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MISSOURI JOURNAL 
OF NUMISMATICS 



VOLUME 18 JULY, 1993 

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MISSOURI NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 




Discovery of the 1 745/3 “ Lima ” Halfcrown p. 3 

Die Wear: Yesterday and Today p, 6 

Liberty Head Coinage p. p 

Communion Tokens p. 1 1 

Bimetallic Maverick Identified p . ]g 

Woods Hiberniz Coinage p. 20 




CURRENT OFFICERS 



President 


David Frank 


Vice President 


Kenneth Thompson 


Corresponding Secretary 


Jeff Sullivan 


Recording Secretary 


Sid Nusbaum 


Treasurer 


Michael J. Dwyer 


Librarian 


Nick Klotz 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 



Norm Bowers John Bush 


Bob Flenderschott 


Terry M. Schaub Francis B. Shea 

Wayne Zeh 


Russ Vogelsang 



PUBLICATIONS 



Editor 


Michael G. Pfefferkom 


Associate Editor 


Michael J. Dwyer 


Asst. Editor 


Sandra Pfefferkom 


Advertising Manager 


Sidney L. Nusbaum 


Monthly Newsletter 


Jeff Sullivan 



MISSOURI JOURNAL OF NUMISMATICS 
VOLUME 18 JULY, 1993 

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MISSOURI NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 
5005 S. Grand Blvd., St. Louis MO 63116 Telephone (314)481-7630 



CONTENTS 



David Frank 


M.N.S. President’s Report 


2 


Marshall Faintich 


Discovery of the 1745/3 “LIMA” Halfcrown 


3 


Rian Thum 


Die Wear: Yesterday and Today 


6 


David H. Frank 


Liberty Head Coinage 


9 


Cay and Malcolm 


Missouri Ingle Update 


10 


C. Thompson 


Communion Tokens 


11 


— 


The Federated Malay States Money 






System In 1915 


15 


William M. Leach 


St. Louis World’s Fair Punch Tags 


16 


— 


Unfit Currency 


17 


Terry M. Schaub 


Bimetallic Maverick Identified 


18 


John A. Bush 


Wood’s Hibernia Coinage 


20 


Ross Larson 


Ancient Coinage Study Group 
NUMISMATIC EVENTS AND CALENDAR 


22 




Ancient Coin Study Group 


20 




Future Numismatic Events 


21 




World Coin Club of Missouri 


23 




Missouri Numismatic Society 


24 



INDEX OF ADVERTISERS 



Belleville Coin Shop 


Inside Back Cover 


Gold Nugget Rare Coin & Jewelry 


Inside Back Cover 


Midwest Money 


Outside Back Cover 


B & N Coins 


Outside Back Cover 


Capital Plastics 


8 


South County Coin and Jewelry 


12 


Dansco 


13 


Arch City Supply Company 


13 


National Gold and Silver Conventions 


14 



- 1 - 



M.N.S PRESIDENT’S REPORT 

by 

David Frank 



On behalf of the Missouri Numismatic Society, I would like to welcome 
everyone to the 33rd annual Coin Festival. Attending a coin show is always 
an exciting time for collectors. Finding an item that we have been searching 
for, renewing old acquaintances or making new ones, or just being in the 
same room with people that share the same interests is all part of the excite- 
ment of attending a show. 

If you would like to continue gaining knowledge, adding material to your 
collection, and sharing camaraderie with other collectors all year long, con- 
sider joining the M.N.S. At each meeting we have a guest speaker present 
an educational program, a silent auction, and the opportunity to set up a ta- 
ble to buy or sell numismatic material. Another major benefit of joining the 
M.N.S. is our 5000 item library at 5005 South Grand. Our library is one of 
the top five in the U.S. and an excellent place to do research or just check 
out a book you are interested in. If you want to join, membership applica- 
tions are available at the registration desk. Dues are only $5.00 for regular 
membership and $2.00 for juniors. 

I would like to thank John Bush, the general chairman of the show, and John 
Foster, bourse chairman, for all their hard work in putting together a suc- 
cessful show. I would also like to thank all of the volunteers that helped with 
committees in setting up and running the show and the exhibitors for pro- 
viding interesting displays for all show guests to view. Please visit our 
exhibits. Finally, I would like to thank all of the dealers in attendance, many 
of whom traveled hundreds of miles to be here. Without them, there would 
be no show. 

In closing, I hope everyone has an enjoyable time at our Coin Festival. 



The 

MISSOURI NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 
invites you to attend 
the 

NEXT REGULAR MEETING 

which will be held on the fourth Wednesday of the month at 7:00 p.m. 
in the upstairs meeting room at Schneithorsfs Inn at Clayton Road and 
Lindbergh Blvd. in Frontenac. Ample parking is available at the front 
and north side of the restaurant. 



- 2 - 



DISCOVERY OF THE 1745/3 “LIMA” 

HALFCROWN 

by 

Marshall Faintich 

In February 1992, the author purchased a 1745 George II British halfcrown 
with “LIMA” below the bust. The dealer who sold the coin advertised it as 
a 1745/3 overdate, claiming he had seen a sketch of the 1745/3 overdate on 
a halfcrown without “LIMA”, and it looked the same as found on this coin. 
As the only overdate “LIMA” halfcrown listed in specialized catalogs is an 
overdate of 1746/5, photographs of the coin were sent to the British Mu- 
seum for assistance (see Figure 1 .). Figure 1 




Mr. Philip Attwood replied, stating that he was unaware of such a coin, and 
suggested that Mr. Graham Dyer, librarian and curator of the Royal Mint be 
contacted for his opinion. Mr. Dyer’s response was that it was his and the 
Deputy Chief Engraver’s opinion that an overdate was the most convincing 
explanation, but that he would like to examine the coin. 

On October 8, 1992, the coin was brought to a meeting with Mr. Attwood 
and Mr. Dyer at the British Museum. They examined the coin with a low 
power stereo microscope and re-evaluated photographic enlargements of the 
coin. Both felt the coin was an example of a repunched die. However, due 
to the fact that the underdate was incomplete, it was difficult to assess the 
underdate numeral. 

