of sabstituting 
steam power for horses in pbnghing, I sntqoin e plan and eiplanations of the difismt 
parts of my steam plough. 

It will not be in my power to show the plough in proper working order for three or four 
months to come. The experiments hitherto have been made merely with a view to estab- 
lish the principle, a?oiding expense in construction ; but I may with safety affirm that they 
haye been attended with great suocess. 

The machinery employed consists of the " California," a locomotive engine, weigfaing 
3i tons» and of a twenty-six horses power (see fig. 1.) (It was designed by Mr. Goodi, 
to whose friendship on this, as on many other oooarions, I am so greatly indebted.) It hss 
a>double capstan attached, remoTable when the engine is required for other purposes. 

The engine mores across the centre of the field on a light portable railway. The ploughs 
adyance and recede on either side of the railway, at right angles to it. 

The pbugh empbyed consists of foar ordinary, and the like number of subsoil ploughs, 
fixed in a frame : it is directed by a person standing upon a small platform. 

Two such ploughs, one on either side the railway, alternately advance and recede ; the 
adyancing plough working, the other idle until it regains its proper position for ploughing 
the next four furrows. On the completion of the four furrows both ways, the engine and 
side frames adyance each three feet. 

- The ploughs are attached to an endless chain, 150 yards in length. They can be detached 
at pleasure, or shifted from one side the chain to the other. They travel at the rate of five 
miles an hour. Provision is made in case they strike against any impediment. There is 
also a proyision on the carriage, as shown in fig. 2, for tightening the chain at the 
fences, by which the length may be varied forty feet, to suit irregularly-shaped fields. If 
any further alteration is necessary, the chain Is made in thirty feet lengths, one of which 
can be acded or taken out as required. 

The full power of the engine is not exerted vnth the ploughs above described ; and the 
numb4r of blades can therefore be increased, if experience proves it to be advisable. 

In the present state of things it is difficult to form a correct estimate of the Talue of the 
invention in a commercial point of view. I will only say, that a machine of the power, and ^ 
with the arrangements described, would perform the work usually done by sixteen ploughs, 
driven by as many men, and drawn by thirty-two horses. Requiring itself the attendance 
of eight men, and a horse to draw the water for the engine, it would thus save the labour 
of thirty-one horses and eight men. Against this must be set an expense of five shillings 
a day for coals, as well as 10 per cent, upon the value of the machinery, say three shillings 
a day upon an original oost of 450/. to 500/. This latter item, however, would be folly 
compensated by the saving in the interest of capital now laid out on horses. 

The machinery ia only calculated for the cultivation of flat land. It might possibly be 
used with advantage in the West Indies. 

WUXOUGHBT DB EbBSBT. 

Orimtthorpe, Bourne, Lincolnshire, 
Jolj 29, 1850. 

JDeteription qf the Engramngt,* 
Fig. 1 represents the ploughing apparatus in two different positions. No. 1 showing the 
plough and subsoilers advancing, and No. 2 the plough receding, with the subsoUers raised 
to clear the ground. A is the stationary steam engine, and a a the chains by which it is 
connected to a purchase at each end, such as separately represented in fig. 2. 

• Badaoed from an original set of engravings, on a large scale, published for Lord De ErMby, by Eidgwsy. 

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PIX)UGHIN0 BT STEAM. 



188 




Kg. 3 exhiliitt m plan or Urd'i-eye view of the '' Califoriiia " engine at work. C is the 
engine ; R R the portable railway ; No. 1, No. 2, the two plongha, one at each tide, No. 1 
being a right hand, and No. 2 a left-hind plough ; and c c is the double or endless chain, 
by whieh the engine is connected to the plonghs. 

Fig. 4 is a yiew of one of the side frames (D D), which carry the rollers, round which 
Uie endless chain c c is wound. £ is the anchor by which the side flrame is mored forward 
ateadi shift. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



184 



FftOFBMOm TOUMO'S LBTTBE TO LORD CLAISKDON. 



This tetter will form m Important i^oea- 
meot lo (lie hUUuj of mathepatio^ feievee 
in tte Britiali lalee ot tht aiddle ol the 
iiiM«eeo%h Mbturf. It fHAillhit to the 
fiogUih itatetmao matt^ Ibr grate reflec- 
tUm« wfaon ** jmtiec to Inland '* ia brought 
bflfoftDUms forll«iifiiilathflhldMiMn«ral 
leproejr ^Hlb nAMk dm! unhtppy Itti ii 
afflicted more fraphioidlj than any itoik yet 
pnbllahed, even with that ezpreaa intention. 
IciethetaorwatriklMi woieff «bia wqiect, ai 
the plottre iiUielilentdlf draw*, and t&tmj 
i iwap eo th r e of aaj polillcal or p*t j pnr- 
poee. 

An eBiaaat fiolitieal tbeorial, ahoofe two 
oentortoa ago, «hns writes Yeapectkg Iseland 
(nnder the name of Ptoopen) t^ ■ 

** Fuiopw^ the eoft mother of nllodiral 
and poaUUnimona peopio, ii a iieighboor 
Island, anqientlj anbdoed by the Arms of 
Oceama ; since almost depopulated for shak- 
ing the yoke, and at length re|dantfcd with 
a new race* Bot (throagh wbal Tirtnea of 
tlM aoU, or vine of the air^ ao a^er it be.) 
gheif 9ttm $tiU tQ ^0j^eneraie, Wherefore, 

The prorinoe of Ulster has been the 
farorite one with onr English antl-paipal 
faction from time immemorial — solely be* 
cause, in some shape or other, Proteatantism 
is Its preTalent religions creed. Compared 
with the other proTinces, too, there has been 
here a greater development of the lodnstrial 
resources of the bland ; and possibly, too, . 
there has been (though this is yet somewhat , 
questionable) a smaller amount of agrarian 
outrage, both in the shape of tncendiariimand 
murder. These circumstances have led the ' 
English OoTcmment, one administration after - 
another, to lool to Ulster as the one hopeful 
spot for the commencement oflrith eitfUzti. 
Hon. Ulster has been petted and bribed in \ 
erery possible way ; her people^ and espe- , 
daily her people's leaders, the leteral 



bytiriaflMn s tMfhte Mt optelttg 1ft Me 
for a young man of ready wit and Hibemhui 
volnhUily ^.iho openiog of the do9r pf a 
Preabytorian pulpit. Theae p^Btieal eoBii- 
oefBtMns flfar^ 'BbnieiAMt^'^Hirei^i CO OuV iai* 
inediaie ol^ct: but we 'oinnet Toiter 
qnotinfOQe q^ecimeQ of the ^ wynd we eef 
Irish Phwbyteiy-^toMyiiolhfaicoC tbevtter 
wuitof priMiploln the «MiM bodyhi its 
aietropofitan rity itself. 

<' But a few daysbolb^ Bir B^bwi Peel 
left ofieet a Depntalion from tho Qme* 
ral Assembly was. ^ai^tdied from Brifyt, 
to oommnnicate to tho Minister. thawii|MS 
of that nvesQAd body raspeotii^ soBBS churoh 
niatter8{^*4 think abont llie .eceotton of 
Maaaest but I am not. qnito sore. Shis 
deptarion^wss headed by the Modemtsr of 
tho Oebeml Assembly* tho ^ereiend Pr. 
Brown; and the Reserend Dr. fiilgar wm 
one of the depnties* SboiUy aCter the re- 
tnvn of the miisloiit a meeting of the Geos- 
. ml AmsmWy. look pl^ce in fielfmt, and 
therOrinthefeoetofthoAMemhlyaiid ef a 
Vory ^Kowdod hQOse» Dr. Bqowa atood.np 
snd puhlioly deelaied,. that h». nttedy fo- 
neawced andrsyndiated «U pertieipation in 
the prooesdii^of Dr* JBdgsr 4nd his jprty 
with ths J^nuAui that Dr. Bdgw without 
miy comnmnioiitihn with hU loader and 
withouthii knowle^a, hod JbrmtaUed him 
(Dc BflOwn)in hia Interview with the Pre- 
nder ; and that when Dr* Bi^own afterwards 
came in, he found to his utter amasemeat 
(hat Im wns too lat%*- that aisahfeet wMly 
foreign to their memage bed b e imi i n t rodoced 
•—and that Dr. JQdgar had been ^^kjfiag 
for a G^emsmnt endowmept. of a lioolo* 
ficalCoUegSi for the erection of which he 
had aaid 20.000/, Imd been begnoathed by a 
Mrs. Magee L Dr. Brown was juat in tiiae to 
iearn that tho Govennment auppoct hi¥^^ mm 
promised^ *«nd/ said Dr. firown 'to 
hear the Premier ask the Rererend Dr. 
Bdgar how much money they wanted.' The 
BsTsrond J>t. Edgai raodestbr rcfiUed, 
^aboat 2,000/. » yeaik'. . 'Sh; Bohert 
Pfsi/ said the Moderator, ' looknd signifi- 
cvuly at Six Jaines draham* who wu sitting 
by his side, msd i^ed* Wthe request 



orders of the priesthood, hate been at once !!2*. f*»°^««J- P^* Brown pcknowMt^ 
.-^;jt.ae„rnec..nd. however bxorbrt^, rS^^,^ 



or however preposterous. The best '' |iro 
fession ** in Ulster is the profession of Pres- 



See " Votes and QuerljDf,.'' No,, ^3. p. iOg, 



prooeediogs, 
ooTcred, he instantly quitted his colleagum 
in disgust, hastened home by himself, and 
left Dr.Edgar |o 8tayor*fbUow as hepleaaed, 
AUvthis, seenWed very smnsing tp ^he majo- 
rity of the A UemUy4 thqr had got %,im. 



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PB0FE880B YOUNO's LETTER TO LOBD CLARENDON. 186 

*t9«ir,«idI3lr.A%arirf»fbrgtfmi£|ii4^, 'Diflne Direction,' Thif , of •onn*, was 

tli«7 wftmtd to eoptidv hit stratagem aa a immediately acqaieaced in ; and aa aoon aa 

goodatrokeorgeneraUhip, and'Dr.Brown'a Dr. Cdoire htA eonduaed hit petition, he 

^veuakh hdneatf tJ!«itetfifto^attIeiiif7riae mttcred * • delhrevanee' that Dr. livrpby 

mAtmowhi ' waa net t* h«Ye the tered Greek, httt the 

r H Nov, iOOM hetUr Ihaa^he ]l«fee«Dd Hebrew, aa he had got another man for the 
Dr. JSdftr hiew« that althongh Mra. Magee . Sacred Greek. And Dr. Marphj dSd ha?e 

had really leh the abo>e anm aa stated, yet the Hebreir, and the other taan did hare the 

^■tiio€Mle^iroiad*riii6eietoffftThe«ld Siired 6Mbk, aeooRtto^. 'Aa eaeh chair 
lUdywi^Mtfitly ki'fter«grife*wfte» tbejr > hwnght with it 8;&l^., otopnrw it mattered 
^MinUed 4h«it the'jMei|tioAof,hfCwiU, . hot i^ttle which any one took. AU this, 

the monej waa thrown into Chancery, and too, ia recorded in Qke jmbfio newspapers." 
the College will probably !ie built — When they 

get fr««t : th^ bai^e^o^cotU^e a» iU np to Sn^y Metm. HoaM, Gobdeo^ Bright, 

tiM jnrtnew day { Jhwt the y have • goodly mtA WHU^mMf wMl direct the aHention of 

'•Tb«dl^oaal«rtMe«MBrpeetMitMtefe ^^^^ "«"• •»** ^^* P*^y ^^ »• •^J 

pMifed the ItogeMlty of the Bdlhst dOotora ^xpreaa jtroog yiawa respeelti^; a lystem 

«»r • hmr ttme; thm wu me^ag* after thatdfeerrea no km dedded a name than 

CdHigea were tob^Only 2Mrayear ewh, <»'' Buf 1»«<1 mnrt not be '• fleeced " to main, 
msd these were to be rve^ Celh^, oon- tain the grandee -prieeihood of Ireland— 
•tmeted of tangible brleh a nd aton e s it albeit they adopt the name ot Protestants, 
S^ef^MjnS^^ •ndn^c^ John Knox aat^ 
/Mr Oenege, •^Ihe bMeleae fabric of a Thia latter ia an apperi to the Lord Lleu- 
-^vlftlon,' wei^ tv be aote anbataatlally en* tenant of Ireland for '* Jnatice to on Bog- 
dewed; and yet hew eeeld they eetup lishman,'' who serenteen years kgo wu 

SnSS ^t^'£SSSuX^^^: "'"W*" Into Ukfag . pet ta th, Boyd 

teailty la the mether of Intentloa, and Ihey College of Belfast. Concerning Mr. Yonng'a 

O f ereeni e the d W Bee K y na MMwt ; aa will eminence in the mathematical world, owr 

appear b y^i wtteHfce to MeComVe Prea- rgaier^ do not need to be informed ; for 

byfterm iamenaek. ^^^ ^^ p^^ j^^^^ j^^^ frequenUy graced 

Pi'eyVeawii in f At AmmI Oafiiy qfA^^i, by his productions, and his name is familiar 
Seeied Rhetorhs . . Rer. Br; COoke £650 , m ft honsehoH word whercTer mathematical 

Chrlatiint Etbfei . . Her. Mr. iW b^oir 250 acieace is cnltlTated— not only in England, 
£r^ttT^^'::B^.l5^^ III 8cotland,and lreUnd,bntin onr Coloniea 
Sacred Cri^dsm.. ReT.HTr. Wftfcon^ ^50 . . ^^^ *^ vn»ted SUtcs, and indeed where- 

Hdirew ;.,..;.... Ref . Dr. Merpby 250 erer the English language is spoken. Hia 

5*^**5r. Rev. r)r. Bdgar . 250 original researches and his didactic works 

DHWty..........ReT;Dr.H«nnm. ^ alike render his name illustrious. 

'•>,,,. i(2000 -' ^ct this is the man who has to make an 

- Toe iee, my Lord, it e^d not after all appeal to the Briiiik Gowtmment for the 

be managed withont appofarting ftse Profes- miserable stipend to which he ia entiUed for 

B^^uZi^^^A^fZ^l: W.«--K.W«M»l.-^.fficJenttoUmth...r. 

not ao Often ; the third, he spent wholly hi ^^e of the GoTcmment itself I Not only la 

London : the fbnrth, I knew net irimre. he supeneded (by what agenqy we riiall aee 

^^!!i!SS!^'*^ **** stttdenteiaaemMe are preaently), bat even the agreement entered 

^ SS^^*^. •'*^"^' •'^* into with him in ita pecuniary sense baa also 

•* The mode in which thes^ gentlemen Were ^^^^ broken. The minister ean give 12,000/. 

Reeled, — aj^pointed, I metej^^-^wtis seme- a year to the grandaoo of a king, laviah 

what n<hrawdami«ngrthebttsides»eom- npon parks and palaoea tena and twentiea 

rSJrJS^r^^.^etft^^^^ ^J dionsands per annum, «.d demand of 

Dc. Cooke iotermpted the proceedings, by ParUament the elements of an eatabliah- 

propoaing that they ahonld first aak foy sent for a child eight yeara old :--yet- 



186 



FBOFSaSOB TOUHa'S LBTTBB TO liOBD OLARENDON. 



a man of Mianoe praaeBts a jaak daiiii,and 
prodnoea tKa agreamant widar whidi that 
aUioi ia mada, tba deddon ia daCarred, pooh- 
poobed— eraded — in tha spirit of tha moat 
praotiied pattj-foggar of the time ! 

Saeh waa the atate of thinga whan thia 
latter waa published, a few weeka ago ; but 
dnce then, aa if to more deeply sink hlm- 
aelf ia the eyea of all honourable men, the 
miniater has eom pm mdid for the elalm by 
allowing two-thirdM of it ! 

And what do our readera think ia the 
ground of tbia abstraction of a third part of 
the Profaasor's claim ? Simply that he had 
** onljf senred the public nsteen year$, whilst 
an old Treasury minute existed which ren- 
dered its payment in full imperatiTa only after 
the senrioe of 9wetUHn pears /*' It signi- 
fied not that thia claimant was one of the 
most eminent men of his time — not only an 
ornament, but a benefactor to science and 
hia country, — not only eminent as an origi- 
nal in?eatigator and an elegant writer, but 
eminently successful as a preceptor, and 
belayed and renerated by his pupils. These 
efforts, too, were expended on Ireland— the 
apot which was the pecuUar object of anxiety 
to erery minister who haa swayed the deati- 
niea of the British empire. 

** Why," it will be asked, ** then, waa 
thia eminent indiridual superseded?"— 
" Was he irregular in hia moral conduct ?— 
factiona in hia intercourse with his ool- 
leaguea or neighbours ? — a partisan of aome 
obnoxious creed, or the disseoiinator of 
noxious social, moral, political, or anti- 
religions dogmaa ? " 

No— he waa none of these. But It will 
be better to let Professor Young speak for 
himaelf on this point* : — 

" During my sUy in Belfast, I had but a 
▼ery limited range of acquaintance ; to my 
students I waa well and intimately known, 



• We hsre heard that U was tUted tn a larae 
party at the hou«> of one of the most eminent and 
liberal professora in one of our uniTersities, that 
*' **'•/.?""? ^^ * SoeinUtm, and rejected on that 
fTouniL" Not only was a direct falsehood thus 
afssemlnated, but disseminated in the most odious 
form. We suppose* however, that the malignant 
teaducer had picked up the word in his "Eccle- 
siaatleal History Stodlea." and somehow or other 
▼ajmtly swmlaed that Unltarianism (of which he 
erfdently intended to speak, and which U even 
«t— «w — I — *^ u^ Pitabylilini than tba 



and tiirongh them muat haTa been known 
to the different religioua bodies of the North 
of Irdand in all tiie particalara reapeoting 
which they cared to Imow me ; and I have 
never heard a aingle whisper ofcdisaatisfic- 
tiononthe partofanyofthoaebodieaagainat 
any portion of my condoetnp to the preaaot 
moment. I waa always scrupulously oan* 
tlous in avoiding offence, or of oommittinf 
any aggraaaion againat the piona pocjudioaa 
of Belfiat Puritaniam. I never once, dnrinf 
the whole aixteen years, entered a theatret 
or any other place of public entertainaiient. 
I and my family led a secluded, and, I 
thought, a harmleas life. Society wa had 
none, for I waa not a party-man ; and it la 
trnpottiile for a person in my position, ia 
the north of Ireland, to make many frienda, 
without connecting himaelf with a jMT^. Ho 
muat be either ' New Light,' or < Old 
Light,' or ' No Light at alL' He Bsnat 
either condemn the * Bible- burking Board/ 
as Dr. Cooke used to call it, or denonnoe 
the * Chureh-Bducation-Sodety 3' defend 
Orangeism, or oppoaa Epiaoopacy ; canoniaa 
John Knox, and spit upon tha memory of 
the Martyr Charles— as the regicide rabble 
did upon his sacred person, or repudiate 
Preabyterianism. Suddenly thrown aa Iwaa 
from the heart of London, and ita ataadj. 
going and stolid inhabitanta, among a ooaa* 
munity of prieata, rampant with seetarian 
excitement, and powerful in platform piety, 
where every one waa ready to do battle for 
his ereed—or ratiier againat that of othera* 
I found myself in the midst of snch a be- 
wildering conflict of imia, that my only aafSs 
position seeatied to be that of complete nen- 
trality: thia poaition I adopted and ooa- 
tinned to maintain to the end. I never at- 
tended an Anti-National-Board Meeting, I 
never attended a Churdi-Education-Societj 
If acting, I never attended an Orange-Meet- 
ing, I never attended a Repeal Meetli^. 
From all these controversial gatheringa I 
kept aloof. In mattera of religions faith, I 
always entertained the opinion, that every 
one was bound by his own consdentiona 
oonviotions, and not by mine, — an opinion 
which I at length found waa but iU-auitad to 
the moral atmosphere of Belfiut. I ought to 
have made the dlsoovery earlier : and if any 
religioua friend had only awakened me to 
my fatal delusion, upon mv first settling in 
the conntry, and in Chriatian kindnMa had 
only explained to me the ' great gain' of 
Belfast ' godliness,' I might have remained 
to this day, undefrauded of my income, and 
have indulged a reasonable expectation of 
eventually becoming as pious, and, oonae* 



papacy itself) adopted the views of Sodnus. Tha 
most Ignorant reflglonlst la always the moat ma- 
lignant. ^ I 

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PE0FE8S0B young's LETTER TO LOBD OUkBBNBON. 



ni 



qnently^ af well to do in the world, ai even 
Dr. Cooke himself, 

" My Lord, it is necessary to the complete 
vindication of my own injured character, 
tfiat I abonld trouble your Excellency with 
these prelinSfnaries : that I should show the 
ffiffienlties which snrroanded the position in 
wliieh I was placed, in order that your Bz- 
orileney may jadge whether or not I steered 
■17 eovrse among them with ordinary pra- 
teiee and discr^on. It is farther neces- 
aery that I shovld now famish your Ezcel- 
leocy with tome samples of the spiritasl 
despotism tzerdsed over the place with 
vhkh I was more immediately connected, a 
despotism which destroyed my colleagaes 
one alter another, but which left onacathed 
for the long period of sixteen years.*' 

*'Whj, then— why?" He had had the 
mialbrtane to oome into collision with 
die Treasurer of the Belfast College, on the 
ground of constant arrears in the payment 
of his salary. He also bad the misfortune 
to oome into oolUsion with the RsTerend 
Doctors Cooke and Edgar, the two leading 
Presbyterian clergymen in Belfast, on the 
ground of penxmal wrong done to Mi own 
ton. Of Dr. Edgar the reader has already 
seen something, and will not be surprised at 
what may follow. It was a farther misfor- 
tnne to Professor Yoang, that Dr. Edgar 
was in kagae with the notorioos 6eorge 
Mathews, subsequently known as the " Cas- 
tle Defaulter,'* but nu)re correctly (Tlimea, 
Jaly 26) by epithets that are infinitely more 
odiens in English e^imation than this high' 
Hown term— ^ term apparently inTented for 
the purpose of throwing the grace of respec- 
tability oTer the most enormoas robberies. 
However, it will be more satisfactory to 
allow Mr. Young to tell this history in his 
own way: — 

'* Kow, my Lord^ duriag the whole time 
I was in Belfast there was always a very 
elose and somewhat mysterioas connection 
betweefi the ReTerend Dr. Edgar and this 
same Mr. George Mathews : those in Dr* 
Edgar's confidence coaid readily obtain from 
that rererend gentleman information re- 
specting the plans and intentions of the Irish 
Oovemment, in reference to local, especially 
edoeatlonal interests, long before they were 
made public In the case of the racanoy, 
for instance, in the Belfast Institution, oc- 
casioned by Dr. Cairn's death, before ad- 
Terted to, Dr» Edgar knew the determination 



of GoTemment, u to whether that Taeancf 
should be supplied or not, long before it was 
communicated to the managers of the esta- 
blishment, who had applied to your Excel- 
lency for guidance in the matter. I knew il 
a week, at least, before they did. All ny 
own letters to the Castle, complaining of the 
non-payment of my salary, were also familiar 
things to Dr. Edgar : he would comment on 
particahir passages, and giro me the benefit 
of Mr. George Mathews's opinion on parti- 
cular points. He knew, likewise, the names 
of the successful applicants for chairs in the 
Qaeeo's College, long before they were pub- 
licly annonnoed ; seferal of these were men- 
tioned to me by one gentleman whom he had 
enlightened on the subject, at least a fort- 
night before, and the information proved 
correot" 

And again — 

** Within two or three days of my forward- 
ing this letter to the Castle, Dr. Edgar met 
me t he repeated to me the whole } and eH- 
dently proved himself to be in possession of a 
transcript of my private letter to the Vice- 
roy ; at the same time telling me, in a tone of 
anger, that I had done myself an Injury ; 
and ooDolnded with these very words : ' Had 
Thomson been appointed, it was our inten- 
tion to procure for you, through my friend 
George Mathews, the Vice-Presidency of 
Cork." 

