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Full text of "New principles of gardening, or, The laying out and planting parterres, groves, wildernesses, labyrinths, avenues, parks, &c. ?after a more grand and rural manner, than has been done before with experimental directions for raising the several kinds of fruit?trees, forest?trees, ever?greens and flowering?shrubs with which gardens are adorn'd. To which is added, the various names, descriptions, temperatures, medicinal virtues, uses and cultivations of several roots, pulse, herbs, &c. of the kitchen and physick gardens, that are absolutely necessary for the service of families in general. Illustrated with great variety of grand designs, curiously engraven on twenty?eight folio plates, by the best hands /by Batty Langley of Twickenham."

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O F 


Or, The Laying out and Planting 

Parte it RES, G^oV^sf Wi&E&rfi&sES) 


After a more Grand and Rural Manner, than 
has been done before ; 

With Experimental Directions 
Tor railing the fevcral Kinds of Bruit- Trees, Foru.i- 
Trees, Ever-Greens and Flowering-Shrubs 
with which Gardens are adorn'd. 

To which is added, 

The various Names, Descriptions, Temper a tu rbsj 
Medicinal Virtues, Uses and Cultivations of 
feveral Roots, Pulse, Herbs, &c. of the Kitchen and 
Phy.fick Gardens, that are abfolutcly neceflary for the Service of 
Families in general. 
Mluftrated with great Variety of Grand Designs, curioufly 
Engraven on twenty eight Folio Plates, by the bed Hands. 

By BATTY LA \NG LEY of Twickenham, 
L O NT> O N: 

Printed for A. Bettesworth and J. Batley in Pater- Nofler 

Rows J. Pemberton in Fleeiireet; T. Bowles in St. Paul's 

Church-lard; J Clarke, under the Royal Exchange; 

and J. Bowles at Mercer's Hall in Chea?fidc, 



To the Nobility and Gentry of Great Britain. 

WHEREAS the Pkafure of Gardens, and Succefs of Plantations 
wholly depend on their manner of Laying out, and Judgment in 
the Choice and Planting fuch Kinds of Trees as are mo ft natural to their 
Soils i This is to give Notice, that the Author's Advice may be readily 
commanded at all Times to any part of Great Britain, or Ireland. 
By whom 
Buildings in general are Surveyed, Valued, and Meafured, as alfo Timber 
growing or felled. 

Grottos, Baths, Cafcades, Fountains, &c. made, and Engines for 
raifing Waters to any height required, for the fervice of Towns, private 
Families, Canals, Fifh-Ponds, &c. 

Cities, Lordflnps, EJlates, Farms, 8cc. Surveyed, Meafur'd, and Map fd, 
and Sun Dials of all Kinds made for any Latitude. 

Gardens in general, Made, Planted and Furniftd with Fruit and Fo- 
.refi-Trees, Ever-Greens, Flowering-Shrubs, Sec. of the befi Kinds, and 
Growths proper for all Kinds of Soils atidAfpecJs, at very reafonable Rates. 




rjquiries into vegetable Na- 
ture, being the Delight of 
Your Majefty, and Your Royal 
Confer t, I humbly prefume to 
lay at Your Majeftys Feet, thefe 
Plans of Parterres, Groves, Wil- 
der nejfes , Labyrinths, Avenues, 
Parks, Sec. which are entirely 
new, but embelliihd with many 
of the moft noble Antiquities 
now extant in other Countries. 

, I hum - 

I humbly offer the following 

Work to Your Majeftys Patron- 
age and Protection, whofe Roy- 
al Regard for the ufeful Arts of 
Planting and Gardening will fuf- 
ficiently recommend their Im- 
provement to the Nobility and 
Gentry of Great Britain. 

May Your Majefty, and Your 
Royal Con/ort, long live to be a 
Bleffing to thefe Nations, and 
at length tranfmit them, with 
Your Imperial Crown, to Your 
Moft Iliufirious and Royal Iffue, is 
the fervent Prayer of, 

Tour Majeftys Moft Loyal, 
Moft Obedient, 

And faitlful Subjefl, 

Eatty Langley. 

T H' E 


O confider how many Authors (as Evelyn, Meager, 
Woolndge, Cook, Laurence, Bradley, Loyidon, Wife, 
Carpenter and others, who ) have wrote on Garden- 
ing, and the vail Numbers ot fine Plants that are, 
and have been for fixty years part, railed in ourNuricrics about 
Loiidoyi, would make a Foreigner ( that had not feen the Gar- 
dens of England) believe, that they excell'd all others in the 
World ; more efpecially as we abound with the beft of Grafs 
and Gravel of any People whatfoever : But to our great Mif- 
fortune, our Gardens are much the worft of any in the World, 
fome few excepted, that have been laid out by Gentlemen, who 
have a grand and elegant Tafte in Designing, known to very- 
few Gardeners. 

Among all the celebrated Books that have been wrote on 
the laying out Gardens, The Theory and Traflice of Gardening, 
tranflated from the French by Mr. John James of Greenwich, 
and thofe wrote by Mr. Stephen Switzer, are the very beft. 
But even thofe are far fhort of that great Beauty which Gar- 
dens ought to conjift of: For fince the Pleafure of a Garden 
depends on the variety of its Parts, 'tis therefore that we mould 
well confider of their Difpofitions, fo as to have a continued 
Series of Harmonious Objects, that will prefent new and de- 
lightful Scenes to our View at every Step we take, which re- 
A 2 gular 


gulat Gardens are incapable of doing. Nor is there anv Thin* 
wok flocking thin iftiff regular Garden -, where after we have 
feen one quarter thereof, the very fame is repeated in all the 
remaining Parts, fo that we are tired, inftead of bein* further 
entertaind with fomething new as expeded 

Thefe regular Gardens werefirft taken from 'the Hutch, and in 
trodueedinto^W in the Time of the late Ur. London ai d 
Mr. Wifi, who being then fuppos'd to be the beft Gardeners in 
England (taeArt being in its Infancy, to what it is now) we re 
imployed by tue Nobility and Gentry of England to lav 
and plant their Gardens in that regular, ftiff, andjlufi uJ Man 
tier in which many yet appear. J J- «f man- 

&n& is Gentlemen, in thofe Days, were but (Mitlv i™„,- . , 
with thePleafurc of Gardening, they were r e ' L r ^ "^ 
upon : Their Gardens were *SXffl5g^ 
Plants, fo that they had more of the Alped of a Murferl 
a Garden of Tleafare : But whether this over and fi' Iwl 
Planting proceeded from the Falhion of thofe Time, r u \ 
norance of the Defigners, or the Advantages that S i 8 " 
from the greater Sales of their Plants, iLnoTXS 

And befides, their toff regular Plans were ahvavs ftn#>^ 
w th trifling flower Knots, 'Parterres of Cu JrPplZ ■ UP 
WMerneffes of Ever-Greens, and fom%ti»«. rf '£$%$ 
(tho very rarely, for their Nurferies then abounded moft 
w«h r<m Hollies, and other Ever- Greens , whofe Walks™- r 
had a niggard Breadth: So that after a few Vears thVr, , 

T^-r'^/"'^'" 11 th3t thCy --hardiyp'ffat. 10Wth 
Ther miderneffes and Gmw* (when they P H nred ani , 
were always placed at the moft remote Parts of L ? S tt ?£ 
that before we can enter them, in the Heat of Summer , \ 

j«^^ l =rs^^^rwh° pcn 

fleafant Trofpetls are taken-, but then we Cul Zl "T 
care toplant^m^^^ leading £ , hc IS r 
them, under whofe oW, wc might with P eafut °r 8 
rcpafi at any time of the Dav c Ca ' Ulc P' lfs and 



There is nothing more agreeable in a Garden than good 
Shade, and without it a Garden is nothing. 

That fine Terrace Walk at His Majesty's Royal Palace of 
Hampton Court, leading from the Parterre to the Bowling- 
Green next the Thames, being naked of Shade, is thereby 
ufelefs, when the Sunfhines; as is alio that of His Royal Ma- 
jestys at Richmond next the River. There are divers other 
fine Walks in England that want this natural Embellifhmcnt 
of Trees that caufc Fine Shade , fuch as Platanus, EngUfb 
Elm, Horse- Chessnut, Lime, &c. In whofe (lead, to my 
great Surprize, are planted regular Tews and Holly only as in 
Parterres, ire. 

The very great Exa&nefs that was obferved in the laying 
out thefe regular Gardens, were often the Lofs of many fine 
Views, as well zsflttrdy Oaks, whofe Herculean Afpetls, one 
would have thought, mould have forbid thofe bafe and ignorant 
Practices. What a Shame it is , to deilroy a noble Oak of 
two or three Hundred Years Growth, that always produces a 
pleafant Shade, and graceful Afpcd for the fake of making a 
trifling Grafs-Plot or Flower Knot regular. 

Their "Parterres of Embroidery, that confifted of Grafs, 
Sand, Shells, Brickduft, &c. crowded with Ever-Greens, were 
the firft Caule of thefe ftiff Regularities ; which indeed, when 
ufed, mould be uniform; becaufe the Eye being (truck with all 
their Parts at the fame Time, each oppofite part mould be equal : 
But afterwards, when we depart from this firft regular Scene, 
then all the remaining Parts mould confift of regular Irregulari- 
ties : And the plainer parterres are, the more Grandeur, for 
when they are ftuffd up with fo many fmall Ornaments, they 
break the Rays of Sight, and the whole appears a Confufion. 

Thofe great Beauties of Nature, Hills and Valleys, were 
always levelled at very great Expenccs to complete their Re- 
gularity, or otherwife Tmay juuUy fay, the total ruin of the 
Gardens. And their Baflns, Canals, and othcrPieces of IFater, 
had always a very mean 'Latitude to their Length, as wellas^;- 
proper Figures, broke into many Angles which deftroy the 
Beauty of fine Water. 

Their Groves (whenever they planted any) were always 

regular, like unto Orchards, which is entirely wrongs for 

when wc come to copy, or imitate K. it arc, we fnould trace her 

rj Steps 


Steps with the greateft: Accuracy that can be. And there- 
fore when we plant Groves of Foreft or other Trees, we have 
nothing more to regard, than that the outfide Lines be agree- 
able to the Figure of the Grove, and that no three Trees to- 
gether range in a (trait Line 5 excepting now and then by 
Chance, to caule Variety. 

And fince Parterres are moft beautiful when entirely plain, 
I therefore recommend the removal of all Kinds of Evergreens 
from thence, and to have no more Gravel Walks about them 
than are neceflary for Uie. Whoever has fecn thofe grand and 
beautiful V 'lots or Parterres of Grafs in the Gardens belong- 
ing to Ham house in Surrey, oppofitc to the Honourable James 
Johnston at Twickenham, will agree with me herein ; and 
were thofe eight Plots, or Parterres, laid into two only, they 
would be the moft grand of any m England; more efpecially 
if that Grove of Foreft Trees, joyning to them on the Eafl, 
were taken in and made a part of that Garden. 

The 'Parterre Garden at his Majesty's Royal Palace of 
Hampton Court, towards the 'Park, would have a very grand 
Afpetn, were thofe trifling Plants of Tew, Holly, &c. and 
their Borders taken away, and made plain with Grafs. So alio 
would the other Parterre, looking to the River Thames. 

Befides all the aforefaid erroneous Traffices in the hying 
out Gardens, I could mention divers others, almoft without 
end 5 but as what has been hitherto faid is fully fufficient to 
demonftrate how little the laying out of Gardens has been 
underftood, I mall therefore conclude on this Point with 
one other very great Error that's often committed , and even 
at this time, which may not be unneceflary for my Readers 
to take Notice of, viz. When the Situation of Gardens 
iuch, that the making of Slopes and Terraces are neceffary, or 
cannot be avoided, they not only leave them naked of Shade 
as aforefaid, but break their Slopes into fo many Angles, that 
their native Beauty is thereby deftroyU Thus if by wade Earth 
a Mount be raifed ten or twelve Feet high, you (hall have its 
Slope, that mould be entire from top to bottom, broken in- 
to three if not four fmall trifling ones, and thofe mixt with 
Archs of Circles, &c. that itill adds to their ill Effects • So that 
inftcad of having one grand Slope only with an cafy Afcenr, 
you have three or four fmall ones, that ztzfoor and trifling. 



And the only reafon why they are made in this Stair or 
Step-like manner, is fir ft to mew their Dexterity of Hand, 
without confidering the ill Effect; and laftly to imitate thole 
grand Amppjitheatrical Buildings , ufed by the Ancients, of which 
they had no more Judgment, than of the excellent Proportions 
of Architecture that was ufed therein, when thofe noble Struc- 
tures were firft erected. 

In this low mean Manner I find fomc Slopes made at the 
Head of his Majesty's Canal and Mount next the Thames 
at Richmond, which Canal is much too narrow for its Length \. 
I alfo find the Plantation of Foreft Trees on each Side thereof, 
not only broken in the middle without a Reafon for fo doing, 
but ftiff and regular in their Situations, without any Regard 
to that beautiful Order, which Nature obferves in all iuch 
rural Operations. 

I obferve the like Error in the Slopes of the Garden of the 
Honourable Mrs. Howard at Twickenham , being view'd at 
the River Thames, and the fame at General Biffefs Amphi- 
theatre ( as called by its Architect ) in -his Garden at the fame 
Town, as well as in that of the Honourable John Gumlefs at 
IJleworth, and many other Gardens too tedious to mention. 

When very large Hills of great perpendicular Heights are to be 
cut into Slopes and Terraces, then we may juftly endeavour to 
imitate thofe grand Structures, (whereon theirGladiators excrcis'd) 
by cutting them Concave, Convex, ire. as thofe looking towards 
Fair-Mile Heath, in the Gardens of his Grace the Duke of 
Newcastle at his Grand Seat of Claremont -, but in final! 
Elevations they are poor and trifling, and therefore not to be 

Having duly confider'd thefe erroneous Practices, and what 
a great pity it is that Gentlemen fhould be thus led on for 
want of being furnimed with Dcfigns that are truly Grand and 
Noble, after Nature's own Manner j I thought that if I communi- 
cated fome few in that Way , I might do no inconiiderable 
Service to my Country , nor Prejudice to any of my Brother 

This Method of laying out Gardens, after the manner exhi- 
bited in the following Plates, being entirely New, as well as 
the mod grand and rural j I have thought it necclf-iry, not 
only to lay down all the moft ufeful Elements of Geometry y 



ZZ^JL t0 bC T e " und « ftood b ? ev «y good Gardener that's 
.mployed in makmg and laytvg out Gardens ■, but the manner 
of railing and planting all forts of Fruit and Fore/} Trees 

rTlToX'J "fr 7^ SM V lCo » together with the 
right Ordering, and Cultivation of all fuch Vegetables « r 

in rhVfi tc ,*?'?? AU Whkh " e ^led b large 
Th r ^ ? C ° nd ' th ' rd ' fourth ' fifth > and fcventh Parts 
The fixch Part contains^™/ 'Directions for the layin* out 

*&%t$£s&££ manner afwefaid ' »*ss 

Plate I. contains all the Geometrical Diagrams of the Pro- 

32S SS. m e firft Part ' with an oian ^ L ™>« 

Platell is,he!Pte f a Fruit Garden, containing three 

and r ^ S „l^p Cre ' P,anted Wkh thc beft ^ EfpaSvZf, 
and Standard Fruits now extant in England. T 

™ * ' he /f **» I'beral Arts, Mercury and y«fo 

P> itat C t lf r r %"- d y-fflM ' t0 be P 1 ^ « A and 

Mr« 7 and F**** at L and M. In the Ccmc o'AfsTar 

£'/'*»<■• Th ls open Tarterre is planted on thc Sides P o 
with double Lines of Tines and Scotch Firs. Tte R&5 $ 
**P«M*«r. The little Groves R. R. «ft £iL ?££ it 
tKhT ° With H ^^fmts, and N witTS'S 

And about thc Stem ox Body of every Tree w J; r- . 
wake no httle Addu.on to the Beauty of ouVpUnAfh 



The Groves N O are adorn'd with Sylvanus God , and Ferona 
Goddefs of the Woods. The Walks about the two Canals, 
and the Centers Z Z with Apollo and the nine Mufes j the Ca- 
binets X, X, with Ceres and Flora, and V, with Harpocrates 
God, and Agerona Goddefs of Silence. And the other Statues 
in private Cabinets, with Nymph a Y tints of the Woods, AtJseon, 
*Diana, Eccho, &c. and the Jarge circular plain W. is open 
without a Statue: But if any Gentleman mould be inclinable 
to place one in that Center , it fhould be Hercules (laying 
Hydra. J J L 

The Serpentine, and ftrait lined Walks within the Planta- 
tions of Wood or Wildernefs Work, are planted with Standards 
of Oak, Beach, Elm, Lime, Maple, Sycamore, Hornbeam, Birch, 
Tlatanus, Wtcky or Quick-beam, Alder, Poplar, Withy, and 
the weeping or mourning Willow that was brought from Ba- 
bylon, and now in great Plenty and Perfection in England. 
Particularly , in the Gardens of the Jate Thomas Vernon Efq; 
at his Seat of Twickenham Park in Middle/ex. The Diftances 
that thofe feveral Sorts of Foreft Trees are planted ar, and the 
Soil they delight in, are fully handled in the following Work. 

The Hedges that are planted between the aforefaid Trees 
which form the Sides of the Walks are of Englifh, 'Dutch and 
French Elms, Lime, Hornbeam, Maple, "Privet, Tew, Holly, 
Arbutus, Phillyrea, Norway Fir, Ilex, Bay, Laurel, Laurus- 
Tinus, Tiracantha, Juniper,' and thtEngliJh Furze •, and indeed, 
a beautiful Plantation fhould not only be adorned with entire 
Walks and Hedges of Trees of all Sorts, as well Fruit as others ; 
but intcrmix'd together in many parts, as if Nature had placed 
them there with her own Hand. The agreeable Mixture of 
Fruits in a Wilder nefs^ caufes great Variety and Plcafure, as well 
as Profit: In the Spring, when their beautiful Bloflbms appear, 
they then exceed all other Plants, and particularly the Miraba.'on 
Plumb and Almond, of which I advife Gentlemen to plant entire 
Walks 5 for they not only make the molt beautiful Appear- 
ances in the Spring, which hold for lb me Time, but after- 
wards are very pleafant, both in their Leaf and Fruits : As 
likewife are all our other Fruits, fuch as Plumbs, Pears, Ap- 
ples, Cherries, the Bruxel Apricot, white and blue Figs, Grapes, 
Mulbsrries, Quinces, Medlars, Services, Walnuts, Chefnuts, 
b Philberds, 


Philberds, Berberry s , Goofeberries and Currants: And altho' 
they may not be in fuch great Perfection, as thofe that are planted 
at greater Diftances in the free open Air , as in Kitchen and 
Fruit Gardens, yet in kind Summers they will not be much 
behind them ; fo that from Plantations of this Kind, Gentle- 
men will not only be entertained with the Pleafures that a- 
rife from them, throughout the feveral Stages of their Growth, 
but receive fuch Plenty of Fruits, as to make large Quantities 
of Wine, Cyder, &c. for the Service of their Families. 

The Borders of each Walk arc planted with Violets, Prim- 
rofes, Snow drops, &c. as directed in the 22 and 23 Sections. 
Part V. 

The Quarters are filled up with Standards of the aforefaid 
Kinds, planted at proper Diftances, and under them by Plants 
of Laurel, which thrive beft in the Shade, and Flowers of a 
ftrong Growth, as directed in Sect. 23. Part V. 

Flowering Shrubs are very beautiful when planted in the 
Wildernefs as directed iaSect. 21. Part V. which are not to be 
omitted, if we intend to have our Garden complete. 

Our feveral Plantations being thus performed, we are, at 
coming into the Garden, entertain'd with a 'Plain (but Grand) 
Parterre of Grafs and Water, enriched with Statues agreeable to 
their Situations, from which, on the right and left, we look 
into two pleafant Groves of Foreft Trees, which complete the 
jirfl Scene, at our coming into the Garden j then through the 
Walks P R, or Groves N O, we pafs in the Shade to V, the 
.Entrance into the Grand Avenue V, V, where on a fudden 
we are entertain'd with two pleafant Canals enrich'd with Sta- 
tues, and Groves of Ever-Greens, and coming from thence to 
the open plain W, we behold a pleafant crofs Walk, planted 
with Standard Trees of all the Varieties of Ever-Greens, which 
terminate in Cabinets, adorn'd with Ceres and Flora. 

If we enter the Wildernefies at b b, &c. we are led through 
their pleafant Meanders, with the agreeable Entertainments of 
Flower Gardens, Fruit Gardens, Or anger js, Groves, of Far eft 
Trees, and Ever-Greens, Open-plains, Kitchen Gardens Phyfick 
Gardens, 'Paddocks of Sheep, <2)eer, Cows, &c. Hop Grounds, Nur- 
fertes of Fruit and Foreft Trees, Ever-Greens, &c. Vineyards, In- 
rtofures of Com, Grafs, Clover, &c. Cones of Fruit Trees, Foreft 



Trees, Ever-Greens, Flowering Shrubs, Bajtns, Fountains, Canals, 
Cafcades, Grottos, Warrens of Hares and Rabbets , Aviaries, 
Manazeries, Bowling-Greens ; and thofe rural Objects , Hay. 
Stacks and Wood Tiles, as in a Farmer's Yard in the Country. 
Which feveral Parts are difpofed of in fuch a Manner, and 
Diftance, as not to fee, or know of the next approaching, when 
we have feen the firftj fo that we are continually entertaind 
with new unexpected Objects at every Step we take ; for the 
Entrances into thofe Parts being made intricate, we can never 
know when we have feen the whole. Which ( if I miftake not ) 
is the true End and Defign of laying out Gardens ofTleafure. 

By this Method of laying out Gardens , thofe that are but 
fmall, will be made to appear as very large ones, and thofe 
that are fpacious and large, Grand and Noble. 

If we imagine that the Avenue B, Plate III. takes its Be- 
ginning from an open Tlain or Lawn lying before a Houfe, as 
the Avenue V, doth of Plate II. from the plain* Parterre there 
defcribed, we have another Defign that is Grand and No- 
ble, which is fuppofed to be planted in the Manner aforefaid, 
the Walks about the Canal excepted, which mould be oiftately 
Tines, and the Thickets B and D, which finifti the two crofs 
Views, mould end in a Mixture of Ever-Greens back'd witk 
lofiy Tines behind them. 

The Groves E, and F, F, that terminate the Water, have a 
much finer Afpecl: being planted in that rural Manner, than 
when ranged in Lines like a Cherry or Apple Orchard, as be- 
fore noted in the Beginning of this Introduction. 

Plate V. is a third Defign of an Avenue with its Wilder- 
nejfes on each Side, wherein is contain'd great Variety of 
Walking. The Avenue B, D, having its Canal terminated 
at both Ends with Groves of Foreft Trees , is fomething out 
of the common Road: But when the Bodies of fuch Trees are 
kept prun d up about twenty Feet high , the Water makes a 
fine Appearance , being view'd through them j as alio have 
diftant Hills, &c. 

The Walk E F, is fuppofed to be a Terrace from whence 
we have a fine View over the Country, which is planted with 
Tlatanus, or Englifb Elms, that always afford a plcafant Shade. 
In this Manner there are many noble Walks in England want 


to be planted, to render them pieafant at all Times. 

Plate VI. is a fourth Defign, containing firait, angular, cir- 
cular, and rural Walks after a different Manner from the pre- 

Plate VII. confifts of four feveral Defigns for Wildernejfes 
and Labyrinths wherein A A, &c. are Arbors, or Places of 

Plate VIII. is an Improvement of that grand Labyrinth at 
Ver failles, wherein all the ftrait Walks are as they now ftand, 
and the curved or Terpentine Walks B B, excepted with their 
Groves, Cabinets and Statues, are Additions that may be made 
to that beautiful Place. This I thought fit to communicate, as 
heing the fine ft Defign of any I ever f aw. 

Plate IX. is an improvement of a beautiful Gar den at Twicken- 
Imm, fituaccd on the River Thames, which pafles by the Line 
E F , and has a free communication with the Canals X and 
Z. That of X, continues the View of the Walk I H, away 
ro X, and from thence over the River Thames, and there'termi- 
nates in a pieafant Wood. At R, there is a Ha, Ha, of Water, 
which is a Fence to the Garden from the Road, and admits of 
a free View, which Iron Gates or Grills cannot do. I men- 
tion this to fhew, that Hah Has mould be made in every 
part of a Garden from whence good Views may be had. 

The Earth that came out of the Tonds B, B, raifed the Mount 
A, from whence is a very fine View to the Thames, as well as 
ro Richmond Hill, Teterfham, &c. and underneath it is a vcrv 
good Ice Houfc. ' 

The Reajon why I mention this, is to (hew, that when the 
levels of Gardens are very fiat, and good Views are lojl for 
want of proper Elevations, that then we mutt dig Fifb Tonds, 
Canals, &c. if the Springs are not too deep; and with their 
Earth rule pieafant Mounts, Terrace Walks, &c. from whence 
we may enjoy the pieafant Views of the diftant Countries. 

If the Walks leading up fuch Mounts as A were contracted 
at their Top K, to one third of their Breadth at Bottom I, that 
£f'° n wouId c * ufe ^ Wilk to appear of a much greater 
Length than i really is, being viewed at H. But then the 
afcending Walk mutt be the whole Breadth at I 
There being a fine View from the Houfc to the River, the 


Quarters Q^ Q, muft be planted with Fruit Trees of a low 
Growth 5 fuch as Apples upon Taradife Stocks, &c. that will 
afford great Variety of Pleafure as well as Profit, and not inter- 
rupt the View. The other Parts here offered being Wilder- 
nejfes, Labyrinth, Groves, &c. as exhibited, need no further 

Plate X and XI, are Defigns for Gardens that lye irregularly 
to the grand Houfe. In Plate X, the Houfe opens to the North 
upon the Park A, to the Eaft upon the Court B, to the South 
upon the "Parterre of Grafs and Water C ; and Laftly to the 
Weft upon the circular Bafon D, from which leads a plea/ant 
Avenue Z X. The Mount F, is railed with the Earth that came 
out of the Canal EE, and its Slope H is planted with Hedges 
of different Ever Greens, that rifing behind one another of 
different Colours, have a very good Effeft, being view'd from 
M. I, I, are contraded Walks leading up the Mount. The 
remaining Parts being obvious need no farther Explanation. 

Plate XI. hath its Houfe opening to the North upon a plain 
Parterre of Grafs, and to the South, upon a Parterre of Grafs 
and Water : From the Terrace E leads an Avenue I F, wherein 
at D is a pleafant Cabinet, from whence we have five different 
Views, of which the Middle one through a rural Grove of 
Forcft Trees, over a Canal 'of Water, terminated with the femi- 
circular Grove of Ever-Greens, is very pleafant. 

The Walk P Q is fuppofed to be a pleafant Terrace, planted 
with Foreft Trees for Shade, in equal right Lines ; but the 
Walk R S, is planted rural after Natures o'jun Marnier. 
The reft being very eafy to underftand, need no farther 

It is to be obferved in thefc two Plans, that there's no re- 
gard had to the Regularity of the Bounds of thofe Gardens, which 
hitherto were fuppofed impoflible of making good Gardens, 
when in fad they make the moft beautiful. 

Plate XII. is the Dellgn of a imall Garden fituated ma Park, 
where the Houfe to the North opens upon a noble circular 
Bafin of Water B, in the Park, and to the South, on a grand 
Parterre of Grafs, from which over the Canal you have a 
boundlcfs View into the Country. 

The feveral Avenues and Groves contain'd in this Defign, il- 



luftrate the great Beauty thereof, without any Regard had to 
the IVilderneffes, Labyrinths, &c. which are very fine in their 
Kindalfo. The other Parts being plainly exhibited, need no fur- 
ther Explanation. 

We having thus paired through all the moft pleafant Parts 
of a delightful rural Garden, we muft now fuppofe, that wc 
are entering from X Y, of Plate III, at Z of Plate XIII where 
we furprizingly behold a pleafant femi-circular Lawn, from 
which the grand Avenue V, V, of Plate III. is continued to H 
&c. throughout the whole Eftate. 

And we are here again in every of its Parts entcrtain'd with 
different Views open Wains, Groves, Thickets , open and pru 
vote Fijb Tonds, and in brief every Thing that's pleafant 

Prom Plantations of this Kind, time would produce vaft 
Quantities of Timber to the great Service of our Country and 
Improvement of Eftates. y 

Plate XIV. is another Specimen of a Tark, after a different, 
P£?t **£ k , Mamer > wh ere its Iiland is laid out in 
rural Walks and Cabinets, and the other Parts cmbellifh'd af- 
ter Nature's own Rules, which is difcoverable at firft View 

Plate XV. is the Defign of a Garden and Wildernefs in an 
Ifland, ying before the View of a Houfe, Terrace, &c. B is 
a Temple of View erefted on a double Mount, called (tho' im- 
properly by Gardeners, an Amphitheatre) where 'tis to be ob- 
ferved, that altho' the Slopes thereof are broke by the Angles, 
VobUAfett ^ aSrCCabk grmd Manner > *« ^ey have a 

The other Parts being eafily understood at View, need no 
further Explanation. 

Plate XVI. contains great Variety of Lawns, or Openings 
before a grand Front of a Building, into a Tark, Forefl, Com' 
mon, &c. with an elegant Cabinet in the middle of a Thicket 
on the top of a Hill, in whofe Center at A, is fuppofed to 
be erected a fpacious Building after the Form of a Temple, from 
whence fine Views may be feen about the horizon ? 

Plate XVII contains the Defign of a Fountain and Cafcade 
after the grand Manner at Verfailles. From whence we pa& 
thro thole pleafant fhady Walks B B, to other Parts of our 


When Figures of Shell work are ere&ed in the midft of 
Fountains, we receive a double Pleafure of a Fountain and 
Cafcade alfo, by the Waters agreeably murmuring down the 
rocky Shells. 

Plate XVIII, contains divers curious Frontispieces of Trellifs 
Work for the Entrances into Temples of View, Arbors, [hady 
Walks, Alcoves, &c. 

Plates XIX, XX, and XXI, are Views of the Ruins of -Build- 
ings, after the old Roman manner, to terminate fuch Walks that 
end in difagreeabk Objects -, which Ruins may either be painted 
upon Canvas, or actually built in that Manner with Brick, 
and cover'd with Tlaiftering in Imitation of Stone. 

And fince we are to build no more thereof than as much 
of the Shell , as is next to our View , I therefore recom- 
mend their Building before their Painting, not only as the 
moft durable , but leaft expenfive ( if the Painting is performed 
by a skilful Hand ) and much more to the. xeai Purport in- 

To demonftratq what Effe&s they have when placed to ter- 
minate Avenues, Walks, &c. I have put one of them at the 
<nd of an Avenue in Plate XXII, which being viewed with 
one Eye through our Hand , or a piece of Paper roll'd up , 
fo as to look through the fame, you will behold its agreeable 
Effect with abundance of Pleafure. In the fame Manner, the 
fhady Walks of the preceding opiates are to be feen, and not 
according to the common way of viewing Objects with both 
Eyes at once. 

The fix laft Plates at the end hereof, are Defigns for Kitchen 
Gardens, of which thefirft is divided into equal Quarters, wherein 
is exprefs'd the Quantity of each Vegetable that is ncceflary for 
the Service of a Nobleman's Family, as is alfo Plate II, and III. 
The Italick Figures denote the breadth of each Walk , as 6 
fignifies fix Feet, 1 5 fifteen Feet, &c. 

Plate VI. is the Defign of the Kitchen and Thyfick Garden, 
with its Quarters environ'd with Eff alters of Fruit. The Defign 
of this Garden is for the Ufe of Families, which require 
many Herbs for Diftilling, as well as for the Ufe of the Kitchen, 
wherein the neceflary Quantities are nearly adapted to the Ufe 
of moft Families. 



Plate V. is the Defign of a Kitchen Garden containing one 
Acre, half, and twenty Toles, and Plate III, another of three 
Rood and twelve Tole only, fit for leflfer Families than the pre- 
ceding. But as the Defign of thefe Plans are more to inftrucJ in 
the Forms of Kitchen Gardens, than their Quantities of Ground, 
or Herbs of each Kind as they may beft approve on ; therefore 
every one is at his Pleafure to fow and plant of each Sort of 
Herbage, Roots, Tulfe, &c. fuch Quantities as are neceffary 
for their UCc. 

For the Temperatures, and Medicinal Virtues of the Kitchen 
and Thyfick Herbs contain'd in the laft Part, I am obliged to 
that laborious Herbarift Gerrard j which being well underftood 
will prove of very great Service to us, in compofing our Sal- 
lads at all Times of the Year, fuitable to every flrong or 
weak, hot or cold Stomachs, that are found in the different 
Constitutions of People. 

NEW p B. I N- 



Of Geometry. 

Sect. I. 
Of Lines. 


IROM a Point 

liven (m) to draw 

9 right Line (c 

_j z) parallel to the 

right Line (c b.) page 2 

2. From a Point given (a) to draw 

a right Line (a e) equal to the given 

Line (d g.) ibid. 

2. A right Line being given (ab) 

to cut off a part (a f) equal to the 

right Line (d c.) ibid. 

4. To make an Angle (a b c) *- 

f «*/ to an Angle given (d t f.) 3 

f. To divide an Angle given (a) 

into two equal Parts. ibid. 

6. From a given Point (a or h) 
to let fall, or raife a perpendicular, 
(a h.) 4 

7. To </iwV<f a right Line into two 
equal Parts, by a right Line, as, 
(a b, by n m.) r 

8. To divide any Line as fa b) in 
a given proportion, as (c a, c e.) <5 

p. To ;W # /0w/£ proportional 
(bd) /* three given, viz. (a e: e c:: 
ad:db.) ibid. 

10. To find a third proportional 
(n m) /? / raw giwn fz y, y x.) ibid, 

1 1 . Between two given Lines (i It, 
n o) to find ameanproportion(c h.)ibid. 

12. To divide a right Line (b£) 
in extream and mean proportion. 7 

13. To find the center of an Arch 
or Circle. 8 

14. To draw a Tangent from a 
Point given. ibid. 

if. Tfi cut off a Segment from a 
Circle given, that may receive an 
Angle equal to an Angle given. 9 

1 6. To divide a right Line into any 
Number of equal Parts. ibid. 

17. To divide a right Line in 
fuch proportion, as another is before 
divided. ibid, 

18. To defer ibe Jingle, double, tre- 
ble, quadruple, &c. fpiral Lines. 1 o 

i p. To defer ibe a ferpentine Line 
about an Ellipfis. 1 1 

20. To defcribe with C:.;;ipaffes 
any rural or irregular curved Live. 

The C O N T E N T S. 

Sect. II. 
Of fuperficial Figures. 

To defer ibe a Circle. 10. To find thejenter and two 
page 1 z Diameters of & 
z. To divide the circumference of n. To defcribe an Ellipfis c 

Diameters of any Ellipfis. ibid, 
i Circle into any Number of equal ther way. ibid 

Parts, not exceeding 

3. To divide the circumference of 
any Circle into $60 -equal Parts or 
Degrees. ibid. 

4. To find the center of a circular 
Arch, and the whole Diameter of lenum Triangle, 

the Circle, of which the given Arch 
a Part or Segment. 14 

f. A Circle being given to find its 

6. To defcribe an Ellipfis, to any 
Length given. ibid. 

7. To defcribe an Ellipfis a diffe- 
rent way from the preceding. 1 f 

8. To defcribe an Ellipfis accord- 
ing to any Breadth and Length gi- 
ven, ibid. 

5>. To defcribe the fame Ellipfts a 
different way. 16 

To defcribe an Egg Oval. 
1 1 . To defcribe an equilateral Tri- 
angle* ibid. 
14. To make an Ifoceles, and fca- 

if. To defcribe a Geom. Square. 

1 6. To defcribe a Parallelogram .ib. 

17. To defcribe a Rhombus. 20 

18. To defcribe a Rhomboides. ib. 
1 p. To defcribe a Trapezia, ibid. 
20. To defcribe a Pentagon. 2 r 
2.1. To defcribe a Hexagon, ibid. 
iz. To defcribe a Heptagon, iz 

23. To defcribe an Octagon, ib, 

24. To defcribe a NonagonorEn- 
neagon, &c. 23 

Of Fruit-Trees. 

i.T^KEmonftratittg the va- 


_ rietyofGardens,theii 
Situation for Fruit, the Nature of 
Soils, and their fever al Improvements 
by Manures. 25 

2 . Of the manner of raifing Stocks 
from Kernels, &c. time of Grafting, 
and inoculating Fruit Trees , with 
Obfervations thereon. %6 

3. Of the time and manner of 
planting all Sorts of Fruit-Trees, in 
any kind of Land, as Clay, Loam, 
Sand, Gravel, &c. 41 

4. Of the fever al Kinds of Earth, 
proper for all Sorts of Fruit-Trees. 48 

f. Containing a Catalogue of the 
beft Fruits, with general Directions 

for their pruning. 

6. Of the Peach. 

7. Of the Pear. 

8. Of the Apricot. 
p. Of the Fig. 

10. Of the Plumb. 

11. Of the Apple. 

1 2. Of the Fine. 



The C O N 

13. Of the Cherry. page 84 

14. Of the Goosberry. 8f 
if. Of the Currant. 8<5 
16. OftheRasberryorRafpberry. 

1 j. Of the Strawberry. 88 

18. Of the Berberry. pi 

1 9. Of Walnuts, Che/nuts, Phil- 
herds and Hazel. ibid. 

2.0. Of the Quince. j>4 

11. Of the Mulberry. 9? 


22. Of the Cornelian Cherry. 96 
22. Of the Medlar. 97 

24. Of the Service, ibid. 

Corollaries or additional Direc- 
tions. i>8 
2f. #bw *0 £<*/Zw rf»i preface 
Winter Fruits. 103. 
26. Of the planting Fruit Gardens, 
in a more grand and delightful man- 
ner than has been done before. 1 04 


Of Foreft Trees, their Culture, &c. 

Sect. i.f~\F the fever al Methods 

\J by which Foreft 'trees 

are raifed. 1 1 1 

2. Of the manner of planting Nur- 
feries and their Government. 1 1 8 

3. Of the Oak. 120 

4. Of the Beech. 124 
f. OftheAjh. 117 ~ 

6. Of the Elm. 119 

7. Of the Lime or Linden. 1 3 1 

8. Of the Maple. 134 

p. 0/ ftfe Sycamore. 1 5 f 

10. Of the Hornbeam. ibid. 

11. Of the Hazel. 136 

12. 0//£* AVflfr. 138 

13. Of the quick Beam or Wicky. 


14. Of the Alder, Poplar, Withy, 
Willow, Sallow and Ozier. 140 

1 f . Of the black Cherry Tree, 143 
i<5. General Directions for plant- 
ing Foreft Trees, &c. 145* 


Of Ever-Greens. 

Sect. i»f\ P the fever al Methods 

\^j by which Ever- Greens 

are raifed. 147 

2. Of the Pine tree. 148 

3. Of Firr Trees. ifo 

4. 0/ /#<? /&# or Ever-green Oak. 

f. Of the Holly. ij-2 

6. Of the Yew. if6 

7- 0/ /&? j5^ r^ . 1 5-7 

8. Of the Laurel ifp 


p. 0/ *&* Laurus-tinu 

10. 0/ /£* Phillyrca. 

11. 0/ /^ Arbutus or Strawberry 
Tree. 161 

12. Of the Piracantha. i6z 

13. Of the Box Tree. 163 

1 4. O/" f fo Juniper. 1 64 
if. 0/ /fo 7ta//0» green Privet. 


1 6. 0//£* Cjpmj, Lignum Vita* 

and Cedar of Lebanus. 16 r 

b 2 PART 


Of Flowering Shrubs. 

/~\ F the federal Methods 


vhich Flowering 
Shrubs are raifed. page 167 

I. Of the Tulip Tree. 168 

3. Of the Maracoc, or Pajfion 
Plant. 169 

4. Of Spanijb Broom. 170 
f. Of the Laburnum. ibid. 

6. Of Senna. 171 

7. Of Arbor Jud#. ibid. 

8. Of Mczerion. 172 
p. Of the Jeffamhe and Honey 

Suckle. ibid. 

10. Of the Lilac. 174 

II. Of Rofes. 1 Ji- 
ll. Of the Pomegranate. ij6 

13. Of the Althcce Frutcx. ibid. 

14. Of the Syringa. 177 
if. 0/ /£<? G«/M*r Rofa. ibid. 

16. Of the Almond. 178 

17. 0/ /£<? mirabalon Plumb and 

double blofom'd Cherry. 
18. Ofthefweet Brier. 
ip. Of the Furze Bufi 9 andEng- 



20. 0/ the fever al Months of the 
Tear, when flowering Shrubs are in 
blojfom, and their duration. 1 80 

21. Of the manner of difpojing 
and planting flowering Shrubs in the 
proper Parts of a Wildernefs. 1 8 1 

22. Of Odoriferous Flowers that 
are truly beautiful, their Ufe in 
Groves, Wilderneffes, &c. 184 

23. Of fuch Perfennial^ bulbous- 
rooted, and annual Flowers that are 
truly beautiful, See. i8f 

24. Of the f ever al Sorts of Flowers 
proper to adorn Chimnies, &c. du- 
ring the Seafons of Spring, Summer, 
and Autumn. 1 87 

Of the Situation and Difpofition of Gardens in General. 

Sect. i-f\F Situations. 191 
KJ 2. Of the Difpofi- 
tions of Gardens in general. 193 
Of the Parts of a delightful Gar- 
den. 194 
General Diretlions for laying out 
Gardens. ipy 
Of the Difpofition of Statues. 
For open Lawns and large Cen- 

For Flower Gardens. zof 

For the Vineyard ") 

For Mounts, high Terra- I 

ces, &c. 

Fir Valleys. I 

For Paddocks of Sheep, &c. \ lbld 

in a Wildernefs. 

For fmall Enclofures of] 

Corn, &c. in a Wildernefs. j 
For Ambufcadots near Ri-"" 

For Woods and Groves. 204 vers, Paddocks, &c. 

For Canals, Bafms, and Fifh Ponds. For Places of Banqueting. 

ibid. For Bees. 

For Fruit Gardens andOr char ds. ib. P A 

2 : :> 

The C O N T E N T S. 

Of the Kitchen Garden. 

Of the right Ordering, and Cultivation of the feveral Sallet 
Herbs which are in Seafon, during the Months of January, 
February, and March. 

. /~V F Alexanders, page z 

Sect. _ 

Of Afparagus. 3 
Sect. 3. Of Beets. 12 

4. Of Broom-buds* 14 

f. Of Brooklime. if 

6. Of Cabbages, Savoys, Sec. \6 

7. Of Carrots. 18 

8. Of Chervil 23 

9. Of Chives. Zf 

10. Of Clary. 16 

11. Of Clivers or Gocfe Grafs, zj 
11. Of Cowflips. 29 

13. Of Corn Sallad. 31 

1 4. Of Garden and Water Creffes. 

1 f . Of Cucumbers. 3 5 

1 6. Of Elder-buds and Flowers. 
1 j. Of Garden Endive. 4f - 

18. Of Fennel. 47 

1 P. OfGarlick. 48 

20. Of Hop 'tops, or young Hops. 


21. Of Lettute. fi 

22. Of Leeks, ff 

23. Of white Mujlard. y6 

24. Of Spear and Garden Mint. 

if. Of Nettle Fops. 60 

z6. Of Citron, Orange and Li- 
on Seedlings. 61 

27. Of Onions. 64 

28. Of Garden Par/ley. 66 

29. OftbeParfnip. 68 

30. Of Potatoes., 71 

31. Of Penny- Royal. 73 

31. Of Radifh. 74 

33. OfHorfeRadiJh. 76 

34. Of Rampion. 78* 
3 f . 0/ Garden, or Spantfh Rocket.^ 

$6. Of red Sage. 8a 

37. Of Sampler. 81 

38. 0/ Scorzoncra. 83 
3 p. O/ &wz;j/ Gfvi/f. 84 
40. Of Seller y. 8f 
4i.0fSkirrets. 87 

42. Of Sorrel. 88 

43. 0/ Spinach, or Spinage. 89 

44. Of Succory. pi 
4f . 0/7*^. 92 

46. Of tarragon. 93 

47. Of Turnips, 94 
A Table of the Degrees of Heat 

and Cold, &C. contain d in the fe- 
veral Sallet s, for the Months of 
January, Februaw <W March. 96 

A Table of the feveral Effecls 
ttibicb } th# Satiets for J.vnut\r.y, Fe- 
bruary and March, have on humane 
Bodies. s& 

A Table of the raw Sallet s fir 
January, February and March. 100 
-— -0/" the boiled Salle ts for ibH. 
Of the pickled Sallet s ibid. 

Diretliont for the Gathering, Or- 
dering, and Dreffing of Sallets. 1 o r 

C n a tv 


-ange and Limonf l ^g 
irjlane. J 

The C O M T E N T S. 

C H A P. IL 

Of the feveral Sallet Herbs, Roots, &c. for the Months of 
April, May and June. page 10$ 

Sect. I. Of Afparagus. ibid. tuce. 

2. Of Artichokes. ibid. 16. OfO, 

3 . Of Lisbon and Windfor Beans. 17. Of Orange and Limon\ 

1 Of Seedlings. 

4. Of Balm. 108 18. OfP, 
f. Of the Beet. 109 ip. Of Peafe. 12.9 

6. Of Borage. ibid. 2,0. 0/ */?* remaining Sallet s for 

7. Of Buglofs. 1 1 1 the Months of April, May and June. 

8. Of Burnet. 112 133 

9. 0/ Chervil, Creffes, Corn- Sal- A Table of the Degrees of Heat 
let, white Muflard, Radijlj, Spinage and Cold, &c. 134 
and Turnip. 1 1 3 A 'Table of their Effecls, &c. 1 3 f 

10. 0/ /*<//*» Cr#J. 114 A Table of the raw Sallet Herbs, 

11. Of Cucumbers. iif 8cc. 136 

1 2. 0/ /<&* Collyfiower. 117 ^f 2W* fl//fo &oifa/ £«//*/ Herbs, 

13. 0/Z>/7/. up- &c. ibid. 

14. Of French or Kidney Bean. A Table of the pickled Sallet s, Sec. 

120 137 

1 f . Of the feveral Kinds of Let- 

Chap. III. 

Sect. i. 137 Of raw Sallets, &c. 140 

A Table of the Degrees of Heat Of boiled Sallets, &c. \ ., . , 

and Cold, &c. 138 Of pickled Sallets, &c. 5 lbld ' 

Of their Effecls, &c. 1 39 

Chap. IV. 

Of the feveral Sallet Herbs, Roots, &c. for the Months of 

October, November and December. 141 

Sect. 1. ibid. Of raw Sallets. -j 

A Table of the Degrees of Heat Of boiled Sallets. ^144 

and Cold. ibid. Of pickled Sallets. J 

Of their E 'feels. 142 

The C O N T E N T S. 

Chap. V. 

Of the Names, Defcriptions, Temperatures, Virtues and Cul- 
tivations of men Diftilling and other phyficai Herbs, that are 
abfolutely necefiary for the Service of all Gentlemen (and 

' other) Families in general. 

S^CT.i.OfdiftillingHerbs. p. Hf 

2. Of Angelica. 146 

3. Of Annifeed. 147 

4. Of Cammomile. 149 
f. OfCarduus Benediclus. ifo 

6. Of Comfrey. if* 

7. Of Clovegxlly-fioix 

8. Of Dragons. 

9. Of Dwarf Elder, 

10. Of Elicampane. 

11. Of Feverfew. 

12. OfHyffop. ifp 

13. Of Lavender Spike, fweet 
$r clothes Lavender , and Lavender 
Cotton. itfo 

14. Of Liquortjh. \6z 



16. Of Marfb-mallows. 

17. Of Marigolds. 

18. 0//&? Gtfr<&* /V/>> 

19. Of Rofemary. 

20. 0/ Giir^w /?»<?. 
21.O/ r^ a »^ damask Rofe, 
22. 0/ &»/ro». 
zx. Of Savory. 
24. OfSelf-Heal. 
zf. Of Solomon Seal. 
z6. Of Southernwood. 
2.7. Of 'Thyme. 

28. 0/ Englifh To/wro. 

29. 0/ /P/Vtfj. 
20. Of Wormwood. 
An excellent Receipt for a Con- 

if, Of Marjorams. 

X64 fumptio^or flmtnefs of Breath. 190 

A Catalogue of Her&s to be dry'd, for Ufe in Winten ' 

(i.) For Diftilling. 
Angelica, Balm, Cammomile Flowers, Carduus Elicampane, Lavender, 
Liquorijfj , Summer Marjoram , Marigolds, Mint, Poppy, Tea Sage , 
Tanjie and IVormwood. 

(2.) For the Kitchen. 

Summer Marjoram, Marigolds, and Mint. 

A Table of aromatick Herbs. 

.Angelica, Annifeed, Balm, Cammomile, Chervil, Clovegilliflower, Dill, 

Hyjfop, Lavender, Marjoram, Marigolds, Mint, Parjley, Southernwood, 

Tanjte and Thyme. 

Sweet Herbs for Kitchen Ufe. 
Hyjfop, Marjoram, Marigolds, Mint, Parjley, Penny-Royal, Savory, 
and Thjme. 

Soup Herbs for Kitchen Ufe. 
Afparagus, Beet, Borage, Cabbage, Carrot, Endive, Lettuce, Leeks, 
Winter Savory, Marjoram, Onions, Peaje, Sellery, Spinage, Sorrel, and 

Herbs for Edgings in a Kitchen Garden. 
Hyjfop, Lavender, Spike and Cotton, Rhue, Sage and Thyme. - 

jj~w 3 . rroDiem. j. 2. ; grip!) 3. I. r. r. defcribe. p. 34. parag. 

thnrf* "I!*™ 1 ' 7 ' P ' 38 ' l ' 9 ' 9 tha ' aTe g ™* bearerh ? nd '• 10 ' r - that are tru '- y '•• *<*'• F> 3 ■ '■ 
madam is a fmrnrntr fruit. P . 57. TUackpear of Worcefter and l>vk,nfon'\ WardtnZre th'c fiHufrSt! *' 

■■ ■ 

: p. 71. L Ibt b'ftfZfmtl prul 

April when thy 


"£■ ? : 

.■sA^va ',:,/-"."*•;'. 

-■..-.■.:::.- : . .- ' ,. '.'. . ' 




O F 



Of Geometry. 


Of Lines. 

| N Confideration of the great Ufe as Geometry is 
of to Gardeners, in furnifhing them with excel- 
lent Rules for their fure and fpeedy Execution of 
Surveys, Meafures, Levels, Drawings, Working, 
®c. therefore I have firft laid down all the moil 
ufeful Principles thereof, and in a very concife 
and farauiar Manner. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


FRO M a given "Point (m,) to draw a Right Line ( e z ) 
parallel to the Right Line c b. 

Definition I- A Point in Practice is underftood to be the 
leaft fuperficial Appearance, as can be made by the Point of a 
Needle, Pin, Pen, &c. 

Definition II. A Right Line is the neareft Diftance between 
its two bounding Points, as c b. 

Definition III. Parallel Right Lines are thofe which do 
not incline towards one another; and therefore if infinitely 
continued, would never meet, as ea and cb. 

Practice. Take the neareft Diftance from the Point m, to 
the Line c b, as m o, and on any Part of the Line cb, as at/ r de- 
fcribe an Arch as h h ; then by laying a Ruler from m to the Edge 
or Convexity of the Arch h h, you may draw the Parallel re- 
quired. For by the flrft, a d is equal to a e, dg equal to g e, 
and ag is common to both: therefore ae is parallel to be. 
& £ Z>. 


T7* ROM a "Point given ( a? ) to draw a Line (a e) equal ft 
Jj the given Line d g. 

Practice. From a draw ae parallel to dg, and join the 
Points, ad from the Point g draw ge parallel to ad, and the 
Line ae will be equal to dg. Becaufe in the Parallelogram de, 
the oppofite Sides ae is equal to dg. G^ E. F. 


A Right Line being given (ab) to cut of a Tart ( a f,) 
equal to the Right Line d c 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Practice. From a draw an at pleafure, and longer than 
dc . On a, with the Interval dc, delcribe the Arch ef then 
fliall the Line fa, be equal to c d\ becaufe/tf is equal to (ae 
and) cd. §,E.T> 



O make an Angle (a be) equal to an Angle given , Fig. iv. 

Definition I. An Angle (called in Zririff Augulus) is the 
Corner (4) that is made by the Meeting of Lines, as fd J and de y 
&c. which Angle is greater or lefs, according as the Lines lean 
nearer, or Hand further off from one another: So the Lines t d 
and ed make an Angle letter than the Lines ed and fd y and 
the Lines hd and ed greater than edzn&fd, which is called 
their Inclination. Therefore, when feveral Lines have the fame 
Inclination, they make equal Angles. 

Definition II. Angles are either right-lined, as t ; fpherical 
or curved, as k, or mix'd, as /. When an Angle is mentioned 
by three Letters, the fecond or middlemoft Letter always de- 
notes the Angle or Angular Point: So a denotes the Angle 
b a c, or c a b 7 &c* 

Practice. Make ac equal to dfi With any Interval, as 
df on d defcribe fe, and on a, with the fame Opening the 
Arch cb, make cb equal to fe, and draw ab: So ihall the 
Angle abc be equal to the given Angle def, becaufe the Tri- 
angle a b c is equal-fided to the Triangle def <&£./*. 



O divide an Angle given (a) into two equal Tarts. 

.v,~. On a, with, any Iterval, defcribe the Arch be, 
and with the fame Opening on b the Arch //, and on r the 
Arch**, eroding in d: Join db and dc, and draw*/*, which Ihall 
divide the Angle a in two equal Parts. For the Triangles a bd 

New Principles of Gardening. 

and ac */are equal-fided ; being Radius's of equal Circles, and 
a d common. Therefore the Angle c da is equal to the Anele 
bda. Q.E.F. B 


1 TT? ROM a given "Point (a or h) to let fall or raife a Ter- 
JJ fendicular (ah.) 

Definition I. Terpendiculum, or Perpendicular, (from the 
Latin, ferfendo^ to hang down,) is a Right Line falling upon 
a Right Line with equal Inclinations, (as ha on be}, where the 
Angles on each Side (k a b and h a e) are equal to each other : 
and therefore are called Right Angles. 

Practice. With any Interval make ac equal to ab, and 
with the Diftance b c on b defcribe the Arch ee, and on c the 
Ar ch//; crotfing at h, join ha, and 'twill be the Perpendicular 
required ; for hb is equal to he, and ab to a c, and ha com- 
mon. Therefore the Angles at a are equal and right-angled j 
and ah perpendicular. Secondly, on h, with any Interval, 
defcribe the Arch be, join he and hb ; divide the Angle ebb, 
(by the preceding Problem,) and the Line ha is the Perpendi- 
cular required: For the Angles at a may be proved to be Right 
Angles, as before. Therefore, 8fc\ V. E. F. 
r. To let fall a Perpendicular from a° Point, as at /, over or 
near the End of a Line, draw a Right Line (ino) from the 
given Point (/) to any Part of the given Line, as to <?, which 
divide into two equal Parts at //, and on n defcribe the Semi- 
circle ilo, draw i I the Perpendicular required. J?. E. F. 

To raife Perpendiculars at the End of a Right Line, 'take 
the following Ways, viz. 

Firjl, From a raife the Perpendicular ag. 

Practice. With any Interval on a defcribe an Arch, as 
O^f 4) make jFr and r^each equal to ayd- and with the fame 
Opening on c defcribe the Arch dd^nd on d the Arch f r.croflin* 
the other mf draw g a through/; the Perpendicular required^ 

Secondly, From A raife the Perpendicular hp. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Practice. With any Interval on h defcribe the Arch Hz, 
make il equal to hi, and with the fame Opening on / defcribe 
the Arch imno, make io equal to thrice hi, draW0£, and 
'twill be the Perpendicular required. 

Thirdly > From q raife the Perpendicular q v. Fi 

Practice. With any Interval of your CompafTes place 
down at a Venture one Foot thereof as at s, and with the other 
defcribe the Arches x x and ww\ lay a Ruler from r to J, 
and 'twill cut the Arch ww in t', join t q, and 'tis the Per- 
pendicular required. 

Fourthly, From a, Fig. VIII. raife the Perpendicular ac. 

Practice. Draw a Right Line, as de, and open youiT 
CompafTes to any fmall Diftance, as from i to 2, and thereon 
prick off ten of thofe Divifions : Take eight of the faid Divi- 
fions, and place it from a to b, with the Interval of 6 on a 5 
defcribe the Arch ff, and with the Interval of 10 on b, the 
Arch gg, eroding the former in c, join c a, and 'tis the Per- 
pendicular required. 

When Perpendiculars are to be raifed from an Angular 
Point, (as n m from n,) open your CompafTes to any Interval, 
as n h, and on the Angle n defcribe an Arch, as g h ; then open- 
ing your CompafTes to any greater Diftance, as g 0, on g de- 
fcribe the Arch rr, and on h the Arch oo J eroding the former 
in m ; draw nm, and 'tis the Perpendicular required. 



divide a Right Line into two equal Tarts , by a Right Fig. 
Line j as zb by nm. 

Practice. On <z, with any Interval greater than aij de- 
fcribe an Arch, as dd, and with the fame Opening on b, the 
Arch cc, eroding the firft in nm; from which Points draw 
the Line nm, and 'twill divide ab in the Middle j for nb is 
3 equal 

New Principles of Gardening. 

equal to the Radius of na and ni common, and the Angles at 
i right-angled j therefore the Side at is equal to ib. §). E. F. 


O divide any Line {as a b) in a given Proportion,, 


Practice. ab J ac, being drawn at any Angle, draw the 
Right Line b r, and draw e d parallel to it ; therefore, as 
ba is to da, fo is c a to ea~ G). E. F. 



O find a fourth Proportional (b d) to three given, viz. 
ae : ec :: ad : db. 

Practice. Join e d, and draw cb parallel, and continue 
d to b, and db is the four * 
ae is .to ecj fo is ad to db. 

ad to b, and db is the fourth Proportional required; for as 
?- E. F. 

r 1 ^ O J^W <z third Proportional (n m) ^ two given „ (z y 

JL yx.) 

Practice. Make #// equal to zy at any Angle, and 
join yn. Continue z n infinitely, and from x draw the Par- 
rallel xm-, mn is the third Proportional: For, as zy is to y x, 
fo is zn to nm. ®. E. F. 



£twf?» two given Lines (i k, no) to find a mean Pro- 
portion (eh.) 

Definition. A mean proportional Line, is fuch a Line, whole 
Length being multiplied into it felf, its Produd is equal to both 
the Products of the other two Lines between which it is a 
mean Proportional. 

3 Prac- 

New Principles of Gardening. 7 

Practice. Make</£ equal to ik and no, make </f equal to Fl *g- xir - 
no; and from f, raife the Perpendicular eh. Bifeft </£ in 
a, and on a, with the Interval a d, or at?, defcribe the Semicir- 
cle dhb, cutting the Perpendicular in b; he will be the mean 
Proportion. For, {hb, b d, being joined) the Angle bbd is 
right-angled. Therefore he is the mean Proportion between 
e banded. $.E.F. 


^T^O divide a Right Line (bf) in extream and mean Tr§- 
j^ portion. 

Definition. A Right Line is faid to be divided in extream 
and mean Proportion, when theWhole is to the greateft Segment, 
as the greateft Segment is to the Leflfer. 

Practice. Make wv equal to bf 7 and bifedr. wv by 
x b 9 in r ; through h and x draw s t and z y parallel toa/v; and 
through w and v the Lines ty J and s z parallel to h x ; 
on?, with the Interval ty, defcribe the Arch yn as, cutting 
hx in n, and ^ t; in 0. Draw o h, and on £ with the Inter- 
val bo, cut hx in *, fo (hall 6* be the greater Segment, and 
«* the lefler; and confequently hx is thereby divided in ex- 
tream and mean Proportion. Let x o be drawn, and with that 
Interval on x, defcribe the Arch oe, and on b the Arch o a, and 
draw the Right Lines oa and oe-, then will the Angle. A^o be 
equal to the Angles exo, and xoe; becaufe thefe two Angles 
are within, the other without the Triangle exo. Likcwife 
the fame Angle heo is equal to the Angles oac and aoc 
and oea equal to xoe, alfo the Angles oxc and eoa are 
equal to each other.. Therefore the Triangles x oe, and a o e, 
have two Angles equal to two Angles of the Triangle eoa, 
and therefore equal-angled. For as ox or oh is to oe, fo is 
oe, or oa, to a c. Therefore oe or o a is a mean Proper- Fig. xin. 
tional between bo and c a. On the Right Lines ox, oh, make 
hd and **, equal to be, and join ^/? and ^f; then will do 
and oe be equal, and de parallel to /;*, and confequently the 
alternate Angles dea, xae, and eda, bed, are all equal to 


8 New Principles of Gardening. 

each other, and the Rhombus xeda equal to the Rhombus 
hdec. Therefore the Lines xe J eCj, da^ dh„ hc J and <?#, 
are equal to one another. And as 'tis plain, that o a is a mean 
Proportional between ha and c a, fo likewife is x a (equal to 
o a) a mean Proportional between h a and c a ; for 'twill be, 
as ha to ax, fo ax to ca- 7 and being compounded, as h a 
more a *, (that is, /j x,) to # a more a c, (that is, x c or A * .) 
fo likewife is ha to £r; therefore /;^ is divided in c and * ; io 
that the whole Line h x, a Part A ^ and the remaining Part 
h c, likewife x h, a Part x c, and the remaining Part x a, 
are continual Proportionals. Therefore ha (that is, ho) 
is the greater Segment of the Right Line h x, divided in ex- 
tream and mean Proportion. &K E. T), 

N. B. Thofe Segments may alfo be found as follows: 
Continue x h to £, making h k equal to h r -, on /£, with 
the Interval k v, defcribe the Arch v a o, which will cut h x 
in a ; fo will ha be the greater Segment. ^ £. F. 

Fig. xiv. np O j6W ^ Gwr**r of an Arch (or Circle) given ( gh i ) 
I or to defcribe a Circle 3 whofe Circumference fiall pafs 
through three "Points given. 

Practice. Join any two, as hg and hi, bifecl: each by 
Perpendiculars, cro/Ting inn, which is the Center; for each 
Perpendicular is a Diameter, and confequently the Center muft 
be where they interfe£t. 


Definition. A Tangent (comes from the LatinWord Tango, 
to touch) is a perpendicular Right Line without a Circle falling 
upon the End of the Diameter, as * h. 

i^\ C 7- CE - Draw a Ri S ht Li ne from h to the Center *, 
biieU «ja /, and thereon defcribe the Semicircle knh, cut- 

New Principles of Gardening. 9 

ting the Circle in n; join nk, nh, fo fhall nh be the Tangent 
required. For the Angle k n h is right-angled, j^ E. F. 


TO cut off a Segment (o s) from a Circle given, that may Fig. xvi. 
receive an Angle equal to an Angle given > viz. sno 
equal to the given Angle t. 

Definition. A Segment (Latin, from feco, tocut)of a Circle, 
is a Figure contained between a Right Line and any Part of 
the Circumference of a Circle, as o x s, or s w o. 

Practice. By the preceding draw the Tangent rm y 
touching in o, making the Angle ros equal to t; therefore the 
Angle sno (in the oppofite Segment) is equal to t, fo that 
swno, is the Segment required. 


TO divide a Right Line (z a) into any Number of equal Fig.xvH 
Tarts, (futfofejlx.) 

Practice. Draw a Line at Pleafure, as rs, and thereon 
prick off fix equal Divifions of any Size, as thofe at i, i, ?, 
4, 5, 6. On j, with the Interval rs, defcribe the Arch x x y 
and on r the Arch oo. From b, the Point of Interfettion, 
through r, i, 2, 3, 4, 5, J, draw Right Lines infinitely; 
make bh and bi equal to *<*, and join hi; then will 6* be 
divided mtofix equalTarts by the Lines £0, £0, Sfc. & ^ F - 


TO <#w<& a Right Line (zn) /* fuch Proportion, as an- Fi s XVIIL 
<tf£?r /j ^r? divided, {as a b.) 

Practice. Draw a Line at Pleafure, as rs, on which prick 
off thefeveral Diftances or Divifiors of at, as ai, 1, 2, 2, 
h h 4> 4^', at the Points o, Kr. make st and rt equal 
(by the preceeding,) and from, * through the Points nn, &c. 

New Principles of Gardening. 

draw Right Lines infinitely, make tq and tw equal to zn, 
and draw qw ; then will q w (which is equal to zn) be divi- 
ded in fuch "Proportion *sab. <^ E. F. 



O </<?/2ri& ty/r*/ or Serpentine Lines, either fingle, dou- 
ble, treble j or quadruple, 

si»de spi- Practice, (t.) Draw the Line i , 2, at Pleafure, and bifecl: it 

rai Lme. ' m y y n which, with half the afligned Diftance of the Line, (fup- 

* ig - XIX " pofe <**,) defcribethe Circle vw, and bifecl: vy and yw in 

z and x, which are the two Centers on which the Line is de- 

fcribed, as follows: On x defcribe vt, on z, t s, on x, sq, 

and on z, q r, &c. and fo in like manner, you may turn the 

faid Line about, as often as required. 

Doubles^ (2.) Draw the Line 3, 4, at Pleafure, and bifecl: it my, and, as 

pt L xx inthe preceding, defcribe the Circle rw, and its Centers x, z, 

which being done, on the Center x defcribe w q> and on z 

defcribe rv, alfo on x, up, and on z, qt„ and p s, and, Co 

in like manner, on *, the Arches to and j/t, &c. 

Treble spi- (3.) Make the EquilateralTr tangle abm, with its Sides, equal 

Fie^xxi t0 ^ le §* ven Lme x ^j anc * by Pro b. V. divide all the Angles, 

' and draw the Lines, aw, fw, by, i 8, m 9, and 10. On z» 

with the Radius mb, defcribe the Arch be, on a the Arch 

me, and on b the Arch ^^; then on 0, with the Interval 

c, defcribe the Arch eg, on /the Arch el, and on * the Arch 

dn. Again on <z, with the Interval ag, defcribe the Arch g h, 

on b the Arch It, and on m the Arch 01;; then beginning 

again at 0, with the Interval Vj defcribe the Arch v x, on a 

the Arch xy J and on / the Arch y z„ &c. and the like of 

others, to any Number of Revolutions required. 

Quadruple . M Draw a Ri g nt Line at Pleafure, as g s, and bifecl: it by the 

spi™/ Lme. Line io j and draw dc and abj as alfo be and ad, parallel to 

F! g- XXI i- the Lines io J and sg, at the given Diftance of the Lines 5, 

6, interfering each other in abc d„ the Centers \ on which the 

Lines are defcrib'd, as follows, viz. on d defcribe the Arch 

hij on a the Arch zy„ on £, n m^ and on c^ op ; then 

beginning again at d_, defcribe y k„ at a„ nlj ^xb^pq^ and 

at Cj pfi and fo in like manner may be continued about to 

any Number of Revolutions required. PROB- 

New Principles of Gardening. n 

problem xix. 

npi O defcribe a ferpentine Line about an Ellipfis. Fig.xxni 

Practice. By Prob. IX. Sect. II. defcribe the Ellipfis 
abed, according to its 'Diameters given, and extend out the 
Lines eg, eh, zndfgjfh, infinitely : Divide flj into four equal 
Parts, and make/V, hk, gl, and em, each equal to one Fourth 
offh, which Points i, k, I, m, are the four Centers on which 
the Line is defcribed as following, viz. On / defcribe the Arch 
np, on i the Arch po, on k the Arch o v, on m the Arch v w, 
on / the Arch w x, and on i the Arch xg, and fo (as before 
in the circular Spirals) this may be continued about as often 
as required. 


TO defcribe with Compares, &c. any rural or irregular Fig.xxiv. 
Curved Line, as z w m. 

Practice. Firft, with a "Pencil trace out the Line, and 
at every Turning, as w, i, h, make a Point. Secondly, in eve- 
ry fueh Divifwn affume another Point, asr, and by Prob. XIII. 
hereof defcribe the Arch zrw, and then proceed in like man- 
ner to find the Centers of the Arches wi, i h, 8k till the 
whole Line is defcribed as required. 


Of Superficial Figures. 

Superficial Figures, neceflary to beunderftood by Gar- 
deners, &c. are the Circle, Ellipfis, Triangle, Square, 
Parellogram, Pentagon, Hexagon, Septagon, OBagon, 
Nonagon, "Decagon, &c. whofe Definitions and Conftruclions 
are as follows. C 2 PRO- 

New Principles of Gardening* 

problem i. 

Fig.xxv. r I n O defcribe a Circle of any pojfible Magnitude required. 

Definition, (i.) A Circle is a plain Figure, bounded with 
one Line, called the Circumference , in the Midft whereof is 
a Toint, from whence all Lines drawn to the Circumference 
are equal, which Point is called the Center thereof, as a. (2.) 
The "Diameter of z Circlets a Right Line {be) pafling through 
the Center a, terminating at each End \s\th the Circumference, 
and dividing the Circle into two equal Parts. (3.) The Ra- 
dius of a Circle is the Semidiameter, as ba, orac. (4.) A 
Semicircle is the Figure (b n c) contain'd between the Diameter 
and half the Circumference. (5.) A Segment of a Circle, ^fe 
Prob.XV. Sect. I. 

Practice. ACircle is ufually defcribed by the Revolution 
of a i?/£to Line, having one of its Ends fix'd on the Center J 
while the other revolves round the fame ; as if db was fix'd 
at b, (as the Joint of a Seftor, Two-foot Rule, &c.) and to be 
moved from d to /, to n, to v, and to d, its former Tofition, 
the End of the Line d would defcribe the Circumference, and 
the Jgour the Circle itfelf. When a G>r& is defcribed by G?//?- 
pajfes, the Diftance between the two "Points or Z^j thereof, 
is to be confidered as the Radius or Right Line aforefaid. It 
often happens, that Circles are required to be defcribed where 
'tis not poffible for the Radius to move round its Center, as 
before ; and therefore at fuch Times obferve the following 
Rule : b 

Tig.xxvi. H° w t0 aeftrtbe a Circle without the Center bein^ known; 
Let dbg be the given Diameter, which bifeft in b, and there- 
on raife the Perpendicular b /, which make equal to b d. Con- 
tinue b d towards /, and make fd equal to two Sevenths of 
db ; on b, with the Interval bf defcribe the Arch fm at Plea- 
iure, make bv equal to b I, or bd; on d, with any Interval 
greater than half*//, defcribe the Arches kk, s s, on I, the 
Arches li, and draw hb, cutting the Arch fm in a; then 
with the Interval dc, or la, on / defcribe the Arch 00, on n 
the Arches pf, rr, and on v the Arches, interfefting 

New Principles of Gardening. J3 

each other in the Points a,y, w, x ; join the Right Lines a I, 
h-> y&i& w -> wv,vx,xd, da, each of which divide into any 
Number of equal Parts, as 1,2,3,4,5,^. Draw Right 
Lines from the Divifions of hd, to thofe of hi, from ly to 
thofe of yg, from£# to thofe of xv, and from vw to thofe 
of w d, and their Interfedions will defcribe the Circle re- 
quired. §>. E. F. 


TO divide the Circumference of a Circle into any Number of Ffc 
equal Tarts, not exceeding ten. 

Practice. By the preceding defcribe the Circle af eg; 
draw the "Diameter aec, and 'twill divide the Circle into two 
equal Parts ; make a bund ad equal to a e, and draw b d, which 
will divide the Circle into three equal Tarts ; draw fg at Right 
Angles to ac, and join fa, which is the fourth Divifion ; on 
a, with the Interval af, cut ac in i> and join ft, which 
fhall divide the Circle into five equal Tarts • the Radius e a, 
ec, Sfc. is the fixth Divifion, hb, or h d, is the feventh; draw 
ek through 0, and the Line ak will be the eighth-, one Third 
of the Arch bad, viz. dl> is the ninth f and ei the tenth Di- 
vifion. &E.F. 


divide the Circumference of any Circle into 360 equal 
Tarts, or Degrees. 

Definition. A Degree is the three hundred and fixtieth 
Part of the Circumference of any Circle, {be it great or finally 
each of thofe Degrees are divided into fixty equal Tarts, cal- 
led Minutes ; and each of thole into fixty Tarts more, called 
Seconds-, and fo to Thirds, Fourths, &c. But fuch Subdi- 
vifions has no Place herein, any further than Minutes. 

Practice. Defcribe the Circle aebc, draw the two2>w- F, g . 
meters ab and ec at Right Angles, and the Circle will be di- ** Vi ^ 
vided into four equal Parts; make ag, an, each equal to ad, 



14 New Principles of Gardening. 

as alfo cm, c k, b I, b h, e i, and efi then will the Circum- 
ference be divided into twelve equal Parts, each containing 
thirty "Degrees: Divide afam, &c. each into three equal Parts, 
and then will the Circle be divided into thirty fix, each con- 
taining ten Degrees. Laftly, divide each of thofe Divifions 
into ten equal Parts, by the preceding Problems of Sect. I. 
and the Circumference will be divided into three hundred and 
fixty equal Tarts, as required. £. E. F. 


O find the Center of a Circular Arch, and the whole 
"Diameter of the Circle > of which the given Arch is a Tart 

Tig.xxix Practice. Let abc be the Circular Arch given ; aflume 
three Points therein, as a, b, c, and by Pro b. XIII. Sect.L find 
the Center, £&\ ^ E. F. 


* A Circle being given y to find its Center. Pra ctice. Let abc be the Circle given; affume therein 

SSrfSS? \*E h :d: and by Prob * XI1L S£ct - l find the 


T % cdb) be an Empfis (a e l b k h,) *° any Length &*** 

Fig.xxxL Defihition. AhEllipsis {Greek) is a Geometrical Figure, 

comprehended in one only Line, but that not circular, nor ha- 

, vug all its Parts equally refpefting the Center, but two Focus 

An Ellipsis is generated by an oblique SecJion of a 
and is to be defcnbed divers Ways, as following: 


New Principles of Gardening. 15 

Practice. Divide ab, into three equal Parts, at c and d, 
with the Interval a c ; on c defcribe the Circle a e dh> and on 
d the Circle lbkc\ from 0, through c and d, draw *<//, and 
oce; aifo from », through d and c draw » dk, and »rA; 
extend your Compafles from n to 6, and defcribe the Arch hk y 
and with the fame Diftance on o the Arch el; and thus is the 
EUipfis compleated as required. 