According to Mr. Dyer, the process for punching the dies for the coins of 
that period was to take dies with pre-punched major portions of the design 
which were then used to punch one letter, number, or detail at a time into the 
die. This would usually be done by first lightly punching in the new number, 
examining the result, and if satisfactory, replacing the punch over the lightly 
struck location and then strongly punching the number into the die. 

Mr. Dyer commented that the engravers were under a lot of pressure to fin- 
ish dies and put them into production, especially for the “LIMA” pieces, 
and that given the small size of the numbers, it is not unusual to expect a 
wrong punch to be selected and then repunched with a corrected punch after 
examination. 

- 3 - 




The remaining question was then what number was punched prior to the fi- 
nal punching of the “5” ? Examination of the coin shows additional die 
punch marks indicated schematically (Figure 2.) at locations one through 
five. Since there were no examples of the 1745/3 without “LIMA" coin at 
the museum, pieces without overdates were examined to look for similari- 
ties. Two of the 1745 pieces had the same tail at location five, eliminating 
that punch mark from consideration as anything other than due to one of the 
possible “5" punches. These two pieces did not have marks at locations one 
through four. 




Only one 1743 piece was available for examination. The top horizontal bar 
of the “3" was longer than that of the “5", and the downstroke of the “3" 
was thin and at a considerable angle to the top bar. The marks at locations 
one and two seemed to indicate a top bar equal in length to that of the “5", 
and the two parallel lines at location three are much wider and at a different 
angle than that of the “3" that was examined. This would eliminate a “3" 
as the underdate, unless a different variety of a “ 3" punch were also used. 



Based upon the above comparisons, Mr. Dyer would not rule out the pos- 
sibility of a different type of “3", but thought that the piece was probably a 
“5" over a “5". This is based upon the marks at locations one and two ap- 
pearing approximately the same size and separation as both ends of the 
overdate “5". His conclusion was that a “5" was punched and then re- 
punched in a slightly different location. He also felt that the “4" may have 
also been repunched. Mr. Dyer agreed that this would not explain the par- 
allel lines at location three nor the small angular line at location four, nor the 
lack of a double “5" along the rest of the overdate “5". 



This lack of certainty of the underdate led to a more detailed analysis of the 
coin. The halfcrown was examined under a 60x microscope and the incident 
illumination was varied from very low to very high oblique angles, and the 
orientation was gradually rotated a full 360° around the coin. The micro- 
scope eyepiece was fitted with a measuring reticle graduated to each .001 
inch. At each illumination angle, all new markings (both bright lines as well 
as a few shadows) were measured and added to a composite drawing of the 
number. Figure 3. shows the composite drawing and clearly indicates that 
the underdate is certainly a “3". 



- 4 - 





Obviously, these additional markings are very faint compared to those ob- 
served on the photographic enlargement. The composite was the result of 
approximately four hours of analysis, and was not possible with a low power 
and evenly illuminated microscope. Further inspection of the photograph 
shows that some of the features shown in the composite figure are also vis- 
ible on the photograph. 



At the St. Louis PNG/PCDA coin show, another 1745/3 “LIMA” halfcrown 
was found quite by accident, and subsequently purchased. This second piece 
has a sharper impression of the reverse legend, including the underdate, and 
is certainly from the same reverse die as the first piece. Letter and number 
positions in the legend are identical on both pieces (Figure 4.). As with the 
first piece, only the top of the underdate is clearly visible without the proper 
illumination angle. 



The obverse dies, however, are different on the two coins. Figures 5. and 6. 
show a large die crack above “GRATIA” on the second piece, and the last 
“A” in the legend is further from the curls than on the first piece. One could 
assume that the first coin was actually minted after the second coin, with a 
new obverse die at some point replacing the cracked die, and using the same 
reverse die. Hence, the reverse die would be more worn, and therefore, not 
as sharp. 

- 5 - 




DIE WEAR: YESTERDAY AND TODAY 

by 

Rian Thum 

All United States coinage is struck with the use of dies. Coining presses 
force cylindrical dies, which have an incuse design on them, into blank 
disks of metal (planchets), producing a coin. However, dies do not last for- 
ever, and those used for the cents of the 1840’s failed relatively quickly as 
opposed to the very long lasting dies of today. Due to dissimilar planchets 
and inferior technology at the mint, dies used for production of cents of the 
1840’s wore faster and more extensively than current cent dies do. 

Die wear occurs in several forms and for many reasons. If kept in use, every 
die will eventually fail, usually in the form of cracking. (Breen 4) Cracking 
can occur for any of a number of reasons, but is usually due to repeated 
striking. Tremendous pressure is needed to strike U. S. coins, usually over 
35 tons. (Breen 19) The upper die strikes a metal blank rested on a fixed 
lower die, and the metal flows into the recesses of the die, creating a design 
exactly opposite that on the die. Die failure can also occur in the form of 
crumbling, a phenomenon that takes place when small fragments of metal 
fall off of the face of a die. 

Rust can also destroy a die. However, this rarely occurred in the 1840’s, and 
there is no evidence that it occurs today. When dies were not in use, they 
were covered with grease or fat for protection. (Breen 19) This preventive 
measure has been used for several centuries. Dies not protected during times 
of disuse were often irreparably damaged by rust. (Breen 19) 

There are several other types of die wear that may or may not cause die fail- 
ure, including chips, polishing, scratches, etc. Usually these do not cause 
the die to fail but are evident on the coin. Another type of wear is called 
clashing. Clashing takes place when the upper die strikes the lower die with- 
out a planchet between them. (Breen 18) The upper die strikes the lower die 
directly, and both are damaged. Clashing leads to die failure because it 
weakens the die, thereby making it more susceptible to cracking. 

Die wear is almost always evidenced on the coins themselves. When a 
cracked or worn die strikes a coin, the planchet metal flows into the crack. 
This metal flow results in a raised line on the finished coin. Similar raised 
areas are produced by other types of incuse die wear. 