The fact is, that Dr. Edgar wanted the 
post for his fHend Thomson ; and for this 
sordid reason did he manoeuvre Mr. Young 
out of the appointment. 

With respect to the Reverend Dr. Cooper, 
there is a story too long to be extracted 
here, which will be read with deep interest 
by every one in whose breast party sealotry 
has not exttagnished ^e last faint trace of 
human sympathy, and in whose soul every 
particle of honourable and honest feeling is 
not extioguished. 

If any one of our English readers should 
be under the slightest temptatkm to take a 
post under Irish management, scientific or 
otherwise, we emphatically warn them to 
pause. We urge them to read and carefully 
consider this sad story of broken engage- 
ments—indeed, one of the most striking 
instances of bad faiik that we have ever 
met with. It could have occurred nowhere 
else than Ireland ; and. Indeed, we would 
hope it is an isolated case even there. That 
the British Government should lend itsdf to 



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18d ON THE iPPLTOATlON OF EIAOTRICtTT AIH) BEAT AS HOYTKO POWEBS. 



■Id the nnoUiMtloiM of ittoh men, li almost 
beyond belief; bat the truth of the sttte- 
ments here pat forth are not only nndenied, 
bat the praetieea boldly defended in ril tkeir 
eiiormity-«-'^ibr the good of the Proteitmit 
eanael" 

We ha?e too high an opinion of our 
awn conntrymen to beUere that snob prao- 
tieei will not reeeife the moet indignant 
dennndiition from maa of all pmrtiea and 
men of no petty* 

Mr. Yonng, we are glad te hear, endnr^i 
this calamitous wrong with a magnanimity 
worthy of himself. One sympathies, and 
the sympathies of all feme-hearted English- 
men, go with him i and tfaongh dishonour- 
able subtlety may triumph orer him tot a 
time, we hare thst full confidenee In the 
good feeling of a British publie, and in the 
ultimate dispensations of a Diflne Provi- 
denoof whieh leads us to antioipafee a more 
fimmrable termination to these persecntioos 
than at the outset would hare appeared 
probable. In the language of old chi?alry, 
we eiclsim— " God DKrsND thx right 1" 



OK TBR APPLICATION OF ■LtCTEIClTT AHD 
HBAT AS MOVING POWKKB. — BY ME. W. 

prraiB. 

[Abitract of Paper read to the BiftUh AMocUtion.] 
The dynamic value of a current of 
Toltaic electricity is represented by the 
product of the rate at which electro- 
chemical action is taking place at any 
cross section of the current (in other 
words, the quantity of the current,) and 
the electromotive force with which 4he 
current is sustained, which may be briefly 
termed its energy or intensity (provided 
the idea of quantity be kept distinct from 
this). The first object was to secure such 
units of comparison for both these ele- 
ments u should be at all times recover- 
able. This is given in respect of quan- 
tity by the rate of chemical action, and 
the atomic weights. In respect of in- 
teniity of the current, we have no such 
fixed data, and the intensity of most 
voltaic arrangements cannot be relied on 
ai constants for comparison. But the 
elements of Dsniell's Battery, and those 
of nitric acid iratteries with negative sur- 
face of platinumi carbon, or ca8t-iron,give 
an eleetiGiBOtive force or intensity that 



can be recovered with considerable ez* 
actitnde, if uniformity of circumstances, 
materials, &c., be tolerably attended to : 
these, therefore, may be used to give a 
fixed and recoverable point in a gaivano- 
metric scale of intensity. Novr it so 
happens, that Ifvre assume the degieea 
of toe scale to be of such a siae that the 
intensity of Danielfs (standard) elementa 
shall be 60 of the degrees, temperature 
being 70 Fahr.— that of nitric acid bat- 
teries win be from 100 to 112 of the same 
degree : the author, therefore, has al- 
ways used this scale, to whieh all other 
voftsie arrangements can be referred. 
And this scale, he would suggest, would 
be most conveniently used in assigning 
the electromotive power of electric cur- 
rents from any source. The mean result 
of careful experiments, tried directly and 
conversely, is that a voltaic current of 
one imit In quantity (or that fVom one 
grain of zinc electro- oxidised per mi- 
nute,) and of 100 degrees intensity, te- 
presents a dynamic force of 302( pounds 
raised 1 foot high per minute. 

From this we can infer an important 
fact, that one horse power is the dieo* 
retic or absolute dynamic fbrce possesaed 
by a current of electricity derived from 
the consumption of 1*56 (one and fifty- 
six hundreds) pound of sine, per hour, 
in a Danieirs battery. But the best 
electro-magnetic engine that we can hope 
to see constructed cannot be expected to 
give more than half or a fourth of dib 
power ;in an v case we see here the limit of 
power, which no perfectbn of apparatus 
can make It exceed. The peculiar mode 
in which the electric current prodocea 
dynamic efiects has led to much miscal- 
culation respecting the power obtainable 
from it. In any sort of electric engine, 
the material to which the neighbourhig 
current gives motion, whether it be 
another moveable current, or, what is 
more usual, a magnetic body; is impelled 
in one direction with a constant foreey 
and this force, whether it be attraction, 
repulsion, or defiection, is, like the power 
of gravity, sensibly coustant at ill velo- 
cities, however fast the body recedes be- 
fore the action of the force ; provided 
only the same quantity (per minute) of 
electric current be maintained. Tlua is 
quite different f^om the action of steam 
power, in which, the faster the piston 
moves the greater is the volume of atemm 
per mint|ta that mult be siippfied to 



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ON THE APPUOAnOM OF KLB0T£IC1TT AND HEAT AS AIOYIMO P0WEB8. 189 



iDo?e if, or eke the lew will be the 
power with which it mof es. This fact, 
tlien^that the force with which an elec- 
trie current of a giTen " qaaottty" moves 
the Bywhine is the fame at any Telocity 
of motion — heart mi aaalo07 to the case 
of steam, but would indicate that the 
dynamic result obtainable from a given 
electric current might be infinitely great ; 
and so it would be, were it not Uiat the 
part moved always tends to induce a 
current in the wire in the reversed di- 
rection; and this inducing influence, 
which increases with the velocity of 
motion, oooflicts with the original cur- 
rent, and reduces its quantity, and con- 
sequently reduces the power of the 
motion, as well as the consumption of 
materials in the batterv. Some have 
imagined that possible alteraUoos in the 
position of the parts of the nuushine, or 
m its mode of acdon, would avoid the 
evil, or even might make the induced 
current to flow with the primary current 
mst^Mi of against it ; the impossibility of 
this, though not readily proved in detail, 
can be at once proved by reference to 
general principles. It would, if true, be 
a creation of aynamic force ; the evolv- 
ing an unlimited force from a limited 
source. The tendency to an opposing 
induced current in the primary wire 
muft^ therefore, be involved in the very 
principle of the system; so that no inge- 
nuity can ever get rid of the retarding 
influence of the induced action ; and the 
onlv way to overcome its power, so as to 
maintain the primary current from fall- 
ing below a given rate or quantity, when 
the machine is allowed to attain rapid 
motion, is to increase the electro-motive 
power of the battery, the intensity (not 
the quantity) of the current, so that it 
shall be less aflbcted by the opposing 
induction. 

The practical importance of these truths 
may justify the aoove somewhat parti- 
cnkr notice of them. For want of a 
clearer apprehension of them, inventors 
have misapprehended the direction in 
whieh improvements were to be made, 
and much ingenuity and means have 
been wasted. Some of the best elec- 
tro-magnetic engines that have been 
properly tested by the author and 
othen on a practically useful scale, 
have only given a power at the rate of 
50 to 60 lbs. of sine per horse power per 
hour. The smallness of this power in 
aparisoii with the ahsolute value of 



the current (1*56 pound sine per horse 
power per hour), should not occasion 
surprise If we consider the present case 
of steam after many years of improve- 
oienfe. Aeoordkig to the determinatfons 
of Jode and of Banhine on heat, i lb. of 
water raised 1"* of temperature is equi* 
valent to 700 lbs. weight, raised 1 foot. 
The author thence proceeded to show 
that the best Cornish engines only yield 
one-fourteenth of the power that ihe 
oooriNistion of the carbon aalaally repre- 
sents, and many locomotives only one- 
hundredth part ;^ahowing what great 
rewards may yet await the exercise of 
inventive genius in this department, and 
that we need not wonder that we have 
as yet only obtained one thhrty-aeeond 
Mrlof the power p o ss ssecd by eleotrioiiy. 
But it is to be remembered that there is 
a fiir greater likelihood of obtaining a 
larger proportion of the real power from 
electricity than from heat, owing to the 
character of the two agents. The author 
tiien prooeeded to ezphdn the reasons 
why io littlo of the power of heat eould 
be obtained in a uaenil form oven in the 
best steam ei^nes, and what were the 
difficulties for invention flrst to overcome 
in order to a better result. In the case 
of electricity, however, there is no ana- 
logous diflicul^: but we have, instead, 
the difficulty and expense of developing 
current electricitv by the chemical actions 
now re(|uisite. If carbon could be burnt 
or oxidised by the air, directly or indi- 
rectly, so as to produce electricity in- 
stead of heat, 1 lb. of it would tto as far 
as 9|lbs. of sine (in a Daniell's battery), 
chiellv because there are as many atoms 
in 1 n>. of carbon as there are in 5i lbs. 
of sine, and partly because the affinity 
ffor oxygen) of each atom of fincan- 
aescent) carbon is greater than that of 
an atom of (cold) sine, minus the affinity 
of the hydroeen for the oxygen in the 
water of the battery. Apart, however, 
from such prospects of improved means 
of obtaining electricity, its favourable 
feature, on the other hand, in compari- 
son with heat, is the reasonable expecu- 
tlon that we may obtain from electricitv 
a considerable portion of the power wbicn 
the author has determined as being the 
dynamic equivalent of the electric cur- 
rent.* 



^ For tn aoooant of Profeiior Page's experiments 
la dis MBM difwtloa, sm « fabetqaMrt mxikA; 
p. 196. 

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190 



nOWtON's DIVFJBRBIfTIAt. 80RSWINO APPAKATI7I. 

[R«gUter«d under the Aot for the Protaetion of Articles of Utility. MoMrt. Riohud mad Heaiy 
Howton, HanehMter, Proprieton.] 

The diflf^rential torewtng iDeebaniim of applioAtioa it offers ■onie rerj deeided 

which form* the iiibject of this regis- adTtotsges. The aeeonpaBying eogniT- 

trmtion, is appliesble chiefly, if not ings exemplify its adaptstioo to tetter* 

solely, to presses ; but within that range oopying ] 




Fig. 1 is a front Tiew, and fig, 2 a par- 
tial section of the press. Into the cross- 
beam A of the press is screwed the nut 
C, baring a handle £, and through this 
nut PMses the screw F, the upper end of 
which is furnished with the weighted 
handle D ; the lower end has a rounded 
bead or button of larger diameter than is 
usually employed, which works in a 
socket on the top plate c of the press. 
The threads of the screwed nut G, and 
those of the screw F differ in the distance 
of their pitch. It is this difference which 
giTes the power to the prejs. The ope- 
ration is as follows : — By applying a 
sliffht force to the handle D, the plate c 
islnrought upwards to the height re- 
quired for the admission of the material 
to be pressed ; it is then turned in a con. 
trary direction until the top plate touches 
and slightly presses against the object 



underneath. The screwed nut G is now 
brought into operation ; the handle E to 
which it is secured being turned, a great 
force is exerted on the plate c at the 
expense of but a small amount of manual 
labour. During the operation of the 
handle £, the screw F is prevented from 
turning round by the friction of its en- 
larged button in the socket of the plate 
c. As the power is gained not by fine- 
ness of thread, but by the difference in 
pitch of the two threads, it is evident 
that the screw F may be made much 
coarser in nitch than those of ordinary 

Sresses, and yet speed in the ascent and 
escent of the plate c be thereby obtained. 
It will also be seen that the power may 
be increased to an extent proportionate to 
the nearness of pitch, to which the two 
screws are made to approximate. 



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191 



oasBKTATioirt UPON swiiiiiiMO, vrttn a DstORimow of oox's patknt swimming 

gTOOKlNOt. BT MR. COX. 




It ifl a RieliDcholy fact that, of recent 
due, there ha?e been severai shipwrecks 
eren in calm summer weather, within a 
few hundred yards of the shore. 

How to render aid, and ensure a greater 
amount of safety, cannot fail to be inte- 
resting to all. 

Notwithstanding the many disasters 
consequent upon carelessness and igno- 
rance which nave already been so dis- 
tressing, it is much to be feared the sad 
experience of the past will not guarantee 
perfect management for the future. 
That there are many shipwrecks purely 
accidental, and beyond all calculation 
and control of man, is a truth which can- 
not be doubted ; and to Providence, 
therefore, in such cases, all should be 
resigned. It ijs, however, in the power 
of 2mo8t every one to provide in some 
measure against the severity of most 
accidents, by familiarizing the mind with 
eases of danger, and studying and prac- 
tising means of escape and prevention. 
By ^miliarizfng the mind with circum- 
stances of danger, there will be much 
more chance oi coolness and presence of 
mind being manifested, and evil averted 
when calamity overtakes, than when the 
mind is unenlightened and void of rc- 
■onrces and experience. 

From the maritime traffic and inter- 
course of our country, and the dangers 
of navigation, it certainly ought to form 
an important part of the education of 
youth to learn to swim, and become 
familiar with the motion of the body in 
the great liquid element. Man, however, 
from his structure, is not calculated for 



powerful or prolonged swimming. Hav- 
mg neither fins nor webbed feet, he can 
exert little of his muscular strength in 
propulsion of the body, and be soon be- 
comes exhausted from the difficulty of 
sustaininff the motion of the legs and 
arms in the water. The muscles of the 
legs being more powerful than those of 
the arms, it is evident that if the power 
of the former can be brought principally 
into effective operation, much longer 
continuous swimming will result. 

The action of the Tegs and feet alone, 
although to some extent effective, can- 
not propel the body easily through the 
water, as the action and re- action, or 
the propelling and retarding powers, 
differ only to a small amount. If the 
pushing out of the legs (or swimming 
stroke) be estimated at a power of 10, 
the drawing up again, preparatory 
for a new stroke, may be saia to repre- 
sent a retarding power of 6, and thus 
out of a total power of 16 exerted, only 
4 (the difference between the propelling 
and retarding forces) is available for pro- 
pulsion, the other 12 parts going merely 
to exhaust the swimmer. But further, 
when the foot is forced against the water, 
the water is pushed much more from the 
body than the body from it — or in en- 
gineering phrase, the '^slip" is great, 
owing to the narrow compass of the 
foot, which does not expose sufficient 
breadth of surface to take firm hold of 
the water. It may be also remarked, 
that the human body being nearly of the 
same specific gravity as water, unless a 
person in the water have the assistance 



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0BSEBVATI0N8 UPON BWIMMINO. 



of lOBie flMting •ubtUaee, a eowider- 
aUe part of his strength gets exhausted 
from the viere effort to keep his head 
abo?e water* In all cases, therefore, 
it is of great importanoe to possess ooe 
€i M'lntosb's air-bags or some other 
booyaat body, to affix romid the waist, 
thus allowing all the musenUr energies 
to be expended in propulsion alone. 

When a shipwreck takes place, the 
first consideration should he that of 
pontum. If the distance from shore is 
so great as to render it aUogether impos- 
sible for a person to swim ashore, then 
he ought to keep on qU his chthei, that 
the hcAt of the bodjf may be longer 
naintainedp and the tital fonctions pre- 
Tented from becoming soon benumbed, 
thereby giving a better chance of being 
picked up alite by a boat from the shore 
or passinff ship* When the shipwreck 
is near the shore, and the party is to 
avail himself of the floating bag and 
propelling apparatus I shall presently 
describe, he ou^t to be divested of his 
coat (allhooffh be may keep it on) and 
the legs of nis trousers, so as to allow 
free motion of his own legs. 

The object of this apparatus is to en- 
able a person, in case of emergency, to 
swim or propel himself through the 
water with the faeilitv of the swan, duck, 
or othcx aouatk webbed feet birds or 
animals, and thereby to possess the means 
of saving not only his own life, but the 
lives of others. In cases of diipwreck 
it frequently happens that the lives of aU 
on board might he saved if any commu- 
nication with the shore could be estab- 
lished; but, in a rough ses, the smaU 
propelling effect afforded by the narrow 
surfaee of the human foot, seldom suf* 
fices to ensble even an experienced 
swimmer to reach the shore. Hitherto, 
the only effectual means of commnni- 
cating with a wreck in a stormy sea, 
have been by Obtain Manby*s appara- 
tus for throwing a light rope on ooard, 
or by life* boats, but these are rarely at 
hand when wanted, and generallv many 
miles from the scene of dbipwreck. 

The swimming stockings present 
various advantages, being light, portable, 
easy of application, and can even be worn 
on the legs without incumbrance, and 
thus be ready for use in the moment 
of need. 

But it is not in cases of shipwreck 
oaljrihat the invention ia applicable. In 



many other situaiions it may beoome the 
means of saving Hfe; and, at bathing- 
places, it may be most advantageoos^ 
used aa a means of healAy aod imigo- 
rating exexdse. Aided by the apparaa^ 
an oi^nary swimmer can move throiq^ 
the water with a facility and free dom 
which add greatly to his enjoyment; 
while, with tne aid of a floathig bag, a 
person who cannot swim at all may be 
rendered comparatively independent and 
enabled to escape from a wreck and 
reach Ao shcire, where otherwise be 
might be drifted away by the wind sad 
tide. 

The swimming apnaratna oonaistBef 
aciroular piece of suitable cloth, aewed 
stroo^y round the leg of a stocking, aad 
kept m a proper position for o xp am ttag 
and contracting by mean of ooraa and 
wooden ribs ; it reaembles, in iset, a 
small umbrelb round the kg, expand- 
ing when pushed against the water, aad 
clMing when drawn in an oppoaite direo- 
tion. In using it the stockings are to be 
dmwn on die lege qi^etly and tightly, 
and fastened with an elastic garter bdow 
the knee, to prevent them from sll{9»qg 
down. 

To mtkt the most rapid p o gy gs s 
through the water, the best position is on 
the back. The swimmer ought to draw 
well up, and strike smartly out, each kg 
aUernaidf^ in the line of molioo of the 
body, for by doing so a more contiiHious 
and uniform motion is kept no tiiaa when 
both legs are drawn np ana struck oil 
together. The leg ought to he held 
steady for an instant after being drawn 
up, as the rush of water after it, assisb 
the expansion of the apparatus p r e vions 
to taking die out stroke, which c o na e 
quentlv is more effiecthro Umn the "aBp" 
being less. For a prolonged nnm^ m 
average of from fifty to sixty strokes per 
minnte will he fomid very suitable hi 

Kint of speed and eeooomv of stieng^; 
t a little experience on tbe part of the 
swimmer will soon make him acqtiaiated 
with the best ways oi using the 8toefe> 
ings. The expsnsion of the doth round 
the stocking will oeeupv a diameter of 
from 12 to 16 inches, wnieh affords aboot 
a a<|uare foot of propelling sor^MC. Wllh 
a pair of these stockinp a person may 
swim in summw westher a mile Ibr 
pleasure, and several milea If for hb 

On Thursday, August U, a person 



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ICATttEMATtOAL PBBtOBTCALB. 



193 



fwam acnm tbe ¥Mk of Pbrtb, M 
Qoeeiis f efry, aeeompHsbhig^ the dtatame 
of nearly two miles in 50 minutes, and 
witiioiit fatigue. 

John Cox. 

Oorsie MOb, Edtie, Augntt 19, 1850. 

MATBXMATIOAIi PEKIODICAtS. 

XXIL Muc^Otmsa CtfrtWa MaiU- 
wumoa* 
(CoDdaltd from pH» IM.) 

Art LIV.— Ob the CarTO which a 
Projcotiie deBcribeo in a UnlfonD Medi* 
um, tbat reuateth in any mnltiplioatc 
ratio of ita Veloottiea. 

Art. LV.^A short Essay on tho Sail 
•ad Bndder of a Ship. By Mr. Ben- 
jamin Donn. 

Arc LYI.— ^The Elemei^ of the 
MotioA of the Comet of 1748^. By^ 
Bev. Stepben BdtOD. 

Art. LY li OMiehisioMf tboMethod 

for flndiBg Fluents fiom Mr. Emenon's 
Table. By F. Holliday. 

*^* At the conelorion of this paper 
Ao writer takes occasion to tell Walton^ 
leosls (Mr. LandenX '*tbat it is phiii 
be did not understand what he was 
writing about," when be objected^ in 
m. 102-3, TWiMT^s MwgrciuM, to Mr. 
ibieTson'B t r e a tm en t of Finkional Equa-^ 
timis; and by way of amendment, offers 
siv^ml oorrcodons of BIr. Landen's re«- 
salts. These emendations, howeter, 
coBslsl in notbiiw more ^an ^ snb- 
stitotion of -¥ where Walteniensis only 
writes *-, agreeably to the taature of wt 
Prob l em under dtscvsshm. Both Mr. 
Bclttday and '^an ingenious correspond- 
ent, Amiens,** agree that Mr. Landen's 
** obfections proceed only from his ig» 
nonmce of m sobjret, or the prejudice 
of ptfty ;'* and consider it " a pity that 
as iagenioos person should censure an 
An^or of repiitatica witboot any reasoov 
and expose bia own judgment merely 
Ibr tbe sake of party, and have no other 
way of raising ms merit than by detract* 
1^ from that of others." In tbe same 
paper, howertr, tber esKVfs Mr. Emer* 
seira wriHake by okerving, tbat ''he 
does not mriqpose to give the 49fr€ti 
ihent la thai proposition, hot in a po- 
posidoa sfterwards I " Tbe disconttnu* 
ance of both the itfrnrtfaaca and tho 
MxgPBisei wouKl prsreat any reply fmm 
WaJtoniensis, if indeed such were necca* 
saryt for alUmngh be >maf bkre been 



sufajeet to the frailties of human nature 
in several particulars, there does not 
appear sufficient reason for the imputa- 
tions contained in the x>receding extracts. 
The controversy between Heath and 
Simpson was engrosBing considerable 
attention at this period, snd it is not to 
be wondered at, if so decided an Emer- 
sonian as Hollidsy should feel himself 
somewhat aggriev^ by the freedom with 
whicb the oTcrsights of his favourite 
were handled by some of the dispotantSL 

Art LYIIL— Two Problems in Sum- 
mation of Series. Br F. Hdliday. 

