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TWO RECENT PLANT DISCOVERIES IN MISSOURI: 

CLADIUM MARISCUS SUBSP. JAMAICENSE (CYPERACEAE) 

AND UTRICULARIA MINOR (LENTIBULARIACEAE) 

Scott A. Nam estnik 

Cardno JFNew 

70S Roosevelt Road 

Walkerton, Indiana 46574 

scottnamestmk@cardno.com 

Justin R. Thomas 

Institute of Botanical Training, LLC 

1 1 1 County Road 3260 

Salem, Missouri 65560 

jthomas@botanvtraining.com 

Bradford S. Slaughter 

Michigan Natural Features Inventory 

P.O. Box 30444 

Lansing, Michigan 48909 

slaugh 1 4@m su.edu 

ABSTRACT 

Here we rqiort the first Missouri records for Ciadium mariscus (L.) Pohl subsp. jamaicense 
(Crantz) Kiik. (Cyperaceae) and Utricularia minor L. (Lentibulariaceae). Both taxa are documented 
from The Nature Conservancy's Shut-in Mountain Fens Preserve in Shannon County, within the 
Ozark Highlands ecoregion of southeastern Missouri. 

KEY WORDS: Cyperaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Ciadium, Utricularia, Missouri, Shannon County 



Shut-in Mountain Fens Preserve is a 520-acre (210 ha) Nature Conservancy preserve 
characterized by rugged igneous knobs of Precambrian rhyolitic ash flows overlain by deep beds of 
dissected Ordovician dolomite. Below the small exposed igneous glade at the summit of Shut-in 
Mountain, the site is primarily oak-hickory woodland, with a minor component of shortleaf pine 
{Pinus echinatd). Total relief within the preserve is 100 meters. The geology and topography create 
several areas of permanent minerotrophic groundwater discharge along Wildcat Hollow, the small, 
northeast-trending, intermittently flowing drainage that passes through the site. These phreatic 
discharges range from numerous small seepage areas of a few square meters to three fens ranging up 
to 1.0 ac (0.4 ha). The vegetation of these fen areas is briefly described below; data on dominant 
vascular plants are from Ladd (2010). 

The central fen in this complex is categorized as Ozark Fen by Nelson (2010), and supports a 
rich assemblage of plants whose Ozark distribution is restricted to fen systems. Dominant plant 

species in this fen are Rudbeckia fulgida var. umbrosa, Parnassia grandiflora, Scleria verticillata, 
Vernonia missurica, and Oxypolis rigidior. 

A few hundred meters upstream (west) from this fen is an unusual fen area characterized by 
an expanse of seeping marly gravel over dolomite bedrock. While this site likely supported Ozark fen 

historically, past land use history of this area has resulted in the loss of virtually all organic substrate, 
creating an unusual minerotrophic wetland dominated by a sparse cohort of Rhynchospora capillacea, 
Physostegia virginiana, Silphium terebinthinaceum, Panicum virgatum, and Fuirena simplex. 



Namestnik, Thomas, and S 



The easternmost fen has strong biological affinities to dolomite glade, and i 
0.5 ac (0.2 ha) gently sloping open seepage over surfacing flats of dolomite bedrock, 
species here are Scleria verticillata, Schizachyrium scoparium, Rudbeckia missouriensis, 
Rhynchospora capillacea, Linumfloridaniwi, and Panicum virgatum. 

Shortly after The Nature Conservancy acquired the site in 1988, a regime of frequent dormant 
season fires was implemented in much of the preserve. The drainage containing the three fens has 
been burned 17 times since its acquisition by the Conservancy. This fire management has increased 

botanical diversity within tiie fen. Of particular note, the second-known and largest population of 
Pogonia ophioglossoides in Missouri emerged following application of prescribed fire. Several plant 
taxa of conservation concern or taxa previously unknown in the state have been documented at the 
site including Equisetum •' nelsonii, Ludwigia microcarpa, Scleria verticillata, and Utricularia 
subulata. 