The main factor involved in die wear is the composition of the dies. During 
the die making process, the die must be first softened to impress the design 
into it, and then rehardened so that it can strike room temperature metal 
planchets in order to impress its design into them. (Herbert 165) In the 
1840’s as well as today, dies were made of steel. Steel has been the best 
known material for this for centuries. (Breen 4). However, in the first half of 
the nineteenth century, steel-making technology was highly inferior to that 
of today. (Grellman interview) That the dies would often crack after only a 
few thousand strikes is indicated by the extreme rarity of some pieces with 

- 6 - 



major cracks. The steel used in die-making today has been refined to a high 
degree and for sole use in dies. (Breen 4) As of 1965, cent dies lasted for 
one to one and a half million strikes. (Breen 19) 

The dies also become weaker when the design is transferred to them, a pro- 
cess called die sinking. Since the early 1800’s, die sinking has been done by 
impressing a hub or matrix with a relief design (similar to the design of the 
intended coin) into the blank face of a die softened by an annealing process. 
(Herbert 165) The annealing process involves heating the die to 1300-1400 
degrees Fahrenheit and then slowly cooling it. (Breen 17) Today the date is 
part of the hub, but in the 1840’s the date was subsequently added with a 
‘"punch” similar to the hub. The punch bore the raised date and was forced 
into the softened die, transferring the date to the die. This allowed hubs to 
be used for several years without becoming obsolete. After the design is 
added, the die is tempered. (Herbert 166) 

The process of adding the design to the die created additional stress around 
the devices. (Breen 19) Die sinking caused permanent weaknesses. Cracks 
formed around numbers, letters, stars, and other design elements of the die, 
especially those parallel to the border. (Breen 19) An example of this is the 
area between the tops of the letters “C” and “E” in the word “cent” on 
cents. of the late 1840’s. Of approximately eighteen reverse dies used in 
1849, five crumbled between the tops of the “C” and “E” in “cent.” 
(Grellman book) If a mistake was made during the punching of the date, the 
number would be repunched, resulting in a weakness even greater than that 
at the usual design elements. Today’s advanced steels, however, have made 
these stress areas virtually ineffectual. 

Other factors involved in die wear lie in the use of the dies. A major differ- 
ence between the cents of the 1840’s and those of today is size. In the 
1840’s, the value of a cent was much greater than it is today, and in order to 
give cents a proper intrinsic value, they were made larger (27.5 mm in di- 
ameter) than today’s cents (19 mm in diameter). The larger the coin to be 
struck, the more force is necessary to make the metal flow into all of the 
crevasses of the die. (Breen 19) For example, forty tons of pressure are 
needed to strike a modem 90% copper cent, while a modem half dollar re- 
quires 100 tons of pressure. (Breen 19) Research indicates that a cent of the 
1840’s probably required somewhere between fifty and sixty-five tons of 
pressure for striking. Thus, much more force was exerted on the dies used 
for today’s cents, causing the dies to crack much sooner. 

Also, the mint of the 1840’s, which made its own planchets, often allowed 
impurities to be mixed with the copper planchets due to mediocre technol- 
ogy. (Loring) These impurities could result in sometimes harder flans, 
causing more stress to the dies, as the planchets are struck at room temper- 
ature. Today, all planchets are made by private companies that specialize in 
that area. 

The early mint’s lack of adequate funds also affected the quality of the dies 
and the coins. When a die did crack or otherwise fail, instead of discarding 

- 7 - 



it, the mint would keep it in use. This saved not only money but also time, 
as a single die could take days or weeks to make. (Breen 19) At today’s 
mints, dies can be made quickly and inexpensively, so when a die becomes 
flawed, and dies are inspected often, it is thrown out. 

The amount of the die wear is a direct result of the quality of steel used in 
the die. Since the dies of the 1840’s were made of low quality steel they 
wore much faster than today’s, which are made of the technologically ad- 
vanced steels mentioned earlier. That, combined with the greater amount of 
force necessary to strike the large planchets of the 1840’s and the low re- 
producibility of dies, as compared to the technologically advanced coining 
systems today, is the cause of the great differences in the quality of the coins 
themselves. 



ST. LOUIS NUMISMATIC ASSOCIATION 

The St. Louis Numismatic Association features a numismatic auction at its 
monthly meetings which commence at 8:00 p.m. on the first Friday of each 
month. The Holiday Inn at St. Charles Rock Rd. and 1-270 is the location. 
For more information contact S.L.N.A., RO. Box 8800, St. Louis, MO 
63102. 



METRO-EAST NUMISMATIC GROUPS 

The St. Clair Numismatic Society meets at 1121 East Main St., Belleville, 
Illinois at 7:00 p.m. on the second Wednesday of each month except in 
June, July and August. 

The Dupo Coin Club meets on the third Monday of the month at 7:30 p.m. 
in the American Legion Hall at 200 S. Fifth St., Dupo, Illinois. 




IF IT’S WORTH 
HOLDING ONTO, 

IT’S WORTH A 

HOLDER. 



Send $2.00 in postage 
for catalog and price list 

Also available at stores or thru dealers. 




P.O. Box $43 MNS Massillon, Ohio 44658 



DEALERS: Contact Arch City Supply Company 



- 8 - 





LIBERTY HEAD COINAGE 

by 

David H. Frank 

Beginning in 1892, a change in the design of the dime, quarter, and half 
dollar occurred. The new design replaced the seated liberty dime, quarter, 
and half dollar that had been issued for fifty-four years. The new type was 
officially referred to as the Liberty Head design; however, it is more com- 
monly called the Barber type after its designer, Charles E. Barber, chief 
engraver of the U.S. Mint at that time. The dime, quarter, and half dollar 
share a common obverse, but the dime has a different reverse than the quar- 
ter and half dollar. 

The obverse has the head of Liberty, wearing a laurel wreath and cap, facing 
right. The portrait has thirteen stars surrounding it with the date below and 
“In God We Trust” above. Charles Barber’s initial, “B”, appears at the 
truncation of the neck. 