TO defer the an Elfyfis a different Way from tha pre- 

Practice. Divide the "Diameter xy into four equal Parts X xxh. 
at eim, with the Radius xe; on e defcribe the Circle e x i, 
and on i the Circle ienm, and on m the Circle miy, at i 
draw nf at Right Angles to xy : From /, through e and **, 
draw the Right Lines fmb, and />*, alfo from », through 
<? and m the Lines '» m d and » * * : With the Interval fg, on 
/defcribe the Arch gnh, and on n the Arch wfk 9 and the 
Ellipfis will be comfleated as required. 


TO defcribe an Ellipfis according to any Length and Breadth ^^ 
g iven, as h and i. 

Practice. Make ad equal to A, bifeel: a d in £ by ef> 
at Right Angles ; make fe equal to i, and /V, /A or e c, 
eb, equal to £ d or £ <z ; fo ihall b c be the Umbilque, or two 
iw us Points j upon which two Tins, Nails, &c. being tal- 
ten'd, and about them put a String, whofe Ends fatten toge- 
ther in the Point *, this String being moved about the two 
Tins with a Blacklead Tencil, ®r. will defcribe the £//#Ax, 
whofe Z,«^a& and 5raafo& Ihall be equal to the two given 
Lines h u g. E. F. 


1 6 New Principles of Gardening* 



O defcribe the fame Ellipfis a different Way. 

xf'v Practice. Make al and mb equal to / and t at Right 
' Angles, as in the preceding; make Ix and ay each equal 
to %b, or hm; divide xh into three equal Parts, and make 
x i equal to one of thofe Parts ; make h c equal to h i ; with 
the Interval i c , on i dcfcribe the Arches 1 1 and w w, and on 
c the Arches v v and z z, interfe&ing the former in g and f; 
from f, through / and c , draw the Right Lines / / r, and 
/V #, as alio from the Pointy the Right Linear/, and g i h ; 
Onr, with the Interval c a, defcribe the Arch oao, and on/ 
the Arch *//</; extend you Compafles from fto m, and on /* 
defcribe the Arch omd, as alfo on g the Arch b dj which will 
compleat the Ellipfis as required. 



O /»</ *fo Center and two diameters of any Ellipfis. 

Within the Ellipfis draw at Difcretion two 
parallel Right Lines, as ef and g h ; bifeft thefe "Parallels in 
/ and ^ and draw the Right Line ik J which bifeft in /, the 
CW*r of the Ellipfis, whereon with any Radius defcribe a 
Circle, mm no, interfering the Ellipfis inp and q; join p q, 
and bifeft it in r, and draw r I to t and j\, which is the Jon- 
geft "Diameter y through / draw e d, parallel to p q> and 'tis 
the lelTer "Diameter. & E F. 


r lpO defcribe an Ellipfis according to any Length and 
X Breadth given, without knowing the Focus "Points, or 
by Segments of Circles, as by the preceding "Problems. 

xxx g vi P* acti ce. Let dc be the longeft Diameter, and a b the 
* flborteft; at the Diftance of hb draw ft and eg parallel to 
cdj and ef and g i parallel at ab, at the Diftance of be, cut- 

New Principles of Gardening. 17 

ting the former in efgi. Divide ae, agj bf, de,, df eg, 
and c i, each into equal Number of Parts ; the more, the 
more exact ; draw Right Lines from the Divifions of a e, to 
thofe of ed, &c. as by Prob. I. hereof, and their Inter- 
jections will defcribe the Ellipfis required. Q E. F. 

Note j, That the longeit Diameter of an Ellipfis is called, 
the Conjugate \ and the fhorteft, the Tranfverfe Diame- 


TO defcribe a Figure > calld an Egg Oval, equal to any 
Breadth given, as hn. 

Practice. Make ac equal to hn, and bifect ac in b; Fig. 
whereon, with the Diftance ab, defcribe the Semicircle a dc ; xxxvii. 
on a, with the Interval ac, defcribe the Arch ce, and with the 
fame Opening on c, the Arch af, crofling the former in g, com- 
pleting the Oval required. Q E. F. 

N. B. That the Figure thus defcrib'd^ is vulgarly called an 
Egg Oval, tho' in fad, it is not; becaufe the Arches ce and 
of interfect each other, and conftitute an Angle at g, which is 
contrary to the Curvature of an Ellipfis. Therefore to defcribe 
an actual Egg Oval, proceed as follows, viz. Having defcri- 
bed the Figure according to the preceding Way, draw the Line 
bg 7 which divide in /. On / with the Opening Ig, defcribe the 
Arch ogh, and on g the Arch f Ik, interfering die former in 
r and *. Laftly draw li, cutting the Arch ce mm, Ir cut- 
ting the Arch af in j, and on /, with the Opening Im, defcribe 
the Arch mzs, which will complete the true Egg Oval, as re- 


O defcribe an Equilateral Triangle* 

Definition. A Triangle is a plain Geometrical Figure, 
bounded with three Sides, conftituting three Angles, and there - 
n fore 

! New Principles of Gardening. 

fore called a Triangle. When a Triangle hath all its Sides equal* 
'tis called an Equilateral Triangle, as eab. That Triangle as 
hath two Sides equal, and the third unequal, is called an Ifo- 
celes Triangle, and that Triangle whole three Sides are un- 
equal, as ho i, is called a Scalenum Triangle. 

Note, That what is here delivered in relation to the Names 
of Triangles, is only with refpect. to their Sides; therefore, 
when Triangles are mentioned with regard ro their Angles, 
they are diftinguifhed as following, viz. A Right-angled Trian- 
gle, is that which has one Right Angle and two Acute Angles, 
as ghl right-angled at g, and acute-angled at h and A All 
Angles are meafured by an Arch of a Circle, whofe Center is 
the Angular Point; and the Number of Degrees contained in fuch 
an Arch, is the Quantity of the Angle. 

It* the Quantity of the Angle is ninety Degrees, as the An- 
gle i, 2, 5-, 'tis called a Right Angle-, and when lefs than ninety 
Degrees, 'tis called an Acute Angle, as the Angle 3, 2, 4; but 
when the Angle is greater than a Right Angle, containing more 
than ninety Degrees, fuch an Angle is called an Obtufe Angle. 
Figg. An Amblygonium Triangle is that as hath one Obtufe Angle, 
* XVI1I 'and two Acute Angles, as hoi. An Oxigonium Triangle is 
that as hath all its Angles acute, as a h b. 'in every plain Tri- 
angle, the Sum of the three Angles are always equal to 180 
Degrees. In every Triangle, any two of the Lines being ta- 
ken for two Sides, the other remaining (be which it will) is 
called the Bafe • therefore any Side of a Triangle may be made 
the Bafe. 

In all right-angled Plain Triangles, that Side as is oppoGte to 
the Right Angle, is called the Hypothenufe, and the other two 
Sides its Legs ; and fometimes one of the Legs is called the Bafe, 
and the other (Cathetus, a Greek Word for) Perpendicular. 

Practice. Make eb equal to fg, and on e.znAb, with 
the Interval/^, defcribe the Arches 1, 1, and 2, x, crofTmgin a\ 
join ab and ae, the Triangle required; for as ab, be, and ea, 
are Radius's of equal Circles, therefore the Triangle is Equila- 
teral. £. K F. 

Hew Principles of Gardening. 19 

problem xiv. 

r T^ O make an Ifoceks and Scalenum Triangle. R*. 


Practice, (i) Draw zx equal to y, and with the Inter- 
val Wj, defcribe Arches crofling in y ; join zy 9 y x, and 'twill 
complete the Ifoceles Triangle required. 

(2) Draw np equal to/, and with the Intervals »/f, on /and 
n defcribe Arches crofting in o ; join n o, and op y and the Sca- 
lenum Triangle will be completed as required. £^ E. F. 


TO defcribe a Geometrical Square on a given Linej 

Definition. A Geometrical Square, is a Figure which Fig. xl, 
hath four equal Sides, and the Angles right, as nmzx. 

Practice. From x ereel: a Perpendicular xm ? equal to 
&#* and on m and z y with the Interval zx, defcribe Arches 
crofting at n y join n z and n m. £. E. F. ^ For z x is equal 
to x m, equal to mn^ equal to nz y and mz is common ; there- 
fore the Triangles xmz, and mnz, are equal angled; therefore 
the Angle x is equal to the Angle n ; but the Angle xmz is 
equal to the Angle xzm y and nmz equal to nzm, each 
equal to forty five Degrees; therefore m and z are right-an- 
gledj and the oppofite Sides are parallel. 0. E. T>. 


TO defcribe a Parallelogram (zxyn,) equal in Length and 
Breadth j to two given Lines , p, q. 

Definition. A Parallelogram is a Quadrilateral Figure, FigXLI# 
whofe oppofite Sides are parallel; from the Words "Parallel and 
Gramma, & Figure or Letter. 

o New Principles of Gardening. 

Practice. Draw^x equal to fj and erect, the Perpend i- 
cular xy equal to q, with the Intervals q and />, on z and j>' de- 
fcribe Arches eroding in « ; join «jv and nz, and the ParaUelo- 
gram will be completed. £. E. F. 


HPO defcribe a Rhombus on a given Line xy. 

rig. xlii. Definition. A Rhombus is a Geometrical Figure of four 
equal Sides, but the Angles are unequal; two oppofite ones be- 
ing Acute, and the other two Obtufe : 'Tis called Rhombus, from 
the Greek Word Rhumbos, a Fifh, called the Turbot, or Glafs 
Quarrels in a Window. 

Practice. Ony, with the Interval xy, defcribe the Arch 
xzHj make x z and z n equal to xy, and join x z, zn, and 
ny y the Rhombus required. Q. E. F. 


TO defcribe a Rhomboides J equal to the given Lines a n 
and Angle m. 

Fig Definition. A Rhomboides is of the fame Derivationas 

the Rhombus, and is a Figure between a 'Parallelogram and a 
Rhombus ; from the one it takes its Correfpondency of Sides, 
from the other Proportion of Angles, and therefore is called a 

Practic e. Draw £/equal to n, and (by Pros. IV. Sect I.) 
the Angle dfb equal to m, making fd equal to a • on £ and 
4 with the Intervals an, defcribe Arches eroding in c, join 
f rf and c b, the Rhomboides required. Q E. F. 


rO defcribe a Trapezia, equal to the given Lines abed 
and Angles. 


New Principles of Gardening. 21 

Definition. The Word Trapezia feems to come from tke frg-XLiv 
Greek Trapes a j a Table : 'Tis an irregular Geometrical Figure 
of four unequal Sides, were neither the Sides nor Angles equal- 
ly correfpond. 

Practice. Draw fg equal to d, and the Angle fg i (by 
Prob.IV. Sect.I.) equal to e, and make gi equal to c\ on 
/and i, with the Intervals b and a, defcribe Arches croffing 
in h ; join h /., and hf, the Trapezia required. .£. E. F. 


r T^ O frame or make a regular Pentagon upon a Line given. 

Definition. A Pentagon {Greeks from Tente 9 five, and Fig xLV: 
Gonidj an Angle,) is a Geometrical Figure of five Angles, 
and all equilateral, and thereby its Sides are all equal, as the 
Figure acbde. 

Practice. Divide ed'm the Middle at n, from which 
erect, the Perpendicular nh, equal to e d, extend hetof, fo 
that ef may be equal to e n ; upon the Bafe e d, make the 
Triangle dee, each Side equal to bf\ on c and d, with the 
Interval e d, defcribe Arches croffing in b ; as alfo with the 
fame Interval on e and c, defcribe Arches crofting in a ; join 
ea J acj c b, and b d, and the Pentagon will be compleated as 
required. <^E. F. "Pentagons may be defcribed by Prob. II. 
hereof. By defcribing a Circle, and dividing its Circumference 
into five equal Parts, (as there fhewn,) and then to draw 
Lines from one Divifion to another, will frame a Pentagon as 
required. > 

r I ^O make a regular Hexagon on a Line given, (de.) 

Definition. A Hexagon is a Geometrical Figure, con* 
filling of fix Angles, from Hex, fix, and Gonia J an Angle 

2 Practice 

22 New Principles of Gardening. 

Fig.XLVi. Practice. On de (by Pros. XIV. ^hereof,) make the 
Equilateral Triangle dhe, and on he the Equilateral Triangle 
bfe, and on A/ the Triangle A-/; continue eh to *, and 
.« to f, making £* equal to /^ and A* equal to e*i laftly, 
join <**, *<■, and* 4 and the /&#*#>» will be compleated as 
required. £. E. F. 


np 1 defcribe a Heptagon on a given Line (HI.) 

Definition. A Heptagon is a Geometrical Figure of fe- 
ven Angles, from the Greek Hefta, feven, and Goma, an 

Practice. Bifeft Hi in C, and from thence raife the 
xl&i. Perpendicular CM; with the Interval H I 5 on I defcribe the 
Arch 12345; divide this Arch into fix equal Parts, and 
make A B equal to A 1 ; on B, with the Radius BI, or BH, 
defcribe the Circle ICH^; laftly, take the Line HI in 
your Compaffes, and that Length from H to K, from 
K to L, from L to », from m to N, N to O , and join the 
Right Lines KH, KL, L«z, *N, NO, and 01, they will 
compleat the Heptagon required. Q. E. F. 


TO defcribe an Octagon, wbofe Sides {hall be each equal 
to a given Line (EC.) 

Definition. An Octagon is a plain Geometrical Figure, 
confifting of eight equal Sides and Right-equal Angles, from 
Ofio, eight, and Gonia an Angle. 

Ffo Practice. Bifect ED in C, whereon raife the Perpendi- 
cular c n y on D, with the Interval D E, defcribe the Arch 
BE, which divide into fix equal Parts, as before; make B A 
equal to two of thofe Parts, and on A, with the Interval A D, 
defcribe the Circle DEIFGHLM, wherein fet round ED, 
eight Times, and drawing the Right Lines EI, IF,FG, 



New Principles of Gardening. 23 

G H, HL,LM, and M D, will compleat the Octagon re- 
quired. <gj E. F. 



O defcribe a Nonagon, or Enneagon, whofe Sides {ball 
be each equal to a given Line, (D L.) 

Definition. Enneagon, from the Greek, a Regular Po- 
lygon, or Geometrical Figure, confuting of nine equal Sides, 
and the like Angles. 

Practice. Bifec~l DL in C, and thereon raife the Per- 
pendicular CH; on L, with the Interval L D, defcribe the 
ArchDB, which divide into fix equal Parts, as in the pre- 
ceding; make B A equal to three Parts of the Arch BD; on 
A, with the Interval AL, defcribe the Circle L, D, E, F, G, 
H, I, K, and therein fet off the Diftance D L, from D to E r 
from E to F, &c. §>. E. F. 

N. B. That the fecond Problem hereof may be ufed 
when 'tis required, to inferibe a regular Toiygon within a 
Circle, ®c. 

N. B. That Regular Polygons of any Kind may be inferibed 
by the following Rule, viz. 

divide the Circumference of the Circle three hundred and 
Jixty 'Degrees, by the Number of Sides in the 'Polygon, and 
the Quotient will be the Number of degrees contained in each 
Side : As for Example, 

Let the Polygon be a ^Decagon, which is a Geometrical 
Figure of ten equal Sides, and the like Angles. 

24 New Principles of Gardening. 

Practice. Divide 360 by 10, the Number of Sides m 
the Tiecagon, 10) 360 (56, the Quotient or Number of Degrees 
contain'd in each Side as required. 

Having now exemplified all the mod ufeful Definitions and 
Problems abfolutely neceffary to be well underftood by every 
good Gardener, I flhall in the next Part lay down the true 
Management and Ordering of Fruit and Foreft-Trees y Ever- 
green and Flowering Shrubs. 


-^ f -^ Tip J?S 

_»j» JTj, ~1? 0^*"**"* ^ , 

L-g- J- -> 



O F 



Of Fruit-Trees. 


Demonjirating the Variety of Gardens, their 
Situation for Fruit, the Nature of Soils, 
and their J ever al Improvements by Manures. 

H E Productions of Gardens being greatly diffe- 
rent, are therefore divided into divers Clajfes: As, 
Firft, the Kitchen Garden, whofe Products is all 
Manner of Sallcts, Herbage > Roots, &c. neceffa- 
ry for the Kitchen. Secondly, the Fruit Gar- 
den, which fupplies the Table every Month in the Year, with 
E the 

New Principles of Gardening. 

bed of Fruits, Thirdly, the Flower Garden, which gratifies 
the Skht and Smell with its Flowers. Fourthly, the Market 
Garden, which produces all Sorts of Pulfe* as Teafe* Beans, 
'Roots Sallets, Herbage* &c (as the Kitchen Garden,) for the 
Service of Cities* Towns* &c. Fifthly, Nurfery Gardeners, 
or Nurfery Men, who raife all Sorts of Trees, Shrubs, Plants* 
&c. for the Plantation of Fruit Gardens* parterres* Wil- 
derness, Groves* &c And Sixthly, the Phyfick Gar- 
den, wherein is cultivated all Medicinal Tlants for phyfical 

Thefe Varieties of Gardens affords no lefs Employment for 
Gardeners; and therefore they are diftinguifhed according to 
that Part of Gardening in Which they are employM, as the 
Kitchen Gardener, the Fruit Gardener, the Flower Gardener, 
or Florift, the Market Gardener, the Nurfery Gardener, (or 
Nurfery Men,) and laftly the Phyfick Gardener \ to which Varie- 
ty may be added, the compleat Groundworkman and "Planter, 
who furveys, defigns, lays out, and plants Gardens in general. 

I having in the preceding Parts exemplified the Manner of 
defcribing all Kinds of Geomctrcial Lines and Figures, abfo- 
Iutely neceffary to be well underitood by every Gardener, fhall 
now proceed to Directions for raifing and planting all Sorts of 
Fruit, Foreft, and Timber-Trees, Evergreens, and Flowering 
Shrubs, as alfo the Time and Manner of Grafting, Inoculating, 
Pruning, Nailing, Gathering, andPreferving all the beft Sorts of 
Standard, Dwarf, Efpallier, and Wall -Fruits. 

The firft Thing to be considered for the Propagation of Trees, 
is the Nature and Situation of the Soil* wherein they are to 
be planted, as Rapin obferves, Book iv. Page 178. 

Though to all Tlants each Soil is not difpofed, 
Andonfome T > laces Nature has impofed 
Peculiar Laws, which [he unchanged preferves ; 
Such fervile Laws Great Britain fcarce obferves. 

The adapting of Fruit-Trees to their proper Soils they moft 
delight in, caules them to thrive infinitely better, than if they 
were planted in a Soil, wherein they delight not. 

New Principles of Gardening. 27 

All Grounds not all things bear : The Alder-Tree 
Grows in thick Fens ; with Sallows Brooks agree > 
AJJj craggy Mountains ; Shores fweet Myrtle fills. 
Andy lafll^j Bacchus loves the funny Hills. 

Tis obfervable, that the Apple called the Kentifh-Pippin, 
will thrive better in Kent, than any other kind of Apple ; as al- 
io Codlins, when in divers other Places, neither of thofe Fruits 
will thrive, but are foon deftroyed by the Canker ; and even 
amongft Pear-Trees, I have obferved, that Summer-Pears will 
thrive in Land, where Winter-Pears will not. 

In order to attain the Knowledge of what Species of Fruits 
are moft natural to the Soil, where we intend to raife or plant 
our Trees, I advife, that Obfervation be made of the different 
Growth of Trees in the neighbouring Parts, and of Experi- 
ments on Variety of Kinds planted in our own Garden. 

For various ^Plants, what Air and Soil is good? 

And that, which hurts them, muft be underfiood. 

Warm Air and Moifture is by Apples loved > 

But, if to ftony Hills they are removed j 

Ton muft not blame them,, if they then decay : 

Through a crude Soil the Fig will make its Way. 

If it be not exJ>ofed to the Rude Norths 

A humid Sand will make the Peach bring forth. 

The Pear when it has Room enough to fpread, 

Where it has Warmth fufficient over Head, 

If it be feconded by the wet Ground \ 

With f duelling Fruits and Bloflbms will be crowned. 

The backward Mulberry chufes to be dry, 

For conftant Moifture is its Enemy ; 

And a wet Soil the Apple vitiates ; 

The Cherry deeply rooted^ prorogates 

It felf with Freedom, as in Italy 

The thriving Olives every where we fee. 

A milder Ground the Lemon moft defires : 

One more fever e the yellow Quince requires. 

It is not fit that Apricots fhould ft 'and 

In a hot Mold - and Cherries love not Sand, 

E 2 m 

New Principles of Gardening. 

No more than Strawberries ; which laft if fet 

In Earth that's well fubdued, if to the Heat 

Of the warm Sun expofed, they foon abound 

With Juice, their Berries then grow flump and round. 

Thofe Hills, which favour Bacchus, Lemons ftarve, 

And Melons, which a gentler Clime deferve. 

When a warm Situation Plums obtain, 

They quickly recommence the Gardener's Tain. 

Rapin, Book iv. Page 202, 

The beft Situations for Fruit-Gardens, are the South, and 
thofe as declines from the South towards the Eaft,- to forty five 
Degrees. An exad Eaft Wall is not to be difpifed ; for though 
the Bud is checked or kept back in the Spring by the Eafterly 
Winds, yet it has the Advantage of the whole Anti-Meridian 
Sun in Summer and Autumn, which difperfes the cold Dews 
early in a Morning, and by its Pofition, is defended from the 
South-Weft Winds that blows in the Autumn, oftentimes de- 
ftruttive to Fruit. Befides, the Fruit ripens very well, and of- 
tentimes better than that of a South (Wall or) Situation ; for 
the Morning Sun in the Summer is the very beft; and although 
the Sun departs there, from about Eleven in the Morning, yet 
the Air being warmed by the Sun, is fully fufficient in the re- 
maining Part of the Day, to prelerve and continue the fame 
Heat, without the Sun-Beams. The Accidents attending this 
Expofition, is the North-Eaft and Eafterly Winds, which blaft 
Teach Trees, and kills other Fruits at the Time of their 
knitting or letting for Fruit. The South Expofition receives the 
Sun foon after Six in the Morning after the Tenth Day of March, 
and continues till near Six at Night. 

Its Accidents are the Eaft and by South, Src. Winds which 
often blight Teaches, Apricots, &c. as is (aid before of the Eaft 
Expofition. The Weft Expofition is bleft with the Sun's Rays, 
when it has pafled the Meridian, and continues till it defcends 
the Horizon-. The Fruit not receiving the early Warmth of 
the Sun, is generally ten or twelve Days later in ripening, 
and arefeldom fo good as thofe of the Eaft Expofition, but al- 
ways in greater Abundance, being defended from the North- 
Eaft ; Eaft and Eafterly Winds, which often blow in the 
tyring, dcihoymg the Bloom and Tender Fruits of Eaftern 


New Principles of Gardening. 29 

Expofitions more than thofe of the Weft. The Accidents at- 
tending this Expofition are high and turbulent Winds, gene- 
rally happening at the End of the Summer, as I obferved 

The North Afpett is of all others the moft cold, and expofed 
to the North-Weft, North, and North-Eaft Winds, which 
are deftruttive to Fruit; and although this Expofition is fo 
openly expofed, yet it produces Morella- Cherries, divers 
Kinds of common Tlumbs, and even "Duke-Cherries alfo, at a 
Seafon when all others are gone, and in very great Perfection. 

Thefe Expofitions being thus explained, it now remains 
to fpeak fomething of the Nature of Soils, proper for Plan- 
tations of Fruits; for the diftinguifhing whereof there are 
many Rules; but for fuch that cannot change their Situation 
or Dwelling, mud be fatisfied with their own Soil, which, if 
bad, may be improved, as hereafter directed. 

I fhall not here affign certain Depths of Soils, wherein we 
are to plant, feeing that oftentimes we are obliged to ufe what 
we can find. 'Tis certain that the deeper Land is in Good- 
nefs, the better it is for the Trees planted therein. 

Some Soils hold two Foot, and two Foot and half, and 
others one Foot, or nine Inches in Depth. When Land is very 
fallow, that is, when its Depth is lefs than twenty Inches, 
which is a fufficient Depth for Fruit-Trees, it muft"be raifcd 
with good Earth brought from other Parts. There are divers 
Kinds of Land, wherein Trees thrive: As, Firft. alight Sandy 
Land: Secondly, a fan dy Loamy Soil, with Brick-Earth at 
Bottom: And, laftly, ft iff, cold, and wet Clay. And befidesall 
thefe, there are many other Kinds of Lands, as Marjh Lands, 
Heaths, Boggy Grounds, & c . wonderfully different in their 
Qualities and Compofition ; fome being a perfect Rock of 
Gravely others Clay, Chalk, Quagmires, &c. and fome of all 
Kinds mix'd together : But above all, for our Purpofe, the fe- 
cond Kind mentioned, namely., the fandy Loamy Soil, of a 
brown Colour, with a flrong holding Bottom, is of ail others 
the very btft for Fruit and Foreft-Trees. Of this Sort of Land 
are the moft Parts of Twickenham, Ifteworth, Brentford, and 
other Parts adjacent thereunto. 


go New Principles of Gardening. 

Chufe a rich Soil when you intend to plant , 
Not that 'which heavy Sand has rendered faint. 
Avoid low Vales, which lie between clofe Hills, 
Which feme thick Pool with noifome Vapours fills ; 
Where fithy Mitts, and hurtful Steams afcend, 
Leaft an ill Tafte they to your Fruit may lend. 
Learn that f avoid, where deep in barren Clay 
The fpeckled Euts their yellow Bellies lay ; 
Where burning Sand the upper Hand obtains, 
Or where with Chalk unfruitful Gravel reigns : 
And left th> external Rednefs of the Soil 
deceive your Labours \, and defpife your Toil, 
"Deeply beneath the Furrows thruft your Spade ; 
Outward Appearance many hath betrayed. 
Earth under the green Sward may be enclofed 
To a rough Sand, or burning Clay difpofed. 
Still fly that "Place where Auftcr always blows, 
And for your Trees that Situation chufe, 
Where in the open Air, on a "Defcent, 
To blefs their Growth, more gentle Winds confent. 

Rapin, Book iv. Page 179. 

Soils being different in Contexture, Colour, or Site* I 
have reduced them into three Sorts, viz. As, Firft, Z/>Ztf J San- 
dy, and Gravel: Secondly, Mellow, Loam, and Brick-Earth • 
And, lately, Stiff, Cold Land, and Clay. 

The Manures proper for thofe feveral Kinds of Soils are 
as follow : Firft, For a loofe fandy Soil take of Mud, fcoured 
out of fonds, &c. and of firong Loam an equal Quantity; 
to which add a third Part of good Horfe-T>ung, well mix'd 
together, and it will make an excellent Compoft for fandy 
or light Land. All Ompofls may be made in any Quantity 
Jo that the Proportion of the Quantities of each Sort is care- 

wi° bferved ' and wdI mixU 

When that you have mix'd a fufftcient Quantity, caft it into 
tne Form of a Leftal, and let it be turned three or four 
1 imes in the Year, and always kept clean from Weeds ; for 
tliey exhauft the vital Tarts thereof, and at the End of one 
Year twill be fit for Ufe. If to one Rod of Ground be 


New Principles of Gardening. gi 

allowed one Load of Compoflj 'twill be a very good Al- 

Marie (of the blue Kind) is a good Manure for light fandy 
Land-, which, if laid on with Difcretion, will laft fifteen or 
twenty Years : For where Marie is ufed, the Toornefs and 
^Deph of the Ground is to be always confidered. On tolerable 
good Land may be laid eighty or an hundred Loads to an 
Acre ; and on that as is barren and deep, from two hundred to 
four hundred Loads each Acre. 

Clay of the lighter Sort is good Manure for light jhelfy Gra- 
vely ox fandy Land ; but Care rauft be taken that the Clay is 
not digged in too deep. If an equal Quantity of Clay and 
Sand be equally mix'd together, the Compoft will be a very 
good Loam. 

Cow-^Dung is an excellent Soil for hot Lands, as alfo Deers^ 
Sheep, Hogs, and Bullocks 'Dungs, 

Sandy Loams are fome of the very belt Lands for Garden- 
ing,, and require but little Help ; yet notwithstanding, Time 
doth eraze out all the Signs and Marks of their Strength, 
which may be reftored, or greatly improved as follows: 

To one Load of Horfe-i>ung (well rotted) add a Quarter 
of a Load of Sea-Sand, (if to be had eafy, if not, other Sand,) 
the fame Quantity of Lime flacked, as alfo of "Pigeon Sheep- | 
"Dung, and Cow-T>ung, half a Load of Chalk, beaten fmall., and 
half a Load of Marie ; mix them proportionally together, and 
it will be a good Comport, iit for immediate Ufe. 

Chalk and Marie makes a good Compofl : To every fcven 
Load of Marie add ten Load of Chalk : If you allow 
Marie in greater Quantity, ^twill make Lands too luxurioi*|r 
Secondly, The Manures proper for ^//0^£^:y Land,whbfe 
Bottom is inclinable to Brick-Earthy is Horfe-Tiung well 
rotted j with fome Sea-Coal Afloes^ mix'd with it, well known 
to molt Gardeners. 

This kind of Soil is the moft natural for Gardens, Tlanta- 
tions, &c. and requires little Help or Improvement, it being 
ftrong in its own Nature, and needs nothing more than the 
Spade to ridge it in the Winter, to bring it into Order and 

Thirdly, and laflly, ftiff and cold Clay Lands are helped by 
divers Compfls. To three Load of the natural Mold add 

3 2 New Principles of Gardening. 

two Load of good rotten "Dung, one Load of Sand, two Load 
of the firft Spit of a rich Turf, Meadow, or Grafs-Ground, 
half a Load of Street-Tlung, or Sea-Coal Ajhes, with a fmall 
Quantity of Pigeons 'Dung ; mix tliefe proportionally together, 
and lay the Compoft in a Heap, obferving to turn it once a 
Month for the Summer Seafon, and in Winter it will be fit 
for Ufe. Pigeons -T)ung, can 1 thin upon cold Lands early in 
the Spring, is very helpful, efpecially for Corn and Meadow 
Lands: Five Load will dung an Acre. Sea and Drift Sands 
are very good Comports for Clay Lands, making way for the 
Roots to ihoot ; as alfo doth Sea-Coal Ajhes. 

RnbbifJj of Buildings is very good for the Roots of Trees 
in cold Land; and Chalk, broken fmall, is a good Comooft : 
The foft fat Chalk is the belt. F 

Lime is another good Compoft for ftiff Clays, its Heat 
caufing a Fume, and its Tendernefs makes way for the Roots, 
to fetch home their Nourifhment. The Lime ufed herein rauft 
be flacked, and as its Heat is great at firft, therefore muft 
be ufed with Difcretion. 

Cold and (hallow Land is beft manured by the following 
Compoft : Take one Load of the natural Mold, two Loads 
of good rotten Horfe-Tiung, one of Sand, or Sea Coal Ajhes, 
and one of Chalk, which mix proportionally together, and 'tis 
fit for Ufe. 

N. B. that the oftner Clay Lands are dunged, and the lefs 
you lay on at a Time, is the better \ for Clay is of fuch a 
greedy Nature, that it foon eats out the T)unv, and oftentimes 
bmds it, fo that 'tis of no Ufe. 

And befides the aforefaid Compofts, ftiff Lands and 
Clays may be improved by their being ridged early in the 
Winter by the Help of Frofts ®c. 4ich\ill fo meLa e 
the Ridges, that they will fall down like Afties. Befides, 
the Winter s Air greatly fweetens the Soil, by cxhauftine and 
difperfing ; ther^and^ Vapours, which are fully expos'd to 
the Air, by its being thrown up in Ridges. To explain the 
Manner of Rtdgmg, Vtggtng, and Trenching of Ground, is 
needlefs, fince tis well known to every Gardener, and Garde- 
ner s Labourer. 


New Principles of Gardening. gg 

When cold or Clay Lands are troubled with Water, dig 
Drains to convey it away, with a Defcent, that the Wa- 
ter may pafs; and inftead of Arches, tie. of Brick Work, fill 
them up fix or eight Inches with large Stones, and over them 
lay fmall Brujb Green-wood, and thereon the Mold. Thofe 
Drains fo made will convey away the Water, and drain the 
Lands as defired. 

Of all Sorts of Land for Plantations, none is fo bad as the 
Clay, elpecially the ftrong Blue, ftrong White, or ftrong Red ; 
but when naturally mix'd with Stones, not fo bad. 

Befides the preceding Soils, viz. Sand, Loam, and Clay, 
there are in many Parts two Sorts of Land, called Rnjfet-Grays, 
whofe Temper is between Sand, Loam, and Clay ; of which 
one Sort is very ftrong and heavy, and the other more lighter, 
coming near to the Nature of Sand. The ftrong and heavy 
may be mtlorated, as the Clays, and the lighter by the fol- 
lowing Compofition. To one Load of rotten "Dung add one 
Load of Street Cleanings, one Load of Lime, and half a 
Load of Coal Aft>es, or T)rift Sand, with a fmall Quantity, 
or Sprinkling of Tigeons Tiling, which being well mix'd, is 
a very good Compoft ; and if to it you add old Rags, c Pot- 
Afties, rotten Leaves, &c. 'twill greatly improve it. This 
Compoft- being turned once a Month, for four Months , will 
be an excellent Manure. 

N. B. That the belt Time to make Compofts is in Sep- 
tember, to be ufed in February ; for thereby there is but 
little of the volatile Tarts exhaufted away by the Sun's 
Heat, or Growth of Weeds, which Compofts naturally pro- 

This laft Sort of light Gray-Rufet Land hath two different 
Situations; the firft is, when it lies high, (for which the 
foregoing Compoft is to be ufed,) and the other, when it 
Iks low and wet, which requires a Manure of a more lively 
Nature than that as lies high : Therefore, for fuch fandy wet 
Lands, take the following Manure, {viz,) To one Load 
and a half of Sea-Coal Afljes or Sea Sand add one Load of rot- 
ten Horfe-Dung, one Load of Street *t)ung, with half a 
Load of Shee]> and Tigeons Dung ; mix thefe well together, 

34 New Principles of Gardening. 

and they will make an excellent Compoft for fuch Lands, 
About eighty Loads is a good Allowance for one Acre. 

Thefe Directions being fufficient for the manuring any 
Sort of Lands, 'twill not be amifs to fay fomething in rela- 
tion to their Bottoms, which are either advantageous or pre- 
judicial to the Roots of Trees. Fir ft, Advantageous ; and 
fuch are Gravel, Chalky and jhelly Rock, mixed with Earth, 
which always abounds with nitrous Particles, as nourishes 
and improves their Roots. Secondly, Prejudicial-, as a bar- 
ren Sand or Clay ; the one drinking the Nourifhment away 
from the Roots,' and the other retaining it too long. Chalk 
Bottoms are very good ; they produce Fruit wonderful facet, 
and in great Plenty. 

I fliall now conclude this Section with fome ufeful Obferva- 
tions on good and bad Lands, known by their natural Pro- 
ductions. Firft, then, fuch Lands as naturally produce Mai- 
lows _, 'Docks, Hemlock, and other Weeds of the like Nature, are 
generally good and fruitful ; for fuch Weeds love fat deep Land. 
For 'tis ever to be obferved that fuch Land as produce Weeds, 
or Grafs, naturally ftrong, is undoubtedly very rich and 

Land, as naturally produces Weeds, t§c. ofafmaller Growth, 
as "Dazies, Plant ane, Clover, &c. is often very good; but 
feldom Co good as the preceding. 

Barren Earth is to be known divers Ways: As, Firft, 
when infread of good green Grafs, and a plentiful Crop, be 
a pale fmall Grafs, inclinable to a blewifh Colour : Second- 
ly, Broom, Furze, Heath, Mofs, £&-. denotes barren Land, 
efpecially if they be fmall. Lands fituated near the Sea Coaft, 
is often barren, being poifoned and ftarved by the /// Va- 
pours and Storms proceeding from thence, which is alfo de- 
firucTive to Trees and Plants. 

Mountanous and rocky Lands, extream hot and dry, are 
generally barren ; fo alfo is extream cold and moift Lands, 
as ftrong Clays, whofe tough and Binding Nature in the Win- 
ter will not admit the Rain or Snow to" foak into it, and in 
the Summer locks up the Grain or Roots within itfelf, that 
they have not Liberty to fhoot or fprout forth. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Sands upon mountainous rocky "Places producing fmall moffy 
and yellow Grafs, are generally barren. 

Black moorijh Sands produce four unwholfome Grafs ; and 
white or yellow Sand, a fhort blewijh moffy Grafs. 

Gravelly, gritty, loofe Sand, is alio barren, caufed by 
Cold, the Gravel wanting good Mold, to warm that as grows 
in it. 

Barren Lands always require much more Manure than 
better Lands, notwithstanding 'tis confumed in half the 
Time ; for in Clay Lands the Toughnefs of the Clay is fo 
great, the Soil cannot incorporate with it. 

Great Rains is the Caufe of Barennefs in hollow hungry 
Sands, as well as great "Droughts : For the Sun exhales the 
M&ijfme and Heart of the Soil, which the Rains produce; 
fo that light fandy Lands are deprived of their vital juices 
both Ways. 

Land may be fit for Fruit-Trees, Corn, &c. but not for 
Timber-Trees ; fuch whofe Depth is one Foot, or fifteen Inches, 
and its Bottom a cold wet Gravel, which is very difagreeable 
to their Roots. 

Note j when I fpeak of Timber-Trees, I mean Oak, Ajh, 
and Beach* and not Abeals, Elms, &c. of the Aquatick 
Tribe. * 

The like Depth of Ground is oftentimes found lying on an 
undivided Rock, or gharry of Stone, Marble, &c. of a large 
Extent; a Ifo improper for Timber-Trees; and although the 
AJh is a Tree that naturally runs fhallow, yet 'tis generally 
a "Pollard, and decavs before it comes to any Perfection for 

S E G Ti 

3 6 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Manner of raifing Stocks from 
Kernels, Sec. and Time of Grafting and 
Inoculating Fruit-Trees ; with Obfervations 

FRuit-Thefs are railed from Kernels, Suckers, Layers, 
Cuttings, Seed, Grafts, and Inoculation, (i.) Thofe 
from Kernels, are Apples, Crabs, Tears, Teaches, Al- 
monds, Cherries, Abricots, Tlumbs, Walnuts, Chefnuts, and 
Filberts. (2.) By Suckers, are the Tlumb, Quince, Medlar, 
Filbert, Codlin, Goofeberries, Currants, and Rasberries ; as 
alfo Taradife-Stocks. (3 .) By Layers, are Vines, Figs, Quinces, 
Mulberries, and Cornelion- Cherry. (4.) By Cuttings, the 
Vines, Codlings, Mulberries, Tomgranates, Barberries, Figs, 
Quinces, Gen i tings, Taradife- Stocks, G 00 fiber ries, and Cur- 
rants. (5.) By Seed, the Service and Mulberry. (6.) By 
Grafting, and Budding, or Inoculating on Stocks of Tlumbs, 
Teaches, Cherries, Crabs, Tears, all the Sorts of Teaches, 
Abricots, Ne&orines, Almonds, Tlumbs, Cherries, Apples, 
Tears, &c. ' 

To raife young Stocks for Grafting and Budding, you mud 
prepare a Border, (or many, if you low much,) of good mel- 
low frefh Land, about three Feet in Breadth each, and there- 
on fovv your Kernels, (not too thick;) after which, with 
your Spade, turn them in about four Inches deep, and then 
rake and finifh your Border, not forgetting to fet Trap for 
Mice, as will vifit them in the Winter. 

The Time for fowing of Kernels is from the Time as the 
Fru t is ripe, until the Spring following, viz. February or 

If you are careful in keeping them clean from Weeds, 
and that they be watered now and then, they will be greatly 

New Principles of Gardening. 37 

encouraged, and thrive thereby. N. B. The Sorts of Kernels 
to be fown, are the Crab, Apple, Tear, Cherry, and Filbert : 
The others, as T each-Stones, Almonds, Apricots, Tlumbs,TVall- 
nuts,?Ln& Che/nuts 5 muft be fown or dropp'd in Drills made with 
a Hough, about four or five Inches in Depth, and about two 
Foot and half afunder : The Kernels muft be placed in the 
Drills, at the Diftance of nine or ten Inches afunder, becaufe 
they will not be removed before they are made Trees by bud- 
ding or grafting. Theie Kernels delight in a light rich Land, 
and love to be clear of Weeds, and kept moifi by Waterings in 
very dry Seafons. 

In Autumn when the Seedlings has done growing., trench 
a Piece of frejh mellow Land, and therein plant all the largeit, 
leaving the weak ones till the next Autumn. 

The Rows you plant them in mult be two Foot and a half 
afunder, and the Stocks Diftance in the Line, about one Foot. 

You muft alfo obferve, to prune of the Tap-Root of every 
Plant, and thereby they will have good Roots in Plenty, which 
other wife would be but one, and that very bad for traniplant- 
ing. When your Plantation has fezn two or three Years, and 
the Plants arrived to the Bignefs of a Man's Thumb towards 
their Bottom, you may begin to graft or inoculate them with 
fuch Fruits as you think beft, which being grown a Year or 
two after their Inoculation or Grafting, will be fit to trans- 
plant againft any IV all > Efpallier, &c Perhaps it may be expec- 
ted that I fhould, according to the vulgar Way, defcribe and 
explain the Method of grafting and inoculating Fruit-Trees ; 
but knowing that ^tis familiar with every Gardener, and is what 
cannot be well underftood by bare Theory only, without the 
Traflice, therefore I advife every one as is a Lover of Curiofi- 
ties in Art and Nature, and is defirous to well underftand thofe 
two Thilofophical Entertainments, to be fully informed therein 
by the Help of fome Nurfery-Man or Gardener at the proper 
Seafons for thofe Works, of which I fhall now deliver every 
ufeful Obfervation to be made therein. 

Firft, in Grafting, which is performed four ieveral Ways, 
viz. (1.) Whip-Grafting, generally ufed on fmall Stocks for 
Cherries, Tears, Apricots, &c (2.) Stock-Grafting, ufed in 
grafting Apples on Crabs, or Tears on Quinces, or any other 
Fruit, whofe Stocks are large. (*.) Rind-Grafting, uled for the 


3 8 New Principles of Gardening. 

grafting of large Stocks or Trees, as are too large to cleave, as 
in Stock-Grafting. And, laftly, Inarching ©r Grafting by Ap- 
proach, ufed chiefly for Oranges, Lemons, Citrons, &c. 

The Time or Ssafon for Grafting, is all February, March, 
and about one Week in April. The firft you begin with muft 
be Cherries and Plumbs, they being forward Fruits, after them 
'Pears, and, laftly, Apples. 

In the Choice of Cions or Cuttings for Grafting, you muft 
obferve to take them from fuch Trees as are good Bearers, and 
from fuch Parts of the Tree as is truly vigorous and healthy, 
and fuch Shoots as are fulleft of Buds. Note, that the loft Tears 
Shoot is what you are to ufe, and not thofe of two or three Years 

And further obferve, that 'tis beft to cut off your Cions or 
Grafts a Month before you ufe them, and lay them in Earth, 
half buried, during that Time ; but obferve to lay the Bottom 
End in the Ground, inftead of the Top. 

By Midfummer your Stock and Graft will be grown toge- 
ther; and then they require to have their Bandage taken away, 
that they may have free Liberty to thrive and profper. 

Secondly, Inoculation, (called by Gardeners, budding^ by 
which is raifed Peach-Trees, Neclorines, Apricots^ Cherries. 
Plumbs, Pears, Apples, & c . 

The Seafon for this Work, is from the Beginning of June, 
to the Middle of Auguft ■ and 'tis beft performed very early in 
a Morning, m the Cool of an Evening, or in cloudy Weather, 
for hot Weather is very prejudicial to th e Buds and Bark of the 
Stocks, during the Operations. 

Great Care muft be taken to unbind the Buds in due Time, 
which may be known by the Swelling of the Stock, above and 
below the Bud. Thofe Trees, as you bud early, may be unbound 
at fixteen or eighteen Days after Inoculation-, and thofe, as you 
you bud late, fomewhat longer. In the Spring following you 
muft cut off the Heads of the Stocks, about one Inch and half 
above the Bud, after which your Bud will fprout out, and 
make a handfome Tree. N. B. It is ufual to put in two or 
three Buds in each Stock, at proper Diftances, in a fmooth Part 
u£l u ' ^ rFea j of * Ml/carriage, and bud them fuch a 
Height above Ground, as to leave Room underneath, to bud 
them again the next Year, in Cafe they mils the firft. There 
are divers Sorts oi Peaches as takes very well, and others very 

New Principles of Gardening. 

As for Inftance, an Old Newington takes very well, 
and a Minion very difficult ; therefore that ye may not be whol- 
ly difappointed, when you bud a Stock with a Minion, put in 
alfo over it a Bud of an Newington ; for if the Minion mifles, 
'tis ten to one but the Newington takes, (which is one of the 
beft Teaches we have;) and provided that they both take, then 
when you head your Stock down, cut away the Newington Bud, 
and the Remains is the Minion ', and the like of other eafy and 
difficult Fruits in general. 

When among other Seafons of the Tear, 

the Tithe of Grafting comes, do not defer, 

In proper Stocks young Cions to inclofe ; 

Then Buds between the cloven Bark difpofe : 

And if your Fruit be badj as oft it will, 

Make Choice of better, and remove the ill. 

By thefe Improvements, great eft Traife you get ^ 

And thus your Gardens Honour you complete. 

Into your Stocks the Foreign Pears admit, 

And far-fetch' } d Apples place within the Slit. 

Hence fprings a nobler Race and greater Store 

Of hopeful Offfpring than you had before. 

The 'Plants you want the Gardeners will give : 

If not from dijiant Countries them derived 

Greece fir ft fought Plants in barbarous Climes \, and then 

She civilized the Trees as well as Men. 

Thefe ftill at Home, (he fortunately plac'd^ 

And by Tranjlation did correcl their Taftc. 

When Plants of a corrected Tafte are found, 
And Stocks are chofen which are young and found; 
The Grafter then tV adoptive Bough muft bring 
Into thofe Stocks : Of this the Means I fing. 
Which though they are diftinB, you learn with Eafe 
How to graft fruitful Slips in barren Trees. 
Some cut down Trunks which bore a lofty Top, 
And hollow them above, thus Woodmen lop 
The talleft Oakes> and cut out four fquare Stakes; 
Butfir/i of all a Wedge its Paffage makes. 


4 o New Principles of Gardening. 

This done, the Cions may defc end downright 

Into the Cleft ; and with the Stock unite 

Though others in the Rind betwixt each Bud, 

Make an Incifion, and the Graft include. 

Which, by degrees, is afterwards mclm d 

Tincorporate it felf with the moift Rind 

Some like a fender Tipe the Bark divide, 

Or like a Scutcheon , fit it down the Side ; 

Or the hard Trunk, which a {barf Anger cleaves, 

Into its folid Tart the Graft receives: 

Mean while, with Care, the Branches which are joined, 

Ton withafeven-fold Cord m ^ ^T^r JfLj . 

And all the Chinks with Loam and Bafs defend. 

For if the cruel Ahfbould once de fiend 

Into the Cleft, it would impede their Juice, 

And to the "Plant its Nourijhment refufe. 

But if thefe Dangers it has once endured, 

When the adopted Branch is well fecured. 

By their Coniunftion, Trees there Nature loofe ; 
That which was wild before, more civil grows. 
"Unmindful of their Mother, they firjake 
The Tap, which they from her at firft did take. 
From yellow Quinces and Cornelians rife 
Fruits, which are differenced by various <Dies; 
The Pear thus mends > the Slow affords good Plums / 
And the bad Cherry better now becomes. 

From different Boughs diftinguijb'd Species [hoot ; 
But now I tell how you muft mix your Fruit, 
What Branches with each other you may join, 
What Sorts will beft in Amity combine. 

All Kind of Pears the Quinces entertain, 
And then received with their own Tincture fain. 
The hoary Pears their Tafte to Apples give, 
They with the Shrubby Willow too will live. 
The Fig would love the Mulberry, // that 
Its blacker Hue would fomewhat moderate. 
Cherries with Laurels blujhes will compound; 
Apples with Apples do their Tafte confound. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

They of Auvergne, in Willows^ Fruits inclofe $ 
3 Tis true j at fir ft their Colour grateful fiows : 
But by this Marriage they degen'rate are^ 
Andtafte but ill, although they look fo fair. 

Rapin, Lib. iv. 'Page 194. 

SECT. Ill 

Of the Time and Manner of Planting all Sorts 
of Fruit-Trees, in any Kind of Land, as 
Clay, Loam, Sand, Gravel, &c. 

\ I RST, I advife- that in the Spring you provide ten, twen- 
ty, &c. Loads of the firft Spt of for 

Fty, Sfc. Loads of the/r/? Spt of fome" wafte Common or 
Grafs Ground, whofe Soil is a fandy Loam, where Cat- 
tle has been continually fed> and has not been broke up or 
tiWd in the Memory of Man, which being done, throw it up 
into the Form of a Leftal, obferving to bury the Turf as much 
as poffible; or it may firft be pared thinly off, before the Earth 
is digged, and afterwards mix'd with Difcretion. The Mould 
thus prepared mud beturn'd oncea.M?///£ till October, at which 
Time it will be fit for Ufe. If your Land be of the Clay Kind, 
mix "Drift Sand or Sea-Coal Affjes with your Mould, to prevent 
its being converted to the Native Soil, viz. Clay. 

It is almoft impofTible to exprefs, how agreeable this Com- 
poftis to the Roots of young Trees; therefore the more you can 
afford them, the better 'tis for their future Growth and Pro- 

To plant Fruit-Trees in a ft iff Clay, Sec. proceed as 
follows : 

Firitj Dig your Holes four or five Foot fquare, and abou; 
twenty Inches or two Foot deep ; carry away the native Earth 
and fill up *he Holes with good Mould and Dung well rotted. 
and mix'd together; or if you have Plenty of the foregoing 
Compoft to ufe that inftead, 'twill add much to their Growth 

42 New Principles of Gardening. 

it having a very flrange and uncommon Fertility in it, more 
than any other Compoft of Made-Earths whatioever. Before 
you fill up the Hole, pave the Bottom with broken Tiles,, 
Brick-Bats, 8ec to prevent the Roots getting into the poifo- 
■nous Clay. 

If your Land be a {harp hot Sand or Gravel, mix frejb Mould, 
Cow-'Dung, Horfe- c f)ung, well rotted, and a mild Clay, toge- 
gether in a Compoft, which if made in the Spring, and turn r d 
monthly in the Summer, may be ufed in October. 

When you piant in a very good fandy Loam, 'twill not be 
amifs to mix your Earth with the Compoft of frejb Earth be- 
fore prefcribed, for 'tis of admirable Service. 

In the planting of Fruit -Trees, the following Methods are to be 
obferved : 

Firft, That the Earth be truly prepared as before directed. 

Secondly, If your Land be not cold and wet, plant in Octo- 
ber, November, or ^December at lateft, for thereby, during the 
Winter, the Roots will be fuelling and preparing themfelves to 
to put forth their tender Fibres and Strict Root early in the 

But if your Land is naturally cold, wet, and heavy, 'tis befl 
to plant in February, when the Spring is making its Entrance, 
and the Earth growing warm, which murines the Roots of 
Trees; whereas, was they planted in October or November, the 
wet and cold might have kiiVd their Roots* 

To plant Trees late in the Spring, as March or April, in 
light Soils, is very dangerous -, 'tis too often feen, that theparctr- 
tng Winds and dry Weather prove fatal to them. 

Thirdly, That you don't plant the Trees too deep', for there- 
by, in four or five Years, the Roots will be got below the 
good Earth, which will throw the Tree into zfckly decaying 

If the upper Roots of any Tree be fix or kytn Inches below 
the Surface, 'tis fufficient, for all the befl Juices of the Earth 
lies near to the Surface. 

Fourthly, That Fruit-Trees be not planted too near ; for af- 
ter five or fix Years, they crowd one another, and caufe many 
Branches to be nailed near a Perpendicular, which will lefTen 
theFruit, and foon ruin the Tree % efpecially Teach and Apri- 

New Principles of Gardening. 

cot-Trees, whofe Barkis thick, and will not admit young Shoots 
to come where great Wood is cut away: Therefore always keep 
Trees thin of Wood in the Middle, that their Branches may 
have Room to fpread Horizontally, and thereby be kept in a 
bearing Condition. 

This Misfortune of too near planting is not the only one \ 
for by the near Diftance, their Roots foon meet, and rob one 
another of their proper Nourishments, and deprive the Borders 
of their Fertility, which, when once loft, is never to be recover- 
ed again ; but by deftroying the firft planted Trees and plant- 
ing others therein of different Kinds. 

If Fruit-Trees againft Efpalliersj Walls, or for Dwarfs, be 
planted at eight, nine, ten., twelve, or fourteen Foot diftance, 
'twill be found to do very well, viz. May Cherries at eight 
Foot ; Teaches and Neclarines^ when without Vines between 
them, at nine or ten Foot; when with Vines, at twelve Foot j 
Plums, Duke-Cherries, and Apricots, at twelve or thirteen Foot ; 
and Tears at fourteen or fifteen Foot ; as alfo Apples, except 
fuch as are grafted on Taradice-Stocksj which need not exceed 
feven or eight Foot Diftance. 

Tou who the Beauty of your Trees defign. 
To each along the Walls its Seat ajfign. 
Cherries with Cherries, Figs with Figs may meet, 
The Syrian and Cruftumian Tears are fit 
To mingle with the Britifhj but we find, 
That Apples and red Tlums muft not be joirfd. 
All that are of a Sort together plant ^ 
They muft fucceed, if they no Culture want : 
And when Affairs of greater Moment ccafe, 
lofet their Stations be your Bitfnejs; 
For if they have not ample Room to fpread, 
They then both Strength and Nourishment will need. 

Rapin, Lib. iv. Tage 215, 

N. B. I do advife, that thofe Borders wherein your Fruit- 
Trees are planted, be kept clean from Weeds, and that there 
be neither Peafe or Beans fown or planted in them, as is com- 
mon, or any edging of Box, &c. to exhauft the Richnefs and 
Humidity of the Soil from the Fruit-Trees ; which is oftentimes 
G 2 the 

44 New Principles of Gardening. 

the "Death or Ruin of them. And that the upper Part of the 
Wall may be ufeful for the firft three or four Years, 'tis very fru- 
gal and commendable to plant tail Standard-Cherry J "Plumb, 
and Apricot-Trees, (if the laft be budded on a Mufcle-Stock, 
and be of the Bruxel Kind,) in the intermediate Spaces between 
the other Wail-Trees, by which Means both Top and Bottom 
will be filled together, and with good Care, may be done in 
three Years Time. As the lower Trees comes up, the upper 
ones are to be cut away, to give Room, and at length, taken 
quite away, and tranfplanted as Standards in the Orchard or 

Vines are often planted in thofe intermediate Spaces, and foon. 
get to the Top, producing Fruit the third or fourth Year. 

In the placing of a Wall-Tree, at Planting obferve, that the 
Bud or Graft is from the Wall, as alfo the heft Roots, and 
that 'tis placed inclining at the Diftance of eight or nine In- 
ches at Bottom, and tw<* or three at the Extremity of the Head ; 
for if you plant your Tree clofe to the Wall, when it has arri- 
ved to be large at Bottom,, it will naturally grow from it, lb 
that you cannot keep them in good Order ; and befides, the 
the Wall gauls them, and they loon die -, or otherwife are ren- 
der'd very weakj and worth nothing. 

^Tis a common Practice in the pruning of the Roots of Trees, 
to reduce them both in Number and Length, but for what Rea- 
fon I cannot imagine, excepting fuch fmall, tender, fibrous 
Roots as are killed by the Wind, prefently after the Tree is ta- 
ken up, which is abfolutely neceffary to be done, and fuch Roots 
as are inclinable to grow downwards, which we call Tap-Roots. 
Tis evident, that the more Roots is left to Trees, (fo as they are 
not over and above large in Number and Quantity,) the great- 
er Quantity of Juices fuch Trees are capable of receiving, and 
confequentiy a greater Nourifhment. In a Word, the only Rea- 
fon for fo doing is, that Trees will live being fo pruned, and 
much lefs Trouble in Planting. 

If you plant "Peach, Neclorine, or Aprkot-T rees in the Au- 
tumn, leave their Heads on till the Spring following before you 
head them, at which Time cut them off at about fix or feven 
Inches ibove the Bud, and obferve, that the Cut is towards 
the Wail. The Time for this Work is March. 


New Principles of Gardening. 45 

Before I proceed any further, I fliall mention an Abiife which 
moil Fruit and other Trees receive as are bought of Nurfery- 
Men, which is the cutting and bruifmg their Roots in taking 
out of the Nurfery, and breaking them in packing up: A 
Crime unpardonable. 

If by Tranfportation the Roots of Trees are very dry, 'tis 
good to lay their Roots (but not Top alfo) in aPond for twenty 
tour Hours before you plant them. 

When Trees are above Ground, and their being planted pre- 
vented by Froft, 'tis beft to put them in a Cellar, cover'd clofe 
from the Air, ($c. and when the Froft is gone, foak their 
Roots in Water, as before directed. 

The Diitances before deliver'd for Wall Trees holds good 
in 'Dwarfs and Efpalliers * as Efpalliers and JVall-Trees are 
planted with an Inclination to the Efpalliers or fValls^ fo on 
the contrary, Dwarf and Standard Trees muft be planted ex- 
actly perpendicular. 

The Height of Dwarf Trees ^ when firft planted, muft be 
regulated to the Land wherein they are planted. It the Land 
is dry, fix Inches above the Graft is a good Height ; but if a 
moift Land, about eight or nine. 

Standards in any Land whatfoever 'fhould be headed at fix 
or feven Foot at moft, except where particular Trees are re- 
quired for high Walls, &c. that People may not eafily come at 
the Fruit, &c. 

When Standard or Dwarf Apple-Trees are planted, the 
Tlace of Grafting fhould be placed even with the Surface of 
the Ground, if it does not caufe the Roots to be too deep, which 
muft always be avoided. 

Where any Fruit-Tree decays having grown long in that 
Place, plant another of a different Species in its PJace, and 
not one of the fame ; for the old Tree having exhaufted thofe 
Juices appropriate to its own Kind, will Jlarve your new-plant- 
ed Tree, when at the fame Time another of a different kind 
will thrive and profper very well. 

Hence it appears, that every Plant hath its peculiar Juice , 
by which 'tis iupported ; and therefore the Earth contains as 
great a Variety of Juices as of Plants, &c. 

46 New Principles of Gardening. 

But Nature never ftew'd more Wantonnefs, 
Then when fo many Shapes Jbe did imprefs, 
From Wardens to the Tears which leffer grow, 
And did to each its prof er Juice allow. 

Rapin, Lib. iv. Page 218. 

Trees of the fir/? Tear's Graft or Bud, are always the beft ; 
which to make choice on in a Nunery, obferve that their 
Bark be fmooth, and tree from Canker , Gauls, &c. that their 
yearly Shoots hzftrong and -vigorous, and that they be well root- 
ed; fuch Trees as have but one Stemj or two at moil, are the 
beft for planting. 

When you prune the Root of a Fruit-Tree for planting, 
obferve to cut away all dead fibrous Roots, all bruifed Parts 
committed by the Spade in taking up, which perform with a 
Knife, &c. as cuts fmooth and clean. 

When you prune a Tree, hold it in your Left-Hand, with 
the Head behind you ; the Cuts at the End of every Root 
will be downwards when planted, which is the right Way of 
pruning Roots. 

To plant Trees in the Summer Seafbn, as mud of Neceffity 
be removed, (otherwife 'tis beft to leave them till November,) 
take of the Compoft I directed for the planting young Trees 
with, and an equal Quantity of Cow-Dung ; mix thefe well 
together, and put to them as much TVater as will make it into 
Pap , which is performed in the following Manner : 

The Compoft of Earth and Cow-Dung being well mix'd 
together, you muft provide a Bearing-Tub, wherein mix the 
mix'd Dung and Earth with Water: The Inftrument with 
which 'tis ftirr'd in mixing, is fuch as Brewers ufe in fiirrinz 
their Malt m the Marfh-Tun. & 

When this Mixture is of fuch a Thicknefs, as to fupnort 
the Stirrer from falling, being put upright in the Tub, 'tis fit 
for Uie. The Tap being thus prepared, and the Hole diee'd 
of fuch a Magnitude as is necelfary, viz. if in bad Ground, 
f c - t0 . b £ made § ood with frefh La nd and Compoft, as be- 
fore directed, which being done, fill all the Sides of the Hole 
up with good Mold, leaving in the Middle fufficient Room 


New Principles of Gardening. 

for the Root of the Tree, then place your Tree therein, and 
with your Hands place or fpread all fuch Roots as are necef- 
fary, m a horizontal Q Pofition, pouring thereon the Pap before 
prepared, and putting frefh Mold about the outward Part 
thereof, till it has caufed the Pap to rife and mix itfelf with 
every Root in general, and flows out above the Crown of the 
Root, treading it now and then very gently to force it up in 
the hollow Parts of the Roots ; then fill up the Hole, making 
a Cup about it, which fill up with rotten Horfe-'Dung, and 
in two Hours the Tree will be fix'd. This Way of planting is 
very good for Tew s, Holleysj and all other fibrous-rooted Trees. 
'Tis alfo an excellent Method for planting very large Trees ; 
and according to this Manner of planting, that celebrated 
Planter the Honourable James Johnstone of Twickenham, 
has planted fome Thoufandsof Fruit, For eft-Trees, and Ever- 
Greens, with great Succefs. 

Laftly, To preferve the Roots of new-planted Trees from 
the Cold of the Winter, and Heat of the Summer, lay about 
the Stem of every Tree good rotten HorJe- e Dung J without long 
Litter, Fern, &c. for that breeds Worms, Ants, and other 
Vermin injurious to Fruit-Trees. 

Let the Thicknefs of the Dung be about four Inches, or 
not quite fo much, covering it thinly with a little Mold ; and 
if your Land be dry or hot, form the Dung and Mold in the 
Form of a T>i{h or Cup, to receive the Water,, which muft be 
carefully given during all dry Seafons^ both of Spring and 

S E G T. 

New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the feveral Kinds of Earth proper for 
all Sorts of Fruit-Trees. 

FIRST then, Tears, Apples, Tlumbs, and Fig-Trees, will 
thrive in any kind of Land as is deep, be it moderately 
hot or cold. 

In hot, dry, and light fandy Land the Teach mull: be bud- 
ded on a Teach- Stock, and in wet and fir one Land on a Mufcle y 
or White Tear Tlumb-Stock. 

Almonds love a light Land, when raifed from their own 
Kernels • but if grafted on a 5P/ifl»£, a /?r**g £*«</. 

When Almonds or Teaches are budded on their own <5>0f Ar, 
and planted in pong Land, they are too rubied to Gum, which 
impairs their Health. 

^//W^ will not thrive in light Land, delighting more in 
ftrong, wet, heavy Lands. 

Tears grafted on Tear-Stocks delight in a </ry i$W; and 
when grafted on a Quince-Stock in a moderate wet ftrong Soil. 

themes thrive well in /#& Z,*»</.r, but better in a good 

Vines -produce the beft Grapes when planted in dry light Lands, 
as chalky, fandy, gravelly, rocky, ®c. Lands, and 'the Expo- 
lure warm. F 

£<wto budded upon Almonds thrive beft in </ry hot Lands. 

The /PW Bouchretien Tear produces the fine Colours of 
7>/*w and Grart/av when grafted on a gtaMK, which it 
™U not do when grafted on a Tear-Stock. ^ 

Afoe>, /to the Tlant may with the Mold comply 
What Fruits it moft approve you fir ft muft try 7 
Whether the Vine thrives beft upon the Tlace 
Or other Trees; for there can be no Grace ' 

New Principles of Gardening. 49 

In any Ground that's forced again ft its Will 
To bring forth Fruit; therefore remember fill 
Never with Nature any Force to ufle ; 
For "'tis injurious, iffhefhould refufe. 

When once the Land is leveWd and prepared, 
Let it in equal T>iftances be jhared : 
Appoint the Seats in which your Trees (hall fland, 
Then chufle a Quince from a flelefled Band : 
And having cut the woody Part away, 
Into warm Mold you then the Plant may lay : 
Nor think it unworthy of your Hand 
To make the Furrows hollow, or f expand 
The Earth about the Roots \ for fill we find, 
That he who does the Law of Planting mind. 
He who from Parent Stocks young Branches cuts, 
And then in Trenches the foft Layers puts, 
Seldom repents thefe necejfary Tains,, 
But rather Profit by his Care obtains. 

While. Fortune waited on the Perfian State, 
Cyrus, who from Aftyages the Greats 
Himfelf derived j himfelf his Gardens till'd,' 
How oft aftoniftfd Imolus has beheld 
T^'Induftrious Prince in planting Trees and 'Flowers, 
And watering them^ employ his vacant Hours ? 
How oft Orontes flopped his hafty Flood, 
And gazing on the Royal Gardener flood. 

The Sabine Valleys heretofore have known 
When noble ft Romans have for fook thir Town-, 
When they their Pomp and Glory laid aflide^ 
And to the Rake and Plow themfelves apply' d. 

And this Employment warlike Fab its chofe, 
When he returned from vanquishing his Foes, 
He who in open Senate made 'Decrees j 
Manures his Ground, and now gives Laws to Trees. 
No longer o'er his Legions he commands, 
But flows the Earth with his victorious Hands : 
The Glebe, by this triumfhant Swain fubdued, 
Repay' d his Pains with timely Gratitude : 

H Became 

to New Principles of Gardening. 

Became more fruitful than it was before, 
And better Plants and larger Apples bore. 

Thus Massinissa when he won the "Day 
And made falfe Syphax with his Troops obey : 
In tilling of his Ground he fpent his Time,, 
And trfd f improve the barbarous Libia n Clime* 

Illuftrious George, who carefully attends 
His Kingdom Government fimetime de fiends 
From his high Throne, and in the Country deigns 
To plea fe himfelf and flack his Empire's Reins. 
He thinks not that he makes his Glory lefs 
T' improve his Ground y his Servants round him pre fs, 
Thoufands with Fruits, Thoufands with Flowers flrv 
To fill the T laces the Water fime derive 
Into the Gardens, while with watchful Eye, 
He over fees the Work, and equally 
To ev'ry Labourer his Duty pews, 
And the fame on all the Field be flows. 
Nor does the King thefe Arts in vain approve s 
The grateful Earth rewards his Royal Love. 

But why jhould I 'fitch great Examples name} 
Our Age wants nothing that jhould more inflame 
Its Zeal; for fine e the great eft Men now p leaf e 
Themfelves in cultivating of their Trees ; 
Since His their Traifi to do it, why jhould you 
Re f ufe this fiweet Employment to fur fine. 
If Fcuit of your own raifing can invite, 
If in your Villa you can take delight, 
Or can the Country love J to that apply 
Tourfelfand to your Plants no Tains deny. 
The Stars if kind, or Goodnefs of the Soil, 
Help not fo much as never-ceafing Toil. 
Then let the Earth more frequent Tillage know y 
The ftubborn Globe is vanquijfrd by the Flow. 
When Rain or ftormy Winds pernicious are, 
When the SunV Influence or intemperate Air, 
Injurious proves, the Tiller's Induftry, 
And Culture all T>efecls will foon fnpply. 

That this is true, a Marfian Clown has jhewn, 
Who in a little Garden of his own, 

New Principles of Gardening. cjj 

Which he himfelf manured, had Store of Fruit, 
While all the Country elfe was deftitute : 
The ftanding Corn you on his Ground might view, 
And Apples broke the Boughs on which they grew. 

His Neighbours quickly envied his Succefs, 
He by his TherTalian Arts his Ground did drefs ; 
They faid, and haftened on his early Corn 
By Herbs upon the Marfian Mountains born^ 
Or Magical Infufions ; then repleat 
With Rage and Envy to the Judgment-Seat. 
They haul the blamelefs Swain, where his "Defence 
He makes with Pain and rural Eloquence. 
His Sickle he produces, and his Spade, 
And Rake, which by long Vfe were brighter made. 
See here ^ faid he, the Crimes which I have done ; 
If Tools by Time and Ufage bright, are one : 
Thefe are my Magick Arts, thefe are my Charms: 
Then fir etching forth his Labour-ftiff'ned Arms, 
His Sabine Dame, and Daughter's brawny Hand, 
Inur*d to work, and with the Sunbeams tantfd, 
Thus by his Induftry his Caufe he gains; 
So much a Field improves by confiant Tains. 
Hence comes good Corn, and hence the Trees are crowned 
With heavy Boughs ; hence 'tis that they abound 
In their choice Fruits, in each of which we find 
A Colour proper to itfelf afflgn'd. 

Rapin, Bookiv. Pagei8i. 

$2 New Principles of Gardening. 


Containing a Catalogue of all the heft Wall, 
Ej palter, Dwar£ and Standard Fruits 
now growing in England; with General 
Rules for their pruning. 

I. S~\ F Teaches and Necforines^ budded on the Teach, 
' V J Mufcle, Tlumb, or Almond Stocks, 

Of Peaches : The beji are. 

White and Red Magdalenes, 




Early Admirable, 

Old Newington, 

Yellow Alberge, 


Bell Chevreux, 




Peach Royal, 

Swalfee, introduced by the Lord 


Ripe in the great Seafon of Peaches, viz. from about July 20: 
to Augufl 10. 

Their Expofitions to be full South, or declining to the Eafl y 
forty five Degrees at molt. 


Of Nectorines : The befl are, 

Temple, ripens late^ 

Ripe in Augufl. Their Expofition as the preceding. 

New Principles of Gardening. £g 

The late Teaches , 

Late Admirable, 






Late Purple, 
Murry Neclorine. 

All which ripens in the End of Auguft and September* 
For thefe late Fruits, a Full-South Expofition is of all others 
the_very beft. 

" Teaches is judgM by 
the beft having fine musky, fugar'd, 

TheGoodnefs of Teaches is judgM by the Nature and Good- 
nefs of their Tafles; the beft having fine musky, fugar'd, vi- 
nous, excellent, noble, and delicious Juices ; and thofe of a bad 

Kind \ dry, watry, and infipid. The Tnlps of Teaches have 
two different Qualities \ the one when ripe, cleaving faft to 
the Stone ; and the other coming clear from it. Thus faith Rapin, 

Some of a thicker Subjiance flick faft on, 
JVhile others which are thinner quit the Stone. 
Thefe la ft with Juice and dewy Moifture fiveU, 
And all the other Sorts by much excel. 

II. Of Tears grafted or budded on Tear or Quince Stocks : 
Of which there be three Kinds \, viz. Summer Tears, Autumn 
Tears, and Winter Tears. 

The beft Summer Tears 

Citron D' camus, ripe Middle of 

July ', afterwards comes 

Petit Mufcat, July, 
Sugar Mufcat, 
Green Chizel, 
Goofeberry Pear, 
St. Magdalene, 

Quire-Song Pippin. 
Mouille Bouche, 

Summer Bouchretien, Aug. 

Royal Bergamot, ripe m the 
Beginning 0/ Auguft. 



New Principles of Gardening. 

After which comes the 

Summer Buree, 
Orange Bergamot, 
Summer Bergamot, 
Grofs Rouflellet, 
Petit RouflTellet, 
Petit Blanquet; July, 

Grofs Blanquet, 
Blanquet Mufque, July, 
CalTolet, Aug. 

The beft Autumn Tears t 

Vert-longuee, Ocl. 
Buree du Roy, 
Autumn Bouchretien; 
Petit Oing, 
Rouflellet, Aug. Sep. 
Doyenne, Sept. Oct. 

Craflan, Off. Nov. 
Bizidery, Off. Nov. 
Swan's Egg, 
Lanfac, Nov. 




Me/fire John, Ocl. 

Cuiffe Madam, July, 

Autumn Tears j 

Roy Musk, 
Hambden's Bergamot, 
St. Michael, 
St. Andrew. 

The beft Winter Tears are, 


Winter Bouchretiea. 

Feb. March. 
Golden Bouchretien, Jan. Feb. 

Spanijh Bouchretien, Nov. Dec. 
Colmar, Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. 
Sir Germaine, 'Dec. Jan. 
Ambret, Nov. Dec. Jan. 
Virgoulee, Nov. Dec. Jan. 
LachaiTerie, Nov. Dec. Jan. , 

Amadote, Nov. Dec. 

Winter Thorn, Nov. Dec. Ja 


Royal D-hyver, 

La Marquis, 

Grey Buree, 

Winter Buree, 

Satin Pear, 

Martin See, Nov. 

New Principles of Gardening. 

The beft Baking Tears are, 

Black Pear of Wore eft er^ 
Pound Pear. 

Spanish Warden, 
Englijb Warden, 
Terkinfon's Warden. 

III. Apricots grafted or budded upon Tlumb-Stocks 

The beft Kinds are, 


| Orange, 
| Turky. 

Which laft is an excellent Fruit, but a very tender Tree, and a 
bad Bearer. 

IV. Figs raifed by Layers or Suckers, 

The beft Sorts are, 

Fig-Flower, or large white Fig, 

withajhort Stalk, 
Fig-Flower, or large white Fig, 

with a long Stalk, 
Little Marfeilles white Fig, a 

good Bearer. 
Black Madera Fig, 
Grey Fig, 
Brown-Purple Fig, 
Genoa Fig, 
Vernifingue Fig, 
Green Fig, 

Yellow Fig, 

Flat Violet, 

Long Violet, 

Melinga Fig, of a Violet Co- 

Brugeotte Fig, of a Violet Co- 

Dwarf Fig, of a Violet Colour, 

Bouriageotte Fig, a deep Vio- 

Little Mignionne Fig, a brow- 
nijb Violet. 