s subs p. jamaicense 

Since 2007, representatives from The Nature Conservancy have observed a slowly : 
vegetative population of a large sedge along the upper margin of the easternmost fen; this was 
subsequently identified as Cladium mariscus (L.) Pohl subsp. jamaicense (Crantz) Kuk. by the 
authors. As of 2011, this population had grown to a dense stand of several thousand stems 
dominating an area measuring approximately 18 x 7 meters. In 2010, only two fertile culms from the 
previous growing season were located; a few fertile stems were also documented in 2011. Associated 
plant species include: Andropogon gerardii, Apios americana, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Fuirena 
simplex, Helenium autumnale, Liatris pycnostachya, Lysimachia quadriflora, Oxypolis rigidior, 
Panicum virgatum, Pycnanthemum virginianum, Rhynchospora capillacea, Rudbeckia fulgida var. 
umbrosa, Salix caroliniana, Sorghastrum nutans, Symphyotrichum later iflorum, and Vernonia 



Voucher specimens: MISSOURI. Shannon Co.: The Nature Conservancy's Shut-in 
Mountain Fens Preserve, along the south side of Shannon County H-522, ca. 1.4 mi NE of the jet of 
hwys H and NN, ca. 7.5 mi E of Eminence; large, mostly vegetative colony in partial shade along 
upper side of easternmost fen, in gently sloping gravelly/marly seepage with exposed dolomite 
bedrock; 37° 06' 35.82"N, 91° 13' 39.35"W, 21 Apr 2010, Thomas 2349 (MO): 24 August 2011. 
Ladd 32234 (KANU, MO). 

Tiiis is the nortirwesternmost, though not westernmost, record of Cladium mariscus subsp. 
jamaicense, and represents a significant range extension as well as the first record for Missouri. This 
specie 15 dominant in mai^hes of the Florida Everglades (Tucker 2002), and it occurs primarily in 
coastal marshes from Virginia to Texas and also in Hawaii (Tucker 2002; BONAP 2012). Additional 
inland populations in the United States have been reported from Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and New 
Mexico (NatureServe 2010; USDA NRCS 2010; T. Witsell, personal communication, 15 November 
2010; BONAP 2012). Cladium mariscus subsp. jamaicense is also known from Mexico, the West 
Indies, Central America, and northern South America (Tucker 2002). The Missouri population of C. 
mariscus subsp. jamaicense is more than 400 km north of the closest documented sites in southern 
Arkansas (Tucker 2002; T. Witsell personal communication, 15 November 2010; NatureServe 2010; 
USDA, NRCS 2010; BONAP 2012). 



Namestnik, Thomas, and S 




l Fens Preserve. Photograph by Justin Thoma 



In North America, Cladium 
mariscus subsp. jamaicense typically 
occurs in brackish and freshwater marshes 
(Tucker 2002). However, the Missouri 
population occurs on the margin of a 
marly fen. The precedent to occur in 
minerotrophic fen wetlands is not 
unexpected; the Old World counterpart to 
our taxon, the questionably distinct var. 
mariscus, is a dominant species in 
calcareous fens in Europe (EUNIS 
Biodiversity Database 2012), where the 
common name for the plant is "Great Fen 
Sedge." 

Only three species of Cladium 
occur in North America — C. 
californicum, C. mariscoides, and C. 
mariscus subsp. jamaicense, Cladium 
mariscus subsp. jamaicense and C. 
californicum differ from C mariscoides 
in having taller and broader culms, 
broader leaves with serrate margins, and 
taller inflorescences with a greater degree 
of brandling (Tucker 2002). Cladium 
mariscus subsp. jamaicense is 
questionably distinct from C. 
californicum, and reportedly differs in 
having spikelets in smaller groups, 
inflorescences with third and fourth order 
branches, and taller culms (Tucker 2002). 
For a key and a full description of these 
taxa, see Tucker (2002). 