The reverse of the dime is very similar to the so-called cereal wreath reverse 
of the Seated Liberty dime. Enclosed within the wreath are the words “One 
Dime,” with the mint mark, if present, found below. 

The reverses of the quarter and the half dollar are the same. They depict a 
heraldic eagle holding arrows in one claw and an olive branch in the other. 
The motto “E Pluribus Unum” on a banner is held in the eagle’s beak and 
thirteen stars appear above the eagle’s head. The entire eagle design is sur- 
rounded by “United States of America,” with the coin’s denomination 
below. 

All three denominations were struck at various times by the Philadelphia, 
New Orleans, San Francisco, and Denver mints. The dime and quarter were 
issued from 1892-1916. The half dollar was issued from 1892-1915. 

The Barber series is easily collectible in the lower grades of good and very 
good, but becomes more difficult in fine, and is very difficult in very fine or 
higher. Assembling a set in extremely fine or almost uncirculated is ex- 
tremely elusive. Uncirculated sets are virtually unknown. 

In the dime denomination the 1 894-S is a great rarity with only 24 officially 
being struck. Today the existence of only twelve is known. The collectible 
key issues of the series would include the 1895-0, 1895, 1894-0, 1896-0, 
1896-S, 1897-0, 1901-S, and 1903-S. These coins in lower grades could be 
obtained by a collector with an average budget. For higher grades, be ready 
to open up the checkbook, if you can even find them. Don’t be surprised if 
some of the non-key dates are just as hard to locate in higher grades as the 
keys are. The 1910S took me the longest of any to locate in very fine. 

The quarter denomination contains the rarest regular issues of the three de- 
nominations. The 1901-S is quite rare, followed by the 1913-S and 1896-S. 
Prepare to spend about $1000.00 for a 1901-S, even in good condition. The 
other two, in good condition, will cost two to three hundred dollars. Ac- 

- 9 - 



quiring the three keys in higher grades (very good to very fine), will cost 
two to five thousand dollars. In extremely fine or better, if you can find one, 
be prepared to pay what the seller will take for the coins as price guides 
don't mean much. The remaining coins in the series should not pose many 
obstacles to obtaining in low or mid grades. As mentioned before, all coins 
in very fine or better can be hard to find. 

The half dollar denomination is probably the easiest and most inexpensive 
of the three types to complete in low grade. There are no rare issues in this 
series. The keys to this series are the 1892-0, 1892-S, 1896-S, 1897-0, and 
1897-S. A complete set in good condition will cost about $600.00. More 
complete sets of this denomination have been assembled than any other. 
However, as the grade of the set increases, so does the cost and difficulty 
dramatically. In choice very fine and above, this denomination becomes 
harder to assemble than the other two. Fewer halves were saved than the 
other denominations by collectors and the public at the time they were is- 
sued because of their higher face value. A half dollar would be a half of a 
day’s wages in the late 1800’s. 

The Liberty Head coinage was not popular when issued in 1892. Many peo- 
ple thought the design was simple and lacked the artistry of earlier designs. 
Today the series is quite popular with many collectors, even resulting in the 
formation of a Barber collectors’ organization. Recently, a three book series 
covering each denomination has been written by David Lawrence, This se- 
ries would be a good resource if collecting by variety or overdates and for 
expanding your knowledge of the issues. 

I hope the information contained in this article will open up a new area for 
you to expand your collecting interests. 



MISSOURI INGLE UPDATE 

Ingle System tokens, manufactured in Ohio between 1909 and 1919, were 
sold and used Missouri and in a majority of the other continental United 
States. An exhaustive study of Missouri Ingles was published in five install- 
ments of the Missouri Journal of Numismatics, 1985-1989. Since that time, 
several corrections and additions have been brought to the authors attention. 
Both pieces listed here belong to the 1914 series. 

1. W. R. HOLLICK / ONE / HORSE / . / GROCERY / 5 lS-14-9b Gaa 
(new variety of Ga: with die centering dot on obverse) Ni/Br 

Although Hollick’s tokens were known to exist in the denominations of 5, 
50, 100, and 500 at the time of publication, specific descriptions were not 
available. W. R. Hollick operated a grocery/general store in East Prairie, 
Mo. from 1913-1949. 

2. HIMMEL’S DEP’T STORE / 25 / QUALITY FIRST IS-14-9c Gc (new 
obv. type similar to La but no place name) (metal: uncertain) 

This token was reported by Mr. B. Seiler who secured a foil impression of 
this elusive piece. The description also corrects a typographical error pub- 
lished in the February, 1972 TAMS Journal. Louis Himmel purchased 1000 
tokens in 1918. He ran his department Store in Hawk Point, Mo. c. 1 9 10- 
1927. Himmel’s widow ran the store until at least 1931. 



- 10 - 




COMMUNION TOKENS 

By 

Cay and Malcolm C. Thompson 




Not many people would want to collect Communion Tokens, but knowing 
that Malcolm is a Presbyterian minister, bom and educated within the cul- 
ture of the church, you can understand why he would develop a real interest 
in them. This article is written in order to spread an interest in these tokens 
and show their importance in history. 

The Sacrament of the Lord’s Supper, commonly called Communion, com- 
memorates the last meal that Christ shared with his disciples before his 
death. His request was that they remember Him when they broke bread to- 
gether. From the earliest days of the Christian era, this practice has 
continued with the bread and juice as symbols of Christ’s broken body and 
shed blood. 

Down -through history there have been many times when the Communion 
Service was held in secret because Christians feared persecution. Commun- 
ion Tokens seem to have originated as a part of this practice of protecting the 
sacred service or worship. 

In 17th Century Scotland, the church held large semi-annual Communion 
Services, and it was important to know that those who participated had pre- 
pared themselves. A long solemn service was held the day before the 
Communion Service to lead the believers to consider their lives and ask 
God’s forgiveness for their sins. At the close of that service, two church of- 
ficers would stand at the door and give a token to each departing worshiper. 
This same token was then presented the next day at the Communion Service 
as proof that they were prepared to renew their commitment to Christ. One 
author refers to these officers who distributed the tokens as “Gate-keepers 
of Heaven doling out tickets of admission.” 