Figs in general delight in much Sun ; their Seafon of ripen- 
ing is in Augi " 

' and September. 

V. Tlumbs grafted or budded on Tlumb Stocks. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

the be ft Sorts 

Musk Perdigon, 
Purple Perdigon, 
White Perdigon, 
St. Catherine, 
Roche Corbon, 
Green Gage, 

London Plumb, 

The Goodnefs of all thefe Fruits deferves a South Wall, but 
will do very well on an Eaft or Weft Wall, or any Decliner 
to the South. 

Blew Diapree, 

White Macchlefs, 

Cerney Perdigon, 

Impera trice, 

La Royal, 


Mogul, good for baking, 

Plumb Ordin^ 


Orleaince, or Orline, an excel- 
lent Bearer, and a good Fruit 
on a South Wall. 

VI- Apples grafted upon Crab Stocks, 
The beft Kinds are, 

Non Pareill, 
Golden Pippin, 
French Pippin, 
Holland Pippin, 
Kentijh Pippin, 
Kir king Pippin, 
Winter Pearmain, 
Autumn Pearmain, 
Summer Pearmain, 
Pome Roy, 
Golden RwTeting, 

Corpendue Rennet, 

Golden Rennet, 

June Apple, fo called, becaufe 

"'twill keep till June, 
Quince Apple, excellent for the 

Jerufalem Apple, 

White Calvil, 
Red Calvil, 
Monfterous Rennet. 

New Principles of Gardening. 

VII. Of Grapes raifed by Layers or Cuttings, 
The beji Kinds for this Climate are,, 

July Grape, 

Black Currant Grape, 

Early Sweet-Water Grape, 


French Sweet- Water Grape, 

White and Black Mufcadines, 

White and Black Fronteniacs, 

Claret Grape, 

Burgundy Grape, 

Black Clutter Grape, 

White Raifin Grape, for Tarts. 

To Tlumbs and Grapes juft Commendations field, 
If on the Wall they are by Nails upheld. 
Mufcat and Turple Vines j which both obferve 
Their wonted Seafons, may our Traife defrve. 


VIII. Of Cherries grafted or budded upon the Black-Cherry 

The beft Kinds 
its being ear- 

May Cherry 

Holman's Duke, 
May Duke, 
Early Flanders, 
Clufter Cherry, 
Bleeding Heart, 

IX. Of Goofeberries raifed from Cuttings, or by Suckers. 

The beft Kinds are, 

White and Black-Hearts, 







Red and Green Champains 
Old Red, 
White Dutch, 

Black hairy Goosberry. 

^8 New Principles of Gardening. 

X. Of Currants raifed by Cuttings or Suckers. 
The beft Kinds are, 
Large white and red Dutch, |J Black Medicinal Currant. 

XI. Of Rasberries increased by Runners, or Suckers, 

The Kinds are, 

Purple^ II White. 

Red, \f 

XII. Strawberries increased by Runners.. 

The Kinds are, 

Scarlet, || Hautboy, 

Wood, I) Great White Strawberry, 

^ XIII. The Barberry raifed by Suckers, or Layers. 

The Kinds are, 

Berberry with Stones, | Berberry without Stones., 

XIV. Of Nut or Shell- Fruit. 

The Kinds are, 

Englifih and large French Wal- 1 1 White and Red Filberts, of 

nuts, beft for pcklmg. which the Red is the be ft. 

Chefnut^ || 

XV. The Quince raifed by Layer s, or Cuttings. 

XVI. The Mulberry raifed by Layers, Cuttings, or Seed, 


New Principles of Gardening. 59 

XVII. The Cornelion Plumb or Cherry > raifed by Layers, 
Slips, and Stones; often lie two Tears in the Ground before 
they fpring. 

XVIII. And Laftly, the Medlar \, which is increafed by graft- 
ing on the White-Thorn ; Quince > or Tear-Stocky and the Ser- 
vice by young Sets from the Woods, or by fowing their Seeds. 

I having in the former Part of this Section, explained the Man- 
ner of preparing and planting of Fruit-Trees in general, and 
have now delivered a Catalogue of the befi Fruits, and how pro- 
pagated, either by Grafting, Inoculation, Sec. I /hall in the next 
Place proceed to lay down fome general Rules to be obferved in 
thelvjfruniffgj and afterwards explain the Culture and Manage- 
ment of every Sort particularly. 

General Rules to be obferved for pruning Fruit-Trees. 

I. The nearer Branches are laid to a Horizontal Pofition, the 
more apt they are to produce Fruit. 

II. The nearer Branches are laid to a "Perpendicular Pofition, 
the lefs apt they are to produce Fruit, but Wood in great Plenty. 

III. That the Middle of Fruit-Trees be kept clear of great 
Wood or thick Branches, efpecially Peaches and Apricots. 

IV. That the Quantity of Wood kft after Pruning, be in fome 
Degree of Proportion to the Strength and Condition of the Tree, 
not to crow'd in more Wood than Nature can well fupply. 

V. That the Branches of ftrong and vigorous Trees be left 
longer than thofe as are weak, and to cut away all as grow for- 
ward from the Wall. 

VI. That Branches be not laid a-crofs each other, except on a 
very great Occafion, &c. 

VII. In the pruning young-plantedTrees, of one Year's Shoot, 

fAB* That if a Tree has one or two vi g° rous i or weil-difpo- 
ied Branches, with two or three weak ones, prune them all to 
an equal Length, of about five or fix Inches, leaving but two 
of the weak, with thofe two as are ftronger ; but this is never ro 
be done, but when the Shoots are placed regular, viz. a ftrong 
Branch and a weak one on one Side, and the likQ on the other. 
I z There- 

60 New Principles of Gardening. 

Therefore if all the weak Branches be on the one Side of the 
Tree, and the ftrong ones on the other, difplace one of the ftrong 
Shoots entirely, and leave one ftrong Branch only with the other 
two as are weaker. If the Pofition of the two weak Shoots 
fhould be both above the ftrong ones, and they not on one 
Side; then at fuch Times 'tis beft to cut away the two weak 
Branches intirely, and form the Tree with thofe Shoots as will 
proceed from the Buds of the remaining Branches. 

VIII. JFeak or decaying Trees fhould have their Wood pruned 
much (hotter than thofe as are in perfect Health, and the Shoots 
prefer ved muft be fewer in Number. 

IX. When Trees of one Year's Growth produce feven or eight 
Shoots, chufe out three, orfouratmoft, of the middling Wood, 
and difplace all the others. 

X. When either young or old Trees produces ftronger Bran- 
ches towards the Bottom than the Top, 'tis a Sign that its upper 
Part is in an ill State of Health \ therefore at fuch Times 'tis beft: 
to cutaway the weak Part entirely, and form a new Tree with 
the ftrong and healthy Branches remaining. 

XL When Trees of any Age produce weak Branches at Bot- 
tom, and vigorous ones at Top, 'tis beft to cut down that Tree 
to the weak Branches, and thereby they will be ftrengthened, 
and the Tree proceed upwards in anequal State of Health. 

XII. To nail in bearing Branches over-thick, ftarves the 
Bloom, caufes the Fruit to be fmall and infipid, and at length 
ruins the Tree. Therefore avoid thick nailing ; for of the two 
Extremes, 'tis beft to prune and nail too thin, rather than too 
thick; tor as I faid before, that thick nailing ruins a Tree, fo 
on the contrary, thin nailing caufes fine Fruit and good Wood, 

XIII. When you prune Dwarf-Trees, obferve that the Bud 
you prune at ftand outward, and not inward, or Side-wavs, 
and thereby the Tree in its natural Growth will form itfelf, 
without the Aftiftanceof Hoops, Sfr. to extend out their Bran- 
ches to form the Tree. 

Tou cannot be fo often put in Mind 
Of that Advantage which your "Plants will find: 
By being prun'd, the Boughs will thus obey 
And by your Tool are fafiion'd any JVay : \ 

3 Though 

New Principles of Gardening. 61 

Though tough with Age, they ftoop to your Command,, 
Nor can the crooked Pruning-Knife withfland: 
And when the Trees thus cut revive again, 
When from their IVounds they borrow Courage, then 
Oft exercifeyour Tower , and fo rejiore 
Beauty to that which was deformed before. 
Touth unadvised doth in Tiefire exceed. 
And would without all Moderation breed. 
The PrunerV Care muft fuccour each 'Defect; 
He with his Knife their Vices muft correct ; 
Superfluous his Servants may reprefs ; 
TteftrucJive Tity makes them more increafe. 

But in what Tart they muft be cut, and how 
From the Experienced you will better know : 
Always untouched the chiefeft Branches fave, 
From whom you hope a future Race to have. 

Now if the Seafon proves reciprocal, 
Tou may behold your Fruit upon theJVall: 
Tour Garden' J Riches then will make you glad '; 
Nor think that any Thing can Colour add, 
Or Bignefs to them, but that Influence, 
Which on their Ranks kind Phoebus does dijpenfe. 
Nature your Wifhes then will fat is fy 
If with thefe Methods only you comply. 
And though we Ripenefs to our Fruits impart 
By Heat on Walls reflected ', yet this Art, 
By the Reports of dark Antiquity, 
In the Records of Time is fet more high. 

Rapin, Lib. iv. Page 220. 


6 1 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Native "Place, Name, Expofetion, 
and Culture of the Teach and Nettorine- 

I. T T S Native Place is Terfia, whofe extreme Parts, {North 
■ and Souths differ about ten Degrees of Latitude, which. 

* Difference is fuppofed to be the Caufe of their feverai 
Kinds being ripe at divers Seafons. 

That is, 'tis fuppofed, that our early Teaches were Natives 
of the Northern, and our lateft of the Southern Parts. 

The mean Latitude of Terfia is about thirty five Degrees 
North, its Extremes being, the one thirty, and the other for- 
ty Degrees Latitude. 

m II. Its Name. In Greek 'tis called wwi /jm\U po^wvet ; 
m Latin, Malm Terfica ; in the Arabian Language Sauch, or 
Chauch-, m Italian Terjlche; in Sj?amfi> Texigos; in Dutch 
bmm m ' y ln FrenCh CFefihe ' and by the Germms Vfifiri- 

III. The South and South-Eaft Expfuions are certainly the 
very beft; but Teaches will do very well on a South- Weir, 
and oftentimes on a Weft Wall, which ripens its Fruit, juft as 
that of the South Wall is gone. Teaches ought not to 
b« planted on a cold wet Soil, their Fruit are always watry 
and injiptd. J J 

IV. In the Culture of Teach-Trees great Care muft be had, 
to well and tmefy pruning, ®c. In which obferve 

-7W en nf Cl f r r eS h f C ? t0 bear Vei T foo »> ' tis * Sign of 
VecayorlVeaknefs' and the beft Help'for them is, to dif- 
burden the Tree ot its Bloom, and prune it to fhort Wood. 

Wnen reach-Trees are vigorous, cut out fuch larse Wood 
as appears to be ukMs and nail in the Remains a* a long 
Length, as twelve or fourteen Inches. In making Choice of 

Shoots x 

New Principles of Gardening. 63 

Shoot Sj always chufe the middling Wood, as are full of fuel- 
ling double Buds ; for thofe produce Fruit which the flat Jingle 
Buds do not, their Product being Wood and Leaves only. 

The beft Time to prune C P each-Trees is in March, when all 
the hard Frofts are over : You muft obferve in pruning to cut 
out all dead Wood, all Autumn Shoots, and yellow Jap lejs Bran- 
ches- to cut your Shoots to about fix or eight Inches in 
Length, and to lay in the Branches at a moderate Diffance, 
as three Inches, &c 

In May you muft carefully and difcreetly thin your Teach- 
Trees of their fuper-abundant Fruit, leaving them not too 
thick, which will caufe all the Fruit to be fmall. and good 
for nothing; one good Peach is better than a thoufand bad 

About Midfummer top the Shoots with Difcretion, and nail 
them to the Wall, without any great Regard to the Order, 
becaufe at the next Pruning they will be all alter'd ; and about 
this Time you may begin to introduce the Sun to your Fruit ; 
but do it gradually, which will give it its natural Colour % and 
Maturity likewife. 

When T each-Trees have their Branches nailed, or placed 
horizontally, the Sap is retarded, and the Bloffoms will not 
fall from the Trees, by being, as it were, frrangled by the 
Superfluity of Sap, which often happens in Trees whofe Bran- 
ches are perpendicular, or near thereunto : Therefore Regard 
hereunto fbould be had, as I have before faid, that the Branches 
fhould be nailed horizontally. 

Be careful to difplace all Suckers as may rife from the Roots 
or Bottom of the Trees, and carefully keep all Side-Branches 
naifdup, cutting, or rather rubbing off all Buds or Branches as 
grows forwards from the Wall, and alfo cutting away all Shoots 
infefted by Blights, Injecls, &c. 

If the Summer be hot at the Time of your Fruit ripening, 
make a Bajon over the Roots, and give them Plenty of Water, 
fo as not to over-do it, and the Fruit will be wonderfully aug- 
mented thereby. If the Mowings of Grajs-Tlots, &c. be laid 
in thofe Bafons, it will prevent the Jcorching Rays of the Sun 
from drying away the Moiflure. 


64 New Principles of Gardening. 

The firft Teach ripe is the Nutmeg, at the End of July, 
after which follow the reft in Order, in the Months viAuguft 
and September, 

K B- That Teaches are infinitely better when gather'd three 
or four Days before they are eaten- When you gather Teaches 
take care they are not bruifed, and lay them on Vine-Leaves _, 
with their Heads downwards in your Frnittery, till they arc 
eatable, always remembering that if a Teach is laid on its Side, 
'twill immediately be rotten. 

Wh en you prune new-planted Teach-Trees of the firft Year's 
Shoot, (which mould be done in March,) do not leave too 
much Wood, nor cut it all away, as many do ; but difcretio- 
nally proportionate the fame to the State of the Tree, as I have 
before mention'd. 

In the pruning of Fruit-Trees in general, obferve when you 
prune off' the End of a Shoot, that you cut it off a little 
above a Leave ^Bud, the Slope cut at the Back thereof. The 
more any Tree is pruned, the more it will flioot. 

When you defire a Fruit-bearing Tree to produce new Wood, 
which of itfelf is not inclinable to do, rub ofT the Bloom, (or 
molt of it,) and prune the Shoots to half their ufual Length, 
and the Tree will break out into Plenty of Wood, which muft 
be govern'd as I have before directed. 

The Nettorine being a Kind of a Teach, or at leaft one of 
that Tribe, is to be managed in all Refpefts as the Teach. 
t If Mr. Bra-- 1- -f s Report of the Peaches in Italy, (men- 
tioned m his General Treatife for the Month of December, 
y ^ *3|0 growing to fixteen or eighteen Foot high in two 
or three Years after planting, without Walls, be actually true, 
tis evident that they love a warm Expofition ; and therefore 
we muft allow them the beft Wall our Garden affords. 


New Principles of Gardening. 6$ 


Of the Native Place, Name, Expojition, and 
Culture of the Tear-Tree. 


I. f | 1 HE native Places from whence Pears were original- 
ly brought, were Alexandria:, Numidia^ Greece > and 
Numanciaj, as appears by their feveral Names. 

II. Its Name. The Arabians call it Humeeth ; the Italians 
Tere ; the Arabs Cirmetre, or Kemetri ; the Germans Bir, Bi- 
rettj and Tiren-, the Spaniards Tyras ; the French To ire ; and. 
the Dutch Berre. 

III. The beft Sorts of Winter Pears (all which the Catalogue 
confifts of) deferve the very beft Wall and Afpeft you can give 
them. N B. They will not be ripe, till fome Time after they 
aregather'd. All Baking-Pears may be planted againft North- 
Eaji or North JVefl Walls, as alfo the Roufellet, Orange J Ber- 
gamot J Catherine J and other Summer and Autumn Pears. 

The Soil wherein Pears deiight, is a rich, hndy, deep 
Loam, as the Reverend Mr. Lawrence, in his Tleafure andTro- 
fit of Gardening improved, Vol.1. Chap. 7. obferves, " That a. 
" rich, deep, fandy, mix'd Earth, in fifty four Degrees of Lati- 
' tude, will do more towards accelerating the ripening of the 
" beft Fruit, then a ftifF cold Clay will do in fifty one 9 From, 
which it appears, that the fo-much celebrated Mr. Bradley is. 
very much miftaken in his New Improvements ofTlanting and 
Gardening, Part III. Page 30. Where, fays he, " The Soil which 
" the Pear chiefly delights in, is a wet Earth, inclining to Clay." 
(And further adds, in the following Words) " Nay, I have feen 
''•this Kind of Tree profper extremely in the ftrongeft Sort of 
* blew Clay, which is accounted the worft of Soils ; fo that 
w this Sort, no more than the Apple-Tree, delights in what we 
" call rich Earth." Now 'tis true, that Pear-Trees will grow 
in cold wet Earths, and in Clay alfo ', but, alas! the Fruit they 
K pro- 

66 New Principles of Gardening. 

produce is watry and infifid, and confequently good for nothing, 
• even in the beftoi: Scaions. And as an Inftance to prove that 
Pears do delight in what Mr. Bradley calls rich Earth, (by which 
is to be underftood, a good mellow, iandy, deep, holding Loam,) 
let any Perfon go to the Honourable Mr- Johnftone*s at Twicken- 
ham, where they will fee, on his Terrafs, are growing the very 
beji Tears in England, and in the greater!: Perfe&ion, whole 
Soil is a fine, rich, holding Loam, fomething inclinable to a 
Brick-Earth. I could inftance divers other Places to prove the 
Miftake ; but in regard to its coming from a Gentleman, and 
not from a Gardener, I will modeftly forbear, only adding, 
that inftead of its being inclinable to Clay, he meant Brick- 

When the Situation and Nature of Soils are inclinable to too 
much Cold or JVet, let the Holes be prepared as I direded in 
the former Part of this Section, and therein plant the Lachaffe- 
rie, JVinter-Thorne, Virgoulee, St. Germain, or Amadot, which 
are very fine in their Kinds, and will do on a South Afped tole- 
rable well. 

Tears upon Quince-Stocks^ are beft for low Walls, <Dwarfs, 
or Efpalliers, and efpecially in wet Lands. Thefe Stocks doth 
effe&ually cure too great a Luxuriancy in the Pear, and caufes 
it to produce Fruit much fooner than when on a Pear Stock ; but 
then oa the other Hand, it has this Evil attending it; it'is a 
fhort-Iived Tree. 

The feveral Bonchretien Pears, being grafted upon a Quince, 
and planted in a warm Soil, produce much better and larger 
Fruit than on a Pear-Stock. 5 

When young new-planted Pear-Trees (and indeed any other) 
are too vigorous, running altogether into fruitlefs Wood, take 
them up with Care, and immediately plant them again in the 
fame Place without nruninz: This Remnual wnli ™,+ n c._ — 

put a Stop to 

ithout pruning: This Removal will 
their luxuriant Growth, and caufe the Tree to prolper very 

Tte belt Seafon for pruning Pear-Trees, is at the Fall of the 
Leaf, in which Care muft be taken, to cover all large Wounds 
with a Mixture of Rofin, Mutton-Suet, and Bees-Wax, asfoon 
as the Branch is cut off. The laft dear's Shoots may be pruned 
to nine Inches, a Foot, or eighteen Inches in Length, according 
to the Strength of the Shoot; always obferving to cut out all 


New Principles of Gardening. fy 

falfe Branches, called Water-Shoots, known by the extraordinary 
Distance of their Buds, and to lay in no more Wood, then the 
Roots may be reafonably fuppofed capable of fupplying w i tn f u f. 
ficient Juices. ° 

In Railing of Tear-Trees, always remember to place the 
Branches Horizontally, otherwife they will foon come to Ruhr 
Terpendicular Branches are ever deftruftive. 

To diitinguiih the proper Branches which produce Fruit 
from thofe as produce Leaves only, oftferve the following Ac- 
count, m. There be £qw Pear-Trees as produce Fruit before 
they are three Years old, or their Wood of the like Age, that 
is, fuch Shoots as are produced this Year, are preparing them- 
felves all the fecond Year to produce Fruit in the third." Hence 
it appears, that Pear-Trees have their bearing Buds in three 
feveral States, continually fucceeding one another. The blow- 
ing Buds of three Years old difcover themfelves at the Fall of 
the Leaf, who, whilft the Fruit preceding them was growing 
and ripening, they were preparing to fucceed them the enfu- 
Mg Year. 

; Thefe Buds of three Years Growth are known by their be- 
ing very full, and larger than any others, in a feeming Swel- 
ling impatient State or breaking out into its beautiful Drefs 
of delightful Bloom. The next preparative Buds of two Years, 
are of a (harp conical Form, and Red-rufTet Colour, growing 
very near to the fruitful Bud before defcribed: And hilly, the 
Junior Bud of one Year is a very fma.ll one, but full above 
the Bark, and always breaks out very near to that of two 
Years Growth : And befides all thefe, there is another wonder- 
ful Work or Nature, which is the Preparation of fmaller Buds 
as are continually forming themfelves within the Bark, to break 
out, and fucceed thofe their next Seniors of one Year's Growth, 
and fo on, ad infinitum: And in Confideration that this won- 
derful Work of Nature was never explained by any one, 
therefore, for the Uie of the Curious, and all others concerned 
m Gardening, I fhall foon communicate an entire, new, and 
general Sy 1km of the belt Fruits now extant in England, wherein 
die true Form of their Buds, Branches, Leaves, Bloifoms, and 
Fruits, are truly reprefented, as they appear in their feveral 
Stages or Degrees of Growth: With Obfervations on their 
rrogrets, and proper Directions for their Managements, &c. 
L 2 explain'd, 

New Principles of Gardening. 

explained, and curioufly engraven on Copper Plates, as large 
as the Life itfelf. 

Prune Luxuriant Trees very late, and cut away one of the 
largeft Roots, efpecially a Tap-Root, if any be \ which will 
retard its hafty Growth, and caufe it to bear. 

Suffer not any Snags or Branches pruned fhorr, from which 
good Fruit comes ; to project from the Wall more than two 
Inches at moft- 

In May begin your Summer Pruning, obferving to cut all 
forward and Luxuriant Branches to an Inch and a half, or 
two Inches^ from the Place they fhoot from. This fhortening 
will check the Courfe of the Sap, and caule a good bearing 
Branch (or more) to come in its Place, or break out into 
bearing Buds itfelf, and produce Fruit in the progreffive Man- 
ner before defcribed. 

N.B. That what I have faid here in refpect to flopping 
the luxuriant Growth of Pear-Trees, the fame is to be under- 
itood of all other Fruits, the Vines and Figs excepted. 

The Summer Bonchretien fliould be always pruned in May, 
obferving to nail in the Shoots at full Length ; for they pro- 
duce their Fruit at the Extremities of the Branches. 

Both Summer and Winter Bonchretiens fhould be planted 
againfl: high Walls, as Houfes, &c. They want more Room to 
extend themfelves than any other Pear ; and if they are confi- 
ned by Pruning, immediately grow full of Knots, and produce 
but link Fruit : A warm Soil is befr for them. 

When a young Pear, or any other Fruit-Tree, as a "Peach 
or Apricot-Txez, breaks out with Shoots on the one Side, and 
not on the other, Care muff be taken to timely lead fome of 
the tender Shoots to the barren Side, that thereby both Sides may 
be filled. The bending of thofe Branches are not any wife 
hurt thereby, but rather helped, by reafon that early Check 
caufes them to bear Fruit very foon. 

If in July your Pear-Trees are over-vigorous, and break 
out with forward Shoots cut them off clofe, and nail in all 
Branches as lie flufh with the Wall, ftill obferving that 'tis belt, 
to rub off the Buds of fiich Branches when they firft appear. 
Suffer no Suckers to grow at the Roots of your Trees, any 
more than Weeds, &c. 


New Principles of Gardening. 69 

At the End of Auguft, and Beginning of September the Au- 
tumn Tears are fit to gather, which Work fhould be done in 
the Middle of the Day, when the Fruit is perfectly dry. 

They are not ripe, or fit to be eaten till fome Time after they 
are gathered, as a Week, ten Days, and fome a Month. 

All Winter Tears, as Bonchretiens, Colmar, St. Germain, 
Virgoulee, Lachaflerie, Ambret, &c. muft not be gathered 
till Michaelmas j, or Middle of OBober ; at which Time (as I 
faid before) great Care mull be taken to gather them perfectly 
dry; if otherwife, they will grow moldy, and be prefently 
\ About the End of November the Winter Pears begin to 
ripen, as the LachaiTerie, Virgoulee, Ambret. Colmar, Crafan, 
St. Germain, &c. which, with Care, moft of them will laft all 
January, and Part of February, and the Winter Bonchretieu 
till May. 

In the Autumn, when the Pears begin to drop from the 
Trees, as the Winter Tears will do when their Time for ga- 
thering is come, lay under every Tree the Mowings of Graft, 
for the Fruit to fall on, and carefully take them away as they 
fall, to your Confervatory, leaft others fall upon the firft, and 
bruife them. The Manner of preferving Winter Fruit I will 
exemplify at the latter End hereof. 

In March prune young Pear-Trees of one Year's Shoot with 
Difcretion, not for to take but litttle from them, or to take 
all away, (as is too often done by many.) 

This Month of March is the proper Seafbn to retard the 
luxuriant Growth of Trees, by (what Mr. Lawrence calls) 
Tlafhingj that is, cutting the luxurious Part near to whence 
it fhot, fomething more than half through ; which checks its 
vigorous Growth, and thereby is fooner difpofed to bear Fruit. 
If by Mifmanagement Fruit-Trees have many perpendicular 
Branches as are unfruitful, 'tis beft to plaili them, as before 

AT. £. But this Way of Plafhing is not to be pra&ifed on 
any Trees but Wall-Trees, Peaches excepted, and very low 
Dwarfs, whofe Branches are fecured by Stakes ; for was Stan- 
dards to be cut in that Manner, the Winds would foon break 
off thofe Branches. 


70 New Principles of Gardening. 

The beft Pears for EJpaliers and "Dwarfs, are the Citron, 
d' Camus, Trimit, Sugar Mitfcat, Jargonel, St. Magdalen , 
Ghiire-Song "Pippin, Vermillion, Mom lie Bouche, Goofeberry 
Tear, Green Chizel, Cyprus, Orange Bergamot, St. Germain, 
Ambret, Spanish Bonchretien, Virgoulee, Colmar, Lachafferie, 
and indeed all others, with good Care, the Summer and Win- 
ter Bonchretiens excepted for Dwarfs, but very well for Ef- 
f alters, where they have Room to extend themfelves. 

Your Efpalter and "Dwarf Tears being planted in the Au- 
tumn, at the Fall of the Leaf, as I before directed, at their 
proper Diitances, &c. in May following pinch off the Tops 
of perpendicular luxuriant Branches, within half an Inch from 
whence they Ihoot, and 'twill caufe others to break out as will 
be good Wood. At this Time you may difcern what Buds 
will be ferviceable m filling up empty Piaces, or for Fruit, and 
all others fhould be difplaced. This Work being now done, 
the Sap immediately heals the Wounds. 

The i Proportion laid down for the Diftance of Efpaliers 
from Walls and their Height, by the Reverend U,. Lawrence 
is very good, viz. as Eight to Twenty, that is, if the Diftance 
be SghSeeT 17 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ th6 Hci gfc ™ft 

The feveral Kinds of ufeful Wood in a Winter Pear-T™ 
are three viz. Wood with Fruit; Wood preparing itfelf for 
l VU ^ hl t 1 d °'^ a c, Year Wb^wnd; ancflaftly, ti^Z 
y Shoot j fo that that Shoot as is made this Yea/, is fuel- 
ing and knotting itfelf in the fecond Year, to produce Fmt 

agj^f* bU i y v etthere . b u £ f T e hummer" Pears as p I0 - 
duce Fiuit the fecond Year : Therefore Care muft be taken 

old * Jhfrh t0 h I S y ° Ung W °° d t0 1UcCeed the Place of he 
Buds J? mUft bC CUt ° Ut Wh£n gr0Wn bar ™ <* fruitful 

New Principles of Gardening. 7 r 


Of the Native Tlace, Nam, Expofetion, 
and Culture of the Apricot. 

I. TTS native Place is Efira, Efire, or E fir us, a Pro- 
I vince in Greece ^ firft founded by the Romans, and there- 
-*• fore was called Mala Efirotica. 

II. The Africot by the Greeks, is called /*•*** ahmvUk* ; 
in Latin,, Mains Armenica ; in Arabic k, Mex, and Mermex ; 
in Italian, Armoniache, Moniache, Bachofe^ and Gnfomele > 
in Sfanifi, Alhiricoques, Alvaricoques, and Alberchigas ; by 
the Germans, Sir Johan Tjferjlck; and the French \, Abricot, or 

III. Their Expofition is beft when South ; but will do on 
South-Eaft, South-Weft, or Eaft and Weft Walls very well. 

IV. Their Culture^ wherein obferve (after the Tree is 
planted, as before directed,) to f rune and nail them accord- 
ing to the Manner directed for the Teach, to keep the Trees 
clear of Suckers and Weeds, and to cut away all blighted Bran- 
ches, or others infefted by InfeBs, &c to thin the Fruit with 
Difcretion in May -, and when it is fully grown, to gradually 
expofe it to the Sun, which in its Ripening will give its na- 
tural Colour and Tafte. 

'Twill not be amifs, if at the Time of your Fruits ripening, 
that you make a Bafon over the Roots of the Trees, and give 
them Water plentifully, if the Seafon be very hot, and to lay 
the Mowings of Grafs therein, to prevent the Sun from drying 
away the Moifture as is necefTary for the Trees. 

About the End of May, or Beginning of June, the Mafcu- 
line Africot is ripe ; and towards the Middle of July the 
Orange and Turky ; which laft, is a Fruit of an excellent Fla- 

Africots gather'd one Day before they are eaten, gives them 
an excellent delicious Flavour. 

I The 

7 2 New Principles of Gardening. 

The true Bmxelles Apricot is an excellent Fruit, and will 
profper very well on Efpaliers, 'Dwarfs, ox: Standards. 

iV. B. The Method laid down for placing of Pear-Trees, 
&c. is not to be pra&ifed on the Apricot at no other Time but 
the Month of May, the Sap being then capable to heal the 
Wound inftantly. 

In March prune all young-planted Trees of one Year's Shoot, 
which perform with Difcretion, not to leave more Wood than 
is neceftary, nor to lay in the Branches over long ; and laftly, 
net to prune them too fhort, to add new Vigour, as fbme call 
it, too often to the Deftru&ion of good Trees. 


Of the Native Place, Name, Expo/ition, 
and Culture of the Fig. 

I. T" T S Native Place : The Fig is an Native of Barbary, 
I long fince introduced into many Parts of Europe, as 
JIL France, Spain, Italy, England, &c. where, by Length 
of Time, and divers Improvements, the feveral Sort's are be- 
come as numerous as Teaches, Apples, &c. 
. ll : Its Name, in Greek, is called ro*« ; in Latin _, Ficus ; 
in Arabic k, Sin, Tin, or Fin-, in Italian > Fichi ; in French 
Iigues in "Dutch, Feigen ; in Spanijh, Hygos ; and bv the 
Germans, Feighen. 

III. This Favourite Fruit delights bell in a South Expo- 
pre, where its Soil is dry and ftony, like unto the Vine. 
m IV. In the Cultivation of the Fig, you muft obferve, that 
it doth not delight in being much prun'd, or often digg'd 
about. The befr Seafon to plant the Fig is in March ex 
April, when all the cold Frofts are gone and over ; and if 
the Spring prove dry, never forget to give them Plenty of 
Mater; twill greatly add to their Growth. In March take 
off the Suckers of Figs, and tranfp!ant them where required, 


New Principles of Gardening. 

and at the fame Time Jay down the Layers ; which take off, 
and tranfpiant the March or April following: You muft not 
cut or prune the Tops or Heads of either Suckers or Layers 
of Figs , 'tis immediate Death to them, when lb cut. 

The bed Seafon to prune Fig-Trees is in 7 ?/ ^ ; at which 
Time you muft obferve, that you leave all the Shoots with 
their Tops on, becaufe thofe extream Parts, {viz. the three 
Jail Buds or Eyes) produce the Fruit the enfuing Year. 

Cut out all large Wood, as is too much, which always cut 
off as near the Ground as may be, and cover the Wound im- 
mediately with the Mixture of Mutton-Suet, RoziUj and Bee's 
JVax, as I before mentioned. The large ft, or ftrongeft Shoots 
of the loft Tear are what produces the Fruit ; all imall weak 
Shoots are now to be cut away. 

Admit not Suckers at the Roots of your Trees, except that 
an Increafe is required. 

If in June you pinch or nip off the End-Buds of the young 
Branches, 'twill ftop the over and above Courfe of the Sap, 
and caufe the Fruit to come much earlier, and in greater Per- 
fection : Sand y Lye-Afbes, &c. laid at the Roots of Fig-Trees J 
greatly accelerates the Ripening of the Fruit. At the Pruning 
of Fig-Trees, obferve to nail up, or confine to the Wall, all 
the large Branches ; but let the young Shoots, which produce 
Fruit, be at free Liberty: TheFruit will ripen much better than 
when confined to the Wall. But in November following it will 
be beft to nail them clofe to die Wall, the better to preferve 
them from the Winter's Frofts. 

And although the common Practice in England has been to 
plant this Fruit againft Walls only, yet 'tis to be underftood, 
that Figs will profper, and produce good Fruit in great Plenty, 
when planted Dwarfs or Standards; as may be fQcn in the 
Gardens of that great Encourager of Planting, the Honourable 
James Johnfton, of Twickenham. The beft Figs as I know 
of now in England^ as are really good, are the White and Jong 
Purple Figs, ripe at the End of Auguft : The others, mention'd 
in my Catalogue, are of France) of which fome are, and 
others might be alfo cultivated in England, with as much Eafe 
as the Purple and White ; and that my Reader mav be informed 
of their feveral Qualities, take the following ' Defcription : 
The Figs mention'd in my Catalogue, are either White, Black, 
3 L Tetkw, 

74 New Principles of Gardening. 

Tellow, Grey, Green, Brown, Turple, or Violet coloured, con- 
fiding of fixteen different Kinds. As, firft, Of White Figs, 
which are three in Number, viz. the Flower of Figs, the firft 
ripe, called by the French Figue Fleru, having a fhort Stalk 
fomething flat, The fecond is of the fame Name with a long 
Stalk; and the third, called the fmall Marfeilles Fig, of a flat 
Make, and very fruitful Kind. 

All thefe three Sorts bear twice a Year, viz. Spring and Au- 
tumn; and their Fruit are richly fugar'd, have but few Seeds, 
and are melting. 

II. The Black Fig, or Madera Fig, called by the French le 
Figue de Madere, is a black large Fig, of a long Make, a very 
great Bearer, and requires a very warm Expofition to ripen its 
Fruit, as well as a very high Wall to extend it felf. 

III. The Tellow Fig, called by the French Incarnadine, or 
Incarnation, is a very large Fig, like unto the White Flower of 
Figs : Tis a great Grower, bears twice a Year, Spring and Au- 
tumn ; it feldom produces much Fruit in the Spring, but gene- 
rally in September great Quantities : It is of a Reddish Colourwhh- 
in Side, and a very good Fruit. 

Befides this Yellow Fig, there is another calledthe Golden Fig, 
and by the French Figue T>oree : 'Tis a large flat Fruit, its Skin 
breaks in Ripening, and produces a much better Crop in the 
Autumn than in Summer. 

IV. The Grey Fig, called by the French la Figue de Grife, 
a large Fig of a long Make, greyifh on one Side, and a little 
blewifh on the other, an indifferent good Bearer, and a tolera- 
ble good Fruit. 

V. The Green Fig, called in French Figue Verte, and by fome 
La Verdalle, or Figue d" Efpagne, Spanifb Fig, by the Italians 
Verdone, is a plump round Fruit, always green without, and 
when ripe, very red within Side. 

Tis a very hardy Tree, and produces a better and larger Crop 
in September and Oclober, than in Summer, and is a very good 

VI. Brown-Purple Figs ; of which there are two Sorts, viz. 
the Genoa Fig, called by the French Figue de Gennes, or la. 
Figue Fievre, c the Treavcr Fig. It is an excellent fine flavour- 
ed Fig, and produces Fruit larger than any other: Its Shape is 


New Principles of Gardening. 75 

long, and Colour a brownijh Turple, and withal an excellent 
Bearer, when in a warm Expofure. 

The other Kind of Brown-Turple Figs, are called Vernifingue ; 
it is an excellent good Fruit, of a browmih Purple Colour, and 
delights in a warm Expofition. 

Laftly, Violet Figs, of which there is fix Sorts: 

As, 1 ft, The long Violet Fig, called by the French Figue 
Violette longue, Figue Poire, Tear Fig, and by fome Figue de 
Bourdeaux, the Bourdeaux Fig : 'Tis a very large Fruit, a great 
Bearer, ripe in September v, when no other Fig is in Seafon j 'tis 
very full of large Seeds, and its Pulp fomewhat dry. 

xdly, The flat Violet Fig, called by the French Figue Violette 
plat : 'Tis a plentiful Bearer in the Autumn, but not in the 
Spring', of a middling Size, a fine delicious melting Tafle, and 
indeed is one of the very beft Sort of Figs. 

3dly, The Bouriageotte Fig, ripe in September, of a light Vio- 
let Colour, a very large Fruit, a plentiful Bearer in the Autumn, 
but not at Midfummer y and withal an excellent good Fruit. 

4thly,The Melinga Fig, .called by the French Figue de Melingue, 
an excellent delicious Fruit, of a Violet Colour without, and Red 
within; its Form is long and thin, and when near ripe, isfub- 
jecl: to drop its Fruit : It loves a very warm Expofure, and will 
not admit of any pruning for many Years after planting. 

5-thly, The'Dwarf Fig, called by the French Figuier Nain: 
The Buds of this Tree are very clofe fet, and its Shoots fhort; 
its Fruit is large, and of a Violet Colour without, and Red with- 
in ; 'tis a plentiful Bearer, and a very good Fruit. 

6thly, The Burgeotte Fig^ an excellent Fruit in Tafte, large 
and flat in Shape, of a Violet Colour without, and Red within, 
and a very good Bearer in Autumn. 

Laftly, The fmall Mignionne Fig, called by the French Pe- 
tite Figue Mignionne : Its Fruit is of a brownijh Blew without, 
and very Red within, but fmall, being not much larger than 
the Carnation Cherry, and is a very good Bearer. 

N. B. If Figs are planted in Tubes, as Oranges are, and in 
the TVinter fhelter'd in a Green-Houfe from the Cold, &c. they 
will oftentimes produce Figs iipe in May. 

N. B. That when any Kind of Fig at its Ripening, is obfer- 
ved to have a 'Drop hanging at its Endj 'tis then in greateft 
'Perfection, and fhould be immediately gather'd. 

L2 N.B 

-]6 New Principles of Gardening* 

N. B. There are fome Figs as do not difcover their Ripeninff 
by a lirof therefore when ever they are obferved to decay or 
Jtagu the Stalk, you may depend upon their being ripe. 

.ftM muft not be gather'd in the Heat of the &*, therefore 
tis beft to gather them in a Morning after the Dew is gone, and 
betorethe/Z^of the Day is come on; and beinl kept in 
terZ y , 0ne fi N a ght f^ S^^ing, caufes them to eat much 
pier than when firft gather'd. 


Of the Native Place, Name, Expofttion, and 
Culture of the Plumb. 

1. 1 | 1 HE native Places of the Tlumb-Tree is Armenia 
J^ whofe Lat.tude is aboutfourty two Degrees 1 nd T>a 

ty nv7De gr :efratSrSm T r' J1 ^MS 
intoW S tUde ' fl0m whcnce the y were firft brought 

"iif 5? ptss^?>ii?*' rf *"*- » 
STsqtf- tf ™ "^ *sr slier 

fhereby. W ' My ' aU W S eneraI are vaftly helped 

K ery we/ ag ift ^r&KBJft J&gJJ 

New Principles of Gardening. jj 

The Sea/on for pruning is January, or February at furtheft 
and the Manner the fame as that of the Pear. 

When 'Plumb-Trees are vigorous and luxuriant, 'tis beft to 
pajb or prune them very late, and if need be, both Operations 
may be uied. *~»»wu» 

Carefully mind to deftroy all Manner of Weeds, Suckers, 
&c in the Spring, and to nail up all ufeful Branches. 
In Ja/y pick off the Leaves, and let in the Sun ; but do it 

lATafe"' Y Y ' 11 reCdve their natural Cohur 

About the End of July, the London-Plumb, Plumb-Mordin 
Vc. arenpe, after which comes all others in order, and con 
tinues till September. ' a con 

_ Plumbs gathered a Day or two before they are eaten, and kent 
in Nettles, eat much finer than when firft gather'd. P 


Of the Native <Place, Name, Expofition, and 
Culture of the dpple-Tree. 


78 New Principles of Gardening. 

Atfks are increas'd, being grafted on Crab-Stocks, as before 
dehver'd ; and are generally planted Standards, EJpaliers, or 
'Dwarfs, and belt when the Land is a frefb flrong Loam, with 
a good Bottom of Brick-Earth. 

If Apples are grafted on Taradifi Stocks, they will bear 
Fruit the fecond or third Tear, and are beft for 'Dwarfs or low 
EJpaliers. Tis a common Praftice amongft moft f «rw»j- Gar- 
<fe/«r/ to plant fmall Apple-Trees grafted on Taradife Stocks 
in large tfW Tots, or Tubes, wherein they produce Fruit ve- 
ry plentifully, being kept in fmall Open Heads, or 'Dwarfs- 
CaltneTtfT ^^ EmbeUi i bments of Entrances, 'Panares', 

The C^/i» is a Kind of 4>/&, increas'd from Suckers, ta- 
ken from its Root in the latter End of OBober, or Beeinnine of 
November and is an excellent Fruit, both for its EarSoTri- 
pemng, and good Services in a Family. It may alfo be increased 

fyJS TtZ,°$ ' m , March ' -dplanteknde S 
™ ,Jhe Appk-Tree does no Ways delight in being pruned 
in the #W with a A*i/2>, the Canker being commonk "the 
next as takes Place, which foon kills the Tree ^therefore I ad- 
vife, that m May and >*' you carefully obferve to rubov linfh 
off all luxuriant «,. Branches, and tie in others fit fof Ufe 

T&feZ 7"°? WiI -' be , P - referved from that Diftempe" 16 ' 
infl 6 11 J ^>. f °r Wanting this Fruit is, when its Leaves are 
pfl ^ fallen, viz. m Oc7ober, at which Time 'tis beft topkn t the 
Cuttings of Taradife Stocks, under a iVW, « which beW 

Jrl«S graft ° n '" three Years - Their n« ; ve Place is 

vJL?it" ?*r*f" Nonpareils, Holland Pippins, French 
Ftppms &r. were planted againft an Eaft fFall,(nd their nm 
mng per orm'd inland June by finching, 'as I before dT 
refted, their Fruit would not only be much %er L Tafte hu 
wonderfully larger and beautiful. e ' but 

rfi^Tvf °/ ^?> faved from *** Fruit as were a ra ft- 

fit iT A m * ,H Z\ If y° u fow d« W'as are faved 
from 43,*,, produced by a Seed , i]]g ^^ g ^«^ 


New Principles of Gardening. 79 

Fruit they produce are feldom either Crab or Wilding, but 
are often as good as the Mother-Fruit, and fometimes (tho' ve- 
ry feldom) better. 


Of the Vine\ its Names, Culture, &c. 

THIS Glorious Tlant the Vine, when cultivated, is cal- 
led by the Greeks &***& oi m i ? Q- ; by the Latins Vites, 
Vinifera, Sativa, and Culta ; by the Arabians Karin, 
Kami, or Harin; by the Italians ViteVenefera; by the *Dutch 
Wiingaert, or Wiinftacke ; by the French Vigne ; by the Ger- 
mans JVeinreb \ and by the Spaniards Vid, or Tarm. 

'Tis propagated by Layers, or Cuttings., which Works are 
to be done m October : And in the Operation you muft obferve, 
that three or four Buds at leaft be in the Ground ; for 'tis from 
them their Roots put forth. In the Choice of Cuttings ob- 
ferve to take thofe as are of the laft Year's Shoot, ftrong and vi- 
gorous, which cut to fixteen or eighteen Inches long, and plant 
under an Eaft Wall, leaving but two Buds out of Ground, in 
Rows, about a Foot or fifteen Inches afunder ; and in the Rows, 
at the Diftance of eight Inches. When your Cuttings are thus 
planted, cover the ground between them with Horfe-'Dung, a- 
bout five or fix Inches thick, and if the Spring prove very dry, 
you muft now and then give them Water, fo as to keep them 
moift, which a Vine requires at its ftriking Root; and if 
your Land be w a rm and light, in two Years Time will be fit 
to traniplant. 

If the Cuttings of Vines be planted in the open Air, with- 
out the Help of any Shade, and are about two Foot, 
or two Foot and a half in Length, and all buried, two 
Buds excepted ; fuch Cuttings kept moift in the Spring, %ill 
grow and thrive very well • but in this Operation, you muft 
obferve, that you lay the Cuttings in ftopng, the loweft Part 
3 ' net 

So New Principles of Gardening. 

not to exceed ten Inches j, or a Foot in Depth, and to bend the 
upper Part in fuch a Manner, as for the two Eyes or Buds as 
are left out of the Ground to ftand Perpendicular. 

The warmeft Expofure is the beft for the Vine, and there- 
fore fhould be always defended by Woods £ Hills, &c. 

The beft Soil for Vines is a rich warm Loam, mix'd with 
freih hot Sand, or Gravel, or inftead thereof, Sea-Coal AJbes, 
Wood Ajhes, Brick-Rubbijh, Lime, or "Drift Sand. When 
you prepare Borders of this Mixture, they need not be 
more than four Foot in Breadth, or deeper than one Foot; 
for thofe Juices of the Earth as nourilhes the Vine, lies very 
near to the Surface of the Ground. 

The beft Seafon for planting Vines is OcJober, or Beginning 
of February, if the Weather be open ; but of the two, I recom- 
mend the Autumn Planting before that of the Spring. When 
Vines are remov'd from a Nurfery, &c. great Care muft be 
taken to preferve the Roots from the parching Winds, and that 
they be not very dry at Planting. So foon as Vines are taken 
out of the Ground, they fhould be packed up with wet Mofs^, 
or wet Hay, and clofely bound in Mats, which will preferve 
their Roots a long Time if need be. 

When you plant Vines, prune the Ends of their Roots with 
Difcretion, and to the Top or Head of the Plant leave but 
two or three Joints at moft- and when in April they begin to 
flioot, make choice of the two ftrongeft Shoots, which pre- 
ferve, and the others difplace; as alfo other fmall Shoots at 
all Times, that thereby thole two Branches may have the 
whole Nourifhment, which will enable them to produce Fruit 
much fooner than had they been weaken'd by other Branches as 
would have robb'd them of their Strength. 

To plant Vines at fuch Diftances as they will fill in Time, 
as eighteen or twenty Feet, (their Branches being laid in a 
horizontal Tofition^ is lofing the Ufe of a great deal of Wal- 
ling for feveral Years ; therefore, to prevent fuch LoiTes, I ad- 
\i{q that you plant your Vines at ten Foot apart ; and when 
they meet, and want Room, to cut away fo much of the in- 
termediate Vine (viz. the middlemoft of every three) as will 
give fufficient Room for the others to extend themfelves. And 
although Mr. Lawrence difcommends the Praftiee of now and 
then laying down Branches to Jlrike Root, &c. yet I cannot 


New Principles of Gardening. 81 

but commend the TraBice j for thereby, as old Wood, or "Plants 
fails, they are immediately fucceeded by thofe new ones, and 
the Wall kept full of Wood. The Objeaion made by Mr. 
Lawrence againft thofe Layers, being directed perpendicularly, 
is but for the fi rft Year ; for the Shoots afterwards produc'd by 
them, may be led horizontally, or otherwife, as the Truner 

Tis true, that the horizontal Nailing of Trees greatly checks 
the Sap, and caufes the Branches of many Trees to bear much 
fooner; but for Vines, I am certain that although they are 
luxuriant, and nail'd exactly perpendicular, will in many 
Places produce wonderful Grapes, and in very great Quantity ; 
witnefs the South- Wall of the honourable Mr. Johnstone at 
Twickenham, next the Road leading to Richmond in Surry ; 
whofe Grapes are ever in the greater! Perfection, both for 
Goodnefs and Quantity, and are always nailed perpendicularly. 
I could mention divers other Places, who nails m the fame 
Manner with great Succefs, but for the prefent let the prece- 
ding, fuffice. 

The vigorous Nature of a Vine is fuch, that though the 
Branches are led up a Wall of twelve or fourteen Feet in 
Height, yet^ the Fruit at the Top hath fufficient Quantity of 
Juices for its Nourishment, and is not inferior to that as 
grows within three or four Feet of the Ground. To plant 
Vines againft low Walls of four or five Foot high, as Mr. 
Lawrence direfts, at his Diftance of fix or feven Yards, and not 
to make good v ith Layers, &c. would prove in the End to 
be a very great Lofs and Difappointment to the Planter, which 
Experience will prove. 

'Tis good to have your young Vines out of rich Nurferies, 
that is richer than wherein they are to be planted, that thereby 
at firft Planting they may receive a fmall Check; for too 
great Vigour at firft Planting is always bad. 

The beft Seafon for the general pruning of Vines is at the 
Fall of their Leaf-, but if then neglecled, not to exceed the 
Middle of February at lateft. The moil vigorous Branches 
are thofe as produce the Fruit, which muft carefully be pre- 
ferved, and the fmall fruitlefs Branches cut entirely out. 

M Such 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Such Branches as are very ftrong may be allowed two Foot 
in Length ; and others of lefs Vigour, to be fhorter, as a Foot* 
fifteen Inches, &c. according to their Strength and Vigour. 

In the Cutting of a Vine, obferve that you cut about an 
Inch above the Bud, and that the Cut be on the Back thereof; 
fo that when the Sap moves in the Spring it by running 
may not hurt or damage the Bud ; and obferve further, that 
'tis bell: to make choice of fuch Buds were you top a Branch, 
as will admit of the Cut or Slope-Part to be next to the Wall, 
as well as behind the Bud ; for when the Cut is vifible, it is 
not only more expos'd to the Prejudice of Weather, but is alfb 
a difagreeable Sight ■, therefore, if you make choice of fore-right 
Buds, they will anfwer the End- 

In the Nailing of Vines, or any other Fruit-Tree, never 
make ufe of Leather for Shreds-, the beft is, Lift; or Cloth, 
and obferve that you do not nail the Shred tight about the 
Branch, but leave room for it to fwell in its Growth. The 
Diftance that you nail the Branches of Vines one from the 
other, mud not be lefs than nine Inches, nor more than one 

The Fruit of Vines is always produced by the laft Year's 
Wood, at one or more of the three hrft Buds from the old. 
Wood; therefore when Vines are once got in a fruitful State, 
you need not leave their Shoots more than four or five Buds 
in Length at moft. 

For the well Management of Vines in Summer, obferve this 
Rule, That no Kind of Branch be fuffer'd to grow, as is not 
fit and perfeftly neceffary for Wood, Fruit, or Shelter. 

Therefore in May be diligent to pick off all fmall weak Shoots, 
which will put out in many Places, and if not difplaced, rob 
the Fruit of its Nourifhment ; alfo nail in all ufeful Branches, 
and in your Vineyards tie up the leading Shoots to Stakes. In 
June (not in May, as Mr. Bradley direfts in his New Im- 
provements of 'Planting and Gardening, as he calls them, /^. 8.) 
is the beft- Time .to ftop the luxuriant Growth of the Vine, 
by nipping off the Branches at two or three Joints beyond 
the Fruit, and to make choice of fuch vigorous Branches as 
are required to fill empty Places, to be nailed in, without be- 
ing ftopp'd by Nippmg or Pinching, except they are of very 


New Principles tf Gardening. 83 

great Lengths : Alfo nail elofe to the Wall all Branches with 
Fruit, and difplace all weak ones when they appear as before 
directed ; but obferve that the Fruit is not thereby laid open 
to the Sun which i will now either deftrqy or fpoil its Growth. 

M • B. lhe beft Grapes are always produced by vigorous Bran- 
ches at the fourth or fifth Joint. 

In July, Vines are in their full Strength and Vigour-, there- 
fore keep them carefully pruned of falfe Wood, as is faid be- 
fore, that the Fruit may not be deprived of its proper Heat and 
Nourifhment; and about the Middle of this Month examine 
all vigorous Shoots pruned at Midfummer, whereon you'll 
find fecondary Shoots from their feveral Buds, which difplace, 
the uppermoft excepted, prun'd off at one or two Buds 
Length, to admit Nature's exerting herfelf in its laft Shoot of 
Autumn, and to preferve the Lofs of Fruit or Wood from thofe 

'Tis abfolutely neceflary that Arid Regard be had to Sum- 
mer Pruning, that a fufficient Number of vigorous Shoots 
be laid in to fucceed fuch old ones as will be cut out in the 
Winter; and I although Vines will produce Gropes from Knots 
of old Hood, yet they are never fo good as thofe produced 
trorn Jtrong and vigorous Branches. 

Great Care muft be taken to tie up all ufefui Branches of 
Vines planted againft Efpaliers, or in Vineyards, and alfo to 
difplace by <P inching all ufelefs weak Branches, as direded for 
Vines againft Walls. 

rllrfT^Pn t J5 m the laft Prunin S> and kee P ^e Fruit 
clofe to the Wall, difcreetly fhaded with Leaves, fo as to part- 
ly expofe them to the Sun, and preferve them from the cold 

In September the Vine produces its delicious Fruit, which 
muft be very dry when gathered, otherwife they foon grow 
moldy and rotten. fo 

Grapes gather'd dry, and preferved from the Froft, will keep 
a long Time; but 'tis beft to gather them a little before they 
^!c r . iP n 5 r a ^ t0 . lan § them on a Lwe f with the End of 
the Stalk fcal'd with Sealing- Wax. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Cherry i its Name, Culture, &c. 

I.YT appears by the Obfervation of Sir William Temple, 
£ that the Cherry is a Native of Tontus, a Province in 
-*■ Afia Minor ^ firft brought from thence Ann. Rom. 683- 
by Lucullus into Italy ; and about one hundred Tears after 
'twas introduced into England. Its Name in Greek is *•*/*©. j 
in Arabick, Serafic ; in Latin,, CerafitSj or Cerafnm ; in *S^- 
7//)^ Cera/as, or Guindas; in Italian s Ciregie-, in Dutch ^ 
Kriken ; in French, Cerifesj or Guines > and by the Germans^ 
Kir fen j or Kirfchen. 

Amongft the feveral Kinds of Cherries^ the iW^jy £>///^ 
Holmaifs Duke j, and JLukewordj, deferve a Place againft 
the £<?y? #W/; the others will do very well Dwarfs J Efpaliers^ 
half and i^Zw/i? Standards, the Morella Cherry excepted, which 
is beft againft a North-Wall, and if preferved on the Trees 
till the End of Auguft, becomes a r/f£ and »^/<? Fruit for the 
Table; for by its long hanging, lofes moft of its Acidity, or 

All Cherries are propagated from the Black Cherry, by be- 
ing either budded or grafted thereon, and delight in a light 
rich Loam. 

The lefs Cherries are pruned, the better they like it ; but 
however, where weak or luxuriant Branches happen, they muft: 
be govern'd by the Knite; as aifo the Ends of leading Shoots, 
which muft be fhorten'd to eight or nine Inches. The beft 
Time for this Work is October. 

When Cherry-Trees take to bear very early, and grow but 
little, 'tis beft to full off moft of the Bloom J and fhorten the 
Branches, which will caufe the Tree to /boot with frcfh Vi- 
gour ; or if your Trees are Bark-bound, what fome call Hide- 
bound, 'tis beft to fit open the Bark of the Body from Top 
to Bottom, and its large Branches alfo, with the Point of your 
3 , Knife ; 

New Principles of Gardening. 85 

Knife ; but obferve to do it on the Side, and not in the Front of 
the Tree : Be careful to difplace Suckers, and cut away all 
Tops of Branches infected with the Black Fly, &c. 

In the End of May the early fmall May-Cherry is ripe, 
after which comes the Early "Duke,, Holman's Duke, and all 
others ; of which the Jaft are the English, Carnation^ and Morella. . 

If 'Duke Cherries were planted againft North-Eaft, North- 
Weft, and North TValls, they would produce Plenty of Fruit 
w T hen thofe of the South-JVall were all gone ; but they mull be 
covered in the Spring, when in Bloom, during the Time of 
old Winds. 

N. B. That the Morella, and Early fmall May-Chary pro- 
duce their Fruit at the very Ends of 'their Shoots ; fo that tkey 
muft not be topfd in T riming, as other Cherries are. 


Of Goofeherries, their Culture, &c. 

Gooseberries, are a kind of Fruit as were formerly ufed 
for Sauce to Green Geefe, and for that Realbn, by the 
Antients, were called Goofeberries. 
This Fruit is fo agreeable in its Nature, as to be content- 
ed in any Soil wherein the Cherry, Tear,, or Apple grows, . 
and will live under their Shade with great Pieafure. 

The beft Kinds are thofe mention'd in my Catalogue of 
Fruit, which would be greatly improved, was they bred up in 
little Dwarfs ^ as we do Apples, Tears ^ &c. and the Branches 
not fuffer'd to run a-crofseach other, or any to rife m the Mid- ' 
die; and befides the Improvement gained in the Goodnefs of 
the Fruit, they make a very agreeable Figure to the Eye, on 
which Account I place them in the Borders of the Fruit-Garden. 
N. B. They are increafed by Suckers \, or Cuttings. 


8<5 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of Currants, their Culture, &c. 

TH E feveral Sorts of Currants are three, (Tide the Ca- 
talogue) which _are in general increafed by Suckers, 
and delight in the fame Land as the Goofeberry. 
If Currants were alfo bred in fmall Dwarfs, as I before 
mentioned of the Goofeberry, the Fruit would be greatly im- 
proved, both in Size and Tafte, and their Forms very hand- 
fome in open Borders. } 

If the large White and Red 'Dutch Currants are planted and 
nail'd aga.nil a Full South-Wall, and the WoodkeTtWn 
they will produce wonderful pleafant Fruit, and very 
large ; fo hkewife if they are planted againft a North Wall 
they will produce good Fruit till the Middle of ^December ' 
m ,,£ ' he Management of both Goofeberry and Currant, Care 
muft be taken to keep them free from old Wood- for the beft 
Fruit is produc'd by t^ young Wood, which ripens in July 


Of Rasberries, their Culture, &c. 

. F Rasberries there be three Kinds, viz. the Red, the 
F Black, or "Purple, and the White ; all which delight 
in good ftrong rich Land. 
They are in general increafed by Suckers, or Runners, and 
ihould be planted in fingle Rows at three Foot and a half Di- 
stance each Row from the other, and in the Rows at a Foot 
or fourteen Inches afiinder. 

O 1 


New Principles of Gardening. 87 

Tl 16 c eft Time to plant them is November, (and not March 
as Mr, Bradley > directs m his third Part of New Improvements, 
v*Z ?t £ r - t , le dr y'n& ^^ Winds would greatly hurt their* 
Roots:) Neither will Rasberries fucceed very wellf as he fays 

vZ '* ^ le , n rR la a ted *? beds ' e , ach havin S thlee R °ws at a 
Foot and a half Diftance from each other; for by their bein* fo 
thick planted, they cannot be digged every Winter to lef in 
Nourifhrnent* &c. nor can they be helped with good Dung, or 
kept to fingle Roots, as they fliould be, to fucceed (as he calls 
it) very well. v 3 

rl Th ,A beft '° Pknt SuCk J r ^ 0r Runnert > of one Summer's 
Growth, ana to prune off the very fmall fibrous Roots, lea- 
ving the large Roots to about five or fix Inches in Length, and 
the Top ten Inches, or one Foot. 

When you prune the Roots and Tofs, as before directed, 
take Care that you do not break off that Bud at the upper 

for ifl, 1 ^ 00 '' k" / S £ ° P r0duc . e Wo .° d f or the next Year; 
tor it that Bud is broke off, 'tis in vain to plant the Plant- 
therefore, as you plant Rasberries, be fure that every Plant 
of Succefs " B ° tt0ra ' and dle " tllWe may be H °P« 

The firft Year they will produce Branches or Shoots about 
two Foot and a half high, which in the Autumn (if not pre- 
vented) will produce Fruit at their extreme Parts, which I 
believe is no wife advantageous to them; therefore I advife 
that fiich Shoots be topp'd as foon as the Bloom appears, ex- 
cept that the Curious is inclin'd to preferve the Fruit for the 
fake of its Novelty, more than its Goodnefs. 

The fecond Year they will finoot with greater Vigour than 
the firft; and the third Year greater than the fecond, %c. You 
muft be very careful in deftroying the Suckers, not only be- 
tween Row and Row, but alfo between Plant and Plant in 
Perfeftion 5 ' and ther eby you will have the Fruit in great 

Every Year's Wood makes its Exit immediately after it 
hath Produced its Fruit, which dead IVoodh beft broken out 
in the frojly [Feather of the approaching Winter. 
i« M? ™ cceedi >}g Shoots being now got up, are to be toffd 
in March cutting off all the upper Part as appears weakf fo 
that the Remains will be about three or four Foot high. 


88 New Principles of Gardening. 

N.B. Before I conclude the Difcouife of the Rasberry, I 
muft admonifh you not to plant this Fruit in Land, as is trou- 
bled with the Weed called Vervine, or Bearvine, which is of 
the climbing Tribe, and will actually fmother and fpoil both 
Fruit, Root, and Branch, in a very ihort Time. Couch-Grafs 
is alio a very bad Weed to difplace, when once got amongft 
the Roots of your Rasberries. N. B. The Rasberrj ripens in 
July, and continues for three Weeks or a Month, and fome- 
times longer, when on rich ftrong Land, Note alfo, that 
Horfe or Cow-T>mig, well-rotted is very good for Rasber- 
ries ► but Sea-Coal Afloes, if dry Weather comes on them, is 
frejent "Death; therefore Care muft be taken to avoid that 


Of Strawberries, their Culture, &c. 

OF Strawberries there be divers Kinds, as the Scar- 
let, ^ the Wood, the Hautboy, the Green, and the White ; 
which two laft are not fo preferrable as the preceding 
three, whofe Culture I am now to explain- i. The Scarlet 
Strawberry is a great Bearer, and an excellent Fruit; it de- 

lights in a moift, frefh, mellow Land, and loves much Water 
when in Bloom. The beft Seafon to plant Strawberries in, 
general is at Bartholomew-Tide, if the Weather permits, or as 
foon after as poffible; and by this early Planting they will pro- 
duce half a Crop the firft Year. 

N. B. The wonderful T>ifcoveryof Mr. Bradley V, of his ma- 
■king "Plantations of Strawberries in Aprii and May with good 
Succefs, and to gather Fruit from them, fo frodigioujly foon 
after, as the fecond June following^ is very fur prizing. 

I cannot conclude the Culture of this Plant, without mention- 
ing, that I have made Plantations of them (even) in June (when 
the Fruit has been near ripe on the Plants) with good Succefs; 


New Principles of Gardening. 89 

and foon afterwards gathered very good Fruit from them. And 
what then? why nothing; for 'tis, and has been tor many Years 
pair, a common Practice, to my certain Knowledge, amongft di- 
vers Gardeners to plant at that Time, their Multitude or Bufi- 
nefs nota dmitting of planting fooner. But to return: 

Strawberries in general, do not love rich Land equally ; there- 
fore that Preparation of Soil as will fuit this Kind, will deftroy 
or ruin another; as for Inftance, Land richly dung 'd produces 
the beftWood and Hautboy- Strawberries; and if Scarlet-Straw- 
berries be planted therein, the Product will be nothing but an 
Infinite Quantity of Leaves, with little or no Fruit ; and on the 
contrary, if Scarlet Strawberries be planted in freih mellow 
Land wichout Dung, they will produce Fruit in great P'enty. 
Hence it appears, that the judicious Mr. Bradley knew nothing 
of the Culture of Strawberries, when he fo much depended up- 
on the fuppofed Practice of the Hammerfmith Gardeners, whole 
Rules, as he calls them, he hath prefcribed to the World, for the 
Management of Strawberries, without taking the leaft Notice 
of the different Soils they delight in. Vide his New Improve- 
ments > Part III. Page 48. 

His Directions there given is general, viz. the fame Land 
for the Scarlet as for the Wood and Hautboy, which mult be 
dung'd too with Horfe-T)ung and Sea-Coal Ajhes, and digg'd or 
trench'd in the Ground in February > and then to plant the Straw- 
berry 'Plants or Runners (by him called Slips, a new Term) 
therein, at about eight Inches apart. Now all Mankind as are 
Gardeners, knows that the Scarlet-Strawberry and Hautboy 
are never planted nearer than a Foot one Way, and fifteen In- 
ches the other, at leaft, and very often eighteen Inches : But for 
Wood-Strawberries his Diftance of eight Inches is very right, 
and his Preparation of Land alfo, if they have no other Straw- 
berries at Hammerfmith, than Woods and Hautboys. I own I 
have made a long Digreflion, and it is high Time to return to 
to the Culture of Strawberries in general, which is the Subject 
that led me into it. 

Scarlet-Strawberries muft be planted in Rows, about fifteen 

or eighteen Inches apart, and their Diftance in the Rows one 

Foot. They muft be carefully firing Vail Summer, and digged 

between in the Winter ; and being thus kept in fingle Roots, will 

N pro- 

New Principles of Gardening. 

produce wonderful fine Fruit very early, for the Space of four 
or five Years, but not longer. If this Kind of Strawberry be 
admitted to run thick in a Bed, they will produce fine coloured 
Fruit, but not fofoon as the fingle Roots by a Fortnight, and in 
dry Seafons are very apt to burn up. 

The Hautboy hath the fame Duration and Management as the 
Scarlet, it differing only in the Goodnefs of Land. 

The Wood- Strawberry delights in a very rich Land, and are 
planted in Beds, fomewhat more than three Feet wide, their 
Rows from each other being about eight Inches ; and as the 
Scarlet and Hautboy- Strawberries are generally kept to fingle 
Roots, thefe are let run together in their Beds all in a Mat, and 
the Alleys between them digg'd in the Winter. 

N. B. That when you plant Wood- Strawberries, 'tis beft to 
plant the Runners as are got from Woods, where the Land as 
they grow in is very poor, and not fuch Runners as may be had 
from old planted Strawberries of the Guarden, for they degenerate 
in fix Years Time. 

I cannot by any Means commend the Practice of the Ham- 
mer fmith Gardeners (as mention'd by Mr. Bradley, Part III. 
Page 49-) of their planting Savoys and Cabbages for Winter in 
the Alleys of the Strawberry Beds, whofe Roots doth very 
much exhauft the Goodnefs of the Ground, and beggar the 
Strawberries growing on the Sides of each Bed. 

Wherever Plantations of Strawberries are made, great Care 
fhould be taken to have "Plenty of Water very eafily whilft they 
are in Bloom, and during the Ripening of their Fruit alfo; 
otherwife in dry Seafons, for Want of Water, the Crop will foon 
be over. 

If Strawberries of three Years Growth be planted in Flower- 
Pots, and placed in a gentle Hot-Bed, about the Middle of Ja- 
nuary, they will produce Fruit in March. 

You muft obferve in their Management, that they are not over- 
heated, that they are not confin'd too much, and deftrofd by the 
Steam, but give them enough of Air, fo as not to let in Frofis y 
cold Winds, &c. that they have moderate Waterings with warm 
Water when in Bloom, and not ftifled for want of Air. 


New Principles of Gardening. pr 


Of Barberries, their Culture, Sec. 

OFBarberries there are two Kinds, the one with Stones, 
the other without Stones ; which laft is cfteem'd thebeft. 
The Soil it delights in, is a good mellow Loam : 'Tis 
increased by Suckers or Layers, and makes a beautiful Hedge. 
The Bloom of this Fruit appears very beautiful in the Spring, 
as well as its Clufters of Red Berries towards the Autumn, 
which muft then be gather'd for Ufe when the Dew is off, and 
are perfectly dry. 


Of Walnuts, Chef nuts, Thilberds, and 

(i.) f^\ F Walnuts there be divers Kinds, as the Bird- 
I 1 Walnut, whofe Kernel is the exaft Shape of a Bird, 
v -^ and therefore fo called. (2.) The French Walnut, 
a Fruit of a very large Growth, thick fliell'd, its Kernel but 
fmall, and very infipid, and therefore much better for pickling 
than for the Table. (3.) The common Englifi Walnuts, of 
which fome are very good, others good for nothing, &c. as 
'tis in all other Fruits in general. But their Culture is all the 

New Principles of Gardening, 

I. In order to obtain good Walnuts, I advife, that you make 
Choice of the very beft you can find, both for Goodnefs of 
Kernels and Thiunefs of Shell. 

The Mother-Tree being pitch'd on, gather its Nuts when 
they areobferved to fall from the Tree, and lay them by till their 
Green Husks cracks; at which Time peel them off, and dry them 
in a convenient Place, keeping them turn'd every Day, and 
be fure that no Water comes near them at any Time, for that 
wih deftroy the Kernel. Your Nuts being dry'd, put them into 
a Bed or moift Sand placed in the Green-Houfe, Tool-Houfe, &c. 
where no Wet can come to them. 

About the Beginning of January, if the Weather be open, moiften 
the Sand moderately, which will caufe them to prepare themfelves 
for planting in the Beginning of February, at which Time they 
are to be placed in good frefh Land that is not hot and dry, at 
the fquare Diftance of//* Inches, and about three Inches in Depth. 

Tis the Practice of many to plant or fow them in their Husks, 
and to fiak or fteep them in Water ; which I can no wife com- 
mend s for, to my Lofs, I have had the Experience. 

During all the firftand fecond Years (for fo long they muft re- 
main in the Seed-Bed) keep them very clean from Weeds, and 
in very dry Seafons let them have moderate Waterings ; 'twill 
greatly advance their Growth. 

At the End of two Years take them out of the Seed-Bed, and 
prune of all Tap or "Downright Roots and Side Branches, but 
never touch the leading Shoot ; then plant them out in the Nnrfe- 
ry m Rows at three Foot apart, and the Plants in the Rows, at 
eighteen Inches afunder, keeping them clear from Weeds, and 
digg d every Winter, to keep the Ground mellow, and let the 
Winter's Rams to their Roots. When your Trees are got to be 
five or fix Foot high, they may be inoculated with any Kind 
you approve off, which will caufe them to bear much fooner. 
When you plant a Walnut-Tree, obferve to prune the End of 
every Root, to cut away all as are inclinable to grow downwards, 
to place every Root as near a Horizontal Tojition as you can, 
and asfhallow as conveniently may be; for "tis the want of 
Horizontal Roots as occafions their long Growth before they bear 
Fruit ; and that you prune off all Side Branches, but never prune 
or top the Head or leading Shoots. And the fame mull be ob- 


New Principles of Gardening. 93 

ferved in the Chefnuts, and all other Trees as have a large Pith. 
N. B. I advife, that Walnut-Trees be forthwith planted with 
all pofhble Expedition after taking up, for their Roots are of fuch 
a Jpongy Nature, that they are prefently mouldy and dead) 
therefore till they are planted, prefer ve their Roots from Winds , 
Sun, and Air. 

The proper Seafon for planting the Walnut is October. It de- 
lights in a very deep Soil of a dry rich Nature, on a gravelly 
Bottom, 'Twill alfo thrive on a Gravel mix'd with Loam, or 
on Clay naturally mix'd with Stones or Chalk, but will not pro- 
sper in ft> allow Land, or on a ft iff Clay. 

II. The Chefnuts j both Spanijh and Horfe-Chefnuts, are Trees 
as covet much Room to extend themfelves, and are very beauti- 
ful Trees, efpeciaUy m their Time of Bloom. 

For the Propagation of thefe Plants, Care muft be taken to 
procure the Nuts at the Time of ripening, and to take their 
Husks oft, as directed for the Walnut ; that they be perfectly 
dried, and put into Sand a little moift, where they mull: remain 
till the Beginning of February, not forgetting to give them a 
little Moifture about ChriftmaSj or Firft of January, to prepare 
them for planting'at that Time. The Manner of planting them 
is exactly the fame as the Walnut j and delights in the fame Soils. 
This Tree is very fubject to put out many Side-Branches near 
the Bottom, which will grow if laid in the Ground, but never 
makes fuch good Trees as thofe raifed from Seed. 

N, B. That you do not fteep the Nuts in Water, (as many 
do ',) for fuch Nuts as thefe as are not of a quick Growth, are 
killed thereby, the Water caufmg the Kernel to fwell to haftily, 
and crack before the leading Bud has prepared it felf ; and befides, 
it often mouldies and rots the Kernel entirely. Therefore have 
fpecial Regard to all Seeds as are not of a quick Growth, that 
they have not too much Wet at the firft fetting out. 

III. Of Hazel ovThilberds, which are excellent Fruit in their 

They are increased by Nuts, as the preceding, or by Suckers 
or Layers : They will thrive in moft Kinds of Soils, provided 


94 New Principles of Gardening. 

they are not too wet, but beft on dry Ground; therefore I re- 
commend them for Hedges, planted on dry Banks. There is 
two Kinds of Thilberds, viz, the White and the Red, of 
which the Red is the moft valuable. 


Of Quinces, their Culture, &c. 