The nativity and ecological status of the Missouri population of Cladium ; 
jamaicense is uncertain. There is strong reason to suspect that this population is a recent introduction, 
as evidenced by its occurrence well outside the previously documented range, its recent, discovery in a 
well- investigated site visited annually by botanists, its proximity to a road, and its steadily increasing 
population at a single locus in the area. On the other hand, the species is not cultivated, and it is not 
considered to be ecologically opportunistic or weedy. The continued discovery of conservative native 
vascular plant taxa at Shut-in Mountain Fens Preserve also raises the slight possibility that habitat 
management at this site has resulted in the resurgence of a relict population of C. mariscus ssp. 
jamaicense. 

Utricularia minor 

In April 2010 the authors also documented extensive populations of Utricularia minor L. 
from shallowly inundated marly substrate in all three fen communities within Shut-in Mountain Fens 
Preserve. A subsequent survey of the three fen openings revealed 385 flowering stems in both marl- 
dominated openings and in the pools of deep muck zones. Plants were common in areas of 
permanent inundation that lacked visible flow. Though no other species of vascular plants were 
detected in the immediate microhabitat of the U. minor plants, the tussocks and higher (saturated but 



Namestnik, Thomas, and S 



, Carex leptalea, Panicum 



not inundated) ground contained such species as: Rhynchospora capilla 
virgatum, Carex sterilis, and Silphium terebinthinaceum. 

Voucher specimen: MISSOURI. Shannon Co.: The Nature Conservancy's Shut-in 
Mountain Fens Preserve, along the S side of Shannon County H-522, ca. 1.4miNE of the jet of hwys 
H and NN, ca. 7.5 mi E of Eminence; from marly openings in westernmost fen, 37° 06' 24.33" N, 91° 
14' 05.47" W, 30 Apr 2010, Thomas 2343 (MO). 

Utricularia minor is a circumboreal 
species, concentrated in the conterminous United 
States in New England and the northern Great 
Lakes states, and occurring at scattered localities 
from the Dakotas and central Nebraska west to 
Washington, Oregon, and California (Neid 2006; 
BONAP 2012). This collection represents a 
significant range extension for this species. The 
nearest known locations for U. minor are two 
ponds in Saline and Clay counties, Illinois, 
where the species was collected in 1964 and 
1965, respectively (Dolbeare and Ebinger 1974; 
Herkert and Ebinger, eds., 2002). These 
southern Illinois collections represent possible 
introductions or wail's (Herkert and Ebinger, 
eds., 2002); the species is otherwise concentrated 
in far northeastern Illinois and, to the west, 
occurs no closer to Missouri than north-central 
Iowa (BONAP 2012). The species is also 
disjunct in the southeastern United States in 
high-elevation fens and bogs in the Southern 
Blue Ridge Mountains in western North Carolina 
(Weakley 2011). 

Throughout its range, Utricularia minor 
typically inhabits low-nutrient, anaerobic 
wetland habitats. In New England and the Great 
Lakes states, U. minor inhabits a variety of 
wetlands, including shallow ponds, peaty lake 
margins, fens, sedge meadows, and marshes, 
often in shallow water or disturbed areas such as tire ruts and animal trails (Voss 1996; Chadde 2002; 
Magee and Ahles 2007). The species generally shows a preference for calcareous soils (Voss 1996; 
Chadde 2002). In the western United States, the species is scattered and local, and typically occurs in 
seq>s, floating mats, shallow water, and saturated peat in calcareous fens and associated habitats at 
elevations typically greater than 2,100 m (7,000 ft) (Neid 2006). In Alaska, U. minor is known from 
quiet water and mud habitats (Hulten 1968). Although U. minor is considered to be globally secure, 
the species is rare across much of its North American range, and it is considered critically imperiled 
in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, New Jersey, Utah, and Prince Edward Island; imperiled in Colorado, 
Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming, New Brunswick, and 
Saskatchewan; and vulnerable in California, Ohio, and Manitoba. In addition, U. minor is considered 
extirpated from Delaware and is known only from historical collections from North Carolina and 
Rhode Island (Neid 2006). 