In the 18th Century, many churches in America continued the practice of 
using the Communion Tokens. They were most commonly used in Presby- 
terian Churches having a Scottish heritage. 

Communion tokens vary in size and shape. Most often seen tokens are 
round, oval, or oblong. Most bear a Bible verse and the church name. Some 





- 11 - 




show the name of a preacher or the date of an anniversary. Some picture the 
chalice or communion bread or even the outline of the church building. 
Common metals like lead were used which are soft and do not age very 
well. The largest collections of Communion Tokens are to be found in the 
historical societies of the Presbyterian Church. 

In 1973, a Communion Token was made using the original mold from 1775. 
The mold belongs to the Pigeon Creek Presbyterian Church in Western 
Pennsylvania. The occasion was a reunion of the McMillan Family whose 
ancestor John McMillan had founded that church. The token is a small (I /2 
inch) square of pewter bearing the single letter “P.” It is an authentic repro- 
duction of an 1 8th century Communion Token. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Bowman. Fred; Communion Tokens of the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada ; Canadian Numismatic Asociation, 

1965. 



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- 12 - 



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Harco 


• 


Upper Deck 


• 


Showgard 


• 


Krause 


• 


Hoops 


• 


Glassines 


• 


Jeweluster 


• 


Score 


• 


Protecto 


• 


Topps 


• 


Skybox 


• 


Donruss 



• Baseball Card Supplies 



and many, many more! 
Wholesale to Dealers Only 

Serving the Midwest Dealers 
Since 1976 




- 13 - 



COIN CONVENTIONS 

Cervantes Convention Center 
80 1 Convention Plaza 
St. Louis, Missouri 63101 
314-342-5036 



6th National Gold Convention 
May 6-8, 1994 

Dealer setup Thursday May 5 
2:00 p.m. -8:00 p.m. 

The National Gold Convention 
commemorates l.C.T.A.Jor their cooperation 
and sponsorship oj this annual event. 

FOR ICTA INFORMATION CONTACT: 

Diane Piret 
P.O.Box 316 
Bella Chasse, LA 70037 
504-682-6818 • 504-682-6819 (FAX) 



14th National Silver Dollar 
Convention 
November 12-14, 1993 

Setup Thursday Nov. 1 1 
@ 2:00 p.m. -8:00 p.m. 

The National Silver Dollar Convention 
commemorates The National Silver Dollar 
Roundtable for their cooperation and 
sponsorship oj this annual event. 

FOR NSDR INFORMATION CONTACT: 

John W. Highfill 

Oklahoma Federated Gold & Numismatics, Inc. 
P.O. Box 25 • Broken Arrow, OK 74013 
918-451-0665 *918-455-2843 (FAX) 



FREE ADMISSION ★ PUBLIC INVITED 



N.G.C. SHOW HOURS: 

April 2, 10 a.m. -6 p.m. 
April 3, 10 a.m. -6 p.m. 
April 4. 10 a.m.-4 p.m. 



FUTURE DATES: 

May 6-8. 1994 
April 14-16, 1995 
May 17-19. 1996 



Special Room Rates 
Available Thru 

HOLIDAY INN 
314-421-4000 

DRURAY INN GATEWAY ARCH 
314-231-8100 
M&M Travel Service. Inc. is 
the official travel agencv. 
Contact PAUL WHIT NAH at 
(800)284-8215 



N.S.D.C. SHOW HOURS: 

November 12. 10 a.m. -6 p.m. 
November 13. 10 a.m. -6 p.m. 
November 14. 10 a.m. -4 p.m. 



FUTURE DATES: 

November 4-6. 1994 
November 10-12, 1995 
November 8- 10. 1996 
November 7-9, 1997 



300 Tables With Over 1 000 of America's Leading Silver Dollar and Gold Specialists. 

Over $100,000,000 Worth of U.S. Gold, Silver Dollars. Commemoratives. Type Coins, 
Jewelry. Paper Money. Sports Cards and other Rare Coins on display and for sale. 



FREE EDUCATIONAL SEMINARS * DOOR PRIZES 



Auction By: 



HERITAGE NUMISMATIC AUCTIONS, INC. 




Bob Merrill 

Heritage Plaza, Suite 200 
Dallas, Texas 75202-9990 
(214) 528-3500 

WATT: I-800-US-COINS (872-6467) 

BOURSE INFORMATION: 

John Highfill or Marlene Highfill 




OKLAHOMA FEDERATED GOLD & NUMISMATICS, INC. 



P.O. Box 25 • Broken Arrow, OK 74013-0025 
(918) 455-5970 • (918) 455-2843 FAX 
FACTS G53 SLOAT OK03 




- 14 - 



THE FEDERATED MALAY STATES 
MONEY SYSTEM IN 1915 

(Ed. Note: The following information is quoted from Federated Malay 
States with a chapter on Straits Settlements , published in London in 1915 by 
the Emigrants Information Office. The brief guide discusses a wide variety 
of condition and expenses that a new arrival to the Malay Peninsula would 
face.) 

Currency 

The unit of currency in the Federated Malay States is the dollar ($). 

The following are legal tender to any amount: — 

(i.) Currency notes issued by the Government of the Straits Settlements 
of the respective values of $1 , $5, $10, $25, $50, and $100. 

(ii.) Notes issued by the local banks. 

(iii.) The Straits Settlements dollar and fifty-cent pieces. 

The following coins are also used: — 

Silver coins subsidiary to the dollar, and of the respective values of 5, 10, 
20, and 50 cents of a dollar; and copper coins, of the value of one cent of 
a dollar, and half cent of a dollar. 

The rate of exchange has been fixed at 2s. 4d. to the dollar. 

It should, however, be borne in mind that, when articles of European pro- 
duction or manufacture are purchased locally, the purchasing power of the 
dollar is seldom if ever equal to that of its equivalent in sterling. That is to 
say, although the value of the dollar is two shillings and fourpence according 
to the exchange rate, an article which can be purchased for that sum at home 
will, nevertheless, cost more than one dollar in the Malay Peninsula. 

The Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China, whose London office is 
38, Bishopsgate, E. C., has five branches in the Federated States, two in 
Perak and two in Selangor, and one in Negri Sembilan. The Hong Kong and 
Shanghai Bank has branches at Kuala Lampur and Ipoh, and the Mercantile 
Bank of India has a branch in Kuala Lampur. 

The banks undertake all kinds of Banking and exchange business, grant 
drafts on their various branches, purchase and receive for collection bills of 
exchange, issue letters of credit, and discount local bills. 

In the colonial towns of Singapore and Penang, each of which is within one 
day’s journey of some part of the Federated States, there are the following 
banks with which business may be done: — 

The Chartered Bank of India, Australia, and China; 

The Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation; 

The Mercantile Bank of India. 

Savings Banks, managed and guaranteed by the Government have been es- 
tablished in the Federated States. Deposits of from one dollar to five 
hundred dollars are received, and interest is paid thereon at the rate of three 
per cent. 



- 15 - 



ST. LOUIS WORLD’S FAIR 
PUNCH TAGS 
by 

William M. Leach 



They were personalized, practical and the price was right. Punch tags could 
be purchased at any one of many machines located on the grounds of the 
1904 World’s Fair. All the visitors had to do for their souvenir was to put 
their money into the machine, turn the arrow on the wheel to the letters and / 
or numbers they wanted and pull the lever down. There it was - very original 
and personal! 

Documentation of the actual cost of a World’s Fair punch tag has not sur- 
vived; however, these souvenirs or the World’s Fair were probably the least 
costly for those who had a budget to watch, and still wanted a remembrance 
of their time at the St. Louis Fair. 

Punch tags were made of aluminum because it was soft and, by this time, 
and inexpensive metal. No two tags are alike, unless they were purposely 
made that way or not punched. As the catalogue indicates below, all the 
blanks were not used and blanks did survive. 

All of the St. Louis World’s Fair punch tags were made from 32 mm. round 
aluminum prestruck blanks with a raised empty area for the personalized in- 
scription. Types were catalogued by Kurt R. Krueger in Meet Me in St. 
Louis The Exonumia of the 1904 World’s Fair. Krueger numbers are listed 
with the description. All reverses are blank or unused unless indicated. 




Figure 1 Figure 2 



CATALOGUE 

1. ST. LOUIS (view of the cascades) 1904; beaded border; pierced at top. 
(Krueger #290) 

2. ST. LOUIS (view of the cascades) 1904; beaded border; pierced at top. 
(different die with a smaller projection from the left building’s comer. 
(Krueger #291) 



- 16 - 




Figure 5 




6 



3. ST. LOUIS (view of the cascades) 1904; beaded border; not pierced at 
top; large letters in legend; ring attached to back which is blank except for 
a circle. (Krueger #292) 

4. ST. LOUIS (angled view of an unidentified building with a cupola) 1904; 
beaded border; pierced at top. (Krueger #293) 

5. ST. LOUIS (angled view of an unidentified classic Greek style building) 
1904; beaded border; pierced at top. (Krueger #294) 

6. ST. LOUIS EXPO / 1904 / * ; legend in round center of a punched out 
six-pointed star; not pierced at top. (Krueger #298) 

7. PROTECTION (bust of Theodore Roosevelt facing left) PROSPERITY; 
beaded border; pierced at top. (Krueger #299) 



UNFIT CURRENCY 

The regulations given below are extracted from Jeffrey M. Lacker’s article, 
Should We Subsidize the Use of Currency? published in the Volume 79, 
Number 1 (Winter, 1993) issue of the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond 
Quarterly on pages 47-73. His comments are printed as a footnote on page 
49. 

The U. S. Treasury defines unfit currency as “currency which is unfit for 
further circulation because of its physical condition such as tom, dirty, limp, 
worn or mutilated.” 31 CFR 100.5 Federal Reserve Banks have adopted 
more detailed definitions. 

“Paper currency tendered for redemption in order to be classed as fit for fur- 
ther circulation must be fairly clean so that its class, denomination, and 
genuineness can be determined without difficulty and must contain a suffi- 
cient amount of life or sizing to permit its handling with facility. It should 
not contain heavy creases which break the fiber of the paper and indicate 
that disintegration has begun. A fit note when held by one end in one hand 
and pressed into a slightly concave shape lengthwise should sustain itself 
substantially on a line with the hand. It should not present a limp or rag-like 
appearance. If a note has retained a fair amount of the original strength or 
sizing, it is fit unless it is so badly soiled as to be offensive, or it is tom, per- 
forated or otherwise mutilated. Mere creasing or wrinkling that has not 
broken nor seriously weakened the note does not make it unfit. So-called 
‘dog ears’ or bent comers do not render notes unfit.” (Federal Reserve Bank 
of Richmond, Operating Circular No. 14 , March 30, 1990, p. 3.) 



- 17 - 



BIMETALLIC MAVERICK IDENTIFIED 

by 

Terry M. Schaub 



The token illustrated above came to my attention in a sale where it was listed 
as a maverick, a token without a city and state or other information suffi- 
cient to determine place of usage. As a long-time resident of St. Louis when 
I saw the street names, Pine, Olive, and Vernon I was sure it was a St. Louis 
item. 

The DeSoto Bowling Alley token is bimetallic with a brass outer area and 
aluminum center. It is 24/2 mm. in diameter and I/2 mm. thick. I am told 
by a knowledgeable collector of Missouri tokens that a bimetallic token from 
St. Louis is indeed rare. 



The following information is from St. Louis City Directories: 



1908 

DeSoto Bowling Alleys 
708 and 710 Pine 
Desoto Building 
708/2 Pine 

DeSoto- Vernon Bowling Alleys 5305 Vernon Avenue 

Note: No Olive St. location was listed in 1908. The DeSoto Bowling alley 
took its name from the DeSoto Building. 





