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HOMER JUDD, M. D., D. D. S. 



( Department of Operative and Surgical Dentistry.) 

W H. EAMES, D. D. S. W. N. MORRISON, D. D. S. 

( Deparlineot of Mectaaoical Deutistry.) 



H. E. PEEBLES. D. D. S. 






1871 . 


A Popular Dental Jourual 406 

A New Method of Using Gold Foil.— Ar- 
thur 22i 

Alveolar Abscess anil Caries. — H.S.Chase, 182 

American Dental Convention 270 

American Dental Association 302, 271 

Amalgam Experiments.— Cutler 4:13 

An Experience with the Mallet. — DristoU, 424 

An Experiment. — Barker 336 

Are the Mineral Acids Formed in the 

Mouth.— E. C. Chase 134 

Assault and Battery 40 

Atmospheric Germs and their Relation 
to Disease. — Davis 208 

Bad Effects of Chloral 39 

Borax.— W. E. Hughes 78 

Burring Engines 186 

Bibliographical.— Judd 318, 359, 476 

Clinicof Dr.Garretsou 1.5,58 

Conservative Dentistry.— Cnshing 161 

California State Dental Society 192,263 

Chicago Dental Society 193 

Chloroform, Use of, in Filling Teeth.— Ho- 

rine 229 

Contour Fillings. — Park 248 

Dcntigerous Cysts 441 

Disease Fungi 6 

Dr. Morrison's Burring Engine 38 

Dr. Nichol's Impactor 39 

Experimental Researches in the Spinal 

Cord 1 

Enlarged Maxillary Sinus. — Branch 13 

Epithelial Carcinoma 41 

Electrical Plugger.— Eames 194 

Extract from a paper read before the South 
London Microscopical and Natural 
History Club -tlO 

Gold Foil, Instruments, etc. — H. S. Chase, 64 
Gold for Filling Teeth 255 

History and Progress of Dental Science, 
— Jiidd 81 

Investigations on the Nirvous System. — 

Waller o>> 

Illinois State Dental Society 100, 273 

Iowa State Dental Society 275, 312 

Indiana State Dental Society X\S 

Journalistic— Jndd 29, 68, 114, 153, 195, 230 

260, 319, 348, 397, 434, 468 
Journals Bound 39 

Kellnitz Diamond Cement 260 

Luxated Teeth 181 

Lines upon a Skull 188 

Lactophosphate of Lime 333 

"Lusus Natura;." 388 

Missouri Dental College Commencement... 117 

Missouri State Dental Society 200 

Medical Sects , 342 

Michigan State Dental Association 360 

Memphis Dental Society 431 

Mr. Lowneon Pangenesis 412 

Notices 80 

New Claims for Old Inventions. — Eames... 109 

Nitrous Oxide Inhalers 464 

New Orleans Dental College 119 

Neuralgia 194 

Northern Iowa Dental Asscciation 277 

Neumann's Theory of th° Development of 
Blood Corpascles 382, 406 

Office Jottings n 

Obituary 79, 120, 199, 240, 279, 320 

On Fermentation 96, 121, 168, 202, 241, 281 

321, 401 
On the Force of the Hmian Heart 128 

Pyioxyline.— Ean'es 80, 298 

Pulp Treatment. — Chase- 104 

Plugging Teeth.— White 137, 175 

Poisoning from Chloral Hydrate 221 




Proceedings of the Kansas State Dental 

Society 425 

Quick Method of Making nies.-Troutman, 78 
Quack Doctors and Bogus Diplomas.— 

Jmld ^96 

Resolutions of Condolence 240 

Restoring Contour of Fractured Incisors... 219 

Skin Grafting 66 

So-called ".Sponianeoas Generation." — 

Lowne 90 

South Carolina State Dental Association... 193 
Smooth vs. Serrnted-pointed Plugger.— 

Howard 251 

Structure of the Red Blood Corpuscles 331 

Second Annual Session of the New Jersey 

State Dental Association 389 

Soliciting Patients ii9i 

Seventeenth Annual American Dental 

Convention 270 

The Physical Nature of Vital Energy.— 

Beale 4 


The Missouri Dental Journal .37 

The Electrical Plugger 40 

The New Bases, Aluminum and Pyroxy- 

line. — Eames H 

To Western Dentists. — Driscoll 147 

The Perkins Hyatt Base 148 

The Perkins Hyatt or Celluloid Base 461 

The Wabash Valley Dental Association.... 189 

The Dental Office.— White 185 

The Origin of Infectious Diseases. — Fit/, .. 214 

The Kansas State Dental Society 239 

The Formation of Fat 24(1 

Temporary Teeth.— Koch 287 

The Missouri State Dental Association 308 

The American Dental Asso iation 341 

Theory of Caries— Koch 369 

The Country Dentist... 418 

The Records of a Day.— Judd 422, 459 

Ultimate Distribution of the Nerves in the 

Tail of the Tadpole 333 

"You Mean Me." 432 


Vol. III.] JANUARY, 1871. [No. 1. 


Bv MM. Masius and Vaxlaiu. 

The authors commence their memoir with a histological ex- 
amination of the filuni terminale of the spinal cord of the frog. 
At its posterior extremity this filum is exclusively formed of 
layers of epithelial cells; surrounded on the outside by ih.e pia 
mater, and enclosing a canal which ends in a cul-de-sac. More 
in front they find, beyond the epithelial mass, some large multi- 
polar cells, with nucleus and nucleolus (nerve cells) lying between 
the pia mater and the epithelium; still more anteriorly, they 
observe pale, varicose, and longitudinal nerve-fibres, the exist- 
ence of which KoUiker had already pointed out. At the point 
of convergence from the coccygeal canal, the stratum of radia- 
ting cells and fibres gradually becomes thicker as far as the ori- 
gin of the tenth spinal nerve. The prolongations of the nerve 
cells are continuous with those of the epithelial cells. Upon the 
lateral and anterior faces of thefilum terminale at this point, the 
multipolar cells approach each other and admit in the narrow 
intervals between them longitudinal fibres, to which they at 
length give place. The authors compare the results of their la- 
bors with former works on the same subject, with reference to 
man and the frog, and conclude that the filum terminale of the 
adult frog resembles the human spinal cord checked in its devel- 
opment, so that each segment of th.Qfi,lum represents one of the 


successive phases through which the human cord passes in its 
primary formation. 

The second part of the memoir has reference to the experi- 
ments which the authors made to determine the corresponding 
cutaneous and medullary regions (^territoires^ of the spinal nerves 
of the frog; a subject already handled byPeyer, Tlirk, Krause, 
Eckhardt, and Koschennikoft". The results agree more or less 
with the last-named author. They prove further that there is 
no root presiding exclusively over the perceptive (^consciente) 
sensibility, and that the cutaneous region, the irritation of which 
provokes a perceptive sensibility, is for each nerve the same as 
that which can produce a reilex action ; an observation which is 
opposed to Marshall Hall's hypothesis regarding the excito- 
motory fibres. 

Passing to the medullary region of the posterior roots of the 
frog, the authors admit that all the fibres for perceptive sensa- 
tions ought to end, directly or indirectly, in the brain ; but there 
are centres, especially at each root, which regulate the reflex 
movements. Their results, as regards the positions of the cen- 
tres of reflex action, agree on the whole with those of M. Ko- 
schennicoff", but in detail they present marked diff"erences, which 
the authors explain by the inconsistency both of the cutaneous 
regions and of the points of emergence of the roots. To avoid 
as far as possible the diminution of irritability consequent on so 
serious an operation as opening the vertebral canal, they made 
each experiment upon an uninjured frog, by a single cut, and 
then tested the persistence of the reflex excitability. An autop- 
sy was subsequently made, and the distance measured between 
the cut and the emerifcncc of the root. This last was rendered 
more visible by coloring the fibres with hyperosmic acid. We 
will not enter upon a description of the results obtained, but 
content ourselves with observing that there is a series of suc- 
cessive centres. The centre of each root commences immedi- 
ately behind the preceding root, and ends immediately be- 
hind its own origin, being therefore upon a transversal line 
which joins the points of emergence. Behind the tenth pair the 
cord is not the seat of a reflex centre. The nerve cells of this 


portion send out sensitive and motor fibres towards the tenth 
pair, but the cells of these fibres do not communicate amongst 
themselves, as they would of necessity do if the reflex move- 
ments, which fail at this point, were present. 

After these preliminary studies, the memoir treats of the ano- 
tomical and physiological researches, made by the authors, on 
the reproduction of the spinal cord in the frog. Schwann, from 
Avhose report on this memoir we have compiled this abstract, was 
the first who verified the reproduction of the nerve trunks in the 
frog; the reproduction of the cord had never been clearly pro- 
ved by anatomical or physiological researches. Recently, M. 
Voit has shown that in pigeons, the hemispheres of the brain 
can be reproduced after extirpation. According to the authors, 
the want of success of the experiments upon the reproduction of 
the cord in frogs probably proceeds from the season, and the too 
great age of the animals. They have operated on little frogs 
full of life, and those experiments only which were made during 
the winter (that is from November to the end of February) 
were successful. The authors were not content with simply cut- 
ting through the cord, but they actually removed sections from 
one to two millimetres in length. After about six months the 
healing was complete, and all the functions had returned. These 
latter came back in the following order: — First, the spontane- 
ous fibrillary movements in the thighs, then voluntary movement 
of the whole thigh, extending gradually to the knee and the foot. 
The perceptive {cotisciente) sensibility only appeared more slow- 
ly, and sensibility and the power of reflex motion were the last 
to present themselves. The autopsy and microscopical examina- 
tion of the reproduced cord, showed that the end of the cord in 
front of the section was a little swollen, as in the case of nerves 
that have been divided ; the posterior end was rounded, and be- 
tween the two ends there was a substance, at first gelatinous, in 
which they found multipolar nerve cells, and nerve fibres in the 
form of Remak's fibres and varicose fibres. The cells appeared 
before the fibres. They found besides in this gelatinous mass, 
and in the two ends of the cord, near the point of section, nerve 
cells in a state of pigmentary degeneration. 


Such are the principal results of this interesting work. It 
fills up a gap which existed in our knowledge of the reproduc- 
tion of nerve tissue, and closes the list of numerous new obser- 
vations upon the anatomy and physiology of the cord and spinal 
nerves of the frog. — [Medical Times and Gazette. 


By Lionel S. Bealk, M. B., F. R. 8., Professor of Pathological Anatomy in 
King's College; Physician to King's College Hospital, ete. 

The conviction that it is "^ only by recognising the physical 
nature of vital energy that we can ever hope to establish thera- 
peutics on a firm and sound basis" has, perhaps, led Dr. Ferrier* 
to express himself rather decidedly against some views which I 
ventured to put forward some years ago, but which I am ready 
to give up as soon as convincing evidence shall be adduced in 
favor of the physical doctrine of life. 

If Dr. Ferrier will explain what is meant by "molecular or- 
ganization" and "molecular machinery," he will serve the cause 
he has at heart far better than by attacking me; for, as he must 
have gathered from many of my remarks, I am quite as anxious 
for light as any one can be. AYhat I desire is to learn in what 
particulars the ^Hiving'' resembles and differs from the ^'■non- 
living." I am quite ready to admit that one living thing is only 
some other living thing, or dead thing, or non-living thing, "va- 
riously modified" "under sundry circumstances," by "subtle 
influence;" but I should certainly like to have the meaning of 
these very comprehensive phrases explained. A man may be 
said to be dust "variously modified;" but consider what is com- 
prised in the "variously modified!" And perhaps I may be per- 
mitted to ask why, if it is right to attribute the marvellous phe- 

*Introductory Lecture on Life, etc. (British Medical Journal, Oct. 22nd). 


nomena of nutrition to "subtile influences," am I to be condemned 
because I prefer to employ provisionally the simple term "life" 
or "vitality" or "vital power?" 

It is jyossible the "molecular machinery" may be discovered; 
but at present it is absolutely unknown. It has never been seen, 
and no one has yet told us what it looks like even in his imagi- 
nation. But yet I must admit that it is possible such machinery 
may be beyond the microscopic limit. The imagination of highly 
gifted persons may be able to conceive the structure and mode of 
action of the molecular machinery of the existence of which they 
are perfectly certain, although it has not yet been rendered evi- 
dent even to their sense. Nay, I will admit further, that a suf- 
ficient intelligence might be able to predict from the properties 
of its component parts, the character which the offspring of any 
given piece of "molecular machinery" will assume after it has 
continued to grow and multiply, say for a thousand years. But 
do such suggestions enable us to unravel the mystery of the life 
of even the simplest thing now alive, or to determine in what 
particulars a living particle differs from the same particle dead; 
or why a portion of a mass of living matter moves upwards as 
well as downwards, or in what manner it takes up non-living mat- 
ter, and communicates to this its own properties, and divides into 
separate portions, every one of which possesses equal powers ? 
It may be answered, " These phenomena are due to the proper- 
ties of the molecular machinery which has long been known to 
exist in the imaginations of highly gifted persons; and, although 
as yet no one has succeeded in actually producing such machinery 
artificially, the efforts of philosophers tend towards such a con- 
summation!" But surely no observer, no worker at science, 
will feel satisfied with such statements as these ; and a few will 
probably agree with me in thinking that, although it be in a sense 
unphilosophical, it is neither inconsistent nor absurd to entertain 
the opinion that the vital phenomena of living matter which was 
derived from pre-existing living matter is due to a peculiar power; 
although at the same time I object to accept the view that the 
action of a steam-engine, which was not produced by a pre-existing 
steam-engine, is due to a "steam-engine principle;" and I con- 


fess it appears to me very extraordinary that many advocates of 
the physical theory of life cannot be convinced that the analogy 
they draw between a machine, which does not make itself, or grow, 
or multiply — and living matter, which seems to do all these things, 
is so very slight as to be beyond every limit except that of the 
fancy. If those who support the view which Dr. Ferrier so 
strongly advocates could explain by physics and chemistry (a) 
the movements, [h) the growth, and (<?) the diversion of any particle 
of living matter of any organism in this tvorld, they might have 
some excuse for the very positive statements they make about 
the physical theory of life. 

People are beginning to doubt whether, after all, living things 
are really so like machines and crystals and physical bases, and 
complex albuminoid matters in a state of rapid chemical change, 
as they have been led to believe them to be. And people are 
also beginning to doubt if those who have spoken so positively on 
the physical side really know much more than any one else knows 
about the nature of life; although, from their very decided manner, 
it was natural to believe they possessed very peculiar and perfect 
knowledge of the subject. Whether the physical theory of life 
would have resisted much better the ^^ furious onslaughts" that 
have been made against it, if some other course had been pursued, 
is a matter of opinion ; but it is quite certain that some of the 
strongest supporters of the doctrine are modifying them still 
further. Those who have watched for ten minutes, under a high 
magnifying power, the varied movements of the nutrition of that 
living matter, will not easily be brought to believe that such phe- 
nomena are due to physical and chemical changes only. The 
number of such observers increases daily. — Brit. Med. Jour. 


Translated from the " Zahnartz," by Rudolph Mathews, from the "Zeitschrift 
fiir Parasitcnkunde," by Drs. E. Hallier and F. A. Zurn, Vol. 1. No. 3. 

The number begins with, " Researches on the Phenomena of 


Fermentation," by Dr. Oscar Klutscli. Unfortunately we must 
review much which is already known, before we arrive at any- 
thing which is really new and important. 

This is true, also, of the foregoing article. Therefore, we 
omit the preface, which has for its subject, "Fermentation as an 
act of Fungi, in which a Peculiar Process of Decomposition is 
Exhibited," and intend in passing, merely to show the difference 
between rapid putrefaction and slow decomposition. By the 
slower process, nitric acid is produced, by the more rapid, am- 

The author declares, with Klencke, that the miasmatic and 
contagious forms of disease are dependent only on fungi, the 
nature of which are distinguished by their forms. 

He thinks, further, that the Asiatic cholera is produced by a 
fungus, which is capable of growing on certain kinds of fruit, and 
therefore, advises that such fruits be washed before they are eaten, 
or that some kind of spirits be drank, which will destroy them in 
the stomach. 

Exhalations rise also in rooms to the ceiling, and there 
form a stagnating vapor, which by and by accumulates in such 
quantities as to fall and mingle with the heavier gases. By longer 
stagnation, there is developed an aeriform moisture, passing on to 
fermentation, which falls down, covering the furniture of the 
room, and is of so intense a character, that it becomes j^erceptible 
to the smell. By this means, miasmatic infections are developed 
and disseminated, as well by atmospheric air as by other means. 

Driven down by the rain, the infection is conveyed in drinking 
water, and farther scattered by favorable conditions, and especial- 
ly fruitful sources are sewers and cesspools. 

The assertion which we have made before, is again repeated, 
"that the germs of these infectious diseases, which have hither- 
to, after every investigation, remained undiscovered, may yet 
be found out through the phenomena of fermentation." 

Under the head, "Consequences of Fungi in the Domain of 
Organic Nature," we find a list of diseases of birds, insects, &c., 
which are produced by fungus growths. 

The teeth and their fungi, are also taken into consideration. 


and the views of Bruck, Wedl, Magitot, Leber and Rottenstein, 
as well as those of Loviason, on caries of the teeth, are all simi- 
lar. As the result of the experiments of the latter, there ap- 
peared penicillium crustaceum, bacterien, and spirallien, on 
potato. Penicillium, plesophora herbariorum, leptothrix and as- 
pergillus glaucus on Liebig's extract of flesh, (fee, &c. In short, 
every investigation gave new proof of the proverb, "The forms 
of the fungi differ according to the substances on which they 
are produced." 

By the mere application of carious tooth substance to a sound 
tooth (in a glass bottle filled with water and kept warm), a cari- 
ous place was produced in it. By this experiment, as the author 
says, the contagiousness of caries is proven beyond a doubt. 

The cultivated fungi of a citron, produced caries in a sound 

The result of these and several other investigations, is that 
caries only begins when all the conditions necessary to its pro- 
duction are combined. Fruit commences to rot when placed in 
contact with decayed masses, and the place of decay is always 
at the point of contact. 

The microscope shows plainly that the caries fungus sends 
growing fibres to the interior of the substance on which it grows, 
which pierce through the external surface and grow and multi- 
ply in the interior. 

The hair and skin : 

Favus is produced by contagious fungi, (achorion rows of the 
penicillium crustaceum and puccinia fava). From an observa- 
tion of the author, mentagra is produced from favus. A father 
tending on his son who was sick with favus, was so covered with 
the parasites, that mentagra was produced in his beard. 

Tinea circinnati, and microspora mentagraphites are found in 
sycosis, and Anderson declares the fungi of sycosis and menta- 
gra to be identical. 

Particles from decayed teeth have produced mentagra on 
the chin. The author thinks a full beard is a protection 
against mentagra, and contrary, that a newly shaved beard opens 
canals where the fungus spore can enter. It is thought that per- 


haps the soap-box, lather-brush and razor, convey such diseases 
from one to another, and that therefore it is advisable to have 
your own razor. Also, that the often-used napkins of barbers 
contribute their share of the infection. 

Porrigo decalvens and pityriasis are produced from the asper- 
gillus species. In one case, psoriasis apparently came from 
pityriasis. Injections of yeast and penicillium into the central 
veins of a dog, produced the same result, viz., inflamed spots 
and knots on the feet. 

In a person suftering from psoriasis, with whom all care was 
taken, and the disease apparently completely cured, but in whom 
it always returned, the same fungi were found in the blood, as 
were on the diseased skin. 

Diphtheria gave mostly penicillium. Syphilis gave spores with 
strong brown membranes, and especially in cases where the syph- 
ilis was inoculated from different individuals. 

The extract of flesh appeared to be a poor substance for the 
production of fungi. 

Among the many substances tried as disinfectants, were the 

Permanganate of potassa did not kill the germ. 

Alcohol and sulph. ether destroyed the penicillium completely, 
but not the germs of fermentation. 

Beechwood creosote produced an eschar upon which germs 
again formed. 

Chloride of iron injured them. 

Carbolic acid did not destroy them completely, for in thirty- 
six hours new sprouts were observed. 

Nitric acid acted the same. 

Lime-water produced a weakening of the vegetation ; on the 
contrary, concentrated caustic potash destroyed the fungi com- 

Dilute caustic potash acted the same. 

Alcohol, ninety-six per cent, the same. 

Concentrated sulph. acid destroyed all. 

Yet, while the author quotes Dr. Lciviason's method of pre- 
venting caries, and retaining the teeth (which is said to have 



only a similarity to the "Filling of the common dentist)," and 
then without giving the methods, quotes the assertion of Dr. 
Loviason as incontestible truth: "No tooth should be extracted, 
but the most skilful efforts made to save even the worst," he 
concludes w^ith the assurance that the medicated soap of Dr. 
Leber and Rottenstein has proved itself the best, and then con- 
cludes the combined results of his investigations in the follow- 
ing principles: 

1. The process of fermentation is only continued and accom- 
panied by the lower forms of fungi. 

2. It is the same universally distributed forms of fungi which 
are capable of producing certain diseases. 

3. Through certain agents, these germs are promoted, checked 
or destroyed. 

4. The checking or destroying of the fungus elements is 
called disinfection. 

f). Disinfectants must be chosen accordino- to the substance 
on which or in which these germs grow. 

6. In dry places, ninety-six per cent, alcohol acts best. 

7. In fluids, caustic potash is especially adapted. 

8. There are apparatus, and substances, by which these 
forms can be exhibited with certainty. 

U. The controversy on the nature of the ferments cannot be 
decided until they are observed immediately under the micro- 

)|)imt}i?,e mu\ Mxffltul §mtx^it^, 


Hydrate of Chloral, 

Having made considerable use of this drug in my practice for 
some time, and as information in regard to its effects seem to be 
much sought, it may not be amiss if I say something of my ex- 
perience. This I can do best by giving some examples which 
illustrate the effect of given doses. 

Case 1. — Miss L., about fourteen years old, rather nervous. 
Fillings required in the incisors; dentine exceedingly sensitive. 
I gave her fifteen grains of hydrate of chloral, and after about 
twenty minutes began the operation. I could not discover any 
effect whatever from the drug while operating, and the patient 
claimed that no effect whatever had been produced. However, 
after the operation (which lasted a little more than an hour), she 
was left to herself a few moments and went to sleep almost im- 
mediately, and slept about two hours. 

Case 2. — Miss C, aged fourteen years, nervo-sanguine tem- 
perament. Central and lateral incisors to be filled. At a pre- 
vious sitting I had ascertained that this was a case of extremely 
sensitive dentine. Administered twenty grains of hydrate of 
chloral and waited thirty minutes. During the operation, she 
was rather languid, and that dread of the approach of an instru- 
ment seemed to be much abated; yet I could not discover that 
the pain was sensibly modified. Patient claimed that she felt no 
effect whatever from the drug; but when we were through with 
the operation, two hours after she took the dose, she found her- 
self so sleepy that it was with difficulty that she could be kept 

The next day I gave the same patient thirty grains of the 


hydrate, and proceeded to operate after half an hour. This 
time the effect was very decided. The patient took no notice of 
what I was doing, except when I was excavating sensitive por- 
tions of the cavity, then she roused up at once, and cried out 
as lustily as if she had had no hydrate, but the instant we stop- 
ped cutting she was at once composed. When the excavation 
was completed, and we commenced introducing the gold, she 
went to sleep, and continued so until the filling was completed. 
As she seemed to he in a good condition for operations, I intro- 
duced a wedge as tenderly as possible between the incisors of 
the opposite side. She was wide awake in an instant. Allow- 
ing her to remain quiet a few moments, she dosed again, and I 
proceeded to excavate; but the instant the excavator came in 
contact with the sensitive dentine she was wide awake, but dozed 
again while I was trimming the margins or other parts Avhich 
were not particularly painful. After the operation, the patient 
slept bctAvecn three and four hours, and waked up feeling as well 
as before. 

Patients generally describe the feeling produced by the hy- 
drate of chloral as being exactly the same as that caused by the 
loss of sleep, and their appearance suggests the same idea. I 
have never, except in one case, seen anything that could possi- 
bly be considered an evil result. This was in the case of a lady 
aged about thirty. I opened a cavity in the buccal surface of a 
wisdom tooth, which I found exceedingly sensitive. I gave her 
thirty grains of the hydrate, and then filled a small cavity in 
another tooth. The action of the drug was as marked as usual, 
but she contended that it had not affected her at all, yawning at 
the same time much as she would be expected to do after having 
sat up all night. She was as fretful about being disturbed as a 
child roused from sleep. After the operation, she complained of 
"a swimming in the head" and sick stomach; she described the 
sensation as being almost identical with that produced by whirling 
round for a considerable time. In about an hour and a half after 
she went home, I called at her house and found her lying on a 
sofa, but not asleep, as I had expected — still complaining of the 
same sensation, which had become rather more aggravated. She 



luid not eaten anything; I directed her to dri)ik a cup of strong 
coffee, and fix herself comfortably for a sleep. At night I 
called again ; she had followed my directions; had slept about 
two hours, and awoke, feeling as well as before. 

This is about the substance of my experience. The effects 
produced by a given dose have been very uniform, varying much 
less than might be expected in different temperaments and ages. 

The hydrate of chloral seems to be strictly a sleep-producing 
agent, but not a pain obtunder. In this respect it differs widely 
from the narcotics and anajsthetics. 

It requires but little hydrate of chloral to put a patient to 
sleep. If not disturbed, the sleep seems to be perfectly natural, 
and on being disturbed, the patient wakes in the same manner 
and as perfectly. If we give more, they are more difficult to 
arouse, and go to sleep again sooner. The greatest benefit my 
patients seem to have derived from its use is that the dread of 
the operation is in a great measure overcome, and the disposition 
to sleep causes them to take less note of time, rendering the 
operation much less tiresome. These two points seem to me 
fully sufficient to justify its use. I have never given enough of 
it to be able to excavate a sensitive cavity without pain, or even 
very materially to diminish it. 

The following formula is the best I have been able to devise 
for its administration : Hydrate of chloral, xxx. grains ; Syrup 
ginger, i. f §]; Ess. Lemon five drops. 

This is not at all disagreeable to take. It may be mixed in 
any quantity, and kept for any length of time, if closely corked. 
A table-spoonful of this mixture contains fifteen grains of the 
hydrate. Syrup of lemon may be substituted for the ginger. 


Case in Practice, reported by P. C. Branch, Vinton, Iowa. 

Mrs. K., aged about forty-five, presented herself for examina- 
tion. She had for two or three years, suff'ered a great deal from 


engorgement of the antrum. Had been frequently temporarily- 
relieved, by lancing through the roof of the mouth — at first 
employing a physician, and aftei'wards doing it herself " to save 

Four months before coming to me, she had consulted a dentist, 
who recommended the extraction of her teeth, and commenced 
the operation ; but (according to the patient's statement), was 
compelled to desist, after removing the incisors and bicuspids, 
on account of excessive hnemorrhage, which he failed to arrest 
by dusting the mouth with dry tannic acid ; but which came very 
near strangling the patient, by its powerful stringent eflfects upon 
the muscles of the pharynx. 

After this splendid coup de dentist, he dismissed her without 
attempting to treat or prescribe for the engorgement. I found 
the socket of the right lateral incisor open, and an elastic probe 
passed through it into the antrum, and back to a point opposite 
the first great molar, and a little to the right of the centre of 
the palatal arch. Pressure applied there and directed forward, 
forced half a tea-spoonfull of extremely offensive matter through 
the socket of the above mentioned lateral. The cuspidati were 
sound and in their places. But their necks were denuded and 
their alveoli pushed outward and forward, in a very unsightly 
manner, indicating considerable exostosis of their roots. Indeed 
all the living teeth in the mouth presented similar indications. 


Extracted the teeth and roots. A few dead roots were par- 
tially absorbed, but the others were both enlarged and elongated 
— some of them enormously. 

Prepared an elastic probe, wound it with raw cotton, com- 
mencing at its (bulb) extremity, and winding spirally along the 
shaft to a point that would be external to the opening when the 
probe was introduced as far as it would go. Saturated the cot- 
ton with dilute carbolic acid, and probed the cavity thoroughly, 
pressing the extruding cotton firmly against the shaft of the probe, 
to prevent its being left behind when withdrawing the probe. 

Instructed the patient in the method of probing as above; and 


after giving her a probe and the dilute acid, dismissed her, with 
the request that she would call on me when she came in town 
again. (She lives ten miles away, and is a poor widow, dependent 
upon her neighbors for a chance to ride.) She called about a 
Aveek afterwards, and reported pain all gone, discharge diminish- 
ing, and no longer offensive. Made no chango in the treatment, 
except to probe less frequent. Have seen her three times since. 
The last time, four weeks ago, no pain, no discharge, socket 
closed up, and the engorgement cured, and general health much 

I venture to send you this, because I believe that where it is 
practicable, the probe treatment is more efficient than the com- 
mon practice of injecting remedies into the diseased cavity. 

From " 27(6 Dental CosmosJ" 


Reported li^- De Forest Willard, M. D. 

Tumefactions of Lateral and Submaxillary Eegions. 

It accidently happens that the four cases which you see before 
you, present themselves to-day, laboring apparently, under like 
affections. Each patient has, as you perceive, great tumefaction 
of the lateral and submaxillary regions, — each face is greatly 
out of drawing; and what I would have you particularly remark, 
each presents a different expression of suffering. These persons 
came to us, of course, for relief, so I proceed before you to ob- 
tain a proper comprehension of each case, so that with certainty 
and accuracy I may employ the means demanded for cure. 

We acknowledge, to begin with, that these faces are swollen 
from a cause or causes. We infer that if we discover these 


causes, and can remove them, that nature will quickly effect the 

Case I. We take, first, this hearty, healthy-looking girl. 
Look at her face in the bright light in which I place it, and you 
will see that the enlargement or tumefaction is perforated by 
three openings, and that from these openings is a discharge of 
pus. These openings, then, are the orifices or outlets of sinuses, 
and they lead, necessarily, to that something or somewhere which 
is the cause or seat of the disease. 

From experience, I infer that this patient labors under one of 
three conditions, — alveolar abscess, necrosis of the jaw-bone, 
or caries. I think that without any examination I can certainly 
say that one of these troubles affects her. Alveolar abscess is, 
as we have studied, a formation and discharge of pus from a peri- 
osteally diseased tooth. The nerve or pulp of a tooth, from 
some cause or other, inflames ; this inflammation extends through 
the foramen to the periodonteum, terminating in the suppura- 
tion of this membrane. The pus thus formed, while generally 
evacuated on the nearest surface, as in the ordinary gum-boil, 
not unfrequently pursues tortuous routes, opening on far distant 
points — as for instance, the neck, or even the chest. An alve- 
olar, or more correctly speaking, an alveolo-dental abscess, un- 
complicated, is expected to be cured by the removal or other 
treatment of the offending tooth. 

Is this case one of alveolo-dental abscess? We will open now 
the mouth, and if the disease is one of this nature, there will be 
found every evidence of it in the existence of some badly-condi- 
tioned tooth, teeth or roots. A puffy, sinus-riddled face like this, 
if dependent on dental abscess, will show loose teeth, or roots of 
teeth, in a turgid, congested gum — every phenomenon, indeed, 
of chronic inflammation being present. 

In this mouth I see no such phenomena. The teeth are all 
sound, and the gums, particularly about the alveolar borders, 
are firm and rosy-looking. This is not, then, a case of alveolo- 
dental abscess. 

On the conviction, therefore, that we have caries, or necrosis 
of the jaw, we fall back. A necrosis is death, — the death of a 


part. Necrosis may be full and complete, involving a bone in 
mass, or it may be partial, destroying only a limited part. In 
the maxillary bones it is seldom that we have more than a limited 
necrosis. The dead portion separated under such circumstances 
is termed the sequestrum. 

A sequestrum thrown off from the body of a bone may lodge 
and be retained in the soft parts, keeping up a discharge long 
after the original acute action, or inflammation which exfoliated 
it, may have passed away. These retentions of sequestra are 
very common in our clinical experience. If in this instance we 
have such a condition, the sequestrum will be readily discovered 
by the probe, which I shall now introduce. 

I feel dead bone. A piece of dead bone feels to the probe like 
a piece of hard wood, or like lead, or soft gold, differing thus 
from the healthy bone, which is obscured by its periosteum; and 
differing also from the dying, sloughing bone of caries, in the ab- 
sence of the pitted, soft, irregular face, which always marks the 
latter condition. 

Doubtless, then, in this case before us, we have necrosis, and 
without questioning the patient, I am sure it is one of long standing. 
Were it not so, there would not be such a total absence of acute 
conditions. A sequestrum has been thrown off, months ago per- 
haps, and has ever since remained cooped up in the tissues; fur- 
ther examination will surely reveal that the dead bone which I 
felt is disconnected from the jaw. Plainly enough with this sharp 
probe, I catch and can move this bone as anticipated. We are, 
then, assured in our diagnosis, and it remains but for us to act. 
What shall we do 'i I will show you. 

[Note. — The patient was here etherized, and a grooved direc- 
tor being passed through one of the sinuses, until at length it 
distinguished and rested upon the bone; the sequestrum, which 
proved to be a portion of the ramus, was cut down upon and re- 
moved. After the wound was syringed, the edges were brought 
together and compressed by the ordinary adhesive strip, the pa- 
tient being sent away with the assurance of a speedy cnre. In- 
quiry elicited that the disease had existed for over two years, 
and had resulted from injury done the jaw in an attempt to ex- 
tract a wisdom tooth. — De F. W.] 


Case II. — Almost in apperance, (superficially viewed), this 
is the counterpart of the first. Observe, however, that upon this 
face, there is but a single fistulous opening; and that is a fair, well- 
defined round hole, and not a teat-like projection. The face, 
too, to the touch, diff'ers; it is much softer, has more heat in it, 
it is much more sensitive to impressions. Whatever the disease 
may prove to be, it is assuredly more recent than the first. It 
has not been in a condition of abscess more than three days — 
of this we may be satisfied. 

To obtain our diagnosis we make some inquires of the patient. 

Query. How did this trouble begin ? 

Answer. My face began to swell, and my jaws grew so stiff, 
that, as you now see, I can scarcely separate the teeth. 

Query. But you had first a bad tooth-ache ? 

Answer. None at all, sir. My teeth are all sound. 

Query. How old old are you ? 

Answer. Twenty. 

This is all we need know of tlie patient to direct us in our 
course. We will now use the probe. No dead bone is to be 
felt. It is then neither a case of necrosis or caries. Must it 
be, then, alveolar abscess? Not necessarily. It might be an 
abscess of one of the submaxillary ganglia; or it might be an 
inflammation and suppuration, the result of a closure of the 
Stenonian duct; or it might be a case of follicular stomatitis. 
She has had no bad teeth, but she is twenty years of age. I 
think I can guess what her trouble is. At about this age the 
wisdom teeth are due, and it often happens in contracted jaws, 
that there is no room for these teeth, and so they are jammed 
away far back under the angle of the lower jaw, and it is impos- 
sible for them to erupt. The worst oral inflammations I have 
ever seen have been induced by such unborn teeth. Let us look 
into this mouth. As I supposed, back of the second molar, 
which itself rests almost against the ascending ramus, is to be 
seen a single cusp, or point, of the advancing Avisdom tooth; for 
the whole crown of this tooth to get into the dental arch, looks 
to be an impossibility, yet, day by day, and hour by hour it is 
growing, and crowding, and wedging its way forward. We need 


search no further for the cause of offence in this case. A very 
plain indication is to remove the irritation. How shall we do it? 
I should like the wisdom tooth out; hut then to remove a wisdom 
tooth Avith hut a single cusp through the process, with the jaws 
partially anchylosed, and the whole side of the face exquisitely 
sensitive, is not so comfortahle a matter, — for the patient, at 
least. Happily, however, we can meet the indications in an 
easier manner. I will extract the tooth in front of it, thus, as 
you see, affording plenty of room and allowing the wisdom tooth 
to fall forward. We can assure the patient of her recovery in 
a week. 

Case III. — This boy, with a similarly swollen face, has had 
his trouble, as his mother tells me, for a jDeriod of over four 
months. He is very timid; we shall have to etherize him. 

[The patient here etherized.] 

In passing the probe into the sinus, which, with its teat-like 
projection, you can plainly see upon his neck, I at once come 
upon dead bone, and the denuded surface seems quite extensive. 
I judge we have here necrosis of a rather extensive nature. I 
now look into the mouth. The teeth on the affected side — that 
is, the two deciduous molars, and the first permanent — seem 
really as if floating in a pulpy mass ; pus is oozing from about 
their necks, and the general disorganization seems complete; 
without inquiring, we may affirm by the appearance of these 
teeth, which are much decayed, that in them the trouble origin- 
ally commenced by j^ulpitis from irritation ; the inflammation ex- 
tending to the periodenteum, destroying this tissue, and was in 
turn directed to the neighboring bone, involving an ostitis of 
such extent as to result in death of parts to the degree which we 
are shortly to observe. Finding thus the trouble, the only ques- 
tion which concerns us is his relief. This, as an acute state of 
the disease is entirely passed away, will consist in the removal of 
the parts made foreign, i.e., the dead or necrosed teeth and the 
bony sequestrum. 

[Note. — Operation performed by first removing the teeth; 
next enlarging the cloacae along the gums, and with bone forceps 


seizing and lifting away the sequestra, of which there wree found 
three, involving nearly the full circumference of the bone. — De 

Case IV. — Here is a poor woman whose case must elicit our 
heartiest sympathy. Her jaw has been broken by a brick thrown 
at her from a passing wagon occupied by some drunken brutes 
of men. The swelling is as you perceive, alike in appearance 
with those just shown you; but if you observe closely you will 
see here all the evidences of an acute condition ; the parts are 
not only swollen or engorged, but red, hot, and excessively pain- 
ful. There are indeed here all the phenomena of active inflam- 
mation; more than this, you will notice that her jaws are fixed 
and stiff", the result of the lymph exuded into surrounding parts. 
Associated with this fracture and injury to the cheeks is violent 
periostitis; attention to this last is the very first indication of 
the case. We must, and should, not attempt anything until this 
inflammation is subdued. Its cure is much more important than 
any attention to, or consideration of, the fracture. Indeed, un- 
combatted, the fracture would be complicated with necrosis, and 
this would be, in her destitute condition, a heavily added misfor- 
tune. We must by all means try and secure resolution. To 
do this, I shall direct, first, the application of leeches, — ten 
Swedish or twenty American, applied about the base of the jaw. 
She will also have her feet placed in hot water, as hot as can be 
borne, this pediluvium to last at least fifteen minutes; she will 
have, as a point of counter-irritation, a blister made between 
the shoulders; she will be given, as a derivative, half an ounce of 
sulphate of magnesia, and when the bleeding from the leech-bites 
has stopped, she will have the whole side of her face painted 
thoroughly with tincture of iodine, and immediately the parts 
steeped with cold water, medicated with sugar of lead and laud- 
anum. As her pulse is full and bounding, — a marked expres- 
sion of the inflammatory pulse, — we will order her tinct. of 
verat. virid. five drops, pro re 7iata. If treatment thus active 
fails to abort the threatened suppuration, we shall then have to 
treat the case from an opposite standpoint. 


[Tlie patient thus prescribed for Avas passed for the day, to 
have her treatment continued at a succeeding clinic. — DeF. W.] 


Here is a case with which jou will rarely meet in your clinical 
experience; certainly I have never seen a similar example. It 
presents itself in the person of a child eighteen months of age, 
who was brought to my oflSce some weeks since suffering from 
a huge erectile tumor, which occupied a large portion of the 
right cheek, while another, a half inch in diameter, was seen 
upon the lateral frontal region, near the border of the hair. 

The one upon the cheek was formidable in appearance and 
size, and while holding its method of cure under deliberation, I 
operated upon the smaller one by strangulation ; it soon sloughed, 
and the base is now rapidly healing, — in fact, it pursued the or- 
dinary simple course. Most singularly, however, as this process 
of sluoghing went on, I noticed, almost pari passu, a series of 
phenomena taking place in this n^evus upon the cheek ; it be- 
came at fii-st red, then livid, advancing to dark purple, until, as 
the ligature above dropped off, its tegumentary covering also ul- 
cerated, and the whole n^evus became as you now see it, a slough- 
ing mass. In truth, by curing the little one above, we have 
cured this monster below, for I have no doubt that as this dead 
tissue separates, there will be left but a fresh granulating sur- 
face, which will speedily heal. Now you all know by this time 
what a nsevus is. I have brought before you many cases at our 
clinic; I have shown you their composition — a congeries of ar- 
teries, veins, or capillaries; I have told you that I preferred the 
name "erectile tumor," and have spoken of the various means 
employed for its cure {vide '■'■Dental Cosmos" November, 1870). 
Knowing this, then, you will say, "How could this action have 
taken place? Was it an accidental coincidence?" No, I think 
not; neither was it, properly speaking, a spontaneous cure, for 
there was an evident perceptible cause, which was the ligation of 
the other tumor ; and yet, if you ask me how this cause produ- 
ced such a result, I shall be unable to give a positive answer. 

One is in a position fed by the facial artery ; the other depend- 


ent upon the anterior temporal or supraorbital and frontal 
branches of the ophthalmicjbr its supply, at least in the normal 
state of the blood-vessel system. I can, therefore, only suggest 
as a reason, that there may be in this individual an abnormal 
distribution of the arteries, and that both these tumors have been 
nourished by the same trunk. Granting this, then it might fol- 
low that I had cured this large tumor upon the principles of the 
Brasdor operation for aneurism — i.e., by interfering with the 
circulation in the terminal branches of this artery, I had devel- 
oped a sufficient disturbance in the circulation of these larger 
vessels to set up an irritation, then an inflamation, and finally, a 
complete slough, producing thus a most desirable result from an 
unintentional and comparatively trifling cause. This may or 
may not be the true explanation, — certainly I can suggest none 
more resonable. Paget speaks of one or two cases of this kind, 
and does not attempt to give any explanation as to their occur- 

Salivary Fistula. 

Here is a young woman who has been troubled with an open 
ulcer on her cheek for nearly two years. Her difficulty com- 
menced as an alveolar abscess from the second molar tooth, a dis- 
ease, the varied results of which I so often bring before you at 
our clinic. And do you not remember last summer how I urged 
upon you the necessity of a thorough comprehension of the sub- 
ject, since you would so often meet with its victims? {Vide 
''Dental Cosmos," October, 1870.) 

This abscess opened not into the mouth, but burrowed upward 
through the buccinator, perforated the Stenorian duct, and finally 
opened upon the cheek, forming a fistulous track, which commu- 
nicated not only with the roots of the tooth but also with the 
duct, in consequence of which we have both saliva and pus con- 
stantly exuding from this orifice. Here, then, are two indica- 
tions to be fulfilled in the treatment. In the first place, the 
primary cause must be removed, — and this cause exists in the 
two remaining carious tooth-fangs, which will continue to exer- 
cise their irritating influence as foreign bodies so long as they re- 
main in their present position ; they must therefore be removed, 


giving nature the power to complete the removal of the difficul- 
ty. In the second place, having removed the cause of drainage, 
the saliva must be turned into its normal receptacle — the mouth. 
This ulcer has resisted various treatments during these two years; 
for although its salivary nature was recognized, yet the under- 
lying causes, these carious fangs, w^ere not removed, and, as a 
natural consequence, the discharge continues, and must have an 
outlet. As these roots are below the margin of the gum, we 
shall use the " elevator " for their extraction. (Tooth-roots here 
lifted out with the elevator.) Now we have removed the exci- 
ting cause of all this difficulty, and will next try to cure the in- 
tractable ulcer upon the cheek. 

What must we do ? We must make a passage by Avhich the 
saliva will find a more easy outlet, thus turning out of its usual 
channel and giving opportunity for repair. For the accomplish- 
ment of this purpose a strand of silk is threaded at each end to 
straight or curved needles as preferred, and these needles are 
then successively passed into the fistula and carried out through 
the mouth, leaving about a line of tissue between their two points 
of passage. Removing the needles, a loose knot is then tied, 
forming a short loop, or else the intervening tissue may be im- 
mediately strangulated and the loop allowed to ulcerate its way 
through. As this separation occurs, the saliva will take the 
course through this opening into the mouth, providing it has 
been made of sufficient size, and the external wound will usually 
heal of its own accord ; still, it may sometimes require the stim- 
ulant of arg. nitr. I think that you would seldom be required to 
pare the edges of the external wound. This operation I prefer to 
that of Hornei', where the whole tissue is cut out with a sharp sad- 
dler's punch, as you will find described in all your surgical works, 
works, since it is perfectly simple and reliable. Another mode of 
operating is by the use of a conical cotton tent, which is inserted 
into the wound after a puncture has been made entirely through 
into the mouth, its base being placed in that portion of the track 
situated nearest the inside of the cheek and the delicate apex of 
the pyramid at the external fistula. This, by its uneven expan- 
sion, will dilate the internal orifice, and permit the narrowing of 


the external, when after a few days it may be removed, and a 
similarly-shaped cone folded of iron wire inserted in its place ; 
the apex of which cone should consist of but a single strand. 
This will induce a patulous condition of the oral passage, while 
the fistula will diminish in diameter to the size of the wire; after 
which you have but to remove the seton, and all will be healed in 
two days. 

Some of these operations will usually be found applicable; but 
in cases where the fistula is the result of extensive sloughs, as 
from cancrum oris, autoplasty may be required. 

These salivary fistulas you will find to baffle all your attempts 
by stimulants and caustics, and I would advise you to operate at 
once. The worst cases are those where some of the lobules of 
the parotid gland have been opened. And let me here caution 
you to be extremely careful in all your operations in the region 
of this gland, not to cut through that strong facia which comes 
up from the neck, known as the parotid fascia, for should you 
wound but a single lobule, a fistula may result. 

[The two needles were then carried through, bearing the thread 
with them ; a loop was made and allowed to hang loose in the 
mouth. In a few days it had cut its passage ; the saliva had fol- 
lowed its track, and after a single application of arg. nitr., the 
girl reported in two weeks, entirely well. — I)e F. W.] 


From time to time during the year past, the profession has 
been notified of the fact that inventive minds were at work in 
the hope of developing something which should take the place 
of rubber and relieve the dentist from the oppression and extor^ 


tion of the Rubber Company; and now, as tbe year is past, and 
the permits of Uncle Josiah have expired, these inquiries are of- 
ten heard: What shall I do about this rubber matter? Shall I 
renew my license? Is there anything I can use instead of the 
rubber, with equal success ? Will aluminum or pyroxyline take 
its place? With reference to the first of these enquiries we do 
not propose to offer any advice, but will give the reader the re- 
sults of our own observations with the bases named. 

We have published several short articles during the year, re- 
lating to the use of aluminum as a base for artificial teeth, in 
the last of which we stated that it was being successfully cast 
by several different methods. We made this report from hear- 
say, not from personal practical knowledge. We have since seen 
the most of these methods demonstrated, and we regret to say 
that the degree of success is not what we had hoped. It is true 
perfect plates can be and are cast, but the knowledge, labor, 
care and pains required to insure success, so far exceeds that re- 
quired in the use of rubber, that we apprehend that aluminum 
will never be adopted by the mass of the profession, as a substi- 
tute for rubber. 

Of the different methods, as Loomis', Laurence's and Hollings- 
worth's, it will hardly be necessary for us to say anything fur- 
ther than to state that Dr. Hollingsworth's method is unques- 
tionably the most practical, and consequently the best. We have 
tested his method pretty thoroughly, but not with that degree of 
success that was promised by the inventor. It will serve a very 
good purpose, but can never take the place of rubber with the 
mass of the profession. 

Of Dr. Feemster's process we know but little, never having 
seen it. We only know that the metal is cast under pressure of 
hydrogen gas, which deoxidizes it, and prevents (as he claims) 
the shrinkage. Being anxious to get rid of the rubber curse, 
we were induced to spend some time and money in experiment- 
ing with aluminum, ourself, in the hope of adapting it to our pur- 
pose, and our efforts have been thus far only partially successful. 
Full sets with plain teeth, and partial sets, can be cast by the fol- 
lowing method, with uniform success, if proper care be observed 



in all the manipulations, and the result will be a better and 
smoother plate than is cast by any other method of which we 
have a knowledge. And we would further state that any 
member of the profession is at liberty to use it in his practice 
for the full term of his natural life, free of charge, by order of 
Hale & Eames, inventors of 

A Method of Casting Aluminum Plates. 

The impression is taken in the ordinary manner, with plaster 
or wax. If an air-chamber be desired, the form of it is cut in 
the face of the impression. The model is made of plaster and 
French chalk, equal parts; fine white sand may be used instead 
of the chalk, but is not so good. The model should be about one 
and-one-half inches thick, and of such form as to draw readily 
from a plaster mold to be formed around it. While the model 
is yet soft, a small eyelet, made from ordinary wire, should be 
set in the centre of the back, opposite to the face. It should be 
completely buried in the substance of the model, so that it will 
be no more than flush with the surface when the model is trim- 
med. In trimming, cut away from around the eyelet a little, so 
that you can grasp it Avith a pair of pliers ; the object of this 
eyelet being to aid in the removal of the model from the flask. 
Grind the teeth, and articulate them as for rubber ; place them 
in position with the trial-plate on the model. The trial or mod- 
el plate should be made of sheet tin, lead, or wax. If wax be 
used, it should not be thicker than No. 20 gold plate. There 
should be no surplus wax, except at a point just back of the 
tooth or teeth. The trial-plate may pass up underneath the 
gum of a single tooth, but in no case should a particle of wax 
overlap the gum or edges of the teeth. When the case is ready for 
the flask, the plaster teeth, if there be any on the model, should 
be trimmed off, and if there be any under-cuts that would inter- 
fere with the removal of the model from the mold in the flask, 
they should be filled up, or better, cut out. The sides and other 
exposed surfaces of the model are now to be covered with tin- 
foil, to prevent the plaster adhering to it in flasking. Varnish 
should never be used for this purpose in this process. The foil 


is uiacle to adhere by moistening tlie surface with saliva. It 
shoukl not cover any portion of the artificial teeth. The flask 
consists of an ordinary cast-iron sand-ring, about two or two- 
and-a-half inches in depth, of the form of the letter D, one end 
larger than the other. They may be had at any of the dental 
depots in nests of four sizes. A bottom is formed, of Russia 
sheet iron, to fit into the small end, as follows : A piece is cut the 
shape of the end to be fitted, but half-an-inch lai-ger. Slit the 
edge all round to the depth of half-an-inch and turn it up at 
right angles with the surface; this turned-up edge passes up into 
the flask and retains the bottom when the case is flasked. A 
hole one inch in diameter, of the form of the bottom, should be 
cut from the centre. To flask the case, place the model, face 
upwards on a marble slab or piece of glass; several pieces of 
fine wire, about two inches in length, should now be set in the 
surface of the tried plate at right angles with it. If the case be 
one of two or more teeth, one tooth in a place, a wire should be 
set into the wax immediately back of each tooth. One wire will 
be suflScient for a block of three teeth : two or three wires should 
be distributed over the surface of the plate. The object of the 
wires is to form outlets for the escape of the oxygen which is 
forced out of the metal, when the flask is closed under pressure. 
Place the ring or flask small end upwards around the model. 
Mix an investment of equal parts of plaster and French chalk, or 
white sand, to about the consistency of thick cream ; fill round the 
model in the ring, carefully allowing no air-bubbles to be re- 
tained. When the flask is full, place the bottom in position, let- 
ting the wires pass through the hole in the centre ; be particular 
to have the bottom flush with the edge of the flask. When the 
investment is hard, remove the wires by drawing them out, warm 
the case slightly, (not enough to melt the wax), grasp the eyelet 
in the model with a pair of pliers, and tap the edge of the ring 
gently until the model is loosened, it can then readily be with- 
drawn. Remove the ti'ial-plate and every particle of wax and 
tin from the mold and the model ; cut small outlets in the sides 
of the model for surplus metal ; with a small unannealed broach 
make three or four vents near the centre of the model by pass- 


ing the broacli through from the back to the surface. The mod- 
el and mold should now be thoroughly dried; this may be done 
by placing them separately over a gas-stove or in an oven. When 
dry, put them together, place the case in a charcoal fire, heat up 
gradually to red heat. Having previously prepared the metal 
by casting it into an ingot, in size sufficient for the case, melt it 
in an ordinary crucible; when melted, and the case is red hot, 
take the case from the fire, remove the model from the mold by 
means of the eyelet and a pair of long nosed pliers, blow out the 
ashes and dust that may have fallen into the mold, and pour in 
the metal, return the model, place the case in an ordinary rub- 
ber press and force the model down slowly, till flush with the top 
of the ring; let it stand till cold. The case can now be taken 
from the flask and finished. To do this, first saw off" all the sur- 
plus metal round the edges; dress down the surface with 
burrs and scrapers, and finish the same as rubber, except the 
polishing, which is best done with the burnisher. 

p Y R X y L I N E . 

Of this new candidate for professional favor, wc know but lit- 
tle. We recently paid a visit to Chicago, where it has lately 
been introduced, for the purpose of seeing and testing it. We 
found the profession there, pretty generally pleased with its ap- 
pearance; some Avere even enthusiastic over it, while others 
seemed to be a little distrustful of its durability. We saw no 
cases in the mouth, but heard from several, all satisfactory ; saw 
cases in process of construction and had one adapted for our- 
self. Since our return we have put up a somewhat dfficult case 
on this base, to the entire satisfaction, thus far, of ourself and 
the patient. Whether it will retain its shape in the mouth or 
no, is a question, as well as its strength and durability; time 
only can test it in these respects. Altogether, we are much 
pleased with it, and think it promises better than any other of 
the cheap bases. 

As its name indicates, it is made of the same material as Rose 
Pearl, which in appearance it much resembles. It is manipu- 
lated entirely different from the latter, which we think makes it 


far superior as a base. Compared with rubber it requires more 
time and mucb greater care and thoroughness to insure a good 
plate; these are objections which we fear will operate against 
its creneral introduction as a substitute for it. 

From a circular received from the inventors, we learn that 
printed instructions, with the right to use it, will be sent to any 
appHcant for the sum of $10.00. Unless these instructions are 
more explicit than those we have seen issued to agents, they Avill 
be of little use to a novice in the art ; but few will succeed, if 
they rely upon such instructions. Every one should be taught 
orally in this process, to succeed. Eames. 


The December numbers come to us freighted, as usual, with 
reports of cases, criticisms, reviews, results of experimental re- 
search, &c., much of which is interesting, and some that might 
as well have been left unprinted. But monthly and weekly 
journals must be filled, and in consequence of the existence of 
this necessity, many communications find their way into the med- 
ical and dental literature of the day, which under other circum- 
stances would have waited long for a printer. 

"The Nashville Jourxal or Medicine and Surgery," 

opens with an "original communication," which claims that Dr. 
Flint, in his Physiology of Man, has laid claim to originality in 
" the discovery of an excretory function of the liver, that had 
never before been described." Upon which he discourseth as 
follows : 

" Can it be that the American physiologists of these latter 
days, because of their intense application to, and admiration of 
the experiments, facts, and opinions of co-workers living abroad, 
have ignored the worth of the labors of their predecessors in 
this country, and consequently are ignorant of premises that 
have been assumed and defended? If so, this work of our p'-es- 


ent physiological teachers is in vain I If one of them affirms to- 
day, as new, an opinion that lias been advanced and elaborately 
defended here but little more than thirty years ago, how soon, 
alas ! how soon, will his own seemingly strenuous efforts, made 
professedly for good, be proven to have been weak and useless? 
* * * * g^j. jjjg assumption of honor as the discoverer of 
the excrementitial functions of the liver, ought to be, under the 
circumstances, promptly denied and the justness of the denial be 
properly sustained." 

We would merely suggest, for the purpose of allaying the 
excitement of this very earnest criticism, that Flint has discov- 
ered "anew excretory function of the liver, consisting in the 
removal of the cholesterine from the blood, and its discharge from 
the body in the form of stercorine, and so far from claiming to 
have discovered that the function of the liver is "exclusively ex- 
crementitious," he teaches the very opposite doctrine in his 
"Physiology of Man." 

We think a little closer examination of the "Physiology of 
Man," by the author of this criticism, would perhaps convince, 
even himself, that he has only discovered a mares nest instead 
of an attempt "on the part of Dr. Flint," to arrogate to him- 
self unmerited honors. 

"A Blind Diagnosis," by F. 0. Ticknor, M. D., illustrated 
by examples. The importance of making correct diagnoses. 

"Two Cases of Unusual Fractures" are reported by Professor 
Paul F. Eve. One a fracture of the superior anterior spinal 
process of the ilium, and the other of a fracture of the sternum, 
both of which made rapid recoveries. Dr. Eve furnishes, also, 
for the Journal a variety of "extracts from home and foreign 
journals," which being selected with much care and good judg- 
ment form an attractive feature forjts readers. We notice the 
following among the extracts: 

"Von Erlock and ]iucke recommend spirits of turpentine as 
a remedy for common ringworm." 

"Journal of Cutaneous Memcine." 

"In the British Medical Journal, Dr. Kichardson, in speaks- 

jonixALTSTrc. 31 

ing of aiuvstlictics, remarked that ho rravo titc profcrcncc to 1)1- 
chloridc of raythelinc." 

"Skill tiruftini: is recommended for healintj large chronic ul- 
cers. It consists simply of transjilanting small bits of healthy 
skin from a healthy part, such as chest or arm, and planting them 
in the midst of the ulcerated surface, confining them in place by 
adhesive plaster. These small bits, of the size of a "half-grain 
of rice," grow rapidly, and the ulcer is soon covered with a 
healthy skin." 

The history of anaesthesia is treated by Dr. Bennett, at con- 
siderable length, and in the main, fairly, giving Morton the credit 
of using nitrous oxide successfully in 1844. 

S. J- Cobb reports a case in which some fangs of teeth were 
pushed up into the antrum whilst endeavoring to extract them, 
and in about eight hours they were blown out of the nose, the 
opening from the antrum to the middle meatus of the nose hav- 
ing- been much enlarged bv necrosis of the ethmoid and inferior 
turbinated bones. Patient recovered under the use of carbolic 
acid and iodine solution, applied by a syringe to the parts. 

From the "Clinical Lectures on Tumors," by Professor W. 
T. Briggs, we gather the following extract : 

"The first point to decide in this case is whether the tumor is 
maliornant or beniorn. ***** The length of time the 
tumor has existed, its strictly local character, the entire absence 
of a tendency to ulcerate or to multiply and propogate itself, 
and the healthy appearance of the patient, prove that it is benign." 

"The Dental Cosmos." 

The first article in the December No. of the "Cosmos," is by 
S. P. Cutler, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of Chemistry and His- 
tology in the New Orleans Dental College, and is entitled "Nerve 

The writer takes exception, particularly to some of the doc- 
trines of Beale, relative to his (Beale's) "Views in Regard to 
the Termination of Nerve Fibres," and in relation to some 
remarks advanced by us at the meeting of the American Asso- 
ciation at Saratoga, he quotes from the Transactions as follows: 


'"Bcalesaw that the termination of the fibre, as described by 
his predecessors, Avas really not a terminal point, but only the 
point where it breaks up into an infinite number of fibrils in the 
germinal matter of the pulp.'" 

"Now, there is room in the dentinal tubules for whole plexuses 
of these minute fibrils, and it is reasonable to suppose that 
they enter the tubules in common with the germinal matter, — 
the tubules measuring tofoo^^ of an inch, whilst the minute 
nerve filaments are but the Tinroo^tli of an inch," Dr. Cutler 
says, "but he does not claim that plexuses do exist in the tubes, 
but that they enter the tubes with germinal matter, thereby pre- 
supposing the formation of tubes first, and subsequently, the en- 
trance of innumerable fibres, along with germinal matter, into 
each and every tube. 

"What does the speaker mean when he speaks of the entrance 
of fibrils along with germinal matter into the tubes? What par- 
ticular period of tooth formation does he assign for this all- im- 
portant event to take place v * * * * * Who has ever 
seen more than one solitary nerve fibril in a solitary dentinal 
tube ? 1 boldly say no one ever did, or ever will see such a 
sight. ***** jt seems that the speaker has some- 
how got the idea into his head that all nerve fibrils are about 
YjnjVuTrth of an inch in diameter," etc. 

We will endeavor to answer these important questions. We 
suppose if this critic should happen to meet with a paragraph in 
a work upon mathematics which alluded to two lines running 
parallel with each other, he would innocently ask which won the 
race? Or if by chance he should read in Gray's Anatomy in 
relation to the internal carotid artery, that "it passes forward 
and inwards through the carotid canal," or that the chorda 
tympani "enters the cavity of the tympanum," we suppose he 
would have no idea but that the author had used the word 
"passes" in the same sense that he would use it in speaking of 
a boat which passes through the Erie canal, and the word " enter " 
in the same sense as he would use it if he would state that a 
horse enters a barn through the door. 

We would, however, suggest that it is possible that Gray, in 


these cases which we have just (quoted, simply intended to con- 
vey the idea that the internal carotid extended through the 
carotid canal, and that the chorda tympani extended into the 
cavity of the tympanum ; and it will scarcely be necessary to 
state further, that this would accord with the general use of these 
terms by the best writers upon anatomy, of the age. If we 
have been sufficiently explicit to be understood thus far, we hope 
the author of the criticism noticed above will be able to compre- 
hend what idea we intended to convey when we spoke of nerve 
filaments entering into the dentinal tubuli. 

But the critic enquires, " Who has ever seen more than one 
solitary nerve fibril in a solitary dentinal tube? I boldly say 
that no one ever did." 

Now, we confess that it would be a very strange sight to see 
two or more solitary nerve fibrils in a solitary dentinal tube, but 
as no histologist has ever claimed to have seen even one nerve 
fibril in the dentinal tubuli, we do not understand the necessity 
of the emphatic denial which the writer has so 5oZ(i??/^made,'that 
no one has seen more than one in a solitary tube. 

But he goes on to state, "it seems that the speaker has some- 
how got the idea into his head that all nerve fibrils are about 
j-g^^oiii7*^li of an inch in diameter." 

Now it plainly appears from the quotation made by the critic 
from our remarks at Saratoga, that these fine nerve fibres resulted 
from the breaking up of the larger fibres into an almost infinite 
number of fine ones, and those few fibres were some of them 
T¥FiroTth of an inch in diameter. We forbear to make com- 
ments upon such blundering assertions as these. It is no credit 
to the dental literature of the day that our periodicals can not 
be filled with more creditable productions than that which we 
have just noticed. 

We pass on to the next article in the Cosmos, which is entitled, 
"Alkalis and Alkaline Saliva — their Effect upon the Teeth." 
By E. H. Neale, D. D. S., Philadelphia, Pa. 

This broaches an interesting subject for investigation — in fact 
a field that has thus far been but poorly cultivated. A case of 
necrosis of the lower maxillary bone, with treatment by Prof. 


McQuelter, presents some points of interest. The questions usu- 
ally to be solved in these cases are, how shall we trust to expect- 
ant treatment? and Avhen is it judicious to actively interfere 
by an operation? The rule Avhich Avas followed in this case, is 
to wait till the portion which has become necrosed becomes 
separated by the efforts of nature from the living bone, and then 
remove it. We should have been glad to have heard more of this 
case in relation to the prospects of a reproduction of the lost 
ramus and body of the bone. 

From "Bleaching Teeth;" by Professor Stellwagen, we glean 
that for discolorization of the dentine, he recommends "re- 
peated washing with a jet from a syringe and allowing it to 
soak for half an hour or more." If this does not suffice, use 
diluted nitric acid, which must soon be neutralized by an alkali, 
either chalk or ammonia. 

" When blood has been recently clotted, it can again be ren- 
dered fluid by ammonia, and thus it assists in dissolving it from 
the pulp cavity." 

In an extract from the British Journal of Dental Science^ 
chloral hydrate is recommended for sensitive dentine. 

In the "Proceedings of Societies," we find Dr. Truman reported 
as follows: " From experience I have been led to regard contour 
fillings as weak and unreliable," etc. "Dr. Eisenbray is entire- 
ly out of conceit with the so-called contour system of filling 
teeth. He has been forced to such a conclusion from experience 
with his own operations, and from observing the results of fa- 
mous contour fillings of New York operators (Avho make a spe- 
cialty of the system)." 

Dr. Bonhill described his automatic mallet, driven by a gal- 
vanic battery, and thinks the galvanic current a valuable means 
of combating sensitive dentine. 

In "Clinical Reports, " Prof. Garretson, in speaking of neu- 
ralgia, says: * * * * "It is a fact, that eight out of ten 
cases of facial neuralgia can be traced directly to some disease of 
the teeth or jaws, * * * * * * and as most common 
causes of this we may enumerate: 

"1. Sensitive dentos. 









n the 


Exposure, direct or indirect, of dental pulp. 
Diseased state of periodentium. 
Confinement of pus or gas in pulp cavity. 
Granules of osteo-dentine in pulp. 

Recession or absorption of gums and alveolus. 
Eruption of wisdom teeth. 
Abrasion or wearing down of teeth." 

"Canada Journal of Dental Science," 

we find the "Proceedings of the Quebec Dental Society." Dr. 
W. G. Beers delivered the address, in the course of wdiich, whilst 
speaking of the passage of the law for regulating the profession 
in Canada, he says : 

"We have hardly yet begun to realize the personal, profes- 
sional and public advantages, accruing from the improved state 
of affairs in the Canadian profession. * * * The privileges 
granted to physicians, with respect to their accounts, have been 
extended to us, while before the passage of the act, we had to 
swear to our work and cost of material like a mason or plumber. 
Before the passage of the act, we had- no protection from the 
hands of nomadic empirics; to-day they are entirely shut out." 

In the proceedings of the Board of Trustees of the Dental 
Association of Quebec, we observe that notice of a motion was 
given to reduce the price of a license to those dentists who are 
graduates of recognized Dental Colleges. It seems that they 
have found out, even in Canada, that bogus diplomas are float- 
ing about the country, and they are careful to say " recognized 
dental colleges." 

The November No. of the 

"American Journal of Dental Science," 

opens with an article by George B. Harriman, D. D. S., of Bos- 
ton, Mass., upon " The Effects of Animalcules on the Teeth." We 
are informed that almost the first revelation made by the micro- 
scope was this extensive source of life, and that "this was in the 


latter part of the last century, when the microscope was in com- 
parative rudeness, as Leuwenhoeck was experimenting with the 

We were of the opinion that Marcellus Malpighi and Anton 
von Leeuwenhoek both experimented with the microscope nearly 
two hundred and fifty years ago. 

The writer states that there are probably two hundred and 
fifty'millions of animalculae and bioplasms upon every cubic inch 
of salivary calculus in the mouth, and thinks the gums and alve- 
olar processes are literally eaten away by these voracious bio- 
plasms, as he states that he has "seen these bioplasms work 
their way to a single epithelium cell, taken from the mu- 
cous membrane of the mouth, and to all appearances suck away 
a small portion of its contents." Moral: Keep the mouth clean. 

We think the scientific world will be somewhat startled by 
this wonderful discovery. 

In the December number, we have "Vitality and Vital Forces," 
by Prof. H. R. Noel. This is a carefully written article, and as 
we cannot give a synopsis of it that will do justice to the author, 
we will commend it to the careful attention of the scientific sec- 
tion of the profession. 

An article extracted from the AtJierican 'Journal of the Med- 
ical Sciences, by J. H. Bill, M. D., indicates that local anaes- 
thesia may be produced by the use of carbolic acid. In a case 
of felon of the finger he says : " The finger was soaked for fif- 
teen minutes in warm water containing three per cent, of carbolic 
acid, dried, and then a brush dipped in the concentrated acid, 
drawn over the finger in the course of the intended incision." 
The necessary incision in this case, and in several described, 
was made wiih little or no pain. 

Another article from the " Chicago Medical Uxaminei'," which 
was first published in a foreign journal and penned by Liebreich, 
says that fatal doses of hydrate of chloral may be successfully 
combatted by large hypodermic doses of strychnine. J. 



The Missouri Dental Journal, with the appearance of the 
present No., enters upon the third year of its existence. The two 
volumes which have been completed, are far from coming up to 
the standard which should be reached in dental literature, but we 
hope nevertheless, that some little light has been shed upon the 
"dark places " by its pages, and we trust that its influence upon 
the profession has not been entirely profitless. We have been 
encouraged in our work, by many kind words of cheer from our 
subscribers, and many have recognized the fact that Dental 
Journals are not "paying institutions," in this country, and have 
promptly paid their subscriptions, and thus relieved us from the 
embarrassment, so far as they are concerned, which too often re- 
sults to publishers from the neglect of subscribers in this respect. 

The Journal has found its way, in the meantime, to nearly 
every civilized nation upon the face of the globe. Every State 
but one in the Union, has its subscribers, and copies monthly, 
are sent to England, France, Germany, South America, Hol- 
land, Central America, the Sandwich Islands, and other distant 

The price of the Missouri Dental Journal has been some- 
what higher than some of the other journals, but as it was to be 
an independent journal, and devoted to the interests of no partic- 
ular advertiser who could afibrd to publish it for the use of it 
as an advertising medium, this was thought to be necessary 
in order to make it self-sustaining. After two years' experience, 
however, we have concluded to reduce the price to $2.50 
to those who pay in advance, and for this year we will consider 
all as having paid advance, who remit by the first of March. 

Those who have already sent us $3.00 will receive credit 
therefor on our books, and will only be charged $2.50 for the 
current volume ; so they will have paid fifty cents upon vol. 4. 

We have heard many complaints from subscribers, that all the 
numbers do not reach them. We mail the Journal regularly 
to all subscribers, and if the post-ofiice department fails to do 


its part, we cannot help it, but we will nevertheless send again 
the missing Nos. upon application for them. 

We desire it to be borne in mind that the Missouri Dental 
Journal has always been printed in the last half instead of the 
first of the month, so it is not due as early in the month as those 
journals which are printed upon the first of the month. 

We have sent the Journal to a great many who have entirely 
neglected to pay for it, and we hope this notice will suffice to 
make them see the error of their ways and repent. 

We acknowledge our obligations to those who have furnished 
us with valuable contributions during the last year, and we only 
ask of them to keep their consciences clear in the future, and 
many of them Avill do more writing in the future than they have 
in the past; "prove all things and hold fast that which is good." 

We shall be obliged to our friends if they will furnish us re- 
ports of interesting cases, or anything else that may be of inter- 
est to the profession. We intend to spare no pains in placing 
before our readers all new modes of practice which can be of 
any essential benefit to them, as soon as we can satisfy ourselves 
of their utility. 

We shall have more to say upon cheap bases before long, es- 
pecially upon pyroxyline and aluminum, which may perhaps be 
of some interest to those who humbly stand with one hand in their 
pocket fervently praying father Josiah to allow them to drag 
out a few more years of their miserable existence. 

We enter upon the new year with renewed health and energy, 
full of hope, and confident of the glorious future that is reserved 
for the Dental Profession. J. 


In reply to many inquiries, we take pleasure in calling atten- 
tion to the fact that Dr. M. has at last perfected his machine, 
and is now at the East, making arrangements for its manufac- 
ture He expects soon to be able to supply all orders. E. 



A patient in Guy's Hospital, with aneurism of the thoracic 
aorta, being given half a drachm of chloral to allay pain and 
procure sleep, became unconscious immediately on the adminis- 
tration of the dose, with lividity and coldness of face and hands, 
and respiration only at long intervals, death seeming imminent 
for five hours. These symptoms passed off during the following 
day. In commenting on the case, Dr. Habershon remarked 
that, it confirmed the opinion he had formed from observation 
of cases of pneumonia and bronchitis; viz., that chloral tends to 
cause bronchial and pulmonary congestion, through its action 
on the pneumogastric nerve, and that it should not be given 
where embarrassment to respiration is liable to occur. — N. Y. 
Medical Gazette. 


This little instrument, as its name indicates, is designed to aid 
the dentist in impacting the gold in filling teeth. It takes the 
place of an assistant at the operating chair. It is very simple 
in construction, and possesses some advantages over anything of 
t the kind we have ever seen, viz : It is perfectly under the control 
of the operator, and can be made to give one or more hard or 
soft blows as desired, works backwards as well as forwards, 
enabling the operator to condense distal surface fillings as 
thoroughly as any other. We are informed by the inventor, Dr. 
Nichols, of Chicago, that it will soon be placed in the market. 



Any person desiring their Nos. of the "Missouri Dental 
Journal" bound, can have it done in neat library style, turkey 
morocco back and corners, marbleized paper sides and spring 
back, by sending them post paid, to the office of the "Journal " 
No. 523 Pine street, for one dollar per volume. E. 


From tlie Cleveland Herald. 

The other day a young lady called at the rooms of a well 
known dentist to have a back tooth extracted, which had given 
some trouble. The artist examined her mouth, and endeavored, 
according to the lady's statement, to argue her into the belief 
that she ought to have her front teeth pulled out, and have an 
artificial set put in — he would do the job for her cheap. She 
firmly declined, however; those front teeth had never gone back 
on her, and she was not going back on them. They had never 
given her any trouble, and she didn't want them out at all. 

The dentist then administered "gas" to her, and when she was 
in the proper state, he proceeded to business. She says that, in 
a few minutes she was aroused to consciousness by the pain, and 
she discovered, to her amazement, that the irrepressible operator 
had "yanked" out three of her front teeth, and was evidently 
going to make a clean job of it. There was a lively scene for a 
short time, and a little while after a warrant was served upon 
the dentist by an officer of the law, upon the woman's affidavit, 
charging him with assault and battery. 


From a letter just received, we learn that the Electrical Plug- 
ger, a notice of which appeared in the Journal sometime since, 
is completed. Dr. Brunell, the inventor, recently demonstrated 
its practicability before the Dental Societies and Colleges of Phila- 
delphia, Ave are informed, with success. It is soon to be placed 
in the market by Dr. L. D. Coulk, 232, N. 11th street, Philadel- 
phia. E. 

We understand that Harvard Dental College has adopted the 
"0. C. White Head Rest," in their infirmary. The compliment 
is well deserved. It is unequalled in its adaptability to the wants 
of the operator. 0. 


Vol. III.] FEBRUARY, 1871. [No. 2. 

(From the "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.") 


An Abstract of Koester's (of Wurzburg) recent Researches into its Nature 

By Edward Wiggleswokth, M. D. Read before the Boston 

Society of Medical Sciences, January 3, 1871. 

In the fortieth volume of Virchow's ArcJdv, I published 
some investigations into a form of tumor which I called "can- 
croid with hyaline degeneration," and showed that it was devel- 
oped from the epithelium of the lymph vessels. I can show the 
same now from cancroid generally, but as this is not to be distin- 
guished from cancer I prefer to designate it by the term epithel- 
ial carcinoma. In this group I include cancers of the buccal 
mucous membrane and conjunctiva, these being nearly always 
epithelial. The doubt ever increasing as to what we are to call 
"cancroid" shows its artificial separation from cancer. The 
more exact our researches histologically, and the more we regard 
relatively younger stages of development, the less difference we 
notice between the two. Cancroid originally designated a benig- 
nant new formation in the skin, of a warty character; although 
Virchow insisted that a papillary growth should be called can- 
croid only when within the diseased tissue or organ alveoli are 
formed which become filled with cells of an epidermoidal nature, 
the malignancy being dependent upon the association of the two 
changes. Gradually the importance of the former change be- 


came disregarded, and the change in the interior of the tissues 
considered as of primary importance, even according to Virchow, 
who alleges in support of his opinion the primary appearance of 
cancroid in bone. 

A slight portrayal of the present condition of things and of my 
position in reference to the latest views upon cancer is all that I 
shall here attempt. An exhaustive examination of the nature 
of cancer and sarcoma, with an enumeration and careful revision 
of the literature thereto appertaining, I leave for two standard 
works which are alread}' occupied with this subject, viz., the last 
volume of Virchow's "Tumors," and Llicke's elaborate treatise 
on tumors in Von Pitha's and Billroth's Hand-book of Surgery. 
To these may be added the various views in regard to the devel- 
opment of cancer collated by Naunyn, and with special refer- 
ence to cancer of the skin, that most comprehensive treatise of 

Simultaneously, however, with the adoption of these views, 
we break down the barrier between cancroid and carcinoma, 
since we find also in the tissues of the latter, cavities and alveoli 
filled with epithelial cells. If Virchow still holds a difference 
between cancroid and carcinoma, while confessing that there are 
no settled boundaries to the two, he does it rather out of prac- 
tical, i.e. clinical considerations, "since the cancroid rarely, 
while cancer is usually, generalized." He considers, also, that 
in carcinoma the epithelial cells are contained in the meshes of 
a "newly-formed frame-work of conective tissue, which contains 
also vessels," while cancroid infiltrates only an old tissue. This, 
however, at least for cancers of an early period of development, 
is at variance with the views in regard to their development from 
connective tissue, according to which the commencement of both 
tumors must be the same. 

Forster states a further difi'erence, viz., that in cancer there 
exists neither a fixed form nor arrangment of the cells, and 
that the cells are separated by an intercellular fluid, whereas, 
in cancroid, the arrangement of the cells is typically pronounced, 
and their form that of flat or cylinder epithelium cells, which, 
moreover, are cemented together. 


Cornil, Ranvier and Demonchy, while regarding both carcino- 
ma and cancroid as epithelial tumors, " tumeurs-hdtdrad^niques " 
in the sense of Robin, hold nevertheless similar views." "Le 
carcinom est une tumuer formde d'un stroma fibreux dans les al- 
veoles duquel sont continues des cellules non sud^es entre elles. 
D'autre part, I'dpitheliome pavimenteux ou cancroide est consti- 
tu^ par du tissu ^pith^lial soutenu ou non par un stroma fibreux." 
These various differences have, however, never been fully recog- 

The practical results of this uncertainty in diagnosis are 
shown in the opinions with regard to the malignancy of can- 
croid, which malignancy has been ascribed with every successive 
year to an ever increasing number of cases of cancroid, simply 
because cancers were included. Thus according to 0. Webster, 
the proportion of malignancy in cancroid is 36.5 per cent.; ac- 
cording to Thiersch, however, more than 50 per cent, result in 
death from the return of the epithelioma. After the work of 
Thiersch appeared, in which he substitutes for cancroid the old 
term epithelial carcinoma, it was necessary to be more exact, 
since histogenesis separated necessarily an epithelial from a con- 
nective tissue cancer, whereas, if the epithelial nature of can- 
cer cells is alone regarded, this must inevitably lead to the opin- 
ion recently pronounced by Waldeyer, viz., that no difference 
exists between cancer and epithelial cancer, which opinion is 
properly merely a consequence of the theory of Thiersch and 
Remack with regard to the origin of epithelial formations. By 
an entirely different route I have arrived at the same conclu- 
sion, i. e., that there is no specific difference between cancroid 
and cancer, yet though I include cancroid under cancer, I am 
far from stating that all cancers are identical. 

Formerly it was the general opinion that epithelial carcinoma 
was developed from the granular organs of the skin, though ana- 
tomical proof was never offered. Then came Yirchow's work 
on the connective tissue, parenchymatous inflammation, and new 
formations, and immediately everyone, especially Webster, Fors- 
ter and Billroth, espoused the theory that cancer was developed 
from connective tissue. His work was so plausible, that a hy- 


Dothesis advanced in 1854 by Remack has been largely forgot- 
ten. This was, that all epithelial formations must be developed 
from epithelial germs, just as, in the embryo, the skin, mucous 
membrane and gland epithelium can only come from the two 
boundary membranes. Remack admitted that he could not fur- 
nish the proof for the epithelium of the urogenital apparatus; 
this has, however, been done recently by His and Hensen, and 
since we know that under normal conditions connective tissue 
[middle germ membrane] does not possess the power of form- 
ing epithelium [horny membrane], it is improbable that other 
histogenetic laws prevail for pathological processes than for nor- 
mal ones. Opposed to this is the fact that granulating sores 
cover themselves with epithelium formed from the connective 
tissue, though Thiersch thinks the formation is always from the 
epithelial periphery inwards. 

Billroth next espoused this theory of Remack and Thiersch, 
disregarding his own previous labors and following the hypothesis 
of Hoffman, that cells from the rete Malpighi could wander to 
other parts of the body. Waldeyer next appears, and, going 
farther than all the others, attributes to all the cancers an epi- 
thelial origin. Opposed to these views are those of His with 
regard to the separation of true and false epithelium, or endo- 
thelium, which have at least this in their favor that they are 
based upon the actual development rather than on the various 
appearances of the epithelium. Naunyn describes the develop- 
ment of cancer and cancroid as if from the epithelium of the 
gall-ducts. Langhans gives cancer of the lungs a double plan 
of development, from the epithelium of the alveoli and also from 
connective tissue. 0. Weber, while adhering to Virchow's views, 
thinks that the glands of the skin play a greater part than is 
generally conceded. So also Rindfleisch. Klebs makes a sup- 
position which is strange indeed, but which, nevertheless, may 
go far towards clearing up many histogenetic processes now in- 
volved in obscurity. He says the original formation of epithel- 
ial cancer is from epithelium ; its development, however, is due 
to the infection of connective tissues by epithelial germs; basing 
his assumption upon the observations of Recklinghausen with 


regard to the participation of two different individuals in the 
production of cells [conjugation]; and to this unnatural and un- 
lawful coition he thinks may be attributed the strange parasitic 
formations called tumors. 

These German opinions seem to be too exclusive for the 
French school. Cornil, Ranvier, and Demonchj, hold that the 
cancer is an epithelial new formation, which, however, may- 
arise both from glands and from connective tissue. The lymph 
vessels have thus far been regarded as merely paths for the hiding 
away of primary cancer, or, more recently still, as paths for its 
dissemination. The nearest approach to a reference to any di- 
rect relation between cancer and lymph vessels is perhaps where 
Virchow cites and criticises some passages from Broussais, 
though even here it is doubtful whether Broussais refers cancer 
to an inflammation of the lymph capillaries. The following pas- 
sage is the one tending most especially in this direction : 

"Dans ces cas, que nous avons ddja not^s (suppuration du tis- 
su cellulaire), I'inflammation se perpetue dans les capillaires san- 
guins. II en est d'autres oil elle semble bornde aux capillaires 
blancs, iuddpendamment de I'affection simultanee des glands et 
des faisceaux lymphatiques ; c'est du moins ce que j'ai devoir con- 
clure de I'examen de ce genre d'alt^ration qui a regudes moderns 
les noms de tissu lardace, tissu squirrheux, ou enc^phalo'ide." 

But even here it is only a participation of the lymph vessels 
which is spoken of. The first to point out the real connection 
between cancer and the lymph vessels was Recklinghausen. He 
assumed that the cancroid cylinders (cancroidzapfen) might be 
only the club-like swollen ends of the lymph vessels filled with 
cell proliferations from the epithelium of the lymph vessels, or 
even the latter alone. Later, in a discourse at Wurzburg, upon 
a tumor of the under jaw, he no longer restricts his hypothesis 
to the endings alone of the lymph vessels, and in this tumor and 
another similar one from the orbit I was actually able to prove 
the development from lymph vessels, and even from the epithe- 
lium of the lymph vessels, without participation of the connec- 
tive tissue. Recklinghausen called attention, also, at this time 
to the anastomoses of the cancroid cylinders and to their cavities 


[Lumen] here and there recognizable, facts naturally very favor- 
able to his hypothesis. My own observations have been made 
upon about forty cancers of the skin, either fresh or hardened, 
or treated with silver, generally in all three ways and in the most 
scrupulously careful manner. 

In general the microscopic appearances in cancer of the skin 
are, 1st, variously formed bodies composed of epithelial cells; 
2d, a stroma of connective tissue containing vessels, in which 
stroma the epithelial vessels are embedded. In dry cancers 
this stroma nearly or wholly disappears ; the epithelial bodies 
are crowded together and seem like solid masses of epithe- 
lial cells, which can nevertheless be picked apart into cancer cyl- 
inders, or into roundish bodies, in either of which we may find 
the "globes epidermiques," or "cancroid pearls," ^.e., onion-like 
balls of epithelium formerly held to be essential to the diagnosis 
" cancroid." They are, however, often lacking, and here the cyl- 
inders consist of smaller, more succulent, polygonal, flat or cylin- 
der cells. Cuts into the youngest part of the tumor, viz., the 
periphery, afi"ord generally this appearance,' and one can see that 
the cancer bodies are not isolated in the connective tissue stroma, 
but generally connected so as to form a net-work. This picture 
is not readily obtained with a weak magnifying power, nor from 
preparations made with alcohol and carmine. This net-work 
has been noticed also by Billroth, Klebs, and Waldeyer. 

In some cancers this appearance may be found everywhere, 
e.g.^ in cancers of the eye-lids, of the conjunctiva, and in ro- 
dent ulcers; in others, chiefly in the periphery, i.e., the portion 
most recently developed, so that the question of the development 
of these anastomosing cell-cylinders is really that of the develop- 
ment of the cancer itself. Supposing, as I do, these cell-cylinders 
to be changed or thrombosed lymph vessels, there are still other 
possibilities to be regarded, namely, 1st. the formation of cell 
bodies in the connective tissue which have grown towards each 
other and thus united; or 2d., the formation of new ducts from 
old glands; or 3d., the production of such cell-cylinders from 
the blood-vessels. The first two I shall consider later, when I 
treat of the changes in the connective tissue and glands in can- 


cer; the last deserves mention only as an unproved supposition 
of Studener's, and though in cancer we find changes in the 
blood-vessels, yet I have never seen its commencement take place 
in them. 

Are the anastomosing cell-cylinders altered lymph vessels? 
Those anastomoses are constant. That they have been over- 
looked is due to two causes : 1st., the preliminary hardening in al- 
cohol or other media, or the employing of very different supple- 
mentary fluids and reagents in the examination of the fresh spec- 
imen; 2d., the general custom of making all sections of tumors 
perpendicularly to the surface. By the first method the most re- 
cent cell proliferations, which are also the most delicate Avhile yet 
the most important, are in many cancers completely altered or 
even rendered invisible. Fortunately this is not a universal rule. 
The objections to perpendicular sections need only for their 
substantiation a few comparative trials on the part of the inves- 
tigator. Where the cancer sends knots into the subcutaneous 
tissue, they should be freed from everything except the tightly 
embracing connective tissue [and the lymph vessels which are 
still intact, causing them to arrange themselves concentrically 
around the knot, and pressing the lymphatic net-work more 
closely together. Some cancers, especially those of the eye-ids 
and conjunctiva, and particularly when these sink deep into the 
orbital tissue, will show the anastomoses, no matter in what di- 
rection the cuts are made. I would state here that the periph- 
ery where the cancer is still advancing is always the best place 
for examination; the flat epithelial cancers, the so-called ulcera 
rodentia, the best adapted for examination ; the least adapted 
being the fissued cancers of the lips. If we examine good prepa- 
rations, we obtain at once the impression of lymphatic net-work. 
The cell-cords are of variable thickness, with swollen and knot- 
like expansions, and meandering in their course; thick and thin 
cylinders are united, and the branch which connects them is now 
thicker and now thinner than the main trunk. Now a cord di- 
vides, uniting again perhaps farther on, and where several 
branches meet, we see the characteristic expansions. Above all 
we notice in many of the cords, especially in those where the 


cells radiate like cylinder cells, a very plain central channel or 
cavity [Lumen]. 

This cavity has already been remarked by Billroth, Klebs and 
others. Some consider it the cavity of an embryotic gland duct. 
This is impossible, if we are really dealing with lymph vessels. 
Others consider it the result of the fusing or melting of the cen- 
tral cells. But the character of the cavity disproves this; it is 
clean cut as if bored out ; the ends of the cells towards the cav- 
ity are unaltered, smooth and uncorroded; there are no remains 
of half altered cells, and when the cavity possesses any contents, 
it is simply, to all appearances, a clot. The regular cylindrical 
arrangment of the cells also around the cavity, shows it to be 
an original and not a subsequent formation. 

As a rule, the cavity is bounded by a single layer of cells, 
more rarely by two or three. A greater number would intrude 
upon and obliterate the cavity itself, so thin are the cell-cords. 
Where the layers of epithelium are not cylindrical, but flat, there 
is more difficulty, of course, in detecting this cavity, and it is 
best found by a cross-cut of the cords. This is, however, an 
additional proof of their origin from lymph vessels, which are 
generally not cylindrical tubes, but simply flat fissures, whose 
walls are too thin and contents too scanty to admit of any ex- 
pansion. This bulging takes place after the loss of their con- 
tents and with thfe stiffening of their walls by the formation of 
cylinder cells which support themselves by mutual pressure like 
the stones of an arch, thus furnishing the most powerful opposi- 
tion to any pressure exerted from the outside. Add to this that 
the vessel may be or may have long been filled with contents 
which have prevented it from contracting and destroying the 
elasticity of the surrounding connective tissue, and we see how 
a cell band may become a cell cord. AVhere it remains a band 
with perhaps only two layers of pavement epithelium separated 
by a cavity, this cavity may be proved by our having to shift 
our objective more than the width of the upper layer of cells 
before bringing the lower layer into view. 

Some authors have stated that the cell cylinders are surrounded 


by a membrana propria, which would be in favor of their de- 
velopment from glands. This error has arisen from the chemi- 
cal reagents employed. For instance, by adding acetic acid to 
a preparation in which we have cell cylinders with radiating cells, 
the nuclei of the cells become darker and more evident to the 
eye, the protoplasma, however, clear and homogeneous, and the 
boundary lines of the cells nearly invisible. This protoplasma 
outside the outer row of cells, being distinctly bounded by the 
surrounding connective tissue, resembles a membrane. It is not 
to be isolated, however, and does not exist, and when picked 
apart gives up to each cell its proper protoplasm. Or, again, a 
small layer of the connective tissue close around the cell cylin- 
der has become homogeneously mucous; acetic acid causes the 
cell cylinder to shrink, and the space left by it becomes occupied 
by the infiltrated and swollen connective tissue, or by a glutin- 
ous substance expressed from it, and resembles a membrane. 
The same effect is produced by hardening in alcohol, especially 
when the cell cylinder has a distinct cavity, as has also been no- 
ticed by Thiersch and others. This supports my theory, as such 
cylinders naturally could condense themselves into less volume 
than if they were solid, leaving the pseudo-membrane more evi- 
dent. In the examination of fresh specimens the pseudo-mem- 
brane is never found. 

A brief summary of the results we have thus far arrived at 
shows us that: 1st, in all cancers of the skin, and especially in 
their peripheral younger zones, may be found anastomosing cell 
cylinders; 2d, these anastomoses very often form a network 
which in its appearance and dissemination resembles the net- 
work of lymph vessels, and seems to represent a cast of them ; 
3d, in these anastamosing cell cylinders there is frequently a 
round or flattened cavity, filled either with a mass which breaks 
the light but slightly, or with one resembling a clot; 4th, in 
some cases blood-vessels permeate the cell cylinders; 5th, the 
cell cylinders are surrounded by no membrana propria. 

Before we can be sure that these cell cylinders are merely al- 
tered lymph vessels, two more facts require proof, namely, the 
connection of the cancer cylinders with normal lymph vessels, 


and the development of the cells which fill the lymph vessels, 
are produced in, upon, or instead of the walls of the same. The 
former I attempted to prove by means of injections through 
punctures, but failed, it being always the blood-vessels which be- 
came injected. I satisfied myself, however, of one thing, viz., 
that there was no connection between cancer cylinders and blood- 

I next tried impregnation with silver, according to Reckling- 
hausen's method. This does better if we remember that we are 
treating sections and not smooth membranes, and do not expect 
too much ; for, though some tumors give a tolerable proportion 
of demonstrable preparations, others give but one in thirty or 

The sections to be silvered need not be taken from a fresh tu- 
mor. Indeed, it is better to wait some hours before preparing 
them. Cuts should then be made from the periphery and hori- 
zontal. The the silver solution should bo one-fifth per cent., 
and the secretions should be left in about half a minute. While 
in the solution the secretions should be moved about with the 
the needle, to wash off any debris of cells or tissue fragments, 
or else gently brushed either in the solution or instantly in dis- 
tilled water. If longer in the water the cuts become worthless, 
and it would be better to brush them after the reduction of the 
silver. This last is often needful. The cuts are then to be 
laid in glycerine, though if put up for preservation in this they 
do not last. The action of silver is the same here as every- 
where. The connective tissue fundamental substance and the 
cement substance of the epithelial cells become uniformily brown, 
while the juice canals [saftkaniilchen] and cells remain uncolored. 
The cell cords appear like bright bands in the brown stroma, 
showing only a fine network of brown lines, the colored inter- 
cellular cement substance of the cancer cells. AVhen the anasto- 
moses are frequent, the cancer cords resemble exactly similarly 
prepared lymph vessels. 

A comparison of fresh preparations with silvered ones from 
the same place, is a sufllicient answer to any one who may re- 
gard the cancer cords as embedded between the lymph vessels. 


There is simply no room for botli ; they must be identical. More- 
over, where the silvering is imperfect, the cancer cells may be 
seen through the fragments of the silver lines or even as a con- 
tinuation of them. Sometimes, in spite of the coloration of the 
intercellular substance, the cancer cells remain visible, together 
with their nuclei. 

The best method to show the identity of the cancer cords and 
the lymph vessels is simply to remove a preparation from the sil- 
ver solution and let it color itself under the microscope; the 
cells fade gradually from sight and the intercellular substance 
becomes bright, then gray or violet, and finally brown. We find 
that the great epithelial cells of the lymph vessels are gone or 
altered; we find between the cancer cylinders only blood-vessels, 
never any lymph vessels; we find the arrangment of these 
silvered cancer cords corresponding to that of the lymph vessels, 
especially in the uppermost layer of the cutis, where they become 
thinner and send out terminal shoots into the papillae; and also 
in their relations to the blood-vessels, with which they run par- 
allel or over which they form bridges ; and not unfrequently we 
find the smaller epithelial cells actually becoming larger, the sil- 
ver lines growing clearer, more uniform, thinner, more deeply 
colored and meandering, till at length before our very eyes lie the 
large, long, polygonal or rhombic cells with wavy margins, just as 
in normal lymph vessels. This transition into normal lymph ves- 
sels may be gradual, or sudden ; and with this transition the can- 
cerous degeneration, dark from the thickness of the cells, be- 
comes clear and bright and white. Nor only in the proliferations 
of the cancer cords, sometimes even in the middle of their course, 
we observe places where the cancerous degeneration has not yet 
occurred. This is, moreover, no example of one sort of cells 
covering and concealing another, but an actual substitution, the 
very thin scales of lymph vessel epithelium losing in length and 
width what they gain in thicknnss as they swell by the absorption 
of fluid, and taking on all sorts of epithelial forms from their 
mutual pressure. 

By the treatment of silver we arrive, then, at these results: — 
1. That the younger cancer cords and their epithelium demean 
themselves towards silver just as do the lymph vessels. 


2. That they correspond perfectly to the lymph vessels in 
their distribution, arrangements and combinations among them- 
selves, and in their relations to the bloodvessels and to the pa- 
pillae of the skin. 

3. That they are not covered by normal lymph vessel epithel- 
ium; but 

4. That the epithelium of the cancer cords becomes larger 
and more indented, and passes over into normal lymph vessel 

From these we deduce 

1. That the cancer cords are formed from the lymph vessels. 

2. That the first cancer cells are altered lymph vessel epithel- 

It will be interesting doubtless, to show how far the history 
of the development of cancer may be traced in preserved and 
fresh specimens, since treating with silver is a laborious process. 
The tumors were preserved in dilute alcohol or in Miiller's fluid, 
the latter to be preferred, for though it must be renewed every 
few days to guard against the development of fungi, yet the cell 
elements, and especially the delicate epithelial cells, are better 
preserved by it. There are, however, very few tumors which 
keep well enough to allow our investigation of their entire devel- 
opment. The worst of all are the fissured cancers of the lips and 
all those which have a limited and localized field of attack upon 
the normal tissues; whereas cancers with mucous degeneration 
of the connective tissue usually keep very well. Acetic acid 
should not be used. Imbibition with carmine is of no use except 
to beautify the picture. The preparations should be examined 
in glycerine, which clears up the connective tissue. If the tu- 
mor has been hardened in alcohol, the cancerous lymph ves- 
sels will be found much shrunk, and the difference and sharply 
defined boundary lines between the cancer cylinders and the con- 
nective tissue will be less marked or absent. The cancer cylin- 
ders themselves, however, are often more evident, especially if 
they have acquired a yellowish tint. 