Figure 2. Utricularia minor at Shut-in Mountain 
Fens Preserve. Photograph by Justin Thomas. 



Namestnik, Thomas, and S 



The genus Utricularia L. is diverse worldwide, but only 20 species are documented from the 
United States and Canada, and only three species were previously documented from Missouri: U. 
gibba L.; U. macrorhiza J. Le Conte; and U. subulata L. (Steyermark 1963; Neid 2006: BONAP 
2012), Utricularia minor can be differentiated from U. subulata, which also occurs at the site, by its 
numerous, dichotomous or irregularly divided leaves (vs. leaves absent or linear for U. subulata) and 
by its small, cream-colored flowers with the spur approximately half the length of the lower lip (vs. 
flowers yellow with the spur about equaling the lip in U. subulata) (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). 
Utricularia minor can be differentiated from U. gibba and U. macrorhiza by its lower corolla lip, 
which is approximately twice as long as the upper lip (vs. lower corolla lip equaling or slightly longer 
than the upper lip in U. gibba and U. macrorhiza) and its flat ultimate leaf segments (vs. ultimate leaf 

) filiform in U. gibba and U. macrorhiza) (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). 



Based on its occurrence in a typical habitat (calcareous fen), the rarity and local distribution 
of calcareous fens in southern Missouri (Nelson 2010), and the documentation of numerous scattered 
populations in similar wetlands in several western states over the past half-century (Neid 2006), the 
population of Utricularia minor at Shut-in Mountain Fens Preserve is likely a native occurrence. In 
addition, U. minor is a very small, inconspicuous, easily overlooked plant, and flowers early in spring 
when its calcareous fen habitat appears barren of vegetation without close inspection. Systematic 
inventories of calcareous fens, seeps, and pond shores in the surrounding region in April or early May 
may reveal additional populations of this locally rare bladderwort species in southern Missouri. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Our thanks to George Yatskievych and Garrett Crow for verification of identification of 
Utricularia minor, to Doug Ladd for providing background information about Shut-in Mountain Fens 
Preserve and the Cladium mariscus subsp. jamaicense population, and to Susan Farrington for her 
assistance with stem counts and collection of additional specimens. 

LITERATURE CITED 

BONAP. 2012. North American Plant Atlas (US county-level species maps). Biota of North 

America Program, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Last update: Oct 2011 

<http ://www . bonap.org/genera-list.htm 1> 
Chadde, S.W. 2002. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora: A Complete Guide to the Aquatic and Wetland 

Plants of the Upper Mdwest (ed. 2). PocketFlora Press, Laurium, Michigan. 
Dolbeare, B.L. and J. Ebinger. 1974. Distribution of the common vascular hydrophytes in Illinois. 

Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 67: 402-417. 
EUNIS Biodiversity Database. 2012. Calcareous fens with Cladium mariscus and species of the 

Caricion davallianae (7210). European Environment Agency. Copenhagen, Denmark. 

<http://eunis.eea.europa.eu/habitats/10149> Accessed 4 October 2011. 
Gleason, H.A and A Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and 

Adjacent Canada (ed. 2). New York Botanical Garden, New York. 
Herkert, J.R. and J.E. Ebinger (eds.) 2002. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: Status and 

distribution. Volume 1 - Plants. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board, Springfield, 

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Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A Manual of the Vascular Plants. 

Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, California. 
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Missouri Ozarks. Nature Conservancy final report to Missouri Department of Conservation, 

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Magee, D.W. and H.E. Ahles. 2007. Flora of the Northeast: A Manual of the Vascular Flora of New 

England and Adjacent New York (ed. 2). Univ. of Massachusetts Press. Amherst. 



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NatureServe. 2010. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web 

application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. 

<http://www.natureserve.org/explorer> Accessed 14 Nov 2010. 
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<http://www.fs.fed.us/r2/projects/scp/assessments/utriculariaminor.pdf> Accessed 2.5 

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