•»* It will be evident from tbe pre- 
ceding list thst pure Greometry engaged 
but a smalt share of the attention of 
nuthematicians at ^rfs time ; some three 
or four of the articles being all that 
make any approach to a geometrical 
character. Un the contrary, Newton's 
Priftcipia, Phywical AHron&my, and 
the Appliai^&tu ^f the JPiuMiMal Cal- 
culi, were cultivated with considerable 
ardour by the correspondents of the 
MiMctUanea, whicb, on this account, 
mutt have rendered much assistance to 
students in their analytical researches. 
The conductor, too, was an ardent ad- 
mirer of Emerson and his writings, and 
from ^e fact of both being very ex- 
tensive contributors, Ae main features 
of tbe woi4c have much in common with 
tbe earlier publications of that somewhat 
peculiar Author. 

QnestioM. — The total number of 
mathematical questions ^ both volumes 
of this periodical is 208, of whicb 195 
received solutions. Of ^ese 2 belong 
to Chances, 3 to Aridimetic, 3 to Series, 
10 to Geometry, 18 to Astronomy, 11 
to Mechanics, 27 to Algebra, 30 to rlane 
and Spherical Trigonometry, 29 to the 
Application of Algebra to Geometry, 
Mensuration, ftc, and 62 to the Doc* 
trine of Fhiaions and its AppMcatkms. 
The oollection of Problems at tbe end 
of Emerson's Algebra may be referred 
10 as making tbe nearest approach to a 
flte-nmile of this department of tbe 
MUceSUmea ; for tlthougb notation had 
been 'much improved by various writers 
when the Algebra was pubKshed (176i), 
Mr. Emerson was not tne person to by 
aside established uaage, and adopt any 
such ** new-fangled fooleries'* as im- 
proved notation and modernised methods 
of treating mathematical subjects. 
Qnss. Sis proposed by Huriothmmbo 



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laTHEMATIOAL PBBIODTOAIB. 



(Simpson), tod gives the difference of 
isimuthi of three known stars at th« 
same time to find their altitudes and the 
latitude of the plaoe. It had been 
wrong printed in the Gentleman's Maga^ 
xine for June 1788, and was here solved 
bj Philofluentimecanalgegeomastrolongo 
(Emerson). 

Ques. 14 gives a point A in a reo 
tangular billiard-table, and requires to 
striae a ball of a given diameter, so that 
after threg reflections it shall pass 
through the same point A. From the 
firequenov with wnich cases of this 
inquiry nave been proposed, it would 
appear to have been a favourite specula- 
tion with geometrical students. Various 
forms of Uie problem may be met with 
in the Diaries^ the Mathematician^ the 
Math, Companion^ &c. ; and it may be 
added, that not only the usual forms, but 
their converses and extension to the 
ellipse are very elegantly treated in the 
MS. remains of that distinguished geo- 
meter, the late J. H. Swale, of Liver- 
pool. 

Ques. 20 is another by Hurlothrumbo, 
which is again answered by £merson 
under his extraordinary signature. It 
inquires '* what form a mass of homo- 
geneous matter must take, that the attrao- 
Uon thereof on a corpuscle, somewhere 
in or without its surface, may be the 
greatest possible. Also what is the ratio 
of this attraction to the greatest whereby 
the corpuscle can be affected, when the 
same matter is in the form of a sphere.'* 

Ques. 28 investigates " a general 
theorem for the convex superficies of the 
unguis made by a plane cutting a cone 
parallel to its side : it was proposed by 
Mr. N. Oates, and answered by Emer- 
son (Philo., &c.) and Mr. William 
Brown. 

Ques. 29 is proposed by Mr. HoUi- 
day, and requires ** a point within a 
triangle, such that the sum of its distances 
from the angular points may be a mini- 
mum." 

The question appears to have been 
first proposed by Fermat to Torricelli, 
who re- proposed it to Viviani in a form 
very similar to the preceding. Vieta 
paid some attention to it in nis Opera 
Math.f p. 345, and an algebraical solu- 
tion is ^iven by Newton in Prob. 27 of 
the Artth. Universalis, Professor Simp- 
son gave demonstrations in several 
places : — in bis Fluxions^ £x. 12, p. 26, 



Ed. 1823; Algebra, Prob. 53; Max. 
and Minima, Prob. 3 ; Appendix to Geo- 
metry, Prob. 31; Select Exercisee^ 
Prob. 56; most of which are distin- 
guished for his usual elegance. New- 
ton's solution was transferred by Emer- 
son into the Collection of Problems 
(No. 107) at the end of his Algebra^ 
and ytvlani*8 eeometrleal demonstra- 
UoB has been «veo, aeoompanied by an 
appropriate rererenee, as Prob. 6, Sect. 
3, of Greeswell's Maxbnmm and MM^ 
mum. The same inauiry also forms 
Prop. 35, Book iii., of Leslie's Geome^ 
irieeU AnafysiSf and an interesting varia- 
tion was proposed by Mr. D. T. Sb«ri» 
dan as Ques. 378, No. zxi. of the 
Maihemaiieal Conwanicn for 1818, 
where it wu elegantly treated by ** A. B. 
L." (Miss Lonsada) and Mr. John 
Baines, of Nottingham. Dr. WallMa 
took up the subject in pp. 111-124 of 
his Geometrieal Theorems and Anafy- 
Heal FormmUB, treating most of the 
principal cases very fully by his method 
of focal points, and giving at the same 
time a sketch of its early hbtorieal fea- 
tures ; he had also previoasly given a 
memoir involving similar considerations 
in vol. vi. of the Cambridge PhiL 
Traneactiene. It would not be difficult 
to inerease Uie list of referenoet to a 
considerable extent, but as they are 
mostly transcripts from preceding aii« 
thors, it oould serve no useful purpoee : 
— it may, however, be mentioned that 
Professor Davies has given a beautifQl 
expression for the sum of the lines when 
a minimum, in vol. i. Ex. 36, p. 470, of 
his edition of Huttan'e Course, which 
has been elegantly investigated as Ques. 
1697 of the Lady's and GentUmuaCs 
Diary for 1843. 

Ques. 61 gives the sum of the sides, 
the vertical angle, and the perpendicu- 
lar, to construct the triangle: — it was 
proposed by Mr. Thomas Simpson, and 
answered by Mr. John Turner. 

Ques. 84 is proposed by Turner, aod 
gives a triangle in species *' to inscribe 
therein another given triangle, so that 
the triangle given in species may be a 
maximum." Solutions by means of 
fluxions are given by Emerson {PhUo^^ 
&c.), Jepson, and the proposer. 

Ques. 88 relates to tne ascent and 
descent of a projectile in a medium of 
uniform density, and is said by Mr. 
Holliday to have been *' proposed aand 



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MATHEMATICAL PEBIODI0AL8. 



195 



mlved bj a oonceited foreigner (Ber» 
mmilH), who is perpetiuillT botsUng of 
hit owQ performanoes, and' at the same 
time depreciating those of others, 
espeoiallj the English roethematioians 
(against whom be seems to have a par- 
tietilar spite), not excepting Sir lease 
Newton nimeelf ;" but it so hsppened 
that '' the sohition, on which he spends 

no less than twenty pages in quarto 

is wide enough from the truth,** A 
similar question had been proposed in 
the Oenilewtan^s Magcuine bj Mr. 
Laoden, the solution to which was cor- 
rected b J Mr. Emerson in his Fluxions ; 
both of which are reprinted in No. 2, of 
the Misceiiamsa, The subject is again 
resamed in Ques. 118, when elaborate 
solotioDS were given hj HoUtday and 
Emeraoo (Philo., &c.), the former of 
whom takes occasion to term John Ber- 
noailil a " boasting mathematical Hec- 
tor,*' because "he glories exceedingly 
that he has given a solution shorter and 
more general than Sir Isaac Newton in 
hiB Principia.** 

Ones. 94 relates to the subject of 
gunnery, and was proposed by Mr. R. 
oobinson in order that an extenslTe 
leriea of proUeoN respeetinff prorjectiles 
might be demoastFUed. He gives the 
imrcatigatioB of 24 theorems and 12 
problems, to which a <* Table of Gun- 
nenr'* is added by the editor. The 
sulgeet was sgain resumed in Ques. 19, 
ToL iL, by Mr. Benjamin Donn, who 
added ten problems as a completion of 
Mr. Robinson's theory. The results are 
thoae usuiJly obtained in the theory of 
protfctiles in vacuo. 

Ones. 114 is proposed by Gamston 
Retford (HolUday ?) in order *< to deter- 
mine the quantity of degrees whereby 
the mooo is retarded by the action of 
the sun, while the earth describes about 
the son the least given arc possible;" 
an elaborate sdndoa is given by H(olli- 
day), which oeoupies no fewer than nfaie 
qiHBto pages. 

Ones. 124 determines ^e length of a 
ttringthat will reach round two wheels 
of given diameters, placed at a given 
distance from each other. 

Ques. 133 investigates the radius of 
the nuutimum circle in the Arbelon of 
the ancients: — it was proposed by Mr. 
John Ash, and answered by Mr. W. 
Jepson. 

Qttca, 18, vol il, requires the pboe 



where an eye must be posited in the line 
of centres, so as to see equal surfaces of 
the earth and moon :— K>ne case of a 
problem which has found its way into 
almost every mathematical periodical, 
and has been claimed as new by more 
than one individual in recent times. 

Ques. 31, vol. ii., is the only problem 
in the Miscellanea to which a pure^ 
geometrical solution is given, indepen- 
dently of numerical data. It was pro- 
posed by " Philopesos," and gives •• two 
triangles ABC, D£F, to inscribe a tri- 
angle in ABO that shall be equiangular 
to DBF.** An algebraical solution is 
given by " Amicus,*' and geometrical 
ones by Mr. J. Wigglesworth and the 
proposer, whose construction and de« 
monstration are so satisfactory that the 
editor '* returns thanks to this gentleman, 
and should be glad of more problems of 
this nature, as he seems capable of the 
arduous tasks in geometrv, which sort 
of problems will be useful, and giv ethe 
reader a clear and perfect idea of the 
method of demonstration.** Such re- 
marks from the editor of a mathemaical 
periodical of considerable circulation, 
afford a curious proof of the low ebb to 
which the study of the ancient geometry 
had subsided, previously to its revival 
under Simpson and his immediate sue-* 



Ckmtributere, — Messrs. Arwin, Bam- 
field, Bevil, Bolton, Brown, Bulman, 
Chappie, Charlton, Coleridge, Cowper, 
Crossiev, Da vies. Dent, Donn, Dunn, 
Epwortn, Farrer, Gregory, Garrard, 
Hammond, Hart, Hartley, Hauxley, 
Holliday, Jepson, Kingston, Leonard, 
Malham, '* Morpethiensis,** " Oxonien- 
sis,'* **Philofluentiroecanalgefl[eomastro- 
longo" (Emerson), Powle, Reed, Ro- 
binson, Sharp, Simpson, Smith, Street, 
Sutton, Todd, Turner, Waine, Ward, 
Williams, Wigglesworth, Western, Tew- 
land, &e., &c. 

Publieathm.-^From the fMt that the 
first volume, comprising nine nimibcn, 
was not completed berore about April, 
1749, we are led to infer that, although 
the publication was snnounoed as auar» 
terly, it really took place half-yearly, or 
at irregular intervals. The last Jive 
numbers extended over a period of about 
/ot<r years; so that this publication was 
well nigh yearlv. All the work appears 
to have been printed " for Edward Cave, 
at Su John's Gate, lAmdon," the well- 
Digitized byLjOOQlC 



196 TH]$ 1J:tlfCtlttC tKLEOTA^It BETWBBtr EKdUUfD AKD FRAKCC. 



knoiAii profMrtetor of 'rtic e^ntlmk^^ 
Magaztne, 

' TteoiTAi Wtl»6rgoir. 

Burnley, Lancashire, Aug. 19, 1850. 

Tilt 51, p, 440, HM t9, •oi i, t&r MUwkfU^ iwd 
WitekttL 

Vol. 5S, p. 447, lino 9» coU 1, for JTiic^i^ imA 
WUektU. 

Yfll, 41, ^ 448, Unft Sl^col. ;^ ^ Afw^r««i 
hooft. _ 

jpftovBMom PAMi** U4K0iaid«MAaiiBnc 

ProfMMr Bi8e» is Ui« MiArM.whiob bo 
is now delWerinf^ before the Smithtonian 
Inttitatiob, »Ute8 tbtt ttiere It no longer 
any doubt of the eppUc«tiOD of tbii poiver 
It A lubitiUito 4>r etMiD.. Ho exUbMI 
the aMot laipoiiDg tzpeiimnli e?er mU 
"of ecteocc 



1 Ui tbU hnncb of ecteoce. An iipi- 

I bar of iron, weighing 150 lbs., was 

made to ipring up bf magnetic «ctlOD, and to 
moto ni|yldly up aid down» dancing like a 
tethir Im the aif» wUbont aaj tisible J«v- 
port. The foroe operating npon tbe bar he 
■tided to ayerage dOO Ibi. through ten inchei 
of lu motfon. He aaid he could nfae tkis 
bar 100 feet as readily a tea iaebes* and 
lie eipocted no difficnltj in lioing tbe same 
with a bar weighing one ton, or a hundred 
tons. He eonld make a pile-drtTer, or a 
forge hammer, wKh great slmplfeltj, and 
eooM make aft engine with a stroke of 6, 
18» 20, or any avnbcr of Crat. 'I'be most 
beanttfol experiment we ever witnessed was 
tbe loud sound and brilliant ilash from the 
galfanie spark, when produced near a cer- 
tain point In bis great msgnet* Each snap 
waa as kMid aa a pistol* and wbea be pro- 
duced tbe same spsrk at a little distance 
from this point it made no noise at all. 
This recent dtscoreryis said to liafc a prac- 
tksal bearing upon the conatmetidD of an 
electro-magnetio engine. Tmly a great 
power is here ; and where is the limit to it ? 
He then eibibited bis engine of between 
four and ft?e horses power, oj^erated by a 
battery oonlslbed wMrin a apace of three 
eubie feet It looked vary .wuUke a mag- 
netic machine. It was a reciprocating 
engine of two feet stroke, and tbe whole 
engine and battery weighed about OM ton. 
When the power wne thrown mi faf the 
motkm of a le?er» tbo engine started off 
aagnifioentlj, malting 114 strokes per mi- 
nnte ; tbongn, wben It dro? e a circular saw, 
10 inches In diameter, sawing up boards an 
inoh and a quarter thiek into laths, the 
engine made but about 80 strokes per mi- 
nute.^ Thrre was great anxiety on the part 
of the spectators to obtain specimens of 
these laths to presenre ss 'trophies of this 
great meebaoleal triumph. The force ope- 



ralftng upoa tMa great cylinder, througbeut 
Ibe wbale motion of two feet, was stated to 
bo €001bs« whBi^ the engine waa moring 
very slowly, b«t bs-bnd not been able to 
asoertute what 4beft>rtia waa when the engine 
waa runni^ at a working apeed, tkougb It 
isat eouldenMy lasi. The moat teportant 
mid lotereatinf pointy io snire ri (a tbe sipuiss 
-of 4bo powvr. Wmftmn Fsge stated that 
iM bad redueed tbe ooeC so Car that it was 
lees than steam ua^r many and most eon- 
dhlona, though not so low aa the ebe^eet 
ataam engines. With all die imperfeetions 
of tbe engine, tbe consumption of 3 lbs. of 
aiae per dsy would pfvdnee one borse power. 
The larger bie engines, oontrsry to what 
has .been known belbre, tbo greater tbe 
ceoboasy. Prolbasor Page waa blaaself aor- 
prieed at the result.' Hmso were yet prac- 
tieal diflleulHea to bo ovareomet tbe battery 
IMS yet to be improtadi and It ramalna yet 
to tiy i9ie experiment on a ftaDderaeala— to 
make a power of 100 iunaes, or aaose. 
IVuly the ago is fraugbt witk woodera, and 
we oan now look forward with certainty to 
the time wben coat wHl be pnt to better uses 
than to bom, scaM, and dosttoy^-^Mftenal 
Mtfir^Metr (Ameriean paper >< 



ran nLsormto TuxonATH MivwmBN smo- 

LAND AinS raAlfCfe. — BXXBMaiOlf 10 
IBBLAOID AB9 aMnmCA. 

Tbe long- promised expertmeatal opera- 
tions for establishing a telegrapliie oomasu- 
nlcation, by means of wires sunk la tbe 
Channel between Doter and Calala, oom- 
meoced at I>over on Tueeday, tbe tTtb 
August. At one o'clock, the General Ship- 
owner's steamer, OoHatk, waa in readloeas, 
steam up, at Doter Harbour, to start aeross 
the Channel, wHb all tbe necessary appara* 
tus and midbhiery on board, and a erew of 
about thirty men, consisUng of pilots and 
sailors, under the superintendence of Meaars. 
Jacob Brett; W. Reid; C. J. Wollaatoo, 
C.B. ; F. Bdwardsmd otbere. 
paddle-wheels. In tbe'centiiB of tbe 
was a gigantic drum, or wheel, nenrty 15 
feet hmg and 7 fbet In dianreter, wo tgMng 
7 tons, and fixed on a strong fra mo wot k . 
Upon It -was eoUed up %i eloee oowroIuttaM 
about thirty milee of telegra ph i c wire ea- 
eased fan a eof oriog of gutta perdia kalf aa 
ineb In diameter. The point ptopoaod to 
be reached, Cape Orinea, tbe neareat land- 
mark to tbe EngHsh coast, and botwean 
Calais and Boulogne, Is a distaaee of SI 
miles, so that a surplus svpply of nine 
of wire was held In reserre for tbe 
of slacto^nitig. n&e tutuntlcm waa to ateam 
out «t fite milea an hour, to^ pay oof pso* 
gressirely tbe wbolo extent of tologti^bk 



THE ELBCTRIO TBLEGBAPR BETVrECN XKOLAKD AKD FRAKCK. 



197 



tMkle, Mid to imbed the wke by «ietM of 
kideii eltoipt, of whieb there were tome 
koBdieds oa boaid, •! 20Jbiu md 85lbt. 
veigbl, in tbe bottom of. OMtMft. Tk^jm- 
mi «•■ ptoriakmod for tbo day, ond Caft. 
BoUoek* of Hec M^ti Igr^i ^Itam^ibf^ Wuh 
|M», oootedtbo tratfc of tbojHufigMioit lo 
be marked ia aa direai a rowTo as pouibla» 
fcf pleeJBg o aeiiet of pilat boayo wMi iagf 
OB the toaCOft beMrt baiof pioptiod lo 
■agompany tbo eiperiMaatal amiao wkk bis 
owa fiBiil as a tandar, Tbo oonMatlvg 
viiea were plaead 4n r a a diq am at tba Qo- 
fanMBem Fiar bi the barbottt , aad likewfsa 
at tbo Cepi^ utem tbflf nm «p-tbafMa of 
thaocclMtr* wbbdi.U 124* faal abovo aaa- 
amriu Tbo aepeiaary batttviaa aod mani- 
falators were all on board, but aa a gale 
iad vello^ aaft uneepeetedly •pnai9§ ap over 
apsevioBalyoonMMiitiffaly^ofdm aeavltwas 
deniiod'iiBadriaabla by tba oxperimeAtar lo 
vantvo oiity aad tbooperali<m waa adjonmed. 
Somaintoreatiag exparimaBtat boweftft were 
madoon^oamaU «eld«> to tbow tbo praefei- 
oabililr of 4be plan^ A mile of wire waa 
paidootoff deek from the pisr. to Shakei- 
paat'a Cliffy and the iiokiBfj^ prooaaa waa 
pnred to bo pfactioabla of parfiMrmaooe. 
M oommiaieatkm to tbo foUowing effbet 
waa alao sen*> tbfoaifb 24 milaa of wicor— 
*« Printed by Electric Telegraph, on board 
^ G^oliafil Bteam-boat." On Wednesday 
mdndog, Ibo expevimenl was renewed with 
compete ■oeeaaa. TbeCMIaM atarled from 
Dover at batf-paat 10 o'ctock^ proviaioned 
lar the daj* with acrew of about tbii^ment 
aod prooeoded at a rate of about fimr milea 
per bo«r» preoeded by the Wiigeom, Capt. 
iolfcwk^ R.N.> as pilot, who bad eaused the 
4tHik in a dlfoet line to Cape Qriiaa to be 
amrked by bnojs and flags on atavas. The 
wvi continaonsly atreamed ont^ and at 
every aUteeotb of a mile, a leaden clamp or 
waigbt, aa mentioned abofe, was aocovely 
riveted oBytosecnre it at the bottom of the 
sea. Inter^ting salojtations were k#pt up 
bswiy dnrtng the progress of sabmerging 
Ike ikn between the- gentlemen on board 
and Ms^dfdin Brett* n^ printed, the first 
aasssagii aerosa the Channel. 

iTboaeo ^t Dover ia about 30 feat deep, 

-lasmseing ss the track proceeds to abont SO 

AttopSf or 180 /est, wbiab is the greatest 

dbftbr^OMeptin ssid-cbannel, where there is 

A pofaift oslled tbo Ridges find .another the 

Ymav botb.shaUa«s«and dreaded by naviga- 

. itnv» one 17 milea in length, and the other 

'JS« .fifti^sen these Uiere is a deep snb- 

^peviae vaUey» snrronoded by shifting sands, 

jB-whif(b ships iose their aoobors* and fisher- 

.jpea tbev neliu- The wire wss^Jiawe^r, 

Jm^% sank acrou. these to a. depth, winch , 

-Ift It boptdt piU, pUeo i# ont of the roscb of 

SOT; m o n i t ow of the deep*,, M half- 



peat oigbt ia Ibe eventogr tbe CMiM saMr 
arrived on the French side of the Channel ; 
and the odser esd of the vice was rnn np 
the cliff at Cape Grine s to its tcnpinal sta- 
tion. Comp^mf^lsryi messages between 
England and France immediately took place ; 
and these two conotHes will now latercnsnge 
'oorrespondenoe bye messenger which sets 
time snd detention, wind and storm» at 
defisaee.-^jM(ir Pi^psrr. 