Mv special object in examination of hardened specimens was 
to ascertain if certain sections [abschnitte] of the cancer cylin- 


ders could not be directly recognized as lymph vessels with nor- 
mal epithelium which had become visible. Such I found in the 
cancer cords already described, consisting of two layers of flat 
cells, with a fissure-like cavity, showing well on cross section, but 
requiring focussing of the object-glass when viewed on the flat 
surface. This is especially well shown where there is a defect 
in the upper layer, enabling us to obtain through this aperture 
a view into the interior of the tube. That these pale tubes are 
lymph vessels is shown by their form, size, mode of dissemination, 
branching, etc., the size and form of their epithelium with its 
indentations and irregularities. Nothing is lacking except the 
fine indentations shown after treatincr with silver, and these 
are probably the abnormal results of the silver treatment, since 
the same effect follows its use elsewhere. 

There remain still two questions : 

1st. Does the further cell-proliferation of the cancerously 
degenerated lymph vessels proceed likewise from the epithelium 
of the same? 

2d. Does it proceed solely from these? 

These questions will be best answered by an examination of 
fresh specimens, which in general give better results than those 
we obtain from the hardened tumors, though even the latter pre- 
sent no essential variations with the exception of the pseudo- 
membrana propria already mentioned. 

The fluids used in the examination of fresh specimens should 
be as indiff"erent as possible. Salt water, solution of albumen, se- 
rum and aqueous humor, which are as indiff'erent as any mix- 
tures of salt, nitre, carbonate of potash, etc., and yet every 
tumor is aff'ected by each of them, often in a diff"erent way by 
each, individual tissue elements still more so, and most of all the 
young cancer cells which fade from sight after a short time. 
The boundary between cancerous lymph vessels and connective 
tissue is well shown in fresh specimens, especially in those can- 
cers whose cells are succulent or cylindrical. It is least well 
shown in those cancers where the cells are spindle shaped, 
especially if at the same time there is much cell proliferation in 
the connective tissue, in which case we might believe we had 


pure sarcoma before us. In general the difficulty increases the 
more the cancerous lymph vessels approach their normal condi- 

The conception of epithelial cancer cells is quite extended, in- 
cluding pavement and cylinder cells, flat and even thick bellied 
spindle cells, cells with proliferations, cells with granular pro- 
toplasm and without well defined peripheries, etc. These .all, 
however, pass over in many places into large, pale, long-polygon- 
al, or rhombic epithelium, the protoplasm becoming clearer as 
they increase in size, the nuclei sometimes dull, sometimes well 
marked, but always preserving their contours, the nucleus cor- 
puscles nearly always quite evident, and the peripheries of the 
cells in some cases showing knobs. 

Several times I have seen cells, previously swimming free in 
the fluid used for investigation, arrive at a defective place in the 
wall of the cylinder, squeeze through and swim on inside of the 
tube; the microscope- when shifted showing an epithelial wall 
both above and below them. This is rare, however, for a fresh 
preparation is lax at best, and when spread out upon the slide, the 
walls fall together, this being still further aided by the weight 
of the covering glass. 

Where the cancerous degeneration proceeds from below up- 
wards, I have several times detected these cavities beautifully 
shown from having been long distended by the fluid dammed up 
in them, which could not enter the cancerous vessels below, the 
connective tissue having thus lost its elasticity. 

From our examination of fresh specimens, therefore, we ar- 
rive once more at the conclusion that the first cancer cells repre- 
sent nothing else than the more or less altered epithelium of the 
lymph vessels. That the younger cancer cells is shown by the 
increase of the nucleus corpuscles, and the constrictions and di- 
visions of the nuclei. The new cells can of course divide again, 
which answers question number one with regard to the further 
cell-proliferation of once formed cancers. There remains the 
second question, viz., does any adjuvant cause exist for the fur- 
ther cell-proliferation of cancers already formed? 

It is possible that connective tissue cells may thrust themselves 


between the already formed cancer cells, and, according to the 
hypothesis of Recklinghausen, produce by conjugation a more 
active cell-proliferation. Biesiadecki has noticed such an intru- 
sion recently in inflammation of the skin, and I have seen also 
spindle formed cells between the cells of the rete Malpighi in the 
skin over a cancerous infiltration, and also in a syphilitic affec- 
tion. Once also in small amount between the epithelium of a 

This proves at least that cells of a contractile character can 
effect such an entrance. The primary stage of cancer is, more- 
over, sometimes accompanied by excessive cell development in 
the surrounding connective tissue, as instanced by Waldeyer. 
According to the recent investigations of Cohnheim, Hernig and 
others, cells not only in pathological but also in physiological 
conditions, pass from the bloodvessels through the connective 
tissue, and into the lymph vessels ; and, according to Reckling- 
hausen, cells pass from the connective tissue alone into the lymph 
vessels, and appear there as lymph corpuscles. In cancer the 
obliteration of the lymph vessels would cause stagnation of fluids 
and cells, and heap up the cells which could no longer be carried 
away, whether formed in loco or arriving from the bloodvessels, 
which I have already said are generally dilated [ektatisch], a 
condition very favorable, according to Cohnheim, to the exit of 
the white-blood corpuscles. Then, too, with the growth of the 
cane ;r, the connective tissue contracts and disappears, and as we 
see no proof of the destruction of its cells by pressure or fatty 
degeneration, we may imagine at least that these may have been 
taken in and appropriated as cancer cells. 

The "mucous infiltration," or rather degeneration of the con- 
nective tissue, most marked in the immediate neighborhood of 
the cancer cords, is best explained in the same way as the heap- 
ing up of the cells, i. e., by stagnation in the vessels, especially 
as it is most marked in the so-called infiltrated cancers, where 
we have a large tract moderately affected, rather than excessive 
local affection, by which former condition the formation of a col- 
lateral lymph circulation is rendered less easy, while a diffused 
stagnation of fluids is favored. 


(From the "Medical Gazette," October, 1870.) 


By a. Waller, M. D. 

Dr. Augustus Waller, in the Croonian Lecture for May, 1870, 
says that it is known that, after a nerve has been disconnected 
from the central organs, its medullary part undergoes a series of 
changes. The tubular medulla, or white substance, is disintegra- 
ted, and finally converted into a dark granular matter. On this 
alteration Dr. Waller founds his method of investigation, as it 
enables the inquirer to distinguish the altered from the sound fibres. 
The author applied his method to the elucidation of the functions 
of the ganglions or swellings found on the origin of many nerves. 
On dividing the roots of the spinal nerves, it was found, after a 
certain lapse of time, that on the posterior root, which is alone 
possessed of a ganglion, the central segment remaining in connec- 
tion with tKe spinal cord became disorganized, and its elements 
passed into a state of granular degeneration, whereas, in the 
distal segments remaining in connection with the ganglion, the 
nervous elements retain all their normal structure, evidently 
showing that continuity with the spinal cord does not prevent it 
from becoming disorganized, whereas its connection with the 
inter-vertebral ganglion suffices to preserve its integrity of struc- 
ture. In the divided anterior root, the phenomenon takes place 
in an exactly inverse manner from the former. The author 
arrives at the conclusion that the spinal cord confers on the an- 
terior root that unknown vital power whereby its elements resist 
granular disorganization, whereas for the posterior root, on the 
contrary, the preservative power is no longer an attribute of the 
spinal cord, but resides in the ganglion. The author pointed out 
the important bearing these results had on pathology, that hence- 
forth, in diseases of the spinal cord and of the brain, experi- 
menters had to endeavor, in pathological examinations of those 


parts, to ascertain in each case how far the alterations could be 
referred to the separation of a part from its tropic center. 

The author then treats of the vagus, which, at its origin, is 
formed by roots springing from the medulla oblongata, to Avhich 
is added afterwards a considerable branch from the accessories, 
which joins and mingles with the pure vagus, and with which its 
fibres become intimately blended. The problem to be solved, 
therefore, is the precise functions of each or of either (the acces- 
sories or pure vagus) before their anastomosis. Prof. C. Bernard 
had succeeded in entirely destroying the power of the accessories 
by evulsion of its roots, and had arrived at the conclusion that 
all the fibres of this nerve are distributed to the laryngeal muscles, 
whose functions are connected with the production of vocal sounds, 
whilst other fibres from the pure vagus govern certain nutritive 
or organic functions connected with respiration. In order to 
separate the functions of the one from the other, it is requisite 
to destroy all the fibres of the accessories by Dr. Waller's process, 
and leave the other intact, which has been done most effectually 
by Dr. Waller's plan, first disconnecting the accessories from the 
medulla on Bernard's plan, and afterwards allowing the animal 
to live sufficiently long for fatty degeneration to take place. 
The vagus then having been galvanized at every part of its length? 
it was found impossible to affect either the action of the heart or 
the stomach, and the only result is to cause slight movements of 
the larynx. The author then proceeded to the consideration of 
the pneumogastric and sympathetic nerves in man in health and 
in certain affections of the nervous system, and, lastly, referred 
to the effects of collapse and syncope produced by the irritation 
of these nerves. In general, the effects are confined to a state 
of depression more or less strong, which may be moderated by 
graduating the degree of irritation applied. He believed that 
this fact may be taken advantage of and applied as a means of 
inducing asthenia or debility for the purpose of facilitating certain 
operations in surgery, such as the reductions of fractures, or even 
hernia, in lieu of the administration of other anaesthetics, such 
as chloroform, etc., which present a certain degree of danger not 
attending the compression of the vagus. 


Dr. Waller then cites a case of dislocation of the head of the 
humerus beneath the clavicle by a full down stairs. After nume- 
rous unavailing attempts to reduce the luxation, chloroform was 
sent for to facilitate the operation by inducing anaesthesia, but in 
the meantime an attempt was made, assisted by compression of 
the vagus. One applied compression, whilst the other two opera- 
tors performed extension and counter extension. In two or three 
minutes, just as the carotids ceased to be felt to beat, a sudden 
click indicated the return of the bone to the cavity. 

Fn.m" The Dental Cosmos. 


Reported by De Forest Willard, M. D. 

Double Harelip. 

The case now before the class (a man thirty years of age), is 
that physical imperfection known as harelip. In this particular 
instance it differs, however, markedly from others which it has 
come in my way to treat before you, in being a compound or 
double cleft. 

In the usual harelip, as all here well know, the deficiency 
consists in a V-break in the continuity of the parts. [Vide 
Dental Cosmos, Clinical Notes, August, 1870.) The double 
break varies as markedly as the first is true to a type. The 
case before us is a fair example of what you will meet with in 
this direction of practice, — it is not a complicated case; neither 


is it a simple one. First, you observe a break involving one-half 
— or much more nearly two-thirds — of the superior lip, — an ex- 
ample of what is meant by deficient development. That Nature, 
however, attempted, but was thwarted in her work of making 
here a perfect lip, is evidenced in that we find hanging from the 
septum of the nostrils a misshapen, fleshy mass, the abortion, 
without doubt, of the lacking portion of the lip. This centre 
teat or part, in these cases, is the pons asinorum, and it is so 
various, so diversified in its relations to adjacent parts, that the 
question of concern in all such operations is. What shall we do 
with it ? Here in the case before us, for example, is this teat, so 
outside the harmonious line of the lip that a strip which should 
rest upon the cutaneous surface of either side would pass beneath 
the mucous face of this middle piece. 

As another example, I will here introduce a second patient: 
this infant, but three weeks of age. You have seldom seen any- 
thing more curious looking, — it seems to have a fleshy door-knob 
hanging from the tip of its nose. The child has scarcely the 
remnant of an upper lip, and what is a great deal worse, there 
is a complete break both through the hard and soft palate, ren- 
dering the nares and mouth a common cavity ; and this cavity 
has neither anterior nor posterior closure, being thus, of course, 
always open. The babe cannot suckle; and when milk is poured 
into this cavity, attempt at deglutition throws about as much back 
as gets down the oesophagus. Observe this case particularly, 
and compare it with the first, since it enables me very well to 
show you the two extremes of complicated harelips. The ped- 
unculated prominence hanging from the nose of this child is the 
rudimentary lip, — and who shall say how much of the absent 
palate enters into its composition ? All the inside of the tumor is 
made up of bone; this the knife will be sure to demonstrate to 
us. The condition of this child is lamentable, and I shall exert 
myself to the utmost, you may be sure, for its relief. 

In the mean time, until we come to the operation, consider it, 
each one of you, your own patient, and devise in your mind what 
kind of an operation you conceive best adapted to meet the re- 
quirements of the case. 


From an operative standpoint we divide the subject of double 
harelip into two classes, simple and complicated. Such a division 
answers our purpose very well. Let me thus, for a single moment, 
refer to an uncomplicated double harelip, where the centre piece 
or teat might be found so large and square as nearly to divide 
the lip into three portions; now here the mesian line of the lip 
would be found in the centre piece; it would therefore, I think, 
suggest itself to any one that either side of the cleft was to be 
treated as a separate harelip, — that is, the whole operation may 
be very well done at one sitting, but there would necessarily be 
symmetrical parings made of either cleft. In such a case we have 
also to take into account the concavity made on either of the 
sides of our fissure, as reference is had to the influence exerted 
on the free margin of the lip; for here, of course, we require no 

Whether, again, in these really double cases, we would first 
operate on the one side, and when this was cured, on the other, 
is a matter for the judgment of the operator. Many surgeons 
prefer to correct the whole deformity at one sitting. If he should 
do this, the operation would only deviate from the principles laid 
down, as regard would be had to the approximation of the parts. 
If the centre piece were small, I think it would be found the most 
satisfactory practice to pass the pins directly from one lateral flap 
to the other, on through the central teat, thus uniting all these 
parts together by a common suture. If, on the contrary, the 
centre piece is broad and well covered by skin, I think the great- 
est good is found in using two sets of ligatures. 

As regards the single or double operation, I myself am influ- 
enced by the width of the middle piece, the tenseness or laxity 
of the tissue of the lip, and the endurance and condition of 
the patient. 

Another modification of the double harelip is one in which 
there is projection into the cleft of the incisor teeth, the alveolar 
process being sufficiently normal to allow of non-interference with 
it. The projection of the teeth is a natural result of the lack of 
external support from the labial deficiency; the tongue has ac- 
tually pushed them outwardly. This explanation will, I am sure, 


seem strange only to those who are unacquainted with the exceed- 
ing mobility of the dental organs under slight but continued force. 
It is certainly the true cause of such projection. In a case of 
this kind, the preliminary operation is the removal of the teeth. 
If, now, six months are allowed to intervene before attempting 
the operation on the lip, the alveoli of the extracted teeth will 
be found to have receded, through absorption, quite the eighth of 
an inch. The second operation is then to be done secundum artem. 
This waiting on the process of absorption will be found to conduce 
greatly to a successful result; but it is not a necessity. 

A still better, though more tedious, mode of correcting such a 
deformity, is by bringing the projecting teeth back to their nor- 
mal place in the arch through the agency of elastic ligatures, 
which is a perfectly feasible operation, aud not at all difficult of 
performance. By such a preliminary procedure, we not only get 
the teeth out of the way, but we also save to the patient these 
valuable organs. To make and apply such a ligature, we have 
only to take a common slip of india-rubber, attach at either end 
a loop of silk, place the loops over certain of the molar teeth (it 
is immaterial which), and stretch the centre or rubber part over 
the labial faces of the teeth to be pulled back. It is astonishing 
how quickly and powerfully such a force will act upon the teeth, 
and in two or three weeks at most, they will be brought into 
proper line. To secure them in situ, and prevent their being 
again pushed forward, we have only to keep them ligatured in 
any convenient manner until the operation on the lip is made. 

Cleft of the lip, as seen in the case of the babe before ns, is 
found in almost every case of cleft of the hard palate. 

It has always been deemed very important in these cases that 
an operation on the lip should be performed as early as possible, 
since it is thought to favor closure of tlie bony cleft. In these 
cases the operation differs from that suited to an ordinary one 
only where there is a projection of one or both alveolar processes 
into the break. In such instances, if the projection is very marked 
— that is, so much so as to prevent]the bringing of the lips together 
over them — we may, perhaps, be able to do nothing better than 
to cut away the parts. This, however, is always to be avoided 


when possible: first, because we thus destroy the germs of the 
teeth; and secondly, because if by any means we can get union 
of the lip, the parts in their development will come mutually to 
accommodate each other. ^ In such cases, some authors recommend 
that we endeavor to bend back these juttings of bone, turning 
them in toward the mesial line, and when this can be done it an- 
swers a very admirable purpose. 

Still another mode consists in the employment of the fronto- 
occipito-labial elastic sling, which pulls upon the projecting pro- 
cess backward from the occiput. It will certainly fulfill the indi- 
cations, but its application is not unattended with trouble. 

In cases of double harelip, when the centre slip is so associated 
with the septum of the nose as to make the parts appear as one, 
as in the babe before us, we might describe it as hypertrophied 
state of the septum, were it not for the loss of material in the 
lip. Again, the lost part from the lip is sometimes found attached 
to the very tip of the nose, giving to the patient the appearance 
of laboring under lipoma. 

These variations, together with all the anomalies in this direction, 
are first to be studied, as regards their cure, from the artistic stand- 
point. The surgeon knows where and what he can afford to cut; 
he knows what nature will do in the case; it only remains for him 
to consider well his incisions, — where he shall make them, and 
what is to be the result, before the operation is attempted. 

With this general review of the subject, which will, I trust, be 
found by you sufficiently full for a satisfactory guidance in this 
direction of practice, we may turn to the performance of th9 
operation upon these cases. 

First, the man. It is sad that he has been allowed to go to 
adult age with such a deformity. As this central piece is not 
wide, we can utilize it, and make a single operation suffice for 
both clefts ; that is, we shall pare both edges of this central piece, 
then the edges of the lip upon either side, and passing long pins 
directly from the lateral flaps through this teat, bring all four 
raw surfaces into their proper position by one ligature thrown 
around the pins. In regard to the character of our incisions, it 
is not here so necessary to use the ellipse, or double V parings, 


which I spoke of when upon the subject of simple harelip, since 
we do not here produce in the same way the central median prom- 
inence and swell, and our great object is, therefore, rather to 
produce perfectly fresh surfaces at every point, that union may 
be rapid and complete. 

[Operation performed as described, the teat being used to fill 
up the gap between the two flaps, and a portion of one of the 
parings being allowed to remain in order to add to the fullness of 
the free margin, somewhat after the manner of the operation of 
Mirault. But two pins were used, and adhesive strips were im- 
mediately applied to assist in the support. — De F, W.] 

In regard to this little infant, I trust you have all by this time 
decided as to the operation which you would perform were the 
case in your care. The child is but three weeks old, yet in these 
cases of such terrible deformity, the operation must be done early, 
since the compression effected even by the closure of the soft parts 
may at this tender age greatly influence also the bony cleft; for 
you well know the large proportion of animal matter which ex- 
ists in the bones of young children, and the ease with which they 
may be bent. At some future clinic I shall dwell more fully upon 
the matter of cleft palate, and will not therefore now detain you 

As you look at this curious projection from the nose, you will 
readily see that it cannot be utilized, and it must therefore be re- 
moved. This I shall do with a simple pair of bone-nippers, cut- 
ting it from the septum nasi, and, as you will then see, we will 
have to deal but with a simple cleft, the break, however, being 
very wide; yet I think there will be no excessive tension exerted 
upon the parts. 

[The protuberance was then removed, the parts pared and 
drawn together as in ordinary cases, and long strips of adhesive 
plaster added. Hemorrhage was but slight. The mass consisted 
of bone and cartilage. The parts united well, and the child 
made a good recovery. — De F. W.] 



Another year has passed away, and not without leaving be- 
hind something valuable in experience. I find myself using, 
the last few months, about as much No. 4 adhesive foil as heavier 
numbers. No. 20 adhesive comes in very frequently, especially 
in those portions requiring hand pressure. It is also constantly 
used under the mallet. No. 30 is used only under the mallet. 
Either of these two numbers may be used folded double or quad- 
ruple more effectually than a single thickness of Nos. 60 or 120. 
The thicker the foil the smaller must be the point of the plugger. 
No. 60 foil requires a point as small as No. 28 of the gauge 
plate. No. 30 foil may very well be packed with a point as fine 
as No. 26 of the gauge. No. 30 foil may be double or quadru- 
ple, and packed with the same size point as a single thickness. 
No. 4 foil is better packed, if in pellets, with a point as large as 
23 of the gauge. It may afterwards be consolidated with a 
point of the finest No., such as would be used for the heaviest 
foil. Excepting in contour plugs, I do not consider the greatest 
density of which gold is capable, desirable in a plug. No. 4 ad- 
hesive foil, I use in half sheets, rolled in loose rope, and cut in 

I think I can make just as good a plug with one number as 
with another, by adapting my instruments and manipulations to 
the foil used. By adapting the means to the end desired, I can 
very profitably employ Nos. 20 and 30 in the same plug, at dif- 
ferent stages of the operation. Too deep serrations have been 
the great curses which adhesive foil has had to endure ever 
since it was discovered. They have been, and are continued to be 
used blindly by the great mass of the profession, because intro- 
duced by some well known operators, who never seem to have 
employed any too much common sense in their valuable contribu- 
tions to operative dentistry in this line. 

Just examine ih-d flat side of a No, 2 froid file. Now I think 
those cuts deep enough for the serrations of any plugger. Es- 


pecially is this the case for the surface layers of gold on which you 
wish to make a good polish without burnishing. And here I will 
say that I consider the burnishing a plug, as a mode of finishing, a 
great humbug. The operator deceives himself as well as the patient. 
A plug whose surface is not condensed enough to make a good 
appearance with pumice stone and other polishing powders, 
ought not to be glazed over and sent out into the world to do 
hard work. Hard work will destroy its flimsy finery in a week. 
I think it much better to get thoroughly accustomed to a few 
well-adapted pluggers, say twelve or fifteen, than a larger num- 
ber. The points which I find myself using mostly are: 
Two spirals, No. 28 of the gague. 

a a 


23 " 

One foot 


28 ' 

(( u 


24 " 

One straight 


28 ' 

(( t; 


24 " 

" right angle No. 28 for hand pressure. 
" " " No. 24 " " " 

Two slight curved flat. No. 29. 

The above are for adhesive foil. For cylinders of soft foil, 
I use several much larger and longer foot pluggers and some 
flat non-serrated instruments like a burnisher. 

Referring again to foil, I find that every fourth book of foil, 
I purchase is Abbey's No. 4. 

It is entirely useless to make cylinders of adhesive foil. The 
adhesion of cylinders amounts to nothing valuable, and it is sure 
to clog, if one cylinder touches another in endeavoring to pass 
it into the bottom of a cavity where there is not more than 
enough room. The value of cylinder fillings I have advocated 
on former occasions, and I say now that a dentist who does not 
understand the manipulation of cylinders so as to make a good 
plug with them, is not master of his specialty. 

A dentist last week wrote me: "I have just seen some gold 
plugs which you put in thirty-two years ago, and the teeth are 
as perfectly preserved by them as though they had just been in- 


This does not prove that I was a good operator, but it does 
show that soft foil cylinders can do as well as gold can be made 
to do. 

Well, then, I feel sure that I shall never abandon "soft foil," 
and I have never for a week given it up since I was a dentist. 

The cylinder question has been in dispute, as to its originality. 
Well, then, I have this to say : Dr. Frederick, my tutor, taught 
me to fill with cylinders, and never showed me any other way, at 
the same time saying: " There is but one other man in New Eng- 
land that fills teeth in this way, and that is Dr. Tucker, of Bos- 
ton. Chase. 

From the Lcndon " Lancet." 


To the Editor of the Lancet. 

Sir, — Much has been written of late on skin-grafting. From 
my own experience of it in the hospital here, I can corroborate 
every statement that has been made on the subject. I think the 
practice of it is of immense consequence in the treatment of ulcers, 
particularly in the treatment of extensive granulating sores follow- 
ing burns, etc. It is quite unnecessary, however, to put the pa- 
tient to the pain of cutting a piece of healthy skin from the body 
for the purpose of transplanting it on the sore. All that is ne- 
cessary to be done is, to take a long bistoury, or razor, and shave 
or scrape off the epidermic scales from the convex parts of the ex- 
tremities, such as on the outer and convex aspects of the forearms 
and thighs, and place them on the healthy granulations. This 
can best be done by brushing the scales off the bistoury with a 
camel-hair pencil. After securing them in situ for three or four 
days by means of common adhesive plaster, the granulations on 
which the epidermic scales were placed, assume a glazed bluish 
appearance, which gradually grows into skin, and meets the 
nearest edge of the healing ulcer, which edge shoots out, and 


meets the newly-formed skin on the granulations. The result is 
a continuity of healthy skin. Such has been the result of the 
practice here, and it is not necessary for me to enlarge on the 
advantages of it. 

It bas been mentioned by some of the writers on skin-grafting, 
that the formation of the new skin is accounted for on the cell 
theory. I have no doubt that it is so, for, according to the ob- 
servations of Schwann on the theory of the growth of the epi- 
derma, these scales are nothing more than dried cells having a 
nucleus in them, though it is stated that they are scarcely appar- 
ent. Mr. Erasmus Wilson, too, states, in his work on Diseases 
of the skin, that the formation of the epidermal scales results 
from the desiccation of the cells. Now, if the scales are scraped 
off the skin and placed on healthy granulations, and kept on them 
for a time — say four days — is it not possible that the scales may 
imbibe serum from the plastic lymph on the granulations and ad- 
jacent tissues, and form cells, which ultimately go to the forma- 
tion of skin? At all events, the practice of placing epidermal 
scales on a healthy granulating sore causes it to heal or skin over 
more rapidly, not only from the edge, but also in the centre of it. 

I may mention that my colleague. Professor Pirrie, in his work 
"On the Principles and Practice of Surgery," makes mention of 
a case he had in which a large isolated portion of skin formed in 
the middle of an ulcer, and gradually increased in size till it 
joined that formed from the circumference of it. It is quite 
possible that the isolated piece of skin might have grown from 
an epidermal scale which had accidentally fallen on the ulcer. 
I am Sir, your obedient servant, 

David Fiddes, 

Aberdeen, Dec. 5th, 18T0. Surgeon to the Rojal Infirmary, &c. 

Des Moines, Iowa, Feb. 11, 1871. 
Editors Journal, — 

I met rather a peculiar case in practice a few weeks ago, which 
perhaps is worthy of mention. A young man about twenty-five 
years of age was painting in my ofiice, and during a conversation 



with him I noticed that he did not close his teeth together, and 
as my curiosity was somewhat excited, I enquired of him what 
the reason was ; he then allowed me to examine his mouth. His 
jaws were large and well developed, had lost no teeth, and with 
the exception of a few small cavities, were all sound, but the 
second inferior molars had grown up and tipt a little forward, and 
consequently struck the upper teeth before any of the others, 
and prevented his mouth from closing ; when he had his mouth 
closed as close as he could, I could insert my finger between his 
front teeth. He said it had been that way as long as he could 
remember, and that he had always masticated his food with his 
upper teeth and tongue. I wanted to extract the teeth in order 
to allow his gums to come together, but he would not have it done 
at that time, and he has now gone to Missouri. 

Case 2. A young man called at my office to have a tooth ex- 
tracted; said it had been troubling him for a week. I examined 
his mouth, and found that he had been patronizing one of our 
chea'p dentists, (who has been trying to farm for about six years, 
and is now trying to pick up dentisty). The pulp had been ex- 
posed in the right inferior second molar. He destroyed it, and 
filled with tin foil, without removing the dead pulp, the conse- 
quence was, it ulcerated, and I took it out. On examining it I 
found that it had but one nerve canal, and that the ulcer was on 
the fang having no nerve in it. In such a case how would you 
cure the ulceration ? Geo. P. Mann. 


The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal of January 5th 
has a very carefully prepared summary of the law of malprac- 
tice in medicine and surgery. From the decisions quoted in this 


article it is easy to see that the ruling of the courts upon this 
subject is by no means uniform, but the law at the present time 
is pretty well exemplified by a decision of Baron Watson, in a 
case in which a blacksmith attempted to cure a cancer by the ap- 
plication of oil and "a white powder, which caused the greatest 
agony. The man died in nine days." The Judge "directed 
the jury to find the prisoner guilty, if they considered he took 
upon himself the responsibility of attending to a patient suffer- 
ing from a cancer, when he, the prisoner, was not qualified for 
that purpose. If he used dangerous applications he was bound 
to bring skill in their use, and he, the Judge, thought that the 
prisoner's education and employment made the use of these dan- 
gerous substances almost amount to a want of skill. * * * 
The prisoner was found guilty and sentenced to three months 
imprisonment." But on the other hand instances are not wanting 
where the court held that if a charlatan acted from honesty of 
purpose and expected to cure the patient that he was not guilty 
of manslaughter, even if death did result to the patient through 
the ignorance of the practitioner. Such in efi"ect was a decision 
of Chief Justice Parsons, but I believe that all agree that be- 
fore the law there is no difference shown between the most arrant 
quack or impostor and the regular graduate of a medical insti- 

In the Middlesex East District Medical Society, December 7th, 
a report was read by Dr. Winsor, of Winchester, chairman of a 
committee appointed to report upon the propriety of using gal- 
vanized iron pipes for carrying water which is to be used for cu- 
linary purposes. After a careful examination of the whole sub- 
ject the committee report that they "know of no proof that wa- 
ter derives any poisonous or harmful quality from galvanized 
iron." The Society generally "concurred in the opinions ex- 
pressed in the report." 

A writer in the Cf-azette des Hopiteaux states that epistaxis 
may be arrested by pressure of the finger, applied to a branch 
of the facial artery which passes near the ala of the nose, and 


which can be felt by the finger in that location. — Med. Gazette. 

Dr. S. Weir Mitchel, in the American Journal of Medical 
Sciences^ states in regard to the action of the bromide of 
lithium, " that it is eflScient in some cases of epilepsy when bromide 
of potassium has failed. That it is thus efficient in lesser doses 
than the salt just named. That as an hypnotic, it is superior to 
the potassium salt, and'to the other bromides." — Michigan Uni- 
versity Medical Journal. 

The Cosmos for January, 1871, has an article from George B. 
Harriman, D. D. S., of Boston, Mass., upon "The Discovery 
of Nerve Fibres of the Soft Solids of the Dentine." 

The author commences by referring to the various theories 
upon the sensitiveness of dentine, as follows : 

" By some writers it is attributed to ' nervous irritability,' ' defi- 
cient growth of maxilla,' and to 'changes in the system on the ar- 
rival of puberty.' Other writers refer this sensitiveness to 'local 
chemical action,' and the 'pathological condition of the system.' 
Others affirm, whilst accounting for this sensitiveness, that 'we 
must of necessity fall back upon the supposition that dentine is 
the conductor of impressions to the pulp.'" 

"It may be noticed that cut No. 1 very much resembles others 
prepared by difi"erent microscopists, and should they view this 
specimen (as they can by calling at my office, where it will be 
preserved), under the microscope, they would, I have no doubt, 
all pronounce these thread-like lines, designated by figure 2, 'tu- 
buli,' although, as I have shown, tubuli do not exist in the den- 

"Figure 2 shows the thread-like lines, which are nothing more 
nor less than real fibres." 

"Figure 1 in this cut shows where the fibres form a junction, 
and it is within these fibres that / leave discovered a small nerve 
fibril, which is represented and illustrated in figure No. 3 below." 

"Unless great care be exercised the thread-like lines (fibres) 
in cut No. 1 will be mistaken for nerve fibres." 


" Careful attention to the preceding considerations and illus- 
trations must have satisfied the reader of the cause of sensitive- 
ness in dentine." 

We propose to consider these quotations from the article in 
question as briefly as possible. 

Now the author doubtless intends it to be understood, by nam- 
ing the various theories relating to sensitive dentine, that he 
considers these theories, or some of them, as the accepted theories 
of the day. If this was not the case why does he say "careful 
attention to the preceding considerations and illustrations must 
have satisfied the reader of the sensitiveness in the teeth?" 

Now, it will not be necessary for me to state here for the bene- 
fit of any intelligent dentist of the present day, that this same 
doctrine, which this author advocates, relating to the cause of 
sensitiveness in dentine, was taught by Professors Johnston and 
Harris, of the Baltimore College, long ago, that it was advocated 
by Tomes many years since, and that it has been generally ac- 
cepted by the most intelligent part of the profession ; and that 
they therefore did not particularly need the " preceding consider- 
ations and illustrations " to satisfy them of the cause of sensitive- 
ness in dentine. We shall expect in the next article from the 
same pen the startling announcement that he has discovered that 
the teeth are masticatory organs, and that we can now explain 
the manner in which the food is comminuted, and we have no 
doubt but that the author will be able to convince the most of 
his readers of the truth of this proposition. 

As the author states, cut No. 1, which illustrates his produc- 
tion, very much resembles others prepared by different microscop- 
ists; and he continues, "should they view this specimen under 
the microscope, they would, I have no doubt, pronounce these 
thread-like lines, designated by figure 2, tubuli, although as I 
have shown, tubuli do not exist in the dentine." 

It is not claimed, then, that there is any difference in the ap- 
pearance of his specimen of dentine, and those prepared by 
others. No claim is made that the specimens are differently pre- 
pared, but we are very modestly informed, that the appear- 


naces which have been supposed to indicate the existence of den- 
tinal tubuli by such men as Tomes, Kolliker, Beale and Boll, 
to say nothing of Purkinji, Retzius, Muller, Owens, and a host 
of others, really indicate nothing of the kind. We admire the 
assurance of one who honestly believes that he alone of all mi- 
croscopists has sufficient sagacity to discover that the thread-like 
lines in a specimen of dentine are not tubuli; and other micro- 
scopists will doubtless feel grateful to our author for warning 
them not to fall into the error of mistaking these "thread-like 
lines " for nerve fibres. 

But we should not have spent so much time in the consider- 
ation of these points were it not for the subsequent announce- 
ment that he had discovered "a small nerve fibril in these fibres." 

Now, the discovery of nerve fibrils in the dentinal tubuli, or 
as the author calls them fibres, is a desideratum earnestly de- 
sired by many, and has been a prominent object with many mi- 
croscropists; but all their labors have hitherto proved fruitless, 
and if the discovery has really now been made by this enterpris- 
ing author, we shall hail it as a triumph won in the profession, of 
which one may well be proud. 

Whilst therefore earnestly desiring that these observations 
may prove to be worthy of confidence, we must confess that until 
verified by others, we can place but little weight upon this claim, 
made by one who, in the same article, shows conclusively that 
he is almost totally ignorant of the histological and physiological 
literature of the day. 

The next article in the Cosmos is by Prof. Stellwagen, upon the 
File. We wish all articles in our dental journals were charac- 
terized by as much good sense. As we can make no extracts that 
would do justice to the author, we commend the article to all 
seekers after truth and sound practice in that direction. 

A nearly fatal case from_the nitrous oxide gas is reported by 
Chas. W. Sellers. After galvanism and artificial respiration 
had been tried without avail, the patient was resuscitated by 
flagellation, "with the end of a wet towel," applied to the chest. 

From an article by Edward H. Browne, Larabertsville, N. J., 
it appears that nitrous oxide gas will preserve its power for at 
least thirty days after it is manufactured. 


Chloride of Aluminium is highly recommended by Mr. John 
Gamgee as an antiseptic, (^3Iedical Times and G-azette). We 
would suggest that it might be substituted possibly for creosote 
in some cases in dental practice. 

The St. Louis 3Ied. and Surg. Jour. This journal has a well 
known, wide-spread reputation, as one of the most able Medical 
journals in this country, and has been particularly noted for its 
well-written, concise and elaborate reviews upon the current 
medical literature of the day. This reputation was, however, 
principally won whilst these reviews were conducted by the edi- 
tor-in- jhief, and we are fearful that they will rot in future be 
held in as high repute, if this business of reviewing shall be 
habitually /ar^riecZ out to other parties as promiscuously as it ap- 
pears to have been in the January number, which has just made 
its appearance. No editorial duty requires more general infor- 
mation, a riper judgment, and a stricter sense of justice, than 
is required for an intelligent, judicious and honest review of cur- 
rent literary and scientific productions. 

Passing over several original communications and the reviews, 
we will give a few items from the valuable selections which are 
found in the present number. 

We find an editorial from the London Lancet upon an essay, 
written by V. Sabbotin, of Kiew, on "The Origin of Fat." 

The questions principally discussed are: 1st. Does a direct 
passage of fat take place in the animal organism from the intes- 
tinal canal into the adipose tissue? 2d. Do the fats develope 
within the elements of the adipose tissue? and if so, do they 
take origin from the albuminates, the hydro-carbonaceous com- 
pounds, or from both of these together? 3. Does a sympathetic 
development of fat occur in the animal organism in the mode 
suggested by Kiihne? 

Kiihne supposed "that in the production of fat, glycerine on 
the one hand, or the fatty acids on the other, are absorbed from 
the intestines; and the compounds required in each case to make 
a complete fat, are formed in the body at the expense of albumen 
or albuminous compounds, the fat cells being the agents by 
which the union of the two is accomplished." s 


From experiments the author concludes that a direct passage 
of fat into the adipose tissue does not occur. Having fed lean 
animals on meat carefully freed from fat, the author finds an abun- 
dance of fat developed, so that he concludes that it mast, at least 
in part, be produced from the albuminates. 

In relation to the third interrogatory, it does not appear that 
the author arrives at any satisfactory conclusion. 

An article by M. Baikow, also from the Lancet, appears upon 
"The Development of Bone from Medullary Germs." 

The author's experiments in this direction were in a great 
many cases successful. He found that the medulla, after trans- 
planting, first passed into the condition of fibrous tissue, from 
which by the proliferation of the cellular elements, bone or car- 
tilage were developed. 

Next is an interesting article from the British Medical Jour- 
nal, by Edward Meryon, M. D., upon "Granular Degeneration 
of the Voluntary Muscles." The author thinks it an idiopathic 
disease, dependent probably upon a defective nutrition of the 
sarcous elements. Arsenic has thus far seemed to control the 
progress of the disease, to some extent, all other remedies tried 
having proved useless. 

From the same journal an article from Dr. Noxon, in Gray's 
Hospital, recommends twenty-grain doses of bromide of potassi- 
um for ague, several interesting cases being reported, in which 
it had succeeded after quinine had signally failed. 

The Canada Journal of Dental Science publishes a fee-bill, 
which it proposes for the country practice of Canada, commen- 
cing with small gold fillings at $2.00, extracting 50 cents each, 
single tooth on vulcanite $4.00 to $8.00, and other charges in 
proportion. We do not think the people ought to complain at 
these prices. 

American Journal of Dental Science, for January, 1871. The 
leading article upon "Germinal Matter," by Prof. Noel, is a 
well written article, which clearly and forcibly sets forth the 
doctrines of Beale upon this subject. 


Article fourth, by Geo. S. Tingling, M. D., recommends ses- 
qui-chloride of chromium for sensitive dentine. The remedy, he 
remarks, colors the dentine green, but this disappears without 
any special treatment, and generally the color may all be re- 
moved by excavating the cavity. 

The details are not set forth as clearly as we could wish, as it 
is not stated how long the medicine must remain in the cavity to 
produce a satisfactory result. We opine that it will be necessa- 
ry to use it with considerable caution, as it seems to be an agent 
of great power. 

Dr. John C. Storey prefers lead for packing vulcanizers, to rub- 
ber packing. 

The Dental Times has for its leading article, "Dr. S. P. Cut- 
ler's Reply to Dr. Zur Neddin," who has criticised Dr. Cutler 
in a German journal, for only giving his method of preparing a 
pulp for microscopic investigations, when he had promised to 
publish his mode of discovering the millions of nerve fibres in 
the dentine of a molar tooth. The Doctor takes up most of the 
space allotted to the reply in trying to prove that there are mil- 
lions of dentinal tubuli in a large molar tooth. We presume that 
Zur Neddin will consider this pertinent when Dr. Cutler shall 
have proved that there is a nerve fibre in every tubulus. 

After making a mathematical calculation upon the number of 
the tubuli, he again gives his "method of preparing soft pulps, 
so as to demonstrate the fact long ago stated by myself, that 
the nerve fibrils were traceable through the pulp membrane into 
the dentinal tubuli." 

A tooth is soaked in alcohol one day and several days in chro- 
mic acid, then filed down till its walls are thin, crushed, and 
the pulp removed and pressed between two pieces of glass and 
mounted in balsam, and it is ready for use. "The fibres with- 
drawn from the dentine may be distinctly seen projecting through 
the pulp membrane." 

" This experiment clearly demonstrates the fact that the nerve 
fibrils are projected from the soft pulp into the tubuli," etc. 

Now this, so far as one would legitimately conclude from the 


author's own account of it, reaches the same point of demon- 
stration which Tomes reached some ten or fifteen years ago, i.e., he 
(Tomes) demonstrated the existence of projecting processes of 
pulp, which seemed as in this case to have been withdrawn from 
the dentinal tubuli; but he went still further and bj another ex- 
periment proved conclusively that fibres did exist in these tubes. 
Tomes, with the modesty which characterizes scientific observers 
everywhere, did not claim that he had demonstrated by these 
observations the existence of nerve fibrils in the tubuli ; but, 
whilst speaking of the difficulty of accounting for the sensitive- 
ness of dentine, Tomes says: "The recognition of the dentinal 
fibrils will, I think, remove that difficulty and enable the physi- 
ologist to explain why, under certain circumstances, dentine is 
susceptible to pain, while under other conditions the sensitiveness 
is lost. That the dentine owes its sensation to the presence of 
the dentinal fibrils, cannot, I think be doubted." 

Now, if the author of the "Reply," had only demonstrated 
that these projecting fibres were nerve fibres he would have pro- 
gressed as far in his discoveries as Boll had already done, who 
first definitely proved that these pulp processes were, at least 
some of them, really nerve filaments. Boll's description of the 
methods of preparing his specimens and the concurrent testi- 
mony of his confreres suffice to show that he is claiming nothing 
but what his observations justify, and especially is this convic- 
tion strengthened in the minds of his readers, inasmuch as he 
states that he by no means claims that he has yet demonstrated 
the existence of nerve fibrils in the dentinal tubuli, because it is 
still possible that these projecting nerve filaments might not, af- 
ter all, have been withdrawn from the tubuli as they seem to 
have been, intimating that they might have originally deflected, 
at the very opening of the tubuli, laterally upon the surface of the 
pulp, as Dr. Cutler states they Avere deflected when he saw 
them. Boll believes that nerve fibres exist in the dentine, and 
this is the doctrine held by many who are nevertheless very well 
aware that their existence in the tubuli has not yet been abso- 
lutely proved. In view of these extravagant claims set up by 
many American microscopists, both as regards the rights of 


others as discoverers and as to demonstrations, when the facts 
only warrant a claim of probability, it is not strange that these 
so-called discoveries are held by careful and observing men to be 
entirely worthless, and consequently they do not find their way 
into any of the European journals. 

We fervently hope that this incubus upon the respectability of 
the profession in this country will be thrown off, and that a pub- 
lic opinion, which shall have become wiser through an apprecia- 
tion of the fallacies and errors of the past, shall dictate a dental 
literature that shall challenge the respect of the savans of other 
lands; especially as the excellence of American dental opera- 
tive manipulations has won high encomiums from operators 
throughout the civilized world. 

The next article in the Times, is by Dr. Buckingham, upon 
the reduction of scraps and filings to plate. We cannot give all 
that is essential in this article, in a short condensed extract, so 
we will content ourself with a very short extract from the arti- 
cle, but upon a somewhat different subject, which it seems to us 
might be often turned to practical advantage: "Silver wire 
dipped in nitric acid forms nitrate of silver on the surface of the 
wire, and the caustic may be applied, in this way, to the gums, 
to the pulp of a tooth, or into an alveolar abscess, more easily 
than it can from a solid stick of caustic." 

In Dr. Wildman's "Odds and Ends," we find that gummed 
corundum wheels may be restored to their former condition by 
soaking them ten minutes in a very strong solution of caustic 
potash or soda. 

Among the selections in the Times, we find another article ta- 
ken from the Register, by Dr. S. P. Cutler, which is a criticism 
upon an article which appeared in the Missouri Journal in May 
last. The article criticised was written by a student of the Mis- 
souri Dental College, belonging to the class of 1869-70, and en- 
titled, "Are the Mineral Acids Formed in the Mouth." We pre- 
sume we shall hear from the author of the article again upon 
that subject. J. 


From the " Canada Journal of Dental Science." 


By J. A. Troutman, Toronto. 

I first take an impression of the mouth and make a model the 
same as for vulcanite, then take a flask (the same as is used for 
vulcanite) and drill three or four holes through the bottom; fill 
the lower part of the flask partially with sand, a little damp ; put 
some sand on the inside of the model, and press or drive the model 
firmly into the flask, then press the sand around the outside of 
the model, not allowing it to come up any further than the im- 
pression did ; brush around the model, and insert a sharp instru- 
ment through the holes in the bottom of the flask to allow the 
steam to pass out, then lift out the model and replace any sand 
that might be removed by the drawing of the model, then set the 
upper part or ring of the model firmly to its place and pour in 
the metal and allow it to cool. Then remove the ring, take out 
the model, attend to any defects that may arise from pouring the 
metal, set the cast on a bench, model upward, pin a slip of thick 
brown paper around the cast, pour the lead inside of the paper 
(the paper is strong enough to hold the lead without the support 
of sand), remove the paper, and the cast and die are complete. 

By this method the most difficult casts can be made with the 
use of about a handful of sand, and with much less labor than 
by the ordinary method. 

i^Viwn the " Canada Journal of Dental Science.'' 


By W. E. Hughes, L. D. S., Aylmer. 

Thinking that the experiment I have made with this substance 
may be of use to the profession in general, I proceed to give the 


following new use to which it may be put, and, I think, with ad- 
vantage. It is well worth a trial, and will not cost much to try, 
and the way I accidentally stumbled on it was this. I had read 
that borax applied to plaster made it very hard, and one day I 
was using a boiling-hot solution, about half an ounce to a pint of 
water, when I immersed the model therein and immediately with- 
drew, and proceeded as usual to put on the teeth. After vulcan- 
izing the plate in the usual manner, and when the flask was cold, 
I pried it apart and was agreeably surprised at the result. 
Scarcely a particle of the plaster adhered to the plate ; that is, 
on the upper surface. I therefore have arrived at the conclusion 
that this simple process will answer instead of liquid silex, col- 
lodion, tin foil, or any of the setherel solutions sold for the purpose 
of covering the model. The solution should be used boiling hot, 
allowing the model to remain in only two or three seconds. The 
same solution may be used a number of times. It is well worth 
a trial, and, if found as useful as my experiments have proved 
it to my satisfaction, I shall feel glad in knowing that some good 
may rise from the accidentally finding out this simple process. 
Whether or not any particular chemical action takes place, I am 
not prepared to say, or even to give any reason why, for the 
above cause. I leave this to any person to study out who wishes. 
I merely give the facts of the case as I find it. 

From, the New Orleans "Daily Picayune." 


Knapp. — Suddenly, on Wednesday, February 15,1871, Mrs. 

Emily A., wife of Dr. J. S. Knapp, aged 44 years. Dr. B. M. 

Palmer officiated at the funeral ceremony, which took place in 

the afternoon of the day of her death, at the residence of the 



New Orleans, Feb. 15, 187i. 
At a special meeting of the New Orleans Dental Association, 


held this day, at the residence of Dr. J. A. DeHart, the follow- 
ing preamble and resolutions were unanimously adopted. 

Whereas, It has pleased Divine Providence to take from a 
prominent member of our association, his beloved wife, and we 
desire to offer our condolence and sympathy to those who are most 

Be it Resolved, That in the sudden and untiojely death of Mrs- 
Jas. S. Knapp, her husband, children, relatives and friends have 
suffered a deep affliction and an irreparable loss ; 

Resolved, That the many excellent qualities of mind and 
heart exhibited by the deceased, are most worthy of emulation, 
and by her exalted virtues, social and urbane manners had won 
the highest esteem of all who knew her; 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
of this Association, that they be published in the city papers, 
and that a copy of the same be handed to the family of the 
deceased. John G. Angell, D. D. S., Pres. 

A. F. McLain, D. D. S., M. D., Rec. Sec'y. 


The Charleston Dental Association meets 2d Tuesday of each 
month. President, Theodore F. Chupein ; Vice-President, Geo. 
H. Winkler ; Secretary and Treasurer, B. A. Muckenfuss, 

The South Carolina State Dental Association meets in Charles- 
ton, South Carolina, in April, 1871. President, J. B. Patrick ; 
Corresponding Secretary, Theo. T. More ; Recording Secretary, 
0. J. Bond ; Treasurer, Theodore F. Chupein. 

Proxyline. — This new base is now being tested in this city, 
and thus far with favorable results. We hope to give our readers 
a report of some cases in our next issue. Any one wishing to try 
it can obtain personal or printed instructions, and the necessary 
apparatus and material by application in person, or by letter to 
W. H. Morgan, Missouri Dental College Infirmary. 



Vol. III.] MARCH, 1871. [No. 3. 


Valedictory Address, Deliyered at the First Commencement of the Missouri 

Dental College, by H. Judd, M. D., Professor of the Institutes of 

Dental Science, February 22, 1867. 

History has dealt kindly by the arts and sciences by throw- 
ing around their infancy a veil of mystery. It has taken from 
the hand of fable and tradition a few scattered elements of fancy 
and woven them into semblances of august, pleasing or imposing 
realities, ^sculapius, represented as the fountain head of med- 
ical science, presents to the mind of the inquirer, an object 
august and full of interest. The myths that have been appro- 
priated by the legal historian, which describe the origin and 
growth of legal codes when individuals first formed themselves 
into clans, and these spread into tribes, and widened into na- 
tions, were sufficiently probable to accomplish the designs of the 
historic writer by clothing these earliest records with the pleas- 
ing garments of simplicity. The historian, so far as theological 
science is concerned, has no need of mythical personifications to 
gild the cradle of its infancy, for revelation has appropriated to 
itself the task of illuminating these prehistoric mysteries, and 
ushers in its origin with the most imposing solemnities. Those 
who pride themselves upon the antiquity of the art or science to 
which they have dedicated their lives are apt to deceive them- 
selves with the idea that to be antique is to be ennobled, and that 


antiquity and nobility are synonymous terms; but it is highly 
probable that a correct history of the origin of medical, legal or 
theological investigations would disabuse their minds of so flat- 
tering an illusion. The great truths of science have, as a gen- 
eral thing, not come down to us from these dark periods in the 
world's history. Its broad foundations were not laid in a single 
day, and a structure reared thereon sufficiently imposing to im- 
mortalize its founders and ennoble all of its succeeding votaries ; 
but the profound darkness of the olden time has been broken in 
upon and dispersed little by little, a single ray of light first forc- 
ing its way through the surrounding gloom, and thus making 
way for another, and another, until these truths of science have 
become manifest through the struggling energies of ages. For- 
tunately for professional men, the respectability of an art or 
science at this age of the world does not rest upon the mythic 
glories of its earlier days ; for were this the case, a few rays 
of light thrown upon these dark pages of their history might yet 
drag them from their honored pedestals, and place them side by 
side with arts and callings, which though now less esteemed, can 
boast of as high an antiquity and a no more plebeian origin than 
their own. Surgery was for a long time considered as belonging 
to the province of the general practitioner of medicine, and many 
surgical operations of great importance are recorded that were 
performed by the distinguished physicians of the Hippocratic 
and Galenic eras. This condition of things was not disturbed 
until about the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the 
practice of physic fell for the most part into the hands of the 
ecclesiastics of the Roman Church, who were forbidden by the 
canons of their church to draw blood. To pursue the practice 
of surgery, and at the same time to conform to their canonical 
laws being impossible, the practice was almost entirely abandoned 
by the only class of men who were in any degree fitted for the 
performance of surgical operations. At this time and before 
this period, the barbers had occasionally performed minor surg- 
ical operations, and being the only class who made any preten- 
sions to surgical knowledge, they easily appropriated to them- 
selves nearly the entire surgical practice, so that barber and 


surgeon soon became synonymous terms, and finally the title of 
barber-surgeon was appropriated by this illiterate, mongrel pro- 
fession. The position which these surgical practitioners occupied 
in society at this time may be inferred from the fact, that it was 
unlawful for any artisan to take a young man as an apprentice 
without his first making oath that he belonged to a respectable 
family, and particularly to one in which there were neither bar- 
bers, bath keepers, nor butchers. During the thirteenth century 
a few of the clerical practitioners ventured to perform some surg- 
ical operations, and the number gradually increased in the four- 
teenth century in spite of the prohibitions of their canonical 
laws ; but these practitioners were discountenanced by the great 
body of the profession, who had by this time learned to look 
down upon the practice of surgery, regarding it as an ignoble 
art. These ecclesiastical surgeons, therefore, occupied at this 
time an intermediate position, between the barber-surgeons on the 
one hand, and the medical fraternity on the other. They refused 
to be associated with the former, and were not recognized as 
honorable practitioners by the latter, and in consequence, were 
excluded from the honors and emoluments that were extended to 
the medical profession. A few of this class finally formed a col- 
legiate association among themselves, at St. Come, in France, 
for the purpose of facilitating the study of surgery, and after 
many struggles and vicissitudes, with the barber-surgeons on the 
one hand, and the medical fraternity on the other, they were 
finally allowed the privilege of entering themselves as scholars 
in the University of Medicine, in France, and were acknowledged 
from that time as members of the medical profession. This oc- 
curred about the beginning of the sixteenth century, and up to 
this time the history of general surgery was the history of dent- 
istry ; for although the dim records of an antiquity coeval with 
the youth of Memphis and the maturity of Thebes, hint at special 
physicians for the teeth, and the poets who sung whilst Troy 
was battling with the Grecian hosts speak of artificial dental 
substitutes, still, nothing has come down to us in these mythic 
records sufficiently definite to warrant the belief, that the study of 
dentistry had ever been pursued apart from the study of general 


surgery. Early in the sixteenth century, Ambrose Pare wrote 
his celebrated treatise upon the teeth, which had the effect of 
directing the attention of medical men to these important organs. 
But few advances were made, however, in this direction until the 
seventeenth century, when dentistry began to assume the pro- 
portions and characteristics of a separate branch of medical 
science. During this century appeared the celebrated treatises 
of Bichat and John Hunter, who seemed to fully appreciate 
the sympathies and connections of the teeth with the entire frame- 
work of man. During the eighteenth century, the operative and 
mechanical departments were steadily improving, but it remained 
for the active and energetic workers of the present century to 
collect and arrange the facts that had been brought out by indi- 
vidual enterprise in such manner as to form a connected system. 
At this time, theorists, operators, and experimenters arose in 
quick succession, among whom, as yet, the French led the way 
in advance of all competitors. But the English soon entered 
the arena and carried on a spirited contest for the supremacy. 
The first dentist upon this continent was probably LeMair, who 
came over from France, and shortly afterwards Whitlock arrived 
from England ; the one commencing practice in New York, the 
other in Philadelphia, during the last quarter of the eighteenth 

John Greenwood was the first native American dentist who 
commenced practicing in New York, in 1788. The numbers of 
the profession increased rapidly in this country, and in 1839 was 
issued the first number of the American Journal and Library of 
Dental Science, which being conducted with energy and ability, 
seemed to rouse into action the energies of the whole dental fra- 
ternity ; and a necessary consequence of this activity in the mem- 
bers of the profession was the formation of the design of a dental 
college, where the student of dentistry might command all the 
advantages whilst fitting himself for the practice of his spe- 
cialty that the surgeon or the general practitioner enjoyed in the 
colleges of medicine or surgery. The conception of the design 
was followed in 1840 by the execution of it, and under a charter 
of the State of Maryland, the Baltimore College of Dental Sur- 


gery was brought into existence, and took its stand among the 
literary and scientific institutions of the land, as the first regu- 
larly organized dental college the world had ever known. Den- 
tists will ever look back with interest upon this eventful epoch, 
in which dental art burst its chrysalid form and stood revealed a 
living science. It was not born surrounded by the mysticism, the 
superstition, and the darkness of the world's early history, but 
came into existence in the fullness of the mid-day light of the 
nineteenth century. Untrammeled by the weight of hoary theo- 
ries, and unfettered by the prejudices engendered by acrimo- 
nious disputations, it was fitted to appropriate to its own use 
whatever of art or science it found ready developed to minister 
to its necessities, and without stopping to mingle with the dis- 
putants of opposing dogmas, set itself vigorously to work in the 
direction of scientific progress. 

Other colleges of dentistry have been instituted. Associa- 
tions of dentists have been formed for mutual improvement, 
both in the old and new world, and some of the most interesting 
histological and physiological questions of modern times have 
been cleared up by the labors of dental investigators. If Clop- 
ton Havers has succeeded in engraving his name upon every 
vascular canal in the osseous structures of the animal creation, 
by writing a description of the Haversian systems, Tomes is 
entitled to as undying a distinction for his successful investiga- 
tions upon the dentinal tubuli, establishing their tubularity, mak- 
ing out their contents, and demonstrating their physiological 
actions and their pathological anatomy. It is not to the inves- 
tigation of the teeth alone that Tomes has devoted his attention, 
but as a writer upon general histology he stands to-day second 
to no living man, as the constant reference to his works by other 
writers on histology abundantly demonstrates. That there may 
be a still more rapid advancement in scientific attainments in 
the profession, arises the necessity for a more extended course 
of dental studies, and a more intimate knowledge of the funda- 
mental principles of medicine, that all the sympathies, and phys- 
iological and pathological connections of the difi'erent organs of 
this wondrous work of nature may be fully appreciated and 


understood. The attention can scarcely dwell for a moment 
upon this proposition without the grand truth forcing itself upon 
the mind, that to be able to treat successfully and safely the 
various pathological conditions of the teeth and oral cavity, 
requires the same amount of general knowledge of medicine that 
is necessary for the success of the oculist, the aurist, the sur- 
geon, or the practitioner of general medicine. There is no 
necessity for argument to prove this proposition, for the common 
sense of any intelligent community can not fail to perceive its 
axiomatic character as soon as the proposition is fairly and fully 
stated. In view of these facts, the practitioners of the West 
conceived the idea of establishing an institution of learning for 
dental students, where the fundamental principles of medical 
science should be recognized to the fullest extent, as the only 
proper foundation for a knowledge of scientific dentistry. As 
anatomy, physiology, materia medica, and chemistry were justly 
considered as the proper foundation of medicine, it only remained 
to determine the best method of enabling students to attain a 
knowledge of these branches, as well as to provide a thorough 
course of instruction in all the practical details of the art. 
If it should be conceded that a knowledge of Latin or Greek 
were one of the requisites of a respectable medical education, no 
one would suppose it to be necessary to establish a chair of 
languages in every medical institution ; because our numerous 
literary institutions present every advantage that could be 
desired to those students who wish to make themselves masters 
of these languages ; and such institutions would undoubtedly 
be the proper place to attain this part of their education. 

If we should concede, again, that a knowledge of English 
grammar were desirable for the student of medicine, or if it were 
deemed necessary to discipline the mind by a course of instruc- 
tion in geometry or mental philosophy, it would scarcely be 
thought necessary to establish separate chairs in all our med- 
ical colleges to teach these branches, however important it might 
be that this knowledge should form a part of the education of 
medical men. Our common schools, seminaries, and literary 
colleges present all the advantages that experience, learning, 


and devotion to the cause have been able to devise for imparting 
a knowledge of these branches, and such are undoubtedly the 
proper institutions to impart this instruction. If, then, it be 
necessary for dental students to acquire a knowledge of the 
fundamental principles of medicine, it is manifestly proper that 
they should receive this necessary instruction in those honored 
seats of learning where these studies have been taught for cen- 
turies, and which it is universally admitted afford greater facili- 
ties for this kind of instruction than can be elsewhere enjoyed. 
The proper place for instruction in a medical college to com- 
mence, is where the course necessarily diverges from that pursued 
in acquiring a general literary education, and the proper place 
for the special functions of the dental instructor to begin, is 
when the specialty diverges from the course of general medicine, 
and enters upon the theoretical and practical details of the 
science. To take upon itself more than this, would subject the 
institution to the same burdens that a medical college would be 
subjected to if it should attempt to take upon itself the task of 
teaching every branch of learning that was essential or useful to 
the well-informed medical practitioner. The experience of the 
few dental colleges which have existed for any considerable 
length of time, fully sustains, in my judgment, the foregoing 
theory., By attempting to teach those branches that can be 
much better taught in the medical colleges of the country, they 
have laid a burden upon themselves which nothing but the 
indomitable energy and perseverance of individual enterprise 
has enabled them to sustain, and the fact, that is everywhere 
patent, that their students have not as a general thing, been as 
proficient in these medical branches as the students of medicine 
who have spent the same time upon these studies in medical col- 
leges, furnishes but poor encouragement for persisting in a mode 
of instruction that has to a great extent failed to accomplish the 
desired results. Recognizing these facts, and being aware of the 
defects that had hitherto attached to dental teaching, the 
founders of the Missouri Dental College determined that this 
opprobrium cTiirurgioe dentium should no longer have cause to 
exist. This has been effectually accomplished, so far as the 


organization of this institution is concerned, by an arrangement 
effected with the St. Louis Medical College, through which the 
medical and dental student pursues these common branches side 
by side, the same advantages being extended to the one as to the 
other, and the same proficiency required of the one as of the 
other, that they may be entitled to the honors of their respective 
institutions. Taking into consideration the history of the dental 
art, the obstacles that it has overcome, and the disadvantages 
under which it has labored, it has accomplished much more in 
the way of progress than could have been reasonably expected 
in so short a time. In the brief period since it first sprung into 
existence as a distinct branch of medicine, six dental colleges 
have already been established in the United States, whilst no 
other medical specialty can boast of a single institution of learn- 
ing dedicated to its own use, and supported and fostered by the 
enterprise, energy, and progressive spirit of its own members. 
If the infancy of dentistry was somewhat clouded by ignorance, 
its youth has already done much to dispel the darkness that 
brooded over it, and all the energies of the profession are to- 
day directed to the accomplishment of the grand desideratum 
of placing it, so far as intelligence, literary acquirements, and 
scientific attainments are concerned, upon an equality with the 
other learned professions of the land. To the accomplishment 
of this end other influences are at work, which are no less potent 
than the determination, devotion, and energy of the members of 
the profession themselves, and chief among these is the impera- 
tive demand which is constantly being made by educated, en- 
lightened and refined communities for the greatest possible 
degree of excellence in dental operations. Persons in every 
grade of society desire immunity from pain and suffering, and 
in the most common and painful of all the maladies that afflict 
mankind they all look to the dentist for relief. The lower classes 
have, as a general thing, been willing to sacrifice the offending 
members for the sake of present ease, though their whole after 
lives were subjected to inconvenience for the loss. The more 
intelligent part of the community have submitted to these losses 
of important organs with greater reluctance, which was increased 


by theii' appreciation of the inconveniences thereby entailed 
upon them for life, and the danger incurred by the deleterious 
influences exerted thereby upon the general health, and perhaps 
still more influenced by the sad reflection that one of the organs 
that had hitherto formed a part of themselves, and had to this 
time performed the function assigned it by the Great Designer, 
had been lost to them forever. All improvements in dental 
practice, which have looked to a more extended conservatism of 
dental organs, are being more and more appreciated, and the 
immense advance made by the profession in the last few years 
towards a universal conservation has already been the source of 
many blessings, and is destined hereafter to exert no feeble influ- 
ence in promoting and preserving the general health of com- 
munities, and thereby contributing to the general weal of man. 
But these strictly utilitarian considerations are not the only ones 
that are brought to bear to stimulate to new exertions in this 
direction. The human face is an index of marvelous accuracy, 
which marks upon its surface various phases of thought and 
feeling, and is lighted up or clouded by every sensational emotion. 
Physical changes, in the way principally of muscular contrac- 
tions, engendered by these emotional causes, give rise to an 
ever-changing variety of facial expression, and in these expres- 
sions exist, to a very great extent, those mystic influences which, 
though they can not be described in words, we are all constrained 
to f..el. Here rests the source of a wondrous power; a power 
that has lighted up wars and dictated terms of peace; a power 
that has controlled emperors and led captive, kings; a power that 
has overturned states and annihilated empires. These perfect 
models of the " Great Artist " are unfortunately liable to the 
ravages of disease, and if abandoned to its destructive power, 
one after another of their attractive features disappears, and 
what was once an object of loveliness and admiration, is trans- 
formed and deformed, until only a wreck remains, bereft of its 
regal power, and despoiled of its queenly beauty. 

These destructive changes are to a great extent due to diseases 
of the organs of the oral cavity, and a thousand hands are out- 
stretched and a thousand voices raised, calling upon the dental 


profession to preserve these priceless forms and features from 
the ravages of such remorseless maladies. Can there be more 
powerful incentives to energetic and continued effort directed 
to improvement in dental practice? From these considerations, 
it will not be difficult to divine the future of the dental art. 
The demands of its patrons will be fully met. Whatever 
science and art combined can do, will be done, and the impor- 
tance and usefulness of the profession will be universally 

To you, gentlemen, as alumni of the Missouri Dental Col- 
lege, we look with confidence for noble efforts in this behalf, 
and from our knowledge of your devotion to the cause of 
science, your untiring energy and perseverance, and your pro- 
ficiency in all the acquirements that go to make up the dental 
investigator and practitioner, we feel that our confidence has 
not been misplaced. 

♦ « ■ « » 

Frcfm the London "Microscopical Journal." 


Abstract of a Paper read at a Meeting of the Quekett Club, on the 23d of Sep- 
tember, 1870. By Benjamin T. Lowne, M. R. C. S. Eng., &c. 

When I announced a month ago that I would read you a paper 
on "Spontaneous Generation," I had no idea that one of the 
greatest living naturalists was going to give a most able resume 
on the subject, or perhaps I should have hesitated in coming 
before you. Nevertheless I feel it is a matter for congratula- 
tion that I did so, as many unanswered questions have arisen 
since Professor Huxley delivered his able address at Liverpool. 

Two hundred and two years ago Francesco Redi successfully 
combated the then prevalent doctrine of spontaneous generation 
by the most simple, nay, almost childlike experiments, such as 
putting meat under fine guaze, and so showing that maggots are 


not spontaneously generated. Since that day tbe tendency of 
experiments has certainly been in favor of Redi's aphorism, 
"Omne vivum e vivo." 

The question, however, all turns upon that little word omne, 
all : whether all livinii; thinjrs oritj-inate from sei'Qis, or whether 
some may originate spontaneously from not living matter. 

Now, there can be no doubt but that there was a first cell in 
a first organism which had no progenitor. Professor Huxley 
said last week, that although he could not believe anything in the 
absence of evidence upon the subject, that " expectation is per- 
missible where belief is not;" and that if it were given him "to 
look beyond the abyss of geologically recorded time to the still 
more remote period when the earth was passing through phys- 
ical and chemical conditions, which it can no more see again 
than a man can recall his infancy ; he " should expect to be a 
witness of the evolution of living protoplasm from not living 

To show you that I am not biassed in this matter, and that I 
am no partisan, I tell you I go farther in my expectation than 
Professor Huxley, and I think that if we could produce the con- 
ditions, we might see amoebiform protoplasm originating even yet 
from inorganic matter. Perhaps, as Dr. Bastian suggests, col- 
loid may be interme:liate between inorganic and organic living 
material, but I tell you, gentlemen, this is all expectation, and 
should not be belief, as we have not at present a tittle of evidence 
in its favor. No doubt, with Mr. Charles Darwin's hypothesis, 
the origin of living organic matter from inorganic matter would 
supply a gap in the evolution of the animal kingdom, but we must 
not on that account found a scientific belief. 

Now, gentlemen, I shall very carefully sift the supposed evi- 
dence in favor of spontaneous generation ; I shall divide this evi- 
dence into that which is purely microscopic and that which is 
dependent on experiment. 

First, with regard to the microscopic evidence, it consists in 
the assertion that some observers have seen organic living cells 
and fungus spores built up by the aggregation of minute gran- 
ules. Now, there is very strong evidence on the other hand 


that this does not happen ; the organisms described as fungus 
spores are in some cases not fungus spores at all, and in other 
cases they have been observed with a hilum or point at which 
they were attached to a parent. Surely, gentlemen, we cannot 
believe this point of attachment was the character of a spore 
formed de novo. 

On the other hand, I should be sorry to deny, with my pres- 
ent knowledge, that it is possible organism of a simpler kind, 
such as unicellular organisms, may be built up in this way. If 
such a mode of evolution does take place, I still believe it is from 
pre-exisfing germs ; such gemmules, for instance, as Mr. Darwin 
believes in, in his beautiful provisional hypothesis of pangenesis. 
I believe, if it can be proved that organisms can be produced 
by aggregation, it will be found that this only takes place when 
pre-existing cells have given up their contents in the fluid experi- 
mented on. 

With regard to the experimental evidence, it has been arrived 
at from two classes of experiments. 

The first aims at the production of known organic forms from 
solution of animal or vegetable matter, the second aims at the 
production of new and unknown forms under new conditions in 
saline solutions. 

I shall consider these two sets of experiments separately. 

In the first, or simplest set of experiments, the most contra- 
dictory evidence has been arrived at by dift'erent observers. 
The whole, to my mind, may, however, be summed up in the 

If we receive the usually accepted belief that the boiling tem- 
perature destroys germs, we must accept spontaneous generation 
as a fact. If, on the other hand, we believe that germs are not 
killed in this manner, these experiments only show that if the 
greatest possible care is used, germs may not be admitted and a 
negative result may be arrived at, and yet that germs may find 
their way into the flasks of the most careful experimenter, and 
may afterwards germinate. 

Now, gentlemen, I have instituted a series of the most careful 
experiments, which have shown conclusively to my mind that 
germs are not destroyed by the boiling temperature. 


I took a neutral solution of acetate of ammonia and put into 
it a number of spores of the little mould known as Penicillium 
glaueum, and boiled them well. I then enclosed some of the 
boiled fluid and germs in capillary glass tubes, like those used 
for preserving vaccine lymph. I then carefully examined the 
tubes by scrutinizing them with the microscope for an hour each, 
and not a spore had germinated, not a mycelial filament existed 
in the tubes. I then put the tubes into a warm place by the 
stove, and in twenty-four hours numerous mycelial filaments of 
considerable length had protruded from many of the spores. 
Now, gentlemen, I should think the most hardy advocate of 
spontaneous generation would hardly assert that these spores 
had originated de novo, and germinated in a single night and 

To make the experiment more complete, I enclosed in another 
tube some spores which had not been boiled, and I found about 
the same number had germinated in this tube as in those contain- 
ing the boiled spores. 

I have tried another set of experiments of a similar kind. I 
boiled a vegetable infusion containing a quantity of the bead- 
like growing mycelium of some fungus, probably a state of Pen- 
icillium, and mounted a few portions in a cell for the microscope. 
I then carefully examined and drew these portions, and watched 
them from hour to hour, and saw new cells formed and new 
buds put out. I have done this again and again with the same 

I have further found that this process is arrested in sealed 
tubes after a few hours ; I cannot tell why, but I strongly sus- 
pect from the absence of dissolved air in the fluids : Mr. Cooke 
has suggested it may possibly be from absence of dissolved ni- 
trogen. I strongly suspect it is from this fact that we are able 
to preserve meats, etc., in vacuo. 

Of this at least there can be no doubt, both the growing myce- 
lium and the spores of the common blue mould, Penicillium 
glaueum, will grow after boiling, and it is nevertheless possible 
to preserve meat, &c., on a large scale, by enclosing it in vacuo 
after boiling it. 


I may here remark that Dr. Bastian's eighth experiment, in 
which he found that an infusion of turnip decomposed more rap- 
idly when enclosed in vacuo than a similar solution enclosed in 
a flask containing air, is simply incomprehensible, and is a con- 
tradiction to the well known process of preserving meats, vege- 
tables, fish, &c. 

I think, gentlemen, very few will believe we are justified, 
without evidence, in believing a temperature somewhat higher 
will kill these spores if boiling does not. I therefore look upon 
it that if a few observers will repeat my very simple experi- 
ments, no evidence will be afforded by such experiments as those 
I have included under this first division in favor of generation de 

The second series of experiments which aim at the production 
of new and unknown organisms, afford a wider field for specula- 
tion. I must confess, however, that in every case which I have 
seen, these so-called new organisms have appeared to me un- 
doubtedly foreign bodies, which have accidentally gained access 
to the solutions. 

The most regent experiments of this kind were carried out by 
Dr. Bastian, and their results have been published in 'Nature.' 
In these experiments a solution of sodic-phosphate and ammoniac 
carbonate was enclosed in vacuo whilst boiling, and certain spiral 
fibres and portions of a fungus, like penicillium in fruit, were 
found after a time in the solutions. 

With a view to discover whether the spore-bearing portions of 
Penicillium would stand boiling, I tried the unripe spore-bear- 
ing filaments, and found that they were not altered in their ap- 
pearance by such treatment. The ripe spores are, however, 
immediately scattered by contact with fluid. Now I can readily 
understand why these fungi were not discovered until after a 
long lapse of time : I find solutions of sodic-phosphate throw 
down a flocculent precipitate after a time, and in those specimens 
which Dr. Bastian was courteous enough to show me, I observed 
that the object was surrounded by just such a precipitate, which 
he called correctly enough granular matter. I suspect the col- 
lection of such a flocculus around the fungus drew his attention 
.to the spot where the minute mass of fungus was. 


Another reason for not believing that the fruit-bearing stems 
of Penicillium, which Dr. Bastian figures, "were formed in the 
solutions, is that these fungi never fructify in fluid. My friend, 
Mr. M. C. Cooke, tells me that he never heard of any fungi, 
except such as are parasites on insects, fructifying in fluid, or 
so long as a plentiful supply of fluid is present. As he very 
forcibly put it, take the vinegar plant as an example ; so long 
as there is plenty of fluid, it never produces fruit ; but take it out 
of the fluid and its surface will soon be covered with blue mould. 
With regard to the so-called spiral fibre organisms of Dr. Bastian, 
they have puzzled me very much. I never, however, believed 
but that they were some very common accidental material which 
had found its way into his solutions. 

I observed that he only found these " organisms" in solutions 
containing sodic phosphate. I have tested and had tested for 
me three samples of crystals of this salt, and in all free soda 
was present. I have since tried the action of very dilute solu- 
tions of caustic alkali on various kinds of organic fibre, and have 
found wool fibres, minute particles of feathers, and some kinds 
of spiders' thread twist into spirals under its influence. Now, 
the spirals produced from spider's silk correspond most closely 
with Dr. Bastian's spiral fibre. In my own mind I have no doubt 
the specimen he kindly showed me was spider's silk. 

At any rate, gentlemen, I do not think in the face of this we 
ought to conclude that we have discovered spontaneous evolution 
from the appearance of spirals in an alkaline solution. 

I apprehend then, sir, from what I have said, if my experi- 
ments are confirmed, which can easily be done, that at present, 
let our "philosophic faith be what it may," we have no evidence 
whatever of spontaneous evolution. 

A discussion followed entirely in favor of Mr. Lowne's views 
on the insufficiency or absence of any evidence in favor of spon- 
taneous generation, in which the President, Mr. M. C. Cooke, 
and others took part. The President, having left the chair for 
the purpose, also spoke at some length upon the subject, demon- 
strating with great clearness several important errors into which 


Dr. Bastian must have fallen, and disposing in a masterly man- 
ner of a number of arguments advanced and relied upon by the 
advocates of spontaneous generation. The results of some experi- 
ments by Dr. Child, which were made at the laboratory of the 
University of Oxford during the previous week, in repetition of 
those of Dr. Bastian, were communicated to the meeting, and 
the question was declared to resolve itself merely into one of the 
exclusion of germs. A number of other points of great inter- 
est, as bearing upon the general subject, were touched upon by 
the speaker, who was listened to throughout with the greatest 
attention, and resumed his seat amidst great applause. 

From " Tlie Pharmacist." 


Ry Prof. A. W. Williamson, I''. R S. — Before the Society of Arts. — Reprinted 
from the Pharmaceutical Journal, London. 

Lecture I. 

I have sometimes wished, when building castles in the air, that 
I could, after a few hundred years, come back and see the state 
of science at that time. I am convinced that those who will look 
back, from such a period as a few hundred years hence, at the 
present state of our knowledge of nature, in any one department, 
will be surprised at its smallness ; in fact, even now, when we 
work at all earnestly at any one part of the field of nature, we 
cannot refrain from feeling how little is our knowledge compared 
with our ignorance. But, if that is generally the case, I think it 
is peculiarly the case in those studies in which life is concerned ; 
and the phenomena of fermentation have that peculiarity that 
they consist of processes in which vital organisms are concerned, 
and in which there is every reason to believe that vital organ- 
isms, or living beings, take an active and leading part. I need 


not say that, for that reason, the explanations which we have, 
even of the simplest and best known of the phenomena of fer- 
mentation, are, as yet, mere sketches of the reality. It is how- 
ever, not the less useful or the less important to know them for 
that reason. 

When we chemists are classifying substances, we adopt a prin- 
ciple of classification which I think is almost inevitable, but it may 
be as well that I should mention what it is. We put the simple 
things together, and the complex or difiicult things together, 
and then we try to put between them, in as regular an order 
as possible, the intermediate links of the chain by which they 
can be connected ; and I believe that our best — I might almost 
say our only — explanations consist in thus arranging, in a nat- 
ural order, the facts which we have to consider, and then, view- 
ing them, and stating what we see, in the clearest and least am- 
biguous terms. Now, the term "organic," as applied to a certain 
class of chemical substances, might be replaced — and I think, 
for some purposes, ought to be replaced — by the term "com- 
plex." The substances which we are in the habit of including 
under the term organic are peculiarly complex ; in fact, they are 
the most complex with which we have to do. The phenomena 
of fermentation relate mainly to them, and consist principally of 
a process of change, — the breaking up of those organic bodies 
into rather less complex substances than themselves, — a process 
of partial analysis. Of course, when I say that, I give what I 
conceive to be a characteristic idea of the general method, and I 
must not be supposed to assert that all processes of fermentation 
are analytical. 

Amongst the characteristics which, I think, are particularly 
useful and interesting, as serving to distinguish organic from in- 
organic, complex from simple substances, is their diflFerent be- 
havior under heat. I have found it exceedingly interesting and 
instructive to bear in mind the fact that while simple and inor- 
ganic compounds, as we generally call them, are sometimes de- 
stroyed and resolved into other compounds by the action of a 
high temperature, yet many of them are not. Amongst inor- 
ganic substances we find some which are broken up or changed 


by exposure to a high temperature, but there are others which 
can stand even the highest temperature without undergoing any 
permanent change, that is to say, they return, on cooling, to the 
same state in which they were before the heat was applied. With 
organic substances that is not the case. All organic bodies are 
broken up into minute particles, and assume new arrangements, 
when they are heated to a sufficiently high temperature ; and 
that is, I think, a distinction which is of considerable theoretical 
as well as perhaps of some practical importance. 

The processes of breaking up which are effected by heat upon 
organic bodies are, in the very great majority of cases, different 
from those which are effected by the action of these wonderful 
little organisms, the ferments; audit is a peculiarity of the action 
of the ferments that they effect the breaking up — the analysis — 
of complex organic substances, and form products which, for the 
most part, we have obtained from those materials by no other 

Amongst the processes of fermentation, there is one which, 
from its pre-eminent importance, and from the fact that we have 
had occasion to study it more fully than any other, ought to be 
first mentioned. I allude to the process of fermentation by 
which alcohol is formed artificially. I may say, indeed, it is the 
only process by which alcohol is ever made. It is a process 
which consists in breaking up some kind of sugar, for sugar is a 
word which, although popularly restricted to one particular sub- 
stance, which is extracted sometimes from sugar-cane and some- 
times from beet-root, is used by chemists in a more general sense, 
serving to characterize a family of bodies which have much in 
common with one another, being for the most part all of them 
sweet, and containing the same elements, but in slightly different 
proportions. They all possess many properties which are of 
some importance. These different kinds of sugar are broken up 
by the action of ferment into alcohol, and also into another pro- 
duct, carbonic acid gas, which has been long known, and for a 
long time the process of alcoholic fermentation was supposed to 
consist simply in a separation of sugar into these two products, 
alcohol on the one hand and carbonic acid on the other. A more 


careful examination of the products has shown, however, that 
these two never appear alone. I believe I may safelj say, from 
the researches of Pasteur and others, that no case of the forma- 
tion of alcohol by fermentation has been known to occur in which 
several other products have not been formed simultaneously with 
these two. With regard to the difference of properties of these 
two bodies, there are one or two points of some little interest, es- 
pecially this one, that whereas alcohol is an eminently com- 
bustible substance, and is well known to have properties of that 
kind, being frequently used as fuel, on the other hand, carbonic 
acid; the other chief product, is completely burnt ; it is a substance 
incapable of undergoing any chemical change whatever analogous 
to combustion. Alcohol is a substance which I need not show 
you, although in its pure state it is not very common ; but I will, 
in order to remind those of you who may be less familiar with its 
properties, make a little carbonic acid by a short process. I will 
put a little muriatic acid upon some white marble, and the ap- 
parent ebullition which you see take place is known to you all as 
due to the liberation of carbonic acid. You might imagine the 
thing to be fermenting, only that the process in that case would 
be less rapid. Now, if I plunge this little burning paper gradually 
into the jar containing the carbonic acid, it will burn more and 
more faintly, and get extinguished when it enters the gas ; it is 
totally impossible to set fire to the gas. And there is one other 
fact we may notice at the same time — the great specific gravity 
which characterizes this gas. I will show you that, in this way. 
I will go through the motion of pouring from this jar containing 
it into another smaller jar, and no doubt the heavy carbonic acid 
will pass from the jar in which I first collected it into the lower 
one, where we shall find it by means of the taper as before. You 
see that, on lowering the lighted taper into this small jar it is ex- 
tinguished as it was before. I will show you the test by which 
we usually discover the presence of carbonic acid. I have here 
some water containing lime in solution, — some lime-water, — and 
I wil. pour it into the large beaker-glass, in which there is prob- 
ably still some carbonic acid left. You see the solution imme- 
diately becomes turbid, or, as we express it, a precipitate is 


formed by the combination of the carbonic acid with the lime- 
water. A compound is formed, which is nearly insoluble in the 
water, called carbonate, which goes down as a precipitate. 

In addition to alcohol and carbonic acid, I ought to mention 
another kind of alcohol, which occurs to a considerable extent 
in some distilleries where raw grain or potato-starch is used. 
This substance imparts to the product a very unpleasant odor, 
and some unwholesome qualities. It is known by the name of 
fusel oil. It does not mix with water, and if I were to pour 
some of it on water it would float, without dissolving to any con- 
siderable extent. There are some other products which are even 
more interesting and important ; two especially I ought to 
mention. One is the clear substance which you see in this 
bottle, and which you might imagine to be oil ; it is a fluid largely 
made now, and known by the name of glycerine, but in chemical 
language I should say it was an alcohol. It is a substance which, 
by tasting, you might mistake for sugar, for it possesses a sweet 
taste, resembling sugar, but, to chemists, it is a kind of alcohol, 
and its appearance during fermentation, together with ordinary 
alcohol, is no doubt due to a process of the normal kind. 

Another product which I might compare to the carbonic acid 
which I just now showed you, is this beautiful crystalline acid 
substance, which has been long known by the name of succinic 
acid. It got that name from the fact that it was originally pre- 
pared from amber. By subjecting the amber to dry distillation, 
succinic acid, among other products, is formed. Glycerine and 
succinic acid, as well as common alcohol and carbonic acid, are 
always formed when any kind of sugar is made to decompose by 
the process which is termed alcoholic fermentation ; and it is 
seldom that there are not other — and probably, in smaller quan- 
tities, several other — products formed besides those four. In 
fact, the difterent kinds of spirit which are obtained by the pro- 
cess of fermentation and subsequent distillation, — I mean those 
kinds of spirit to which no artificial flavoring material is added 
(gin is a general name given to certain spirits which are flavored 
by artificial means), such as brandy, rum, and others, — owe 
their distinctive peculiarities to the presence of small quantities 


of volatile substances which are formed during the process of fer- 
mentation, regarding which a good deal has been observed, and 
several important facts have been collected. 

There is another process of fermentation which I must men- 
tion, for it is important from its frequent occurrence, and that is 
a process by which another kind of sugar usually, but sometimes 
common sugar, is transformed. The substance which most nat- 
urally undergoes this fermentation is milk-sugar. These hard 
lumps in this bottle, which, if you were to take out and taste, 
you would not imagine to be sugar, are made by the crystalliza- 
tion of the solid substance in whey. The whey is evaporated 
carefully to a small bulk, and this substance which results is 
known by the name of milk-sugar. When a solution of this is 
mixed with cheese, which is the best ferment for the purpose, it 
gradually turns acid. I dare say it is known to all of you that 
milk itself which contains this body, and cheese, or rather cas- 
eine, dissolved with it, together with the fatty globules of milk, 
when exposed to air, turns acid. That acidity is due to a change 
which takes place in the sugar. The sugar disappears gradu- 
ally, and is transformed into an acid substance of which I have 
a little bottle here. It is a strong acid, and here in another 
bottle are a few of its salts, — a lime salt and a zinc salt, which is 
a very beautiful and characteristic compound. I shall have oc- 
casion hereafter to show you a large bottle which is now at work, 
in which I dissolved, not this peculiar kind of sugar, but the or- 
dinary sugar. I put with it a quantity of calcic carbonate, 
and some old, lean cheese, with a considerable quantity of water. 
The mixture was kept at a temperature above blood heat for 
some considerable time, and a compound of lactic acid is being 
formed. That is a process analogous in its general features to 
the fermentation which forms alcohol, but it is a change of sugar 
in which no alcohol is formed. Sometimes there is a trace of 
alcohol, but there is not necessarily any, and no carbonic acid is 
formed ; but instead of these products, the elements of the sugar 
break up into different groups, and arrange themselves in another 
manner. That is really the nature of the process, as far as our 
most careful experiments have gone, and the acid which we make 


in that way, Avhich is lactic acid, or acid of milk, is really sugar 
of which the elements are arranged in a different way, so as to 
acquire acid propei'ties. 

The third process, which I must mention from its remarkable 
products, is one which, perhaps, in some respects, ought rather 
to be compared with putrefaction, for it is a process which has 
many of the most important characteristics of putrefaction. In 
order to deal with the question of fermentation generally, it is 
necessary to allude to some varieties of such chemical changes 
which are usually classed under the term putrefaction. As a 
general rule, I think the characteristic of processes of putrefaction 
is mainly the unpleasant nature of the products which are formed. 
It is not long since a distinguished chemist, in speaking of alco- 
holic fermentation, said it is really a putrefactive process; and in 
its intimate nature it is, as far as we know, a process much like 
the truly putrefactive processes, and different from the processes 
of eremacausis or oxidation. This other process to which I al- 
lude consists of forming the acid substance which I have here, and 
which I will not o,ien, because it is not a very pleasant body. 
It is a substance which is known, although I believe not very 
commonly, in butter. The peculiar rancid odor which butter 
acquires when it is kept> too long, especially in warm weather, 
is due to a transformation of some of its materials into this par- 
ticular acid, which Chevreul, a very distinguished French chem- 
ist, separated from butter, and hje named it from that circum- 
stance butyric acid. If we leave some of this product of the 
last fermentation, — some of this lactate of lime, the lime salt of 
lactic acid, — under the same conditions in which it was formed, 
that is, if we leave it in the same vessel in which it had been 
formed from milk or sugar, and leave cheese with it, and keep 
the mixture warm, the lactate will gradually decompose, and car- 
bonic acid will be given off together with hydrogen gas, and at 
the same time we find that the lactic acid will be decomposed, 
and in place of it we get this butyric acid, and generally some 
valerianic acid and a little acetic acid. 

Amongst the processes which really are analogous to ferment- 
ation in their nature, but which differ in one particular, I must 


mention one other, the process of forming vinegar, or acetic acid. 
This large bottle contains vinegar in a form which most of you, 
I dare saj, have not seen. These fine white crystals are the 
pure substance which, mixed with water, in an improper state, 
are generally known by the trivial name of vinegar. We call 
that acetic acid, or hydric acetate. The formation of this body 
from alcohol represents a variety of fermentation which is of con- 
siderable importance and of frequent occurrence. Everybody 
who has noticed the process which takes place when animal or 
vegetable matter is left to itself in contact with air, especially in 
moist localities, must have observed that there is a gradual dis- 
appearance of the organic matter. For instance, if you leave a 
piece of wood in a moist place, under certain conditions of very 
frequent occui-rence which are favorable to this process, the 
wood gradually gets soft, and becomes transformed into a brown 
substance, and if you leave it long enough — in this country, sev- 
eral years generally would be needed for this purpose — it grad- 
ually disappears. If you were to put a piece of that decompos- 
ing wood into a closed glass vessel, and examine the air above it, 
you would find that the wood was really burning. I am using 
the word combustion in the ordinary chemical sense — I mean by 
that word that the oxygen of the air which you have enclosed 
with the wood is being taken up by the wood, and the products 
of combustion, carbonic acid and water, are being formed from 
the substance of the wood. One great class of the processes of 
fermentation is of that kind. They consist not in a mere break- 
ing up of the materials already contained in the organic substance, 
but a change of their arrangements, which is due, more or less, to 
the absorption of oxygen, and this formation of acetic acid or 
vinegar is a case of that kind. In fact, if we were to leave some 
ordinary fermented wort in an open vessel, so that the alcohol, 
were it left in the mixture in which it had been formed, we should 
find that the alcohol would gradually disappear and give place to 
an acid substance. The process is well known to wine-makers and 
to brewers, and their art consists, amongst other things, in the 
avoidance of tiiis process of oxydation of their alcohol. While 
the acetic acid is being formed, oxygen from the air is taken up. 


and in that respect this process of acetic fermentation differs 
from the other three processes of fermentation which I have de- 
scribed. When you make alcohol and carbonic acid from sugar, 
the air takes no part in the process ; when you make lactic acid 
from sugar, the air is not wanted; and when you make butyric 
acid from lactic acid, then again the air may be completely ex- 
cluded and the process will go on without it. But when you 
make acetic acid from alcohol, you must of necessity allow the 
free and continuous access of air, and the air gives up some of its 
oxygen to this fermenting alcohol, to transform it into acetic acid 
and water by a true process of fermentation. 

(To be Continued.) 


To Students and Young Practitioners. 

An inexperienced young dentist asks my advice on the above 
subject, and as there may be others seeking the same informa- 
tion, I write what I have to say for the Journal. 

EXPOSED pulps. 

If a pulp is exposed in the process of excavating, it should 
not be destroyed, but eiforts made to preserve it alive. To this 
end, touch it with a pellet of cotton wet in creosote. Then re- 
move all the decay within the cavity that it is possible to do 
without further wounding the pulp. It is better to leave a little 
softened dentine over the pulp rather than to run much risk of 
wounding that organ again. 

A broad and very sharp excavator should be used when work- 


ing over the pulp, as it is not so likely to cut through and wound 
it as a smaller blade. Prepare the cavity very nearly or ex- 
actly as you wish it to remain when the tooth is permanently 
plugged. This must be determined by circumstances. 

The cavity should now be plugged with OxycMoride of Zinc 
or Osteo Plastic. 

To do this, turn out on a piece of glass or porcelain, enough 
of the liquid to fill the cavity; then drop into it enough of the 
powder to absorb the liquid. While it is in this soft batter 
state, and before it begins to harden, put a portion into the 
cavity, pressing it home, gently, with a bit of spunk. The 
spunk will also absorb the surplus liquid. The operation may 
be repeated until the cavity is full. The tooth should be per- 
fectly protected from saliva during the insertion of the filling, 
and also during its hardening. After it is filled, and before get- 
ting wet, the surface of the plug should be smoothed and then 
coated with sandarach varnish. After allowing the latter to 
dry a moment the mouth may be shut, and the varnish on the 
plug will protect the latter from moisture, and the oxychloride 
will harden nicely. If it is convenient to do so, this plug should 
remain in the tooth a year. If it is on an approximal surface 
it will probably wear that length of time ; but if on a grinding 
surface it will need to be mended, by adding more material to it 
after a few months. In some cases the pulp will die, thus 
treated, but in a great majority of cases it will live in a healthy 
condition. Sometimes it will live for months in a dying condi- 
tion. The object of deferring plugging the tooth with gold, is 
obvious enough. We wish to be pretty sure of its continued 
health before putting in a permanent plug. 

Very likely there will be considerable pain when the osteo is 
first inserted, for a half-hour, or even for a half-day. 

The less pain, the more favorable the prognosis. If the pain 
should continue several days, growing less and less, you must 
not suppose the tooth is out of danger ; for really it may be in 
a more dangerous condition than at any time previous. The 
pulp may have died. 

You must find out whether this is so or not. Throw a small 


stream of cold water on the tooth from a syringe, and if it is 
alive, pain Avill be felt. If the pulp is dead, there will be no 
response. If the pulp is dead, it must be removed from the 
crown and roots of the tooth; otherwise, periostitis and sup- 
puration will probably follow, resulting in alveolar abscess. 

If the pulp continues healthy for several months, there will 
probably be new dentos* formed between the plastic plug and 
the pulp. 

When it is decided to plug the tooth with gold, it is better 
to leave some of this oxychloride of zinc over the pulp, and 
in such other parts of the cavity as may be deemed desirable ; 
never, however, allowing this material to come to the edge of 
the cavity. This plastic filling, when well put in, is often found 
to be as hard as the tooth within the cavity, and I occasionally 
leave a considerable portion of it in the tooth, and sometimes 
make retaining points in its substance. 

When we have 


the treatment must be different. 

If there has been repeated inflammation of the organ for 
months, there will have to be considerable treatment for its 
restoration to health, before it should be plugged with anything. 
The inflammation must be reduced by using aconite tincture 
and creosote. If portions of the pulp have sloughed, it will be 
better to destroy the remainder with arsenic, and remove it en- 
tirely, when the roots should be plugged. 


place upon it, or as near to it as possible, within the cavity, a 
little arsenic which has been ground in creosote. The arsenic 
should not exceed a sixteenth of a grain in weight. Secure 
it in place by filling the cavity of decay with a pellet of cotton 
wet in sandarach varnish. Let this remain twenty-four hours. 
Remove the cotton and ascertain if the pulp be dead. If it is 
not dead, you may wait a day or two ; and if it is not then 

* Dentos — Tooth-bone. 


dead, apply the arsenic again. When dead, fill the cavity with 
tannin paste ; that is, tannin that has been dissolved in alcohol 
until the alcohol will dissolve no more. Seal the cavity with 
sandarach varnish as before, and let it remain ten or twelve 
days. By this time a slough of the pulp will have taken place 
at the end of the roots, and the whole of the pulp and its ram- 
ification may often be drawn away at once. The tannin keeps 
the pulp from putrefying while it remains in the tooth. If at- 
tempts are made to extract the portions of the pulp which 
occupy the root canals, immediately after devitalization, there 
will be a good deal of pain experienced by the patient and a 
good deal of difficulty by the operator. My experience is 
altogether in favor of the waiting for nature process. In the 
latter there is generally no pain. The root canals are now to 
be syringed out, and the cavity of decay thoroughly prepared 
for filling. I should have said that the dentos separating the 
pulp chamber from the cavity of decay should be removed, so 
as to have the best possible access to the root canals. The 
latter, at their entrance into the main pulp chamber, may be 
somewhat enlarged, with any instrument that will not leave a 
square shoulder at the distal extremity. 

A good deal of skill and experience is sometimes required 
to properly expose the orifices of the root canals, so as to re- 
move their contents, and I cannot stop now to describe the 
manipulations sometimes necessary, as it would require several 
pages. Sufiice it to say, however, that it is sometimes neces- 
sary to make another cavity in the crown, or cut away consid- 
erable portions of the latter, in order to give proper access to 
a root canal. 

The condition of an empty root canal and pulp chamber is 
better than when those cavities have dead pulps in them. But 
an empty chamber and canals will cause a tooth to become dis- 
eased after a time; probably by receiving more or less of blood- 
plasmas through the dentinal tubes, which become putrid, 
and act in the same way as a dead pulp, in causing peri- 

Exceeding care, then, should be used in 



This may be done with gold, or with osteo plastic. 

When done with gold, we must ascertain whether the plugger 
will reach as far as we wish to carry the gold. If it will enter 
the roots only a portion of the distance, we need not hope to 
send gold beyond that point. Small portions of gold only 
should be used at a time, and that should be ww-adhesive gold. 
Sometimes a plugger may he made of whalebone, that will, by 
adapting itself to curvatures, carry the gold farther than a 
steel instrument. One can be made for each occasion. 

These whalebone pluggers should always be used when the 
roots are plugged with osteo plastic. As to this latter sub- 
stance, I have had better success with it than with gold. 

I do not know of periostitis or alveolar abscess ever having 
occurred when I have plugged the roots with oxychloride of 

Make a whalebone plugger, by cutting and scraping down, 
until it will pass as near the end of the root canal as possible, 
and mark on the plugger the distance at which it entered the 
cavity. Fill the canal with the oxychloride as well as possible. 
Cut off the plugger and force it into the canal and leave it 
there. When forced home, it should not quite reach the pulp 

The whalebone presses the osteo against the walls of the 
canal, and makes a filling in the majority of cases more perfect 
than gold. It also acts as an escharotic and deodorizer, and I 
think is much better adapted to the purpose than gold foil. 
The whalebone is as safe as gold within the tooth. 