1909-1915 

DeSoto Bowling Alleys 
708 Pine 

DeSoto-Olive Bowling Alleys 
3939 Olive 

DeSoto- Vernon Bowling Alleys 
5305 Vernon Avenue 



1918 

Desoto-Pine Bowling Alleys 
2nd Floor 708 Vi Pine 
DeSoto-Olive Bowling Alleys 
3939 Olive 

Giessow Brothers Bowling 
5305 Vernon Avenue 



Note: By 1918, the Vernon Avenue location dropped DeSoto from its name. 
It may have been sold to the Giessow Brothers. 

This token has a 2/2 cent value. Why a 2/2 cent denomination? From the 
mid 1890’s until prohibition stopped open liquor sales in 1919, a glass of 
hard liquor cost 15 cents. Two glasses cost a quarter. When a customer gave 
the bartender a quarter for his drink he received a dime and a 2/2 cent token. 
Twelve and one-half cents or one-half of a quarter resulted. The customer 
could then use the dime plus the 2/2 cent token for his next drink. The actual 



- 18 - 



cost to the customer would be 10 cents in cash plus the token. The token had 
the added advantage of bringing the customer back to the same bar since 
each saloonkeeper only redeemed his own tokens. 

The following names were associated with DeSoto Bowling Alleys: 



Lloyd Lovell 

(5305 Vernon Avenue 

1911) 

Martin Kern 
(708 Pine 



1912) 

Clarence Tucker 
(5305 Vernon Avenue 
1912) 

Giessow Brothers 



1912) (5305 Vernon Avenue 

John A. Beresford 1918) 

(708 Pine 

The author of this article had a part-time job at 717-719 Pine in 1963 as a 
clerk at a book store called The House of Publications. At that time the lo- 
cation of the earlier bowling alley was occupied by the Band Box Cleaners 
and the Service Blue Print and Photo Copy Company. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Goulds St. Louis City Directories 

Goulds Red Book of the City of St. Louis, Missouri 

Goulds Red-Blue Book of the City of St. Louis, 

Missouri 



Various Years 
Various Years 

Various Years 



ANCIENT COIN STUDY GROUP 

The Ancient Coin Study Group meets five times per year on the third Friday 
of the month at 7:30 p.m. at the M.N.S. Library, 5005 South Grand Ave., 
St. Louis, MO 63111. Call (314) 481-7630 for details. Scheduled programs 
are: 



1993 

September 17 Michael Pfefferkorn Medieval Coins of Northern India 

November 19 Lawrence Schneider Review of Ancient Coinage 

Literature 



January 21 
March 18 
May 20 



1994 



Dr. Harold Mare 
Verland Nelson 
Gary Liming 



Conservation of Coins 
Topics in Ancient Coins 
Topics in Ancient Roman Coins 



- 19 - 



WOOD’S HIBERNIA COINAGE 

by 

John A. Bush 



A Guide Book of United States Coins , By R. S. Yeoman, classifies Wood’s 
Hibernia Coinage under the heading of “Coinage Authorized by Royal 
Patent.” 

The story of William Wood, a wealthy English mine operator and entrepre- 
neur presents an interesting dimension to the study of American Colonial 
numismatics and Irish nationalism. 

In the early 1700’s, Ireland was under English domination and was so se- 
verely lacking for small money, that workers were paid with tallies or tokens 
in cards to be afterward exchanged for money. A patent for issuing farthings 
and half-pence for Ireland was obtained for William Wood by the king’s 
(George I) mistress, the Duchess of Kendall (a German baroness) for the 
sum of 10,000 pounds sterling. This payment was made by William Wood 
directly to the Duchess of Kendall, after which the patent was transferred to 
him on June 16, 1722. 

These coins were unpopular in Ireland because they were produced without 
Irish advice or consent, arrangements for their coinage were made in secret 
for the financial gain of William Wood, and finally, the pieces were seri- 
ously underweight. Some were shipped to America and they are included 
with Early American Coinage because of their common linkage with the 
patent obtained by Wood for the Rosa Americana Coinage Series. The ob- 
verse of the farthings depicts King George I with the abbreviated legend 
“Georgius .D:G : Rex. ’’(“George, by the grace of God, King”). The ob- 
verse of the halfpence also shows the head of George I and the Latin legend, 
complete - “Georgius . Dei . Gratia . Rex . .” The reverse, common to both 
denominations, shows a seated goddess, representing Ireland, playing a 
harp, the emblem of Ireland; the word “Hibernia,” which is the name the 
early Romans called Ireland - meaning Winter Island; and the date. 

Jonathan Swift, author of the famous, satirical Gulliver’s Travels , issued a 
propaganda campaign against the Wood’s Hibernia Coinage in a series of 7 
letters titled The Draper Papers , which were purportedly penned by a Dublin 
draper (cloth merchant) and signed anonymously by “M. B. Drapier." 





- 20 - 



When William Wood’s coinage was rejected by the Irish and subsequently 
did not circulate, the crown indemnified him for his efforts with a pension 
of 3,000 pounds sterling, annually, for 8 years. 




FUTURE NUMISMATIC EVENTS 



September 17-19, 1993 


The 34th Illinois State Numismatic Association An- 
nual coin show is held at the Holiday Inn City Center 
in Peoria, Illinois. 


November 12-14, 1993 


The Professional Numismatist Guild (PNG) Show is 
at the Cervantes Convention Center. 


November 12-14, 1993 


The Eighth Annual National and World Paper Money 
Convention is at the Cervantes Convention Center. 


November 12-14, 1993 


The National Silver Dollar Convention is at the Cer- 
vantes Convention Center. 


February 5-6, 1994 


The Dupo Coin Show is held at the Ramada Inn at 
Fairview Heights, Illinois, junction of Highways 159 
and 1-64. 


February 11-13, 1994 


The St. Louis Numismatic Association Show is at the 
Henry VIII on Lindbergh near 1-70. 


March 26-27, 1994 


The St. Clair Numismatic Society's Spring Coin 
Show is at the Quality Inn in Collinsville, Illinois. 


May 6-8, 1994 


The 6th National Gold Convention is at the Cervantes 
Convention Center. 