The estabUidunent of an eteetro-telegra- 
pbie oommnnicatio* acroas the Straits be- 
tween' Bngland end Fraaoo has beea for a 
oonsiderable ti«M foreseen, as one of the 
most natnrsT In the train of oonaeqneneea 
resulting from the modern application of 
electrtci^ to (be transipission of intelli- 
gedoe between distant parts. If a line of 
wire could M«vey'the eleolHe Impnlaefor 
0ioussnds of miles over the surface of the 
esrth-*-as it has done and is doing— there 
ooold be nothing In the nahiee ol things to 
pi^f^nt it fhmi hiAhg e^inally ettcwdona if 
carried under the earth or even under water ; 
granted always, what no one has been heard 
to dbpwte that it Is in tbo power of art to 
protect the wii^e from ' whatever antegonls- 
tic iofluences it may be exposed to when 
laid down under earth or water. Trials 
of submerged lines of wire bad* in fact, 
been made with perfect saeoess scross the 
t^hames and the Uttd8oh^)oth tolersbly 
broad rivers; imdit waa not to be doubted 
•tbafe what could be eeeompUsbedin this way 
fbr dne lAcdle, eodld be aeeoeaplisbed for 
thirty or fifty, or, indeed, sny number of 
miles. It was but. In any case, to make the 
liike of Sttbmerged wire longer— to sink it 
(perhaps) deeper^-^Uid (if deeper) to protect 
it bet^r. The simplest of things, however, 
when carried out on a large scale require 
often^ as in ibis wmfsnee, fbr the doing of 
tbeni, ^ftlitieS of e lii|b order— great enter- 
prize^ great perseverance, great executive 
' powess of coftstcnction and direction. It 
wee a great thing, aaa«redly»> (o undertake to 
nnderlsy e sea of somr thirty milee wide 
,w]th one contiauons line bf communica- 
tion— a single break or Aaw in which would 
be lata! to the whole ; there was the risk of 
failure to be braved i And in any event 
much expenditure of money, time, and 
(roi)bleiobe«4venlnred on tl^c issur i and 



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198 



PATBRT LAW 0A8B. 



beyond aU doubt or q«MtioQ, it is a groat 
thing to hare iuoeesaftiUj aooomplished. 
To all nioh honour as belongs to the per- 
formlDg of a great undertaldog well Messrs. 
Jaoob and John Brett, the engineers of the 
Dorer and Calais line of telegraph are 
richly entitled. The newspapers say that 
they have obtained ** the exolnsife right of 
electrio oommiinicatlon between this ooontry 
and France for ten years." We do not well 
see how this can be, looking at the legal 
difficulties in the way ; bat we are sure that 
no reward they can liaTe secored to them- 
•elyes will be too great for the prodigions 
adTantages which they have secured by their 
Indifidoal exertions, not only to both 
England and France, but to the world 
at large. For an electric telegraph to 
Calais, is not a thing which will stop 
there. It Is a telegraph to Vienna, to Mos- 
cow, to Constantinople, to Ispahan, to 
Delhi, to Calcutta,— to the remotest bounds, 
in short, of Europe and Asia. A few years 
ago people laughed when Lord Palmerston 
predicted at the Southampton Meeting of 
the British Association, that a time might 
oome when on the Minister of the day being 
asked in Plvliament, ** Whether it was true 
that a war had broken out in India?" would 
reply, «* Wait an instant tiU I telegraph the 
Goremor-Qeneral, and I will tell you." 
What was thought but a good joke in 1843 
is now, in 1850, in the course of being actu- 
ally aooomplished ; and, ere a few years more, 
is likely to take its place amongst the sober 
realitieo of the age. Nor to the Old World 
alone need our Tiews of the ultimate progress 
of electro-telegraphy be confined t for sinee 
the English Channel hu been crossed, the 
crossing of the Irish must follow next as 
but a matter of course ; and Ireland once 
reached, there lies but a couple of thousand 
miles of water or so between the Old World 
and the New. We say " but," for after aU 
there is the practical difficulty? Not in 
producing the length of wire required ; for 
eny length of wire can be spun — not in 
oorering and insulating the wire ; for thou- 
sands of miles of wire can be coTcred and 
insulated just as readily and surely as one— 
or vet in laying it down, as the Dover and 



Calais experiment hu taitf ^wn. The 
only real difficulty in the case, we appre- 
hend, will be to find ship-room for thn 
enormous coil of wire that wonld be ra* 
quired; but this is an objection whidi 
vanishes before the recollection of sudi 
leviathan structures aa the Canmim and 
Ortai Britmn. BesideSf means mny W 
found to effeot onboard the laying*down 
vessel a perfect Junction of different lepgths 
of wire, so as to allow of two, three^ or 
more reels being employed. We asaune, of 
course, that battery power sufficient to 
transmit the electric impulse through a wire 
of some two thousand miles long is at oor 
command i but thongh we are not awarw 
of any recorded experiments that would 
justify us in taking the possibility of this 
for granted, we know that the recently in- 
vented reeehfing magnet of Morse is foonded 
on the principle of counting for nothing the 
mere distance to which the electric messi^ 
has to be transmitted; and, at all events, 
the feet is one capable of tentative determi- 
nation on land before a single yard of an 
Atlantic line need be laid down. The Old 
and New Worlds being thua united, wm 
should then see the dream of tiie poet even 
more than realised; the earth ''girdled 
round" about— not in ** forty minutea" — 
but in a thousandth part of the time— in « 
ibgle beat of the dock. What wonld nil 
the other triumphs of human genius be to 
this ? Time and distance literally annihi.> 
lated throughout the bounds of the planet 
which we inhabit 1 A triumph only to be 
transcended when the planets shall them- 
selves begin to telegraph one another— which 
is one of the very few things which, In this 
age of art-miracles, one would le n t ur e 
without hesitation to say will never happen. 

IxFBiiceiicBifT ov A RsMmBBD Iifmr- 
noM. 

GUILDBALL.— ill^^llff 29, 1850. 

/. Weiek, J. 8. MUrgeteon, G. S. MiU 
ekeU, and S. Price, of the firm of Wel<A, 
Margetson, and Co., silk meroers, of 17, 
Cheapside, appeared in answer to an infor- 
mation charging them with unlawfully ex* 
posing for sale a portmanteau, the same being 
a fraudulent imitation of a regist e re d deaign 



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WEBKLT LIST OV NBW BNOLItH FATBMTS. 



199 



■ftor I ' e c ei f ia g d«e notloe that the eonient 
of Mr. Motte, who owns the deiigo, had not 
heen giveo for that porpoie. 
Th« prooeedingt commenced abont a month 
t^, when a great deal of efidence on both 
lidea waa heard. On behalf of Mr. Motte 
it waa deposed that the plan and constmo- 
^m of the portmanteau were novels and cal* 
enlatcd to effect a great tavingto the pnblie, 
aa thm article might be made In one-third of 
the time required for the manofactnre of one 
pot together on the old tyttem. On the 
other idde a nnmber of witnesses stated that 
there was nothfaig in Mr. Motte's design 
which oonld be claimed as absolntely new t 
and that portmanteaus of a similar khid had 
been made a great nnmber of years ago in 
thia country and in Ireland. 

On Taesd ay seme farther e? idenee, which 
waa alaa of a very eoBfliding natore^ was 
heard. 

Alderman Challis said he had given a 
great deal of time and carefol attention to 
thia case, in order that it might not be said 
that he bad decided hsstUy, and after weigh* 
ing all the facts before him he could not but 
arrire at the condnsion that complainant 
had Mtj made out his clai-n for protection. 
The crideaee had only proved that the seve- 
ral parts forming the portmanteau were not 
each by itself of modem invention. That waa 
very true, but there had been no evidence that 
the application of all those old inventions in 
<me artide of utility, whereby a great saving 
of expense and time in maldog was effected, 
vraa otherwise than new. Under these cir- 
cumstancea he thought he should only be 
acting with justice to all parties in giving his 
judgment in favour of the complainant. But 
as the complainant stated that he did not 
ask for the infliction of a heavy fine, but 
merely a decision, he would fine defendants 
the sum of 5/., and the costs to be settled 
by ttie clerk of the court. 

Mr. Clarkson (instructed by Messrs. Ro- 
bertson and Co.) appeared for the plaintiff, 
sad Mr. Hawkins for the defendants. 



SPSCinOATlONa of BNOLISB PATBNT8 BN- 
BOLJLBD DUaiNO THB WBBK BNOINO 

SBPTBMBBa 5th, 1850. 

THOlfAa RlCHABDB, WlLLIAM TaYLOB, 

sad Jambs Wtldb, the younger, of the 
Fslcon Works, Walworth, Surrey, cotton 
manufacturers. For improved rotlert to be 
%Hd m the manufacture of tilkf cotton, 
wooUem, and other fadria. Patent dated 
MMTch 2, 1850. 

The patentees remark, that fibrous ma. 
terials generally contain, before they are 
■pan or drawn, a portion of some deli- 
qneeeent salt, which becomes either em* 
bedded In or deposited on the leather irith 



which the peripheries of ordinary drawing 
rollers are covered ; and that in damp 
weather the salt attracts moisture, which 
causes the fibres to '* lap." Now the pre- 
sent invention consists in substituting for 
leather, tubea of vulcanised India rubber, 
whereby a repellent surface, or one not 
liable to absorb moisture, is obtained, so 
that any fibrous materials, undergoing the 
process of spinning and drawing, idU not be 
liable to *' lap," or to be drawn round the 
roller, and wul be delivered in an unbroken 
and uniform state. To render surfaces of 
the vulcanised India rubber tubes better 
adapted to the purposes of this inventioo« 
they are boiled for from four to six hours in 
an alkaline solution (using, by prefbrenoe, 
caustic soda or caustic potass), to which is 
added flour of sulphur. The alkalies render 
the oaoutchouo more solid, and the sulphur 
gives to its surface a degree of roughness, 
which renders it better fitted for drawing 
than before. In order to retain the vulcan- 
ised tubee in position, and prevent their 
riding off the cylinders, the ends of the 
latter are provided with collars. 

Ctoifli.-^The construetion of drawing 
rollers, to be employed in the manufacture 
of silk, cotton, woollen, and other fabrics, by 
covering the peripheries of cylinders, com- 
posed of any suitable material, with tubes of 
vulcanized or metallo-thionized caoutchouc 
prepared and fitted as described. 

William Edwards Staite, of Throg- 
morton-street, London, gentleman. For 
knprovementt in pipet for emokmgf and in 
apparatus connected therewith. Patent 
dated Msrch 2, 1850. 

Ctotmt.— 1, A combination of parts, both 
as regards pipes and stems, having a dia* 
phragm, whereby the oil and condensed 
vapour are intercepted and collected in a 
receiver, and are thus prevented from enter- 
ing the month of the smoker. 

2. A valve stem and slide-pieoe, whereby 
waste of tobacco and snooke by the ** back 
puff" is prevented. 

3. An improved tobacco-stopper. 

[The details of this invention, with en- 
gravings, in our next.] 



WBBKLT LIST OV NBW BNOLISR PATBNTS. 

Sir John Scott LU&e, Companion of the moot 
Honourable Order of the Bath, of Poria, France, 
for certain improvementi in the applieation of 
motive power. September 5; six montha. 

John Saul, of Manchester, cotton spinner, for 
certain improvements in maehinery or apparatus 
for spinning and twisting cotton and other fibioua 
substances. September 5 ; six months. 

George Smith, of Manchester, enf ineer, for oer. 
tain improvements in steam engines, and also im- 
provementa in feeding or suoolying the boilers of 
the some, part or parts of which improvements are 
also applicable to other similar purposss. 



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WBBXLT LIST Op NSW SNOUSH DB8IOir8. 



Winkn Wfttt, of QiMMgow, Nofth Britain, maim* 
CMtaring ebemitt, for obtain iraproTomentt ^ipll* 
eaUa to lalaad navigatioii, vhich improYomonti 
or parti tboreof, aro alto appUcablo fenerally to 
raiftng, lowering, or traotpcvUiif heavy bodies. 
Septembers; tlxmontbt. 

Andrew Barclay, of Kilmarnock, Ayr, North 
Britain, engineer, fot improvements in the smelt- 
ing of iron and other ores, and in the manuCMtnre 
or wofffcinc of Iron and other metals, and in certain 
letaiy englnee and fins, machlneiy, or apparatus at 
eonnected therewltlu Septembers; six months. 

WnUam Ersklne Coehxine, of Cambridge-ter- 
IMO, Regent* s-park, and Henry Praneis, of Princes- 
stxeet, Rothertuthe, fbr improvemenu in propelling, 
steering, and ballasting vessels In the pistons of 



oigines in flrs-bars of ftamaoes, and in 
s or railways. Septembers; six months. 
Frederick Woodbrldge, of Old OnveMane, Mid- 



dlesex, engineer, for improvements in machinery 
fbr manuflMtnring riveu, bolts, and screw blanks. 
Septembers; six months. 



John Beattls^ of Uverpodl, esglBair, Ibr eettata 
Improvements in steering vessds. September S; 
six months. 

James Mather the yonnger, of Crew Oaks, Pll- 
klngton, Lancaster, bleacher, and Thomas Edmts- 
ton, of the same plaoe, ealendoman, liar certain 
improvements In machtaiery or apparstus fbr Moor- 
ing, finishing, and strstehlng woollen, cotton, sad 
other woven fabrics. September 5; six months. 

Christopher Cross, of Pamworth, near Boston, 
Lancaster, cotton spinner and mamdhctnrer, ibr 
certain improvements in the mannUBctuie of textile 
Ikbrios : also in the mannlhetore of wearing appanl 
and other articles flrom textile materials, and la 
the machinery or apparatus for eilbeting the s 



Septembers; six months. 

James Bennle, of Ooward Bank, Pklklrk, StSdlag, 
Scotland, gentleman, fbr a certain improvesBeat or 
improvements In the construction of gas reterti 
and furnaces, and in apparatus or madiioery ^pU- 
cable to the same. Septembers; aixi 



LIST OV IRISH PATSMT8 VAOlf 2l8T 

Engine Abloo, of Panton-street, Haymarket, 
MlddlMox, for improvements in increasing the draft 
In chimneys of locomotive and other engiiies. July 
91. 

Joseph Barans, of St. Paul's, Deptfbrd, Kent, Bsq., 
fbr improvements in axles, and axle boxes of loco- 
morive engines, and other railway carriages. Au- 
gust I. 

Thomas Dlokson Rotch, of Dmmlamfbrd house, 
Ayr, Esq., for an Improved mode of manufacturing 
soap. August 1. 

Louis Napoleon Le Gras, of Paris, cIvO engineer, 
for Improvements in the separation and ditinfection 
of fecal matters In the manuCuture of manure, and 
in the apparatus employed therein. August I. 



JULY TO THB l^TB AUGUST, 1850. 

Thomas Keely, of the town and county of tks 
town of Nottingham, manufacturer, and WSUism 
WHkinson, of the same place, framework knitter, 
for certain improvements In looped or elastle fkbrkt, 
and in articles made therefirom; alao certain ma> 
ehlnery for producing the said lmpreTements,«hidi 
is applicable, In whole or in part, to themanufbetue 
of looped fUyrlcs generally. August 3. 

John Gwynne, of Lansdowne Lodge, Nettiag- 
hill, merchant, for improvements In obtsJning me* 
tive power, and in applying the same to giving 
motion to machinery. August 6. 

Ooorge Augustus Huddart, of Brynklr, Csresr* 
Ton, Esq., for certain improvementa in the maau* 
fbcture of cigars, and certain apparatus for smoking 
certain cigars. August 16. 



WIBKLT LIST OP DBSIQKS POE AATIOLSS OP UTILITY RBOISTBRKO. 



Date of No. in 
Registra- the Re- 
tion. gisUr. Proprietors' Names. 
Aug. SI 2421 William Elliot Carrett,. 

„ 2432 WiUiamBlrd ..... 

„ 242S Michael Macmanus ... 



„ 2424 David Hodge and Thos 

Roberts. M. .M M« M« ... M. 

Sept. S 242S John Tanner.......^...... 

„ 2426 William Newman, and 

William Newman jnn. 

„ 2427 AlfkedMoring.......^... 

4 2428 L. D. Smith........^...... 



Addresses. 

Leeds .....«...• ,M « 

Oxford-street .............. 

Blackburn, Lancashire .< 



Su])|iecu of Detlga. 
, Steam pump. 
. Boot. 
. Parexograph, or eelf-actlng 

copying guide to a«lst ia 

copying wiltiDg. 

. Candle lamp. 
.Trousers. 



Hatton Garden^............... 

Bristol. ....„ .M......... »..„ .. 

Wolverhampton and Birmingham Imperial door spring. 

ArtlUerr-place, West Bunhill-row. Nepaulese braces. 

Little Knight Rider-street ^^,^ Colouring emboedng appa* { 



CONTENTS OP 
On Ploughing bySteam. By the Right Hon- 
ourable Lord Wllloughby Do Eres^— (vi/A 

tngrmviM) „ «.«...... 

Letter of Professor Toung, of BelCut, to Lord 
Clarendon— (rfolev) .. 



THIS NUMBER. 
Profbssor Page's Electro-mi^netio MoUve Sa- 



181 
184 
188 



On the Application of Electricity and Heat as 
Movhig Powers. By Mr. WiUlam Petrie ... 

Deiicriptron of Messrs. Howson's RegUtered 
Differential Screwing Apparatus~<v<<* •»- 
gravinfft) ...................... .„„.^...„..„^„. ]9o 

Observations on Swimming, with Description 
of Cox's Patent Swimming Stockings. By 
Mr. Cox— {with emgraviufi) ". .. 191 

Mathematical Perio(ileals.~No.XXII. Miscel- 
lanea Curiosa Mathematlea. By Thomas 
Wilkinson, Esq.-(ccmKiMierf)......^^ 19S 



IM 

The Electric Telegraph between England and 
Prance— Extendon to Ireland and America 10# 

Case of Infringement of a Registered 

tion— Motto V. Margetaon and Co. ...... .^^.m. 1(4 

Specifications of English Patents Bniolled \ 
during the Week:— 

Richsrds, Taylor, & Wylde... Rollers 1! 

Staite Smoking Pipes IS 

Weekly List of New English Patents ............ 14 

Monthly List of Irish PatenU .................... 

Weekly List of Designs fbr Articles of Utility ^ 
Registered 24 



i?S?S#;.^V^n?^i'^'l^"*»"*''«* by Joseph Clinton Robertson, of No. 188, Moet-at»et« 
VLSf ^%^i i?tt<>on— 80W by A. and W. Qalignani. Rue Vivltnna. Paris; MaeUn and^ 
Dublin ; W. C. CampbeU and Co., Hambwgh ^"^"*"'* ***• vjvwine, ransj mmuuu man v*., 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

No. 1414.] SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1850. [Price Sd., SUmped, 4d. 

Edited by J. C. Robertson, 166, Fleet-street. 



SHIPTON'S RECIPROCATING STEAM-ENGINE. 




toim un. 



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2ta 

OF M ANCHBSTBB. 

(Proin Transacttooi of the Insktuiton of Heclianlcal Engineer. Jtiilf , 1850.] 

Thb lulijeet of the present paper is a steam-eDtioe of tlie reciproctting elau, only differ- 
ing from the ordlnl^ tdgiiik A M dielM kidptid M ol]lidttii!£g ^e himng motion direet 
oat of the rectilinear : the principle through which power is obtained being the same ai the 
ordinary reciprocating engine, tIs. — a piston acted npon by steam being propelled in a reo- 
tiUnear direction in a cylinder or steam-chimoer,' which in the present case is sqnare or 
feetangnlaTf instead of circnlar. 

From the many and often nnsnccessAil attempts t6 obtain a oontinnons motion direct ont 
of the piston, and also the tariety of f6tiry engines thki hare hitherto appeared before the 
public, it is the author's ^Ish t6 pdint odt <3«arly thS niiture of this inrention in the first 
place, so that no iiifJ)res^on n^ay be formed that it is of the rdtary class, but simply a short 
stroke reciprocating engine, tlie ^erm beinc '* in eccentric retol^ing in its tfwn diameter,'' 
which is nothing more df less thilA the piston Ahd erfUft combtoea ill one. body, and this 
body containing in itself tw6 dktinct mdtlon^, liii — rectilinear and revdlling ; both of 
which motions are comnoidn to the ordinary engine. 

Feeling oon?inced of mb econdmy and gbod etfect fMttftlftg ffo'iti the ordinary recipro- 
cating engine, it has been the iHve^tor'^ aim to a^proximitte as closely as possible to the 
principle, but they are of opititon that many isiportAnt modifidltions and improfements, 
may still be made ; it has been iMh tode^rof^^- _ . 

Firstly. That the power of the steam should ^ conreyed to the main shaft or aile in the 
most direct and simple method (taking the oscillating engine as a fair example). 

Secondly. To confttnldt such an engine that it may wttlj safety be worked up to an extra- 
ordinary number of rerlAutions, without causing the piltdh to trarel through an excessive 
amount of space. 

Thirdly. To arrai^ khAi a plan that thi st^iUn irttf M ttied expansively, without incon- 
Tcnience and complexiit ot i>arts. . . . 

Fourthly. To Uke caie tilat no akbiint B( the vmou^l ^y'^ should be in rubbing con- 
tact, except that which is the re^f eflectl|^ formk ^itithe ittion of the steam (which 
the author consider^ is b|nly M 6dt^^tii m odfflmon c^f^t and piston-engine and the 
one under notice, h^oe the Hc^ bf ttictiBii itt most of fftl/^nner nfodific^ions). 

Fifthly. To form MtJ&A ^HHb bf tlie eflj^n^ to ^ct Mim6nm$ to the ttofiog parts, so 
that the whole liftidg ^^er may be sUf-<i6htMed, and tMftby secu^ h steiuiy, fixed, and 
uniform motion. . f - ^ 

Sixthly. To prome itgtinet smy excess ot wear m Bfkj^nt ftSbre thsn another, and all 
those parts, both idtediat ind ext^fntd, ft be eimf ^re^airdS; <tt even replaced without 
renewing heavy part^ df nm^ineryi su^ itf cylinders, &c; t and also that no crooked forms 
and contrivances ne^ Hk rcilorted toi to Itflng back the first motion into a safe and useful 
form, such as guid^ ttAd 6rossheadf,' of parallel motions, or even the fact of a piston-rod 
giving out its power at 4 considerable angle, when the crank is most effective, thus alto- 
gether depending ujiofl the length of the connecting-rod, the evil of using short rods being 
generally admitted. 

Having thus briefly described the views of the inventora, the author wUl proceed to show 
the analogy that th\i tn^HB W^kn to the piston and crank of the ordinary engine, and on 
reference to fig. 1, A il tlie craiik 6f an. ordintff^ engine, on the shaft C, in full power or 
the most effiective p^sttibpf tffid tttft' whole power is conveved through the line H, at an angle 
Tarying according t^ iht Infgth of Ijiecontfecttng-rod. ^fl the position of the crank. 

It is the author's opinion^ thrt if steam tum be brought to bear upon the crank direct, 
it would be a more simple and read^ meidi iWth ki present W use, and for the sake of 
illustration, suppose A (fig. 1,) Is a crank fil% up completely beti^een the sides of the 
steam chamber £F, and when steam is adi^itted on the top of the crank A; u indicated by 
the arrows, it would ^dve into the position flidwn by 6 ; but in thst position it must be 
observed that the sinle cntnk would be too AOrt to fill op the steaotf chamber, and, conse- 
quently, the steam would rush by the end.D : It tberetofre becomes necessary to change the 
form of the crank, and to make it such, that at every position, the space between EP may 
be filled by it, which fbrm at onoe reiolvei iUelf into the circle G6, with the shaft or axle 
C paubg through it, out of the centre, thus fkr resembling the common eccentric ; and it 
will be seen that when steam is brought to bear upon lU entire surface, as shown by the 
arrows, it is thereby propelled bodily, into the dotted position II, and from the fact of being 
an eccentric, a revolving motion is obtained during its propulsion, and here are the piston 
---■'^-tipendagtti, and •!«) the ofMik of the ordinary engine contained In one body. 