In all cases where we suspect pulp death, after a tooth has 
been plugged having a living pulp, we must ascertain the fact, 
and if our suspicions are confirmed, we must remove the pulp, 
thoroughly cleanse the cavity with warm water, and fill it with 
tannin as before described. This should be removed at the 
end of a week, syringed again, and plugged as tightly as pos- 
sible with cotton and sandarach. When the cavity is found to 
be free from unpleasant odor, the crown may be plugged with 


oxy chloride for a month or two as a test. If there are no symp- 
toms of periostitis at the end of that time, the roots and crown 
may be permanently plugged. 

Teeth whose dead pulps have a long time been connected 
with an open cavity of decay, are very prone to take on peri- 
centitis when shut up by a plug. For this reason the fore- 
going precautions are highly necessary, x^^-'^w— ^ ^k^^rzz 

^jeihHEw^^l mi ifti 


In the January number of the present year we published an 
article entitled " The New Bases, Aluminium and Pyroxylin," 
in which we gave a detailed description of a method of casting 
aluminium, which at the time we supposed was something new 
and original, but we have since learned that substantially the 
same process was invented by Dr. D. S. Goldey, a description 
of which appeared in the May number of the American Dental 
Review, 1859. We therefore resign all claims to originality. 
We have spent some time lately in reviewing the dental peri- 
odicals and journals of the buried past, and among the musty 
lore we find many curious facts. "History repeats itself." 
The truth of this aphorism is fully verified in our dental litera- 
ture. Inventions and discoveries which were made years ago 
and were then freely published and given to the profession, are 
now brought forward as new inventions, patents obtained or 
claimed, and the profession required to pay tribute to use them. 
As a matter of interest, and a case in point showing the slender 
claim for letters patent the self-styled inventors of Rose Pearl 
and Pyroxylin have, we publish the following article, which ap- 


peared in the Dental Review, London, August, 1860, and was 
republished in the November number of the Dental Cosmos the 
same year: 

" Collodion a New Base for Artificial Teeth. — The 
present may well be called an age of experiment, invention, and 
improvement, when the wonders of to-day are superseded by 
the novelties of to-morrow, and that which at one time was de- 
clared to have arrived at perfection must give place to an even 
more perfect arrangement. 

" The profession has been revolutionized by the introduction 
of the hardened India-rubber base, and vulcanite has now be- 
come a household word. The dental depots abound in novelties 
— vulcanite teeth of all patterns, shapes, and sizes; vulcan- 
izers and vulcanizing flasks have variously commanded attention. 
The war set in with steam patents, dry patents, and superheated 
patents ; every hour brought its novelty, until the profession, 
surfeited with vulcanite in all colors, and tired of the many 
improvements flooded in upon them, awoke from its trance to 
cry, ' Hold ! I'll hear no more.' 

'' Vulcanite was not, however, entirely to take the place of 
gold, although it might of bone ; vulcanite was not applicable 
in every case, and was not to be the ruin of the profession. 
Highly valuable as an auxiliary, an auxiliary alone it must 

"No sooner has this fever somewhat abated, than a new 
rival appears unexpectedly upon the scene. On the fourth 
of May last, letters patent were sealed to John Macintosh for 
' Improvements in Setting Artificial Teeth,' and thus runs the 
specification : 

" ' This invention has for its object improvements in setting 
artificial teeth. For this purpose I employ collodion (or a 
solution of gun-cotton or fibre in a solvent) ; this material I 
apply to the teeth to be set when in a fluid or soft state, so that, 
when it hardens, the teeth may become securely imbedded in it. 
A form or mould is by preference employed to bring the mass 
of collodion in which the teeth are set to the proper form to fit 
the mouth. Cotton or other fibre may be imbedded in the 


collodion to increase its toughness, and the outer surface or 
the whole of the collodion may be colored to look like the 
natural gum.' 

" We Avill not at present attempt anything like criticism of 
these so-called 'improvements,' but simply give, in the words of 
the inventor, some particulars of the process. A model of the 
mouth is taken in the usual way, and a fac-simile of the piece to 
be produced moulded in wax with the teeth imbedded in it as in 
the vulcanite. The collodion is prepared in the usual way, 
and in order to increase its toughness is mixed with a quantity 
of 'short cotton fibre,' and then evaporated until the collodion 
is brought to a 'plastic and putty-like state.' 

'"If it be desired to obtain a hard setting, I add to the collo- 
dion and thoroughly incorporate with it powdered gum-copal, in 
quantity varying according to the hardness desired; if great 
hardness is required, I employ as much as 20 per cent. The 
collodion, while still warm, I carefully press into the mould 
around the teeth, as in filling a mould with the compound of 
India-rubber and sulphur in making teeth of vulcanite, as is well 
understood ; I then place the two parts of the mould together, 
and force them together by means of the screw with which the 
box containing them is fitted ; thus the collodion between the 
two parts of the mould is forced into every crevice of it ; and in 
order that the collodion may remain thoroughly plastic, the 
mould is kept heated to about 200° Fahrenheit ; when the two 
parts of the mould are pressed close together, the mould is al- 
lowed to cool, and when cool, the teeth, with the setting, which 
is then completed, are removed. 

" ' The collodion is colored to resemble gum by means of al- 
kanet root, and may be colored throughout or only with a gum 

" 'If it be desired to obtain a plate, or thin, flexible setting, I 
proceed in a similar manner to that already described, but I 
produce the two forms of which the mould consists in a readily 
fusible metal (a mixture of tin and lead answers well) in place 
of a plaster, as before described; but in this case, after produc- 
ing the wax model, the teeth are not left in it while the plaster 


cast is taken, but are first carefully removed. The collodion is 
formed into a sheet of the desired thickness, and there is cut 
from this sheet with the assistance of a template previously 
prepared by measuring from the mould, a piece of suitable 
form to produce the setting. I then lay the piece of sheet 
collodion, previously rendered plastic by heat, in its place in 
one-half of the mould, and the other half is then put over the 
first, and pressed firmly down upon it by the use of a screw-box, 
as before explained. The mould is heated to about 200° Fah- 
renheit, so as to keep the collodion perfectly plastic, and the 
pressure applied is sufficient to force the collodion into every 
crevice of the mould. When the mould is cold and the collodion 
is set, the collodion plate is removed. The teeth are afterwards 
fitted in their places on the plate, and are fixed, either by metal 
pins, or, as is preferred, the teeth are, as before mentioned, made 
with a passage up the center, which is filled with collodion, and 
afterwards the collodion in the tooth and the plate at the part 
where the tooth is to be fixed are both moistened with ether, and 
they are pressed in contact till the solvent evaporates, when they 
will be found firmly attached the one to the other. 

" ' Collodion may also be employed for setting in the same 
manner as sea-horse tooth is employed, and as is well understood 
by dentists. In this case a block of collodion (mixed with fibre 
and copal, if considered desirable) is formed, and afterwards 
carved out to the form desired, the teeth being fitted and fixed 
as when sea-horse tooth is employed.' 

"The advantages claimed for collodion, or a compound of col- 
lodion, as a setting for artificial teeth, are, first, that it does not 
decompose or become fetid in the mouth ; it is also free from 
metallic taste. Secondly, it is not liable to lacerate the gums ; 
and from the natural flesh tint that can be given to it, it is not 
easily detected when in use. Thirdly, being specifically lighter 
than any substance at present employed, and a perfect non- 
conductor, it consequently can be used upon the most tender 

"Although this compound has not been worn more than three 
months to prove its durability, the most careful experiments have 


been tried as to its non-absorbing qualities and indestructibility 
for the purpose of insulating telegraphic wires in lieu of gutta-per 
cha and india-rubber, which are both absorbents." 

We think no one who has seen Dr. McClelland's letters patent, 
will fail to recognize the fact that all, or nearly all the points 
claimed by the patentee of Rose Pearl, are embraced in this 
patent granted to Mr. Macintosh. Comparing these two patents, 
we fail to recognize Dr. McClelland's claim. Upon the pyroxy- 
line base of Messrs. Brockway, Mayo & Co., there has been no 
patent granted, so far as we have been able to learn, and we 
have been credibly informed that no patent can be obtained 
on this base. In their circulars, the inventors do not claim a 
patent. They offer to give printed or personal instructions, with 
license, for $10 or $25, the license being merely a permit to 
purchase material, — no material being sold to any but licensees. 

It will be remembered that the same plan was adopted by the 
Rubber Company, on the first introduction of rubber. As there 
is now more than one company manufacturing pyroxyline base, 
we presume it will soon be for sale to any who may wish to pur- 
chase. The amount charged for personal instruction, (fifteen 
dollars) is not unreasonable, and for any one who desires to use 
it as a substitute for rubber, the outlay will not be extravagant. 

We propose continuing our researches among the records of 
the past, and will as time and occasion demand, bring them to 

In what we have said in this article respecting pyroxyline, 
our intention has not been to prevent the introduction of it as a 
new base, or to depreciate its value, but rather to warn those of 
our profession who may not have had an opportunity to investi- 
gate this matter for themselves, against being swindled by these 
patent venders. 

We are using the pyroxyline, and are much pleased with it. 
Our method of manipulating it differs somewhat from the printed 
instructions. In backing or lining the teeth, in place of using 
the comminuted material for the purpose, we use the scraps of the 


plate, in the same manner as gold or silver lining is put on. 

We thus secure a firm attachment in less time, and without the 
shrinkage which takes place with the filings. We have found 
this base useful in repairing old rubber cases. E. 


The ^^ Zahnarzt" has a letter upon anaesthetics as its leading 

The danger of employing nitrous oxide gas and other anaes- 
thetics by incompetent and careless operators, has, however, 
been set forth sufficiently clearly in the American dental journals, 
so that we have no need of quoting anything upon this subject 
from our transatlantic exchanges, but we may heed the lesson 
taught in this article, that there is great danger in extracting 
teeth and roots for patients under the influence of an anaeesthetic 
and dropping them in the mouth as soon as they are raised from 
their sockets, for the purpose of gaining time, as upon the re- 
turn to consciousness they might be swallowed by the patient 
and serious results ensue. 

A fatal case from the use of nitrous oxide is noticed, and in 
speaking of " Methyl-^ther," the author seems to incline to the 
opinion that it will finally supercede the nitrous oxide as an 

The second article, upon "Filling Teeth with Gold," is by 
Dr. G. V. L. The opinion is expressed that the quality of the 
filling depends more upon the skill of the operator than upon the 
kind of instruments or the preparation of gold employed. 

Several extracts from the American journals follow, and 
an extract from the Transactions of the Odontological Soci- 
ety of Great Britain, in relation to extraction and replanta- 
tion of teeth in obstinate cases of periodontitis, the details of 
which we published some months since. 

The author claims that Dr. Coleman was not the first to orig- 
inate the idea of transplantation in these cases, and cites the ex- 


periments of Mitscherlich in this direction, and states that he had 
himself reported cases which he had treated in this way, to the 
Central Society of German Dentists at Vienna in 1860. The 
author does not seem to be much encouraged by the results of 
his experiments, to continue the practice of transplantation in 
these cases of periodontal inflammation. 

A fatal case resulting from the administration of chloral is 
reported. As we have noticed several fatal cases reported in 
the journals from this cause, it is well to exercise much caution 
in the exhibition of this powerful hypnotic. 

The London ^'Monthly MiscroscopiealJournal," gives some de- 
tails under the head of "Progress of Microscopical Science," 
of the methods pursued in diagnosing by the aid of the mi- 
croscope, tubercular consumption. In the Microscopical So- 
ciety of Liverpool, it was stated that there had now been enu- 
merated two thousand four hundred and seventy-nine species of 

From the '■'■ Medical Record" of February 15th, we clip the 
following items: 

Dr. J. C. Nott recommends the application of carbolic acid in 

Dr. C. C. F. Gray, of Buffalo, N. Y., cures varicose veins by 
external application of potassa cum. calce. This is made into 
a paste and applied directly over the enlarged veins. In twenty 
minutes the paste was washed off with vinegar. Eschars were 
then made the size of a pea, and when these had healed, the case 
was completely cured. 

Aloin, the active principle of aloes seems likely to supercede 
the use of the latter. The dose is about one-fifth the dose of 

From the '■'■Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal." — Mortu- 
ary record of San Francisco for 1870. — The statistics of mortality 
in this metropolis have been published regularly in this journal 
for years. The tables for 1870 in the present number disclose 
some interesting points. With the recent census before us, we 


can make an exact estimate of the comparative healthfulness of 
our large cities. It appears that San Francisco is surpassed in 
this respect by one only of the large cities of the Atlantic States, 
viz., St. Louis. 

The Editor of the Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal, in 
this connection, says, that ''in order to present a compara- 
tive statement of the mortality of the larger cities of the Union, 
we communicated with the Health Officers of about fifteen of 
the larger cities, and through their courtesy are enabled to pre- 
sent the following returns, which for convenience are arranged in 
tabular form. Still-births are not included." 

® O C8 

g .s Z%^ 

'-S IB C ^ 

Principal Cities. _« ja o'S.S. 


New York 927,436 27,175 29.3 

Philadelphia 657,179 16,750 25.5 

St. Louis 312,963 6,670 21.3 

Chicago 299,370 7,342 24.5 

Baltimore 267,599 7,262 27.1 

Boston 253,984 6,096 24.0 

New Orleans 184,688 6,942 37.6 

San Francisco 150,361 3,351 22.3 

From the above table, it will be noticed that New Orleans 
shows much the largest number of deaths to the 1000 of her 
population. New York coming next, and then Baltimore, and 
next Philadelphia, whilst St. Louis shows the smallest death-rate 
of any city of considerable size in the United States, being only 
21.3 to the 1000, and San Francisco 22.3 to the 1000. 

It appears also that in San Francisco, consumption, Bright's 
disease, and diseases of the brain, are becoming more frequent, 
whilst deaths from accidental causes are diminishing in frequency. 
Thirty-seven per cent, of the deaths in San Francisco were in 
children under five years of age. Whilst more than fifty per 
cent, of the deaths in St. Louis were under five years of age. 
One death is reported at one hundred and five years, in the 
Golden City. 


The American Journal of Dental Science has an article by 
T. D. Crothers, M, D., upon the "Therapeutic Power of Oxygen 
Gas." The author quotes Dr. A. II. Smith, and refers to him 
as the greatest authority upon this subject. " Oxygen is appli- 
cable," says Dr. Smith, "to two classes of diseases — one in which 
respiration is at fault, and the other in which both respiration 
and nutrition are defective. 

" Under the first class are included asthma, emphysema, 
croup, diphtheria, capillary bronchitis, pneumonia and poisoning 
by opium. Astonishing cures have followed its administration 
in each of these diseases. * * * * jj^ phthisis this is the 
most valuable remedy we possess." 

In the Pharmacist we find that Dr. Alfred Wright recom- 
mends in the Lancet, oil of peppermint as a local anaesthetic. 
Especially is it valuable in neuralgia and gout. 

The Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal and the Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal both publish an article headed 
"Teaching of Dental Surgery in America," taken from the 
Medical Press and Circular, which purports to have been writ- 
ten by the Times correspondent in Philadelphia, and first pub- 
lished in the London Times. The article in question strikes a 
sensible man as a sharp attempt to advertise a certain dental 
school in Philadelphia at the expense of sundry newspapers and 
monthly journals whose editors were not sharp enough to detect 
the ruse. J. 


The fifth annual Commencement of the Missouri Dental Col- 
lege was held at the large hall of the Temple on Thursday evening 
the 9th of March. A brilliant audience of more than one thou- 
sand persons was present. The diploma of the College was 
conferred on the following named gentlemen : 


A. H, Fuller, Illinois. William A. Jones, Missouri. 
R. Matthews, Illinois. J. P. Eddy, Missouri. 
Alfred Bramsen. Copenha- Geo. McCowan, Californi;i. 
gen, Denmark. C. L. Sawyer, Iowa. 

Professor Judd, Dean of the Faculty, presented the Diplomas, 
accompanied with the following eloquent and instructive remarks: 

Gentlemen: — In relation to the dental profession, it might 
be remarked, that, as a separate branch of medicine, its history 
extends but a short way back towards the fountain heiid of med- 
ical science. It has, however, during the few years of its ex- 
istence, added somewhat to that long list of distinguished names 
which history has embalmed with their sacred memories, as hav- 
inor belonged to benefactors of the human race. 

We might mention that the names of Tomes, of Delabarre, of 
Nasmyth and of Harris, are known and gratefully remembered 
wherever literature and science have shed their benign influence; 
whilst to Wells and to Morton, the world is indebted for the great- 
est boon which has ever been bequeathed to suffering humanity 
by the hand of man. 

As an exemplification of the energy and enterprise of the 
profession, we might mention that the first -V uiicroscopic ob- 
jective which reached this continent was imported and used by a 
dentist of New York, and we might notice that the surgical as 
well as the mechanical treatment of cleft palate originated with 
dental practitioners. We mention these few facts that you may 
be stimulated to act well your part in that grand role of pro- 
gress which has developed the little band of dental prac- 
titioners of fifty years ago, into a profession numbering fourteen 
thousand members, who now support nine collegiate institu- 
tions of learning, and contribute their share to the scientific 
and literary productions of the day. 

To each one I would say: Let your life be a life of study, of 
patient investigation, and of effort, an<l let your highest ambition 
be to alleviate the sufferings of humanity, and to contribute some- 
thing to the welfare and happiness of your fellow men. 

As the graduates returned from the stage to their seats, after 


receiving their diplomas, they were loudly applauded, and some 
of them received bouquets from their lady friends. 

J. S. B. Alleyne, Prof, of Materia Medica, delivered an elo- 
quent, scientific, and interesting address to the students, grad- 
uates and audience, who showed their appreciation of it by fre- 
quent applause. 

Mahler's stringed band discoursed delightful music at inter- 
vals, as well as before and after the principal ceremonies. 

The present graduating class compares favorably with any 
previous one; the members of it having passed an excellent and 
satisfactory examination, as well as showing by their zeal in 
study and continued attendance to the lecture course, that they 
are determined to take a high and respectable position in the 
profession which they have chosen. Chase. 

♦ « » » » 

From the " New Orleans Republican." 


The commencement exercises of the New Orleans Dental Col- 
lege took place last evening at the rooms of the collegfe on Car- 
ondelet street. The lecture room of the institution was filled by 
a company of intelligent ladies and gentlemen, who witnessed 
the exercises with great interest. Among those assembled we 
noticed a number of members of the dental profession in New 

The exercises were opened with prayer by Rev. C. S. Hilton, 
of Christ-church. Dr. J. S. Harrison, one of the faculty of the 
college, then read an interesting lecture, the subject being "In- 
centives to the study of the natural sciences." The lecture evi- 
denced great research, and the various subjects it embraced 
were ably treated. It is to be regretted that the professor 
omitted some portions of the lecture from the unfounded fear of 
taking up too much time. Dr. Harrison, at the close of the lec- 
ture, made a few judicious remarks appropriate to the occasion, 


and addressed more particularly to the students of the college. 

The dean of the faculty, Dr. J. S. Knapp, then made a short 
address to the graduating class, and conferred the degree of 
Doctor of Dental Surgery on five young gentleman: John A. 
Arrington, of Tennessee; Thomas D. French, of Mississippi; 
Herbert Norman, of South Australia ; Sidney M. Cook, of 
Louisiana, and Charles P. Angell, of Louisiana. Honorary 
degrees were conferred on Messrs. S. J. Cobb, of Te nessee; 
Rute Waldo Thornton, of Georgia, and Joseph C. Turner, of 

An address on behalf of the students was then delivered by 
Mr. Herbert Norman, of South Australia, one of the graduating 
class. The address was listened to with attention, and received 
with plaudits. 

Not the least interesting feature of the occasion was the be- 
stowal of splendid bouquets upon the graduates by young ladies 
in the assembly. 

A few remarks from Dr. Harrison terminated the exercises. 


Died: — On the morning of February 14th, after a short ill- 
ness, our highly esteemed and worthy professional brother, 
Dr. Henry E. Peebles. A more extended notice of his death 
will appear, accompaning his photograph, in the succeeding 
number of the Journal. E. 

§|i^^0ai;i I 


Vol. III.] APRIL, 1871. [No. 4. 

From " The Pha-rmacist." 


By Prof. A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. — Before the Society of Arts. — Reprinted 
from the Pharmaceutical Journal, London. 

(Continued from Page 104). 

Now, the question arises whether this formation of acetic acid 
ought to be classed, as 1 am at present classing it, amongst the 
processes of fermentation. If it is due to the absorption of 
oxygen, you might naturally inquire whether one ought not to 
place it amongst the common processes of combustion, and it is 
right that I should state that by some authorities it is at present 
so classed. My reason, however, for stating what I have done, 
that it is a process of fermentation, is this, that it is usually 
effected by the action of a peculiar organism, called a vinegar- 
plant, an organism which I shall have occasion to show you here- 
after, which does exert in that particular process the function of 
taking up oxygen from the air, and of inducing the alcohol to 
combine with it. There are many other processes by which we 
could get it, but the actual process by which we do get it is a 
process in which this vital organism, the vinegar plant, is the 
agent of its formation. It might be made by mere processes of 
combustion, but it is made by a process of fermentation. 

There is one singular feature in the first and best known of 
these processes — the alcoholic fermentation — which you will no- 


tice when I tell you something of the way in which the processes 
of fermentation present themselves, even without very great care 
on the part of the observer. If, for instance, you were to ex- 
press the juice of some sweet fruit — say grapes — and if you were 
to leave that expressed juice in contact with the air for a little 
time, having first squeezed it through some suitable cloth or fil- 
ter, so as to have it clear, of course there would be no solid par- 
ticles in it when you put it aside; but, if you leave that in a 
tolerably warm place, in contact with the air, you would find 
that little solid particles would appear in this juice, that they 
increase in number, and that, in proportion as they increase in 
number, and as the quantity of them becomes greater, so does 
the process of effervescence — the evolution of gas from the grape 
juice — become more and more rapid. These little solid particles, 
which are not present at first in the grape juice, but which 
gradually make their appearance when it is exposed to the air, 
are what we commonly call, in the ordinary case of alcoholic 
fermentation, in this country, yeast — either beer-yeast or wine- 
yeast; it is the same organism in each case. The peculiarity of 
the process is this, that these substances — this yeast — which 
seems to make the sugar into those products which I enumerated 
to you, does not disappear whiledoing the work, but is produced 
by the very process. The more active the production of these 
yeast-cells, and the more speedy the growth of these yeast-cells, 
the more effective and rapid is the process of fermentation, and 
no fermentation of the kind which I am speaking of at present — 
the alcoholic fermentation — has ever been known to take place in 
the absence of these organisms. 

That circumstance I just mention briefly at present, but the 
fact that these yeast-cells appear whenever the process is going 
on — and the more they grow the more rapid is the fermentation 
— has led people to suppose at first, and to believe afterwards, 
that these yeast-cells were the agents of the transformation, the 
active substances which decomposed the sugar in contact with 
the water, and induced the transformation which we noticed. 
Now, the very fact that one of the two substances which are re- 
acting upon one another chemically (because the changes are 


chemical in their fundamental nature), should not disappear, but 
should rather increase by the process, is entirely anomalous — it 
is entirely at variance with the simplest and best known facts of 
chemistry; so much so, that if it were not established upon 
incontrovertible evidence, I believe that most chemists would be 
inclined to disbelieve it, and to say it cannot be, — it is impossible, 
— it is a mistake. If you tell me, as a chemist, that this yeast 
is transforming sugar by its action on the sugar, and that instead 
of being consumed the yeast is actually increased in quantity 
by doing that work, I should say it is nonsense — it cannot be, 
because in all the cases of chemical action which I know best, 
nothing of the kind occurs, but the very opposite. When one 
substance acts upon another, each one disappeai's in the process, 
and is transformed into a product having other properties. I 
need hardly give you illustrations of that; but one or two sim- 
ple cases may not be useless, as serving to fix clearly this im- 
portant circumstance in your minds. 

I will take at first one of a particularly elementary and sim- 
ple kind, — a process of combustion. I will take a little strip of 
metal — magnesium wire — and will hold it for a short time in the 
flame of a spirit lamp, so as to raise it to a sufficiently high tem- 
erature. The light you see emitted is due to the combustion of 
oxygen in the air with the metal magnesium, which I hold in 
my hand. This is one of the simplest possible cases of chemi- 
cal action. The metal has disappeared. The strip of wire is 
gone, and oxygen from the air disappeared also. At the same 
time a white powder was formed. I dare say you did not notice 
it, but here is a quantity of the same substance in a bottle. It 
consists of oxygen from the air combined with the metal mag- 
nesium, and the point is this — that all the magnesium which 
took part in that process disappeared, and went to form this 
white powder, and all the oxygen which took part in the process 
also disappeared. The two united together, each disappeared 
as such and went to form this new product. And, moreover, 
we can tell, from the examination of the proportions in which 
the substances combine, exactly what weight of oxygen would 
disappear for every part by weight of magnesium. If you burn, 


for instance, three grammes or three pounds of magnesium, you 
would require exactly two grammes or two pounds of oxygen. 
Por instance, three pounds weight of magnesium would combine 
with two pounds weight of oxygen, and the product of the two 
together would be five pounds in weight. I may show you the 
same thing with soda, not the substance which is commonly called 
by that name, which is a carbonate of that base. I have here 
a little pure soda solution in a bottle. I will pour some into a 
beaker-glass, and will show you one property which characterizes 
it, viz: that of changing this red paper into blue. Now I will 
pour some of this acid body, the oil of vitriol, into another beaker- 
glass. If I put the paper which has been discolored into this 
pure acid it would be dissolved; but I will dilute some of it 
with water, and then you will see that paper, which has been 
rendered blue by the agency I have just used, is brought back 
again to red by the agency of this acid. Now, if I mix the 
acid with the soda, we shall have audible evidence of violent ac- 
tion going on. I will not go on with the process, but I have 
purposely taken the two substances in presence of very little wa- 
ter, in order to show you that the heat evolved makes the liquid 
boil with great violence. I could have avoided that by adding 
water in the first place, but I wished to show you the vigor with 
which they unite together. If I were to go on adding acid to the 
soda, little by little, feeling my way until I had just completed the 
action, I should have got some water formed and some of the 
beautiful salt which I have here, — a body which is neither soda 
nor acid; it is a salt called Glauber salt or sodic sulphate, and 
all my materials wouhl have disappeared in the process. If I 
use them in proper proportions, all the acid and soda would dis- 
appear and go to form these two other products. I might dis- 
solve some of this sulphate in water, and might put red paper or 
blue into it and it would not aflfect either of them; it is perfect- 
ly neutral in that respect. The proportion by weight in which 
the combination takes place is this : If I add 40 parts by weight 
of soda, and 49 of oil of vitriol in a state of purity, I should 
have as the result, 18 parts by weight of water, and 71 of sodic 
sulphate, and if I add together the weight of my materials and 


the weight of my products, I get the same — 89. Nothing dis- 
appears in the process ; all the acid and all the base which takes 
part in it is employed. Each particle which took part in the 
process disappeared as such, and it passed over into another 

I will mention one other case, because it is somewhat more 
complex. I may take the case I was showing you just now, the 
white marble and hydric chloride or muriatic acid, which I used 
for making the carbonic acid gas. In that case, I used two ma- 
terials, carbonate of lime, as it is commonly called, and hydro- 
chloric acid. We get three products : on the one hand is a salt, 
which is commonly called chloride of calcium, a solid substance 
used for drying gases, as it has a great aiEnity for water ; an- 
other is water ; and the third, as I showed you, carbonic acid 
gas. There, again, we have precisely the same thing. All the 
marble, and all the hydric chloride which takes part in the for- 
mation of those three products disappeared as such, and they 
resolved themselves into other compounds possessing different 
properties ; but the weight of the products is equal to the weight 
of the materials. That rule holds good throughout all ordinary 
cases of chemical action. 

On the other hand, in fermentation it is not so; one of the ac- 
tive substances is formed, and the more active the fermentation, 
the more does it grow. In fact, if you want to get yeast, you 
must go to a place where the breaking up of sugar into alcohol 
and carbonic acid is going on ; or if it is in the south, you must 
go to where wine is being made, you go to a wine-maker, and get 
the yeast from him. The only way of getting yeast is from that 
process of fermentation which sets in spontaneously under the 
conditions I named to you. 

I ought, however, in justice to the wonderful process which I 
alluded to, to give you two or three other particulars regarding 
it. I showed that sugar is broken up by the ferment into these 
products, but no case is known of pure sugar — and when I say 
pure sugar, I mean sugar in the purest form in which we have 
it — being decomposed by yeast. If you were to put some ready- 
made yeast — thriving, growing yeast — into a solution of chemi- 


cally pure sugar, some of your yeast would decompose, some of 
it would resolve itself into other products, and other parts of it 
would be absorbing those products which are present in the 
liquid, and whenever the process is to be carried on advanta- 
geously and rapidly, it is customary to add some saccharine liquid 
— some other substance capable of nourishing the yeast. When 
I want good fermentation I do not take water to dissolve my su- 
gar and put yeast into it, but I boil some of this malt, which is 
one of the best materials for the purpose, in water, and take a 
decoction of malt or decoction of yeast and put sugar into it. 
In such a liquid there are several bodies which we know ; and I 
may safely say that there are a great many others which we do 
not know, and there is no doubt that their presence is of con- 
siderable importance to the chemical change which takes place. 
There are substances which I shall have presently occasion to 
show you, and to speak of, formed by the germination of the 
grain, by the formation of the malt, which are related some- 
what to this body which I have here. This was some pure wheat 
flour — every kind of flour would not do — and it is supposed 
that some people mix other materials with flour. It was knead- 
ed up with water, pressed together, and, whilst the pressure was 
being continued, water was allowed to trickle over it. I have in 
another bottle some of the water that flowed over it. There is 
a white substance deposited from this water, which is commonly 
known and much used, by the name of starch, and starch is, in 
its chemical composition, first cousin to sugar ; it is a substance 
which passes over very readily into a kind of sugar by a process 
I shall presently have occasion to allude to. But the little ball 
of flour while being kneaded had the starch washed away from 
it, and I have left, as the result, a substance which is commonly 
known by the name of gluten. If I were to describe it in 
chemical language, I should say it is something like flesh, or the 
muscular fibre of animals, for, in chemical composition, it ap- 
proaches very nearly to that. When barley is malted, and kept 
in a warm place for some time, the grains begin to germinate and 
decompose, and some bodies are formed from this gluten, which 
is partially broken up. The malt contains also some sugar made 
from that starch — grape sugar, as we usually call it. 


If we only had these extreme cases, I really do not know what 
we should do. If we had in our science one set of bodies which 
appeared so constantly to act at variance with the general laws 
which the others obey, I think we could not call chemistry a 
science. I have taken two or three examples to show you the 
definite proportions which we find to regulate the ordinary pro- 
cess of combination. I might have taken thousands, but the 
point is that this law does not appear to apply at all to these 
chemical changes which we call fermentation. One of the active 
substances in fermentation is being formed, it is increasing, not 
disappearing at all, and the contradiction is so strong and mani- 
fest that the only way out of the difiiculty will be to do something 
of the kind which I was speaking of some time ago, that is to 
say, see if we cannot get some intermediate facts which will 
serve to connect the extreme ones; to see if we cannot get at 
first something between the two classes, and then try to get some 
further links between them. There are processes of chemical 
change — I will not call them processes of fermentation, for I do 
not know whether they are, but which are analogous to it, and 
some of them are very interesting and very beautiful. I have 
here a substance called amygdalin, made from bitter almonds. 
It is a bitter-tasting substance, and consists of four elements 
which it is not necessary that I should name. In this other bottle 
I have a paste formed of sweet almonds, which have been crushed 
with a pestle and mortar, and I will put some of it into the warm 
distilled water in this flask. Into the mixture I will put some 
of this amygdalin. If I were to leave it without that addition, 
there would be very little change; the substance would gradually 
subside, but there would be no product given off in the way you 
will presently see. After letting it stand for a few minutes, I 
will pour some of the mixture into an open vessel, and we shall 
be able, without difficulty, to perceive a fragrant smell, which is 
due to the presence of a liquid of which I have a quantity here, 
a substance known by the name of oil of bitter almonds. If I were 
to perform the same experiment on a large scale, and macerate 
some of this amygdalin with almond paste, put them together 
with warm water, distil the mixture and collect what comes over, 


we should find that water would pass over and with it would be 
a few drops of oil of bitter almonds, and the amygdalin would 
be decomposed in the process. There is in the sweet almond 
paste, a substance which I cannot describe in better terms than 
by comparing it to that gluten which I showed you just now. 
It is very similar to it in its composition, and by the contact of 
this, the synaptase, as it is called, with the amygdalin, the ele- 
ments of the amygdalin are broken up into several products ; one 
of them is the oil of bitter almonds, another is prussic acid, 
which generally accompanies the oil, the third is a variety of 
sugar, of the kind which is called grape sugar, and there is 
probably also some formic acid. Here we have the breaking-up 
of a complex body — amygdalin — into several simpler bodies by 
the action of the body called synaptase ; but there is not in the 
process, as far as I know, any living organism at work. There 
is a substance which is somewhat similar to these living organisms, 
but there is no organized structure, as far as our knowledge goes 
at present. 

(To he continued.) 


By Andrew Buchanan, M. D., Professor of Physiology in the 
University of Glasgow. 

As the force of the human heart is a subject that can never 
lose its interest to physiologists, I desire to submit the follow- 
ing observations upon it, suggested by an estimate of it recently 
made by the Rev. Dr. Haughton, of which an account is con- 
tained in the Dublin Quarterly/ Journal of Medical Science, vol. 
xlix., p. 47, under the title "On the Mechanical Work done by 
the Human Heart." I merely premise that I wish to speak of 
the reverend gentleman with the most perfect respect, and that 
I am not the less indebted to him for his testimony on behalf of 
my opinions that it has been unintentionally and, indeed, uncon- 
sciously given. 


I sball first endeavor to show that the solution of the problem 
of the heart's action proposed bj Dr. Haughton is, so far as it 
goes, essentially the same as that which I laid before the pro- 
fession nearly two years ago. I shall next endeavor to show 
that Dr. Haughton's solution, although capable of determining 
the mechanical equivalent of the work done by the heart, can- 
not be employed to determine more minutely the work which the 
heart actually performs, and gives us erroneous ideas when Ave 
attempt so to employ it. 

Let it, in the first instance, be taken for granted that there 
is no error in the data on which our respective computations 
are based, so that we may have nothing to consider but the use 
which is made of them. 

The three elements which Dr. Haughton assumes as the 
groundwork of his computation are, that the heart contracts 
75 times in a minute; that at each contraction the left ventri- 
cle of the heart discharges three ounces of blood; and that the 
hsemastatic column in man stands at a height of 9.923 feet. 
He now multiplies the quantity of blood discharged at each 
contraction by the height of the hsemastatic column (3 X 9.923 
=29.769), and regards the product as indicating the number 
of ounces that are raised one foot by each contraction of the 
heart. He again multiplies the product by the number of con- 
tractions of the heart in 24 hours, and so he obtains 89.706 foot 
tons as the measure of the daily work done by the left ventricle 
of the heart. 

In addition to Dr. Haughton's three elements, I avail myself 
of a fourth — viz., the area of the ventricular orifice of the 
aorta, which I estimate witii Kiel as equal to .4187 of a square 
inch, and which I regard as an element of the very highest im- 
portance in the solution of the problem of the heart's action, 
and the more so that it can be determined with ease, and is 
therefore more worthy of reliance than are some of the other 

Supposing, then, that we add the element just mentioned to 
Dr. Haughton's other three, the following is the mode in which 
I employ these elements to determine the force of the heart. 


The weigbt of a cylinder of blood 9.923 feet in height, and 
having a base of .4187 of an inch, is 30.20838 ounces. Three 
ounces of blood, which the heart discharges at each contraction, 
fill of such a cylinder 11.8245 inches, or .985375 of a foot. 
Now, multiplying together the two numbers thus found, I obtain 
a product of 29.769, the identical result obtained by Dr. Haugh- 
ton — 

30.208 X .985375=3 x 9.923=29.769. 

I had, therefore, reason in saying that Dr. Haughton's com- 
putation is essentially the same as mine, seeing that their results 
are identical. 

The same coincidence holds with respect to mj own computa- 
tion, and comes out still more strikingly, owing to the greater 
simplicity of the numbers. I assume that the heart beats 72 
times in a minute, that it discharges two ounces of blood at each 
contraction, and that the height of the hoemastatic column in 
man is 88 inches. Now the weight of a cylinder of blood, 
eighty-eight inches in height, and having a basis of .4187 of a 
square inch, is 22 ounces. Further, two ounces of blood, the 
quantity discharged at each contraction, fill exactly of such a 
cylinder, 8 inches. Dr. Haughton's computation is 2 X 88, and 
that is exactly equivalent to my computation, "22 X 8; the com- 
mon product being 176, which denotes the number of ounces 
which are lifted one inch at each contraction, and by dividing 
176 by 12 we obtain the number of ounces that are lifted one 
foot — viz., 14.66. Dr. Haughton's number for each contrac- 
tion is more than double, 29.769; but, in addition, he makes the 
heart beat 75 times a minute, instead of 72 times, so that his 
total estimate of the day's work is to mine in the proportion of 
30.774 to 14.66. But this diiference does not depend on any 
difference in our modes of computation, which lead exactly to 
the same result, but merely on the different magnitudes assumed 
of the elements which form the base of the computations. 

Neither are these accidental coincidences; for it is easy to 
show that the numbers obtained by Dr. Haughton's method are 
necessarily the same as those obtained by mine. For let W de- 


note the weight of a cylinder of blood having a base of .4187 
of an inch, and a height (H) equal to that of the hsemastatic 
column, and let h be the portion of that cylinder equal in volume 
to the blood emitted from the heart at each contraction, while w 
denotes the weight of the same quantity of blood. Then as the 
weights of any two portions of the same liquid are as their vol- 
umes, we have — 

w : W : : ^ : H; and consequently 
w^ H = W h. 

Now, Dr. Haughton's method consists in calculating w H, and 
mine consists in calculating W h quantities, which are necessa- 
rily equal, so that the two methods must in all cases lead to the 
same result. 

I have thus shown that the solution of the problem of the 
heart's action proposed by Dr. Haughton is, so far as it goes, es- 
.sentially and necessarily the same as that which I laid before 
the profession nearly two years ago, and I now proceed to show 
that Dr. Haughton's solution, although capable of determining 
accurately the mechanical equivalent of the work done by the 
heart, cannot be employed to determine more minutely the work 
which the heart actually performs, and misleads us when we so 
employ it. 

To determine the work actually performed by the heart is a 
problem quite different from that of determining the mechanical 
equivalent of the work done. The very same effective force is 
required to raise one pound to a height of ten feet, as to raise 
ten pounds to a height of one foot, or five pound-* to a height of 
two feet, or two pounds to a height of five feet. In all of these 
cases and others innumerable, if we descend to fractional num- 
bers, the mechanical equivalent is the same, or ten foot-pounds ; 
but the operations themselves are very different, and with res- 
pect to any organ acting in the living body, or any inanimate 
machine, we would not rest satisfied till we knew which was the 
operation it actually performed. Now it is just so with respect 
to the heart. There are questions in physiology, as Dr. Haugh- 
ton has shown, to answer which the mechanical equivalent of the 


heart's action, or the total amount of its eflfective force, is all 
that we require to know. But there are other more important 
questions for which that meagre knowledge is insufficient. The 
physiologist wishes to know, not only the amount of the effective 
force of the heart, but also in what precise way or ways that 
force is expended within the body. What is wanted will be bet- 
ter understood when I say that the effective force of the heart 
communicates to the blood its momentum, and that the momen- 
tum of the blood is expressed by {qxv) the mass of blood 
which is set in motion multiplied by the velocity with which it 
moves. Now we should at once attain our end if we could de- 
termine the respective values of q and v. But it is just because 
we cannot do so directly, that we are obliged to have recourse 
to empirical formulae. But such formulae are only valuable as 
they agree, term to term, with the rational formulae (f/ ^ v). 
Now Dr. Haughton's formula {w X H) and mine (WX h) can- 
not both agree, seeing that the terms are inverted — that which 
expresses the mass moved in the one, expressing the velocity of 
the other. We must judge, therefore, which of these formulae 
gives the most probable view of the moving mass and velocity 
of the blood. Taking Dr. Haughton's data, and viewing them 
in the light of his own formulae (w H), we have three ounces of 
blood moved 9.923 feet at each beat of the heart, or with an in- 
itial velocity of nearly 750 feet per minute; which is manifestly 
a reduefio ad ahsurdum. But if to the same data we apply the 
formula (WA), we invert the ratio of the mass to the velocity, 
and find 30.2 ounces of blood moving over .985 of a foot at 
each beat of the heart, or with an initial velocity of 73.875 feet 
in a minute; which, though a high rate, is no longer so extrav- 
agant as to be incredible. 

In conclusion, I may be allowed to say that I am still inclined 
to think favorably of my own more moderate estimate — that the 
heart at each contraction exerts a force which would be in equi- 
librium if counterbalanced by a weight of 22 ounces +129.28 
grains. The mode in which this force is expended is most easily 
explained by supposing that we have a tube 88 inches in height, 
and .4187 of an inch in base, that this tube is exactly filled with 


blood, and that at each contraction of the heart two additional 
ounces are forced into it at the lower end, lifting the whole col- 
umn over a space of eight inches, and causing an equal overflow 
at the top. This represents accurately the labor of the human 
heart, and supplies us with two numbers to express it ; the one, 
twenty-two ounces, being the weight of the column of blood ; 
and the other, eight inches, the space over which the column is 
lifted. The former of these numbers denotes the resistance that 
has to be overcome in forcing two ounces of blood into the aorta, 
and pushing before it the whole mass of blood in the blood-ves- 
sels; the latter, again, denotes the velocity with which the blood 
issues from the heart. Multiplying these two numbers together 
we obtain the momenUim which the heart communicates to tbe 
blood — twenty-two ounces moving with the velocity of eight 
inches during the period of a pulsation, or of ten inches per 
second, or fifty feet per minute. This is equivalent to 176 ounces 
(22 X 8) lifted one inch, or 14.66 ounces lifted one foot, during 
the period of a pulsation; or 65.9 foot-pounds in a minute, or 
42.3 foot-tons in twenty-four hours. 

P. S. The facility with which the force of the heart, in what- 
ever aspect we choose to contemplate it, can be obtained from 
the weights and volumes of the columns of blood, at A, B, C, 
which have severally a basis of .4187 of an inch, seems to me 
to show well the importance of assuming the area of the ventri- 
cular orifice of the aorta as an element in computing the force 
of the heart. 

A is the calculated hsemastatical column. 

B is the observed haemastatical column. 

C is a column equal in volume to the capacity of the left ven- 
tricle of the heart. 

Weight in 
oz. av. 

Volume, as height of 
column, in inches. 





C= 2. 


1. Statical equivalent = A = 22 ounces + 129.28 grains. 


2. Dynamical equivalent = B X C, the weight of the one 
into the volume of the other. 
22 X 8. 

•? X 8H r ^^ ■^'^^ ^^^^ ounces = 14f foot ounces. 

3. Momentum of blood as emitted from the heart, = -weight 
B X volume C = 22 ounces moved over a space of eight inches 
at each pulsation, or with a velocity of ten inches per second. 

Glasgow, October, 1870. 

From the " Dcnia I Register." 


Bj- Edward C. Chask, D. D. S., Iowa City, Iowa. 

In the October number of the Register, 1870, I find an arti- 
cle reviewing and criticising a paper published by me in the May 
number of the Missouri Dental Journal^ of 1870, with the above 

Now, I have no objection to having anything criticised which 
I may offer to the dental profession, through the medium of the 
journals, provided the critic thoroughly understands what he is 
talking about; but I do most emphatically protest against hav- 
ing my articles cut up, sentences taken from here and there, and 
made to serve an entirely different purpose from which they 
were originally intended; and most of all do I regret that one 
who is apparently unfamiliar with the new nomenclature, should 
copy my chemical formulas — based upon the new nomenclature 
— and parade them in the columns of a widely-circulated dental 
journal, with the remark that "none of the chemical formulas 
are correctly given,", thereby not only making me appear ridic- 
ulous, but utterly ignorant of what I am writing about. 

I have no disposition nor desire to enter into a controversy 
with the writer upon what constitutes a mineral acid. By the 
general acceptance of the term, all of those acids come under 


this head, which, when united with sonae base, form a compound 
or salt, which is known in common language as a mineral, such as 
calcium sulphate, potassium nitrate, sodium chlorate, etc.; and 
as these salts or minerals are formed bj the action of sulphuric, 
nitric and hydrochloric acid respectively, upon calcium, potas- 
sium and sodium, or some of their compounds, they would natu- 
rally be classed under the head of mineral acids, to distinguish 
them from those acids which are formed and occur solely in the 
organic or vegetable kingdom. 

In speaking of the formation of nitric acid, I said "it is com- 
monly prepared by the action of sulphuric acid upon potassium 
nitrate, thus: K63 N+H2 S04=HK SO4+HN O3" nitric 

Also, in speaking of the action of nitric acid upon the car- 
bonate of lime, I gave the reaction as follows, which is correct : 
CaOa C+2HN03=Ca2 NO3+CO2+H2 0. Imagine my sur- 
prise on being told by one so well known and universally res- 
pected, as the writer of the article referred to, that "none of 
these formulas are correctly given." Can it be possible that the 
author is ignorant of the fact that chemistry has changed with- 
in the last ten years; that a new chemical nomenclature has 
been adopted; that the science has been progressing, and that 
none but "old fogies" adhere to the old formulas? 

In one place in my article the symbol for sulphuretted hydro- 
gen occurs. I gave it then as I do now: H2S. This formula 
he says is incorrect, that it should be HS, one atom less of hy- 

!Now, a man who has studied chemistry within ten years, should 
know that both formulas are correct — the first represents the 
number of atoms, the latter the number of equivalents of the 
different elements in the compound; by all modern writers who 
have adopted the atomic theory, it is written H2S. 

The old symbol for sulphuric acid is, SO3-I-HO, but now it is 
written H2SO4, which explains more clearly the nature of the 
combination. The old symbol for water is HO, that is, one equiv- 
alent of hydrogen and one of oxygen, but at the present time 
it is written H2O, or two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of 


oxygen, or by weight two of hydrogen and sixteen of oxygen, 
while in the old formula it stands one of hydrogen to eight 
of oxygen. It will be seen that the proportion is the same 
but the formulas are different. Both are correct. Now it 
is very unkind for one to accuse another of ignorance in 
writing the symbol for water H2O, when he himself has not 
kept up with the progress of chemical science, or if he has, fails 
to show it in his writings. Also, the old formula for nitric acid 
has been changed from NO5 to HNO3, that is, one molecule of 
pent-oxide of nitrogen combined with one molecule of water, 
gives two molecules of nitric acid, thus : N205 + H20=2HN03. 

Thus it is, most of the formulas used a few years ago, to ex- 
press the composition of the different chemical combinations 
have been changed ; the equivalent theory has been discarded and 
the atomic theory adopted, so now instead of saying that the 
equivalent of oxygen is eight, we say that the atomic weight of 
oxygen is sixteen. This is adopted by Fownes in his last edi- 
tion, the universal text-book for dental and medical students; 
by Roscoe, the great English chemist, and by Heinrichs and Ba- 
ker, and others who stand at the head of the profession of chem- 
ical science. 

To one unacquainted with chemical nomenclature and chemi- 
cal formulas, it would appear by reading the review by this 
well known writer, that in treating the subject of the "mineral 
acids," I was handling something of which I was perfectly ig- 

I will say, however, for the benefit of those who may not 
have seen the article in question, and therefore have not exam- 
ined it for themselves, that I defy any one to point out a single 
mistake in any of the formulas, or in any of the reactions as 
published by me in the Missouri Dental Journal. All that I de- 
sire in this article, is to show to the public that I am right in my 
chemical formulas, as given in the article under consideration. 
As for the theory advanced in that paper, that these acids, sulphu- 
ric, nitric and hydrochloric, might be formed in the mouth under 
certain conditions, I leave for each one to accept or reject, as 
the reasoning by which I draw my conclusions may seem plaus- 
ible and consistent or otherwise. 



I have thouglit it might be interesting to the young practition- 
ers of the present day to compare the practice of a first class 
operator in the year 1848 with the best modes of the present 
day. The folloAving three papers on ''Plugging Teeth" are taken 
from the Dental Neivs Letter of October, 18-48, and the Janu- 
ary and April numbers of 1849, written by J. D. White. M. D., 
D. D. S., Professor of Anatomy and Physiology in the Phila- 
delphia College of Dental Surgery : 

Messrs. Jones, White ^ Co. 

Gentlemen — Agreeably to request, I will endeavor to furnish 
you with as concise a description of plugging teeth with gold as 
my time and abilities will allow. 

As this operation is of ancient origin, and is practised to a 
much greater extent at the present day than at any other known 
period of the world, it is a sufficient reason that we should be- 
stow upon it all our talents and energies ; and that it is the 
most important branch of duty which engages the attention of 
the dental practitioner, no one will, I believe, for a moment 

My remarks will be entirely confined to the use of gold as a 
substance for plugging, as I do not wish for a moment to engage 
in the storms of controversy which have extended over our 
whole country of late years, with reference to the use of com- 
pounds of the baser metals and amalgam. Various as have been 
the descriptions of this operation by authors, there are none, as 
far as I have seen, that will enable the young practitioner to 
produce a very satisfactory result, and very few agree with re- 
gard to the manner in which it should be done.* 

There is no art, the mechanical execution of which afibrds a 
wider scope for a display of dexterity and gracefulness of ma- 
nipulation than that of plugging teeth ; for it is literally mak- 

* I ^yish to be understood as writing for the young, and not for the old. 


ing a workshop of the mouth ; and to approach a highly sensi- 
tive patient in a slovenly and bungling manner, must of necessi- 
ty be rendering an unpleasant operation at best, really distress- 
ing and painful; hence many preparatory requisites, apart from 
the mere instruments used in plugging, are highly necessary. 
It is presumed that the patient is seated in a suitably construct- 
ed chair, for the maintenance of an easy posture in any desirable 
position — desirable as well for the operator as the patient; this 
is indispensable for the proper execution of any operation upon 
the teeth. Every patient should be supplied in the first place 
with a clean napkin, a glass of water, and spittoon within con- 
venient reach. Many remark that the water should be tepid, 
but this is not often requisite ; water of the temperature of the 
operating room is generally most suitable, because the friction 
upon the teeth by the filing, scraping, etc., fevers them more or 
less, and cool water is more advantageous than otherwise, as it 
is refreshing, and keeps down vascular congestion of the teeth 
and gums ; if a highly sensitive tooth is prepared for plugging, 
merely filling the cavity with a pledget of cotton will prevent a 
thrill of pain to the patient while rinsing the mouth, while luke- 
warm water favors a determination of blood to the mouth, and 
promotes a relaxation of the parts generally. The operator 
should invariably wash his hands and instruments before exam- 
ining the teeth of a patient, to avoid unpleasant associations rel- 
ative to cleanliness; this simple neglect may give the patient a 
disgust to every thing that he may do thereafter. There is no 
point upon which a patient is more sensitive than this. He 
must never approach a patient without a napkin in his own hand 
also, because he should have the convenience of wiping every 
dampness of the saliva from his fii.gers, and any substance from 
his instruments that may get upon them during an examination 
of the teeth. 

Preparation of the Cavity. — First determine as nearly as 
possible the depth of the cavity, with a view to the reduction of 
its margins, (I have reference here to the cavities on the approx- 
imal surfaces of the teeth,) and for this purpose the file is the 
most useful instruments, which should be of various construe- 


tion to suit the different localities of the teeth ;* for the front 
teeth, the usual separating file, cut upon both sides, may be used 
when it is desirable to reduce an equal portion of each tooth; 
but when one tooth is decayed and the other sound, a file cut 
upon one side only is generally most suitable, because we can 
not only avoid, if we wish, cutting away the sound tooth, but 
the smooth side of the file can be depressed against it, so as to 
cut away more of the affected tooth upon the posterior part than 
upon the anterior ; an effect which is always desirable, in order 
that the separation shall be much wider upon the back parts of 
the teeth than upon the front ; for two important reasons, first, 
that the plug may face backwards to obscure it from view, and 
secondly, that in the act of biting into any substance of food, it 
will glide upwards and outwards upon the inclined plane which 
the surface of the plug and tooth will present, as that is the 
direction of the motion of the inferior maxilla when biting with 
the front teeth ; in this way the plugged surface is constantly 
kept clean ; to face the surface of the plug outwards by a care- 
less use of the file is inexcusable, when it can be avoided. It is 
in almost all cases desirable to reduce one-half of the enamel of 
the sound tooth so as to make the approximal surfaces as nearly 
equal in appearance as possible, and that sufficient projection 
shall be left along the lower boundary of the cavity near the 
necks of the teeth to prevent the filed and plugged surfaces from 
ever touching again. It is frequently desirable to file the pos- 
terior margin of the cavity concave ; for this purpose, a thin 
file with an oval cut, and a flat, smooth surface, is indispensable, 
because the smooth surface can be depressed against the ante- 
rior margin of the adjacent tooth, so that the oval surface will 
cut away the posterior margin of the affected one in a concave 
manner ; I mean that the convex side of the file shall not touch 
the front parts of the teeth, unless they are much decayed. 
Looking from behind forwards, the separation should present 
the view of an abrupt termination of a cone, instead of a square 

*As the file becomes warm, as well as the teeth, of course it should be 
kept wet and cool, bj frequently dipping it in cool water. 


notch or slit, which a file with two parallel surfaces is calculated 
to produce. As the enamel is thinner on the back parts of the 
teeth than the front, and frequently breaks away before decay 
is observed by the patient, this method of filing is frequently 
indispensable.* I do not wish to be understood that the front 
view of the separation between the front teeth shall also be of 
a cone shape ;t yet they should be filed away sufficiently to 
remain slightly separate. If they should fall together at their 
cutting edges in a few months after they have been filed, then 
separate a little more, for the teeth will often decay between the 
plugs and cutting edges. In some few cases, where there is a 
great disproportion between the breadth of the cutting edges 
and the necks of the teeth, back as well as front, which, when 
they are decayed near the gum, it would be impossible to file 
away the cutting edges sufficiently to allow the necks resting 
together ; in such cases it is not common for the teeth to decay 
near their coronal| extremities, and when they are not decayed, 
they should not be filed, but should be plugged, and a tape or 
piece of silk daily passed between them in order to keep the 
teeth and plugs clean. With reference to the bicuspid and 
molar teeth, a similar rule for filing to that of the front teeth 
should be observed, except that the separation should present a 
shape resembling a cone with its apex towards the necks of the 
teeth, for which purpose a file of similar shape should be used, 
as well as a file resembling the letter V, and be certain to 
cut away sufficient of the coronal extremities of the teeth to 
ensure a continued separation, and sufficient of the enamel of the 
face§ of the tooth, to prevent it breaking away by mastication 

*The filed surface of a tooth should never terminate at an angle near the 
neck, but on the contrary it should terminate at nothing, in order that every 
portion of the exposed bone should be covered with the gold, so that in 
cleaning with a tape it will touch all parts of the plug and tooth. 

■j-It should be the constant study of the operator in filling the front teeth 
to preserve their natural symmetry as much as possible. 

1 1 shall use this term to indicate the cutting edges and prominences of 
all the teeth. 

^ I shall use this term to designate the grinding surfaces of the molar 


after the cavity is plugged. Very frequently, the facial margin 
of the cavity opposite the middle of the crown must be dressed 
in a concave line, running from the lingual to the buccal extrem- 
ity of the tooth, as the enamel is more brittle, imperfect, and 
thin, corresponding with the crevices or cliff's of the faces of the 
teeth, than at its coronal extremities. The most important prin- 
ciple to be observed is, that the teeth be filed sufficiently to pre- 
vent breaking away after they are plugged, and present an 
inclined plane facing towards the opposite jaw.* 

Another very useful instrument is a kind of chisel, similar to a 
joiner's small paring chisel, slightly bent, so as to bring the edge in 
contact with the tooth with facility. Some should be constructed 
with the edge parallel with the shaft of the instrument, similar 
to a strong gum lancet. These instruments made small are 
are indispensable for opening the facial cavities, because the 
openings are often mere crevices or fissures, and the enamel 
being very hard, a blunt burr drill will not enter very well, yet 
this form of drill is often invaluable, and any kind of a flat drill 
will become bound between the opposite margins of the cavities, 
and give great pain in attempting to rotate it. A small and 
pointed triangular drill will often be useful when the openings 
are very small, and triangular scrapers of different sizes are also 
requisite. As the direction of the enamel fibre is from the 
surface of the tooth to its centre, of course its cleavage is in that 
direction, and the chisel leaves a thin and oblique margin to the 
cavity of decay, which must be reduced by the file, as a straight, 
thick and strong margin is necessary to fit the plug to. 

If the foregoing papers meet with your approbation, gentle- 
men, I will be pleased to continue the subject in your next num- 
ber, and speak of the further preparation of the cavity, charac- 
teristics of decay, the instruments used in plugging, &c., &c. 

J. D. White, M. D. 

*Many are in the habit of separating the teeth with cotton, India rubber 
soft wood, &c., but it is unsuccessful as it is unphilosophical. If the decay 
of the teeth is at all favored by contact, then the practice is unsound. 


Messrs. Jones, White ^ Co. 

Gentlemen — The favorable reception that my first commu- 
nication has received, is a suflScient apology for me to furnish 
you with a continuation of my last article on The Formation of 
the Cavity for Plugging. For this pui-pose, numerous small 
cutting instruments are necessary, not only to approach all parts 
of the cavity of decay, but to enlarge it in any desirable direc- 
tion; for it is not presumed that the freaks of decay will always 
form a cavity best suited to retain a plug ; besides, gold foil can- 
not be consolidated, unless as fast as placed in the cavity, it is 
embraced by its parieties more and still more firmly at every 
effort with the instrument. Yet it is not indispensable that it 
should do so in every direction, or when only the first portions 
of the plug are introduced. A very good and simple method for 
a young learner to adopt, Avhen he has dressed the margins of 
the cavity, is to lay a straight instrument across them, and then 
to cut down at right angles from it ; in this way he is sure to 
give the cavity a proper shape ; in short, it is the business of the 
dentist to shape the cavity to suit himself, so far as it can be 
done without injuring the tooth. A cavity best suited for plug- 
ging is where the parieties run from the orifice to the bottom, 
parallel to each other ; and this character should always be 
obtained as far as practicable upon the coronal extremities of 
the teeth, especially when they are disposed to wear down. 
What are commonly termed the hatchet-shaped, and scoop or 
hoe-shaped instruments, of different sizes, bent at different 
angles, are necessary ; they can be obtained ready made, but 
every dentist should be capable of shaping the points and tem- 
pering them to suit himself; it is impossible for the instrument 
maker to judge of and produce the various niceties of temper 
and shape which these instruments require. Small flat drills, 
for drilling catches for the plug upon different parts of the 
cavity where they can be applied, are also requisite. The follow- 
ing is a very easy and effectual method of tempering this kind of 
instruments — first file and bend the instrument suitably, then heat 
it a very little above a cherry-red in the flame of a spirit lamp, 
and suddenly plunge it into cold water, (or sealing wax, which 


is perhaps better,) placed close enough to the point while heating, 
to prevent it from cooling much in passing from the flame to the 
water ; now it is as hard as it can well be made, and to exert 
much force by bringirsg it in contact with any hard substance 
would break it almost as easily as glass, to prevent which, polish 
one side of the point upon a stone, so as to distinguish the slight- 
est tinge of change in color ; then place the neck of the instru- 
ment again in the flame, with the cutting edge jutting through 
about half of an inch, and impinging upon a piece of cold steel; 
held in this position a few moments, the polished surface of the 
instrument will be observed to change to a light straw color, 
which will deepen until it turns blue; when this light straw color 
reaches the point of the instrument, it should be again pluno-ed 
into cold water; now polish the instrument, and it is fit for use. 
The reasons for this process of tempering are obvious; it is desi- 
rable to make the neck, and especially the angles or curves of 
the instrument, of a light blue color, which is spring temper; as 
t is important that is should yield to pressure without breaking, 
and that it can be slightly bent at pleasure to suit any temporary 
purpose, and at the same time the cutting edge should be very 
hard. As the edge is much thinner in most cases thati the neck, 
the same amount of heat that would render it light straw color, 
would not be sufficient to reduce the neck to a blue, but the cold 
steel in contact with the point conducts off" the heat whilst suffi- 
cient can be applied to the neck to turn it blue. In this way the 
temper can be so regulated that the edge can be extremely hard, 
while the instrument will bend up to an eighth of an inch of the 
point ; so that we can cut the hardest tooth substance, as with a 
diamond set in steel, without its breaking. 

Characteristics of Decay. — On this subject authors diff'er very 
widely ; and while we do not wish to be understood as attemptinor 
to settle this difficult question, still a few remarks upon some of 
its properties, etc., may not be out of place. It is asserted by 
some that every particle of decay must be removed from the 
cavity preparatory to plugging, (to this we most heartily assent;) 
and by others, that every vestige of colored substance must be 
removed, that the tooth may present a white and healthy appear- 


ance! Now whiteness is not always a healthy sign, as sometimes 
the softest decay is whiter than other parts of the tooth ; nor 
again is a black appearance always a sign of decay. How is it 
with the darkened and polished surface of stationary decay, so 
called, and which is more dense than the sound tooth? — the 
tubuli having filled up with some kind of matter, rendering the 
dark spot frequently less indestructible than the surrounding 
tooth substance. Examine such cases after being stationary for 
years, as is the case sometimes, and when decay again commences, 
it is either by a white and softened margin, or by a whitened 
centre. While tooth substance is changing from a healthy state 
to a state of decay, it is not black, but white, brown, or yellow, 
as the case may be ; but it often becomes black after it has par- 
tially decayed. The tubuli take up fluids which become colored, 
or coloring matter is imbibed from the decay without the structure 
of the tooth being at all broken up; that they are capable of 
doing so, is proven by immersing a tooth in the tincture of red 
Saunders, which will color it as dark as dark mahogany ; but the 
tooth never turns white without a loss, or breaking up of structure. 
So it will be seen that color is not an invariable criterion to judge 
by, whether a tooth is decayed or not; but texture combined 
with opacity and discoloration is, except when we approach the 
cementum, it being about the same texture as partial decay. It 
is well known that in many cases where the decay is discolored, 
a dark line is observed running along the tubuli, from the de- 
cayed portion, almost as soon as it is through the enamel, down 
to the pulp cavity. I will cite a single case as an illustration. 
A gentleman who had been residing for some time at New Or- 
leans, accompanied his sister, who was having her teeth operated 
upon, to my office, and while there, expressed a regret that he 
could not have his teeth plugged also; and upon inquiring the 
cause, he informed me that the nerves always had to be exposed 
by cleaning the cavity, and it was so painful that he could not 
bear it, and even if he did, his teeth became diseased at the 
roots, and had to be extracted. I requested him to allow me to 
examine then ; he assented, and, upon examination, I remarked 
at once that I could plug them without exposure of the nerve by 


cleaning; I convinced him that the dark portion of his tooth was 
as hard as the white, and to remove that which had lost its den- 
sity of structure was sufficient; this has been done, and many 
valuable teeth saved for years. This darkened character of the 
tooth substance is not uncommon in tobacco chewers, and it is 
obvious that as the tubuli of the tooth run from its periphery 
towards the pulp cavity, that when the impervious enamel is re- 
moved by any cause, that they will take up coloring matter of 
any kind, and become discolored. Others assert, again, that 
partial decay may be left in the tooth, and that decay will not 
go on if the cavity is plugged solid. It is not impossible that 
the parti'illy decayed bone will not become hard again by infil- 
tration of calcareous matter from the pulp, in the same way that 
the cementum is formed ; but it is not often true that decay will 
not go on when a tooth is plugged in this way, because there is 
sufficient heat, moisture and air pervading at all times in the 
tooth, to favor chemical decomposition when a nucleus of decay 
is once formed, yet decay may not be as rapid as when the tooth 
is not plugged. Now, it is almost needless to say that the in- 
struments used for cleansing and forming the cavity should be 
as thin and sharp as possible, and have sufficient strength to bear 
slight pressure, because the decay, as well as the sound bone, is 
sometimes exquisitely sensitive to the touch,* and to attempt to 
prepare a cavity with a thick and dull instrument in such cases, 
would excite undue and unnecessary pain ; besides, the sharper 
the instrument, the moi'e readily the difference in the texture of 
the decayed and sound bone is distinguished. A small lock of 
cotton, lint or napkin should be held in the hand, to wipe the 
decay from the instrument as fast as it is taken from the tooth, 
as well as to wipe it from the cavity and from about the tooth, 
in order to keep it out of the mouth as much as possible. 

3Iaterial for Plugging. — Great care is necessary in selecting, 

* We do not intend to give any directions with reference to the treatment 
of this condition of the tooth, or the treatment of the pulp, as it is too im- 
portant a subject to be treated without a due consideration of its physiologi- 
cal and pathological conditions, to do which would interfere too much with 
the arrangement of the present papers. 


as well as for preserving, material for plugging. It should be 
kept in a drj place, and a weight placed upon that which is not 
wanted for immediate use, in order to prevent the air from get- 
ting in contact with it, as it will render it more or less brittle 
and dusty; by leaving it exposed to the air, it loses a peculiar 
freshness, which renders it less capable of being firmly packed. 
What is commonly termed No. 6, is better suited, perhaps, for 
general use than any other thickness, because it is not too stiff 
or strong to be packed into a cavity where the parieties are 
weak, nor too light to make a very hard and compact plug in a 
cavity better supported. But we apprehend a great deal may 
depend upon the habit of the operator, because some prefer No. 
4, and others fifteen or even thirty grains to the leaf. It is 
generally asserted that the lighter leaves should be used for the 
small cavities, and the heavier leaves for the larger ones ; but 
we are in the habit of using the thicker leaves for the smaller, 
and the thinner leaves for the larger cavities, for the reasons 
given above; the lighter leaves can be firmly packed with less 
force, but they require a longer time than the heavier ones, and 
when the cavity is very large the parieties are weaker than when 
it is small. It is believed by some that gold cannot be used with 
the same success when the cavity is badly shaped, or the tooth 
frail, or when there is a very small hold for the plug, as tin ; we 
must confess we were once of the same opinion also, but that 
opinion had been partly formed by consulting the views of 
others, and from transient experience, but practice, and a better 
knowledge of packing gold, have led us to a very different con- 
clusion. It is obvious that gold is best, under all circumstances, 
and that tin should not be used except as a temporary filling, or 
a matter of economy. Tin may bo made impervious to air and 
dampness, but it will corrode in most mouths, unless it comes in 
contact with the food in chewing, and then it rapidly wears 
away, as it does not become hard by packing or under pressure, 
as is the case with gold ; in other words, gold will become hard 
and brittle by hammering, and tin will not. This is the princi- 
pal reason why gold can be more successfully employed in a 
cavity where there is a very small hold, than tin ; because it is 


clear that a small hold with a hard metal, and one that can be 
made harder proportionate to the pressure applied to it, is more 
secure than it would be with a softer metal ; and that tin "forms 
a kind of union with the tooth," differing from gold, is too ridi- 
culous to be more than mentioned, and that the walls of the 
cavity are not strong enough to bear the pressure of consolidat- 
ing gold, is equally so; if the tooth will not bear much pressure, 
use thinner leaves. We are sure that No. 4 can be firmly packed 
with as little pressure as can tin ; but the gold must be well pre- 
pared, not only of uniform thickness, but pure, malleable and 
properly annealed, all this requiring care on the part of the one 
who prepares it. J. D. White, M. D. 

[Want of space compels us to defer the publication of the 
last of these three papers until our next issue. — Ed.] 


By W. E. Driscoll, Bedford, lud. 

Having been an admiring reader of The Missouri Dental 
Journal almost from its inception, I propose addressing a few 
words to those whose more immediate duty it is to sustain it. 

Sustenance in this case means money in subscriptions, and 
ideas, fresh and practical, in contributions to its pages. What 
man can sit down to this " feast of reason and flow of soul," or 
the accumulated productions of the brain and heart of the pro- 
fession, without feeling that ''swelling of the heart," he never 
felt before, to make some greater return than the paltry sub- 
scription price? If there be such I have not the egotism to sup- 
pose anything I could say would change them. 

But to those who sometimes do feel a slight glow of fraternal 
feeling in response to some professional revelation that would 
have taken him years to have worked out for himself, I would 
say, "Do as you would be done by," my friend, and you will 
feel all the better for it, and be rated much higher by your pro- 
fessional brethren. 


Those who have given you unsparingly the results of long 
study and experience, deserve the same from you. In taking a 
position in the ranks of the profession, you may have taken the 
place that otherwise would have been filled by one who would 
have labored for the advancement of our specialty; you are 
therefore under obligations to do what you can to make good 
the loss you have occasioned by taking the place of an abler man. 

Whoever desires to see dentistry occupy a position above a 
common trade, or distinguish himself above those who, so far as 
in their power it lies, degrade it, must do something to make the 
distinction visible. To claim a distinction that we make no ef- 
fort to make a reality, is a species of humbuggery that is sure 
of detection and disgrace. Let every one, then, understand 
that he has no special claims to consideration above those who 
do nothing for the profession, until he does something for its 

Does anyone fear his first or second article might be rejected? 
What if it is? He will be all the more likely to try to do bet- 
ter next time. The Editor of long experience is certainly a 
better judge than one upon his first efibrt. When you have 
done your best, that is all we set out to insist on, and this brings 
us to a good place to close this. Only do your best. 



The attention of the profession has very recently been called 
to this new base, as a substitute for rubber, and in reply to many 
inquiries respecting it we copy the circular received from the in- 
ventors, taking the liberty also of comparing some of the state- 
ments made in it with what we know of the base. And we do 
this, not with any desire to prevent its introduction, on the con- 



trary it -vrould give us pleasure to aid the introduction of a base 
possessing the advantages claimed for this, and especially when 
oifered in the liberal spirit this has been, but as a word of caution 
against taking all of the statements made in circulars, prepared 
and sent out to make sale oftentimes of some worthless trash, 
as true, no matter what the professional reputation of those in- 
terested may be. 

The base in question may be a good one for cheap work, worth 
all that is asked for it, but we would not advise any one to be 
too hasty in adopting it. 

Office of the Albany Dental Plate Company. 

We take great pleasure in announcing to the Dental Profes- 
sion, that we are in possession of a newly-invented and patented 
material for dental plates or bases for artificial teeth, that can- 
not fail to delight every dentist who desires a better material 
for the purpose than hard rubber. 

Our material is named "The Perkins-Hyatt Base." It is 
given this name because the compound is the invention of I. S. 
& J. W. Hyatt, Jr., and its application to dental purposes was 
made, in conjunction with the Brothers Hyatt, by Dr. J. A. 
Perkins, well known to the dental profession. 

The main features of this new base are as follows : 

1. It is lighter and at the same time stronger than dental 
vulcanite or hard rubber. 

2. Its color is very near that of the natural gum, and will not 
change in the mouth. 

3. It is entirely free from all unpleasant taste. 

4. It is not in the least afi"ected by the acids of the mouth. 

5. It is not injurious to any mouth, even the most sensitive, 
which is not true of rubber plates containing a large amount of 

6. It can be manufactured and fitted to the mouth easier, 
quicker and more satisfactorily to the operator, than can be done 
with any other known base for artificial teeth, saving enough 
time and trouble to the operator to pay for the plate. 

7. It is more pleasant and comfortable to the wearer than 
dlates made of any other material whatever. 


But a better understanding of the nature of this new base, 
may be bad from the following description of the plates and the 
method of adapting them to use : 

The plates are furnished by us in three different styles ; one 
for upper sets, one for lower, and one for partial; each in as- 
sorted sizes. They are made free from the liability of shrink- 

In making a set of teeth with " The Perkins- Hyatt Base," the 
case is prepared and teeth set in the plaster exactly by the same 
process and in the same manner as is done in preparing to make 
a set with hard rubber, except that the trial plate should be 
made thinner. Care should be taken to use the best quality of 
plaster, and to thoroughly dry the casts before proceeding with 
the final process. 

Around the outside of the teeth, next to the flask, is cut a 
channel, connected by short canals or gates with the inside, to 
receive the excess of material. 

When the flasks are thus prepared a plate of our base of pro- 
per size to approximately fit the mould, is selected. The plate 
is then placed in the lower flask, and the upper flask upon it, 
when the two flasks are put into the screw clamp, ready to e 
forced together, just as would be the case in using rubber. The 
clamp and flasks are then set into a small tank of oil (good 
sweet oil works finely and emits no odor). A gas jet or alcohol 
lamp, placed under the oil tank, is then lighted, and the oil 
is heated up to 300°, {never above 310°,) which is determined by 
a thermometer attached to the vessel. As the oil heats, the 
plate becomes softened and plastic, the clamp is gradually screwed 
down to place, scarcely any force being required until the last, 
when the proper degree of heat being reached, the flasks are 
forced finnly and comiiiletely together. The clamp and flasks are 
then lifted out of the oil, and if the flasks are seen to be en- 
tirely together on all sides, the work of moulding is done. The 
flasks and contents are then immersed in cold water and thor- 
oughly cooled^ when, upon opening the flasks, the case will be 
seen to be moulded in the most perfect manner, the teeth firmly 
attached, and the shape of the plaster moulds perfectly taken to 


the minutest particular. The case is then freed from plaster 
with brush and water, and finished and polished exactly as would 
be done with rubber. Chalk is used as a last finish with cotton 
wheel and water. 

A set of teeth can be made with our base, in from one-third 
to one-quarter of the time required in working rubber. No un- 
pleasant odor fills the room or attaches to the hands. Every 
thing is neat, convenient and clean; and manipulating the ma- 
terial from first to last is a positive luxury. 

In working our base, no instructions further than the above, 
are required by any dentist who is acquainted with the use of 

Our apparatus consists of a tank, with thermometer attached, 
for heating oil, a screw clamp, and a pair of flasks. The oil 
tank is of a neat and appropriate shape and size ; the clamp 
strong and easily worked, and the flasks exactly adapted to the 


Upper, Lower and Partial Plates, assorted sizes, each, $1.00 

Apparatus complete, . . . _ 7,00 

" in parts,— Oil Tank, - - - 2.25 

Thermometer, - - 1.00 

Clamp, - - - . 2.50 

Flask, - - - 1.25 

We charge nothing for licenses. The right to use goes with 
the plates. Each dentist will pay only for what he uses. 

We oifer the "Perkins-Hyatt Base" to dentists with perfect 
confidence that all will be abundantly satisfied that it is supe- 
rior to any other known base for artificial teeth. 

Our apparatus and plates will be on sale at the various dental 
depots as fast as we can furnish them. 

All orders sent to us, accompanied with draft or P. 0. money 
order, or with directions to send by express, C. 0. D., will be 
promptly filled. I. Smith Hyatt, 

Secretary of the Albany Dental Plate Company. 

From the well known professional reputation of Dr. Perkins, 



we were prepared to accept as true most, of the statendents made 
in the above circular, and to hope that a\substance had been dis- 
covered at last that would take the place of rubber. We ordered 
material and apparatus for working it, feeling confident that we 
should get something better than any thing we have had for a 
cheap base. We received what we ordered, have tried it, and 
are sorry to say have been disappointed ; our expectations 
have not been realized in any considerable degree. 

We find the base to be a compound of collodion (made by dis- 
solving gum cotton in camphor), with guni copal, or some other 
_jvegetable substance, to prevent the shrinkage. In comparing 
the material we received with the statements made in the circu- 
lar respecting it, we find first, that while it is a little lighter than 
rubber it is not as strong, being unfit on this account for partial 
cases, of one or two teeth. Secondly, its color, reddish pink, is 
very little better than that of rubber. It may not change color 
on being worn. Thirdly, It is not entirely free from all unpleas- 
ant taste to those who dislike the taste of camphor ; some pa- 
tients undoubtedly will not object to its use on this account. 
Fourthly, It may not be injurious to any mouth not sensitive to 
the efi'ect of camphor ; in our own case the eflFect is decidedly 
unpleasant. Fifthly, It can be manipulated as easily as rubber. 
Sixthly, We question the assertion that it is more pleasant to 
the wearer than plates made of any other material. We do 
not find it as pleasant or comfortable to wear, as either gold or 
rubber. Seventhly, The assertion that a set of teeth can be 
made with this base, in from one-third to one-fourth of the 
time required for working rubber, is simply not true. The 
manipulation of this base being precisely that of rubber, except 
the packing and vulcanizing, will of course require the same 
time. To pack and vulcanize a rubber case will require from 
fifty minutes to an hour. To thoroughly dry the moulds prepar- 
atory to packing the Perkins base, especially in the solid flask 
sent us, will require at least 30 minutes; to heat up the oil and 
pack the case, twenty minutes, making fifty minutes, the time it 
takes to pack and vulcanize a rubber case, or nearly. 

The odor of boiling sweet oil, combined with that of camphor, 


is quite as unpleasant as that of sulphur from the vulcanizing 
of rubber. It may be considered neat, clean, and a perfect lux- 
ury to some persons to work this base, but we have no desire 
for such luxuries. It may prove superior to any known artifi- 
cial teeth, but we are not prepared, from what we have seen of 
it, to admit it. 

It will undoubtedly do very well for temporary work, for full 
sets, or sets of eight or ten teeth, but for partial sets of scatter- 
ing teeth it does not possess the requisite strength to make it of 
any value. 

An important item seems to have been overlooked in the cir- 
cular. No mention is made of the mode of repairing this work. 
Any base to compete with rubber must be as readily and easily 
repaired. We doubt "if the Perkins base possesses this quality. 

We think that a base will yet be produced from collodion su- 
perior to rubber, but do not think it has yet been reached. This 
base may be a step in advance — we hope it is. 

We have seen one case, a full upper set, which has now been 
worn two weeks with perfect satisfaction. The patient was an old 
lady, who had been wearing a badly fitting rubber plate, and 
who had been in the habit of making great use of the spirits of 
camphor. As this plate fits nicely it is certainly an improve- 
ment on the old rubber one, and the taste or smell of cam- 
phor is no objection in her case. <L . . /i^ (j vA'EAJitEa^ 


"The St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal," 

for March, presents several articles of interest. We notice a 
communication from J. H. Tyndale, M. D., of New York, upon 
the employment of cold baths in the treatment of typhoid fever, 
in which he claims that the ratio of mortality has been reduced 
by this treatment from three to five per cent. 

This treatment was practised to some extent, even in the last 


century, but has now been again revived, and has received the 
approbation of many physicians of note on both sides of the 

The rationale of cure is at once apparent, as soon as it is sta- 
ted that in fever there is an actual increase in the heat of the 
body as evidenced by the thermometer, and the system is brought 
down to the normal standard by the cooling process. 

It is also necessary to premise that in many cases of death 
from fever no anatomical lesions can be discovered, and it is 
probable tbat in these cases the exalted temperature is finally 
the cause of death, the primary exciting cause having passed 

Theodore Meyer, M. D., of Belleville, 111., reports a case of 
rupture of the left ventricle of the heart, with recovery. The 
case was diagnosed with the greatest exactness, and there can be 
no doubt — in the mind of the author — of the correctness of 
the conclusions arrived at in relation to this extraordinary case. 
We commend all broken-hearted swains and maidens to Dr. 
Meyer, of Belleville, 111., that their rent hearts may be healed. 

Dr. S. Weir Mitchell in an article in 

"The American Medical Journal," 

reports numerous cases showing conclusively that the use of the 
bromide of potassium, sodium, ammonia, and lithium produces 
eruptions, sores and ulcers on the skin. 

"The Medical Investigator," 

a Homoeopathic journal of medicine, has an article by S. B. 
upon " Difficult Dentition." After stating that it was but a short 
time since he "sat at the feet of learned Professors in a Med- 
ical College," he proceeds as follows : 

"One of the Professors expatiating on the effectiveness 
of homoeopathic remedies in almost every condition of human suf- 
fering, took occasion to denounce the practice of lancing the 
gums in difficult dentition. He said considerable on the subject, 
the sum of which was, that in true homoeopathic practice, lancing 
was never called for. 


* ** * * * * * 

" I made bold to remark that in tending my fathers flocks I 
had saved many a lamb, by timely cutting its gums. 

"I drew upon myself what I expected, — a little laugh and 
many a look which said, 'you had better have kept still.' 

"But to continue: Now that I am having a little practice in 
caring for babies, I must give you a bit of experience in that 

"A few nights since, I was called, in great haste, to see a child 
that had just had a fit. I found the child was having spasms. I 
administered the homoeopathic dose according to the symptoms as 
they appeared to me, and I thought with some success. The 
patient had no more spasms for a number of hours. But the 
paroxysms returned. I applied myself dilligently, seeking 
counsel from Guernsey, Raue, Lippe and others, that, if possi- 
ble, I might get the remedy that was exactly homoeopathic to 
the condition. But the spasms kept coming more and more fre- 
quent, and harder, and it did seem as if the child must die. The 
parents gave it up. But finally, as it came out of a terrible 
spasm, and just as it was going into another, I went for the little 
tooth, which was pressing hard against a tough membrane. The 
operation was soon done, and the little sufferer was just as soon 
relieved. It went right to sleep, and slept sweetly for half an 
hour, and it has not had another spasm yet." 

"The Cosmos," 

for March, has an article continued from the February number, 
by A. C. Castle, M. D., which was read before the New York 
First-District Dental Society, in January 1871, entitled "Notes 
for a Memoir on the Pathology of the Teeth." We learn from 
the author that "it is the province of these notes for a memoir 
on the pathology of the teeth, to demonstrate that the dental 
system holds pathological communion with the whole body, and 
that medicine possesses the power of reaching the abnormal 
changes in dental disease." That the author supposes that he has 
embarked upon an unknown ocean, and that the path which leads 


to a consideration of the "constitutional characteristics of the 
teeth," has been hitherto unexplored, is evident, as he remarks 
on page 59 of the February number, that "these writers — i. e, 
writers on pathology — have altogether avoided constitutional 

Harris says — after premising that the same causes do not al- 
ways produce the same effects — "their effects are determined 
by the tendency of the organism, and the susceptibility of the 
part on which they act; both .with regard to the constitutional 
and local diseases. This is true of the organism generally and 
of all its parts separately considered, but of none more than" the 
teeth, gums, and alveolar process. 

"With the teeth, these differences of susceptibility to morbid 
impressions, are implanted in them at the time of their forma- 

As this refers as plainly as language can well do to "constitu- 
tional peculiarities," we must conclude that our author had not 
reached Harris in his readings upon this subject. 

But Delabarre recommends mothers having teeth constitu- 
tionally bad, to abstain from suckling, and that this highly im- 
portant office be entrusted to a nurse having good teeth, and 
thus avoid the transmission of so troublesome a heritage. 

Mr. Tomes says: "It can, however, be scarcely doubted that 
an imperfect organization of the teeth, if not the result of some 
special disease, such as measles, influencing the system generally, 
is yet consequent upon a constitutional condition." 

As both of these authors have not "altogether overlooked con- 
stitutional peculiarities," it is evident that our author had over- 
looked them in his readings. 

But Garretson, in his work on the " Diseases of the Mouth, 
Jaws and Associated Parts," says: "In the treatment of every 
case of dental caries which may present itself, the careful prac- 
titioner first endeavors to satisfy himself of the causes, constitu- 
tional and local, influencing the diseased condition. Of the con- 
stitutional causes, all affect the integrity of the teeth which are 
deteriorative to the system at large. Unhappily for the dental 


organism, primary unhealthy impressions made upon the teeth 
while in their formation or pulpy state are apt to influence more 
or less their character for life." Garretson, then, does not seem 
to have overlooked the "constitutional peculiarities of the 

Now, in view of these facts, would it not have been advisable 
for our author to have at least looked into some dental work be- 
fore making the assertion that writers upon the pathology of the 
teeth had altogether overlooked constitutional peculiarities. 

We have been somewhat particular in making up this point, in 
order that no one may be surprised at the phase of the various 
scientific points which are to follow. We do not propose to no- 
tice the grammatical pecidiarities of this rare specimen of den- 
tal literature, but shall confine our observations to a very brief 
consideration of its literary and scientific characteristics. 

One anatomical fact of considerable importance is here stated, 
which as it was not known to Grey or Wilson, should not be lost. 
Speaking of the fifth pair of nerves, he says: "This pair of 
nerves anastomosing Avith the seventh pair of nerves forming the 
respirator^/ nerves, and those of expression of the face." We 
quote this simply for the benefit of Grey and Wilson. 

Another quotation, which follows below, and which illus- 
trates quite forcibly the aquaintance of the author with the den- 
tal and medical literature of the day, needs no comment: "Is it 
not singular, after hundred years' experience, that up to this 
moment physicians, surgeons, oculists, nor dentists have ever sus- 
pected, or if they have suspected, they have never applied their 
understanding to investigate and demonstrate the pathological- 
sympathetic afiections of the dental system with other organs." 
A little farther on we find, " while the first or milk teeth are be- 
ing formed of corpuscular and molecular soft gelatinous j^^'edom- 
inance," etc. We were not before aware that a "soft, gelatinous 
predominance'' in any form was one of the elements from which 
milk teeth were formed. 

In speaking of second dentition, he remarks that "gelatin and 
earthy dentition tissues are in perfect organized union, as the sub- 
stance of the teeth was originally intended, in its physico-phys- 


iological-pathological-mechanical harmony," We think that har- 
mony lucidly modified, to say nothing about a 'physiological 
pathological harmony in perfectly formed teeth. 

In the continuation cf the. same subject in the March number 
of the Cosmos, while speaking of the "internal vital principle" 
in certain kinds of teeth, "its peculiar action is exhibited by a 
spontaneous cause produced from the internal blood-vessels se- 
creting and depositing in and through the tubuli or pores, a new 
material, osteo-dentine; which not ordy is forced into the capil- 
laries of the dental bone, but also saturates and forms a thick 
covering over the carious surface, thus furnishing a natural pro- 
tecting shield." 

What a surprise this will be to those benighted histogenists 
who have always supposed that this osteo-dentine was only formed 
within the pulp chamber, and not upon the outside of the den- 
tine, and who up to this time have been wofully ignorant of this 
method adopted by nature for the treatment of caries of the 

In speaking of fissures, he states, that "if left alone they re- 
main free for many years, or, in the course of time they are ob- 
literated by the wearing down of the teeth, or are filled in by 

We are not informed in what way this osteo-dentine is organ- 
ized, but we suppose it is accomplished in souie new way with- 
out the intervention of any dental organ. 

In some remarks upon abrasion of the teeth, we find another 
characteristic exemplification of the literary acquirements of the 
writer, as follows: "Another form — and the only one alluded 
to by writers, and by them termed ^denudation' — is the wast- 
ing away of the teeth without any apparent cause." 

Now, Harris speaks of denudation of the teeth, and gives a 
chapter to its consideration, but his denudation and this author's 
"another form" of abrasion have nothing in common, and then 
in another chapter he gives a complete description of the dis- 
ease, as described by the writer of the article in the Cosmos, 
under the head of spontaneous abrasion, and a third chapter 
follows upon mechanical abrasion of the teeth. Mr. Tomes 


treats of mechanical abrasion. Mr. Bell treats of spontaneous 
abrasion and of denudation, and yet we are told that this spon- 
taneous abrasion is the only one alluded to by writers, and by 
them termed denudation. 

But we quote once more. '"And once the dignity of its true 
character being recognized by the light of pathogenic truth," 
etc , etc. 

Let us look at the force of the expression, "pathogenic truth." 
The word "pathogenic," which has not yet found its way into 
the lexicons, must be the adjective corresponding to the noun 
pathogeny and consequently signifies disease-begetting, or dis- 
ease producing, and the phrase disease producing truths gives a 
fair idea of the plain English of the two words, Avhich is not 
only plain English, but is also plainly nonsensical. 

Men who could write something really instructive, if they would 
confine themselves to some practical points with which they were 
familiar, only expose their ignorance when they attempt to teach 
others what thoy do not understand themselves. 

We heartily wish that there was no necessity for such com- 
ments upon the communications which we find in the journals, 
but if such monstrosities in dental literature go unnoticed, 
the whole profession necessarily becomes to a certain extent 
responsible for them, and are judged according to their standard. 

Another article in the March number of the Cosmos, by Thos. 
B. Hitchcock, Professor of Dental Pathology, etc., in Harvard 
Dental School, gives some valuable statistics in relation to the 
capping of dental pulps with oxychloride of zinc. Only six 
cases of known failure in one hundred and five. 

The author states, " These failures have made me more cau- 
tious, in this method of treatment." These statistics are valu- 
able when carefully gathered up and utilized, and we wish we 
had more of them from all parts of the country. 

My own experience coincides very nearly with that of Dr. 
Hitchcock, with about the same proportion of known failures, 
and like him I find myself more cautious in making use of it for 
capping nerves, and more inclined to destroy the pulp in very 
unfavorable cases. 


In the report of " The Ondontographic Society of Pennsylva- 
nia," Dr. Kingsbury stated that in attempting to extract a bicuspid 
tooth, he could only raise it some three or four lines in the alve- 
olus, all the force which he thought it prudent to exert not suf- 
ficing to remove it from the socket. Being satisfied that it was 
a case of exosotsis, he delayed the operation for five or six days, 
when the changes that had taken place in the bony structures 
surrounding the tooth, in consequence of the inflammation which 
had supervened from the former attempt at extraction, the tooth 
was easily removed. 

In "The Susquehanna Dental Association," the discussion 
turned upon "bleaching teeth." It was generally conceded when 
teeth had been discolored for a considerable period of time, it 
was usually impossible to restore them to their original color. 

In Professor Garretson's clinical reports we find that he re- 
commends, in cases of caries of the maxillary bones, the injec- 
tion of zinc, iodine, and tinct. of capsicum, thrown in once in 
two or three days, and if this fails to assist nature in the per- 
formance of a cure after a resasonable time, he would cut down 
and remove the diseased bone. In 

"The Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal," 

for March, we find an article translated from the French by Dr. 
D. Woorster, upon "The Physiological and Therapeutic Effects 
of Chloral," by M. Buchert. 

We learn from this that Dumas endorses fully the theory of 
Liebreich in relation to the conversion of chloral into chloro- 
form, in the system, through the influence or ine serum or 
the blood, which had, however, been disputed by MM. Demar- 
quay, Kirshaber, Dieulafay and Labb^. The author recom- 
mends it highly in cases of chorea. It should not, however, be 
given in organic afi"ections of the brain, or heart, or lungs. J. 

The seventh annual meeting of the Illinois State Dental So- 
ciety, will be held at Galesburg, on the second Tuesday (9th) of 
May, 1871, commencing at 10 o'clock A. M. 

gl0^0MI I 


Vol. III.] MAY, 1871. [No. 5. 


Bj George H. Ccshing. — Read before the Chicago Dental Society. 

The subject assigned to me for this evening, is one, the impor- 
tance of which I think is not properly appreciated, and in at- 
tempting its treatment, I am met at the outset with the inquiry 
which I know is made inwardly by many minds if not outwardly 
by many lips: "What is conservative dentistry?" 

I should not perhaps have thought it necessary to attempt any 
elaborate definition of the term, if I had not heard two gentle- 
men of the profession, among the most intelligent and advanced 
of my acquaintance, making the inquiry as to the meaning of 
the term which constitutes the heading of this paper; so, though 
the matter seemed so clear to my own mind, I have upon reflec- 
tion concluded that it is very probable that the term may con- 
vey little significance to many minds, and, therefore, demands 
that it should be as briefly defined as is consistent with a fair 
understanding of the subject. 

Conservative is defined by Webster as "having power to pre- 
serve in a safe or entire state, or from loss, waste or injury ; pre- 
servative." It comes from the Latin "con," and "servare," 
"to keep, to guard ! " The term has been greatly in vogue for 
several years past, as applied to general surgery, though it is 
doubtful if any uniformity of definition prevails among medical 


Prof., of Rush Medical College, says: "Conservative 
surgery is conventional, meaning, as I understand it, preservative 
surgery, and is generally applied to the place between extremes. 
It is usually applied as antipode to heroic surgery." 

Professor Gross in his work, in the chapter on "Excision of 
Bones and Joints," says: "Excision differs from amputation in 
this, that while in the latter the bone is removed along with the 
soft parts which surround it, in the former the bone alone is cut 
-away, the integuments, muscles and other tissues being retained, 
in order that they may contribute to the future usefulness of the 
limb, or, in other and more comprehensive language, while in 
the one case all the structures are destroyed, in the other as 
many of them as possible preserved. Hence this department 
of surgery has very appropriately been denominated 'conserva- 
tive surgery,' and it is most gratifying to know that it constitutes 
one of the leading characteristics of the healing art of the pres- 
ent day." He thus seems to confine the term, in its application, 
to that especial division of surgery. 

Again, Dr. Davis, of New York, has published a work enti- 
tled, "Conservative or Mechanical Surgery, as exhibited in reme- 
dying some of the mechanical causes that operate injuriously, 
both in health and disease." Thus, there would seem to be no 
authoritative definition of the term among surgeons, yet I be- 
lieve there is a broader and deeper significance to the term than 
any of the definitions above given would seem to imply, and one 
which is generally felt among surgeons, although perhaps difficult 
to define. I think it clearly has reference to those advanced 
methods of pratice, which have of later years become so general 
in any and all departments of surgery, which tend to lessen the 
frequency of operations involving great loss of structure, either 
by substituting less formidable ones, or by anticipating disease, 
so that in many cases no operation at all is necessary. 

The surgeon following this higher order of practice thus be- 
comes the conserver — preserver — his province is, "to keep" — 
"to guard" — not only the life and health of his patient, but 
also the integrity of his body to the very fullest extent. 

If, then, there is this important application of the term con- 


servative in relation to general surgery, how much more emphat- 
ically should it apply, as in reference to the specialty of den- 

It is true that the dentist has not to operate on organs or parts 
of the body involving, as a rule, such important relations to the 
vital functions, or to locomotion, or to general usefulness, as the 
general surgeon has ; nor do his operations often threaten dan- 
ger to life or general health, but his field is a very important one, 
and upon his successful operations, or otherwise, often depends 
to a great extent, not only the comfort, but the health of his pa- 
tient, and his skill should be as conscientiously applied as though 
he were operating on more vital organs. He is constantly called 
upon to decide between the immediate loss of organs of the econ- 
omy, or the effort to preserve them. In his case it is utter loss 
of those organs on the one hand, as against the attempt to pre- 
serve them on the other, while there is not, as is often the case 
with operations in general surgery, the danger of fatal conse- 
quences to be weighed in forming a decision. 

There are those in the profession who hold that there is a 
-moral obligation binding upon all men, not to mutilate the human 
"body in the slightest degree beyond what is actually demanded 
as a " dernier resort," to remove otherwise incurable disease, or 
in case of extreme suffering, or the removal of obnoxious defor- 
mities. Such men will tell you "it is a sin to extract a tooth." 
Without taking the extreme position which this class occupy, I 
Tvill still say that there is more truth in their assumptions than 
the profession generally are willing to acknowledge. The prov- 
ince of the dentist is essentially that of a "conserver " — a "pre- 
server." He is in duty bound "to keep" and "to guard" that 
portion of the human body which it is his province to treat, as 
much as for the general surgeon to save to the uttermost that 
"which lies within the province of his art to treat. 

Let us then inquire as to the present status of the profession 
as regards this sort of practice — how we stand as in relation to 
the past, and what can be forecast regarding the future — touch- 
ing briefly some of the prominent points in relation to the sub- 
ject which seem to demand especial consideration. 


The time was, and not more than twenty years ago, when 
the prevailing practice was to extract most aching teeth, ex- 
cept perhaps the six anterior teeth in either jaw, — or, if such 
teeth were not extracted, the majority of honest practitioners- 
gave little encouragement to the patient for any prolonged use- 
fulness of a tooth, the pulp of which had to be devitalized be- 
fore filling. Dating perhaps from that time, advancement be- 
gan to be apparent in the methods of treatment of teeth with 
exposed pulps, and greater thoroughness in the operations of re- 
moving the devitalized pulps and filling of the pulp chamber and 
canals, brought with it greater encouragement as to this method, 
until a few years later the thorough and conscientious practi- 
tioner could honestly advise his patients to have this operation 
performed, as promising reasonably of success. This was emi- 
nently an advance in "conservative practice," and so marked 
that I doubt not all of you here present can corroborate the 
statement, that while, even ten years ago, the usual remark of the 
patient when coming to us with an aching tooth was: "Doctor, 
I have an aching tooth, I want you to extract it," — that to-day 
the large majority say instead, "Doctor, I have a bad tooth, I 
wish you would see if you can do anything to save it." And 
while two years ago it was very difficult to persuade some pa- 
tients — and very many, too — to consent to the attempt to save 
the tooth by devitalization of the pulp, to-day it is sometimes- 
diflScult to persuade people to have a tooth extracted, even when 
there is obviously no other course proper to be pursued. 