May 14-15, 1994 


The Central Coin Club sponsors its annual show at the 
Days Inn, Sedalia, Mo. 


August 12-14, 1994 


The MISSOURI NUMISMATIC SOCIETY'S 34th 
Annual Coin Festival is at the Henry VIII on Lind- 
bergh near 1-70. 



- 21 - 



ANCIENT COINAGE STUDY GROUP 

by 

Ross Larson 



The Ancient Coinage Study group is jointly sponsored by the Missouri 
Numismatic Society and the World Coin Club of Missouri to advance the 
study of ancient and medieval coinage. 

Since 1980, the Ancient Coinage Study Group has provided, without 
charge, enjoyable educational programs to anyone interested in the numis- 
matics of the ancient or medieval world. It meets five times a year (about 
every two months) at 7:30 PM at the Missouri Numismatic Library at 5005 
S. Grand Blvd. at Delor. The library serves as an ideal meeting place due to 
the vast amount of reference material available during the meetings. During 
these sessions, the science of numismatics expands into the disciplines of 
history, religion, archaeology, economics, geography, art conservation, and 
manufacturing techniques. 

Over the past thirteen years, many excellent programs have been presented 
on various aspects of ancient numismatics. These have usually been illus- 
trated with color slides and/or the actual coins. Last season's presentations 
included Topics in the Roman Republic; The Myth of Europa as Depicted on 
the Coins of Gortyna, Crete; Medieval English Coinage; Some unusual 
Non-Western Ancient Coins; and Women of the Caesars. 

Other activities include round table discussions and “show and tell” ses- 
sions. Members of the study group serve as advisors to Covenant Seminary 
archaeologist Dr. Harold Mare who is conducting excavations at Abila, Jor- 
dan. Participants enjoy these activities much as the scheduled programs. 

The program schedule for 1993-1994 is listed below. If you have the urge to 
learn more about ancient coins or if you have coins you would like identi- 
fied, come and join the study group. Mark your calendar! 

For further information call the Missouri Numismatic Library at (3 14) 46 1 - 
7630. 



Scheduled future programs are: 

1993 

September 17 Michael Pfefferkorn 

November 19 Lawrence Schneider 



January 21 
March 18 
May 20 



1994 

Dr. Harold Mare 
Verland Nelson 
Gary Liming 



Medieval Coins of Northern 
India 

Review of Ancient Coinage 
Literature 



Conservation of Coins 

Topics in Ancient Coins 

Topics in Ancient Roman 
Coins 



- 22 - 



WORLD COIN CLUB OF MISSOURI 



The World Coin Club meets on the fourth Sunday afternoon of each month. 
Trading begins at 1:00 p.m. The meeting starts at 1:45 p.m. and concludes 
with a program and auction. Meetings are currently held at the McKnight 
Road Church of Christ (in the meeting room) located south of Highway 40 
on McKnight Road at Litzinger. Parking is available on the adjacent church 
lot. 

The club address is W.C.C.Mo., P.O. Box 410652 St. Louis MO 63141. 
Organizational information is also available by calling (314) 481-7630. 



1993 



August 22 


Mike Rudloff 


Numismatic Quiz 


September 26 


Don Rusk 


Porcelain Notgeld 


October 24 


Earl Biffle 


History of Money 


November 28 


Marshall Faintich 


Astro-Numismatics “Astronomical 
Symbols on Medieval Coins” 


December 19 




Annual Christmas Party 







1994 


January 23 


Bill Vaughan 


Cherokee Indian Nation Notes 


February 27 


Curt Farley 


Numismatic Quiz 


March 27 


Mike Rudloff 


Chinese Coins Used in Japan 


April 24 


Mike Pfefferkorn 


World Tokens 


May 22 


Ken Thompson 


Mexican Political History Through 
Numismatics 


June 26 


Stan Winchester 


The Canadian Royal Mint 


July 24 


Don Rusk 


German Notgeld 


August 28 


Roger Schmidt 


Coins I Collect 


September 25 


Bill Armstrong 


European Crowns 


October 23 


Joe France 


to be announced 


November 27 


Gary Liming 


Getting Started in Ancients 



MISSOURI NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 



The Missouri Numismatic Society meets on the fourth Wednesday evening 
of each month except December. Meetings open at 7:00 p.m. in the upstairs 
meeting room at Schneithorst's Inn at Clayton Road and Lindbergh Blvd. in 
Frontenac. Ample parking is available at the front and north side of the res- 
taurant. A members' bourse precedes the meeting which concludes with a 
program, silent auction and bourse. Write to M.N.S., 5005 South Grand 
Ave., St. Louis, MO 631 1 1 , or call (314) 481-7630 for additional 



information. 


1993 


August 25 


Jim Watson 


Trains on Coins 


September 22 


Earl Biffle 


Tales of Money 


October 27 


Ken Thompson 


Using the Computer for 
Cataloguing Coins 


November 24 


Michael Pfefferkorn 


Coins That Document 
History 


December 4 


Annual Christmas location to be announced 

Dinner with Special 

Entertainment 

1994 


January 26 


Bob Cochran 


to be announced 


February 23 


Mike Dwyer 


Love Tokens 


March 23 


Sandy Knight 


Annual 50 Lot Auction 


April 27 


Dave Grant 


Banknotes of the St. Louis 
World’s Fair 


May 25 


Terr) Schaub 


Tokens 


June 22 


John Bush 


to be announced 


July 27 


Dr. Joe Vacca 


to be announced 


August 24 


Rian Thum 


to be announced 


September 28 


David Frank 


Standing Liberty Quarters 


October 26 


Norman Bowers 


Modern U.S. 
Commemoratives 


November 23 


Frank Shea 


U.S. Trade Dollars 



24 



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481-0770 

110 S. Central • Clayton 

863-0990 



BUYING • SELLING 

SILVER COINS • SILVER BARS 
GOLD COINS (US & FOREIGN) 
PAPER MONEY & RARE COINS 
ANTIQUE & MODERN JEWELRY 
ANTIQUE SWORDS & DAGGERS 
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