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DESCBTPTION OF A NEW BBCIPROCATIKa STEAM BKOINE. 20S 

It 11 immaterial on what form of a piston Um steam aots in ease of \hMj propnlaion i and 
for the pnrpote o( lUostraling this sabject further* snppose the shaft or axle, and orank to 
be diqpmiaed with, and the steam to act npon the circle QQ, as shown by the arrows ; this 
eirde, or body, would be propelled in a reetilinear direction only, which wonld have to be 
eoorerted into rcToWiog motion in the ordinary manner, and throng a nnn^ber of parts. 
It therefore becomes a i|aestion, whether the two motions common to the ordinal^ engine, 
fit.— reotittnear and re? olTiiif , cannot be adTadtageonsly blended together in ope body. 

Figs. 2 and B show transverse and longitadinal sections oC tlm epgine. A is a steam 
chamber, serring the purposes of a steam cylinder (therefore it will be so denominated in 
the feDocwing explanation), and is of osst iron • . baTing the pl#te S dovetailed in and fitted 
fest, and the plate D fitted loose in the parsllei recess, though sufficiently accurate io pre- 
vent any escape of steam ; the plate D is for the purpose, of following pp tjhe piston as it 
wain, and is adjustable to ite work by means of springs behind it, or by the admission of 
stesm by a small steam pipe, the former mode being preferable. This plate also answers 
snother purpose — in cases of priming the water in the cylinder forces baek the plate, and 
rushes from <me side to the etiier of the piston until it CMapes, and thus preventing acd- 
dente arising from this cause. 

The eireular ends of the ^Under art left black and unbored/ aa !t will be seen the peri- 
phery of the piston does not come in contact with any other part of the cylinder but the 
two plates D and E, and consequently the tedious and oostlv operation of boring the cylin- 
der fi entirely dispensed with. The plates D and B, 6<i #bi6h the #^ar iikes ^W^ in ttie 
cylinder are easily replaced at any piriod, and c<n be hmovhd without taking any of the 
rods off by simply pushiiig the side plates L L on one side. These plates L L are planed 
surfiioesi against which the piston ends rub, and the joint to the cylinder is meta^ic^ It 
will be noticed that these plates Have holes or slote in them of a peculiar form, which are 
for the purpose of getting them over the cranks 6 6, though a slot of lufficieht six^ to 
sIlo# the shaft C td traverse clear woftM do, if this wife sot the caie. 

The piatoii B is an eccentric keyed on the shaft C, and carried on the rods FF, vibrating 
fii»m the crank-shaft pedestals : Uiis piston is turuMl true on the periphery, and in each 
end are turned conical seatings, into which are fitted rings of metal K K, cut open on one 
ride, and leiiving a lap joint to prevent any Escape of Steam. These rings are ekch. utider 
the tootnA tff « bdh, and ean be a^fjuited through th« stote in the sido plates IjL wfthout 
rsmoving a single nut, and thua are easy of access ; the pteuliar wear and the meana adopted 
for obtaining a steam-^g;ht joint are worthy of notice, and will be described ^er«Bft«r> 

The cranks G 6 are keyed on the shaft C at right angles to each other, and equidistant 
from a Kne dniwn through the centre of shaft and centre ot the piston, and through iheie 
sntnka the power la merdy eonreyed thrdugh the rods or drag ttaks H H to the lower 
anmka 1 1 on the main shaft, but these cranks can be keyed at at any other angle, as they 
only transmit the power, and consequently can be of any suiteble length, independent of 
the stroke of the engine. 

It will b« seen thtft the vibrathi^ rods F F are cittied oii the pedestals 3 J, #Mch htv^ a 
godgeoD turned in the centre on whleh the rod vibratei,'ao that all the medx that takes place 
on this bearing is. caused by the vibration pf the rod, whi<^ ia very slight. . . 

Steam b admitted by means of a valve N through the pteam porte or ways M M to t^e 
top and bottom of the piston alternately, the same as in t^e ordinary engine ; {hoagh the 
construMdh of the valve shown here is different, ik ordinary slide Valve #oiild aiitweT thii 
purpoae as well ig th any engine, as ite office is preohiely the same. Tbia valve is on the 
cqidUbrium principle, and exhausto through the back, and works between two parallel 
planed surfaces, the wear that takes place being accommodated by a ring pf metal O similar 
to that employed for packing the end of the piston ; the peculiar advantages of this valve 
are, being light and easy, and suitable for high speeds, ready exit for the eihaust steam, 
and extreme aimpHcity. This vlive is worked by an eeoentrii Q keyed on the erank shsift 
P, and by levers, weigh shaft, &c 

The cylinder, &c., Is bolted down to a framing or entablature, which can be altered as 
desired, and the entire engine is placecl on a foundation plate, and fixed in the ordinary 



The mechanioal difficulties to be encountered in this engine were the method of keeping 
the piston steam tight, and also the peculiar wear at the periphery and ends of the piston. 
It will be seen, that should there be an escape of steam it will readily be peroeived issuing 
out of the slot holes in the side plates li 1«. The piston buds are made nght by rings of 
metd K K fitted Into a conical seating as before described. These rings are cast open and 
drawn together by a bolt after the joiift ia filed square ; and it entirelv depends upon this 
joint whether the ring be steam-tight, as if it be not true the ring will be drawn out of Ite 

u 2 



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TATB OK THE 8TREN0TH OP HATEfilALS. 



natural shape, and when released after it hai heen tamed tme, it will spring back to its own 
shape, therefore it it preferable to file the joint in such a manner that the ends of the ring 
may hiTe a tendency to spring outward, and thns the difficulty is remoTed. It will be seen 
that the motion on the piston ends is an elliptical one, and from the fact of the rings being 
disconnected with the piston they are at liberty to moTe in their seating, and the peenliar 
motion, tIz. — ellipses of all tises, varying according to the proximity to the centre on which 
the piston tnms^ causes the rings slowly and gradually to trarerse round in their seattngt, 
thus accomplishing a moat desirable object, that no two surfaoea go orer the same linea 
twice together. 

Hie periphery of the piston hu likewise a beentifal wear, as it will be seen at tiie tame 
time it is rerohing it is passing up and down the plates D B the length of the stroke, and 
firom this motion ezceuiTe wear is not anticipated* 



MR. TATS OK THK tTmUKOTH OV MATVEIALS.* 



We are glad to meet Mr. Tate on thianew 
ground— for here we are able to award him 
that praise which on some recent occasions 
we were compelled to withhold. We with- 
held it then with sincere pain ; we award it 
now with corresponding pleasure. 

Mr. Tate has now selected a subject of 
which he is a perfect master: we are in- 
clined to think the most complete master of 
all lifing writers. It is a subject, too, 
which he hu carefully studied in all Its 
bearings, and with the literature of which 
he is erideotly well-acquainted. We trust 
he will continue to dcTOte his attention to 
such subjects ; and leave book-making for 
the Committee of Council, to those who are 
more conversant with the development of 
the human faculties and with the philosophy 
of the human mind, than he had the mis- 
fortune to prove hUnself. But we proceed 
to the book itself — not, indeed, to give 
either a laboured analysis or a discussion of 
the topics embraced in it, but a sufficiently 
general account of it to enable our readers 
to see its objects and to estimate its value, 
with a few preliminary remarks on the pro- 
gress of the philosophy of beams. 

The form in which Mr. Tate considers 
the strength of materials is in that of beams 
alone. This, indeed, is the great, though not 
the only engineerbg problem, in which the 



Tr*-."^"^*.**! Strength Of Materials; containinir 
Various Onginal and Useful Ponnolae, Specially 
Applied to Tubular Bridges. Wrought Iron and 
Cast-iron Beams, etc." By Thomas Tate, Author 
of the " Prindplea of the DiffinentUl and Intesral 
Calculus, Factorial Analysis, etc." 06 pp. ^o 
Longmani, 1850. ^^ ^' 



question of slltngth might, and doea, arise* 
For instance, without going further, the 
strength of pillars might have been included 
—-or these pillars expanded into walla. 
Again ; in rooft the same queadon ariaos ; 
and, having some analogy to these, but- 
tresses also. However it was, we Uiink, 
jttdidons on the part of Mr. Tate to confine 
himaelf mainly to the horisontsl beam ; for 
from this, which, except the vertical pillar, 
is the most manageable and best understood 
case, we shall ultimately obtain valuable data 
and suggestions towards the elucidation of 
the strength of oblique beams subjected to 
forces, which are neither in their own direc- 
tion nor perpendicular to them—auoh aa 
roofs and shears, for instance. 

Whilst constructions were rude and 
timber plentiful, the early buUdera rateed 
thiek walla and laid dressed oak trees aoroia 
them for beams. By degrees walla weve 
contracted In thickness, and the beams 
diminished in both directions of breadth and 
thickness. Originally, buildings were de- 
signed to outlast the neighbouring caatle ; 
but afterwards the builder was satisfied with 
the prospect of a few centuriea' duration. 
^019 we build upon leases of from sixty to 
ninety years — usually seventy or tfaere- 
abouta. A much lighter style is thus intro- 
duced, and a more perishable wood em- 
ployed; the walls will barely reaist an 
** equinoctial gale," and the roofs are en- 
dangered by a heavy lodgment of snow. 
In this age of '* every man his own land- 
lord," houses are run up (like Moses Prim- 
rose's rasors) " for sale \'* and generally they 



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TATB ON THR STRENGTH OF MATERTALS. 



205 



are boOt in oompmj, like a set of urchint 
Yentnriog for the fint time on the ioe, to 
hold eeeb other op. 

For our domestio architeetnre, therefore, 
thii problem of beams hat oeaied to posaeis 
either interest or valae. On the other hand, 
bowerer, onr centralisation of the labours 
of the artisan has gifen rise to monster- 
milla, warehonses to stow away the produce 
of a coanty, and single rooms to display 
the maonfactnred elegancies of half the 
globe in some department or other. Abore 
an, <mr transit system has gifen rise to 
engineering structnres of erery possible 
description, and these upon • scale so gigan- 
tic as would to our forefsthers, hare appeared 
more incredible than the gorgeous magni- 
flcenee conjured up in an oriental fsiry tale. 
Wood, the largest e?er grown, was often 
useless here ; and, moreover, too costly, eren 
could it hafe been procured at any price, to 
renda its use feasible. Iron was impressed 
into the senice : but as iron was made in 
our younger days, that, too, wss useless, from 
its tendency to frscture, beyond a certain 
magnitude ; and eren the safety of a mode- 
rate beam, from imperfections of castings, 
was at all times dubious. Its own weight, 
also, tended to destroy it ; and a house with 
iron beams or pillars, eren of moderate 
dimensions was anything but a safe abode. 

A hundred modes of Improring the qua- 
lity, both as to strength and rigidity, hafe 
been defised, patented, and most of them 
superseded in turn by better modes of mak- 
ing and casting. The hydraulic press, and 
other methods of testing each particular 
piece, haye enabled a sound judgment to be 
foroMd by engineers of tlie adequacy of 
erery component part of a system of iron- 
work, to the strain, pressure, impact, or 
whaterer other kind of force it has to resist. 
Cast iron is, therefore, now used with conft- 
dence and safety in works of oonsiderable 
magnitude; and we beliere that where 
proper preliminary tests have been applied, 
no failure of any consequence has been 
known to take place. Such catastrophes as 
that recorded at Preston in our Msgasine of 
the lOth ulto., hare ail been traced either to 



criminal negligence or to disreputable want 
of skill on the part of the engineer. 

The idea of koUow piliart was nstural 
enough ; and this would naturally suggest that 
of hollow beams— which would at least have 
the recommendation of lightness, even if 
the expense of that mode of casting should 
absorb the savings from less material being 



But the great question that would here 
arise was the relative strength of two beams, 
one solid and the other hollow. Men, ex- 
cept the most reckless, would feel so much 
timidity respecting this point, that few would 
venture upon the experiment in actual build- 
ing ; and the experiments were too costly to 
be made upon a sufficient scale, and with 
proper care, by even a manufacturer him- 
self. No engineer would do it on his own 
private account. The use of hollow beams, 
therefore, has been but rarely adopted, 
and in no case upon any magnified scale in 
cast iron. In fact, even for solid beams, 
the inquh7 into the strength and circum- 
stances of fracture, has been only very 
recently investigated by experiment, or dis- 
cussed mathematically, to any satiafoctory 
extent and with any satisfactory results. 
This is due almost exclusively to Mr. Hodg- 
kinson, and his researohes have deserved 
(and— what is wonderful — obtained) the 
warmest commendations of the engineering 
profession — a profession whose jealousies 
are equalled only by those of the medicaL 

It was very natural to turn the attention 
to the use of wrought iron. Many obsta- 
cles, however, intervened, of which the ine- 
vitable expense was not the least The cases 
are very rare that would justify an engineer 
in enoountering this one obstacle; but he 
did now and then on a comparetively small 
sesle. It is to one single dreumstance, 
however, that we owe the attention of the 
engineering world being intensely directed 
to the question — the neesettfy for the now 
celebrated Britannia Bridge. Here, too, it 
came in its moit trying form; and it was 
clear that, if the scheme were successful in 
this caie, it might be fully and with facility re- 
lied 00 , in almost every other conceivable case. 



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9Q9 



TATB ON THB BTBSNOTH OF HATEBULS. 



The fiftt and moi^ o]!)Tioni me of wrongl^t 
iron wu, howerer, in the »olid fonp, tl^ereby 
leeaeoing both hnlk and vofght ; end vhere 
this can be done, i^ if eren now the moft 
safe, and is ^ira]ra the moat eoonomioal 
fjQode of iM •ppliee^oo. Tnw, it M iK>t ea^j 
^perhaps no^ poMlblfi— to exceed a oprtain 
ma gnil p d e with complete lepfin^y ( hot then, 
at the aame time, it can be formed in pieceat 
HVe ifood bf»fma, and then? offjpr grafter 
facilities for *0cpre joip^f than can h9 
applied to aegoMmta p( a wopden heam* 
The drairhapk is, that thff tecprings cai^ be 
fffhjf^eted to no criterion of itrength prior 
to prec^A-rin fact, to pone at all ha^ Jhat 
of wl^ther the ereo^n doef Mi»Uf n^a^n- 
^in \pt poai^ion. 

^hep ths Britaiii)ia Qridgp wfa first pop- 
ceired to he of povffhlp eri^ptiop, it it a^pfp 
thai( poMihle (we I^tp, howerer, np futho- 
ritj for layiog tha^ inch W^ the ca^ff) tb#t 
^be Qrst \d^ waa ^t of » mere hftUow irop 
hmp, Oft t\^p tpp 9f f hioh, inatead of ^hrQPgh 
it, th^ train^t fboa|d paaa. The decifion to 
rgi^ ihnmgkt thrpwing tl)p forqet imme- 
dMlely uppp the pl^ea i^hjch fprmt ^ ^ 
ipwer face of the itruc^pfiQ, ff(tere4 ^^ 9J^\' 
pary poodltjom. Thp aides ai{4 tpp arp 
Vf^pi^j ^mplo|o4 tp cpnpteracf thp prewpre 
pif thp bottom plj^tof |nd, indeed, the fides 
operate little fnrther (^4 ^\^^^ fttrtbPT HP- 
ff]rQura^lj) than aa rigi4 copnectora of the 
top iMid bottom iacef of the tnb«. T|^ 
admirable cpptriviMice of itiffeniDg the ifpper 
ffpp (why pot ohQ the lower op^wardly ?) by 
pefli, is perhapi p^e of the moft heppy 
cpnceiyable ; and we hare po donbt that thia 
i|pd the corner V^%\f^ hroni #re the great 
foprpea of aafp^y to the vholp atmctprp. 
Thp fplectiop of irpo, ^e n^pdp pf wprjppg, 
fhe me gpi nifi e pf the platpi, thp riveting, 
#nd a thopfan4 pther dftoiUf fT® p^ere mat- 
tes for pro^BHional jadgmept and ezpp- 
riepfiCf to whiclj many pn engineer na*y l»J 
fair claim : \^^\ the idei^ of a tpnpef briflge, 
fnd the pipde of stiiei^ng, forpi the po^pts 
ppop wbicl^ ^p orfgipator ^d hif equally 
able coadjntor n^y trust to being especially 
rempmbered ip t||e annala of the most wonder- 
fpl e pgipperj n g pgp #pd cpuptry in the iforld. 



To retnm, howerer, to Mr. Tite, ffrpm 
whose book we haTe been led to digreaa 
much more than we intended, wepropoae to 
give but a plight ppcount of ita oontcgta ; 
for we are sure that erery one of onr rea- 
dera who feelp the leut cprioal^ or interest 
in f he mhieet, will ^ onoe refer to the hook 
itaelf, and fepl gratefhl for our haTing df- 
rpctod hif attei^op to It. 

Qf pourap, ^^ (he timp wh(ch bfa elapaed 
aince Galileo first fttemptpd f o philppophisft 
on the spljpct of the ftreogth of benn^, 
fpany theories fprme^ with the view of sub- 
mitting the problem to mathematical aoa- 
lysif h^Tp hpen propoup^ei). The pnhjei;! 
h^ \9H ^1^ * " ftandipg dish " in onr 
elempntary treatises op mechanicf ; and the 
phpnpp^nf of loaded heama have been 
pvpr tpd pTcr made the suhjeet of ezpp- 
rimept pn a imalf apale, and of indnction in 
an incommensnrately largp pne. All, hov- 
eyer, fluft can be fairly dpemed to be safely 
ettahljfhed, will ffe fpund in Mr. Tato'a 
Toluipp, pUce4 >n aa fpccipct and iptpUi- 
gib|e a form fs the sphject adn^ita ; that la, 
in f very tifppl^ fpm^ tp leirpry n^fpd that 
hff ^pqpired jthe rudiments of maOfpm^tical 
fcieppe, apd to noop plae can e^pn the 
rpfultf he r^dpred iotplligiblp without |ai. 
mepfe circumlocution. 

The '.' preliminary ohaerrationa and for- 
Pfi||«" are e^ pf^ffpd with cooaiderahle neat- 
nepf , and in a vpry intelligible form. pp. 1 

The '! pputral axis" an4 itf gpoo^atrical 
propertipa follow. Of course, thepe were 
well known; but they are preaented here 
to» probably, their best ppeaible form. 

NeiLt fpUows a ahort chapter pp the 
*f condit^pof of rupture ;" it hpFpfer opt 
only iudndea f U tjiat ha4 beep pceTipualy 
gifcp by others, hvt it if ^>plied on the 
hyppthpapi pf Qalileo, Leibuitx, and Ma- 
riottp to ^« experimentf of Qerlow, and to 
the practical ipference pf Fairbaim. |t 
if ren^aakahle, that in the ultimato cafe 
(fracture) tbp fhree hypothesea agree. The 
Conway tube is, however, more oom- 
pletefj iprestigated in a Ifter atage of the 
work. The mpment of inertia, the pen* 



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TATE Oy XSfB STB^aXH OF lUT^BULS. 



2Df 



UcB of covpreMSop sad extenpipp, anfl the 
e^aoge of the 9zif of mpmentp, w^h their 
application to the deflexion of beami, next 
follow. The«e may be considered to com; 
prise the thmtntt of the subieet. 

" ^e gef^eral fpfmnls relatife tq siinllar 
beaipa" fjre verj important tQ the epg>pee|r. 
▲moofft them is comprised the relation 
between a stroctore and its model, npon the 
valae of which no remark is necessary. The 
Conway tnbe and Cabitt's cast-iron beams 
wiih double flao|;ee ere computed in this 
(^ptfT. Tb^ Qfiapter oonclndes w|tlf f i^- 
t9on op the deflf^on of pimilar l^eams. 

In the next chapter the same inquiries 
are instituted, when the beams are '' only 
similar in certain respects. '^ 

T^|9 if followed by ap ex^oded chap- 
ter on th^ ftrengths, &€., Qf " yarious 
f^noB of beams ;>'' the hollow beam being 
disdssed rnneh more completely than hap 
been attempted by any preceding writer. 
Into this he introduces all the conditions of 
stiffening ^ pd f t]^n|[thenipg b^ means pf i}^ 
c^Qular yy^tefP w?ji M>« ««le ir^ns of t^p 
tnbe. Taking all tbeto into ooprideratlon, 
he computes the breaking weight of the 
Conway tube at 2,013 tons.* We give his 
oondoding remark. 

** Ip t^e preceding celcolatfopy it has 
been assumed that a tubular heam follows 
the' same laws of ira'niTerse strain as an op- 
^ary solid beam. 

'* The model tubular heam constructed l^y 
Mr. Pairbairn gave the true form and ele- 
ments of the Conway and Menat Bridges ; 
and the result of his experiments upon' this 
beam will doubtless be regarded by a future 
age, if not by the present, as one of the 
most important experimental facts, relatiye 
to the strength of material, which hM bi- 
therto been discpyer^d. 

" Now ypL thj8 model heam, the prippiple 
of crumpling seems to be eliminated oy the 
thickness gifen to the plates, by the combi- 
nation of Uie cells, and by the ttnmg angle 



• On thi^ tubj^ct Qne i^orf). U )iat )>een bel4 by 
lome engineers, and ii apparently ^ttabliihed t)y 
6bftervatioii (In bart at least) tt^at wrought iron sub- 
jected to Impact, tetidt by the iiltetmal vibrations to 
pioduced, to restore ttaelf to the crystaUioe stnie- 
tnfo. \i tbe ffKt be as atated. what 9(n the proapecta 
oir our tubtilar bridges f WAoId it not be prudent 
to uecTCain tbmr power of tesbtatoce, tlewed aa 
puAr of cast {root V« msrabr throw (mt tha lug- 



irons used |n oopneoting the plates. This 
is rendered apparent from the fact, that the 
top area is nearly equal to the bottom one, 
when the equality of resistance is attained. 
Hence the model tubular beam may be re- 
garded (M e commof) l^eam obeyipg the ordf- 
nairy laws of compression and extension 
when subjected to transverse strain.' The 
assumption, therefore, that the Conway tube 
will hare the same resistance to comprsssiott 
ip itf top ^tructnre M the thin rpotapgular 
pells ex|)^rimente<| off by ^T. f|p^|[kifisoif^ 
IS erroneous in principle ; and inis is ren- 
dered more apparent iroih the calculations 
on the model'tube given In Article 66, where 
^e resistfnce per •qunre inch to pompret- 
sion is found to be almost eighteen tons in 
the place of eight tons, which Mr. Hodg- 
kinson assigns to it. It would further ap- 
pear, Qiat wlien a beam of this kind is broken 
by transTcrse strain, the material in the top 
oells undergoes a more complex strain than 
that exhibited by a simple crushing force, 
where the msterial is nbt allowed to bend 
under the pressures applied to it. Without 
incurring a great amount o^ error, the model 
tnbe may be treated on the assumption that 
the material is perfectly elastic "t 

Mr. Tate next proceeds to consider beams 
of cast iron of different forms, and gives 
much ipterentipg ipfori|[|atioi^ on thja ipoft 
important ^qpic. Np are^itec^, engii^e^, f(r 
huilder yrill do justice to himpelf who doei 
not carefnllr study this portion of Mr. 
Tate's work. 