AMONGST all the feveral Fruits for the Kitchen and 
ZiZT tory none are more delkate dlan the 

Of Quinces there are fix Sorts, viz. the Portugal Apple-Quince 
tiZ°:T / F ear -^ kCe ' ^Barberry-guLe, & £$£'. 
Sjumce^ the Lyons-jgumce, and the Brunfwick-Quince 
vJ?\ ™ C ^r^A^-^nce, a fine, largei yellow 

^1. T h er '^' d /° 0n , fe ,led >„ and is kerned the vfry IT 
h 2 A ^?<?t»g«l?™:-$uince, as good as the former, 
but different in Shape, ,t being of the Form of a Pear. ' 

ithfv Vt fL,Tn%" nCe >, an exceIIem Fruit > but finall. 
FrnL y ' J E "S^:^"»ce, the very worft of all : J Tis a harfh 
< :., M tu OVe / ed m & a Coac of Vow* like Cotton. 
IjV' 2^ e Lyons-guwe, a fine, large, yellow Fruit And 

The ®It, r e f ° Ur laJi f r \ M inferior t0 the twoj&tf. 

the Grecian Sea, from whence 'tis faid to have been firft 
brought: But Pliny affirms, that it recced Its Name of 
Malus Cydonta from Cydone, a Town in cltt ti ^ 

mards, Membnlho, and oftentimes jtomafc,- & %Z Sj 


New Principles of Gardening 95 

Melocotognio ; the Germans ', Kuttenopffel > and the Dutch ^ 
Que- Apple. 

This Fruit is raifed either from Layers, Suckers, or Cuttings, 
and delights in a moift Soil. Tis beft when grafted, although 
it is a naturaL Fruit ; for by the Check given to the Sap 
thereby, it produces Fruit much fooner. 

N. B. That the Cuttings, or Cions, muft be taken from an 
old bearing Tree, as is of the beft (or at leaft a very good) 

The Seafbn for planting this Fruit-Tree is October, Novem- 
ber, fie. as for other Fruit-Trees . 


Of the Mulberry-Tree, its Culture, &c. 

OF Mulberries there are two Kinds, viz,, the Black and 
the White : The Black Mulberry is a Tree of a very 
flow Growth ; but its Fruit is excellent, and 'tis a very 
great Bearer. ^ This Kind delights in good mellow Land ; and 
is beft increas'd by Layers j wherein obferve, that you let the 
Layers remain upon the Stools, or Mother-Plant, for two Tears 
after laying, but beft when three Years; for the Roots are not 
perfected in the firft Year; and therefore if you take them up 
(as is ufual) at one Year's End, 'tis very feldom that ever one 
in ten comes to any Thing. The Time to lay them down is 
in March-, but 'tis beft to plant them at the Fall of their Leaf, 
and to well mulfh them with Horfe-Dung afterwards, to pre- 
fer ve their Roots from the Winters Frofts. In the training 
up this Plant, you muft obferve the very firft Year of its Shoot- 
ing, to place a ftraight Stake perpendicular by its Side, againil 
which the Shoot muft be tied with Baft, Mat, #r. For the 
Nature of this Tree is fuch, that if this Care is not taken, 
'twill grow very crooked and deformed, as they generally are 
when young in moft Places. If Cuttings of this Plant are put 

p£ New Principles of Gardening. 

in the Ground in March, and not taken up again till two 
Years after, they will make good Plants, But obferve in the 
Operation, that the Cuttings be two Foot at leaft in Length, 
that they be placed flofing in the Ground, fo as not to be 
in any Part deeper than one Foot at moft, leaving but two 
Buds out of the Ground ; and though the Mulberry is of 
fuch a flow Growth, as never to produce (or at leaft very 
feldom) Shoots of one Year, two Foot in Length, yet that 
is not to be regarded: The two and three Years Wood, 
under the laft Year's Wood, is as good for this Purpofe as 
any. 'Tis faid, that this Plant is raifed from Seed alio; but I 
never faw the Practice, and therefore can fay nothing thereof. 

The White Mulberry is of a much more vigorous Growth 
than the Black : It delights in good Land as the other, and is 
increafed by Seed or Layers ; but its Fruit is very in/ipd, and 
'tis a bad Bearer ; fb that upon the whole, I cannot recommend 
this Plant, except 'tis for Variety's fake, and to help fill up the 
Quarters of a Wilder nefs, or for the Ufe of its Leaves for the 
Silkworms. I cannot but acknowledge that I am of the fame 
Opinion as the ingenious Botanift Mr. Bradley, who, in his 
New Improvements, Tart iii. *Page 19. believes, That if the 
Black Mulberry was either grafted, budded, or inarched, upon 
the White Mulberry, much finer Trees might be raifed, and 
in much lefs Time 'than by Layers, Cuttings, or Seed, the 
common Way. 


Of the Cornelion Cherry. 

THI S Kind of Fruit is very beautiful in a Wildernefs ; 
'tis increafed either by Layers or Seed, viz. its Stones j 
which oftentimes lie two Years in the Ground before 
they fpring. The Layers are to be laid down in Februarys, and 
the Stones to be fbwed in a Bed of fine Mold, cover 'd about 
two Inches thick, as foon as the Fruit is ripe. 


New Principles of Gardening. 97 


Of Medlars. 

MEDLARS are a pleafant Fruit, whereof there are 
feveral Kinds, viz. the Common Englijb, a fmall 
Fruit ; the "Dutch Medlar, a large Fruit, and a good 
Bearer ; and the Neoplitan Medlar, a Fruit without Stones, 
very plentiful in Italy, and but a Stranger to our English 
Climate. They in general love a rich Soil, and are propagated 
by being either grafted on the White or Hawthorn in March, 
or inarch M in May^ or budded iirjuly. 


Of the Service-Tree. 

THE Service makes a glorious Tree, and is very 
beautiful when planted in Walks ; they produce fine 
Clutters of Fruit in September and October, which, 
when ripe, are as if they were rotten, though not fo. 'This 
Tree is propagated by Suckers or Seed. If you increafe them 
by Seed, when the Fruit is ripe rub off the Pulp, by rolling 
them in Sand; after which dry the Stones or Seed in the Sun 
or Air, and put them into Sand, as direfted for the Walnut, 
and in January fow them in a moift Border, covering the Seed 
about two Inches thick with fine Earth. 

When they have been two Tears in the Seed-Bed, tranfplant 

them into a Nurfery, (as the Walnut^ always rnmdins to keep 

them clean from Weeds ; and if your Border has an Eajt Ex- 

pfition, 'tis much better than to be fully expos'd to the boutb 

O Sun - 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Sun. It delights in rich ftrong Ground, and when grown to 
fix Foot high, fliould be budded, with Buds taken from a Tree, 
as is known to be of a good Kind: They will produce Fruit much 
fooner, in greater "Plenty , and much finer in Tafte. 

COROLLARIES,^ additional Directions. 

I. \Tf THEN at any Time 'tis faid that a particular Fruit is beft 
V V againft a South, Eaft, or Weft Wall, it is not to be 
underftood that thofe Walls muft be direct to thofe Cardinal 
"Points, but to be within the 'Declination of ten "Degrees, or 
fifteen at moft, either Eaftward or Weftward of South Walls, 
or to the South of Eaft and Weft Walls. 

II. The Eaft Expofition is better than the Weft, becaufe the 
early Rays of the Sun diuberfes the cold "Dews from off the 
Fruit in a Morning, which the Weft is chilli with, being not 
difperfed till late in the Day. 

III. If Borders for Fruit-Trees be well prepared with frefli 
untried Earth, (fuch as is mention'd in the Section of Plant- 
ing,) and made fix Foot broad, and fifteen Inches in Depth, 
'tis fufficient for any Fruit-Tree. 

IV. Obferve that the Earth wherein young Trees are plant- 
ed, be not mix'd with new Dung of any Kind; for 'tis "Pot- 
fin to the Roots of every Tree, and very often prefent Death. 

V. Gravel-Walks, Brick-Pavements, tic. before Walls re- 
flects an additional Heat to them, and greatly helps the Ripen- 
ing of the Fruit. 

VI. Brick-Walls are the beft for Fruit, as well as the moft 
beautiful: Their Height above Ground fhould not exceed ten 
Feet at moft. 'Tis much better for all Wall Fruit in general planted thin, extending themfelves horizontally to a good 
Length, than to be planted thick, and be carried perpendicular- 
ly* and in a fmall Time rob each other of their proper Nou- 
rifliment, as has been obferved before. 

New Principles of Gardening. 99 

VII. If poffble, keep all new-planted Trees well watered, du- 
ring the Months of April, May, June, and July. 

VIII. All Fruit-Trees planted for to make "Dwarfs, mull 
have their perpendicular Shoots pinch'd off in Spring, that 
thereby they may break out into Side or Horizontal Branches, 
and form the Tree defired. 

IX. Apples, when in "Dwarfs or Efpaliers, muft have the 
fame Pruning as the Pear. 

X. All Kind of "Dwarf-Trees muft be kept open, entirely 
free from Wood, as are not horizontal, and their Height fhoulcf 
never exceed five Foot. 

XI. To preferve Fruit in its Bloom, place "Pannels of Reed 
(of the Height of your Wall, and about four Foot in Breadth) 
at about twenty Yards Diftance from one another ; but don't 
fix them fquare to the Wall, for that will rather confine the 
Winds than difcharge them : If the acute Angle be about thirty 
five or forty Degrees, the Wind will Aide away eafily, which 
otherwife, when very ftrong, would tear them all to Pieces, 
and efpecially thofe of a South Wall, when the Wind is at 
Eaft or Weft. 

XII. To preferve Fruit from Winds, whofe Courfe is 
not parallel, but rather oppofite to a Wall, 'tis belt to co- 
ver the Trees with Mats, or Sale-Cloths, old Blankets, &c. 
and alfo in Time of Frofts : But always obferve to uncover 
them in the Day-time, if it does not freeze, or cold cutting 
Winds blow, which mud always be guarded againft, be it 
Night or "Day, 'tis the fame, all ought to be cover'd. 

N. B. When you nail up thofe Coverings J be fur e that 
you fecure them by Nails > that the Wind don't blow them 
loofe, and by beatinv and fiapphw a?ain[l the Wall, knock off 
mofl of the Bloffoms. ™ & " J 

Thc^ feveral Inventions lately publifh'd of horizontal Shel- 
ters, &c are of fome Ufe in frill Nights; but when the Tree 
is preferved, as aforefaid, which by divers Experiments I have 
O 2 found 

ioo New Principles of Gardening. 

found to be the very beft Way, they are of no Ufe : Neither 
do T>ews or Rams always fall perpendicular, (tho' 'tis their 
natural Courfe fo to do ; ) for by the Situation of Winds are 
obliged, when they blow, which is almoft always, to fteer fuch 
Courfes as they dired, and thereby afFeft the Wall-Fruit in an 
Oblique, and not a perpendicular Pofition always, as fuppofed. 

And befides, 'tis evident, that although Dews are prejudicial when frown 
on Trees in the Spring, yet when the Frofts are gone, they are a very great 
Nouriflmem to Fruits ; and as Mr. Lawrence did but only receive a Hint 
of thoje Horizontal Shelters from an ingenious Gentleman, of or near Chel- 
iea, whofirft mentioned them to him, 'twas Something very odd, that the 
Practice thereof Jhould be recommended before it had been proved. 

• X l n :, ' Tis , t00 ofte n teen that many Fruit-Trees are planted 
in a Soil as they do not delight in; therefore at fuch Times 
obferve what Fruits do agree beft with fuch a Soil, and con- 
vert your Tree to the fame by Graftings Inoculation, &c. 

XIV. There is nothing fo much adds to, or fubftracts from, 
the Goodnefs of Fruit, as the Goodnefs or Badnefs of Soils, 

XV '/ ¥ 0t ^ nd dry Summers caufes Fruit to ripen before its 
natural Seafon, and wet and cold Summers the contrary • there- 
fore when Fruits have not their natural Seafons, they cannot 
have their true rich Tajles. y 

XVI. A dry Summer caufes Trees to bear Plenty of Fruit 
the iucceeding Year, and a wet Summer caufes a great Produc- 
tion of IVood^ and but little Fruit. 

XVII. When a Tree grows crooked, or inclining down- 
wards, cut or fcore the Bark horizontally in divers Places in 
the confined or hollow Part of the Tree, and in a ftort Time, 
if the Tree be young, 'twill become freight, and grow up- 

X X l ™ To .P reve |* tempeftuous Winds from injuring new 
or old Plantations of Fruit-Trees, you muft plant fubftantiat 
and lofty Efpaher Trees and Hedges, on the Weft and North 
Parts of your Gardens. 


New Principles of Gardening 

The Kinds of Trees neceifary for this Work are Chef- 
nuts, Walnuts, Limes, Elms, Pine, Scotch Fir, &c. (whofe 
Manner of Planting, &c. follows in its proper Place of Foreft. 
Trees in the fucceeding Part.) 

This Work ought to be firft done, that when the Fruit- 
Trees are planted, they may be defended from all fuch Injuries. 

The proper Places to plant thefe Efpaliers of Defence in, is 
without the utmoft Walls at about fifty nine or fixty Foot 
Diftance from the Wall, in Rows tolerably thick, viz. at the 
Diftance of ten or twelve Foot in the Row ; and 'twill be beft 
to plant two Rows at leaft, or three, at the fame Diftance from 
one another in fuch a Manner, as for the Trees in the fecond 
Line to ftand oppofite to the intermediate Spaces of the firft, 
and thereby every three Trees will conftitute an equilateral 
Triangle, and the Heads of the fecond Line clofe thofe of the 
firft, and the like of the third to the fecond, &c. 

When you plant three Rows of Trees for an Efpalier, ob- 
ferve that thofe of the talleft Growth are placed in the back^ 
moft Line, thofe of the middling Growth in the middle Line, 
and moft of the fliorteft Growth in the firft Line ; and if the 
Bottom be filled up with Lawrel, 'twill make an admirable good 
Efpalier of Defence. 

Efpaliers of this Kind checks the Violence of tempeftuous 
Winds, much better than a Brick- Wall, which being clofe and 
compact, reflects back the Winds, and oftentimes deftroy or 
greatly injure tender Plants ; but when fuch Tempefts beat 
againft thefe Efpaliers, they eafily comply with its Force, with- 
out a direft Repulfe, (as a clofe Wall muft do,) or prejudice 
any Tree which they are planted to defend. 

XIX. When Walls arc built againft Terrafs- Walks, they 
fhould be built double, that is, that Wall as fupports the 
Weight of Earth, muft ftand about eighteen Inches backward 
behind that, againft which you plant your Fruit-Trees ; and 
when thofe Walls are brought up near to their Height, an 
Arch muft be turnM from one to the other, in which, at eve- 
ry fifty or fixty Foot, 'tis good to leave fmall Air-Holes, to 
let out the Damps, whofe ill Effefts would injure the Fruit- 


102 New Principles of Gardening. 

N. B. Tiiat raoft of thofe Fruits mentioned in the Catalogue 
are now growing in the Gardens of the Honourable James J?hn- 
Jton at Twickenham, in the County of Middle fex, Latitude <i 
Degrees, 52 Minutes, whole great Perfections plainly demon- 
ftrate the indefat.gable Care and Judgment of the ingenious 
Mr. John Lee, Senior, Gardener to that worthy and much ho- 
noured Gentleman, by whofe judicious Management all thofe 
fruits are now arrived to the greateft Perfection of Beauty, 
Strength, and Fertility, as Art with Nature are capable to pro- 

I cannot well conclude this Section, without taking notice of 
tnegreatHappinefsa Gentleman poffefles, when he is fo well fix'd 
with a skilful induftrious Gardenei,by whofe Judgmentand Care 
he is daily enjoying the Pleafures and Advantages of the beft 
Fruits, Herbs, Sallets, «r. in the greateft Per&ion, which 
Recompense is all as can be received for the Expences and 
Labours thereof. And on the other Hand, how unhappy it is 

TJ^ ent n m ? c° h ?? e 2? unskilfuI Perfon tended from the 
1 ail of a Coach, Stable, &c. who taking upon him, firft a blew 
Apron, and then the Name of a Gardener, afTumes the Govern- 
ment ot choice Trees committed to his Care, becaufe he has been 
much acquainted with cleaning Knives, fweeping Stables, &c. 
which he thinks are neceffary towards their Pruning, as well as 
making Hot-Beds, &c. without confidering that thofe Trees and 
Plants were obtained with much Labour, long Time, and great 
Expence, which by his unskilful Hand fhall in one or two Years 
t!T , b( y otal] y ruiil ' d > to the great Lofs of his Mafter,and his 
eternal Shame. 

I fay where Misfortunes of this Nature happen, which is too 
S nt ' t»sa very great Lofs and Difappointment, and a 
h.^ ,"? Pard ? nable ' and therefore I cannot but take the Li- 
berty to lay, that a good Gardener deferves a much greater Re- 
ject and Encouragement than that of Stewards, Butlers, 
Vc. who oftentimes undefervedly pofTefs a much larger Share 

New Principles of Gardening. 103 


How to preferve Jointer Fruit after 

IN the Gathering of all Kinds of Fruits, as I obferved be- 
fore, great Care muft be taken that they are perfectly dry, 
otherwife they will rot prefently ; and that they hang upon 
the Trees their full Time; for if Fruit be gather'd before, 'twill 
fhrink and become good for nothing. To know when it has 
hung its full Time, obferve when the Fruit naturally drops of 
it felf, now and then one &c. alfo when Fruit will drop by an 
eafy Touch, 'tis fully grown. 

As you gather Fruit, be careful to place it in the Basket, that 
none be bruifed, for Bruifes caufe them to rot inftantly ; as al- 
fo, that you do not mix your gather'd Fruit with that that has 
naturally fell of it felf, or by Winds. 

That your fine Winter Pears may not be deprived of any 
Part of their Beauty, take Care in gathering to preferve their 

To prevent Fruit as is choice, from being bruifed, in forting 
the fmall ones from the large ones, let two Perfons be appointed 
to gather it, the one gathering the large and beft, and the other 
the fmall; or one Man may perform the whole, by gathering 
the beft firft, and the fmalleft at laft. 

When your Fruitis gather'd lay it in your Fruitery, in middling 
Heaps, wherein they will fiveat for a confiderable Time, which 
muft be obferved ; and when over, lay them on your Shelves 
with clean Wheat -Straw underneath them, or, for want of 
Shelves, upon the like Straw on the Ground, andoffuehaThick- 
nefs as to be eafily examined, and th e rotten ones pick'd out as 
they happen, which muft be minded with great Diligence, at 
leaft, every third Day. 

? Your 

jo 4* New Principles of Gardening. 

Your Fruit being thus plac'd, cover it up very clofe with clean 
Wheat-Straw, as is not in the leaft mufty, &c. which will 
caufe the Fruit to be the fame; as alio flop all Chinks, Holes, 
&c. to keep the external Air entirely out. 

When hard Frofts happen, you muft be very careful to keep 
out the Froft, and to cover clofe all your Fruit in general. 

In fhort, the clofer and warmer your Fruit is kept, the lon- 
ger 'twill keep, and the better 'twill be. 

N. B. That oftentimes Fruit is deftroyed by Mice, Rats^ 
tSc. therefore guard againft thole Vermin by Traps, Cats, &c. 


Of the Planting Fruit-Gardens in a more 
grand and delightful Manner than has been 
done before. 

I Having in the preceding Se&ions fully demonftrated the 
Management of Fruits in general, I fhall now proceed to 
inform you how to lay out and plant a Fruit-Garden, in 
a more delightful and advantageous Manner than has been 
pra&ifed, or perhaps thought on by any. 

The Form which I here offer is a Paralellogram, whofe 
Dimenfions are twenty Pole by fix Pole, and its Quantity 
one hundred and twenty Rods, or three Quarters of an Acre 

And as I before have plainly demonftrated that a South orSouth- 
Eaft Wall is of all others the very belt, therefore to that End I 
have placed the Wall P Q, within the Bounds of my Plan, 
whereby I receive the Benefit of the South-Side, as alio 
the like of the Wall D E, for the Advantage of its North-Side. 

The Difpofition of the Whole is as following, viz. 
I. The Line A B fituated at the Parallel Diftance of twelve 
Foot, from the North-Side of the Wall DE, is compofed of 
3 Standard 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Standard Cherries, Damfon, and Mulberries ; which Kinds of 
Cherries therein are fo elected as to fucceed thole againft the South 
Wall DE, and to continue the whole Seafon in great Plenty. 

The Kinds and Number of Cherries therein planted, are, two 
Duke Cherries, two Early Flanders, two White Hearts, two 
Black Hearts, twoCaroons, two Lukewards, one Bleeding Heart, 
twoClufter Cherries, twoEnglifli Cherries, twoFlemifh Cher- 
ries, two Carnation Cherries, two Black Cherries of the large 
fort, with one Damfon, and four Black Mulberries. 

(x.) The Wall DE, hath on its North-fide, Firft, kven forts 
of Plumbs, viz. TheOrline, White Mogul, Greengage, Dama- 
zen, JMaiter Claude, Plumb Mordin, and Violet, which fucceeds 
others planted againft South-Eaft and Weft Walls. Secondly, eight 
Morella, and kv^n Duke Cherries; which laft, if their Bloom 
be prefer ved in the Spring by covering, will produce Cherries 
when thofe of the South and other Walls are gone. 

TheSouth-fide of this Wall is planted with all the beft Peaches, 
Grapes, Cherries, Summer Pears, and Figs, whofe Number and 
Kinds are as following, viz. Firft, of Peaches, one Red Mag- 
dalen, one Nobleft, one Swifh Peach, one Albemarle Peach 
one Belcheverux, one Ann Peach, one Yellow Alberge, one 
Old Newington, one Early Admirable, one Minion Peach, one 
Montabon, and one White Magdalen; in all twelve. Secondly, of 
Grapes, one Mufcat, two black Mufcadines, two black Fronti- 
niacs., two white Mufcadines, one Clufter Grape, one Claret 
Grape, and one white Frontiniac ; in all ten. Thirdly, of Cher- 
ries, one early May Cherry, one Holman's Duke, and one Luke- 
ward in all three. Fourthly, of Figs, the White and the Blue; 
in all two. Fifthly, of Summer Pears, one Buree, one Summer 
Bonchretien, one Grofs Roufellet, one Vermillion Pear, one Royal 
Bergamot, and one Autumn Bonchretien ; in all fix. 

($•) The Wall PQJiath on its North-fide twenty two Morelfo 
Cherries,, which, with the eight of the other Wall makes thirty 
exafr, and are what I fuppofe fufficient for the Service of any 
Family to preferve for Ufe in Tarts, Beer, Brandy, ©r. 

The South-fide is planted with all the beft late Peaches, the 
firft exceped, Grapes, Apricots, Plumbs, and Winter Pears, 
whofe Number and Kinds are as follow, viz. Firft, of Peaches, 
one Nivet Peach, one Bellgardj, one late Purple, one late 
Admirable, one Catherine, and one Malecotune; in all fix. 
p Secondly, 

106 New Principles of Gardening. 

Secondly, of Grapes, one black Currant Grape, one Burgundy 
Grape, one July Grape, one Sweet-water Grape, and one Muf- 
cat Grape; in all five. /Thirdly, of Apricots, one Turkey Apri- 
cot, and one Orange Apricot; in all two. Fourthly, of Plumbs, 
one Blue Perdigon, one white PerdigOn, one Greengage, and 
one Musk Perdigon ; in all four- Fifthly, of Ne&orines, one 
Newington Nedorine, and one Roman Neftorine. Sixthly, of 
Winter Pears, one Winter Bonchretien, one Golden Bonchre- 
tien, one Spa nilh Bonchretien, oneColmar, one St. Germaine, 
one Winter 1 home, one Lachaferie, and one Virgoulee; in all 

(4.) The Wall EQ., is planted on its Eaft-fide with Plumbs 
to fucceed thofe of the South ; the Number and Sorts are as 
follow, viz. one Rochcorbon, one Reine Claude, one Queen- 
Mother, one La Loyal, one White Matchlefs, and one Impera- 


And againft its Weft-fide, four Peaches and one Plumb, to 
fucceed thofe ot the South Wall, viz. one Peach Royal, one 
Bourdine, one Swalfe, and one Hative Peach, with one Green- 
gage Plumb. 

(5.) The Wall DP is planted on the Eaft-fide, with one Col- 
mar Pear, three Baking Pears, viz.. The Pickering, La Marquis, 
and Pound Pear, with one Orlin Plumb; and its Weft-fide with 
Plumbs m general, two Figs excepted, viz. one Drapdor, one 
Queen-Mother, one White Fig, one Blue Fig, one Maitre Claude, 
and one St. Catherine. 

(6.) The WallGH is planted with the Satin, Ambretand Lan- 
lac Pears on the Eaft-fide, and with two Orange and one Turkv 
Apricot on the Weft-fide. 

(7.) The Wall LO is planted on its Eaft-fide, with one Vir- 
goulee, one Royal d'Flyver, and one Lachaferie Pears; and on 
its Weft-fide with one Perfique Peach, one Temple Neaorine 
and one Rambollion Peach. 

(8.) TheEfpaliers AR and BS are planted with fixteen Cod- 
lings, and the Efpaher RS with twenty eight Nonpareil, 
Golden Pippins, French Pippin, Holland Pippins, Kentilh Pip- 
pins, and Kirton Pippens ; of which the two firft are to be 
ten of each and of the four hit two of each Kind. 

(9 ) The Quarter F is encompafs'd with an Efpalier of Sum- 
mer Pears, fixteen in Number; as alfo is the Quarter I, with 
3 an 

New Principles of Gardening. 107 

an Efpalier of Autumn Pears, fixteen in Number 5 as alfo 
the Quarter K, with an Efpalier of the like Number of the belt 
Winter Pears. 

(10.) Within the Quarter F is four Dwarfs, all Baking Pears ; 
as alfo is in the Quarter K, viz. the Pickering Pear, Spanifb 
Warden, Englifh Warden, Perkinfon's Warden, Black Pear of 
Worcejler, Pound Pear, Cadilliac, and Donvil. 

(11.) The four Dwarfs in the Quarter I, to be White Figs. 

N. B. That the Diftance of the Efpaliers from the Walls are 
fifteen Feet, therefore their Height muft not exceed fix Feet; 
all other Parts may be meafur'd by the Scale annex'd. 

Having thus explainM to you the Manner and Nature of the 
Fruits being planted, fo as for every Fruit to have its true Ex- 
pofition and Succeflion, &c. I fliall in the next Place draw up a 
Catalogue of the feveral Fruits planted therein. 

I. Of the feveral Kinds of Cherries. 

Early May, 
May Duke, 
White Heart, 
Black Heart, 
Early Flanders, 
Bleeding Heart, 
Clufter Cherry, 





Large Black Cherry, 

Morel! a.' 

Number of Kinds is fourteen. 

White Magdalen, 



Early Admirable, 

Old Newington, 

Yellow Alberge, 

Ann Peach, 



Swifh Peach, 

Nobleft, Red Magdalen, 



Peach Royal, 
Peach Hative, 
Late Admirable, 
Late Purple, 

Number of Kinds is twenty- 

P % III. 

New Principles of Gardening. 

III. Of Neftorines. 

Temple Ne&orine, i 

1 Roman Ne&orine. 

Newington Ne&orine, |l Number of Kinds is three. 

IV. Of Apricots. 




Number of Kinds is three. 

V. Of Pears. 


Pound Pear, 

Summer Bonchretien, 


Grofs Roufellet, 


Vermilion Pear, 

Black Pear of Worcefier^ 

Royal Bergamot, 

Spanifh Warden, 

Autumn Bonchretien, 

Englifh Warden, 


Perkinfon's Warden, 

Royal- d'Hyver, 

Winter Bonchretien, 


Golden Bonchretien, 

Satin Pear, 

Spanifh Bonchretien, 


St. Germaine, 


Winter Thorn. 

Col mar, 

Number of Kinds is t\v 

La Marquifs, 



VI. Of Figs. 

White and Blew. In Number two. 

VII. Of Grapes. 

White Mufcadine, 
Black Mufcadine, 

ij White Frontini/c, 
|| Black Frontin iac, 

New Principles of Gardening. 

1 09 

Claret Grape, 
Clufter Grape, 
Black Currant, 


White Mogul, 



Maitre Claude, 

Plumb Mordine, 



Reine Claude, 


Golden Pippin, 
French Pippin, 

j Burgundy, 

July Grape, 

Sweet-water Grape* 
! Number of Kinds is eleven. 

VIII. Of Plumbs. 

La Royal, 

White Matchlels, 



St. Catherine, 

Blew Perdigon, 

White Perdigon, 

Musk Perdigon, 


Number of Kinds is nine teen. 

IX. Of Apples. 

I Holland Pippin, 
Kentifh Pippin, 
Kirton Pippin. 

I I Number of Kinds is feven^ 

X. Of Mulberries. 
Black Mulberry. In Number one. 
This being done, I will now fum up the whole in general : 




Of Cherries there are in Kinds 14 

Of Peaches 
Of Neftorines 
Of Apricots 
Of Pears 
Of Figs 
Of Grapes 
Of Plumbs 

. Of Apples 

>sOf Mulberries 


New Principles of Gardening. 

And all of different Kinds, and excellent good; to which we 
may add nine other Sorts of Summer, Autumn, and Winter 
Pears, as are to be planted in the Efpaliers, about the three 
Quarters F I K, which requires forty eight Trees ; fo that the 
Sum of our Variety of good Fruit may be placed at 120 different 
Kinds at leaft. 

The Number of Trees of each Kind, is 









Morella Cherries 




J 7 





Total . 26% 

And every one at its proper Diftance. 

N. B. If any one thinks that the Number of Pears are too 
great, 'tis very eafy to introduce other Fruit in their Stead ; but 
for my Part, I can't but recommend them, feeing that they are 
all good Fruit, and ripen in fuch Order, as to furnifh our Ta- 
ble nine Months in the Year plentifully. 


Hate TLa^auutTcioe 11 o 

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 

3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3^3 3 3 3 3 • 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3.3-3 3 3 3 3 3 3.3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 

A Plantation of 9*rrref PrteJ to defend frit 9ruit from,?ftbrinWn nnndi . 
^ ^ . UScaU of fat. °' 

'tUic auantity of 'fond , 

> : 3 : oo . 

. / ims of Standard, . 

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zB/aeA, 22?emi/hs cnsjlionfm, 2,DuA& 2. Whites 

' 'i& of Cherry - Cherry Ifeart? 

"-lew k'ackJIuttvrrieJ- c ™£ 

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K/pa/ierJ of 

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H N O R T H . T| 

b ^ rAyzAxt ^ general ^ti/AJtore/ta. CA&'rys IV pr^ert^fi^ frrfr 23 ^r -Rr< 


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N E W 


O F 



Of Foreft-Trees, their Culture, &c. 


Of the fever al Methods by which Foreft- 
Trees are raifed. 

Oreft-Treesare raifed either by Cuttings, Seed, Suck- 
ers, or Layers. ( i .) By Cuttings,** the Sallow, Al- 
der, and all the Kinds of Oziers and Willows ; of 
which the French Kind is of great Ufe in the nail- 
ing of Wall-Trees, and of all other Willows the 
moft tougheft. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

(i.) By Seed, of which is raifed the Oak, Afh, Beach, Horn- 
Bean, Horfe and Engtifb Chefnut, Walnut, Philberd, Quick- 
Beam, Scotch and Silver Fir, Pinafter, Holly, Yew, Elm, 
Lime, Service, Wild Cherry, Wild Pears, Crab, Maple, Syca- 
more, and Hawthorn. • f 

(3.) By Suckers „ fucli are the Elms, Poplars, Abeal, Maple, 
Birch, and Hazel, or Philberd. 

(4.) By Layers, as the -Englijbj 'Dutch \, and Witch Elms, 
Lime, Abeal, Platanus, Maple, Sycamore and Philberd. 

The feveral Kinds of Soil wherein Foreft-Trees moft delight 
in, are as follow, viz. 

Alder in boggy, drain'd, or dry poor Land. 

Ash in the fame, as alfo in chalkly Ground, moift Clay, crag- 
gy or flinty Ground, Gravel mix'd with Loam, or a good 
Thicknefs of Mould. 

Abeal on dry poor Land, hungry GraveL and on wet ftrong 

Beech in fome dry barren Soils, in chalky, dry, rich, 
fandy, hot, or flinty Land, Gravel mix'd with Loam, or deep 
in Mould. 

Birch in fome dry, barren, boggy, drain'd, or dry, Tandy, 
hot Lands. 

Chesnuts in moift Clay, black, fat, or dry, rich Land, and 
on moift Gravel. 

Elm on chalky and flinty Ground, Gravel if well mix'd with 
good Loam, a moift Gravel, and in any good loamy Land 
whatfoever, be it ever fo rich ; but it will not do on a hungry 

Firs in fome barren mountanous Lands, a frefh, moift, 
gravelly Soil, mix'd with Loam, and in a rich fandy Loam 

Holly on a dry poor Soil, and a Gravel when mix'd with a 
tolerable Thicknefs of Mould, and in fandy rich Loam alio. 

Horn be an on dry rich Land. 

Juniper in chalky Land. 

Lime on moift rich Land, or a very fat Soil, but not dry, ian- 
dy, or hot Ground, for that caules them to drop their Leaves 
much fooner than other Trees. 

Maple on dry, poor, clear Soil, and good rich Mould alfo. 

New Principles of Gardening. 1 1 3 

Oak in black fat clayey, moift clayey., craggy, dry, rich, 
flinty Gravel, with Loam or Mould, and moift gravelly Lands* 
but not in a hungry Gravel. 

Pine the fame as Fir. 

Poplar on fome dry, barren, chalky, dry and poor Lands. 

Sallow in moift Clay, dry and poor Land. 

Walnut m chalky, dry and poor, dry and rich Lands, or 
in Gravel mix'd with Loam. 

Willow in boggy, drain'd, moift clayey, and moift gravelly 

Yew in dry barren Soils., and thofe as are very rich aifo, 
efpecially a rich fandy Loam. 

N. B. That although many of the above mentioned will grow 
and thrive in many poor and barren Lands, yet you are to 
underftand that almoft all forts of Foreft-Trees are much im- 
proved by a frefh fat Soil, or what we call a rich fandy Loam, 
if not mix'd with Dung, except 'tis well confum'd. 

Therefore a'ways beware of frefh Dung coming near the Root 
of any Tree, for 'tis perfeft poifon, and oftentimes prefent 

N. B. That Trees intended for flinty Lands, are beft railed 
by their Seed fown therein, fuch as Oak, Afh, Beech, f$c. 

N. B. That Poplar will not thrive in chalky Ground ; Abeals 
not on Clay; Willows not on dry poor Soils; Elm not tta dry 
fandy hot Lands; Oak, Elm, Walnut, and Afh, nor on a hungry 
Gravel ; and none of the Aquaticks on any kind of Gravel, ex- 
cept that as is very moift. 

N. B. That clayey Land produces the tougheft Oak; and that 
in very ftrong Clay few Trees will live. 

I having now explained by what Methods Trees are raifed, 
and the feveral Soils they delight in, I fhall in the next place 
lay down Rules and Dire&ions to beobfeiVd in the feveral ope- 
rations thereof. 

Fir ft ^ Of raifing Trees from Cuttings. 

Trees rais'd by Cuttings are the Alder, Poplars, Willows, 

&c. wherein obferve that "the Ground wherein you plant them 

be of a moift Nature ; that you take your Cuttings from the 

moft healthy Branches ; that their Thicknefs be not lefs than 

(^ half 

Hi- New Principles of Gardening, 

half an Inch, nor more than an Inch Diameter ; for when they 
are'lefs than half an Inch, they are very weak, and have 
too much Pith for their Bignefs, which oftentimes take wet and 
kill the Cutting; and when they are larger than one Inch 'tis 
long a healing over at top, and therefore longer expofed to the 
wet lying thereon ; therefore at fuch Times 'tis beft to put a little 
Wax on the Cut. That their Length be about three Foot, of 
which one third to be above Ground. 

When you plant Willows, Sfc. for to make Pollards, they may 
be of a greater Size, as nine, ten, or twelve Foot long ; but the 
preceeding is beft for Hedges, Wood, Sfr. < The beft Seafon for 
planting them, is OBober, and in the planting obferve, that you 
don't ftrip up the Bark at bottom, that the Bottom is not fplit 
or fhaken by cutting, as alfo the Top, and that the Earth be well 
clofed about it, and kept watered the firft Summer. 

Others no Roots require \ the Lab'ror cuts 
Toung Slips, and in the Soil fecurely puts. 


And then again, 

Some Trees their Birth to bounteous Nature owe,, 
For fome without the Tains of Planting grow : 
With Oziers thus the Banks of Brooks abounds 
Sprung from the watry Genius of the Ground. 
From the fame 'Principles green Willows come, 
Herculean Poplar, and the tender Broom, 


Secondly , Of raifing Trees from Seed. 

Wherein obferve that the Seed be not gathered too foon be- 
fore it has got its full Maturity, which will caufe it to fhrink; 
or tco late, when it has fuftain'd Damage by Rain, Froft, &c. 
Therefore when it appears dryifh and pretty hard, it may be 
fafely gathered ; and be fure to preferve it from wet, till 'tis fow'd, 
for that will caufe it to mould and rot. Their be divers Kinds 
of Seeds, as will not come up after fowing till the fecond Spring., 
as Tew-Betries, Holy-Berries j Jfben-Keysj Hornbeam, White- 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Thorn, &C which fhould be kept the firft Year in Sand, or 
Mould, to prevent their being deftroyed by Vermine, &c. The 
beft Land for raifing all Trees from Seed., is a light ftefh San- 
dy Loam, which fhould be trenched two Spit deep,, levelled, 
raked, and divided into Beds of four Foot, and their Alleys be- 
tween them about two Foot wide. 

The beft Seafon for lowing Seed of Trees, is as focn as 
they are ripe in October, in which obferve to fow fuch Seed 
as are of a quick Growth, as Afbj Lime, Maple, 8c c. thinner, 
than thofe of a flow Growth, fuch as Holly, Tew, Hornbeam, 
Beach, &c. 

After you have town your Seed, tread all your Beds over, 
to fix the Seed into the Earth, and cover it over with good fine 
Mould about three or four Inches thick- 

When Frofty Weather approaches, 'tis neceflary to cover your 
Beds with Horfe-Dung to keep out the Froft, which take away 
at the Change of Weather ; and be fure that Traps are fet to 
deftroy Mice, &c. 

N. B. That fuch large Seed as Chefnuts, Jcrons, &c. are 
beft to be planted with a c Dibber J as Beans, or fowM in 'Drills, 
like Peafe: But 'tis beft to plant Chefnuts at fix or feven Inches 
Square ; and the Acrons to be droppM in the Drills, at about 
five or fix Inches Diftance. 

The better your Land is, and the cleaner 'tis kept, the more 
your Oaks and Chefnuts will thrive, and indeed all other Seeds 
in general. 

When the Weather in the Spring and Summer prove very 
dry, you muft not forget to water your Seed- Beds, and to take 
fpecial Care that the Force of the Water, in watering, do not 
hurt or break the tender Shoots. 

At Michaelmas fift amongft the young Plants, fome rich 
Mould, fuch as old decayed Hot-Beds, Sfr. which the Winters 
Rains will wafh in, and greatly ftrengthen their Fibrous Roots. 

In February following, take out of your Seed-Beds all the 
the largeft and ftrong Plants, leaving fuch as are weak till the 
next Autumn or Springs and plant them out in Beds in Lines 
about four or five Inches apart, and the like Diftance in die Rows, 
always obferving to clofe the Earth very firm to their PvOOts, 
and that the Land be good mellow holding Land, free from 
Stones, Weeds, &c. N. B. I advife that they be planted ma 
Q 2 chop'd 

n<S New Principles of Gardening: 

choop'd Trench with the Spade, by the Side of the Line, and 
not with a Dipper, as is common ; for if their is not very great 
Care taken with a Dipper, it will leave the lower Part of the 
Hole unclofed, which undoubtedly caufes the Plant oftentimes 

t0 The ri beft Expofure for Seed-Beds, and thefe tranfplanted, is 
the Eaft ; for in the Afternoon, they will be free from the 
/torching Sun, which oftentimes being too hot, prevents their 

TfYOU have the Conveniency of Water, 'tis good to keep them 
always moift ; 'twill add greatly to their Growth. _ In April, 
May, and Augujl, 'tis bed to water them in a Morning, but in 
June and July, in an Evening. . 

Chefnut l j r and Walnuts, mult ftand three Years in the Seed- 
Bed, becaufe they will not endure often tranlpanting. 

But fime from Seeds, inclosed in Earth arife > 
For thus the Maftful Chef nut mates the Skies. 
Hence rife the branching Beech, and Vocal Oak* 
Where Jove of old oraculoujly fpoke. 

Thirdly, Of raifng Trees by Suckers. 

To raife Trees from the Spawn or Exuberance of the Roots 
of others, (uch as Elms, Abeal, Poplars, be obferve that Care 
be taken to prevent Cattle from cropping them, that they be 
taken up at Michaelmas, and planted out in Beds as directed 
for thofe raifed from Seed, and let them remain therein two 
Years before thev are planted out in the Nurfery, always ob- 
ferving to keep them moift in the Spring and Summer, and clear 
from Weeds. 

Some from the Roots a riflng Wood difchfe, 
Thus Elms, and the Savage Cherry grows : 
Thus the yeen Bays, that binds the Poets's brows. 
Shoots and is (belter 'd by the Mothers Boughs. 



New Principles of Gardening. 

Fourthly j Of raifing Trees by Layers. 

This Method of raifing Trees, is applicable to fuch that can- 
not be raifed from Seed, as Elms, 'Flat anus, &c and even 
many as may be raifed from Seed alfo, as the Lime, &c. 

The firft Work to be done herein is to make choice of a 
Piece of frefh Pafture, &x. as is very good and rich in Nature, 
and belt when inclinable to, or is a fandy Loam. 

Secondly, That the Ground be carefully trench'd two Spit and 
Crum in Depth, and in very fmall Spits, wherein plant Mo- 
ther-Plants (by Gardeners call'd Stools) of Elms, Limes > Tla- 
tanus, Alder, Abeal, Poplar, Thilberd, &c. in fuch Quantity as 
will be capable to produce the Number of Trees derred. 

If your Stools are made of very large well grown bodied 
Trees, each will produce Yearly about thirty Layers, or Plants, 
fo that you may proportionate your Number of each fort, to 
the Nature of your Soil wherein you intend to plant, and the 
Magnitude of your Plantation intended. 

The beft Time to plant your Stools is Ottober\ and if your 
Land be very frefh and rich, they may be planted, at leaft 
eight Foot from each other, both in the Row, as well as one Row 
from the other, and it matters not what the Form of the Trees 
are, as the StooJs are made off, whether they be ftraight or 
croocked, fo as their Bodies are but large and well rooted* 

In February following, or rather January, of the two Months, 
is the Time to lay down thofe Branches produced the laft Year. 
To every Stool you will have fix or (even principal Branches, 
which you muft plafh at their Bottom, that they may com- 
ply with being laid down the eafier; which done, twill all the 
Side-Shoots at fuch a convenient Place, as will admit of the 
twitted Part to be about eight Inches deep, which may be let in 
with a Trowel or Spade, and the extream Part ot every Shoot, to 
be fhorten'd to five or fix Inches, or more, if need be, always 
obfervingto leave three Buds at leaft above Ground; to place 
your Layers upright ; and that they are not too thick, where- 
by they will be all fmall, and hardly worth the Trouble of 
planting out. 

In Ofiober following, if the Seafon permits, take off the Layers, 

and prune away ail the Parts of thofe principal Branches be- 

3 fore 

u8 New Principles of Gardening. 

fore plafh'd, to give Room to thofe other Shoots as are to 
to fucceed them ; which mutt be laid down in like manner 
the Spring following ; and fo the like every Year. 

Some bow their Vines, which buried in the Plain, 
Their Top in dijlant Arches rife again. 



Of the Manner of planting Nurferies and their 

IN order to have a profperous Nurfery, good Choice muft 
made of a proper Piece of frefh meliow Land, fuch as are 
deep, and with a good Bottom of ftrong Loam or Brick- 
Earth, rather than Sand or Gravel. 

Your Ground being determin'd, Trench it as foon after Mi- 
chaelmas as the Weather will permit, and divide it into con- 
venient Quarters for the Reception of the feverai Trees as are 
to be tranfplanted therein. 

The beft Seafon for to remove your young Trees is October 
or November, which muft be planted in Rows about four of 
five Foot apart, and their Diftance in the Rows, two Foot 
or more, as the Nature of your Plants requires; for thofe or 
a quick Growth, intended for Hedges, extend their Side-Branches 
more than thofe of a flow Growth. In May following you 
muft Vifit your new planted Nurfery, and difplace all the Side- 
Buds, or Shoots of the leading Shoots, of fuch Trees as you 
intended for Standards, and not refer that Work as is com- 
monly done till Michaelmas, when thofe Side-Branches have 
robb'd their Leader of as much or more Strength and Quan- 
tity as they themfelves contain. The Obje&ion made to tins 

3 2 Praftice 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Pra&ice is bare Theory only, viz,. Tis fuppofed that when Trees 
are thus trainM up, they will grow taper and weak, which when 
admitted to diftribute part ot their Sap to their Horizontal or 
Side-Branches, caufes the Tree to be much thicker in Proportion 
to its Height, and confequently much ftronger. Now in order 
to prove this, I have made the Experiment on Limes and Dutch 
Elms, which are both of a quick Growth ; and that I might not 
be deceived in the Goodneis of the Land, I disbudded every 
other Tree of each Kind in feveral Rows, and at the Michael- 
mas following I pruned the others, whofe Buds I had left on in 
the Spring, according to the common Way. 

In the next Spring afterwards, as the Buds began to projeft 
out, I difplaced them, leaving the other Trees with theirs on, 
as I did the Year before, and in the like Manner I proceeded 
till the Michaelmas following ; at which Time I not only found 
thofe Trees, as I had fo often disbudded, much larger and Wron- 
ger Plants, but their Bodies were all fmooth and clear from Knots 
and other Deformities, as the Knife is the Caufe off. 

The only Caufe of Trees being weak and {lender, and hard- 
ly capable of fupporting themfelvesj, is the too near planting 
them in the Nurlery, not having fuch Quantity of Air as is ne- 
ceffary for their Support. 

And that this may not be efteem'd bare Theory only, let 
any but compare the Growth of the outfide Plants of any Nur- 
fery, as is of fix or kven Years Growths with thole of the inward 
Parts, and the prodigious Difference of their Growth and 
Strength will be a fufficient Demonftration to prove the Truth 
of what I have aflerted. 

When your Trees have been thus managed for three Years, 
they muft all be taken up, and replanted again in their fame Pla- 
ces, carefully obfervingto prune away all Tap-Roots and others, 
as are bruifed by the Spade. This Removal causes them to ftrike 
frefh^ whereby they get fine fibrous Roots, which had they not 
been moved, could not have had. If Trees ftand long in a Nur- 
fery^ 'tis feldom that they have any more than very large Roots 
without Fibres, and therefore for want of them are fubjeft to 
Mortality. And on the contrary, if Trees are removed in the 
Nurfery every three, or four Years at longeft, 'tis very feldom 
one in fifty dies. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

When yourNurfery has feen three Years palled over its Head, 
'twill be high Time to lend a helping Hand, by giving it a good 
Drefling of Dung well confumed., but beft when mix'd with 
frefh Earthy and turn'd four or five Times in the Summer be- 
fore 'tis ufefl; at which Time Care muft be taken that 'tis not 
digg'd in too deep, but rather turn'd in, for 'tis better for the 
Trees to have the Salts of the Dung wafhed down to their Roots, 
than to have it laid clofe to them, which oftentimes canker 
and kill their tender Fibres. 

If your Land was not frefli and hearty at your firft planting, 
it will be beft to give a Dunging in the Manner before delivered 
the fecond Year, infteadof flaying untill the third. 


Of the Oak. 

OF Oaks there are divers Kinds, which were they to be 
diftinguifhed by the Difference ofLeaves, Shoots, Acorns, 
&c. would admit of as great Varieties as Pears, or any 
other Fruit whatsoever. 

The beft Kinds are what Mr. Bradley calls the upright and 
Spreading Oak, which generally grow to a very large Stature, 
and even fo very large, (if his Report is true,) that the Timber 
alone of one Tree has been fold for upwards of fifty Pounds. 
Vide his New Improvements^ Part I. Page 4*. 

This very large Sum to be paid for one fingle Tree, obliges 
me to make fome near Calculation of the Quantity of Timber 
as muft be contained in fuch a Tree, to amount to fo great a Sum. 

Admit that fuch a Tree was fold at four Pounds a Load, which 
is a very great Price, and feldom or ever given for Oak, it muft 
contain twelve Load, twenty five Foot equal to fifteen Tun and 
a half, and upwards ; and if the Tree was fold at fifty Shillings 
per Load, which is a cuftomary and very great Price, its Quan- 
tity muft be twenty Load, equal to twenty five Tun, which, 

New Principles of Gardening. 

is very furprizing. The great Advantages arifing from 
large Plantations of Oak, is fo well known to this Nation, that 
I need not trouble my Reader with telling him of its great Ufe 
in Civil and Naval Archite&ure, or its Bark when peelM in 
April, (for Tanners Ufe,) which is the proper Time to fell this 
Tree; or that its Acorns is excellent Food (as Mr. Bradley calls 
it) for Hogs, well known to every old Woman. 

I fay the Excellency of this noble Plant is fo univerfally 
known, that to offer any Thing in order to encourage its greater 
Increafe, would be needlefs, feeing that all our Englijh Gentle- 
men of Fortune are not only good Judges of its great Ufe, &c. 
but at this Time are principally devoted to the Pleafures and Pro- 
fit of Planting in general, wherein the Oak has a Place not in- 
ferior to any. 

This noble Tree is raifed from an Acorn, which fhould be 
fbwed immediately after its falling from the Tree, and is al- 
ways beft when the Acorn is planted in the Place appointed for 
its future Growth ; but when it cannot be foorder'd, they muft 
be fbwn in a Seed-Bed . In the removing of young Oaks from 
the Seed-Bed to the Nurfery, or to the Spot where they are to 
remain, be careful to prune off their Tap-Root, and head them 
down to two Buds only, which alfo obferve to do again the next 
Spring after, and then let one leading Shoot arife to form the Tree. 

The Reafon of heading down this Plant twice, is to enable 
its Root to throw forth a ftrong Shoot the third Year, which ne- 
ver fails of making a handfome Tree. And during the Time as 
the Oak is in the Nurfery, Care muft be taken every Spring and 
Summer to difplace all the Side or Horizontal Buds, as I have 
once before dire&ed, that the leading Shoot may receive all the 
fullNouriflimentasthe Earth produces, and be free from Knots, 
Wounds, &c. which muft happen, if thofe Buds are admitted 
to grow, at the Time of pruning. 

Every third Year they muft be transplanted as before direfted 
in the Management of Trees planted in the Nurfery; at which 
Time prune their Roots, but not their leading Shoots, always re- 
membring that if you cut off, or only top an Oak, it ever af- 
terwards is but a Pollard, and will never become a Timber- 

To have good Oaks, or at leaft as good as can be., on wet 

Clays or dry Banks, Sfc. 'tis beft to plant the Acorns therein, 

R rather 

New Principles of Gardening. 

rather than to plant large Trees from the Nurfery, whofe for- 
mer Life were not acquainted with the different Juices of fuch 
Soils, which thofe young Trees railed from the Acorns will di- 
geft, being by Birth naturalized thereunto ; and the like of gra- 
velly, flinty, and rocky Lands. 

A good ifrong Land, like unto a light Brick-Earth, or a 
a Loam inclinable to Clay, produces the beft and tougheft Oaks, 
and the fooneft of all other Soils. 

Gravel will produce Oaks of a noble Stature, very ftreight, 
and a fine Grain, but they foon decay. 

If at any Time the Heads of your young Oaks fhould be too 
heavy for their .Bodies, and thereby be inclinable to hang down 
and be crooked, cut away thofe Side-Shoots of their Heads as is 
the Caufe; but 'tis beft to lead them up, tied to ftraight Stakes 
plac'd on Purpofe,which if praftis'd, and the Side-Buds always rub- 
bed off, theTimber producM by fuchTrees would be perfe&ly found 
and clear from Knots, which renders it of much greater Value 
than that which is otherwife. 

The proper Diftance as Oaks fhould be planted from one an- 
other, in V/oods, Groves, Parks, &c. fhouid never be lefs than 
thirty five Feet. 

And thus the Means of raifing Woods I fing ; 
Tho* from the parent Oak young Shoots may fpringj 
Or may tranf planted flourish j yet I know 
No better Means than if from Seed they grow. 
"Tis true this JVay a loitger Time will need y 
And Oaks but flowly are produced by Seed : 
Tet they with far the happier Shades are blefi, 
For thofa that rife from Acorns^ are the beft, 
With deep-fix d Roots beneath the Earth defend, 
So their large Boughs into the Air afcend. 
"Perhaps becauje^ when we young Sets tranjlate, 
They loofe their Virtue \ and degenerate ; 
While Acrons better thrive, fince from * their Birth, 
They have been more acquainted with the Earth. 

Thus we to Woods by Acorns Being give : 
But yet before the Ground your Seed receive ', 
To dig it firfi employ your Labourer, 
Then level it ; and, if young Shoots appear 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Above the Ground, fprung from the cloven Bud y 
If t If Earth be planted in the Springy 'tis good 
Thofe Weeds by frequent Culture to remove, 
Whofe Roots would to the Blojfoms hurtful prove ; 
Nor think it Labour loft to life the 'Plow, 
By Dung and Tillage all Things fertile grow. 

Whether you plant young SetSj or Acorns fiw % 
Still Order keep ; for ft? they be ft will grow : 
Order to evWy Tree like Vigour gives, 
And Room for the afpiring 'Branches leaves. 

When with the Leaf your Hopes begin to bud,, 
Banijh all wanton Cattle from the Wood. 
The browning Goat the tender Bloffbm kills ;• 
Let the fwift Horfe then neigh upon the Hills, 
And the free Herds fill in large Tafture tread, 
But not upon the new fprung Branches feed ; 
For whofe Tie fence Inclofures (hould be made 
Of Twigs, or Water into Rills conveyed. 
When ripening Time has made your Trees dilate, 
And the ftrong Roots do deeply penetrate, 
All the fnperfluous Branches muft be feWd, 
Left the opprejed Trunk Jhould chance to yield 
Under the Weight, and fo its Spirits loofe 
In fuch Excrefcences ; but as for thofe 
Which from the Stock you cut, they better thrive, 
As if their Ruin caused them to revive ; 
And the flow Plant, which fcarce advanced its Head, 
Into the Air its heavy Boughs will ffread. 

When from the faftend Root it fprings amain, 
And can the Fury of the North fuftain ; 
On the fmooth Bark the Shepherds -jhould indite 
Their rural Strifes, and theu their Verfes write. 

But let no impious Ax prophane the Woods, 
Or violate their facred Shades ; the Gods 
Them/elves inhabit there. Some have belnl < 
Where Drops of Blood from wounded Oaks diftilPd; 
Have feen the trembling Boughs with Horror (hake : 
So great a Confcience did the Antients make 
To cut down Oaks., that it was held a Crime 
In that obfcure and fuperftitious Time. 

R2 j 

124 New Princi P les °f Gardening. 

For Dryopeius Heaven did provoke. 
By daring to dejiroy th' iEmonian Oak; 
And with it, but included Dryad too, 
Avenging Ceres here her Faith did (hew : 
To the wrong d Nymph, while Erefichthon bore 
Torments as great as was his Crime before. 
Therefore it well might be ejieem'd no lefs 
Then Sacr Hedge, when ev'ry dark Recefs, 
The awful Silence, and each gloomy Shade, 
Was facred by the Zealous Vulgar made : 
Whene'er they cut down Gvoves, or fpoil the Trees, 
With Gifts the antient Pales did appeafe. 

T>ue Honours once Dodona's Foreji had, 
When Oracles were through the Oaks convey' d; 
When Woods inflrutted Prophets to foretell 
And the "Decrees of Fate in Trees did dwell. 



Of the Beech; its Culture, &c; 

THE Beech is a Tree well worth our Efteem, and high- 
ly defer ves the greateft of Encouragement for its Im- 
provement on Account of its great Ufes, not only for 
the noble Shade and Shelter for Cattle, or Majl for T>eer J but 
for its great Services: Firft, To Carpenters J Joiners, &c. whole 
Plains in general are made of this Wood, and many other In- 
ftruments alfo: Secondly ,To Mill-Wrights, for making the Rmbs 
of Wheels for Corn-Mills, Water -Engines, &c. and for Mud- 
CtUs, Conduit-Joice, &c Thirdly, For Keels of Ships, and _other 
Parts belonging thereunto: For this noble Timber is of fucha 
Nature, that if it's kept always wet, or always dry, twill lait tor 
many Ages; but if it happens to be often wet and dry, tispre- 

New Principles of Gardening. 

fently rotten and ufelefs. Fourthly, For Firing ; Of which the City 
of London deftroys many thoufandLoads every Year, being cleav'd 
into Billets for that purpofe. And befides all this, 'tis of pro- 
digious great Ufe in many other Services, as to Turners, Vphol- 
fters, &o which to mention here is need lefs, fince 'tis well known 
to all our Country Workmen in general. 

This Tree is propagated from its Seed, calPd Maft, which 
muft be gathered about the middle of September, when it will 
begin to fall ; and when gathered, and well dried, it muft 
afterwards be preferved in Sand till January, then fowed in 
the Seed-Bed, and orderM in every Refpeft as the Oak, with 
whom it greatly delights to grow. 

'Tis obferved that the Land it delights moftly in, is Mountains, 
chalky Hills, &c. as before defcrib'd. 

The Diftance that thefe Trees are to be planted from each 
other, fhould be never lefs than forty Foot: It makes a ftately 
Tree, and well deferves to be planted in our Avenues, inftead 
of thofe ufelefs Trees, the Lime and 'Dutch Elm. 

Thefe Trees when planted young, at about two Feet apart, and 
fuffer'd to throw out their Side-Shoots, makes very beautiful 
Hedges in Gardens, Wildernefs, &o 

When this Tree is intended to be propagated on poor Lands, 
'tis beft to fow the Maft, rather than plant the Tree from the 
Nurfery, as is before faid of the Oak. 

When e^er you plant, through Oaks your Beech defufe ? 
The hard Male Oak, and lofty Cerrug chufe : 
While Efculus of the Maft bearing kind,, 
Chief in Ilicean Groves we always find : 
For it affords a far extending Shade ; 
Of one of thefe fometimcs a Wood is made. 
They ft and unremoved, though Winters do affail, 
Nor more can Winds^ or Rain, or Storms prevail* 

To their own Race they ever are inclitfd, 
And Love with their Ajfociates to be join' d. 
When Fleets are rigged, and we to fight prepare, 
They yield us Plank, andfurnijfj Arms for War y 
Fuel to Fire, to "Ploughmen 'Plows they give 7 
To other Vfes we may them derive. 


126 New Principles of Gardening. 

But nothing muft the [acred Tree prophane ; 
Some Boughs for Garlands from it may be ta n : 
For tho/i whofe Arms their Country Men peferve, 
Such are the Honours which the Oaks de/erve. 

We know not certainly whence fir Jt of an, 
This "Plant did borrow its Original; 
Weather on Ladon, or on Maenalus, 
It grew, if fat Chaonia did produce ; 
It ''firft.'but better from our Mother-Earth, 
Then Modern Rumours, we may learn their Birth. 
When Jupiter the World's Foundation laid J 
Great Earth-born Giants Heaven did invade ; 
And Jove himfelf {when thefe he did fubdue,) 
His Lightning on the factious Brethren threw. 
Tellus her Sons Misfortunes does deplore, 
And while (he cberifbes the yet warm Gore, 
Of Rhaeus, from his Monjlrous Body grows, 
A vafter Trunk, and from his Breajl arofe 
A hardned Oak; his Shoulders are the fame, 
And Oak his high exalted Head became : 
His hundred Arms which lately through the Air, 
Were fpread, now to as many Boughs repair. 
Afeven-fold Bark his now fiifif Trunk does bind; 
And where the Giant flood a Tree we find: 
The Earth to Jove ftrait confecrates this Tree, 
Appealing fo his injur' d 'Deity ; 
Then 'twas that Man did the firfi Acorn eat: 
Although the Honour of this 'Plant be great, 
Both for its Shade, and that it facred is, 
Tet when its Branches (hoot into the Skies. 
Let them take heed, while with his brandijh'd Flame, 
The Thund'rer rages, (baking Natures Frame. 
Left they be blafted by his powerful Hand, 
While Tamarisks fecure, and Mirtles ftand. 



New Principles of Gardening. 127 

S E C T. V. 

Of the Jfh ; its Culture, &c. 


'HE Jjh is a very ufeful Tree, on many Occafions; as 
for Watermens Boats-Staves, Oars, &c. Coach and 
Cart-Wheels, Plows, and many other Works in Trade, 
and therefore ought to be as much increafed, as any other Tree 

This Tree is a very free grower, and is increafed from its 
Keys, which are thorough ripe about the End of Offober, or 
the Beginning of November, at which Time they are to be 
gather'd. In the gathering of Afcen-Keys for anlncreafe, you 
muft obferve, that thole Trees from which you gather them, 
be ftraight thriving Trees, and not of a fmall Stature, or any 
ways decaying. After your Keys are gather'd, let them be 
dry'd, and 'put into Sand, wherein let them remain till Janu- 
ry, at which Time they fliould be fown in the Seed-Bed, as 
before direded, &c 

The firft Year after fowing, they lie in the Earth, and the 
next Spring come up. Therefore for the firft Year, the Ground 
wherein they are fown, may be fow'd with a Crop of Barky, 
Oats, or any other Crops of the like Nature. 

But the mod advantageous Way is to keep them the firft 
Summer after gathering in Sand, and to fow them in the Spring 
following, viz. about the middle of January. 

During that Time as you keep them in Sand, obferve that 
the Sand be kept indifferently moift, and that the Air may have 
free Accefs to them, and in the laying them therein, be care- 
ful that they don't lie in Lumps, or too thick, but in fuch a 
Manner as for the Sand to encompafs every Key. 

In the Spring, when you fow them, firft prepare the Bed 

wherein they are to be fown ; and as foon as that is done, fow 

them of a reafonable Thicknefs, and immediately cover them with 

2 fine 

i 2 8 New Principles of Gardening. 

fine Earth, about two Inches in Thicknefs ; for if they lie long 
in the Air before they are cover'd, 'twill be a Prejudice to them, 
as ?lfo will the Weeds, if they are fuffer'd to grow among l 
them. The Firft Year they fhoot but little, to what they will 
the fecond after which they muft be trafplanted into the Nur- 
fery, as before direfted, &c. 

When you tranfplant an Aft- Tree, young or old, observe to 
prune its Side-Branches; but never meddle or cut off the leading 

Vlhes, in general, are of fuch a Nature, as to extend their 
Roots to a very great Diftance from the Bodies to which they 
belong, and entirely deprive all other Trees of their proper 
Nourifhment ; and, indeed, even Corn, and all other Vegitables of 
the like Nature, will languifh and pine away to nothing. 

And feeing that this Tree is pernicious to all others, there- 
fore I advife that Plantations of Am be by themfelves, that 
nothing may be wrong'd by their ravenous Nature, and their 
Diftance from each other be about twenty five Foot. 

Thus in fome even Fields the Aflj delights, 

Where a good Soil the gen'rous Tlant invites : 

For from an Ajh which Pelion once did bear, 

'Divine Achilles took that happy Spear, 

Which Heftor kill'd, and in their Champion Fate 

Involved the Ruin of the Trojan State. 

The Gods were kind, to 'let brave He&or die 

By Arms as noble as his Enemy. 

Afh, like the ftubborn Hero in his End, 

Always refolves to break rather than bend. 



New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Elm ; its Culture, Sec. 

OF Elms there are three Kinds, viz. the Engltfb, the Dutch, 
and the Witch Elm, of which the Englifh is the moft 
profitable, as well as the moft beautiful. 

They all delight in one and the fame Soil; which fhould be a 
good Loam, to have them in the greateft Perfection ; not but 
they will do on other Lands, as before deliver'd. Thefe Trees 
are increafed by Layers or Suckers, which laft fhould remain in 
the Bed two Years before they are tranfplanted into the Nur- 

Of all the feveral Kinds of Foreft or Ever-green Trees, there's 
none makes fuch Beautiful Hedges in Gardens, Groves, Wil- 
derneiTes, ®c. as the Englifh Elm; and although 'tis a Tree of 
a flow Growth, yet if 'tis grafted upon the Dutch Elm, 'twill 
advance to a large Stature in a fmall Time. 
The great Ufe of the Elm to Wheel-Wrists, MHUVriahts TiPe- 
Borers, Tump-Makers, & c . is fo well known that it needs no 
manner of Difcnption, to exemplify the Excellency thereof 

And in the Turk 'tis delightful, being planted in open Ave- 
nues, where its noble Shade and Verdure demonftrates itsGran- 
dure and Glory: Witnefsthat matchlefs Spot of Ground, Green- 
wich Park> whofe delightful Walks are chiefly adorn'd with 
this beautiful and moft advantapjous Plant. 

And Ibefides, 'tis one of the moft Hofpitable Plants growing 
for till admit of fuch under Shrubs, as 4(h; and clivers other 
Trees will not. 

f nJ tb , R ° WS °f Elm > y° ur Garden or your Field 
May be adorn'd, and the Sun's Heat repcll'd. 
They beft the Borders of your Walk compfe ; 
Their comely Green ft ill ornamental {bows. 

S On 

i 30 New Principles of Gardening. 

On a large Flat, continued Ranks may rife. 
Whofe Length will tire our Feet, and bound our Lyes ; 
Where endlefs Walks the pleafed Spectator views. 
And ev>ry Turn the -verdant Scene renews. 

The /age Corycian thus his native Field; 
Near fwift Oobalian Galefus till'd; 
A thou/and ways of planting Elms he found ; 
With them fometimes he would inclofe his (around: 
Oft in diretter Lines to plant he chofe ; 
From one vajl Tree a numerous Offspring rofe. 
Each younger "Plant with its old "Parent vies, 
And from its Trunk like Branches fill arife. 
They hurt each other, if too near they grow ; 
Therefore to all a proper Space allow. 

The Thracian Bard a pleafing Elm-Tree chofe, 
Nor thought it was below him to repofe ; 
Beneath its Shade > when he from Hell return d, 
And for twice loft Enrydice fi mourn'd. 
Hard by cool Hebrus Rhodop does afpire ; 
The Artijt, here, no fooner touched his Lyre, 
But from the Shade the fpreading Boughs drew near. 
And the thick Tree a fudden Wood appear : 
Holm, Withy, Cyprefs, Plane-Trees thither preft f 
The prouder Elm advanced before the reft : 
And {hewing him his Wife, the Vine, ddvis% 
That nuptial Rites were not to be difpis'd. 
But he that Counfel fcorn'd, and by his hate, 
Of Wedlock, and the Sex, incurr'd his Fate. 

N. B. That the Diftance to plant Elms at, is thirty or thirty- 
five Foot from each other, or rather fo much fquare. 

The "Difference which in planting each is found, 
Now learn ; fince th' Elm with happy Verdure's crown' d* 
Since its thick Branches do themfelves extend, 
And a fair Bark does the tall Trunk commend. 

J R A UN- 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Lime-Tree, by fome calVd the Lin- 
den-Tree ; its Culture, &c. 

TH E Lime is a beautiful Tree in the Spring, but 'tis 
of a very fmall Duration, if the Land wherein it grows 
be hot, as a Sand or Gravel, &c. 'Tis a Tree of a quick 
Growth, raifed from Seed or Layers ; it makes very fine Efpali- 
ers, or Hedges, and indeed is conformidable to any fbape what- 
foever : Its Leaf is of a fine light Green, makes a pleafant Shade, 
and is one of the very firft as welcomes in the Spring with its 
beautiful Leaves: 'Tis a very ufeful Tree for an immediate Shade, 
and for Avenues, Wilder nejfes, &c in fuch Places were future 
Profit by Timber is not regarded. But for my part, I Ihould 
rather make Ufe of them, to fill up the Quarters of a Wilder- 
nefs, than to plant them in Avenues, where so Tree is fo Beau- 
tiful and Profitable as the Englifh Elm. 

But then again, altho' the Elm is an advantageous Tree, 
when full grown, if fell'd and fold, and will fetch a great Price ; 
yet 'tis fuppofed that a Lover of Gardening values thofe beau- 
tiful Trees, when they are in their Prime, at a much higher 
Rate, than to deftroy them for the fake of their Timber, 
and thereby ruin grand Avenues, Walks, Sfc. to the great 
Prejudice of a noble Seat. Suppofe that Greenwich 'Park 
had been planted with the View of cutting down the Elms when 
grown to their full Maturity, what would have been the Con- 
fluence ? Why, the Deftruction of the moll: beautiful Spot or 
Ground in the Kingdom, and the Ruin of the Town alfo. And 
fince every Gentleman, is willing to polfefs the utmoft Pleafure 
of fuch Trees Durations, which when they decline are no more 
than Fire-wood, why may not the Lime-tree be admitted in 
loamy holding Lands, interfperfed with the Eim^ &c feeing 
that when either of their Beauty is over, and decaying, the 
S 2 Goodnefs 

[32 New Principles of Gardening. 

Goodnefs of their dying Bodies are of equal Value for the Fire. 
Tis certain that the Elm makes an excellent Shade, and a beauti- 
ful Tree, but not handfomer than that of the Lime, whofe cu- 
rious natural Shape exceeds all that Art can produce : Witnefs 
thofe noble Trees before Ham-Houfe, oppofite to the Seat of the 
Honourable James Johnfton's at Twickenham, Middlefex ; and 
thofe in Bujhy and Hampton-Court Tarks, whofe beautiful 
Forms is not Inferior to any growing. 

This Tree is of a very long Duration, and often of a large 
Magnitude. Mr. Evelin, in his Difcourfe on Foreji-Trees , Chap. 
xxix. 'Page 82- makes mention of a Lime-Tree j growing at 
'Depcnham in Norfolk, ten Miles from Norwich, whofe Circum- 
ference at bottom, was fixteen Yards and half, and its perpen- 
dicular Altitude about thirty Yards, which to me appears to 
be moreftranger than Mr. Bradley's Report of the Oak. How- 
ever, though every Lime does not arrive to that prodigious 
Magnitude, yet they never fail of a proportionate Size. 

The Nature of this Tree is to grow taper and ftreight ; 
to conftantly keep its pyramental Form ; to have Plenty of Leaves, 
whereby it makes a good Shade; to preferve its felf by its tough 
Bark from the violent Winds ; to produce good Quantity of Roots, 
from which the Head is plentifully fuppiied ; to fend forth fla- 
grant Flowers or BlofToms in the Spring ; produces Branches, 
whofe Wood is of a Beautiful red gloify Colour ; loon heals 
over its Wounds by a Knife, &c. and therefore ispreferved from 
the wet, fo that 'tis very feldom they gow hollow ; its Wood is 
of great Service in Carving, and is a very fweet kind of Fuel. 

In the pruning of their Roots, obferve that you cut away all 
their fmall woolly Fibrous Roots ; for they are prefently dead 
after taking up ; and befides they hinder the Earth from getting 
to the principal Roots: But for their He ids, 'tis beft to leave 
them on, pruning off all Side or Horizontal Branches clofe to the 
Body of the Tree, without leaving on Side-Snags as is com- 

The Seed of this beautiful Tree is ripe in October; at which 
time it mud be gather'd, and in a fine dry Day if pofTtble ; af- 
ter which lay it to dry in an open Room ; for the Space of fix 
feven Days, and then it being very dry, put it into Sand as was 
dire&ed for the Jfljen-Keys, and in the middle of February fol- 
lowing, mull be fawn in the Seed-Bed, which would be beft 11 
n ' under 

New Principles of Gardening. 133 

under an Ea/i or North Wall, &c. After they have continued 
two Summers in the Seed-Bed, tranfplant them in the Autumn 
following to the Nurfery, as before directed. 

When Limes are planted to make an Efpalier or^ Hedge, they 
are planted at three Foot Diftance in the Lines; in which ob- 
ferve, that whenever you plant Hedges of Lime, Elm, Sfc. to 
plant one low or fliort Plant between every two of the higheft, 
and thereby your Hedge will be full at the Bottom, which other- 
wife very rarely happens. Lime-Trees planted for fhady Walks, 
may be at ten, twelve, or fixteen Foot a-part ; but for thofein large 
Avenues, not nearer than thirty five or fourty Foot. 

N. B. That Hedges of Limes, or of Elms, fliould at firrt 
planting be cut down within four Foot of the Ground, and all 
their Side or Horizontal Branches fhorten'd, 'twill add very 
much to their Improvement. 

The beft Lime-Trees for Standards, are thofe of fix or kvm 
Years Growth. 

High (hooting Linden next exacts your Care ; 
With grateful Shades to thofe who take the Air. 
When thefe you plant, you fill JJjould bear in Mind 
Philemon and chafe Baucis: Thefe were join y d 
In a poor Cottage j by their pious Love, 
Whofe facred Ties did no lefs lafling prove j 
Then Life itfelf They Jove once entertained^ 
And by their Kindnefs on him fo much gain 9 d\ 
That^ being worn by Times devouring Rage, 
He changed to Trees their weak anaufelefs Age. 
Tho* now transformed, they Male and Female are ; 
Nor did their Change ought of their Sex impair. 
Their limber chief y is for Turners good; 
They foon /boot npj and rife into a Wood. 

N. B. That the Tlat anus -Tree is propagated as the Lime- 
Tree, by Layers: Its Leaves are very large and beautiful. 'Tis 
a Tree of a quick Growth, delights in good Land; but 'tis late 
in the Spring before its Leaves comes out, and in ibme hot 
Summers drop very early. 


1 04. New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Maple ; its Culture, &c. 

THE Maple-Tree is very proper to be cultivated in our 
Gardens, in regard to its being a very free Grower, 
and thickens the Quarters of Wdderneffes, Coppices, 
Woods, &c. when train'd up as a Shrub or Bujb, and not as a 
Standard Tree. This Plant is very fubjeft to receive a Sort of 
Honey-Dew on its Leaves, which being wafh'd off by Rains, 
is prejudicial to all fuch Plants as it falls on; therefore for 
that Reafon 'tis beft to cut them down near to the Ground, that 
they may break into divers Branches, and make a Thicket from 
the Bottom. 

Or if they are train'd up in Hedges, they make a very hand- 
fome Appearance, and will thrive under the Drip of other Trees 
although others cannot endure long under the Drip of them. 