This is evidence of remarkable advancement, for when you 
find the people educated to the point of demanding such opera- 
tions, you may be sure that the operations have met with favor, 
through the established evidence of their reasonable success. 

Recognizing the demands of this conservative principle, ear- 
nest men in the profession, even as long ago as twenty-five years, 
or thereabouts, turned their attention toward devising some 
method of treatment of exposed pulps, which should render it 
possible to fill such teeth, and retain at the same time their vital- 
ity. Various methods of capping exposed pulps were pursued, 
and some with occasional seeming successes, but after years of 


■experiment and experience, the profession came to decide gen- 
-erally that the capping of exposed pulps was not a reliable prac- 
tice, and it was in the main abandoned, and devitalization and 
extirpation held almost undisputed possession of the field, until 
the introduction to the notice of the profession of the method of 
capping with oxy-chloride zinc. This method has seemed to 
prove thus far, more successful than any previously tried, and 
although it has not yet been tested by sufficient length of time 
to justify us in pronouncing fully upon its merits, it certainly 
can be said to give great promise for the future, and through its 
.aid we may reasonably hope to arrive at the highest point to be 
attained in "conservative practice." 

These are the most striking features which present themselves 
in a review of this subject, but there are others almost as impor- 
tant, and in connection with which there are some points which 
especially demand our consideration. 

The introduction of cohesive foil and gold, inaugurated a 
marked era in dental art, rendering possible the performance of 
very many operations which otherwise, or with soft foil, could 
never have been performed. In this way the crowns of teeth 
can be restored, and the organs rendered almost as serviceable 
as the na'tural ones, and the operations can be rendered reason- 
ably permanent, while otherwise many such teeth could not be 
successfully treated, and would early fall a prey to the forceps, 
and others could only be treated with partial success by the use 
of amalgam, that always uncertain material, even if there were 
no other objections to its general use. 

The class of operations here referred to have frequently been 
derisively termed ^^ fancy operations." 

They are fancy operations in just the sense that the " excisions 
of joints" are fancy operations, as compared with operations of 
amputation of the entire limb, of which Professor Gross — as be- 
fore quoted — says, "it is most gratifying to know that it con- 
stitutes one of the leading characteristics of the healing art of 
the present day." I am glad to be able to say, that the same 
■expression may be used as applied to our specialty, for such ope- 
rations are eminently conservative, and are daily coming to be 
better understood and more justly appreciated. 


The improved methods of manipulating cohesive foil, together 
with the superior character of instruments of late years intro- 
duced, which have come to us as the result of earnest thought 
and experiment, tested bv experience from leading men in the 
profession, leave no excuse for most men to use any other mate- 
rial than gold for filling in a large majority of cases. And yet, 
notwithstanding the great advance which it has been affirmed 
has been made toward true conservative practice, we find to-day, 
very often, in large cities particularly, a class of operators, and 
first-rate operators as well, who use amalgam to an alarming ex- 
tent. Men who command first-rate fees too. 

You will often hear such men say, "I frequently hear of 
Dr. A. or B. charging forty, fifty or sixty dollars for an opera- 
tion, but I never could bring my conscience to the point of ma- 
king such charges." To those acquainted with the operations 
of such men, the reason is very obvious — they never perform 
the operations which entitle a man to such a fee. In such cases 
they invariably use amalgam, when gold could be used to much 
greater advantage to the patient, and where, did they use the 
gold, they would find that their consciences would not only al- 
low them to charge such fees, but that they could not conscien- 
tiously perform the operations for less. 

It is just here that I think a large part of the profession fails 
to appreciate the demands of the conservative principle; neg- 
lecting to do their duty by their patients, either through fear to 
demand a just recompense for their skill and labor, or from dis- 
inclination to make operations demanding so great an outlay of 
time and nervous force. There are many practitioners who fol- 
low this course through ignorance, and sin blindly; but for such 
there can be no excuse off'ered, because if they attend the So- 
cieties faithfully, take and read all the journals studiously, and 
inform themselves as fully as they can, it will be made clear to 
them that such operations as those just referred to can be made 
with gold successfully, and of a much more lasting character 
than with any other material, and they should learn to do these 
things, nor rest satisfied until they can perform successfully the 
operations which so many around them have long been and are 
still constantly performing. 


I wish particularly to call attention to this point, and not so 
much that of the younger members of the profession, as of the 
older — for to the latter, as a general rule, the temptation comes 
with more force, to shrink the responsibility and fatigue of such 
operations, than to the younger members. The older members 
generally feel perhaps that their reputations are established,, 
while the younger have theirs still to build up. 

Again, the temptation comes to most of us almost daily to ex- 
tract teeth which we feel assured may be preserved by careful 
pains-taking treatment. 

We dread to undertake operations which we know will be te- 
dious and discouraging, both to the patient and to ourselves; and 
so many times we try to convince ourselves against our real con- 
victions, that the best that we can do for our patients is to advise 
extraction. This we surely have no right to do, for we are not 
thus doing our highest duty — if there is any thing higher than 
simple duty — and that duty is to be found in simply living up 
to the conservative principle. 

It may be safely affirmed, as a general rule, that where there 
is reasonable hope of ultimate success, the attempt should always 
be made to save a tooth, and it should be restored as fully as 
possible to its original usefulness. Anything short of this for 
our aim is not truly conservative. 

These are the main points to which I desire to call your atten- 
tion, but it must not be forgotten that prevention is better than 
cure, and that the highest expression of conservative practice 
will be reached only when we can successfully address ourselves 
to prevention rather than cure. 

What I have said imperfectly upon this subject has been with 
a view to enunciate a great principle, and is not to be understood 
as condemning in toto certain practices, as for instance, the use 
of amalgam, which under certain circumstances is unquestion- 
ably invaluable, or with reference to extraction, for clearly that 
is frequently demanded ; but it is affirmed that according to our 
light our endeavor should always be conservative. 

The mistake must not be made in the application of the term 
conservative, in its sense of being opposed to change or innova- 


tion — which is one of its definitions — for conservative practice 
in surgery or any of its branches depends for its very life upon 
change and innovation — it is essentially progressive. 

The endeavor has been made to place this subject before you 
in a manner that might be comprehended, and with the hope 
that the importance of it might be impressed upon your minds. 
In that hope I shall leave the subject, summing up briefly the 
definition of conservative dentistry as the conscientious applica- 
tion of the highest attainments in our science and art, tending 
always to the conservative — the preservation of the teeth in a 
safe or entire state, keeping and guarding them from greater loss 
of structure than is absolutely essential they should suffer in the 
process of restoring and saving them. 

The advance which has been made in this direction during the 
past ten years, gives us great encouragement to hope for the fu- 
ture, that conservative dentistry will ultimately attain to a near 
approach to perfection, and rank deservedly among the highest 
specialties of surgery. 

To this end we should not forget that every individual owes 
it to his profession, himself and the public, to advance by every 
means in his power, the science and art of his chosen calling, 
that that day may the sooner arrive, when conservative dentistry 
shall be crowned with the well-deserved praise of carrying heal- 
ing and beneficence on its wings, "h^.^^^^^..^ ^^,4^ 5<rvn^ ■ 

From " The Pharmacist." 


By Prof. A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. — Before the Society of Arts. — Reprinted 
from the Pharmaceutical Journal, London. 

(Continued from Page 128.) 

Take another experiment. I have here something which is not 
a Mane mange, although it looks something like it; it was made 
by boiling potato-starch with water. We let it cool, and then 


turned it out; some was put into a flask with two or three ounces 
of crushed malt. It was warmed to a temperature of 60° Centi- 
grade for about an hour; there was no boiling. The substance 
ivas then squeezed through a cloth to keep back the husks of the 
malt, and here is the liquid which ran through. It is perfectly 
liquid, and its consistency is entirely different from that of starch, 
from which it was made; it is quite sweet to the taste, and there 
is a large quantity of sugar in it. There is also another body 
which we class with the sugars; that is, there is in this liquid a 
good deal of a kind of gum, which we call dextrine, which would 
•easily pass into sugar. The starch, when it was being converted 
by the action of the malt into those soluble bodies, did not, so far 
as we know, break up into simpler substances ; the process was of 
a different kind. It assimilated the water — the starch combined 
with the water, and at the same time divided itself, some of it 
forming one and some the other product. Here, also, there was 
not, as far as my knowledge goes, any ferment or any organized 
oells in the liquid. If they were present it was an accident, and 
was not essential to the change which took place. I am the more 
confident in saying that no ferment was there present, for we can 
get, and we very often do get, precisely the same formation of 
starch without any malt at all. If, instead of warming some of 
that starch with the infusion of malt, I had mixed it with a little 
— about five per cent. — of that strong sulphuric acid, and had 
heated it, it would have been dissolved almost like sugar in water. 
In fact, there are now in Germany, and also in England, manu- 
factories in which starch is converted, by the action of dilute 
sulphuric acid, into grape-sugar, and the same change which we 
get by organic substances — that is the point — we also get by the 
action of this mineral acid. 

Another change of the same kind I may mention, especially 
4is the subject of it is in itself interesting. I have here a sub- 
stance which people have been accused of making for the purpose 
of adulterating quinine. It is made from willow-bark, and is 
believed to possess febrifuge qualities, so that there was some 
little excuse for what I have mentioned. This substance is called 
salicine, and when heated with dilute sulphuric acid, in the same 


way as the starch when so heated was converted into sugar and 
dextrine, this salicine breaks up in a way which I might compare 
with that in which some bodies are broken up by fermentation. 

Another case of the same kind is afforded by tannin, a substance 
extracted from gall-nuts, and which is present in oak and many 
other barks. It is used for combining with gelatine, which is the 
principal constituent in hides, to form leather. If we dissolve 
this tannin in water, and leave it in an open vessel, it will get 
mouldy; and if you examined it after some time you would find 
none of it left. It would all disappear, just like sugar in the 
process of fermentation, and in place of it you would find, in that 
particular process, a body which you might easily crystallize out 
from the liquid, and which I have here; it is called gallic acid. 
It is a body resembling tannin in some respects, for instance, in 
the property of forming, in combination with iron, a dark sub- 
stance, which is used in suspension in water, for writing-ink» 
But it will not do to form leather in combination with gelatine. 
If you left the tannin in an open vessel, it would decompose, and 
there would be left gallic acid, and some other material which 
was formed at the same time would have disappeared. By boil- 
ing tannin Avith dilute acid, we get the process performed more 
regularly. Upon boiling some tannin with dilute sulphuric acid,^ 
you Avould find that water would be taken up by it, the tannin 
would combine with water, and it would break up into sugar and 
gallic acid, the process being exactly like that which I mentioned 
in the case of salicine. There is a most direct analogy between 
the process of breaking up which sulphuric acid effects upon 
tannin and that of fermentation. I ought to say, when telling 
you of the decomposition of the tannin, that it is effected by 
little animal organisms present in the liquid, and it appears that 
they are the agents of the transformation. 

Then there are some other processes of considerable importance, 
from their occurrence in the animal economy — processes which I 
believe must be classed between those experiments which I showed 
you a little while ago and the process of fermentation, — I mean 
processes which occur in the operation of digestion. I have here 
a gelatinous solid, w'hich contains a substance called pepsine,. 


which was made by dissolving the inner lining of a pig's stomach 
in diluted hydrochloric acid at about blood-heat. The inner 
lining of the stomach of that and similar animals is dissolved 
gradually, and that solution possesses the property of dissolving 
muscular fibre, white of egg, and other similar substances; it is, 
in fact, artificial gastric juice, and it would, for instance, dissolve 
that lump of gluten which I showed you just now — which looked 
something like india-rubber — and when this pepsine dissolves al- 
bumen by digestion, for the process is doubtless of the same kind 
as that which occurs in the animal economy, it does so by break- 
ing it up into bodies which are no doubt simpler than itself, 
bodies which we do not know accurately and fully. They are 
called peptones, for it is coojmon enough to gives names to bodies 
even before one knows them well. I do not know whether it is 
a good plan, but it is customary. These bodies are a good deal 
similar to those which are present in malt, and in such like mix- 
tures, which have undergone vital changes. 

Then I will give you one or two other cases of similar processes. 
Here is a singularly beautiful acid, called hippuric acid, which 
decomposes with very great readiness if left in the liquids in which 
it is originally found. When that organic mixture is exposed to 
the air, it undergoes a process of putrefaction. The general ap- 
pearances which take place in the liquid while the substance is 
decomposing, would certainly be described by anybody as a 
putrefactive process, and there is formed by its decomposition 
some of this other beautiful acid, called benzoic acid, because it 
was originally obtained from the fragrant gum benzoin. At the 
same time there are other products given off which decompose. 
Now we can, by mineral substances, efi"ect the same decomposition 
of that hippuric acid. A German chemist, to whom we owe many 
researches in these matters, showed, some years ago, that if you 
boiled hippuric acid with dilute sulphuric acid, it takes up water, 
and breaks up into benzoic acid, and this crystalline substance, 
called glycocol or sugar of glue. It got that name from the 
circumstance that it was obtained originally from glue by a 
decomposing action, and it has a sweet taste. It has no analogy 
to sugar in its nature, but it has that superficial resemblance that 
it is rather sweet. 


This hippuric acid affords another case of a body which is broken 
up, either by putrefaction or by the action of dilute sulphuric 
acid. It affords a strong argument, and other cases I have ad- 
duced afford, like it, an argument that the action of these organic 
substances resembles the action of sulphuric acid. If we get the 
same change in several cases by the action of an organic body 
as by the action of a mineral body, the fact certainly goes some 
way toward showing that the two substances must be, in their 
mode of action, generally alike. There is another case, that of 
urea, which, in contact with water, forms a carbonate. That may 
be done by either class of re-agent. 

There are, however, some chemical processes even simpler than 
these, and for that reason they are better known to us, which 
really may be studied with advantage, side by side with those I 
have mentioned, and they will, I think, afford us, on further 
consideration, a key to the explanation of these processes. I 
will only mention two. One is a process which is well known in 
its general features, and it is a process of breaking up, truly 
analagous to those I have mentioned, but a perfectly simple break- 
ing up of alcohol into two substances, both of them well known 
now, one being water and the other ether. It is a process which 
consists in dividing the elements of alcohol in such a way as to 
get nothing formed but these two products, though side by side 
with this change there are some secondary changes which do not 
belong to the process. This change is effected solely by the action 
of oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid. It has been long known, and 
it was a subject of wonder for some time, that if sulphuric acid is 
mixed with alcohol and heated, you can distill off some alcohol 
from the mixture in the form of these two products; then you 
may add some more alcohol, and if you distill that off, it is also 
broken up into ether and water; then you may add some more 
again, and you may go on adding alcohol to that original quantity 
of sulphuric acid, and it will decompose each successive portion 
into these two products. There is no limit known to the extent 
to which sulphuric acid will effect that change. You perceive, 
therefore, that this, in its general features, is a process analagous 
to those which we were considering at first. 


I may illustrate that by an experiment. First, I will show 
you how we discover the presence of sulphuric acid. The common 
test is, to add some salt of baryta — this which I have here is a 
chloride — to the sulphate, when we get at once a precipitate, 
sulphate of baryta. The sulphuric acid, in making the ether, 
passes over into a compound that does not possess this property. 
I have some of it here. It is a clear liquid, and on mixing it with 
the same re-agent I used just now, you see that it will not form 
the precipitate ; I put some of the same baric chloride into it, 
but, as you see, the liquid remains clear. But I can bring back 
my sulphuric acid to its original state. Mr. Taylor, my assist- 
ant, was heating some of it just now, and it has been standing 
so long that it has returned to its original state already. It has 
returned from the state in which it does not precipitate baryta, 
to the state in which it does. There is in the process a succes- 
sive departure of the sulphuric acid from its ordinary state, and 
a return to that original state ; it is a kind of circle or cycle. 
The substance passes over into a compound which does not pre- 
cipitate baryta, and then it returns again to its original form, 
and that is the key to the anomaly. When the sulphuric acid 
has eflfected the decomposition of one portion of alcohol into 
ether and water, it comes back again to sulphuric acid, becomes 
exactly what it was in the beginning, and is able to recommence 
precisely the same combination. 

I will give you another illustration of it. I have here a sub- 
stance used in one of the commonest manufactures, that of oil of 
vitriol, in which the same operation occurs. I have there a sub- 
stance at work called nitric oxide. It is converting a quantity 
of sulphurous into sulphuric acid. In principle it would so con- 
vert an unlimited quantity, but in practice it is limited by con- 
venience. It acts by carrying oxygen from the air to one portion 
of sulphurous acid, and then to another, and thus it goes on, and 
effects successive oxidations of a great number of particles of 
sulphurous acid, forming sulphuric acid from them, and it does 
that in virtue of a process perfectly analagous to that which I 
just now mentioned. The gas, after one operation, returns to 
the same state in which it was in the beginning of the first ope- 


ration; it is a cyclical process. I have here some of the nitric 
oxide combined with oxygen, and -when in that state it has the 
red color which you see in the flask. If we blow a little sulphu- 
rous acid into it, the red color will disappear as the nitrous acid 
gives up the oxygen, the nitric oxide itself being a colorless 
compound, but in combination with oxygen it is red. As the 
sulphurous acid passes into it, the nitric oxide parts with the 
oxygen and becomes colorless, but on again blowing in a little 
oxygen it returns to its former red color. This shows you that 
there are processes, of simple, normal, chemical action, some- 
what analagous to those fermentive properties which I formerly 
described. Each one of these processes takes place in perfectly 
definite proportions, the peculiarity being that one material 
which takes part in them, returns at the end of one operation to 
the same state in which it was at the beginning of the operation, 
so that the processes are cyclical ; and this re-agent is able, by 
acting successively on a large quantity of particles, to repeat its 
action very frequently upon them, and beyond what would ap- 
pear to be its definite combining proportion. You see this red 
compound of nitric oxide and oxygen has lost a great deal of its 
red color. I Avill not wait until it is completely bleached, but 
will blow in a little oxygen, when we shall get a return to the 
original deep red color, This is the ordinary process by which 
sulphuric acid is made on a large scale in lead chambers. The 
sulphurous acid is allowed to remain a considerable time in the 
chamber, and is passed on from one to another, as it is acted on 
by the nitric oxide, which passes through the successive stages 
of its action by a process which I should be glad to name cycli- 
cal, as I shall have occasion again to revert to a similar process 
of the same name. At our next meeting I shall have to analyze 
some of the best known, and also some less familiar instances 
of cyclical action, that we may arrive at a conception of their 

(To be continued.) 


(Continued from page 147.) 

3Iessrs. Jones, White ^ Co.: 

Gentlemen: — I will now proceed to give a description of the 
instruments used in plugging teeth. But from the great variety 
of shapes and instruments in use for plugging, it would seem that 
no two dentists could adapt themselves with facility to the use of 
precisely the same kind of instruments; and that each should 
consider his own best suited to all, is not unnatural. That every 
dentist should be capable of adapting instruments to suit his taste, 
and peculiar method of operating, is necessary, because the shape 
of the instrument will much depend upon the position which the 
operator assumes in operating, the construction of his chair and 
manner most easy of approaching the patient. Therefore, we do 
not wish to be understood as urging our own as best suited to all, 
but we will give a numeral description of some of them, and in 
the order in which they should be applied in certain cases. Be- 
ginning first with those commonly used for plugging the front 
teeth on their approximal surfaces, and numbering them 1, 2, 3, 
etc., in the order in which they are to be used; so that if they 
are applied in this manner by the learner, he will produce a cer- 
tain inevitable result. 

No. 1 is bent near its extremity at an angle of about eighty 
degrees, and is curved upon itself laterally, so as form what are 
generally termed right and left pluggers. The curve should be 
sufiicient to allow the point of the instrument to fall to the bottom 
of the cavity with facility, when rotating the shaft of the instru- 
ment on its axis, when entering and packing away the gold in 
rthe cavity, Avithout the convex part of the instrument touching 


the adjacent tooth. There should be larger and smaller sizes, to 
suit the size of the division between the teeth and the cavities. 
These instruments can be used to advantage in many parts of 
the mouth. 

No. 2 is bent at an angle of about eighty-five degrees, about 
one-fourth of an inch from its extremity, but is flat and straight, 
with a kind of rib, or elevation running along the middle, which, 
gives it the appearance of a flattened spear. But instead of it 
actually terminating in a spear point, it terminates flatly with an 
edge in the direction of the shaft of the instrument. This edgs- 
is slightly serrated to prevent it cutting the gold too much while 

No. 3 is bent at about the same angle as No. 1, and the one 
curved right and the other left, but instead of presenting a right 
and left flat surface, it presents an edge which is serrated, in order 
to better carry the gold into the cavity, and to require less force 
to produce the same eff'ect upon the surface of the plug while 
packing, than a broader surface. 

No. 4 is bent at an angle of about twenty degrees, more or 
less, to suit diflerent cases, terminating nearly at an edge, which 
is also serrated. This instrument can be used for packing the 
gold along the lower boundaries of the cavities of the approxiraal 
surfaces of the superior front bicuspides, and some of the supe- 
rior molars, when much decayed, or the facial cavities of the 
superior molars ; but when bent at an angle of about eighty degrees,, 
forming No. 5, it can be used for the inferior molars. 

No. 6 is a strong, doubled-curved, flat, oval burnisher; each 
curve is at an angle of thirty degrees, and half an inch long ; the 
last arm of the angle is slightly curved, so as to form a convex 
and concave surface laterally, making a right and left instrument ;. 
this instrument can be used with great facility upon the approxi- 
mal surfaces of nearly all of the superior teeth, as well as some of 
the inferior, by resting the thumb of the right hand against the 
tooth which is being plugged, or one adjacent. 

All instruments for packing a plug should be wedge-shaped,*" 

* The writer believes he was the first to apply the sharp wedge-shaped' 
instrument for plugging teeth, having used them as early as 1838. 


SO as to pack laterally as well as downwards, and presenting as 
small a surface to the plug as possible, so that the greatest effect 
may be produced upon a given surface with a given power. The 
variety of instruments for packing and burnishing plugs, can be 
obtained at the instrument makers, generally, iind their adaption 
to various positions and purposes must depend partly upon the 
ingenuity and judgment of the operator. 


When the cavity is prepared, and the instruments intended to 
be used for introducing the plug, are placed within convenient 
reach, then prepare the gold in such a manner as may be deemed 
proper for the case; say for a small sized lateral cavity. No. 4 
gold, cut in strips, from one-fourth to one-half the breadth of the 
leaf — rolled, or folded and twisted to form a kind of rope, but not 
to be crimped so as to break the leaf in either way; on the con- 
trary, it should present as smooth an appearance as possible. 
Some suppose, the more roughly ^he rope is twisted, the better 
one fold, when put in the cavity, will hold upon another. But 
not so; besides, it makes a porous plug, and when the leaf is 
much crimped and broken, it cannot be rendered solid without 
immense pressure: again, it will not receive a fine polish, as 
small particles will constantly burnish off. 

For facial cavities. No. 6 is, perhaps, best, prepared in a simi- 
lar manner as described above, as it makes a stronger plug, and 
there is better opportunity for applying more pressure in packing 
in such cases. Where a facial cavity is large, a leaf of No. 4, 
folded over a piece of watch-spring, or thin burnished steel, of 
about an eighth of an inch wide, in the form of a tape, which 
folded again upon itself, so as to form a kind of block, as many 
of which as may be desired, may be placed in the bottom of the 
cavity, and fii'mly packed. The gold being folded smoothly in 
this way, is already nearly as solid as it can well be made, and 
very little pressure is required to render it entirely so. A deep 
cavity partially filled, so as to make it shallow, is desirable, which 
can then be finished with the rope in the usual way. This kind 
of block, nicely folded, is indispensable and invaluable for building 


up the broken-down sides of cavities, or placing along the gum 
of any large cavity, because the dampness cannot permeate it, as 
well as the gold rolled in the ordinary manner, and in filling and 
finishing, it will not crumble away. It should be our constant 
study to put the gold in such a condition before introducing it 
into the cavity, as to be rendered solid with the least possible 
pressure and in the shortest space of time. In introducing the 
gold into a shallow cavity, say a little deeper than the enamel, 
one end of the rope should be placed firmly against one side, and 
bottom of the cavity opposite the point at which we intend to finish. 
Then catching the roll outside of the cavity, and folding it upon 
itself with the instrument, and carrying that point down to the 
bottom of the cavity, also, leaving a knuckle a little without the 
orifice. This continued alternately, and pushing the one fold 
against the other powerfully, until the cavity is filled, using for 
the last one or two folds, a small instrument. This can commonly 
be accomplished in the cavities of the front teeth with No. 1 
instrument. Now, these knuckles, or convolutions, may be pro- 
jecting in the cavities of the approximal surfaces against the 
adjacent teeth, so as to prevent getting fairly upon them with 
the same instrument; if so, use No. 2, which, being sharp at the 
edge, and wedge-shaped, will enter between the plugs and the 
adjacent tooth without displacing the gold from its previous 
fixed position, and compress the plug suflSciently to admit of 
applying the sharp right and left packers, No. 3, with which the 
plugs can be completely packed. The same method, precisely, is 
adopted in introducing the gold into the facial cavities of the su- 
perior and inferior molars, using No. 4 for the superior, and No. 
5, 2 and 3, as the case may be, for the inferior; and for packing 
the gold of either jaw, use the ordinary packers, for back teeth, 
with small points slightly serrated, to prevent slipping. Now, it 
is exceedingly important that the gold and the cavity should be 
kept perfectly dry during all this part of the operation, and in 
the front teeth especially, because the dampness will prevent the 
fresh dry surfaces of the gold and cavity from adhering well. 

If the saliva gets in, it cannot be entirely pressed out, however 
powerful the pressure may be, because the hardening of the gold 


upon the surface of the plug, will close up the pores there and 
prevent the water from escaping from those below; besides, it 
will undergo chemical change, and discolor the tooth and plug. 
Various contrivances have been resorted to by diflferent operators, 
for this purpose : Desaborde's tongue holder, for depressing the 
tongue, and Lawrence's, which is for a similar purpose, and very 
useful. Some, also, use a kind of truss, with one pad under the 
chin and one on the tongue. Even the syphon has been applied 
to draw the saliva from the mouth. A very simple contrivance of 
mine, whilst operating on the lower teeth, is to fold a piece of mus- 
lin around alight watch-spring, about two and a half to three inches 
long, as the case may require, sufficient to make a roll about as 
thick as the little finger, and place it around the jaw, between the 
tongue and margin of the gum. This not only absorbs the saliva, 
but compresses the sublingual and maxillary ducts, and prevents 
its rapid secretion, and the elasticity of the spring forces the roll 
against the gum, and prevents the saliva from flowing between 
the teeth while operating upon their approximal surfaces, as well as 
any other part of them. And as the back teeth of the infe- 
rior maxillary commonly incline a little inwards, they favor 
the retention of it in position. If, at the same time, a roll of cot- 
ton, lint, or napkin be placed between the cheek and the superior 
teeth, to absorb the saliva there, as well as to compress the ste- 
nonion duct, and an additional roll compressed between the infe- 
rior teeth and cheek, a complete state of dryness can be maintained 
long enough to accomplish the operation of plugging any of the 
inferior teeth, back or front. For protecting the back teeth of the 
superior maxillary, placing a roll of cotton, or muslin, between the 
gum and cheek, is frequently sufficient, but when saliva comes in 
the way from the patient involuntarily touching it with the tongue, 
apply the tongue holder, or roll a napkin into a ball, and place it 
between the roof of the mouth and tongue. A plan which we 
practise a great deal in operating upon the front teeth, — as it not 
only keeps the tongue down but prevents the breath from damp- 
ening the gold or cavity, at the same time that this is applied, for 
the front teeth — is to place a thin roll of muslin between the 
lip and gum. This will suffice for general directions, but each 


operator must exercise his judgment in adapting an expedient for 
special cases. For drying the cavity, some prefer lint, others 
cotton, paper, tape, &c. We use tape or cotton, as the case may 
be, forced in hard enough to absorb the principal part of the 
dampness, and depend upon scraping the cavity dry, as that pro- 
cess leaves a fresh surface, to which the gold best adheres. After 
the gold is well packed in the cavities, file and scrape the rough 
surface of the plug, pack and burnish alternately, with a smooth 
instrument, until the surface is level or flush with the margin of 
the cavity, always having filled the cavity full enough to admit of 
this without reducing it below the margin. Very frequently we do 
not file the tooth as much as we ultimately intend it shall be, that 
after the plug is packed we may file the tooth so as to be sure 
that the plug and margin of the cavity shall be perfectly flush, 
unless it be in some few cases where it is desirable to have the 
plug to project above the surface of the cavity, but in all cases, 
the marks of the instruments should be filed out of the surface of 
the plug. After this is accomplished, use between the front teeth, 
emery paper, or pumice, finely powdered, rotten-stone and rouge,* 
and burnishing alternately, until the surface is as perfect, and 
dense, and mirror-like, as a well polished gold plate. It is indis- 
pensable that the surface of the plug shall be impervious to air 
and dampness, and not lose particles of gold by brushing, or 
during mastication. The Scotch stone of the jewelers can be 
used with advantage in many cases, in dressing the surface of the 
plug, previously to the use of the rouge, but all those substances 
must be well cleaned off the surface of the plug before using 
a burnisher, as they will injure the instrument and prevent the 
production of a perfect polish. For filling a nerveless tooth, we 
are in the habit of rolling a piece of heavy gold-leaf into a solid 
and pointed roll, which can be done by cutting the leaf into a 
point and passing this down the roots of the tooth as a flexible 
wire, and then following it Avith a small plugger, especially for 
that purpose, adding more gold until the nerve cavity is com- 

* Those three last named articles can be applied Either with a piece of tape 
or hickory wood. 


pletely filled, and lastly, burnishing this surface as hard as the 
filling of the external cavity. 

Believing, gentlemen, that I have said sufficient to direct the 
young learner in the general operations of plugging, I will con- 
clude by thanking you for the flattering manner in which you 
have been pleased to receive this short series of papers, regretting 
that they are not as deserving as I could have wished them to be, 
which has resulted from a want of as much time as I had origi- 
nally intended to devote to them, 

I remain, yours truly, 

J. D. White. 


Having seen some suggestions with reference to the subject 
of which the heading is an index, we have taken some pains to 
look up a case we had here. 

About January, 1868, Mr. L. came to our office, sufi'ering in- 
tensely with toothache, and would submit to no extended exam- 
ination, but put his finger upon the first upper left molar, and 
requested extraction without delay. We extracted the tooth, 
which had a small cavity upon the anterior proximal surface, 
otherwise healthy, and had three large and divergent roots. 
About fifteen or twenty minutes elapsed, with patient still hav- 
ing toothache as severely as ever. Requested another tooth ex- 
tracted. Upon a little examination we found the second upper 
bicuspid of the same side badly decayed upon the posterior ap- 
proximal surface, nerve exposed, and of course aching. Patient 
not appreciating teeth very highly, would have nothing done but 
"pull." We therefore pulled it out. 

The molar that lay upon the table being too good a tooth to 
be lost, we, with the consent of the patient, washed out the socket 
with cold water, and washed the tooth in cold water, and with 
something of an effort replanted the tooth, adjusted a compress^ 
and dismissed, requesting the patient to call in a few days. In 
about one week we saw the case, found tooth firm with a little 


inflammation. Scarified ligJitly and dressed with tinct. aconite, 
and dismissed the case. We have several times since seen the 
case, and were glad to learn that the tooth had never given any 
trouble. The last time we saw the patient, he quietly informed 
us that he was "chewing all his tobacco upon it." The treat- 
ment of this case differs from some, if not all we have seen re- 
ported, by washing with cold water. We thought this : if intense 
cold will reduce inflammation, perhaps it will prevent some. 
Was it prudent practise? 

One other case that we have seen but recently. A young 
man of our acquaintance, of perhaps twenty-three years, was 
skating, and receiving a fall, knocked out the upper central 
incisors. He picked them up and held them in his hand a few 
moments and then replaced them, and to his great joy they 
have become serviceable teeth. When we saw them a few days 
since they were all right with the exception of a little irregular- 
ity, which he attributes to blowing a horn. He was, at the 
time of the accident, the leader of a cornet band, and con- 
tinued to perform his duty. 

We have not attempted to cure an abscess by extracting the 
tooth, removing the sac, and cutting off the apex of fangs, and 
then replacing, but should like to hear from those who have. 

KiKKsviLLE, Mo. Squibs. 


Case. — April 10. — Mrs. R., age 35, Brunette. 

The left upper central incisor was plugged fifteen years ago. 
Pulp removed and root filled. Has had chronic pericementitis 
several years; the pus exuding in front of the right central 
about half way between its gingival border and the end of its 
root. This formation and exit of pus has never given pain, and 
has continued for four or five years. 

About two years since Mrs. II. had a rubber plate inserted to 
supply some vacancies in the bicuspid region, since Avhich time 


pressure on the palatine arch, corresponding to the location 
caused by the suction cavity in the plate, would cause a free 
flow of purulent matter from the fistulous opening. This hav- 
ing rather increased of late, the patient consulted me. 

Present Condition. — Offensive purulent discharge from fistu- 
lous opening in front of the root of the right upper central 
incisor. A slight swelling in the palate corresponding to the 
suction cavity of the plate already mentioned. No inflamma- 
tion of the gum over the swelling. No pain. The left central 
incisor very loose, with a good looking plug on mesial surface. 

Patient complains of the insuff'erable stench coming from the 
purulent exudate. 

Diagnosis. — Alveolar abscess, with possibly caries of the 
palate bones. 

Treatment. — Pressing upon the swelling, a great spoonful of 
purulent matter exudes from the labial fistula. 

I cut into this fistula, enlarging the opening through the gum. 
Finding the alveolar plate over this healthy right incisor in a 
sound condition, with only a small opening through it, I cut 
away some of the bone and make the canal, for a short distance, 
as large as a No. 12 burr drill, carrying the -latter as far as the 
diseased tooth, left incisor. 

The palatine swelling is now cut into, making a gash one- 
fourth of an inch long. A large quantity of purulent matter 
escapes here, notwithstanding the quantity that had just been 
forced through the labial orifice. 

Exploration through the wound reveals an immense cavity in 
the bone itself; between the nares and this cavity, over an area 
of half an inch square, there was no bone. There was no ne- 
crosed bone to be found, or at present carious bone of any 
extent. If this loss of bone was caused by caries, the caries, 
I think, was circumscribed by the present opening, and was 
only extending slowly and continuously, and the bone adjacent 
to the lost portion was carious only on its margin. 

I resolved on thorough treatment, and having had two similar 
cases before, terminating successfully, I fully expected it in this 
case ; and especially as the patient was thoroughly healthy at 


present, with an excellent constitution ; to the latter, undoubt- 
edly, she owed the limitation of the disease. 

The cavity was thoroughly syringed out with warm water five 
or six times, and water forced from the palatine opening through 
the labial one. When apparently thoroughly cleansed, a half 
ounce of crude kreosote was thrown into the cavity through the 
palatal opening, the mouth being thoroughly protected from the 
effects of the kreosote which might escape; the soft tissues of 
the palate being wiped dry and then painted with sweet oil, and 
the same being done with the lips and cheeks. The lips and 
tongue were moreover protected by a sheet of thin rubber. As 
no kreosote escaped by the labial fistula, I threw fifteen or 
twenty drops of that fluid into the latter opening. 

About half of the kreosote injected into these cavities re- 
mained there while the patient remained in the office. 

I now took two inches of floss silk wet in kreosote and forced 
it into the labial canal as far as possible, leaving just an end 
projecting. About two inches of linen tape, three-sixteenths of 
an inch wide, was used in the same manner in the palatine cavity. 
Patient was now dismissed, to call next day, and with the 
assurance of considerable inflammation and pain in the parts 
during the next twelve hours. 

Next day patient appeared. Had suffered much since yes- 
terday, but was in no pain at present ; only a soreness about 
the palatine opening. Patient dismissed without further treat- 
ment, except to call every day or two and have the projecting 
silk and tape cut off as they were forced outward, by the filling 
up of the cavities by plastic material. At the end of four days 
these were entirely removed in this way. 

Patient forbidden to use the rubber plate at present. 
In four or five days the external opening had healed and ap- 
peared healthy. The diseased incisor had become firmly fixed 
in its socket. 

The swelling in the palatine arch had subsided to a natural 

I write May 2d, and since writing the above, have just ex- 
amined the patient. There is every appearance of health in 
the parts. 


She States that there was severe inflammation and a " gum 
boil" immediately following the filling of the root, fifteen years 

There are some very interesting speculations connected with 
this case, which each one can make for himself, as this article 
is already long enough. Chase. 


M^ichiHlal mil MVimlUmm^ 


"Your office is very pleasant, but your profession horrid!" 
was the remark of one who came into my office seeking profes- 
sional services a short time since. Such and similar exclama- 
tions, the members of our profession are greeted with almost 
daily. As far as my experience extends among the masses of 
the people, there exists in the majority a mortal fear and dread 
of all dental operations — more especially that of extraction of 
teeth, participated in alike by old and young, male and female, 
and oftentimes even from those whom we would the least sus- 

Among men we naturally look for courage, and strength of 
nerve sufficient to endure the extraction of a tooth; yet few 
there be who possess either. Well do I remember an instance 
in my own practice, of one, who, when our country was in dan- 
ger, was among the first to answer her call, and in the " tented 
field" he engaged in the terrible scenes of war with unwavering 
courage until the dawn of peace, gaining the encomium of all 
as one of "the bravest of the brave," yet with the tortures of 
toothache and the painful remembrance of a former extraction, 
attended by the most revolting display of bloody and rusty in- 
struments, suffered untold agony for weeks before he could be 
induced to have the offending member removed. 


First impressions influence greatly ; and if for this reason only, 
we should strive to make our offices as attractive and comfortable 
as possible. Our patients will most certainly appreciate every 
endeavor in that direction. Cleanliness and neatness in the ope- 
rating room, instruments, and of the person, are of the highest 
importance. Bloody instruments, napkins, spittoons, etc., are of- 
ten seen in the office when there is no excuse whatever for their ap- 
pearance. Cleaning and extracting teeth are not very pleasant 
or cleanly operations at the best, yet by practice and care, can 
be performed so as to omit all that which is disgusting to the 
mind of the sensitive patient. 

These thoughts suggested themselves upon entering lately an 
office having a large practice, yet which abounded with every- 
thing to disgust in the way of uncleanliness, perhaps wholly un- 
necessary to the great majority of the profession, as I hope; yet 
it will never do any harm to ever keep before us the necessity 
and duty we owe to our patients, not only to do all our opera- 
tions as well as we possibly can, aiming at perfection, but to ex- 
ercise the greatest care in keeping our offices models of neat- 
ness. P. E. White. 

Davenport, Iowa, April 11, 1871. 


We notice the following in the November No. of the Transac- 
tions of the Odontological Society of Great Britain. 

Mr. Harrington exhibited a machine to supersede the use of 
the hand drill. He said the principle of the machine first sug- 
gested itself to his mind some eishteen vcars since ; after almost 
innumerable attempts, he succeeded in making it available for 
practice. About five years ago he had the pleasure of exhibit- 
ing one before the members of the Society, and very naturally, 
as the inventor of the machine, he flattered himself it would have 
been adopted by the profession, but in this he was disappointed. 
The chief objection to its use being that it was too noisy when in 


operation; he was bound, however, to say that, in his own prac- 
tice, he had never met with any complaint from his patients on 
this score. Being anxious that his professional brethren might 
avail themselves of his invention, he had turned his attention to 
subduing the noise complained of, in which he had completely 
succeeded. The rapidity with which it worked would render it of 
great value to men in large practice; he calculated he could do 
as much in ten minutes with it as, with the ordinary hand drill, 
he could accomplish in one hour, and at the same time with much 
less discomfort to the patient. It would be found principally 
valuable in two classes of cases — one Avhere the lines of decay 
ran in a cruciform manner along the grinding surface of molar 
teeth ; these cases were too often but imperfectly stopped, owing 
to the diflSculty of opening up the decayed line, l)ut which could 
be effected with the machine under consideration in a few min- 
utes, — the other, where it was found necessary to remove an 
amalgam stopping. Mr. Harrington illustrated, before the So- 
ciety, the rapidity with which a stopping could be removed. The 
machine could be kept perfectly under control while in use, by 
the thumb of the operator, and its speed could be regulated with 
the greatest nicety, or it could be instantly stopped. With one 
winding it would work for two minutes. The present machine 
was superior to the former, not only from its noiselessness, but 
from the superior material of which it was made. 

Mr. Fox said, as he had, through the courtesy of Mr. Har- 
rington, had the opportunity of thoroughly testing the capabil- 
ities of the machine, he felt bound to give the result of his ex- 
perience with it, which might be briefly summed up in the remark 
that, having used it for some months, he should be sorry ever to 
be without it again. Like everything else, it takes a little time 
to get accustomed to it. When once the first difficulty is over- 
come, it becomes invaluable in the operating-room. The apparent 
cumbersomeness disappears after a little practise, the very weight 
of the machine beinor an aid in the drilling. A hand drill onlv 
cuts on the half-turn forwards ; during the back turn no advance 
is made; but with this instrument you cut all the time it revolves. 
Although the silent form was best, he did not find patients ob- 


ject to the noisy one — they invariably prefer it to the hand drill, 
as being far more expeditious , but, in fact, he had always found 
that patients would believe in what you believed in yourself. 

The machine is wound up the same as a clock, and should 
never be allowed to run down without being checked by placing 
the thumb on the guide wheel. 



Behold this ruin ! ' Twas a skull, 
Once of ethereal spirit full. 
This narrow cell Avas life's retreat; 
This space was thought's mysterious seat. 
What beauteous visions filled this spot — 
What dreams of pleasure long forgot? 
Nor Hope, nor Joy, nor Love, nor Fear, 
Have left one trace of record here. 

Beneath this mouldering canopy 

Once shone the bright and busy eye. 

But start not at the dismal void — 

If social love that eye employed; 

If with no lawless fire it gleamed, 

But through the dews of kindness beamed. 

That eye shall be forever bright, 

When stars and sun are sunk in night. 

Within this hollow cavern hung 

The read}', swift, and tuneful tongue; 

If Falsehood's honey it disdained. 

And when it could not praise, Avas chained; 

If bold in Virtue's cause it spoke. 

Yet gentle concord never broke, 

This silent tongue shall plead for thee, 

When Time unveils Eternity. 


Say, did these fingers delve the mine; 
Or, with the envied rubies shine? 
To hew the rock, or wear the gem, 
Can little now avail to them. 
But if the page of Truth it sought, 
Or comfort to the mourner brought. 
These hands a richer mead shall claim 
Than all that wait on Wealth or Fame. 

Avails it whether bare or shod, 
These feet the paths of dut j trod ; 
If from the bowers of ease they fled 
To seek Afflictions humble shed; 
If Grandeur's guilty bribe they spurned, 
And home to Virtue's cot returned. 
These feet with angel wings shall vie, 
And tread the palace of the sky. 


The Wabash A-^alley Dental Association convened in the city 
of Lafayette, in the rooms of the Young Mens Christian Asso- 
ciation, at 10 o'clock, A. M., March 21, 1871, President John L. 
Scott in the chair. 

The following members responded to the calling of the roll : 
A. B. Cunningham, Attica; J. L. Scott, Defiance, Ohio.; J. S. 
Snoddy, Lafayette; W. F. Lewis, Delphi; Isaac Knapp, Fort 
Wayne; A. M. Moore, Lafayette; W. H. Pifer, Lafayette; 
Lewis Jourdan, Delphi; E. V. Burt, Lafayette; I. W. Fahn- 
stock, Lafayette; Senaca B. Brown, Fort Wayne. 

Minutes of the meeting of 1870 were read and approved. 

The Treasurer, J. S. Snoddy, made his report; action was de- 
ferred till afternoon session. 

The Board of Censors being absent, the Chair appointed Drs. 
A. B. Cunningham, A. M. Moore and Isaac Knapp, in their 
stead. The Board recommended Dr. E. Snider as a candidate 


for membership. The rules being suspended, he was declared a 
member of the Association. 

Dr. E. V. Burt moved that Professor Chase of St. Louis, Dr. 
P. G. C. Hunt, of Indianapolis, Dr. C. Palmer, of Warren. 0., 
and Dr. Will. Taft, of Cincinnati, 0., be elected honorary mem- 
bers. Adopted. 

The election of oflficers for the ensuing year resulted as fol- 
lows : 

President, A. B. Cunningham, of Attica. 
First Vice President, Evan Snider, of Fort Wayne. 
Second Vice President, W. F. Lewis, of Delphi. 
Secretary, Senaca B. Brown, Fort Wayne. 
Treasurer, A. M. Moore, of Lafayette. 
Dr. Burt moved to adjourn till 2 o'clock, p. m. 
Dr. Moore moved to dispense with the motion to adjourn, to 
vote for S. P. Thompson, a candidate for membership. Adopted. 
The rules being dispensed with, Dr. Thompson was declared a 

Adjourned to meet at 2 o'clock, p. m. 

First Day — Afternoon Session. 

The Association met at 2 o'clock, pursuant to adjournment, 
Dr. Cunningham, the newly elected President, in the Chair. 

Dr. Moore presented the name of W. P. Crowell, who was unan- 
imously elected a member. 

The first subject for discussion, "Filling Teeth with Heavy 
and Light Mallet," being in order. Professor Moore made some 
remarks in favor of the heavy mallet. 

Professor Chase, of St. Louis, stated his experience with mal- 
lets of diiferent weight, and concluded that from three or four 
years' experience, a seven Ot^eight ounce mallet is preferable. 

Dr. Hunt next spoke in favor of the heavy mallet. 

Dr. Taft uses a six ounce lead mallet. 

Dr. Knapp, like others, has gone through the various kinds, 
and now believes lead the best. 

Dr. Snider uses exclusively the elastic wooden mallet. 

Drs. Palmer, Scott, Burt, and others, all spoke in advocacy of 


the heavy mallet, when, on motion, the second subject, viz : "Ma- 
terials for Filling Teeth," was taken up. 

Dr. Knapp uses Watt's foil, Nos. 3, 4, 10, 20, 30 and 60 — 
makes the main part of the filling with No. 4. 

Dr. Hunt uses oxychloride of zinc, cement, amalgam and 
Johnson's Nos. 4 and 60 soft foil, principally No. 60. 

Dr. Palmer uses gold, tin. Hill's stopping, oxychloride — noth- 
ing else. Tin always for children. 

Professor Chase advocates tin in place of amalgam, in all ap- 
proximal cavities, and gold for most cases. No. 4 to 6 adhesive, 
No. 4 to 8 soft foil (Abbeys). In building up, 20 to 60. 

Professor Moore advocates gold, and thinks next to that 
<;omes cement Plombe; thinks it far superior to oxychloride; af- 
ter six months trial the surface of the cement presents a good 
condition and polished. 

The discussion on this subject was here closed, and, on motion, 
the third, viz: "Expediency of building up Cutting Surfaces 
of Incisors when worn away by mastication," was taken up. 

Professor Moore stated a case contemplated in the question, 
and as he had adopted the practise, wished to ask the views of 
other members. 

Dr. Hunt gave a case of an elaborate and interesting charac- 
ter, that resulted very satisfactorily to himself and the patient. 

On motion, adjourned to meet at half-past 7 o'clock, p. m. 

First Day — Evening Session. 

Association met at 7J o'clock. President Cunningham in the 

Minutes of afternoon session read and approved. 

Dr. Knapp spoke upon the subject in order, and gave an ac- 
count of successful practise with him. 

Professor Chase spoke in approving terms of this practise. 

Dr. Palmer also gave interesting accounts of cases in his prac- 
tice, and continued at length with a full description of the mo- 
dus operandi, kinds of foil, etc. 

On motion of Professor Moore, the subject under discussion 
Avas dispensed with, and the Association adjourned to meet at the 


dental apartments of Drs. Moore & Burt, at 8| o'clock, a. m., on 
Wednesday morning, when the regular order of business "will be 
suspended, and the morning be devoted to clinics. 

Second Day — Morning Session. 

Met according to adjournment at the rooms of Drs. Moore & 
Burt, at 8J o'clock. 

The entire morning was occupied by Professor Chase in clin- 
ics, much to the profit of all. 

Second Day — Afternoon Session. 

Association met at the regular place at 2 o'clock, p. m.. Presi- 
dent Cunningham in the Chair. 

On motion, the reading of the minutes was dispensed with. 

On motion, the regular order of business was dispensed with, 
and Dr. Palmer invited to occupy the afternoon in exhibiting and 
explaining his casts, charts and diagrams, which he accordingly 
did, holding the Association in the closest attention for the en- 
tire afternoon. The lessons learned from him are what none can 
afford to lose. 

On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered to Drs. Palmer and 
Chase, for their kindness in visiting us, and contributing so much 
to the interest of our meeting. 

The Association adjourned to meet in the city of Fort Wayne, 
on the 3d Tuesday of March, 1872. 

Senaca B. Brown, Sec'y. 



Office of the Recording Secretary, "| 
Woodland, Cal., April 10, 1870. j" 

Editors Missouri Dental Journal: 

Be kind enough to notice in your next number, that our 
second annual session Avill be held in San Francisco, commencing 
June 6, 1871. 


"We expect a liigbly interesting session, and that our proceed- 
ings will be creditable and beneficial to the profession generally. 

Invitation has been extended to every member of the profes- 
sion on the Pacific coast, to be present. 

H. J. Plomteaux, Rec. Sec. 

^ ■ > o~»- 


Office Corresponding Secretary, ^ 

South Carolina State Dental Association, V 

Charleston, April 26, 1871. j 

At the anniversary meeting of the South Carolina State Den- 
tal Association, held in this city on the 10th, 11th and 12th inst., 
the following gentlemen were elected to serve for the ensuing 

Wm. C. Wardlaw, Abbeville, S. C, President. 
Thos. T, Moore, Columbia, S. C, 1st Vice President. 
B. A. MacRenfuss, Charleston, S. C, 2d Vice President. 
Theodore F. Chupein, Charleston, S. C, Cor. Secretary. 
0. P. Bond, Macon, S. C, Recording Secretary. 
W. T. Brown, Charleston, S. C, Treasurer. 

Theodore F. Chupein, 

Corresponding Secretary. 


Chicago, April 20, 1871. 
Editors Blissouri Dental Journal: 

At the annual meeting of the Chicago Dental Society, held 
April 3d, 1871, the following officers were elected for the ensu- 
ing year : 

President, Dr. George H. Cashing; 1st Vice President, Dr. 
M. S. Dean; 2d Vice President, Dr. J. N. Crouse; Recording 


and Corresponding Secretary, Dr. E. D. Swain; Treasurer, Dr. 
Wm. Albaugh; Librarian, J. S. Marsh; Executive Committee, 
Drs. M. S. Dean, C. R. E. Koch, and J. M. Crouse. 

E. D. Swain, 
Secretary Chicago Dental Society. 


From a letter recently received from Dr. Caulk, of Philadel- 
phia, Ave learn that he may be expected to be present at the 
meetings of the State Societies of Illinois, Missouri and Indi- 
ana, for the purpose of exhibiting Dr. Bonnill's "Electrical 
Plugger." We have before called attention to the fact that Dr. 
B. was at work upon this instrument, which the profession are 
soon to have the pleasure of seeing in operation. We know 
nothing of its merits except from hearsay, and reserve what 
ever we may have to say respecting it, till we have seen and 
tried it. E. 


A correspondent of the Lancet says: — "A few years ago, 
when in China, I became acquainted with the fact, of the natives, 
when suffering with facial neuralgia, using oil of peppermii.t, 
■which they lightly applied to the seat of pain with a camel-hair 
pencil. Since then, in my own practice, I frequently employ 
this oil as a local anesthetic, not only in neuralgia, but also in 
gout, with remarkably good results." 

[We recently had a patient in our office, who, while in China 
a few yeai's since, observing the general good results from the 
use of the above remedy in cases of neuralgia, brought a quan- 
tity away with him. On the voyage home, one of the sailors had a 
severe attack of inflammatory rheumatism, which deprived him 


of the use of one of his arms; by two or three applications of the 
Chinese remeclj, he was entirely relieved in twelve hours. On 
reaching home, our patient distributed this great panacea among 
his friends, and he assured us they had used it with happy effect, 
in cases of neuralgia, pain in the head, or limbs, and rheuma- 
tism. — Ed.] 


The American Journal for April has an article, translated 
from the German, upon inflammation of the dental pulp. The 
article was written by Prof. Dr. C. Wedl, and first published in 
the Deutsche Vierteljahrschrift. 

It deals mainly with the microscropic appearances presented in 
inflammations, chronic and acute, of the pulp, and shows unmis- 
takable evidence of careful research and investigation. The 
translation, however, is far from being what it should be, and if 
we did not keep this fact in mind, we might be induced to do in- 
justice, in making up our opinion in regard to its value, to the 
distinguished author himself. Among other interesting experi- 
ments, Professor Wedl instituted several in order the determine 
whether coloring matter would penetrate through the cementum 
or discolor the dentine. 

This question may be authoritatively answered in the nega- 
tive, as far as the various substances employed by the author is 
concerned, whilst it was shown that the dentine was easily col- 
ored when the same substances, /.e., carmine, alizarine, Berlin 
blue, blood red, etc., were introduced into the pulp cavity. 
Many points of interest are discussed in this article that we have 
not time to notice further. 

The next article, by J. H. Foster, M. D., which was read be- 
fore the " American Acadamy of Dental Science," contains 
some doctrinal points, which merit a moment's consideration. 

The article is headed, "Professional Shortcomings," and pro- 
ceeds as follows: "First and foremost in the sins of omission, 
then, may be classed that of an unhealthy condition of the mu- 
cous membrane of the mouth." 


We do not exactly see the propriety of classing "an un- 
healthy condition of the mucous membrane of the mouth," 
among the "sins of omission," although we might class among 
such sins, a neglect of duty on our part, through which such a 
state or condition might result; but we notice this article prin- 
cipally for the purpose of entering our protest against a practice 
advocated with much earnestness, but as I conceive, without any 
valid reason for so doing, i.e., the extraction of the six year old 

All that is said in relation to the shortening of the jaws in 
the Anglo-saxon race, needs confirmation before we make impor- 
tant changes in dental practice, based upon such a supposition. 

The six year old molars should be treated upon the same prin- 
ciples as any other teeth. They are in very many cases as capa- 
ble of resisting morbid influences, as any other teeth, and if in 
many cases they decay before the second molars, we must remem- 
ber that they are nearly six years older than the second molars, 
and having been exposed to the influence of morbific agents five 
or six years longer than the tivelve year molars, it is not strange 
that they should show symptoms of decay before the others. Let 
the first molars be persistently extracted early for a few genera- 
tions, and we might then well expect a shortening of the jaws as 
a hereditary deformity, and the best way to combat such a ten- 
dency, if it did exist, would be to save with scrupulous care the 
six year old molars. Some of the admonitions, however, found 
in this article are important and well worthy of attention. 

Article fourth, upon "The Patent Flexible Edge," from the 
Canada Journal, is a sensible article, the writer coming to the con- 
clusion, evidently, that it will not be much of an acquisition in 
practice. It is well known to those who have used soft rubber 
in the construction of obturators, that it is not durable in the 
mouth, and it has been claimed by many that a soft rubber rim 
has been used occasionally, for many years, by various members 
of the profession. It is undoubtedly true that many patents 
are obtained by those who had nothing to do with with the in- 
vention at all, but who have stolen some idea from some one else, 
and obtained a patent, from which they hope to fleece those who 
are willing to labor for a living, out of their honest earnings. 


Now the people in the United States pay more money fur pa- 
tents every year than they pay for interest on the public debt, 
three-fourths of which, at least, goes to enrich certain cliques, 
Avhich control the business, manage to get extensions from Con- 
gress, etc., and whilst half of the time of Congress is taken up 
in devising means to lessen the interest on the public debt, this 
monstrous swindle is left untouched. 

The Boston Journal of Chemistry, which ought to be in every 
family in the United States, has an editorial upon "The Spread 
of Darwinism," in which it quotes from his recent book, "The 
Descent of Man," as follows: 

"The early progenitors of man were no doubt once covered 
with hair, both sexes having beards; their ears were pointed and 
capable of movement; and their bodies were provided with a 
tail, having the proper muscles. Their limbs and bodies were 
also acted on by many muscles which now only occasionally re- 
appear, but are normally present in the quadrumana." 

"In the class of the mammals the steps are not difficult to 
conceive, which led from the ancient Monotremata ta the ancient 
Marsupials, and from these to the early progenitors of the pla- 
cental mammals. We may thus ascend to the Lemuridre; and 
the interval is not wide from these to the Simiadse. The Simi- 
adae then branched off into two great stems, the New World and 
Old World monkeys; and from the latter, at a remote period, 
man, the wonder and glory of the universe, proceeded." 

The editor of the Journal^ however — although he acknow- 
ledges that the doctrines of Darwin, upon the origin of the 
species, is accepted, as in the main, correct, by the great body 
of German naturalists, as well as by a great many in England 
and in this country — is not yet well satisfied with the reasonings 
through which he reaches his conclusions. It is evident, how- 
ever, from the whole tone of the editorial upon the subject, that 
the Boston Journal will not make any serious effort to disprove 
the Darwinian doctrine, inasmuch as he takes considerable pains 
to harmonize this theory with that which claims that species 
were created by the direct agency of the Divine Mind. 


In the Boston 3Icdical and Surgical Journal, of April 27tli, 
we have the outlines given of the new course of study here- 
after to be pursued at the medical department of Harvard Uni- 

Anything which will tend to systematize and improve the course 
of study in our medical colleges, will be hailed by the great 
mass of intelligent practitioners as a boon to the medical pro- 

The system as determined upon by the Harvard school may 
not be perfect, but it seems at first sight to promise something 
better than the heterodox conglomerations that are presented by 
many of our medical colleges at the present day, and which are 
supposed to constitute a medical course of teaching. 

Hereafter at this school, "The course of study will be as 
follows : — 

"For the first year — Anatomy, Physiology and general Chem- 

"For the second year — Medical Chemistry, Materia Medica, 
Pathological Anatomy, Theory and Practice of Medicine, Clini- 
cal Medicine, Surgery and Clinical Surgery. 

"For the third year — Pathological Anatomy, Therapeutics, 
Obstetrics, Theory and Practice of Medicine, Clinical Medicine, 
Surgery and Clinical Surgery." 

Three years constitute a full course, but one may enter the 
second or third class, if he be able to pass a satisfactory exami- 
nation in those branches assigned to the first and second classes. 

It is to be hoped that this step taken by the Harvard school, 
Avill prove to be the dawn of a better day for the medical pro- 

On page 259 of the same journal, we find a report of cases of 
whooping-cough, treated by spraying the throat with the following 

I^. Ext. belladon. fid. gtts. v. to x.; Potassai bromid. >)j.; 
Ammonine bromid. !v)ij,; Aqune distillata? .^ij. M. Ft. solutio. 

Use a table-spoonful once a day, making the child cry whilst 
spraying the throat, in order that the medicine may be drawn 
deeply into the lungs during the respiration. 


The Dental Register, for April, has for its first article the ad- 
dress of Dr. F. H. Rehwinkle to the graduating class of the 
Ohio Dental College. In the course of the address the Doctor 
makes use of the following language: 

"As a specialty of medicine and surgery, operative dentistry 
involves a necessity for a general knoAvledge of the whole science 
of the healkig art." The world moves ! The address is credita- 
ble to its author. 

In the reports of the Mississippi Valley Association, the sub- 
jects of heavy mallets, heavy and light foils, sensitive dentine, 
etc., are discussed, but we do not notice anything differing mate- 
rially from what has frequently been laid before the readers of 
the Journal, so that we desist from giving lengthy extracts. J. 


Chicago, April '20, 1871. 
Editors Missowi Dental Journal: 

Sirs — In sending, this a. m., the report of the election of 
officers, I neglected to enclose, as per instructions, the following 
preamble and resolutions, relative to the death of Professor 
Peebles : 

Whereas, The members of the Chicago Dental Society have 
learned with deep sorrow, that Divine Providence, in his inscru- 
table ways, has seen fit to remove by death. Professor Peebles, 
of St. Louis; and 

Whereas, Prof. H. E. Peebles, by his devotion to the interests 
of his profession, and particularly by his zealous and assiduous 
eiforts for the promotion of dental education, has accomplished 
much to secure the advancement and honor of dentistry; and 

Wliereas, The professional character of the deceased was 
such as to command the love and respect of his professional 
brethren at large; therefore, 


Resolved, That in the death of Professor Peebles, the dental 
profession has been deprived of one of its most active, efficient 
and honorable members. 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Chicago Dental Soci- 
ety, deplore the greivous loss which the family have sustained, 
and cordially sympathize with them in their great bereavement. 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary be instructed to 
forward a copy of these resolutions to Mrs. H. E. Peebles, and 
to furnish a copy of the same to the Missouri Dental Journal. 

E. D. Swain, 
Cor. and Rcc. Sec, Chicago Dental Society. 


The Missouri State Dental Society will meet in the city of Saint Louis on 
the first Tuesday in June, 1871. 

The following essayists were appointed at the last annual meeting: 

Dr. Judd, Histology. 

Dr. Earaes, Chemistry of the Saliva. 

Dr. Goodrich, Treatment of Alveolar Abscess. 

Dr. Forbes, Irregularity of the Teeth. 

Dr. Black, General Pathology in its relations to Filling Teeth. 

Dr. Park, Contour Fillings. 

Dr. Porre, Gold Foils. 

Discussions will be had on the above subjects, and also in relation to ME- 
CHANICAL DENTISTRY, great improvements in which have been made 
during the past year. 

Specimens of Dentures, "put up'' on several new and improved bases, will 
be exhibited, and the necessary manipulations for their manufacture fully 

The new burring machine of Dr. Morrison will also be on exhibition, as 
well as several other new or improved instruments, both in Operative and 
Mechanical Dentistry 

Altogether, this promises to be one of the most interesting and instructive 
meetings which have ever been held by this Society. 

N. B — It is expected that arrangements will be made to entertain Dentists 
from abroad free from expense, during their attendance on the meetings of the 



A. W. MORRISON, I Commitcc. 


'^2-t><t^'^'>^ ( ^jAT^^Z^-e^^j 

^f. (p.Uti^Jtf 

h Wimmm I 


Vol. in.] JUNE, 1871. [No. 6. 


Bj PuoF. A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. — Before the Society of Arts. — ReprinttJ 
from the Pharmaceutical Journal, lioudon. 

{C.mtinued from. Page 174.) 

We left off last week at a point at "wliicli "sve bad to recognize 
a difficulty, which we did not, to any appreciable extent, succeed 
in solving. By considering in succession a certain small number 
of processes in which substances induced chemical changes in 
others which were in contact with them, we classified them, 
beginning with some very complex cases — cases in which sub- 
stances of formula? so long that, even if I ventured to give you 
chemical formula^ at all, I shoukl hesitate to give you their formuh^ 
— took part in the decomposition, and gave rise to products them- 
selves having formulae of no small complication. From those we 
pa.ssed to the consideration of some bodies less complex in their 
structure, and undergoing changes very much like those which 
we at first considered, but having this remarkable peculiarity 
that, in these somewhat simpler cases, the changes were effected 
not only by organic bodies comparable to ferments, but also, in 
certain instances, by simple mineral bodies, such as the acids. 
In this intermediate class we found that the same effects are pro- 
duced, sometimes by diastase, or such-like bodies, and sometimes 
by sulphuric acid. Then we came to some still more simple 
cases of decomposition, produced solely by bodies of such sim- 


plicity that we chemists have got a tolerably definite idea of 
them. I gave two cases which, I believe I may say, are pretty 
well understood. The resemblance betvreen the different terms 
of that long series served, as I think it will be admitted by those 
who followed the chain of reasoning, as an argument in favor of 
there being some great resemblance in the process which takes 
place in these changes in the successive terms of the series ; and 
I propose, before we proceed further in the study of these won- 
derful decompositions, to analyze somewhat the nature of these 
changes in the simple cases which we last considered, in order 
that we may get, if possible, something like a master-key — a 
very simply-formed piece of iron — which will open a variety of 
locks. The two cases which I allude to were, first, the formation 
of ether and water from alcohol by the action of oil of vitriol ; 
and, secondly, the ordinary process of making oil of vitriol in the 
so-called lead chambers; and I think it will be admitted, even 
from the very brief and imperfect statement which I was able to 
make, that we have evidence of the fact that the active substances 
do return, after they have been doing one bit of that Avork, to the 
point from which they started before doing it. I gave a couple 
of illustrations of that fact. Sulphuric acid is converted, while 
making alcohol into ether and water, into a substance calledsulpho- 
vinic acid, which differs from it in a good many properties, and 
then it comes back again to sulphuric acid. Just so with nitric 
oxide, in the process of making oil of vitriol; it first takes up 
oxygen and assumes the form of those red fumes, then hands that 
oxygen over to the sulphurous acid which is in contact with it, 
thus cominn; back again to the state of nitric oxide from which it 
had started. Hence the term Avhich I have suggested for this 
process is cyclical, to denote the fact, which I consider essential, 
the leading fact that it is a cycle, the idea of which implies that 
the road by Avhich it returns is not the same by which it goes, 
and I want that idea to be suggested by the word. In the case 
of etherification, I wish I could lawfully use formuhie on the black- 
board, but it would not do, for I am sure that the greater number 
of my audience will agree with me that it would be a liberty 
which I ought not to take; but chemists are in the habit of denot- 


ing, by the aid of formulaj, particulars Avbich rc(iuirc to be fully 
explained. I mention that because, excluding that ordinary 
process, the particulars of my argument must, of course, be omitted, 
inasmuch as I do not use the language by which alone those par- 
ticulars can be conveyed. When the sulphuric acid acts upon 
alcohol, and transforms it, by a succession of these cyclical pro- 
cesses, into ether and water, the general kind of process is this: 
A little particle of the acid — because each one acts like the 
rest, and we had better consider one as a sample of the rest — 
first takes something from a contiguous particle of alcohol, and 
then it hands over this something to another particle of alcohol. 
That which the acid takes in the first instance is called, in our 
ordinary language, ethyl. It is a group consisting of carbon and 
hydrogen, very much like hydrogen gas — it is a group of those 
elements, and behaves in a manner closely analagous to hydrogen 
itself. The acid, in doing that particular w^ork which we have to 
consider, first takes a particle of this ethyl from one particle of 
alcohol, and whilst it does so it gives to the alcohol something in 
exchange; that something is hydrogen. And by doing this, the 
sulphuric acid which has taken up this ethyl is converted into 
sulpho-vinic acid ; it has gone half round the circle, in fact. 
The remainder of its journey consists in reversing, in another 
way, with another particle of alcohol, that very same kind of 
interchange which it had undergone in the first instance, that is, 
it gives up again this little portion of ethyl which it had taken, 
and resumes hydrogen in place of it. Just as that is the general 
process when sulphuric acid acts upon alcohol, forming it into 
ether and water, so in the other process, which I just now remin- 
ded you of, there is a similar action, only there is this difference 
— of course, I speak within those narrow limitations which are 
imposed upon us by our very imperfect knoAvledge of even these 
best-k'iown processes — but, as far as we know, the nitric oxide 
merely takes up oxygen, but gives up nothing in exchange. 
Those red fumes which you saw Avere really nitric oxide plus oxy- 
gen, not nitric oxide in which oxygen had replaced something 
else, and that was a difference between the process in that case 
and in the one to which I just now referred. Then, again, it. 
simply gives up that oxygen to the particle of sulphurous acid. 


The illustrious Liebig, to whom we owe, in this order of phe- 
nomena as in every other order which he has touched, some of 
the most valuable ideas which have guided our researches, sug- 
gested many years ago, for the explanation of the phenomena of 
fermentation, a theory which certainly has rendered very great 
service, and not the less so from the fact that it has been replaced 
by one more perfect. In building a house, it is certainly no proof 
that a scaffolding is unnecessary because in the final structure the 
scaffolding is not maintained ; and so in the progress of our 
science, as in every other science, each part of the work must 
be judged from its usefulness in aiding the carrying on of the 
building, even though the particular substance which was placed 
there at the time does not finally form part of the structure itself. 
Liebig's explanation really is classic, and well worthy of a few 
minutes' consideration. He classed together a considerable num- 
ber of cases of chemical action which bore, at least upon their 
surface, a considerable resemblance to one another, and he saw 
in them something in common, and by this one resemblance which 
they had he classed them, considering it to be their essential 
characteristic feature. For example, there is a substance which 
is made, by a process of oxidation, of a compound something 
like lime. It is called baric peroxide. Thenard had found that 
the oxygen which is here taken up by the baryta can, by a parti- 
cular process, be passed over to water, so that, in fact, Thenard, 
from this oxide of baryta, made, by a process which I Avill repeat 
on a small scale, some oxidized water, or jjeroxidc of hydrogen, 
as it is commonly called. Here is some of the peroxide suspended 
in water, and by adding an acid hydrogen salt, the hydric nitrate, 
in small quantities (for if I add it in too large quantities, I should 
destroy the peroxide, which is a very tender substance, and re- 
quires to be treated tenderly), I should gradually transfer the 
oxygen from the baryta, with which it was at first combined, to 
the water which is here present. This oxidized water, or peroxide 
of hydrogen, gives up the organs which it has just taken up 
very easily indeed ; in fact, the difficulty is to prevent it doing 
so. Amongst processes of that kind, I will show you one simple 
one. I will pour into the water in this large beaker-glass some 


of the solution which I have just prepared, and then add to it a 
few drops of this red liquid, which is a solution containing chro- 
mic acid combined Avith potash. You see, no doubt, that although 
I have only added half-a-dozen drops, there is evidence of a chemi- 
cal change, and the deep blue color which is formed by the contact 
of the two li(|uids is due to the formation of a new compound. 
The chromic acid, which has a red color, takes up oxygen from 
that peroxide of hydrogen, forming a blue compound. I have 
purposely chosen this particular instance because the process is 
a slow one, and we have time to see its intermediate changes. I 
will leave the glass here, and in a few minutes you will see the 
blue color will have disappeared, and in place of it we shall have 
a dirty green color, hardly visible. Whilst that change takes 
place, if we were to take means to examine carefully what was 
going on, we should find that oxygen gas passed off, and if we 
examined the green substance present at the end of the process, 
and compared it to this original red chromic acid, we should find 
that it consists of chromic acid mimis oxygen. The peroxide 
takes away oxygen from this chromic acid, and yet the chromic 
acid has got hold of its oxygen pretty firmly; it requires a con- 
siderable amount of energy to tear away even that part which 
is torn away by the process. But at the same time the oxygen- 
ated water is losing part of its oxygen. The deoxidation of the 
peroxide induces the chromic acid to give up some of its oxygen; 
the one body induces in the other a change similar to that which 
itself is undergoing. The peroxide of hydrogen is losing oxygen, 
and it makes the chromic acid also lose oxygen. To state the 
process in general terms, I may well use the expression of Liebig 
and call it contagious action. There are many other cases of 
similar processes. Here is a bit of rotten wood: if I were to 
moisten it and put it into a convenient flask, leaving room for a 
quantity of air, closing the mouth of the flask Avith a good cork, 
and leaving it for a day or two, also putting with the air a little 
hydrogen gas, which, you know probably, is capable of combining 
with oxygen, I should, on examining the mixture of air and 
hydrogen after it had been in contact some time with this rotten 
wood, find that the hydrogen had been removed from the air, and 


at the same time tlie oxygen of the air which had been mixed 
Avith it had disappeared. Now this wood is actually iindergoinp: 
a process of combustion ; it is actually absorbing oxygen, or being 
burnt, very slowly, indeed, but still at a rate which is not unim- 
portant, if 3'ou want it to last for any length of time. De Saus- 
sure, who noticed this, attributed the oxidation of the hydrogen 
gas to the fact that the wood is itself undergoing oxidation. I 
Avill take another case of the same kind. I will put into a little 
flask some of that peroxide of hydrogen, and will show you another 
decomposition of it, which is rather more convenient in one respect 
than the one I first took, as it will show us something more of 
the process. Into this little flask I put some of the same oxi- 
dized baryta which I used just now, and I will fit up the flask in 
such a manner that the gas, which Avill come ofi" in a tolerably 
large quantity, can be collected for examination. I will then 
put in contact with it a substance called silver oxide, first driving 
i>ut of the flask all the air which it at present contains. Having 
driven out the air, I put in a few drops of the nitrate which I 
employed in the first instance, and then I will put in a solution 
of silver oxide, which is, in some respects, a good deal like this 
chromic acid, at all events in one important respect, for it has 
oxyiyen, which it can give up under sufficiently strong pressure. 
You now see there is a great deal of effervescence going on, and 
the o-as which is coming off' from the little flask is rising into this 
jar, where we shall very casilj' be able to ascertain whether it is 
oxygen by the ordinary test. I should l^ave been glad, if it had 
been convenient to do so, to give you one other instance in which 
a remarkable fact was discovered by Professor Brodie, viz : a case 
of an action of this kind, where the oxygen taken from the per- 
oxide is in quantity exactly equal to the quantity of oxygen from 
ihe other body. "Whilst that gas is collecting I must enter shortlv 
upon a theoretical question, apologizing for doing so, not that I 
am ashamed of it, for it is one of the most important theories we 
possess, but on account of the brevity with which I am compelled 
to treat it. Oxygen, in the free state, is admitted by chemists 
to consist of two little atoms linked together. In each of the 
compounds which I used there, there was one- little atom of the 


kind. One atom leaves each of them, and when I get free oxy- 
gen, 1 affirm that there has been a process of combination, that 
the oxygen from the one substance actually combined chemically 
with the oxygen from the other. This is a theoretical result Avhich 
has been, in great part, established by Sir Benjamin Brodie, with 
the help of materials from various sources. What I mentioned 
in the other case holds good equally in regard to chromic acid 
and the other cases in which there was apparently no definite 
proportion of the kind. There is an actual chemical combination 
between the oxyo;en of one substance and that of the other; it is 
not merely that the one substance is compelled to decompose 
because the other is decomposing; there is between the one sub- 
stance and the other an interchange, so that a constituent from 
each one combines with a constituent from the other. To do 
justice to the importance of this fact I should need to describe a 
great number of chemical reactions which at present would be 
impracticable, but you may take my word for it that the kind 
of process which I have described is now known to be one of the 
commonest in chemistry. The other day, when I mixed two of 
the commonest substances, there were interchanges between the 
constituents by a process perfectly analagous to that which takes 
place here. Here it happens, by an exceptional circumstance, 
that the element which from the one body combines with the ele- 
ment of the other is of a like kind, whereas, as a rule, you find 
that unlike elements unite together in these processes. Thus it 
is that the anomaly which Liebig noticed ceases to be an anomah', 
and is brought back to a case of common regular chemical action 
by the aid of that theory to which I have just alluded. 

To return to our experiment. This glass vessel is noAv full of 
the gas, and by applying a taper which has been lighted and 
blown out, but is still glowing, we shall find, on putting it into 
the jar, that it immediately ignites, which is the ordinary test of 
oxygen gas. By the aid of that theory, which has been dis- 
covered since the time of Liebig's suggestion, this one case of 
apparently anomalous action has been proved to be a perfectly 
normal and regular case of combination, and the same kind of 
thing has been done with reijard to other cases of the same des- 


cription. A number of other processes which he classes with 
these may be shown to be due, not to any exceptional force that 
is at work in these cases, nor to the force of any particular con- 
tagious action among chemical substances, but to the ordinary 
forces which induce chemical combination in the cases best known 
to us. Liebig's theory of contagious action has been alluded to, 
by a high authority in this country upon philosophical matters, 
as being a law of chemical action of a generality comparable to 
the law of gravitation in astronomy, and for that reason, if for 
no other, it must be of considerable importance to know what 
bearing our most advanced knowledge has upon that law. I dare 
say you see the connection between it and the case of fermentation. 
I will not go into particulars, further than is necessary in order 
to show you the general analogy. 

(To be continued.) 

-^.- •-♦-♦ -^»- 

Froin tlif "Cfiica<)0 Medical E.Taminer." 

By FitAKK H. Davis, M. D. 

Notwithstanding the time and attention which the ablest sci- 
entific observers have devoted to investigation of the subject, we 
have still very little definite satisfactory knowledge of the most 
common and best understood diseases. It is not probable that 
the possession of this knowledge would be of any practical assis- 
tance in the treatment of disease, but as a key to the proper 
hygienic measures to be adopted, an understanding of the true 
source and nature of these causes, or influences, would be of the 
very greatest importance. By the neutralization or destruction 
of the poisonous material, or at least the avoidance of exposure 
to their influence, we would, in many instances, be enabled to 
avoid the contraction of disease, and could effectually prevent 
the extension of the contagious or epidemic diseases. The dis- 


covery of tbe efficiency of vaccination, and the method of isola- 
tion now practised with all contagious diseases, lias reduced 
unmeasurably the ravages of that class of affections. The epi- 
demic diseases, however, of which cholera is a prominent example, 
are much less easily controlled. Isolation is of no avail ; ex- 
posure to foul air and unhealthy surroundings, where the poison- 
ous effluvia, from more or less decomposing material, is being 
constantly inhaled, being probably the method in which these 
diseases are contracted, and not to any exposure to the persons 
diseased. When the discharges from cholera patients are allowed 
to remain and decompose in the room, or are thrown in an open 
place, where they contaminate the atmosphere, they will, of 
course, exert the same poisonous influence as any other putre- 
scent material. 

In searching for the origin of the various diseases, wherever 
no other reasonable tancjible cause could be assigned, atmos- 
pheric impurities or poisons have usually been held responsible. 
It is a well understood fact that persons affected with certain 
contagious diseases, as variola, rubeola and scarlatina, contami- 
nate the atmosphere for a certain distance around them with a 
specific poison capable of propagating the particular disease by 
"which it is engendered. These poisons, however, are of so sub- 
tle a nature as to have eluded every attempt at actual demon- 
stration, and we can only prove their existence by their effects. 
An examination, even, of the poisonous material of the variola 
pustle, which is known to be capable of engendering the disease, 
affords us no satisfactory explanation of its peculiar properties. 
Prof. Lionel S. Beale, in a recent article in the London 3Iiero- 
^copical Journal, says: '"I have examined the contents of the 
little vesicle which rises in small-pox at difierent stages of its 
development, and find, as in allied pathological changes, vast 
multitudes of minute particles of living matter or bioplasm, but, 
■as will have been anticipated from what has been already said, 
these present nothing peculiar or characteristic, nothing that 
would enable us to say, if we saw these particles under the 
microscope, that they were obtained from a small-pox vesicle, 
and would certainly give rise to that disease.'" 


The germ theory attempts to account for the origin of these 
diseases by supposing the existence of certain specific germs, of 
either a vegetable or animal nature, Avhich, floating in the at- 
mosphere, are introduced into the system with the inspired air. 
As the most rational and probable explanation that has been 
offered to account for the occurrence of these phenomena, this 
theory has been very generally accepted by the scientific world. 
Miscroscopists have failed, however, as yet, to demonstrate the 
existence of any such specific germs holding a definite relation 
to the origin of disease. Organic germs are found to be present^ 
in more or less abundance, in all atmospheres. The large amount 
of solid material present in air apparently perfectly clear and 
pure, is most beautifully shown by the very common and familiar 
phenomena which occurs when rays of sunlight enter a darkened 
or partially-darkened room, through a narrow opening in a blind 
or curtain. A cloud of very minute dust particles, floating about 
and glistening in the sunlight, mark the passage of the rays 
through the atmosphere, the particles being perfectly invisible 
anywhere outside of their course. Prof. Tyndell has proved 
these invisible dust-clouds to be made up of organic material, by 
the very simple experiment of introducing the flame of a spirit- 
lamp into the rays, when most of the particles were consumed 
and a dark smoke produced. This, however, by no means proves 
the particles to be living germs, and being apparently normally, 
or at any rate constantly present in the atmosphere, they cannot, 
of course, be considered as holding any causative relation to 

The occurrence of suppurations, of erysipelatous inflammations, 
gangrene, etc., in wounds after surgical operations, and in abs- 
cesses which have been opened and their cavities exposed to the 
air, is also attributed by many surgeons to the absorbtion of 
living germs from the air. In accordance with this theory an 
antiseptic mode of treatment has been devised by Prof. Lister, 
and since modified and improved upon by Prof, E. Andrews, of 
this city. The treatment consists, essentially, in the exclusion 
of the suppurating surfaces from contact with the air, wherever 
possible, and in the thorough application of carbolized solutions 


and dressings to such ■wounds and abscesses as have been exposed 
to the atmosphere, carbolic acid being supposed to possess tlie 
power of destroying all organic germs. 

This antiseptic treatment has been thoroughly tested by Prof. 
Andrews in the wards of Mercy Hospital, and its efficacy fully 
established by the results obtained. Do these favorable results, 
however, necessarily confirm the correctness of the germ theory? 
or, are not the injurious effects resulting from the admission of 
air to wounds and abscesses quite as readily accounted for by 
other equally probable theories? May not, for instance, the 
organic matter thrown off from the lungs and the cutaneous sur- 
face, when retained in close and badly-ventilated rooms, or in 
crowded hospital wards, until it has undergone decomposition, be 
of itself capable of poisoning, not only the exposed wounds, but 
also the blood and system generally of the patients compelled to 
breathe the atmosphere thus contaminated? In support of this 
theory we have the testimony of some experienced surgeons. Dr. 
Skey, of St. Bartholomew's, for example, who still claims that 
the presence of air in wounds is entirely inocuous where the 
patient's room is properly ventilated. 

The results of numerous careful microscopical examinations of 
the ordinary atmosphere, and also of various special atmospheres, 
have been published in the London Microscopical Journal during 
the past year. These examinations, although productive only of 
negative results, as regards the disease-germ theory, have, 
nevertheless, led to the discovery of some curious and interest- 
ing facts in regard to atmospheric impurities. 

In the atmosphere of a dissecting hall, according to the ob- 
servations of George Seigerson, M. D., "Fragments of fibres 
were found present, with the marks of the scalpel on them. 
There were fibrils of voluntary and of involuntary muscles of 
white and yellow fibrous tissues; some epithelial scales, fat cells, 
corpuscles, fine fragments of hair, and inchoate particles. It 
was a somewhat ghostly revelation ; but might be of advantage 
by inducing those in authority to ventilate thoroughly and dis- 
infect daily." The same observer also says, "Tobacco- smoke, 
with some difficulty, was got under the microscope. It was ex- 


amined on entering and on leaving the mouth. Little globules 
of nicotine were discovered twirling and flitting about in it, like 
monads. Some remained on the walls of the mouth; when the 
smoke is breathed (by novices) more globules are retained in the 
lungs, and nausea and illness supervene. These globules, if 
found in the air, distributed by cigar-smokers, might be taken 
for germs, as they would resist the iodine test for amyloids." 

In the atmosphere of an iron-foundry, iron was found to be 
present in the form of balls. "These were found to be hollow, 
and the fragments of their shells were discovered to be translu- 
cent. These iron bombs, or balloons, varied from s-^^jth of an 
inch to ^TsV^th? having been measured with the micrometer. 
The diameter of a bomb of 2oWtb of an inch was computed to 
be sixteen times greater than the thickness of the shell, which 
would therefore be about the uu^if^th of an inch. The compu- 
tation was made in order to find at what degree of thickness its 
iron material was translucent. There were no spores or seeds 
present, no fibres at all except a few cotton filaments from the 
garments of artisans, fibrous carbon particles, and a specimen of 
contorted, branchy metal. There were no germs here, yet the 
sunbeams were full of dancing motes. The ray shining on them 
assumed, in consequence of their hue, a bluish color, similar to 
that observed when the carboniferous smoke of a candle or lamp 
is placed in the track of a sunbeam. On entering such an 
atmosphere, the taste of carbon, and, indeed, of iron, may be 
readily perceived." 

During the past few months, I have, myself, made a num- 
ber of microscopic examinations of the atmosphere of rooms in 
which patients laboring under different diseases, contagious and 
otherwise, were lying, and have also examined carefully the 
breath of the patients themselves. These examinations were 
conducted in the following manner: A drop of clear, pure gly- 
cerine was placed upon a perfectly clean glass slide, which had 
been carefully excluded from contact with the air outside of the 
sick-room. The slide thus prepared was placed upon a shelf, a 
window-sill, or any convenient place, wliere it could remain un- 
disturbed for twenty-four hours. The currents of air passing 


through the room brought more or less of the dust and floating 
particles in contact with the glycerine, by which they were re- 
tained. A slide similarly prepared was then held, for a minute 
or two, before the mouth and nostrils of the patient, so that the 
solid particles contained in the expired air might be caught 
upon it. 

The observations were made in the presence of several cases 
of typhoid and typho-malarial fevers, one case of erysipelas, one 
case of scarlatina, one of rubeola, and one case of diphtheria. 
The atmosphere of my own sleeping apartment, and of that of 
other rooms occupied by perfectly healthy persons, was submit- 
ted to a similar examination, as was also the breath of healthy 

The principal difficulty experienced in examining these slides 
was caused by the large amount and variety of the materials 
which the glycerine had entrapped. Particles of feathers from 
the beds or pillows, white cotton fibres from the sheets, red and 
blue woolen fibres, etc., were readily distinguished in most of the 
specimens. Numerous and various other particles, the nature 
of which we were unable to determine, but some of them easily 
capable of being construed into germs, were also present in 
every instance. 

On a careful comparison of the slides exposed only to normal, 
healthy atmosphere, with those which had been exposed in the 
contaminated or contagious atmospheres, we were unable to de- 
tect the slightest particle of any kind in the one which was not 
equally present in the other. The materials brought to view, 
therefore, whatever organic matter or germs may have been 
present amongst them, could not be considered as holding any 
relation to disease. 

AVe regret that the pressure of other duties this winter has 
rendered it impossible for us to devote the time and study to 
this subject which we desired. The few hasty observations 
which have been made by us are too incomplete to be of any 
interest or importance by themselves. Their negative results, 
however, are confirmatory of the conclusions arrived at by those 
who have given the subject most attention. We are forced 


therefore to conclude, either that the disease-producing poisons, 
for which we have been searching, have eluded all the various 
contrivances devised for the purpose of bringing them under 
observation, or else that these influences emanate from some of 
the normal excretory products, in which we may suppose cer- 
tain changes to have taken place ; changes which are, however, 
neither apparent to the eye, nor appreciable by any means yet 

From the "Boston Medical and Surgical Journal.^'' 


Extract from an Address " Ueber Lazarette uud 15aracken. Yon Rru Vir- 

ciiow.' Translated from the Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift 

for March 6, 1871, by R. H. FiTZ, M. D. 

Vircliow, in an address delivered before the Berlin Medical 
Society, Feb. 8, 1871, thus explains briefly his idea concerning 

In speaking of the value of statistics in determining the utility 
of this or that plan for hospitals, he says, "I have always had a 
great regard for statistics, but I have never recognized that rough 
statistics yield practical results, and least of all can I admit that 
the mere quantity of deaths, w^ithout regard to the quality of the 
cases treated, can yield a safe basis for the answer to the question, 
whether a hospital may be a good or a bad one. Statistics do 
not form a science, merely a method, and, as is the case with all 
methods, the question becomes — has a proper use been made of 
them ? 

The subject assumes another view where one analyzes the 
quality of the deaths, and seeks the causes upon Avhich they 
depend. Here, however, Ave meet immediately with another 
difficulty, namely, the scientific diff'erences with respect to the 
view of certain diseased processes, which have rarely been pre- 
sented in so forcible a manner as of late. In this relation I will 


call attention to one scientific question only, Avhicb has probably 
occupied the minds of most of you, viz: in what manner does 
an erysipelas originate? 

There are very prominent scientific men who decidedly incline 
to the idea that every erysipelas, from the first, depends upon 
an infection, wherever possible upon a contagion. According to 
my mind, it would be of advantage for the consideration of these 
<:[uestions, not simply to identify infection and contagion. Should 
it be proven that erysipelas is contagious, it by no means results 
that it proceeds at all times from an infection. Even where one 
finds that every erysipelas is infectious, one has not yet proven 
that the same was primarily produced by an infection, since an 
originally simple and local process may have the power to pro- 
duce various impurities in the body, and in this way become 

It is the case with many other processes as with erysipelas, 
and I would therefore especially warn against complicating the 
idea of infectious diseases, by supposing at the outset that every 
infectious disease, according to its origin and its causes, is neces- 
sarily produced through impurities (infection). 

In close connection with the subject of infection is the ques- 
tion concerning the origin of disease from certain small orcran- 
isms. As a consequent continuation of the direction which 
investigation has taken of late years, the view has become more 
precisely formalized, and with a certain justification, that the 
cause of all infectious diseases is to be sought for in the form of 
little organisms which are to be found in the body. Were this 
correct, and if, despite many doubts, the idea prevailed at the 
present that every living being is to be deduced immediately 
from a preceding living existence, that every independent or- 
ganism descends from a maternal organism, in short, the generatio 
(gquivoca excluded, it by no means necessarily follows that every 
infectious disease is to be derived from the outside. 

I am of the view that one goes much too far, even here, and 
that one, even in those cases where distinct foreign organisms 
can be proven, very frequently, in judging of the injurious re- 
sults, confounds the organic existences with the organic materials 


which are produced by them, which at the same time may arise 
in like manner independently of them. It is plain that if chemi- 
cal bodies are generally produced by such organisms, it is by no 
means proven that these bodies are produced only in this way. 
They may originate also through other processes which agree in 
final results with those products generated through certain 

Even in those cases where organic existences are the real actors, 
we must discriminate between the activity which the living or- 
ganism, as such, exercises, and that which its j)7'oducts give rise to. 
In this respect we have a very instructive example in the fer- 
mentative processes. No one doubts that these are brought 
about through certain fungi. When, therefore, such fungi are 
found upon any part of the body whatever, one becomes strongly 
inclined to conclude that on this part something of a fermenta- 
tative character has taken place. Are injurious processes at 
work, one says that these are produced through the presence 
of the ferment-fungus. 

But no one can believe that the existence of the fungus itself^ 
or its immediate action upon the part, produces the injurious 
influences; we know rather that the fungi gives rise to fermen- 
tation, that thereby they bring into existence new chemical 
products, and that which finally becomes injurious is not the 
fungus as fungus, but the injurious materials which it produces. 
These injurious materials do not occur necessarily in the interior 
of the fungus. The ferment-fungus is not poisonous in the or- 
dinary sense of the word, as other poisonous fungi are. One 
can eat a large amount of it without harm. It is well known 
that one has given medicinally large amounts of yeast in diabetes ; 
it was well borne, and we know that no cases of poisoning have re- 
sulted from such treatment ; the injurious effects are to be ascribed 
to the products of the fungi, but not to their constituents, nor to 
the immediate action which they exert upon the tissues of the 

If one employs a similar method of consideration in the case 
of the infectious diseases, one will not deny that the mere proof 
of the existence of this or that organism, even the proof of the 


constant presence of the same at certain points, in no way suffices 
to prove that this organism is the immediate cause of the attacks 
of illness. We have an apt example in the investigations which 
have been made of late years concerning the diphtheritic pro- 
cesses. One thought to find the injurious agent in a micrococcus, 
and saw the real means of the infection of the body in the pas- 
sage of the same into the blood. How great was the surprise 
when these organisms were found in the blood also under con- 
ditions where they present no symptoms. I may call attention 
to that other curious example which the cholera has presented. 

One found here in the intestinal contents large masses of fungi, 
which were immediately regarded as a proof of the organic nature 
of the cause of cholera. 

Some time ago I called attention to the fact ( Vh'clioio's Archiv, 
1869, vol. 47, p. 524), that apparently the same fungus occurs 
in enormous amounts in acute arsenical poisoning, which presents 
symptomatically so strong a resemblance to cholera, and where 
it was probable, a j)nori, that in the examination of the intestine 
diagnostic points of difference would be discovered. This obser- 
vation has been confirmed by Hoffman ( Virchoio's ArcJiiv, 1870, 
vol. 50, p. 455). 

So little as I contend against the correctness of the tendency 
of the thought, which forms the basis of later investigations, 
that the peculiar history of the infectious process leads strongly 
to the suspicion that certain organic beings form the source of 
the contamination, still I must say that present experience is 
still far from furnishing a secure foundation for a general doc- 
rine of infection, and that great prudence is necessary when it 
becomes a question concerning the employment of such a doctrine 
in definite diseased conditions. For my part, the theory of 
contaminating materials is not yet wholly identical with the 
theory of the contaminating existences. 

As to cases of infection after wounds, in particular, another 
source of error is near at hand, according to my idea. 

The fact that one is considering wounds, open passage-ways, 
easily leads one to push into the foreground, somewhat one-sided, 
those cases where a contact of the deeper parts with the outer 


ail' has undoubtedly occurred, and the importation of impure air 
might take place without difficulty. On another occasion, as I 
discussed the puerperal diseases in the Obstetrical Society {Ver- 
handl. der Berliner Cfesellschaft ftlr Geburstshillfe, 1865, XVII. 
S. 21), I called attention to the point that several cases have 
been demonstrated where infectious processes which are generally 
seen in connection with open wounds, e. g., deep-seated gan- 
grenous phlegmona (pseudo-erysipelas), also occur in connection 
with an unbroken surface. So at present, with regard to wounds, 
I would lay stress upon the fact that when one, free from pre- 
judice, brings together a great number of experiences, and does 
not confine himself exclusively to wouuds, many doubts arise 
whether really all impurities of wounds are to be attributed to 
the importation from outside. Let one compare attentively the 
sevct'e phlegmonous inflammations which arise in connection with 
an intact surface, and in which the worst results may occur, 
without the entrance of impure substances through solutions of 
continuity of the surface. I have observed a series of such 
cases where the most careful examinations of the skin did not 
show excoriations even from which we might follow out the con- 

According to my idea, such a comparison is indispensable in 
the consideration of the theory of local contamination, for, so 
long as one observes only the one category, Avhere open wounds 
are present, so does one deprive himself entirely of the opportu- 
nity for correction. One is in due form driven to the view that 
the contamination has occurred from outside, and, if other sources 
are Avanting, one helps himself only too rapidly with the idea 
that it must have been the air which, by contact with the surface, 
has produced the contamination. 

Such an explanation is very convenient for diminishing the 
personal responsibility of the physician in attendance, where a 
change of locality is impossible. And yet no one, who has had 
a large hospital experience, can doubt that the care and skill of 
the physician produces the best results under the same conditions 
of air and space, under which, in the care of another, gangrene 
and erysipelas break out. 


I have thought myself compelled to present these remarks at 
■the outset, not for the sake of contending against, even of weak- 
ening, the views concerning the importance of pure air in the 
treatment of wounds, but because I wished to show with how 
many precautionary measures every investigation must be sur- 
rounded, which is to draw conclusions from a limited number of 
cases, and how very necessary it is to employ the greatest foresight 
in the answering of the question: Of how much importance are 
the statistics of death and disease in the judgment concerning 
ihe good qualities of the air and space in which such occur? 

®p^mllre mil Mx^u^l §mix^ix'^. 

From the "D'ntal Cosmos." 



By Chas. J. EssiG, D. D. S., Pbiiadelphia. 

The foliovang operation was performed upon a right central 
incisor tooth, and proves in every respect so satisfactory that I 
think a brief description may be of some interest to the profession. 

The patient, a student of the Philadelphia Dental College, had 
the misfortune ten years ago to break off, by a fall, about two- 
-thirds of his right central incisor. 

He applied to me some weeks since, and desired to know what 
could be done to restore the tooth to something like a normal 

The idea of restoring its shape by what is known as "contour 
filling" was abandoned as soon as thought of, as was also that 
of the usual method of pivoting, for the following reasons : First, 
%ve would be obliged to cut away, and consequently lose, the sub- 


stantial body of the tooth, with its enamel covering, and depend 
upon the frailer portion, the root. Secondly, the difficulty of 
matching in general appearance the adjoining teeth, they being 
somewhat peculiar. And lastly, the knowledge that the period 
of usefulness of pivoted teeth is, under the most favorable cir- 
cumstances, a short one. So, as neither of these methods afforded 
the two important desiderata of permanency and natural appear- 
ance, I decided to splice the broken tooth Avith a piece of porcelain. 
This was done, and the contour perfectly restored. 