Cylindrical beams, their coipparison with 
sqpare besms, apd a slmilfp comparison as 
to o|lindrica) and sqpare cell^, next ip^ov9• 
The author finds that '*with the tune 
materid the square beam has 1) times the 
strength of the cylindrical one.*' p. 74. 
The " obierrations relatife fo the best form 
pf the cells in a tubular )^m,^' |^«*P^V 
their fmportanpe by their title, apd |re deeip 
tbem as Taloable as the snbject is important ; 
and the explanation M why the cellular stme- 
tnre exhibits such strength*' Is a peculiarly 

* No term expressive of ordinary physical 
phenomena if more vaguely understobd than tue 
term elastic. We shal] pfpbably give a short dia- 
sertation on th^ subject hereafter. Mr- Tate defines 
Ms meaning of the term at the very opening Of his 
work, thus t " When the resis^pce of compressicm 
is equal to that of distension, the raaterial ia said in 
this respect to be perfectly elastic, which is ustially 
the case in bars of wrought iron. Bat in most 
kinds of material these fbrcei are different : thuf , 
in caaf iron the dompraaslve reslataiice il aboui afic 
aadataalf ttmaa that of thetansUa teaistanoa."— 
p. I. 



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208 



THE OUTTA PEBOHA TBADE. 



Bett tod elegant piece of phUoeopbicel dii- 



Lutlj, the investigation of the strength 
of elliptical and parabolic beams—in the 
former case, both solid and hollow — eon* 
dndcs the Tolame. It is, hoireTcr, of ne- 
oessitj almost entirely theoretical ; that is» 
untested bj direet and ooaolaslTe experi- 
ments. To obtain snob experiments trans- 
oends the limit of priTste means ; they could 
only be made by a GoTcmment commission 
-^>f whioh, should any erer be appointed, 
Mr. Tate ought, certainly, to be a member. 



BXPBRIMUNT8 ON THU POWBB WHICH 
MAINTAINS B0DIB8 IN THB 8PHBB0IDAL 
STATU, BUTOND THBIB SPBBRB OV PHT- 
8ICAL AND CHBMICAL ACTIYITT. BT 
MON8. BOUTIGNT, OP BYBBUZ. 

[rraulatod ftom the M<mUtur IndmtirUlt for th« 
MtekanUi* Magaxiiu.} 

The diTersity of opinion existing as to 
the cause of the tendency of bodies to 
assume the spheroidal state, induced me 
to malie the following experiments. 

I rolled in a spiral form a platinum 
wire of m. 001 in diameter, so as 
to make a sort of sieve with continuous 
circular meshes; I then poured into 
this Teasel water, alcohol, and ether 
successiTely ; and, as may be supposed, 
these three liquids ran through the 
meshes of the vessel as through a sieve. 

This fact ascertained, I made the 
vessel red hot, and repeated the experi- 
ment with the three above-mentioned 
liquids, when I beheld a repetition of the 
miracle of the vesul **Tuccia;" that is 
to say, these three liquids no longer 
passed through the meshes of the sieve, 
but could actually be removed from 
place to place, as if in a close vessel. 

As to the alcohol and the ether, I 
observed that the vapour they generated 

£ts density being considerably higher 
an that of the air) formed an equi- 
librium (or a counterpoise) up to a cer- 
tain point, with the ascending current of 
hot air produced by the high tempera- 
ture of the vessel ; and this vapour 
escaping through the meshes of the 
vessel, ignited above and below; thus 
the spheroid of liquid became interposed 
between the bases of two cones of flame. 
Thence it is clear, that the vapour 
escaping freely and uniformly from the 



whole surfiice of the spheriod, would not 
be adequate to produce a reactioa suffi- 
cient to neutralize the influence of 
gravity, and to maintain the spheroid 
beyond the sphere of physical and 
chemical activity. 

In repeating the preceding experi- 
ment with iodine, it is still more eon- 
elusive. The lower cone of flame is 
replaced bv a beautiful column of Tiolei 
vapour, which fidls through the meaiies 
of the sieve, immediately underneath the 
spheroid of iodine. 

The experiments which I have just 
summarily described appear to me to 
establish fully the existence of this mys- 
terious repellent power which neu- 
tralises the action of gravity. Certainly 
these experiments do not prove that tfaie 
action of attraction is destroyed, but they 
show that we should also take the re- 
pulsive power into consideratioiu 

What, then, are the laws of this 
power P To what distance does its 
influence extend ? What is the action of 
the earth, or of the incandescent body, as 
to its nature, its bulk, and its tempera- 
ture? What is the effect of the density 
of the body which is rendered sphe- 
roidal P— Manv other questions arise on 
this subject, which presents, if I mistake 
not, one of the most extensive fields for 
analvtical investigation. 

Tne truth is, that the spheroidal state 
is the primordial condition of matter; 
that all the phenomena which during 
fifteen years 1 have had the honour 3 
submitting to the Academy, belong to 
the physical condition of the prinoJtive 
eras of the globe ; — that all the experi- 
ments of the laboratory, were aoeom- 
plished on a vast scale, upon the suHioe 
of the earth, at the perioa of its inosn- 
descence. 

Immense researches might be made 
on this subject, and innumerable results 
collected from its investigation. 



THB OUTTA PBBCHA TBADB. 

Previous to 1844, the very name of gotta 
peroha was unknown to European com- 
merce. In that year 2cwt. of it were 
shipped experimentally from Singapore. 
The exportation of gntta perdia from that 
port rose in 1845 to 169 piculs (the picul is 
133^ lbs.); in 1846, to 5,354; in 1847, to 
9,296 ; in the first seven months of 1848, 
to 6,768 piculs. In the first Ibur and a half 



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TEBBUBT*S PATENT SHOKTNa PIPEB. 



209 



yean of the trade, 21,598 pienU of gutta 
perdu, Tahied at 274,190 dollara, were 
shipped at Singapore ; the whole of which 
was eeat to England, with the exception of 
15 pieals to Manritioa, 470 to the continent 
of Europe, and 922 to the United States. 

Bat this rapid growth of the new trade 
eoQTejs only a faint idea of the eommotion 
it created among the native inhabitants of 
the Indian Arehipebgo. The jangles of the 
Jobore were the scene of the eurliest gather- 
ings, and they were soon ransaclced in erery 
direction by partiea of Malays and Chinese, 
whUe the indigenoos popalatioa gave them- 
selree ap to the search with an unanimity 
and seal only to be equalled by that which 
made railway jobbers of erery man, woman, 
and child in England about the same time. 
Hie Tamangong, with the usual policy of 
oriental • goremors, declared the precious 
gum a goremment monopoly. He appro- 
priated the greater part of the profits, and 
stOl left the Malays enough to stimulate 
tiiem to pursue the quest, and to gain from 
100 to 400 per cent, for themseWes on what 
they procnrod from the aboriginei. The 
l^aaungong, not satisfied with buying at his 
•WB price all that was collected by prirate 
saterprise, sent out numerous parties of 
firom 10 to 100 persons, and employed 
wliole tribes of hereditary serfs in the quest 
of gotta percha. 

Tliis organised body of gum-hanterj 
spread itself like a cloud of locusts over the 
whole of Johore, peninsular and insular. 
They c rossed the frontier into Ligna, but 
there the Sultan was not long in discovering 
the new value tliat had been conferred upon 
his jangles. He confiscated the greater part 
of what had been collected by the inter- 
lopers, and in emulation of the Tamungong 
deelared gutta percha a royalty. 

The knowledge of the article, stirring the 
avidity of gatherers, gradually spread from 
Singapore, northward as far aa Pinaag, 
southward along the east coast of Sumatra 
to Java, eastward to Borneo, where it 
was found at Brun^, Sarawak, and Pon- 
tianak on the west coast, at Keti and 
Passir on the east. The imports of 
gutta pcardia into Singapore from the 1st 
of January to the 12th of July, 1848, 
according to their geographiad distribution, 
were: — Prom the Malay Peninsula, 593 
plods; from the Johore Archipelago, 1,269 ; 
from Sumatra, 1,066; from BaUvis, 19; 
from Borneo, 55. The priee at Singapore 
was originslly 8 dollars per picul : it rose to 
24, and fell about the middle of 1848 to 13. 

The commotion among the human race in 
the Archipelago was great, but the vegetable 
kingdom suffmd most by it. In the course 
pf three and a half years 270,000 trees were 



felled in order to get at the gum.— Dttl/y 
Newt. 

TKUBURr'a PilTaiCT DIAPHRAGM 8MOKINO 
PIPES. 

WUliam Edwaidt Suite. Patentee. 

As promised in oar last, we now pro- 
ceed to give the specification of Mr. 
W. £. Staite's improvements in pipes 
for smoking. 

Speeifteaiion, 

This invention consists, Jirsi, in so 
constructing the bowls and tubes or 
stems of pipes as to prevent (as far as 
practicable) the oil resulting from the 
combustion of tobacco from passing up 
the tube, and thence into the mouth and 
stomach of the smoker, thereby avoiding 
or greatly mitigating the evils arising to 
some constitutions from smoking; «e- 
condf in certain additions to pipe stems 
or tubes ; and third, in an improved 
tobacco stopper. 

Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of one 
of my improved pipes, which I propose 
calling '< the Patent Diaphragm Pipe.** 
A is the bowl, terminating at oottom in 
a tube B, which extends down nearly to 
the bottom of a cup or receiver; O is a 
perforated diaphragm fitted to or cast 
on the outside of the tube ; D is a move- 
able cup fitting on to the bottom of the 
pipe; £ is ihe socket, into which the 
stem or tube to convey the smoke to 
the mouth is inserted. This socket is in 
all cases above the diaphragm, so that 
before entering the stem the smoke must 
pass down the small central tube D, 
impinge against, and pass through the 
perforated diaphragm, and then enter 
the stem, as shown by the arrows in 
the figure. The oil and vapour being 
intercepted, fall into the cup D, which 
should be taken off and the contents 
emptied before throwing the ash from 
the bowl, in order to prevent the oil 
running liack into the bowl, or finding 
its way into the tube or stem. 

Fig. 2 is a sectional elevation of an- 
other of my improved pipes, which I 
also propose calling *'tne Patent Dia- 
phragm ripe.** A is the bowl ; B a hole 
communicating with a chamber beneath $ 
G is a solid division or partition pointed 
at bottom in the centre, to facilitate the 
dropping of the oil and condensed vapour 
into the cup. It may be placed pei|>eii- 
dioularly down the centre, or inclinra at 
any an jle ; attached to it at bottom is a 



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210 

pierced diaphragm, as showo in the 
figures 

The smoke in this case passes from 
the bowl through the hole B, down the 



teb&uky's patent smoking pipes. 



Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2- 



side of the partition, then impingea on 
the diaphragm, paasea through the same 
as hefore, and so into the stem, aa shown 
by the arrows in the figures. 




Fig. 2« is a modification of tl^e pipe 
last described. 

Either of the foregoing pipes may be 
ponstructed with oneof n^ore ^iaphragpis, 
and these 4iftpbragros may be iqserted in 
pieces, not pierced, step faniipn, one above 
anotberi *8 sljown in action (5g. 3). Also 
fqr the better and more perfect cpllectiop 
of the pil aqd vapour, a diapbragnq, 
pieriQfed aa before depcribed, ipay be in- 
aeried in any suitable pl^•t of tlie i^ocket 
into Tifhifi\k the stem is to |be placed. 

Fig. 4 i^epresfenta p^t of an unproved 



stem or tube, which may be used either 
with the pipes before described, or witb 
pipes of ordinary construction, where 
moveable stems are employed. A la the 
piece which fits into the socket of the 
pipe. B is the piece on to wbieh \!he 
mouthpiece fits. C is a splid division or 
partitioh which is fitted into a cylinder, 
imd caffies a perforated dfaphrton a^- 
lached thereto, the course 'ft^' moie 
follows is fndicatiei by fhe arro]9^s. 'p la a 
mpvi^able pup fpr receiving any furpina 
piI or condensie^ y#pdmr ^r^lf^ m#j i|ot 



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OK TUBULiB BBID6ES — C^ilVS OF V^. SIBFHENSQN ^Q XH£IB It^YBKHON. 3U 



ha^e beea eolleeted in the cup of the bpwl, 
or in cases where the pipe9 here described 
tre not used, iheo it collects the oil and 
condensed vapour di recti j as they cpme 
from the hovl of ordiuarj pipes. 

Fig. 5 b a section^ view of another 
addition to stems, which may be used 
separatelx or in conjunction with th^ 
foregoing. A A is the stem* 3 is a 
hoUow projecting piece, to the jneide of 
which are fitted three stops pr oridgcs 
a 6 c. cf is a valve opening upwards 
towards the mouth ana resting on the 
stops b and e when closed, df U a pin 
which pasaes through the side of the 
pojeeCing pifgce, and termin»tes inwardly 
m a slide e. This pin serves to press 
the slide over the aperture between the 
stops a and b, and is prevented from 
rising by the spring/; a helical spring 
g ke^ps the pin out, aqd prevents the 
slide closing the aperture except when 
required. This contrivance allows air to 
be blown through the stem to clear it, 
when neeeaaary, and prevents wasto of 
tobacco by the back puff, when smoke is 
being expelled from the mouth. 

Fig. 6 represents an improved tobscco- 
stopper to be used with either of the 
l»p» before described, or with pipes of 
the ordinary kinc), siich as the meer- 
sdianm and Gernian pipes. It may be 
made to fit on easily, out with sufficient 
adhesion to hold it in its pl^ce, or may 
be permanently fitted with a hinge-joint, 
8o aa to turn over anfl' leave the bowl 
free for empiying the ashe^ and refilling 
the pipe. A is a pipe bowl, b a hinged 
bridge, c a "stopper of any suitable 
material, having a rod with a helical or 
other suitable spring to keep it away 
from the pipe when out of use, as shown 
in tl|e fig^fes. By pressing the fipger 
00 the rod,' the stopper is puslied dpwn 
into the bowl, and when the finger is 
ren9pye4 the fprcc of' ^h'e spripg causes 
the stopper to relirc to its original 
position. 

For Claims, see ante p. 199. 



OK TUBULAR BRIDGES, AND TBI CLAIMS 
OF MR. STBPnKNSON TO THEIR |P(VEN- 
TIOM.f 

S^, — I beg to |>reface some observa- 
tubular bridges by the following 



tMfos on 



* We cannot, coniittently ^ith the courge \ud- 
fban]y Adopted In the cohdttet of ^i| Jot^nal,' w^ch 



extracts tom Franklin's works, vol. i., p. 
308:— 

" The treatment your friend lias met with 
is so common, that no man who knows what 
the world is, and ever has been, should ex- 
pect to escape it. There are everywhere a 
number of people who, being; totally desti- 
tute of any inTtontive faculty themselves, 9p 
not readily conceive that others may possess 
it : they think of inventions as of miracles ; 
—there might be luoii fonnerly, but they 
are ceased. With these, evei70De who offers 
a new invention is deemed a pretender': he 
had it from some other country, or from 
some book ;— a man of tbeir own acquaint- 
jince — one who hss no n^pre sens^ than 
themselyes-cquld not possibly, in their 
ppinion, hsve been the ii^ventor of anVthinc. 
They are (Donfirme4» too, in thes^ spnpments 
by frequent instances of pretensions to ii^- 
yention, which vanity U daily producing. 
That vanity^ too, though sn mcitenient to 
invention, is, at the same tfme, the pesl of 
inventors!. Jealousy and' envy deny tne 
m^rit or the novelty of your rnvention : bat 
vanity, when the novelty and merit are esta- 
blished, claims it for its own. The smaller 
your invention i|i, the more mortiieatfon 
you receive in having ^be credit of it dis- 
putsd with yon by a rival, whom the jea^onsy 
and envy of others are ready to support 
against yoa, st least so far as to makp the 
point doubtful. I( is not in itself of !«• 
por^a^ice enough for a dispute ; no onQ wopld 
think your prpjjfs ^^d reasons |rort|i fheir 
attention ; and yet, |f you do not dispute 
the point,' and demonstrate vour riglit, you 
not only lose the credit in that Instance of 
being ingenipns,' but you suiter the disgrace 
of not being ingenuous ; — not only of being 
a plagiary, but of being a plagiary for trifles. 
Had the invention b<$en greater, it would 
have disgraced you less ; for men have not 
so contemptible an idea of him that roba 
for gold on th^ highway, as of him that can 
pick pockets for halfpence and farthings. 
Thus, through envy, jealousy, and \\ip vanity 
of cofppetitorf for fame, the origin of many 
pf the paost extraordinary inv^ntfons, tho|igh 
produced wit^ip h^t s fcf centuries past, 
are involved ip donbt and uncertainty. We 

has been to hear both Rides on all questions, reftiie 
insertion to this letter from an esteemed cohrespon- 
dent who takes (much to our surprise and regret) a 
different view from that which we have done, of the 
rival claims of Mr. Cairbaim and Mr. Stephenson 
to the invention of lubular bridges. However, lest 
the present paper should fall into the hands of 
some reader who may not have read, of fnay have 
forgotten what wc have said on the opposite side, or 
who might be led to wrong conclusions byoeitajn 
erroneous assumptions of the writer, we have iob- 
Joined a few caalioaary notes, which we hope will 
be taXen aa they are meant— In the spirit of truth 
alone.— Bd. U. M. 



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312 ON TUBULiOt BBIOGBS-— CLAIMS OF ICB. 8TBPHEN80N TO THBIB INYEBnOK, 



mroe know to whom we ut indebted for 
the oompMt, and for Bpectaclei ; nor haye 
even papier and printing, that reoord erery- 
thing elie, been able to presenre with cer- 
tainty the name and reputation of their 
inyentora. One would not, therefore, of all 
facolties or qualitiea of the mind, wiah for a 
friend or a ehild that he should ha?e that of 
inyention ; — for his attempts to benefit 
mankfaid in that way, howe?er well ima- 
gined, if they do not succeed, expose him, 
though very unjustly, to general ridicule and 
contempt i and, if they do succeed, to enTy, 
robbery, and abuse." 

The obeervationB on tubular bridges 
in Nos. 1352 and 141 1 of the Mech. 
Mag,f inyoWe a very important prin- 
ciple, vif.y at what stage, if any, of 
an invention, can the aid of scientific and 
practical men be called in, without the 
risk of their claiming to be sole or joint 
inventors, and thereby depriving the 
first inventor of perhaps the only honour 
he caret about. 

An inventor is the person who first 

gives to the public a new notion, either 
y word of month, or by drawings, or by 
■igrn — in the air, or in any other man- 
ner, depending upon the capacity of the 
person to whom he addrewes himself. 

An invention has no relation to the 
trouble, mental or physical, which is 
necessary to work it out ; '* to invent or 
discover is to take ofi^ the cover or con- 
cealment ;** the invention is then com- 
pleted ; and if Mr. Stephenson had been 
80 minded, he could have patented his 
invention, and a valid specification could 
have been drawn up without any further 
communication from him, than the mere 
hoi that he had invented a bridge made 
of iron so as to form a tube with a road- 
way through it; nothing more would 
have been requisite. 

So far as invention is concerned it is 
indifierent what the form or length of 
the tube is to be— it might be circular, 
elliptical, triangular, square, or rectan- 
gular. The specification need contain no 
ar's and y% or other mathematical sym- 
bols.* 



• The writer it altogether In error on thii point. 
Such a tpedfication m he fuppotet would not haTO 
been "a vo/idtpecificmtion." The Inren tor would 
have been reonired to point out alto the war In 
which the thing waa to be performed, and that, 
too, not only a practicable way, but the very beat 
according to hit knowledge or experience. Had he, 
for example, stated that the "triangular" mode of 
oonatructlng the tnbalar bridge might be adopted, 
he would have itated what waa palpably fUae; 



The complaint of the writer in the 
North British, referred to in No. 1411, 
M$ch. Mag., p. 148, amounts to thi% 
that if Mr. Stephenson and Mr. Fair- 
bairn had laid their heads together, they 
might have prevented ** a stranger plae- 
ing himself in the eyes of the world as 
the earliest proposer of a tubular bridge.*' 
Query the moral honesty of such a pro- 
ceeding, the fact would have remained 
the same ; and if M. Jules Guyot be the 
inventor of tubular bridges, why sug- 
gest a conspiracy to deprive him of that 
merit P» 

The writer in the North BritiMk 
(quoted in the Mech, Mag,) finds fault 
with Mr. Stephenson because he adopted 
an ** Idea as a last resource," '' nnaap* 
ported by theory and untested by expe- 
rience." It has always been considered 
that ** necessity is the mother of inven- 
tion," and to invent a thing for whieh 
there can be no use would be a mere 
repetition of the kaleideoscope. Bfr. Ste- 
phenson, no doubt, kept this tube in his 
bead until it became a great bore, and 
was doubtless aware that iron vessels had 
been ** stranded with the steam engines 
in the centre, without injuring the oon* 
struction of the vessel,"— (In 1842. Mr. 
Miller published a print of the Prmee 
of WaUs steamer, showing her poaiUon, 
and pointing out the Ktel strength of 
iron sbip8),~-and Mr. Stephenson in his 
evidenoe before Parliament, Mar 5, 
1845, says, " My own oninion is tiiat a 
tube of wroueht iron would possess suffi- 
cient strength and rigidity to support a 
railway train." That Mr. Stephenson 
and his tube have been "hung in cbsdna" 
is no fault of his. General Paslej must 

and hit patent would, on that gnmnd. bar* been 
held Yoid. The law afforda no auch prot«etloa aa 
oar eorrespondent imaginee to mwa wiaUxmcx and 
ipecolatire notiona.— £d. M. M. 

• The reviewer in the NoHk BHHsh Ium e«r< 
talnly given an undue and somewhat tneoiMtatvot 
degree of prominence to the claima of M. Ooyot, 
who never proposed a tubular bridge at aAl ; vbat 
he proposed and patented waa oiuv a parCicalac 
form of hollow girdtr, whieh la quite a dUbmnt 
thing. Still, however, it la to misrepcwcot tha 
reviewer moat egregiouily, to smt that hia aniK 
Bent " amounU to Chla," that ** if Mr. StvplMoaon 
and Mr. Falrbaim''had done certain things they 
migM have aeeured to themselvee the honovr of 
the Invention of the tubular bridge; for the ea- 
tire scope of that argument is to abow that all 
the merit beyond that of mere auggeatSoii, did 
actually belong to Mr. Falrbaim— " Anldea adopted 
as a laat resource, unaupported bv theory, aod q»- 
tested by experience, is submitted to Mr. Paixtnim, 
Awn m BIS RAKDa it axcoiiaa a oaxAT ivtbx* 
Tioir."— £n.M.M. 



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OS TUBULAB BBIBOBS— CLAIMS Or 1CB« STBPRBKfOH TO THSIB HmSNTIOH. 218 

Dot traly do, because the tabular bridge 
had been previouslr invented by Mr. 
Stephenson. Mr. Fairbaim would have 
been in the same predicament as 

"DanffU(\n the CW/ie).— Yes, I think 
there it something Uke it in * OtheUo !' 

** 1H(^.— 'Gad ! now yon put me in mfaid 
on't, I beliere there is — ^but that's of no 
consequence ; all that can be said Is, that 
two people happened to hit on the same 
thought — and Shakespere made use of it 
first, that's aU." 