The Soil this Tree delights in, is a dry Ground, or Bank ; 'tis 
increased by Seed, Suckers, or Layers; and its Seed lies a Year 
in the Ground before it comes up ; therefore 'tis beft to keep it 
the Brft Year in Sand, as the Afh, &c. 

Refpecl is likewifi to the Maple due, 

JVhofe Leaves j both in their Figure, and their Hue, 

Are like the Linden ; but it rudely grows, 

And horrid Wrinkles all its Trunk inclofe. 

^ Rapin. 


New Principles of Gardening. 135 


Of the Sycamore ; its Culture, &c. 

Tl HIS Tree is moft proper for a Wood or Coppice, ra- 
ther than a Wildernefs or Garden, on Account that 
its Leaves are fubjed to receive and retain iuch Honey- 
< De i ws, that it draws to them feveral Kinds of Flies> which are 
very troublefome to People when walking near them. 

Of Sycamore-Trees there is two Sorts, the one with plain 
green Leaves, and the other varigated. 'Tis a Tree as makes a 
fine Shade, a very quick Grower, of a beautiful Colour and 

'Tis a Tree as grows to a tolerable good Stature, its Timber 
is of good Services in divers Affairs, and is very eafy propaga- 
ted from Seed or Layers. The Seed fhould be fow'd as foon as 
ripe, which is known by the Time of its falling, and will 
come up the Spring following. 

It thrives belt in a light and dry, rather than a wet and ftiff 


Of the Hornbeam ; its Culture, tkc 

THE Hornbeam is a Plant that will make a Standard, 
but not over and above large ; yet for Variety's fake, 
'tis proper to have fome of them in our Wiiueinefs. 
'Tis belt for Hedges, which of thofe as fhed their Leaves year- 

1 36 New Principles of Gardening. 

ly, none is fuperior to it. It is raifed from Seed, which lies 
one Year in the Ground before it comes up, or otherwife, as long 
in Sand as the Afh 5 and fhould be fown in the fame Seafon and 
Manner. It makes a very beautiful Thicket for the Entertain- 
ment of Birds in the Quarters of a Wildernefs, &c. and very 
often holds on its Leaves all the Winter, till they are difplaced 
by the young ones in the Spring. 

If any *Plain be near 'jour Garden founds 

With Cyprus, or with Hornbeam, hedge it rounds 

Which in a thoufand Mazes will confpire 7 

And to Recejfes unferceiv'd retire : 

Its Branches^ like a Wall^ its Paths divide. 

Affording a frejh Scene on every Side. 

'Tis true, that it was honoured heretofore ; 

But Order quickly made it valued more^ 

By its jhorn Leaves j and thofe ^Delights which rofe 

From the dijiinguifh } d Forms in which it grows. 

Tofome cool Arbour by the Way's T>eceit, 

Allured j we hafte, or fome oblique Retreat, 

Where underneath its Umbrage we may meet 

With Jure Defence againjl the raging Heat. 



Of the Hazel, its Culture, &c. 

TH E Hazel is a very fine Plant for the thickening of a 
JVildernefs^ and its Fruit is no lefs diverting to the young 
Men and Maids in the Nutting-Seafon. Tis a very 
profitable Coppice-Wood \ and is propagated from its Nutr , or by 
Suckers : When by Nuts, they fhould be fown foon after they 
are gathered, which fhould not be, until the Kernels have re- 
3 ceived 

New Principles of Gardening. 137 

ceived their full Growth ; and the Soil as they will thrive in, 
is poor, fandy, dry, or cold Lands, &c. but when better, 'tis 
better ftill. 

When they have feen three Years over their Heads* in Janua- 
ry cut them down, leaving about fix or eight Inches above 
Ground ; and the Spring following they will break out into di- 
vers Shoots, which in five Years, or thereabouts, will be fit to 
make, &c. or if let growing until eight or nine Years, 
will make fine Hop-Toles, Hoops, Fire-lVood, &c. 

I cannot but recommend thofe propagated from Seed, before 
thofe from Suckers, being fown as aforefaid, kept clean from 
Weeds, and kept at the Dillance from one another of about 
three or four Foot. 

But it you plant Suckers, the proper Time for that Work is 
Ottober, at which Time you mull prune them down as before 
direfred, viz. within fix or eight Inches of the Ground. 

N. B. That as this Plant may be eafily propagated by Lay- 
ers, laid down from the Mother-Plant, or Stool, as Eltns^ 
Limes, &c. 'tis more fafer to plant the Layers as are well root- 
ed, which one Year will perform, than to run the Hazard of 
planting Suckers, which often fail. 

Hafle difpers^d in any 7 lace will live :' 
In Jlony Grounds Wild Aft, and Cornel thrive? 
In more abrupt Recejfes thefe we find, 
Spontaneoufly exposed to Rain and Wind. 



138 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Birch ; its Culture, &c. 

IN Confidcration that the Services of the ; Birch-Tree is of 
the fmalleft Number of any Forejl-Tree, therefore ris con- 
tented to live in the worft of Soils-, and altho? this Tree 
is but of fmall Ufe, befides its terrible Afpeft to Children, be. 
vet 'tis a very beautiful Plant, and highly deferves a Place in the 
Quarters of our Wildernefs. And befides, its Faculty of attrac- 
ts and preparing from the Earth, that pleafant and healthy me- 
dieinal Liquor, is a fufficient Reafon, that it highly deferves a 
due Encouragement as well as other Foreft-Trees. 

And although the making of Birch- Wine is known to fome 
People yet I cannot but think, that if I infers it in this Place, 
it may oblige others, without any Difplealure to any. 

The Method that I fhall lay down, is the fame as Mr. Eve- 
lyn makes Mention of in his learned Difcourfe on Forreft-Tiees, 

?a i g n the Beginning of March cut an oblique Hole, or rather a 
Slit, under The Branch of a well-fpreading Birch-Tree, which 
keep open by a fmall Wedge or Stone put therein. To 
this Hole, or Slit, fix a Bottle to receive that clear Water or Sap 
as will extill it felf out of the Aperture into the Bottle, which 
muft be taken away when full, and others fix d in its Place, 

Having in this Manner obtain'd a fufficient Quantity of the 
Sap or Birch-Water, put to every Gallon thereof, a Quart ot 
Hone" well ftirrM together, and boil it almoft an Hour, with a 
few Cloves and a little Lemmon Peel, being kept well fcuni- 

me w'hen it is fufficiently boil'd, as before, and become cold, 
put to it two or three Spoonfuls of good Ale, which will caule 

New Principles of Gardening. 

k to work like new Ale, and when the Yeaft begins to fettle, 
bottle it up as you do other Liquors, as Wine, ®r. and in a' 
competent Time 'twill become a moll brisk and fpiritous Wine 
and a very great Opener. N. B. That if you don't like Honey,' 
(it being disagreeable to fome) inftead thereof, you may allow 
one Pound of the belt double-refin'd Sugar, or it may be dulci- 
fied with the beft of Malaga Raifins ; which lad: will make it a 
wonderful fine Wine. 

And altlio* this Wine is very gentle and harmlefs in its Ope- 
ration within the Body, yet 'tis fo ftrong in the common Stone- 
Bottles, that they cannot preferve its Spirits. This Wine 
is very good for the Phthifick, dilTolves the Stone in the 
Bladder, and exceedingly fharpens the Appetite, being drank 
ante Tajium. 


Of the §yickbearn* 

THE Quickbeam, called by fome Wickey, or JVicking, 
and by others Wild or Spanish J(b, is a molt beau- 
tiful Tree for a Wildernefs, not only for its pleafant 
Leaves and Straitnefs of Shoots, but for its delightful Blof- 
foms in the Spring, and curious Gutters of red Berries in the 

'Tis raifed from its Seed, and requires the fame Culture as 
the Afli. 


140 New Principles of Gardening 


Of the Alder, Toplar, Withy, Willow, Sal- 
low, and O^ier -, their Culture, &c. 

(1.) rp HE Alder i an amphibious Plant, who greatly de- 
lights in wet boggy Lands, River- Sides, &c. is 
A increased by large Cuttings, as before dire&ed. 
The Shoots of this Plant fhould be cut down every third or 
fourth Year, at longeft; for if they are fuffer'd to grow a longer 
Time, the Wounds will be fo very large, that with the Wet, 
&c. they will foon rot, and become hollow, and thereby in- 
ftantly decay. 

The beft Time to cut or head down this and all other Aqua- 
tick Trees, is in February ; for by the immediate Flowing of 
the Sap, their Wounds are foon heal'd. * 

(x.) Of 'Poplars there are four Kinds, viz. Firft, the 
large White Poplar, commonly called Abeal, with a large, 
pale, green Leaf, and white underneath. Secondly, the lmall 
White Abeal, whofe Leaves are fomewhat fmaller, but ot the 
lame Form and Colour as the preceding. Thirdly, that Kind 
of Toflar as is called the. A/pen or Afp-Tree. Fourthly, the 
other Kind is the JVater-Toplar ; its Leaf is of a pale Green., as 
the large White, but in Form like the A/pen. The young Shoots 
is of a yellowifh Green, and delights to grow by River's 
Sides- The beft Ufe thefe Trees can be applied to, is for the 
breaking of Wefterly and Northerly Winds, and to be planted 
in dry or wet Lands, where no other Tree will thrive ; 
for the Advantage as will arife from its Timber, S?r. for 
Fuel, Ports, Rails, Stiles, &c. is many Times better than 
that from the Willow. . 

New Principles of Gardening. 

This kfl: is increafed by large Cuttings, in the Manner as 
directed for Willows, &c. in the firft Sedion hereof; which 
when planted for Stumps, to cut or lop, and thofe for Pol- 
lards, may be planted five, fix, or eight Foot high, of any Thick- 
nefs not exceeding three Inches (or little more) Diameter. 

In the Planting thefe large Cuttings, be careful that neither 
of the Ends be fplit in cutting ; and that the Bark is not difplaced 
in any Part. Plant them about eighteen or twenty Inches deep ; 
and the belt Seafon is October, if your Land is hot very wet 
or February if otherwiie. 

Thefe Sorts of Trees, well managed, may be lopp'd every five 
Years, and will turn to a very good Account. 

Into your Foreft ? flatly Poplars brin%, 

Which from their Seed with equal Vigour fpring. 


(3-) The Withy: It delights in Land that is not overmoift or 
dry; as Banks of Rivers, Hills, &c wherein fmall Springs fpew 
out, or Banks in Morilh Lands, and may be lopp'd every fifth 

(4.) The Willow delights in the fame Soil ; and both are in- 
creaied by large Cuttings, as before directed. 

I fhall not trouble my Reader with the feveral forts of Willows, 
feeing that they are all propagated bv the fame Method ; and 
therefore fhall only add, that no Gentleman fhould be without 
the fmelling Willow, which is a Plant of a quick Growth, bears 
a fine fhining broad green Leaf, with beautiful Flowers, delight- 
ful to Bees ; and the fine French yellow Willow, which is of as 
tough a Nature as Whitleather, and of great U fe in nailing 
Fruit-Tree?, and other fuch like Works in a Garden. 

(5-) Of Oziers there are feveral Sorts, and all raifed as 1 the 
preceeding. They love a more Moift or Moorifh Land than 
the Willow or Sallow. 

The proper Diftance to plant Oziers is about two Foot and 
half, or three Foot, mixing Stumps and Pollards together; and 
the bell: Seafon to plant them, is in February. 'Tis a Plant of 
great Service for Baskets, &c. and therefore highly deferves our 

(6.) The 

142 Kew Principles of Gardening. 

(6.) The Sallow is a Plant as delights on moift Banks : J Tk 
increafed by Seedj Layers j or Cuttings. There are three Kinds 
common ; of which the Round-leaf Sallow delights beft 
in moift Banks, as aforefaid, and the others in wetter Lands, 
as Moors, &c. 

Alder j and Withy j chearful Streams frequent, 

And are the Rivers only Ornament. 

If antient Fables are to be believed, 

Thefe were Ajfociates heretofore, and liv'd 

On fijhy Rivers in a little Boat, 

And with their Nets their painful Living got. 

The Fejlival approached; with one Confent, 

All on the Rites of Pales are Intent: 

While thefe unmindful of the Holy Day, 

Their Nets to dry upon the Shore dijfilay. 

But Vengeance foon tti Offenders overtook; 

Terf fling fill to labour in the Brook, 

The angry Goddefs fix*d them to the Shore, 

And for their Fault doomed them to work no more. 

Thus to Eternal Idlenefs condemn* d, 

They felt the Weight of Heaven j when contemn' d. 

The Moifture of thofe Streams by which they (land, 

Endues them both with Tower to expand 

Their Leaves abroad; Leaves,, which from guilt look pale, 

In which the never ceafing Frogs bewail. 


-AT. B. That the proper Seafon to fell the Oak is in April \ 
the Elm, Chefnut, and Walnut, from Ottober to February ; and 
the Beech, A$, Willow, Abeal, &c may be lopp'd in any part 
of the fame Months. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Black Cherry-Tree. 

ALTHOUGH the Black Cherry-Tree is not direftly a Fo 
reft-Tree, yet in Regard to its being a beautiful Tree 
in a Wildernefs, I could not pafs it by without taking 
fome Notice thereof. 

The Soil as is raoft natural to it, is a dry Soil, with a gravelly 
Bottom, not but they will do very well in moft Kinds of Loam. 

They are increafed from the Stones of the Fruit, which when 
ripe fhould be gathered, and the Pulp got off, either by rowling 
them in dry Sand under a Plank, &c. which muft afterwards 
be put into Sand, not too thick fo as to heat, and in the February 
after, may be fown in a Seed-Bed, as already defcribed. 

This Tree makes a glorious Appearance in the Spring, when 
in Bloom, and is no lefs pleafant when its Fruit is ripe: 'Tis 
a Tree as draws great Quantity of Birds to it, who are the mod 
delightful, and beautiful Embellifhments., as a wild and rural 
Garden can be adorn'd with ; and befides, its Bloom gives great 
Relief to the moft induftrous Bee. 

If the a/firing "Plant large Branches bear, 

And Cherries with extended Arms appear ; 

There near his Flocks upon the cooler Ground 

The Swain may lie, and with his Pipe refound 

His Love ; but let no Vice thofe Shades difgrace 3 

We ought to bear a Reverence to the Place : 

The Boughs, tti 'unbroken Silence of a JVood, 

The Leaves themfelves demonftrate that fome God 

Inhabits there, whofe Flame might be fo jujl, 

To burn thofe Groves which had been fir'd by Luft. 

But through the Woods while thus the Ruftick /pert, 

Whole Flights cf Birds will thither too re fort ; 


144 ^ ew P r i nc ip^ es °f Gardening. 

JVhofe diferent Notes and Murmurs fill the Air: 
Thither fid Philomela will repair ; 
Once to her SI er /he complain d, but now 
She warbles forth her Grief on evry Bough, 
Fills all with Tereus Crimes, her own hard Fate, 
And makes the melting Rocks, compajfionate. 
Uifturb not Birds which on your Trees abide, 
By them the Will of Heav'n is fignified : 
How oft from hollow n aks the boading Crow, 
The JVinds and future Tempejls do forefbow. 
Of thefe the wary ^Ploughmen fhould make ufe ; 
Hence Obfervations of his own deduce, 
And fo the Changes of the IVeather tell, 
But from your Groves all hurtful Birds expel. 

The riper Cherries are, when gathered the founder are the 
Kernels ; and if they are fown as betore directed, they will come 
up in the following Spring. But if they lie long out of Sand, 
&c. to be very dry, after the Pulp is taken off, they will not 
come up till the fccond Spring, and fometimes never. 

The Fruit is ripe in July, and in many Places they are very 
large, and of an excellent fine Tafte- 

The Tree is naturally of a very large Growth : And Mr. Coot, 
in his Treatife o£ For eft Trees, tells us, that ztCafbiobury, he 
meafured the Height of one Black- Cherry-Tree^ and found it 
to be eighty five Foot, five Inches. 


New Principles of Gardening. 145 


General Directions for planting Foreft 
Trees, &c. 

WHEN your Trees in the Nurfery are arrived to a pro- 
per Bignefs, fit to be tranfplanted in the 'Park, Foreft, 
fVildernefs, &c. they are to be tranfplanted in the 
following Manner, viz. 

If your Ground is not in general to be trenched, which fhould 
always to be done for the Planting of Wildernejfes, Coppice, &c 
then firft fetout the Diftance as each Tree is to ftand. as is before 
dire&ed, and dig for each Tree a Circular Hole of ren Foot Di- 
ameter, and about two Foot deep at moll, obferving to lay 
the firft Spit of Earth by it felf, which afterwards mult be caft 
into the Bottom of the Hole; and if 'tis a Meadow, &c. as 
you plant in, the Turf muft be well chopp'd to Pieces with 
the Spade before the Tree is planted thereon. 

Your Hole being thus prepared, the next Work to be done 
is the pruning of the Tree, wherein obferve that you don't 
head any Tree, and efpecially the Oak, IValnut, Chefnut, jijhj 
Elm, Beech j &c. and that you prune away all matty Fibrous 
Roots, and fuch as are dead by the Winds, as will hinder the 
Earth's getting to the larger: Alfomind that your Knife is very 
Sharp, that you cut clean, that you prune the I nd of every 
Root, and cut away all that are bruifed. 

Your Tree being thus pruned, place it in the Hole as 'tis to 
ftand, and fill in the Earth equally about its Roots, and be 
careful to fee that every Root is well inclofed therewith, not 
to be hollow, &c. which caufesthe Tree to periih ; the Earth 
being firmly placed to the refpe&ive Roots, the Tree muft be 
{j fecured 

ia6 New Principles of Gardening. 

fecured by Stakes ; that the V/inds do not difplace it, and if 
you pile up a great deal of Earth over their Roots, 'twill be 
a Means of keeping the Tree faft, and preferve them from 
the Scorching Heat of the Sun. 

But, as I faid before, take care that you don't plant to deep, 
and efpecially in wet and cold Lands. 


N E W 




Of Ever -Greens ; their Culture, dec. 


Of the feveral Methods by which Ever- 
Greens are raijed. 

VER-GREENS are propogated by Seed, Cuttings, 
Layers j, or Suckers. 

(i.) By Seed; as the Fir, Pine, Ever-Green, 
Oak, Holly, Yew, Bay, Box, Laurel, PhiHyrea, 
Juniper, Piracantha, Arbutus, Italian Green Pri- 
vet, Cyprus, Cedar of Labanus, &c. 

U z OO By 

148 New Principles of Gardening. 

M By Cuttings ; as the Yew, Laurus-tinus, Bay, Box, 
T aurel, Phillyrea, and Piracantha. 

(O By Layers - as the Holly, Yew, Laurus-tinus , Bay, 
Box Laurel, Phillyrea, Alaternus, Piracantha, and Arbutus. 

(1) Bv Suckers I the Bay, Box, Laurel, and Phillyrea. 

In the Propagation of fome Ever-Greens from Seed, as Yew, 
Hol"y,V you muft obferve that their Seeds, don t come up 
till the fecond Spring after gathering. Therefore tis beft to 
prefcrve them the firft Summer in Sand, as directed for the 
Btech, Hornbeam, ®r. and to fow them in Seed-Beds the Spring 
afterw'ards in the fame Manner. , 

Tnraife Ever-Greens from Cuttings, 'tis beft to do that Work 
\n October, placing the Cuttings in Chopp'd Trenches about 
a Foot Diftance from one another, and in the Rows three or 
four Inches afunder. The Length of Cuttings ftould never ex- 
ceed fifteen Inches, and muft be planted about eight or ten In- 
ches in Depth, and between each Row fo planted, 'tis beft to lay 
in a moderate Thicknefs of Horfe-Dung, which preferyes their 
RootT, %c. from the Froft of the Winter, and keeps them coo 
in the following Spring and Summer at which Times, in dry 
and hot Weather, they muft be plentifully water d. 

The Method of increafing Ever-Greens by Layers, is perform ,d 
in the very fame Manner as that of Foreft-Trees ; in which 
you are J obferve, that 'tis beft to let the Layers of the A - 
butus, and fuch hard-wooded Trees, remain on the Stools at 
leaft two Years before they are taken ott. 


Of the Tine-Tree ; its Culture, &c. 

THIS {lately Tree deferves a much greater Refpeft than 
of late it has receiv'd; but I believe 'tis only owing 
to the great Miftake of planting it in a wrong Seaion, 
which oftentimes caufes it to milcarry, to &$g£^ 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Difcouragement of fuch Gentlemen as would gladly give it its 
due Encouragement. 

The Seafon for planting this Tree is the End of March, or End 
of Auguji; and not in October, November, ^December, January, 
or February j as has been the Cuftom hitherto, to the great 
Prejudice and Lofs of many fine Plants. This Noble Tree de- 
lights in a frefh gravelly Soil, mix'd with Loam ; but mortally 
hates Dung of any kind. 

At the planting of thefe Trees, good Care muft be taken to 
fecure them with Stakes, that the Winds do not difturb them 
in ftriking Root. 

And whereas I advife you in the planting of Foreft-Trees, 
to cut off their Fibrous Roots at planting, you are now to ob- 
serve the contrary Rule, which is to preferve all their Fibrous, 
and other larger Roots, feeing that their bruifed Ends are cut 
clean, and all broken Roots taken quite out. The beft Me- 
thod of planting this, and all other Ever-Greens in general, to 
be certain of Succefs, is to make ufe of that fure and ingenious 
Manner of Planting, mention'd in S-ct. 3. Part II. firft, diC 
cover'd by the Honourable Mr. Secretary Johnjione of Twic- 
kenham ; and whereas the Roots of this Tree do naturally run 
far from the Body in few Years, therefore they don't delight 
in being removed when grown large, and for that ReaionI ad- 
vife that they be planted for good, when but three or four 
Years of Age; and that they be fafely preferv'd from Cattle, 
'tiil they have Strength to preferve themfelves from fuch In- 

This glorious Plant is moflr proper to be planted in large 
Avenues of boundlefs Views, to environ Canals, Bafons,, Bowl- 
ling-Greens, &c. and in the Quarters and other Parts of zWil- 
dernefs, Grove, &c 

J Tis raifed from Seed fowed in February, or Beginning of 
March, in a Seed-Bed, as was directed for Foreft-Trees, &c. 

N. B. That if you keep the Side-Branches prun'd off, as 
they break out, 'twill greatly add to their Growth: But al- 
ways remember that Pines, Firs, Sfr. muft not be headed at 
any Time whatsoever. 

The Pine, which fpreads its felf in every Tart, 
And from each Side large Branches does impart, 

i$o New Principles of Gardening. 

Adds not the leaji Perfection to your Groves; 

Nothing the Glory of its Leaf removes. 

A noble Verdure ever it retains, 

And o'er the humbler Plant it proudly reigns. 

To the God's Mother dear; for Cybele 

Turn'd her beloved Atys to this Tree. 

On one of thefe vain-glorious Marfyas died, 

And paid his Skin to Phoebus for his "Pride. 

Away of boring Holes in Box be found, 

And with his artful Fingers chang'd the Sound. 

Glad of himfelf and thirjiy after Praife, 

On his Shrill Box he to the Shepherds plays. 

With thee, Apollo, next he will contend; 

For thee all Charms of Mufwk do defcend. 

From the bold Piper foon received his "Doom ; 

{Who firive with Heaven never overcome^ 

A pong made Nut their Apples fortifies, 
Againji the Storms which threaten from the Skies. 
The Trees are hardy, as the Fruits they bear, 
And where rough Winds the rugged Mountains tear, 
There fiourifb beji ; the lower Vales they dread, 
And languijh if they have not room to fpread. 


Of Fir-Trees ; their Culture, &c. 

OF Fir-Trees their are divers Kinds, as the Scotch Fir, 
the Silver Fir, the Spruce Fir, and the Norway 
The Scotch Fir is a beautiful Plant, and highly deferves 
our Notice ; 'tis eafily propagated by Seed as is before faid 
of the Pine, and delights in good Land alfo. The Spruce 
Fir, is not fo fine a Plant as the Scotch Fir, nor likewiie 
the Silver Fir. However, they are both Beautiful Trees, 


New Principles of Gardening. 151 

when promifcuoufly planted in a Wildernefsj Grove, £f?f. The 
Norway Fir is an excellent fine Plant for to make Hedges, it 
being a very clofe thick Grower, and of a beautiful Green : And 
the only Nurfery, that I know of, as has this Tree, with all other 
Ever-Greens, Fruit and Foreft-Trees, Flowering Shrubs, 6k. 
in their befl: Perfection, is that of the ingenious Mr. Teter Ma- 
fon, Nuriery-Man at IJleworth in the County of Middle/ex, 
who I dare to affirm, has one of the befl Colle&ion of English 
Fruits of any Nurfery- Man in England \ and on whom every 
Gentleman may fafely depend of having, not only every Kind 
of Fruit exa&ly of the right Kind defired, but the very beft 
Growth, and at reafonable Rates. 

Let lofty Hills, and each declining Ground, 
{For there they flourish) with tall Firs abound. 
Layers of thefe cut from fome antient Grove, 
And buried deep in Mould, in Time will move 
Toung Shoots above the Earth, which foon difdain 
The Southern Blafts, and launch into the Main. 



Of the Ilex, or Ever-green Oak ; its Cul- 
ture, &c. 

THIS Kind of Oak is to be valued for the great Services 
of its Timber- as well as the immediate Beauty of its 
Form and delightful Leaves, which are green all the Win- 
ter, ®c. 'Tis a Tree of a quick Growth, and is naturally very 
large. 'Tis inereas'd from its Acorn, and is as much inclinable to 
have Tap-Roots as the common Englijh Oak. The Time of 
planting the Acorns is in February, when they ihould be planted 
in a Bed, about five Inches fquare off one another, and the 
Mould very frelh and good, always obferving to keep them dean 

i $2 New Principles of Gardening. 

from Weeds, and to water them in dry Seafons, Sfc. Their 
Continuance in the Seed-Bed muft be two Years ; after which 
Time, they fhould be traniplanted at proper Diftances where they 
are to remain, at two Foot and a half, when to make Hedges, and 
if for Standards, not nearer than thirty Foot: They lo . e a deep, 
loamy, moift Land. In the Gardens of that beautiful grand Seat 
of the late Earl of 'Dyzartzt Ham, near Richmond in Surry, are 
many fine Hedges of this Plant, as well as a wonderful la rge Stan- 
dard growing at the End of the Terrace, next to the Melancho- 
ly Walk, from whofe Acorns thofe Hedges were railed. 

The Obfervation of Mr. B-d-y\ in his New Improvements, 
Part I. Page 50. on the Tap- Roots of Trees, is entirely wrong ; 
where he fays, " If we conlult the Anatomy of Plants, we 
" ought to be very careful, not to injure their Tap-Roots, which 
" are always anfwerable to the leading Shoot on the Top of the 
u Tree ; it is therefore reafonable to believe, that a Plant by 
" lofing of that downright Root., is in Danger of lofing alio the 
" Top-Shoot, which is fed from it. And although a Tree may 
" ftrike frefh Roots after the Amputation of this leading Root, 
" yet we may find by Experience that the Sap will then puih 
* forth Branches in the Side of the Stem, and difcontinue its up- 
" right Growth." 

Now, when a Man writes to the World with a Defign to in- 
form Mankind, 'tis abfolutely neceiTary, when he fays, I know } or 
have found this or that Thing by Experieuce, &c. that he at the 
fame Time fliould mention where, and when, and in what Man- 
ner he made thofe Experiments, with Demonftrations to prove 
the Truth thereof, which Mr. B-d-y has omitted- About ten 
Years ago, I planted a Wildernefs of Oaks J Elms, Limes, Tla- 
tanus, $£>c. for the late Honourable Thomas Vernon, at his Seat 
in Twickenham-Tark, where in feveral Parts thereof, I made 
Experiments on divers Oak-Trees planted therein; part of which 
had their Tap-Roots carefully preferved, and others pru- 
ned off; and the Confequence was thus, viz. altho' thofe with 
Tap-Roots were planted near to thofe without, and in divers 
Parts of the Wildernefs, whofe Land differ'd very much in re- 
lpect to its Goodnels, yet in every different Kind of Land, thofe 
Trees whofe Tap-Roots were cut away, growed with much 
greater Vigour, and produced finer Perpendicular Branches than 
thofe whole Tap-Roots were not difplaced ; and indeed many of 


New Principles of Gardening. 

thofe with their Tap-Roots dwindled away, and in three Years 
Time died; whereas thofe whofe Roots were pruned, that is, 
their Tap- Roots cut off, growed away with Strength and Vi- 
gour, and foon became ftately Trees ; lb that the above Do&rine 
of Mr. Bradley's, of the Tap-Roots of an Oak being cut away, 
'twill continue its upright Growth, appears to be like the Ho- 
rizontal Shelters of Mr. Lwre*ce\ viz. an Imagination or 
Self-Conceit only. 


Of the Holly ; its Culture, &c. 

THE Wild or Green Holly is generally raifed from its 
Berries, which muft be gather'd when ripe, and after- 
wards fweated before they are put in Sand, as I have al- 
ready directed : In which Operation Care muft be taken, that 
they do not heat over much in their Sweat, for thereby it o ten 
happens, that they become ufelefs, which greatly difappoints the 
diligent Planter. The Soil that this Plant delights in, is a fandy gra- 
velly Ground, and is much inclining to have Tap-Roots, which 
muft be prevented by being often tranfplanted, at leaft every 
three Years, as before directed for Fruit and Foreft-Trees. 

The beft Time to remove this Plant, is in April or Augnjl, 
being planted in that Manner as directed for the Pine-Tree. If 
that you would graft or bud any of the varigated Kinds on the 
Green Holly, you muft provide your felf with Cuttings of fuch 
Kinds as you like, which maybe grafted on young Stocks, of five or 
fix Years Growth in April, or budded, if your Grafts fhould 
mifs, in July. And in the Operation of grafting you muft ob- 
ferve, that the Leaves of the Cutting be carefully cut off, the up- 
per one excepted ; that they be exacliy placed Bark to Bark ; that 
they be carefully tied with Baft, and well loam'd, that the Wet 
or Air do not get in at the Top, or any Part thereof, which will 
immediately kill the tender Graft or Cutting, and thereby difap- 
X point 

i 54 New Principles of Gardening. 

point you of the Succefs defired. The Bark of this Plant pro- 
duces Bird-Lime, which may be made divers Ways, but none 
better than that prefcrib'd by Mr. Bradley in his New Improve- 
ments, Part II. Page 11. 

This Plant makes an excellent Hedge in either Garden, Wilder- 
nefs, or common Field, and a good Fence againft Cattle : 
'Tis a Tree as will grow in the Drip or Shade of Foreft-Trees, 
and is a beautiful Plant in the Quarters of a Wildernefs or Thic- 
ket : Its Leaves are always beautiful, and the Berries afford a molt 
delightful and agreeable Profped in moft Months of the Year. 
Befides this Green Holly, as produces red Berries, there is another 
Kind of Green Holly, that produces yellow Berries, and is a 
very beautiful Plant in a Wildernefs, as aforefaid. _ 

The feveral Kinds of Varigated or Bloach'd Hollies, are only 
beautiful when promifcuoufly planted amongft the Green Hollies 
in a Wildernefs, in fuch a wild Manner as if placed there by Na- 

.And alfo when planted in Hedges, to environ an open Com- 
partment, Cabinet, Grove, ®c. in a Wood or Wildernefs, but ne- 
ver fo fine when train'd up in thofe ftiff Forms of round-headed 
Plants, or what the Gardeners call Tedments, meaning Tyra- 
merits or Cones. For a Holly is a Plant that loves Liberty, and is 
always in its greateft Beauty, when mffer'd to grow wild, 
without the Trouble of clipping by Sheers, gr. If Gentlemen 
did but compare the mean Afpeft of their ftiff chpp d Hollies, 
with the Beauty of thofe free Growers on wild Commons, ®c. 
they would never after fuffer thofe fine Plants to be fo often in- 
iur'd by the unthinking Gardener. 

The pretty Invention, as called by Mr. Bradley in his New 
Improvements,? art II. Page 15. ofplanting Ever-green Hedges 
with Columns and TiUfters, or Varigated Hollies let in them 
at proper Diftances, is entirely wrong; for the Nature : of 
a Holly is fuch, that it cannot be pruned into » thofe nice Members 
that are contained in the Bafes and Capital of Columns and 3W- 
ters. I could fay much more on this Head, but at prefent ihaU 
forbear, feeing that it did not come from an .f%'f™1 ™<™ 
than from a Gardener; and therefore do advife, ^t where Hed- 
ges of Holly are to be planted, good Choice be made of fuch kind 
of Varigated Hollies as naturally grow thick, which mix in the 
Hedge-Lines in an irregular Manner with the Green Holly, joft 

New Principles of Gardening. 

as if Nature had been the Planter or Dire&or thereof, and by 
this Means you will have the moft beautiful Hedges that Art 
can produce. Of this kind of Holly-Hedge are many now grow- 
ing in the delightful Gardens of Sir Matthew T>ccas,2X Richmond 
in Surry. 

I cannot well conclude this Seftion, without taking Notice of 
thofe wretched Figures many Nuriery-Menand Gardeners breed 
up their Hollies and other Ever-Greens in, as the Forms of Men 
on Horfeback, as againft Hyde-Turk Gate by Kenfington ; when 
they know no more of the Anatomy or Proportion of thofe Fi- 
gures, than they do of the beautiful Proportions of Architecture, 
which they ignorantly attempt to execute, when they breed up 
Yews, Hollies, 8fc. in the Forms of Balluftrades, Pedeftals, Ste. 
with the moft deform'd Body plac'd thereon, by them call'd a 
round or fquare Column, which hath neither Bafe, Shaft, or Ca- 
pital, or indeed any one Thing in them as is beautiful or plea- 
ding. And feeing that our Britifh Nation does at this Time con- 
fift of the moft noblegrand Planters and Encouragers of Gardening 
of any in Europe > 'tis to be hoped, that, for the future, better Rules 
will be obferved therein, that is, fuch as are conliftent with 
Reafon, Art, and Nature; and that fuch Plants as have received 
fuch former Injuries, may be reftored to their proper and natural 
Shapes as foon as Time can operate the fame. To mention the 
feveral Gardens wherein thefe Abufes have been executed, 
would be endlefs; and therefore I (ball only add, that moft of the 
Ever-Greens now growing in the Parterres of his Majefty's Roy- 
al Gardens at Kenfington and Hampton-Court , are of thofe dif- 
proportion'd Forms, viz. Columns placed on Pedeftals, without 
any Sort of Order, wherein the Beauty of a Column confifts, 

To conclude : When any Part of an entire Order of Columns 
in Architeaure, as a Pedeftal, Column, or Entablature is juftly 
executed, nothing is of fo grand and beautiful an Afpe£t. And 
on the contrary, when perform'd by an unskilful Hand, nothing 
appears fo difagreeable. Hence it is that the Beauty and very 
Life of Archite&ure depends on good Proportions. 


1 56 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Tew-Tree -, its Culture, &c. 

THE Tew-Tree is produced of Seed, or raifedfrom Cut- 
tings or Layers. Its Seed muft be order'd as the Holly, 
becaufe it will not come up till the fecond Spring after 
gathering. . ,.,•->* 

'Tis a Tree of a very flow Growth, it loves a light fandy 
Soil fomething moift: It makes a beautiful Hedge, as well as 
fine Standards, to be mixM with other Trees in Groves of Ever- 
Greens, and to grow wild in the Quarters of a Wildernefs. To 
make any further Complaints of the Mifapplication of this Tree 
in fet Forms would be needkfs, feeing that the fame has been Ef- 
ficiently demonftrated in the laft Section. 

The beft Seafon to remove this Plant in, is Auguji or Jpftl, 
and fhould be planted in the Manner as dire&ed for the Pine- 

''Tis a Tree that generally has great Plenty of fibrous Roots, it 
order'd in the Nurlery, by digging about them every Year, and 
being tranfplanted every third, as before directed. The Dilrance 
they fhould be planted in the Nurlery, muft be in the Rows 
about three Foot afundei'j and the Rows from each other two 
Foot and a half. 


New Principles of Gardening. 157 


Of the Bay-Tree; its Culture, <3cc. 

TH E Bay-Tree is a beautiful Tree, and may be bred Stan- 
dards, to be planted in an open Grove of Ever-Greensc 
7 Tis encreafed from Seed, Layers, Suckers, or Cuttings. 
It delights in a gravellyy moift, fhady Soil, and therefore belt in 
a Grove or Wildernels. It muft (as all other Trees) be kept 
well watered after planting, which is to be done in April or Au- 
guft. To raife this Tree from its Seed or Berries, you muft ob- 
serve, that they are not gather'd before they are quite ripe, that 
afterwards you lay them thin, in a dry Place to fweat, which be- 
ing over, put them into dry Sand, and keep them therein till the 
Middle of February next enfuing, and then low them in a Bed 
of fine Earth, as directed for the Alhen-Keys, &c. When they 
have ftood three Years in the Seed-Bed, you muft tranfplant 
them into the Nurfery, obferving to prune off their Roots, and 
keep them digg'd every Year, free from Weeds, and tranfplanted 
every third Year, till they are planted out in the Places where 
they are to remain. Amongft all the Kinds of Ever-Greens., I 
know none more beautiful than the Bay-Tree, provided that its 
luxuriant Branches are pruned with a Knife> and not barbarouf- 
ly mangled with Sheers. To increafe this Plant from Cuttings 
or Layers, you muft obferve to perform thoie Works in October j 
in the Manner as before directed. In fome very hard Winters, 
the fevere Frofts will dilcolour them, and the only Way to reco- 
ver fuch Plants, is to head them down to found and healthy 

The 'Dutch Bay-Tree is more tender than our English Bay- 
Tree,, and therefore requires to be Jhelter'd in the Green-Houfe 
during the Severity of the Winter. Of this Kind of Bay-Tree, 
the fineft, that I ever faw, are thofe in the Gardens of the Royal 
, Talace 

1 58 New Principles of Gardening. 

Talace at Kenfington, and fome others at the Lodge-Gardens in 
Wind for Great-Tark, and in many Noblemen and Gentlemen's 
Gardens at Twickenham in the County of Middle fex. 

In watery Vales where pleafant Fountains flow, 
Their fragrant Berries lovely Bay-Trees jbow. 
With Leaves for ever green; nor can we guefs, 
By their Endowments, their Extraction lefs. 
The charming Nymph liv*d by clear Peneus Side* 
And might to Jove himfelf have been ally'd, 
But that {he chofe in Virtue's Tath to tread. 
And thought a God unworthy of her Bed. 
Phoebus, whop "Darts of late fuccefsful prov'd 
In PythonV 'Death, expected to be lov'd; 
And had /he not withftood blind CupidV Tower, 
the fiery Steed and Heaven had been her Dower. 
But {be by her Refufal more obtained, 
And lofing him, immortal Honour gain'd, 
Cherijb'd by the Apollo, Temples wear 
The Bays, and ev'ry clamorous Theater, 
The Capital itfelf; and the proud Gate 
Of great Trapeian Jove they celebrate. 
Into the Delphick Rites, the Stars they dive, 
And all the hidden Laws of Fate perceive. 
They in the Field, {where Death and Danger's found, 
Where dating Arms, and louder Trumpets found,) 
Incite true Courage : Hence the Bays, each Mufe 
TP infpirine God, and, all good Poets chufe. 


New Principles of Gardening. 1 55* 


Of the Laurel-, its Culture, &c. 

THE Laurel is a noble Ever-Green, and a Tree of a 
quick Growth, it delights in the Shade, and is a great 
Embellifhment to the Pa rts of a Wildernefs. 'Tis a Tree 
that loves Liberty, and therefore very improper for headed or py- 
rament Plants. It makes a beautiful Hedge, being carefully pru- 
ned with the Knife, and not with its great Enemy the Sheers. 
'Tis propagated from the Berries, Cuttings, or Layers; and when 
bred up as Standards, is wonderful pleafant in Groves of 
Ever-Greens, and within the Quarters of a Wildernefs, its 
Cover is delightful to all Kind of Game, as Hares, Pheafants, 
Woodcocks, &c. and will thrive in any Land as is not over 


Of the Laurm-Tinus-, its Culture, &c. 

THE Laurus-Tinus is both an Ever-green and Flowering 
Shrub, and is all theWinter the moft beautif ulleft Plant of 
any in the Garden. 
'Tis increased by Layers or Cuttings, and is a verv quick 
Grower, but never makes a large Tree. The Soil it de- 
lights in, is a moift fandy Loam., and in a fhady Plaft. The 
beft Form that this Tree appears in, is in either that of a Cone, 
or quite wild in a Wildernefs. Alfo Hedges of this Plant is 


i6o New Principles of Gardening. 

wonderful fine, if their Beauty is not deftroyed by the un- 
skilful Hand of the Gardener, in clipping them at the fame 
Seafon as he does Yews, Hollies, ®c The proper Seafon for 
to prune this Plant is, when all its Bloom is gone, which is in 
the Spring; juft before they begin to fhoot out their young and 
tender Branches. . , . 

It is beft to lay down the Layers, or plant the Cuttings in 
Oftober, and to tranfplant them in Auguft following* as before 
direded for the Pine- Tree. 

Of Laurus-Tinus there is two Sorts: The one, which 
blows very early; and the other, (called the black finning 
Laurus-Tinus,) as blows late in the Winter, which continues 
until the end of May , and of the two, is the moft beautiful. 


Of the Thiltyrea ; its Culture, &c. 

THE feveral Kinds of Thillyred's are five, viz. The 
TruePhillyrea, the Plain Phillyrea^the Bloach'd Philly- 
rea, the Dutch Silver-leafed and the Dutch-guilded 

Thefe Kinds of Phillyrea's, in general, are beft increafed from 
Layers. They delight in a light Soil, and Ihould be laid down 
in September, or October at lateft, and planted the Auguft 

The true Thillyrea is a very flow grower ; but makes a molt 
beautiful Tree, and efpecially when bred up in the Form of 
a Cone. It will endure hard Weather, and values not the 
Infults of Winds. 

The other four Kinds are lefs able to engage the Violence 
of a Storm, or to endure great Colds; therefore are beft againft 
a Wall, or in Thickets of WildernelTes, 8fc. 


New Principles of Gardening. i6t 

Let 'Phillyrea on your Walls be placed, 
Either with IVire^ or Jlender Twigs made faf. 
Its brighter Leaf with proudeft Arras vies. 
And lends a pleajing ObjeEl to our Eyes. 
Then let it freely on your fValls afcend^ 
And there its native Tafejlry extend. 



Of the Arlutus, or Strawherry-Tree ; its 
Culture, dec. 

THIS beautiful Plant produces Bloflbms twice a Year, and 
its Fruit is ripe in the Winter: 'Tis a Plant that greatly 
adds to the Beauty of a Garden, Wildernefs, &c. but will 
not admit of being clipped as moil other Ever-Greens are; 'tis 
a very great Ornament to a Wildernefs, and makes the moft 
agreeable Hedge as can be defired : The Leaf is of a very agree- 
able Form, and of a pleafant lively Green ;J 'tis increaled from Seed 
or Layers, which laft, fhould be laid dovvn in September, and re- 
main upon the Stool two Years at Jeaft, to be well rooted, being 
always watered in dry and hot Seafons. The Fruit is ripe about 
Chrijlmas, whofe Form is very like that of a Strawberry; but its 
Tafte is like unto that of Service. When the Fruit is gathered, let 
it dry ; then break them to Pieces, which put into Sand,, where 
they muft remain until the End of March, or Beginning of April, 
at which time they muft be fow'd in a Bed of fine Earth, co- 
vered about half an Inch with fine Mould fifted thereon. 

Your Seed being thus fown, you muft be careful to keep 
the Earth moift ; and when you water it, take care that 
the Water's Force do not difturb the Earth, whereby th^ young 
Seedlings may be prejudiced. N. B. If you were to fow the 
Seed on a decayed Hot-Bed, 'twould greatly help the Germi- 
nation of the Seeds. 

y SECT. 

1 6-2 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Ttracantha; its Culture, &c. 

THIS Ever-Green is increafed from Layers,or its Berries, 
which are to be order'd as thofe of the Yew, Holly, 
&c. becaufe they do not grow, or at leaft come up> 
till the fecond Spring after they ripen- 

The Perfe&ions of this Plant are many ; as, firft, 'tis a free 
Grower, and with good Care will make a large Tree ; fecond- 
\y, its Leaves are of a very beautiful Form, and a pleafant 
Green; thirdly, its fine Bunches of white Blofloms, produced in 
May ; and, laftly, its beautiful Clutters of red Berries which hang 
all the Winter. 

'Tis a very proper Plant for a Hedge, in refpe£t to its Thorns, 
and is very beautiful in the Quarters of a Wildernefs. 

Its Wood is of a very hard Nature ; and therefore the molt 
tender Branches of the laft Years Shoot, are thofe you mull 
lay down for Layers ; which fhould be done in Ottober, and 
remain upon the Stools two Years, before they are taken oft, 
and in that time they will be well rooted, and fit to tranl- 
plant; which may be done in Augufi or April. Its proper 
Soil is a dry Gravel ; but it will thrive in moft loamy Lands, 
that are not very wet or cold. 


New Principles of Gardening. 163 


Of the Box-Tree • its Culture, &c 

OF Box-Trees there are two Kinds ; the one plain, and the 
other varigated; which are both railed from Slips, Lay- 
ers, or Seed. 

Their natural Soil is chalky mountanous Lands, but will 
crow very well in moft loamy Soils. 'Tis a Tree that will grow 
to a very large Size, of which Box-Hill in Surry is a good 
Evidence. . , , . , . _ 

It is a very pleafant Tree, to be mix'd with other Stan- 
dards in a Grove of Ever-Greens: It makes fine Hedges, and is 
very beautiful in the Quarters of a Wildernefs. 'Tis a Tree 
of a very flow Growth ; but its Wood is of great Service for 
the making of Sectors, Quadrants, and other Mathematical In- 
ftruments ; and will endure the hardeft Frofts our Winters 
produces. Its Leal is very fmall, and of a beautitul light Green, 
and is never fo difagreeable as fome makes it, in refpect to 
its Smell. ,. 

Dutch Box is of a much leiTer Growth, then the preceeding, 
being only ufed for the Edging of Borders, inftead of Bones, 
Border- Boards, &c. and is of all others the moft cheapeft, 
handfomeft, and laftingEdging ; but the moft improper to Edge 
fuch Borders with wherein Fruit-Trees are planted, except 
they are very broad, and the Roots of the Box cut away every 
Year, on that fide that is next to the Fruit-Trees, by a Spade, or 
the like, at the Time when thofe Borders are digg'd ; for you 
muft underftand that this kind of Box grows more m its Roots, 
than its Top, and is an open Robber of every Plant or Shrub 
that grows near it. 

v . SECT. 

\6\ New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Juniper ; its Culture, &c. 4 

OF this Kind of Ever-Green we have two Sorts, viz. 
the common Englijb and Swedifb Juniper ; which are 
both hardy Plants. They are of a beautiful Green, and 
makes a very fine Variety, being planted wild amongft other 
Ever-Greens in a Wildernefs Thicket, 6fc. They both delight in a 
dry poor Soil ; but are improved by a good fandy Loam. 

They are increafeci from their Berries fown in March j in dry 
light Ground, and will come up in fix Weeks or two Months 
after fowing. They muft remain in the Seed-Bed two Years 
before they they are tranfplanted, during which Time they 
muft be carefully kept clean from Weeds, and water'd in a 
very dry Seafon. N. B. That the oftner thefe Sorts of Trees 
are tranfplanted, the better they will be rooted ; and in the 
pruning of them, obferve to cut off their Tap-Roots, and in plant- 
ing to place their other Roots, in a Horizontal Pofition. 
I will not here undertake to defcribe the feveral Virtues be- 
longing to that fo much celebrated Liquor as is diftilPd from 
the Berries of this Plant, becaufe 'tis already known to every 
old Woman ; but for fuch as are curious herein, I believe, may 
be fully inform'd in the Ladies Diary, not long fince pub- 
lifhed, or other fuch Books of the like Nature. 

Of the Italian Green-Privet. 

THIS kind of Privet., is increafed from its Berries, fbwn in 
March on a Bed of light Earth, inclinable to a Gravel, 
which is the Soil it moft delights in, covering the Ber- 
ries about an Inch thick with fine Earth fifted over them, ob- 


New Principles of Gardening. 165 

ferving in dry Weather to keep them frequently water'd, and 
always clear of Weeds. 

When they have flood two Years in the Seed-Bed., they fhould 
be tranfplanted into Hedges, or the Quarters of a Wildernefs ; 
which in both Places are very beautiful. 

This Plant is of a very quick Growth; and altho' 'tis a Fo- 
reigner, yet 'twill endure the Violence of our Winters Frofts^ 
&c. without any kind of Prejudice to its Verdure. 

This fort of Privet was brought from Italy by the inge- 
nuous Mr. Balle of KingCmgton, which by the Italians is 
called Olivelta, becaufe its Leaves are not unlike thofe of the 


Of the Cyprus, Lignurn-Vit*, and Cedar of 
Lebanus ; its Culture, &c. 

AMO\ T GST all the Ever-Greens hitherto treated off, none 
make a more grander Appearance in a Garden, than 
the Cyprus, and Cedar ol Labanus ; neither is any Tree 
fo eafy to be cultivated; for their Ordering has no fort ot Dif- 
ference from that of an Ever-Green 0%,JPtne,te. 

I have oblerv'd in feveral old Gardens, divers fine Walks of 
thofe Trees, far exceeding all others I ever few or any kind, 
which of late have been deftroy'd ; to the great Shame of thofe 
as were the Instruments of their Death. . 

I am not infenfible of diipleafing fome People herein, but 
that regard not, fince my Abilities are capable to prove tne 
Truth of what I have aflertedj and indeed, among* W*O0* 
Sacrifices,.! can't but fay, that I was heartily torry ; tc . lieai 
of the Deftruaion of that old and grand Walk of Cypru ^ -reb- 
oot long fince growing in the C ardens lately in ^ ™£™» 
of the Lady Humble at Twickenham. However, for the future, 
I hope to lee thefe Trees flourifli,and be kindly received m the 

1 66 New Principles of Gardening: 

moft grand Parts of our Plantations, wherein they are a very 
great Enrichment. 

Though Cyprefes contiguous well appear , 
They better {hew, if planted not fo near. 
And fince to any Shapt with Eafe they yield, 
What Bounds more proper to divide a Field ? 
Repine not CyparifTus then in vain, 
For by your Change, you Glory did obtain. 
Silvanus and this Boy with equal Fire> 
'Did heretofore a lovely Hart admire : 
While in the cooler Tajiures once it fed, 
An Arrow Jhot at random jiruck it dead. 
But when the Touth the dying Beaft had found, 
And knew himfelf the Author of the Wound; 
With never-ceaflng Sorrow he laments, 
And on his Breaft his Grief and Anger vents. 
Silvanus mov'd with the poor Creature's Fate, 
Converts his former Love to prefent Hate, 
And no more Tity in his angry Words, 
Than to himfelf th } affiled Touth affords. 
Wean of Life, and quite opprefs'd with woe, 
Vpon the Ground his Tears in Channels flow : 
Which having water' d, the productive Earth, 
The Cyprus firft from thence deriv'd its Birth, 
With SilvanV Aids nor was it only meant, 
T exprefs our Sorrow, but for Ornament. 
Chiefly when growing low your Fields they bound, 
Or when your Garden's Avenues are crown' d, 
With their long Rows, fometimes it ferves to hide 3 
Some Trench declining on the other Side. 
Th' unequal Branches always keep that green; 
Of which its Leaves are ne'er devefted Jeen : 
Though jhook with Storms > yet it unmov'd remains. 
And by its Trial greater Glory gains. 


N E W 


G A R D E N I N G. 


Of Flowering- Shrubs ; their Culture, &c. 


Of the fever al Methods by which Flower- 
ing-Shrubs are raifed. 

FLOWERING-SHRUBS are propagated from Layers, Suc- 
kers, Cuttings, or Seed. 
(i.) Thofe propagated from Layers, are the JeiTamine, 
Honey-Suckles, Lilacs, Rofes, Senna, Pomegranate, and Althea 
Frutex. (2.) From Suckers, are the Lilac, Spiraea Frutex, Sy- 
ringa, and Guilder-Rofe. (j.) From Cuttings, are Jdfamine., 


1 68 New Principles of Gardening. 

Honey-Suckles, and Pomegranate. And, laftly from Seed, are the 
Tulip-Tree, Maracock, or Pa{Tion-Flower,Spanifh Broom, La- 
burnum, Bladder Senna, Scopion Senna, Arbor Judae, and Me- 
zerion. , 

I need not here repeat the Method of laying down the Lay- 
ers, planting the Cuttings, or fowing the Seeds, of the mod com- 
mon Sorts, becaufe that the fame Method is to be obferved 
herein, as direded for the Ever-Greens, &c. But for the un- 
common Kinds, as the Tulip-Tiee, &c. I lhall be more par- 
ticular therein. 


Of the Tulip-Tree; its Culture, &c. 

THIS beautiful Tree, though ranked amongft the Shrubs, 
in regard to its Flowers, yet 'tis a Tree of a very 
great Growth. 

In the Lord 'Peterborough's Wildernefs, at Tar forts-Green, 
near Fulham in Middle fex, is growing a moft beautiful and 
flately Tree of this Kind, and of as great a Height as moft 
Timber-Trees. 'Tis an Inhabitant of the Wood, which is de- 
monftrated by its not thriving in an open Expofure, and is a 
beautiful Tree to compofe Part of a Grove of Foreft Trees. 
The Leaves are like the Maple, and of a pleafant Green ; and 
its Flowers like unto a Tulip, from which J tis called the 
Tulip-Tree, which are produced at the Ends of the Brandies. 

The Petals of the Fiower are mighty beautiful, being of a 
yellow Ground, varigated with a delightful Red. 

The Fruit which fucceed thofe curious Bloflcms, are of a co- 
nical Form, but never ripens in England. 

And as this noble Tree is a Native of Carolina and Virginia, 
(at which Places its Seed ripens very well,) 'tis from thence 
we mull receive the Seed that we propagate our Plants from in 


New Principles of Gardening. 169 

England. But if we fuffer young Shoots to break out at bot- 
tom, or cut down the Plant as a Stool, and the young Shoots 
being laid down, as Layers of Lime, 8fr. they will ftrike Root, 
and grow very well. The Soil it delights in, is a fandy warm 
Loam : Its Seed mull: be fown in Auguft at lateft, in Pots filPd 
with the aforefaid Soil, which mull be fheltered all Winter ; 
and in the Spring they will come up : At which time keep them 
clean from Weeds, and do not fuffer them to be over dry 
for want of Water. 

When your young Nurfery, has lived two Years in the Seed- 
Pots, they muft be tranfplanted into larger Pots fingly, where- 
in they mull: remain for eight or ten Years, being fheltered 
every Winter, and taken up, and replanted again in the fame 
Pots, to create good Roots, every tliird Year ; which will fupport 
its Trunk when planted out, with fufficient Plenty of Juices, 
and gaeatly add to its future Growth. 


Of the Maracoc, or Paffion- c Plant. 

ALTHOUGH there may be many Kinds of Paflion-Treesjn 
other Parts abroad, as in Amjlerdam Phyfick Gardens, tSc. 
■ as mention'd by Toumefort in his Elements of 'Botany ; 
p.xo6. yet we have but one that will refift the Severity of our 
Winters. This Flower was firft difcover dby the Spanijb Friars,in 
the Weft-Indies, of which Place 'tis an Inhabitant: The Magni- 
tude of each Flower, when full blown, is generally about four or 
five Inches Diameter, wherein are ten Petals, divers ftaminous 
Threads, and other Particles ; which together, the Friars fuppofed 
was an Epitome of our Saviour's Paflion, and therefore called it the 
Paflion-Flower. Vide Bradley's Improvements, Tart II. Tage 52. 
The Soil it bell: delights in, is a very moiil: cool Soil, well 
mix'd with Cow Dung : Mis increafed from Layers or Cuttings; 
the firft laid down in March, towards the Beginning ot the 
2 Month, 

i jo New Principles of Gardening. 

Month- and the latter planted in the End of May, or Beginning 
of June. 'Tis a Plant of a quick Growth, beft againft a Wall, 
and is a very great Embellifhment to the Pleafure-Garden. 


Of the Spanijh-Broom ; its Culture, &c. ■ 

THIS is a beautiful Shrub for a Wildernefs, being mix'd 
amongft other Plants : Its Leaves are of a delightful 
Green, and its Flowers of a pleafant Yellow, which 
put forth in June and July. "Tis generally increafed from its 
Seed fown in March, on a Bed of light Earth ; but it may be 
increafed from Layers, laid down with a Twift as an Elm, or 
being cut at a Joint as a July-Flower. 


Of the Laburnum, its Culture , &c. 

THIS delightful Shrub is of a quick Growth, and of 
sreat Beauty in a Wildernefs, when it produces its 
beautiful Clutters of yellow Blofloms in May and June. 
Its Nature is very agreeable to either Shade, or open Exposure; 
but beft when mix'd with Foreft-Trees, as Platanus, Elm, 
Lime,^r. 'Tis propagated from its Fruit, or Seed, whiciiis 
ripe in September, and very like unto young Peafcods, mit De- 
iore ripe. The Time to low this Seed is in March, and mult 
remain in its Seed-Bed for two Years ; after which, it may De 
tranfplaated at Pleafure, when other Trees ire planted. 


New Principles of Gardening. 171 


Of Senna • its Culture, dec. 

OF this Kind of Shrub, there are two Sorts, viz. the Blad- 
der-Senna, and the Scopion-Senna •, of which, the laft is 
the moft beautiful. They both delight in a good 
loamy Soil, and may be propagated by Seed fown about the 
Middle of March, or by Layers laid down in OcJober, or 
Slpril. They are Lovers of the Shade, and are mighty beau- 
tiful in the Quarters of a Wildernefs. The latter of the two 
produces Bloflbms, as well in the Autumn, as in the Spring ; 
that are very delightful. 


Of the Arhor Juda ; its Culture, &c. 

THIS Shrub is naturally a Weft-Indian, and^ has not 
long been brought into England. 'Tis of a large 
Growth; it delights in a 'loamy Soil ; produces beau- 
tiful Clufters of Bloflbms in March, April, and May ; it refifts 
the Severity of our Climate ; 'tis propagated from Seed fown 
in March ; and is a beautiful Plant in a Wildernefs. 



New Principles of Gardening. 



Of the Mezerion ; its Culture, &o 

F Mezerions there are two Kinds, viz. the White Me- 
| zerion, and the Red Mezerion; of which, the I aft is 
-w' the moft common. They are both of a frnall Growth, 
and therefore are rather more proper for open Borders, than the 
Quarters of a Wildernefs. . p..,.. 

In ?^ry, the Air is perfum'd with the delightful Odour 
of their Bloffoms, which cover their Branches long before their 
Leaves come out, and continue a long Time in Bloom. . W hen 
their Blouoms are gone, they M appear no Ws beautiful, be- 
ing adorn'd with their Vermillion Berries, mix damongft then 
beautiful Leaves, which makes a moft delightful Compofmon. 

They are increafed from their Berries fown m March, and 
love a fandy Loam. 


Of the Jeffemine and Honey-Suckle, their 
Culture, &c. 

THESE Flowering Shrubs are not inferior to any of 'the 
preceding, in regard to thoie moft plea ant ( *£ 
fay heavenly) Fragrant Odours which perfume the JQ 
evenintoYts dkant Atmofphere, produced by their beauotol 
Blouoms • 

(l.) jESSEMlNESi 

New Principles of Gardening. 173 

(1.) Of Jesse mines, there are three Kinds, viz the 
White, the Yellow, and the Terjian. The common White 
JefTemine is a free Grower, and refills the Severity of our 
Winters: It produces its beautiful fragrant Flowers in J»ne y 
and continues in Bloom till September: 'Twill grow in any 
loamy Land, and is increafed from Layers laid down, or Cut- 
tings planted in September ; wherein obferve, that in Confide- 
ration of their Roots ftriking at their Joints, therefore be care- 
ful to bury two or three in the Ground to either Layer or Cut- 
ting, and they will fucceed to your Defire. 

The Beauty of this Plant is fo great, that in my humble 
Opinion, a Garden cannot well have too many of them. And 
as this is a Plant of Liberty, it rauft therefore be planted at the 
Bottom of Standard-Trees, in Groves, Walks, ®c. and even in 
Hedges alfo, wherein 'twill interfperfe itsfelf with its delightful 
BlofToms, and plea ant Odour. . , . , 

And altho' it has been the Praftice of Breeding this Plant up 
in headed Plants, yet I cannot commend it, feeing that it naturally 
hates to be either confined, or If ump'd with Sheers. 

The Spanijb White Jclfemine may be grafted on this common 
White : 'Tis a fweet delightful Flower ; as alfo are the Italian 
and Portugal JeiTemines, whofe BlofToms are very large and 

The Terfian JefTemine is a beautiful Shrub : Its Flowers are 
Purple, and will endure the Winter's Frofts. 

The Yellow JefTemine, is alfo a very agreeable Shrub, and will 
endure the Severity of our Climate. 

(2.) Honey-Suckles ; of which, there are feveral Kinds, 
as the Ever-green, the Early-red, the Late-White and Red, and 
the Scarlet-flower'd Honey-Suckles. They, in general, are in- 
creafed from Layers, or Cuttings, as the JefTemine. They arc 
all Lovers of Liberty, and when bred up in headed Plants, make 
a moft terrible Figure all the Winter. 

They delight in the Shade, and love to clamber on other 
Trees. They are Natives of the Woods, of a quick Growth, but 
incapable of fupporting their own Bodies, and therefore borrow 
the Ule of their neighbouring Trees to affifr them therein. 

And as their BioiToms perfume the Air with their delight- 
Odours all the Summer, 'tis impofib'e that a Garden can have 
too many, being carefully planted, Co as to runup Standard- 
Trees, ntl&ts, &c. as before is Cud of the JefTemine. 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Thus fays Rapin of the Gardener. 

Nor knows he well to make his Garden /bine 
With all "Delights, who fragrant Jejfemine 
NegleHs to cherifi, wherein heretofore 
Indufrious Bees laid up their precious Store. 
Vulefs with "Poles you fix it to the Wall, 
Its own deceitful Trunk will quickly fall. 
Thefe Shrubs, like wanton Ivy, fill mount high, 
But wanting Strength, on other Trops rely. 
The pliant Branches which they always hear, 
Make them with Eafe to any Thing adhere. 
Thepleafing Odors which their Flow'rs expire, 
Make the young Nymphs and Matrons them defire, 
Thofe to adorn themfelves withalh but thefe 
To grace the Altars of the 'Deities. 



Of the Lilac ; its Culture, &c. 

TH E Lilack is a very handfome flowering Shrub } of 
which there are two Sorts, viz. the White, and tne 
Blue, whofe Flowers are very beautiful: Tis a great 
Embellifhment to aWildernefs,and is a Shrub Of a large Growth , 
they are both raifed by Layers laid down in March, or by 
Suckers taken off and planted in September or October : And 
love a light Soil. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of Rofes ; their Culture, &g 

OF Rofes we have a very great Variety, which are in ge- 
neral, very pleafant and delightful ; as, Fir/l, the Month- 
ly Rofe, that blows fingly, and that which blows in Clut- 
ters. 'Tisbeftto have fomeofthis Sort planted againft a South- 
Wall, which will caufe them to blow early, as at the End of 
March,, or Beginning of April, and continue till the Middle of 
Jane. Thofe of the fame Kind, planted in open Borders, 
will not produce their Bloom till the Middle of May, and will 
continue till the Beginning of Aitguft. And you mull obferve 
asfoon as their Blbifoms are gone, to top their Branches; which 
will caufe a fecond Bloom in the Autumn, that will con- 
tinue till near unto Lhriftmas. 

Secondly \ The Cinnamon Rofe, a forward Blower, and a 
fine Flower. 

Thirdly,, The Damask Rofe, of an excellent pleafant Odour: 
It blows in May, and will iaft for fix or (even Weeks. 

Fourthly, The Cabbage Rofe. 

Fifthly, The Rofimitridi, or Tork and Ltncaflcr Rofe. 

Sixthly, The Province Rofe. 

Seventhly, The White Musk-Rofe. 

Eighthly, The Red Rofe. 

Ninthly, and lafily ; The fellow Rofe. 

All which are propagated from Suckers or Layers : The lift 
laid down in September or October, and the firil planted in 
Ottober. They are, in general, beautiful Ornaments in a Gvovc. 
Wildernefs, or any other Part of the Garden, and h'ghly de- 
ferves our Notice, much more than they have ted hitherto- 

1 7 6 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Pomegranate ; its Culture, &c. 

OF this Plant there are two Kinds, viz. the Single, 
and the Doublc-bloflWd Pomegranate, whole Bioi- 
foms are or i beautiful Vermillion Red. Of which, the 
firft frequently produces Fruit, and fometimes ripens with us. 
Thefe Piants delight in a light Soil, and are propagated from 
Cuttings, planted in Auguft or SePtfmb^on an Haft Border: 
or from Layers laid down at the fame lime, or in { March 
They are both beautiful Plants, and are belt for a Wildernefs, 
rather than for headed Plants, which, by being often clipp d, 
foon proves their Ruin: 'Tis a hardy Plant, and will endure 
the Winter Frofts, cold Winds, &c. 


Of the Jlthea Frutex ; its Culture, &c. 

THIS Plant is ufed chiefly to adorn the Quarters of 
a Wildernefs: Of which, theie are two Sorts, w* tne 
White, and the Purple-flower'd : They are both propa- 
gated from Suckers, or Layers, laid down in September \* 
from the Seeds, fown in the Middle or End of March. The* 
Bloffoms are very beautiful, which do app?ar in great PW 
Au % «ft. They afford a good Profpeft ; and will thrive in a^ij 
Kind of fandy Loam, or other Soil whatever, Clay excepted 
The Time for Planting this Shrub, is October. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Syringa ; its Culture, &c. 

THIS Shrub is of great Beauty in a Wildernefs, produ- 
cing fine Bunches of fragrant Bloffoms in May, whole 
Odour is very pleafant, and not unlike that or Orange 
Bloffoms. It delights in fuch Part of a Wildernefs as is not en- 
tirely fhaded, or quite open. 'Tis propagated from Suckers 
taken off, and planted in Oltober, and is a very free Grower. 


Of the Gmlder-Rofe; its Culture, &c. 

AMONGST all the Flower-Tribe hitherto mentioned, 
none makes a more grand Appearance in May, than the 
Guilder-Rofe, whofe beautiful Bloffoms are produced in 
•great Clufters; and each Flower a perfcft Globe of three or 
lur Inches in Diameter. 'Tis a Plant that will rift : twelve o 
fourteen Foot high, and is very beautiful and pleafant in a Wil 
dernefs. The Soil it delights in, is a good ftrong Loam, and 
it is propagated from Suckers taken from the Mother Plant, ana 
planted in Ottober. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Almond; its Culture, &c. 

THE Almond-Tree is a very beautiful Tree during the 
Time of its Bloom in the Spring, and highly deferves 
a Place in our Wildernefs. ^Tis propagated from the 
Kernels fown in March ; or it may be grafted on the Plumb- 
Stock in February, or budded thereon in July. The Soil pro- 
per for this Plant, is a fandy Loam, if raifed from its Kernel ; 
and when grafted or budded on the Plumb-Stocks, on a ftronger 


Of the Mirabalon Tlunih, and Double-Blof- 
fonCd Cherry. 


HESE two Plants produce great Quantities of Bloom 
in the Spring, and continue their BloiToms a long Time. 
— They are wonderful beautiful, when mix'd in a Wilder- 
nefs amongft Almond-Trees, and will thrive in moft Soils: 
They are both propagated by being grafted, the firft on a 
Plumb-Stock, and the latter on a Cherry-Stock. 


New Principles of Gardening. 


Of the Sweet-Brier ', its Culture, &c. 

ALT HO' the Sweet-Brier is not direftly a flowering 
Shrub, yet its fragrant Odour highly obliges us to plant 
it in all Parts of our Gardens and Wilderneffes, and 
efpecially for Hedges, and at the Bottoms of Standard-Trees, &c. 
And befides this common Sort, there is another Kind of it called 
Eglantine, which produces a fine red Flower, with broad 
Leaves, that perfumes the Air very ftrongiy with its pleafant 
Odours. The firlt Kind hereof is raifed from Berries fown m 
February \ and the latter propagated from Layers laid down in 
September. This laft Kind makes very beautiful headed Plants, 
which are very proper to be raifed in Pots, to adorn the Ladies 
Chimneys, and perfume the Air of their Chambers with its plea- 
fant and mod delightful Odours. 


Of the Furze-Bufh, and Englijh Broom ; their 
Culture, &c. 

TH E Beauty of thefe two Shrubs, feems to be valued 
much after the very fame Manner as a curious I uip, 
Auricula, Julyflower, ®c. is by Flo. ifts, when tis be- 
come common, and in every Garden. Whilft on the other 
Hand, if they chance to have a Seedling whofe Blollom is an 
indifferent good one, and not near fo good as that wnidi is 
° A a 2 common ; 

i8o New Principles of Gardening, 

common ; yet the Seedling (hall cany theBell, and that which far 
exceeds it, be not regarded : . Which indeed is the Cafe of thefe 
two Shrubs : for were they not common, they would be valued, 
and cultivated with as much Eagernefs as any Ever-green or 
Shrub whatfoever; for, in Fad, the Furze is capable of any Form, 
required, but much finer when let grow in its own rural Man- 
ner as Nature direfts. If the Beauty of this Shrub, that is, its 
fine green Leaves, which ferve for a proper Ground to catt forth 
the Beauty of its yellow Flowers, with which it abounds in all 
Seafons of the Year, was compar'd with that of the Iong- 
efteem'd Yew, whofe Afped is melancholy, and the true Image 
of Sadnefs ; 'twould not only be found to be much the finer 
Plant of the two, but more defer ving the Gardener's Care. 

For to fpeak the naked Truth, the Yew-tree is never better 
placed, than when planted in a Church-yard as an Emblem of 
Mortality, which is its true Reprefentation, and, in my humble 
Opinion, very improper for a delightful Garden. 

But to return to the Culture of thefe Plants ; obferve that 
they are both raifed from Seed fown in February or March, but 
are difficult to remove; therefore tranfplant them the October 
next after Sowing, in fuch Places where they are to remain. 
They both make good Cover for Game ; and the Furze makes 
a moft beautiful Hedge, wherein many Birds take great Pleafure 
to build their Nefts, which is not a fmall Ornament to either 
Garden or Wildernefs. 


Of the Several Months of the Tear, when 
Flowering Shrubs are in Blojfom, and their 

THE firft blowing flowering Shrub is the Mezerion, which 
prefents its beautiful Blofoms in January, and conti- 
nues in Bloom to the Middle of February. 
In February, the Furze opens its golden-colour'd Bloom> 
which continues till October. 


New Principles of Gardening. 181 

In March,'? ^ Arbor Judaa, and holds till May. 

In May' the Lilac, Syringa, Guilder-Rofe, Laburnum, and 
Honey -Suckles ; of which, the fever al Kinds of the laft keep 
blowing till September ; but the others, about fix or feven Weeks 

Zt In June, the White Jejfemines, and S/amJb Broom- the firft 
till September, and the laft till Auguft. 

In July, the Tulip-tree, which continues till Auguft. 

In W«/?, the Althaa Frutex, which lafts till September. 

The JV»»«'j blow twice a Year, w*. Spring and Autumn ; 
and foon after them comes that beautiful Ever-green and flow- 
ering Shrub, the Laurm.timis, which is not only a Grace to 
the Garden all the Winter, but in the Spring alfo, till the Be- 
ginning of March. «.,■-■■«. , „ r 

This being a fufficient Information of their feveral Seafons 
Of Bloom, from which a Garden may be fo planted, as to have 
one or other of the feveral Kinds al., ays in Bloflbm through- 
out the whole Y-~ar ; I fhall, in the next Seftion, inform my 
Reader in what Manner they are to be difpofed of, fo as to re- 
ceive a beautiful and grand Appearance, as well from thole 
whofe Growth is fmall and low, as from them of a large and 
higher Stature- 


Of the Manner of Difpofmg and Planting 
Flowering Shrubs in the proper 'Parts of a 
Wilder nefi. 

BEFORE we can come to the Planting of thefe beautiful 
Shrubs, we rauft confider the Nature of then; Growth, in 
refpeft to Stature-, and alfo the great Variety of then 
Colours, which ought to be fo intermixed, as for every ¥ owei 
to be an Oppofite or Ground to throw forward the Beaut) of 
the other. ^ Q 

^2 New Principles of Gardening. 

The feveral Statures of thefe Plants may be reduc'd to three 
Sizes, viz. thofe of the talleft Growth ; thofe of the middling 
Growth; and thofe of the loweft Growth. L 

Firjt then ; Thole of the higheft Growth are the double- 
blolfom Cherry, Lilac, Guilder-Rofe, Spanijb Broom, Labur- 
num, Mirabaloa Plumb, Tulip-tree, White Rofe, and Almond. 

Secondly ; Thofe of a middling Growth are the Synnga, Da- 
mask Role, Musk Rofe, Spira Frutex, Arbor J udaeae. Senna's, 
Althaea Frutex, Almond, being grafted a half Standard, as alio 
the Mirabalon Plumb, and double-bloffom Cherry. < 

Thirdly and Uftly; The low Tribe are the Mezenon, the 
Furze, the Red Rofe, the Cabbage Rofe, the Province Rofe, the 
Monthly Rofe, the Mundi Rofe, the Cinnamon Rofe, the Yel- 
low Rofe, the Almond, being grafted low ; as alfo the double- 
bloiTom Cherry, and Mirabalon Plumb,into which Clals I intro- 
duce the Sweet- Brier. 

Having thus divided them into their feveral Claffes, we mult 
next conlider their feveral Colours, that we may thereby difpofe 
of them in the bell Manner, fo as to caufe the greateft Variety; 
and in order thereto, we'll begin with thole of the firft and 
largeft Clafs. 