The method of proceeding was as follows: The vitality of the 
tooth had been destroyed by the accident, and some years after 
the pulp canal had been filled with gold. The fractured portion 
presented an uneven edge and surface, which extended diagonally 
inward and upward toward the adjoining central. The first step 
was to remove the irregularities and obtain a perfect edge and a 
level surface, by means of a flat file. I then drilled up, following 
the pulp canal, to the depth of one-(|uarter of an inch, with a No. 
16 drill of Palmer's set, following and slightly enlarging with a 
flat burr-drill. A small square gold box was next constructed,* 
placed in the canal, and the four sides carefully and firmly filled 
around with gold. Into this box a pin made of platina gold fits 
accurately, the pin being split fully two-thirds of its length. At 
this point an impression was obtained of the broken tooth and the 
adjoining central and lateral ones. The pin which had been left 
lone enough to project three-sixteenths of an inch from the box, 
indicated in the impression the inclination of the canal. 

A cross-pin plain plate-tooth was next selected to exactly match 
in color the natural one; it was ground away equally from the 
cutting edge and neck, so as to leave the pins as nearly as possible 
in the centre of the porcelain; it was then fitted accurately to 
the tooth, and the cutting edge ground to imitate that of the 
adjoining central. 

The piece was at this point found to nearly cover the mouth of 
the box, being almost as thick as the tooth itself. This diflBculty 
was readily obviated by cutting off all that projected of the gold 

*This 1)0X and square pin have been used hy several members of the pro- 
fession in this city for setting pivoted teeth for more than five years. 


pivot and upon its end soldering a small plate, ■which fitted ac- 
ourately upon the plane mentioned above as having been leveled 
with the file, A gold backing was then fastened upon the piece, 
and a slight concavity ground in the porcelain to receive the little 
plate. Before, however, finally soldering the piece to this plate, 
it was temporarily fastened with cement and tried in the mouth, 
as the plaster cast is liable to undergo some change in handling. 
It was then removed, after some little extra adjustment, invested 
in sand and plaster, and the backing and plate united by solder. 

The piece can be removed and replaced with every facility, and 
the flat surface cleansed and polished whenever deemed necessary. 

When in position, the line of union is almost imperceptible, 
and is really not observed unless attention is specially directed 
to it, and a very close examination made. 

It has now been Avorn and thoroughly tested for several weeks, 
.and its appearance is unchanged. 


Reports of fatal results from the use of chloral are becoming 
unpleasantly numerous. Not long ago Ave commented on a case, 
recorded by Dr. Needham in the Journal of Psychological Medi- 
cine, where death followed the administration of this agent under 
skilled advice and in moderate doses, and there lie before us now 
the accounts of several other mortal accidents. In the Britisli 
Medical Journal of the 25th ultimo is given the first instance of 
poisoning by this drug reported in England, in the case of a 
clergyman who had acquired the habit of taking chloral at night, 
commencing with scruple doses. During two months, the dose 
was gradually increased, until it is estimated that he took four- 
teen or fifteen drachms in the ten days preceding the 27th of 
January, on the morning of Avhich latter day he was found dead 
in his bed. The only abnormal post mortem appearances were 


increased vascularity of the stomach at its cardiac extremity and 
along the lesser curvature, with minute submucous extravasated 
patches of blood in the former situation (the patient had been a 
suiferer from dyspepsia) ; a marked congestion of the cerebral 
membranes, which contained about an ounce of red serum, and 
presented old adhesions to a small extent on each side of the 
superior longitudinal sinus : and pallor with softness and friability 
of the cerebral substance. "There was no increased vascularity 
in any part except the choroid plexus; no effusion in the ven- 
tricles, nor extravasation of blood." These appearances are very 
different from those observed in the autopsy of Dr. Needham's 
case, where increased vascularity pervaded the entire brain, the 
only point of resemblance between the two cases being that in 
both there was found great congestion of the membranes. 

In the Buffalo 3Iedical and Surgical Journal, Dr. Holbrooke 
of Palmer, Mass., reports the death of the wife of a clergyman 
in that town. This lady took the entire contents of an ounce 
vial of chloral, from Avliich her husband had taken but three doses, 
the quantity ingested by her being estimated at over one hundred 
grains. About twelve hours afterwards. Dr. ITolbrook found her 
in a comatose condition, Avith contracted and insensible pupils, 
injected conjunctivae, livid face, and cold extremities; the heart's 
action very feeble. Death ensued in about fifteen hours from the 
time of taking the drug, the patient never recovering conscious- 
ness. No autopsy was made. [A recovery from a still larger 
dose of chloral is reported in the 3Iedical Times of Oct. 15, 1870, 
in the case of a nurse in the Philadelphia Hospital, who took 460 
(grains in a single draught. Restoration Avas effected by means 
of sinapisms to the extremities, vigorous flagellation, and the 
application of a powerful Faradic current along the spinal column, 
the phrenic nerves, and to the chest.] 

The Hartford Times recently reported the case of Frederick 
Ripley, a station-agent at Avon, Conn., for whom chloral was 
prescribed as a hypnotic by a physician. For about ten days it 
was taken with pleasant effect; at the end of that time a fresh 
supply was obtained from a druggist in New Haven, the first dose 
of which was followed by death in half an hour. Coming from 


an unprofessional source, the account of the symptoms is of 
course unsatisfactory, but there seems to be reason to suspect 
that in this instance some irritant poison was mixed with the 

The San Francisco Clironiele of the 7 th instant contains a 
highly sensational article on the death of a Mr. Hixon, of that 
city, who, on the recommendation of a friend, took one evening 
about an ounce of an advertised "elixir of chloral hydrate," and 
was found dead in bed next morning. In the report of the cor- 
oner's examination, no mention is made of the condition of the 
brain and meninges; but the thoracic and abdominal organs are 
said to have been healthy, with the exception of slight traces of 
disease in the kidneys, and a somewhat congested state of the 

When first unfavorable results from the administration of 
chloral were brought to notice, we were inclined to suspect the 
purity of the drug; but from a number of analyses published in 
the British 3Iedical Journal it would appear that there is little 
variation in the samples of diiferent manufacturers, at least as 
far as the English market is concerned. In six specimens ex- 
amined, the percentage of chloroform by weight was from 68.11 
to 69.61 ; the percentage of chloral hydrate in the corresponding 
samples being from 94.33 to 96.41. Nor does it seem, as has 
been feared, that an alcoholate instead of a hydrate of chloral is 
often found in commerce. It is, therefore, to physiological rather 
than to analytical chemistry that we must look for an explanation 
of many cases of chloral poisoning. Our knowledge of its phy- 
siological action is as yet very far from exact, the only estab- 
lished contradiction to its use beino; in cases of organic cerebral 
or cardiac disease, with a little heeded caution against its hypo- 
dermic injection. Three pharmaceutical points, however, it ma}^ 
be well to bear in mind: Firstly, that chloral hydrate when 
procurable in hard, transparent crystals is less likely to contain 
impurities than when in the form of an opaque, amorphous cake; 
secondly, that a simple test of its purity is its property of dis- 
engaging chloroform when mixed with an alkaline solution, 
without alteration of color; thirdly, that if kept in mixture for 


any length of time it is apt to undergo decomposition, which 
renders it either inert or dangerous, and that, consequently, all 
prepartions ready-made for domestic use are to be unhesitatingly 
condemned. — Medical Gazette. 


By Professor Arthur. 

[The following article is copied fro)H the Denial Xews Letter, of April, 1855. 
It will be interesting to young practitioners, as showing them something of 
the early history of adhesive foil. — Chase.] 

Some few months since a short article on "Sponge Gold," 
written by me, was published in the "News Letter." It was 
simply intended for the purpose of doing my part in calling the 
attention of the profession to it as a desirable improvement, and 
to express my confidence in it as a reliable material for filling 
teeth. I did not pretend to go at any length into the subject, 
but made some simple general statements, promising to prepare 
a detailed account at some future time, of methods of using it 
which had enabled me to employ it with success. I had very 
soon found, after beginning to use the " sponge gold," that it 
could not be relied upon if the directions by which it had been 
accompanied, when sold, were followed ; and I was not at all sur- 
prised that disappointment in the expected result occurred 
as a consequence of its use in this way. Heavy demands upon 
my time, however, have prevented me from ])reparing such an ar- 
ticle as I intended, and it will now be rendered unnecessary, I 
presume, by a publication in preparation by Messrs. Watts & Co., 
of which I have seen a part of the proof-sheets. I have, indeed, 
within a short time past, fallen upon a new field of experiment, 
and find that by using gold foil in a way somewhat differing from 


that in which it is orJinarilj used, it can be worked precisely 
like "sponge" or "crystallized" gold. 

I have never regarded gold foil, as ordinarily used, as a per- 
fect article for the purpose intended. There are very few mem- 
bers of our profession, I presume, who are not aware of its de- 
fects. That it has answered the purpose of filling teeth better 
than any substance brought before the profession, until lately, 
I am well aware, but still it has always been my desire, as I 
know it has been that of many others in the profession, to find 
something free from its defects. 

It is Avell known that no adhesion takes place between the 
layers of gold foil, as ordinarily used, and the retention of the 
whole mass of a filling depends upon the form of the cavity, or 
upon the lateral force it is made to exert upon the walls. The 
manner in which most good operators proceed to fill a cavity 
^vith foil, no matter how they may prepare it, is to begin at one 
side and condense the filling toward that side, making sure to al- 
low some of the gold to extend above the mouth of the cavity, 
far enough to make it level with it after it is condensed at the 
surface and properly burnished. 

Now, it is impossible, if the filling is well condensed, to add 
more gold directly to the surface. The layers of foil, as ordina- 
rily used, will not adhere to that portion which is previously con- 
densed. It becomes necessary, in such case, to remove the 
whole filling, or to cut away so much of it, if it be large enough, 
as to furnish a reliable hold for the additional o-old. This is a 
defect in foil for which I have always been anxious to find a 

I found by experiment some few years ago, that by using heavy 
numbers of gold, a result might be obtained approximating, at 
least, what was desired in this way. I proposed to employ No. 
30 gold foil, with sharp pointed instruments, as I found that by 
forcing the single strip of heavy gold into contact with portions 
previously introduced into the cavity, a kind of union between 
the different portions might be eifected. In this way I found 
myself enabled to add strip after strip of gold to a filling, until 
I had accomplished the object in view. I made use of this form 


of gold foil, in this waj for nearly two years, exclusively, ancF 
only abandoned it in consequence of the diflBculty of keeping- 
myself supplied with suitable instruments, which it is impossiblo 
to have properly made by an instrument maker. The points re- 
quired are necessarily very hard, and easily broken. Still I ac- 
complished with this form of gold all I expected from it, and 
abandoned its use for the reason stated alone. It is not improb- 
able that gold in this form may still be found desirable, if used 
as I am about to propose. 

I again went back to gold foil as I had formerly used it, and 
employed it in this way until my attention was called to the ar- 
ticle introduced to the profession under the name of "sponge 
gold." The first I used was made by White, of Utica, and it at 
once struck me as being a most desirable improvement, in many 
respects, upon gold foil. A specimen of Watts & Co.'s gold 
was then put into my hands by the inventor, and I found it free 
from the objection of friability, one of the most defective fea- 
tures of White's preparation. It was a beautiful specimen of 
this material, and I have never since found any which in all res- 
pects satisfied me so well. I took hold of the new form of gold 
eagerh^ and soon found that by using it (very differently, how- 
ever, from the manner described) I could obtain better results in 
my operations than I had ever been able to reach before. I used 
the "sponge gold" with greater satisfaction, for more than a 
year, than any other material I had ever taken hold of. I have 
seen my operations repeatedly, and at long periods of time, 
after they have been performed, and I have never in a single in- 
stance observed any change in its appearance or consistency, ex- 
cept when from unfavorable circumstances the operation was 
imperfectly performed. I feel no hesitation therefore in say- 
ing that the confidence I have expressed in it, in the article 
alluded to, I still retain. 

But "sponge gold" has unquestionably, with all advantages, 
its own defects, which have interfered with and must prevent its- 
general adoption. Its friability leads, in many cases, to more less 
or waste. As far as my own experience goes, it is exceedingly 
difficult to work, if it gets at all wet during the performance of an 


operation, and it certainly consumes more time to perform reliable- 
operations with it, in the great majority of cases, than gold foil. 
Still its advantages, with all these defects, as I have said, were so 
great in bringing about desirable results, that I have been willing 
to devote the additional time for the sake of making more perfect 
operations when completed. If these difficulties can be over- 
come, and an article found free from the defects of "sponge 
gold," which can be worked in the same way as this material, that 
is, if adhesion can be obtained between the portions placed in a 
cavity, a further advance unquestionably is made. 

In making some experiments for the purpose of testing the 
relative solidity, when condensed in a cavity, of gold foil and 
"sponge gold," I found the foil may be made to work in pre- 
cisely the same way as the sponge gold, and as perfect adhesion 
obtained between the different portions of gold put in a cavity 
as with this material. Nothing more is necessary than to cut 
the sheets of the ordinary numbers of foil into two or three 
pieces, roll up very loosely, and hold it in the flame of a spirit 
lamp until it reaches a red heat. It will at once be found to 
have become so adhesive that, with small and sharply serrated 
instruments, it may be made to adhere as readily as the best 
specimens of "sponge gold." It is necessary, however, when 
gold foil is used in this way, that it should be cut into small por- 
tions, for the very adhesiveness which it acquires when treated 
as I have proposed, prevents it from working well if an attempt 
is made to use it in the ordinary manner. 

The instruments which I have found best adapted to the use 
of gold in this way, are small flattened pluggers, with two sharp 
points cut at the end, and made so hard that they will not turn. 
The gold may be picked up w^ith such instruments, carried 
to the desired place, and condensed precisely as "sponge gold."^ 
It is well to go over each piece added, with a single sharp point. 

Although I have been making use of gold foil in this way for 
only about a month, I am exceedingly gratified at the results I 
have obtained, and am urged to call attention to it. 

It seems very strange that so desirable an improvement as this 
should have been in our hands so long a time, and yet not dis- 


covered. I presume many operators have attempted to restore 
gold foil, which had become impaired, by reheating it. I did so 
myself years ago, but found that the very adhesiveness it acquired 
by this process, interfered seriously Avith its use in the ordinary 

I have felt it necessary to make this long statement in order 
to protect myself against the charge of vacillation, as I have at 
various times earnestly advocated several different methods of 
filling teeth. My strong desire has always been to improve, for 
my own benefit and that of others, the methods of performing 
the operations of our profession. I always have been, and 
always shall be, ready to take hold of any new thing which prom- 
ises advantages, and to test it as thoroughly as I am capable of 
doing. I have not changed my ground in relation to any of the 
forms of gold I have advised to be used. Each has certainly 
the advantages which I attributed to them. I do not now take 
the ground that I have been mistaken in my expressed views of 
^'sponge gold;" I still regard it as perfectly reliable, when pro- 
perly used. But for ordinary use, I am convinced that gold in 
the form I am now recommending it, is a decided improvement 
upon any methed of using gold, hitherto known. Whether it 
will be regarded as superior to "sponge gold," in the hands of 
those Avho have successfully used this material, is a question 
which time and trial can alone decide. 

I have no idea that gold will be used generally in the manner 
I now recommend. It is exceedingly difficult to induce men to 
change a course which they have successfully pursued for years, 
and the difficulties of which they have learned to encounter and 
overcome, for any new thing. And, even if they are disposed to 
make a trial of a new process, it is often so imperfect a trial, that 
it is unsatisfactory. With regard to the matter in hand, simple 
as it is, I confidently say to every operator in the profession, 
that if fairly tried it will afford advantages in the use of gold 
gold foil of which few have dreamed. 

I may say that the foil of different manufacturers present a 
remarkable difference in regard to this quality of adhesiveness. 
It is certainly advisable to try several kinds, if that in hand does 


not work well. The profession may rely upon the full truth of 
the statements I have made. I have never, in the course of a 
practice of fifteen years, made use of any material for filling 
teeth which has so fully satisfied me as foil used in the manner 
I have described. 


I have occasionally used chloroform by inhalation for eleven 
years, to deaden sensation in excavating teeth preparatory to 
filling. My first patient was (in 1860) Mrs. I., of Nebraska, a 
relative whom I was visiting. I cleaned one cavity and filled it^ 
the tears coursing down her cheeks, every muscle writhing, and 
nerves twitching with pain. When I had finished, she looked me 
full in the face and said: "Cousin, if you cannot give me some- 
thing to alleviate the pain, although I prize my teeth as jewels 
I will lose them." The day following I commenced again, 
thinking that by kindness, sympathy and persuasion I could 
succeed. After cutting once or twice, she caught my arm, and 
positively said, "stop, I will give up my teeth." She was en- 

I then gave her chloroform, not to destroy consciousness, but 
sensation — letting her hold a saturated napkin, and as it would 
pass off, take a few inhalations to keep her under the influence. 
When I ffot through, she said, it was one of the greatest boons 
of this age, and that children unborn would bless the inventor. 
I filled twelve cavities with the same happy effect — filling about 
one a day. Since then I have been using it more or less, until 
within the last two years, when I commenced to give it to at 
least one half of my patients. 


I administer it slowly at the start, with my finger on the pulse; 
always stopping if it commences sinking. I clean two or three 
cavities at a sitting. I think it the duty of the profession to 
operate Avith as little pain as possible. Hundreds of teeth are 
lost from the dread of the indescribable pain that cannot be con- 
ceived until endured. Professor Trousseau said he often kept 
infants of a few months old under the influence for five or six 
hours at a time, (always regulating the amount by the pulse) 
saving the child's life. In many cases this is not a necessity. 
But there are others which imperatively demand that, if within 
our power, we should obviate the pain. Sol. IImrine. 

Court Home, Mo. 


The subject of fermentation has for the last few years attracted 
very general attention among scientific men, and especially 
lias this been the case among physiological and pathological 
observers. We therefore make no apology for laying before 
the readers of the Journal the following, which we take from 
the Druggist's Circular. We hope this extract, together with 
the series of lectures which we have published upon this subject, 
will suffice to give a pretty accurate idea of the present doctrines 
which are entertained by scientific men upon this most interest- 
ing and important topic : 

"the theory of fermentation." 

" This question has been discussed with great eagerness by 
physicists of late years, on account of its many physiological 
relations. The following article from the Scientific American 
has, therefore, a general interest: 

"Liebig has finally broken through the silence with which he 
has borne the attacks upon his theory of fermentation, on the 
part of many chemists during the last ten years, and has come 


out with one of those exhaustive and convincing replies that 
recall the best days of his great intellect. 

" The reticence he has observed has emboldened some of the 
younger chemists to disclose weak points in their attacks; while 
others have looked upon the dead lion as a harmless creature, 
and have incautiously come too near his claws. All this small 
game is scattered like chaflf before the wind with trifling effort, 
-and the whole power and force of his argument is leveled at the 
French academician, and renowned champion of the new school, 
Professor Pasteur, of Paris. 

"For ten years Pasteur has had it his own way, and the views 
published by him have been fast gaining popularity, until they 
appeared destined to be accepted by a majority of scientific men 
everywhere. Liebig's paper is therefore a perfect bombshell in 
the camp, and as soon as the smoke has cleared up, and the frag- 
ments have been collected, we shall probably have about as nice 
-a fight as has been witnessed among chemists for many a day. 
In the meantime, we propose to give an analysis of what Liebig 
says in defence of his old theory of fermentation. It is difficult 
to make an abstract of so learned a paper, but we shall endeavor 
to render the subject intelligible to our readers. 

"Pasteur announced, nine years ago, as the result of his experi- 
ments, that Liebig's explanation of the action of yeast on sugar 
was entirely without scientific foundation. 

"According to Liebig, 'a fermentable body is one which, by 
itself, or simply dissolved in water, does not undergo any decom- 
position, but when in contact with a putrescent body is resolved 
into new products or enters into fermentation. As fermentation 
is produced by the communication of motion from the atoms — 
not the molecules — of the putrescent body, to the atoms of the 
fermentable one, the process requires time ; and the same is true 
of putrefaction itself. And as the ferment can only act so long 
-as its atoms are in motion, so its power of exciting fermentation 
must cease as soon as its own decomposition is complete, and not 
before. Hence, a given weight of ferment can only cause the 
fermentation of a limited amount of sugar or any other ferment- 
4ible compound.' 


" On the other hand the views of Pasteur on fermentation are- 
as follows : 

"'The chemical process of fermentation is essentially a phe- 
nomenon of life; it begins and ends with it; an alcoholic fer- 
mentation without simultaneous organization, growth, and devel- 
opment, that is, without continuous life, is impossible.' 

"He regards fermentation as a chemical process accompanied 
bj a physiological one; the duration of life of the ferment lim- 
its the splitting up of the atoms of sugar. Liebig says there is 
nothing new in this view of the process. It was fully understood 
and explained by him in his chemical letters twenty years ago, 
and then, as now, he did not care to adopt it. 

" 'The action of ferments on fermentable bodies,' says Liebig, 
'is analogous to that of heat on organic substances. Their de- 
composition at high temperature is always the result of a change 
in the position of their atoms. Acetic acid is converted by heat 
into carbonic acid and acetone, just as sugar is split up by yeast 
into carbonic acid and alcohol; the carbonic acid resultant from 
the decomposition of the acetic acid contains two-thirds of the 
oxygen, and the acetone all of the hydrogen, in the same way 
as the carbonic acid of the fermentation of sugar includes two- 
thirds of the oxygen, while the alcohol contains all of the 

"'The formation and increase of yeast-plant is dependent 
upon the presence and absorption of nutritious matter that de- 
velops the living organism ; but in the process of fermentation 
there is an action independent of, and outside of, any products 
that the living organism can assimilate. The vital operation and 
chemical action are evidently two phenomena that in their inter- 
pretation ought to be considered separately.' 

"To the opinion of Pasteur, that the decomposition of sugar 
in the process of fermentation rests upon the formation and 
growth of the cells of the yeast-plant, is opposed the fact that 
yeast will produce fermentation in a pure solution of sugar; and 
as yeast consists in the main of a substance rich in nitrogen and 
sulphur, also containing considerable quantity of salts of phos- 
phates, it is difficult to comprehend how, in the absence of both 


of these constituents in the sugar, the growth of the plant-cells 
can be promoted; and it would be equally diflBcult to explain 
how the beer yeast exerts the same decomposing action upon 
numerous other bodies as upon sugar. 

"Liebig has carried on an extensive series of researches in 
order to determine the action of yeast upon a great variety of 
substances, and he also cites the labors of the best chemists of 
Europe to show that his views of the action of yeast and leaven 
to produce fermentation is founded upon scientific principles, 
while the explanation of Pasteur is wanting in every element of 
theory and fact. 

"It is so popular, not to say fashionable, to refer every vital 
action back to the formation of cells, and the building up of 
protoplasm, and to intimately connect life and matter together, 
so as to gradually support the doctrine of spontaneous genera- 
tion, that the publication of Liebig's great paper must be looked 
upon as a timely protest against the tendencies of the age. And 
it may serve as an intimation to younger men of science, 
anxious for fame, that the old methods of research are sufficient 
to furnish us with satisfactory explanations of the phenomena of 
nature withont the necessity of having recourse to the super- 
natural or to the materialistic doctrines of the so-called proto- 
plastic school. 

"The first part of Liebig's paper, which is all that has appeared, 
is devoted to fermentation ; the second portion is to be occupied 
with the question of the origin of muscular force, and will be 
looked forward to by physiologists with great interest." 

In the ''^Medical G-azette " we find a report of a case of poison- 
ing from the use of carbolic acid upon a suppurating surface, which 
had nearly proved fatal. The patient finally recovered under 
the use of active stimulants. We copy, also from the Gazette, 
the following notice of the '■'' American Journal of Microscopy,' 
which has its local habitation in Chicago: 

" TJie American Journal of Microscopy is the ambitious 
title of a new publication which announces its intention to 'rank 


among tlic leading scientific journals of the country.' The 
original matter in the first number, now before us, is very decided- 
ly original, and conveys information certainly not to be found in 
any of the standard authors on the subject; such, for instance, 
as that innumerable animals 'inhabit the air we breathe, the wa- 
ter we drink, and the food we eat. They move and have their 
being in sweets and sours — in the toughest flint as well as the 
mellow pulp of the peach. ***** jjj 

our own human bodies are tiny tenants — populous colonies of 
little inhabitants — dwelling and moving in our flesh,' etc.; that 
in a single drop of rain may be counted 'near a hundred playful 
little creatures.' One writer undertakes to educate the youth- 
ful mind in comparative anatomy by asserting the possible devel- 
opment of teeth in an animalculus less than the hundredth part 
of a hair's breadth in size, and estimates the number of air-cells 
in the lungs of infusoria. 'Unscientific and superstitious per- 
sons' are reassured concerning the 'red snow' of the Arctic 
regions, as 'the miscroscope has recently shown it to be due to 
the presence of a minute species of aninialculne.' We are told 
that the mosquito, after he has (|uite finished sucking our blood, 
'puts the drop of poison into the place he took the blood from.' 
After all these exhibitions of original research, it is gratifying to 
learn that the conductors of the Journal will 'make scientific 
examinations for individual interests, for a proper consideration.' " 
The above from the Gazette gives a pretty good idea of the 
high scientific status which this work is destined to occupy, and 
we should think from the above, and from our own hasty review 
of the work, that its editor and contributors each went daily 
armed with a Craig Microscope, ready to solve all the mysteries 
of the material universe. 

'■'■ The Canada Journal of Dental Science" has an article 
upon "The Manufacture of Artificial Teeth," by 0. Brewster, 
L. 1). S., of Montreal, in which the author makes the complaint 
that the teeth manufactured now are not as strong as those 
which were made many years ago. Since the introduction of 
rubber sis u base, manufacturers have not been as particular in 


regard to the strength of their manufactures as they were before, 
when every tooth was subjected to the heat required in soldering, 
when brought into use. 

Dr. Brewster details some experiments of a crude character 
which seems to indicate that the teeth manufactured by Ash & 
Sons, of London, are much stronger than any made in this 

C. S. Chittenden, of Hamilton, Canada, states that if carbo- 
nate of soda (the common baking soda), is used with soap, the 
hands can be easily cleaned when they have become blackened 
and unsightly by working in the laboratory. 

A large part of the April number of the Canada Journal is 
taken up in a reply to an article, or we might say to two articles, 
published in the Canada Medical Journal, by one "Bowker, " 
reflecting particularly upon the "Royal College of Dental Sur- 
geons," charging that the use of amalgam was encouraged and 
recommended by that institution. It seems that the Canada 
Journal had room for these articles of H. M. Bowker, but when 
the editor of the Canada Journal of Dental Science proposed 
to reply to Bowker's articles, there was no room in the pages of 
The Canada Medical Journal for any such purpose, so we have 
the reply at length in the Dental Journal. As the principal 
point sought to be established is the propriety of using amal- 
gam in any case, our readers will only have to look over the 
journals of twenty years ago, to find all the j^ros and cons thor- 
oughly discussed. In the correspondence, however, upon this 
amalgam question, which was furnished by "one of widely 
recognized ability," we find the following important fact 
noticed: "Water does not decompose mercury, silver or tin to 
any appreciable extent." Perhaps this savan can tell us what 
constituent elements mercury, silver or tin would be resolved 
into, supposing they were decomjjosed. 

An editorial upon pyroxylin base speaks highly of this kind 
of work, but we are inclined to advise our readers to go cautious- 
ly in that direction, for fear that they may be disappointed in 
their expectations. We hope it will prove to be all that is 
claimed for it by its friends. 


'■'•The Dental Cosmos'' for May has for its leading article a 
description of a case of exostosis, or cemental hypertrophy of 
the fangs of a lower molar tooth, the whole mass heing two 
and one-half inches in length by two and five-eighth inches in 
circumference, and weighing twelve and one-half pennyweights. 
This article is by J, H. McQuillan, and concludes with the fol- 
lowing remarks : 

"In conclusion, it may not be amiss to direct attention to the 
impropriety of applying the term 'exostosis' to hypertrophy 
of the cementum. In taking exception to the employment of 
this term in connection with a tooth, it is with the desire of limit- 
ing the application of the word to its proper and legitimate 
sphere. I am well aware of the fact that eminent writers on 
surgery and dentistry almost invariably use this word in connec- 
tion with the hypertrophied roots of the teeth, but that does not 
necessarily make it right. Correctly speaking, exostosis (from, 'without,' and osteon, a 'bone,') is an osseous 
tumor on an exuberant growth of osseous material, on the sur- 
face or in the internal structure of a bone, including the en- 
largement of a part or the whole of a bone. 

" It will be seen by this definition from ' Thomas' Medical Dic- 
tionary,' that to prevent confusion the term should be restricted 
to bony growths alone. It may be said that the structure of 
cementum is so closely allied to bone that it is an attempt to 
establish a distinction without a difference. 

"Any one who has used the microscope in the examination of 
bone and cementum, is aware of the fact that there are charac- 
teristic features belonwinfi to each which will enable those who 
are familiar to distinoruish one from the other with ease — the 
lacunar, canaliculi and Haversian canals being invariably present 
in bone, while lacunjie and canaliculi only are found in cementum. 
It may be said that this is only a difference of degree, but it is just 
such a difference as to justify the distinction made, and enamel, den- 
tine, cementum, and bone, are but differences of degree in which 
an animal basis is impregnated or united with mineral constitu- 
ents. The all-important point which I desire to establish in 
objection to the use of the term under consideration, is that this 


hypertrophy is an enlarged growth of one of the dental tis- 
sues (cementum), and not from bone. This fact has not only a 
bearing upon a correct apprehension or the pathology of the 
case, but also upon the character of the operation demanded in 
the removal of the abnormal structure." 

We would merely draw attention to the following paragraph, 
in the above quotation : " The lacunar, canaliculi and Haversian 
canals being invariably present in bone, while the lacunae and 
canaliculi only are found in cementum." 

As the whole article quoted is based upon this assumed 
difference between bone and cementum, we will spend a moment 
in examining the "characteristics" of these divers tissues as de- 
scribed by the above author. 

In the first place, then, we will premise that the Haversian 
canals are by no means always present in bone. Haversian 
canals are only found Avhen the plates or laminae of bone are of 
some considerable thickness, in Avhich case they are required for 
the purpose of conveying nutrient material into the substance of 
the bone, so that Peaslee, in his work upon Histology, says that 
no Haversian canals are found in bones which are less than gV^h 
of an inch in thickness, and moreover, in bones which measure only 
from euVTrth to ^oo^h of an inch in thickness, even lacunas and 
canaliculi are wanting. In the thinnest plates of the ethmoid bones, 
and in the oscicles of the ear, no Haversian canals exist, whilst 
Peaslee states that bones without even lacunae or canaliculi, can 
be found in the os unguis of the mouse and certain small birds. 

As bones exist without Haversian canals, etc., these cannot be 
considered essentials in true bone. Therefore, we cannot legiti- 
mately argue that cementum is not true bone, because it is gen- 
erally found without the Harversian canals. 

Mr. Tomes calls cementum, "a tissue which offers no strikincr 
character by which it can be distinguished from ordinary bone," 
and for a full description of cementum he refers to Mr. Shelly 's 
paper upon this subject, published in "Transactions of the Odon- 
tological Society " ; and further on, in relation to the development 
of cementum, he remarks : " On comparing the statements made 
by Mr. Shelly with those contained in the previous extract, it will 


be seen that there are no essential points of difference recognized 
in the mode of formation of bone and cementum." But Haversian 
canals arg found in cementum as well as in other bones, whenever 
the conditions are such as to require them for the purposes of nu- 
trition, Mr, Tomes says, again, "The occurrence of vascular ca- 
nals (Haversian canals) is to a certain extent exceptional, being 
dependent upon the presence of a larger amount of cementum 
than is usually found in perfectly healthy teeth." 

Mr. Owen says, '• Cement always closely corresponds in tex- 
ture with the osseous tissue of the same animal; and wherever it 
occurs of sufficient thickness, as upon the teeth of the horse, 
sloth or ruminant, it is also traversed, like bone, with vascular 

Peaslee, in his "Histology," says, "The cementum is a layer 
of true osseous tissue covering the fangs and necks of the teeth." 
And again, "It rarely contains Haversian canals and vessels." 

Now if there is no essential difference in the structure, or in 
the development of cementum and other bones, we think it will 
not be absolutely necessary to change an accepted nomenclature 
of exostosis, when applied to cemental hypertrophy, or more 
properly speaking, to cemental hyperplasia. 

The next article in the Cosmos is the conclusion of the paper 
entitled, "Notes for a Memoir on the Pathology of the Teeth." 
We pass on to the next article, by W. E. Driscoll, upon "What 
I know about Chloroform." Dr. Driscoll states that he has used 
it as a derrtier resort in cases of sensitive dentine, but he is evi- 
dently aware that in so doing he is treading on dangerous ground; 
and although we publish in this number of the Journal, an arti- 
cle recommending the use of chloroform strongly, we desire to 
say that in our opinion the risk is too great for any practitioner 
to take, when we only have sensitive dentine to contend with. 

Following this we have an article by Professor Stolwagen, in 
which he discourages the indiscriminate use of an;\isthetic agents 
in extracting teeth, and by implication, the use of these agents 
in cases of sensitive dentine. 



Lawrence, Kansas, May 5, 1871. 
Editors Missouri Dental Journal: 

The dentists of this State met in convention on the 2d of May, 
1871, and organized a State Dental Society. Dentists present: 
Dr. W. H. Marvin, of Topeka; Dr. J. H. Sawyer, of Atchison; 
Dr. E. C. Fuller, of Fort Scott: Dr. A. M. Callahan, of Topeka; 
Drs. J. B. Wheeler and J. D. Patterson, of Lawrence. 

A permanent organization was effected. Name — The Kan- 
sas State Dental Society. Code of Ethics adopted was that of 
the American Dental Association. Constitution and By-laws 
same as that of standard local societies in other States. 

Dr. J. B. Wheeler was elected President; Dr. W. H. Mar- 
vin, Vice President; Dr. J. D. Patterson, Recording Secretary: 
Dr. E. C. Fuller, Corresponding Secretary; Dr. J. H. Sawyer, 
Treasurer. Dr. E. C. Fuller was elected delegate to the Ameri- 
can Dental Association for 1871. 

A vote of thanks was tendered Dr. Marvin for inaugurating 
the movement for organization. 

First semi-annual meeting will be held at Topeka, commen- 
cing September 12, 1871. Annual meeting at Atchison, May 
2, 1872. 

After all necessary business was transacted an irregular dis- 
cussion ensued — exchange of opinion on different subjects of 
interest to the dentist- 
Members were highly gratified with this inaugural movement 
to place the profession in this State with that in older States, 
by thus organizing on a solid basis a State Dental Society. 

Cordial invitation is extended for co-operation by the profes- 
sion, especially in our own State. 

The Secretary was instructed to furnish reports of this meet- 
ing to the leading dental journals of the country. Society then 
adjourned to meet at Topeka on September 12, 1871. 

J. D. Patterson, Itec. Sec. 



Dr. H. E. Peebles, a notice of whose death appeared in the March No. 
of this journal, and whose photograph appears with present number, 
was born in Virginia in 1812. He removed from thence to Southern 
Ohio, where he commenced the study of Dentistry. Upon coming to 
Missouri he entered upon the practice of his profession at Lexington, 
and after having won an enviable reputation in that section of the State, 
he removed to St. Louis, where he remained in active practice until a 
short time before his death. Dr. Peebles was a man of great energy 
of character, and having early imbibed correct views in regard to dental 
education, he entered into the discussion of the educational questions 
of the day with spirit, and ceased only with his life to exert all his influence 
for bringing about a higher grade of literary and scientific attainments 
for the members of the dental profession. 

When the Missouri Dental College was organized, he entered upon 
the duties of a teacher in that Institution, wliich he filled with credit 
to himself and to the college, until his failing health admonished him of 
the necessity of resigning a position, the onerous duties of which he 
was no longer able to perform. The organization of the Missouri State 
Dental Association was due to his almost unaided eff"orts, and for many 
years he was an active member of the St. Louis Dental Society, and 
of the Western Dental Association, and also of the National Dental 

No member of the profession could have been taken from its ranks 
in Missouri, whose loss would have been more severely felt. He leaves 
afamily and many friends to deplore his loss; and an example whose 
benign influence shall be felt through many a coming year. "Blessed 
are the dead who die in the Lord for their works do follow them." 


^ » • « » 


Editors Missouri Dental Journal: 

At the seventh annual meeting of the Illinois State Dental 
Society, Resolutions of Condolence were passed upon the death 
of the late Professor Peebles, of St. Louis, 

0. Stoddard Smith, Secy. 


Vol. III.] JULY, 1871. [No. 7. 


By Prof. A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. — Before the Society of Arts. — Reprinted 
from tlie Pliarmaceutical Journal, London. 

(Continued frcmi Page 208.) 

First, I will take the cause of alcoholic fermentation, as being 
the case best known. The ferment consists of little cells — 
which I hope I shall be able to show you at our next meeting — 
each one containing several compounds, but itself a living beino-, 
I Avill not say at present whether they are animals or plants. 
When you have these little organisms in water, or sugar, or in 
any moist substance, they are constantly and of necessity under- 
going decomposition. You may arrest the decomposition by va- 
rious agents, but if you do so, you kill them, or suspend their 
activity as yeast. No case is known to us of their acting like 
yeast without undergoing at the same time a process of chemi- 
cal decomposition, — being broken up into simpler substances 
than those which were contained in them. I pointed out, last 
week, that the sugar which is being decomposed by the yeast is 
by that process being broken up into substances which were con- 
tained in it, and that was what Liebig noticed. He said that 


this yeast is a substance which tends to decompose, — it is break- 
ing up into simpler substances, and it induces in these particles 
of sugar, which are in contact with it, a decomposition similar 
to its own. The action which it is undergoing is contagious, 
and passes over to the contiguous particles of sugar; and he 
adduced cases like that of oxygen, as affording analogies among 
simple well known bodies. I think what I have said with regard 
to the case of oxygen, will be sufficient to show you that in those 
simple cases the idea of contagion is certainly not applicable. 

A foreigner, who was describing sometime ago the luxuriance 
of the crops in America, spoke of a bushel of mice being sown in a 
field, and a hundred bushels of mice being reaped. Of course, 
what he meant to say was maize, or Indian corn; but I am re- 
minded of that anecdote by the necessity I am under for a 
moment, of asking you to consider for a while, some living be- 
ings under their general functions only. Suppose you had a 
bushel of actual English mice, and you put them into a granary 
full of corn. There clearly would soon be a great change. You 
are supposed to know nothing more about the particular organiza- 
tion of these little beings, than you know about the particular 
organization of the little yeast cells. You know that these lit- 
tle things eat grain, and that in place of the grain which they 
eat, there appear various products of decomposition, which can 
be easily collected and examined. They give off carbonic acid, 
and so forth, and if you examined the state of that granary af- 
ter a time, you would find a chemical change, or rather a set of 
chemical changes, going on in the organisms of these mice. The 
substance of which they consist would be actually wasting away; 
they would be giving off carbonic acid, and nitrogenous and 
other products. And if you also examined the state of the 
corn which was there at first, you would find that it finally 
passed over into these same products ; and I say that the theory 
of contagious action is as much applicable to the action of the 
bushel of mice in the granary full of wheat, as to the action of 
the yeast cells upon a solution of sugar. There is in the one 
case, as in the other, an assimilation b}' the living organism of 
the material upon which it acts. The materials undergo certain 


changes, of which the general results are known to us, but of 
which the particulars are, I may say, in the main almost com- 
pletely unknown. As to the processes by which these products 
are formed, it is as well to say that we do not know them. We 
know a little here and there about them, but it is nothing compared 
to our ignorance; therefore the resemblance is the more striking, 
and if we were to believe in the contagiousness of chemical ac- 
tion as applied to the case of the assimilation of sugar by a 
ferment, and say the ferment gives off alcohol and carbonic acid, 
and that sugar is also resolved into alcohol and carbonic acid, w'e 
should really be describing in its general features, a process 
analagous to that which I have just now mentioned; such a gen- 
eral analogy would be readily admitted by those who go into the 
particulars of the process, but I think it is of particular impor- 
tance, to have in addition to it something more practically useful, 
to guide us in understanding chemical reactions. For that pur- 
pose I will take one or two chemical reactions of an exceedingly 
common kind. For instance, I will again take that chromic acid 
which Ijust now employed. Here you see is thegreen residue which 
I told you would be produced; I again take some of this chromic 
solution, throw some of it into water into this jar, so as to visi- 
bly tinge the water red; I will slightly acidulate the liquid by 
oil of vitriol, and I will then pour into the mixture (which I will 
describe as chromic acid dissolved in water, for the potash which 
was present is taken away from the compound by the sulphuric 
acid), a substance which I will merely describe as being greedy 
of oxygen, sulphurous acid. If Liebig's theory of contagious 
action were generally true in chemical action, you would no 
doubt expect that this sulphurous acid, in taking up oxygen, 
would make the chromic acid also take up oxygen. It is quite 
possible for the chromic acid to do so, for that blue substance 
"which we had in this jar at first was nothing but chromic acid 
with oxygen added to it. But instead of this, we shall have at 
once a reduction of the chromic acid to deep green, which I dare 
say appears to you almost black. It is precisely the same thing 
as that pale, dirty green which you saw before, but in its concen- 
trated state. There is no oxygen taken up by the chromic acid, 


but it at once loses oxygen. This sulphurous acid wanted ta 
combine with oxygen, and it tore away at once some of the oxy- 
gen from the chromic acid, and there was in this chromic acid a 
process, not similar to that which the sulphurous acid underwent,, 
but a process precisely opposite to it — one combined with oxy- 
gen ■v\hile the other lost oxygen, — and if you examined the 
liquid, you would find that the sulphurous acid which took part 
in the process, and has taken up oxygen, is now in the form of 
sulphuric acid. Again, I have here some granulated zinc, which 
Avill very easily evolve hydrogen, particularly when its activity 
is stimulated by throwing a little oil of vitriol on to it. After 
adding a little water, I will throw in a little oil of vitriol, so as 
to get an evolution of gas. Then I have here a solution which I 
think must look black to you, except at the edges, Avhich is a so- 
lution of a beautiful salt called permanganate. It is used for 
deodorizing certain foetid water, and I might compare it to the 
chromate I was using just now. It consists of an acid of the 
metal manganese. If I throw some of that into the mixture 
which I have just prepared, and leave it for a short time, and 
then examine it, we shall find that, instead of being induced to 
give off hydrogen like the other body, which is doing so vigor- 
ously, we shall find that it will do the opposite, and will com- 
bine with hydrogen; and the color which belongs to it, and 
which can be recognized so easily, will disappear, because hydrogen 
will be taken up by its oxygen; and it will be reduced and 
brought down to a substance containing comparatively little oxy- 
gen. There, again, as in the previous case of the chromic acid^ 
we find that there is a kind of chemical polarity in the general 
mode of action, that the one substance acted upon does precisely 
the opposite of the other. There is no tendency in this case to 
do the same thing, but the two substances acting upon one an- 
other do precisely the opposite, the one taking up what the other 
loses. Not only is this the case in the instance of the action 
which I have mentioned here, but in a great number of other 
cases of considerable interest and importance, — bodies which act 
chemically with considerable energy when allowed to do so, are 
prevented by others from so doing when those others are trying 


to do the same thing. If, for example, we put metalhc copper 
into nitric acid, the copper would dissolve with immense energy; 
it would undergo what I might call a process of combustion. 
Again, if I put mercury in contact with the acid, the same thing 
would occur; it would be dissolved almost as rapidly as the cop- 
per. But if I put the two together into nitric acid, the copper 
prevents the mercury from undergoing combustion ; and so far 
from encouraging it to do the same thing, it actually takes from 
it the power which it possessed before of undergoing a combina- 
tion of that kind. And more than that, if I take mercury 
which has been burned — a solution of mercury in the form of 
■corrosive sublimate, — and put copper into it, the copper will 
actually unburn it, or make it come back again from the point 
at which it had got, and throw down the metal. You can see 
the process which takes place; on putting a strip of clean red 
copper into the solution, it becomes grey, and throws down the 
mercury from the solution. So far from encouraging the mer- 
cury to oxydation, it makes it do the opposite to that which it 
otherwise had a tendency to do. 

Again, I will take some of this solution of copper — it ought 
to be some of the very solution which is being made here, where 
copper is being dissolved at the expense of mercury — and if I 
put into it a piece of common iron, perfectly clean and white, it 
will very speedily combine; and I cannot express its functions 
in combining better than by saying that it will make copper un- 
corabine, for the copper which was burnt is now being unburnt. 

If we go carefully, with the knowledge of their particulars, 
through the best known chemical processes, we find that there 
is, as a rule, a force at work which I might describe as polarity 
— a tendency among contiguous particles which are acting on 
one another to assume functions which can be best characterized 
as being opposite to one another. Whatever the one is doing, 
the other is doing as nearly as possible the very opposite of it, 
and any tendency to do like work I know not of. There are, 
however, cases which would appear to be fcivorable to the notion 
of contagious chemical action. If I blow out that gas-burner, 
fitill letting the gas escape, and then bring near to it a burning 


splint, it will set fire to the gas, and the same ^vith the candle- 
wick if I bring it close to a burning match — the match, which 
is burning, communicates to the wick the process which it is un- 
dergoing, — but the explanation is this: it does so merely be- 
cause of the high temperature which it has attained. If by any 
other process, such as concentrating the rays of a powerfully 
heated surface by means of a lens, I raise the temperature of 
the gas to that point at which it is capable of combining witb 
the oxygen of the air it will do just as well. The accident 
that the high temperature is communicated by the burning splint 
has nothing to do with the process. 

[7b be continued.] 


Toldt has recently published in the Transactions of the Vienna 
Academy an essay on the Physiology and Histology of Fat. In' 
opposition to the statements of Virchow, who maintains that fat- 
cells are to be regarded as the cells of connective tissue filled 
with an oily fluid, and are therefore constantly associated with 
this tissue, Toldt gives as the general results of his inquiries 
upon the intra-spinal fatty tissue that this, at least, is an organ 
of a peculiar nature, which neither in regard to its structure nor 
function can be included amongst the connective tissue formations. 
In order further to demonstrate that adipose tissue is independent 
of connective tissue, he refers to the characters and relations of 
fat in the Batrachia. The masses of fat that surround the uro- 
genital apparatus of these animals in the larval state consists of 
large, round, transparent, nucleated cells, not separated by an^ 
intervening substance except bloodvessels. Passing to the mam- 
malia, he points out that the first formation of fat in the embryo 
occurs around the kidneys, and thence gradually extends into the 
connective tissue of the mesentery after birth. He considers a 


Strong argument in favor of the independency of the adipose 
tissue to be the fact that it always has, down to its smallest lobules, 
its own proper and closed system of bloodvessels, which, it is 
curious to observe, very closely resembles that of the acinous 
gland.^. These researches of Toldt enable us to explain the absence 
of fat in regions where everything appears to favor its formation, 
as in the sub-muscular connective tissue of the intestinal canal. 
It explains also the persistence of the tissue, with its characteristic 
features, even when all the oily matter has been removed by ab- 
sorption. Whilst fully concurring in the general statement that 
fat-cells possess in mature adipose tissue a distinct membrane, he 
differs from Czajewicz in maintaining that when first formed they 
are destitute of a membrane, this only becoming visible in the 
latter embryonal periods. The minute masses of protoplasm 
they contain, however, remain throughout life. lie makes an 
interesting observation to the effect that spring frogs that have 
fasted through the winter, and are excessively lean, present fat 
drops in which no membrane is distinguishable, but which, reduced 
to their protoplasmic primary mass, possess the power of amoeboid 
movements. From the consideration of these facts, M. Toldt 
has arrived at the conclusion that the protoplasm, of the fat-cells, 
when supplied w'ith sufiicient nutriment, is capable, like a gland 
cell, of forming fat as a kind of secretion ; and, inversely, when 
the consumption of oxidisable material exceeds the supply, it 
possesses the power of using up the stored-up fat and discharging 
it into the blood. The mode in which fat is laid up has also been 
investigated by Fleischer, with a view of determining whether, 
in accordance with Liebig's idea, the amylaceous compounds 
ingested are converted into fat directly; or whether, as Voit 
thinks, the fat consumed in the economy is derived from the fat 
of the food, and that the amylaceous compounds are only ser- 
viceable as readily combustible compounds, by means of which 
the fat developed from albuminous compounds, and already present 
in the body, are preserved. The results of his investigations on 
cows, which were both numerous and extended over a long period 
of time, were on the whole unfavorable to Voit's views. — Lancet. 



By Edgar Park. Read before the Missouri Dental Association, June, 1871. 

Severe criticism has been so freely indulged in by many, upon 
this subject, that perhaps it may not be amiss to expend a few 
moments in considering the relative merits of the contour opera- 
tion where indicated, and others which may be performed. 

This operation is indicated where the loss of a portion of the 
tooth has occurred. 

There has never, to my knowledge, been a variety of opinion 
concerning the advisability of restoring the general contour in 
cavities having four solid walls to retain the plug. In simple, 
and even in compound fillings, I don't remember to have heard 
any objection urged to restoring, as nearly as possible, the lost 
portion; on the contrary every good operator recommends filling 
all these cavities sufficiently full to be susceptible of being fin- 
ished in such a manner that the surface of the filling shall be 
continuous with the surface of the tooth. 

But in cases where a considerable portion of the crown of the 
tooth has been lost, arises the question, as to the advisability of 
contour fillings. 

I iojajiine no one will dissent from the statement, that in den- 
tal operations the great design is utility, which in the teeth, con- 
sists in the preparation of food for deglutition and digestion ; in 
their instrumentality in the enunciation of sounds, and in pre- 
serving the natural expression of the face. To preserve the 
utility of each defective organ, it should be operated upon in a 
manner to preserve as nearly as possible the purposes for which 
it was designed — the teeth being doubtless fashioned by nature 
upon the most desirable plan for their several functions. To re- 
tain then as great an amount of the natural structure as is pos-j 
sible, in a sound healthy condition is demanded. 

A full set of perfectly formed, regular, natural teeth, is un- 


doubtedly the best masticative apparatus that can be devised; 
and as a personal feature it cannot be improved upon — unques- 
tionably a better model to follow than any idea of our own. 

In a well regulated mouth there is no more masticatino; sur- 
face furnished than is designed for use, or than is necessary to 
equalize the process of digestion Avith the other organs, whose 
functions follow that of the teeth. Contour filling is therefore 
indicated in broken down molars. Indeed its necessity should be 
recognized in all cases where the tooth can be retained in a 
healthy condition. 

In the bicuspid teeth, where serious decay has occurred in the 
proximal surfaces, is it especially indicated. Not only is one 
bound to furnish the patient his full allowance of masticating 
surface, but for the benefit of the individual teeth, their contour 
should be restored. I think it is safer to say that more opera- 
tions fail in the approximating surfaces of the bicuspid teeth, 
than in any other location in the mouth, and in many cases 
where the utmost care has been taken, frequently the failure is 
attributable to the cause designed to prevent it — the free space so 
frequently left with the idea that through this, these teeth may the 
more easily be kept clean. This I apprehend, is a mistaken the- 
ory in operations of this nature. The free use of the file be- 
tween these teeth is almost universally necessary in order to re- 
move the frail margins of enamel and secure firm reliable mar- 
gins. If these cavities are filled and finished squarely across, 
the crowns frequently approach each other until the surfaces of 
the plug, dentine and enamel are in contact, Avhen decay will al- 
most certainly again attack them at some point of contact. If 
you will call to mind the shape of these teeth and their disposi- 
tion in the alveolus, it will be readily seen why this is more likely 
to occur in these than in other teeth. A better method to adopt 
in filling such teeth is the one now advocated — after having filled 
the cavities, continue the operation until the contour of the teeth 
is restored, and the exposed dentine and enamel rods per- 
fectly protected. After finishing, the convex surfaces of the 
plugs are in contact, rendering impossible the calamity mentioned 


Coming now to the incisor teeth, this mothoJ of operating; 
— which has been so unjustly and bitterly denounced by many 
as unsightly, fancy operations, advertisements, etc., etc. — I urge- 
again the question of utility. This method of treating results in 
fewer objections than any other. But one can be urged against 
it (on the part of the patient). The exhibition of metal is ob- 
jectionable, that is all, the tooth is stronger, more serviceable, 
and will be preserved much longer than by means of any other 

In these operations gold is the only material with which most 
operators can produce satisfactory results. Of this there are 
many preparations. To enter into a discussion as to the relative 
merits of the different preparations is not in the province of this 
paper. Perfect operations may be produced with each by the- 
exercise of sufficient care and skill. Experiment cm the part of 
each operator is a more reliable method of determining which 
preparation is most desirable in his hands, than in depending 
upon what any man says. 

I shall not occupy your time with any elaborate details of meth- 
ods of performing contour operations upon various teeth, presum- 
ing each to have a method of his own, of much greater value to 
him. However, a paper upon this subject would perhaps, be unnec- 
essarily incomplete did not the writer give some general ideas of 
the manner in which he would proceed in a given case. Sup- 
pose the right central incisor to require this operation: with a 
file I should reduce the fractured and uneven edges to a strong, 
regular margin, affording material sufficient to furnish a reliable 
wall to the cavity, which now is to be made the principal retain- 
ing point for the superstructure. Now excavate, of course re- 
moving all disintegrated and unsound dentine, being careful to 
avoid the sacrifice of an unnecessary amount of dentine for the 
sake of securing deep undercuts. They are unnecessary and 
even objectionable, inasmuch as they materially weaken the walls 
Having prepared the cavity in a manner to afford it the greatest 
amount of strength ; a very fine file or polishing stone should be 
used on the margin to which the gold is to be adapted. The in- 
dispensable rubber dam is next adjusted over four or five teeth 


— the centrals, laterals, and right ciispid — inserting a wooden 
ATedge between each two of the exposed teeth, beginning between 
the centrals. By the support thus secured from adjoining teeth 
the force required to fill is distributed among several teeth, and 
the severity of the malleting process is astonishingly lessened. 
Thoroughly dry the cavity, and through a magnifying glass make 
a last observation. Being satisfied that the tooth is properly 
prepared, we proceed to introduce the gold — avoid haste — 
thoroughly impact each piece of gold before introducing another. 
The use of very small delicate points I find indispensable. Hav- 
ing perfectly filled the cavity, commence extending the gold 
over the cervical margin, building upon the filling against the 
walls from without and within. The force should be directed at 
an angle upward against the plug in every direction, looking to- 
ward its surface. If this is done the impaction of the gold will 
be finished at the mesial corner of the filling. The gold intro- 
duced we have but to finish. This is done by all alike I presume 
— by means of files, burrs, stone, polishing powders, etc. No 
less care, however, should be taken in the last steps of the ope- 
ration than in the first. The margin of the plug must be pol- 
ished to a perfect surface with the margin of the cavity. The 
secret of success in these, as in all other fillings, is thorough- 
ness. To produce perfect finish upon an imperfectly introduced 
plug is impossible. No amount of burnishing and polishing will 
conceal the faulty operation from the critical eye. M^.At^^^-f^ — A 


By George 0. Ho-ward, Galena, Ills. 

For twenty years, instrument makers, directed by our most 
prominent dentists, have given considerable attention to produce 
pluggers with a delicate and regular serrated point. Much time 


and money have been spent for that purpose, and the best me- 
chanics employed, and beautiful results have been obtained; 
Varney's plugger for instance. They are perfect in form, 
and -with serrations so delicate and regular as to suit the most 
fastidious, with a price for them that surely places them beyond 
the reach of some of us; the cost, however, is the serrating of 
the point. 

We, in our humble sphere, do not expect to revolutionize the 
ideas that have been involved in these twenty years of thought 
and labor; but in our humble way will ask a few questions and 
answer them as they have occurred to us; theorize and give the 
results of some of the experiments we have tried. 

Are serrated points superior to smooth points for packing 
gold, if so, in what respect? 

We have thought of, experimented, and practiced with both, 
and have been so thoroughly convinced that smooth points are 
the best, that we cannot to our mind offer any sound argument 
in favor of the serrated points; however, others claim that they 
are absolutely necessary, that with them only can gold be hand- 
led easily in the cavity, that the filling must be more or less 
rough to have the gold adhere and cohere perfectly and this can 
only be done with a serrated point. That by using them we 
produce a succession of wedgings in the gold, thereby making 
our work stronger, especially in contour filling, and that by 
using any other kind of pluggers a failure will be the result. 

With due respect for the advocates of the serrated points, we 
will respectfully decline to accept their arguments in favor of 
them; we do not believe that serrated points are necessary to 
hiindle the unpacked gold in the cavity; we know by a year's 
practice with smooth points that we can handle our gold with 
them as easily as with the serrated points, for in moving the un- 
packed gold about in the cavity with the serrated point, we do it 
with the edge of the face and not with the face. We find this 
is done just as easily with a sharp edge smooth face as with the 
other. We will refer to this point again. 

We do not believe it necessary to have the surface of the 
packed gold rough in order to obtain the most adhesion and cohe- 


sion, such as is produced by the serrated point. On the other 
hand we tliink the serrated point is the direct cause of our fil- 
ling not being perfect. We mean by a perfect filling one that 
stands for time just as we left it, and does not roughen upon its 
surface. AVe theorize thus: at any and every stage of the ope- 
ration the gold that is packed with the serrated point presents a 
serrated surface, it is a counterpart to the serrated point, or we 
may say a surface of hills and valleys, if the plug has received 
justice from the hands of the operator. It is hard, the hills 
and valleys alike; when we lay on the next piece of goldwc can 
easily conceive how impossible it would be to place the serrated 
point on to it so as to exactly correspond with its counterpart in 
the gold. If any one doubts this let them try to do it and we 
are sure they will be convinced that we are right. Instead of 
the gold being pressed into all these little valleys, it lodges upon 
some of the little hills, and some of the valleys are shingled 
over. In using the smooth point, the packed gold at every stage 
of the operation is perfectly level and smooth, no valleys to be 
shingled over, therefore it must be more solid, and if more solid 
it must be more coherent. "We heard an honored member of 
our profession say not long since, when we Avere arguing this 
question, that he did not shingle over any of these little valleys, 
that he beat down the little hills. We Avould rather he would 
do it for some body else than for us ; we have not succeeded in 
doing so only in filling a cavity in a steel plate, and then only by 
a tremendous blow from the mallet, sufiicient to ruin almost any 

Here we will refer again to the handling of the unpacked 
gold with the smooth point. The packed gold being at all times 
level and smooth, the unpacked can be moved across it without 
catching upon any of these little hills, as it would if the serrated 
point was being used. As to making the strongest work the 
smooth point has the decided advantage, because it produces a 
more solid plug. There are no flaws to weaken it as there is 
in one packed with the serrated point. This assertion is not 
theory alone, as we think we know positively that it is so, having 
made experiments to prove it, two of which we will give. 


We made two steel plates, fitted them nicely to gether, held 
by set screws with a V shaped cavity, between them. The 
plates were hardened so that there would be no spring to them ; 
we then filled this cavity twice with gold, using to pack the first 
a smooth point, and for the second a serrated point, both plug- 
gers being exactly the same diameter at the point, and the same 
length. The mallet was hung on a pivot through the handle 
and dropped from a given point every time. William's No. 60 
gold was cut into pieces of the same size for both experiments, 
and the same number of blows with the mallet given to each, 
with the following result: The one packed with the smooth 
point weighed 17^ grains, and the one packed with the serrated 
point not quite 16 grains, over one and one-fourth grains in favor 
of the smooth point. For non-conclusive evidence we heated 
the plugs red hot and dropped them into oil and let them remain 
there for a few days, and then rolled them into plates, Avith ex- 
actly the result we anticipated, viz: the one packed with the 
serrated point was rough with innumerable holes through it, while 
the one packed with the smooth point Avas a perfect plate. 

Another experiment was then made more particularly to test 
the strength of gold packed by the two methods, and this proved 
to us that gold packed with the smooth point is better in contour 
fillings than when packed with serrated points. A cavity was 
drilled between two steel plates, a line in diameter, and one half 
inch deep; two plugs were then packed into this in the same 
manner as in the other experiment, one with the smooth point 
the other with the serrated point, and ends of the plugs were then 
rested upon one-sixteenth of an inch uprights, and weights were 
then suspended from the centre of the plugs by a wire, and 
while twenty-four pounds only bent the one packed with the 
smooth point, it broke the other. The oil test was then tried 
with the pair of plugs, with the same results as in the other case. 
This to us was conclusive evidence that for a coherent, strong 
filling, we must use the smooth point. 

We see from a letter of Dr. A. A. Blount, ]M. D., and D. D. 
S., of Springfield, Ohio, to Dr. Gushing, of Chicago, that he 
claims by using smooth points a lateral expansion is obtained, a 


result we Lave sought for in vaiu in the serrated point. We 
have not observed this as yet in practice, but can easily theorize 
that it is so, for in striking the smooth-pointed plugger with the 
mallet we produce the same effect upon the gold that Ave would 
if we were to strike a piece of malleable iron with a hammer, viz: 
make it thinner, and of course expanding it laterally, while with 
the serrated point we grapple the gold and draw it together in 
little hills besides cutting it. 

Dr. Blount calls his instruments "planishing points." We 
understand by that the same as we have described, flat and 
smooth with square edges. It has been suggested to us that a 
"planished point" meant one that was oval and smooth. If it 
does, we think the "planished point" is wrong, for in using them 
we produce a succession of concave pits in the gold, and if they 
are shingled over the result would be worse than from the use of 
serrated points, because the pits made from the serrated points 
are not so large as those made by the oval point. We think the 
point for general work must be square edged. But, in approach- 
ing the "dentine" or "enamel," we would recommend an instru- 
ment to be used that had its edges rounded a little, so as not to 
injure the "dentine" or "enamel." 

AVe advise every dentist who reads this, to try the smooth points 
and be astonished with the results, by making the most beautiful 
work they ever made. After using them a year, we can can- 
didly say that in our opinion we Avould be guilty of doing a 
wrong to our patients if we were to use any other than the 
smooth pointed plugger in filling their teeth with gold. 


[The following discussion took place at a " Meeting of the American Soci- 
ety of Dental Sturgeons held in Philadelphia, August, 1851.' Copied from 
the " Dental News Letter,' of that date.] 

Dr. White. — I wish to call special attention to the manner in 
which Dr. Arthur uses gold for filling the teeth. 

Dr. Arthur. — I have for some time been making experiments 


with gold for filling the teeth, and have fallen upon what I re- 
gard a very great improvenaent. I have no doubt gentlemen will 
be very much surprised at it, and will be doubtful of its utility. 
I use gold never finer than No. 30, and from that to No. 50, but 
I generally rely upon No. 30. I use this not only for strong but 
for frail and most delicate cavities. By using this I can do busi- 
ness about one third greater in amount, and not only as well as 
when I used finer gold, but a great deal better. This is well 
worth the trial, and can be easily tested. The manner in which 
it is used is essential to success. 

It is well known that No. 15 has been found very harsh and 
unmanageable, and so it is if the gold I use is folded even once. 
I take simply a slip of the gold, nearly or quite the size of the 
cavity, and I generally use very small instruments for condens- 
ing after the gold is introduced. I don't know, however, that I 
have made any material change in my instruments since I com- 
menced to use this thicker gold. I have found gold of this kind, 
in my hands, more manageable than any other. It is obvious 
that the surface of the filling with this gold must be better — 
there must be a fewer number of edges, and it will take a better 

President. — I don't know whether anyone is present who was 
at a meeting at which I spoke of the gold used by Waite, of Lon- 
don. He was the Hudson of England when I first resided there. 
I thought the stoppings from his hand were different from others, 
and felt anxious to know how he made them so solid; I made all 
the enquiries I could outside of his house, then I went to his house, 
and his brother brought into the room where I was, a part of a 
sheet of gold Avhich was about the thickness of the lead which 
lines the China tea chests. He said there was but one man in 
London that could prepare gold in that way — it was as soft as 
the lead itself, and I have often wished that I could find such, 
but I never could. This corresponds with the remark of Dr. 
Arthur. Some years ago a very ingenious man, who had some- 
thing to do with the invention of the cotton gin, took it into his 
head that he could do much in the way of saving teeth. He 
drilled into the tooth, then cut a screw on the end of a gold wire 


and screwed it into the end of the tooth and cut it down, and it 
was one of the finest fillings I have ever seen. 

Dr. Arthur. — I have used gold from several manufacturers. 
That which I now use I get from Abbey & Son. I find that the 
gold produced by them is generally of uniform quality at least. 
I do not wish to make an invidious comparison between the gold 
made at this establishment and that of other manufacturers; but 
it is of great importance in using gold of this kind that it should 
be of the best quality, and perfectly annealed, I would certainly 
advise any one who is disposed to use the gold of the kind I pro- 
pose, if they are not satisfied on the first trial, to use that of 
several manufacturers before they throw it aside. 

Dr. Allen. — I have invariably used gold as high as No. 12, 
and prefer it, but I am the only one that uses it in our city. 

Dr. White. — I have used gold that is very heavy, and very 
light, and where we had to double the sheet upon itself, I am sure 
all must admit that it must leave a little opening and must be- 
come a little hard, so that it takes more pressure to accommo- 
date it to the cavity — hence in a great many thin cavities I have 
used No. 3. 

I will cite the treatment of a case in point. A lady had a 
front incisor filled three or four times, that was decayed from 
the outer edge, leaving nothing standing except the enamel pos- 
terially and at the cutting edge. It had been filled several 
times in three months, but carefully, for fear of breaking. The 
last dentist, a gentleman in practice from twenty to twenty-five 
years, told her it was impossible to fill it without breaking. Some 
one induced her to call upon me, and I had some of this thin 
gold which I put into the cavity with gentle pressure. Having 
removed the decay the cavity was larger than before. The plan 
I took to cleanse it was one suggested by Dr. Williams. After 
removing the principal part of the decay, I worked in with a 
small instrument and cotton, then I put this fine gold in till the 
cavity was filled ,until I came within the thickness of the enamel 
to its surface. There was only now a small cavity and this I 
completed with No. 4. The lady is now a resident of your city. 
She was absent one year, and upon examination, the tooth ap- 


peared as perfect as on the day she left. I merely state the case 
to show that very light gold is suflScient to accomplish the end 
desired; but whether heavy gold would have accomplished the 
same end I know not. I have tried No. 50 in a few similar 
cases, and I believe I made very respectable fillings, but not so 
good as with gold that I was accustomed to. 

Dr. Arthur. — I have found that No. 30 worked a great deal 
better than No. 50, so much so that I have discarded the latter. 

Dr. Dunning. — I generally use No. 4, and would like to get 
No. 3 if I could. 

Dr. Arthur. — It must be remembered that the point on which 
the principal advantage depends, is that it must be used in a sin- 
gle strip and not doubled upon itself. 

Dr. White. — Is it not being doubled while being put into the 
cavity? When you put the gold in the cavity where you want it, 
does it remain there? 

Dr. Arthur. — It is not a half dozen or more surfaces folded 
together to be condensed afterward, but is condensed, fold after 
fold, as it is put into the cavity to be filled. But the utility of 
gold in this form can only be tested by actual trial. 

Dr. Westcott. — On the point of keeping the filling where you 
put it, I will make a single remark. I have been much in the 
habit, for two or three years, of filling teeth with both hands at 
once. I had never done it or seen it done before. I manage to 
bold my napkins in a way that I can fill with my left hand and 
use two instruments, where the cavity is of such a shape that it is 
important that you have one point packed thoroughly, so as not 
to have it come out again. It is very risky if you have a piece 
tumble out several times. You get it hard by the working. I 
use only one hand for filling, and the other for holding it pre- 
cisely where it will be wanted. I think that every dentist will 
find that he can do more in that way than he can imagine. This 
is not one of those cases where you are under the necessity of 
hiding from your left hand what your right doeth. When there 
are large cavities, I uniformly employ an assistant. The idea of 
keeping the foil where you put it is important, with bicuspides 
particularly, and those teeth where the cavity is long and narrow. 


Dr. Foster. — I invariably use No. 4 gold foil in all cases — 
large as well as small cavities. In some cases I find it extremely 
difficult, even with the most malleable foil, to keep it where I 
place it. If I have to use a different foil, I shall have to learn 
my lesson over again ; for, as I use it, it must be rolled together, 
and it is important that I should have the most malleable foil. I 
have tried, repeatedly, in large cavities to use thicker foil, think- 
ing I might get along faster; but it rolls about and gets out; 
and I now invariably use No. 4. 

Dr. J. Tucker, of Boston. — I have used nothing but No. 4 for 
the last fifteen years, except where other has been sent to me for 
trial; in such cases I have always failed and given up. 

Dr. Arthur. — The kind of gold I have recommended could 
not be used in the manner described by Dr. Foster. 

Dr. White. — I would like to state in what manner I use it. 
For general use, I take a strip of gold and roll it together spiral- 
ly. I use No. 4 and No. 6, pretty equally divided. If I can 
deliberately press upon the tooth, I use No. 6, but in lateral cav- 
ities I use No 4. If the cavities are very large I use pellets. 
I take a straight and narrow watch spring, to which I have ad- 
ded a little round piece of wire, so that I can turn it with facili- 
ty; I fold it on this watch spring flat; this facilitates my rolling. 
In some few cases I use it in that form for small cavities. In 
this way, it is folded so that every leaf is in close contact, and 
the atmospheric air can be pressed out better than if it is folded. 

Dr. Arthur. — Gentlemen may have been in the habit of using 
the gold of the ordinary number in a different way from what I 
have done. I almost invariably folded it in strips on itself. 
This, it will be seen is a considerable step toward using the thick- 
er gold, which I propose. And it may not, therefore, be found, 
at once, so advantageous in the hands of others as I have found 
it. But I am convinced that, if it is fairly tried, it will be found 
very useful in many cases, even if it should not be adopted for 
general use. 

^.- •-•-•-♦- 




'J^he proprietor of the above makes great claims for this pre- 
paration, but having tried it I am quite disgusted, having paid 
three times as much for a bottle, as is asked for Smith's "Ox. 
Ohio. Zinc," or the "Osteo Plastic," to both of which I consider 
it very much inferior. Several of my friends have also tried 
the bottles which they purchased of Kellnitz himself, and are 
equally dissatisfied. Specimens of all the above, made up and 
laid away to harden, show Kellnitz's articles much more porous 
and softer than the others. 

This Avarning, in season, will save the readers of the Journal 
more than its subscription price for one year, which by the way, 
I would be o;lad to receive from all who are in arrears. — Chase, 


In '■'■ The St. Louis Bledical and Surgical JournaV for May^ 
we have reported a somewhat remarkable case of extra-uterine 
foetation. It was a twin pregnancy, one foetus being in the 
uterus and the other in the cavity of the abdomen. At the full 
term the mother Avas delivered of a healthy child. This oc- 
curred on the 3d of February last. On the 14th of the same 
month Dr. Pollak was called to see the patient, who was suffering 
from "cholicky pains in the right iliac region, with torpidity of 
bowels and rectal tenesmus." 

Upon examination extra-uterine foetation was diagnosed. The 
woman was able to be up and attended to her ordinary vocations. 
It should be remarked that the woman was attended by a mid- 
wife, when she was delivered of a healthy child nearly two weeks- 


previously, Avhich may account for the fact that the existence of 
the foetus within abdomen was not suspected at that time. 

The second day after that examination the woman dropped 
dead whilst preparing supper, without any premonitory symp- 
toms. Post mortem examination revealed a full-sized foetus in 
the abdomen, but nothing was found to account for the sudden 
death of the woman. 

Dr. Steedman reports a case of some interest. An opening 
in the soft palate, nearly as large as a silver quarter of a dollar, 
of a syphilitic origin, was closed by an operation. The first 
operation failed, the sutures coming away in tlwee days. In the 
second operation, twelve days after the first, the palato-glossi and 
palato-pharynge muscles Avere cut across, the mucous membrane 
dissected up anteriorly to the opening, the pared edges brought 
together by silver sutures, and a rubber plate fitted so as to cover 
the palate, but leaving a small space between it and the tissues, 
which space w^as filled with cotten saturated with a solution of 
carbolic acid and glycerine. 

This use of a plate over the palate was first suggested, I be- 
lieve in Boston, a year or two ago, and some experiments with 
it were made there with success. The opening was longer trans- 
versely than in its entero posterior diameter, and extended through 
the soft palate only. 

The last operation was a complete success, the sutures coming 
away on the sixth day. Operations for the closure of cleft pal- 
ate, when caused by syphilis, have not often been successful, but 
if only a portion of the soft palate is destroyed the chances for 
success are undoubtedly much better than when the bony por- 
tion has been involved. 

Dr. Pitts gives an account of an epidemic of a malignant type 
of cerebro-spinal meningitis, which has been prevailing for some 
time in southern Mississippi, in which male children are entirely 
exempt. J. 

In the ^^ American Journal of Microscopy,'" Hiram A. Cut- 
ting, of Vermont, recommends " zinc water mixed Avith Damar 
Tarnish," for mounting microscopic specimens. 


The Cosmos, for June, opens ■with an article by F. W. Clarke^ 
S. B., Professor of Chemistry in the Boston Medical College, 
upon Ansesthetics. 

The claims of Wells, Jackson and Morton, to the discovery of 
the characteristic properties of anaesthetics is discussed fairly 
and considerately, contrasting strongly with the bombastic pro- 
ductions of Dr. Bigelow, which were published sometime since 
in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. Dr. Clarke gives 
to Dr. Wells, of Hartford, the honor of first having demonstra- 
ted that surgical operations could be performed without pain. 

Whilst speaking of the relative value of chloroform, ether and 
nitrous oxide, he says : 

"Ether is the safest, chloroform the quickest, and nitrous 
oxide, at least for minor operations, the least disagreeable." 

That ether is safer than chloroform we are willing to admit, 
but that it is safer than nitrous oxide has not yet been estab- 
lished, and it is safe to assert that it is not so considered by 
those who are best qualified to judge. As to chloroform being 
the quickest in its action we also doubt. We apprehend that 
nitrous oxide will be found to be the quickest, the pleasantest 
and the safest of the three for minor operations. 

Among the new anaesthetics, chloride of methylene seems to 
promise best; its action being, according to Richardson, "marvel- 
ously rapid, and in all probability safer than chloroform." 

Dr. Richardson also speaks highly of the oxide of methyle, and 
especially with this latter substance, which is a gas, compounded 
with common ether. The ether readily absorbing one hundred 
volumes of it. 

The transactions of the Southern Dental Association is before 
us. It is a very creditable production, containing eighty pages,, 
and contains the proceedings at its last April meeting at New 
Orleans. The discussions were generally well sustained, and the 
papers read nearly all creditable productions. 

The publishing committee have performed their work well^ 
and are entitled to the thanks of the Association. J. 


The ^^ Pacific Medical and Surgical JournaV is principally- 
filled with the transactions of the Annual Medical Association, 
■which recently met in San Francisco. 

The principal questions discussed at that meeting seemed to 
be those connected with subjects relating to the status to be ac- 
corded to female physicians. No determination was reached in 
regard to the questions sprung upon the Association by certain 
gentlemen who were particularly interested in having them dis- 
cussed and disposed of. So we may suppose they will be promi- 
nent again before the Association next year. J. 


The second annual meeting of the California State Dental 
Association, was held at the rooms of the San Francisco Dental 
Association, San Francisco, June 6, 7 and 8, 1871. 

The Association was called to order at 10:30 a. m., by the 
President, Dr. C. C. Knowles. 

President Knowles delivered his annual address which was re- 
ceived with applause, and that portion of it relative to the edu- 
cation and elevation of the profession, was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Dental Literature and Education, and the address 
in full to the Publication Committee. 

The several Standincr Committees asked for further time to 
report. Granted. 

Doctors Austin, Younger and Dennis were appointed to select 
subjects for discussion. 

An amendment to the By-laws, laid over from last session, 
creating an auditing committee, was taken up and passed. 

Doctors T. Crossett and E. 0. Belle, of San Francisco, and 
A. C. Davenport, of Stockton, were admitted to membership. 

The committee appointed for said purpose, reported the fol- 
lowing subjects for discussion. Adopted. 

1st. Filling Teeth. 

2d. Haemorrhage after Extracting Teeth. 


3rd. Treatment of Alveolar Abscess. 

4th. The Cause and Treatment of Loose Teeth. 

5th. Treatment of Exposed Pulp. 

6th. Mechanical Dentistry. 

7th. Dental Pathology. 

Adjourned to 1:30 p. M. 


Called to order at 1:30, p. m., President Knowles in the chair. 

Minutes of the morning session read and approved. 

The subject of "Filling Teeth" was taken up and thoroughly 
discussed by nearly every member present, the discussion lasting 
nearly three hours. 

(Ed. — A synopsis even of the discussion would be too long 
for your purpose. — Puh. Committee.) 

Dr. C. Hamilton, of Unionville, Nevada, was admitted to 

Adjourned to 8 P. M. 


Called to order at 8 P. m.. President Knowles in the chair. 

An application was received from a gentleman claiming to be 
a member of the profession, and after being duly examined, per- 
mission was given the applicant to withdraw said application. 
The members, however, Avere unanimous in the opinion and de- 
termination to admit none to membership, but those who could 
come well recommended as to professional honor, good moral 
character, etc., etc., as it is desirous to make our Association 
equal to any in the United States, as far as the honor, profes- 
sional and otherwise, of its members are concerned. 

Subject of "Filling Teeth" again discussed. 

Dr. Austin read an Essay on the "Pathology and Treatment 
of Alveolar Abcess," which was of much interest to those pres- 
ent, and contained very much that was endorsed by the Asso- 

Adjourned to 10 a. m., to-morrow. 



Met at 10 A. M., President Knowles in the chair. 

Roll called, and minutes of last session read and approved. 

Dr. Sichel exhibited specimens of Hyatt & Perkins' patent 
base for artificial dentines. 

Dr. F. M. Shields, of Sacramento, and Dr. L. G. Yates, of 
Centreville, were admitted to membership. 

Dr. S. W. Dennis read an Essay on the " Causes of the De- 
generacy of the Teeth, especially among Children," by S. P. 
Cutlar, M. D., D. D. S., of New Orleans, La. 

The Association tendered Dr. Cutlar a vote of thanks for his 
kindness in furnishing the very able paper, and made him an 
honorary member. 

The subject matter of Dr. Cutlar's essay was discussed at 

Adjourned to 2 p. m. 


Called to order at 2 p. m., by President Knowles. 

Roll called and minutes of morning session read and approved. 

Doctors Younger, Dutch and Crossett were appointed a com- 
mittee to draft resolutions appropriate to the memory of Doc- 
tors F. A. Park, and II. J. Paine, deceased since our last annual 

The subject of " Hsemorrhage after extracting teeth," taken 
up and thoroughly discussed. 

Dr. Sichel favored mechanical pressure to suppress haemor- 
rhage, where possible. 

Dr. Bush related a case where profuse hgemorrhage followed 
the extracting of a deciduous superior molar. Failing to arrest 
it with the usual remedies, finally succeeded with ice, applying 
direct to the socket and surrounding gums. 

Treatment of "Alveolar Abscess" was next discussed. 

Dr. Y^ounger claimed that not five per cent, of cases treated 
b)y him were unsuccessful. 

His favorite remedy was saturated solution of iodine, to be 
pumped into the sacs, and continued until cure is aflfected. 



Met at 8 p. m., President Knowles in the chair. 

Officers all present except Dr. Bull, Librarian. 

Minutes of the afternoon session read and approved. 

Drs. J. A. Woodward, of San Francisco, and X. Klein, of San 
Jose, were admitted to membership. 

Hour of special order having arrived, proceeded to the elec- 
tion of officers, with the following result: 

President — Dr. S. W. Dennis, of San Francisco. 
Vice Presidents — Dr. H. H. Pierson, of Sacramento. 

" " — Dr. J. J. Menefee, of San Jose. 

" " — Dr. T. Crossett, of San Francisco. 

Cor. Secretary — Dr. H. E. Knox, of San Francisco. 
Rec. Secretary — Dr. H. J. Plomteaux, of Woodland. 
Ass't Rec. Sec. — Dr. J. W. Myers, of Stockton. 
Treasurer — Dr. C. C. Knowles, of San Francisco. 
Librarian — Dr. A. C. Davenport, of Stockton. 

Dr. Knowles retired from the chair and in appropriate remarks 
introduced the President elect, who with the other officers as- 
sumed their respective stations, and at once entered upon the 
discharge of their duties. 

Doctors J. J. Birge, Wm. Dutch, II. II. Pierson, S. W. Den- 
nis, and W. W. Light were elected Delegates to the National 
Dental Association. 

Adjourned to 10 a. m., to-morrow. 

[After the election the Association went in a body to partake 
of the bountiful supply of the luxuries of life, prepared under 
the auspices of tlie San Francisco Dental Association, when the 
sentiment seemed general that the meeting was a success.] 


Association met at 10 a. m., and was called to order by the 
President, Dr. S. W. Dennis. 
Roll called, officers all present. 
Minutes of last session read and approved. 


Committee on Mechanical Dentistry reported that they had 
received no information as to the merits or demerits of the Rose 
Pearl base presented by Dr. Smith, at our last annual session, 
consequently had nothing further to report concerning it. 

Dr. S. W. Dennis, in behalf of the committee on Dental Lit- 
erature and Education, made a very interesting report. Refer- 
red to Publication Committee. 

Several resolutions of amendments to the Constitution, were 
read and laid over under the rule, until next annual session. 

Dr. Belle offered a series of resolutions, relative to Certi- 
ficates of Membership, which was referred to Drs. Knowles, 
Birge and Menefee. 

Dr. Knox offered the following, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That our delegates to the American Dental Asso- 
ciation be, and they are hereby instructed to use all their influ- 
ence, that the session of 1872, of said Association be held in 
San Francisco. 

Notice was given that previous to the commencement of the 
afternoon session, Dr. Knox would illustrate the use of the 
"Rubber Dam." 

The President was authorized to fill any vacancy that may oc- 
cur from death, during the coming year, in any of the standing 
committees, by appointment through the Recording Secretary. 

Adjourned to 1:30, P. m. 


Called to order at 2:30, p. m.. President Dennis in the chair. 

Minutes of morning session read and approved. 

The following preamble and resolutions were unanimously 

Whereas, It has pleased Almighty God, in his infinite wisdom, 
to remove from our midst our late brothers, Drs. F. A. Park, and 
H. J. Paine; therefore, 

Resolved, That in the death of brothers Park and Paine, the 
dental profession has been deprived of two of its most active, 
efficient and honorable members; and the community, of just and 
upright citizens. 


Resolved^ That we, the members of the California State Den- 
tal Association, deplore the grievous loss which their families 
have sustained, and cordially sympathize with them in their great 

Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary be instructed to 
forward a copy of these resolutions to Mrs. F. A. Park, and Mrs. 
H. J. Paine, and that a copy be spread upon the minutes of this 

Dr. W. J. Younger, ^ 

Dr. William Dutch, VCom. 

Dr. T. Crossett. j 

The committee to whom was referred that part of ex-President 
Knowles's annual address, relative to "Dental Education," etc., 
reported a series of resolutions heartily approving his sugges- 
tions, and recommended "that stringent rules should be adopted 
to prevent the admission of members to our Society who have not 
a well established reputation for scientific attainments." 

Also, recommending that members do not fellowship, profes- 
sionally, with those not possessing the above qualifications, etc. 
Report accepted. 

Committee on Publication reported estimates of cost of pub- 
lishing monthly periodicals, size of the '■'■Dental Office and La- 
boratory,'' and of '"'■ Missouri Dental Journal.'' 

Dr. Knowles offered the following: 

Resolved, That it is expedient that a dental periodical be pub- 
lished under the supervision of this Association. 

Referred to Committee on Publication with instructions to as- 
certain the facts relative to aid from the members, probable num- 
ber of advertisements to be secured, etc. 

Dr. Dennis read a letter from Dr. E. A. Boyne, soliciting aid 
to prepare a suitable testimonial for Dr. S. C. Barnum, inventor 
of the rubber dam. 

Dr. Dennis made a pressing appeal in behalf of said inventor, 
and the matter was referred to a committee consisting of Doc- 
tors Knowles, Younger and Dutch, to take into consideration the 
propriety of making some substantial recognition to Dr. Bar- 
num for his valuable invention, and our delegates to the Ameri- 


can Dental Association, were instructed to use their influence 
for some general plan, -whereby a suitable National Testimonial 
can be securred for Dr. Barnum. 

The President appointed the Standing Committees for the en- 
suing year, as follows : 

Committee of Arrangements — Drs. Birge, Davenport, Shields 
Yates and Dutch. 

On Publication — Drs. Dennis, Plomteaux, (ex-officio) Knowles. 
Younger and Bunnell. 

On Scientific Investigation — 1st Section, Operative Dentistry 

— Drs. Dutch, Menefee and Pierson. 

2d Section, Dental Chemistry — Drs. Light, Sichel and Belle. 

On Dental Pathology and Surgery — Drs. Austin, Crossett, 
Prather, Kingsbury and Klein. 

On Mechanical Dentistry — Drs. Woodward, Bush, Myers, 
Cool and Hamilton. 

On Dental Literature and Education — Drs. Knox, Younger, 
Crossett, Eaton and Knowles. 

Auditing Committee — Drs. Menefee, Light and Myers. 

San Francisco was chosen as the place for next annual session. 

On recommendation of Dr. Dennis, Professors J. H. McQuil- 
len, Homer Judd, and J. Taft, were declared honorary members. 

The President assigned subjects for Theses, to be read at next 
annual session, as follows: 

Dental Therapeutics — Dr. Knox. 

On the Cause of Degeneracy of the Teeth — Dr. Birge. 

On the Causes of Irregularity of the Teeth, and best method 
of correctino; the same — Dr. Knowles. 

On the Pathology and Treatment of Alveolar Abscess — Dr. 

On Dentistry, its history, present status, claims and relations 

— Dr. Plomteaux. 

On Professional Ethics — Dr. Bunnell. 

On the Causes and Treatment of Loose Teeth — Dr. Younger. 
On motion, adjourned to meet in San Francisco, second Tues- 
day in June, 1872, at 10 a. m. 

Dr. H. J. Plomteaux, Rec. Sec'y. 



Messrs. Editors: 

Permit one of the original members of the American Dental 
Convention to call the attention (through the medium of your 
Journal) of the profession, to the fact of its continued existence, 
and of the celebration of its Seventeenth birth-day at Saratoga, 
on Wednesday the 9th day of August, 1871. 

The attention of the profession for a few years past has been 
somewhat diverted from this organization, but they now are dis- 
posed to return to their first love, and the hope is entertained 
that at the next meeting its old and new friends will present 
themselves in numbers far exceeding that of any former meeting. 

All practicing dentists in good standing are entitled to the 
privileges of the Convention. 

Official notice of the meeting will be given in the next num- 
ber of this Journal. 

A. D. C. 


The undersigned Committee of Arrangements would inform 
the dental profession, that they have made arrangements for 
holding the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the American Den- 
tal Convention, at Saratoga Springs, commencing on Wednes- 
day the 9th day of August, at 11, A. M. 

Should the attendance be as large as anticipated, a liberal de- 
duction will be made to members of the Convention, by the pro- 
prietors of two of the principal hotels, with the assurance that no 
effort will be spared to make their guests as comfortable as 

Arrangements will be made for the display and exhibition of 


Dental Materials and Appliances of all kinds. Also for clinical 
operations during the entire session. 

Dentists and others desirous of exhibiting instruments, materi- 
als or improvements in any department of dentistry, are partic- 
ularly invited to present them as early in the session as possible, 
and to notify the committee of their intention to do so. 

As August is a very busy month with hotel keepers, it will be 
advisable for those intending to be present to notify the com- 
mittee of their Avishes, etc., at 25 West 23d street, N. Y. 

Efforts are making to secure a reduction of fare by Rail and 
steamboat. I. G. Ambler, ^ 

I. S. Lattemer, I Committee of 
W. B. HuRD, f Arrangements. 
I. S. Smith, 


The eleventh annual meeting of the American Dental Asso- 
ciation, will be held at White Sulphur Springs, Virginia, on 
Tuesday, the 1st day of August next. 

The following facts are condensed from a pamphlet by Dr. 
Moorman, a resident of that place : 

White Sulphur Springs are situated in Greenbrier county on 
the western slope of the great Apalachian chain of mountains, 
latitude Sl^° north, longitude 3|° west of Washington. Ther- 
mometer ranges in summer, between 55° and 65°, and rarely 
attains a greater height than 80° at any time in the day. "The 
situation of the springs is elevated and beautifully picturesque, 
surrounded by mountains on every side." 

These Springs are at the present terminus of the Chesapeake 
and Ohio Railroad. The traveller by rail to White Sulphur, 
from any quarter of tlie country, must pass through the town of 

Persons from the East, North or West make Baltimore and 


Washington points in their route to the Springs. At Washing- 
ton they take the Orange and Alexandria road to Gordonsville; 
then the Chesapeake and Ohio to White Sulphur via Staunton. 

Those from the South have a continuous line of railroad, either 
by way of Richmond, Va., or Knoxville, Tenn. 

Persons going by the Knoxville route will take the Virginia 
and Tennessee Railroad to Lynchburg; then the Orange and 
Alexandria to Charlottesville, then the Chesapeake and Ohio ta 
Staunton and the Springs. 

Those taking the Knoxville route will find a daily line of 
stages at the " Montgomery White," that run to White Sulphur, 
a distance of sixty-five miles. 

Accommodations seem to be ample ; the Hotel building cover- 
ing more than acre of ground. The dining room conveniently 
seating one thousand two hundred persons. 

M. S. Dean, Sec'y. 

The followinor information has been received from the various 
members of the Committee to secure reduced rates of fare to 
White Sulphur Springs and return, for members of the American. 
Dental Association: 

Neiv Orleans — all roads leading from this city, half fare. 

Louisville — half fare. 

Cincinnati — half fare. 

St. Louis — 

Cliicago — No arrangement has yet been perfected — should 
any be made, due notice will be given through the daily and 
weekly press. 

Philadelphia — not heard from. 

JVew York — fare for the round trip $21.60. Tickets to be 
obtained at 111 Liberty street, New York City. 

Boston — All members from this city and New England have 
to go via New York. Tickets to be obtained at 82 Washington 
street, Boston. 

iSa7i Francisco — half fare has been promised from Omaha to 
Chicago, and it is expected the same will be granted throughout 
the entire line. 


Members who cannot avail themselves of through tickets from 
any of the above central points, or who can only secure reduced 
rates as far as Washington or Baltimore, will find tickets for the 
round trip from Washington to White Sulphur Springs and re- 
turn, at 603 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington. Fare $12.50. 

The Committee cannot forbear noticing the promptitude and 
generosity with which their appeal was met by the agents of the 
Orange, Alexandria and Manassas, and the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Raib.-oads. It is in very plain contrast with the hesitancy 
and objections made by some of the other roads. 

Geo. H. Cushing, 

Chairman of Committee. 


The seventh annual session of the Illinois State Dental Soci- 
ety was held at Peoria, commencing on Tuesday, May 9, 10 a. m. 
Dr. G. V. Black, of Jacksonville, President; Dr. C. Stoddard 
Smith, of Springfield, Secretary. The meeting was large and 
enthusiastic, and the work done at this session for the promotion 
of Dental Science and the elevation of its members, is an evi- 
dence of the activity and energy which characterizes this So- 
ciety as one of the best in the land. 

This is the fifth of these annual gatherings of our professional 
brothers of Illinois that we have attended, and we hope to be 
present at the next meeting; we feel that we cannot afford to be 
absent. It is a refreshing treat, mentally, professionally and 

The labors of this Society for the elevation of the standard of 
the profession, are not confined alone to the time spent in con- 
vention. At the session of 1870 a committee was appointed to 
memorialize the legislature for the passage of a law to ref^ulate 
the practice of dentistry in the State. The committee reported 
at this session that they had not been idle; a petition and bill 


had been introduced into the legislature, but on account of the 
pressure of other important business it failed to become a law. 
The committee was continued and the prospect is that before 
another meeting, the claims of the profession will be recognized 
by the passage of a law that will drive quack and itinerant 
tooth-carpenters from the State of Illinois. God speed the good 

The Society has also shown commendable zeal in having its 
transactions published in book form, making a volume of 112 
pages, the size of our journals. 750 copies of the session of 
1870 were published and distributed among the profession in the 
State, at a cost of $200. The transactions of 1871 are to be pub- 
lished in the same style. 

The hospitalities of the city were tendered the Society in a 
pretty speech of Avelcome by the City Attorney, Mr. Quinn, in 
behalf of the mayor and citizens of Peoria. 

The following essays, on subjects selected at the previous ses- 
sion, were read at this meeting, and discussed by most of the 
members present: 

"Dental Caries," E. C. Koch; "Keeping Cavities Dry," K. 
B. Davis; "Essential Principles of Filling Teeth," R. C. Mow- 
bray; "Smooth Point Pluggers and Gutta Percha Faced Mal- 
let," G. A. Howard; "Relative Duties of Dentists and Pa- 
tients," J. N. Crouse; "Abnormal Secretion," 0. Wilson; 
"Dental Pathology," G. H. Gushing; "Stomatitis Materna," 
I. P. Wilson, Burlington, Iowa; "Dental Ethics," M. S. Dean; 
"Alveolar Abscess — Its Cause and Treatment," C. S. Smith; 
"Diseases of Antrum," E. H. Kilburn. 

Our space will not permit a review of the papers, or a report 
of the discussion. We can only say the papers were all good, 
gave evidence of much study and thought, and the discussions 
would do credit to any Society. 

To those of our readers who desire to keep posted in the pro- 
fession, we say get a copy of the transactions and read it; the 
knowledge gained thereby will amply repay the cost. 




Office Corresponding Secretary I, S. D. S., 
Muscatine, Iowa, May 21, 1871. 
Dear Doctor — 

The 9th annual meeting of the Iowa State Dental Society takes 
place in connection with the annual meeting of the Missouri 
Valley Dental Society, at Council Bluffs, Iowa, beginning July 
11th, at 7 o'clock, P. M., and will continue in session, at least, 
two full days. 

It is most earnestly hoped that every Dentist in this State and 
in the "Missouri Valley," who wishes to be counted "up to the 
times" in his profession will be present at this meeting. There 
are many new things in our profession to be seen and talked over, 
and this is the place to do it. Come prepared to take part in the 
proceedings of the meeting. Volunteer Essays upon any sub- 
ject in the profession are called for. Our State Society is the 
voice of the dental profession in Iowa. As it stands so does 
the dental profession in our State, so far as influence abroad is 
concerned. Let nothing, therefore, detain you from attending 
this meeting. The subject of a law regulating the practice of 
dentistry in Iowa will be acted upon at this meeting. 

Arrangements have been made with the three great rail- 
roads running across our State, and centering in Council Bluffs, 
to carry members of the profession at three-fifths regular fare 
for the round trip. The Chicago and North-AVestern Railroad 
Company issue one-fifth return tickets, to those presenting cer- 
tificates of attendance. 

The Chicago, Burlington and Missouri Biver Railroad, will 
sell three-fifths round trip tickets from any station upon their 

The Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railroad issues orders 
for excursion tickets, and upon presenting them at any station 
upon their road, round trip tickets will be sold for three-fifths 
their usual fare. These orders I will furnish to any applying to 
me before July 8th. 


Arrangements have been made for reduced hotel accommoda- 
tions, during our stay at the bluffs. There will be a large stock 
of teeth and other dental goods, to give us further inducements 
to come. 

Arrangements have been made to have present some of the 
new machines that have lately come out, and promise so much. 

Prominent members of the profession from other States are 
expected to be present. Everything has been done to enable us 
to have a good and profitable time. We will have it if you do 
your part. 

Fraternally yours, 

I. P. Wilson, Pres't. 

W. 0. KuLP, Corrresponding Secretary. 


Dr. Rathburn, of Lyons: "Cleaning Teeth." Dr. Sanborn, 
of Tabor: " Oxygen, Its Relationship to Vital Phenomena." 
Dr. Wilson, of Burlington : "Ani^sthetics in Dentistry." Dr. 
H. H. Ray, of Bcllevue: "Cell Life." Dr. Hardman, of Mus- 
catine: "Twenty years ago and now." Dr. Smith, of Iowa City; 
"Dental Hygiene." Dr. Ed. Ch:ise, of Iowa City: "Den- 
tal Chemistry." Dr. Magill, of Rock Island, Ills.: "Absj-rp- 
tion of the Alveoli and Treatment." Dr. H. W. Ray, of Belle- 
vue: "Cell Formation." Dr. Taylor, of Fort Madison : "Den- 
tal Surgery." 