In December, 1846, Mr. Fairbaim 
took out a patent, in his own name, for 
what, he admits in his letter to Mr. 
Stephenson, Oct. 27, 1846, to have been 
Mr. Stephenson's *' original idea." The 
'*oriffinal idea" is what is generally 
called the " iuTention," for which letters 
patent may be obtained : how much of 
the invention of tubular bridges remains 
after deducting the ''original idea** of 
Mr. Stephenson ?• 

Might an orchestral band claim to be 
the inventors of Handel's oratorios, be- 
cause thev first rehearsed them to fit 
them for the public ear ? 

'* Go to, therefore, my masters, you that 
are professed musicians, relate unto this 
good compaoy here that are your friends, 
who was the first hwentor of music." — 
(Holland's Plutarcb, p. 1018.) 

As to how the bridge should be made, 
that appears to have been a joint opera- 
tion of Mr. Stephenson, Mr. Fairbaim, 
Mr. Hodgkinson, and Mr. Clark; — so 
little importance did Mr. Fairbaim attach 
to the making of the brid^, that he sold 
his contract to other parties. The iron- 
masters have, no doubt, some claim, for 
they "invented" large sheets of iron 
for this bridffe. 

Mr. Hodgkinson says, p. 117—" The 
principal experiments, and the deduc- 
tions drawn from the whole that had 
been tried, were in all eases communi- 
cated as soon as obtained to Mr. Stephen- 
son, with suggestions bearing on the 
bridge, and he adopted them or not, as 
he thought best." Mr. Hodgkinson 



be answerable for that, as he '* decidedly 
ot|jeeted to their removal ;" and it must 
be remembered that General Pasley had 
to examine railway stractures, and report 
upon their safety. Mr. Stephenson 
while exphuning his tubular bridge, " un- 
rapported by theory," to his late father, 
was accidentally called upon by Mr. 
Fairbaim, to wnom the invention was 
explained. If Mr. Fairbaim had such 
intottive knowledge as to the rectangular 
form, how was it that his first experi- 
ments were made on roirad ones? Mr. 
Stq)faen8on when he gave his evidence, 
M^ 5, 1845, could have derived no 
sMstanee from Mr. Fairbairn's experi- 
nents, — as the first experiment was not 
made nntil July 6, 1845, two months 
I ifter Mr. Stephenson had given his evi- 
dence.* If Mr. Fairbaim is to be ranked 
u co-inventor with Mr. Stephenson, 
why is Mr. Hodgkinson to be left out P 
Mr. Hodgkinson says, in Report to Cfom- 
minonersy p. 115, ** The introduction of 
wronght*iron riveted tubes for bridges 
' w a new feature in engineering. It 
! oncmated with one of our boldest, most 
ikiSfii], and most successful engineers, 
wbo was driven to adopt It as a matter of 
occcasity in one of the most stupendous 
itruetnres of modem times. To obviate 
these difficulties Mr. Stephenson, by an 
eflbrtof originality and master mind, con- 
ceived the bold idea of constmcting an 
immense wrought- iron tube formed of 
plates, riveted together, and sufficiently 
large to silow railway trains to pass 
through it."t 
Suppoee that Mr. Fairbaim had been 
I mmded to have patented what he had 
I iBfeated, he must, firstly, have been in 
the position to swear that he was the 
"first and true inventor ;" thia he could 



* AMortdly not; but what wm Mr. Stephen- 
tttft idcft ** when he gave hU evidence May 5, 
IMSr A •elf-flopported tubular bridge, tueh at 
kas been nltim ately erected I No tueh tMng. Hit 
Mm St that time, and for a long time after'-until 
Vr. Fairbaim taught him better— wat that the 
M4|e riioald be one tutpended by chaint flrom 
9k>»-nothing more, in thort, than an ordinary 
nBHBtfoa-bildge, boarded in at the top and tidee t 

t Tbe'reaton for Mr. Hodgkinton being ** left 
tot.** it tfanply thif , that he tavt himtelf he thould 
ks 10, aad he ought to know bett. Hit tettimony 
b Ikvonr of Mr. Stephenton, though good for 
Mhiagit againtt Mr. Fairbalrn — for tondry rea- 
Hw Into whieh we have not room here to enter, 
tbeegh tome of them are obvioat enough ; but it it 
8«od at leatt to the extent of everlatUngly ntgrn- 
"^" I.— B». 



% 



any rival pretentiont of hit own.- 



* The reader will pleate refer to what we have 
already tald on thit head in a preceding note. The 
" original idea," tueh at it ezitted in Mr. Stephen- 
ton't mind, could not have been patented, for it wat 
a mere abstract tpeculation, without any practical 
embodiment — unlett, indeed, the hanging in 
chain*, may be contidered at Mr. 8.'t practical em- 
bodiment of the idea, in which cate the patent 
would have been for a method of shuiting out M* 
light from tutpmtioH bridgu. A notable invention 
truly! 



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314 



TIS8D88 WOfW BY CiT l i BPnj *A R fl, 



<*bad befo consulted privatelf on tbe 
mttter from tbe commencemeot, or 
nearly so ; ** be is therefore a competent 
witness. Mr. Fairbairo can only be 
truly considered as working out practi- 
cally Mr. Stepheoson's M original idea" 
by tbe aid of Mr. Hodgkinson's original 
ma^ematics.* 

Ad endeavour has been made to traee 
the " invention "^ of the tubular brid^ 
to Its proper source, and for th|8 purpose 
the fojlowinff works have bepp con- 
sulted:— ** Mr. Pairbairn," in 2 vols.; 
*' Report of Con^inissioners on 4^pplica- 
tion of Iron to Railway iStructufes ;'^* 
*fTnj^h and Tubes," by Thbs. Faif- 
bairn ; and the work pf Mr. Edwin 
Clark, in 2 vols., with plates, in folio. 

Tne conclusion arrived at is, that the 
"invention" — the "original idea," is 
due to Mr. Stephenson i the spbject bas 
been considered as one of invention only, 
and not as mixed up wit^ the roan^fac- 
lure of the oridge. 

Mr. Stephenson said as much as anv 

Srudent man could say in giving bis eyf- 
^nce (about an untried tbing]| before 
ihe Railway Committee^ May 5, I845t; 
and at the conclusion qf his evidence be 
might, no doubt, inily have 8*i4» '" ^^^ 
words of St. p#ul, " J h^f e fe4 ypU 
Yitb miiki and not with n)eat ; for 
tiitberto ye i^rere pot able \o bear it, nSI- 
fber jnt pow are yp able." 

Having brpKgbt ^ese phservationp ^ 
a plose, the fo^n^er part of tbis pommu- 
niqation stfll remains for consideratfpn — 
yis., at vrhat fttage (if any) of ^n inven- 
tion can the aid of scientific and pracMc#l 
men be called in without the nsk of their 
claiming to be sole or joint inventors, 
thereby depriving the first inventor of, 
perhaps, the Qply bononr be cares abpift? 
I am. Sir, yours, &c., 

R. Paossia, C.E. 
Birmingham, Sept. S, 1850. 



TtSSUKS WOVKN BY 0ATKRPILLAR8. BY 
MB. J. DBMX8TOI7H. 

In the earlier part of this Cffptury there 



• y^ieh original matheniatic« Mr. Tate hat 
gince rtidirn to be ajto^ethei' wrong. Whatever 
ajtlAtance'Mr. SteohenBOn may hate had from Wr. 
H^ifgUnton, Mr. Fairtialrh haq none ; this ii cledz 
ttoxa the published correspondence on the sabject. 

t the aittouiit of what he didiay, fUi Ma;, 184^, 



lived at Mwdeb a retirad offioisr, Tipytaiiiit 
Hebenstrait, who anonsed bimself by eipen- 
pients on the n^eans of giving c<mf |$t«acj to 
the gossamer pro4i;eed by caterpillars, which 
is oecasionallj s^n blown aboat in iflaket 
over the lieldis in Germany, and he was it 
one time sanguine pf rendering |t available 
k^ a muterial for ladies' dress. It is itid 
Chat his' plan was to prepare a paste of let- 
tnce or other leaves beat np with batter, aa^ 
after spreading it thinly over a smooth sor- 
ftuse of stone Or wood on an inclined plsae, 
he placed at tbe lower end a nninber of 
chenilles or caterpillars of tb9 proper ^^pdm- 
These animals gradually fsoended the iadiiie, 
devonnpg the paste, ami depositing af they 
proceed a ^rt pf tisf^xe— nn^l ^f) whok 
pnrface wi^ nmformly cpirerpa ^fth it. Ue is 
reporffsd ^p l^ave prpdnped own wffrk d«sigM 
by 4)rawipg th^ pattern wn)i 4 half peaed 
dipped in olive oil beror^ ihp animals be^ 
to work. Tnese I never saw, bnt t lEiave 
peen one veil on which were sqipe letten 
exactly resemb^ng a watermark on paper* 
the secret of which I do not know. Tbe 
inventor pnrsued hb experiments with gnat 
secrecy, in Uie hope of turning his invention 
io valnable acoomit ; but finding this !■• 
practicable, it appears ^t he ph>dBce4 but 
very few specimens, vhicb are dov piesecre^ 
in vsrious mnseoms on tbe Conttpsnt. I 
have sejBp two besides my on, vhich I 
procured at Mui^ch, in 1^37, after narisg 
advertised fqv it sev^ moo^. Tb« ob- 
lectioos to using this tissue paan^ ^ be diidy 
|t8 exceedingly flimsy anaGty^ an4 its very 
aidbesive properties, which render its mana- 
gement and preservation extremely difficnlti 
attaching itaClf closely even to the smoodieit 
snrfaces, from whidi It can be separated only 
by the breath. Mv veil is aboat 42 in. by 
24 in. One of 26| in. by 17 in. U said to 
have weighed only 1| grain. Anotiiar coa- 
tainiog 9 square tttt is mentioned as weigh- 
lag H graina, while tbe aame anrfaee of aiik 
ganse weighed 137 graioa, and of fine lace 
262i graina. It would aeem that the art 
waa in aome degree known' at an eailier 
period, and occaaionmlly practiaed iaeoa- 
yenta, where CQlpored drawhiga on tmaU M 
pf it ^re H\i io have been fpade. | have 
aeen, in all, four of theae on the Continent, 
and two or three on whidi impreaaiona frpoi 
popper pla^ ba^1>een taken,-Hd|r«ys of 
aaored snbjects. One of tbe drawings b in 
my possession, abont 7 in. bv 5 in., elmted 
apRar«?nay in tbe left cenl^, and J haTC 
seen one dated abbot I77(l.— J#r. /. i>fa- 
iiiotm, Proceedin^i ^Britigk A MWcUHm 



we tiare befbrt shown to be just nothing at i 



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BNdLISH SPBCIFIOinONB SKBOLLED BUBINO THE WEEK. 



215 



THB DOVXB AND CALAIS BLKCTRIO 
TBLBORAFH. 

1a aeddent has unfortunatel j taken place* 
wbich vOl canie a temporary suspention of 
the electro-telegraphic commaoication io 
happily eatabli^ed between Englaod and 
France, as announced in our last. The fact 
hat been made known to the public by the 
fbUowiog drcttlar to the newspapers from 
the Dtreetors of the Company, with whom the 
Messrs. Brett are associated i 

Sir, — ** The very general interest which hM at- 
taeb«d to the succeeftftil retultfe of our experiments 
here doring the last week,— Induces us to give to 
the poblSc The intimation that the telegraphic com- 
monicatSon between the two countries is tempora- 
rily suspended, io consequence (upon examination) 
of an iunry sustained by the wire on some sunken 
rock off Cape Grisnez. This circumstance, how- 
ever, is of the less importance, inasmuch as some 
vedu most otherwise have necessarily elapsed 
before tb« communication between London and 
Parte woald have been rendered complete, without 
nhicb the Hne would be practically of little use, 
while the experience which has been gained of the 
natnn of the coasts and the obstacles to be con- 
tended with will conduce, In repairing the present 
injuiy, to the avoidance of a similar catastrophe 
aad titc selection of a safe route for the six perma- 
uenl wires. The practicability of printing com- 
munioUlona from coast to coast in a moment of 
time baring been established beyond the possibility 
of a doubt, there is no ground for discouragement, 
and the difficulty now met with (by no means un- 
cxpceted) will only stimulate to additional exer- 
t^me, and sectire the full completion of an enter- 
prise the first effect of which must be to unite in 
bon^ of common interest the two moat powerful 
BAtioos of the world. — CsAaLES J. Wollastov, 
FsLAVCia Kdwaeos, Directors of the Society." 
Dover, Se^mber 4. 

It will be obseired that it is the intention 
of the Directors of the Company to lay 
down no less than '' rixpemumint wiret,*' 
so that when this has once been effected, 
there will be no risk of such an interruption 
to the communication between the countries 
crer ocenrring again (while peace at least 
endorea.) 

FroBB a letter which has been published 
in the Thnet from Mr. J. W. Brett, it 
appears that '*the preparation and laying 
down'' of the wirea f^r the line of commu- 
nicatkm haye been ** conducted solely under 
the management of Mr. C. J. WoUaston, 
as engfinper to the Submfpne Telegraph 
Company." 



SPBCITICATIOlfB OV BM0LI8B PATiNTt BN- 
»OLI«aD DUEIMO THK WMEK VNOINO 

SBPTSMBsn 12th, 1850. 

Frederick Rosbnboro, of Albemarle- 
•trect, Middlesex, Esq., and Conbad Monf- 
GOUBBY, pf the Army and Nary Club, St. 
James's-sqnare, in the saine county, Esq. 
For ht^provemetUt in $amng, cuUimOt boring, 
ontf tkaping wood. Patent 4Bted March 7, 



Claimt, — 1. A machine for sawing wood 
into pieces or blanks, suitable for being 
afterwards formed into staves for casks and 
barrels. 

2. Certain peculiar contriTanees, arrange- 
ments, and combinations by which pieces of 
wood have first a curvature given to them 
longitndinally corresponding to that of the 
staves into which they are afterwards formed, 
and are then, while in that state of curvature, 
shaped into staves, each with its required 
bevel, bilge, and taper. 

3. A machine for boring holes in the 
pieces of wood intended to form the heads 
of casks, for the admission of dowels for 
holding the pieces together. 

4. A machine for combining a number of 
staves into the aggregate shape and form of 
a cask or barrel. 

Gbbabd John Db Wittb, of Brook- 
street, Westminster, Middlesex, gentleman. 
For improvements in machinery ^ apparatui, 
metaliie, and other subatance9% for the puf- 
potet qf letter. pr est and other printing, (A 
communication.) Patentdated March 7,1850. 

This invention consists in a method of 
casting stereotype plates on the periphery 
of a cylinder instead of on a flat surface, 
whereby a great saving of time in printing 
is stated to be effected. An impression is 
taken from ordinary types by pressing on 
their faces damped tissue paper, which, 
wnen removed, retains the form of the let- 
ters, and serves as a mould for the stereo- 
type. The composition found to answer 
best for casting consists of 85 parts lead, 
13 antimony, and 2 parts tin. 

Jm endless shef;t of paper is to be em- 
ployed for printing. This is fed into a 
machine, and passes between two stereotype 
rollers, inked by contact with other rol- 
lers placed above them, and communicatiog 
with a reservoir. The paper, on coming 
from the printing rollers, is received between 
two cylinders, the upper one of which has a 
serrated knife, so arranged as once in each 
revolution to project and enter a groove cut 
in the lower cylinder, by which means the 
paper is partially severed. The paper in 
this state is received on an endl^ band 
working round two sets of drums. The set 
farthest from the cutting cylinders are pf 
greyer diameter, and necessarily revolve 
with an increased velocity. Sufficient power 
is obtained by the increased velocity to sever 
the filsments by which the psrtially-cut 
sheets adhere to each other ; each sheet la 
then delivered separately from the drums. 

The machine may be so modified as to 
print paper-hangings, and other artidea 
requiring an impression on one side only. 
In snch case, inking rollers and reservoirs 
for each diitinct colour will be requisite. 



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216 



ENGLISH 6PECIFICAT10KS ENBOLLED DT7BIN0 THE WEEK. 



Claimt, — 1. The construction of cylin- 
drical stereotype plates, as det sribed. 

2. The application of the machine de- 
scribed to the printing of paper on both sides. 

3. The application of roachinerj, as de- 
scribed, to the purpose of printing paper 
hangings. 

William M'Naught, of Rochdale, Lan-< 
cashire, engineer. For certain improve' 
mentt in tteam enginee, alto improvement 
in apparaiut for tucertaining and register^ 
ing the power ttf the same. Patent dated 
March 7, 1850. 

These improTenients consist — 

1. In forming grooves in the higher and 
lower points of the steps of the cam by 
which the expansion steam -yaWe is worked, 
80 that the rollers upon the end of the ex- 
pansion vaWe rod may take into the grooves ; 
the other points of the steps are left plain. 
By this arrangement the governor is made 
to regulate the cutting off of the steam at 
any part of the stroke. The governor is 
connected by means of rods and levers with 
the end of the expansion valve-rod, so that 
every increase or decrease in the velocity of 
the governor may cause the roUers of the 
expansion valve-rod to be either pushed up 
or down a step on the expansion valve-cam, 
and thus cut off the steam nearer to the 
beginning or termination of the stroke. 

2. Of an improved piston valve. In- 
stead of moving longitudinally in the case, 
as such valves have hitherto done, this valve 
is made to oscillate or to revolve, the porta 
being adapted to such motion. 

3. Of a means for regulating or equalising 
the power developed from expansive engines 
in which the steam is cut off near to the 
commencement of the stroke. An arrange- 
ment of levers is connected with the beam 
and parallel motion in such manner that 
a weight is raised by the levers during the 
first part of the stroke ; this weight acts in 
opposition to the steam, but after the piston 
has passed the centre of the cylinder it 
descends with it, and assists to finish the 
stroke. 

4. Of an instrument for registering the 
work performed by a steam engine, which is 
nearly of a similar construction to that 
known aa M 'Naught's Indicator. 

Claime. — 1. The bevelled grooves in the 
cam for working the expansion valve, where- 
by the governor is made available for alter- 
ing the degree of expansion. 

2. The oscillating piston valve. 

3. The means employed for reducing the 
strain of the engine nearer to a mean. 

4. The registering instrument. 

John Tatlbr, of Manchester, mechani- 
cal designer, and Richaro Hurst, of 
Rochdale, in the same county, cotton spin- 



ner. For certain improvemente ta oad 
applicable to home for weaving, and in 
machinerg or apparatuefor preparing^ heU- 
ing, and winding gams. Patent dated 
March 7, 1850. 

The patentees describe and claim, 

An arrangement of the crank or bIsj- 
arms, or an equivalent motion derived from 
an eccentric cam or tappets, whereby the 
reed is maintained in ita place during tbe 
picking up and transmitting of the sbattle, 
and released when the tranait of the shuttle 
is completed. This arrangement is also 
applicable to the stop-rod, in order to pre- 
vent undue pressure on tbe shuttle. 

The employment of a supplemeatarj 
spring catch and lever for the purpose of 
limiting the recoil of the cloth beam when 
the driving and detaining catcbea of tbe 
taking- up motion are lifted out of gear. 

The employment and application of caont- 
chouc or Indian rubber to the back of the 
reeds or reed-boxes, whereby additional 
elasticity is obtained. 

Arrangement of self-acting mechanisn, 
for the purpose of changing &e shuttles in 
looms. 

Combination of a conical dutch and 
break applied by recoil of the spring handle 
for the purpose of stepping the loom when 
detached from driving shaft. 

Commnnication of driving motion by 
means of tangent surfaces of vertical bb4 
parallel cylinders, pulleys, or drums. 

A modification of the preceding arrangei 
ments wherein tangent conical surfaees ar^ 
employed. 

A method of stopping beaming looms out 
the breakage or failure of any of the end] 
or threads. 

The employment of a cam to pass tik 
balling spindle through the series of tngla 
which it is required to make with the plan! 
of motion of the arm ; a contriTanoe wherel 
by an alternate motion of the spindla \i 
opposite directions is obtained ; and ballim 
warps on horisontal spindles and ibeeoil 
ployment of a cylinder having a aerratej 
knife or cutting instrument affixed thereto 

Richard Holdswortb, of the firm o 
Holdsworth and Co., cotton-spfnners, ani 
William Holoatb, engineer. #br tsj 
provemente in apparatut and mmekmargfeli 
warping woreted, cotton, and otker Jlbrwi 
material. Patent dated March 11, 1850.1 

The novelty of this invention con^to ii 
the employment of two or more frictiol 
surface plates or couplings, whereby moti^ 
is communicated to looms, the motion r^ 
versed, or the driving shaft put in or out < 
gear. These friction plates are fixed on 
shaft, to which motion is communicated Itm 
a prime mover. Between the platec soficM 



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ENGLISH SPECIFICATIONS ENROLLED DUIUNO THE WEEK. 



space la left to sdmita friction bowl attached 
to the driTin; fthaft. This abaft is supported 
bj m framework, in the top of which works 
a hand wheel attadied to a screw com muni- 
eating with the shaft ; bj toming the wheel, 
the bowl is bronght in contact with either 
the upper or lower plate, whereby motion is 
comntttnicated or rereraed; and when the 
acrev is to adjosted as to bring the bowl 
be t we en the platet, but tonebing neither of 
theaa, the driVing shaft is pat oot of gear. 

The patentees do not claim any of the 
sepermte parta constituting this meohanism, 
nor do thiej confine themseWes to the above 
detaila, prorided the pecoliar character of 
their invention be retained ; bat they claim 

Tlie applieation and combination of the 
meckaoinl oontriTances above described to 
the purposes mentioned. 

William Church, of Birmingham, en- 
gineer. Jbr certain improvementi in nm- 
dkinerf or aftparatu$ to be employed in 
memufmtiminff eardt and other artielee 
eompoeed wholly or in part of paper or 
pati^ioerdf part or parte qf the eaid ma- 
chimery being applieable to printing the 
the oamte, and parte to other purpoeet where 
pr e oe mre ie required. Patent dated March 
7, 1850. 

The first of these improvements relates to 
the hydraalic presses commonly employed 
in the manufacture of cards, for compressing 
the paper of which they are formed, and 
coaeiata in increasing the workman's power 
of leverage by lengthening the lever at each 
stroke of the pump rod. The lower side of 
the lever has a ratchet edge which takes 
into a cog wheel deriving its impulse from 
a ratchet wheel moved by a lift, which, aa 
the pump rod risea, strikes against a pro- 
jecting piece in the framing, and producea 
thereby a partial revolution, which causes a 
corresponding elongation of the lever. 

The patentee next describes a machine 
tor catting card-board into strips. It con- 
sists of two rollers, each furnished with 
annular cotters, the distance between which 
regulates the width of the slip. The board 
is fed-in from a table, and pressed laterally 
against a guide-piece, to ensure an even cut. 
The enda of the rollers have attached to 
them eog wheels which take into each other, 
and a third wheel, turned by a handle, serves 
to give motion to them both. This machine 
may be actuated by manual labour or steam 
power ; in which latter case one end of the 
driving-wheel shaft must be furnished with 
a fast and loose pulley. 

A third improvement consists of a ma- 
ddne for entting board into cards, which 
has sets of cutters fixed at right angles to 
each other. The card is first cut into strips, 
wUdi then, by the action of a stop fixed on 



217 



an endless chain, have a sidelong direction 
given tbem towards the second set of cutten*, 
by which the operation is completed. To 
prevent the slips riding over eacli other, a 
bar is so contrived as to press lightly on 
the strips without causing friction sufficient 
to impede their progress. 