"Firft, then, of thofe the double-bloffom Cherry, the White 
Lilac, the Guilder-Rofe, the Mirabalon Plumb, and the White 
Rofe, arc all entirely White Bloflbms. The other Kind of Lilac 
blue, the Spantfb Broom, and Laburnum, yellow ; the Tulip- 
tree, a mix'd Colour ; and the Almond, a Peach Colour ; fo that 
the Colours produced by this Clafs are white, blue, yellow, a 
mix'd, and a Peach Colour. The feveral Sorts of White are 
five ; of Yellow, two ; of Blue ; Mix'd ; and Peach-Colour ; ^of 
each, one only. Their feveral Colours being thus diftinguifh'd, 
wc muft now come to their Planting ; wherein, firft, obferve, 
tiiat thefe of the higheft Rank muft' be planted backward from 
the View, to give Room for the others to come before them, 
in fuch Manner as to form, by the Difference of their feveral 
Growths, a perfeft Slope of beautiful Flowers. 

But to the Purpofe: Let the firft Plant be the double-blofTom 
Cherry ; the fecond, an Almond; the third, the Mirabalon Plumb ; 
the fourth, a Blue Lilac; the fifth, a Guilder-Rofe ; the fixth, a 
Sfanifti Broom ; the feventh, a White Lilac; the eighth, a La- 
burnum ; the ninth, the White Rofe; and the tenth, a Tulip- 
tree ; and then beginning again v/ith the double-bloifom Cherry, 


New Principles of Gardening. 183 

Almond, Mirabalon Plumb, Blue Lilac, Guilder -Rofe, Spanijh 
Broom, &c. you will have placed them in fuch a Manner, as 
to be always beautiful. And altho' they are not all in Bloom 
at one Inftant, yet one or other of them are : And even thofe 
as have no Bloifoms, are extremely beautiful, in refpecl to the 
great Variety of Colours contain 7 d in their Leaves and Shoots. 

The fecond ClaJs, which is to be planted immediately be- 
fore the firft, muft have its feveral Colours difpofed of in 
the like Manner; wherein always obferve, that you never place 
a Flower-Shrub that is white, yellow, &c\ before a Plant of the 
firft Oafs which is of the fame Colour, or Kind, always regard- 
ing to follow the Steps of Nature as near as poflible. 

The third and lowermoft Oafs being to be ordered in the 
lame Manner, I need not fay any more thereof j but that if 
Sweet-Brier was judiciously intermixed in this Plantation, 
'twould add a great Grace to the whole j and when the Stan- 
dard-trees planted in the Hedge-lines of Walks, and Hedges 
alfo, which fhould never be fufferM to grow very high, are 
fill'd with the feveral Kinds of JeiTemines and Honey-fuckles 
to run up and about them in a wild and rural Manner ; the 
Whole muft then make a moft agreeable Compofition, being al- 
fo baek'd with the great Varieties of Foreft- trees, planted in 
the Midft of the Quarters. 

Having thus laid down the moft agreeable and pleafant Man- 
ner of dijpofiag and planting of flowering Shrubs in a Wilder- 
nefs, they being proper for fuch Plantations only; I fhall, in 
the next Place, proceed to the Confideration of fuch odoriferous 
Flowers, whofe Smell and Afpeft are both curious and de- 

184 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of odoriferous, or fweet-fmelling Flowers, that 
are truly beautiful; their Ufe in Groves, 
Wildemejs, Cabinets, openTlains, &c. 

IN the twelve Months of the Year, there are eight which will 
produce Flowers, both grateful to the Eye, and pleaiant to 
the Smell; as 
In January, the feveral Kinds of Tolyanthos. 
In 'February, the Polyanthos, Hyacinths, and V lolets. 
In March, the Polyanthos, Hyacinths, Stock July-Flowers, 
and Violets, Rofes, if againft a South Wall. 

In April, the Hyacinths, Stock July-Flowers, WaU-Floweis, 
Auriculas, Junquils, Rofes, white NarciiTus, and NarciiTus Fo- 

ya in May, the Wall-Flowers, white NarciiTus, Lillies, and dou- 
ble flower'd Rocket, Rofes. , 

In June, the fweet William, Lillies, Pnmrofe Tree, PinKs, 
Rofes,'and Carnations. . , 

In July, the Sweet William, Pinks, Carnation, and lube- 
rofe, and laftly, , « , 

In Auguft, the Pink, and July-Flowers, commonly called 

The Odours of thefeFlowers being extreamly pleafant, are there- 
fore to be planted in every Walk, and of each an equal Quantity ; 
that thereby they may always be adornM with one or other ac- 
cording to their natural Succeflion. 


New Principles of Gardening. 18$ 


Offuch Perennial, Bulbous-rooted, and An- 
nual Flowers, as are truly beautiful 
and proper to adorn the mofi noble and 
rural Parts of a delightful Garden. 

THESE Kinds of Flowers are only pleafant to the Eye, 
and may be fo difpofed of, as to adorn our Gardens 
every Month in the Year, viz. 

In January, Snow-drop, Winter Aconite, Hepatica. 

In February, Snow-drop, Crocus, Hepatica, Dazies. 

In March, Crocus, Tulips. 

In April, Tulips, Ranunculus, Anemonies. # 

In May, Tulips, Ranunculus, Lillies, Crown Imperials, Mar- 
tagons, White Hellebore, Valerian, Monkmood, African Ma- 
rigold, French Marigold, Double Poppies, Lupines, Scarlet 
B?ans, Annual Stock, Venus Looking-glafs, Candy Turf, Hearts 
Eafe, Foxglove, Thrift, i n. nn A 

In June, Lillies, Marragons, Foxglove, Valerian, Monkshood, 
Rofechampion. Batchelor's Buttons, Scarlet Lychnis, Ajruan 
and French Marigolds, Female Balfam, Larkfpur, Double pop- 
pies, Lupines, Annual Stock, Venus Looking-glafs, Lanay 1 urr, 
Heart's Eafe. . r>^ r \. e 

In July, the Hollyhocks, Campanula's, R°^. am P wn ^SS 
tor's Buttons, Scarlet and White Lychnis, African ^gjg 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Marigolds, Capcicum Indicum, Marvel Peru, Female Balfam, 
Larkfpur, Double Poppy, Scarlet Beans. 

In W «/?, Hollyhocks, Sun-flowers, Campanula s, Colchi- 
cum, Saffron Crocus, African and French Marigolds Cap- 
cicum Indicum, Marvel Peru, Female Balfam, Larkfpur, Double 
Poppies, Scarlet Beans. 

In September, Anemonies, Colchicum, Saffron Crocus, Afri- 
can and French Marigolds, Capcicum Indicum, Marvel Peru, 
Female Balfam, Larkfpur, Scarlet Beans. 

In Ofiober, Starwort. 

In November, none worth our Notice. And, laftly, 

In 'December, the Black Hellebore. 

I fhall not, under a Pretence of Difcovery, offer any Direc- 
tions, that Flowers of the higheft Growth, ought to poffefs 
the Middle of a Border; while thofe of the loweft Rank, the 
extream Parts ; and them of a mean Growth, a Medium Place 
between the two Extreams : Becaufe that every Gardiner is 
perfe&ly acquainted therewith ; and 'tis what they have pra&i- 
fed many Years before Mr. B-d-y, in his New Improvements, 
Part II. Page 13$. gave himfelf the Trouble to publifh the Dif- 
pofition of Flowers in a Border, as a new Thing ; which every 
one long before knew as well, as that feven Days make one 
Week, or twenty four Hours, a natural Day, &c. 

But as thefe Flowers do not afford pleafant Smells, which 
thofe of the preceding Section do ; 'tis therefore that I advife 
that thofe which are both grateful to the Smell and Eye, be the 
Inhabitants and only Poffeifors of Borders in general ; and that 
the others which are contain'd in this Se&ion, or the greateft 
Part thereof, be the Inhabitants of the inward Parts of an open 
Wildernefs, Sffc. planted promifcuoufly in the Quarters thereof; 
but not in regular Lines, as has been the common Way : But, 
on the contrary, in little Thickets, or Clufters, feemingly with- 
out any other Order than what Nature directed, which, of all 
others, is the moft beautiful. 

N. B. That in the Difpofition of thefe Clufters of Flowers, 
Care muft be taken to mix the feveral Sorts in fuch a Manner, 
as for every Part to be equally adorn'd throughout the whole 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Perhaps it might be expe&ed here, that I fhould demonftrate 
the Culture of Flowers in general ; which I have here 
omitted, beeaufe I fhall communicate that in another Volume ; 
wherein I fhall not only demonftrate the true and genuine Prac- 
tice thereof, but alio the feveral great Errors of many late 
Authors. Together with a Parallel of the Theorical or 
Paper Botanift, with the Pra&icai and Experienced Planter 
and Gardiner. 


Of the Jeveral Sorts of Flowers proper to 
adorn Chimneys, &c. during the Seafons 
of Spring, Summer, and Autumn. 

HAVING, in the feveral Parts of this Work, demonftra- 
ted the true Practice of Ordering Fruit and Foreft-T rees, 
Ever-Greens, and Flowering-Shrubs , with proper Di- 
rections for the feveral Sorts of Flowers to adorn a beautiful 
Garden, ®c. I fhall now lay down exaft Rules |for the Adorn- 
ing the Chimneys of Halls, Chambers, tSc. with fuch fragrant 
Flowers as are moft fuitable, viz. Truly Innocent, Beautiful, 
and Pleafant. 

In Order to truly execute this Work in the beft Manner, 
we muft, firft, be furnifhed with beautiful Flower-Pots of Dutch 
Ware, China, &c. wherein other Garden Flower-Pots mult be 
placed, in which our Flowers are to grow- 

B b 2 Thefe 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Thefe being provided, we mult, in the next Place, confider 
which of the feverai Sorts of Flowers are beft for our Purpofe, 
that arc, asl laid before, Truly Innocent, Beautiful, and Pleafant. 

Firft then, to begin the Year, prepare fome indifferent good 
Mold, with which fill as many Pots as are fufficient for your 
Chimney ; and in the Middle of each Pot, plant a very large 
Root, or two, of Snow-Drops, of the double Kind, which en- 
viron with a Circle of the feverai Sorts of Crocus. This Work 
being done at the Time when Snow-Drops and Crocus have 
done Blowing, will, in the January following, make a glorious 
Appearance, and grace their Places of Abode, wherein they 
then are placed. 

The Polyanthos prefents its beautiful Flowers in February > 
as alfo the Hepatica, Hyacinths, and Violets ; all which being 
planted in the like Manner, will fucceed the preceding, and be 
very entertaining. 

In March, we have Stock-July-Flowers, Hyacinths, and Vio- 
lets ; and if they are all planted together in one Pot, viz. the 
Stock-July-Flower in the Center, and the Hyacinths and Violets 
about it, they will make a very beautiful Appearance, and their 
fweet Odors be very agreeable. 

The mod beautiful Flowers of Aprils are Hyacinths, Stock- 
July- Flowers, Wall-Flowers, Tulips, Ranunculus, Anemonies, 
Jonquils, Narciffus, and Auricula's ; which are thus to be difpofed 
of, viz. In the Center of fome Pots plant a Wall-Flower ; in 
others, a Clufter of Tulips, or Jonquils, becaufe they both grow 
indifferent high \ and in Order to have them in the greateft 
Beauty, let every Tulip in each Pot be of a different Colour ; 
and that they may make their beft Appearance, place a 
handfome Flower-Stick in the Center of each Pot, with a gilt 
Head, to which tie up every Flower with Thread, (3* but 
in a free loofe Manner, fo as not to reprefem a ftiff Bundle of 
Flowers, void of Freedom, in which the Beauty of every 
Thing confifts. The Jonquils mull be encompaffed with a 
Circle of Ranunculus; the Tulips, with a Circle of Hyacinths ; 
the Stock-Juiy-Flowers, with Anemonies ; and the Wall-Flow- 
ers with NarciiTus. 

New Principles of Gardening. i 

N. B. If Care is taken to plant Tulip, Ranunculus, Anemo- 
nies,*NarcilIus, Hyacinths, and Jonquil Roots, at diiferent Sea- 
fons of the Year ; they may be fo order'd as for their Blooms 
to be divers Times repeated, viz. as foon as the firft Bloom of 
Tulips, Sfc. is over, which were in the firft Pots lor April, they 
(hall be fucceeded with a fecond Bloom of the fame Kind ot 
Flowers, in other Pots, which fhall endure the Month of May \ 
and after them a third, for the Month of June ; and fo on. 

The Manner of performing this, is by Planting their Roots 
in the Autumn, at feveral Times, viz. about fix Weeks diltant 
from the Time of the firft Planting, to that of the fecond, and 
the fame from the fecond to the third, &c. 

In May, the White Lillies, and Crown Imperials are in 
their Beauty, which being planted as aforefaid, and environ'd 
with a Circle of Double-White NarcifTus, are very beautiful. 
If the Roots of Lillies and Crown Imperials, are kept cut of 
the Ground the whole Month of February, in a moift Place, 
where the Sun and Air cannot deftroy them, and planted again 
in Flower-Pots at the Beginning of March, they will produce 
fine Flowers in June, which being environ'd with Pinks, yield 
a very graceful Afpea, and plea fant Odor. 

In June and July, our beft Ornaments are, the feveral Kinds 
of Pinks, Carnations, Amaranthus, Tricolor, and Coxcomb, 
Lychnis, Campanula's, Tuberofe, Larkfpurs, Sweet-Wilhams, 
and Sweet- Bazilj all which are beft to be planted fingly, being 
tied to a handfome Flower-Stick placed in the Center ot each 

In Amuft and September, the Amaranthus's, Pinks, July- 
Flowers, Campanula's, Marvel Peru, Female Ballam, Capcicum 
Indicum,and Larkfpurs: To which may be added, the White 
and Red Calvills, and other beautiful Sorts of Apples grafted 
on Paradice-Stocks ; as alfo round-headed Plants of 'the large 
SAeet-Brier, White Jeffemine, and Honey-Suckles, for the ie- 
veral Months of their Blooming. . , , 

In v\c Momhs of October, November, 'December, and indeed 
January alfo, a good Fire is the beft Ornament for Chimneys ; 
excep ing fudi where little U.e is made of the Rooms, whofe 
beft Furniture is fmall Hedge Laurus-Tinus Plants, planted in 
large Flower-Pots, as d r &ed tor Flowers, &c. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Having thus defcribed the feveral Sorts of Flowers fit for 
this Purpofe; I don't doubt, but that the diligent Gardiner 
will find a very great Satisfa&ion therein, who muft always 
obferve to remove away fuch as are fading, and introduce 
frefh ones in their ftead, that thereby there may be a continued 
Series of Pleafure and Delight, free from a Mixture of difagree- 
able fading Obje&s. 




O F 



Of the Situation and Difpofition of Gardens 

in general. 


Of Situations. 

SI HE moft noble and pleafant Situation of all 
others, is that on the Top of a Hill, as Richmond 
| Hill in Surry, Harrow in Hertford/hire^ &c. where 
the Air is fine and clear, with noble Views. 

The greateft Misfortunes attending thefe noble 

Situations, is their open Expofure to all Kinds of 

Weather, and the great Waot of that moft ufeful and plealant 

Element, Good Water. . , 

7 And, 

r p 2 New Principles of Gardening: 

And, on the contrary, where Situations are low, they often 
abound in too great a Plenty of Water, which, when ftagnant, 
or of a flow Motion, is very unhealthy. 

All Kinds of Fenny, Boggy, Marfhy Lands, &c. whence Fogs 
and noifome Vapours arife, are always to be avoided. 

Boas, 13c. on the North Side of a Houfe or Garden, are un- 
healm' • for thev being interpofed between the Sun and the 
Bo-s, &\ receive che noifome Vapours, as they are exhaled by 
the attractive Power of the Sun. 

Situ ions on the South Side of a Hill are to be preferrd 
before thole at the rop •, for altho' their Views are not lo exten- 
five yet they are well guarded from the Northern Winds, and 
generally abounds with a much better Soil, and Plenty or 

The bell and mod healthy Soil to dwell .on, is that whofe 
Surface is a fine fandy Loam, with Brick-Earth underneath, 
and a Gravel at Bottom, wherein are generally good Springs 
for Houfhold Affairs. , 

Thefe are the mod general Cautions to be obferved, when 
Situations are to be chofen : But when they happen to be un- 
alterable, every one muft be contented ; and therefore 1 {hall 
conclude this Section with the Advice of Rapih. 

If on thy Native Soil thou doft prepare 
T eretf a Villa., you muft place it there, 
Where a free Troffett does itfelf extend 
Into a Garden ; whence the Sun may lend 
His Infl'ence from the Eaft ; his radiant Heat 
Should on your Houfe through various Windows beat : 
But on that Side which chief y open lies 
To the North Wind, whence Storms and Show'rs arife. 
There plant a Wood ; for , without that ^Defence, 
Nothing rcfijis the Northern Violence, 
While with 'defrnflive Blafts o'er Clip and Hills 
Rough Boreas moves, and all with Murmurs fills ; 
The Oak withjhaten Boughs on Mountains rends, 
The Valleys roar, and great Olympus bends. 
Trees therefore to the Winds you muft expofe, 
Whofe Branches befl their powerful Rage oppofe. 


' New Principles of Gardening. 1 9 3 


Of the Difpofition of Gardens in general 

ON this very Point depends the whole Beauty or Ruin of 
a Garden, and therefore every Gentleman fhould be 
very cautious therein ; I muft needs confefs, that I have 
often been lurprized to fee that none of our late and prefent 
Authors did ever attempt to furnifh Gentlemen with better Plans 
and Ideas thereof, than what has hitherto been praftifed. 

The End and Defign of a good Garden, is to be both profi- 
table and delightful ; wherein fhould be obferved, that its Parts 
fhould be always prefenting new Objetts, which is a continual 
Entertainment to the Eye, and raifes a Pleafure of Imagi- 

If the Gentlemen of England had formerly been better ad- 
vifed in the laying out their Gardens, we might by this Time 
been at leaft equal (if not far fuperior) to any Abroad. 

For as we abound in good Soil, fine Grafs, and Gravel, 
which in many Places Abroad is not to be found, and the belt 
of all Sorts of Trees; it therefore appears, that nothing has 
been wanting but a noble Idea of the Difpofition of a Garden. 
I could inftance divers Places in England, where Noblemen and 
Gentlemens Seats are very finely fituated, but wretchedly 
executed, not only in refpeft to difproportion'd Walks, Trees 
planted in improper Soils, no Regard had to fine Views, &c. 
but with that abominable Mathematical Regularity and Stiii- 
nefs, that nothing that's bad could equal them. 

Now thefe unpleafant forbidding Sort of Gardens, owe their 
Deformity to the infipid Tafte or Intereft of fome of our The- 
orical Engineers, who, in their afpiring Garrets, cultivate all 
the feveral Species of Plants, as well as frame Defigns lor Si- 
tuations they never faw : Or to fome Nurfery-Man, who, for 
his own Intereft, advifes the Gentleman to fuch Forms and 
Trees as will make the greateft Draught out of his Nurfery, 
q c without 

15^4 ^ ew Principles of Gardening. 

without Regard to any Thing more : And oftentimes to a Cox- 
comb, who takes upon himfelf to be an excellent Draughtfman, 
as well as an incomparable Gardener ; of which there has been, 
and are ftill, too many in England, which is witnefs'd by every 
unfortunate Garden wherein they come. Now as the Beauty 
of Gardens in general depends upon an elegant Difpofition of 
all their Parts, which cannot be determined without a perfed 
Knowledge of its feveral Afcendings. Defcendings, Viewsj &c. 
how is it poflible that any Perlbn can make a good Defign for 
any Garden, whofe Situation they never faw? 

To draw a beautiful regular Draught, is not to the Purpole,- 
for altho' it makes a handfome Figure on the Paper, yet it has 
a quite different Effeft when executed on the Ground : Nor is 
there any Thing more ridiculous, and forbidding, than a Gar- 
den which is regular ; which, inftead of entertaining the Eye with 
frefh Obje&s, after you have k^n z quarter Part, you only fee 
the very fame Part repeated again, without any Variety. 

And what ftill greatly adds to this wretched Method, is, that 
to execute thefe ftiff regular Defigns, they deftroy many a noble 
Oak, and in its Place plant, perhaps, a clumfey-bred Yew, Holley, 
&c. which, with me, is a Crime of fo high a Nature, as not 
to be pardon'd. 

There is nothing adds fo much to the Pleafure of a Garden, 
as thofe great Beauties of Nature, Hi/Is znd Valleys, which, by 
our regular Coxcombs, have ever been deftroyed, and at a very 
great Expence alfo in Levelling. 

For, to their great Misfortune, they always deviate from Na- 
ture, inftead of imitating it. 

There are many other Abfurdities I could mention, which 
thole wretched Creatures have, and are daily guilty of : But as 
the preceding are fufficient to arm worthy Gentlemen againft 
iuch Mortals, I {hall at prefent forbear , and inftead thereof, 
proceed to General Direftions for laying out Gardens in a more 
grand and delightful Manner than has been done before But 
firft obferve, 

That the feveral Parts of a beautiful Rural Garden, are Walks, 
Motes, Borders, Open 'Plains, Plain 'Parterres, Avenues, 
Proves IVildernefes, Labyrinths, Fruit-Gardens, Flower-Gar- 
dens, Vineyards, Hop-Gardens > Nurferies, Coppiced Qttarters, 


New Principles of Gardening. 195 

Green Openings, like Meadows: Small Inclofures of Corn, 
Cones of Ever '-Greens, of Flowering-Shrubs, of Fruit-Trees, of 
Foreft-Trees, and mix'd together : Mounts, Terraces, Winding 
Valleys, Dales, "Purling Streams, Bafons, Canals, Fountains, 
Cafcades, Grotto's, Rocks, Ruins, Serpentine Meanders, Rude 
Coppies, Hay-Stacks, IVood-Tiles, Rabbit and Hare-Warrens, 
Cold Baths, Aviaries, Cabinets, Statues, Obelisks, Manazcrics, 
Theafant and Partridge-Grounds, Orangeries, Melon-Grounds, 
Kitchen-Gardens, Phyjick or Herb-Garden, Orchard, Bowling- 
Green, "Dials, Precipices, Amphitheatres, &c. 

General DIRECTIONS, &c. 

L r I ^ HAT the grand Front of a Building lie open upon 
1 an elegant Lawn or Plain of Grafs, adorn *'d with beau- 
tiful Statues, (of which hereafter in their Place,) terminated on 
its Sides with open Groves. 

II. That grand Avenues be planted from fuch large open 
Plains, with a Breadth proportionable to the Building,' as well 
as to its Length of View. 

III. That Views in Gardens be as extenfive as poflible. 

IV. That fuch Walks, whofe Views cannot be extended, 
terminate in Woods, Forefts, mifhapen Rocks, ftrange Precipi- 
ces, Mountains, old Ruins, grand Buildings, &c 

V. That no regular Ever-Greens, &c. be planted in any Part 
of an open Plain or Parterre. 

VI. That no Borders be made, or Scroll-Work cut, in any 
fuch Lawn or plain Parterre ; for the Grandeur of thofe beau- 
tiful Carpets confifts in their native Plainnefs. 

VII. That all Gardens be grand, beautiful, and natural. 

VIII. That lliady Walks be planted from the End-Views of 
a Houfe, and terminate in thofe open Groves that enclofe the 
Sides of the plain Parterre, that thereby you may enter into 
immediate Shade, as foon as out of the Houfe, without being 
heated by the fcorching Rays of the Sun. 

Without a Shade no Beauty Gardens know ; 
And all the Country* s but a naked Show. 

i $6 New Principles of Gardening. 

IX. That all the Trees of your fhady Walks and Groves be 
planted with Sweet-Brier, White JefTemine, and Honey-Suckles, 
environ'd at Bottom with a fmall Circle of Dwarf-Stock, Candy- 
Turf, and Pinks. 

X. That all thofe Parts which are out of View from the 
Houfe, be form'd into WildernefTes, Labyrinths, &c. 

XI. That Hills and Dales, of eafy Afcents, be made by Art, 
where Nature has not performed that Work before. 

XII. That Earths calt out of Foundations, &c. be carried to 
fuch Places for railing of Mounts, from which, line Views 
may be feen. 

XIII. That the Slopes of Mounts, 8fc. be laid with a mode- 
rate Reclination, and planted with all Sorts of Ever-Greens in 
a promiscuous Manner, fo as to grow all in a Thicket ; which 
has a prodigious fine Effc&. 

In this very Manner are planted two beautiful Mounts in 
the Gardens of the Honourable Sir Fijber Tench at Low- 
Layton in Ejfex. 

XIV. That the Walks leading up die Slope of a Mount, 
have their Breadth contra&ed at the Top, full one half Part; 
and if that contracted Part be enclofed on the Sides with a 
Hedge whofe Leaves are of a light Green, 'twill feemingly add 
a great Addition to the Length of the Walk, when view'd 
from the other End. 

XV. That all Walks whofe Lengths are fhort, and lead away 
from any Point of View, be made narrower at their further 
Ends than at the hither Part; for by the Inclination of their 
Sides, they appear to be of a much greater Length than they 
really are ; and the further End of every long Walk, Avenue, Sfcv 
appears to be much narrower than that End where you ftand. 

And the Reafon is, that notwithftanding the Sides of fuch 
Walks are parallel to each other, yet as the Breadth of the 
further End is feen under a lefler Angle, than the Breadth of 
that Part where you ftand, it will therefore appear as if con- 
tracted, altho* the Sides are afrually parallel ; for equal Ob- 
jects always appear under equal Angles, Q. E. D. 

XVI. That the Walks of a Wildernefs be never narrower 
than ten Feet, or wider than twenty five Feet. 

XVII. That the Walks of a Wildernefs be fo plac'd, as to 
refpeft the beft Views of the Country. 


New Principles of Gardening. 197 

XVIII. That the Interfe&ions of Walks be adorn'd with 
Statues, large open Plains, Groves, Cones of Fruit, of Ever- 
Greens, of Flowering Shrubs, of Foreft Trees, Bafons, Foun- 
tains, Sun-Dials, and Obelisks. 

When in the Garden's Entrance you provide, 
The Waters, there united, to divide : 
Firft, in the Center a large Fountain make ', 
Which from a narrow Pipe its Rife may take, 
And to the Air thofe Waves, by which 'tis fed, 
Remit agen : About it raife a Bed 
OfMofs; or Grafs; but if you think this bafe, 
With well wrought Marble circle in the Place. 
Statues of various Shapes may be difpos'd 
About the Tube ; fometimes it islmrtos'd 
By dubious Scylla, or with Sea-Calves grac'd, 
Or by a Brazen Triton 'tis embrac'd. 
A Triton thus at Luxembourg prefides, 
And from the Dolphin which he proudly rides, 
Spouts out the Streams : This place, though beautify 'd, 
With Marble round, though with Arcueill fupply'd, 
Tet to St. Cloud muft yield, in this out-Jbin'd, 
That there the Hoftel D' Orleans we find; 
The little Town, the Groves before fcarce known, 
Enabled thus, will now give Place, to none. 
So great an Owner any Seat improves ; 
One whom the King, and all the People loves. 

This Garden, as a Pattern, may be fbown 
To thofe who would add Beauty to their own. 
All other Fountains this Jo far tranfcends, 
That none in France befides with it contends \ 
Nonefo much Plenty yields, none flows fo highi 
A Gulph, fttf Middle of the Pond does lie. 
In which a fwollen Tunnel opens wide ; 
Through biffing Chinks the Waters freely fide ; 
And in their Pajfage in a Whirlwind move, 
With rapid Force into the Air above -, 
As if a watry 'Dart were upward thrown. 
But when thefe haughty Waves do once Jail down, 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Refounding loud, they on each other beat, 
And with a dewy Shower the Bafon wet. 

XIX. That in thofe Terpentine Meanders, be placed at pro- 
per Diftances, large Openings, which you furprizingly come to; 
and in the firft are entertained with a pretty Fruit-Garden, or 
Paradice-Stocks, with a curious Fountain ; from which you are 
infenfibly led through the pleafant Meanders of a fhady de- 
lightful Plantation ; firft, into an oven Plain etiviron'd with 
lofty Pines, in whofe Center is a pleafant Fountain, adorn'd 
with Neptune and his Tritons, &c. fecondly, into a Flower- 
Garden, enrich'd with the moft fragrant Flowers and beauti- 
ful Statues; and from thence through fmall Inclofures of 
Corn, open Plains, or fmall Meadows, Hop-Gardens, Orange- 
ries, Melon-Grounds, Vineyards, Orchards, Nurferies, Phyfick- 
Gardens, Warrens, Paddocks of Deer, Sheep, Cows, Sfc with 
the rural Enrichments of Hay-Stacks, Wood-Piles, Sfr. 

Which endlefs are, with no fix*d Limits bound, 
But fill in various Forms the fpacious Round. 
And endlefs Walks the pleased Spectator views, 
At evVy Turn the verdant Scene renews. 

Thefe agreeable furprizing Entertainments in the pleafant 
Paflage thro' a Wildernefs, mull, without doubt, create new 
Pleafures at every Turn : And more efpecially when the Whole 
is fo happily fituated, as to be blefs'd with fmall Rivulets and 
purling Streams of clear Water, which generally admit of 
fine Canals, Fountains, Cafcades, &c. which are the very Life 
of a delightful rural Garden. 

Of pleafant Floods, and Streams, my Mufe now flngs, 
Of chryftal Lakes, Grotts, and tranfparent Springs ; 
By thefe a Garden is more charming made, 
They chiefly beautify the rural Shade. 
Ton who employ your Time to cultivate 
Tour Gardens, and to make their Glory ^reat ; 
Amongyour Groves and Flowers, let Water flow 
fVater, the Soul of Groves and Flowers too. 


New Principles of Gardening. ipp 

Water, y tis true, through Tipes may be convey d 
From hollow Tits ; fo Fountains oft are made, 
By Art, when Nature aids not our c Defigns, 
The penfile Machine to a Tunnel joins ; 
Which by the Motion of a Siphon ftraight, 
The Element attracts 3 though by its Weight 
It be deprefs'd ; and thus, O Sein, thy Waves 
Beneath Pontneuf, the tall Samarian Laves, 
And pours them out above : But let all thofe 
Who want thefe Helps „ to him addrefs their Vows, 
Whofe Arm, whofe Voice alone can Water draw, 
And make obdurate Rocks to Rivers thaw. 

And to add to the Pleafure of thefe, delightful Meanders, I 
advife that the Hedge-Rows oF tIie"Wa Iks be intermixed with 
Cherries, Plumbs, Apples, Pears, Bruxel Apricots, Figs, Goofe- 
berries, Currants, Rasberries, &c. and the Borders planted with 
Strawberries, Violets, &c. 

The mod beautiful Foreft-Trees for Hedges, are the Eng- 
lish Elm, the "Dutch Elm, the Lime-Tree, and Hornbeam : 
And altho' I have advis'd the Mixing of thefe Hedges of 
Foreft-Trees with the aforefaid Fruits, yet you mult not for- 
get a Place for thofe pleafant and delightful Flowering-Shrubs, 
the White Jeffemine, Honey-Suckle, and Sweet-Brier. 

XX. Obferve, at proper Diftances, to place publick and pri- 
vate Cabinets, which fhould (always) be encompafs'd with a 
Hedge of Ever-Greens, and Flowering-Shrubs next behind 
them, before the Foreft-Trees that are Standards. 

XXI. Such Walks as muft terminate within the Garden, are 
beft finiflh'd with Mounts, Aviaries, Grotto's, Cafcades, Rocks, 
Ruins, Niches, or Amphitheatres of Ever-Greens, varioufly 
mix'd, with circular Hedges afcending behind one another, 
which renders a very graceful Appearance* 

Bejides the Fountains which to Art we owe. 
That Falls of Water aljb can befow 9 
Such, as on rugged Jura we defcry, 
On Rocks ; and on the Alps which touch the Sky 
Where from the fteep 'Precipices it defends, 
And where America itfelf extends 

200 New Principles of Gardening. 

To the rude North ; exposed to Eurus' Blaji : 
On Canada'/ bold Shore the Ocean / >aft ', 
There among Groves of Fir-Trees, ever-green, k 
Streams falling headlong from the Cliffs are feen-; ■ 
The Cataracts re found along the Shore ; 
Struck with the Noife, the Woods and Valleys roan 
Thefe Wonders which by Nature here are jhown, 
Ruellian Naiads have by Art out-done. 
Into the Air a Rock with lofty Head 
AJpires, the hafty Waters thence proceed. 
Itafb'd againft rugged "Places they defend, 
And broken thus, themfelves in Foam they fpend,, 
The Sound, as when fome Torrent uncontrolled, 
With mighty Force is from a Mountain roWd, 
The Earth, with horrid Noife, affrighted groans j 
Flints which lie underneath, and moiften'd Stones j 
Are beat with Waves ; tti untrodden Paths re found, 
And Groves and Woods do loudly ecc/r round. 
Nor fhould it lefs deferve of our Efteem, 
When from an even Bed diffused, the Stream 
Runs down a polijfrd Rock • and as it flows. 
Like Linen in the Ai> expanded /hows. 
The Textile Flood a fender Current holds, 
And in a wavy Veil the Tlace infolds. 

XXII. Obelisks of Trellip-Work covered with Paflion-Flow- 
ers, Grapes, Honey-Suckles, and White JeiTemine, are beautiful 
Ornaments in the Center of an open Plain, Flower-Garden, &c, 

XXIII. In the Planting of a Wildernefs, be careful of ma- 
king an equal Difpofition of the feveral Kinds of Trees, and 
that you mix therewith the feveni Sorts of Ever-Greens ; for 
they not only add a very great Beaaty thereunto, by their dif- 
ferent Leaves and Colours, in the Summer *, but are a great 
Grace to a Garden in the Winter, when others have ftood the 
Strip of their Leaves. 

XXIV. Canals, Fiih-Ponds, &c. are moll: beautiful when en- 
viron'd with a Walk of ftately Pines, and terminate at each 
End with a fine Grove of Foreft-Trees, or Ever-Greens. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Or, if an extenfive Canal terminate at one End in an ele- 
gant Piece of Architecture, with a Grove on each Side thereof, 
and the other End in a Wood, Grove, &c. 'twill have a noble 
and grand Afpeft. 

XXV. Groves of Standard Ever-Greens, as Yew, Holly, 
Box, and Bay-Trees, are very pleafant, efpecially when a 
delightful Fountain is plac'd in their Center. 

XXVI. All Grafs- Walks fhouid be laid with the fame Cur- 
vature as Gravel- Walks, and particularly in wet and cold 
Lands ; for, by their being made flat or level from Side to Side, 
they foon fettle into Holes in the Middle, by often walking on, 
and therein retain Wet, &c. which a circular furfaced Walk 
refifts. The Proportion for the Heights of the Crown, or mid- 
dle Part of any Grafs or Gravel- Walk, is as five is to one , 
that is, if the Walk be five Foot in Breadth, the Height of 
the Middle, above the Level of the Sides, muft be one Inch ; 
if ten Foot, two Inches ; fifteen Foot, three Inches, &c. 

XXVII. The Proportion that the Bafe of a Slope ought to 
have to its Perpendicular, is as three to one , that is, if the 
perpendicular Height be ten Feet, its Bafe muft be thirty Feet ; 
and the like of all others. 

XXVIII. Diftant Hills in Parks, &e. are beautiful Objefts, 
when planted with little Woods ; as alfo are Valleys, when 
inter mix'd with Water, and large Plains ; and a rude Coppice 
in the Middle of a fine Meadow, is a delightful Objeft. 

XXIX. Little Walks by purling Streams in Meadows, and 
through Corn-Fields, Thickets, 6&. are delightful Entertain- 

XXX. Open Lawns fhouid be always in Proportion to the 
Grandeur of the Building; and the Breadth of Avenues to the 
Fronts of Edifices, and their own Length alfo. 

• The entire Breadth of every Avenue fhouid be divided into 
five equal Parts: Of which,, the Middle, or grand Walk, muft 
be three Fifths ; and the Side, or Counter- Walks on each Side 
one Fifth each. But let the Length of Avenues fall as it will, you 
muft always obferve, that the grand Walk be never narrower 
than the Front of the Building. 

The moft beautiful and grand Figures for fine large open 
Lawns, are the Triangle Semicircle, Geometrical Square, Circle 
or Elipfis, as the Figures A, B, C, D, E. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

XXXI. The Circle, Elipfis, Oftagon, and mixM Figures 
compofed of Geometrical Squares, Paralellograms, and Arches 
of Circles, makes very beautiful Figures for Water, as may be 
feen in the feveral Parts of the Defigns at the End hereof. But 
of them all, the Circle is the moil: grand and beautiful. 

Nor will the plenteous Waters pleafe you lefs^ 
When in the Ground a Circle they pojfefs : 
Which Figure with a Garden beft agrees > 
If on the graffy Bank a Grove of Trees, 
With jhining Scenes, and Branches hanging down, 
The Seats of Stone j and verdant Shores does crown. 
But whether they ft and ft ill, or fwiftly glide, 
With their broad Leaves let Woods the Rivers hide y 
Beftowing on each 'Place their cooling Shade ; 
For Springs by that alone are pleafant made, 

XXXII. In the Planting of Groves, you muft opferve a re- 
gular Irregularity ', not planting them according to the 
common Method like an Orchard, with their Trees in ftraight 
Lines ranging every Way, but in a rural Manner, as if they 
had receiv'd their Situation from Nature itfelf. 

XXXIII. Plant in and about your feveral Groves, and other 
Parts of your Garden, good Store of Black-Cherry and other 
Trees that produce Food for Birds, which will not a little add 
to the Plcafure thereof. 

We wandring thro' a Grove, ^ 

Trees green beneath us, and all Shade above, f 

Mild as our Friendjhipj fpringing as our Love ; * 

Hundred of chearful Birds fill ev'ry Tree, 
And flng their joyful Songs of Liberty. 

XXXIV. Where Water is eafy to be had, always introduce 
a Bafin or Fountain in every Flower and Fruit-Garden, Grove, 
and other pleafing Ornaments, in the feveral private Parts of 
your rural Garden. 

Ye Springs and Fountains in the Woods re found, 
And with your Noife the filent Groves confound* 

New Principles of Gardening. 203 

XXXV. The feveral Kinds of Foreft-Trees make beautiful 
Graves, as alfo doth many Ever-Greens, or both mix'd toge- 
ther ; but none more beautiful than that noble Tree the 

'Twas in a Grove oj pleafant Tines he ftray'd; ) 

The Winds within the quivering Branches play'd, S 

And dancing Trees, a mournful Mufick made. } 

The Tlace it felf was fuiting to his Care, 
c Dncouth and favage as the cruel Fair : 
He wandred on, unknowing where he went, 
Loft in the Wood, and all on Love intent. 

XXXVI. In the Difpofition. o£ the feveral Parts of Gardens 
m general, always obicrve that a perfed Shade be continued 
throughout, in fuch a Manner as to pafs from one Quarter to 
another, &c. without being obliged at any Time to pals thro" 
the fcorching Kays of the Sun. 

O bleft Abodes ! O dear delicious Shade ! 
Had I for you, or you for me been made, 
How gladly would I fix my wandring Courfe 
With you ? How willing bear the World's "Divorced 
And only bleft in yours, her Charms forget, 
Renounce her Tleafures, and to yours retreat. 

XXXVII. There is nothing adds Co much to the Beauty and 
Grandeur of Gardens, as line Statues ; and nothing more dis- 
agreeable, than when wrongly plac'd ; as Neptune on a Ter- 
race-Walk, Mount, &c. or Tan, the God of Sheep, in a large 
Bafin, Canal, or Fountain. But to prevent fuch Abfurdities, 
take the following Directions. 

For open Lawns and large Centers: 

Mars, God of Battle, with the Goddefs Fame-, Jupiter, 
God of Thunder, with Venus, the Goddefs of Love and Beauty ; 
and the Graces Aglaio, Thalia, and Euphrofyne ; Apollo ^ God 
of Wifdom, with the nine Mufes, Cleio, Melpomene, Thalia, Eu- 
terpe, Terpficoce, Erato, Calliope Vrania, and Tolymnia ; 
D d 2 Minerva 

204 New Principles of Gardening. 

Minerva and Talks, Goddeffes of Wifdom, with the {even 
Liberal Sciences; the three Deftinies, Clotho, Lachefis, and 
Atro-pos; "Bemegorgon and Tellus, Gods of the Earth ; Priapus, 
the Garden-God ; Bellona, Goddefs of War ; Pjtho, Goddefs of 
Eloquence ; Vefia, Goddefs of Chaitity ; Voluftia, Goddefs of 
Pleafure ; Atlas, King of Mauritania, a famous Aftronomer ; 
Tyjias, thelnventer ofRhetorick; and Hercules, God of Labour, 

For JVoods and Groves : 

Ceres and Flora ; Sylvanus, God, and Ferona, Goddefs of 
the Woods; AcJaon, a Hunter, whom 1)iana turn'd into a 
Hart, and was devoured by his own Dogs ; Eccho, a Virgin 
rejected of her Lover, pined away in the Woods for Sorrow? 
where her Voice ftill remains, anfwering the Outcries of every 
Complaint, &c. Philomela, a young Maid ravifh'd by Tereus, 
who afterwards imprifon'd her, and cut out her Tongue ; which 
cruel Action Progne, Sifter to Philomela and Wife to Tereus, 
reveng'd, by kilting her own Son Itis, whom fhe had by Te- 
reus, and mincing his Fleiri, drefsM up a Dilh thereof, which 
fhe gave her Husband Tereus to eat, (unknown to him,) inflxad 
of Meat. Philomela was afterwards transformed into a Nigh- 
tingale, and Itis into a Pheafant ; and laitly, Nuppaa Fairies 
of the Woods. 

For Canals, Bafons, and Fijh-Ponds : 

Neptune, Palemon, Panifcus, and Oceanus, Gods, and Dione, 
Melicerta, Thetis, and Mark -a, Goddeffes of the Sea; Salacia 
Goddefs of Water; Naiades Fairies of the Water; and the Sy- 
rens Parthenope, Lygia, and Leujia. 

Niches to be adorn' d with TM minor es. 

For FruiuGardens and Orchards : 

Pjomona Goddefs of Fruit, and the three He/per ides, Eagle, 
Aretufa, and Hifperetufa, who were three Sifters that had an 
Orchard of golden Apples kept by a Dragon, which Hercules 
dew when he took them away. 

New Principles of Gardening. 20$ 

Tor Flower -Gar dens : 

Flora and Cloris, GoddefTes of Flowers ; and alfo Venus, Dlana^ 
Daphne, and Runcina the Goddefs of Weeding. 

For the Vineyard : 

Bacchus God of Wine. 

For Mounts, high Terr ace -Walks, 8rc. 

jEolus, God of the Winds and Orcedes Fairies of the Moun- 

For Valleys : 

The Goddefs Vallonta. 

For private Cabinet s in a Wildernefs or Grove : 

Harpocrates God, and dgerona Goddefs of Silence, Mercury 
God of Eloquence. 

For fmall Taddocks of Sheep, &c in a Wildernefs : 

Morpheus and Tan Gods of Sheep ; Tates the Shepherds 
Goddefs ', Bubona the Goddefs of Oxen ; and Nillo a famous 
Glutton, who ufed himfelf to carry a Calf every Morning, un- 
til it became a large Bull, at which Time he flew it with his 
Fift, and eat him all in one Day. 

For fmall Enclofures of Wheat, Barley, Sec /// a Wildernefs: 

Robigus a God who preferved Corn from being blafred ; Se- 
gefla a Goddefs of the Corn, and Tutelina a Goddefs, who had 
the Tuition of Corn in the Fields. 

2o6 New Principles of Gardening. 

For Ambufiadoes near Rivers,, Taddocks, or Meadows: 

For thofe near a Canal or River, Vlyffes, who firft invented 
the Shooting of Birds ; and for thofe near a Paddock, wherein 
Sheep, ®c. are kept, Cams flaying by Hercules. For Cacus be- 
mg a Shepherd, and a notorious Theif of great Strength and 
Policy, ftole feveral Sheep and Oxen from Hercules, who per- 
ceiving his Lofs, lay in Ambuili, and took Cacus i n the Fad, 
for which, with his Club, he knockM out his Brains. 

Laftfa for T laces of Banquetting; 

The God Comus. 

Where Bees are kept in Hives : 

The God Arifeus. 

Thefe general Direaions, with the preceding delivered in 
die Cultivation of the feveral Kinds of Fruit and Foreft-Trees, 
Eyer-Greens, and Flowering-Shrubs, join'd with the moft ufc- 
ful Obferracions on the feveral Defigns hereunto annex d is ful- 
ly fufficient for any Perfon whatfoever, to deflgn, lay out, and 

?o ?tl£ , ' n i° ne ,v bef ? re 'r i there fore fhall now conclude 
Jural Seatf * **" ^ the Ha PP lnefs of a 

^ hlefiishe, who tir f d with his Affairs, 
Far from all Noife, all vam Applaufe, prepares 
Togo and underneath fome fUent Shade, 
Which neither Cares nor anxious Thoughts invade 
<Does fir a while, himfelf alone pofet ^ 

Changing the Town for rural Happ'mefs. 
He when the Sun's hot Steeds to tV Ocean hafle 
EW fable Night the World has overcaft J ' 
May from the Hills, the Fields below defcry 
At once diverting both his Mind and Eye-, 


New Principles of Gardening, 207 

Or if he pleafe, into the Woods may ftray, 

Liften to the Birds > which fing at Break of "Day : 

Or j when the Cattle come from Tafture, hear 

The bellowing Ox the hollow Valleys tear 

With his hoarfe Voice. Sometimes his Flowers invite i 

The Fountains too are worthy of his Sight. 

To ev'ry Tart he may his Care extend. 

And thefe Delights all others fo tranftend> 

That we the City now no more refpecf, 

Or the vain Honours of the Court affect ; 

But to cool Streams and aged Groves retire, 

And th? unmix' d Tleafures of the Fields defire. 

Making our Beds upon the grajfy Bank, 

For which no Art but Nature we mujl thank. 

No Marble 'Pillars, no proud Tavements there, 

No GaWries, or fretted Roofs appear. 

The mode ft Rooms to India nothing owe - 7 

Nor Gold, nor Ivory, nor Arras know': 

Thus livd our Anceftors when Saturn reign'd, 

While the Jirft Oracles in Oaks remained. 

A harmlefs Courfe of Life they did purfue, 

And nought beyond their Hills, their Rivers knew*. 

F I N I s. 




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O P 



Of the Kitchen Garden. 


|kjJ M O N G S T the feveral parts of Gardening, 
which in general are delightful and advantageous, 
none is more neceflary to be well understood, 
than that of the right Ordering and Cultivation 
of Sallets, throughout the feveral Seafons of the 
Year. And in Confideration, that a Work of 
this kind might be very ufeful to every one, if communicated 
to the Publick in a manner abfolutely practicable, and free 
from the feveral Chimeras, and Imaginations fo much ufed 
by our late theorical Writers on the feveral parts of Gardening, 
B which 

New Principles of Gardening. 

which greatly deceives every one who follows their Directions j 
I (hall therefore demonftrate the true and genuine Cultivations 
of thofewholefome Vegetables, in a more concife, familiar and 
authentick manner, than has been done before. 


Of the right Ordering and Cultivation of the 
fever al Sallet Herbs which are in Seafon, 
during the Months of January, February 
and March. 


Of Alexanders. 
i . Its Names. 

ALEXANDERS is called in Latin Wf_ _ 
Greek hnnsmin or great Parfley of Gaza Equapium. 
'Tis alfo called Olufatrum, or the black Pot-Herb, and by many 
Syfoeftre or wild Pardey. The Germans call it Grofz Epffich, 
The French Alexandre, and the EngUJh Alexanders. 

2. Its Ttefcription. 
The Porm of the Leaves of this Vegetable is like unto thofe 
of Smallage, but fomething larger, being fmooth and of a very 
deep green. When it's fuffercd to grow up to Seed, it will rife 
about eighteen Inches high. Its Bloffoms are white, and the 
Seed is black when ripe in Auguft, and very bitter, but of 
an aromatic Smell. The Root is of a black Colour withour, 
but white within, and may be eaten. 

3. Its Temperature. 

The Seed is hot in the fecond Degree, and almoft dry in the 
third. Its Roots are of a moderate heat, as are alfo the Leaves, 
Stalks, e^ 

New Principles of Gardening. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
A Deco&ion of the Root made with Wine, will expel Wind, 
provoke Urine, and is excellent againft the Strangury, as alfo 
are the Seeds. 

5. The Tarts for ufe in Sallets are, 

(1.) The frefh Sprouts, Tops and Stalk, while tender, being 

blanch'd. (2.) The Root being peeled, and eaten raw or boiled 

in Soup, is very good for the Stomach, and its tender Shoots 

make an excellent Pickle. 

6. lis "Proportion or Quantity in a Sallet is difcretionally, and 
is eaten with Oyl, Tepper, Salt, &c. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
The Seed may be fown as foon as ripe in Auguft, or in the 
March following. It delights in good mellow Land, being 
fown thin; its Seed is not produced under two Years growth, 
after being gathered and fown in Auguft, in fmall Borders of 
three Foot in breadth, &c. 


Of Afparagus. 
Its Names and Kinds. 
SPARAGUS is called in Latin (1.) Afparagus Sa- 

tivus, Garden Afparagus. (2.) A/paragus Taluflns, Marfh 


Sperage. (3.) Afparagus Tetraus, Stone or" Mountain Sperage. 
(4.) Afparagus Silveftris, wild Sperage. (5.) Afparagus Silveftris 
Spinofus Clu/ii, wild thorny Sperage ; but of all thefe kinds 
we cultivate none but thefirft, which is called in Greek daard^ctyo^ 
in High *Dutch Spargen, in Low 'Dutch Afperges and Coralcruut 
or Herba Coralli, Coralwort in refpeft to its red Berries ; in 
Spanifh Afparagos, in Italian Afparago, in French Afperges, 
and vulgarly in Englijh Sparrow-grafs. 

B 2 2. Its 

New Principles of Gardening. 

2. Its T>efcripUon. 
The tender Shoots, which naturally begin to come forth 
about the End of March, arc foft and brittle, and of divers 
Sizes fome being very fmall, as the Size of a Goofe-quill, 
and others as large as a Man's Thumb, and oftentimes larger, 
beta" in Tafte when raw like unto green Beans. .The Top 
or Bud is of the form of a Sparrow's Bill, and from thence 
vulgarly called Sparrow- grafs. When the young Shoots arc 
about eight Inches in height (or thereabouts) they open their 
foft fcalic Tops or Buds, and break out into divers Branches, 
adorned with fmall hairy - like Leaves, mixed with yellowifh 
BloiTorrs, which afterwards produce Berries wherein the Seed 
is inclofed. Thefe Berries are firft of a green Colour, and 
afterwards become red, of the Size of a common Pea j and 
make a very beautiful Appearance, being mixt amongft their 
beautiful verdant Leaves. The Roots are of a very foft and 
fpungy Nature, and when planted in rich. Land, as I (hall in 
its Place direct, profper well, and continue for many Years. 

3. Its Temperature. 
Is temperately hot and moift. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

The young Shoots being eaten, as hereafter directed, are very 
nourifhing, and is a Cordial Diuretic, good for the Kidneys and 
Bladder, loofens the Belly, and very much helps Digeftion. 

5. The Tarts for ufe are, 

The tender Shoots when grown about three Inches in height, 
being carefully cut with a Knife, whole Edge mutt be ground 
very thin, and afterwards hacked with the Edge of another 
Knife, fo as to be rough like the Teeth of a fmall Saw, or 
otherwife fil'd, as the Teeth of a fine Saw. The Knife being 
thus prepared, place the end of the fide of the Blade clofe 
down by the fide of the Afparagus, cuttmg it off about three 
Inches within the Ground. But before yoU put down your 
Knife, as afore (aid, open the Ground with the point of your 
Knife, to fee if there are not other young Buds coming through 
the Surface, which care muft be taken of to prcfervej and 


New Principles of Gardening. 

when you are cutting the Afparagus off, as aforefaid, be care- 
ful that you don't turn your Knife about, which oftentimes de- 
ftroys three or four other Buds as would have fucceeded the 
firft. Alfo be careful that you don't jaub, or haftily thruft down 
your Knife into the Head of the Roots from which the young 
Shoots arife $ for by fuch doings I have known many fine. Pieces 
of Afparagus killed. But to prevent fuch Misfortunes, care 
muft be taken to plant the Roots a fufficient Depth, as I (hall 
in its Cultivation dired. 

6. The Proportion or Quantity to be eaten, 

Is arbitrary, its white Parts being fcraped, and bound up in 

fmall Bundles and boiled, is eaten with melted Butter, Bread 

toafted, ire. alone, or with Chickens, Lamb, ire. well known 

to moft People. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
The proper Soil wherein Afparagus naturally delights, is a 
rich fandy Loam, and is thus cultivated. 

(1.) Having made choice of fuch large and found Buds of 
the beft Kind (which firft appear in April) as may be thought 
neceflary 5 the Michaelmas following, when their Haulm is 
dead, their Seed will be fit to gather, at which Time obferve 
that you are not difappointed therein by Birds, which will de- 
ftroy the Seed, if Care is not taken to preferve it. 

(2 ) Your Seed, being arrived to its full Maturity of Ripe- 
nefs, gather all thofe large Stems elefted, and (trip off their 
Berries into a Tube, wherein put a little Water, and between 
the Palms of your Hands, rub the Berries to pieces, to feparate 
the Pulp of the Berries, which will fwim on the Surface of the 
Water, from the Seed that finks to the Bottom. 

(3.) Having thus feparated the Seed from the Shell and Pulp 
of the Berrv, pour off the Water, and lay the Seed to dry on 
a dry Floor, &c. obferving to lay it very thin, and to keep if 
ftirring about once a day, till perfectly dry. 

(4.) The Seed beins; thus faved, keep it in a dry- Place until 
the middle of the next March, at which time it muft be fown 
cither in flat-bottota'd broad Drills, made with the full breadth 
of a Hough, or at random in Borders about three Feet wide, bein^ 


New Principles of Gardening. 

coverd with the natural Earth made fine, about two Inches 

And as Afparagus Plants of one Year's Growth arc the very 
beft of all others, therefore be careful to fow the Seed of a 
moderate Thicknefs, that the Plants may receive their full 
Nourifhment, and not ftarve one another by their being too 

(5.) The beft Seafon for planting Afparagus in light or hot 
Lands, is April, and in fandy cold Lands, the beginning of May, 
and not in the beginning of Marches Mr.Brad/ey directs in his new 
Improvements, Part the Third Corrected, page 141. For to 
my certain Knowledge, I have known many Labours loft, by 
planting fo very early, before that their Roots are difpofed to 
ftrike, which they never fail of doing about the middle of April, 
and immediately grow away with good Succefs. Whereas 
when they are planted at the beginning of March, before they 
are by the Heat of the Spring put into a State of Growth, and 
wet and cold Weather comes thereon ; 'tis very rare that one 
Root in ten ever comes to one tenth the Perfection as thofc 
planted in April. 

(6.) The proper Seafon for trenching and preparing the 
Land, wherein Afparagus is to be planted, is November, or the 
beginning of 'December, and not at the time of planting in 
April, &c. as has been always pra&ifed. 

The manner of performing this Work is as follows. 

About the beginning of November, or fooner, if the Ground 
will v/ork, open a Trench the length or breadth of the Ground 
you intend to plant ; of two Spit and two Crums in depth, 
which being done, throw into the Trench as much well rotted 
Horfe Dung, &c. as will fill it up about one Foot from the Bot- 
tom, and thereon caft the firft Spit of the fecond Trench, which 
muft be afterwards well mixed with the Dung underneath, by 
the help of a Dung- Fork, Sparrow-grafs-Fork, fyc. before that the 
Crum and fecond Spit come thereon. This bottom Spit being 
thus well worked in with the Dung, throw on the firft Crum, 
and thereon a fecond laying of Dung of the fame Thicknefs of the 
former, and on that, the bottom Spit of the fecond Trench -, 
but .herein obferve that this bottom Spit of the fecond Trench 
muft be thrown into Ridges, and not levelled down as is ufual, 
and to cover fuch parts of the Dung as is between the Ridges, 


New Principles of Gardening. 

caft thereon the fecond Crum, and then begin again with a 
Foot thicknefs of Dung in the Bottom of the fecond Trench, 
which mix with thff upper Spit of the third Trench, &c. till the 
whole is compleated. 

The Quantity of Dung necciTary for one Rod of Ground, 
is about one good Cart Load and an half, or three quarters, 
if to be had. And altho' I have not hitherto mentioned any 
thing of the Care, as ought to be taken, in having the Land 
perfectly clean from Couch-grafs, Thirties, Vcrvine, &c. yet 
that mult be carefully executed, or otherwife 'twill be of a very 
bad Confequence. 

About the middle of April, when the Seafon of planting is 
arrived, andthofe Ridges fweetencd and meliorated by the Win- 
ter's Frofts, &c. (for which I direded their being ridged) throw 
them down, and with a Dung-Fork, &c. mix the upper laying 
of Dung therein, and level it as you go on, ready for planting. 

Having thus prepared the Ground fit for planting, kt out 
your Beds (which ought to be) four Feet in breadth, and the 
Alleys between them two Feet and half. This being done, 
divide the breadth of each Bed in four equal Parts, which 
being each one Foot, is theDiftance that the Rows muft be from 
one another. 

The manner of planting Afparagus Roots with Dibbers is 
entirely wrong, for by crowding all their Fibres together the 
Earth cannot encompafs them, and therefore die in great Quan- 
tity. But to prevent fuch Lolfcs and Disappointments, oblervc 
the following Direaion, viz. Prepare a Line mark'd with Knots 
of Thread, at nine Inches apart, which fet on the firft Divifion 
of your Bed, and againft every Knot make a chop with a 
Spade, wide enough to receive one Afparagus Plant, which 
place againft the Knot of the Line about fix Inches below the 
Surface, fpreading their Root fingly againft the fide of the Chop, 
and clofing the Earth well between and over them, and in like 
manner proceed till the whole Plantation is completed. 

The Cuftom of fowing Onions amongft the Plants in the 
Beds, and planting Colly-flowers or Artichokes in the Alleys, 
I cannot any wife commend, for they in general are Robbers of 
the Nourifhment as fhould be preferved with care for the Af- 
paragus only, which will foon repay the Value of fuch Onions, 
Colly-flowers, &c. ten-fold. Therefore I recommend, that 
4 Care 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Care being taken to keep them perfectly clean from Weeds, 
and that no Plant of any kind be fuffered to grow amongft 

Towards Michaelmas, before that the young Haulm is decay- 
ed, examine the feveral Lines of all your Beds, to find what 
Number of Plants has mifcarried j and in fuch places, when 
they have fo miffed, place down a fmall Stick, &c. which 
will inform you where to make good your Plantation the April 

About the middle of 0#<?&r, divide the Alleys in the middle and 
on each fide, fet off the breadth of half a Spit, and then drain- 
ing a Line on each fide, chop out the Alleys, and throw them 
upon the Beds, which will raife the Beds about two Inches in 
height, whereby the Buds of the Roots will be about eight Inches 
deep, out of the Danger of the Knife in cutting, (as Iobferved 
before) Frofts, &c. and the Alleys exadly between the extream 
Lines of each Bed. 

At the latter End of February, if the Spring be very for- 
ward, or beginning (but not later than the middle) of March, 
fork and rake the Beds, breaking the Earth very well, and 
picking out fuch Weeds as may have crept therein. 

When Afparagus is planted very (hallow, 'twill come much 
fooner in the Spring than that which is planted deeper; but 
then it is attended with thefe Misfortunes, 'tis always fmaller, 
more expofed to the Winter's Frofts, fubjed to be killed by 
the Fork in forking, and by the Knife in cutting ; fo that al- 
tho' Afparagus be planted a moderate depth, and does not come in 
quite fo foon, as that as is planted (hallow ; yet I cannot but 
recommend that manner of planting, becaufe 'tis out of all 
the Dangers aforefaid, and is much larger and finer than the 

About the middle of October cut down the Haulm, throw up 
the Alley, and at the End of February, or beginning of March 
following, fork and rake the Beds as before directed, and fo in 
like manner every Year. When your Plantation has been thus 
managed three Years, 'twill then produce good Afparagus ; but 
the lefs 'tis cut this third Year, the better it will be ever after; 
fo that I would not advife you to cut longer than the End of 
April in the third Year, the middle of May the fourth Year, 
three Weeks in May the filth Year, and the End of May every 
4. Year 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Year after. And in order to have this Plantation of a long 
Duration, you muft every third Year lay on the Beds a good 
Coat of Horfe Dung, &c. well rotted, which Work fhould be 
done at the end of October, or beginning of November, and 
at the fame time the Alleys digg'd up, and fprcad over the 
Dung to preferve the faline Particles from being cxhaufted by 
the Sun, Wind, &c. 

A Plantation cultivated according to thefe Directions, will pro- 
duce the very bed of Afparagus in great Quantity, and con- 
tinue thirty Years, and upwards. Having thus demonstrated 
the true Pradice of raifing Afparagus in the natural Ground 
without artificial Heats, I (hall in the next place explain its 
Propagation by .artificial Heats, as hot Beds of Horie Dung, &c. 
The firft Work to be done herein, is to provide or make choice 
of a piece of Land, that was very well dunged the laft Year, and 
is very rich and mellow : Wherein plant the young Seedlings 
at the time, and in the fame manner as before directed, except- 
ing their diftance and depth, which herein need not be fo 
oreatj therefore if you plant them in Rows, about feven Inches 
apart, and four Inches afunder in the Rows, with their Buds two 
or three Inches under Ground, 'tis fully fufficient, becaufe that 
their Duration therein is but for two or three Years, or there- 
abouts. : . 

Your Nurferv being thus planted of fuch a Magnitude as is 
neceflary, care muft be taken to keep them clean from Weeds, 
for the lpace of two Years after planting, at which time they 
arc often ufed in the Hot Bed j but for my part, I cannot com- 
mend that Practice, having found by Experience that they pro- 
duce much finer Afparagus when let alone until the third or 
fourth Year after planting. And in order to have plenty of 
Apparatus every Winter, viz. from the beginning ot Novem- 
ber, unlil the end of March, or a Week in April* you muft 
every April make a new Plantation, that as you take up and 
force one Plantation this Winter, another may be coming in 
Readinefs to fucceed that the next Winter, and attcr that ano- 
ther, and fo on. . , 

Being thus prepared with a good Stock of Plants, we will 
now proceed to the main Thing, that is, to receive a recom- 
pence for our Labour, which muft thus be acquired. 

» New Principles of Gardening. 

At the latter end of Otfober throw up in a heap fix, eight, or 
ten Cart Loads of frefh Horfe Dung, mixed with Sea-coal Afhes, 
and watered, if very dry ; and in the Operation hereof obferve, 
that you fhake and feparatc the fettled parts of the Dung, fo that 
it may be all free and fit for working i alfo obferve, that the 
Sea-coal Ames be well mixed, for they add very much to the 
Duration of the Heat. After your Dung has laid in a heap, 
working for the Space of three or four Days, if the Quantity 
does not exceed three or four Loads, or fix or feven Days, when 
as many Loads, &c. fet out the Dimenfions of your Bed, which 
in breadth mould be about eighteen Inches more than the breadth 
of your Frame, fo that the back and forepart of the Frame 
may (land about nine Inches within the upright of the Bed : 
The length of your Bed being always governed by the length 
of the Frames, I need not fay any thing on that head more, 
than that the length of the Bed mould be always as much 
longer than the Frame as it is in breadth, viz. eighteen Inches. 

The Magnitude of your Bed being thus determined, place 
it dired Eaft and Weft, that the reclining Glafles may be dired 
South. Then work up the fame equally, making and mixing 
the Dung and Afhes in all parts alike, free from Clods, &c. 
But do not tread it down as you work it up, according to the 
common Way, for that Error is the caufe of that violent Heat 
which always attends new Hot-Beds made that Way. Therefore 
to prevent men immoderate Heat, which oftentimes deftroys 
good Plants, &c. and to caufe a moderate moid Heat, of a 
long duration, moil natural to all Vegetables, work up your Bed 
, firm and tight with your Dung Fork, and, as I faid before, equal 
in all its parts, of fuch a height as, when fettled, to be about 
three Feet, or three Feet and half high : Making the back part 
fome fmall matter higher than the^forcmoft part, that it may 
lie a little Hoping towards the Sun. 

About three Days after your Bed is made 'twill have fettled 
its (elf, at which time cover it about four or five Inches thick 
with any common fifted Earth, which encompafs with Straw- 
bands pinned down, to preferve the Earth from falling from off 
the fides 5 and thereon place the Afparagus Roots as thick as 
polTibly you can place their Buds together, without pruning any 
part of their Roots 5 covering them about three Inches thick 
with common Mould, fifted or skrecn'd tolerably fine. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

The Plantation being thus executed, let it remain in this 
State for fix or feven Days, if the Bed proves very hot, before 
you place the Glafles on the Frames : Which may be very cafily 
difcover'd by thrufting three or four tolerable large Sticks into 
divers parts of the Bed at the time of making, which will 
be heated by the Bed in Proportion to the Heat, and by pul- 
ling thofe Sticks out and feeling them, may give a very good 
Judgment of the Heat of the Bed. At the aforefaid time of 
putting off the Lights of the Frames, add a Thicknefs of Earth 
more over the Afparagus, that will (with the former) bury 
the Buds about five Inches deep, and about three Days after- 
wards the Buds will appear above Ground, when you mutt 
carefully obferve to give them as much Air as the Weather will 
permit, that they thereby may receive their natural green Co- 
lour, and a good Tafte withal. If the Nights are not very 
cold or frofty, one ftngle Mat is a fufficient covering, and when 
very cold the Mats may be doubled. A Plantation of this 
Kind will produce very good Afparagus, plentifully every Day, 
for the fpace of a Month, and when the Bed begins to decline 
its Heat towards the end of the Month, cover the Glafles every 
Night with frefti long Horfe Litter, which will draw the Bed 
very much, and caufe the Shoots to afcend with as much Vi- 
gour as if the Bed had been new lined. 

It very often happens that good Plants will produce Afpara- 
gus longer than the Heat of the Bed continues, and at men 
times when the Heat of the] Bed is in a manner over, take a 
cutting Knife as is ufed to cut Hay, Straw, &c. and cut down 
the fides and end of the Bed, and as much underneath the 
Frame, as will hot caufe the Plants to fall, which rill up with 
frelh Horfe Dung, and Sea-coal Allies, very firm and tight un- 
derneath, and about one Foot and half without at the Bottom, 
carried up diminiming, fo as to be about eight Inches with- 
out the Frame at the Top. 

This additional Dung is called the Lining of a Bed, and 
may be repeated as often as is neceflary, for it never fails of re- 
covering the loft Heat, and continues the Growth of the Plants 
their whole Duration. 

When the Afparagus Shoots begin to come fmallcr than 

at firft, prepare more Dung, as before directed, and make another 

C i Bed, 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Bed, to fucceed the fir ft, and after that a third, &c. during the 
whole Seafon. ."' . 

If that your Earth grows dry 'tis requifite to give it a mode- 
rate watering, which thus prepare. In fome convenient part 
of your Bed place a lar-e Pan or Pail of Water, at the time 
of your covering up at Night, and by the next Morning it will 
have received fuch a Heat, as is mod natural to the Heat of 
the Bed, and may then be fprinkled about, with a watering Pot 
and Rofe, without cooling or giving any check to the Heat 
of the Bed, or Growth of the Plants. 

And as Heat and Moifture are the Principles of Vegetation, 
therefore never fuffer your Plants to be over dry and hot, which 
caufes their Shoots to be very fmall and infipid, which on the 
contrary, when moderately hot and moift, are very large and of 
a delicious Tafte. 

N. B. That thofe Directions laid down for cutting Afpara- 
ms in the natural Ground, are to be obferved in the artificial 
Beds alfo : And the beft time for this Work is the Morning. 


Of the white and red Beets. 

i . Their Names. 
A Beet is called in Latin Beta, by the Grecians t&tXm, 
f\ nvrxov, the Germans Maugolt, the Spaniards Afelgas, the 
French de la c Poree, des Jotes, and Betes. 

2. Their T)efcription. 
i. The white Beet is an Herb which produces very large, broad, 
fmooth and plain Leaves, from which afcends one, and fometimes 
two Stalks, of a tolerable thick Subftance channel'd on the outftdes, 
from whence break out fmall Shoots, which produce much 
letter Leaves than thofe at the Bottom, with their Clutters of 
Flowers or BloOoms towards their extream parts, which is fuc- 
cecded by its uneven prickly Seed; but neither Stalk, Blofloms, 
or Seed are produced till the feeond Year after being fowed. 

New Principles of Gardening. 13 

The Root is generally very large, and runs downward like unto 
a Parfnip, being attended with many fibrous Roots, which break 
out of its Sides. 

2. The red Beet is of make and growth much like unto the 
white Beet, excepting its Colour of Leaves, Stalk, Bloftbms, 
and Root, which laft, when diced, produce wonderful fine 
delightful Colours. But befides the common white and red 
Beets, there are many other Kinds, as the large Turkey red Beer, 
whofe Leaves, Stalk, and Blofloms are of a very deep red, and 
its Root alfo, which in Form is very like unto our long rooted 
kind of Turncp. The variegated or ftriped Beet, &c. whofe 
difference is chiefly in Colour, more than Form. 

3. Their Temperature. 
The white Beets are temperately moid and cold, and the 
others in general are cold and dry. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues, 
Being boiled and eaten in Soop is a great loofener to the 
Belly, and its Juice muffed up the Noftrils gently draws forth 
Phlegm, and purgeth the Head. 

5. The Tarts for life. 
The Leaves of the white Beer, boiled and eaten in Soop, are 
excellent good, as obferved before : And the Leaves of the 
large red Beet, boiled and eaten with Oyl, Vinegar and Pepper, 
make a delicate Sallet. The Roots of the red Beet are chiefly 
ufed in the garnifhing of Dimes, &c. 

6. The Quantity of either is at Tleafure, 

7. Their Cultivation. 
Altho' there be divers Kinds of Beets, as before defcribed, yet 
their Difference makes no Alteration in their Culture. They in 
ircneral love good fandy moiftLoam, are fown in March, either 
in fmall Borders, and afterwards tranfplanted out at about fif- 
teen Inches apart, or in Quarters, Tingled out with a Hough, 
at the like Diftances. 

14 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of Broom Buds, 

i. The Names. 
'y HI S Shrub is called in Latin Genifia, and by fome Gene/la, 
L in Italian Geneftra, in Spanijh Geneftra, or Gieftra, in 
High "Dutch Tfrimmen, in Low Dutch Br em, in French Geneft, 
and in Englijh Broom, and as 'tis fuppofed from its Ufcfulnefs 
in making good Brooms, for the fwecping of Houfes, &c. 

2. Its e Defcription. 

The Sort of Broom that I am now treating of, is the com- 
mon Broom, which is found growing in mod dry Pafture Lands 
well known to every good Houfe-wife, and therefore needs no 
farther Defcription. 

3. Its Temperature. 

The Branches, Buds, Bloflbms and Seed are hot and dry in 
the fecond Degree. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 

The Dcco&ion of the young Shoots, made with Water, is 
a great cleanfer and opener of the Liver, Milt, and Kidneys; 
and with Wine, brings away by Stool all Kind of watery 
and dropfical Humours. 

5. The Tarts for ufe are, 

The young Buds and fmall Flowers preferved in Pickle. 

6. The Proportion or Quantity of them to be eaten in a Sal- 
let is at Pleafure, they ftir up, and create a very good Appetite, 
and are excellent againft the Spleen and Scurvy. 

7. The Culture of this Plant has not been as yet confidered 
in the Garden, which I believe proceeds from its being natu- 
rally a plentiful Grower in mod (if not all) Parts of this King- 
dom without any Cultivation whatfoever. 

a. moft 

New Principles of Gardening. 15 

SECT. v. 

Of Brooklime. 

1. Its Names. 

BROOKLIME, or Water Pimpernel, is of four Kinds; 
Asfirft, That which is gathered and eaten in Sallets, called 
Brooklime only, and in Latin Anagallis feu Becabunga. Second- 
ly, That which is called Water "Pimpernel, and in La- 
tin Anagallis Aquatica. Thirdly, Small Water Pimpernel, in 
Latin Anagallis Aquatica minor. And laftly, Pale flowered Wa- 
ter Pimpernel, in Latin Anagallis Aquatica minor flore pallido. 
But as my Bufinefs at this time is with the firfl: only, therefore 
I (hall be very full in explaining its Virtues in Sallets, and pafs 
over the others in Silence. 

2. Its T>efcription. 

The Stalks of this Herb are of a cylindrical Form, divided in- 
to divers Joints, from which fpring their Leaves, that are of 
a deep green, and placed oppofite to each other. The Flowers 
put forth from the Stalks of the Leaves, as 'twere from their 
Bofoms, and are of a very beautiful blew Colour, not unlike 
unto the Flowers of Land Pimpernel. Its Root is white, and 
of a creeping Nature, like unto Spear-mint, breaking out Run- 
ners at every Joint, as alfo its fibrous Roots. 

3. Its Temperature. 
Is temperately hot and dry. 

4- Its Medicinal Virtues. 
This Herb eaten in Sallets is good againft the Scurvy, and 
being ftamp'd and its juice taken in Wine, helps the Strangury, 
and Griefs of the Bladder, as Gravel, Stone, &c. 

5. The Parts to be eaten in a Sallet are the tender Leaves. 

<S. The 

1 6 New Princples of Gardening. 

6 The Proportion or Quantity that mould be eaten in a Sallet, 
is an equal Quantity, viz. if the Sallet is compofed of three 
• Kinds of Herbs, there muft be of Brooklime one third part ; if 
of four Kinds, one fourth; if of five Kinds, one fifth, &c. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
This Heib delighting to grow by. Rivers Sides, purling 
Streams, Brooks, &c. is there found in great Plenty, and there- 
fore its Cultivation in Gardens is not regarded. 


Of Cabbages, Savoys, &c. 