"Making and Tempering Instruments:" Discussion to be 
opened by Essay or otherwise, by Dr. Derr, of Grinnell, Iowa. 
"Dental Education : " Bv Dr. Ingersoll, Keokuk. "New Basis 
for Artificial Teetli : " By Dr. J. S.Kulp, of Muscatine. "Filling 
Teeth: " By Dr. Thomas, of Nebraska. "Professional Dignity:" 
By Dr. I. B. Woodbury, of Council Bluffs. "New Things in 
Dentistry: " By Prof. H. S. Chase, of St. Louis, Mo. "Dental 
Legislation:" By Dr. W. 0. Kulp, of Muscatine, and Dr. A. B. 
Mason, of Waterloo. 



The Annual Meeting of the Northern Iowa Dental Association 
for the year 1871, has just closed, having heen in session since 
Tuesday evening. Though the attendance was not as large as 
was desirable, great interest was manifested and all left feeling 
amply paid for attendance on its sessions. Six sessions were 
held — one on Tuesday evening, three Wednesday, and two Thurs- 
day. The first session was, as the usual one at such meetings, 
organizing for business, appointment of committees, etc. 

There were several in attendance who were not regular mem- 
bers of the association. The members present at this meeting 
were : 

President — J. T. Abbott, Manchester. 

Treasurer — C. Poor, Dubuque. 

Corresponding Secretary — M. D. Goble, Dubuque. 

Recording Secretary — A. V. Eaton, Anamosa. 

W. P. Dickinson, Dubuque; John Nicholson, Tama City; E. 
Ebi, Cedar Rapids; C. P. Artman, Waterloo. 

At the morning session on Wednesday, the committee on 
membership recommended the admission of G. North, of Spring- 
ville, for full membership, and B. B. Maydwell, of Manchester, 
and W. H. Walker, of West Branch, for junior membership — 
the two latter not being eligible to full membership as per sec- 
tion 2, article 3, of the constitution. They were so elected. 

Dr. Goble having been appointed to read an essay on "Heavy 
Foils and Materials for Filling Teeth," took up considerable time 
in the description of "heavy foil," how made and the manner of 
using, etc. In the same connection he spoke of mallets, dwelling 
particularly on wood, lead, and the gutta-percha faced lead mal- 
let, giving precedence to the latter, the weight to be six ounces. 
The balance of the session was taken up in the general discus- 
sion of the subject, which was participated in by most of the 
members present. 

At the afternoon session Dr. Poor, of Dubuque, explained his 


newly invented burring machine, and gave a practical demonstra- 
tion of its use, in the preparation of cavities for filling, for several 
of the members. 

The president. Dr. Abbott, read an essay on the subject of 
"Dental Etiquette," presenting the subject in such a light that 
none failed to see the necessity for adopting a higher standard 
than that maintained by certainly a majority of dentists in the 

Dr. Artman then read an able and instructive essay on the 
subject of "Alveolar Abscess," among the notable features of 
which was the application of ether or rhigolene spray, in the first 
stage of the disease. This was followed by the presentation of 
several interesting cases, and the subject had a fair discussion. 

The election of oflBcers for the ensuing year being next in 
order, it was had with the following result: 

President — Dr. J. T. Abbott. 

Vice President — W. P. Dickinson. 

Corresponding Secretary — C. P, Artman. 

Recording Secretary — A. V. Eaton. 

Treasurer — C. Poor. 

The discussion of the subject of "capping nerves" was opened 
by Dr. Nicholson, followed by most of the Association. Oxy. 
chlo. zinc, the article most used; perhaps the most noticeable 
feature presented was the application of a covering of equal parts 
by weight, of collodion and sulphate of morphia, before filling or 
capping with the oxy. chlo. 

An essay on "Fees and Fee Bills," was then read by Dr. 

At the morning session on Tuesday, Manchester was the place 
selected for the next annual meeting. 

The president appointed the following standing committees: 

Executive Committee: M. D. Goble, C. P. Artman, and E, Ebi. 

Committee on Membership: J, Nicholson, C. Poor and A. 8, 

Committee on Ethics: The last year's committee continued. 

Dr. W, P. Dickinson then gave the association the benefit of 
some notes and remarks under the head of "Little Things," 


neatness in and about the office, courtesy to all patients, and to 
neighboring dentists. Application of rubber dam, and prepara- 
tion for its application where cervical cavities are to be filled, and 
the thorough following up of fissures in the crowns of the molars 
and bi-cuspids being among the points touched upon. A diagram 
to illustrate the last point was prepared and the importance of 
the subject was clearly set forth. The Clinic being the next in 
order, Dr. Dickinson proceeded to fill a large crown cavity with 
gold for one of the members; in its preparation quite an extended 
fissure on the buccal surface was cut out in demonstration of the 
views he previously advanced. Dr. Goble rendered valuable assist- 
ance in the application of the rubber dam, and in malleting for 
the filling. Dr. Poor's burring machine was brought into requis- 
ition for finishing, and gave universal satisfaction. 

At the afternoon session the meeting was adjourned to meet 
at Manchester, as above stated. 

Throughout the entire meeting the utmost harmony prevailed, 
the only regret being the absence of a number of the regular 
members, and quite a number who had signified their intention 
to be in attendance. It is surprising that when such opportunities 
for gaining information are presented, that any one can be in- 
duced to stay away, no one certainly who has any desire to pro- 
gress can afibrd to. 

C. P. Artman, Cor. Sec'y. 


Dr. J. G. Willis, of Cincinnati, a prominent practitioner of 
that city, died suddenly, a few days since, having been in perfect 
health up to within a few moments of his death. It is probable 
that his death was the result of organic disease of the heart. 

Dr. Willis had located in Cincinnati only two or three years 
since and had already established himself in a lucrative prac- 
tice. Only during the last few years had he mingled Avith his 


professional brethren in Associations and Conventions, but he 
had already gained a reputation as a ready debator, and gave 
promise of becoming one of the most prominent men in the pro- 

He was well fitted both by nature and education to fill a high 
place among those whose names shall live long after their bodies 
shall have crumbled into dust. We have known Dr. Willis for 
more than twenty years, and when the sad news of his death fell 
like a thunderbolt upon us, we felt that the profession at large 
had sustained a loss that but few would ever fully appreciate. It is 
true that he had but lately entered the arena, and was compara- 
tively but little known ; but a few years more, we are satisfied, 
would have given him a standing second to none among the hon- 
ored names in the profession. 

The following resolutions, adopted by the dentists of Cincin- 
nati, we find in the Cincinnati papers: 


At a meeting of the dentists of the city, held yesterday, at 
the office of Dr. Berry, the following resolutions were adopted, 
expressive of the sense of the profession in regard to the death 
of Dr. J. G. Willis: 

'■'- Resolved, That in the very sudden and unexpected death of 
Dr. J. G. Willis, of this city, we regard a marked instance of 
the inscrutable working of His hand, to whom we are all res- 
ponsible and subject. 

Resolved^ That we cannot but lament the loss of a member of 
our profession of such marked ability, both natural and acquired. 
Of him much was expected by his f)rofession, and that expecta- 
tion was always honored. He stood highest in the estimation of 
those who knew him best. 

'■'Resolved, That in his death Ave, in common with all who 
knew him, suffer the loss of a valued and useful member of so- 
ciety, one whose kind-hearted geniality, and Christian, gentle- 
manly bearing could not but be recognized by all. 

''■Resolved, That we tender to the bereaved family our most 
sincere sympathy, and express to them the great sadness we can- 
not but share with them. 

James Leslie, 

"H. A. Smith, Secretary. Chairman." 



Voi >ir.] AUGUST, 1871. [No. 8. 


By Professor A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. Before the Society of Art3. 
Reprinted from the Pbartnaceutical Journal, London. 

{Omtinued from Page 246.) 

There is one other remarkable instance which I must give jou, 
to show the diflSculty in some cases of analysing these phenomena. 
It is the case of the metal platinum, which I can hardly describe 
better in general terms, as regards its properties, than by compar- 
ing it to gold. It is what is termed a noble metal; it does not 
dissolve in any ordinary acid; you might boil platinum in nitric 
acid for any length of time and it would not di.'^solve. On the 
other bond, silver is a metal which dissolves readily in thi.s acid, 
and if you melt silver and put platinum into it, it will also melt, 
and you obtain a compound of the two metals mixed pretty 
uniformly together. It was noticed that when such a button of 
platinum and silver is put into nitric, not only does the silver 
itself dissolve, as you would expect, but some of the platinum 
also dissolves with it ; not the whole, but a portion. That seems, 
at first sight, favorable to the theory of contagion ; it seems 
natural to suppose that the silver, in dissolving, has communicated 


the same tendency to the platinum, and made some of it dissolve. 
But that explanation will not do, and for this reason. When 
platinum is combined with anything else, I care not what, its 
properties are not the same as when uncombined. The very 
essence of chemical combination is that the particles which are 
in intimate contact unite, and that the compound possesses different 
properties from the original elements. We know that metals 
combine with one another; there are many cases known to us of 
the forcible union of metals, and we have no right to suppose in 
any case, unless we have actual proof of it, that a metal is 
present in such a compound with its ordinary properties. There- 
fore, it is not free platinum, but a compound of platinum and 
silver Avhich dissolves, and there are some compounds of platinum 
which dissolve in water, and others which dissolve in nitric acid, 
so that this process has really nothing to do with contagious 

In the composition of alcoholic ferments there are several 
substances of which we know very little at present, I am sorry 
to say, but the want of this knowledge is so great that I have no 
doubt it will be soon supplied ; certainly, this is a most important 
field for the investigation of naturalists who possess an accurate 
knowledge of chemical manipulation. I mean the simplest and 
lowest organisms, whose functions are of such importance in these 
changes, and certainly claim much careful investigation. But 
.some of the things which we do know about the yeast-cells, I 
must now state, Avith relation to the facts and ideas which we 
have just had before us. In the fiist place, with regard to their 
growth. It is very common, in the process of brewing, to feed 
the yeast-cells Avith a substance which is formed in the germination 
of barley. When barley is left in a moist state, at a suitable 
temperature it begins to sprout, and during that process there is 
a change in two of its constituents, Avhich I showed j'ou the other 
day. One is gluten, a body containing nitrogen, Avhich I com- 
pared, for the sake of convenience, to muscular fibre, being in 
reality very closely allied thereto in chemical composition, and 
during the germination of the seed this substance passes over 
into some product or products — I had better speak quite generally 


— known by the name of diastase. In the yeast-cells there is a 
substance very nearly resembling in composition this gluten, and 
it cannot be doubted that this gluten, or albuminous body as it is 
frequently called, is capable of undergoing a similar transforma- 
tion into diastase, and of all foods the yeast-cell enjoys most those 
■which contain diastase. I have a good many yeast-cells growing 
in a suitably heated chamber, and those which seem to thrive 
most are some which were put into an infusion of malt to which 
sugar was added. It is common, in the process of fermentation, 
to put in yeast in tolerable quantity, but the extent to which it grows 
■depends upon the time for which it is left in contact in the material. 
I am told that the common proportion is about one-twentieth of 
the quantity of yeast required. For instance, if 20 il)s. of 
yeast are wanted to effect a given fermentation, ycu put into the 
liquid which has been fermented 1 ft), of yeast calculated in the 
dry state, and give it this diastase to feed upon. At the same 
time, there is sugar present in the liquid, and during the process 
of fermentation this pound weight of yeast increases more and 
more, by a process of true germination and growth. Professor 
Mitscherlich actually saw, under the microscope, some little cells 
of yeast sprout and put out, from the side of the parent cell, small 
cells, which gradually increased in size. The actual process, 
however, has not been seen by many observers. And not only 
■does the yeast-cell in that way feed upon these albuminous bodies, 
which are grouped together by the name of diastase, but it also 
takes part of the sugar; and these are the two prominent facts 
■which we know with regard to its food — that it feeds upon sub- 
stances of those two classes; sugar, which contains no nitrogen, 
and also nitrogenous substances, which are formed by the partial 
breaking up of the gluten. On the other hand, its decomposition 

— I mean during its life ; I am not speaking of any decomposition 
which its materials mav undergo if it is killed — gives off alcohol, 
<;arbonic acid, succinic acid and glycerine; in fact, the four chief 
products of ordinary alcoholic fermentation, ■\»liich I enumerated 
to vou the other dav. And while these products are beinn; given 
■off, there is at the same time a considerable quantity of nitro- 
genous substances being given off. The albuminous matter in the 


yeast-cells is undergoing decomposition, and is giving off nitro- 
genous substances. There is not any well- authenticated case of 
the yeast-cell forming, during its active functions, products of 
complete breaking up or putrefactive decomposition ; all the 
products -which we know best are substances of considerable 
complexity — less complexity than the materials of the plant, 
but of great complexity; and, accordingly, the notion which 
Liebig had that the yeast-cell is active in the proportion as its 
materials are undergoing complete analyses or breakings up, and 
forming ammonia and carbonic acid, is not now entertained by 
that distinguished philosopher. 

Some time ago, an exceedingly important experiment was made 
by M. Pasteur, with a view of testing the vital functions of the 
yeast-cells in a definite way. The statements which I have made 
to you contain a good many terms which are exceedingly general, 
as, for instance, the allusions to diastase. We really do not know 
what that is. We know about what sort of a thing it is made 
from, but not definitely. And the same Avith the nitrogenous 
products which are given off by the yeast-cells; we know some- 
thing about them, but only a little. Pasteur put into a solution 
of sugar, in which some yeast particles were present, some am- 
monia combined with an acid, and at the same time he put some 
of the ashes of other yer t-cells. He took a certain quantity 
of yeast and burnt it, so as to remove by oxidation the carbon, 
hydrogen and nitrogen of the substance, and the earth substances- 
which remained, Avhich are essential to the formation of a new 
yeast-cell, he put in some fermenting liquid, together with some 
salt of ammonia. When he did that, he really was treating the 
yeast-cells very much in the same way as a good farmer treats- 
the wheat plant. If you want a wheat plant to increase rapidly^ 
you must, in the first place, take care to supply to it all that the 
wheat plant takes up in the shape of mineral matter from the soil, 
and the best way to find that out is to burn some wheat, and see 
what is left. Then you must supply plenty of ammonia, and the 
more ammonia you supply up to a certain extent, the more rapidly 
does the wheat grow, by building up various simple substances 
into the complex substance, gluten, which I was speaking of just 


now. Pasteur put into such a mixture a few little cells of tlie 
jeast, and they did not thrive. They did transform some sugar 
into alcohol and carbonic acid, but they evidently vrere not at 
home, and at the end of a certain time, I forget how long, he found 
i;here was actually a smaller Aveight of yeast present than he had 
put in. That was a very different result from what happens when 
nitrogen is supplied to the yeast-plant in the form which I men- 
tioned just now as the usual one; and I think the fact is most 
instructive, and serves to show us what kind of a being the yeast- 
>cell really is, — I mean whether it should be classed among animal 
•or vegetable beings. I need hardly say that absolute distinctions 
amongst beings which Ave find in nature are out of the question; 
^ve do not generally get any absolute line of demarcation, for one 
class flows over into the other; but still the ideas which serve us 
to classify organic and other beings are exceedingly important, 
and in a case like this it is certainly of considerable interest to 
have some leading idea, by which one may see whether there is a 
reason for placing these beings amongst vegetable or animal 
organisms, and wc cannot help giving special weight in that respect 
to the kind of process which the respective classes of beings carry 
■out in their organisms. Plants build up complex substances from 
simple. All the most complex substances that we can get are 
made in the organisms of plants. They may have been taken 
■over by animals from plants, but they are formed in the main by 
plants. And the chief chemical activity of animals is precisely 
opposite; they take those complex substances, and break down, 
by means of their vital functions, to the simple products which 
■ are exhaled and given oif in the processes of animal life. There- 
fore, the question Avhether the process which the yeast carries on 
is a synthetical process, is certainly one of the most important 
which can guide us. Now, I think what I have said must appear 
to you all most conclusive in that respect, — that what we know 
best regarding the nature of the yeast-cells, the food which Ave 
know they take in large quantities, and upon which they live, is 
certainly exceedingly complex, and what the yeast-cells take up 
in preference is certainly sugar, and the very complex nitrogenous 
.substances which are present in solution in the malt, and the 


products ■R'hicli they give off, are exceedingly simple in compari- 
son. Their functions are in the main (those which we know besty. 
at any rate) analogous to those which take place in animal organ- 
isms, and are most remote from those which take place in vegetable 

In a paper which he has recently written on the subject of 
fermentation, Liebig has drawn attention, amongst other things, 
to the circumstance that the common alcoholic ferment can b& 
made to eat tartaric acid. If you were to neutralize a solution 
of some of these crystals in water, and put with the solution some 
yeast-cells, at the same time supplying some nitrogenous material, 
the yeast-plants would grow, and transform that into other 
substances. In the same way, if you were to put in some of this 
malic acid (which got its name from the circumstance that it is 
present in sour apples), the yeast-cells would also transform that: 
and the same in other cases. One of the most remarkable 
decompositions is that of nitric acid, which, by the action of the 
yeast-cells, is deprived of some of its oxygen, and converted into 
nitrous acid, so that it would appear that the plant can actually 
assimilate or eat the nitrates, forming these simpler derivatives 
from them. 

There is one case which I should like to show you, of an inor- 
ganic action, one in which there is no vital process concerned, but 
it bears a sort of general resemblance to what I conceive to be 
the principle of those which I have been speaking of. I have 
here a piece of platinum in a peculiar state, which is well descri- 
bed by the term "spongy." If I hold it in the flame of common 
oal-gas mixed with air, from a Bunsen burner, the spongy 
platinum eats the air or the oxygen contained iu it and the gas. 
The word "eat" is not really so inappropriate as it may seem. 
If I were to put this spongy platinum into oxygen, I should find 
that it would combine a quantity of oxygen into its substance, 
and make it part of itself, and the same with regard to the coal- 
gas. So that here you see, from the heat which was given oft', 
the substance is really eftecting a chemical change upon the 
materials which it absorbs, and it eff'ects that change in its own 
substance. It is adrzittcd that, in some way or other, the yeast 


organisms — I will not again call them plants — actually assimilate 
and make part of themselves the sugar, or tartaric acid, or what- 
ever it may be which they decompose; but they do not give off 
that substance which they have eaten in the same form. They 
give off its elements, after they have undergone a rearrangement 
in other ways. At our next meeting I propose to bring before 
you some different considerations regarding the vital functions of 
these organisms, and some points which bear upon questions of 
sanitary importance. 

( Tu be continued.) 


Bj Chas. R. E. Koch. Read before the Chicago Dental Society. 

There is, perhaps, no subject in relation to the teeth, upon 
■which the public is less informed than that which we are to con- 
sider this evening. Even from among the most enlightened of 
our patients upon other matters, we occa>sionally hear the remark, 
"I did not know it was of any importance to preserve the babT/ 
teeth, won't others come in their places?" 

Possibly we are in a large degree responsible for this almost 
criminal ignorance; and we certainly mistake our calling, and 
are remiss in our duty, if we do not improve every opportunity 
to enlighten and educate the public mind upon this subject. We 
should always impress upon mothers and those having the care 
of children, the necessity of taking care of the deciduous teeth; 
and we certainly will fiiid a higher reward in the contemplation 
of the results of such fcAV words of instruction and admonition, 
than we could possibly realize in any other Avay. 

While general rules may be of some service as a guide in prac- 
tice, these can seldom be closelv adhered to in anv criven case, 
as special conditions or contingencies may demand a marked 
deviation in treatment of apparently similar cases. 


To be able to treat deciduous teeth scientifically requires by 
fiir more circumspection and reflection than would a similar con- 
dition in the permanent organs. We will, in nearly all cases, 
have to exercise our individual judgments based upon physiolog- 
ical and pathological laws, and the anatomical relations of the 
deciduous teeth to their successors, before we can make a con- 
scientious diagnosis, or prognosis. 

An All-wise Providence has given to children a set of teeth, 
which the study of physiology has convinced us, are given not 
merely as an ornament, but for a functional purpose. These are 
to last for a certain time, when they are to be replaced by such 
others as will more readily perform the increased requirements 
of an increased organism. This fact ought to convince us that 
our efforts should be in the direction of preservation. 

To this end all the remedies generally employed as preventives 
of cai-ies should be recommended. Chief of these are cleanli- 
ness — of the body as well as the oral cavity — pure air and prop- 
erly nutritious food. 

Should caries occur in the deciduous teeth at an early age, and 
be allowed to progress, it would probably cause serious inflamma- 
tory disease in the surrounding tissues, and premature loss of 
these teeth. Hence, such carious cavities ought to be filled as 
early as possible with some suitable material, with a view of pre- 
serving them during their supposed time of usefulness. The 
molars and cuspids being thus aff'ected, before say the ninth year, 
should especially be treated in this manner. As these are gen- 
erally succeeded by others in from the tenth to twelfth year, it 
is hiirdly necessary to attempt preserving them through this 
means, should caries set in after the times first mentioned, unless 
we have some good cause for suspecting a retarded, or numerically 
<lefiei('nt, second dentition. Should we know that either of the 
child's parents suff'ered from a retarded second dentition or a 
<1eficioncy in number of the permanent teeth we would have good 
cause for attempting to save the deciduous teeth beyond their 
usual time of shedding. 

Unless the incisors are attacked by caries at a very early age, 
say the third or fourth year, it is hardly necessary to interfere 


"with them, as caries can be more readily retarded in these teeth by 
especial care. It' it be deemed advisable to interfere Avith caries 
in the teeth b}' an operation, it may often be found that cutting 
away the diseased portion by means of proper instruments, and 
'leaving a polished surface, -will most eifectually prevent further 
progress of the disease, and preserve the teeth during their natu- 
ral lifetime. The fact that these teeth are usually succeeded by 
the teeth of replacement, in from the sixth to eighth year, must 
not be forgotten. The process of calcification in the permanent 
teeth of this class commencitig quite early, there is less danger 
•of injury being caused to their germs from lesions upon their 
•deciduous predecessors, than in the case of those teeth having a 
later period of eruption. 

Should periostitis occur in the deciduous teeth, the treatment 
■ought to be the same as in the case of the permanent teeth. 

If the pulp has become exposed in teeth which it is essential 
to preserve for a while longer, a filling of oxychloride of zinc 
should be introduced in the carious cavity, having previously 
treated this as Ave should have done in the permanent teeth. If 
"we do not succeed in keeping the zinc filling dry suflBciently long 
to insure its hardening, Ave can remove all but a cap of it over 
the exposure and fill over this Avith Hill's stopping, gutta percha, 
•or if you please, amalgam, Avell washed and pressed. I must 
declare my preference for the first named substance. 

It has been for a long time a matter of doubt in my own mind, 
"whether the heroic practice of using arsenious acid in deciduous 
teeth, for the purpose of devitalizing their pulps, is judicious or 
not. Since the almost uniform success with oxychloride of zinc 
there is hardly any excuse for incurring the ri^k Avhich almost in 
all such cases must accompany the use of arsenic. No matter 
how astute our observations may be Ave cannot tell to Avhat 
extent absorption of the roots has progressed, and hence Ave can 
not tell hoAv far the action of the arsenic may penetrate, even Avith 
as much certainty as in the case of the permanent teeth; and 
you will no doubt bear me out in the assertion that even in these 
teeth this certainty is doubtful. We have often to extract decid- 
Jious molars Avith divergent roots, which remain quite firmly fixed 


and ■which would have led us to suppose that absorption had not 
progressed far; yet, upon removing these teeth, we find that the 
dentinal substance next to the base of the pulp is entirely gone, 
and the pulp in contact with the plexus of absorbents. Can we 
tell how much of the tender tissues, besides the pulp Avould be 
destroyed by an arsenious application in such a case? 

The permanent tooth may have advanced so fir in its procss- 
of calcification as to esca[)e injury, but its alveolus certainly 
would suifer. Necrosis and exfoliation of this latter might ensue ;. 
and may not the sequestrum, in trying to make its exit, exercise 
sufficient force to misdirect the advancing permanent tooth, so a& 
to cause malposition of this in the dental arch? 

A lady patient, while absent from the city, suffered with severe 
pain ill ati upper lefD cuspid tooth, which had been previously 
treated for alveolar abscess through an opening to the dental 
canal, made from the anterior cervical surface of the tooth. 

Th3 dentist upon whom she called, evidently did not under- 
stand the case, and made an application to destroy the nerve 
through this opening, which of course did not afford her any 
relief. She returned al)out a week after, and I then found the 
labial side of the gum in a ver}^ much inflamed condition, and 
observed spiculic ot the alvecdar process quite loose, protruding 
between the affected tooth ai.d its anterior and posterior neigh- 
bors. These Avcre removed, and the tooth treated with sedatives 
and stimulants until the pain had entirely ceased, and its sur- 
rounding tissues presented tlie appearance of health. The 
patient was not seen again for over three years, until very recently 
when I fjund that the labial plate of the alveolar socket was 
entirely gone, as also the soft tissues over it. The root is entirely 
denuded of its covering, and is a black unsightly looking mass. 
The tooth is still quite firmly fastened, but seems to have made 
an advance anteriorly, being now more prominent then its mate. 
This is probably caused by new deposits of bone upon the inside 
of the platal plate of the socket. This case does not properly 
belong here, unless it uiay aid us to judge by analogy. 

After the exhibition of arsenic in a deciduous tooth, injury to 
the alveolus may not be so permanent, as the growth of the alve- 


olus of the permanent teeth is contemporaneous with their erup- 
tion, and is not entirely completed until some time after these 
teeth have assumed their permanent position ; still, as we can- 
not tell just in what manner, and to what extent this drug 
may act injuriously, we had much better abstain from its use 

AVhether the premature loss of the deciduous teeth predisposes 
irregularity in the permanent teeth or not, seems still to be a 
mooted question. Mr. Tomes thinks there is more harm done 
by extracting too late than too early, as the now absorbed decid- 
uous roots may so much resist the advance of the permanent 
teeth as to cause them to take position posterior or anterior to 
their deciduous predecessors. Prof. Harris thinks much harm is 
done by premature extraction, and a consequential bony contrac- 
tion, and is diametrically opposed to Tomes. Before concluding 
which view to adopt, let us examine into observed physiological 
facts. Nearly all writers agree that the space occupied in the 
jaw anteriorly, by the ten teeth of the deciduous set, and the 
anterior ten teeth of the permanent set, is very nearly equal. 

I have had imported from the publishers at Leipzig, a recent 
German work on the Pathology of the Teeth, by Prof. Weld, of 
Vienna, a notice of which I have seen in the " Cosmos" for Feb- 
ruary, of the current volume. The first seventy pages of this 
work are devoted to physiology and anatomy. Glancing over 
this, I noticed a series of measurements in regard to the growth 
of the jaw, which I deemed of interest enough to translate, with 
your permission, I will interline this translation here. 

"Hunter was the first to take the position that the maxillary 
portions occupied by the deciduous teeth, do not grow after the 
completion of the first dentition. Fox agreed with him in all 
essentials. They arrived at this result by means of measurements 
of macerated lower jaws. Delabarre, upon the contrary, has 
tried to establish the longitudinal growth of the bone after first 
dentition, by clinical observations; he maintains that the decid- 
uous teeth separate from one another at the age of five or six 
years, and says that individuals with whom this does not occur, 
are threatened with an irrejiular second dentition. Fox recoiinized 


this appearance before Delabarre, yet did not attacli to it the same 
«i(Tnification, as he believes that the anterior portion of the max- 
ilia undergoes scarcely more than a change of form, which is in 
•conformity to the shapes of the permanent teeth and does hardly 
add to its size. Thos. Bell remarks emphatically that "we must 
not rely upon comparsions of jaws of diflerent individuals. The 
•only way to arrive at the truth in the matter is to examine the 
same jaw at different stages and to compare the results. This, 
says Bell, I have repeatedly done, and am not at all backward to 
say, that the ten anterior permanent teeth form a somewhat 
larger arch than the temporary teeth which preceded them. 
-Chapin Harris joins in the belief of Bell, and thinks that the 
transverse and perpendicular dimensions of the anterior portion 
of the jaw, continue to grow until the completion of second denti- 
tion and even up to adolescence. Tomes inclines to the opinion 
of Hunter, and expresses himself as opposed to an interstitial bone 

According to Hunter, the growth of the arch of the lower jaw 
in its perpendicular dimensions, is owing to periosteal and in its 
transverse dimensions to expansive bone growth. He is of the 
opinion, that there does not occur any more essential growth in 
the arch of the lower jaw, between the first molars, after birth. 
■Welcker's measurements are said to agree with this. Generally 
Hunter expresses himself as opposed to an interstitial growth of 
T^one. Rich. Yolknian expressed himself in favor of this some 
time ago, and again recently. C. ]luge and Julius "Wolff have 
also declared themselves in its favor. I join these for reasons 
which Avill become obvious in the perusal of this work. 

There can be no doubt that, as already stated, the expansion of 
the arch of the jaw is produced by the formation of new bone 
substance upon its facial wall, and resorption upon the lingual wall. 
By this process the front teeth are shoved in an anterior, and the 
posterior teeth in an external (buccal), direction. 

This locomotion of the teeth is, however, only to be thought 
of, if, in the interior of the bone, resorption also takes place, 
as otherwise the teeth, being covered by new layers upon the 
facial wall of the jaw, finally would be nearer the lingual wall, 
^'liicli is not the case. 


Hence there must be an interstitial resorption. Fox advocates 
a change of form of the jaw during growth, yet this is, as mentioned 
by him, only true in the case of the upper jaw. He says: if we 
compare the jaw of a child with that of an adult, we will remark 
a very apparent difference; that of a child forms nearly half of 
a circle, that of an adult half of an ellipse. This metamorphosis- 
of the jaw we will investigate closer further on. 

To establish the proportions of the growth of the lower jaw 
we must first search for the least variable point from which to 
commence our measurements. As a matter of course we can not 
attain to absolute exactness, and the truth can only be approxi- 
mately arrived at. The unavoidable errors in observation are 
Aveightiest when the distances to be measured are smallest. The 
longitudinal dimensions ofier fewer difficulties in their establish- 
ment than do those of height and thickness. 

I have instituted a series of measurements upon forty-five 
skulls of children in regard to the growth of the lower jaw 
lengthwise, and also partially with a view to become acquainted 
with the individual difierences : and have used for this purpose a 
thin, somewhat moistened, strip of paper closely applied; — and 
with this I have measured the peripheral limits. Measurements 
made upon a crooked object by means of a pair of dividers, o-ive, 
as a matter of course, their sector, and this latter remains the 
same under variable crooks. As a fixed point, for measurements- 
of the anterior portion of the lower jaw, we take the mental 
foramen, but here we must remember that the locality of this 
hole is not a constant one. Its anterior border is sometimes found, 
(upon the lower jaws of adults,) between the two bicuspids, some- 
times immediately under the first, and sometimes under the second 
bicuspid, yes, even sometimes in a plane with the posterior canal 
surface of the second bicuspid. These variations occurring- in a 
small number of lower jaws gives us a source of error of from S 
to four Mm.* "We will not take any note of this, but keep in view 
the distance from the line of union of the two halves of the lower 
jaw (which is easily marked with a lead pencil) to the anterior 

*A millimetre is the 25th part of an inch or two-fifths of a line. 


border of the mental foramen. In a five month embyro, we obtained 
a distance of ten Mm. NeAv born child, 12-13; in 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 
and 9 months old children, 15-18 Mm. In 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 
year old children, the distance remains nearly the same, 18-19 Mm ; 
only in four cases they reached 20-23 Mm. In a child of the age of 1 
year, five months and twenty-seven days, with erupted central 
incisors, 20; in one, one year ten months and ten days old with 
erupted first molars, 21 ; in one, five years old with a complete set 
of temporary teeth, 21; and in a child six ^^ears and one month 
old, Avith strong denture, 23 Mm. In 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 
year old children, it varies between 22 and 24, and in comparative 
measurements of lower jaws of adults, between 23-25 and 29 Mm. 
If we overlook extreme cases, we will find the most important 
growth of this portion of the lower jaw in the first months after 
birth, and a stationary condition after the eruption of the deciduous 
teeth, but during second dentition we find an increase which at 
least amounts to three Mm. To meet the accusation that no regard 
has been had to the thickness of the facial wall, several measure- 
ments were taken after removal of the facial wall, there appeared 
liowever, as was to have been expected, no essential difference. 

Further measurements, in the same manner, by means of a strip 
of paper, were taken on the facial side of the lower jaw along its 
whole length, and that is from the marked place of union of its 
halves, to the most prominent part of the condyloid process, which 
can be done so long as the latter does not protrude too much over 
the level of the alveolar ridge. This peripheral line amounts in 
a five-months embryo, to 40 Mm in one of seven months to 43; 
in the ncAv born child from 45-52 Mm; increases up to the fourth 
month to 58, up to the seventh month to 62, up to the first year 
to 67, up to the end of the second year after the eruption of the 
first molar to 77, up to the fourth, fifth, and sixth year with com- 
plete deciduous set of teeth to from 78-85, and in a child seven 
years old with erupted permanent molars to 100 Mm. Beyond 
this age such measurements can not well be made. After subtrac. 
tion of the anterior mass, from the median line of the inferior 
maxilla to the anterior border of the mental foramen, we obtain 
the rate of increase of the posterior mass from the last named 


border to the condyloid process; and ^ve obtain in tliis way an 
increase from 30-77 Mm., Avhile we only had an increase of from 
10-23 Mm. in the anterior mas". Hence the quotients are as 
2.56: 2.3. The difference arises on account of the more exten- 
sive growth of the posterior division of the jaw. 

J. Tomes has also used the tubercle on the lingual surface of 
the lower jaw to which are attached the genio glossus and genio 
liyoidens muscles, as starting points lor measurements. Accord- 
ing to my experience, these tubercles are so little prominent in the 
foetus, ornewly born child, and with children, and especially with 
adults, so different in form, size, and height, that the value of such 
measurements must iippear very doubtful, especially as here small 
measures are of interest. 

Measurements taken of the dental arch from the line of union 
of the jaw, and over the necks of the teeth along the alveolor 
border, and over the necks of the teeth to the posterior side of 
the cervical portion of the second molar; resulted, for half the 
■deciduous arch, in from 32-31 Mm, and in the arch of the per- 
manent teeth, to the same peripheral extent, in from 32-37 Mm. 
Hence, in many cases, the measurements of the deciduous denture 
agrees perfectly with the corresponding section of the permanent 
one, yes even the former measure may be found to be larger, but 
frequently we find an opposite difference. 

In the same manner that the new layers of bone of the growing 
arch of the lower jaw are deposited upon the facial wall, and 
resorption progresses upon the lingual wall of the same, is the 
growth of the posterior portion of the arch accomplished; new 
layers of bone are deposited upon the posterior side of the ramus 
and condyloid process, while on the anterior side of the condyloid 
and coronoid processes, bone is rcsorbed. 

G. Humphery has proved this experimentally. He introduced 
wires in the middle of the ascending ramus of the lower jaw of 
pigs, or nearer to the posterior or anterior border, and ascertained 
that, after a lapse of a certain time, the anterior loop was entirely" 
free, while the posterior one was buried deeply in the posterior 
portion of the ramus. Something analagous he thinks occurs in' 
the upper jaw, and upon the whole he agrees mainly with the 
■opinion of J. Tomes. 


If, then, the spaces occupied by theanterior ten te^th of the^ 
permanent set, and the teeth of the deciduous set are equal, the 
position of the former can not be affected by the premature ex- 
traction, or loss otherwise, of the latter, unless contraction of the 
jaw at the vacant place occurs. Does this happen ? I know of 
cases in which the deciduous upper central incisors become quite- 
loosened in consequence of complete absorption of their roots 
and were extracted. Their successor did not make their appear- 
ance for a year in one case, and nearly eighteen months in another^ 
yet they found ample room, though the deciduous laterals were- 
still in situ; and there were no apparent diminution of the origi- 
nal space. 

Tomes thinks, even admitting that contraction of the jaw does 
take place, the pressure of the advancing permanent tooth would 
soon expand it again. 

In the case of the second deciduous molars we have to guard 
against danger different from that of any possible contraction in 
the jaw; and the reasons against a premature extraction of these 
teeth are much less hypothetical. The first molar of the perma- 
nent set erupfs at about the sixth year, whereas the successor 
to the second molar of the deciduous set does not make its appear- 
ance until the tenth to twelfth year. Now, it is easily to be- 
understood, that if the deciduous molar is extracted before its 
successor is pretty well advanced, or before the first permanent 
molar is fully erupted, that this latter would gradually move- 
forward, there being nothing to resist, and thus diminish the 
space intended for the anterior teeth." 

No matter what the facts may be in regard to contraction of 
the bone, or whether this be prejudicial to the regular arrangement 
of the permanent teeth or not; there is a far weightier reason 
against premature extraction of childrens' teeth. Temporary 
teeth were not given to children merely to reserve seats for the- 
permanent ones. The deciduous teeth, as well as the permanent 
ones, are intended as primary organs of digestion, and as such 
they perform a function which we must not loose sight of, in 
considering what course may be best to bo pursued in any given 
case entrusted to our care. Premature loss of the molars must 


affect mastication, which, not being properly performed, leaves so 
much more to be done by the stomach, this latter organ becoming 
overtaxed, the general health must suffer, and with this the perma- 
nent teeth. Caries in teeth, when resulting in pain and inflamma- 
tion, may produce severe nervous irritation which, bring reflected 
upon the stomach, may seriously interfere with digestion; and 
hence assimil&tion will be imperfect, and nutrition of the growing 
tissues become impaired. If caries is allowed to advance until 
suppuration of the pulp or alveolar abscess ensue, an injurious 
direct influence is exerted upon the growing germs of the permanent 
teeth in its locality. Inflammation extending to their tender ves- 
sels and membranes, stops nutrition and causes a malformed, pitted, 
or grooved, or badly calcified permanent tooth. Aside from this 
local effect, general constitutional irritation is produced by reflex 
action with consequences as mentioned before. 

Certainly these reasons alone are sufficient to preserve intact 
the temporary teeth until such a time as we may have reason to 
expect their successors. 

Still, we must not extract these simply because their shedding 
time has arrived, unless there are sure indications that their 
successors are approaching, as we might occasionally, as in cases 
of hereditary transmission of a numerical deficiency, extract teeth 
which will never have a successor. 

Loosening of the teeth is not the only indication we have of 
the advance of their successors. Indeed, sometimes this does not 
occur at all, absorption being by some cause retarded or preven- 
ted. When the permanent teeth advance in such cases, there it 
generally more or less uneasiness felt, and often it can be detected 
by an abnormal protuberance upon the bone, internally or exter- 
nally, from the arch of the teeth. 

I have in my own family a case in which the lower four incisors, 
and the upper centrals of the permanent set, are all that have as 
yet erupted, and the child is ten years old. There is no loosening 
of either the deciduous lateral incisors or of any of the deciduous 
first molars, yet, according to the tables, the former ought to have 
been shed about three years ago, and the latter certainly should 
have begun to vacate ere now. 


There are no prominences to be felt to indicate the dcvelope- 
ment or advance of the permanent lateral incisors, and there is 
no loosening of the deciduous ones even now. 

I certainly should feel exceedingly bad, had I extracted these 
teeth three years ago, and made the child go without teeth all this 
time; and who knows but what possibly there may never be any 
teeth of replacement, or they may not come untii an advanced 

After a close examination of all the points, we must then come 
to the conclusion : that deciduous teeth should be extracted when, 
from their diseased condition, extraction may prove the least of 
two evils, or whenever their room would be more desirable than 
their presence. Of these contingencies the operator should be 
capable to judge intelligently, before he attempts, with a ruthless 
hand, to remove these priceless gems. 

wt mu mi 


Having never redeemed the promise which we made to the 
readers of the Journal long since, to give a report on the Brock- 
way method of working pyroxyline for dental purposes, we pro- 
pose doing so now; although, at this late day it may prove of 
little interest to many of our readers. We have deferred this 
report till this time in the vain hope that some plan would be de- 
vised for overcoming the obstacles in the way of its practical 
application as a base for artificial teeth. Ample time has now, 
we think, been given to test the merits of Dr. Brockway's method, 
if it possesses any, and also to improve his method of manipu- 
lation (if it were easily done), so as to do away with some of 


the objections patent to every one who has made a trial of it. 
With no desire to undervalue a good thing, or to do injustice to 
any one, we make the following report for the good of whom it 
may concern. 

We have been greatly disappointed in what we first thought 
would prove a valuable auxiliary in the dental laboratory. About 
eight months' since we sought and obtained practical instructions 
in Dr. B's. method of working pyroxyline, and immediately put 
it to a practical test. We liked the appearance of the material; 
it seemed to possess all the properties requisite as abase — light- 
ness, strength and elasticity; acids and the secretions found in 
the oral cavity seemed to have no action on it, and we were 
assured that it would not deteriorate on being worn in the 
mouth; was easily manipulated and would retain its shape and 
form without change. It contained nothing injurious, the little 
coloring matter being perfectly harmless. 

Results have shown the claims of Dr. B. to be unfounded, 
otherwise the profession would now be using pyroxyline instead 
of rubber. We very soon became satisfied that it was not all 
that was claimed for it, that it would not answer our purpose as 
a base, unless some important improvements were made in the 
mode of working it, with this view we made some experiments, 
and succeeded only partially in overcoming some of the difiicul- 
ties. The plates would spring from the die or mould after being 
swedged, especially if much of the solvent was used in attaching 
the teeth and rimming the plate- We have succeeded in over- 
coming this difiiculty, so nearly that we experience but little 
trouble from this source. But another and more serious trouble 
is met with in attaching the teeth. In the first instructions given 
the teeth were to be backed by placing a quantity of the com- 
minuted material around the rivets and then dissolving it with 
the solvent; we soon found that though we followed instructions 
closely, this formed a very poor attachment. The teeth would 
soon loosen and the case come to pieces. We improved upon 
this method of backing by using the sheet material with as little 
of the comminuted material as possible to fill around the rivets. 
AVe observed also that after a case had been worn a suoi't time, 


there vrould be more or less space underneath the blocks, form- 
ing a receptacle for particles of food, which, in time, became very 
offensive. After experimenting about two months, we received 
a call from Dr. Troutman, of the firm of Morrison & Troutman, 
Albany, manufacturers of pyroxylin e base. He gave us some 
valuable hints, as he claimed, in the method of working it. To 
secure a firm foundation for the teeth, and prevent the shrink- 
age at this point, the result of which was the spaces we had ob- 
served, he filled all the space underneath the teeth with strips 
of the plate ; or if the space was great, and the plate a lower one, 
he used tin filings to give the plate weight, if an upper one, cork 
filings to give it lightness. 

We observed that a single tooth, as an incisor or bicuspid 
would soon get out out of position if attached in the usual man- 
ner. Dr. T. suggested the backing of these teeth with gold or 
silver plate, letting a strip of the backing extend from the base 
of the tooth into the base plate, as is often done with rubber. In 
this way this diflBculty was effectually overcome. Dr. T. sug- 
gested several other minor improvements which did not affect 
materially the general result. The attachment of the teeth was 
still defective and would give way ; the plate would change form 
and shrink from the teeth, and the whole process from the be- 
ginning to the end required the exercise of more care and pa- 
tience than is often to be found in the mechanical branch of our 
profession at the present day. We were beginning to lose faith 
in pyroxyline, and was about giving it up when we received a 
paper from Boston, containing what purported to be the report 
of a committee, appointed by the Boston Dental Society, on 
pyroxyline. This committee, composed of men well known to 
the profession, after careful investigation and several months' 
trial, reported favorably. Surely, thought we, something must 
be wrong, we have missed it somewhere. We don't know as much 
as we thought, so at it we went again, again to be disappointed. 
About this time we received from Messrs. Brockway & Co., new 
instructions, some new apparatus, clamps, &c., also a specimen 
case. We found nothing new to us in the instructions, and we had 
already supplied ourselves with most of the apparatus, so we 


gained no information or advantage from this lesson. We then 
instituted some inquiries about the report in the Boston paper, 
and learned that it was a fabrication ; that no such report had been 
made, that, on the contrary, a very different report would be 
made and published at the next meeting of the Society. In the 
mean time our cases were coming back, some of them badly dis- 
integrated, teeth loose, plate brittle, and in every way very un- 

At the time of the meeting of the Missouri State Dental As- 
sociation in June last, we received a call from a live Bostonian, 
a Dr. Bartlett, who said he had been sent out here by a Boston 
Pyroxyline Company, to show us how to work this new base 
successfully, as they were doing in Boston ; this was good news 
to us who had spent time and money in vain efforts to accom- 
plish what was said to be so easy. We felt like thanking the 
company in the name of the profession in the west for this act of 
kindness ; and to the doctor who, as he assured us, had left his 
office and a large practice to pay this visit that we might be 
benefited, much praise was due. The Doctor showed us some 
very pretty specimens of the work, which he said were nothing 
compared to what might be done. These cases, said he, were 
just thrown together to show the different styles of the work. 
Most of the profession in Boston and the east had adopted it, and 
were using it almost exclusively. The Boston Dental Society 
recommended it, and no dcubt it will take the place of rubber en- 
tirely, as soon as the mode of using it was understood. 

The difficulties we had met Avith amounted to nothing; he 
could show us a way out of all our troubles. As our Association 
was then in session, we proposed that he should give the mem- 
bers the benefit of his instructions, which he kindly consented 
to do. Attending the meeting, he was invited to take part in 
the discussions, and was called upon to present the claims of his 
new base, and to show us how the thing was done in Boston. He 
favored the society with a brief history of pyroxyline, and the 
method of making it, and gave in detail his mode of manipula- 
tion in constructing a set of teeth on it. He stated the object 
of his visit to be two-fold ; first, to show us how to use pyroxy- 


line, and secondly, to sell stock in a Boston Dental Pyroxyline 
Company. We fear the doctor and his pyroxyline scheme was 
not appreciated, for he suddenly disappeared without opening 
his subscription books. When or where he went is still a mys- 
tery. In summing up the wonderful information which he 
had come three thousand miles to impart, the only item of which 
we were not already possessed was filling the spaces under the 
blocks Avith gutta percha. 

We report pyroxoline a failure in St. Louis, and we have re- 
ceived the same report from several of our correspondents in 
other cities, Boston excepted. Why the profession in St. Louis 
and elsewhere are not in a measure as successful with this base 
as we are asked to believe they are at the Hub, we confess we 
cannot understand. With all due respect to Messrs. Brockway, 
Bartlett k Co., we are disposed to believe that the success of this 
base, even in Yankee land, is somewhat doubtful. Our Boston 
friends reckon without their host when they send agents to St. 
Louis, expecting the profession to take stock in any dental pat- 
ent company. We have had quite too dear an experience with 
one Boston dental patent company to encourage another soon. 
We are making no further trials with pyroxyline, being satisfied 
with the experience we have had. Having replaced all the 
cases, save one, which we have put up in this base with gold, we 
say, goodby, humbug, "7t. /. P." Eames. 

^jeiclMial mul ^iudlmum^ §tfmtmmt 


The Association met at White Sulpher Springs, Greenbrier 
county. West Virginia, August 1st, 1871, at 11 o'clock A. M., 
Dr. W. H. Morgan, President, of Nashville, Tenn., in the chair. 


On motion of Dr. Gushing, the reading of the minutes of the 
last meeting was dispensed with. 

The Committee on Publication being called upon for their 
report, asked for further time, which was granted. 

On motion, it was ordered that the Association hold sessions 
each day as follows : one from 10 o'clock A. M. to 1^ P. M., and 
one from 3|^ to 6 o'clock p. m. 

On motion, Drs. Salmon and J. B. Morrison were excused 
from acting on the Committee on Dental Appliances, and Drs. 
Walker and Canine were appointed to fill their places. 

On motion, the President was authorized to fill vacancies in 
Standing Committees. 

After some other preliminary business, the Association ad- 

Afternoon Session. 

The Association met at the appointed hour, Dr. Morgan in 
the chair. 

Dr. H. Judd read a report upon Physiology, which was dis- 
cussed by Drs. Atkinson, Taft and Judd, and others, until six 
o'clock, when the Association adjourned. 

Wednesday Morning — August 2d. 

Association met at 10 o'clock. President in the chair. 

Minutes of previous meeting read and adopted. Discussion 
on Physiology resumed. Drs. Taft and Howe, of Cincinnati ; 
Dr. McQuillen, of Philadelphia ; Atkinson, of New York ; and 
Judd, of St. Louis, took part in the discussion. Subject of Phy- 
siology passed. Dr. Wm. H. Atkinson read a report on Pathol- 
ogy, when Association adjourned. 

Afternoon Session — Second Day. 

Met at 8| o'clock, p. M. 

Dr. Harriman read a paper on Dental Histology, which led to 
considerable discussion. The unique features brought out in 
the papers, and in the ensuing discussion by the author, were 


that the dentine was fibrous and not tubular, and that the pulp 
was made up of a Jiomogeneous mass of fibres and cells. 

The subject of Chemistry was brought up, and passed with 
little discussion. 

A report on Dental Therapeutics by Dr. Bogue was read and 
referred to publishing committee. 

The amendment to the Constitution, proposed at the last meet- 
ing at Nashville, relating to those who are interested in dental 
patents, was almost unanimously rejected. 

On motion, it was ordered that a session be held to-morrow 
night for election of officers and for selection of a place for next 

On motion, adjourned. 

Tuesday Morning — Third Day. 

The Association met at the usual hour. Letters from Dr. 
Chase, of St. Louis, and Dr. Moore, of South Carolina, were 

The subject of "Dental Therapeutics" being still under con- 
sideration, it was discussed by Drs. Taft, Atkinson, Judd, and 
others. Subject passed and Association adjourned. 

Afternoon Session — Third Day. 

Dr. Dickerman read a paper upon "Anaesthesia," for which a 
vote of thanks was passed by the Association. 

Report of Committee on Credentials was read and accepted, 
and candidates recommended, elected. 

On motion, a committee was appointed to report suitable reso- 
lutions, expressive of the sense of the Association in relation to 
the death of Drs. H. E. Peebles, of St. Louis, and J. G. Willis, 
of Cincinnati. 

On motion, ordered that the Association meet to-morrow morn- 
ing at nine o'clock instead of ten as heretofore. 

On motion, it was ordered that the morning session be opened 
with prayer. 

The Corresponding Secretary read a letter from Dr. Barnum, 
thanking the Association for the flattering resolutions passed 


last year at Nashville, by the Association, in relation to the Rub- 
ber Dam. 

On motion, adjourned. 

Night Session — Third Day. 

The Association met at 8 o'clock P. m. 

San Francisco and Niagara Falls were the most prominent 
places nominated for holding the next meeting, and, upon ballot- 
ing, Niagara Falls received a majority of all the votes cast, and 
■was declared to be selected as the place of next meeting. 

The Association then proceeded to elect oflBcers for the next 
year, with the following result : 

President — Dr. Geo. H. Gushing, of Chicago. 
1st Vice President — C. E. Francis, of New York. 
2d Vice President — J. R. Walker, of New Orleans. 
Recording Secretary — M. S. Dean, of Chicago. 
Corresponding Secretary — J. A. Salmon, of Boston. 
Treasurer — Wm. H. Goddard, of Louisville, Ky. 
On motion, a committee was appointed to nominate Standing 
Committees for the ensuing year. Adjourned. 

Friday Morning — Fourth Day. 

Association met at 9 o'clock. President in the chair. Exer- 
cises opened by prayer. 

The committee appointed to nominate Standing Committees 
reported as follows : 

Physiology — McQuillen, C. F. Wheeler and A. B. Robbins. 

Dental Pathology and Surgery — H. Judd, Wm. H. Atkinson 
and C. S. Smith. 

Dental Histology and Microscopy — R. W. Varney, J. Taft 
and J. W. All port. 

Dental Chemistry — L. S. Dickerman, H. A. Smith and J. 
J. Birge. 

Dental Therapeutics — U. L. Sage, J. R. Walker and AVm. 
N. Morrison. 

Operative Dentistry — C. E. Francis, E. H. Bogue and Wm. 


Mechanical Dentistry — J. A. Salmon, Chas. F. Hickman and 
J. W. Smith. 

Dental Education — W. H. Morgan, Geo. W. Keely and L. 
C. Cook. 

Dental Literature — M. S. Dean, C. C. Chittenden and J. N. 

Prize Essays — Geo. A. Mills, E. Floyd and R. Hewe. 

uEtiology — W. A. Branson, L. D. Shepard and R. G. Thomas. 

On motion, the report of the committee was accepted, and the 
Committees elected as reported above. 

The following resolution was adopted : 

Resolved, That a committee of five upon Local Societies, and 
for conference with the profession be appointed by this body. 

A paper by Dr. Cutler, was read upon "iEtiology" by Dr. 
Taft, Avhich was referred to Committee on Publication. 

Also a report upon "Operative Dentistry." 

Discussion ensued upon filling with smooth points and platin- 
um foil. 

Dr. McQuillen spoke of the necessity of minute examination 
of the teeth. 

Dr. Taft spoke of the necessity of using magnifying glasses. 

Dr. Salmon spoke of filling teeth with slight pressure with 
smooth ivory pluggers. 

On motion, subject passed. 

Dr. Wm. N. Morrison read a short report on "Mechanical 

Gold and platinum were universally admitted to be the best bases. 

Dr. Walker recommended Watt's metal. 

On motion, the subject passed. Adjourned. 

Afternoon Session — Four O'clock. 

The Committee appointed last year upon "Testimonial to Dr. 
Barnum for his Invention of the Rubber Dam," reported that they 
had prepared a medal to be presented to him, and the same was 
placed at the disposal of the Association. Dr. Barnum not 
being present. Dr. Geo. H. Gushing was appointed a committee 
of one to convey the medal to Dr. Barnum. 


On motion, a vote of thanks was tendered to Drs. McKellops^ 
Gushing and Allport, who presented the medal to the Association 
to be presented to Dr. Barnum. 

The Committee on resolutions relating to the death of Dr. 11. 
E. Peebles, and Dr. J. G. Willis, reported as follows: 

The Committee appointed by this Association to report reso- 
lutions expressing the sense of this meeting upon the death of Dr. 
H. E. Peebles and Dr. J. G. "Willis, members of this Association^ 
beg leave to present the following : 

Resolved, That this Association hear with regret the announce- 
ment of the death of Drs. H. E. Peebles and J. G. Willis, both 
of whom were present with us at our last annual meeting at 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. H, E. Peebles, the pro- 
fession has lost one of its most active and efficient members, 
whose labors in the field of dental education should be recog- 
nized by this Association as worthy of commendation. And 
that in the death of Dr. J. G. Willis, the profession has lost a 
member whose ability, energy of character and devotion to 
scientific pursuits gave promise of a brilliant future. 

Resolved, That this Association extend to the relatives and 
friends of the deceased their heartfelt sympathy, but would con- 
gratulate them that their sorrow will nevertheless be somewhat 
alleviated by the reflection that their names are still cherished in 
grateful remembrance by their professional associates. 

Resolved, That the Secretary be directed to forward to the 
families of the deceased a copy of these resolutions. 

The report was unanimously adopted. 

A report upon "Dental Literature," by Dr. Cushing, and a 
report by Dr. C. E. Francis, were read and briefly discussed. 

On motion, Drs. Morrison and Cook were elected a committee 
to conduct the President elect to the chair, who, upon taking his 
seat, thanked the Association for the honor conferred upon him. 
The retiring President made some appropriate and well-timed. 
remarks, and the Association adjourned. J. 



The Missouri State Dental Association held its seventh annual 
session in St. Louis, June 7th, 8th, and 9th. 

The Association met in the rooms of the Historical Society 
in the Polytechnic Institute. 

Officers — President, Dr. Goodrich, Wentzville. 
Vice Presidents, Dr. McCoy, Booneville, and Dr. Park, 
^t. Louis. 

Recording Secretary, Dr. Bowman, St. Louis. 
Corresponding Secretary, Dr. Luckie, Mexico, Mo. 
Treasurer, Dr. J. B. Morrison, St. Louis. 
Executive Committee, Dr. Chase, Dr. Eames, and Dr. A. 
W. Morrison. 

The meeting was called to order by President Goodrich, at 
nine o'clock a. m. The profession of Missouri was well repre- 
sented; while a number of prominent Dentists from other States 
were present, and were invited to participate in the deliberations 
■of the Association. 

After the usual business preliminary^ the Association proceeded 
to the consideration of the interests which brought it together. 
At the session of 1870, the following gentlemen were appointed 
•essayists for this occasion : 

Histology, Dr. Judd, St. Louis. 
Chemistry of the Saliva, Dr. Eames, St. Louis. 
Treatment of Alveolar Abscess, Dr. Goodrich, Wentzville. 
Irregularities of the Teeth, Dr. Forbes, St. Louis. 
General Pathology in its relation to Filling the Teeth, Dr. 
Black, Jacksonville, Ills. 

Contour Fillings, Dr. Park, St. Louis. 
Gold Foils, Dr. Porre, St. Louis. 
A slight departure from the programme was made by Dr. 
Judd's reading an essay on "The Status of the Dental Profes- 
sion," — instituting comparisons between it and the professions of 
Law, Divinity and Medicine, which were not particularly flatter- 


ing to the dental profession at large. There were but few 
scientists in its ranks, as a profession more attention is given to 
the practical than to the theoretical. It was a comprehensive- 
paper, calculated to stimulate, at least those who heard it, to 
more careful research and higher scientific attainments. 

The principle deductions of the discussion which followed,^ 

1st. A closer discrimination of the literary qualifications of 
candidates for the profession. 

2d. A term of study of sufiicient duration under competent 
instructors, to fully establish the principles of our specialty, and 
apply them in practice. For, certainly, so long as three weeks' 
or six months' embryo dentists are aborted, no reasonable mind 
can expect an educated pupil or an elevated profession. Noth- 
ing but the closest application and study will fit us, as dentists, 
for the responsible duties we owe to our patients, and teach suc^ 
cessfully our students who are to succeed us. 

Dr. Horine, of Missouri, read a volunteer essay entitled, 
"Teachings of the Past and our Duty to our Patients." 

This paper briefly reviewed the improvements in Dental appli- 
ances made during the last few years, among which was a 
dental chair of his own design, made more especially for the 
travelling dentist. Its principal features are its lightness, great 
strength, comfort and small cost. He paid a handsome tribute 
to the Morrison chair, conceding for it the first place among 
dental chairs. "Our duty to our patients consisted, in great 
part, in relieving them of all possible pain in the preparation 
of cavities for filling." He advocated the administration of" 
chloroform in small doses to keep the patient in a semi-ansesthetic 
state, under which he had performed, painlessly, many operations 
on sensitive teeth. Indeed, he rarely operated on any one Avith- 
out exhibiting it. 

The discussion of this paper, so far as its reference to chloro- 
form is concerned, became general, and we gather from it that it 
is a dangerous practice, one to be avoided, the necessity for it in 
small operations not commensurate with the risk, better to err 
(if at all) on the safe side. There were other agents quite as- 


■efficient in obtunding sensitive dentine as chloroform, whicb occu^ 
py a position infinitely lower in the scale of dangerous agents. 
Chloroform is a great boon to humanity in those cases where 
its use is justifiable, but the general use of it in our offices, 
indiscriminately, as indicated by the paper, is regarded a dan- 
gerous precedent. It has been considered safe to exhibit it to 
a patient who may have come out safely from a previous exhibi- 
tion, but this is an error, there is no safety but in touching not, 
handling not. 

The following gentlemen were elected members of the Asso- 
ciation : 

G. W. Travis, Cape Girardeau, Mo. 

L. L. Miles, Marshal, Mo. 

H. R. Sackett, Marine, Ills. 

A. 11. Fuller; J. P. Eddy; H. H. Kieth; and H. A. Bar- 
low, St. Louis, Mo. Adjourned. 

Afternoon Session. 

In the absence of the regular essayists the subject of "Nerve 
Capping with Oxy-chloride of Zinc," was taken up. Consider- 
able interest was manifested in this subject; almost every mem- 
ber giving his experience, some against, but the majority for. 
In the hands of an intelligent practitioner there is hope of nearly 
every exposed nerve, where arterial circulation is present. Some 
were .sanguine of pulps that had in part sloughed off. It was 
formerly thought the preparation should be put upon the nerve 
as dry as possible to ensure success, as it was the chloride of 
zinc that did the killing, in cases where death ensued. But it 
appeared a creamy consistency was preferable, on account of its 
offering less resistance to the pulp when placed in contact with 
it. In young patients it seems indicated, and better success is 
experienced than in adults of advanced years. 

Dr. Bartlett, of Boston, here exhibited specimens of pyroxy- 
line, the new base for artificial teeth. They were very neatly 
made, but did not excite tbe interest they otherwise would with 
the dentists of St. Louis, had their experience in its use been 


more satisfactory. It seems to possess kinks that this western 
atmosphere is entirely inadequate to remove. 

It was announced by the President that a demonstration of 
its merits would be made by Dr. B. on the following morning, 
at eight o'clock, at the oflSce of Dr. Judd. Also clinics at the 
College Infirmary same hour. Operatois, Dr. Moore, Lafayette, 
Ind. ; Dr. Goodrich, Wentzville, Mo. ; Drs. Judd, Forbes and 
Bowman, St. Louis. 

Adjourned to 10 a. m., June 8. 

Second Session — June 9. 

Owing to the interesting character of the clinics there was no 
morning session, and the afternoon session was mostly devoted 
to business. 

Election of Trustees to fill vacancies in the Board of Trustees 
of the Missouri Dental College: — Dr. Bowman was elected to 
fill the vacancy caused by the death of Dr. H. E. Peebles. 
Those whose term expired this year were re-elected for another 
term, Drs. Forbes, Gregory, McCoy and Kulp. 

The Treasurer's books were audited and found correct. An 
assessment of three dollars was decided to be necessary to defray 
the expenses of this session. 

On motion of Dr. Forbes, a committee was appointed to draft 
resolutions expressive of the sense of this Association on the 
death of Dr. H. E. Peebles. The President appointed Drs. 
Forbes, Judd and Fames. On motion, the President was added 
to the Committee. 

Dr. Park read his paper in advocacy of "Contour Fillings." 
As this paper was published in the last number entire, it is un- 
necessary to further allude to it. 

From the discussion which followed we gather that most of 
the Association approve and practice contour filling to a certain 
extent, but do not go to the extreme point indicated by some, of 
duplicating nature, even to working out the fissures and deviations 
from plain surfaces, on the ground that it was not necessary, 
using the time of both the patient and operator, without remu- 


neration to either. The "happy mean" was considered the 
point at which to stop. 

Dr. Forbes read a comprehensive paper on "Irregularities of the 
Teeth," which was attentively listened to. It will probably appear 
at length in the Journal ere long, so it will be out of place here 
to extract from it, even to indicate the general tenor of it, which 
was, that the premature extraction of the deciduous teeth had 
no influence whatever in the development of the permanent teeth. 
It appeared from the discussion that the experience of individ- 
uals had not been in harmony with the teachings of the paper, 
and that the preservation, by any and all means, of the decid- 
uous teeth, was the bounden duty of every dentist. 

Dr. Hale gave notice that he should introduce, at the next 
meeting of this Association, a resolution to change the name of 
this Association to "Missouri State Association." 

On motion, a ballot was had to determine the next place of 
meeting. Kansas City received the highest number of votes, 
and was declared the choice of the Association. 

The report of the Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the 
Missouri Dental College was read and approved. 

During the session of 1870-71 there were twenty-one attend- 
ants, of whom seven passed a satisfactory examination, and 
received the degree of "Doctor of Dental Surgery." 

(To be continued.) 


The ninth annual meeting of this society was held in the par- 
lors of the Ogden House, Council Bluffs, on the evening of July 
11th, 1871. Both the President and Vice-President* being ab- 
sent. Dr. Sanborn, of Tabor, was requested to act as President^ 
pro tern. 

Dr. Sanborn, as President of the Missouri Valley Dental 
Society, in well chosen words welcomed the dentists of the State 


of Iowa to the Valley of the Missouri, and was responded to on 
behalf of the society by Dr. W. 0. Kulp, of Muscatine. 

Upon roll call the following members were found to be pres- 
ent : 

P. T. Smith, Iowa City; W. O. Kulp, Muscatine ; J. F. San- 
born, Tabor ; R. S. Rathbun, Lyons ; E. H. Dillingham, West 
Liberty; E. C. Chase, Iowa City ; G. S. Shattuck, Belle Plaine ; 
E. I. Woodbury, Council Bluffs ; H. H. & H. W. Ray, Bellevue ; 
I. P. Wilson, Burlington ; J. S. Kulp, Muscatine ; Geo. W. 
Auger, Brooklyn. Besides the above there were present several 
other dentists from the western part of the State. 

Minutes of last year's meeting read and approved, after which 
the society adjourned. 

Wednesday Morning. 

Society met in the Court House in pursuance of the adjourn- 
ment at the parlors of the Ogden House. 

The President, Dr. Wilson, in the chair. 

The Committee appointed at the previous meeting on order of 
business, made their report, which was unanimously adopted, 
and ordered to be incorporated in the By-Laws as Article VIII. 

Lnder this new order of business, the meeting was formally 
opened by prayer by Dr. W. 0. Kulp. 

The committee on membership recommended the following for 
active members : 

Geo. P. Mann, Des Moines; R. L. Harris, Atlantic; A. S. 
Billings, Onawa; F. N. Shriver, Glenwood ; F. C. Clark, Coun- 
cil Bluffs ; T. D. Studevant, Clarence ; N. J. Waid, Xewton ; 
Dr. Dewey of Washington ; A. J. Taylor, Hamburg. 

^ or junior member, J. F. Kellogg, West Liberty. 

These gentlemen were all unanimously elected members of the 
society, and signed the constitution. 

Several old members forwarded satisfactory excuses for their 
absence, which were read by the Secretary. 3Iister Webster, of 
West Liberty, thinking he had been abused by the society at its 
last meeting at Iowa City, because he was not elected active 
member, — failing to pass the required examination, — requested 


that his name be stricken from the rolls, at the same time threat- 
ening that he "would not pay any more dollars to the society." 
This request was unanimously, and most emphatically^ granted. 
Dr. Rathbun read an interesting paper on the "Cleansing of 
Teeth." The discussion which followed the reading of this paper 
was participated in by nearly all the members of the society, and 
occupied the entire time allotted for the morning session, Drs. 
John Austen, of St. Joseph, Mo., and Williams, of Council Bluffs, 
were elected honorary members. Adjournment till 2 p. M. 

Afternoon Session. 

Dr. Wilson read an essay, written by Dr. Hardman, of Musca- 
tine, subject, "Phlebotomy." 

Dr. Smith read an essay on "Dental Hygiene. 

Dr. Ray read a paper on "Cell Life and Generation." Dr. 
Chase read an article on "Dental Chemistry." Each of these 
essays, after being thoroughly discussed, were referred to the 
Committee on Publication. 

The subject of Dental Education was then taken up and dis- 
cussed. This closed the afternoon session. The evening was 
spent by the members of the society at the residence of Dr. 
Woodbury, enjoying the hospitality of the doctor and liis excel- 
lent lady, by whom they were elegantly entertained with re- 
freshments. Here the members of the society met a great 
number of the prominent physicians of the place, and enjoyed 
a very pleasant social hour. 

Thursday Morning Session. 

Society met at the Court House, at 8: 30 a. m. 

Minutes read and approved. 

A letter from Dr. L. C. Ingersoll, of Keokuk, was read, explana- 
tory of his absence, and giving in a condensed form his views on 
Dental Education, advising literary and scientific training as 
essential to success. 

Dr. Shattuck read a long and very interesting essay on 
"Improvement in Practice and Elevation of Dentistry." 


Dr. Wilson, President of the Society, read a paper on "Anaes- 
thetics in Dentistry," of considerable merit. 

Dr. Sanborn read a very elaborate article entitled "Oxygen 
and its Place in Vital Phenomena." 

An essay was also read from Dr. Taylor, of Ft. Madison, sub- 
ject, "Dental Surgery." 

These papers were all thoroughly discussed in a highly scien- 
tific manner, which is peculiarly characteristic of members of 
this society. 

Society adjourned to meet in the parlors of the Ogden House, 
at 1 P. M. 

Afternoon Session. 

President Dr. Wilson in the chair. 

Dr. Woodbury then favored the society with an excellent ad- 
dres's on "Professional Dignity." 

After some discussion this subject was passed, and the subject 
of "New Bases for Artificial Teeth" was taken up. Dr. J. S. 
Kulp opening the discussion. 

Drs. CharleS; Paul, and Bond of Ojiaha, Neb., were unani- 
mously elected honorary members of the society. 

The subject of "Dental Legislation" being then in order, on 
motion, Drs. W. 0. Kulp, Mann and Woodbury were appointed 
a committee to prepare a bill to be submitted to the next legisla- 
ture, providing laws for the protection of the people against the 
imposition of quacks and incompetent persons calling themselves 

The Missouri Valley Dental Association, and the Northern 
Iowa Dental Society, were invited to co-operate with the State 
Society in the same manner. 

The Society next proceeded to the election of officers for the 
ensuing year, with the following result : 

President — E. J. Woodbury, Council Bluffs. 

Vice-Presidents — Ray Bros, Bellevue. 

Recording Secretary and Treasurer — R. S. Rathbun, Lyons. 

Corresponding Secretary — E. C. Chase, Iowa City. 

Among the honored members of this society are two brothers, 
Ray, who resemble each other so closely that it is almost impos- 


sible to distinguish one from the other. They are of the same 
age, thej look alike, they dress alike, they talk alike, and in 
fact they have the appearance of both being the same person. 
This close resemblance was the cause of considerable merriment 
at the election of officers. The member who nominated Dr. Ray 
for Vice-President, declared, after the gentleman was elected, 
that he did not know which one he nominated. Amid much 
humor it was finally settled by electing them both to the office 
of Vice-President. 

Dr. Sanborn, of the committee to whom was referred the sub- 
ject of the obituary of deceased members during the past year, 
reported resolutions of condolence in the cases of Dr. Sayles, of 
Lyons, and Dr. Peebles, of St. Louis, Mo. 

These resolutions were ordered to be spread upon the records of 
the society, and the Recording Secretary was ordered to furnish 
a copy to the Missouri Dental Journal. 

The Corresponding Secretary made his annual report, the 
greater part of which related to the Chair of Dental Science in the 
medical department of the university. He stated that it was the 
wish of the faculty of said department for the Dental Society to 
recommend three persons to fill this chair, instead of one. The 
present lecturer, Dr. Smith, who was foremost in the establish- 
ment of this chair, and who was recommended by the society 
last year as a competent person to fill the place, considered this 
report to be a reflection upon his ability as a lecturer and a 

Quite a sharp debate took place between Dr. Kulp, the Cor- 
responding Secretary, and Dr. Smitli, in which the latter showed 
the absurdity of such a proposition as that suggested by the 
former, viz., the appointment of tliree men to deliver six lectures 
to a class of medical students. Dr. Smith at the same time ex- 
pressed his willingness to resign the position if the society so 

The whole subject was finally referred to the officers of the 
Society, for their conference with the faculty of the medical 
department of the university, to obtain, if possible, their views of 
the case. 


The President then announced the following, as the standing 
committees for the ensuing year : 

Executive Committee — Drs. Smith, Tulloss and Mann. 

Membership " — Drs. W. 0. Kulp, Sanborn and Wilson. 

Publication " — Drs. Rathbun, Chase and J. S. Kulp. 

Resolutions were adopted, thanking Col. Ross, of the Ogden 
House, the press, railroads and citizens ; also Dr. and Mrs. 
Woodbury, for attentions shown us. 

On motion it was ordered that any member of this society 
who should be present at the meeting of the American Dental 
Association, the State Medical Society, or the Illinois and Missouri 
State Dental Association, should be considered as a delegate 
to the same. 

Bills for incidental expenses were allowed. 

The society then adjourned, after a most delightful and suc- 
cessful session of nearly three days, to meet again on the second 
Tuesday of July, 1872, at the city of Des Moines. 

This was probably one of the pleasantest, as well as one of the 
most profitable, meetings the society ever held. The attendance 
was greater than the most sanguine dared to anticipate. The 
essays showed steady and scientific research, and were excel- 
lently written, and would bear comparison with those of any 
other scientific society in the country. The discussions evinced 
a thorough knowledge on the part of the participants of all those 
subjects connected directly or indirectly with our specialty, 
and the members returned to their respective homes, feeling as 
if they had been amply repaid for the trouble and expense of 
attending this meeting, and fully determined to add still more to 
their stock of scientific knowledge by study, research and ob- 
servation, and do all in their power to elevate the professional 
standing of themselves and each other in the communities in 
which they reside; thus, by individual improvement, to place the 
dental profession on an equality with the other learned profes- 
sions, where it properly belongs and will eventually stand. 

Edward C. Chase, Corresponding Secretary. 



An address, published in pamphlet form, delivered before the 
Merrimac Valley Dental Society by A. P. Stevens, D. D. S., 
is before us. The subject is "Charletans and Empirics," which 
all will confess, furnishes anything but a pleasant theme for a 
lecture, but which the author has nevertheless turned to good 
account in the present production. J. 

The Thirteenth Annual Commencement of the Chicaojo Med. 
College has made its appearance, containing a catalogue of the 
class of the last session, by which we learn that the class of 1870- 
71 numbered 107 students and turned out 30 graduates, including 
four Ad. Eundem and two honorary degrees. The granting of 
ad. eundem degrees we consider in bad taste; and the time will 
soon come, we hope, when honorary degrees, conferred by 
medical or dental colleges, will not be very highly esteemed; in 
fact, the practice should be at once abandoned, unless it be bestowed 
as a reward upon some one who has done something, and shed 
lustre upon his profession. J. 

The Transactions of the American Dcrital Association for the 
session of 1870 have come to hand, and we have given the book 
a cursory examination. We think the report, all things con- 
sidered, a good one; and from the examination given it, we are 
inclined to believe that the true intent of the speakers on the 
various discussions is better brought out than has been the case 
generally, in similar reports, though the language used in some 
instances, may not be as appropriate and elegant as an exact 
verbatim report would have made it, though it may be also 
presumed that in other cases the slight departure from the 
original will not detract from their dictional perfections. 

The volume contains one hundred and sixty-eight pages, is 
printed on good paper and in plain type, and shows that the 
Publishing Committee have done their whole duty in the 
accomplishment of their arduous task. J. 



In the '■^Medical Record'' we find a report of a case of obsti- 
nate neuralgia, cured by sulphate of nickel, given in from one 
half to one grain doses three times a day. The report was 
copied from the " Oregon Medical and Surgical Repository.'' 

The Medical Gfazette gives analyses of several secret remedies 
and quack nostrums, which do not smell as sweet when robbed 
of their attractive names and shown up in their true colors. 
For example, the French pomade, known as "Pomade Tan- 
nique," is found to consist of perfumed lard, 65 parts, sugar of 
lead 25 parts, and flour of sulphur T parts, without a trace of 
tannin, as the name would indicate. And many other prepara- 
tions for which large prices are usually paid, are as simple prep- 
arations and just about as useless. 

The American Journal of Dental Science for July, commen- 
ces with an article by Prof. P. H. Austin, entitled "Dentistry." 
The article is written with much care, and is in striking contrast 
with many articles found in the journals. It is well conceived 
and well written, and may be pointed out as a philosophical pro- 
duction and a fine specimen of English composition. 

We call attention to a few extracts. His definition of "Den- 
tistry" is short and to the point, as follows: "Dentistry is the 
science of medicine applied to the dental organs. * * * * 
The anatomy, physiology and pathology of dentistry differ in 
no respect from that taught in medical schools. * * * * 
The problem of medical education is one of difficult solution. 
While European systems seek to make 'experts' of students, 
American systems are content to make them 'experimenters.' 
The old world regards three or four years of extra study a 
small matter compared with the lives and welfare of the commu- 
nity; the new world considers any risk preferable to such delay 
in entering upon the practical duties of life. ***** 
Few minds can even approach that universality of genius 


which characterized Hjpocrates and John Hunter ; hence eleva- 
tion to a specialty of medical art detracts nothing from the posi- 
tion which a man's education and talent entitle him to assume. 
If no early education has given habits of study, the fascinations 
of hard work are permitted to engross time that should be given 
to the harder and more distasteful headwork. 

"The training, thus commencing and ending in mechanism, is 
discreditable, not because of its mechanism, but because being 
one-sided and partial, it necessarily fails to accomplish that which 
it promises. 

"Such training may make dental laborers, tradesmen or arti- 
zans, but never dental artists or scientific mechanicians; nor can 
the dentistry which they practice be in any respect identified 
with that which we have defined as a branch of the art of medi- 
cine. A preparation begun in pure science may end in correct 
practice, and the early habits of student life may follow the pro- 
fessional man throughout his career; but a preparation begun in 
practice will end there. 

"The routine of professional duties often tempt the scholar 
to sink into the mere practitioner; it is rare, indeed, that one re- 
verses the order of nature, and sets aside the claims and emolu- 
ments of practice to acquire slowly those habits of study so 
easily learned in youtli. 

"It requires the broadest literary and classical education of 
boyhood to counteract the necessarily narrowing influence of the 
professional studies of manhood; and it demands the largest 
possible infusion of scientific teaching during professional pupil- 
age, to correct the matter-of-fact influence of practice. 

"In this lies the great error of American systems of educa- 
tion." J. 


Died, in the City of New York, October 30th, 1870, Dr. Peter 
Preterre, M. D., D. D. S., aged fifty-eight years. He was the 
oldest of four brothers, all practising dentistry, and a graduate of 
the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. 


Vol. III.l SEPTEMBER, 1871. [No. 9. 

From The Pharmacist. 


By Professor A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. Before the Society of Arts. 
Reprinted from the Pharmaceutical Journal, London. 

{Continued from Page 287.) 

In referring, at our last meeting, to the place in nature which 
ought to be assigned to these little organisms of which we have 
been speaking, — the ferments, — I stated one ground which ap- 
peared to me conclusive, or very nearly so, for placing them in the 
animal and not in the vegetable kingdom. The ground was a chem- 
ical one, viz., that these organs assimilate, or, to use a homely 
phrase, they feed upon very complex substances, and they give 
oflF, during their vital functions, less complex substances. That 
circumstance appears chemically conclusive in favor of their 
being rather animals than plants, for plants build up complex 
substances, and animals assimilate the produats which plants have 
formed, and break them up into simpler ones. There are, how- 
ever, two other considerations which I think are of such import-' 
auce that it would be undesirable to pass them over, which tend 
in the same direction, and are striking confirmations of the con- 
clusion to which we then came. The one is, that whereas plants 
require for their growth the light of the sun — in fact, their very 


growth is a process of absorption of heat by their leaves from 
the rays of the sun — and plants by doing so render heat latent, 
as we sometimes express it, that is, they cause an apparent dis- 
appearance of heat, and lower the temperature of the surround- 
ing space; animals, on the contrary, give off heat during the 
exercise of their vital functions, and do not need to be exposed 
to heat or to continuous light for their growth. Now, in both 
these respects, as in the other respects, these little cells, the fer- 
ments, appear to be distinctly animals. I do not know of one 
case of a ferment requiring or using for its vital processes the 
light of the sun; they usually grow, and they seem to thrive 
quite well in the dark. Again, there are well-known cases in 
which, during their vital functions, they evolve or give off heat, 
so that I think these are very overwhelming reasons for not con- 
sidering them as vegetables in their functions, but rather as ani- 
mals or animal atoms. I have on the table here three or four 
liquids, which are in the state of fermentation, of which I have 
already had occasion to speak several times. The first carboy 
contains an extract of malt, to which common cane sugar has 
been added, and some brisk, thriving yeast was then introduced. 
Effervescence is now rapidly going on, as you may bear by the 
gas — carbonic acid — which is escaping through the bent tube 
into the vessel containing lime-water. This liquid contains little 
soft, nearly round particles, which I was just speaking of as 
animals, though they certainly do not look like animals. The 
second flask contains another substance, of which I also spoke 
the other evening. There is here what I might call gastric 
juice — it is a mixture made for the purpose of getting lactic 
acid from sugar. Some pepsine was made to digest a certain 
quantity of Avhite of egg, and that mixture, whilst still acid, I 
mixed with some common cane sugar, and put into it some alco- 
holic ferment, or common yeast. A good deal of the yeast was 
-digested, it disappeared and was dissolved. I thereupon put in 
more and more, until there was an excess of it left in the flask. 
It was then kept for upwards of a week in a box Avhich I have 
been using for the purpose of these fermentations — a metalic 
hox, which is kept, by means of a regulated gas-burner, at a 


temperature of about 30° Centigrade, or a little above blood 
heat. During that time the substance has been gradually under- 
going a change or fermentation. It became strongly acid, and 
I then added a base, at one time potash, and afterwards pow- 
dered marble or carbonate of lime, which was dissolved by the 
acid, and thus a quantity of lactic acid was formed. Here also 
there are little cells, which, under the microscope, can be seen to 
be different from those in the first mixture. They are smaller in 
their dimensions, but yet they present no very marked indi- 
vidual characteristics by which they can be identified. Indeed, 
the chief, or, I may almost say, the only thing by which we can 
certainly identify any one of these organisms is by setting it to 
work, and by seeing what work it performs. In the third carboy 
I have a mixture which had gone through the phase I have just 
been speaking of; it contained some sugar with lactic ferment, 
but when all the sugar had disappeared, and was transformed 
into lactic acid, I left the carboy in the same warm chamber, 
and another fermentation has set in, and there is already a con- 
siderable quantity of the substance called butyric acid present, 
and the greater part, if not the whole, of the lactic acid has 
already passed over into the butyric acid. Here, in this glass 
dish, there is another ferment still, although, unfortunately, it 
has got disturbed in coming here. It contained a decoction of 
yeast, with which was put about 2 per cent, of pure vinegar, and 
about 4 per cent, of alcohol, and I then touched the surface of 
the liquid, which was perfectly clear, with a glass rod which had 
been in contact with the vinegar-plant, and left some little par- 
ticles floating on the surface of the liquid. These little particles, 
in the course of a day or two, spread over the liquid, and when 
this vessel came from University College this morning it was 
covered with a perfectly uniform film, consisting of little cells 
different from each of the others to which I have called your at- 
tention, and quite distinguishable under the microscope. I 
should state that after the mixture was first made, and after the 
vinegar-cells were put into it and allowed to grow on it, I sup- 
plied them with some additional food twice. On one occasion I 
added a somewhat larger quantity of alcohol than was in- 


tended, and the effect was that the cells were most injuriously 

They constituted a dense, smooth, white film, and this seemed 
almost to disappear, and on examination under the microscope 
it was found that they had shrunk — in fact, they had been killed 
by a too strong dose of alcohol. This was then allowed to evap- 
orate, and the vinegar-cells very soon again spread over the 
liquid. I will now commence in another dish a similar experi- 
ment. I have in this bottle a mixture of yeast-water and alco- 
hol, with a few drops of acetic acid in it. I will pour this into 
the glass dish, and then put on to the surface some of these little 
ferments which I have here, and I have no doubt that if we allow 
this mixture to stand we shall find by our next meeting that it 
will be covered over with a smooth film, consisting of vinegar- 
cells, which will be transforming the alcohol into acetic acid. I 
may show you the strength of the acid in this last instance by 
putting into it a slip of blue test-paper which you see is imme- 
diately colored a deep red. 

With regard to the process by which these cells are propagated 
some exceedingly interesting experiments have been made under 
the microscope. Professor Mitscherlich and various others, — 
Pasteur among them, — have put little alcoholic cells under the 
microscope, putting them first into a liquid upon which they 
could feed, and they have noticed that the cells, or some of 
them, gradually swelled out at one side, — that a little wart, if 
I may use the expression, made its appearance on one side; that 
this increased in size until it became as large as the original cell, 
and then it became detached. The propagation of the alcohol 
cells, the wine ferment, has been seen by several observers to take 
place by a process of budding. I will show you the growing 
cells, by throwing on the screen, by means of an oxy-hydrogen 
lantern, a photograph of the wine ferment, some of which will, 
I believe, show a little excrescence at the side, and the general 
arrangement of the cells will be easily detected. This is a pho- 
tograph from a plate of Pasteur's, and conveys an exact repre- 
sentation of the appearance which the alcohol celts ordinarily 
present. I will now show you the photograph of the acetic fer- 


merits, and the difference in the general appearance is very 
striking. When examined carefully, it will be found that these 
little vinegar cells are in couples, little masses about twice as 
long as they are broad, and by degrees they become strangu- 
lated at the waist, and ultimately separate. With a consider- 
able magnifying power, it has been found that the wine cells 
contain granulated particles, but exceedingly little is yet known 
of their structure. Certainly one of the most promising direc- 
tions for investigation in the phenomena of life is presented by 
the study of these various little organisms, which we have so 
completely under our control. 

With regard to the processes by which these cells are propa- 
gated, I have mentioned already, that when certain liquids, 
capable of undergoing decomposition, are exposed to the air, 
some little cells gradually make their appearance in what was at 
first quite an unaccountable manner. It was long supposed, 
and on very good authority, that the oxygen of the air was the 
active agent in transforming a fermentable substance into these 
little cells ; and Gay-Lussac, one of the ablest of French chemists, 
who died a short time ago, made some very careful experiments 
with a view to decide that point. They led him to the conclu- 
sion that oxygen was all that was needed in order to initiate the 
process of fermentation in the juice of grapes, which by itself 
does not ferment. It is worth while to state, in general terms, 
the nature of these experiments. He put into a glass vessel, 
closed by mercury, a small quantity of grape juice, which was 
expressed under mercury, so that it did not come in contact with 
air on its way into the glass jar intended to receive it. This 
was then kept closed for some time without change. He then 
introduced oxygen, sometimes from the atmosphere — I am now 
giving you an account partly of what was done by Gay-Lussac, 
and partly what was done hj others — and sometimes the oxygen 
was derived from potassic chlorate. Air was used which had 
passed through red-hot tubes, so that any vital organisms in it 
must have been destroyed before reaching the grape juice; and 
it was found that, in these cases, the access of the air to the 
substance did induce the formation of yeast-cells, and did induce 


a process of alcoholic fermentation in the liquid by their growth. 
The conclusion, therefore, appeared to be established that oxy- 
gen Avas all that ^"as needed for the process. Since that time, 
however, other experiments have been made, with precautions 
which Avere not observed by Gay-Lussac ; and I must especially 
quote a truly masterly investigator, Pasteur, whose extraordi- 
nary researches in this subject have certainly constituted an 
important era in our knowledge of it. Pasteur has made a 
great number of experiments, partly such as those which had 
been made before, and partly fresh ones, of which I will describe 
a few characteristic samples. For instance, he took little glass 
bulbs, with a long neck bent in several places, like the one I 
hold in my hand. This little bulb contains some yeast-water, 
and also about 10 per cent, of sugar, a mixture which is pecu- 
liarly susceptible of undergoing fermentation and decompositions 
of various kinds. When this was introduced into such a bulb, 
Pasteur boiled the liquid for some time, so that any little living 
particles which might have entered the bulb with the liquid, by 
being exposed to the temperature of boiling water, might be 
killed, and also that any particles which might be lodged in the 
neck of the flask would be similarly treated and killed. Some 
of these bulbs he closed, sealing up the tubes whilst still full of 
steam, and he then put them by in a warm chamber, similar to 
that which I just now alluded to as being of the temperature of 
30° Centigrade, so that they should be under the conditions 
most favorable to the development of any little living organisms, 
if such could develope themselves. He so kept them for days, 
weeks, and months, and I am not sure that he did not keep 
some for years, and at the end of the whole time he found that 
in no case was there the production of these vital organisms. I 
told you that when the tube was closed the vessel was full of 
steam ; of course that steam was condensed on cooling, and left 
a partial vacuum above the liquid, and when Pasteur opened the 
tube by breaking off the point, the air rushed in violently to fill 
the vacant space. He found that in almost every case, although 
not in all, after this air had rushed in, a process of decomposi- 
tion commenced, and in some cases he found little animalcules, 


and various kinds of mould in others, and he has described a 
considerable number of different organisms which he got in dif- 
ferent bulbs in that manner. It so happened, also, that in one 
case the tube, I think accidentally, at first remained unsealed, 
— that it was not kept from contact with the air, as the others 
were; still, to his amazement, Pasteur found that even in this 
one which remained open there were no organisms, — that it re- 
mained as unchanged as those which were sealed up. Finding 
this, he repeated the experiment many times, making a great 
number of bulbs similar to the first, putting some of that same 
liquid into them, and boiling the liquid for some time, so as to 
destroy any organisms ; but, when they had been killed, he left 
the bulbs open, and he found that the contents were as effect- 
ually protected by the conditions there present as if the tubes 
had been sealed. He submitted the results to several members 
of the French Academy; the experiment was repeated by other 
persons, and the results showed — if there were any exceptions I 
do not remember hearing of them — that no organisms were pro- 
duced. You will notice that the liquid which had been boiled 
was separated by a long, thin tube from the outer air, and the 
air only had access to it through this long, narrow, tortuous 
passage, which, moreover, was at first wet inside, because of the 
condensed steam. Pasteur then cut off some of the tubes, so as 
to allow free access of air to the contents, without having to pass 
through this long, narrow tube, and soon after that was done the 
process of decomposition set in, and he got various organisms 
formed in his mixture, which developed themselves in the way 
yeast, mould, and such-like organisms generally do. 

I will now leave these experiments for the present, in order 
that I may tell you of some other discoveries, which will afford 
a key to them. One of the most important observations was 
made, at an early stage of the investigations, on the subject of 
ferments, by Dr. Schwann. He passed air through a red-hot 
tube, and he asserted, as the result of his observations, that air 
which had been so heated was incapable of producing the effects 
which I mentioned just now as having been noticed by other 
observers as produced by common air; that, whereas ordinary 


air starts fermentation, air which has been passed through a red- 
hot tube does not. That was what he said, and in some of his 
observations he was quite correct, but in some others he must 
have been misled. Shortly after his observations, another Ger- 
man philosopher thought of using cotton-wool as a strainer. He 
passed air through a glass tube fitted up somewhat in the same 
manner as the one I have here, with a tolerably compact plug of 
cotton-wool, which allowed the air to pass through it, but at the 
same time acted as a strainer, and collected a quantity of dirt at 
the side where the air entered it; and he found that the air 
which had been thus strained was no longer capable of produc- 
ing the phenomena of decomposition, which air in the unstrained 
or unheated state does. Since then, Pasteur has done the same 
thing in a more accurate and more decisive manner; and he has 
repeated the experiment with heated air, with precautions which 
leave nothing to be desired. One novelty in Pasteur's process is 
the use of a kind of cotton which is soluble — cotton which has 
been in contact with strong nitric acid, which is called gun- 
cotton. It retains the structure and appearance of ordinary 
cotton, but has this peculiarity, that it dissolves easily in a mix- 
ture of alcohol and ether. He put into a tube a plug of this 
gun-cotton, and then, by means of an aspirator, he drew air 
through this strainer for a long time, until he had collected 
quite a quantity of dust. He then took this gun-cotton, with 
the dust upon it, and put it into a tube, where he poured alcohol 
and ether upon it until the cotton was dissolved, and nothing left 
but the dust. In that manner he got the lightest portions of the 
dust and the heavier portions by themselves, as they very soon 
subsided in the liquid in which the gun-cotton had been dis- 
solved. He then poured fresh alcohol upon them, so as to tho- 
roughly cleanse them, and then put them under the microscope, 
in order to examine the particles of which they consisted. He 
found in this dust a great many particles of sand, calcic carbon- 
ate, and other mineral particles, as would naturally be expected, 
and also a great quantity of organic matter — little particles of 
cotton-wool, wood, and so on ; and mixed with these he found 
some little spherical or oblong particles of very different sizes, 


and of some considerable varieties of shape. Some of these little 
round particles he found consisted of mere starch, and many of 
you are, no doubt, aware that starch consists of little spheroidal 
masses of different sizes. These he got rid of by a solvent, and 
others were then left, which resembled, in their appearance, so 
closely the germs ©rvarious fungi and organisms of those kinds, 
and eggs of animalcules, that they were, to outward appearances, 
undistinguishable from them. He then took a liquid which had 
been boiled, but which was capable of decomposing — such a one 
as I mentioned here — by the action of any of these substances, 
and he put it into a flask, with precautions which I will not de- 
tain you by mentioning now, more than to say that he slid into 
this liquid, which had not got anything present to induce the 
formation of organisms, some of the gun-cotton with the dust yet 
in it. It was the same thing as I mentioned before, only that 
the substance had got some of this dust from the air added to it; 
and he found that he also got the formation of organisms very 
readily and abundantly. He found that these little particles, 
which were to the eye undistinguishable from germs and spores, 
behave towards liquids of this kind just as if they were so. In 
various other ways the same form of experiment has been re- 
peated, and uniformly with the same result, viz., that when little 
particles collected from the air, particles of extreme tenuity, are 
put into a liquid susceptible of undergoing decomposition, a great 
variety of organisms will make their appearance, just as if their 
seed had been sown in the liquid. This circumstance is one 
which, I think, will justify us in going back to what I told you 
of Pasteur's previous observations. I told you that he opened a 
number of the little bulbs which had contained yeast-water and 
sugar, so as to allow the air to rush into them. He found that, 
ifi some cases, he got one kind of organism produced, and in 
others another; in fact, he got a great variety. But if, instead 
of allowing the air to go into these bulbs in this way, he poured 
the liquid out into an open vessel, he always got the same sort of 
organisms; there was no variety. The appearance of the parti- 
cles which resembled germs is, as I said, exceedingly various, and 
there are many reasons to suppose that if there are the germs of 


these organisms in the air, there must be an immense variety of 
them — a variety so great that we could not even venture to guess 
at its extent at present. When the liquid had free access to all 
of them, it is found, for reasons which would easily suggest 
themselves, on reflection, to anybody, that some of them — those 
which can thrive best upon the particular "Substance — develope 
themselves to the exclusion of the rest. I will give you one or 
two examples of the influence of food upon the development of 
ferments — instances which are well known, and are of some im- 
portance, as serving to prove the point I have just mentioned. 
You are aware that the mixture which I have been speaking of,, 
yeast-water with sugar, can be made to undergo alcoholic fer- 
mentation. I have already referred to it repeatedly in that 
point of view. We can make it undergo alcoholic fermentation 
if we put some alcoholic ferment into it, and keep it at a proper 
temperature; but if, instead of putting some number of cells — 
and even a few grains weight consist of an enormous number of 
cells — if, instead of that, we were merely to leave some of this 
liquid in contact with the air, we should have no alcoholic fer- 
mentation set up in it. That particular mixture of yeast-water 
and sugar does not, when exposed to all these germs, get yeast- 
cells developed in it; at all events, not to any perceptible extent. 
Instead of that, it gets cells formed which are similar to those in 
the second bottle I showed you, which is forming lactic acid — 
that is to say, the lactic fermentation will set in. The fact is, 
that the liquid is unwholesome for these particular cells; and 
does not agree with the alcohol-cells, or yeast-cells, so that, if a 
great number of various germs are thrown into these particular 
substances, those which can thrive better, which are the lactic 
acid-cells, develope themselves, and the alcohol-cells do not. 
Again: if, instead of taking this decoction of yeast and sugar, 
you were to take some grape juice, you would have alcoholic 
fermentation at once. That is the way it is done. If I were 
to leave a decoction of malt in contact with the air, in the same 
manner you would get the same thing set in, as a rule. Again, 
if some of the liquid which I have in the glass dish here — some 
of the yeast-water with a little alcohol and acetic acid — be left 


in an open vessel, it gets an organism formed upon it; in fact, 
that is a process whicii Pasteur recommends for getting vinegar- 
cells, if you want any. He says the air will, if you give it time, 
and supply the requisite conditions, start these cells in that mix- 
ture, but no alcohol-cells, nor lactic acid-cells, can be grown in 
it. It does not suit them ; it is a substance which suits vinegar- 
cells, and them only. Whatever may be the variety of the cells 
present in the air, it only developes those of that particular 

{To be continued.) 