The patentee fhrSier describes a machine 
for making railway tickets, by whieh they 
are cut and dated at one operation; — a 
machine for numbering tickets, whieh may, 
by the alternate action of wheels, on the 
peripheries of which are fixed figures, be 
applied to the purpose of consecutive num. 
berings ; — ^a machine for counting the tickets, 
which, by striking a hell at the completion 
of every 100, warns the attendant to remove 
them to make way for a fresh (upply ; —a 
machine for paging books, or other sheets 
or cards requiring to be numbered conse- 
cutively; and, lastly, an improved construc- 
tion of roller for the supply of ink to the 
types employed in any of the above-named 
operations. 

Claime, — 1 . The improvements in hydrau- 
lic presses, by which an increased power of 
leverage is given at each successive stroke of 
the pump rod. 

2. The machine for cutting cards into 
strips, as described. 

3. The construction of a machine for 
forming strips into cards, by means of cut- 
ters placed at right anglea, and also the 
employment of the endless chain. 

4. The machine for making, dating, and 
cutting, at one operation, railway or other 
tickets, and the application of tiie counting- 
apparatus. 

5. The machine for numbering, which is 
also applicable to numbering consecutively, 
and printing address cards. 

6. The construction of a machine for 
paging or numbering consecutively leaves of 
books, &c. 

7. The improved construction of inking- 
roUer. 

Hbnrt Jamks Taklino, of Bayswater, 
Middlesex, commission agent. For im- 
provementi in the man^facture of fuel and 
manure, and deodorizing and dieinfeeting 
materials. Patent dated March 7. 1850. 

The improvementa in **the manufacture 
of fuel *' consist in employing refuse tan, 
which is to be well mixed with gas tar as it 
comes from the works, in the proportion of 
one bushel to a quart of tar. The fuel is 
then ready for use, or it may be moulded 
into bricks, if preferred. Instead of tan, 
peat may be ufed iu the aame proportion, 
and rosin, or rosin oil, may be substituted 
for the tar, in which case one pint to the 
bushel of tan or peat will be sufficient. 

In the manufaoture of '' manure/' the 



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BNOLISH SPECIFICATIONS ENBOLLED DUHINO THE WBEK. 



patentee employs highly-carbonized refose 
tan and night-ioil in eqnal parts. The pre- 
pared tan acts as a disinfector, both in the 
case of its use with night-soil and in other 
applications thereof. 

The patentee does not claim the exdosife 
use of tan or peat for fnel, as he is aware 
that they have been preriously employed in 
combination with other materials, hut he 
considers the application of tan and peat, 
combined with tar or rosin, or rosin oil, as 
aboTe described, to be new ; without, how- 
erer, confining himself to the exact propor- 
tions aboTC giTcn. 

dainu, — 1. The application of highly- 
carbonized refuse tan and night-soil for the 
purpose of manure. 

2. The employment of the tan charcoel 
for the purpose of disinfecting and deodo- 
rising night-soil and other materials. 

John Tbbat, of Hackney, Middlesex, 
C.E. For an improved meter for regiMter* 
inff the Jlow of water and other Jtuidt, 
Patent dated March 7, 1850. 

This meter consists of a screw-propeller 
wheel placed in a channel through which 
the fluid Is made to flow ; the axis of the 
screw-wheel is connected with a train of 
wheel work by which the quantity passing 
through the channel is registered. 

Regulating and check Talyes are also em- 
ployed, for &e purpose of ensuring greater 
accuracy. These Talyes, together with the 
■crew-wheel, and a means of stopping the 
flow of the fluid by increasing the pressure 
of the air inside Uie meter, constitute the 
subject matter of the claims. 

William Bbowh, of Airdiie, Lanca- 
shire, electrician, and William Williams, 
the younger, of St. Dennis, Cornwall, gen- 
tleman. For improvementt in electric and 
magnetic apparatnefor indicating and com- 
municating intelligence. Patent dated March 
7, 1850. 

The patentees describe and claim a method 
of and apparatus for producing a step-by- 
step motion by magnetos or electro-magnets. 

The obtaining of electric currents by in- 
duction on electro-n^agnets formed of iron 
or nickel charged with ? oltaic electricity. 

A method of signalizing by means of 
sounds, and of sounding alarums. 

A method of protecting the conducting 
wires of electric telegraphs by strands of 
hemp put on by a braiding engine, and then 
coating the whole with gutta percha. 

A method of connecting the transmitting 
wires by screwing one end of a wire into a 
nut formed on the corresponding end of the 
next wire. 

John Fowlbu, jon., of Melksham, Wilts, 
engineer. Fiir improvementt in draining 
land. Patent dated March 7, 1850. 



The patentee desoribea an iosproTed rab- 
aoil plough, in which the oouiters may be so 
arranged as to form a furrow for the recep- 
tion of square or angular drain or mammn- 
oouTeying pipes. To the back part of the 
framework is attached a rope, which may be 
paased through a number ol drain pipes and 
fastened in a knot at the end, jby whkb 
means, the plough, as it is sooTed forward, 
draws the pijies into the furrows. He next 
describes a madiine for cutting and boring 
wooden pipes, both of a circular and angnter 
form. Aud, lastly, ho proposes to effect 
drainage by meana of hottho' twisted inio 
the form of a rope, and drawn into the for* 
rows in place of pipea. 

Clainu^'—l, The improved sub-soil plovgh 
for draining, and the arrangement of the 
coulters to form a furrow, into which square 
or angular drain pipes may be introdn^d. 

2. The machine for sawing and borii^ 
wooden pipes. 

3. The application of heather to the pur- 
pose of draining, as described. 

Thomas Irvino ^ill, of Clapham, 
Surrey, gentleman. For certain twy r p ^ - 
ments m the treatment of copper and oiker 
oree, and obtaining prodaete ther^om. 
Patent dated March 9, 1850. 

These improvements apply principally to 
the smelting of refractory copper orea, and 
consist in ^e employment of a flux oom- 
posed of Galena (sulphuret of lead) and 
baryta, or sulphate or carbonate of barjta 
In place of baryta, carbonate or sulphata of 
strontia may be substituted. The propor- 
tions are one-tenth galena and nine-teotha 
baryta, &c The flux is to be added to the 
metal in the roasting furnace in tiie proptn*- 
tionof one-eighth flux to seren-eightha of 
ore yielding 12 per cent of copper. 

Ajiother improvement is the employoaeat 
of oxygen gas, to increase the heat and 
cause more perfect combustion of the coal. 
Retorts are fixed near the furnaces, in wfai^ 
the gas is generated by exposing ther^n 
black oxide of manganese to intense heat* 
The gas evolved passes to a receiver, and 
thence by pipes to the fire, either through 
holes cot in the side or over the bridge of 
the furnace. 

The patentee also employs carbonate of 
baryta as a flux for iron ore, and introdnces 
oxjgen gas to assist combustion, aa above 
described. 

C/aiW.— I. The employment of galena, 
or sulphuret of lead, in combinatton with 
baryta, or carbonate or sulphate of baryta^ 
or carbonate or sulphate of strontia, aa a 
flux for copper ores, as described. Also the 
generation and application of oxygen gaa for 
increasing heat in smelting and roasting liar- 
naces, aa described. 



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EKOUflH 8PEOIFI0ATXOK8 BNBOIiLBD DXTBIMO THE WEBK. 



219 



3 IhefBpWymeiitofeirboiuiteof btrjtt 
ai a flax for inm tfre. Also the applioatioii 
of Odijgeii gas, as described. 

WiLUAM BsNSOir SrpNKs, of Golden- 
iqare, .Middlesex, Manebester warehonse- 
■a*. Far improvmmus in tremiimff pe(^t 
mdMer eerdoseefostf eiul lign§pM§ mat* 
Un m 09 to Mam groduet* th^^ow^, 
(k somiBiiiikation.) Patent dated Marcb 

ClsiMS. — 1. A machine for compressing 
pest 
2. A process of oarbonlfltti. 

I Tbe mlieitlOB <if eitbonie mid gatf 
tt tiie fextldl&fll of gld#i^ dia^-i>iit: 

4. The employment pf peat-gas proaacea 
teteg tbe openttioii df terbonixingi fbr the 

T 106 (»f faeadof the retorts. 
The applicatioii of a series of receif^s 
to tbe distiilation of the residiram, and the 
•btuning prodocts therefrom. 

6. A process of obtaining '*peatole" 
! ad "penpion" by rectification. , 

7. A process of obtaining '* peatine.'* 

8. Tlie application of snlpbur and peat to 
! the maimfietnre of |tisnlpharet of carbon^ 
' sad spplieation of the peat and sulphur 

rasidimm to the manufacture of gun- 
poeder. 

9. The madttlbtnre of artificial fuel from 
aathngite and char-peat. 

18. The IfflBregnation of surface- peat 
sith resin oil, etc. , for the manufacture of 
fiie-li^tfers andieriTsrs. 

II. The purification of peat gas, as de- 
I scribed, 

II The obtaining of heat and light by 
tlw combustion of peat gas in atmospheric 
air, when a coil or plate of platinum is 

13. A peculiar cQfittruction of gas-burner, 
aad application of these burners for the 
purpose of blow-pipes, &c. 

Wu^iAM Crane Wilkins, oi Loiig- 
acTSt Middlesex, engineer. For certain 
fcy reeeweofi in tintilatitiff h^atinp, and 
Sfktntff ; im iampt and candtetticki ; in the 
\ mam/ketttre of candletf and in the appara* 
tm to he uMedfir snch purpotee. Patent 
4ted March 11, 1850. 

detnu. — 1. Several descriptions of Ten- 
tiUtors for yentilating buildiugs. 

2. Certdfl modes of constructing cbim- 
aey-tops. 

3. A particular method of heating portable 
itom wlUi gas and oil, for the ptirpose of 
Wstiog apartments; and also the employ- 
UttC oif reflectors in combination with such 
XOTcs for beating and lighting purposes. 

4. A perforated hollow cone for snppljing 
Br to the Interior of common grates, n>r tbe 
BOieBerfect eombustlon of fuel. 

5. 1^ eoDitniction of Argand gas-bvmers, 



by eoating them with tfai or slnc^by gal- 
vanic or other processes, for the preTsntlbn 
of oxidation. 

6. A method of regulating the acceu of 
air to gas-burners: . 

7. Cef tain methods of constructing fish- 
tail gas-burners. . ^ 

8. various constructions of , re^ula^rs 
for the purpose of equalizing and regulating 
the passage of ^. 

9 and 10. Certain means of constructing 
pendent sliding gss lamps, oil pendent lamps, 
«id b<lrtl«tS. 

11. Several methods Of eOnstmetiBg 0U 
boOyltml^ 

12. Certain particular, means of dtffi- 
structin; railway carriage lamps. . 

13. Cettaia cOfiMHietldHI and tfrrange- 
mentl o^ spirit And vapour laotipi. iiiii Usd 
of the parta of spirit and vapour liimps. 

14. AlyphoUeXhaustifllippirattitOOtl 
and gas lamps and burners. 

15. Different forms of illuminators. 

it, Viridus m^ani 6t cbi)8tru£iing can- 
dle lamps, and parts of candle lamps. 

17. A mode of lighting mafiflft flbitifag- 
buoys. 

18. A mode of coverin| metallic refieetbrs 
with coloured enamel surfaces (silver lustre- 

ing.) 

19. Burning jiyi^ro-carbon with the flame 
of oil lamps. And 

20. A method of manufacturing candles. 
^ickAtiD Archibald BRoostf An, of the 

firm of Messrs. J. C. Robertaon and Co., 
Of Fleet- street, patent agenU. For im- 
pronemento in typeo, itereotype plateo, and 
other Jifured iurfaeet for printing from. 
(A comffiimicatfon.) Patent dated March 
J, 1850. 

Thia invention consists in coveriiig or 
coating the aurfacea of types, atereotype 
plates, or other printing surfaces, with some 
protecting metal which will increase their 
durability without ioh pairing Ibeir Sharp- 
ness. 

The metM found to answer best for this 
purpose is copper, ^hich is prcctpibted on 
the types by the agency of galvanic elec- 
tricity. 

C/atm.— The covering, coating, or plating 
the surfaces of types, stereotype plates, and 
other figured suffices for printing from, in 
whole or in part, with some protecting and 
preserving metal, as before described. 

Richard Carte, of 38^ Southampton- 
street, Strand, Middlesex, professor of 
muaic. For certain improvementt in the 
mutieal inetruments deeignatedflutei, clatio- 
nett, hautboytf ahd battoont. Pittent dated 
March 7, 1850. 

CVoimt.— 1. The employment of certain 
modes of shutttng the keys D and 6. 



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WfiBKLY TJST OF NEW BMGIJSH FATBMT8 AKD DEStGKB. 



2. A mode of prodadng the notes D 
natural and C sharp on the concert Ante and 
the corresponding notes on the tenor Ante 
and other flates, and also on hanthoys. 

3. An improyement in the concert Ante, 
before described, whereby, upon pressing 
down the seoond, and raising the first and 
third fingers of the left hand, the C natural 
and B natural holes are left open to produce 
the note C natural, and the application of 



the said mode to the corresponding notes on 
the tenor flute and other flutes, and also on 
oboes or hautboys. 

4. A certain mode of prodncbg the note 
F natural by closing the F sharp note bj 
means of the little finger of the left hand, 
and leaTing disengaged the second and third 
fingers of the rif^t hand, and the applioi- 
tion of the said mode to the oorrespondiog 
notes on the tenor flute, and other flutes. 



WUKLT LIST or NBW 

Pierre Bnurd, of Paris, for improrementt in tke 
eonitmction of piano-fortet. Septomber 13; six 
months. 

Bobort Lsngdon, the younger, of Derhy, fflore 
nviniifkrtaror, and Thomas Pariier Tabberer, of 
Derbj, aforeiaid, manufacturer of elastic fabrics, 
for tmprortments in the manufacture of looped 
Ikbrics. September IS; six months. 

AsUey Paston Price, of Margate. Kent, chemist, 
and James Heywood Whit^ead, of the Royal 



BMOLItR PATKNTS. 

George Hills, Saddleworth, near Manchester, fcr 
Improvmenta in filters. September IS; six 
montip. 

Thomas Lucas Patersoa, of Glasgow, North Bri- 
tain, manofhotnrer and caUoo printer, for oeita&i 
improrements in the preparation or manofkctare of 
textile materials, and in the finishing of worm 
fabrics, and in the machinery on apparatoi oied 
therein. September IS; six months. | 



WKBKLT LIST OP OBSIOKt POB ABTI0LB8 OP UTILITT RBOISTBRBD. 

Date of No. in 
Registra- the Re- 
tlon. gitter. Proprietors' Names. Addresses. Subjects of Destgo. 

Sept, 6 t4S9 Hugh Booth... ........... Swinton, Lancashire m...^.... Fork for the weft stop 

motion used in looms, 
or machinery for ma- 
mannfkcturing votcd 
Ihbrics. 
7 t4S0 William Craig and Isaac 

Whitesmith ».... Glasgow m..» Brake for shibblogsBd 

roring frames. 

» S4S1 Lewis Cooke Hertslet... Fltzroy Park, Highgate Double socket-Joint for; 

connecting tubes, or 
pipes withont flandiet. 

„ 24SS LemanZox » Long- acre „.... Cape, or cloak, with 

hood for traycUing or 
walkiiig. 
„ 2433 James Isaacks Sands, 
and Henry Edward 

Outtram Holbom-hill ».».» Self-supporting txouser^ 

10 S434 George Wolstenholm.... Sheflield.M .»—...............•••..•»•»>•— •• Doubly carbonised I. XJ 

L.rasor. 



CONTENTS OF 
DescripUon of a New Reciprocating Steam En- 

g^e. By Mr. Shipton— viM enpravingt) ... 201 
Tate on the Strength of Materia]s--(revfeip) ... 204 
Experiments on the Power which Maintains 
Bodies in the Spheroidal State. By M. Bou> 

tigny 208 

The Gutta Percha Trade 208 

Specification of Yerbury't (Staite's) Patent 
Diaphragm Smoking Plpt»-^with engrav- 

ima$) « 209 

On Tubular Bridges, and the Ctoims of Mr. 
Stephenson to their Invention. By Richard 

Prosser, Esq., C.E. 211 

Tissues Woven by Caterpillars. By Mr. J. 

Denistoun — 214 

The Dover and Calais Electric Telegraph 215 

Specifications of English Patents Enrolled 
during the Week :— 
Rosenborg and Mont- 
gomery Cutting and Shaping 

Wood, &c 215 

De Witte Printing 215 



THIS NUMBER. 

M*Naught.............«8l«am Engines and 

Registering Power 
Taylerand Hurst...M.Looms, Yams, 3te.... 

Holdsworth and Hol- 

gate Fibrous Materials ... 

Choreh ..> ^.Cards, TIckeu, iic..., 

Tarling » Fuel, Manure, Disin- 
fecting. &c 

Tebay Fluid Meter « 

Brown and Williams.Communi<»ting In- 
telligence by Elec- 
tricity «.... 

Fowler .» »... Drainage ..... ^....» 

Hill Ores « ^... 

Stones ...» Peat ». 

WilXins Lighting, Heating. & 

Ventilating 

Brooman Types » ^... 

Carte ^...Musical Instrumenta 

Weekly List of New English Patents ...».....» 
Weekly List of Designs for Articles of UtiHty 
Registered ^ ^ ». 



SI? 



^ 2a 



LONDON: Edited, Printed, and Published by Joseph Clinton Robertson, 
in the Ci^ of London— Sold by A. and W. Galignani, Rue Yivienne, 
Dubli^f^s^jy. C. Campbell and Co., Hamburgh. 



of No. 166, fleetatreet^ 
Paris; Machin and Co., 



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MUSEUM, REGISTER, JOURNAL, AND GAZETTE. 

No. 1415.] SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21, 1850. [Price 3d., Stamped, id. 

Edited by J. C. Robertson, IC6, Fleet-street. 



PULVERMACHER'S PATENT ELECTRO-MOTIVB ENGINE. 
Fig. 1, 




▼0L« Lin. 



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222 

Pni.yBKMACHBK'8 PATBlfT BLXCTEO-MOTIVS BNOIMS. 

We give at the time of the enrohnent of Mr. PulTennacher*8 specification (toI. 
LU. p. 494), a statement of Tarioos improTemeots made by him in the prac- 
tical application of the electric and magnetic foreet to motive and other nsefol pur- 
poses ; some of which have since attracted no small degree of attention for their 
novelty and ingenaity. We now propose to lay before our readers Mr. Pulver- 
roacher*8 descriptioD, in full, of his electro-motive engine, in which it may be 
remembered a single galvanic battery is combined with a numerous series of annular 
electro-magnets. Fig* 1 is an external devatlon of the principal part of thb ma- 
chine ; fig. 2 a separate elevation of the electro-magnets as combined together in 
the inner cylinder of the maeUne ; fig. 3 is a sectional elevatk» of the parts shown 
in fig. 1, and fig. 4, a plan of tw» of the rings shows the position whioh they 
occupy in relation to one another. 

DiiCfipiion, 

The electro-magnets are formed of a double series of tooAnoi or notched rings ; 
AA and BB formdi of thin plates of aoft iron, one set or series beii^ placed inside 
the other. The outer rings A are toothed upon their inside edges, and the inner 
rings, BB, toothed upon their outer edges. The number and pasitioas of both sets 
of teeth or projections correapond to each odier, as shown in fig. 4. SS are piU 
lars by which the fixed j^rts of the machine are bound together, and to the oed 
plate, or foundation Z. WW is the Main shaft of the machine, which has its bear- 
ings in bosses L^ U, formed in orosaesor frames KK, which are affixed to the pillars 
SS. These pillars SS, carrv two atrosf olates of metal GO, between which the 
whole set of outer rinss AA, are firmly neld together. Every ring is separated 
from, or has interposed between it and the next ring, a ring of exactly the saoae 
form, but made of brass, gutta perein, or some other non-magaetic material. The 
inner rings BB, are combined m a ahnilar manner and held together by means of 
two strong discs of metal O^ 0>, and the bolts 8^ S\ Both sets of rings, A A and BB, 
in their combined state, are made as neariy truly eyltndrieal as possible by being 
turned after thev are fixed in their poaitioiis ; the outer rings being turned on their 
inner edges, so that when the one cylinder is placed within the other they may just run 
clear without the teeth or projections of the one touching those of the other. The bosses 
of the cross frames, EK, are provided with screws 6*0* (shown in fig 8), and pioeh- 
ingnuts, M^M^, by which the inner cylinder, composed of the rings, BB, may be ad- 
justed lengthwise, so that the iron rings upon it may fall exactly opposite to the iron 
rings of the outer cylinder ; in which position they are shown in ^g, 8. Insulated 
copper wires, dd, wee coiled round the teeth or projections A A and BB of both sets 
of rings, care being taken to coil the wires in such a direction that when a galvanic 
current is sent through them it shall be compelled to follow the course indicated by 
the arrows in fig. 2 ; that is, so that the current fiowing down the two sets of wires in 
any one of the grooves or farrows formed by the teeth shall be in the same direction, 
whereby the currents will be prevented from producinff any injurious efiect upon each 
other. To efiect this, the wires are crossed m>m the hottom of one tooth to the top 
of the other, as shown in fig. 4, and to this crossing of the wires particular attention 
must be paid, as the course of the current must be so disposed that while it produces 
a north polarity in all the teeth of one row of teeth, it shall produce a south polarity 
in the next row. The whole of the rows of teeth or projections, both on tne out- 
side of the inner cylinder and the inside of the outer cylinder, are, in fact, trans- 
formed into so many rows of electro-magnets (that is, when a galvanic current is 
sent through the coils of wires by which they are surrounded), and each row has a 
different polarity from that immediately next to it. The polarity thus produced in 
the electro-magnet of the inner or moveable cylinder always remains the same, bat 
the poUrity of those upon the outer, or fixed cylinder, is changed progressively by 
the rotation of the michine, acting upon an instrument termed ** a pole changer,** 
which is constructed so that a pair of metallic rollers, placed in the efectrio circuity 



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FULVEBMAOHEB'S patent BLSCTBO-MOTIVE EHaiNB. 



22S 




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>bill by passing over t graphite disc reverse the direction of the current alternately. 
Sometioies I form the rings of tinned iron, or have them tinned after they are cut 
oot, and when they are accurately placed together thev are subjected to a temperature 
^iffieient to melt the tin, by which they are formed into one solid mass ; but each 
nog will still form a distinct series of electro-magnets, when subjected to the elec- 
trie current 

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224 



MEMOIR OK TBB VARIOUS MKTR0D8 ADOPTED AND PROPOSED POR THE PRE8ERVAT10K 

OF TIMBER. BT M. 8. B. 



A correspondpnt, " T. P. J.," of this 
Magtsine, has given a very useful sum- 
mary of Mr. PatOD*s ohservations re- 
specting the teredo navalis and other sea 
worms, and of what is otherwise known 
of these destructive moluscs, as also 
considerable information re8[>ecting the 

Crotection of wood from their ravages 
y means of creosote or oil of tar ; but 
valuable as is his paper, it does not seem 
to militate against the making farther 
experiments respecting the preservative 
powers of oils other than that of tar; 
out as