ALtho* Cabbages, Savoys and Colly-flowers are now fo cal- 
led and diftinguimed from what is generally called Cole- 
worts, yet they are all of the Colewort Race,as doth appear by their 
Latin Names. The Garden Colewort is called in Latin BraJ- 
fica vulgaris fat iv a \ the white Cabbage, Brajfica Capitata alba. 
the red Cabbage Braffica Capitata rubra ; the Savoy Brajfica 
Sabauda-, the Colly-flower, BraJJica Florida, being no more 
than clofe growing (or headed) Coleworts, and^the like of all 
others of the Cole Tribe. 

2. Their "Dejcription. 

To make an Attempt of informing Mankind what a Cab- 
bage, Savoy or Colly-flower is, would be both a ridiculous and 
fimple Thing, feeing that every Perfon living are perfectly ac- 
quainted therewith; and therefore I will, inftead thereof, men- 
tion fuch Kinds as are worth our Notice. 

The beft Kinds of Cabbages arethofe which, tho' firm, clofe, 
and very large, yet are very light, as the true Sugar - loaf, the 
early white Batter fea, and the French Cabbage ; and of Savoys 
the fame. But of all the feveral Kinds, the curdled Savoy, yel- 
low in the middle, environed with deep green curdled Leaves, 
is, of all others, the mod beautiful, fweeteft, and defpifes the 
Severity of our Winters Frofts, which the other Kinds will not. 


New Principles of Gardening. 17 

The red Cabbage is alfo worth our Notice, in Refpeft to 
its making a fine Sallet when pickled, or eaten raw with Oyl 
and Vinegar, being diced very fmall. 

N. B. That the beft Cabbages, &c. are produced from fuch 
Stalks as are very fliort, and indeed, fome are Co very (hort, as 
for the Cabbage, when growing, to almoft reft upon the 

Colly-flowers are of the Cole Race, and their Leaves not 
much unlike the Colewort ,• but as this Plant is not in Scafon, 
during thefe Months of January, February and March, I flialJ 
refer Its Defcription to the proper Seafon. 

3. Their Temperature. 
All Coleworts, and others of the cole Race, are dry and 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
The Nature of Cabbages, &c are fuch, that when they are 
boiled moderately, they are loofening, and when over much, 

5. The Tarts for ufe are, 
The young Plants in the Spring, when well grown, their 
Leaves cabbaged 5 and afterwards their tender Sprouts, which 
fpring from the feveral Joints or Buds of the Stalks. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten is at Pleafure. 
7. Their Cultivation. 

To be well furnimed with Cabbages and Savoys, in the 
Months of January, February and March, fow the Seed at three 
different Seafons, viz. March, April, and May, which plant out 
in Rows at two Feet Diftance from each other ; and the like in 
the Rows, in July, Augttft, and beginning of September 1 hat 
is, thofe fown in March, to be tranfplanted out in July ; thole 
of April, mAugufl; and thofe of May, in Septembers which 
will very orderly fucceed one another, during the Months above- 
mentioned. , 

When the Heads of Cabbages are cut from the Stalks, ob- 
ferve to cut them off floping, with the Slope or Cut towa ™* 

New Principles of Gardening. 

the South? as alio to cut away from the Stalk all the bottom 
Leaves, to give Liberty for the free Growth of their Sprouts 
which are preferable to the Cabbages themfelves, and will 
plentifully turnilh your Table till the middle of April. 

N B My Reafon for advifing the aforelaid Care or 
cutting off the Cabbaees from the Stalks, is, that the Rains, 
Snow, &c. may not rot them by falling on their upper-parts, 
when cut off horizontally, and thereby be deprived of that ufe- 
ful fecond Crop of Sprouts. 

Of Carrots. 

i. Their Names. 

OF Carrots we have three Kinds, viz. The yellow or 
orange Carrot, the red Carrot, and the wild or white Carrot ; 
of which the yellow Carrot is the mod valuable, called in Greek 
**QvXim, in Latin T aftinaca fativa tenuifolia, in HighTtutch 
Geelruben, in Low "Dutch Geel Teen, Geel Tooten and Geel 
Wortelen, in French Carotte, and Racine jaulue, in Italian Tajltna- 
ca, in Spanijb Canahorta, and in Englijh yellow Carrot. 

2. Their T>efcriptions. 

i. The yellow Carrot, its Leaves are of a deep green, com- 
pofed of many fmall Leaves like unto Fennel, from the midft of 
which rifes its Stalk about four Feet in height, being pithy in 
the middle , and fomewhat hairy without , producing at its 
extream parts round Tufts, which afterwards open into large 
Tufts of BlolToms of a whitiQi Colour, which is fucceeded by 
their rough and hairy Seeds, of a very pleafant fweet fmell when 

The Root is of an Orange (rather than a Limon) Colour 
both without and within, delighting in a deep fandy Soil, 
and very often grows to a large Size. I have had Carrots ot 
this Kind that have been twenty two Inches in Length, and ot 
twelve Inches and half Circumference at their greateft Lnd. 
And altho' Carrots of a very large Size are much valued by 


New Principles of Gardening. 19 

many, yet I cannot recommend them, fo much as thofe of a 
middling Size, which are always much fweeter, and nothing 
near fo watry and infipid as thofe very large ones are. 

2. The Red Carrot is of the fame Form, both in Leaves, 
Stalk, Seed, and Root, but very rarely grows fo large. Its 
Leaves are of a dark reddim green, and its Root of a blackifn 
red without, and yellowifh within ; and is very feldom culti- 
vated in our Gardens. 

3. The wild Carrot is called in Greek ratpvtivos «*>f*«fc in Latin 
Taftinaca Sylveftris tenui folia, by fome T>aucus, in High Dutch 
wild Taftenen, Vogol neft, in Low Dutch Vogels neft and wild 
Caroten, Crookens cruyt, in French Taftenade Saunage, in Eng- 
lifh wild Carrot, and" after the Dutch Birds neft. 

The Leaves of this Carrot are in Form very like unto the 
orange or yellow Carrot, but fomething whiter, and more 
hairy, as alio are the Stalks, being a little rough withal. The 
BlotToms are produced at the extream parts of the Stalks, as the 
others, but in much lefier Tufts, which when the Seed is ripen- 
ing, are drawn together, fomething refembling the form of 
Birds neft, from which, by fome, it has been called Birds neft. 
The Roots arc very fmall, of a mean length, and a whitifh 

3 . Their Temperature. 

1. The Roots of the yellow or orange, and red Carrots are 
temperately hot, and fomething moid, and their Seeds hot and 

2. The wild Carrot, both Root and Seed, arc hot in the fe- 
cond Degree. 

4. Their medicinal Virtues. 

1. The Virtues of the yellow or orange, and red Carrots, are 
very little more than that they arc a plcafant Saliet, when boiled 
and eaten with Meats, &c. They are long digcfhng in the Sto- 
mach, and are fomething windy. 

2 The wild Carrot, its Root being boiled m Wine, and 
the Dccodion drunk, provokes Urine, and expells the Stone. 

The Seed infufed in white Wine, and the lnfufion being 
drunk, greatly helps the Dropfie, breaks and diflblvcs Wind, 

2 o New Principles of Gardening. 

cures the Cholick, and is very good againft the Stone and 

5. The Parts for the Kitchen ufe arc the Roots only. 

6. The Quantity or proportion is at pleafure. 

7. Their Cultivation. 

The proper Soil (as I have before obferved) for the yellow 
or orange Carrot, whofe Cultivation I am now fpeaking of, 
is a ii"ht fandy Soil, rather than a ttrong Loam, which ge- 
nerally infefts them with numbcrlcfs Quantities of Worms, 
and oives a very bitter infipid Tafte. We muft therefore fur- 
nilh our felves with found Seed of the bed Kind } and make 
choice of a piece of fuch light Land, as is moft agreeable to 
their Nature. 

This being done, caufc the fame to be well diggd about the 
middle of June, and therein fow your Seed, treading the Ground 
all over, that the Seed may be well fettled therein; and being 
afterwards kept clean from Weeds, and ftngled out with a (mall 
Hough, at about three Inches apart, will, by the Michaelmas 
following, be of a tolerable good Size, and fit for the Table. 

But as my Bufincfs at the prefent is to provide a plenty of 
young Carrots, for the Months of January, February and March, 
I mall therefore give proper Directions for the fame. 

As foon after Michaelmas as the Carrots, before raifed, arc 
obferved to have done growing, take them out of the Ground, 
cut off their Tops (o dole to their Heads, as to leave none 
of the Leaves, &c. and dry them well in the Sun. Then hav- 
ing made choice of a dry piece of Ground, dig a Trench of 
two Feet deep, and about twenty Inches or two Feet in breadth, 
and of fuch a length as is neceffary. 

This being done, place therein your Carrots, in regular 
couries, one over the other, till the Trench is filled within fix 
Inches of the Surface of the Earth, and then placing the Earth 
over them, well fettled, in the Form of a Ridge, to caft off the 
Water ■ vou will have finifhed your Magazine, from which you 

of Carrots in a much better Man- 

f be furnimed with plenty ot Carrots in a mucn oetter *«-; 
, than when let growing all the Winter in the Ground 


New Principles of Gardening. 21 

which generally fills them full of the Worm and gives a very 
difagrecable earthy Tafte. A Magazine or Pit of Carrots, well 
managed, will plentifully furnifh the Table, not only the Months 
of October, November and ^December -, but January, February, 
March and April alfo. And if I may be allowed to give my 
Opinion, they are much preferable to thofe that are fown in Fe- 
bruary or March, which are fully grown when taken up in Sep- 
tember or Oclober. 

N. B. That the manner of fowing Carrots in February or 
March for the Winter, is performed as before directed ; but in 
the houghing or fetting them out, care muft be taken to leave 
them (ingle, and not nearer to one another, than feven or eight 

And as we are obliged to hough amongft them, twice at 
the .lead, 'tis generally praQiled in the firft time of hough- 
ing, to leave them rather thicker than aforefaid, as at the Di- 
flance of five or fix Inches; and at the fecond houghing, give 
them their proper Diftance as before dire&ed. If that your Car- 
rots are very well grown when you come to the fecond hough- 
ing, be careful that the corner of the Hough don't cut or bruife 
their tender fides, which will caule them to grow deformed, 
and very difagrecable to the Eye. 

When the Seafon for taking up thefe winter Carrots is ar- 
rived, as in October, and they have received their full Maturity 
of Growth, be careful in taking them out of the Ground, that 
they are not cither broken or bruifed with the Fork which in 
the Winter cauics them to rot ; that they be well dried, and 
pitted as above directed, and entirely free from every part of 
their green Top, which never fails of making a very great rot 
amongft them, wherever it happens. 

The manner of prcferving Carrots in Sand where 'tis to be 
had, and fuflicient Room within Doors alfo, is a very good 
Method ; but where large Quantities are required for large 
Families, &c. and very fev ere Frofts, 'twill not do; and there- 
fore the aforefaid Method, which I have recommended, is much 
preferable thereunto. 

And before that I conclude this Section, I mall fpeak a 
Word or two in Relation to the faving of Carrot Seed, and 
the manner of prcferving a good Kind. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

Amongft the feverai Vegetables cultivated in Gardens, there 
are none fo difficult topreferve from Degeneration as good Car- 
rots; for if very great Care is not taken in the choice of thofe 
planted for Seed, "they immediately degenerate, and foon after 
become wild, or very near thereunto. 

The common received Notion amongft divers People, of good 
Carrot Seed once acquired, will always continue fo, is ablo- 
lutely fa He ; and is the true reafon of fo many indifferent Kinds 
of Carrots now in England. 

And to prove this, I made the following Experiment, viz. 
Hrft, I made choice of a very beautiful orange Carrot, of a fine 
length and magnitude, which during the Winter, I preferved 
in Sand ; and when March came, planted it in a very light 
fandy Loam, wherein it thrived with great Succefs, and pro- 
duced fcvcral very large Heads of found Seed, which I ga- 
thered and faved very dry. 

In March following I made choice of a frefli piece of Land, 
very light and agreeable to their Nature, wherein I fowed the 
Seed before faved, which foon after came up in great Plenty, 
and grew to a very large Size; but not above one in ten 
was truly as beautiful in Colour as their original ; not but that 
the others were in general very good, fome few excepted, 
which were perfectly white and wild. 

Having received thus much Satisfaction from my Experiment, 
I was refolved to carry it on farther, and to that end I made 
choice of another Carrot, the fecond belt, or degenerated one 
Degree of Colour from the original, which Carrot I preferv- 
ed during the Winter, planted it in March, and it grew with 
good Succefs, and produced very near as much Seed as the 
former, which the Spring following I fowed, (as before) 
and the produd was a very pale yellow, and a great many quite 
white, without fo much as one of fo good a Colour, as that 
from which I faved the Seed. 

This laft part of my Experiment gave me a plain Proof 
of the Caufe of the feverai bad Kinds of Carrots in England, 
(as I before obferved) as well as of the great Care that ought to 
be taken to prcferve a good Kind. And 'tis my real Opinion 
that had I carried on the Experiment farther, they would at 
length become all white and wild, as the wild Carrots them- 
felves are. 


New Principles of Gardening. 23 

The firft Motive that moved me to this Experiment, was 
from the prodigious great Care and Exaftnefs obferved by my 
Father Mr. "Daniel Langley, Gardener at Twickenham, in his an- 
nual Choice of the beft Carrots, from which he yearly raifes 
great Quantities of Seed, and furnifhes many at very reafonablc 


Of Chervill 

1. Its Names. 

Columella calls Chervill Char ephy Hum, in Latin 'tis called, 
Cerefelium, in High "Dutch Korffeskraut, in Low "Dutch 
Kervell, in Italian Cerefoglio, in French T>u Cerfueit, and in 
Englifh Chervell or Chervil. 

2. Its "Defcripion. 

The Leaves of Chervil are (lender, and very beautifully in- 
dented, being fomething hairy and of a light green when young, 
but tending to a red when its Seeds are near ripe. The Stalk iel- 
dom rifes above one Foot, or thereabouts in height, and is 
very (lender, at whofe ends are fmall Tufts, which produce 
white Flowers, that are fucceeded by its Seed, of a long (lender 
(harp pointed Form. 

And befides this Kind of Chervil cultivated in Gardens for 
Sallets, there is another Kind, called the great Chervil, or 
Myrrhe, and in Latin Cerefolium magnum, whofe Leaves are 
deeply indented like unto Hemlock, but of a very pieafant Smell 
and Tafte, and by many called fweet Chervil. 

3. Its Temperature. 

The Temperature of Chervil is temperately hot and mode 
rately dry. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 
The Nature of Chervil is fuch, that if 'tis boiled in Wine, 
2. and 

2<\. New Princples of Gardening. 

and drank, it greatly provokes Urine ; and its tender Leaves 
eaten in Saliets are very refreshing, and cherifh the Spirits. 

5. The Parts for ufe in Saliets, are the Seed-Leaves, and 
the next to them, being eaten with other Sallet Herbs in Com- 

The green Tops or Seeds of Chervil, after the going off 
of the BlofToms, is an excellent Sallet, for cold and weak 
Stomachs, being eaten with Oyl, Vinegar, and a little Pepper. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten in a Sallet, amongft other Sal- 
let Herbs, is an equal part, as a third, a fourth part, &c. if 
the Sallet iscompoied of three, four, &c. forts of Herbs. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
The ufual and beft Method of propagating this Sallet Herb, 
during the Months of January, February and March, is to make 
a gentle Hot Bed, covered about feven Inches thick, with fine 
mellow Soil, and therein fow your Seed in little Drills, of an 
Inch deep, and about two Inches afunder, as alfo CrelTcs, Muftard, 
Radifh, Turnip, Spinage, and Lettuce : Wherein obferve that 
you make your Bed large enough to have two Crops, always 
fucceeding each other 5 and that whenever you gather a Sallet, 
be fure that you firft pull up the fame, and cut off the Roots 
when out of the Ground, and not leave them (landing in 
the Bed, after their Leaves are cut away. Alfo obferve, that 
whenever you gather a Sallet, be it little or much, that you at 
the fame time fow as much as you gather, changing the Kinds 
of each Drill every time of fowing, that is, the Drill wherein 
you fowed Chervil the firft time, fow with Muftard the fecondj 
Turnips the third ,• Spinage the fourth, &c. ftill changing the 
Species ; and thereby the Earth of one Bed will produce very 
good falleting as long as the Heat endures. 

New Principles of Gardening, 2^ 


Of Chives. 

u Their Names. 
f~*\ IVES are called in Greek z^weV^ev, Schanoprafum, in 
\^j T>utch Bicfloack, or Junceiim Torrum, or Rujh Leeke, 
in French Brelles, and in Englijh Cives, Chives, Civet and 

2, Their "Description. 

The Leaves of Chives feldom rife above four or five 
Inches high, of a long, (lender, round form., like unto com- 
mon Rufhes, from which rife fmall and tender Stalks, at whofe 
extream parts are produced globular Bloflfoms. Their Roots are 
compofed of a great Number of very fmall Bulbs joined to- 
gether, from which ftrike great Quantites of fibrous Roots, in 
a perfea Matt down into the Earth. Their Tafte is be- 
tween an Onion and a Leek, and are by many called the Leek- 

3. Their Temperature. 
Hot and dry. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
Chives arc great Provokers of Urine, but are hurtful to the 
Eyes, and do ingender hot and grofs Humours. 

5. Their Parts for ufc are the tender Tops, eaten alone with 
Oyl, Pepper and Vinegar, or in Compofuion with other Herbs. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten, in Compofition with other 
Sallet Herbs, is an equal part. 

7. Their Cultivation. 

Chives are incrcafed by their off-lets, or parting their Roots. 

They delight in the Shade, and love a light rich Land. The 

2 6 New Principles of Gardening. 

~ *. r«i-«* ti^m is in March-, at which Time 

feveii Inches apart in the Rows, as well as one Row iiom the 

° th Ar r 'i? That a Border about three Ret and half in breadth 
(which will receive (even Rows) and twenty five :or thirty Fee 
nlenath, is fully efficient to fetve a very large Family Note 
al/h fha he oftener Ch.ves are cur, the finer their Leaves 
come, and confequently more agreeable in Sallets, than thofe 
Leaves that arc coarfcr and tough. 


Of Clary. 

i. Its Names. 

CLARY is called by the Apothecaries Gallitriam, as alto 
Oruala, and by feme Tola bona, but not properly , in lta- 
l,an Sciaria in /*«.«& 0r»4&, in tf# VutchScharlach-, m 
£X»W* &&*&?», and in figigb Orm, Or«, or Clary. 
2. /« <Defcription. 
Altho' there be divers kinds of Clary befides the garden 
Clary, as the fmall Clary called in LaUn Galhtncwn alterum, 
another fort called Jupiter's Viflaff, and in Latm Coliis Jovts: 
The wild Clary, o/oculus, called in Lam Hormmum 
Sylveftre, and the Clary with purple Leaves Hormmum S/l- 
■veflrefoHis purpureis : Yet that Clary of which I am now to treat 
on, is the garden Clary, without farther Regard to any other 
The Leave* of the garden Clary arc of a broad oval 
Form, with their Edges a fmall matter indented, of a vbitflk 
Colour, and fomewhat rough and hairy, as alio arc the Stalks, 
which produce their Bloffoixis in June, Jul/ wdjugufl, that 
are not unlike thofe of Sage, which are ong 
Husks, wherein is their Seed of a black Colour which ripens ton 
after. The Root is divided into many fmal fibrous Roots at.d 
the Herb in general is of a very (hong Smell. When its Seed 
is ripe, which is always the fecond Year after (owing, the Root, 

New Principles of Gardening. 27 

Stalk and Leaves immediately perifh 5 fo that to have this 
Herb always fit for ufe, 'tis beft to low a (mall Quantity every 
Year, to fucceed each other, as they decay. 

3 . The Temperature. 
Clary is hot and moderately dry in the third Degree. 

4. Its Virtues. 
The Leaves being ftamped or fried whole with Eggs, in the 
manner of a Tanfte, is a very great Strengthcner to the Sto- 
mach, Eyes and Back. 

5. The Quantity to be eaten is at Pleafure. 

6. The parts for ufe are the young Leaves of the flrit Year's 
Growth, fried in frefti Butter, with Cream and Eggs, beaten 
with Sugar, and juice of Orange or Limon. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
The Seed being faved when ripe, and fow'd in March, in a 
fmall Border of about four Feet wide, and fifteen or twenty 
Feet long, will produce a very great Quantity, fufficient for 
any Nobleman's Family whatfoever, and delights in a rich 
fandy Loam. # 

sect. xr. 

Of Clivers or Goofe-Grafs. 

1 . Its Names. 

CLIVERS is called in Greek dwcL^vn, Aparine, in Latin 
Lappa minor, but not properly. Tliny affirms it to be 
Lappasinis Speciem, of (omc<P hi f ant hropos, a Man's Friend, be- 
cause that it takes hold of Garments, &c. when touched by 
them. In Italian Speronella, in Spanijh Trefera, or Amordt 
Hortalano y in High Dutch Kleeb, Kraut, in French Reble ou 
Grateron* in Low "Dutch Kleeferugt, and in Englifi Goofe- 
Jhare, Goofe-grafs, Clever, Claver, or Chver. 

New Principles of Gardening. 

2. Its Defcription. 

Clivers or Goofe-grafs, hath many fmall fquare Branches very 
rough and (harp, full of Joints, which are befet with fmall hairy 
Leaves, and are generally fix in Number at every Joint. The 
Flowers or Blofibms are produced at the tops of the Sprigs of 
a white Colour, and very fmall, as alfo is the Seed which are 
of a fpherical Form, but indented or hollow on one Side, 

The Roughnefs or Ruggednefs of this Plant being very great, 
'tis reported by Ttiofeorides, that the Shepherds ufed this Herb, 
to ftrain or take the Hairs out of Milk, inftead of a Cullander, 
or other Strainer, now ufed. 

3. Its Temperature. 

According to Galen, 'tis moderately hot and dry, and forne^ 
what thin of parts. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 
Clivers being boiled and eaten in Soup, or fpring Pottage, 
prevents Fatnefs, and its Juice is good againft Poyfon, being 
drank in Wine. 

5. The <P arts for ufe. 
The tender Tops, gathered when young in the Spring. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten, muft be proportional, to the 
other fpring Herbs eaten with it, as half if but two Kinds ; three 
Parts if three Kinds j four Parts if four Kinds, &c. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
This Herb being a great Delighter in Hedges, Ditches, &c 
is very eafy to be had in great Plenty during the Spring and 
Summer, and therefore is never cultivated in our Gardens, 


New Principles of Gardening 29 


Of Cow/lips. 

1. The Names. 

COwflips are commonly called Primula veris, and by fome 
Arthritica and Herba Paralyfis y good againft the Pains 
of Joints, Sinews, &c. In Italian Brache Cucult, in Englijh 
Pettie Mulleins or Palfle-wort, and vulgarly Cowflips. 

There are alfo divers other Flowers of this Tribe that are very 
plcafant in Sallets; as firft, the Field Oxelip, called Primula pra- 
tenfis inodora luteal fecondly, double Paigles, 'Primula hortenfis 
Anglican thirdly, double Cowflips, Primula veris flore gemina- 
to ; fourthly, the field Primrofe, Primula veris minor ; fifthly, 
the double white Primrofe, Primula veris flore pleno \ and laftly, 
Primula flore viridi, the green Primrofe. 

2. Their T>efcription. 

1. Thefe kind of Flowers, are very nearly related to the 
Mulleins, and was by the Ancients called Verbafculi, fmall Mul- 
leins. The common Cowflips being well known to every Boy, 
I need not trouble my Reader with any Dcfcription thereof. 

2. The Oxelip differs but very little from the Cowflip, in the 
form of its Leaves, but are fomething lclTer, as alfo are its 
Flowers, which fall very fhort of that delightful Smell, which 
the Cowflip greatly abounds in. 

3. The double Paigle, called of Pena Primula hortenfis an- 
glica omnium maxima & ferotina Floribus plenis, the great- 
eft English garden Cowflip with double yellow Flowers, 
being alio well known to every one, needs no Dcfcription. 

4. The double Cowflips, or thole that are two in a Hofe, cal- 
led Hofe in Hofe, is alfo well known, and therefore needs no 
Dcfcription. As alfo, the common white field Primrofe, the 
garden double Primrofe, and the green Primrofe, whofc Flow- 
ers are fomewhat welted about the Edges, and therefore were 
called by Pena, Jilvarum primula Floribus obfeure virentibus fim- 

3. Their 

rp New Principles of Gardening. 

3 . Their Temperature. 
Cowflips and Primrofes are of a dry Temperature, and little 
if at all hot. 

4 . Their medicinal Virtues. 
The Flowers being eaten in Sailers ^.^S? ^ 8 ^^ 
Gout and Palfte, and a Conferve made with their Flowers ang 
Sugar prevailed wonderfully againft the Palfie, Convuiuons, 
Cramps, and other Diieaies of the Sinews. 
5. Their Tarts for ufe. 
The Flowers being gathered and picked out of their Hole 
are the parts to be eaten, being firft infufed in very good 
Vinegar, and eaten with other Sallct Herbs in Competition. 

6 The Quantity to be eaten in a Sallct is double the Quan- 
tity of any one of the other Herbs in the Competition. 
7. Their Cultivation. 

Both Cowflips and Primrofes being very plenty, in moft moid 
meadow Lands, are therefore very feldom cultivated in our 
Garden. But if any one is defirous to encourage thefe Flowers 
in their Garden, which I cannot but acknowledge that they 
very well deferve, 'tis performed by parting their Roots, and 
transplanting their young Offsets. And altho thefc forts of 
Flowers are very common in Meadows and Fields, which 
make them of fo fmali a value among Florifts; yet when they 
are promifcuoufly planted amongft other Flowers, as Polyanthos s, 
Hyacinths, Daffodills, Wall-flowers, Flos Adonis, Virginia Stock, 
&c. they make as pleafant and delightful an Appearance, as 
thofe others which require much more Labour and Charge in 
their Cultivations. They begin their Bloom at the End of be- 
bruary, and continue to the End of May, the Cowflip except- 
ed, which feldom comes into Bloom till April. 

New Principles of Gardening. 31 


Of Corn Sallet. 

1. Its Names. 
/~"l6m Sallet is called in Greek tevxo^zccw, in Latin Lacluca 
l_j Jgnina latifolia, in Dutch JVytmoes, in £»£///& the w&f* 
Tot-Herb, or Z,*^ Lettuce, and G?ra JW/tf . 

2. if J Defcription. 

Corn Sallet is naturally an Inhabitant of the Field, but for 
its being a very refrefning pleafant Herb, is now received into 
our Gardens, and was introduced by the French and "Dutch, 
who were the firft that eat it in Sallets in England. 

Its Leaves are in Form long and narrow, of a pale green (and 
was therefore called the white Pot-Herb) from which rifes a 
(lender Stem, about ten or twelve Inches high, wherein are fc- 
veral joints, out of which proceed two Leaves, and between 
them fman'stems, bearing at the Ends fmall Tufts of white 
Flowers, very clofe and compact together, which are after- 
wards fuceceded by Seed. 

3. Its Temperature. 

This Sallet Herb is cold and fomething moift, like unto Cab- 
bage Lettuce. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
Tis a very great loofener and refrefher of the Spirits. 

5. the Tarts for ufe. 
The tender Tops and Leaves. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten in a Sallet, is double the Quan- 
tity of any one other Sallet Herb eaten in Compofition. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
This Sailct Herb is raifed from Seeds fown at any time of 
the Year, 'tis a very hardy Herb, will grow on mofr Lands, and 

m New Principles of Gardening. 

is an excellent good Sallet at all times, but particularly in the 
Winter and Spring. 


Of Garden and (Vater-crejfes. 

i. Their Names. 

i /^lArden Creffe is called in Greek K^iufuv, ia Latm Na- 

( T ft^tium, in French Creffon, in Italian Nafturtto and 

AgrMo, and in Englifb Crefes, borrowed from the Germans, 

Wh ° wlter-creffcs,' in Z„tf/s Nafturtium Aquaticum, and Z,4Wr 
£>«<*»*, and in £«£///& Brown, or Water- Creffes. 

2. TteV <Defcription. 

i. Garden-creffes, Nafturtium Hortenfe, or Town-creffes, has 
{mall narrow ragged Leaves, mordicant and hot in Tate. J he 
Stalks are round, and generally rife near two Feet in height, 
producing many fmall white flowers, which are fuccee led 1 by 
little flat Husks or Seed Vcffcls, like unto thofc of Shepherd? 
Purfc, wherein arc contained Seeds of a brown reddifh Colour, 
which when ripe (may be fown again, and) its Root then d,es 

2 Water-creffes, the Stalks are weak and hollow, creeping 
upon the Ground, and ftrike Root at moft of its Joints wluch 
enables it to cover a large compafs of Ground; the Leaves are 
om aa, and their Edge! fometW indented 1 or .agged, grow- 
in? exaftly one againft another, the end Leaf excepted, winch 
fta'nds alone. The Leaves are of a brown Colour above and 
green underneath, which is the true fign to difttnguifli the phy 
flcal Kind from the others. The Flowers are white and appca 
Tjuly, growing in fpokie Rundles or Clutters, and the Root 
is a perfed Thrum or Bundle of Fibres. 
3 . Their Temperature. 

i . Garden-creffes are hot and dry in the fecond Degtec. And 
2. Water-creffes are evidently the fame. 

2 4 . Their 

New Principles of Gardening 33 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
Garden and Water Creffes being eaten raw in Sallets, are 
very good againft the Scurvy, and are very loofening and re- 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
Of Garden Creffes, the Seed Leaves ; and the next to them — 
Of Water Creffes, their tender Leaves and Shoots. 

6. Their Proportion in Sallets. 

The Quantity of each in a Sailer, where arc many other 

Herbs that are cold and moift, as Cucumbers, Lettuce, &c. 

is of each three Times the Quantity of any other Kind of 

Sallet Herb ufed therein. 

7. Their Cultivation. 
' Garden Creffes muft be fown on gentle Hot-Beds, during 
the Months of January, February, and the firft Fortnight in 
March, as direded for Chervil, after which they may be town 
in the natural Ground under a South Wall, &c. 

The Water Creffes are beft in March, when they firft ap- 
pear, and as they delight in gravelly Springs, running Brooks, 
&c. are never cultivated in the Garden. 


Of Cucumbers. 

TN Confideration that many ingenious Gardiners raife early 
X Cucumbers, and oftentimes cut Fruit for the Table in 
March, and fometimes in February, I have therefore plac'd 
them amongft the firft Salleting, notwithftanding that I cannot 
recommend their being eaten fo very foon as February oz March, 
they being much too cold for the Weather of thofe Months. 


^ New Principles of Gardening. 

. i. The Karnes. 
Cucumbers, are called in Latin Cucumis fativus or Garden 
Cucumber, in Italian Concomero, in Spanijh Cogombro, in High 
"Dutch Cucumern, in Low Dutch Coucommeren, and in Eng- 
lijh Cucumber, and vulgarly Cowcumber. 

2. Their Defer iption. 

Altho* there be divers Kinds of Cucumbers, as the long and 
fhort prickly Cucumber, the long and fhort fmooth Cucumber, 
the white Cucumber, the Turky Cucumber, the Adders Cu- 
cumber, Pear falhion Cucumber, Spanijh Cucumber, wild Cu- 
cumber, &c. yet I cannot- recommend any but the long and 
fhort prickly, the fmooth and Turky Cucumbers, which in 
general are well known, and therefore need no Defcription. 

3. Their Temperature. 

All Sorts of Cucumbers are temperately cold and moift in 
the fecond Degree. 

4. Their medicinal Virtues. 
Cucumbers in general are foon putrified in the Stomach, 
but do not much nourifh the Body, and what is, (as before) is 
cold and moift, and therefore not good. Being eaten raw 
with Oyl, Pepper, Salt and Vinegar provokes Urine, fharpens 
the Appetite, opens and cools the Liver, and helps the Cheft and 
Lungs that arc inflamed, 

s . The Tarts for Ufe. 
When Cucumbers are very young and pickled, 'tis ufual to 
cat the out-ftde Rind of the Fruit with them 5 but when they 
are largely grown, as fit for flicing, robe either fried, ftew'd 
or eaten rafw, they are generally pared, and then ufed. Tis a 
very great Cuftom amongfta great many People to make choice 
of the very largeft Cucumbers, believing them to be the belt, 
which are not, but inftead thereof, are the very worft, except 
fuch as are quite yellow. Therefore in the Choice of Cucum- 
bers, I recommend thofe that are about three Parts grown, or 
hardly fo much, before thofe very large ones, whofe Seed are 


New Principles of Gardening. 35 

generally large, and not fit to be eaten, excepting by fuch Per- 
ions whofe Stomachs are very hot. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten is at Pleafure. 

But herein obferve, that 'tis better to eat too few, than too 
many j and if your Stomach will bear, to eat a good many 
Onions iliced amongft them, 'tis much better than to eat them 

7. Their Cultivation. 

The Cucumbers that are eaten in this Seafon, being raifed on 
Hot-Beds, I (hall now proceed to give proper Diredions for 
the Performance of the fame as praftifed by every good Gar- 
diner, who raifes this Fruit. 

The firft Work to be done, is to prepare a Parcel of frelh 
Horfe-Dung and Sea- Coal Ames, as directed for the forcing of 
Afparagus, Sett. II. and about the End of December, or Begin- 
ning of January, make a very ftrong Bed, of fuch a breadth 
and length, as may exceed the Bignefs of your Frame about 
fix Inches all round, and three Feet and a Half or four Feet 
high, when fettled. And in the making of this Seed-Bed, ob- 
ferve that the Dung be equally fettled with the Fork, but not 
trod down, as is ufual, for that cau fes the Bed to fire and burn 
very much on a fudden, which when over lofes its Heat prefent- 
ly, and chills the Plants: Whereas on the contrary, if a Bed be 
made, as directed for the forcing of Afparagus, its Heat will 
come gradually, and endure a very long Time. 

About two Days after the Bed is made, place on the Frame 
and Lights, and fix or eight Days after that, earth the Bed with 
dry, rich, light Mould, preferv'd from the Winter's Rain in fomc 
Out-Houfc, &c. 

The Thicknefs of Mould need not exceed feven or eight In- 
ches, which, the Day after earthing, will have received a fuffici- 
ent Heat for the fowing of your Seed, which is beft done in 
little Drills about an Inch deep, at about two Inches afunder 5 
and if the Weather is not very cold, I would advife that 
you cover the Lights every Night very thinly ; for as the Bed is 
now coming into its Heat, if you mould cover very thick, as 
many do, you would fet the Bed on fire by drawing its Heat up 
fo very Jaaflily, which clofe covering never fails of doing. 

F z The 

^6 New Principles of Gardening. 

The Heat of your Bed being moderately drawn, will «aufc 
the Seed to appear above Ground about the fourth or fifth Day 
after fowing, at which Time give them all the Air and Sun that 
is poffible, fo as not too much, whereby you may lofe your Plants 
by too much Air, which is of as bad a Coniequence as when 
they are ftined for want of Air ; which is difcover d by their be- 
ing of a very pale Colour, inftead of a lively Green, and 
very much drawn up and long Ilem'd. 

The only Care that is now to be taken, is more to defend 
them from cold Air, and to ftrengthen, than to draw and force 
them. And during all this Work, great Care muft be taken to 
wipe away the cold Steam, which by the Morning is con- 
denfed into Water, hanging in Drops on the Glades, which is 
beft performed by a Woollen Rag, &c. This cold Steam is pre- 
fent Death to every Plant it falls on, and therefore great Care 
muft be taken to prevent its ill Effeds. If your Lights are well 
made and firm, 'tis fufficient if you turn the Glalles inftead ot 
wiping them ; and indeed is much the better way, becaule 'tis 
fooner done, and the Bed lefs expofed to the Air. If you find 
that the Bed heats very much, and a great Quantity of Steam 
arifes, 'tis beft to abate the Covering, and to give a little Air in 
the Ni<mt; for in fhort, if they have not good Air, they are loon 
deftroy^d : And in the Day Time, when the Sun mines very free- 
ly, be fure that they have fufficient Air, or otherwifethe Steam 
that is then drawn up, will immediately kill them. 

In the giving Air to Cucumbers, obferve that 'tis given in 
fuch Parts of the Frame, where the Wind cannot arTed the 
Air of the Bed, which oftentimes kills the Plants. 

Thefe Dirca l0 ns being duly obferved, your young Seedlings 
will thrive with good Succefs, and become very good Plants. 

When they begin to fhew their third Leaves, they muft be 
tranfplantcd into fmall Flower-Pots or Baskets, of feven or 
ckht Inches Diameter, and four or five Deep, as dircftcd by 
Mr Bradley, in his New Improvements, Part III. Page 118. at 
about fo^'lnchcs apart, placing four Plants in a Basket or Pot: 
And as Mr. Bradky obierves, that of the two, the Baskets are 
the beft, bcins; made open on their Sides with Oziers : I do 
alio recommend the lame, in regard to their great Convcni- 
ency in removing Plants from one Bed to another, as they dc- 
creafc in Hcat,without any ways difturbiog theRoots of the 1 lams. 

New Principles of Gardening. 37 

which cannot be avoided when they are grown too large for 
the Pots $ and bcfidcs, if a Bed happens by Winds iuddenly to 
work and heat, and thereby fcald or burn, the Baskets, tho' 
very hot, are inftantly cool at railing up, which Pots are not, 
for they retain the burning Heat a long Time. 

The Baskets are belt when made with young Ozicrs , 
which mutt, before they are ufed, be caft into kalding or 
boiling Water, to prevent their growing when in the Hot- 

Your Plants being thus managed, will be very clofe jointed, 
if you have allow'd them fufficient Air : And when they are 
arrived into their fecond or third Joint, make a good ftrong 
Rid<*eof about three Feet in Height when fettled, which when 
its Fury of Heat is over, as will be in about ten Days or a Fort- 
night after making, then earth it in thofc Places where your 
Plants are to ftand for good, and the next Day afterwards place 
or plant your Baskets of Plants therein, at the Height of feven 
Inches above the Dung ; and at the fame Time obferve to cover 
the other Parts of the Ridge with Earth very thinly, to pre- 
vent the Steam of the Dung rifing, which is prefent Death to 
thefe Plants at all Times. When you find that the Earth of 
your Bed grows dry, 'tis neceffary to give the Plants Water, 
which prepare by its ftanding one Night within the Frame, be- 
fore 'tis ufed, as directed for Afparagus forced, Sed. II. 

Having thus tranfplanted your Plants for good, obferve the 
Temperature of the Bed, and as its furious Heat declines, make 
oood the remaining Earth within the Frames, always remem- 
brins to allow them fufficient Air, and that they are not any 
ways arretted by the cold Steam within the Bed, or by any 
which may arife from the out Parts, which may be prevented, by 
covering the Dung from whence it anles, with any common 
Earth or Mould. 

Your Plants being thus governed, will foon make great Pro- 
grefs 5 and that they may break out in many Runners, from which 
comes the Fruit , 'tis beft to pinch or cut off with a Penknife the 
third or fourth Joint of every Plant, always oblerving to peg 
down every Runner, that they may not be burnt or deftroy'd by 
the Glafs (which too often happens) when their tender Shoots 
bear againft it. 

3 3 New Principles of Gardening. 

The Fruit fprings forth from between the Stalks and Leaves, 
and appears very large before that the Bloflom at its end opens ; 
and when thefe Bloflbms blow ftrong and large, 'tis a very great 
proof of the Vine being in a good State of Health : So alfo 
'tis to be oblerved in young Plants, when they hold their Seed 
Leaves with Strength and good Colour. And befides thefe 
Bloflbms produced at the end of the Fruit , there are others, 
which grow at the Joints, called falfe Bloflbms, which never 
produce any Thing ; and are therefore by Gardiners picked 
Off, as foon as ever they appear, to prevent their drawing any 
Nourimment from the Vines, which is fuppofed to prejudice 
the Fruit belonging thereunto. 

As to Mr. Bradley's Opinion of the male Duft containd in 
thefe male Bloflbms, and convey'd by the Air or Wind, to the 
female Bloflbms at the end of the Fruit ; I am not fo good a 
Philofopher, as to confirm or fpeak one Word of the fame. Per- 
haps it may be \(o, and that he may have feen, and been privy 
to fuch like Sports more than I have as yet thought on ; but 
I can affirm this for Truth, as alfo can many good Gardiners 
at Twickenham and other Places befides ; That I have raifed 
many a good Crop of Cucumbers in very great Perfection, on 
whofe Vines I never fuffer'd one Angle falfe (or male) Bloflom 
to open, or even attain one fourth part of its Growth; for as 
foon as ever they appear'd, I inftantly difplaced them (as every 
good Gardiner always does) and never could obferve, that for 
want of their familiar Converfation with the female Bloflbms 
at the ends of the Fruit , did ever lofe one fingle Cucumber 
thereby : However as I am not fo proper a Judge of Procrea- 
tion , as Mr. Bradley may be , I mall fubmit to his better 

When your Vines are tolerably grown, and feveral Fruit fet, 
be careful that they are not check'd, or ftarved for want of Wa- 
ter, which will caufe the Fruit to be both deform'd and of a 
bitter Taire : And as the Vines make their Progrefs, ftir up the 
Surface of the Earth at the Ends of their Shoots very gently, 
that their tender Roots may the eafier ftrike therein j for the 
Nature of the Roots of a Cucumber is fuch, as to extend 
themfelves as far from the main Stem within the Ground, as 
the Vines do without. The extenfion and fize of the Roots, 
and Vines of every Kind of Cucumber, is always in proportion 

New Principles of Gardening. 39 

to the magnitude of its Fruit j as for Example : The Turky Cu- 
cumber, whole Fruit is very large, produces a much larger 
Vine, and extends it felf much farther than the long prickly 
Cucumber, and that alfo much larger, and of greater extent, 
than the fhort early prickly Cucumber. 

Therefore feeing that every different Kind of Cucumber is 
of a different Growth j great Care mould be taken in their 
Planting that they are difpos'd of, at fuch Pittances, as is pro- 
per and fuitable to their refpeaive Growth. 

The different Growth of Cucumbers being thus coniidered, 
as to their Diftance, each Hole from one another ; we mould 
alfo confider the number of Plants neceffary for each Hole ac- 
cording to their difference of Growth ; for was we to place 
but one or two at molt of the (hort prickly Cucumber Plants 
in one Hole, which is fully fufficient for the Turky Kind, we 
mould not receive a half Crop ; and on the contrary, if of the 
Turky Cucumber we plant three or four Plants, as is ufually 
done with the prickly Kind, their Vines would rob one ano : 
ther of their Nourifliment, and run into Confufion. 

Tis obfervable, that new Cucumber Seed draws a much 
greater Nourifliment, and is lefs fruitful, than fuch Seed as is 
fix or feven Years old, their Vines being more luxuriant, and 
lefs prolifick, with their Joints at a very great Diftance ; which 
in old well faved Seed, are very clofe and nearly fituatcd to- 
gether. Now in order for the Difcovcry of the Caufe , why 
old Seed mould produce a much better Crop of Cucumbers, 
than new Seed, I have made the following Experiment, where- 
in I have difcovered the Caufe. 

Having early in the Year made choice of the very belt and 
earlieft Cucumbers that came to pcrfeftionin the Spring (which, 
mud always be obferved, and not delayed to the latter part ot 
the Crop, when the Fruit has not half its Strength and Good- 
nefs) to fave Seed from Nvhen rotten ripe 5 I then walncd 
it out and dried the fame in the Sun, and put it into a Seed 
Bag, very fecure from Mice, which arc great Lovers ot this 
kind of Seed, and therefore muft be carefully guarded againlt. 

This being done, 1 took part of the Seed, and cauled it to 
be fewed up in a fmall Linen Bag, which about the begin- 
ning of Augujl I put into the Watch Pocket of my Breeches, 
wherein it remain d till the end oiVecember following ; at vvhich 


4 o New Principles of Gardening, 

Time I took it out of the Linen Bag, and obfcrvcd that it had 
fhrinked very much, and was become very hard. And having 
prepared a Seed Bed, I fow'd the fame, as alfo fome of the 
fame Sczd y as was kept in my Seed Drawers and others of 
eight Years old, of the fame Kind : The Seed that was kept 
in & the Seed Drawer, of one Year's Age, came up immediately : 
But the others, viz. That of eight Years old, and that of one 
Year preferved in my Pocket, as aforefaid, did not come up 
within two Days after the firft, and were much weaker : How- 
ever, being very eager to fatisfy my Curiofity herein, I gave 
them an equal Attendance in every part of their Government, 
and at length found, that the Seed of one Year's Growth, 
kept in the Seed Drawer, produced very large Vines, and little 
or no Fruit s but the Seed of one Year, which I preferved in 
my Fob, produced rather a much better Crop, than that which was 
eight Years old : From which it appear'd, that the moderate 
dry Heat of my Body, communicated to it when in my Watch 
Pocket, had the very fame EfTcd as when gradually dried by 
time in the Term of feven or eight Years. 

When hot Beds or Ridges decay very much in their Heat, 
let them be lin'd as before direded for Afparagus, Sett. II. and 
when many Ridges or Frames are placed before one another, 
cut away as much of the old Dung as is neceflary, and fill 
up the Alleys or Spaces between, even to the top of the Ridges, 
with frefh Horfe Dung, covering it with indifferent Earth, to 
prevent the Steam from riling, which (as I faid before) is de- 
ftru&ivc to your Plants. 

The lefs that their Vines arc difturbed on any Account, the 
better for the Veflels which convey the Juices to the Fruit, 
for being very tender, they are cafily bruifed and prejudiced by 
every Accident, &c. that caufes their removal. 

The more Shade every Fruit poflefles, the better it grows* 
for when Fruit of any Kind is fully expofed to the Sun, before 
they have done growing, the direct Beams of the Sun dry 
and pinch the Veflels of it, (as Mr. Bradley obferves) that the 
Sap cannot pafs with fuch Freedom, as in thofe Fruits growing 
in the Shade, whofe Veflels are open and free: Therefore al- 
ways remember that the immediate Heat of the Sun is only 
neceflary for the ripening the juices of Fruit, when fully grown, 
and giving its natural Colour, and not for the Growth of it, 

as many have thought. 


New Principles of Gardening. 4.1 

When a Bed grows cool, if under the Vines you cover it 
with Mofs, fo as not to difturb or damage them, 'twill draw a 
frefli Heat, and endure a long time. 

Whenever you water Cucumbers , be careful that the force 
of the Water do. not difplace their Roots , and that you wet 
their Leaves as little as poilible, which Work is beft done in 
an Evening, and thereby will be dry by the Morning : And if 
the Weather is warm in March or J4pril> and inclinable to 
Rain, take off the Lights, and let them have a gentle Shower; 
'twill add very much to their Increafe and Welfare ; after which 
lay on the Glafles, which will draw up a frelh Heat to the Moi- 
fture then received, and caufe them to flourifh and thrive greatly. 

This firft Crop is generally preferved by the Frames to the 
very laft j and that your Table may not be deftitute of a fecond 
Crop , to fucceed the firft, 'tis highly neccfiary and very com- 
mendable to fow a fecond Crop, at the back of your Frames, 
about the middle of February ', and a third Crop about the mid- 
dle of March ; both of which , when in the fecond or third 
Joint, may be tranfplanted out for good on Ridges, and pre- 
ferved with Bell, or fquare Glaffes, inftead of Frames, being 
fhaded with Mats for the fpace of a Day or two after Plan- 
ting, till they have ftruck Root, and able to endure the Sun 5 
as alfo every Night to preferve them from the Cold. 

N. B. That thefe Ridges need not be made fo very flrong, 
as directed for the firft Crop. 

N. B. That the fowing and tranfplanting of Melons has 
no fort of difference from that of the Cucumber : Therefore 
Whoever are Lovers of this noble Fruit, may fow their Seeds 
about the middle oi February, and order them, in every Rcfpect, 
as the fecond Crop of Cucumbers, the pruning of their Vines, 
and manner of watering excepted, which is thus performed. 

1 . The Manner of Truning. 

When your Plants are in the fecond Joint, cut or nip that 

off, and 'twill caufe two other Runners to break out from the 

Stem, at the Seed Leaves, which ftop at the third Joint, and all 

others alfo, as they come forth. 

This Method being duly obferved, will caufe the Vines to 

threw out great plenty of Fruit, which when fct, (lop the Vine 

whereon it grows, at two or three Buds or joints beyond the 

G Fruit, 

New Principles of Gardening. 

Fruit which will caufc it to grow away with good Succefs. 
The nearer the Fruit is fct to its Root , the betters becauie 
the Sap is not To much fpent in a mort Paflage from the Root, 
as when it has a long way to travel before it arrives at the 
Fruit, when the Fruit fets very remote from the Root, as at 
the very extreme part of the Vine. 

It often happens in both Melons and Cucumbers as well 
as in Fruit Trees, that there are many very weak Shoots or 
Vines, which are called water Shoots, never producing any 
Thin- more than Leaves and falfe BloiToms, which greatly rob the 
Fruit of its Nourimment,and therefore ought to be pruned away. 
Melons in general require a much lighter dryer Earth, and 
a -reater Heat than Cucumbers do, which delight m frequent 
ReVrefhings of Water, and will not thrive without it In the 
watering of Melons, obfervc that you place a Bell Glafs oyer 
their Roots, to prevent the Water coming to them, which in- 
flantly caufes them to canker or rot, and foon die ; and at all 
Times 'tis very neceffary to preferve their Roots as well from 
the cold of the Night, as the Rains alfo. ,..„._-. 

The Nature of a Melon is fuch, that when their Fruit is fet, 
they delight to be (haded by their Leaves, to have moderate 
Watering's when the Earth is extreme dry, and not to be kept 
very moift, which caufes their Fruit to have a watery and m- 
fipid Tafte. , , 

As foon as the Fruit is fully grown, it cannot be too much 
expofed to the Sun; and that it may receive the very greateft 
Advantage thereby , I advife that a Bell or iquare Glafs be 
placed over the Fruit, which mould be laid on plain Tiles, and 
turned every Day till ripe, which is known by their agreeable 
Odour, as well as by the fmall Cracks about the end of the 
Stalk as if it was feparated from the Fruit in order to be dii- 
chareed, having then perform'd its great Office. When Melons are 
to be fent ten, twenty, or thirty Miles, 'tis bed to cut them a 
Day or two fooner than when ripe, and to be eaten immedi- 
ately ; and in the cutting of a Melon obferve, that you cut 
its Stalk to the length of one Joint at leaft, with a Leaf or 
two alfo : It adds a great Beauty to the Fruit when at Table. 

To enumerate the feveral Kinds of Melons would be too te- 
dious a Task, and not any way fcrviceable : Therefore I mall 
only add, that the very belt are thofc of a middling Size, ana 

New Principles of Gardening. 43 

not thofe as large as Pumkins, which by many are moft va- 
lued, for want of better Judgment therein. 

The Melon is called in Greek pjxcv, viz. An Apple, in La- 
tin Melo , in Italian Mellone , in Spanish Melon , in High 
'Dutch Melaun , in Low 'Dutch Me loenen , in French Melons , 
and in Englifh Melon, or Musk Melon. 

The Meat of the Musk Melon is very cold and moift , and 
much harder of Digeftion than the Cucumber ; and when any 
Perfon eats too much of it, it lies very long in the Stomach, 
and very often caufcs Agues, Fevers, &c. 

The Italians and Spaniards, who have them in much greater 
Perfection than we can in England, are faid to eat them, more 
to reprefs the rage of Luft, than for any medicinal Virtue. 


Of Elder Buds and Flowers. 

1 . Its Names. 
r ^JT^ H I S Tree is called in Greek *>ctjJ, in Latin Sambucus, 
X in High Dutch Holunder holder, in Low Dutch Vlier, 
in Italian Sambuco, in Spanifb Sauco, Saiich, Sambugueyro, in 
French Hus and Suin, in Englijh Elder or Elder Tree, bear- 
ing large Bunches of black Berries which are ripe in September. 

But befides this black Elder, there is another Kind, which 
produces white Berries, called by divers People Sambucus Syl- 
veftris, wild Elder j but Matthiolus calls it Montana or Moun- 
tain Elder. 

2. To give a Defcription of Elder would be needlefs, feeing 
that 'tis known by every Boy that ufes a Pop-gun. 

3. Its Temperature. 
The Temperature of Elder, according to Galen, is of a dry- 
ing Quality, and moderately digefting. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
The tender Buds and Leaves of Elder , boiled in Broth or 
Soup, open the Belly, purge all manner of ilimy Phlegm, 

44 New Principles of Gardening. 

and cholcrick Humours; as alfo doth the middle Bark, but in 
a more violent Manner. 

The Leaves pounded with Deers Suet are good for hot Swel- 
lings and Tumours, and greatly help the Gout. 

The inner and green Bark is a very ftrong Purge j being- 
ftamp'd, and the Juice prefs'd out and drank in Wine, is very 
good againft Choler and watery Humours, and efpecially the 

The Flowers gathered in April or May and dried , being 
ftcep'd in Vinegar, are very wholeibme for the Stomach, fweetcn 
the Blood, create an Appetite , cut, and make thin all grofs 
and raw Humours, 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 

The young Buds and tender Leaves for Pottage. 

The Flowers being dried for Vinegar, and 

The Berries, which are ripe in September, for Syrup or Wine $ 
of which Kinds, the white is the mod agreeable for Wine, 
it being free from that very ftrong Tafte which the black Elder 
much abounds in. About five Years ago I drank part of a Bot- 
tle of white Elder Wine, made by that ingenious Nurfery Man, 
Mr. Teter Mafon of IJkworth in the County of Middlefex , 
which was fo very foft, and of fuch a delicious Tafte, that 'twas 
judged by many, who were competent Judges of good Wine, 
to be as good a White Wine as they had ever tatted before : 
And 'tis a very great pity that this, as well as many other Eng- 
lijh Wines, are not propagated much more than have hitherto 
been done. 

6. The Quantity of Buds or Leaves, to be ufed in Pottage, 
muft be a proportionable part with other Soup Herbs : And 
the Flowers for Vinegar are at pleafure ; as alfo are the Quan- 
tity of Berries for Wine. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
Both Kinds of Elder are increafed by Slips or Cuttings, 
and will thrive in any fort of Land that is tolerably good, and 
are often found growing wild in Hedges, Woods, ire. 

And altho' 'tis but very little regarded by Gardiners, yet I 

am well aflured, that were they to plant it in Hedges, running 

Baft and Weft, it would not only be a great Prcfervative, by 

' •" breaking 

New Principles of Gardening. 45 

breaking off the cold NorthemWmds from their tender Plants j 
but by its Produce of Flowers and Berries, would turn to a very 
great Account alfo. 


Of Garden Endive. 

1. Its Names. 
TJ'NDIVE is called in Greek xjpig wi^s, in Latin , Inty- 
Jjj bum fativum, and of fome Endivia, in Italian Scariola, 
in Spanijh Serraya Enuide, and in Englifh Endive. 

2. The 'Defeription. 

Garden Endive is a Sallet Herb , whofe Leaves are very long 
and narrow with jagged Edges, and fomething curling, like 
unto the curled Endive, but the Leaves are much larger; from 
which in the Spring rifes a round and hollow Stalk, divided 
towards the upper part into many fmall Branches, which be- 
ing broken , immediately iffues out a great Quantity of Sap, 
like unto Milk, but of a bitterifh Tafte. 

On the extreme parts of the Stalk its Flowers are pro- 
duced, which are of a blue (and fometimes a white) Colour : 
The Root is long and white, with fmall Fibres breaking out 
of its Sides, which in general die as foon as the Seed is ripe. 

3. Its Temperature. 
Endive is cold and dry, in the fecond Degree, and being 
fomething bitter, doth cleanfe and open. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 
This Herb being eaten raw in Sailer with Oil and Vinegar, &c. 
comforts weak and feeble Stomachs, cools and refrefhes Stomachs 
over heated, cools the hot burning of the Liver and opens its 
Obftruftions, caufes Sleep, and is very good in hot burning 

5. The 

4 6 New Principles of Gardening. 

5. the Tarts for Ufe. 

The tender Leaves, when blanch'd as hereafter directed. 

6. The Quantity or Proportion in a Sailer is generally two 

R^ots in fmall Sallets, and more in larger, at Pleafure. 

7: Its Cultivation. 

Endive is an excellent Winrer and Spring Sailer, and highly 

defers our Care, in refped to its excellent Virtues before de- 

fCr it b lovcs a very rich Soil, and muftbe fown about the begin- 
ning of May for the firft Crop ; the beginning of June ■for 
the fecond/ the beginning of July for the third, &c. When 
it has grown in the Seed Bed to a tolerable good Size 
tranfplant it in Beds, or in (ingle Rows between your Sel- 
teri at about eight Inches apart ; and when tis well grown, 
take fome Baft-mar, and tye fome of it up, m. as much _ as 
may be required in a Week's Ufe, and the next Week after 
tye up the like Quantity, and fo on during the whole Sea- 
fon • But whenever you rye any up, be fure that t.s perfeftly 
dry, or othcrwife 'twill immediately be rotten and difappoint 
you of your Hopes. '!„'■!■ r 1 

The Ancient's Method for blanching of Endive was as fol- 
lows. Firft, They fow'd their Seed in July and AugufU from 
which came very good Plants, which would endure the Win- 
ter, and were pfanted out at about the Diftance of feven 
or eight Inches, as pracrifed by rhe modem Gardincrs: And 
when the Winter came on, that the Endive had done grow- 
ing, they ufed to take it up in a very dry Day, and bind up 
the" Leaves together, with fmall Withs or Baft-mat, and then 
bury it in the Ground with the Roots upward, to prevent 
the Earth's getting amongft the Leaves, which would inftantly 
rot them; and as they had Occafion'for them during the Win- 
ter, they ufed to take them, even at any T!me, cither in Froft, 
Snow, &c. when they were finely blanched, and in greateft 

C T C his°maniier of prcferving Endive is certainly the very beft, 
for let the Winter have ever fo much Snow, Rains and Froft-S 
which foon deftroy this Sailer Herb, it cannot any ways aftctt, 
ot damage their Leaves, being buried as atorclaid. 

New Principles of Gardening. 47 

Of Fennel. 

1 . Its Names. 

EE N N E L is called in Greek fxd^ov, in Latin Marathrum 
and Feniculum, in Italian Finocchio, in Spanijh Hinoio, 
in HighVutch Fenckell, in Low "Dutch Venckell, and in Eng- 
lish Fennel. Of Fennel there are two Kinds, <utz. The com- 
mon and the fweet Fennel, which laft, in the Space of two 
Years, will degenerate and become common Fennel. 

2. The "Defcription. 
Both thefe Kinds of Fennel being perfedly known to every 
one, need no Defcription. 

3. Their Temperature. 
Hot and dry in the third Degree. 

4. Their medicinal Virtues. 
The tender Suckers being eaten in the Spring as a Sailer, are 
ve7y good t, the Lungs,* Liver and Kidneys, opening their 
Obftrudions and comfort the inward parts. J h « S ^™^ k 
in Wine, expels Wind, eafes the pain of the Stomach, and prc- 
vS^&stovomi^ The green ^^ f ^^ 
Sauce with Mackerel, &c. caufe great Quantities of Milk in 
the Breads of Women who fuckle young ^ lld ^ n ; . h 

The Decodion of Fennel drunk, provokes Urine e afah the 
Pain of the Kidneys, and is very good againft the : Stone as 
alfo are the Roots/being boiled in Wine and drank, and are 
likewife very good againft the Dropfie. 

S Their "Parts for Ufe in Sallets or Sauce. 
1. The Stalks and Suckers, whiift young, for Sallets, being 
■led and eaten as Sellery, and 
" • The green Leaves for Sauce, &c. 

6. The 

4 8 New Principles of Gardening. 

6. The Quantity of young Shoots in an indifferent large 
Sallet to be about ten, but the green Leaves are at Pleafure. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

Both kinds of Fennel delight in good mellow deep Land, and 
are increafed by Seed (own in the Spring, which was ripened at 
the end of the preceding Augufl ; or it may be increafed by 
dividing the Roots, which are lading for many Years. 

In the Spring, before the Root puts forth irs tender Shoots, 
cover the Top about fix Inches thick with Earth, which will 
blanch the young Shoots, as they make their Way through it, 
and will be fit. for Ufe as foon as above Ground. 

Of Garlick. 

1. Its Names. 

GARLICK is called in Greek oxepfaj in Latin Allium, 
by the Germans Knoblauch, in Low "Dutch Loo-k, in 
Spanijb Aios, Alhc, in Italian Aglio, in French Ail or Aux - y 
the Bohemians call it Czefnek, and the English Garlick, or Toor 
Mans Treacle. 

2. Its Ttefcription. 

Garlick is a bulbous rooted Herb, covered with very thin 
Skins, (finer than Gold-Beater's Skin) of a very light white Co- 
lour towards the Bottom, (from whence the fibrous Roots 
break forth) and of a very light purple towards the upper Part 
or Bud, from which afcends the Stalk * the Bulb, or Root con- 
suls of many (mail Cloves, which have a general Communica- 
tion at the Bottom of the Bulb : The Leaves arc green, and 
in form much like unto thofe of the Leek. 

At the end of two Years its Stalk fprings up, (as aforefaid) 
bearing .at its end a little Pod, which when open'd produces a 
tuft of Flowers, covered with a white skinny Subftance, where- 
in, when ripe, are round black Seeds, but are never faved for 

any ufe. 


New Principles of Gardening. 49 

3. Its Temperature. 
Garlick is of a very fharp, hot and dry Nature, in the fourth 
Degree, according to Galen. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 

It being eaten, heats the Body very much , attenuates thick 
and grofs Humours, cuts fuch as are tough and clammy, and 
confumes them; opens Obitru&ions, and is a very great Ene- 
my to cold Poifons, and bitings of venomous Beads for which 
Virtues, Galen called it Theriaca Rufticorum, or the Husband- 
man's Treacle. 

It greatly helps an old -Cough, provokes Urine, breaks and 
confumes Wind, and is very good for a Dropfie proceeding 
from a cold Caufe. It kills Worms in both Men and Chil- 
dren, being eaten raw by Men, and boiled in Milk for Chil- 

'Tis a very great help to a cold Stomach, and is a very great 
Prefervative againft Contagions and Peftilence. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe at Table, 
Are the Cloves, more to rub the Plates withal to give a 
Relifh to the Meat, than to eat the Cloves themfelves. 

6. The Quantity is at Plcafure. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

Garlick is very eafily increafed from the Cloves of its Root, 
which is beft done in March, being then planted in light fandy 
Loam, (rather then mffcold Land, wherein it will not thrive) 
in a Border, about five or fix Inches fquarc from one another ; 
and in July, when the Leaves turn yellow, the Roots muft be 
taken up, and very well dried in the Sun, otherwifc they will 
foon rot, as will all other Roots that are to be kept the Win- 
ter, if not well dried at firft taking up. 

N. B. That Rocambole, by fome called Spanijh Garlick, is 
a very ufeful Vegetable , and is much efteemed for its high Re- 
lirti in Sauces. The Parts for Ufe are the fmall Cloves or lit- 
tle Bulbs, contained in the Head of the Stem. It delights in 
H alight 


New Principles of Gardening. 

a light frefh Land, and is propagated by planting the Offsets 
of The Roots in March, as directed for Garlick. 

Efchaiots, or Shallots, being of the fame Family with the 
Gariicks, are therefore annexed hereunto. 

They are of great Ufe in Sauces, and therefore a Kitchen 
Garden ought not to be without them. They delight in the 
fame Land as the Rocambole, and are propagated in the fame 

About the Beginning of July their Blades will turn yellow, 
and ought then to be taken up, well dryed, and laid up for 

N. B. That a Border of four Feet wide, and about thirty 
five or forty Feet long is fufficient for a very large Family. 


Of Hop Tops^ or young Hops. 

i. The Names. 

OF Hops there are two Kinds,the one called Lupus SalicJarius, 
the manured Hop in Hop Gardens, and the other Lupu- 
lus Sylveftris, the wild Hop,- in High 'Dutch they are called 
Hopffen, in Low "Dutch Hoppe, in Spanifi Hombrezillos , in 
French Houbton, and in Englijb Hops. 

2. Their Defer ipt ion. 

The Garden Hop being fo univerfally known, needs no fort 
of Defcription ; and the wild Hop, having little or no Diffe- 
rence from the Garden Hop, excepting that its Leaves and 
Bloflbms are much letter, which I fuppofe to be caufed by its 
not being cultivated as the other, is alfo necdlefs to defcribc; 
knowing that there are but few Boys in the Country, but are 
well acquainted with Hops and Hop Tops. 

3. Their Temperature. 

The tender Shoots or Tops, Leaves and Flowers of Hops, arc 
hot and dry in the fecond Degtec. 


New Principles of Gardening. $i 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
The tender Sprouts or Tops being boiled, and eaten as 
Afparagus, cleanfe the Blood, provoke Urine, and comfort 
the Entrails. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe y 

Are the young Shoots or Tops gathered in March and April, 
when they firft come up , and about eight Inches in height 
above Ground. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten is at Plcafurc. 

7. Their Calculation. 
The Hops from which the young Shoots are gathered, are 
generally from thofe that grow wild in Hedges, and do natu- 
rally love a very rich fat Soil. To lay down proper Direc- 
tions ( in this Place ) for the Propagation of Hops , for the 
fake of their Flowers only, would be a Subject very foreign 
to our purpofe, therefore I (hail omit that for the prefent, and 
purfue our other Sailet Herbs, as they come in order. 


Of Lettuce. 

1. Its Names. 

Cabbage Lettuce is commonly called LacJuca capi- 
tata, and Lattuca feffilis. Pliny calls it, Lattuca La- 
conica : Columella, Lafluca Boetica : Tetrus Crefcentius, Lac 
tuca Romana, and in Englijh Cabbage Lettuce. 

But befides this common Cabbage Lettuce, there are many 
others which cabbage very well, as the Capafeen Lettuce, 
the Brown 'Dutch Lettuce, the Roman Lettuce, the Imperial 
Lettuce, and the Silejia Lettuce : To which I may add divers 
French, and Gofs Lettuces which are extreme good, and cab- 
bage very well with a very fmall Afllftance of the Gardiner in 
tying them clofe up. 

H z To 

e.2 New Principles of Gardening. 

TomakeaDefcription of the feveral Sorts of Lettuce is need- 
left, in regatd to their being fo well known to every Perfon. 
2. Their temperature. 
All Kinds of Lettuce are moderately cold and moift. 

3. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
This Sallet being eaten raw, allays Heat Choler, Thirft, ex- 
cites Appetite, and reprcfles Vapours; and when boiled and 
eaten i» Soup, or (as Spinach) with Meat, makes the Body 
loofe and open. 

4 . The Tarts for Ufe, 
Are the young Lop Lettuces fown on gentle Hot Beds, as 
befo e dircfted for Chervil, Sect viii. and Creffes, Sea. x.v 
or fuch Lettuces as have endured the Winter, which were 
fown the Auguft before. 

5. The Quantity in a Sallet. 
Of whatever Number and Kinds of Herbs the Sallet is com- 
pofed of, the Quantity of Lettuce ought to be equal to one 
of thofe Parts, w*. If compofed ot three Kinds, to be one 
third parr, if of four Kinds, one fourth, &c . 
6. The Cultivation. 
The beft Sort of Lettuce, for the Service of thefe three 
Months, is the Brown Dutch Lettuce wh ch «<?™™J* 
tuft, may be tranfplamed out in September for good, and is be 
Chen in a light rich Loam, under a South Wall. And tor Ima 1 
Lettuce inSalleting, the Lop Lettuce fown on a Hot bed, as be- 
fore directed, is as good as any other Kind. 

To have Lettuces cabbaged very early in the Spring obferve 
,he following Direaions, viz. About the middle or end of 
Amift low Brown Dutch, Imperial and S.lefia Lettuce in 
fflrdcr of a South Wall, which will be fir to tranlplant out 
for good about a Month or five Weeks after (owing, provided 
that you keep them moift by Refrelhings of Water given m 
a Morning, if the Scalbn is very dry. ... ,, 

N. E. That the Reafon why I advife their being water d 
in a Morning is, in regard to the Coldneft of the Nights which 

New Principles of Gardening. 53 

often happen at this Time, which if watcr'd then, would ra- 
ther chill and check the Growth of the Plants, than forward 
them ; and the like of all others. 

Your Plants being of a fufficient fize for tranfplanting, dig 
up a South Border, that is very rich and of a light Nature, where- 
in plant your Lettuce ; the brown "Dutch at fix Inches, the 
Silejta-zt nine Inches, and the Imperial at a foot Diftance 
from each other, and the nearer you plant them to the Wall, 
the eafter you may preferve them in Snow and frofty Wea-. 
ther, by covering, &c. 

And altho' I did not before take Notice of the Lapafeen 
Lettuce, yet we muft not forget to fow fome of that at the 
fame Time ; for 'tis a beautiful yellow, well tatted Lettuce, and 
one of the firft which cabbages in the Spring. 

And as thefe feveral Kinds of Lettuces differ in their height, 
we mould therefore confider how to difpofe of them, in iuch a 
manner that they may all receive an equal Benefit of the Win- 
ter's Sun. 

Firft then the Imperial being of the greateft Growth, ought 
to poftefs the back or hindermoft part of the Border, next the 
Wall i and in the next Line before that, the Silefia; next before 
that, the Brown "Dutch, and laftly the Capafeen Lettuce without. 
N. B. That about the middle of September you mould low 
a fecond Crop to fucceed the firft, which, when planted our, 
may be fo planted, as to be help'd forward, and fhelrcr'd from 
bad Weather, by the Afliuance of Bell and Square Glades, which 
at thofc Times are of no other Ufe. 

N B Alio, that the Roman Lettuce is more tender than 
the preceding Kinds , and will fcldom bear the Profts, fo that 
we very rarely make ufe of it for this Seafon. 

About the middle of February, when our hot Beds arc g ro> ™ 
too cold for our Cucumbers, fow therein Brown Dutch, St- 
lefta and Imperial "Lettuce, which by the middle of March may 
be tranfplanted out on fome other decay 'd Bed, or a new one 
made very weak on purpofc, under Square or Bell Glades, and 
they will be finely cabbaged and fit for the Table in April. 

The Cabbage Lettuce which is iown in the Autumn, and cab- 
ba<*cs in the Spring is certainly very good; but nothing near 
fc/finc as that railed early in the Spring, as before directed, 
whole Leaves are in general tender, and much eaficr for the 


54 New Principles of Gardening. 

Stomach, which the others are not, being harden'd by the Win- 
ter'scold. ; . 

In March all the Kinds of Lettuce are fown in the open 
Ground amongft Carrots, Parfnips, &c. which mould be re- 
peated in every Month, or rather oftner during all the Sum- 
mer Seafon, that we may always have a conftant and plentiful 
Supply of them. 

It is obfervable, that if you leave Lettuce Plants in the Seed 
Bed , and luffcr them to grow therein to their greateft Per. 
fe&ion, they never are near fo well cabbaged , as the others 
which were drawn from thence and tranfplanted : Therefore 'tis 
evident, that tranfplanting of Lettuce contributes greatly to 
their cabbaging. 

The Lettuces of any Kind whatfocver, which are defign d for 
Seed, are beft when planted under a Wall or Pale, that when 
the Stalks are in Bloom, they maybe tacked thereunto with 
a Nail and Thread, which will not only preferve them from 
being annoy'd by Wind,, but greatly helps the Seed in ripen- 
ing , when the Seafon is very wet and cold, as oftentimes 

N. B. That fuch Lettuces as produce large and fine Cab- 
bages early in the Spring are thofe that mud be chofen to let 
run for Seed? and altho' you make choice of the very beft 
Plants for Seed , yet notwithstanding thofe Seeds will dege- 
nerate, if often fown in the Earth wherein the mother Plant 
grew: Therefore to prevent fuch Degeneration, the only 
Method is, to keep changing the Land wherein 'tis fown, which 
may be done, by being (own in different Parts of your Garden, 
or by exchanging the fame Kind of Seed, raifed in fome o- 
thcr Garden, by an honeft Brother Gardiner, whofe Care and 
Word may be depended on. 

N. B. That the Imperial Lettuces, defigned for Seed, muft 
have their Cabbages cut on the top, at right Angles, or there- 
abouts, to give leave for the Stem to rife : But make not the 
Incifions fo large as to let in the Rains, which will inftantly 
rot the Plant : Therefore a very fmall Incifion is fufficient. 

All Lettuces ftiew a Kind of a Down on their Seed Pods, 
when their Seed is ripe, at which Time they fhould be pull'd 
up, and fct to dry, in a Tool-houfe, Green-houfe, &c. and then 
rub'd or thram'd out, and kept for ufe. 

4. SECT. 

New Principles of Gardening. 55 

SECT. xxir. 

Of Leeks. 

1 . Its Names. 

XHE Leek is called by the Grecians vrqettrov , in Latin 
e Porrum\ but 'Palladius in the mafculine Gender calls it 
s -, the Germans Lauch, the Spaniards Tuerro, the French 
Toman, and the Englifh Leek or Leeks. 

2. Jte description. 

The Leaves of the Leek are of a very dark green, and in 
Form fomewhat broad, and very long; having a Keil or Creft 
in the backfide, and in Tafte and Smell arc fomething like unto 
the Onion. 

The Stem rifes from the midft of its Leaves, which alfo rife 
with it on the Sides, bearing on the top a globular Head of 
fmall Flowers which are fucceeded by black Seed, very like 
unto that of the Onion. 

The Bulb or Root is long and (lender, and efpecially when 
'tis not tranfplanted. Therefore to have Leeks with very large 
bulbous Roots, Care muft be taken, that they may be trans- 
planted into a rich and light Soil. 

3. Their Temperature. 
Hot and dry. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
The Root being boiled, brings up raw Humours that offend 
the Chert. A quarter of an Ounce of Leek Seed , with the 
like weight of Myrtle Berries, being beaten and drank in Wine, 
(lop the fpitting of Blood , which has continued a long time, 
and is an excellent Remedy againft grots and tough -Humours. 