Nothing can better illustrate the difficulties that beset the de- 
termination of the minute points of microscopical inquiry than 
the discrepancy of opinion that exists amongst the best observers 
in regard to the structure of the red blood-corpuscle. For many 
years it was held to be indisputably a cell, and to consist of a defi- 
nite cell-wall enclosing cell-contents. For some time past, how- 
ever, a change of opinion has been visible; and in most of our 
text-books of physiology, if it be not expressly stated, it is at 
least hinted at as probable, that the corpuscles are homogeneous 
semi-solid bodies, the surface of which may perhaps be a little 
more condensed than the interior. The remarkable experiments 
of Mr. Roberts, of Manchester, on the action of the anilin and 
tannin, though at first apparently in favor of the cell theory, 
were yet subsequently considered to be explicable on the theory 
of homogeneity, by supposing that these agents hardened the 
surface, and so led to the phenomena observed. The peculiarity 
and persistence of the form of the red-corpuscles, and their 
behavior on the application of pressure, are certainly in favor of 
this latter view. A paper, however, by Dr. Joseph Richardson, 
of Philadelphia, which we have just received, speaks strongly in 
favor of the old cellular view. This gentleman's experiments 
were conducted upon the Menobranchus, which he obtained from 
the Cayuga lake in Western New York, the blood corpuscles of 


which animal are, as is well known, gigantic, being about 216 
times larger than those of man. In endeavoring to discover 
some indications of the presence of a cell-wall, he found quite 
unexpectedly that the colored portion possesses the remarkable 
property of crystalising with great readiness within its envelope. 
Dr. Richardson states that, on slightly concentrating the blood 
of this animal, one or two crystals form in almost every corpuscle ; 
and the effect of their formation and elongation is precisely what 
we might expect to be produced by bodies of similar shape con- 
tained within an ordinary bladder partially filled with fluid, the 
ends of the corpuscle being in some instances thrust out till the 
length becomes a third greater and its breadth correspondingly 
diminished, the nucleus being closely compressed against the 
prism. In other instances, where the corpuscles lie across, the 
whole corpuscle assumes a lozenge or rectangular form, in which 
state it may be mounted dry. Dr. Richardson further argues 
— though this is less satisfactory evidence — that on briskly stir- 
ring freshly drawn blood with several times its volume of water 
the coloring matter can be withdrawn, leaving the cell membrane 
intact. And, finally, he has succeeded in dividing a corpuscle 
under the microscope with a sharp needle; the contents escaped, 
while the cell-wall shrank up around the nucleus into a perfectly 
hyaline particle. From these researches he concludes that the 
older theory, which asserts that the red corpuscle of the verte- 
brates generally are vesicles, each composed of a delicate, col- 
orless, inelastic, porous, and perfectly flexible cell-wall, enclosing 
a colored fluid, which is sometime crystallisable and is freely mis- 
cible with water, explains the physical phenomena presented by 
the red globule far more satisfactorily than any other hypothesis 
that has hitherto been advanced. 

Without disputing the accuracy of the observations here record- 
ed in reference to the corpuscles of the Amphibia, we would just 
remark that it by no means follows that the structure of the cor- 
puscles of the higher animals is at all similar ; and we are still 
disposed to hold the opinion of Mr. Gulliver, that, in mammals 
at least, the red corpuscles are nuclei, and as such are probably 
homogeneous in composition, and destitute at any rate of a proper 
cell-wall. — London Lancet. 



In a recent essay published by Dr. E. Klein in the Reports of 
the meetings of the Academy of Vienna, he gives the results of 
his observations on this delicate point of minute anatomy, which 
essentially corroborate the views of Dr. Beale, showing that the 
ultimate terminations of the nerves form loops. Dr. Klein des- 
cribes the principal nerve trunks as undergoing subdivision, till 
at length there are only anastomosing non-medullated fibres, 
which, however, exhibit clearly the fibrillar structure of axis 
cylinders. From thig web, fine pale fibres proceed, which form 
a second plexus beneath the sub-epithelial hyaline layer. At 
tolerably regular distances, these fibres exhibit fusiform swellings^ 
each with nucleus and nucleolus (bipolar ganglion cells). From 
this, again, the finest branches are given off, which form a plexus 
immediately beneath the epithelium, and amongst them are dis- 
tributed bodies that appear to be multipolar ganglion cells. Dr. 
Klein was unable to observe any communication between the fibres 
of the finest sub-epithelial plexus and the epithelium, or any other 
of the tissues of the tail of the tadpole. 



We are indebted to Prof. B. W. McCready for the following 
note on the lacto-phosphate of lime : — 

There are strong grounds for the belief that, besides being a 
necessary ingredient of the hard parts of vertebrated animals, 
the phosphate of lime is intimately connected with the process of 


cell-formation. According to Lehmann, it is found in appreciable 
quantity wherever cells or fibres are formed, even in those inferior 
animals in the hard parts of which the phosphate is replaced by 
the carbonate of lime; it is more abundant in the plastic secre- 
tions from wounds than in the serum of the blood; it is less 
abundant in the venous blood derived from parts, as the muscles, 
in which the metamorphosis of tissue is greatest, than in that 
coming from parts of inferior vital activity. 

The phosphate of lime has been recommended in various forms 
of imperfect or depraved nutrition, particularly in cases of rickets ; 
and the experiments of Milne Edwards seem to show that, under 
its use, fractured bones in dogs and rabbits show a quicker and 
more abundant formation of callus. It, however, has never ob- 
tained the general confidence of the profession. In a series of 
articles in the Archivefi Grenerales de Medecine, for December, 
1869, and for January and February, 1870, Dr. L. Dusart, 
reviews the whole subject, and, attributing the unsatisfactory 
results heretofore obtained to the great insolubility of the ordinary 
phosphate, recommends the use of a new preparation, which he 
terms the lacto-phosphate of lime, in which the lime-salt is dissolved 
in free lactic acid. 

M. Dusart finds — 1. That the lacto-phosphate of lime injec- 
ted through a fistulous opening into the stomach of a dog, during 
digestion, is not precipitated by the contents of the stomach, but 
remains dissolved in the chyme. 

2. That in comparative experiments made on guinea-pigs, in 
which the bones of one of the extremities were fractured, that 
in the animals submitted to the action of the lacto-phosphated 
lime, the callus was more voluminous, and the consolidation of 
the bone more perfect, than in those submitted to a similar regi- 
men, with the exception of the lime-salt. 

3. In four cases of tardy union of bone observed in the 
Hopital Beaujon, the administration of the lacto-phosphate was 
attended Avith marked improvement of the fractured part; in 
three of the patients, the appetite was at the same time greatly 

4. In a number of cases of rachitis, the influence of the lacto- 


phosphate was well-marked, the children rapidly improving under 
its administration, the appetite at the same time being greatly in- 

5. Several cases of diarrhoea and indigestion, after resisting 
other treatment, quickly yielded to the influence of the lacto-phos- 

At my request, Mr. W. Neergaard, pharmaceutist, prepared 
for me, in June last, a syrup, by dissolving recently-precipitated 
phosphate of lime in concentrated lactic acid, and then adding a 
<3onvenient amount of syrup. I have found it useful — 

1. In cases of defective nutrition, with or without diarrhoea, 
but without any acute disease of the alimentary canal, particularly 
when these conditions have occurred in prematurely weaned chil- 

2. In rachitis. 

3. In atonic dyspepsia. In most of these cases, not only were 
the digestive power and nutrition of the patient greatly improved, 
but the appetite for food was augmented, sometimes to an extra- 
ordinary degree. Dr. William A. Hammond has found it of 
very great value in cases of nervous derangement, attended with 
impaired nutrition ; and Dr. Barstow, of Sandford Hall, had 
used it largely in similar cases. It is very probable that the free 
lactic acid may, in many instances, contribute greatly to the 
efficiency of the preparation. 

In forming the syrup of the lacto-phosphate, Mr. Neergaard 
obtains the phosphate of lime, according to the United States 
Pharmacopoeia, by acting on bone earth with muriatic acid, and 
precipitating the dissolved phosphate with ammonia. He saturates 
an ounce of concentrated lactic acid with the recent precipitate, 
and to the clear solution he adds six ounces and a half of water, 
an ounce and a half of orangeflower water, and twelve ounces of 
sugar. Prepared in this manner, the syrup will contain from 
fifteen to twenty grains of phosphate of lime to the ounce. The 
variation in strength is caused by the want of uniformity in the 
strength of the lactic acid; that furnished by the best manufac- 
turer — Merck, of Darmstadt — varying considerably in its de- 
grees of concentration. The dose for a young child is one to two 


drachms three or four times a day, while an adult may take a 
tablespoonful frequently. The taste is pleasantly acid, and the 
syrup is not apt to disagree even with delicate stomachs. — 
K Y. Med. Jour. 


Having at various times noted, in the dental periodicals, in- 
stances of replacement of luxated teeth with favorable results, I 
concluded to experiment in that direction, and having in my 
own mouth an ulcerated tooth, which proved to be one of those 
incurable cases sometimes met with; after enduring much pain 
and no little vexation, as a dernier resort I concluded to have it 
extracted and replaced, more as an experiment than from any 
hope that it would be a success. Nature having failed to supply 
me with the superior right lateral incisor, the eye-tooth occupied 
its place, and the first bicuspid the place of the latter, virtually 
making the bi. a front tooth — and hence a particular desire to 
retain it if possible. 

June 12th, 1871, I made a trip of twelve miles to my nearest 
professional brother, (Dr. Garretson, of Knoxville,) told him my 
wishes, and he soon relieved me of the troublesome tooth, and a 
deal of pain, which at the time was very severe. Tissues at 
apex of root much inflamed and nearly ready t(5 suppurate; pos- 
terior proximal surface badly decayed, including half the crown ; 
apex of root slightly bifurcated; nerve entirely dead and extir- 
pated, and periostitis in the third stage well developed, giving 
the whole root a dark, unhealthy appearance ; foramen of the 
palatine not much enlarged, perfectly black, perforating the root 
about three lines from the apex. It looked like folly to replace 
so hideous a looking thing, and the Doctor said it was no use to 
attempt to save such a tooth, but I was determined to give it a 
trial; so, filling the nerve cavity with oxychloride and the crown 
cavity with amalgam, after scraping ofi" the diseased periosteum 
and excising a couple of lines from the apex of each root, bathed 


in a moderately strong solution of carbolic acid, and had it in- 
serted, it having been out perhaps ten minutes. Extracting and 
replacing both quite painful. Depend on occlusion of jaws to 
keep tooth in its proper position. 

The following notes of the case, written at the time, are taken, 
from my case-book : 

First day — Tooth very sore, but blissful relief from all pain. 

Thirteenth — Tooth very sore when struck. Have to be very 
careful in eating and talking not to occlude jaws suddenly; un- 
easy sensation, but no pain except when struck ; much inflamed 

Fourteenth and fifteenth — Increased inflammation, with dull, 
heavy pain at times, especially when in a reclining position; re- 
lieved by holding copious draughts of cold water in my mouth. 

Sixteenth — Inflammation much abated; symptoms better in 
every respect. 

Seventeenth — External swelling subsided and tooth comfort- 
able, though still a little sore and somewhat loose in the socket. 

July 1st — Tooth entirely well. Can masticate on it, but give 
it rest as much as possible, in order that it may become firm in 
socket, which it will, no doubt, in course of time. 

In conclusion, would say that, in these days of conservative 
dentistry, much might and ought to be accomplished in this 
direction, and, from the foregoing case, infer that many teeth, 
heretofore considered beyond redemption, might be retained and 
be made to do good service; yet we have little hope that we can 
persuade either operator or patient to adopt the plan, even as a 
last resort. 

W. H. Barker. 

Pella, Iowa, August 3d, 1871. 



The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Indiana State Dental 
Association met in the City of Fort Wayne, June 27th, 1871. 

Members Present. — J. W. Ellis, P. G, C. Hunt, A. 0. Rawls, 
J. W. Hollingeworth, Jno. F. Johnston, Merrill Wells, A. M. 
Moore, W. H. Gilbert, Jno. Crume, W. E. Driscoll, J. K. 
Jameson, W. C. Shawley, Isaac Knapp, Evan Snider, Geo. W. 
Loag, J. D. Brown, E. V. Burt, S. J. Kirk, C. C. Burns, Seneca 
B. Brown. 

New Members. — Wm. L. Andrews, John Glenn, W. A. Mar- 
tin, Chas. Manor, J. R. Clayton, E. H. Creditor, Burt P. 

Honorary Members. — Wm. II. Atkinson, New York ; J. Taft, 
C Palmer, Dr. Barkly, Ohio ; Dr. Cravens, Kansas City, Mo. ; 
Jno. L. Scott, Ohio ; E. R. E. Carpenter, Illinois. 

The Secretary read a paper from Dr. W. F. Morrill, of New 
Albany, now traveling in Brazil, on the subject of "Dentistry in 
Brazil;" also communications from Drs. Geo. W. Keely, of 
Oxford, Ohio ; G. A. Mills, of Brooklyn, N. Y. ; and A. T. 
Keightly, of Green Castle, Ind. ; expressing their regrets at not 
being able to be present, and extending their best wishes for a 
plea-sant gathering of the Association. 

Subjects for Discussion. — 1st. What are the Conditions of a 
Tooth which will Justify its Extraction ? 2nd. Treatment of 
Exposed Pulps. 3rd. Filling Teeth (proximal cavities of bicus- 
pids). 4th. Can the Decay of the Teeth be Prevented? 5th. 
Ethics, 6th. Treatment of Sensitive Dentine. 

Dr. Jno. F. Johnston opened the discussion of the first sub- 
ject by reading a very meritorious essay, in which he condemned, 
in unmeasured terms, that quackery so prevalent among a certain 


class of dentists, who, through ignorance or cupidity, are led 
to indiscriminate extraction of teeth subjected to their care; he 
also warned against the opposite extreme, picturing the ill effects 
which follow the retention of diseased teeth in the mouth of a 

Prof. Atkinson continued the discussion. He prefers God's 
handiwork to man's mechanism, and insists that all teeth must be 

In the discussion of the subject of Treatment of Exposed 
Pulps, much interest was taken, nearly all the members partici- 
pated — condemning the destruction of the nerves in the teeth. 
Prof. Atkinson made a strong appeal for saving all nerve pulps 
alive, whatever their condition of exposure, and gave in detail 
his manner of treatment. He substitutes in all cases glycerole 
of thymol where he has formerly used creosote. 

Clinics. — President Stanly having appointed Profs. Moore, 
Taft and Atkinson to operate at the clinic on the morning of the 
second day, they were promptly on hand — each having his patient 
in the chair. 

Prof. Atkinson selected a large posterior proximal cavity, 
complicated with the crown in an inferior molar, nerve exposed, 
and gave the Association the advantage of witnessing his origi- 
nal and superior manner of filling the same — using oval smooth 

Prof. A. M. Moore selected a most difficult case : that of 
restoring an infei'ior bicuspid, the posterior half of which was 
entirely gone. This he accomplished in his usual masterly 
manner, after close application for nearly three hours. 

Prof. Taft filled a complicated crown cavity. Much benefit is 
always derived from his clinical operations, and the interest man- 
ifested at his chair showed this to be no exception. 

Most prominent among the new appliances at the clinic, was 
Dr. Carpenter's Pneumatic Burr Engine. And the numerous 
orders given for this instrument was substantial evidence of the 
enthusiastic reception the above piece of wonderful mechanism 
met with at the hands of the assembled dentists of Indiana. 

The afternoon of the second day was entirely occupied on the 


discussion of "Treatment of Exposed Nerves." Prof. Taft 
opened the discussion, pleading earnestly for more faith in 
treating these cases. 

Prof. Atkinson said he congratulated himself that he heard 
fifty dentists in the Hoosier State discussing those deep princi- 
ples of Physiology and Pathology, and thus laying solid founda- 
tions for future achievements. He had never seen, he said, so 
much interest manifested as was shown by the intelligent faces 
which had surrounded him the last two days, in the new Saving 
Gospel of sound teeth. 

In the evening a public session was held, to which the citizens 
were invited. The subject, " Can the Decay of Teeth be Pre- 
vented ?" was presented. Prof. Taft opened the debate, taking 
strong grounds in the aflfirmative. He traced the cause of 
decay in teeth to almost every physical irregularity ; to careless 
and vicious habits, as regards health, and to neglect of proper 
care by the young. Every disease, even those apparently the 
furthest removed from apparent connections with the teeth, has 
a greater or less effect upon these organs. He made a very 
earnest plea for increased attention to children's first teeth. 

Prof. Atkinson followed. He took as his text, " Live Godly, 
Sober and Righteous Lives," and preached a masterly discourse, 
setting forth vividly the great duty of redemption of the body, 
and thus paying due respect to our Creator. 

President Stanly appointed Prof. Atkinson to conduct the 
morning clinics of the third day. The operation was that of re- 
moving accumulation of lime from the teeth. After removing as 
thoroughly as possible with instruments, aromatic elixir of vitriol 
was applied to dissolve any remaining particles, care being taken 
to protect the teeth. 

Prof. Atkinson explained to the Association his treatment to 
restore the wasted tissues caused by these accumulations, and 
gave many valuable hints in regard to the very important opera- 
tion of cleansing the teeth. After the clinic was concluded, the 
Association elected the following ofiicers for the ensuing year : 

President — P. G. C. Hunt, of Indianapolis. 

Is^ Vice-President — A. 0. Rawls, of Connersville. 


2nd Vice-President — W. L. Andrews, of Kendallville. 

Secretary — Burt P. McDonald, of Goshen. 

Treasurer — Isaac Knapp, Fort Wayne. 

President Stanly then delivered his retiring address, and, as 
his last official act, appointed Drs. Moore and Jameson to con- 
duct the President-elect to the chair. He accepted the honor in 
a brief address. 

President Hunt then announced that the third subject for 
discussion, " Filling Teeth (proximal cavities of bicuspids)" was 
in order. The discussion upon this subject was participated in 
by most of the members. 

Dr. Palmer, of Warren, Ohio, concluded the discussion, giving 
the Association the benefit of his wonderful skill and system in 
filling teeth. He also exhibited fillers of his own make, which 
were models of beauty and perfection. 

The Association then adjourned, to meet in Indianapolis the 
last Tuesday in June, 1872. 

Seneca B. Brown, Secretary. 



The last session of this Association, lately held at White 
Sulphur Springs, was not so numerously attended as the one at 
Nashville last year, nor as the one at Saratoga the year before, 
but the number present was as great as could have reasonably 
been expected, when we take into consideration the location in 
which it was held. The White Sulphur Springs are reached by 
rail only by the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, and delegates 
from the West traveled nearly one thousand miles, going and 
returning home, more than they would have been obliged to 
travel if there had been direct routes of communication. All 
the cities of any consequence in the United States, from Boston 
to San Francisco, were represented, and the average of intelli- 
gence was better than at any Association which has been held 


for the last five years. This was evidenced by the fact that 
ridiculous assumptions and absurd speculations were rebuked, 
and egotistical extravaganzas received no approbation in that 
assembly. Uniform decorum usually marked the deliberations 
of the Association, whilst the debates were of a more scientific 
character than those of former years. The time spent at the 
White Sulphur Springs was too short to give due consideration 
to all of the subjects brought before the Association, and it is 
probable that, ere long, the usual session of four days will have 
to be extended, as, under the present arrangement, many papers 
are necessarily passed by with far too little consideration. The 
session was a pleasant and profitable one, and one which will be 
remembered with pleasure by a great majority of those present. 


^^ From The Nashville Medical Journal. 


Every intelligent, honest physician knows that in this gene- 
ration, there can be no honest excuse for medical men combining 
to organize a sect. This is emphatically an age of medical free- 
dom — each practitioner of the art having conceded to him the 
unquestioned right to treat any given case submitted to him, in 
bis own way. He may even find space in the current medical 
journals for the publication of a practice, in a given class of dis- 
eases, which may differ, in every essential, from any practice 
ever taught in a medical school, as it is possible for one thing to 
differ from another, and yet be in full and honorable membership 
with physicians generally. We remember a fellow-graduate, 
who had listened with great patience to Drake, but who aban- 
doned his precepts in the first year of his practice, and Drake 
permitted him to publish in his (Drake's) own journal, the fact 
that he hadfoimd Drake's practice, in fever, unsuccessful, and 
that now he relied upon sugar of lead to cure all sorts of fevers ! 
What greater latitude can an honest man want than this? What 
greater liberality could a great teacher and journalist show than 


Drake showed him? And what greater liberality and tolerance 
could his professional brethren exhibit than those who continued 
him in full fellowship? And if he could cure fevers with sugar 
of lead, who would care? and if he failed, who would care? 
The best curer, in the long run, would have the best practice. 

But suppose this sugar-of-lead man had published, not hon- 
estly, in a medical journal, as he did, but in a newspaper, that 
he "had found" himself in advance of all the cultivators of 
medicine, from the beginning until then, and therefore announced 
the dogma that sugar of lead, in proper doses and at proper in- 
tervals, farther dulcified with maple sugar, would cure anything, 
and that he would give dose and interval, upon application to 
him, for any disease, is there an honest medical man in all the 
land who would have tolerated him ? Certainly not. This aban- 
donment of him he would call persecution, and his abandonment 
of honesty they would call roguery, and the dear people would 
think it a family quarrel — only. 

There is no arguing this thing with the people, but every phy- 
sician, honest or dishonest, regular, irregular, or defective, un- 
derstands it thoroughly, and as one class organize to overthrow 
the moral law that makes medicine a profession to be ranked 
with law and divinity, another class will be pretty certain, in 
obedience to that law, and to the instinct inherent in the con- 
sciences of a great majority of mankind to transmit to their pos- 
terity, without injury what they have received from their ances- 
tors, to circumvallate themselves with an impregnable wall 
against disorganizers, innovators and adventurers. 

The legitimate medical platform is large enough for the doc- 
tors of every name and country under heaven, being as broad as 
the earth and roofed in by the sky ; and if this area has not 
verge and room enough for some unconscionable medical cormo- 
rant, panoplied in ignorance and pretension, he gets but sheer 
justice when the fraternity order his spurs to be hacked off with a 
butcher's cleaver, and himself ignominiously thrashed out of 
camp with a bull's pizzle. 

Bayne employs a great deal of fine writing to prove that when 
the island emerges from the sea and clothes itself in verdure. 


and invites occupation and ownership, we feel that the insects 
which worked their lives away in laying its imperishable founda- 
tion toiled not, neither did they die in vain ; and that whatever 
is made is of use, but it is hard to understand the use of an Ish- 
maelite offering battle to all mankind for the sake of battle. 

A split in a church is the most natural thing in the world. 
Some member gets a new light, and dozens of others light their 
torches at it, and dancing in and out, and around and about, re- 
mind one of Coleridge's "Mariner:" 

"The upper air is burnt into life ! 

And a hundred fire-flags sheen ; 
To and fro they were hurried about ! 
And to and fro, and in and out, 

The wan stars danced between." 

But they all agreed in the Law and the Prophets, and inexor- 
able sin and indispensable atonement. A split never occurred 
because one party contended that there was no need of atone- 
ment, or that the sin of the world had been taken away except 
upon conditions. 

When medical men could talk all day about the Anima of 
Stahl, the Archeous of Van Helmont, and the Vis Medicatrix 
of Cullen, and whose medical star-gazing becoming a chronic 
habit, disabled them from turning their eyes inward upon them- 
selves, long enough to inquire. How are you, and what are you 
about this fine morning? Look! the sun of reason, with its 
rosy fingers, is gathering dew-drops from the lawn, and the 
fire-flies of the azure have paled into nothingness. Look out at 
the source of light, and then estimate how much you have assim- 

Where are your system-makers ? Are enthusiastic young men 
now going about over the world seeking to be imbued with this 
or that man's notions? Not at all; they are stationary, plumb- 
ing the depths of science. When they come up to the surface, 
they will be on no one's back, but, made light by science for the 
race that is set before them, science-toned, they are thinking, of 
necessity, and therefore not hucksters of the thoughts of others. 

We have been thinking of those bright old dreams, and how. 


in old times, they could fit their yokes to the accommodating 
necks of master-seekers, and how, even in this washed genera- 
tion, a few delight to skulk back to the mire of vassalage. 

A singular feature in the reformation was that, for a long time, 
leaders would do the very same things they publicly condemned. 
The new religion could not escape from the body of the old. 
The cask was emptied, but the bung revealed its former contents. 
"There was new life in the world, but it had not yet created a 
new body," So with medicine. At last its votaries, free from 
the dogmas of speculatiug, self-constituted masters, when lead- 
ers were so alone from science, and names were nothing but the 
ghost of dead things; when the "spasm " of Cullen lay entombed 
with him, and the "active dilatation" of Kattlebrunner was in- 
active as death, and the gifted Brown had given his constitution 
and his life for followers, dead set against "spasm" and boister- 
ous on indirect debility, excitement and excitability — all cov- 
ered up, doctrines and their inventors, by the remorseless and 
inexorable plow of progress, then, when the good and the peace- 
able might reasonably hope for quiet, unfettered, yet we see 
medical Israelites on the Canaan side of the Dead Sea, sighing 
for the chains and flesh-pots on the distant shore, and proposing 
again to burn brick without drift or stubble. They sing of men 
and dogmas, of the Pharaohs, and of the golden calf. And slave- 
seekers, with their dogmas, or "something to work to," form in 
squads, and weary the ear with their clamors. 

God forgive us if we have not the patience which our blessed 
religion inculcates for these disturbers of the peace. Great 
men are said "almost to attain the serene and all-embracing tol- 
erance of contradicting no one," — a consummation devoutly to 
be wished; and men not great might profit by their example. 

Some time ago, when Commissioner Van Aernam, of the Pen- 
sion Bureau, entered upon the duties of his office, he found thir- 
teen hundred and fifty surgeons on the roll. These, according 
to their own written statements, were classified as follows : 1st, 
Doctors; 2d, Eclectics; 3d, Thomsonians ; 4th, Indian Doc- 
tors; 5th, Herbalists; 6th, Hydropaths; 7th, Homoeopaths; 8th, 
Abortionists. The Hobgoblinpaths and the Rawgumroots were 


not represented, from some unaccountable cause. Commissioner 
Van Aernam had trouble with this medical Mosaic, and with the 
example of Sancho Panza before him, who, while acting as judge, 
was annoyed by counsel upon both sides of a case, and resolved 
upon hearing one side only — a revolution in jurisprudence that 
relieved his brain from a world of law mathematics, — resolved 
upon storing away, in the drawers of his Bureau, one sort of 
doctors only. In his blanks sent out to his pension boards of 
examiners, this, among other questions, is to be asked: ''Un- 
der what system of medicine do you practice?" The Commis- 
sioner then enumerates the "systems of practice" that would 
chiefly furnish applicants, and he says the above question can 
be answered in one word thus: "Allopathy," "Homoeopathy." 
"Hydropathy," "Eclectic," etc., etc. Whether he intended 
excluding physicians in fact by not mentioning them in name, 
does not appear. But it seems that homoeopaths were excluded, 
and the effect was quite zymotic. They were very considerably 
exercised. They have successively undergone eifervescence, con- 
coction, and dispumation. Not belonging to eclecticism, or any 
of the pathy family, but a poor M. D., only, without pre6x or 
addendum, we can afford without the slightest bias or prejudice, 
to look upon this tempest in a teapot. They have petitioned the 
President of the United States, and the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior, to remove Van Aernam for removing them. 

At a late meeting of the Medical Society of the District of 
Columbia, Dr. Toner, President, a committee was appointed to 
"enquire into and report upon the facts connected with the ex- 
clusion of irregular practitioners from the position of Examin- 
ing Surgeons in the Pension Bureau." From the report of this 
committee, now in pamphlet form before me, it appears that, 
notwithstanding the floundering of A'^an Aernam, Commissioner, 
among the pathies, he finally resolved to confide alone in legiti- 
mate physicians. If legally qualified irregulars challenge the term 
"legitimate," wc will modify it to mean members of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association, or State or County Societies, and other 
organizations entitled to representation in that Congress. This 
is a righteous decision. If St. Paul had made himself more or 


less than Paul the Apostle, we doubt if the other apostles would 
have recognized him. Luke, the physician, we read. If Paul 
placed a prefix to the revered name, it is a coinage of his own 
appreciative heart — the beloved physician — and not any title 
claimed by Luke, indicating that he was of a medical sect only. 
Just think ! Luke, clairvoyant physician ; Sydenham, homoe- 
pathic physician; Rush, eclectic surgeon and cancer curer ; 
Drake, hobgoblin physician and negropathist; Dr. Stubbs, Indian 

Indian Doctor I When Dr. Rush long ago showed, and School- 
craft, after living thirty years among them, and having culmina- 
ted in his great work, under the authority of Congress, of six 
royal quarto volumes, of more than three thousand pages, de- 
clares that their only treatment for diseases is to guess at the 
animal that has gone into the sick one, make an image of it, and 
shoot the image. This is their great remedy. But they first 
try to get the animal — their pathology for all diseases — out of 
the patient, by shaking pebbles in a gourd over him. They have 
knowledge of only a single medical plant — one that pukes and 
purges; but their reliance is not upon it, but upon rattling the 
gourd and shooting the image. In very rare cases they go into a 
sweat house. And yet mountebanks, all over the land, pretend 
to cure disease with herbs and roots, a knowledge of which has 
been derived from the Indians. 

If spiritualistics, clairvoyants, homoeopathists, hydropathists, 
herbalists, abortionists, eclectics, electricians, and hobgoblinists, 
can do such mighty things in disease, what is the use of their 
fussing so much about it? If they will do the things, and leave 
out the fuss, the same great object would be attained, and a large 
quantity of unpolluted wind left for breathing purposes. But 
it is the wind that brings bread, not cures. Irregular, if you 
are my brother, claim no other parentage or inheritance than 
mine. As the raw recruits under Jackson at New Orleans, in the 
December night fight, dared the British to "come out from their 
holes and fight like men," so we say, come out. We do not care 
what you believe or what you do not believe — what you give, or 
what you do not give; or how you prepare it, or how you give it; 


only come out from your pathy ambuscades, and fight disease 
like men, not like skulking varmints; and the medical hosts "will 
hail you as brethren. What do heroic men in the army service 
want with such as these? 

Commissioner Van Aernam has taken a sensible view of it, 
and confined himself, in the medical service, to doctors only — 
for whoever, in medicine, pretends to more than doctors do, by 
unusual prefixes and addenda to his name, proves that he knows 
less, and that there is no medical manhood in him. We are 
bound, by common sense and our ethics, not to know him, and 
whatever physician yields to any force of circumstances, and 
visits the sick with such, should be reported by his neighboring 
physicians to the nearest Medical Society, whose Chairman, upon 
suflBcient proof, should publicly read him out of the profession, 
and order the Secretary to publish the fact in the nearest news- 
paper. Let a physician, importuned and threatened by village 
magnates do this thing, remember that the profession of medi- 
icine has made him a custodian of its honor; that this, sink or 
swim, live or die, survive or perish, must be preserved; that he 


" Resolutely keep its laws, 
Uncaring consequences." 


The Dental Times for July has several articles upon replant- 
ing teeth, the first by L. D. Walker, D. D. S., which we should 
not particularly have noticed, were it not for a statement made 
in his introduction to the report of the case, Avhich is as follows: 
"The idea of replanting natural teeth is ridiculed by the majori- 
ty of the profession." We would simply suggest, that if the Dr. 
had been in the habit of attending the Dental Associations and 
had read and understood the dental literature of the day, he 
would hardly have made such a declaration as the one quoted 
above; but the next article, by Prof. Barker, upon the same 
subject, is full of interest, as it has to do with replantations in 


case of disease at the apex of the fangs, and especially in cases 
of abscess, which seem to defy ordinary means of cure. This 
practice was first brought to the notice of the profession by Mr. 
Coleman, of London, who read a paper upon the subject before 
the Odontological Society of Great Britain. We called the 
attention of the profession to this subject in the Missouri Jour- 
nal at that time, and we have now an article bearing directly 
upon this subject, from one who has given the practice a fair 
trial in a single case, which article appears in the present num- 
ber of the Journal. Prof. Barker's experiments are also cor- 
roborative of the views of Mr. Coleman. In a good many of the 
cases recorded, the tooth was extracted, the periosteum scraped 
oflF where it had thickened near the apex, and the fang filled 
before it was returned to the socket. Generally the root has 
been bathed in a solution of carbolic acid, and the socket washed 
out with a similar solution. This is probably good practice, but 
some successful cases, where carbolic acid was not used, demon- 
strate that this is not a sine qua non in the operation. Prof. 
Barker has now operated upon his fourth case, and thus far with 
uniform success — and in three cases, at least, upon molar teeth. 
We expect to hear soon of many more efforts in this direction. 
From the Times we also learn that John Smith has been ap- 
pointed Surgeon Dentist to Her Majesty in Scotland. John 
Smith is well known to most of our readers, and we have no 
doubt but that John will be pronounced, by the majority of his 
acquaintances, as just the man for the place. Success to John 

The Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal for July contains 
one of the characteristic articles of Z. C. McElroy, M. D., of 
Zanesville, Ohio, in which he maintains that the function of the 
lymphatic system has been almost entirely misapprehended by 
writers upon physiology. With a considerable amount of read- 
ing, and a ready use of language, much of which is smooth, 
measured, and euphonious, one might at first be led to suppose 
that he had really made some important investigations touching 
the subject, that would lead a logical mind to coincide with him 


in his conclusions; but a closer scrutiny of his article will show 
most conclusively that his investigations, as he is pleased to call 
them, are simply baseless assumptions, which have been conjured 
up by a fertile imagination. We confess that the phantom has 
taken a rather unique form. His conclusions are mainly "that 
the molecular forms of structure of the human body, in the act 
of momentary disintegration and performance of allotted func- 
tion, store up, in one or more of the chemical compounds then 
formed, the force necessary for their ow*n reproduction and per- 
petuation as well as general and special physical contours. 

"That the lymphatic system is the special means for the col- 
lection of the material in which the force for the preservation 
and perpetuation of the human body, as well in minutest detail 
as in aggregate, is stored up; adding it to the blood-stream to 
accompany new material from the stomach and intestinal track 
to the lungs, to be subjected to the change brought about by the 
gases of the atmosphere; and to combine the material and force 
to form arterial blood, so that when returned to the left heart 
and from thence distributed to the seats of molecular repair and 
disintegration, these processes may proceed Avithout interruption 
or delay, either of which occurring, life and function would soon 
be impaired or wholly arrested. 

"That the force stored up in the contents of the thoracic 
ducts is identical with that which is now known as the vital 
force or forces of the human body." 

The L' Art Dentaire, the only dental journal which France 
produces, and which has been suspended for several months past, 
has again made its appearance among our exchanges. We learn 
by the number before us that Monsieur Preterre, the proprietor 
and editor of the journal, made himself generally useful during 
the war, having offered his services gratuitously to the Minister 
of War for treating fractures of the jaws and deformities caused 
by wounds of the face. His services were accepted by Blondeau, 
Minister of War ad interim, and he promises us a report of the 
most interesting of bis operations in the next number. The arti- 
cles found in this journal are usually scientific in their character, 


many of them selections from the current medical journals in 
France, and we must admit that the selections, for the most 
part, are well made. We must, however, keep the title of the 
journal well in mind, or we might forget, while reading it, that 
it was dedicated to the dental branch of the profession, though 
we should never fail to observe that Monsieur Preterre and his 
operations are kept constantly before the eyes of the reader. 
In the present number we have a report of a case of caries of 
the upper jaw, cured by injections of tine, of iodine continued 
for several weeks. The case is reported by a Dr. M. Reynaud, 
of Trebizonde, in Turkey in Asia. Dr. Cousturier also reports 
a case of necrosis, and consequent loss of the lower maxillary 
bone, and its spontaneous reproduction in a period of thirty-five 
years. We are glad to see U Art Dentaire again among our 
exchanges, but we would like to see something about dentistry 
occasionally in its pages. 

Article first in the American Journal of Dental Science^ for 
June, is under the head of "Bone Fibres," and by George B. 
Harriman, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of Microscopic Anatomy, 
Boston Dental College. The author of this, has, however, read 
"VirchoAv's Cellular Pathology." He says, "sections of bone 
were ground down thin, the vessels gradually becoming invisi- 
ble, and the cavities containing these vessels were termed medul- 
lary canals. The error of this theory is evident from the fact 
that these narrow spaces contain no marrow." 

Virchow says, "As in the sections which are obtained by 
grinding down bone, the vessels themselves cannot, for the most 
part, any longer be distinguished; the cavities in which they run 
have been named medullary canals, improperly, inasmuch as 
there is usually no marrow in these channels." 

The author says, "Bone corpuscles and their processes bone 
canals (canaliculi ossi), were common terms." Virchow says, 
" They used to be called bone corpuscles and their processes 
bone canals (canaliculi ossei). 

Again our author has, "At another period it was supposed that 
they contained a deposit of calcareous matter, ***** 


thus giving rise to another term canaliculi chalicopJioro." Vir- 
chow says, "and as the view was originally entertained that the 
calcareous matter was really deposited in them ***** 
the canals were also termed canaliculi ehalicophori." 

Again the author says, "Within these corpuscles or bodies a 
nucleus may be distinguished in which are cellular elements of 
stellate form." Virchow says, "Besides, a nucleus may be dis- 
tinguished within these bodies, and * * * * -yye discover 
that here, too, we have once more to deal with cellular elements 
of a stellate form." 

The text had been pretty closely followed up to this point, 
but not clearly understanding Virchow, at this place he has made 
the very slight mistake of finding stellate cells in a nucleus, when 
Virchow found a nucleus in a stellate cell. This original writer 
and experimenter has been led to the conclusion that bone is 
composed of fibres and calcareous salts. We do not think the 
diction of the article much improved by the slight changes intro- 
duced by this author, and then if Virchow had been followed 
verbatim all the way through, up to the place where it was nec- 
essary to introduce his "conclusion" upon the structure of bone, 
that little mistake would not have appeared to mar its beauty. 
But farewell to Haversian canals, lacunae and canaliculi. 

An exceedingly well written article appears next by Geo. H. 
Gushing, upon "Conservative Dentistry," which it would be use- 
less for us to attempt to compress into a short space, so as to be 
able to introduce it in this sketch, of what is new and valuable, 
or what claims to be such in the literature of the profession. 

Among the selected articles is one from the Times, by S. P. 
Cutler, M. D., D. D. S., upon the "Minute Structure of an 
Amalgam filled Tooth." The historical and descriptive parts of 
this are interesting, and the theoretical dissertation connected 
therewith, are candid expressions of opinions freed from that 
ofi"ensive dogmatism which too often characterizes theoretical 

The Cosmos for July presents some articles of interest which 
we proceed to notice. The first is a conclusion of one, of which 


we have spoken before, and although presenting some facts which 
may be useful to the profession, would be of much greater value 
if freed from many almost ridiculous features which should never 
be found in practical dissertations. The connection between 
neuralgia and diseases of the teeth, has been overlooked very 
generally by the medical practitioner, but the attention of the 
dental profession has been called to this subject again and again, 
through the journals, and nearly every practitioner of experience 
can narrate cases of neuralgia cured by extraction of teeth, 
roots, etc. 

"The Perkins-Hyatt (celluloid) Base," by Geo. L. Rouch, 
touches a subject that will interest a large class of practitioners. 
It is recommended by the author for making attachment of teeth 
to swedged aluminum plates, instead of using rubber. It can also 
be used for mending rubber plates, one great advantage being 
that it does not injure the plate by vulcanizing, and it can be 
done in much less time than it takes to vulcanize a plate. We 
are using plates of this base for regulating, and find it much 
more easily constructed than rubber, and I think preferable in 
every respect. We are not yet satisfied that it will altogether 
supersede the use of rubber, but it will be found extremely use- 
ful in many places. 

Another article by Preterre Brothers, upon the same subject, 
recommends this base highly as a substitute for rubber in all 
cases. It is not patented, at least no claims are set up for roy- 
alty by the inventor. It is given to the profession in the true 
spirit, and we hope it will prove to be all that is claimed for 
it. The method of working it has already appeared in this 

An editorial, by Dr. McQuillen, protests against the injustice 
done to the memory of Horace Wells, by constantly attempting 
to steal the glory which justly belongs to him, as the discoverer 
of the anaesthetic powers of nitrous oxide gas, and the demon- 
stration of its usefulness in surgical operations. We have alluded 
to this subject more than once before, and we intend upon all 
proper occasions in the future to defend the memory of this man, 
who has conferred this great boon upon the human race, and we 


insist that the world shall acknowledge its indebtedness to him, 
even if it be beyond its power to cancel the debt. 

Let Morton, Jackson and Simpson receive all the honor due 
them for their connection with the introduction of angesthetics into 
general use, but let it be forever settled that Horace Wells first 
used an anaesthetic in surgical operations, and gave the results 
of his experience to the world. 

The Dental Cosmos for August has for its leading article an 
editorial upon "Arsenical Applications," in which the author, 
Dr. McQuillen, gives some well-timed advice in reference to the 
use of that powerful and dangerous agent, "arsenic." 

The amount of damage done by this agent, in the hands of 
careless manipulators, is by no means appreciated. He recom- 
mends the use of very small quantities, when it is used at all, for 
the purpose of destroying pulps in teeth; thinks twenty-four 
hours long enough to let it remain in the cavity, but states that 
"Prof. J. Foster Flagg advocates leaving it in for a week or 

We believe even a much shorter time than Dr. McQuillen 
speaks of will suflSce in nearly all cases. We have seldom left 
the paste in a tooth longer than three hours, and can see no 
good reason for leaving it in longer, if the pulp is well exposed. 
Still, no particular danger may generally be apprehended by 
leaving it in longer, if perfectly secured. We are satisfied that 
where arsenic is applied to the pulp, the latter will have become 
'^ totally unfitted to perform the function of absorption long before 
the three hours will have expired, and the quicker it is re- 
moved, after it has done its work, the better, as the risk of its 
escape from the cavity and consequent deadly action upon the 
soft tissues, and even the bones, will be correspondingly lessened. 
It does not follow, as a matter of course, that, if the arsenic has 
done all of its work in three hours, the pulp should be im- 
mediately extirpated when the arsenic is removed. It is some- 
times better to delay two or three days before that operation is 
performed. The Doctor's direction to use "finest and best 
brooches," in extirpating the nerves, should be borne constantly 


in mind, as the use of too large brooches, and a neglect in hav- 
ing them well annealed, has caused the loss of many valuable 

Next "we have record of a case of secondary hemorrhage, by 
B. A. Rodrigues, M. D., D. D. S., of Charleston, S. C. 

A lateral and central incisor were extracted, and secondary 
hemorrhage supervened upon the second day. 

The alveolus was plugged with cottort, saturated with alum, 
and subsequently, upon a return of the bleeding, with persul- 
phate of iron ; which failing, the alveolus was carefully cleared 
out and solid nitrate of silver carried up to the bleeding vessel, 
and the hemorrhage was controlled. 

We are of the opinion, that when bleeding after the extraction 
of a tooth takes place, from the alveolus itself, that it matters 
but little whether any astringent is used or not, as it can always 
be controlled by plugging the alveolar cavity. It requires but 
little pressure upon a bleeding artery, of the size of the dental 
arteries, to compress them, and a plug carried carefully up as 
far as the apex of the tooth reached, and pressed to the very 
bottom of the cavity, then kept there by filling the rest of the 
alveolus, and then pressed down by placing a small roller band- 
age over it, and closing the teeth upon it, or keeping up the 
pressure upon it in any other way, will always stop a hemor- 
rhage in this location, whether the cotton used for this purpose 
be wet with an astringent solution or not. Where failures have 
occurred in accomplishing this result, either too large a pledget 
of cotton has been used at first, so that the vessel has not been 
compressed, or a sufficient compress has not been placed over 
the whole plug with the requisite pressure to keep it in place. 
No principle is better established than that pressure will eflfectu- 
ally stop bleeding from a blood-vessel, and that the resulting in- 
flammation in such cases as these will efl"ectually seal up the 
vessels themselves. 

Dr. Fitch, on " The New Theory in Dental Histology," comes 
next, in this number of the Cosmos, in which he handles Dr. 
Cutler's tailless dogs and cats without gloves. We do not think 
a dentist should handle such things hare handed. 


Dr. Forster recommends fine white marble-dust for moulding- 
sand, used in the same way as other sand for this purpose. 

The American Journal of Dental Science^ for August, pub- 
lishes an article written by A. P. Stevens, D. D. S., and which 
was read before the Merrimac Valley Dental Association, upon 
" Charlatans, Empirics, or Dentistry as a Learned Profession," 
in the course of which it is stated that the whole number of 
graduates of all the dental colleges amounts to only 1,673. Of 
these, it is not probable that more than 1,200 are alive; and, 
taking into consideration that some have engaged in other pur- 
suits and many have located in foreign countries, not more than 
1,000 graduates are now practicing in the United States. The 
proportion, then, of graduates to the whole number of practition- 
ers, is one to twelve or one to fourteen. The Dr. asks, " Is 
this anything to be proud of? Is this making Dentistry the 
peer of Medicine?" * * * "True dentists of 1870 owe it 
to themselves and their profession, that their title of doctor has 
been well earned and is legitimate." * * * " I do not ad- 
vocate dental collegiate education, because I think if this be 
once accomplished all will have been done. By no means. This 
is but the beginning, and its greatest value will ever be in its 
moral effect and the power it has to sharpen vision to hitherto 
unknown defects, and in opening unthought-of fields for future 

"That man is barren of manhood's true ambition who can put 
away a busy practice for mouths, and betake himself to the rou- 
tine of lecture and study, without coming from the scene of his 
labor and triumph with brain and hand stimulated to higher and 
better efibrts. 

"Here should be the beginning of reform. Already hundreds 
of earnest, thoughtful men have directed their footsteps towards 
the Mecca of their hopes — dental schools — beacon-lights of our 
profession stamping themselves, by the act, as friends of educa- 
tion and advancement; and where hundreds have gone thousands 
are wanted." 

Dr. II. E. Robinson, in an article upon extracting teeth dur- 


ing pregnancy, concludes that "Where no other remedy is possi- 
ble, extraction is better than prolonged pain." We have no 
doubt but that, in many cases, teeth may be extracted during 
pregnancy with perfect impunity; but in nervous individuals, 
who greatly fear the operation, it should be avoided if possible, 
as in some cases any severe shock to the nervous system suffices 
to bring on a miscarriage or a premature labor. 

In the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal is a report of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society, and an address by Dr. Henry 
J. Bifjelow, in the course of which he intimates that the actions 
of the American Medical Association do not entirely receive his 
sanction and approval, and spends considerable breath in making 
it apparent that the Association has no power to direct medical 
societies or medical schools. We presume every member of that 
society was as well aware of that fact as Dr. Bigelow himself, 
and probably every one of them might have added that the 
American Medical Association has the power to deny represen- 
tation to any society or school which does not see fit to conform 
to its rules and regulations, and that is all the controlling power, 
so far as we are informed, that it has ever proposed to exercise. 

In the number of this Journal, dated the 29th of June, a Dr. 
P. A. O'Connel, of Boston, relates a case of probable poisoning 
from wearing a red rubber plate in the mouth. He naively and 
innocently commences his article as follows: 

"My attention has been called to a case which points to the 
possibility of the occurrence of salivation, and the constitutional 
effects of mercury from the use of artificial teeth; and the 
importance of the circumstance has seemed to be sufficient to 
justify a mention of it; so that inferences may become either 
corrected or confirmed by the observations ot others of the 

At the close of the article he asks: "Are artificial teeth, 
under any circumstances, capable of producing salivation?" 

We would suggest that although porcelain teetli probably do 
not produce salivation "under any circumstances," it may be pos- 
sible that a plate constructed of rubber and mercury will produce 


that effect. We presume that every reader of the Missouri Jour- 
nal has seen this and its cognate questions fully discussed in the 
Journals, and we only give place to it here that our readers may 
become aware of the little attention given by physicians to the 
diseases of the mouth. 

The Pacific Medical and Surgical Journal for August has an 
article by Dr. J. F. Montgomery upon " The Ethics of the Medi- 
cal Profession," which contains some precepts which must com- 
mend themselves to all honest members of the profession. We 
only quote, for the thoughtful consideration of our readers, the 
following: "The arts of the shopkeeper or the charlatan to ac- 
quire pelf should be despised and spurned, and any who could 
be so base as to resort to means so degrading should find neither 
favor nor recognition with honorable members. 

"No one should seek or desire an advantage of another, but, 
on the contrary, he should scorn to profit by any injustice done 
his fellow by the public." In our daily life-work, both as re- 
gards our patients and our fellow-practitioners, let us remember 
and practice the precepts of the golden rule. 

In a short article in the same journal, headed "Cundurango," 
we have the following: "One of our exchanges records several 
cures (of cancer) by cundurango, and a foot-note attached to 
one of the reports reads thus, in small type : ' This case has 
since died.' " 

We once knew an eclectic doctor who cured a bad case of con- 
sumption, but the patient died of diarrhoea a day or two after the 
doctor had declared the consumption cured. 

The Medical Record of the 15th of August has the following 
brilliant report of the last meeting of the American Dental Asso- 
ciation : 

"The American Dental Association held its annual meeting, 
August 3d, at White Sulphur Springs. Dr. Harriman, of Bos- 
ton read a paper on the formation of teeth, showing them to be 
fibrous. The views expressed caused some surprise and consid- 
erable comment, being regarded as a bold departure from old 


established theories. A discussion then followed on Dental His- 
tology, and was participated in by Drs. Atkinson, Judd, Mc- 
Quillen, Harriman, and Walker. The report on Dental Thera- 
peutics was followed by a paper on the same subject by Dr. 
Bogue, and a discussion by Drs. Taft, Judd, and Atkinson. A 
paper on Anaesthesia was read by Dr. Dickerman." 

We think the "item" was furnished by some "lame duck," 
who had been plucked of his most brilliant plumage in the gladi- 
atorial conflicts of the Association. 

The Boston 3Iedical and Surgical Journal, of August 17th, 
has an article upon " Cundurango," by which it appears that 
stock in this new curative agent is already below par, and we 
are admonished that cancers will probably continue to afflict 
mankind for an indefinite period of time yet to come. Quacks 
will still flourish, and imposters still pocket enormous fees for 
curing simple tumors and for promising to cure malignant ones, 
and credulous people will still continue to be fleeced as of yore. 

Dr. Gr. W. Arnett cures neuralgia with the citrate of caffein, 
sulphate of morphia, and citric acid — three grains each of the 
two latter, to one-half grain of the former. 

-♦- « • •^♦- 


" New Remedies, a Quarterly Retrospect of Therapeutics, 
Pharmacy and Allied Subjects," edited by Horatio C. Wood, jr., 
M. D., is before us. The number contains eighty-four pages of 
well written matter, touching upon these points, and will prove, 
we opine, a valuable addition to the medical literature of the 
day. It is published at $2.00 per annum, in advance. 

The " Medical Cosmos " is a monthly abstract, published by Greo. 
J. Ziegler, of Philadelphia, containing sixteen pages, at $1.00 
per year. The first and second numbers are already issued, 
and gives us abundance of evidence that the " Medical Cosmos " 
will be worthy of patronage. 


"Taking Impressions of the Mouth," by James W. White. 
We have received a book of the above title from the Publisher, 
which gives, in a plain, practical manner, a description of mate- 
rials used, and methods of using them, in taking impressions of 
the mouth. From the examination given it, we should think that 
it gave a very good description of the most improved methods of 
taking impressions. Appended to this is a chapter taken from 
"Harris' Principles and Practice of Dental Surgery, " last edi- 
tion, "On Porcelain Teeth," which is of interest to the dental 


» » » » ♦ 


The Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the Michigan Dental 
Association Avill be held in Grand Rapids, commencing at one 
o'clock, Tuesday, October 10, 1871. The following members 
were appointed to prepare reports. The first-named upon each 
committee is chairman of the same, and of him a written report 
will be expected. Other members of the committee will be ex- 
pected to participate in the presentation of the subject assigned 

Anatomy — J. A. Watling, W. Owen, G. W. Cummings. 

Physiology — G. E. Corbin, M. S. Knapp, J. W. Clawson. 

Chemistry — J. A. Robinson, W. D. Templer, E. G. Douglass. 

Hygiene — C. B. Porter, H. H. Jackson, W. H. Dorrence. 

Pathology— G. W. Stone, J. W. Storm, E. Hunter. 

Therapeutics — J. Douglass, H. Benedict, R. S. Bancroft. 

Surgery— G. W. Field, W. H. Jackson, E. G. Miles. 

Dental Education — G. R. Thomas, H. K. Lathrop, W. R. 

All members of the Profession are cordially invited to be pre- 
sent. Every progressive dentist will feel it a duty and a privi- 
lege to spend a few days in the investigation of these subjects, 
and the discussion of other matters of general interest to the 


E. S. Holmes, Pres't. 

Geo. p. Holmes, Secretary. 


Vol. III.] OCTOBER, 1871. [No. 10. 

From Ihe Pharmacist. 


By Professor A. W. Williamson, F. R. S. Before the Society of Arts. 
Reprinted from the Pharmaceutical Journal, London. 

(^Continued from Page 331.) 

I stated that exposure to a red heat was found by Pasteur to 
act effectually in destroying the vitality of these little particles, 
and in every case in which he used air which had been subjected 
to that heat, he found that the air was incapable of showing any 
of these organisms in liquids even the most favorable to them. 
There was, however, still one remarkable exception, which wa& 
presented by the experiment of Gay-Lussac, to which 1 alluded 
some time ago. He found that when he used a mercury trough, 
which he selected as giving him the best condition for the purpose, 
he got these little cells produced from the air which had been 
calcined. Now, Pasteur found that mercury exposed to the air, 
as it is in these operations, has adhering to it a number of those 
little germs, and that when no more than the ordinary precautions 
are taken for cleansing the mercury, it has with it a considerable 
variety of such little organisms, which, if placed in a suitable 
material, develop themselves and grow quite well. He proved 
this in various ways. For instance, some of the little bulbs 


which had been sealed up whilst full of fermentable liquor and 
steam, and which had been kept for some time in a warm chamber, 
so as to be certainly free from vital organisms, were opened under 
mercury, so as to allow the ends of the tubes to be filled with 
mercury. He then lifted it up, so that nothing came into contact 
with the liquid but mercury, and passed into them sometimes air 
which had been passed through a red hot platinum tube, and 
sometimes oxygen gas given off from melten chlorate, where 
certainly there would be nothing of organic life present, and in 
almost all those cases he found that organisms developed them- 
selves. He attributed this entirely to the mercury, because when 
that was absent the result was the opposite. In order to prove 
this point more decisively, he took a liquid which was capable of 
decomposing, kept it for some time in a quiescent state, and then 
allowed a drop of mercury, in the state in which he had been 
using it before, to flow into it, and put the mixture into his warm 
chamber. He soon found that the mercury had carried in the 
germs of these organisms, and that they developed themselves 
quite well in it. Certainly any one unaccustomed to such accurate 
precautions could hardly have anticipated such a result as that, 
and a result which is, I think, most instructive, as showing what 
extraordinary precautions are needed, in order to prevent the 
entrance of these excessively small particles into the materials 
which we are working with. Side by side with this, I must 
mention another result of Pasteur's, for it was, perhaps, hardly 
less startling, and that was, that when, instead of taking the 
liquid which I mentioned to you just now, yeast water and sugar, 
he took common cow's milk, or, at all events, the mixture which 
is sold by that name, and boiled it, with a view of destroying 
any organisms that might be in it, and then he sealed up the bulbs 
while still full of steam, so that no air could get into it, and when 
he kept such sealed-up bulbs for some time in a warm chamber, 
he found clear evidences of decomposition; he found a turbidity 
in the substance, a curdling of the nitrogenized materials of the 
milk ; and on taking out some of it, he found it was swarming 
with little animalcules; and yet he had boiled the milk for a 
considerable time and had closed the vessel whilst the ebullition 


was still going on, so that no air could have carried the germs 
into it before it was closed. Still, there were the little organisms 
unmistakably present. He then modified his experiment in this 
manner. He boiled his milk at a higher temperature. I need 
hardly tell you how that can be done. You are, of course, aware 
that the temperatures at which water, or milk, or any liquid boils, 
are different, according to the pressure which the air exerts upon 
it; that is to say, if you were to boil water here, and then if you 
were to carry it to the top of St. Paul's, and notice the tempera- 
ture in each case, you would find that at the greater height it 
would boil at a lower temperature. If, in like manner, you 
carried it down to the bottom of a deep mine, and boiled it there, 
you would find the temperature would be higher; the greater the 
pressure of the superincumbent air, the higher the temperature 
at which any liquid boils. Pasteur wanted to make his milk boil 
at a higher temperature, and for that purpose he resorted to a 
very simple device. He had a long tube attached to the vessel 
in which his milk was boiling, bent over at the top, and brought 
down into a glass jar containing mercury to the depth of fifteen 
inches or more. Of course, under these circumstances, the steam 
which was being formed in the vessel, has to force its way up 
against the pressure of this mercury ; the pressure of these fifteen 
inches of mercury were added to the pressure of air, and a total 
pressure was obtained, about half as much again as the pressure 
of the atmosphere amounted to. Of course, the milk had to boil 
at a higher temperature, corresponding to this higher pressure; 
and what did he find then? He proceeded, as before, with the 
experiment, closing the vessel while it was boiling, and not letting 
any air into it. He then kept it, and he found that no organisms 
appeared, even on keeping it a very long time; and he was, there- 
fore, led to conclude that the milk must have contained in it some 
germs which could withstand the temperature at which the milk 
was boiling at first, but the vitality of which was destroyed by 
exposure to the higher temperature to which he exposed it in the 
subsequent experiment. He had reason for that, for other ex- 
periments had been made by himself, and by various other 
philosophers, which proved that many species of organisms can 


withstand a very high temperature without losing their vitality. 
In that respect, there are great diflFerences amongst these little 
organisms which are remarkable and interesting, and will, no 
doubt, be of value to future investigations. To give you an idea 
of the great variety presented by them in their power of with- 
standing heat, I may mention that if I were to heat the contents 
of this carboy, in which the alcoholic fermentation is going on, 
to 60° Centigrade (100° being boiling point Centigrade), which 
is rather more than half, the fermentation would be completely 
arrested, and the yeast-cells would be killed. On the other hand, 
the particles in milk are capable of withstanding 100°. Pasteur 
connected that fact with the circumstance that milk is alkaline, 
whilst this liquid is acid, and, as a rule, acid liquids destroy the 
vitality of these organisms at a lower temperature than alkaline 
liquids. That is not all. There are in the particles themselves 
great differences in their power of withstanding heat. Amongst 
the experiments which are particularly remarkable in that point 
of view, I ought to mention some with regard to the little spores 
of mould, and such like things; for instance, the pemciUium 
glaucum, and some others. M. Pasteur collected some of these; 
and after taking a little piece of asbestos, or mineral flax, as it 
is sometimes called, and heating it in a flame, so as to destroy 
anything adhering to it, he put it carefully into a vessel in which 
some of this mould was growing, and moved it about, so that a 
number of particles of the seed of the mould might adhere to it. 
He then heated the asbestos thus coated with dust to 120° C, a 
higher temperature than that to which the milk had been exposed; 
but after putting it into a liquid capable of feeding mould, he 
found that the mould made its appearance in considerable quantity, 
so that the germs of that particular organism were not destroyed 
by 120° of temperature. He even went higher, as far as 125°, 
and found that that was not enough, but a little over 125° killed 
them; 130° they cannot stand, so that, according to these observa- 
tions, the limit appears to be between 125° and 180°. 

In all the cases of which I have been speaking, the ferments 
(because all these organisms are in their nature and functions 
analogous to the common ferments) were removed from the sub- 


stances which were employed before the air and such like materials 
carrying the germs, were brought in contact with them. 

With regard to processes for arresting fermentations and de- 
composition in liquids in which they are taking place, a number 
of observations have been made which are of considerable practical 
as well as theoretical importance, in relation to the results which 
I have been stating. Of course mere heating, carried to a suffi- 
cient intensity, will arrest any process of fermentation or putre- 
faction which may be going on in a substance, and the applications 
of that process are, of course, exceedingly numerous and important. 
The only thing is, that we do not know, and it would be most 
hazardous to suppose that, in any particular case, we can name 
beforehand the temperature requisite to destroy a particular 
organism. If any observer were to say that he has exposed a 
mixture to 100°, and, therefore, the organism must be destroyed, 
experience would refute him ; if he said he had exposed it to 110°, 
or even 120°, experience again would refute him; but if he had 
exposed it to 150°, and asserted that he must have destroyed 
them, it is quite possible that experience might show that there 
are organisms which will resist even that temperature. It would 
haye been almost impossible, some time ago, to admit, and we 
could not have admitted, that these organisms would have with- 
stood the temperature which they have been found to withstand; 
and, therefore, what temperature is sufficient to destroy the 
organism in any case must be found by experiment, and that alone. 
Amongst other conditions for arresting the process of decomposi- 
tion or putrefaction, which are in their nature like those of 
fermentation, I ought to mention the process of drying. All the 
processes of fermentation which I have been speaking of, and all 
others, which I could tell you of, are accompanied by moisture. 
Moisture is present, and is essential to them; in fact, these little 
organisms are exceedingly soft, wet things ; moisture constitutes 
a great part of their substance, and in a dry m-edium they cannot 
live, or if the substance were dried, they would be destroyed by 
it. Applications, therefore, of a mere drying process, are amongst 
the most important and interesting of this class of agencies. 
Many of them are well known. For instance, the ordinary 


process of preserving fruit by means of drying it. Germs of 
putrefaction or decomposition may be present in the fruit; but 
if you merely take away the greater part of the moisture, you 
render the substance incapable of decomposing. Among the 
agents which serve for that purpose, there are some which abstract 
the water, not in a state of vapor, but in the liquid state; for 
instance, common salt. If you put a piece of fresh meat in con- 
tact with salt, or rub it over with the salt, the salt gradually 
absorbs the water, and draws the water out of the meat. The 
action is truly a drying action upon the meat, and it is effectual 
by a perfectly similar process to that which would go on if you 
exposed the meat in a dry chamber to a current of warm air. 
In like manner, of course, it is known to many persons that 
sugar is used just as salt is, to remove water from substances 
containing it in any quantity. If you were to rub any fruit or 
animal substance with a suflBcient quantity of dry sugar, you 
would get the sugar dissolved by the water which would be re- 
moved from the materials; and amongst the observations which 
are made in common life, there are some which bear, in an in- 
teresting and instructive way, upon what I have been saying to 
you. For instance, I have heard it said that ordinary jam — 
fruit and sugar, which have been boiled together for some time 
— keeps better if the pots into which it is poured are tied up 
whilst hot. The observation has been so frequently made that 
one was inclined to think that there must be some truth in itj 
and I think if we admit that the paper can act as a strainer in 
the same way as the cotton wool, you will see at once that it 
must be as people suppose. Take two cases. Suppose one pot 
of jam, allowed to cool before it is tied down, little germs will 
fall upon it from the air, and they will retain their vitality 
because they fall upon a cool substance; they will be shut in by 
the paper and will soon fall to work decomposing the fruit. If 
you take another pot, perfectly similar, filled with a boiling hot 
mixture, immediately cover it over, though, of course some of 
the outside air must be shut in, any germs which are floating in 
it will be scalded, and in all probability destroyed, so that na 
decomposition can take place. 


Amongst other materials which serve to arrest fermentation, 
there are several chemical agents of considerable energy, which 
are frequently employed for that purpose. Amongst the fore- 
most, I ought to mention creosote, the active material of smoke; 
and I have no doubt that the antiseptic action which smoke is 
said to exert upon ourselves — because it is said that smoke is 
very wholesome, although I do not lean to that view myself — is 
due to the presence of this creosote or carbolic acid. Every one 
is aware that one process for preserving meat, which has long been 
in use, is to suspend it in a chimney in which the smoke of wood 
is present. The smoke of wood, like that of coal, contains this 
substance, or one nearly allied to it, and amongst antiseptic 
agents it is one of the most energetic. A small quantity of this 
carbolic acid thrown into that fermenting liquid would completely 
kill the organisms. In the same way, if I were to introduce a 
little sulphurous acid into any of these mixtures, I should imme- 
diately kill the organisms and arrest the fermentation. Sulphur- 
ous acid is now largely used for this purpose, being employed, in 
combination with lime and water, to saturate the cases in which 
beer is to be stored, so that the wood being impregnated with it, 
any germs which might find their way from the atmosphere, and 
set up a process of decomposition, are arrested and destroyed. 
Another very powerful antiseptic agent is prussic acid, one of 
the most powerful of poisons to all animal organisms, and it is 
particularly powerful in stopping the action of these ferments. 
Another substance, which I think is worthy of consideration, in 
the same point of view, is a mixture which is, to a great extent, 
of unknown composition. I refer to the poisonous matter which 
is given off in tobacco smoke. It must, I think, when present 
in the air, exert a very powerful antiseptic action upon these 
organisms. It has been shown, by the experiments of Professor 
Tyndall, that in the lower vessel of the lungs there are considera- 
ble deposits of the dust which floats about in the air; and we are, 
of course, exposed in that manner to the action of a number of 
the seeds of these ferments, and, for aught we know, of diseases, 
because many malignant diseases are attributed to processes of 
decomposition analogous to those which we have been considering; 


and they may be — and, as some persons think, are — carried by 
germs in the air, in the same way as those I have been mentioning. 
Now, any powerful substance which would kill these germs must, 
of course, exert a beneficial action, and when persons are exposed 
to the smoke of tobacco, there is no doubt that some of it enters 
the lung with the air which is vitiated, and that some of the smoke 
must be deposited in the lower passages of the lungs with these 
little mischievous germs, and must certainly somewhat astonish 

I have here several little apparatus, all alike in their general 
arrangement ; each consists of two little tables, connected together 
in such a way that air may be made to pass through both of them 
in one direction, but not in the other. A tube goes from the top 
of one into the liquid in the second, and the tube from this second 
passes on into the air; and these bottles can, by means of an 
aspirator, be supplied with air which has been strained through 
cotton wool, and no other air can pass into them. The bottles 
contain the same mixture which I have been talking about so 
much, yeast-water and sugar, a liquid which decomposes in almost 
any way you like, for almost all these germs live in it more or 
less vigorously. After the liquid was put in, it was kept boiling 
for considerable time, so that there is, I trust, in the bottles no 
living organism whatever; in fact, I have reason to believe that 
any organisms which may have been there have been destroyed 
by the high temperature to which they were exposed. I might 
draw hundreds of cubic feet of air through that apparatus, and 
it would remain entirely unchanged. Next Monday we will 
resume this again. We will also examine this particular ap- 
paratus, which is exactly the same, with this exception, that 
after the whole had been filled in the manner I have stated, a 
little mould was introduced by a separate tube into the first 
bottle. The apparatus will be taken back to University College, 
where it will be put into the warm chamber, where the organisms 
will be developed; and I have no doubt the liquid in the first 
bottle will be in a state of active decomposition before the day 
is over. Then next week we will draw purified air, which, by 
itself, has no action on the liquid, and see whether it will carry 


any germs into the second bottle. I have no doubt that, by 
Monday next, there will be enough mould upon it to enable us 
to perform the experiment; and I shall then also have the 
pleasure of telling you of some applications which M. Pasteur 
has made of his theoretical results to practical purposes, such as 
the preservation of wines and such like matters. 

( To be continued.) 


Translated from the German by Dr. Charles R. E. Koch, of Chicago, 111. 

From the given historical review, it is apparent that the theories 
proposed for dental caries have been mainly attempted in three 
directions; at one time the vital, at another the purely chemical, 
and at another the parasitical processes were placed in the fore- 
ground, and combinations of these were made, from which several 
branches arose. 

So long as the tooth texture was but little known we had to 
dispense with an anatomical foundation for the study of the 
carious process. Only after the fourth decennial of our century, 
after the histology of the tooth had gradually become established, 
could we think of subjecting the structural change in a carious 
tooth to a thorough examination. 

But to proceed understandingly, there still remained a gap to be 
filled; this was to place the history of development upon a firm 
basis, which only occurred within the last ten years. Only after 
these preparatory labors, being supplied with better optical aux- 
iliaries, were we placed in position to follow up this process into 
its phases. 

The older authors were mostly purely vitalists, as they had to 
acknowledge that teeth had vitality, and as the destruction in 
dental caries, which externally resembles gangrene in other organs, 
seemed to indicate a vital process. 

As soon, however, as organic chemistry furnished analysis of 


teeth and oral secretions, although not in an entirely satisfactory 
manner, and explained the process of fermentation with its many 
products, one Avas necessarily led to bring into the account in 
the process of decalcification the acids contained in the secre- 
tions, or formed by fermentation ; then arose the chemical theory. 

During the last ten years, the great extension and the injurious 
influences of parasitical creatures upon the animal economy be- 
came more and more known ; researches after such vitalized 
beings were instituted in carious teeth; they were found, or 
believed to have been found, and the parasite theory was con- 

Then came the fusionists, who divided into several bodies 
which, upon the one side, endeavored to bring into harmony vital- 
ism with chemicism of dental caries, and considered it as a reaction 
closely resembling the inflammatory process on the part of the 
principally attacked hard tooth tissue (dentine), without losing 
from sight the agents instrumental in decalcification. Others 
united the influence of chemical agents with parasites; a third 
portion sought to unite all the three theories, and thus establish 
many varieties of caries. It was admitted that dental caries, in 
most cases, is dependent upon external agents, and advances from 
without inward; upon the other hand it was maintained that the 
same process can also advance in the opposite direction, and hence 
the caries which originates from the pulp has been designated 
as "caries interna." 

Since we know that an exchange of material does take place 
during life in the dentine and cementum, as proven by the atro- 
phies, hypertrophies and new formations, that a sensitiveness of 
the dentine exists, it is not to be denied, from the very beginning, 
that both these hard formations (tissue) react against external 
agents. This idea seems to have dimly appeared to some authors 
when they Avere inclined to accept the textural changes in carious 
dentine as of a vital nature. 

That the sensitiveness, grown to painfulness, in dentine which 
has been deprived of its protective covering is of a vital nature, 
and is decreased when the most sensitive part of the organ, the 
periphery, has become destroyed by an external agent, probably 


no one will doubt; from this, however, no conclusion can be 
drawn as to the capacity for reaction in dentine at the place 
attacked by caries. 

The thickening and varicose swelling of the dentinal fibrillae 
were ascribed to a vital process by J. Tomes, E. Neumann and 
H. Hertz. The former thinks that through the diseased condition 
the outlines of the formative cells are re-established. E. Neu- 
mann goes still further, and sees in sections highly colored with 
carmine, a proliferation of the cellular elements of the dentine, 
and bases upon this the analogy of dental caries with inflamma- 
tory and ulcerative processes in the soft tissues. Leber and 
Rottenstein only say that particularly in transverse sections the 
contents of the enlarged canals may be seen to divide into rod- 
like divisions, which may separate from one another a small dis- 
tance. I have never succeeded in finding the carmine impreg- 
nated granular formations, after coloring, in the thickened den- 
tinal fibrils, as they are described and pictured by E. Neumann. 

The increased transparency around the carious locality of 
the dentine, and the, as yet, problematical calcification of the 
dentinal fibrils, are viewed by J. Tomes as curative eff'orts 
of nature to oppose further progress of caries. The carious 
dentinal cone, Magitot declares to be a reaction on the part of 
the pulp upon the agent acting from the exterior. This condi- 
tion of irritation makes itself known by a production of secon- 
dary dentine, and through a molecular deposit in the dentinal 
canals, which become obliterated. Hence he views this latter 
appearance also as a vital process. 

Even if it cannot be denied that the living pulp reacts upon 
the agent acting from without, yet the explanations of the above 
named authors, according to whom an inflammatory process of 
the pulp is made apparent in the carious dentine in the diff"erent 
ways named, is not correct, as Leber and Rottenstein have 
already explained. The dentine of human teeth, and of teeth 
made of the ivory of the Hippopotamus, inserted as artificial 
dentures, is affected by caries in precisely the same manner as 
the dentine of the natural teeth, so far as the dark or light colored 
zone, the granular condition of the dentinal fibrils and their 


thickening or varicose swelling, are concerned. Hence the 
appearances which have been ascribed to odontosis do not belong 
to it as such. 

The new formations of dentine which arise upon the walls 
of the pulp cavity, corresponding to the carious district of the 
dentine, can, as a matter of course be produced only by a cor- 
responding part of the pulp, in consequence of a condition of 
irritation ; they are a healing effort, a tissue of replacement for 
the loss of the periphery. These preponderate in caries which 
inclines to a chronic nature. In many cases not a trace of such 
replacement is found, and yet all the phenomena that have been 
named occur in the carious dentine. The inflammatory affec- 
tions of the pulp are made manifest mainly, only when a consid- 
able loss of substance of the dentine has occurred, often when only 
a thin covering of the latter is left to protect the pulp, or when 
a perforation to the pulp cavity has ensued. Hence we have 
no basis, even if veiwed from this standpoint, to ascribe the 
changes in the dentinal fibrill?e to an inflammatory condition of 
the pulp. 

It is known that dead animal tissues, under particular circum- 
stances, may undergo a high degree of fatty degeneration. In 
pathological cases we frequently meet a fatty metamorphosis 
of the organs, and this has occasionally been cited as proof that 
the fat arises from transposition of albuminous matter. Accord- 
ingly there is nothing so very singular that in dead dentine, 
under favorable circumstances, fat may also be deposited, and 
we do indeed find it deposited in the form of drops in the dentinal 

Upon the other side it has frequently been proven that fungi 
may penetrate living, dying or dead animal tissues. Yes, there is 
a fungus, probably belonging to the mucor, whose spores may 
occasionally appear in drinking water, and which, when it luxuri- 
ates in dead bones or teeth, occasions considerable defect of sub- 
stance. This fungus has no connection whatever with caries in 
the teeth, and is accidentally discovered in teeth which have been 
preserved in water. Just as small a roll is played by the pro- 
tocosis dentalis, which has been named by Klenke, as occurring 


in a special variety of caries, which he calls vegetative tooth des- 
truction. I have found the same only upon one occasion; it has 
not been confii'med as belonging to caries by any author, and it 
is only an accident like the puccinia graminis in the scab of 
favus (favus barke). 

Leptothrix buccalis, however, is found as often in dental 
caries, and in places is so deeply imbedded in the cartilagin- 
ously softened decalcification near dentine, that Leber and 
Rottenstein, express themselves to the effect, "That the differ- 
ences in the progress of dental caries in enamel and dentine 
must have its cause in the participation of fungoid growths in 
the carious process." The elements of the fungus certainly 
luxuriate in the dentinal canals, and expand these, but, in my 
opinion, can only accomplish this when the dentine is either 
entirely decalcified, or has at least entered upon the first stages of 
decalcification. I have never found a fungous growth in the 
deeper layers of still hard carious dentine, and hence am of the 
opinion that the dentine, to a certain extent, must have died at 
an earlier time through the action of acids, when the fungus is 
enabled to grow on further. The progress of caries in dentine 
is accordingly, in my opinion, not to be ascribed to the fungus, 
but to the acids. When the acids become neutralized by the 
saliva, as at the lower incisors, no caries is produced, notwith- 
standing the extensive beds of leptothrix found in the tartar. 
With the origin of caries leptothrix has no relation ; not before 
the existence of a carious groove upon the necks of the teeth, 
could I discover any leptothrix deposit nor any lines of lepto- 
thrix granules in the interior of the dentine. The granules 
in the dentinal canals in chronic caries consist of finely divided 

The influence of an acid I hold accordingly for a fundamental 
condition in the formation of caries in all such cases where decal- 
cification may be proven to have progressed even to a small ex- 
tent. In other cases where this proof has not been furnished 
(certainly in only an unreliable manner as in the so-called caries 
carbonacae of the dentists), the chemical process lies still in the 


Even if we agree upon this influence of acids, still we have at 
this time not arrived so far as to answer the question, "Whether 
there are one or more acids, of which kind these, and as to 
where and how thej are formed?" 

The mixed saliva differs in its component parts not only 
in different individuals, but it is also variable in the same 
individual. Its known property to convert the insoluble flour 
of starch into dextrine and glucose, which latter, in the pres- 
ence of a ferment, is capable of entering. An acid fermen- 
tation was considered by Leber and Rottenstein as proof that 
the acid reaction in the mouth is principally created by acid 
fermentation of remnants of food. If this were the reason, it 
would be difficult to see why animals, which are not capable of 
removing the remnants of food, like man, are so very seldom 
afflicted with dental caries. Some nationalities, which certainly 
are not very diligent in the cleaning of their mouths, as for in- 
stance the Esquimaux and New Zealanders, furnish a very small 
percentage of caries. The remnants of food show no evident 
action in extremely chronic caries; in the so-called central caries 
we also see that a cartilaginous softening of the dentine occurs 
without the aid of remnants of food. In numerous disturbances 
of the intestinal tracts a sour or salty taste is discovered entirely 
independent of the nutriment taken. Sputa of acid reactions, 
and the increased acid reaction of the mucous membrane of 
the vagina and bladder gives proof that mucous membranes are 
capable of furnishing abnormal acid secretions of themselves. 

Magitot considers saliva, when it has become the vehicle for 
acid substances, as the agent in caries. Leber and Rottenstein 
are inclined to think that if fungoid growths have anything at all 
to do in the acid fermentation within the mouth, which is ques- 
tionable, there are leptothrix ; and they think with Oehl that it 
is highly probable that lactic acid is formed under this fermenta- 
tion. Spence Bates (Odontological Soc. Great Brit. Rep. 1865), 
is of opinion that the disintegration of the dentinal fibrils takes 
place from within the tubuli, by which means free carbonic 
acid in a nascent state is brought into contact with the lime salts 
of the tissue, these under the development of acid are disin- 


tegrated. The liberated acid, he thinks, is not lactic but phos- 

According to my opinion, the secretions of the gums with 
which the teeth are in nearest contact, and from which partially 
they receive their mucous covering, are particularly to be consid- 
ered. Its frequent acid condition can be proven at a time when 
no remnants of the food are present. Where the gums secrete 
most, as in children, youthful individuals and women, particularly 
during pregnancy, caries takes a more or less acute course. 

"We not seldom find," says Tomes, "in mouths which have 
many carious teeth, swollen and highly vascular gums, covered 
with a thick and sticky mucous, which may be drawn away in 
threads." He cites a case in which the teeth were rapidly decom- 
posed by caries, and at the same time the quantity of secreted 
saliva was small; at a later period all the remaining teeth were 
attacked almost simultaneously at the margins of the gums in 
such a manner that a ring-like zone of softened tissue sur- 
rounded each tooth. 

Tomes says, "When there is a copious flow of saliva and mu- 
cous secretions, the mucus closely adheres, in place of being dis- 
tributed in the saliva, and is to be considered as the vehicle 
through Avhich the tooth tissue becomes decomposed." The 
proof offered by Tomes, that the gums, in a state of iritation, 
can furnish an acid secretion, based upon the observation that 
cotton placed between the teeth will advance the progress of 
existing caries, is not well chosen. As Leber and Rottenstein sug- 
gest, this could be adduced from the fact that cotton, being a 
porous substance, must assist the fermentation and disintegrative 
process at the locality in question. In dead bodies with exten- 
sive dental caries, I have often found SAvellings in the gums with 
hypertrophy of the papillae ; certainly these may be consecutive 
diseases, nevertheless, the frequently contemporaneous disease 
of the gums is remarkable. 

When the quantity of the oral secretions, including those of the 
gums, decrease, as in old age, dental caries takes a permanently 
chronic form. In places where the secretions of the gums can 
have less effect, or are more easily removed by the motion of the 


tongue, caries occurs less frequently. When this is of an acute 
nature, and if the crown has been destroyed, it advances but 
slowly in the roots, as then the secretions of the gums have only 
a smaller direct influence. Notwithstanding the abnormal secre- 
tions of the gums are placed in the front rank, we do not wish 
to say that the anomalous secretions of saliva, mucous glands, 
and of the mucous membrane of the mouth, are to be considered 
as only of small importance, as the foregoing statements have 
suflSciently illustrated. Generally an injurious influence is only 
then to be ascribed to remnants of food, when a defective tooth 
structure or carious pit is present. 

We must confess that our knowledge of the quality of the 
oral secretions is insufficient, and it is still a question whether 
these exert an injurious influence of themselves or through their 
products of decomposition. We do not know if more or less of 
only one acid shortens or lengthens the progress of caries (as 
lactic acid, of which organic chemistry teaches us that it fre- 
quently occurs in partially decomposed animal fluids), or if dif- 
ferent acids accomplish modifications in it. We conjecture the 
presence of lactic acid particularly, as C. Schmitt, of Dorcas, 
has been successful in proving its presence in the sour juice of 
the hollow bones aff'ected with mollities ossium. It is further 
questionable whether butyric, valeric and formic acids, which H. 
Fischer obtained from acidulated or strongly alkaline pus, do act 
as products of decomposition of puriform gum secretions. 

When the enamel membrane becomes impaired in its continuity 
by cracks in the enamel, or if, through the deposition of leptothrix, 
it has become brittle and full of clefts, the lime salts in the 
prisms are more easily attacked, the enamel being more accessi- 
ble to acids, as their very thin organic hulls cannot off'er any resist- 
ance at all worthy of mention. Chemical analysis teaches us 
that the organic substances in the enamel are hardly more than 
two or three per cent. The action of acids is at first limited to 
a small range, and it is to be assumed with reason, that not only 
does a simple dissolution of the lime salts occur, but also that 
the acids do enter into a new combination, and the newly formed 
salts meeting an organic cement are easily crumbled. 


When we remember that the acids spread along the course of 
the groups of enamel prisms, it is comprehensible that upon the 
one side their influence remains confined to certain limits, and 
upon the other an undermining of neighboring parcels of enamel 
occurs. The continuity of enamel prisms being loosened, the trans- 
parency of the enamel at the affected spot becomes interrupted 
and a white spot arises. When the acid action is slow, the color- 
ing is deeper. Probably here occurs a compound process — a 
decalcification with decomposition. 

If a defect in the enamel occurs within a circumscribed limit, 
this serves as a point of attachment for matter advancing from 
without, as stringy mucous, leptothrix and remnants of food, 
more easily remain in the notched grooves, which afford more 
points of attack to acids. The latter can now proceed with its 
deleterious influences undisturbed by the neutralizing action of 
the saliva, and the effect of this becomes apparent in the neigh- 
boring dentine, through a yellowish shading, at a time when thin 
layers of enamel still afford a protective covering to the same. 

The larger the carious cavity in the enamel the narrower will 
be the entrance to the same, and of course the danger to the 
dentine will be so much greater, to be attacked more intensely 
and upon a more extended surface. As dentine has twenty-eight 
per cent, of organic matter, decalcification advances more rap- 
idly in it, and an organic remnant called tooth cartilage remains 
after the extraction of the lime-salts. Through the action of 
acids the vitality of the dentine concerned becomes annulled, 
and decay commences from the periphery in a centrifugal direc- 
tion, in which, as has already been mentioned, leptothrix buc- 
calis is active. A carious cavity is formed in the dentine which 
mostly takes larger dimensions than that in the enamel, and af- 
fords a receptacle for remnants of food diflBcult to be reached. 
The latter enter into an easily understood acid fermentation. 

The shape of the cavity formed by caries in enamel or dentine 
is partially according to the position of the tooth in which it 
occurs, and partially according to the quality of the enamel and 
dentine. The nearer carious cavities are to the roots of teeth 
the shallower they are, and, upon the contrary, cavities occurring 


in the grinding surfaces of molars are always very large in com- 
parison to their orifice. The thicker and more compact the 
enamel is constructed the greater resistance it affords, and the 
destruction makes so much the greater progress under the enamel 
covering; hence, in such cases, the cavity is always very deep, 
while shallow cavities occur when the enamel is thin and of loose 
texture. A greater surface of dentine is then exposed, and ac- 
cordingly to a greater extent attacked. 

The reason for the intensity of the carious coloring in enamel 
and dentine is not at all established; it can not be alone in the 
organically changed substances, as the discoloration is alike in- 
tense in both substances, and there is between these such a great 
difference in percentage of organic base. When the action of 
acids proceeds slowly upon enamel and dentine, the intense 
carious pigment does not enter very far, and the cartilaginous 
softening extends only to a thin layer, the disintegration occurs 
so gradually that a luxuriance of leptothrix can only occur to a 
very short distance. 

If there is anything illustrative of the difference between caries 
in bone and teeth it is the caries in the cementum, which is also 
characterized by an advance from without inward, a successive 
coloring with peripheral dissolution. In the cheek tooth (schmery 
faltigen backenzahne) of the horse, in which the vascularized 
bony structure forms such a large part, the process is the same 
as in the human causation, with the exception that it is extreme- 
ly chronic. The death of the bony substances advances from 
the exposed place step by step, without causing any inflamma- 
tory reaction upon their part. 

As caries has been shown to depend upon external causes in 
all the three hard tooth substances, the question arises, "what 
process does take place in the very rare cases of softening and 
decomposition of the dentine from the pulp cavity toward the 

An observation of a case has been mentioned, in which, with- 
out a trace of common caries, a central dentinal softening occur- 
red. Leber and Rottenstein also relate a case of so-called cen- 
tral caries in which in three incisors a bluish color was observa- 


ble without a case of caries. In drilling two of these teeth 
it was found that the whole interior of the tooth to the enamel 
was completely softened, destroyed and of a brown color, even 
the roots deeply hollowed. The third tooth remained untouched. 
The patient remembered that during childhood she fell upon her 
teeth, upon which followed a swollen face. 

Leber and Rottenstein give no explanation as to what causes 
brought about this discoloration of the dentine, and they think such 
cases cannot be identified with common dental caries. A. Schel- 
ler, of Warsaw, published two cases of this kind, of which the 
second is particularly instructive, and analagous to that of Leber 
and Rottenstein. He expresses the opinion that central dental 
caries is to be considered as a process of disintegration, superin- 
duced by the decomposition of the dental pulp. 

The condition in mortification of the pulp indicates the pres- 
ence of sebaceous acid as a product of decomposition, hence it 
is presumable that in the mortified pulp, sebaceous acid may be 
formed which destroyed the dentine. Magitot found that butyric 
acid acted very much in the same manner and with the same en- 
ergy upon the teeth as lactic acid. Certainly this so-called cen- 
tral dental caries cannot be classed as a species of dental caries, 
and must plainly be classed with the inflammatory diseases of 
the pulp. 

The sickly and occasionally most loathsome odors caused by 
carious teeth has been considered, says Heider, as proof of the 
presence of internal caries, which is placed alongside of caries 
in the bone, and has been ascribed to a secretion of the dentine 
attacked by caries. But the really off"ensive odor is only 
present after the pulp cavity has been opened, and is caused by 
the gangrenous pulp ; the bad odor in carious teeth in which the 
pulp cavity has not been opened, has its cause in the decaying 
remnants of food which accumulate in the carious cavities, and 
vanishes entirely by keeping these clean. One ought not to con- 
found with this the odor from the accumulated secretions of the 
gums, and possibly stagnant blood between the teeth, which is 
particularly taken up by cotton applied in those places, and which 
makes this smell very badly. 


The carious process can be arrested but not healed; an acute 
form may change to a chronic, or it may remain without any 
further progress at all, — especially is this the fact as above 
stated in carious roots, upon which, however, a cariously colored 
superficial layer may also be shown. 

Duval and different other authors have bestowed the name of 
caries upon the partial defect upon the neck of a tooth, which 
resembles an abrasion (usur), and which defect is described as 
wedge shaped. Magitot has declared that these defects of the 
dental necks are healed or dry caries, notwithstanding he ad- 
mits that they have all the appearance of a true abrasion, with- 
out, however, assigning any particular reason. This healing is 
said to result partially from the resistance of the pulp, and par- 
tially from the interruption of the injurious influences. 

The secretions of the gums, and the mucous membrane of 
lips and cheeks, and remnants of food, may act as vehicles to 
the action of the acids; a certain period of time is essential, and 
this is less when the local conditions are more favorable to the 
retention of this acid vehicle. Hence we find the points of at- 
tack in the pits and grooves, interstices and facial walls of the 

If we take equivalent acid vehicles, we find that the effect in 
different classes of teeth of the same individual and in different 
individuals differ. 

Frequence of caries declines: — (a.) When the acid becomes 
neutralized in its action, for instance, in the case of the lower 
incisors, which are almost constantly bathed in the saliva, and 
when salivary calculus is deposited freely. The deposition of this 
probably excludes the carious process from the spot concerned, 
but does not prevent the advance of chronic caries upon the one 
side, while upon the other the deposition of tartar advances. 

(5.) When the position of the teeth has been regulated in 
such a manner that their proximal surfaces are normal. 

[c.) When the teeth are thoroughly taken care of and pro- 
tected against the influences of injurious forces. 

(c?.) When the structure of the tooth is solid and has a nor- 
mal smoothness of its surface. 


(e.) When the structure of the whole dentures and the mucous 
membrane of the mouth, together with the glands, is a regular 
one in proportion to the influences of race and hereditary trans- 

The last named point gives the main reason for the frequency 
of caries in general, and stands in close relation to the structures 
of the whole organism. The quality of the food is only of 
secondary importance. 

The structure of the individual tooth has an essential influ- 
ence upon the progress of caries, and teeth may be grouped 
according to their capacity to resist. We still lack a method of 
investigation by which to determine more definitely the individ- 
ual degree of hardness of enamel and dentine, the knowledge of 
which is of importance in treatment and prognosis. Alphous, 
in Cracow, has divided the teeth into six classes in regard to 
treatment of caries by file or filling. 

Heider expressed himself upon this point in conversation with 
me, as follows: When we consider the predisposing causes in 
the structure of the teeth which are attacked by caries, we will 
find bluish or grayish white teeth with dull enamel very fre- 
quently simultaneously attacked by acute caries ; upon the con- 
trary, in yellowish white teeth with smooth, glossy enamel, gen- 
erally only chronic caries, and in isolated cases. This first-named 
class of teeth is supplied with less solid enamel and with less 
compact dentine, which is to be observed to a certainty under 
the file or graver. There are teeth which can be worked upon, 
even with inferior files, and which leave upon the file a great 
mass of white smeary triturated dentine ; when, upon the con- 
trary, the second class of teeth oppose great resistance to the 
file, and even the best of files only take a comparatively small 
hold upon them, and only a small mass of white powdered den- 
tine is left upon the file. There are then two qualities of enamel 
and dentine, the graduations of which limit the diff"erent rela- 
tions of teeth to caries. 

If what Gladstone cites in his lectures from Lasseigne be true, 
that the molars contain more mineral substance than the incis- 
ors, and that when the teeth grow older they distinguish them- 


selves mainly by the great decrease in carbonate in comparison 
to the phosphate of lime, several points as to the course of 
caries according to class of teeth and age would have been 

From all that has been said we come to the conclusion that 
dental caries is a process having its origin in the abnormal secre- 
tions of the gums, and next in the remaining parts of the mucous 
membrane of the mouth and the salivary glands, and advances 
from favorable points of attack of the external surface in the 
direction of the pulp cavity. Through the decomposition of the 
secretions, acids are formed which extract the lime-salts of the 
hard-tooth substances and induce a disintegration of the tissues 
in the attacked region, in which no inflammatory secretion does 
occur. The process of decomposition is essentially promoted by 
the accumlation of the secretions and remnants of food, and 
under this condition the leptothrix buccalis enters luxuriantly 
into the diseased dentine. The exclusion of an acid in the form- 
ation of extremely chronic caries (sicca, carbonacse aut.), is not 
scientifically established. 


Abstract of an Inaugural Dissertation by Charles W. Eales, M. B. 

The development of the blood is certainly one of the least 
understood physiological processes, and especially is this true 
of its cellular elements. The most diverse opinions have been 
held respecting the origin of the white cells, their transforma- 
tion into the red, and the ultimate fate of the latter. 

In the first place, the embryonal development of blood was 
regarded as the key to the mystery; and since in the embryo 
the development of red corpuscles takes place from the white or 
lymph cells, through the intermediate form of a colored nucleated 
cell, a similar process was assumed to take place in the adult 



body. Since, however, the intermediate form — a colored nucle- 
ated cell — could not be found in the blood of the adult organism, 
it was supposed by one party (Kolliker) either that these forms 
might exist in some part of the body not examined, or else that 
the absence of transitional forms was to be explained by the 
rapidity of the transformation. Another party gave up the 
theory of transformation of white into red corpuscles, and sought 
another mode of origin for the latter. Thus, according to 
Wharton Jones and Bennett, it was the nuclei of the lymph- 
cells which were transformed into the red corpuscles. Accord- 
ing to H. Miiller, the latter arose from a fusion of nucleus and 
cell in the smaller lymph-cells. Gerlach, Funke, and others, 
believed in an endogenous formation of red corpuscles in larger 
cells, while Zimmermann had recourse to some entirely different 
elements of the blood itself. Since, however, none of the latter 
views could be satisfactorily established, the tendency has been 
to fall back upon the hypothesis of a formation of red corpuscles 
out of the white corpuscles of the blood itself. There is no 
greater unanimity of opinion respecting the ultimate fate of the 
red corpuscles, though, in spite of the doubts of Kolliker, it 
seems probable that there is a continual dying off and new pro- 
duction of these elements; and it has been thought that a greater 
or less power of resistance to the action of water is a sign of the 
age of particular corpuscles. The origin of the white corpuscles 
has been pretty generally assigned to the spleen and lymphatic 
glands, for which the abundance of those elements in the vessels 
leading from these glands is a weighty argument. It has, how- 
ever, always been a matter of the greatest difficulty to determine 
in what part of the body the metamorphosis of the blood-cor- 
puscles takes place. This process also has been referred to the 
spleen, and especially on the strength of two peculiar structures 
met with there — (1) cells resembling the white blood-cells, but 
with a yellowish color; (2) cells said to contain red blood-cor- 
puscles. The first form undoubtedly exists, as confirmed by 
Bales, in the rabbit's spleen, but loses its importance when com- 
pared with the more characteristic transitional forms observed 
by Neumann. The second form of cell at first excited great 


interest, but its occurrence is so very variable and uncertain 
that it is probably correct to regard it, with Virchow, as a more 
or less pathological structure. 

It has also been supposed that the metamorphosis of blood- 
cells may take place in the liver, and this because the red cor- 
puscles of the hepatic vein are thought to show, by their greater 
resistance to the action of water, that they are younger than 
those of the portal vein, which are not only swollen up, but com- 
pletely destroyed, by the addition of water. There are also 
many crenated and withered red corpuscles to be seen in the 
portal vein, but very few in the hepatic. These facts, if they 
prove anything, rather tend to show that the corpuscles in the 
portal vein are old and worn out, than that those in the hepatic 
vein are new; and the well known solvent power of the biliary 
acids for the red corpuscles makes it probable that these may be 
destroyed in the liver, and help in the formation of bile. But 
there is no proof that any new corpuscles are formed in the 

This enumeration is suflficient to show that, as regards the 
adult organism, no single point in the development of blood- 
corpuscles is yet satisfactorily established. Even that for which 
the most cogent arguments may be brought forward — namely, 
the origin of white blood-cells in the spleen — has recently met 
with the renewed opposition of Henle, who suggests, however, 
no other theory in its stead. 

Prof. Neumann, of Konigsberg, deserves the credit not only 
of having, more or less, overthrown the theories hitherto pro- 
posed of the development of the blood-corpuscles, but also of 
having successfully inaugurated investigations on this point 
which lead in an entirely new direction. He has pointed out, as 
Henle did, that the organs which have been up till now consid- 
ered are comparatively unimportant, and has most successfully 
filled up the gap thus produced in microscopical anatomy by 
bringing the blood-changes into relation with a structure to 
which such a function has never been ascribed. Kcilliker had, 
many years ago, with a sort of divination, expressed the opinion 
that the origin of the red blood-corpuscles from the white in the 


adult orsranism would never be demonstrated until nucleated col- 
ored cells should be discovered. It was reserved for Neumann 
not onlj to discover the long-sought cell, but also to estabish, on 
several grounds, its character as a transitional form. 

The views of Neumann are published in the Arehiv de Seil- 
kunde, vol. x (1869), p. 68 et seqq., under the title, "The Sig- 
nificance of the Marrow of the Bones in the Formation of Blood." 
He there lays down two propositions: 

1. There takes place in the vessels of the bone-marrow, favor- 
ed by a considerable retardation of the blood-current, a trans- 
formation of abundantly-accumulated white cells into red. 

2. A continuous passage of medullary cells into the vessels 
contributes to this accumulation of white cells in the blood ves- 
sels of the marrow. 

This whole theory, for which a considerable number of more 
or less reliable arguments can be urged, gains at once a large 
amount of probability from the discovery, first, of the colored 
nucleated cells, and, secondly, of a remarkable accumulation of 
lymph-cells in the marrow, in virtue of which the latter acquires 
an importance with regard to the formation of blood, not only 
equal to, but greater than, that formerly ascribed to the spleen. 
Other important arguments are, however, alleged. Neumann 
has found, besides those nucleated and colored cells which he 
regards as the true intermediate form between the white and the 
red corpuscles, other transitional forms which, on the one hand, 
form a passage from the white blood-cells to the red nucleated 
cells; on the other hand, from these to the red non-nucleated 

Neumann meets the objection that these colored transitional 
cells may be merely lymph-corpuscles tinged with blood coloring ■ 
matter, by showing that their general character is quite different 
from that of lymph-cells, and, further, that they are limited to 
the osseous marrow. He accordingly compares them, as well as 
similar forms met with in the frog, to the nucleated red cells of 
the embryo. 

The detailed description given by Neumann of the marrow 
refers especially to the marrow of the bones of rabbits, and he 


regards the existence of similar relations in the human body as 
a matter of probability rather than of certainty. 

Eales also has found these minute structural characters of the 
marrow to hold good only in the case of rabbits, and has not 
succeeded in detecting them in the human body. This difference 
he regards as possibly explicable by the fact that the human 
structures examined were those of persons enfeebled by disease, 
and also that they were not examined till some hours after 
death. Besides that, the human marrow, even that of children, 
is very different in appearance, even to the naked eye, from that 
of young rabbits, which may often be separated completely from 
the surrounding bone, in the form of a red cylinder. The a pri- 
ori probability that similar relations exist in the human marrow 
will, very possiblj', be confirmed by researches conducted in 
in some different method. 

Eales also insists upon the fact admitted by Neumann, that the 
yellow fatty marrow which fills all the long bones in adults plays, 
at best, a very subordinate part to blood-formation ; and that 
the observations must be understood to apply only to the red 
vascular marrow which is found in all bones in young animals, 
but in adults in the spongy bones only. 

This structure is minutely described by Neumann, whose ac- 
count is confirmed in the main by Eales. It consists of a 
remarkably developed capillary network, and of a special tissue, 
called by Neumann the medullary tissue, contained in the meshes 
of this network. The capillaries have this peculiarity, that their 
calibre is much greater than — on the average, four times as 
great as — that of the small arterial branches immediately sup- 
plying them, and this sudden enlargement of the blood-channel 
must cause a considerable diminution in the velocity of the 
blood. The capillary network is also very close, its meshes 
being only about half again as large, or less than twice as large, 
as the diameter of the capillaries. Within these vessels, especi- 
ally in the wider portions, is seen a great accumulation of white 
cells, as well as "transitional forms" in variable proportion, and 
it is these which especially mark out the locality as the seat of 
blood metamorphosis. The tissue contained in the meshes of the 


vascular network consists of a stroma of delicate stellate cells, 
anastomosing by means of fine prolongations, and thus forming 
a reticulation within which are contained, in the red marrow, a 
large number of lymphoid cells; but these do not occur in the 
yellow marrow. To this tissue Neumann gives the name of 
medullary tissue; and to the red form, lymphoid medullary tissue; 
it bears most resemblance to the cytogenous connective tissue of 
Kolliker, or adenoid tissue of His. The yellow matter, being 
without lymphoid cells, and having its anastomosing cells filled 
with fat, resembles ordinary adipose tissue. Since it is precisely 
in the red marrow, with its numerous lymphoid cells, that an 
accumulation of white or lymphoid cells is seen within the blood- 
vessels, the question at once arises. What is the connection be- 
tween these facts? Are the lymphoid cells in the blood derived 
from those in the medullary tissue, or vice versa? Neumann 
supposes that the lymphoidal cells of the blood are formed in the 
medullary tissue, and find their way into the vessels by a process 
of immigration similar to, but the converse of, that of emigration 
observed by Cohnheim; though, of course, not in this case sus- 
ceptible of direct observation. The difi'erence is, however, very 
considerable between a cell finding its way out of a vessel in the 
direction of the blood-pressure, and into a vessel against the 
blood-pressure. In order to make it probable that the medullary 
cells do find their way into the vessels, it would be important to 
show that they exhibit amoeboid movements. Neumann has ob- 
served that a small number only of the lymphoid cells pressed 
out of the medulla in a rapid investigation are without these 
movements, and concludes that it would be impossible to regard 
this small number as the only medullary cells ; so that some of 
those showing amoeboid movements must be medullary. 

(To be continzied.) 



Editors ^'■Missouri Dental Journal: " 

Gentlemen — The following singular " Xwsms Naturce,'" has 
fallen under my observation, and as I have seen nothing like it, 
will report for the Journal. 

Mr. J. R., aged thirty-six, had his superior incisors removed 
in June, 1865, and in the following October replaced by arti- 
ficial dentors. Owing to the apparent irregular absorption of 
the alveolus, the dentist was obliged to send a model to Phila- 
delphia and have teeth made to fit. 

After wearing the plate two years a tooth made its appearance 
in the place formerly occupied by the right central incisor, or a' 
trifle further back. 

Coming west about this time, and not residing near a dentist, 
Mr. R. showed it to a physician, who informed him it was a growth 
of bone, but at a subsequent examination by another physician, 
was told that it was a tooth, and an attempt to extract was re- 
warded by the crown breaking away. In August last Mr. R. 
requested me to extract it and I did so. 

It was in shape and appearance a wisdom tooth, the roots re- 
sembling those of most superior wisdom teeth, except that they 
were rather longer. The pulp chamber was triangular with two 
foramen at the apex of the root. Mr. R. informs me that pre- 
vious to the breakage the tooth had three cusps. 

Except the incisors before mentioned, and a right bicuspid 
(extracted about eighteen months ago), the teeth are all present, 
and in their proper places, except the right wisdom tooth. Did 
I get that tooth? If not, what did I get? 

Yours, M. 


lal nni Wtmllmxtm^ 


The meeting was called to order by the President, After the 
reading of the minutes, upon the favorable report of the Exec- 
utive Committee, seventeen names were added to the roll of 
the Society. After which Dr. Stockton rose and addressed the 
meeting as follows: 

He commenced by giving an epitome of the history of den- 
tistry, from the time of the Pharaohs to the present hour, and 
congratulated his hearers upon the progress and present status 
of dentistry as a profession. He then proceeded to speak upon 
what he conceived to be the important elements of successful 
practice. He confessed to a high appreciation of successful 
men as such. It was the fashion with a certain class of minds ta 
be-little success, but the more judicious in this age hold to the 
opinion that men who make their way to the front and main- 
tain a high position in any legitimate pursuit in life must have 
merit. To prostrate one's-self at the shrine of riches or power, 
might be called "flunkyism," but reverential respect for success 
won in any honorable pursuit was worthy of worship. It was 
veneration for that type of manhood which most nearly ap- 
proaches the Divine, by reason of its creative power. Occa- 
sionally pretenders met with seeming success for a time, and 
people spoke of luck. But true success comes not by chance. 
For men apparently adopt the same means to the same end, one 
fails, the other succeeds, and we say the latter is the more fortu- 
nate. But in reality their means were different. It is not by doing 
the right thing, but by doing it in the right way and at the right 
time, that we achieve the greatest triumphs in life. Again we 
must measure a man's success, not by the relation which his 
achievements bear to those of others, but by what he has him- 


self endeavored. If he has obtained the object he had in view 
— provided it be worthy an honorable ambition — he is a success- 
ful man. 

Concentration of thought and effort upon one's specific pur- 
suit was an important element of success. 

Self-reliance was a valuable quality, but the aid of professional 
brethren was by no means to be condemned. 

The demand now is for associated effort. No practitioner could 
make his mark who ignored it. We can often learn more at the 
dinner table of an associate than in our own laboratory studying 
a difficult case. Successful men have not confined themselves to 
direct action or looked only to immediate results; not a few fail- 
ures result from a lack of faith in and fellowship with profes- 
sional brethren. The longer we live the more we will be con- 
vinced that social intercourse is a material means to success. 
Through its instrumentality valuable information is imparted 
and received, improvements in mechanical appliances, aids, etc., 
suggested, and experiences in difficult operations communicated ; 
frequently the gain is palpable at once, and we count the advan- 
tage as we take off our dress coat, if not it will make itself mani- 
fest sooner or later. 

Keeping up with the profession involves hard labor, but we 
should not be content with that; all acting upon that principle 
our profession would soon come to a stand. Contentment with 
what is already known, would, of necessity, end all progression. 
We are to be imparters as well as receivers — to endeavor 
always to add something to the department of knowledge to 
which our calling relates. Attainment to a full knowledge of 
the science and principles of his profession as practiced, is far 
from being a despicable object of ambition ; but to enlarge its use- 
fulness and augment its achievements is certainly more worthy 
of one's aspirations. 

Over-sensitiveness oft-times interferes with a man's success. We 
must not be over-sensitive to attacks upon our pride. Every suc- 
cessful man has had much to mortify him in the course of his 
career ; he has borne many rebuffs, sustained many failures ; nor 
should we be discouraged over our mistakes and failures ; scarcely 


a practitioner among us but will admit he was (in a measure) 
made by his failures, and that what he once thought his hard 
fate was in reality his good fortune. Error properly improved 
became the stepping-stone to the highest success. Many a pro- 
mising practitioner has been permanently injured by early success. 

But it will not profit us or our reputation, or the profession, 
to publish our mistakes. Be it understood that by over-sensi- 
tiveness is not meant over-scrupulousnesss. Be ever scrupu- 
lous. Never get up any pretentious humbug. Never seek to 
undervalue the work of anotber. Never advertise to do better 
or cheaper work than your brother, to draw away patients. 

In estimating the sources of success account must be taken of 
our habits and temperaments; men otherwise well qualified have 
failed to make a name in the profession, from neglect of atten- 
tion in these important particulars. Most of us are sensible at 
intervals of feeblness aud weariness when we are seemingly inca- 
pable of any exertion ; and we hesitate at such times to know 
what to do, whether it were better to make the will assert itself 
and go on, in spite of weakness and lassitude, and continual en- 
treaties of the frail flesh, or let nature have her own way and suc- 
cumb at once; again there is fear of doing what we have in hand 
badly — perhaps of having it all to do over, or of making on the 
minds of those we wish to influence favorable, an impression of 
weakness. On the other hand there is danger of making com- 
promises with our active powers, and yielding to the temptations 
of indolence. We are in danger of mistaking idleness for debil- 
ity. It is a difficult thing to lay down specific rules. Each 
practitioner should study his own temperament. If we know 
we are not indolent; if we have for the most part pleasure in the 
practice of our profession, and never need the spur, Ave may 
safely pause when our energies are flagging. 

The speaker then alluded briefly to the question of manner, 
as involving an important element of success, though it was im- 
possible to lay down specific rules upon the subject. He spoke 
in favor of liberality in extending the benefits of improvements 
and discoveries from one member of the profession to another, 
deprecating anxiety for patent rights, and pleaded for encour- 


agement and aid to unfortunate, struggling practitioners. He 
closed by referring to the principles of Divine revelation, as 
those upon which all true success was above founded. 

Dr. Maynard, of Elizabeth ; Fitch, of New York, and Armes, 
were elected honorary members. 

Dr. Colburn moved that the Secretary prepare an abstract of 
Dr. Stockton's address for publication by the dental journals. 
The election of officers resulted as follows: 
President — A. W. Kingsley, of Elizabeth. 
Vice-President — G. F. J. Colburn, of Newark. 
Treasurer — Lewis Reading, Trenton. 
Secretary — E. A. Hanks, Rahway. 


Thomas Stephens, Trenton. William Dibble, Elizabeth. 

J. C. Robbins, Jersey City. C. F. Stockton, Mt. Holly. 
Leo. H. DeLange, Bordentown. 

Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed to take into 
consideration the " Regulation of the Practice of Dentistry in 
the State of New Jersey, and, if practicable, have a law passed 
that no one hereafter shall be allowed to commence the practice 
of dentistry, unless they shall have passed a satisfactory exam- 
ination before a board appointed in accordance with this act. 
Graduates of dental colleges excepted." 

Drs. Stockton, Reading and Colburn the Committee. 

After due consideration. Long Branch was selected as the 
next place of meeting. 

Dr. G. F. J. Colburn, of Newark, was selected to deliver the 
next annual address. 


Dr. Kingsley condemned Weston's Metal in toto. 

Straight's Flexible Edge met with no better success at the 
hands of Dr. Chew. 

Dr. J. C. Robbins objects very strongly to the odor of the 
celluloid base. 

Dr. Hayhurs thinks the camphor in the plate would be liable 
to become dissolved in the mouth. 


The Society was informed that Dr. Morrison was present with 
his burr machine. 


Drs. DeLange and Hanks then proceeded to give a clinic, fill- 
ing teeth with gold, both using the rubber dam. Dr. DeLange 
demonstrated his method of capping the nerve, using oxy-chlo- 
ride of zinc, finishing the rather diflficult operation of filling the 
posterior proximal surface of an upper molar tooth without pre- 
vious separation or preparation, very creditably. 

Dr. Hanks inserted a simple crown filling in a lower molar, 
giving Dr. Morrison an opportunity of exhibiting his burring 
machine. It performed all the doctor claimed for it. 


Dr. Colburn does not use the rubber dam, but does not con- 
demn it. Does not use it simply because he gets along perfectly 
well without it. 

Dr. Stevens thinks it a valuable discovery, has used it since 
Society meeting with valuable results. 

Dr* Hanks cured a case of alveolar abscess that pointed on 
the chin, by injecting the aromatic tincture of sulphuric acid; 
is indebted to Dr. Atkinson for the mode of treatment. 

Dr. Kingsley gave a case in practice; necrosis followed ab- 
scess — dissected the gum, took away the sockets almost entirely 
on one side of the upper maxillary. 

Dr. Colburn described Bacon's method of entrapping dentists 
who use the rubber without license. 

Resolved, That the New Jersey State Dental Society, now in 
session in the city of Newark, strongly protest against and de- 
nounce the practice of advertising cheap dentistry now in vogue 
by those claiming to be dentists. 

Only one unpleasant duty marred the harmony of the meeting, 
and that was the reprimanding of one of the members for unpro- 
fessional conduct. 

E. F. HANKS, Secretary. 


From the Canada Journal of Dental Science. 


It is a generally accepted maxim with all respectable physicians 
and dentists, that any advertisement, card, etc., which draws 
attention to special methods of practice, or special reductions of 
price, whether fair or fraudulent, are unprofessional. Some 
time ago we discussed this subject pretty thoroughly in this 
journal, and Senaca's excuse for reiteration, that "a thing is 
never too often repeated which is never sufficiently learned," will 
justify us in again adverting to it. 

Any ordinary advertisement, such as the simple name, profes- 
sion and address, is no doubt a solicitation, but most of first class 
practitioners who never use this form, would, in most instances, 
prefer not to advertise at all, but may feel obliged to do so in 
self-defence. With this simple form, however, no one can fairly 
find fault, though some do. 

But when these cards are carried around in one's pockets for 
miscellaneous distribution, and the individual is seen poking them 
into cars and conspicuous window panes ; when friends are button- 
holed in the streets and several pushed in their pockets, and 
introductions are followed by the irrepressible presentation of a 
card, and the orthodox remark, "Any influence you can exert in 
my favor will oblige," etc. ; when dentists "chum" with hotel 
keepers, and are fixtures of hotel doors and bar rooms, seeking 
notoriety and acquaintances in circles whose respectability is gen- 
erally impugned; when packages of their cards are left in 
saloons and in the glass cases of shops, and the individual is ever- 
lastingly on the qui vive to obtain patients in every other way 
except through the channel of merit and modesty, then we have 
a kind of solicitation debasing to any gentleman, and injurious 
to the name and fame of the profession. Against the whole low 
trickery — for it is nothing else — of show cases, golden teeth, 
extravagant multiplicity of sign-boards, special advertisements, 
miscellaneous obtrusion of cards, hand-bills and posters, let those 
who respect the profession frown ; for such attractions we know, 


instead of being an indication of that similar advertising enter- 
prise which in other businesses may be backed bj real capital 
and worth, is almost invariably a sign of lack of ability in den- 
tists who resort to their use. Let respectable practitioners educate 
the public in these points, and quackery will die of starvation, 
but so long as the people are left in ignorance, so long will 
flourish the race of dental charlatans and victimized fools. 

If we expect to elevate and advance our profession in Canada, 
we must individually examine our position in regard to these 
and other* points of ethics, and modify and remove objection- 
able associations, whose quackery is not one whit excusable be- 
cause they have antiquity or example for their apology. When 
show cases and such traps are removed, when dental advertise- 
ments and dental door-plates leave no impress of assumed supe- 
riority, when the expositor who calmly sat down and in one 
breath defamed the entire profession the better to extol himself 
— silly ass! — is defunct or repentant, when they who sin against 
the honor of the profession resolve to abstain, when we are satis- 
fied to call ourselves Surgeon Dentists without an array of less 
common and more high sounding appellations, when in fact, men 
aim to win position by merit, and enterprising zeal in their 
profession, then we may look for a golden age in dentistry, 
and a golden age not so difficult to be brought about as 
at first we would conceive. Quackery has flourished in all 
professions and countries on the silence of its victims and 
the ennui of its foes, and if impostors who exist do not repent, 
then expose them vigorously and constantly before the pub- 
lic. The present state of affairs in Ontario and Quebec 
should eff'ectually check any new additions to their ranks, if the 
Boards of Examiners are faithful. 

We have digressed a little from the subject proper of these 
desultory remarks, but in fact, all these questions of ethics run 
into one groove, and we shall persistently persecute these tricks 
of quackery until their promoters swear "total abstinence; " and 
the profession is purified of their contamination. " Whose head 
the cap fits may wear it." 



The quack diploma shop of this city, alias Eclectic Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, alias American University of Philadel- 
phia, alias Eclectic University, alias American Cancer Hospital, 
"with one Downs and Buchanan as physicians-in-chief, etc., etc., 
has been brought to a sudden termination by a movement of the 
Legislature to rescind the act to incorporate the Eclectic College, 
which gave them the power to confer the Eclectic degree, and 
make it a penal offence for them to pursue their practice of fraud 
in the bogus diploma business. Every friend of humanity, and 
especially every physician who has the least regard for his 
profession, should spare no pains to expose all the impostors who 
hold these bogus certificates, as it is well known that they have 
peddled them out to every one whom they could induce to pay 
from five dollars upward, without regard to their business, 
occupation, or character. For the extent of these frauds and 
counterfeiting diploma business, see Forney's Press. 

Vf e clip the above item from the Phila. Independent that our 
readers may fully comprehend the injury which has been inflicted 
upon the medical profession, as well as the outrageous imposition 
upon the public, by the set of men who have been engaged in this 
unprofessional business. Many of the young men of the country 
have been deceived by these pretenders, and are now occupying 
a questionable position in the profession, as well as in the com- 
munity in which they are practicing. The holder of an illegal 
diploma, if he knows it to be such, and continues to use it, 
deriving from it the same rights, privileges, and immunities as 
are conferred by a legitimate diploma, is no better than those 
who issue the counterfeit. 

[The above was a perfectly legal institution, having a charter 
from the legislature of Pennsylvania, and would have been a 
college de facto, as well as a college de jure, if it had had a 
qualified corps of professors, and had pursued such a course of 
instruction as reputable medical colleges pursue, and conferred 
degrees only upon those who had attended legitimate courses of 


lectures and had passed a creditable examination, instead of 
having peddled their diplomas out to every scalawag, who would 
furnish them a thesis, and pay from $20 to $50 for their parch- 
ments. We are glad that public opinion has finally been roused 
up to such a point as to compel legislative assemblies to take 
cognizance of such monstrous outrages upon all the decencies of 
professional life. 

Whilst a large majority of those who invest in such speculation, 
are no better than the venders of the diplomas themselves, 
still, there are occasionally some honest practitioners who aie 
inveigled into the purchase of one, and he soon finds that he i-; 
shut out of all decent professional meetings and societies, am! 
looked upon by all honorable practitioners in the profession, as 
an out-cast and a disgrace to the profession to which he claims 
to belong. We have never doubted but that an action for 
swindling would lie against any one engaged in that traffic, an I 
it seems that this is the view taken of the matter in Pennsylvania. 


— ♦-» » t » 


In the Chicago Medical Examiner, for July, we notice a "Re- 
port on the Medical Uses of Carbolic Acid," by Prof. Davis, of 
Chicago, by which it appears that this remedy, — which, by the 
way, was familiar to almost every dentist for nearly two years 
before the medical profession began to interest themselves in 
studying its uses, — has won a reputation for itself as a valuable 
remedy in many diseases, particularly in diarrhoea, accompanied 
with vomitings in infants. 

The prescription for a child eight months old, was, in one case, 
as follows : 

"Sf. Carbolic acid, in crystals, grs. iij ; glycerine, pure, 5 ss ; 
water, Sijss. 

Misce. Give half teaspoonful every hour until the vomiting 

We have tried a diluted solution of carbolic acid in cases of 
aphthous sore mouth, with the best of results. Also in some 


cases of dyspepsia. We have no doubt but that it is a valuable 

In an editorial, appears some remarks upon " Graded Classes 
and Consecutive Study in the Medical Colleges," This has ref- 
erence to the changes lately made in the medical department of 
Harvard University, which we noted in the Journal some two 
or three months since. We took occasion then to express our 
belief that it would prove a step in the right direction, and an 
augury of better days for the profession. We now find several 
of the leading medical journals indorsing this action of Harvard, 
and now we have other claimants for the honor of being the pio- 
neer in this movement. We should not be surprised if it turns 
out that all of the schools in the country had always worked upon 
that plan. We'll wait and see. 

In the Medical Record, for August 1st, we find detailed some 
recent experiments by Prof. Dalton, which bear directly upon 
the question which has arisen in relation to the time when glu- 
cose is produced in the liver. Some former experiments of Dr. 
Dalton seemed to indicate that although glucose was produced 
in considerable quantities in the liver after death, that the sub- 
stance of the liver, examined immediately after death, contained 
no sugar or glucose; but more extended experimentation has 
convinced him that it can be found at any period, though in 
much greater quantities after some time has elapsed from the 
death of the animal. 

Dr. Governeur M. Smith suggests that lactate, or the sugar 
of milk, may be also formed by the liver, and only separated 
from the blood by the mammary glands. 

The '■'■Maine Dental Society'' has definitely settled the ques- 
tion as to the relative poisonous qualities of rubber, silver and 
gold plates. "The summary conclusions were, that the per 
centage of inflamed mouths was not so great as when silver was 
used, and a little larger than gold produced." 

The profession will doubtless be under obligations to the 
Maine dentists for enlightening them upon the poisonous prop- 


erties of gold plates, which it appears are but slightly better 
than rubber in this respect, and silver plates are much worse. 

If such nonsense happens to be produced in a Dental Society, 
by some backwoods member, the Society should see to it that it 
should not appear in its published records, as it reflects too 
strongly upon the intelligence of the society which would allow 
such monstrosities to go forth in its transactions unrebuked. 

The Medical Record says: "Ulceration of the frsenum lin- 
guae in pertussis is referred to by a writer in the Glasgow Medi- 
cal Journal, as a diognostic sign of this disease." The writer 
seems to think it depends "upon friction of the frsenum against 
the lower incisor teeth during the spasmodic expiratory efforts."' 
It never occurs before dentition. 

Our English Journal states that quinine biscuits are used in 
London. A small biscuit containing a quarter of a grain of 

In the Nashville Medical Journal for August, we have a brief 
report of the last meeting of the Tennessee Dental Association, 
recently held in Nashville. From the report we conclude that 
the number present was much less than ought to have been 
present, and we hope our Tennessee friends will do better next 
time; and from the spirit exhibited by those present, we think 
the next meeting will be better attended. 

In an article taken from the New York Medical Journal, is 
recorded a case of carbuncle, treated by Dr. J. C. Nott. A 
deep incision was made through the carbuncle, and this stuffed 
with cotton saturated with pure carbolic acid. The acid was 
in the same way in the cut every day for a week, at the end of 
which time "nothing was left to treat but the small open wound 
made by the knife and the acid." 

The Register for August is mostly filled with papers and orgi- 
nal communications from various quarters, and we must say that 
with our acknowledged disposition to find fault with the dental 
literature of the day, we are most happy in being able to state 


that these articles are creditable to the authors and to the pro- 
fession, and will repay a careful perusal. 

In the proceedings of the New York Odontological Society, 
we find a report upon Operative Dentistry by Dr. Clows, in which 
a "peculiar species of hard tartar" is described, which he some- 
times finds upon the roots of teeth, and which he thinks is "de- 
posited by the lining membrane of the socket." These philoso- 
phies which are forced upon the profession from all quarters are 
very easily manufactured, and in very many cases not particu- 
larly creditable to their authors. 

If it could be established that a periostal structure had the 
power of secreting tartar from the blood, and then could deposit 
it upon another contiguous structure, our physiologists would 
have to commence their works anew. We had better not overturn 
all the physiological facts, that have resulted from the labors and 
experiments of ages, by a single dash of the pen, unless we de- 
sire to be laughed at for our trouble. J. 

The following specimen is indicative of the status of that por- 
tion of the dental profession, which is not generally represented 
in our dental societies and associations: 

May 19th 1871 

Dr Driscall Sir what Will you tax me to put three uper plats 
and two parshells under setts on Alumnum the money is redy 
when the Work is dun I dont work it well Dock I guess you 
think you wont git what I am oing you I will send it Just as 
Soon as I can and will pay you interest on the same I have about 
two hundred and fifty dollars Worth of plat work that is redy to 
put up I have bean trubeled about giting abase that will give 
satisfaction I would have had this work all put up and had the 
money for it but on the acount of not having A reliabel bace So 
I not put the up) hoos apratice doo yuu use far casting alumnum 
plats pleas ancer by return Mail and oblig yours 

NB I can extract fur five hundred dollars more this summer 

^fe^0ii:i §mM j0mi«l 


Vol. III.l NOVEMBER, 1871. [No. 11. 

From Ihe Pharmacist. 


By Professor A. W. Williamson, F, R. S. Before the Societj' of Arts. 
Reprinted from the Pharmaceutical Journal, London. 

{Ctmtiaued from Page, 569.) 

We had occasion last week to notice the effect of the atmos- 
phere on the process of fermentation in several instances. I 
mentioned, among other things bearing on that question, an ex- 
periment of Gay-Lussac, in which he squeezed some very ripe 
berries of the grape under mercury, and kept them, with due 
precautions for the exclusion, as far as he knew, of everything 
except the grape-juice ; he kept this expressed juice for some 
time quiescent, and then introduced a bubble of air, or a bubble 
of oxygen, the active substance of air, but he subjected the air or 
oxygen, before introducing it into this juice, to various strong 
influences, which must have destroyed any vital organism in it ; 
and he found that the mere addition of the air to the quiescent 
juice caused a process of fermentation to commence and a form- 
ation of organisms to begin, that they developed themselves, 
and that the liquid fermented in the usual way. The fact of 
the fermentation commencing is, if we bear in'mind the general 
results of M. Pasteur's researches, to be attributed to the pres- 


ence in the mercury or in the grape-juice, or somewhere or 
other in the substances present, of bodies which, by the mere ac- 
cess of oxygen, were stimulated so as to develop themselves 
into these little vital cells. It is now known, I may say, that 
there are in mercury, unless it is purified with extraordinary 
precautions, always present some such organisms, capable of de- 
veloping themselves under such influences ; and it is probable, I will 
not say more than that, for I do not know, that in the grape juice 
there may also be similar germs present. The functions of oxy- 
gen appear from that experiment — which has since been confirmed 
by other observers — to be essential, at all events, to the initiation 
of the process, and there is, in that respect, a remarkable analogy, 
which I think is interesting to call to mind, with the action of 
oxygen on other bodies, as shown by an experiment made by 
Humboldt many years ago. He got some grains of wheat from 
Egyptian mummies, which had been so long at rest that they 
were not inclined to grow, in fact, they could not be got to grow 
in the ordinary way. However, he stimulated them to activity 
by immersing them in a little chlorine water. It is well known 
to chemists that chlorine in the presence of water does oxydize, 
or cause the oxygen to separate and pass over to common organic 
substances capable of combining with it. Humboldt actually 
stimulated these sleepy wheat grains to life, so that they grew 
and germinated, and their descendants are still in existence, by 
the mere action of oxygen developed in that way. 

In the process of wine-making and wine-keeping, the presence 
of air is one of the most important matters which have to be con- 
sidered, and there has prevailed, and I ought to say there still 
prevails, to a certain extent, a difference of opinion regarding 
the functions of oxygen in these processes. On the one hand, it 
is known, as a matter of fact, that the processes of fermentation 
are performed under conditions such as that air has access to the 
substance. No actual wine or beer-making has yet been per- 
formed on a large scale on such conditions as to exclude oxygen. 
On the other hand, the experiments of Gay-Lussac established 
clearly that it is necessary. In some cases, however, in wine- 
making, it has been thought desirable to facilitate the access of 


air to the substance; while other wine-makers think, on the con- 
trary, that in the first process as little air should be present as 
possible; but there has always been some. The juice first ex- 
pressed from the grapes has been very carefully examined with 
regard to the gases contained in it. If air has access to it, it is 
always necessary to know, in order to judge whether the air acts 
upon it, whether the air is dissolved by it, and whether, if dis- 
solved by it, it is still to be found in the grape-juice as such, or 
whether it has undergone combination. Now, every case of the 
examination of must, or fresh grape-juice, which is not fermented, 
has shown that it contains a considerable quantity of gas, but no 
case has been established of free oxygen being present in it. 
Carbonic acid gas is present in it in a considerable quantity, and 
also nitrogen, in proof that the air had had access to it, but the 
oxygen which was taken up at the same time with the nitrogen 
from the air, was not to be got out from that must again. It 
had been taken up, and it had entered into combination with the 
substance, so that all the oxygen present was actually combined 
chemically with it. In that respect a good many observations 
have been made by various chemists, but I ought especially to 
quote those of M. Pasteur, which are exceedingly careful and 
valuable. He has shown that this substance not only eats oxy- 
gen, but digests it. The oxygen is not to be found in it as such. 
It is only present in the form of a compound, which is formed by 
its action on the organic matters there present. Then, when the 
wine-juice has been expressed, and when it has been allowed to 
remain some time in a suitable place, so as to undergo fermenta- 
tion, with a considerable variety of treatment in different places 
with regard to air, for in some places it is thought desirable that 
the fermentation should be allowed to take place in open vessels, 
or in vessels to which the air can have access as freely as possible, 
whereas in other cases special care is taken to cover as com- 
pletely as possible the vessels in which the fermentation is taking 
place, so that the air may have as little access as possible to the 
fermenting substance, — and I believe it is impossible to give any 
one general rule with regard to the best process for all cases of 
fermentation, because the materials which are subjected to fer- 


mentation vary so considerably; they differ from one another in 
their composition so materially, and there are also other circum- 
stances which are different, — for instance, the temperature, which 
has an important influence. Not only is the temperature in some 
localities higher than in others, but other circumstances are also 
different, and it would not be right to say, because air is found to 
be perfectly useless in some well-established cases during ferment- 
ation, that for that reason, it ought to be excluded, or even that it 
may be excluded, in all other cases of apparently similar fermenta- 
tion. As far as a general rule can be laid down from present ex- 
perience, I think it does appear certain that oxygen plays no part 
in the process after the first expression of the juice. Once the fer- 
mentation has commenced, it appears to go on as well if air is 
excluded from the substance as if air has access to it. There is, 
however, one circumstance which is considered by persons of 
considerable experience to be important in this matter, and which 
I ought therefore to mention, viz., that when fermentation takes 
place at a low temperature — and some fermentations are, with 
great care, kept at a low temperature — the products are found to 
be superior if the whole process is carried on, the temperature 
being kept exceedingly low, and in those cases it appears that 
an open vessel is certainly not in any degree detrimental. It is 
customary, in fact, to use an open tub when the temperature is 
low ; and, on the contrary, it is usual to use a partially closed 
vessel, of course allowing for the escape of carbonic acid, when 
the temperature is high. When the first vinous fermentation 
has completed itself, it is customary, in the wine-growing coun- 
tries, to put the still active liquid into casks, and the slower 
process of fermentation then goes on, which lasts a considerable 
time. During this second fermentation, there is very much the 
same kind of condition present as in the first, and there is always 
formed, in this subsequent fermentation, a considerable quantity 
of deposit, which is afterward removed with much care ; either 
the liquid is carefully decanted, or, in some cases, it is removed 
by a process of rough filtration. The subsequent treatment of 
the wine, I mean the keeping of it in casks or cellars, and the 
subsequent keeping in bottles — and these two processes of keep- 


ing it in casks and keeping it in bottles are quite distinct, — are 
not usually considered as forming part of the process of wine- 
making. It appears, however, from the investigations of M. 
Pasteur, that changes take place in the composition and the ma- 
terials by these processes, Avhich really are as es';ential to the 
composition of the product as an}^ other part of it, and that tlioy 
ought to be considered as later parts of the process of wine- 
making. In fact, the process of wine-keeping is, in theory, not to 
be separated from the process of wine-making, the keeping being 
a process making it more perfect than it was when first turned 
out of the fermenting vessels. Common experience corroborates 
that in a very remarkable way. Everybody knoAvs the diflferei:ce 
there is between new and old wine, and the changes which take 
place when the wine is being kept constitute certainly one of the 
most important parts of the general subject of wine-making. 
Wine, when its fermentation has been completed, is found to ab- 
sorb air with considerable rapidity and avidity, and when endeavors 
are made to get out from this wine again the air which has been 
dissolved in it, it is found that some kinds of wine allow it to go, 
or part with it again, whilst other wines do not; and in this re- 
spect, a distinctive test is found between the qualities of the 
Avine ; for by observing this difference in the facility with which 
they give up the air which they have dissolved, and by compar- 
ing that with the qualities of wines in each case, a remarkable 
generalization has been arrived at. In this matter I speak upon 
the authority of others, for I have not confirmed it by my own 
observations. But all that I do know fully corroborates it. The 
rule is this, that whereas low-class wines, which people will not 
pay much for, give up again almost completely the air which 
they have dissolved, superior kinds of wine do not give it up 
again, ihey only give up the nitrogen, and hold the oxygen fast. 
The oxygen, which is dissolved in both cases, is held firmly, or 
is digested by the high-class wines; but it is not digested, but 
simply eaten by low-class wines. Observations have been made 
in this direction by a great many observers, especially Berthelot 
and Pasteur, to whom we owe most decisive results in this respect. 

(To he continued.) 


From the St. Louis Medical and Surgical Journal. 


Abstract of an Inaugural Dissertation by Charles W. Bales, M. B. 

(Continued from Page 387.) 

More important support is given to the theory by various 
facts which point to a multiplication of medullary cells, since 
these, as they must go somewhere, Neumann concludes must 
find their way into the vessels. He also draws attention to the 
variations in size of the medullary cells, laying down the propo- 
sition that great differences in the size of similar elements in a 
tissue must depend upon processes of growth going on in them. 
Moreover, he draws attention to the myeloid cells, or '''•myelo- 
plaxes," found in the marrow of bones, which cells, according to 
Kolliker, arise from a proliferative increase of the small medul- 
lary cells, and finally divide again into a large number of small 
cells. If, then, according to Neumann, such a multiplication of 
small cells does really take place as these facts point to, there is 
no other exit for them than into the vessels ; the nutritive 
changes in so stable a substance as bone being far too small to 
need so copious a supply of organizable material. The hypo- 
thesis of an emigration of white cell from the capillaries into the 
medullary tissue, and a consequent accumulation of them here, 
is rejected by Neumann on the ground that a tissue, like the 
medulla, enclosed in a hard shell of bone, is especially unfavor- 
able for the emigration of cells, and that it is difiicult to see what 
would become of the emigrated white cells, their return to the 
vessels being improbable, and their exit through the very scanty 
or almost deficient lymphatics of bone being equally so. 

An unprejudiced consideration of all these circumstances 
must lead to the conclusion that, though the theory of Neumann 
is hardly susceptible of direct proof, it has, at all events, a great 
deal to say for itself; and that the marrow deserves, if any 


tissue of the body does, special notice with respect to the ques- 
tion of the transformation of blood-cells. 

Eales' own researches have been especially directed to the 
ribs, but he has obtained similar results from the apophyses of 
the long bones, the sternum, and' the diploe of the skull. 

The method of investigation, which is substantially that of 
Neumann, is as follows: A sawn-oflF piece of bone is gently 
pressed between a vise, or pair of pincers, till a thick reddish 
fluid oozes from the cut surface. This is removed with a pipette 
and examined under the microscope without any addition, and 
is most advantageously covered with small fragments of covering 
glass. An enormous abundance of lymphoid cells, of the most 
various size, at once strike the eye; true red corpuscles are pre- 
sent, but in very small number. The peculiar cell-forms desig- 
nated as transitional, which are here so important, have been 
repeatedly observed to occur in varieties which may be arranged 
in the series described below — a series forming a perfect chain 
of connection, without any important break, from the white to 
the red cells, or at least hardly admitting of any other equally 
satisfactory interpretation. Beginning with the white or lymph 
cell, the series is as follows : 

1. Colorless granular cells without a visible nucleus (ordinary 
lymph corpuscles). 

2. Smaller cells of the same kind, Avithout more irregular out- 
line, and without a visible nucleus. 

3. Cells almost of the same size, with a large granulated nu- 
cleus, and in its neighborhood a few scattered granules; and 
also with an annular or crescentic slightly yellowish border. 

4. Cells of the same size, with a smaller border, a somewhat 
smaller nucleus; no granules. 

5. Cells of about the same size, with a sharp outline, a some- 
what more distinct yellow color, and a still smaller granulated 
nucleus in the middle (half-way or middle stage). 

6. The same, with a more or less homogeneous, sometimes 
slightly concave, nucleus. 

7. The same, with scattered irregular granules (remains of 
the nucleus). 


8. More decidedly yellow; somewhat smaller; without nu- 

9, Yet smaller; more intensely colored, without nucleus (or- 
dinary red blood-corpuscles). 

It will be seen from this short description of the different cell- 
forms that they constitute so unbroken a series that one might 
be tempted, on this basis alone, to refer the metamorphosis of 
blood-elements, without hesitation, to the marrow; if, however, 
there were no confirmatory grounds, the author would not ven- 
ture to draw this conclusion, since the cells in question might be 
susceptible of another interpretation. 

The process of transformation appears to be, judging from 
the series of forms above described, as follows : the granulations 
in the lymph-corpuscles diminish from the periphery; next they 
lose near the centre some scattered granulations, while the re- 
maining hyaline substance begins to be colored yellow so soon as 
the granulations have quite disappeared, though with little general 
diminution in the size of the cell; the nucleus, previously granu- 
lar, become small and homogeneous, — while the whole cell is 
still but little diminished in size, — and it is not till the nucleus 
has first broken up and then quite disappeared that the size of 
the cell is materially diminished. 

Neumann, who refers to this process only in the following 
words, "The protoplasm becoming colored and at the same time 
homogeneous, — after that disappearance of the nucleus," — does 
not seem to understand the process of transformation quite in 
the way sketched out, and draws especial attention to cells which 
are more or less homogeneous in the centre, but retain their 
granular character at the periphery. If, however, they repre- 
sented traditional forms on their way to become red corpuscles, 
there should also be forms with a yellow coloration in the cen- 
tre, which is not the case. Hence those forms described by 
Neumann may perhaps not be transitional forms at all, but 
rather modifications of the ordinary lymph-cells which are on 
their way to perish altogether. The probability that some do 
thus perish before conversion into red corpuscles has already 
been pointed out by Virchow. 


With respect to the frequency of these traditional forms, they 
may be found in larger or smaller numbers in the fluid from all 
red marrow; at least the characteristic nucleated colored cells 
have never been found entirely wanting. Examinations have 
been made of the bodies of new-born children and adults of 
every age, including, in one case, a woman of ninety-eight years of 
age. The assertion of Neumann, that the number of transitional 
forms diminishes with increased age, was found to be confirmed 
in the extreme cases; but for intermediate cases, or generally 
for an}^ universal conclusions, the number of cases (twenty or 
thirty) seemed insufficient. Four special cases seemed worth 
more detailed notice: 

1. In a case of Addison's disease, the medullary fluid con- 
tained, properly speaking, nothing hut white cells, and the trans- 
itional forms were fewer and less distinct than in any of the other 

2. In a woman who died of puerperal hjemorrhage, transi- 
tional forms in all stages of development were extremely numer- 
ous and well defined. 

3. In a woman who had committed suicide (poisoning with 
hydro-chloric acid), transitional forms were more distinct and 
somewhat more numerous than in the case of individuals dying 
of a long or short illness. 

4. In phthisical patients, about as many transitional forms as 
in the second case. The constant occurrence of colored cells 
with two nuclei was very noticeable; in one case there was a cell 
with three nuclei. 

It should be mentioned that almost always more transitional 
forms were found in rabbits than in the human subject. 

Cases of leukoemia were also investigated. In a case of Neu- 
mann's, he had previously observed that the vascular network, 
generally so richly developed in the medulla, was absent. The 
medullary cells were not only extremely numerous, but showed 
very remarkable difference in size. The few vessels which re- 
mained contained almost entirely red corpuscles. These very 
interesting results agree perfectly Avith the view that the abun- 
dance of white cells in the blood, which characterizes this dis- 


ease, may be due to a diminished conversion of white cells into 
red, as Avell as to an increased production of the former. It is, 
however, clear, from the occasional occurrence of colored nucle- 
ated cells in the blood of leuksemic persons, that the blood 
metamorphosis cannot be entirely suspended, the probable expla- 
nation being that these cells have left the marrow before their 
complete transformation. 

Eales had the opportunity of examining a femur and a rib of 
a leuksemic person, but not till they had been long preserved in 
spirit. In these specimens he found the medullary cells well 
developed and numerous, the vessels containing what looked like 
white and red corpuscles. No transitional forms were seen, but 
the weight of these observations was diminished by the fact that 
they were not made, as Neumann's were, on fresh specimens. 


[extract from] 


By Db. Robert Braithwaite. 

Biology, or the study of living things, naturally divides itself 
into two parts, the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Taking a 
rapid survey of the vegetable kingdom, we place the Algre, or 
water-weeds, at the bottom of the scale, together with the minute 
forms (^Diatoms and Desmids) found in our ponds. Following 
these come the Fungi, and above these Lichens and Mosses. 
Next we place the Ferns. These form the Cryptogamous, or 
non-flowering plants. From these we pass to the Phcenogamous^ 
or flowering plants, in which pollen is produced. As well-known 
objects for the microscope, I may just refer to the pollen, to the 
cuticle, or skin covering the leaves, with its stomata, or breath- 
ing pores, and various forms of hair, and to the modifications we 
may notice in divers seeds. Passing next to the animal kingdom, 
we find that the lowest animals, like the lowest plants, are of the 


simplest structure, as a type of which I may mention A^noeba, 
a little gelatinous speck we find gliding on the surface of ponds. 
After this wc get species invested in a thin flexible shell, and 
so we pass on to those beautiful perforated organisms dredged 
up from the ocean bed. Next come the Sponges, and after 
these we have the great gruup of Infusoria, the animalcules par 
excellence, for some of them are the most minute of living crea- 
tures, all of them interesting to watch Avhen living, but unfortu- 
nately not capable of being preserved satisfactorily. The great 
divison of Articulata embraces animals whose limbs are com- 
posed of jointed segments, and organs in lateral pairs. Lowest 
of these, and passing as it were from the last group, are the 
Worms, which have of late acquired considerable importance, 
from the mode in which even human beings may be infested by 
them, — I refer to the Trichina spiralis, that minute worm which, 
sometimes by millions, inhabits the muscles of animals used for 
our food, and which thus get introduced into the human economy. 
The Rotifera. include many beautiful microscopic animals ; there 
is still much to be learned, respectiiig their anatomy and life- 
history. Above these comes the group comprising the Crab, 
Shrimp, and Lobster, as well as many minute forms which 
abound in our ponds. Following these is the group comprising 
the Spiders and Mites. Both are especially worth investigation. 
We now arrive at the great class of insects, the study of which, 
or Etomology, has now become most ardently pursued. As 
objects of interest, even to tlie young, few surpass a well- 
mounted collection of insects; and I do look forward to the 
time, I trust not far distant, when the insect fauna of the dis- 
trict shall be represented in the cabinets of this club by actual 
named specimens. The last great division of the invertebrate 
animals, are the Mollusca or Slugs and Shell fish, but of these 
time does not permit me to speak. I may at least mention the 
names of the vertebrate animals, these being Fishes, Amphibia, 
E-eptiles, Birds, Mammalia, and by these we reach the prince 
and head of all creation — Man. And what does the microscope 
teach us with regard to ourselves ? Not that we stand apart 
from the rest of the organic world, but that of the many thous- 


ands of living beings, each forms a link in the vast chain bj 
which even Man and the Amoeba form one harmonious whole. 
To man, however, is given something more — knowledge, reason, 
and consequently responsibility ; and by these we are led far 
beyond the limits of the small circle in which we travel, still to 
find ever out-reaching the farthest grasp of instrumental power, 
yet present every moment to our unaided vision, one Creator and 
Preserver of all, by whom, and through whom, we, and all 
things, live, and move, and have our being. 

From the Monthly Microscopical Journal. 


At a late meeting of the Quekett Club, Mr. Lowne, in making 
some observations on the white blood corpuscles of the newt, made 
some forcible remarks on the subject of Pangenesis. He recorded 
the experiment of Qohnheim on the blood corpuscle. If the 
swim bladder of a fish be filled with a solution of common salt, 
containing one per cent, of salt, tied and inserted under the 
skin of a rabbit or frog, after a short time, say twelve or twenty- 
four hours, it would be found filled by a large number of leuco- 
cytes, which had found their way into the bladder by permeat- 
ing its walls. These were alive when they left the living tissue 
of the animal, but after going through the bladder their move- 
ments no longer continued, as they died in the saline solution; 
hence they were unable to escape from the bladder, and a large 
number became entrapped. This result not only applies to the 
swim bladder of the fish, for, according to Cohnheim, if the 
cornea of a frog's eye be taken (it must be quite fresh) and in- 
serted under the skin of a living frog, in the course of twenty- 
four or fortj'-eight hours it will be found, upon examination, to 
contain a large .number of leucocytes at various depths in the 
tissue of the cornea. Mr. Lowne considered these to be very 
remarkable properties, and he laid much stress upon them as 
throwing a great deal of light upon the doctrine of Pangenesis, 


as enunciated by Charles Darwin, by which doctrine it was 
supposed that particles or gemmules were given off from every 
part of the organism, capable of reproducing like parts under 
certain conditions, and of being collected in the ovum. The 
whole animal was thus permeated by particles passing off from 
the living tissue. It had been objected to by Dr. Lionel Beale, 
that these particles, being solid, could not pass through the walls 
of a living cell; but if leucocytes could pass through solid tis- 
sues he could not see why minute gemmules, which might be 
solid or semi-solid, like leucocytes, should not pass through cell 
walls. He could not see why there should be any serious objec- 
tions to the doctrine of Pangenesis. There was great difficulty 
in distino;uishinf>; a solid from a fluid. If the Protozoa be exam- 
ined, many of them would be found to exhibit a series of grada- 
tions of solid matter, harder externally and softer internally; 
but no lines of demarcation could be drawn between the solid and 
more fluid parts of those animals, as one portion of the proto- 
plasm shaded insensibly off into another. 


From, the "anada Joui-nal of Dental Science. 


Bj S. P. Cutler, M. D., D. D. S., New Orleans. 

I took of good amalgam twenty-four grains and mixed with 
mercury, usual way, and expressed through buckskin to the 
proper dryness, then washed in alcohol and weighed. Thirteen 
grains of mercury had been retained. After two weeks, I weighed 
again and found a loss of two grains, the whole weighing thirty- 
five grains, a little less than half as much mercury as of silver 
and tin. The small amount of evaporation of mercury in thirty- 
five grains of amalgam is so insignificant, that no possible harm 
could take place by the use of even that amount at one sitting. 


which would be sufficient to fill several quite large cavities, though 
in some extreme cases double the amount or more may be used in 
one tooth, even then no danger of salivation need be appre- 
hended in any subject. 

By applying heat with the blow pipe the dry lump became 
soft and plastic, as when first mixed, only a little more brittle. 

The chemical affinity between the mercury, tin, and silver, is 
very strong and not easily broken up, and is known as the law of 
adhesive affinity or that of wetting, which is explained in this 
way : Any liquid whose affinity or cohesion is greater for any 
solid than the cohesive attraction of its own molecules, a perfect 
solution or saturation takes place. 

Again, any liquid whose affinity or cohesion for any solid is 
more than half what it is among its own molecules, simply wet- 
ting takes place, nothing more. 

Any liquid whose affinity for a solid is less than one-half what 
it is among its own molecules no wetting takes place at all, as 
mercury and glass, porcelain and many other solids, as mercury 
and bone or dentine demand. The reason why water and oil or 
mercury do not unite depends on this same law. The word adhe- 
sion and cohesion may both be used in the above explanation. 
This specimen softened by heat, and gave up the mercury, though 
rather explosively, so that I could not ascertain the final result 
by the blow pipe. In fact, this is a feeble fulminate. 

Pure Silver Amalgam. 

Twenty-four grains of pure silver filings combined with twenty- 
eight grains of mercury when expressed through buckskin as 
an ordinary use of amalgam in filling teeth. It will be seen 
that pure silver requires more than double the amount of mer- 
cury to amalgamate it than ordinary tin and silver combined. 

Pure silver does not make a tough and tenacious mass, only 
slightly adherent. Washing with alcohol does not produce any 
dark color as in ordinary amalgams. 

No loss or subsequent hardening takes place by standing for 
six days, weather hot. On applying heat with blow pipe, light 
colored fumes began to pass off and continued to escape frequently 


in sudden gusts, and continued up to a red heat, at which 
temperature I kept it for a few minutes until all fumes ceased. 
It did not become soft and plastic at all, like ordinary amalgam, 
but remuined hard during the process, becoming light yellow, 
and did not lose any of its coherent properties by heating. There 
was a loss of twenty-four grains out of the twenty-eight of 

Amalgam of Pure Tin Filings. 

Twenty-four grains of pure tin filings took up fourteen grains 
of mercury, forming a mass in all respects similar to ordinary 
amalgam: did not loose in weight by standing several days. 
Washing with alcohol produced about the same amount of dark 
matter as common amalgam. There was no subsequent harden- 
ing from the first, melting on charcoal for fifteen minutes, caused 
no loss in weight, no fumes escaped. After cooling, the mass was 
found to be quite hard and tough, polished well, and pure white. 

The probability is that this amalgam would not harden suf- 
ficiently in the tooth to make a good filling. 

Silver Coin Amalgam, or Amalgam of Olden Time. 

Twenty-four grains of coin filings take up thirty-two grains 
of mercury to amalgamate. After several days' standing I 
found the mass hard and firm, had scarcely lost a grain in weight. 
On applying heat it did not become at all plastic, but remained 
hard. I continued the heat up to redness, for at least twenty 
minutes before the mercury fumes ceased passing ofi": on weigh- 
ing I found nearly all the mercury had escaped; the lump still 
remained hard and firm though brittler than before applying 

Now, the question is, what holds the filings together, when all 
but a trace of the mercury has been dispelled by heat? Wash- 
ing with alcohol produced dark matter. 

Pure Gold Amalgam. 

Twenty-four grains of pure gold filings take up fifteen grains 
of mercury to amalgamate. It instantly becomes white like 
pure silver amalgam ; on standing several days there was no loss 


in weight, neither did it set or harden to any extent, iu conse- 
quence it will not answer for filling teeth. There was no stain 
from washing. On applying heat with the blow pipe, up to red- 
ness, fur five minutes, it became yellow and lost all the mercury 
and two grains more. The filings were not melted, and the mass 
much tougher than before heating. On melting the gold there 
was no more loss of weight, the gold apparently as pure, and 
worked as well as though there had never been any mercury in 

This amalgam would be a desideratum in practice if it could 
be made to harden in any way. 

Eighteen Carat Gold Amalgam. 

TAventy-four grains of eighteen carat gold silver alloy take 
up twenty grains of mercury to amalgamate. It does not be- 
come so instantaneously white as pure gold, neither was the 
white so intense. 

On washing with alcohol there was scarcely any stain. After 
several days drying there was no loss by evaporation, the mass 
becoming quite hard and brittle. This amalgam will answer a 
very good purpose in some cases for filling teeth. I have had a 
filling of this kind in one of my back teeth, five or six years, 
now perfectly sound, only dark on the surface owing to the silver 
it contains. 

On applying heat to the specimen, and raising up to redness 
for five minutes, all the weight of mercury disappeared, still 
leaving a hard firm mass, which takes a fine polish and has a 
golden color. 

Amalgam of Cadmium. 

Twenty-four grains of cadmium filings amalgamate with forty- 
two grains of mercury, and sets or hardens almost instantane- 
ously if quite dry, even without squeezing through buckskin. 
On rubbing in the palm of the hand the finger becomes black, 
and on washing with alcohol about the same amount of dark mat- 
ter is produced as in common amalgam. 

On drying for several days it loses nothing in weight. 

While rubbing in the palm of the hand a considerable amount 


of heat is developed, I presume, from the rapid conversion of the 
liquid mercury into solid, the latent force of the fluid mercury 
being transformed into sensible heat. 

This amalgam is almost certain to destroy the nerves in all 
teeth filled with it, turning the tooth yellow and staining all the 
balance at the line of the gum the same color. This yellow stain 
is the result of a yellow soluble oxide, the fillings remaining white 
owing to the solubility of the oxide. 

The specimen lost one grain after several days drying. On 
melting on charcoal it does not evaporate or loose in weight, and 
melts at a very low heat, and remains fluid a long time and retains 
the white color. 

After being melted it is vei-y tough and may be hammered or 
rolled into a plate, and cuts easily with a knife. This amalgam 
may be found valuable for some purposes out of the mouth. 

There are some dentists still using this amalgam to my know- 
ledge for filling teeth. It should never be used in the mouth 
under any circumstances. 

By heating cadmium sufliciently hot, yellow vapors of the 
oxide of the metal are formed. Mercury unites readily and 
hardens with this metal, but does not harden to any extent when 
united with any of the other simpler metals experimented with. 
Why this is so, I am unable to say, unless it is from the fact that 
mercury and cadmium are the only two metals whose combining 
volumes of vapor are double that of any other elementary bodies. 
All good amalgams must be composed of at least two metals be- 
sides mercury. None of the above metals decompose water to 
any extent under ordinary circumstances. 

I experimented with platinum and mercury, also aluminum 
and mercury, but found that neither of them formed metallic 
amalgams with mercury, only oxides of which I shall have occa- 
sion to speak sometime, under another head, more especially that 
of aluminum. This metal is one of the most selfish and un- 
friendly of all known metals, refusing to unite or form any me- 
tallic alliance with any other metal. This is a great and wise 
provision in nature's economy, this metal forming, as it does, 
the basis of most soils; the earth would be but a barren waste 


if this metal held strong affinities for other metals; when the 
earth was in a melted state alloys would have been formed with- 
out end, so as to have prevented its capacity for uniting with 
oxygen to form clays. 

The metals suitable for amalgams are reduced down to three, 
silver, gold, and tin, mercury forming the amalgamating metal. 
Tin and silver make the best; silver and gold answer very well; 
gold and tin are too brittle and hard for practical purposes ; they 
do not harden at all when amalgamated ; none of the other metals 
will answer as they would not stand in the mouth. 

From, the Canada Journal of Dental Science, 


In discussing various points of ethics, with reference more 
particularly to advertising and fees, we feel that we may have 
omitted to do justice to a large and important class of the pro- 
fession, whose position "out of town," in a sparsely-settled coun- 
try like Canada, and among a people so ignorant of dentistry 
as the mass of Canadians, is certainly peculiar. 

In the very outset of his career in Canada, the country dentist 
finds himself among farmers who know comparatively more about 
the care of the mouths of sheep and cows than their own, and 
among a large class who need dental cuts in newspapers, and 
show-cases in the streets to attract their attention to the fact 
that the "Dentist" attends tQ the teeth, with something of the 
degree of intelligence as the four year older, who requires the 
illustrated picture book to deepen the impression in his mind, of 
the difference between a wheel-barrow and a spade. The degree 
of enlightenment is somewhat higher in the cities and large 
towns; but there still exists for all dentists in Canada, a tangible 
difficulty in overcoming ignorant prejudice and penurious " econ- 
omy" with regard to the teeth. To this condition of things we 
may attribute certain breaches of professional ethics by dentists 
practising out of town, and who might possibly starve if they 


conformed to rules suitable for the town and suitable for a popu- 
lation well informed, and fully appreciative of the value of the 

What would be considered eccentricity or carelessness in the 
matter of dress, for instance, in the city, is simply a matter of 
custom and comfort out of town ; and the gayest dandy is only 
too glad to throw oflF his swell toggery and enjoy the release of 
a rough mufti and a tout ensemble to please himself alone. In 
most other circumstances there is a conventional diflference be- 
tween the city and country, to which most of us conform. 

There are moral and professional principles which no circum- 
stance of residence can annul; but it would be drawing too fine 
a parallel to say, that just as a man should be a christian in the 
country as well as in the town, so should a dentist be a consist- 
ent observer of dental ethics framed mainly by city dentists, or 
by dentists in larger and more intelligent country communities 
than we find in Canada, wherever he may happen to reside. 
The parallel is not fairly drawn. The one is a question of moral 
principle and life, as indelible as the very heavens, to be cherished 
regardless of cost; the other a point of honor, but still a point 
of existence, — and human nature may die for a principle involv- 
ing a theology, but will not tolerate rules of etiquette which 
involve its sure starvation. Debt and family responsibility are 
casuists, and we assume that the men who profess a readiness 
to perish rather than break a rule of professional etiquette are 
pretty well convinced beforehand that they will never have the 
chance to be tried. 

In codes of dental ethics there are generally, first principles 
of good manners laid down which we do not think are at all 
unnecessarily detailed, and which certainly ought to be instinc- 
tive and innate with dentists in every sphere. Kindness, firm- 
ness, patience, willingness to explain mysterious points of 
practice, and ability to do so, are circumstances of timely educa- 
tion, and if a code of ethics can instil a condition of character, 
so much the more credit to the code. But in regard to the 
matter of advertising and fees, we must do justice to the circum- 
stances of the country dentist in Canada. While we hold that 


the city dentist has no excuse for resorting to hand-bills, posters, 
and other forms of advertising than the ordinary card, there are 
fair reasons for excusing the country dentist, in Canada at least, 
should he feel it necessary to do so ; and yet there is no excuse 
on the other hand, for the country dentist who makes use of 
these means to call attention to the lowness of his fees, his 
special modes of operating, or his superiority over neighboring 
practitioners. It must be remembered that the country people 
in Canada are difficult to reach ; that they do not all take news- 
papers ; that they are more zealous of the time necessary to be 
devoted to good operations, have expenses of board and lodging 
in many cases, while remaining to have dental operations com- 
pleted, and have actually to be coaxed to be educated to care for 
their teeth. Many farmers never visit the dentist in his office, 
but wait for the traveling practitioner, and dental operations are 
performed in the precarious steadiness of rocking and arm 
chairs, and under other circumstances prejudicial to success. If 
the people were better educated in dentistry, they would never 
encourage the traveling dentist who goes from house to house to 
solicit or perform operations. They expect their teeth can be 
repaired like tin kettles, and class the dentist with the gipsy and 
peddler. Had traveling dentistry been in the hands of honest 
men, much good in educating the people on dental matters 
might have been accomplished ; but it has served to deepen 
prejudice because so much in the hands of dishonest men. These 
facts show the difficulties to be met by the country dentist of to- 
day ; that he has to pave the way for practice in most cases by 
a previous education of his patients. 

In this light, of the country dentist doing his best intelligently 
and honestly, we see the necessity for some traveling dentistry 
at present, but no more excuse for quackery on the country road 
than quackery on Notre Dame street. We see, too, the actual 
necessity for modest hand-bills and posters, and advertisements 
in the newspapers, but again, let us reiterate, no reason at all 
for bombastic egotism and absurd pretention. We have no more 
defence for dental cuts and show-cases for the country dentist 
than for his confrere of the city ; and while regretting that the 


state of dental education among the people is so low as to 
necessitate the same means of calling their attention to the 
presence of a dentist as the visit of a circus, we have faith that 
better days will come, and that Canadian farmers and village 
residents will welcome the appearance of the honest dentist 
among them, and will not require persuasion to have attention 
paid to their teeth. 

Let country dentists frown down such intolerable conceits and 
high-flown quackery as we still see in the advertisements of some 
practitioners, and avoid imitating a bad example, even if it be 
imported from the town. 

With reference to fees, the country dentist ought to operate 
for lower fees than city dentists, because his expenses are much 
lower ; but on the other hand, if he can render equally good, 
and as many can, superior, work to the large majority of dentists 
in cities, we do not see why any circumstance of residence should 
make him lower his fees. We know some .dentists practising in 
country districts of Canada, who demand higher fees than prac- 
titioners in some of our large cities, and others who attracted 
patients to them from a distance by their superior skill, and who 
were paid much higher fees than' the large majority of city 
dentists could have obtained for similar services in town. Such 
appreciation is the exception, not the rule, in Canada ; but it is 
well to chronicle these facts, as indicative of what can be done 
by skill in practice, and dignity in demanding fair remuneration. 
Patients going to town have the expenses of board, etc., in addi- 
tion to higher fees to pay, and run the risk of getting into the 
"dental slaughter houses" to be found in most cities. Those 
are indisputable facts which should stimulate country dentists to 
aim at excellence. A tooth cannot be filled nor a set made any 
cheaper in the country than in the city, if honestly done, because 
where the country dentist has the advantage of smaller expenses, 
the city dentist has treble the amount to do. In nine cases out 
of ten, the country dentist is abetter operator than the same 
proportion of city dentists. His position conduces to quiet study ; 
his physique and health is superior; his nerves are more under 
control, and he may, as many do, find a friend and mutual 


educator in the village physician, both of whom react on the 
other, and tend to mutual knowledge and improvement. What 
kills the country dentist is a want of friendliness with confreres, 
and an effort to underbid to gain a practice: while there has 
been some indulgence in personalities, and miserably mean reflec- 
tions and inuendoes in the papers, discreditable to members of a 
profession which now ranks in Canada with the leading profes- 
sions of the day. Fee bills in Canada for town will not serve for 
the country, simply because very many of the people would 
rather lose their teeth, than expend as much for their salvation 
as they would for their beer, and grudge a professional man a 
whit more profit than the one who makes their boots. The 
remedy lies in educating them by means of the press, by 
publishing reliable information in regard to the teeth, without 
any advertisement appended ; by educating in the office, by doing 
one's very best conscientiously in every operation, and so winning 
the respect and confidence of the public. B. 


At eight o'clock we began the labors of the day upon a patient 
who had been victimized by an advertising practitioner. A few 
months previously he called at the shop where he had the stuffing 
done, and requested the dentist to examine his mouth. The re- 
port was that there were two cavities, one on the left superior 
first molar mesial surface, and the other in the second right 
bicuspid distal surface. The patient requested him to fill them 
with gold. The dentist reported that they were too far gone 
for that ; that they were too weak to stand the pressure, and that 
the only chance to save them, was to fill them with amalgam, 
which he proceeded to do. 

The cavities were only partially cleaned, but without any at- 
tempt to shape them properly, and a quantity of amalgam crowded 
down between the teeth, and the mouth pronounced in good or- 
der, and the patient dismissed. One of the masses of amalgam 


was li/ing around loose between the teeth, and upon removing 
the other the cavity was found about half cleansed. 

The cavities were carefully cleansed, chiseled into shape, dove- 
tailing through in both cases to the grinding surfaces, and there 
was found to be no difficulty, as far as the strength of the teeth 
was concerned, in filling with gold. The patient is a wiser man, 
and has a higher appreciation of gold plugs than ever before. 

Next, a young lady of eighteen, with mouth in a very bad con- 
dition. Two operators of this city have at different times filled 
some of her teeth. The operations of one of them, as I would 
have expected, have nearly all failed, whilst those which were 
placed in her mouth by the other are all good. The right supe- 
rior second bicuspid has been treated for about ten days, and 
we find the pulp cavity ready to fill. No difficulty is experienced 
in filling the root, as the cavity is large and straight. As the 
labial cusp is almost entirely broken ofi", a question arises as to 
the propriety of building it up. The root is strong, as well 
as the lingual cusp, or at least what there is left of it, for a 
part of that is also gone. The patient shows her teeth but little 
when she parts her lips, so that the appearance of the gold can 
form but a very slight objection, and, upon the whole, I conclude 
to build up the labial cusp with gold. This is done during a 
somewhat tedious sitting of three hours. The tooth had been 
filled two or three times before, when the conditions for saving 
it were much more favorable than they were this time, but I 
have no fears of failure, in this case, for many years to come. 

A new patient presents herself, and, upon examination, I find 
the old story over again. The left superior cuspid had been 
filled two or three times, "off East," as she said, and she showed 
very plainly that she thought her dentist off East could fill teeth 
as well as any one could. She seemed to be a little surprised 
when we answered her query in regard to the price, but, after 
some hesitation, made an engagement for a subsequent day, and 
we turned to another patient who had just entered, by whom we 
were requested to look at a plate, which had become so loose that 
it would scarcely stay in the mouth. The plate had only a single 
tooth, was of red rubber, and the mucous membrane was in an 


active state of inflammation, and so much thickened that the 
plate was thrown entirely out of its original location. She stated 
that the plate set quite firmly when it was placed in the mouth, 
but after a few weeks, began to grow loose, and finally all the 
suction was lost, and the plate entirely useless. I recommended 
her to go without her plate, and to have the mucous membranes, 
where the plate rested, painted with tincture of iodine every 
other day for a month, and then call and see me again. J. 

-♦-« > « ♦ 


By W. E. DRiseoLL. 

Although the discussion of the mallet question is not as lively 
at present as a year ago, there can be no doubt that many remain 
to be converted to a correct practice in its use. 

Having been so much benefited by the change to the heavy 
lead mallet, I am moved to suggest an idea in regard to the 
stroke, which I regard as next in importance to weight and non- 
elasticity. In fact as being in a great measure necessary to get 
the full benefit of the increased weight. 

A great many, in using the heavy lead mallet, strike a quick, 
short blow. This, experience has proved to me, destroys, in a 
great degree, the value of this, the best of all the mallets yet 
devised, and is one main reason of the controversy as to what 
qualities constitute the best mallet. Without detailing the expe- 
rience that leads to such a conclusion, I will say the best results 
that I have been able to attain to, with the mallet, was with one 
of lead, weighing nine ounces. Used with a slow stroke, swinging 
the mallet back and forth, a distance of about three inches, hit- 
ting square on the end of the plugger. 

I am aware that there is an immense amount of eminent au- 
thority against this theory. But the question of what makes 
the gold work best cannot be settled by any amount of theory 
without the actual test of experience to prove every step. For 
this reason I could not have been induced to add another to the 



long list of articles having for their object the defense of some 
pet idea of the law of ^' vis viva," "inertia," "momentum," etc., 
etc. What is really to be depended upon in such a case as this, 
is that which experience teaches. And, knowing what it has 
taught me, I would like to know if the same practice will not 
lead others to the same conclusion. 


ToPEKA, Kansas, September 12, 1871. 
Society met at the rooms of Dr. Marvin according to adjourn- 
ment. President J. B. Wheeler in the chair. Roll was called, 
and Drs. Fuller, Wheeler, Marvin and Callahan answered to their 
names. Minutes of last meeting were read and adopted. The 
election of new members was next in o'der, and the names of 
A. Doud, of Olathe; L. C. Wasson, of Ottawa; F. D. E. Obert, of 
Topeka ; and C. H. Reeder, of Burlingame, were presented by 
the membership committee, and after due deliberation they were 
elected active members of the Society, signed the constitution 
and paid the requisite fee. Society then adjourned to meet at 
nine o'clock to-morrow, at the parlors of the Fifth Avenue 

September 13, 9 o'clock. 

Meeting called to order by the President. All the members 
present. Discussion on operative dentistry ensued.. 

Dr. Fuller said — I have been filling teeth for the last two 
years with foil. I use the hand mallet of lignum vitte ; have an 
assistant all the time. I have an automatic plugger, but use it 
very little, and prefer the hand mallet used by an assistant. 

L. C. Wasson — I strongly advocate the use of Watt's crystal 
gold; have been using it for the last ten years; commenced its 


use ■when first introduced; have used it with great success, and am 
quite sure that I can make a better filling with it than with foil. 
I know that a great many difi'er with me, and that the profession 
is generally opposed to its use; I think I can restore the lost 
heart of a tooth better, and more rapidly, and with the same 
amount of labor as used on foil; I have not replaced more than 
two fillings where I used Watt's crystal gold. Owe my success 
with crystal gold to my instructions in using it, by good opera- 
tors and advocates of this form of gold. Think the trouble is 
with many operators, that they were not careful enough in its 
use. I use instruments with very shallow serrations. I have 
not a word to say against foil. 

E. C. Fuller — I think if crystal gold is carefully worked with 
shallow serrated instruments, a good filling can be made with it. 
I confess that I do not know how to work it. I use heavy foil, 
No. 120, especially for building out lost portions of the tooth. I 
can work it nearly as fast as amalgam. I do not use 120 as 
much as formerly, but smaller Nos. of the heavy foil. Think 
it is not necessary to say much about amalgam. I use os arti- 
ficiel for capping nerves ; leave it for a few days in sensitive cav- 
ities to remove sensitiveness. In exposed nerves I fill with os 
artificiel, afterwards remove and fill with gold. 

J. B. Wheeler — Would it not be better to leave some of the 
OS artificiel? 

E. C. Fuller — Yes, I always endeavor to do so ; sometimes find 
difficulty in doing it. I think that new dentine is often formed. 

L. C Wasson — rl have been using os artificiel for some time, 
with flattering results. Have seen a good deal about the forma- 
tion of new dentine, especially in the reports of the Illinois So- 
ciety. I do not think new dentine forms after the patient is 
twenty-five years old. I have had a case of exposed nerve filled 
with Hill's stopping; after six months removed and found new 
dentine formed. Have not had good success in capping nerves 
in the mouths of old persons. 

E. C. Fuller — I do not think it best to remove the os artifi- 
ciel in so short a time, but that it ought to remain for a year, if 
circumstances do not compel the hastening of filling with gold. 


A. M. Callahan — I succeed with capping very well with young 
persoi>s, not with old. With elderly people I destroy an exposed 
nerve and make a fang filling. Sometimes fail with young per- 
sons also. Many circumstances and conditions regarding the 
patient, influence the success of the operation of capping nerves. 

A. Doud — I have not had much experience with os artificiel. 
Have used ii some. In one case of nerve exposure I filled with 
OS artificial; nerve was healthy; was compelled to remove the 
filling on account of pain. My experience is that the use of os 
artificiel is almost always accompanied with pain, often very se- 
vere and sometimes destroys an exposed nerve. 

L. C. Wasson — The pain is generally saved by cauterization. 
Am careful not to put the os in, when in too fluid a state, else 
it will produce more pain than when put in thick and pasty. 

E. C. Fuller — It requires considerable skill to insert an os 
artificiel filling. I introduce it so thin that it does not require 

L. C. Wasson — I do not agree with Dr. Fuller as to the proper 
consistency of os artificiel when introduced. Do not think the 
fluid portion of the preparation amounts to anything. 

Dr. Hewett, of Kansas City, being in attendance, was here 
elected an honorary member. 

Dr. Hewett said — I have good success with os artificiel and 
use it in the same manner as Dr. Wasson does, and leave it in as 
long as it will last. I use the Eureka gold filling; it is much 
tougher than foil, and I prefer it to any other form of gold. 
Have good success in building out with it; use shallow serrated 

C. H. Reeder — I have watched closely the interest in os arti- 
ficiel. I use collodion on an exposed nerve before inserting the 
os, and recommend it highly. I am using M. M. Johnson's gold 

Marvin — I coincide with Dr. Wasson in regard to the use of 
sponge gold. 

Wheeler — Have and am using os artificiel. I have a case of 
three molars exposed nerve and os artificiel filling. Have been 
in nearly a year, and I intend replacing with gold in a short 


time over the zinc. A question with me is whether decay will be 
more likely to ensue with os artificiel as a filling over the nerve 
than with gold. 

Fuller — I think, when possible, it is probably better to remove 
all the juice. I saw a case filled by Morrison, of St. Louis, 
where the os artificiel apparently softened the dentine. 

Wheeler — I think such is often the case. In filling I use the 
rubber dam to a limited extent. The more I use it the better I 
like it. I made a failure with crystal gold; however, it may be 
the fault was mine ; I have injured my practice with it. Do not 
like Morgan's gold. 

Marvin — I used Lamm's gold but became disgusted with it. 

Wheeler — I think that men in high standing in the profession 
did wrong in giving favorable certificates to Lamm's and Morgan's 

D. E. Obert — Can os artificiel always be used in exposed 
nerve? Is it advisable to use it after considerable pain has en- 
sued by exposure ? 

Wheeler — Not always. I would ask Dr. Wasson if he uses 
Lamm's or Morgan's gold? 

Wasson — I have never used either, but am very much pleased 
with the Eureka filling. 

Wheeler — I always cap a healthy nerve, whether in old or 
young persons ; I think it often dies with old persons, but in 
many of them the foramen is so closed that no harmful result 
ensues from the putrid matter engendering inflammation. A 
lady applied to have a tooth pivoted; the root healthy, some would 
have preferred building out with gold, but I decided to pivot. 
There was no sign of a pulp chamber ; after drilling nearly to the 
end of the root I found a healthy nerve. I often fail with ulcerated 
teeth and cases of abscess. I think the hygienic treatment is 
not used enough. Have used creosote, iodine, carbolic acid, every- 
thing. Better let them alone so far as medicine is concerned, 
and cleanse better. I prefer, in superior teeth, not to stop 
the cavity; give it plenty of time; would not try to cure when 
scurvy is in the system. 

Callahan — How do you get rid of pus in the lower jaw? 


Wheeler — It is difficult. I have earned five dollars where I 
received one in such cases. I cleanse often and keep the cav- 
ity closed. 

Patterson — I have paid considerable attention to this class of 
cases, and in practice have been generally successful. Enough 
so as to warrant a jealous perseverance to cure ulcerated teeth. 
Have not used the heroic treatment, rather the palliative and 
hygienic. In upper cases I do not close the cavity so that mat- 
ter cannot escape from the root. A pellet of loose cotton in the 
cavity of decay will absorb any discharge and prevent unpleas- 
antness in the mouth. I am very careful not to be in too 
much haste with filling. I have found cases — as you all no 
doubt have — that I could not cure so as to make it safe to fill in 
the usual manner, and I adopted a mode of procedure given in 
the American Journal of Dental Science, by J. S. Dodge, of 
New York. Cleaned out the cavity and roots thoroughly ; filled 
the crown cavity and major part of the pulp cavity, leaving the 
nerve cavity and lower part of the pulp chamber vacant, and 
after completing, made an opening with a small drill from under 
the edge of the gum, into the unfilled portion of the pulp cavity, 
afi"ording a passage for any matter that would accumulate. I 
have four of these cases, some of one year's standing, and the 
teeth have not given trouble ; the discharge, if any, is not no- 
ticed. I have never seen but two cases where the heroic treat- 
ment of cutting the secreting sac from the root, with an instru- 
ment, was used, and the treatment in both cases failed ; one of 
them was in my own mouth. 

Wasson — In a case of ulceration of upper molar, I cleaned 
with tepid water, etc.; could not reduce the inflammation. I 
then introduced a tent through the fistula, treated with carbolic 
acid and iodine, and finally cured and filled with gold. It is now 

Society adjourned to meet at two o'clock, at the office of Dr. 
Callahan, for the purpose of witnessing a clinic by Dr. Wheeler, 
of N. Y. — the filling of a tooth with gold. 

In the evening the Society met and discussed "Mechanical 


Callahan — I am using rubber almost entirely as a base; put 
up a few cases of Watt's and William's metals, and one of 
Weston's metal. I prefer Watt's base to Weston's. 

Reeder — Have used rubber with very good success. Some 
hold that rubber cannot be worn without detriment to the mouth. 
I do not think there is cause for such fears. 

Marvin — I now never take an impression with wax, and get 
along very much better. Do not use metallic plates for upper 
cases, sometimes for lower. I sometimes load a lower rubber 
plate with lead ; heft is very necessary in lower plates ; make air 
chambers with lead. Some plates should have a deeper chamber 
than others. 

Doud — Our process is much the same. I use tin for air 
chambers and coat my cast with liquid silex; take impressions 
for partial cases with wax. 

Patterson — My process for rubber is much the same as others 
who have spoken. There is not enough attention paid to this 
department of dentistry, and I think there is, in inserting arti- 
ficial teeth, room for the exercise of a higher talent than oper- 
ative dentistry — only to a limited extent, howevei', when block 
gum teeth are used. I use the plain teeth whenever I can do so. 
Operative dentistry of course merits the first attention, as its 
aim is the preservation of the natural teeth. But replacing the 
natural organ when gone has not received the attention it deserves, 
and for that reason has been a fruitful source of charlatanism, 
and I think it is the fault of the profession that it is so. So long 
as we give so little attention to this department, we must not 
find fault with "cheap work;" because we generally treat it as 
cheap work. If the insertion of artificial teeth require no skill, 
no dental education, as many claim, then let us give it over en- 
tirely to mechanics and those who have no dental education. 

Fuller — As far as I have used rubber it certainly has merits 
above other bases. I feel biased in favor of operative dentistry 
compared with mechanical. Am an advocate of the use of plain 
teeth; can articulate better with them. Do not believe in loading 
the rubber with lead. I like Weston's metal tolerably well; have 
never used Watt's. 


"Wasson — I use soap to separate. I do not think air cham- 
bers are necessary. I think operative dentistry is superior to 
mechanical dentistr}'. In making artificial teeth the process 
is the same in every case, and purely mechanical. 

Wheeler — I have seen dangerous effects of red rubber. I 
think in many^ cases it is wrong to put it in. In a case where a 
patient wore red rubber, he complained of an itching sensation in 
the parts contiguous to the plate. I made a plate of black rub- 
ber for him, and the difficulty was entirely avoided. 

Fuller — Have noticed ill effects from wearing a plate of 
red rubber. Do not know whether it was the effect of mercury 
or not. 

Wasson — I think a plate of any material will produce ill ef- 
fects. I do not attribute it to red rubber. 

The discussion here veered to filling teeth with amalgam, and 
the practice was generally condemned. Tin was recommened to 
be used for cheap fillings. 

The general interests of the Society was discussed at length, 
and the Society afterwards adjourned. 

Next annual meeting at Atchison, May 2d, 1872. 

J. D. Patterson, Rec. Secy. 


We learn that this Society, which has lain dormant for a con- 
siderable length of time, has once more revived, and there seems 
now to be a determination to go to work and accomplish some- 
thing in behalf of the interests of the profession. The society 
was formerly active, and we hope soon to hear from it again, 
and from what we know of the material in it we have all confi- 
dence that it will hereafter be among the live institutions of the 
land. We would remind our Memphis brethren that nothing is 
accomplished in this world without labor. Discussions, in socie- 
ties or elsewhere, that have not been preceded and prepared for 
by thought, study and investigation, are usually of little use ; 


whilst carefully conducted experiments upon almost any subject 
usually lead to something that is interesting and instructive. 
We say therefore, not only to our professional brethren in Mem- 
phis, but throughout the world. Work ! J. 

From the Canada Journal of Dental Science. 


In the palmy days of the regime of Napoleon the Third, Vic- 
tor Hugo made the following capital sarcasm, which can have 
numerous applications: "When the Paris Police overheard any 
one using the terms 'ruffian' and 'scoundrel,' they assume they 
must be speaking of the Emperor." 

One of the special missions of this journal in Canada is to 
turn the current of thought and action towards a higher profes- 
sional standing. It has endeavored steadily, without fear or 
favor, to maintain principles in accordance with this aim; to 
encourage every honorable sign of reform and aspiration, how- 
ever humble or weak, and, with impartial vigilance, to expose 
the egotistical assumptions and falsehoods of "expositors" and 
the arrant impostures of quacks and "gutter dentists." Prin- 
ciples laid down in print have invariably been carried into practice, 
and even much personal private assistance has been given, to 
alienate and educate poorly qualified beginners from the danger- 
ous attractions of open quackery. However, there are always 
barnacles as well as birds, and you cannot make a bird of a barn- 
acle by giving it wings. It is just as natural for some men to 
be superficial and dishonest, as for barnacles to cling to a ship's 
bottom, and birds to play on its masts. The great aim must be 
to force such natures to turn their attention to some other sphere 
of labor where they can do less harm. In this age it seems that 
there must be a proportion of every population to fill the prisons, 
and the happiness of society would be greatly enhanced if dental 
quacks were less lucky in escaping their natural home. Any 
assistance this journal can give them, in facilitating their speedy 

"YOU MEAN me!" 433 

conveyance thither, will be afforded most cheerfully and without 

We are very happy to learn that by remarks made in this jour- 
nal upon show cases, soliciting patients, and all such demeaning 
ways and means of obtaining practice, we have succeeded in 
making the lives of some notorious quacks miserable. For three 
years attempts were made to coerce them into honesty, but, in 
spite of the proverb, honesty was their best policy, because it 
was the best paying policy, and that it is the extent of their 
philosophy. Conciliation with quacks and Fenians is "played 
out," and we are as strong advocates for pillorying and punish- 
ing the one as for bayoneting and hanging the other; and when 
we use the terms "ruffian" and "scoundrel" ive do mean them. 

It is amusing, however, to find others appropriating these re- 
marks to themselves, and fitting caps to their heads which were 
never designed for them. But just as truly as some can get well 
fitted with a ready-made coat instead of leaving their measure, 
so remarks made in a general way, will here and there find a 
bosom to nurse them; and it would be a sad pity for preachers 
if it were not so. We do not care one whit whether or not we 
lose subscribers by alluding to matters which to them may be 
disagreeably true. When this journal has to lose its indepen- 
dence we will print its obituary. The history of dental reform 
in Canada will only be a repetition of the history of dental 
reform elsewhere, and we calculated in beginning this journal to 
tread on tender toes and rub some backs against the grain. 
Dentists of common sense and honor in Canada, must see that 
unless we assume a state of perfection never yet assumed by 
respectable dentists elsewhere, reform must necessarily break 
down old barriers, and ruffle the tranquillity of minds, by 
abolishing unprofessional customs that may have almost become 
an integral part of our existence. B. 



The Buffalo Medical and Surgical Journal lias an editorial 
upon "The Standard of Medical Education," in which the 
author takes a common-sense view of the subject, which should 
commend itself to the thoughtful consideration of all professional 

He deprecates the idea, so prevalent at this time, that the 
schools are alone responsible for the low grade of intelligence 
which is too often found in the members of the medical profes- 
sion, and argues that the main fault rests with the individual 
members of the profession themselves. He calls attention to the 
fact that many graduate at a school of some prominence among 
medical schools, and come to the conclusion that their education 
is complete, and as a natural consequence they neglect further 
study and research, and soon forget a great part of Avhat they 
had learned during their collegiate course. He calls attention 
to the fact that the two or three years spent in getting a diploma 
suffices, under the most favorable circumstances, only to enable 
them to lay a good foundation, upon which it requires many 
years to rear a respectable superstructure which has any claim 
to be denominated a medical education. We fully coincide with 
the writer upon this subject. We are well aware that medical 
and dental schools are of the greatest benefit to students by 
shaping their course and pointing out the way, and should be 
held accountable for the non-performance of all their legitimate 
duties; but it is expecting too much from them to suppose that 
they can, in two or three years, change a blockhead or a plow- 
boy, or, indeed, a student of tolerably good literary acquire- 
ments, into an educated professional man. We have known 
students in medicine and in dentistry, who graduated Avith 
honor, who were really not as well fitted for performing their 
duties as practitioners, after twenty years' practice, as they were 
when they left the halls of their Alma Mater. 

These drones in the profession are the ones who are a stand- 


ing disgrace to it. They are ever making resolves to take hold 
and do something to retrieve what they see plainly has been 
lost; they are determined to commence next iveek a severe 
course of mental discipline and study; they are ambitious of 
attaining an honorable position in the profession, and they are 
well aware that it can only be accomplished by effort and study. 
Unfortunately for them, next week never comes ; and they 
neglect one opportunity after another, till the shades of accumu- 
lating years fall slowly upon them, and then they come to the 
conclusion that it is now too late, and in a few years more the 
grave closes over them and they are forgotten, and the world is 
no better than it would have been if they had never existed. 
The man who puts off till to-morrow the commencement of his 
studies and investigations does so because he has not manhood 
enough in him to commence to-day, and he who has only man- 
hood enough to make a few resolutions that he will do something 
sometime in the future, had better at once leave a profession 
that he can only disgrace, and seek some humble occupation 
where he can feel that he has a sufficient amount of knowledge, 
and energy and manhood to perform all the duties that devolve 
upon him. J. 

The Medical Record of September 15th contains an article by 
Dr. C. C. P. Clark, of Oswego, N. Y., advocating the use of 
venesection in pneumonia and some other affections. It seems 
that the practice of bleeding, which at one time was undoubtedly 
overdone, is coming gradually into use again. We have never 
doubted but that, in the hands of careful and judicious men, it 
is capable of doing much good in the treatment of disease, and 
the sober second-thought of the profession will finally place it in 
its true position as one of the most efficient agencies employed 
in the healing art. 

M. Broca, of the "Hopital de la Piti^," details a case of frac- 
ture of the leg, where the reduction of the fracture was strongly 
opposed by muscular contractions, which were easily overcome by 
compression of the femoral artery. 

It is well known that muscular contractions present, in many 


cases, the most formidable obstacles to a reduction of disloca- 
tions and fractures, and it appears, by the experiments of M. 
Broca, that compression of the principal artery which supplies 
the part suffices to obviate that difficulty. He has also found 
compression efficacious in other spasmodic affections. 

We find also in the Record the following, from the Cfazette 
Medicale de Paris: 

" Tubercular Ulceration of the Mouth and Tongue. — 
M. U. Tr^lat, surgeon to la Pitie, describes these ulcerations, so 
commonly seen in the mouths of phthisical patients, as tubercu- 
lar in their origin and not dependent on cachexia, as has been 
commonly supposed. He states that the persons affected are 
always tuberculous, and, in two cases which he has seen, the 
ulcers preceded any signs of disease of the lungs by seven and 
eight months respectively. It is the rule, however, for the in- 
verse order to be the case. They may be found upon any part 
of the cavity of the mouth, cheeks, or pharynx, but the tongue 
is the most frequent seat. They are essentially chronic, and are 
progressive in their course, though rather indolent in the initial 
stage. They never retrogress spontaneously, and he has never 
known a person to recover from them. They are quite superfi- 
cial, never having cavities on the one hand, nor the vegetations 
common to cancroid and carcinoma on the other. Their base is 
pinkish or yellowish grey, and they are covered with a very ad- 
herent mucous; are of irregular form, and, especially on the 
tongue, have an indurated base. The author considers the mode 
of development in the initial stage as quite pathognomonic of its 
character. There is found on the mucous membrane an elevated 
surface, round, and one to four millimetres broad, showing on its 
surface, which is still covered with epithelium, one or several fol- 
licular orifices. This spot is of a pale yellow color, resembling 
that of phlegnomous pus. At the end of a few days the epithe- 
lium becomes destroyed, and an ulcerated surface soon appears. 
Several may sometimes be seen in different stages of develop- 

The cundurango speculation promises to be active. The mere 
mention of the name of Vice-President Colfax, in connection 
with the drug, seems sufficient to give it a reputation which will 
induce many to pay enormous prices for it, and unfortunately, 
we are obliged to add, without any probability of being benefited 
by its use. 


The jSt. Louis Medical and Surgical Joui'nal for September 
is before us, and we have just spent some ten or fifteen minutes 
in cutting the leaves, which should have been done before it left 
the office of publication. Only think of the hours of valuable 
time consumed by the readers of this journal in cutting the 
leaves preparatory to reading! They are worth more money 
than the whole subscription price of the journal. Nearly all of 
the medical journals of the day, and all of the dental journals of 
this country, have corrected this state of affairs, so that one is 
not annoyed in this manner before he can take a look at the con- 
tents. The first article, by Wm. S. Edgar, M. D., upon "Cholera 
Infantum," gives a statistical sketch of the number of deaths 
from this disease in several large cities: — in St. Louis, during 
the last year, three hundred and seventy-one; in Boston, five 
hundred and twenty-one; whilst New York and Brooklyn show 
a mortality, from this cause alone, of two thousand one hundred 
and seven. The author says, in relation to its etiology, " We 
believe in a particular and indispensable factor, without the pres- 
ence and force of which this malady is not produced; and that is 
a certain degree of solar heat long continued." 

He thinks "teething" has but little to do in the production of 
this disease. 

In connection with this subject, the author states that he is 
informed by the clerk of the Board of Health "that seven-tenths 
of the certificates of deaths of infants under one year old are 
signed by ignorant midwives." We learn that this is a mistake; 
that no certificates of midwives as to deaths of children are taken 
at the office of the Board of Health, but that the clerk informed 
the author that seven-tenths of the certificates of still-born in- 
fants were signed by midwives, which places the matter in a very 
different light. 

Referring to another part of this article, we find it stated that 
European cities are almost entirely free from this disease; and 
from tables of the mean temperature of cities in Europe and in 
the United States, we see that the temperature is eleven degrees, 
on an average, higher in the cities of the United States than in 
those of Europe. 


The Canada Journal of Dental Science has for its leadinor arti- 
cle a communication, read before the Ontario Dental Society, on 
"The Advancement of Dental Science," in the course of which 
he observes: " Our art is a very ancient one. Herodotus, the 
oldest Greek historian, informs us that dentistry was practiced, 
long before his time, among the Egyptians, of whom he says, 
'that the cure of the teeth was assigned to certain members of 
the healing art.' In confirmation of this, we hear at the present 
day of Egyptian mummies whose teeth are filled with gold." We 
have yet to learn of any authentic account of gold filling having 
been found in the teeth of Egyptian mummies, though we are 
aware that such statements have before been made by some 
writers on dental subjects. The article furnishes some interest- 
ing statistics relating to the early history of dentistry in Canada. 
Dr. Woolverton recommends a mixture of carbolic acid and oil 
of peppermint for controlling pain in alveolar abscesses. Dr. 
Raines, under the head of "Gold Plating on Silver Base for 
Artificial Dentures," says: "Finish a silver plate in the usual 
manner, remove all stains from soldering; fit the plate in the 
mouth; if all right, proceed — 

"1st. Coat all the metal with quicksilver — plate, solder, and 

"2d. Cut No. 20 gold foil into strips; use strip after strip 
until you have the plate covered; rub with a piece of chamois 
until the gold all disappears ; add another layer of gold, and rub 
as before. You can put on the gold to any desired thickness. 

"3d. Expose to a gradual heat until all the quicksilver is 
evaporated; polish, and you will have a rich gold surface." 

In the Cosmos for September, Dr. McQuillen describes a case 
of paralysis of some of the muscles of the face, consequent upon 
an application of arsenic for the purpose of killing the pulps in 
an inferior bicuspid and a superior molar tooth of the right side. 
In spite of treatment, the inflammation around the teeth kept up 
until the ofi"ending teeth were removed, when the symptoms 
gradually disappeared. 

Dr. Frazer, of Brooklyn, describes an " articulating guide," 


■which he recommends for the purpose of assuring an exact articu- 
lation of the mouth by preventing the extrusion of the lower jaw 
whilst taking the articulation. It consists of a strap, properly 
padded, passed around the back of the neck and around the 
chin, where it should be properly padded. 

The portion of the proceedings of the American Dental Asso- 
ciation, published in this number, strongly illustrates to those 
who were present the fact that, to have any definite idea of what 
the proceeding of the Association are, one must be present at its 

The Boston 3Iedical and. Surgical Journal has an item taken 
from the Medical and Surgical Reporter, which we give 
below : 

"TuNGSTic Glue. — Tungstic glue bids fair to be an accept- 
able substitute for hard india-rubber, now so bigh in price. 

" It is prepared by mixing a thick solution of glue with tung- 
state of soda and hydrochloric acid, by means of which a com- 
pound of tungstic acid and glue is precipitated, which, at a tem- 
perature of 80° to 140° Fahrenheit, is sufficiently elastic to 
admit of being drawn out into very thin sheets. On cooling, 
this mass becomes solid and brittle, and on being heated is again 
soft and plastic. This new compound, it is said, can be used for 
all the purposes to which hard rubber is adapted, and may prove 
to have valuable surgical applications." 

The September number of the Register has an editorial upon 
" Crude Teachings," in which those who attempt to teach what 
they do not understand themselves are slightly scored; and an- 
other editorial, upon the importance of close "examinations," 
gives details of a case which had recently been observed in the 
office of the editor himself. A young girl had visited a dental 
office and had her teeth examined by a dentist of twenty-five 
years' experience, who assured her that they were all free from 
decay and in good condition. But as the mother of the young 
lady was dissatisfied with the first examination, the last men- 
tioned practitioner was requested to examine them. He found 


twenty-t-wo cavities ; and in four teeth the pulps were exposed. 
The cavities were mostly proximal. 

In the Nashville Journal of Medicine and Surgery we find an 
allusion to the local ansesthetic powers of carbolic acid. We 
have alluded to this subject before, but it has been thus far but 
little used for this purpose; and the testimony in favor of its 
use seems to warrant a fair trial of it for this purpose. The 
part to be operated upon should be soaked with the strong solu- 
tion of the acid for half an hour or more before the operation is 

In the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal is the following 
extract from the British Medical Journal: 

"New Test for Albumen. — Dr. C. M. Tidy has noted that 
a mixture of equal volumes of acetic and carbolic acids is a far 
more delicate test for the presence of albumen than any other 
method as yet proposed. In using this test with urine it is 
necessary to shake the test-tube, as some opacity is produced by 
the mere admixture of fluid, which, however, disappears on agita- 

The American Journal of Dental Science gives its first twelve 
pages to the report of the meeting of the Southern Dental Asso- 
ciation, which was held last April in Charleston. 

In a discussion upon treatment of children's teeth, filling was 
generally advocated. Dr. Hermon fills deciduous teeth with 
gold. Dr. Atkinson fills first with oxy chloride, afterwards 
removes a portion, and fills with amalgam. Dr. Clark fills 
with amalgam ; but, if very sensitive, fills with os artificiel. 



Vol. III.] DECEMBER, 1871. [No. l": 

From the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 


An Essay to which was awarded the First Prize of the Bojlston Medical 
Societj' for 1871. By W. P. Bolles, M. D. 

This is not an affection which demands our time by its fre- 
quency or fatality. Yet its occurrence is suflSciently common to 
give its study practical interest, and, when present, it requires 
an intelligent interference to accomplish a cure. Coming, as 
this tumor does, in the most conspicuous part of the body, it not 
only encroaches upon the two great cavities of the face and 
impairs their functions, but thrusts out the lips or cheek, where 
concealment is impossible, to form an ugly and alarming de- 
formity ; and this, too, usually during a period when personal 
beauty is valued most highly. The surgeon who is familiar with 
this disease and can eliminate the various growths which 
simulate it, can promise to his patient not only life and comfort, 
but a restoration of comeliness. The chief interest of the 
disease, however, is not in the practical view just mentioned, but 
involves considerations which include also the structure and 
development of the organs affected. Dentigerous cysts owe 
their possibility to these elements, and are therefore peculiar to 
the jaws ; they are extraordinary developments of cavities which, 
at a certain period of foetal life, exist normally, and cover the 
teeth as they lie imbedded in the substance of the maxillary 


arches; an abnormal action of the secreting power which these 
cysts possess, in fact causes the disease which we are considering. 
The cysts are not at all related in their nature to those cavities 
of other hones with which, until recently, they have been con- 
founded, nor even with certain other cystic troubles of the jaws 
themselves, from which even now they are scarcely separated. 
The development of the parts concerned must, therefore, be 
studied before the disease itself. 

Very early in foetal life, before the human embryo attains an 
inch in length, even while the nose and mouth are still a com- 
mon chasm, a thickening of the membrane of the maxillary 
arches forms a semi-circular ridge around their corresponding 
margins. The epithelium covering this ridge now proliferates, 
and along the summit of the ridge several layers of cells, instead 
of one, are found which indent the underlying substance, dividing 
the ridge into two ("dental ridges") by a shallow groove (" den- 
tal groove"). From the bottom of this groove a narrow epithe- 
lial fold grows deeply into the tissues beneath it, and is called 
the "enamel germ." These changes, according to the more 
recent observers, appear in the deeper layers of the epithelium, 
only, while the free surface is kept nearly in the same place by 
the accumulation of its cells. The enamel germ next Avidens at 
the bottom, and becomes divided into segments corresponding 
with the number of the temporary teeth. Each of these divisions, 
which are called "enamel organs," is somewhat flask-shaped and 
connected with the groove above by a narrow neck, the relic now 
of the enamel germ. A papilla, called the "dental germ," soon 
grows into the enamel organ from below, carrying, as it advances, 
the floor of the latter upon its summit ; clothed with this it 
projects boldly into the "flask," invaginating its lower half, and 
there assumes the likeness of a tooth, with the enamel organ, 
now something of a "