5. Its ill Effecls. 
1 Leeks being hot and dry , ingender bad Blood , offend the 
Eyes, is very bad for thofe that are by Nature hot and chole- 
rick, and with fome is very difagreeablc to the Stomach. 

6. Their 

New Principles of Gardening. 

6. Their Tarts for Ufe. 

The bulbous Root, and hard part of the Stem, with fome of 
the tender Leaves. , 

7. The Quantity is generally at Pleafure, being chiefly eaten 
in Spring Pottage, which may be made in lefs or greater Quan- 
tity as defircd. 

8. Its Cultivation. 

The Leek ( as I obferved before) delights in a light rich 
Soil, and is fown in March, either in Borders to be afterwards 
transplanted out or thinly in Quarters, to remain there, and be 
houghed out as Onions, at about four or Eve Inches apart. 

But the belt Way is to tranfplant them in July at the aforc- 
faid Diftance, which will very much contribute to their lar^enefs j 
and if poffible, make ufe of wet Weather at planting; for 
'tis much more natural to every fort of Vegetable, than any 
Water that can be given to them : However if the Seafon proves 
dry, they muft be plentifully watered at planting. 

The Seed (as before faid in its Delcription) is not pro- 
duced till the fecond Year ; and as foon as the Seed VelTels 
begin to open, cut off the globular Heads of Seed , and tye 
them up with Lines to the Cieling, fo that their Heads may 
hang clear of one another, and be the fooner dry, at which 
time the Seed may be beaten out of its Husks, and kept for 
Ufe in a very dry Place, free from Wet, Damps, &c 


Of White Mufiard. 

i. Its Names. 

MUSTARD, is called by the Athenians vdvv, in Latin 
Sinapi, by the Germans Senff ', by the French Seneue 
and Moujlarde, in Low Ttutch Moftaert Satt , in Spanifh 
Moftaza and Moftalla, the Bohemians Horcice s Tliny calls it 
Thlafpi, and fome others Saunon. 

2. ItS 

New Principles of Gardening. 57 

2. Its ^Dejcription. 

The Leaves of the white Muftard, when fully grown, arc 
large and rough, like unto thofe of the Turncp, but much 
rougher, and not near fo large. The Stalk is round, rough and 
hairy, divided into many Branches, which produce yellow Flow- 
ers, that are fucceeded by long, flender, rough Cods, wherein is 
contained round Seed, which, when ripe, is of a whitifh Co- 
lour, fomcthing inclining to yellow, being very fharp and mor- 

Befidcs this Kind of Muftard, there are two other, the 
one called Sinapi Sativum alterum, Field Muftard, whole 
Stalks and Leaves are in Form like unto the preceding, 
only fmaller, and are more white and rough. The Flowers 
are alfo yellow, but the Seed is brown like unto Rape, and 
not quite fo biting as the former. The other Kind of Mu- 
ftard is called Sinapi Syfaeftre, wild Muftard, whofc Leaves 
are like thofe of the Shepherd's Purfe, but rougher and more 
deeply indented, with a Stalk growing about two Feet in 
height, bearing at its Ends, or upper Parts, fmall yellow Flowers, 
confiding of four Leaves only , which are fucceeded bv I 
flender Cods, wherein is contained the Seed of a red J 
lour, but fmaller than both the preceding, and not io biting. 

3. The Temperature. 
Hot and dry in the fourth Degree. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
White Muftard being eaten, when in its Seed Leaves, quickens, 
and revives the Spirits, ftrengthens the Memory, expels Heavi- 
nefs, and prevents the vertiginous Palfie. 

The Seed of Muftard pounded or bruifed with Vinegar, is an 
excellent Sauce, it helps Digeftion, warms the Stomach, and 
excites Appetite. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe 7 
The Seed Leaves for Sailers, and its Seed when ripe in July or 
Auguft, but of their feveral Seeds to make Muftard with for 
Sauce, the Field Muftard is the beft. 

I 6. The 

^8 New Principles of Gardening. 

6. The Quantity in a Sallet. 
If the Sallet is compofed of four Kinds of Herbs, the Mu- 
ftard muft be one fourth Part, if of five Kinds, one fifth, &c. 

7. The Cultivation. 
The manner of cultivating this Sallet Herb is directly the 
fame as the Chervil and Creffes, in Sett. VIII and XIV. 


Of Spear and Garden Mint. 

1. Its Names. 

Mi n t is called in Greek tfwfioq and pyflq, the fweet Smell, 
{vide "Pliny, Lib. XIX. Chap. VIII.) It hath changed the 
Name amongft the Grecians, whereas otherwife it mould be cal- 
led Mintha, from whence our ancient Writers derived the Name ; 
for $vg fignifies Sweet, and fo/Mt Smell: The Italian and 
French call it Mentha , as the Latines j the Spaniards Terva 
buenazndOrtelana i in High "Dutch Muntzi in Low "Dutch 
Munte, and in Englijh Mint. 

2. Their Defcription. 

1. Garden Mint, called in Latin Mentha Sativa rubra comes 
up in the Spring, with reddim coulour'd Buds, fucceeded by- 
Stalks of a fquare Form, and fomething hairy, whofe Leaves 
are of a deep green Colour, and indented on their Edges, 
like unto the Teeth of a Saw. The Root grows very (hal- 
low, divided into many Joints, from which iflues forth many 
fibrous Roots, as well as its Stalks: It delights in moift rich 
Land, and loves to extend its Roots to a very great Length. 

2. The Leaves of Salvia Romana> or Spear Mint arc very 
long and narrow, and in Form not unlike the Willow, but 
whiter, lofter and more hairy j and the Roots are of the lame 
Form as the red Garden Mint, and love the fame Soil alfo. 

New Principles of Gardening. 59 

3. Their Temperature. 
Mint is hot and dry in the third Degree, and according to 
Galen, fomething bitter and harfh. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

The tender Tops of Mint being eaten raw, wonderfully help 
and ftrengthen a weak Stomach, and dry up all fuperfluous Hu- 
mours, caufe a very good Digeftion, and are very powerful a- 
gainft nervous Crudities. 

Mint being diftilled, the Water is very good againft Gripings 
and Pains'in the Bowels, the Head-ach, and Vomiting. 

And being boiled in Wine and drank, is good againft the 
Gravel, Stone and Strangury. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe in Sallets. 
The tender Tops when firft fpringing out of the Ground. 

6. The Quantity in a Sallet. 
When young Mint is eaten in Compofition with other Herbs. 
The Quantity is f, ■?, I> &c if the Sallet is compofed of 3, 
4, 5, &c. Kinds of Herbs : But when eaten alone with the 
juice of Orange and Sugar, the Quantity is at Pieafure 5 as alio 
when ufed in Soups, Sauces, &c. 

7. The Cultivation. 

Mint is propagated by parting the Roots any time in Fe- 
bruary or March, being well water'd at planting, if a dry Spring. 

To have young Mint very early in the Spring, you may take 
up fome of the Roots and put them in the back part of your 
hot Beds, or ftrewing a few Seacoal-Alhes on the Border 
wherein it grows , and placing thereon fome iquare Melon 
or Bell GlafiTcs, they will caufe the Mint to fpring very early. 

When Mint is about ten Inches, or one Foot in height, 'tis 
then in its greateft Perfection for drying : Therefore then cuft 
it clofe to the Ground, being perfectly dry, otherwife let it re- 
main till it is, and drying it in the Shade, tye it up in Bunches 
for the next Winter's Ufe. 


6o New Principles of Gardening. 



Of Nettle Tops. 

i. Its Names. 
ETTLE is called in Greek Anatipi, m Latin Urtica 
urens of its burning and flinging Quality. 

2. The Ttefcription. 

This Herb being fo well known, and fo eafy to be found, 
even in the very darkeft of Nights, needs no kind of Defcrip- 

3. The Temperature. 

Stinging Nettles are temperately dry, and a little hot, fcarce 
in the firft Degree, and of fubtile parts. 

4. Medicinal Virtues. 

Being boiled in fpring Pottage, makes the Body folublc, pro- 
vokes Urine, expells the Stone out of the Kidneys, and puri- 
fies the Blood. j 

The young Tops being ftamped, and the juice muffed up 
the Noftrils, flop the bleeding of the Nofe. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 

The young Shoots or Tops, when firft out of Ground in the 

3. The Quantity. 
When fpring Pottasc, or Soup is made with Nettle Tops, 
Clivers, Elder Buds, &c there muft be of each an equal Quan- 
tity, in Proportion to the Quantity of Soup made. 
7. The Cultivation. 
Nettles growing fo very common almoft under every Hedge, 
are therefore never cultivated on purpofc in the Gard ^ £CT 

New Principles of Gardening. 61 

SECT. xxvr. 

Of Citron, Orange and Limon Seedlings. 

i . Their Names. 
i.nPHE Citron Tree is called -in Greek ^kU peM, in 
I Latin Malus Medica, and Malus Citria; the Fruit is 
called in Greek p-Acv {xiIkIv, in Latin Malum Medicum, or Ma- 
lum Citrium and Citromalum. <^Emyitanus in Athenaus fhews 
that J^King of Mauritania has made mention of the Citron, 
and calls it Malum Hefpericum : But Galen denies the Name of 
Malum Medicum, and juftifies it to be Malum Citrium, adding 
that thofe who call it Medicum, call it foonpurpoie, that none 
mould underftand what they fay ; which is very common amongft 
Apothecaries, Attorneys, &c. however the Apothecaries call 
the Fruit, Citrones; in HighT>utchCitrinOpffell, Citrinaten-, 
in Low 'Dutch Citroenens in Italian Citroni, and Cedn ; in 
Spanish Cidras ; in French Citrons j in Englifr Citron Apple, 
or Citron. . 

2. The fecond kind of Citron, is that which we call Limon, 
'tis called in Latin Limonyum Malum, in Low 'Dutch Limonen, 
in French Limons , and in Englijh Limon, Lemon, or Lem- 

3. Oranges called Malum Aurantium or Aurengium, of the 
yellow Colour of Gold. Some call them Arantia of Aran- 
tium, a Town in Achaia, or Arania in Terfia-, the /**//*;« 
call it Arancio, in ///££ ©/^ 'tis called Tomeranken, in 
2>i£; ©«ftv& Araengie Appelm , in Fr«w£ Tommes d'Orenges, 
in #*»//& Naranfas, and in £»£///& Or*»£*. 

2. Their T>efcription. 

i. The C/7n?» is a Tree which never was known to grow 

very large, but is generally very full of Wood. The Branches 

are of a tough and pliable Nature, and the bark of a deep Co- 

The Leaves are of a light green, long and broad, very 
fmooth, and of a very delightful fwcet SmclL The Blanches 

62 New Principles of Gardening. 

arc adorned alfo with fmall Thorns, from whofe lower parts 
next the Branch the Bloffoms are produced, each compofed of 
five fmali Leaves of a whitifh Colour, fomething inclining to 
a purple. The Fruit is of a fpheroidical Form, and very of- 
ten larger than aLimon ; whofe Kind is of a light golden, or 
yellow Colour, fet with feveral Wart like Knobs, and of a very 
pleafant Smell. 

The Limon Tree differs very little from the Citron , ex- 
cept in its Bloffoms, which are much whiter, and Fruit much 

The Orange Tree does naturally grow much larger than 
either Citron or Limon, but the Form of its Leaves and 
Shoots differ very little from either of the preceding. The 
Flowers are very white, of a very pleafant fweet Smell, and 
the Fruit of a globular or fphcrical Form. 

N. B. That this Defcription is to be underftood as general, 
and not particular to any one kind of Citron, Limon or 
Orange, of which there are great variety of Sorts, which par- 
ticularly to defcribe would be both needlefs as well as endlefs ; 
and indeed I cannot but acknowledge, that as my Defign here 
is to fpeak of the Excellency of the young Seedlings when 
eaten in a Sallet only, I might have omitted even what is above 
delivered -, but considering that the various Names and gene- 
ral Defcription might be an Entertainment to fome , I there- 
fore thought it neceffary that the fame mould not be omitted. 

3. Their Temperature. 
Moderately hot and dry. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

The Flowers or young Seedlings bring eaten raw, arc exceed- 
ing grateful and comforting to the Stomach. 

The Rind of Citrons being eaten, is very good againft all 
Poifons. There is now extant, in the third Book of Athen<eus y 
a Story of a Malefactor, who being convicted of divers no- 
torious Offences, was condemned to be devoured of Serpents j 
but the Convicl by' Accidence, having eaten divers Citrons on 
the Day that his Execution wasdefigncd, and being caftamongft 
the Serpents, remained in Health and Safety ; for inftead of 
their coming to devour him, as they had many others , they 
4 ran 

New Principles of Gardening, 63 

ran away into their Holes, without doing the lean hurt imagi- 
nable. Hence 'tis very plain that there is nothing in this 
Life but has its Oppofite or Abhorrency. 

Limons diftilled with their Rinds, &c. and the Water being 
drank, provokes Urine, diflTolves and expells the Stone. 

If to two Ounces of Limon Juice , you add the like Quan- 
tity of good Brandy, or the Spirit of Wine rectified, and drink 
it at the coming of an Ague, it will take away the making Fit ; 
and if taken three Times in like manner, never fails of a perfect 
Cure, provided that the Perfon afTMcd be covered very warm 
in a Bed at the Time of taking, and kept fome Time after in 
a breathing Sweat. 

The Kernels of either Citron , Limon, or Orange, being 
eaten, kill and expel Worms, and mightily rcfift Poifon. 

5. The Tart s for Ufe. 
The young Seedlings, when about an Inch or thereabouts in 
height above Ground, and the Flowers, being firft infufed in 

(. The Quantity of each in a Saliet. 

If the Saliet is compofed of four other Herbs, the Quantity 

of Seedlings muft be equal to any one Quantity of the other 

Herbs, and the like of the Flowers ; fo that each will be one 

fixth Part of the whole, and the like of others. 

7. The Cultivation. 
The Kernels being fown on a moderate Hot-Bed, as direaed 
for Chervil, Crcffes and Muftard, in Sedions viii, xiv and 
xxiii, and cut as other fmall Salleting, give a very agreeable 
and grateful Tafte, when eaten in Compofition with other 
Sorts of Salleting. The Flowers are to be gathered as re- 


64. New Principles of Gardening. 

sect. xxvn. 

Of Onions. 

1 . Their Names. 

THE Onion is called in Greek K^oppvov, in Latin Cepa, and 
many Times Cepe, in the neuter Gender. 

The ancient Writers called it by the Name of the Place 
where it grew, fome being called Cypria , Sardia y Cretica, 
Samothracia, Afcalonia, of a Town in Judea, otherwife called 

Columella faith, that there is one fort called Marifca, which 
the Countrymen call Unto, and from thence the Frenchmen 
call it Oignon, if Ruellius is right, who is of that Opinion. 

And 'tis fuppofed that the Low 'Dutchmen call it Atieuim, 
of the French Word corrupted. They are alfo called Setania* 
when very little and fweet, and are thought to be thofe which 
Talladius calls CepuIU, though he called them Tarva Cep£, 
or little Onions. 

2. Its Ttefcription. 
The Form of young Onions for Sallets, as well as the Bulbs 
for Sauce being well known to every one, needs no fort of 
Defcription ; and for its Seed which is produced the fecond 
Year, 'tis alio well known to every Gardiner. 

3 . Their Temperature. 
Onions are hot and dry in the fourth Degree, but not fo 
cxtream hot as Garlick. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
Being eaten raw in Sallets or boiled in Sauce, raife the Ap- 
petite, deftroy Phlegm, and corroborate the Stomach. 

5. Their 111 Effetts. 
* Their Bulbs being eaten raw in too great a Quantity, aull 
the Scnfcs, hurt the Eyes, caufe over much Sleep, and over- 
heat the Body. 6. The 

New Principles of Gardening, 6$ 

6. The Tarts for Ufe. 

The young Seedlings when as large as a Wheat Straw for 
Sallet s, and the Bulbs or Roots for Sauce, when full grown. 

N. B. That the kinds of Onions worth the Gardiner's Care 
is the SpaniSh Onion, which is generally very large, and fweet ; 
and the Strasbourg Onion, which is more mordicant, and keeps 
much longer than the former. 

7. The Quantity for Ufe. 
The Quantity of young Onions in a Sallet, mould be equal 
to two thirds of any one fort of Herb contained in the Sallet, 
and the Bulbs or Roots for Sauce at Pleafure. 

8. Their Cultivation. 

Onions arc bed cultivated in rich Soil, and are fown at 
the end of February, or beginning of March, and when they 
are almoft large enough to draw for Salleting ; they muft be 
houghed out, at about two Inches and half, or three Inches 
apart, and when fit for Salleting may be drawn for Ufe, leav- 
ing thofe which you intend for a Crop, at five or fix Inches Di- 
ftance from one another, and by (o doing, you will have a plen- 
tiful Crop, and very large, which they cannot be, when left 
nearer to each other, as is common amongft many. 

In fowing of Onion Seed be careful in allowing Seed 
enough, for it is of fuch a Nature, that there is feldom more 
than one Seed in five that is found. Therefore when you fow 
fparingly, you are very often difappointed of a full Crop, which 
is cafily prevented, by allowing a fufneient Quantity of Seed 
at flrft fowing. 

When your Onions are about three Quarters grown, it is 
tifual to prefs down their Tops quite flat to the Ground, to 
prevent them from robbing the Bulbs of their proper Nou- 
rifhment, and hinder their being very large, and as often as 
they rife, they muft be prefled down again till the Root has 
done growing, which is known by the Leaves changing their 
Colour, at which Time they muft be pulled up, and laid in 
Parcels to dry in the Sun, being turned every Day, till very 
dry; and then taking them away, lay them thinly on the Floor 
of a Greenhoufe, &c. to dry more thorowly, which when 
K done, 

66 New Principles of Gardening. 

done, fort the large from the fmall ones, and tye them up 
in Ropes, &c. for ufe. 

If this Work is performed with great Exadnefs in Refped 
to their being thorow dry, and fo kept afterwards , many of 
them will remain found and good till the middle of April. 
About the beginning or middle of February, feveral of them 
will begin to fpire or fhoot out , it then being their Seafon 
to be planted for Seed ; and at that Time prepare a piece of 
rich mellow Land, wherein they may be planted in Rows, 
about one Foot afunder (that there may be Liberty to come 
between them, to deftroy the Weeds, &c.) and in the Rows, 
four or five Inches apart. 

When the Stalks begin to open their globular headed Flow- 
ers, which are fucceeded by their Seed, 'tis good to fecure 
them from the AfTaults of the Wind, with fmall Stakes placed 
in their Rows at fix or eight Feet Diftance , to which tye 
Lines of Packthread or Bafs-Matt on each Side the Stalks to- 
wards their Top ; which will preferve them from being broken 
down by the Winds, 

When the Seed Veffels begin to open, gather, and dry them 
as directed for the Leek Seed, Sett. XXII. &c. 

ScALioNSor OfF-fetsof Onions produced in the Spring, when 
tKe Onions are growing to Seed , fupply their Place till fucceed- 
ed by a frefh Crop j they are hot and dry, but not fo much 
as the Onion 5 they quicken the: Appetite, corred Crudities, 
and promote Concodion. The Parts for Ufe are the bul- 
bous Part, and tender Stalks 5 and the Quantity to be eaten 
in a Saliet or in Soup is at Plcafurc. 

Of Garden-Parfley. 

1. Its Names. 

PARSLEY is called in Greek crixmv, but this kind is 
called <nXw V wttam, viz. Apium hortenfe ; the Apothe- 
caries and Herbarifts call it Tetrofelinum 5 'tis called in High 
"Dutch Teterfilgen, in Low "Dutch Trimen Teterfelie, in French 

New Principles of Gardening. 6j 

du Ter/il, in Spanifi Terexil Julivert and Sal/a, in Italian 
Tetrofello, in Englijh Terfele, Tarfely, common c Parf e fy t and 
Garden Tar [ley. 

2. Its Defcription. 

Garden Parfley being fo very common and ufeful, is known 
to every one, and therefore needs no Defcription. 

But that my Reader may not be deceived in the Parfley, 
whofe Leaves are crifped or curled, called Apium crifpum Jive mul- 
tifidum, or curled "Parfley y he is to underftand that, that is alfo 
a Garden "Parfley, as the former, whofe Leaves are fmooth, and 
of the fame Ufe. 

The other Parfleys are firft, the water Parfley or Smallage, 
called in Greek jtooritovov, of Gaza paludapium\ in LatinPa- 
luftre Apium, and Apium rufticum, in High "Dutch Epffich, in 
Low "Dutch Eppe, and by many Jouffrouwmerk, in Spanish and 
Italian Apio, in French d L'ache, in Englijh March marifii 
Parfley, and Apium aquatile, or water Parfley, but the true 
water Parfley is Hydrofelinum, or Sium majus. 

Secondly, mountain Parfley, called by the Grecians Ipw&um 
by the Latins Apium Montanum and Mont apium. 

Thirdly, Stone Parfley, of which there are two kinds, the 
one called Petrofelinum Macedontcum fuchjti, or baftard Stone 
Parfley, and the other Petrofelinum Macedontcum verum, or the 
true Parfley of Macedonia. 

Fourthly, Wild Parfley Apium Sylveftre five Thyfelium : And 

Laftly, Baftard Parfley with white Flowers, called in Greek 
xaviuttis, in Latin Caucalis albis floribus, and by fome "Daucus 
fylveftris, or wild Carrot, but very improper. The {^Egyptians 
call it Sefelisy and the Englijh Baftard Parfley, and Hensfoot. 

Thefe laft five kinds being of no ufe in our Sallets , 1 (hall 
not defcribe them, or fpeak of their Temperatures, Virtues or 

3. The Temperature of Garden Parfley. 
Garden Parfleys are hot and dry, the Seeds are more fo, as 
hot in the fecond Degree, and dry almoft in the third, and 
the Roots are moderately hot. 

K z 4. Their 

68 New Principles of Gardening. 

4. Their medicinal Virtues. 
Both of thefc Garden Parflcys being eaten in Sauce, pro- 
voke Urine, are very grateful to the Stomach, open Obftruc- 
tions, and are good againft the Stone, as alfo are the Seeds, being 
taken inwardly. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The young tender Leaves, proceeding from the Crown or 
Heads of the Roots. 

6. The Quantity. 
Parfley is very feldom eaten in Compofition with other Sailer 
Herbs, and therefore whenever it is, the Quantity is at Plea- 

7. The Cultivation. 

Parfley delights in mellow rich Land, and is propagated from 
Seed fown in March, in fmall Drills at the edge of a Border, &c. 
or all over the Border in general. 

N. B. That when your Parfley begins to grow ftrong, or 
rather too rank for Ufe , 'tis beft to cut down part of it clofe 
to the Ground, which will caufe it to moot afrefh, and be 
very young and tender fit for Ufe. 

The Seed lies a very long time in the Ground before it 
comes up, 'tis produced the ftcond Year, and is ripe in July 
or Auguft. 


Of the Parfmp. 

1. Its Names. 

THE ancient Herbarifts called the Garden Tar/nip in 
Greek <?*<pvx:vo<;> and Taftinaca 5 and therefore fome of 
the latter called or furnamed it Latifolia, or broad leaved, to 
diftinguilh it from the other Garden Parfnip with narrow 
Leaves, which is truly called Staphylinus , viz. the Garden 
Carrot. A Som€ 

New Principles of Gardening. 69 

Some Phyftcians not knowing to what Herb the Parfnip 
could be compared , have feign'd the wild Kind to be Tana- 
cis Species or a kind of Allheal ; others have named it Bancia y 
and lome Brancia Leonina , but the Garden and wild Parfnip 
are now called, in Latin, the firft Taftinaca Latifolia Sativa ; 
and the latter Taftinaca Latifolia Syhejlris. 

2. The De/cription. 

The Leaves of the Garden Parfnip are very broad, con filling 
of many fmall indented Leaves, placed on a large Stalk one 
oppofite to the other. The Stalk rifes from the Head of the 
Root in the fecond Spring , divided into many Joints , from 
which Leaves come forth of the fame Porm, as thofe on the 
Head of the Root, but much lefs. The Seed is produced 
•in fpokie Tufts growing at the top of the Stalk , 'tis of a 
circular, flat, and very thin Form, and is ieldom good after the 
firft faving. 

The wild Parfnip is like unto the Garden Parfnip, m Leaves, 
Stalk, Tufts, yellow Bioffbms and Seed, but all together much 
lefs; the Root is fmall and of a woody Subftance, not fit to 
be eaten, which the Garden Parfnip is, its Root being very 
white, fweet, and foft when boil'd, and an excellent Root for 
the Kitchen. 

3 . The Temperature. 

The Root of the Garden Parfnip is moderately hot and dry. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
Parfnips are a much greater Nourilher than Turnips or Car- 
rots, they provoke Urine, and arc very good for the Stomach, 
Kidneys, Bladder and Lungs. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The Roots when full grown , being preferved for thefc 
Months, as direaed for Carrots Sett. VII. 

6. The Quantity is at Pleafure. 

7. Their Cultivation. 

The natural Soil for Parfnips is a very deep rich fandy 

Loam, wherein the Roots will become very large. The 

jo New Principles of Gardening. 

The Land wherein they are fown fhould be digged very 
deep, or rather trenched , and being fown about the end of 
February, or beginning of March, will be fit to hough out a- 
bout the middle of April, at which time leave them about eight 
or ten Inches afunder, which will give fufficient room for their 
being large 5 which they cannot be, when they are left at 
the Diftance of five or fix Inches, as dire&ed by a late Wri- 
ter, on the Theorical Parts of Gardening, Part 3. Page 126. 
And as Radiflies, Lettuces, Spinage, &c. are of a very fnort 
Duration in the Spring , therefore amongft your Parfnip Seed, 
mix their Seeds to be fown thinly, and thereby you may re- 
ceive their Benefit, without the leaft Prejudice to the young 
Parfnips. Tis the common Practice amongft many Gardiners, 
to give their Parfnips but two Houghings : But I am well af- 
fured by Experience that the oftener either Parfnips, Carrots, <£r. 
arc houghed, the better they thrive, for the oftener that the 
Cruft of the Earth is broke, and the deeper they are houghed, 
the more Liberty they have to fwell, which they cannot do, 
when the Ground is very hard, and baked with heat about them. 
For it is not their being kept clear from Weeds only, which caufes 
their Growth, fo much as often and deep houghing the Sur- 
face of the Ground, which not only gives Liberty for their 
fwelling , but for the Rains, Heat, fyc. to a& with greater 
Freedom and Power. 

To prove this, fow a piece of Parfnips, Carrots, &c. at the 
proper Seafon (as aforefaid ) and when they are come up hough 
one part of them as before direded, and only weed the other 
by hand without houghing, keeping them both very clean 
from Weeds, during the whole Summer, and in October, which 
is the Seafon to take them up, you'll find thofc that were con- 
tinually hough'd, &c. will be ten times larger and better tailed 
than the others, that were always kept clean from Weeds and 
never hough'd, and the like of other Vegetables in general. 

New Principles of Gardening. 71 


Of Potatoes. 

I. Their Names. 

C Lupus calls Potatoes, Battata, Camotes, Amotes, and Ig. 
nanes, and in Engli[h they are called ^Potatoes, c Potatus > 
and Totades. 

2. Their T>efcription. 

To describe Potatoes would be a needlefs Work, feeing 
that they are now very well known by mod (if not every) 
Perfon in England. But as there are divers Kinds of them 
that grow very well in England ( which I fuppofe came originally 
from Ireland, they being very plentiful in that Country ) it will 
not be amifs to fay fomething of their Kinds. 

The firft is the white Kidney Potatoe, fo called, in regard 
to its Form , which is the true form of a Sheep , or Hogs 

The fecond is the white round Potatoe of Colour and Tafte 
like unto the preceding, as alfo its Skin which is very thin j 
both thefe Kinds are very pleafant in Tafte , and oftentimes 
very large, but don't increafe fo much as the following. 

The third Kind is that, which is called the Lancashire Potatoe, 
of a very pale reddifh Colour, and of a very large Growth, 
but very watery and infipid in Tafte to what fome of the 
others are, and efpecially when planted in a cold and wet Land. 

The fourth Kind is the red Potatoe, with a rough Coat, 
the very beft of any, and the greateft Bearer : Tis a Potatoe 
that is generally very large, and of a much finer Tafte than the 
Lancashire, and a much better Bearer, bur docs not come fo 
very early, for which that is moft valued. 

3. Their Temperature. 
The Roots of Potatoes are temperately dry. 


7 a New Principles of Gardening. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
They comfort, nourifh and ftrengthen the Body. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 

The Roots, viz. The Potatoes themfelves being preferved 
from the Frofts in a warm Cellar, &c. 

6. The Quantity is at Pleafure, being boiled and eaten with 
roafted Mutton, boiled Beef, &c. and require a great deal of 
JButter, Gravy, &c. They are oftentimes baked and eaten with 
baked Meats, or roafted in the Afhes, and eaten with Butter as 
an E^g, when boiled in the Shell. I have feen divers of the 
Irifh People boil and eat 'em with Milk, Cheefe, or Salt only, 
which for my part is not fo agreeable, as when eaten with 
Mutton, Beef, &c. as before delivered. 

7. Their Cultivation. 

The beft Land for Potatoes is a light fandy Loam, and ra- 
ther a green Sward than any other, not but that they will 
do very well in Land which is cultivated every Year. 

The .proper time for planting them is February, at which 
time the Ground being digged, they are planted in Rows, at 
a Foot apart from one another in the Rows , and the Rows 
at fifteen Inches afunder, and about fix Inches deep. But in- 
stead of planting thefe fmall Potatoes, 'tis beft to take fome of 
the very largeft, and cut each of them into as many Pieces as 
there are Buds, planting one Bud or Piece in a Hole, inftead of 
a whole fmall Potatoe as is ufual. 

When they are come up, (or fooncr if the Ground is foul 
with Weeds) they muft be houghed, and fo continued during 
the whole Summer, till their Haulm ihades the Ground and 
prevents the Growth of the Weeds. 

When their Haulm produces Blofloms , their Roots are then 
knotting for Potatoes, which may be difcovered at that time 
by taking up their Roots , wherein they then appear in great 
Plenty. And I have often experienced, that thofe Roots which 
J have taken up to obferve the Progrefs of their Growth, have 
been always much larger than the others , which were not then 
difturbed : For 'tis always a certain Rule, that thofe Roots, 
whofe Haulm is very fhort and thick , has the very beft Po- 
tatoes. A nd 

New Principles of Gardening. 73 

And thofe whofe Haulm is very rank and large, have fel- 
dom any that are worth taking up. The Nature of mod 
Potatoes is to run with their Roots in a kind of Mat, about 
fix Inches round the Stem, at whofe bottom are often found 
very good middling Potatoes ; but the very be ft are generally 
about eight or nine Inches in depth , near to the Place of the 
Mother Plant. 

In the digging up Potatoes, obferve that you place the Spade 
at a proper diftance from their Roots, that you don't cut them, 
and that you fearch the bottom of every Hole, left the beft Po- 
tatoes are left behind : When Potatoes are planted about fix 
or eight Inches apart, as directed by the aforefaid Thcoricai 
Writer page 132. they feldom are fit for any other Ufe than 
to feed Hogs, as alfo when planted under Trees.,- therefore of 
thofe beware, left after a great Expencc, you have a fruit- 
lefs Harveft. 

Soon after Michaelmas their Haulm decays, and 'tis then that 
you are to take them out of the Ground, and keep them in 
a warm Cellar ( from the Frofts ) for Ufe. 

Of Penny Royal. 

1. Its Names. 

PEnny Royal is called in Greek yXyxuv, and oftentimes 
&?jjxuv , in Latin Tulegium, and Tulegittm regale , to 
diftinguifh it from Tuiegium montanum 5 in Italian 'Pulegio , 
in Spanifh Toko , in 'Dutch Toley , in Frmch Touliot, and 
in Engltjh Tenny Royal, Tudd'mg Grafs , Tulial Royal, and 
by Tome Organic 

2. Its Ttefcription. 

The common Penny Royal, called Tulegium regium vulga- 
tum, is fo well known, needs no DcfGription. 

3. Its Temperature. 

Penny Royal is hot and dry in the third Degree, and accord- 
ing to Galen, is of fubtile Parts. 

L 4. The 

7 a, New Principles of Gardening. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

Being boiled in Wine, and drank provokes Urine, and c&° 
pels the Gravel in the Kidneys. 

Being taken with Honey, it cleanfes the Lungs and Breaft 
from all grofs and thick Humours : And with Water and Vi- 
negar aflwageth the inordinate deflre to vomit, and Pains of 
the Stomach. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The tender Shoots for the Kitchen Ufe, and the Stalks, 
Leaves, &c. when near full grown for Diftilling. 

6. The Quantity of either is at Pleafure. 

7. The Cultivation. 
Penny Royal delights in moid and fhady Places, and is there- 
fore planted in North Borders. It loves a good holding Loam, 
and is propagated by Slips, planted any time in March. 


Of Radifh. 

1. Its Names. 

Radish is called in Greek, of Galen, Theophraftus, Diof- 
corides, and other ancient Writers, pcc<pm\g. By Apothe- 
caries, Raphanus and Sat iv a Radicular and by others Rapha- 
ms SativuSi the Garden Radifh , in High Dutch Rettich , 
in Low "Dutch Radiis , in French Raifort , in Spanijh Ra- 
vano , in Italian Raphano 5 by the Bohemians 'tis called 
Rzedfew, and in Englifb Radifh. 

2. Its 'Defer ipt ion. 

The Garden Radifh produces very large Leaves, whofe ftalky 

part at bottom is of a dark reddifh Colour, and the upper 

or leafy part very rough, and of a pale green, being indented 

on its Edges, not much unlike the Leaves of Turnips. 


New Principles of Gardening. 7< 

The Stalks are round, of a reddifh and pale green Colour, 
divided into many fmall Branches, at whofe Ends fpring forth 
fmall light purpled colour'd Flowers, each confiding of four 
Leaves only, which are fucceded by fharp pointed Pods, feem- 
ingly puft or blown up , and full of a fpungious or pithy Sub- 
ftance wherein is contained the Seed, which when ripe is of a 
light brown Colour, of a round Form, and much larger than 
the Seed of Turnip. The Root is of a taper Form, running 
down about fix or eight Inches, with divers fmall Fibres break- 
ing from its Sides : The top part of the Root is of a very 
dark or blackifh red , its middle part of a beautiful red , and 
the lower part quite white ; as alfo are the inward Parts in 
general, and of a (harp or mordicant Tafte. 

The beft Kinds of Garden Radifhes now in being, are the 
Dwarf or fhort top Radifh which comes very early, and the 
London Radifh, that fucceeds it, and continues a long while. 

3. Their Temperature. 
According to Galen, Radifhes are hot in the third Degree, 
and dry in the fecond. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

The tender Leaves, or Roots of Radifhes, being eaten raw 
In Sallets, procure a good Appetite , provoke Urine, diffblve 
cluttered Sand, and expel it. 

The diftill'd Water of Radifh expels the Gravel and Stone 
in the Kidneys. 

5. Their 111 Effe&s. 
Being eaten before Dinner, are troublefome to the Stomach, 
and caufe much Belching. 

6. Their Tarts for Ufe. 
The Seed Leaves, and Roots when as large as the thick 
part of a common Tobacco Pipe, and the Seed-Pods make 
a very fine Pickle. 

7. The Quantity for Ufe. 
The Quantity of Seed Leaves, in a Sallet of fmall Herbs, 
L 2 ought 

76 New Principles of Gardening. 

ought to be three times the Quantity of any other ; and.for 
the Radifh Roots, they may be eaten at Pleafure. 

8. Their Cultivation, 

All kind of Radilhes love a fandy Loam, that they may freely 
ftrike down with their Roots. To have Radimes early in the 
Spring, at the end of Auguft, or beginning oi \ September, foj 
fome Seed under a warm Wall, or rather on a decay d Hot-Bed, 
that during the time of FrofVs, Snow, &c. they may be pre- , 
fervcd therefrom; and about the middle of February, or fooner, 
they will be fit for the Table. And that thefe may be fucceeded 
by a fecond Crop, at the end of September or rather a lit- 
tie fooner, fow fome Seed in the Border of a- South Wall, that 
they may get above Ground in their Seed Leaf, before their 
Growth is ftopt by the Winter's Cold ; and if they are pre* 
ferved from very great Frofts and Snow in the Winter,- they 
will be in Seafon about the middle of March. 

To have the feedling Leaves for eating in Compofition 
vith other Sallet Herbs, you muflfow it in little Dnls, on a 
gentle Hot-Bed, during January, February, and the firft Wees 
in March, as direfted for Chervil, Se&. VIII. 

S E C T. XXXilL 
Of Horfe Radifh. 

i. It* Names. 
TTorsb Radish is vulgarly called Raphanus Rufticanus, 
rl or Magnus, and by many Raphanus Syheftrts , in High 
^utch Merrettich, Krain or Kren , by r the Low Germans 
Meradiis, and in Englifi, Mountain Radijh fffj'M' 
and Horfe Radijh ; and in the North part of England tis, 
called Red Cole. 

2. Its <De[cription. 

Horfe Radilh bein- now fo well known to every one, 'tis 

needlefs to give its- Defcription. ^ 

New Principles of Gardening. 77 

3. Its Temperature. 
Horfe Radilh is hot and dry in the third Degree, and has 
a drying, cleaning, digefting Quality. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 
Being eaten with Vinegar, as Sauce, it heats the Stomach , 
and caufes a very good Digeftion. 

5 . The Tarts for Ufe. ■ 
The Roots being very white, and about two Years Growth, 
are the Parts for Ufe, when fcraped, or grated very fine. 

6. The Quantity is at Pleafure. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

The natural Soil for Horfe Radilh is a rich fandy Loanr, 
and is thus propagated 1 . 

Firft open a Trench as is ufual for trenching of Land 
three Feet wide, and a full Spit and half deep, and therein 
place Cuttings of Horfe Radilh, each having two Buds at leaft, 
at about fix Inches apar: 5 then moving your Line, fet out 
the next Trench, which muft be but half the breadth of the 
former, and call its Earth to the further Side of the firft Trench, 
without laying any Roots in this fecond Trench. This being 
done, fet out the third Trench equal to the firft, viz. three 
Feet and cafting its Earth into the others , will make them 
eood j then in the bottom of this third Trench place the 
Horfe RadiOi Cuttings all over at the Pittances aforcfaidj and 
afterwards fetting out a half Trench , as the fecond, caft in 
the Earth, and in like manner proceed till the whole Piece is 
fo planted. ■ 

This Method beins obferved, you will have your young 
Shoots come up in good Order, in Beds of three Feet wide, 
with Alleys of one Foot and half between them, which gives 
leave for their being kept clean from Weeds. 

If this Work is performed in Ottober , the young Shoots 
will be up in the Spring, and at Michaelmas fomc will befit 
for. Ule; by the Michaelmas following, they will in general 
be tit for Ufe. 

W hen 

7 8 New Principles of Gardening. 

When your Horfe Radifh is become large enough for the 
Table or Market , in taking it up , 'tis belt to trench the 
Ground back again, obferving to bury its Prunings in the bot- 
tom of Trenches, which will come up again, and produce a 
new Crop, whofe Roots will be fine and fmooth, free from 
Knots, Canker, &c. 

$ E C T. XXXIV. 

Of Rampion. 

i. Its Names. 

Ramp ions are called by many, Alopecuros, becaufe that 
the Ear or Spike of Flowers are very like unto Alope- 
curon, or Fox Tail, which is another Herb ; and by others it 
has been called Rapuncukm Alopecuron, that it may differ 
from the true and right Alopecuros , or Fox Tail. In Latin 
'tis called Rapuntium majus , and in Englijh Great Rampion, 
or Garden Rampion. 

2. Their Ttefcription. 

The Leaves of the Garden, or great Rampion, are tolerably 
large, fmooth and plain, very like unto thofe of the Beet. 

From the Head of the Root fpring up divers Stalks, fet 
with the like Leaves, but decreafing in their Magnitude, as they 
approach the top. The Flowers are produced at the top of 
the Stalks in a thick Clufter, like unto an Ear of Wheat in 
Form ; and before they are open'd they appear like fmall crooked 
Horns, after which, when full blown, they are like fmall 
Bells ( which makes me believe them to be of the Bell Flower 
Tribe) being ibmetimes purple, and at other times white. 

3. Their Temperature. 

The Roots are of a cold Temperature and fomething binding. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

'Tis reported by many, that the Decoction of the Roots are 

good for all Inflammations of the Mouth , and Almonds of 

the Throat, ire. and is a very great Nourilher. 5. The 

New Principles of Gardening. 79 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The Roots boiled, and eaten with Oyl, Vinegar and Pepper ; 
the Seed Leaves, or young Tops in Compofition. 

6. The Quantity. 
When a Sallet is compofed of five, fix, &c. forts of Herbs, 
and of each a Pugil, viz. as much as is generally taken up with 
the Thumb and two Fingers; to fuch a Sallet we generally 
add twelve Roots ; and of the Seed Leaves or tender Tops 
an equal Quantity with any other Herb, Radim excepted. 

7. Their Cultivation. 

Rampions delight in a ftiady, rich and ftrong Soil. 

The Seed is fown early in the Springs and the Plants are af- 
terwards tranfplanted out in a fhady Border, at the Diftance of 
four or five Inches, wherein they remain ( being kept clean 
from Weeds) till fit for Ufe. 


Of Garden, or Spanifh Rocket. 

1. Its Names. 

EOCKET is called in Greek ivtypwj in Latin Eruca 
fativa , in Italian Ruchetta , in Spanifh Oruga , in High 
:t Rauckenkraut , in French Roquette , in Low Dutch 
Rakette , and in Englijh Rocket, or Racket. 

2. Its Tlefcription. 

The Leaves of Garden Rocket are very like unto thofe of 
Turnips, but not altogether fo large, or rough. ^ 

When it runs up to Seed, the Roots break out into two 
or three Branches, or Stems which produce Rowers of a whi- 
tifh, and fometimes yellowifh Colour, and are fucceeded by 
fmall long Pods, wherein are contained the Seeds, which in 
Form are very like unto Rape Seed, but much lefs. 

3. Its 

$o New Principles of Gardening, 

3. Its Temperature. 
Rocket is hot and dry in the« third Degree, therefore Galen 
advifes it not to be eaten alone, being rather too hot for 
the Stomach. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
Being eaten in Compofition with other Sallet Herbs that arc 
cold, .as Lettuce, Purflane, &c. is very wholefome for the 
Stomach, and provokes Urine, but when eaten. alone, caufeth 
the Head-ach. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe, 
Are the young and tender Leaves. 

6. The Quantity. 

If the Sallet is compofed of cooling Herbs, as before obferved, 
there may be one Pugil, or equal Quantity of Rocket. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

The Seed is ripe in September , and mould then be fown j 
it delights in a warm rich Soil, and is very hardy, efpecially 
the Roman Rocket, which is an Annual, and dying every 
Year, as foon as its Seed is ripe, rifes again from its own Seed, 
if fufFer'd to fall. 


Of Red Sage. 

1 . Its Names. 

Sa G e is called in Greek iXixla-QcMog , in Latin, Italian and 
Spanifi Salvia, in High 'Dutch Salben, in French Sauge, 
in Low "Dutch Sauie 5 and in Englijh Sage. 

2. Its Defcription. 

To defcribe red Sage, which is fo well known, would be need- 

lefs, and therefore 1 mail only add, that the Flowers arc in 

bloom in the Months of June and July. 3. Its 

New Principles of Gardening. 8r 

3. Its Temperature. 
Sage is hot and dry almoft in the third Degree. 

4- The Medicinal Virtues. 
Sage is Angularly good for the Head and Brain, quickens the 
Memory, and nrengthens the Sinews. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The young and tender Leaves, and Flowers eaten in compo- 
fition with other Herbs. 

6. The Quantity is at Pleafure. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

Red Sage is propagated from Layers, or Slips twifted at the 
lower end, and planted in September or Oftober, or if planted 
in March or April they will grow, but not near fo well as 
when planted in the end of Autumn. 

The other Kinds of Sage, viz. The Tea Sage ( called by many 
Sage of Virtue) the Mountain Sage, and the Wormwood Sage, 
are propagated in like Manner ; and as they are in general 
well known, they need no Defcription. 


Of Sampler. 

1. Its Names. 

THERE arc three different Kinds of Sampier, the firft cal- 
led Rock Sampier , the lecond Thorny Sampier, and the 
third Golden Sampier j but the Sampier eaten in Sallets is the 
Rock Sampier y which is called in Greek KfttSfjuv, in Latin Crith- 
mum marinum, and by many Bati ; in High 'Dutch Meerfen- 
chelly which is in Latin Funiculus Marinus, Sea Fennel; in 
Italian Fenocchio marino, Herba di San Tietro , and hereupon 
divers call it Sampetra ; in Spanijh Terexil de la mer, Hinoioma- 
rino, Fenolmarin, and in Englifh Sampier, or Rock Sampier, 
M becaufc 

82 New Principles of Gardening. 

becaufe it delights to grow on Rocks, Clefts, ire. as at Dover, 
JVtncheljea, &c. and by Tome 'tis called Creftmarine. 

2. Its Ttefcription. 

Rock Sampier is very like, in its Leaf, unto that of Purflain, 
but fomewhat lefs, and of an aromatick Tafte. 

From the Head of the Root rifes the Stalk, which, as it 
rifes, fends forth many collateral Branches, on whole ends grow 
fpokie Tufts of white Flowers, like unto thote of Fennel or 
Dill, which are afterwards fucceeded by Seed, in Form very 
like unto Fennel Seed, but much larger. The Root is ge- 
nerally very thick, and of a very agreeable plealant Smell. 

3. Its Temperature. 
Sampier, according to Galen, is dry and warm. 

4. The medicinal Virtues. 

The Leaves being pickled, and eaten in Sallets with Oil 

and Vinegar, are very good for the (lopping of the Liver, Milt, 

Kidneys and Bladder 5 it gently provokes Urine, and excites 

an Appetite. 

$. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The tender Leaves and Shoots. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten in a Sallet. 

When a Sallet is compofed of four Kinds of Herbs, there 
muft be of Sampier one fourth part, when of five Kinds, one 
fifth, &c. 

N. B. Sampier being an Inhabitant of Rocks, Clefts, ire. is 
therefore gather'd from thence in great Plenty, and feldom or 
ever cultivated in the Garden. 



New Principles of Gardening. 83 

sect, xxxviii. 

Of Scorzonera. 

1. Its Names. 
CORZONERA, or Viper Grafs, called by the Spaniards 
Scorzonera, in Latin Viper aria five Scorzonera, and ibme- 
times viperina, or ferpent aria, bccaufe 'tis of force againft the 
Poifons of Vipers j for Vipera, or a Viper is called in Spanijh 
Scurzo , and in Englifh 'twas firft called Scorzoner, and now 
Scorzonera, from the Spanijh Name, or Vipers Grafs. 

2. Its Ttefcription. 

Scorzonera or Vipers Grafs, hath long and plump Leaves, 
with a large Rib or Stem down the middle of a light green 

The Stalk rifes from the Crown of the Root, bearing Leaves 
of the fame Form, but fmallcr, and yellow double Flowers on 
its top part. 

The Root is almoft like a Carrot, in. Colou 
black, and white within, yielding a milky Juice , 
Leaves alfo. 

And befides this kind of Vipers Grafs called Scorzonera, &< 
are five other Kinds j as firft, ViperarU humilis, Dwarf Vipers 
Grafs; fccondIy,/^r<2r/tf Hifpanica, Spanijh VipcrsGrafs; thirdly, 
Viper aria Hifpanica humilis, Dwarf Spanijh Vipers Grals ; fourthly, 
Vtperaria Tannontca, Hungary Vipers Grafs ; and Laftly, Vipe- 
raria Tannonica angiiftijolia, narrow leafed Vipers Grafs. 

Thefe laft Kinds being of no Ufe in our Garckns, I fhall not 
trouble you with their Defcription. 

3. Their Temperature. 
Temperately hot and moiit. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
The Root being eaten, caufes chearfulnefs. 

5. Their Tarts for Ufe. 
The Roots. M 2 6. The 

84 New Principles of Gardening. 

6. The Quantity is at Pleafure. 

7. Their Cultivation. 
Scorzonera delights in a fandy Loam, 'tis propagated by Seed 
fown in March, which ripen d the July or Auguft before. 


Of Scurvy Grafs. 

1. Its Names. 
riCURVY Grafs or Spoonwort, fo called in regard to the 
[^ Leaves being of the form of a Spoon , called in Latin 
Cochlearia rotundifolia, or round leafed Scurvy Grafs. And be- 
iides this Kind there is another Sort which is more common 
called Cochlearia Britannica, the common Englifh Scurvy Grafs. 

2. ItsT>efcription. 

The round leaf Scurvy Grafs is of a very low Growth, pro- 
ducing many Leaves from the Head of the Root, which are of 
a round hollow Form, and a very deep mining green Colour. 
The Flowers or Bloflbm rife from the Head of the Root , of 
a white Colour, and are generally in Bloom about the middle 
of May, and the Seed ripe in June . 

The common Scurvy Grafs being well known, needs no 

3. Its Temperature, 
Hot and dry. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 
Being fteeped in Ale and drank, is very good againft the 
Scurvy, and is a great Sweetner of the Blood. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
In Sallets, the very young and tender Seed Leaves; and 
in Drink, Diftilling, &c. the larger Leaves more grown. 

New Principles of Gardening. 8$ 

6. The Quantity in Sallets. 
The Quantity eaten with other Herbs is at Pleafure, as alfo 
in Drink, &c. 

7. The Cultivation. 
The Seed gather'd when ripe in June or July, may be fown 
on a frefli Border any time in the Spring,- it delights in a 
moid Soil wihch is not fully expofed to the Sun. 


Of Sellery. 

r T"^HE RE is no Herb adds fo rich a Flavour to our Spring 
JL Sallets, as blanch'd Sellery. It is a Herb generoufly 
hot, and very eafily propagated. To defcribc this Herb would 
be a needlefs work, feeing that its great Ufe has made it uni- 
verfally known to every one j and therefore I fhall pafs over 
that, and proceed to the Propagation thereof. 

To have Sellery very early, 'tis beft to fow the Seed upon 
an old decay'd Hot-Bed at the end of February or beginning 
of March, and when the Seed is come up , and about three 
Inches high, or thereabouts , prepare a Border of a light and 
rich Nature, or rather a decay'd Hot-Bed, and therein prick 
out the young Plants at four Inches apart, giving them good 
Waterings when required. 

Having thus tranfplanted them out , when they are about 
feven or eight Inches high, and become good (hong Plants , 
you muft then plant them out for good, which perform as fol- 
lows, viz. Having made choice of a good piece of Land pro- 
per for the purpofe , ftrain a Line the whole length thereof, 
which chop out with your Spade, and then remove it parallel 
to the firtt, at about eight or ten Inches diftance, viz. equal 
to the breadth of one Spit. 

That being done, dig out the rutt Spit, about eight or nine 
Inches deep, throwing the Earth on each fide of the Trench, 
and about three ^Feet from the firft Trench, dig a iecond, and 


86 New Principles of Gardening. 

after that a third, &c. The Trenches being thus opened, 'twill 
not be amifs if in the bottom of every Trench, you prick in 
a tolerable good Coat of well rotted Horfe-dung, and especi- 
ally if your Land is poor, 'twill greatly add to the Growth of 
your Sellery. 

The Trenches being thus prepared ready for planting, take 
an old Knife or piece of a Sythe, and cut out the Plants, put- 
ting them into a (hallow Basket with Care, that you do not 
knock off the Earth from their Roots, and plant them in the 
bottom of the Trenches , at about fix or feven Inches apart. 
Having firft pruned their Heads to about five or fix Inches in 

Some are fo curious as to tye up their Leaves together with 
a fmall piece of Baft, that they may not, when a little flag'd 
at firft removing, lie down upon the Ground. 

After your Plantation is ended, be fure to give them a very 
good Watering, and indeed at all other Times, when the Earth 
is dry. 

When your Plantation is about nine or ten Inches in height, 
you muft earth them up within four or five Inches of the top, 
and fo continue during all the time of their Growth. 

About fix or feven Weeks after earthing up, they will be 
whiten'd, that is, what we call blanch'd, and are then fit for the 

To have a plentiful Supply of Sellery, 'tis beft to fow and 
raife Plantations at different Times, about one Month after 
the other, by which Means we may be well furniuYd through- 
out the whole Year. 

The mod grofs or rank ftrong Roots are more fit for 
Soup, than for Sallets; therefore I advife that the midling 
fized Sellery be chofen for Sallets with their fmall Suckers, 
which break out from the fides of their Roots. 

I have feen fome Gardiners, who have been very curious in 
the fplitting of the blanched Leaves of Sellery with a Pin, which 
being afterwards thrown into clean cold Water curl themfelves 
up, and make a very agreeable Figure, when well difpofed 
of amongft the other Sorts of Sallet Herbs. 

The number of Roots eaten in a Sallet is generally about 
five or fix, when of other Kinds there is but a Pugil of each, 
viz. as much as one commonly takes up between his two Fin- 
gers and Thumb. Sellery 

New Principles of Gardening. 87 

Scllery may be eaten in Compofition with other Sallet Herbs, 
: alone, with Oil, Vinegar, Salt and Pepper. 


Of Skirrets. 

1. Its Names, 

TH E Skirret is called in Greek a-la-et^ov, in Latin Si/arum, 
by the Germans Sierlin, Tragus Zamgarten Rapunkelen, 
in the low Countries Suycker JVortelen, viz. Sugar Roots, and 
oftentimes Scrillen, in Spanifh Cherinia, in Italian Sifaro, in 
French Cheruy, and in Engltjh Skirret or Skirwort. 

2. Its "Defcription. 
The Leaves of the Skirret conM of many fmall Leaves faftned 
to one Rib, very like untothofe of aPari'nip, but letter, fmoo- 
thcr and of a deeper Green. The Stalk rifes from the Head 
of the Root, bearing at its ends little fpokie Tufts of white 
Flowers ; the Roots are of a white Colour, and of a very 
fweetand pleafant Tafte. 

3. Their Temperature. 
The Roots, which are their Parts for Ufe, are moderately hot 
and moift. 

4. Their medicinal Virtues. 
They create an Appetite and provoke Urine : And according 
to Hieronymus Heroldus, the Women of Swevia prepare the 
Roots hereof for their Husbands, and know full well where- 
fore and why, &c. I fuppoie they find a fecret Pleafure therein, 
for they are very great Provokatives. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The Roots eaten either raw, in Compofition, or boiled and 
eaten with Vinegar, Oyl, Salt, &c. 

6. The Quantity is at Pleafure. 

4. 7. Then 

New Principles of Gardening. 

7. Their Cultivation, 

The Skirret delights in a light, rich and moift Soil, and may 
be propagated by (owing the Seeds in March ; but are more 
generally raifed from Slips or Sets planted in the fame Month. 

The manner of increafing them is as follows. In March, when 
they begin to (hoot forth their Leaves, take up the Roots, and 
part or divide them into as many Slips as pofilble , taking 
away all the old Roots, and preferving none but the frefh grow- 
ing Fibres. This being done, take a large Hough, and draw 
deep Drills, about fix Inches in depth, wherein place or plant 
the young Slips at about five or fix Inches diftance from each 
other , and during all the time of their Growth keep them 
well water'd, which will add very much to their Growth. 


Of Sorrel 

1 . Its Names. 
TTHE Garden Sorrel is called in Greek cfatie, and dvajrvfa 

J [ and by Galen c%vAa,7ruQov, viz. Acidum lapathum, or Act- 
dus Rumex, fower Dock, the Germans call it Sawrampher y in 
Low 'Dutch Surckele and Surinck, the Spaniards Azederas, 
Agrelles, and Azedas, in French Ozeille, and Surelle Aigrette, 
and in English Garden Sorrel. 

The feveral Kinds of Sorrel are feven, viz. the firft called 
in Latin Ox alls five Acetofa, Sorrel. The fecond, Oxalis tube- 
rofa, knobbed Sorrel ; the third, Oxalis tenuifolia> Sheeps Sorrel ; 
the fourth, Oxalis Franca feu Romana , round Sorrel , called 
alio French Sorrel 5 and fifthly, Oxalis Crijpa, curled Sorrel; 
fixthly, Oxalis minor, fmall Sorrel ; and laftly, Oxalis minima, 
the final left Sorrel : But French Sorrel is the beft for Sauce, 
Sallcts, &c. 

2. Their T>efcription. 
The feveral Kinds of Sorrels being well known to every 
one, need no Defcription. 

New Principles of Gardening. 89 

3. Their Temperature. 
Moderately cold, moift and acid. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
Cools a hot Stomach , creates an Appetite, opens the Ob- 
ftru&ions of the Liver, and aflwages the Heat thereof. It cuts 
tough Humours, and Strengthens the Heart. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The tender young Leaves. 

6. The Quantity in a Sallet. 
The Quantity of Sorrel in a Sallet is generally at Pleafurc, 
Come loving a greater Quantity of acid than others : But the 
ufual Quantity is an equal part, proportionable to the other Sorts 
of Herbs, as a fourth part, when the Sallet is compofed of 
four Kinds of Herbs 5 a fifth, when of five, &c. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
The Garden and French Sorrels are propagated from Seeds 
Town in March in Drills on the edge of a Border, and make a 
very handfome and profitable Edging. 


Of Spinachy or Sp'mage. 

1. Its Names. 

ST IN AGE was anciently called Spinachia, and Spinachium 
olus , and by fome Hifpanicum olus. Fuchfius calls it 
-Z7TLvctx^ ; the Arabians and Serapio call it Hi/pane, the Ger- 
mans Spinet, the French Efpinas , and the English Spinach, 
or Sp'mage. 

2. Its T)efcription. 
It is fuppofed by many Herbalifts that Spinach is a Sort of 
Orach 5 the Leaves being foft and tender , of a dark green 
N Colour, 

po New Principles of Gardening. 

Colour, full of Juice, fharp pointed, and deeply indented to- 
wards the Stalk end. The Stalk rifes about a foot and half 
high, and is hollow within, bearing on its top divers Clutters 
of Flowers, which are fucccedcd by a prickly Seed, and is there- 
fore called prickly Spinage. But befides this Kind of Spinage, 
whole Leaves are deeply indented , there is another Kind cal- 
led round Spinage, on Account of its Leaves being of a round 
Form, without being indented, as in the other. 

3 . Their Temperature. 
Spinage is cold and moift, almoft in the fecond Degree. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
Laxative and emollient. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The tender Seed Leaves when eaten in a Sallet, and the 
well grown Leaves when ufed in Soup, &c. 

6. The Quantity. 

When the young Seed Leaves are eaten in Compofition ; 
there muft be the fame Quantity of them as of other fmall Sal- 
let Herbs, Radilh excepted. 

7. The Cultivation. 

Spinage is propagated by Seed, and to. have a plentiful Store 
thereof during the Winter and Spring , we muft fow the Seed 
about the beginning, middle, and end of Auguft, on good rich 
Land, which when come up, and large enough to hough out, 
muft then be run over with a hough, and left at about five or 
fix Inches apart 5 and as I before directed its being fown at three 
differenr Seafons, fo you muft obferve in the Spring alfo, to- 
keep fowing fufficient Quantities every Fortnight j for in the 
Spring 'tis very rare to find that one Crop will laft longer 
than a Fortnight. 

The prickly Spinage is of the fame Tafte when boil'd as the 
round Leaf, but is not fo much eftcem'd by Gardiners. 


New Principles of Gardening. 91 

SECT. xliv. 

Of Succory. 

1. Its Names. 
QIuccory is called in Greek xt%a^tov , in Latin Cichorium 
lj fativum, the Germans calls it Wegwarten, the Italians Ci- 
chorea, the Spaniards Almerones, the Bohemians Czakanka, and 
the Englifh Cichory and Succory. 27/»y named the broadLeaf 
Succory Hedypnois, and the bitterer Diofcorides caWcthvriKvg, in 
Latin, Intybum fytoeftre, Intybum agrefte, Intybum erraticum, 
and Cichorium. 

2. The T>efcription. 
Garden Succory is of two Sorts, the one with broad Leaves, 
and the other with narrow deeply indented : The Leaves of the 
firft Kind are fomethmg hairy, and very like unto thofe of En. 
dive. The Stalk rifes fromamongft them dividing itsfelf towards 
the top, into many Branches, whereon grow little blew Flowers 
confiding of many Leaves, which are afterwards fucceeded by 
white Seed. The Root is of a long duration, producing a white 
milky bitter Juice, as alfo doth the Leaves and Branches when 

3. The Temperature. 
Cold and dry in the fecond Degree. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
Being eaten raw in a Sallet, comforts the weak and feeble 
Stomach, cools the Liver, and opens the Obftru&ions of Urine. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The Leaves being blanch'd , or whiten'd as the Endive, 

Sett. XVII. 

6. The Quantity to be eaten in a Sallet is at Plcafure, it 
N 2 being 

New Principles of Gardening. 

being more pleafmg to the Stomach than the Taue; 'tis alfo 
very good being boiled in Soup. 

7 . The Cult i vat ion . 
Succory is encreafed by (owing the Seed in July, and or- 
dered in every Refpect as the Endive, Sett. XVII. 


Of Tanfie. 

, /-p ANSIEj called in Latin Tanacettm, being univerfally 
J[ known, needs no Defcription. 

2. Its Temperature. 

The Garden Tanfie is hot in the fecond Degree, and dry in 
the third. 

\. The Medicinal Virtues. 

Tanfie being eaten with eggs fried, or in a Tanfie, &c. is 
very good for the Stomach : for if any bad Humours cleave 
thereunto, it doth perfectly concott them, and fcowre them 

The Seed of Tanfie is a lingular and approved Medicine againit 
Worms, for in what fort foever it be taken, it kills and ex- 
pells them } and being drunk with Wine , is very good a- 
gainft the pain of the Bladder, and ftoppage of the Urine. 

4 . The Tarts for Ufe. 
The young and tender Leaves. 

5, The Quantity is. at Pleafure; 

5 . The Cultivation. 
Tanfie is increafed by parting the Roots, and planting them 
any time in the Spring : 'Tis a valuable Plant, and ought not 
to be wanting in our Kitchen Garden. 


New Principles of Gardening. 93 

The ingenious Mr. Bradley tells us, in his new Improvements, 
Part III. page 172. that he has experienced the great Virtue of 
this Herb, and found that one handful being boil'd in a half 
pint of ftrong White Wine, and the Decoftion drank as hot as 
is pollible to be drank, immediately removes the pain of the 
Gout in the Stomach. 

WhenTanfie is qualified with the Juice of Spinage and fried, 
Yis very pleafant and grateful to the Stomach, and efpecially 
being eaten hot with the Juice of Orange and Sugar. 


Of Tarragon. 

1. Its Names. 
r-f^ ARRAGONis called in Greek xaAo«fe, in Latin Draco, 
L in Italiam c Dragoncellum, in French "Dragon, and in Eng- 
lifh Tarragon. 

2. Its T>efcrij>tion. 

Tarragon hath long and narrow Leaves, of a deep green 
Colour, broader and longer than thofe of Hyffbp, with (lender 
brittle round Stalks, about which hang fmall round Flowers of 
a yellow Colour mixed with black like unto thofe of common 

The Root is long, with many Fibres breaking out of the 
Sides and extending themfelves like unto Couch Grafs. 

3. The Temperature. 
Tarragon is hot and dry in the third Degree. 

4- The Medicinal Virtues. 
Very good for a cold Stomach, being eaten raw in a Sailer. 

5. The Tarts for ufe. 
Their tender Tops, or young Leaves. 

94 New Principles of Gardening, 

6. The Quantity. 

This Herb being well mixt in a Sallet, gives it a very agree- 
able Relifti, altho' fome cannot endure any part of it in a Sallet. 
When a Sallet is compofed of fix or feven Sorts of Herbs, and 
of each a Pugii, to them may be added about twenty five large 
Leaves of Tarragon , and the like of a Sallet of any other 

7. The Cultivation. 

This Herb delights in a warm Expofure, and is increafed by 
Slips taken from the Roots, and planted any time in the Spring. 


Of Turnips. 

1. Its Names. 

r T~^HE Turnip is called in Greek yoyyvtoi, in Latin Rapum, 

JL and by fome Rapa. The Lacedemonians call it ya<?^ t in 

High Dutch Ruben t 'm Low 7)utchRapen,in French Naueaurond, 

in Spanijh Nabo, and in Englijh Turnip and Rape. 

2. Their Defcription. 

To defcribe the feveral parts of a Turnip, which is already 
well known, would be a needlefs work, and therefore I {hall 
pafs over the fame in Silence, and only add, that the very beft 
Kinds are the yellow and flat white Turnip , red on the upper 
part, and of thefe the beft are thofe of a midling Growth ; the 
very large ones being, for the moft part, either fticky and hard, 
or woolly and foft like unto the Pith of an Elder Tree. 

3. Their Temperature. 
Windy and moift, 

New Principles of Gardening. 95 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
The young tender Shoots or Tops, boiled and eaten pro- 
voke Urine. The Decodion of Turnips is good againft a Cough 
and Hoarfnefs of the Voice, being drank in an Evening with 
a little Sugar, or Quantity of clarified Honey. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The Seed Leaves when eaten in Sallcting, the Roots when 
boil'd, and the tender Tops in the Spring for Soup. 

6. The Quantity for life. 
The Quantity of the Seed Leaves to be eaten in a Sallet is 
an equal pare with others; but the Roots and tops are at 

7. Their Cultivation. 

The fweeteft Turnips are produced on a light fandy Loam. 
The time of fowing Turnips to come in, for the Months of 
January, February and March, is Augujl : But to have them 
iooner for the Months of October, November and 'December, 
they may be fown in June or July > and indeed I can't fee 
any Reafon why we may not fow them earlier, as in March, 
April or May, that thereby our Table may be plentifully fup- 
plied throughout the Summer. However let them be fown at 
anytime, the manner of fowing and ordering after is the fame. 
To explain the Method of fowing Turnip Seed for a Crop, is 
as ncedlefs as to defcribe what fort of a Root a Turnip is : 
The only Care therein is, that you do not fow them too thick, 
which will caufe a very great Trouble and Expence in their 
houghing, or too thin, whereby you will be deprived of a Crop. 
Their proper diftance ought to be about feven or eight Inches, 
and twice houghing them over is generally fufficient. 

If in the Winter the Frofts are very fevere, 'tis belt to pull 
them up and pit them, as directed for the Carrots, Seel* VII. or 
keep them in Sand in a warm Cellar. 

The manner of fowing Turnips for young Salleting is the 
very fame with that of CretTes, Muftard, Chervil and Radifh. 


9 6 New Principles of Gardening. 

Having thus given a general Account of the feveral Sorts of 
raw and boii'd Sallcting for the Months of January, February 
and March , I (hall now proceed to the Conftruftion of two 
Tables, of which the firft will exemplify all the feveral Herbs 
in their refpeaivc Degrees of Heat, Cold, Moifture, &c. by 
the help of which we may be capable of compofing a Sallet to 
any Degree required : And the fecond Table, the feveral Kinds 
of Herbs good againft every one particular Difeafe, the whole 
being digeftcd in an alphabetical Manner, for the more ready 
finding any part required. 

A Table of the Degrees of Heat, Cold, Sec. contain d in 
the feveral Sallets, jor the Months 0/ January, 
February and March. 

Sallet Herbs 

BROOM Buds 2 d Degree. 
1 Chives. 
Clary 3 d Degree. 
Garden Crefles 2 d Degree. 
Water Crefles. 
Elder Buds and Flowers. 
Fennel 3 d Degree. 
Garlick 4 th Degree. 
Hop Tops 2 d Degree. 

Muftard 4 th Degree. 
Mint 3 d Degree. 

hot and dry. 

Onions almoft in the 4 th Degree, 

Penny Royal 3 d Degree. 

Radifh hot in the third Degree, 
and dry in the fecond. 

Horfe Radifh 3 d Degree. 

Garden Rocket 3 d Degree. 

Red Sage almoft in the 3 d De- 

Scurvy Grafs. 

Tanfie,hot in the fecond, and 
dry in the third. 

Tarragon 3 d Degree. 




Sallet Herbs temperately, &c. 

Orange and Limon Seedlings. 

New Principles of Gardening. 97 

Sallet Herbs temperately hot and moifl. 
Carrot, Scorzoncra, and Skirret. 

Sallet Herbs generoujly hot. 

Sallet Herbs cold and moift. 
White Beet. Lettice. 

4 Cucumber 2 d Degree. Spinagc. 

Sallet Herbs cold and dry. 
Red Beet, Endive and Succory. 

Salkt Herbs cold and Jomething binding 

Sallet Herbs moderately cold and acid. 
The feveral Sorts of Sorrel. 

Sallet Herbs dry and binding. 
The feveral Kinds of Cabbages, &c. 

Sallet Herbs temperately dry, and little or nothing binding. 
The feveral Sorts of Cowflips , and Nettle Tops. 

Sallet Herbs windy and moifl. 
The feveral Sorts of Turnips. 

Sallet Herbs warm and dry. 

Sallet Herbs nourijhing. 
Afparagus, Parfnips, Potatoes, and Rampion. 

p8 New Principles of Gardening. 



Ofthefeveral EffeBs, which the Sallets for January, 
February and March have on human Bodies. 

i. Blood to cleanfe and fweeten, 
LDER Buds, Hop Tops, Nettle Tops, and Scurvy- 

2. Digestion to help. 
Afparagus, Muftard, and Horfe Radifh* 

3 . Dropsie acquired by Cold. 
Broom Buds, and Garlick. 

4. Fatness to prevent. 
Clivers boil'd in Soup, &c, 

5. Head and Brain. 
Red Sage. 

6. Humours (grofs ) to make thin. 
Garlic^, Mettle Tops, and SorreL 

7. Lungs to ftrengthen. 
Leek, Parfnip, and Penny-royal. 

8. Memory to ftrengthen. 
Red Sage. 

9. Liver to cool. 
Broom Buds, Endive and Sellery. 

10. Loosening. 

White Beet, Cabbage, Corn Sallet, Elder Buds, Hop Tops, 

Nettle Tops, and Spinage. n. &*> 

New Principles of Gardening. 99 

11. Refreshing. 
Corn Sallct, CreiTes, and Scotzoncra. 

12. Obstructions to open. 
Garlick, Hop Tops, Onions, Sampier, and Sorrel. 

13. Scurvy. 
Brooklime, Scurvy- Grafs. 

14. Stomach, cold and feeble. 
Chervil, Clary, Elder Buds, Garlick, Leek, Muflard, Mint, 
Orange Seedlings, Onions, Parfnip Penny-royal, Horfe Radifh, 
Garden Rocket, Tanfie, Tarragon, and Alexanders. 

15. Stomach hot. 
All the Sorts of Lettice and Sorrels. 

16. Stone and Gravel. 

Wild Carrot, Water CrefTes, Fennel, Mint, Nettle Tops, 

Parfnip, Penny-royal, and Radifh. 

17. Urine to provoke. 

Afparagus, wild Carrot Seed, Chervil, Chives, Water CrefTes, 

Endive, Fennel, Garlick, Hop Tops, Nettle-Tops, Onions, 

Parfnip, Penny-royal, Radifh, Sampler, Skirret, Scurvy-Grafs, 

Tanfie and Turnips. 

18. Wind in the Stomach. 

19. Worms. 


20. To excite an Appetite. 
Cucumbers, Muftard, Radifh, Sampier, Skirret, and Sorrel. 


New Principles of Gardening. 

T able m. y 

i, TheraivSdktsfor January, February and 
March are, The 

YOUNG Tops of Alex- 
Corn Sallet. 
'Garden Creffes. 
Water defies. 

The young Shoots of Fennel. 

White Muftard. 


Orange and Limon Seedlings, 

Young Onions. 


Horfe Radifh. 

Rampion Seed Leaves and 

Red Sage. 

2. The boiled S diets for January, Febru 
March are, The 

lry, and 



Cabbages and Colcworts 













3 . The pckled Sallet s /^Januar 
March are, 
The Broom-Buds, red Cabbage, Cucumbers, fmall Onions, 
Radifh Pods, French Beans, Walnuts, Nalturtium Seeds, Ber- 
berries, Mufhrooms, fyc. f 
Before that I proceed to the Sallcts for the Months ot 

New Principles of Gardening. i 

April, May and June, 'twill not be amiis, if 1 firft lay down 
proper Dircdions for the gathering and ordering of a Sallct 
after the bell Manner : And altho' I place thefe Diredions 
now immediately after the Sallets for January, February and 
March i yet the fame is to be obferved at all Times throughout 
the whole Year. 

Directions for the gathering, ordering, and drejfing 
of a Sallet. 
In the Choice of Sallets obfervc, 

Firft, That the Kinds arc young and delicate. 

Secondly, That they are picked very clean from imperfect, 
flimy, &c. Leaves. 

Thirdly, That each Kind be wafh'd feparately in two clean 

Fourthly, That they arc well drain'd in a Cullender, and af- 
terwards fwing'd dry in a clean Napkin. 

Fifthly and Laftly, That every fort be proportion^ as directed 
in the preceding Sections, and laid fingly in the Di(h, in (uch 
a Manner, as to form a pyramidical, or other agreeable Figure. 

N. B. That during the Months of January, February and 
March, Sallets may be cut at any time of the Day ; but when 
the Weather increafes in heat, the beft time to gather or cut a 
Sallet, is about eight or nine of the Clock in the Morning, to 
be afterwards kept in a cool place, till within one Hour before 
'tis eaten, at which time, it mould be wafh'd as before directed, 
and not immediately before 'tis eaten, as practifed by many. 

And when you arc obliged to cut a Sallet in very hot Wea- 
ther, put it into Spring Water for the fpace of half an Hour 
or more, and then take it out,. and order it as before directed. 

And having thus gathcr'd and wam'd your Sallct, the next 
Work is the dreflins, wherein obfervc, 

Firft, That the Oil be very clean, fmooth, light, and per- 
fectly fweet, without any fort of rancid Smell. 

Secondly, That the Vinegar, or other acid, be perfc&ly clear 
and frefh. 

Thirdly, That the Salt be of the brighteft and bell refined 
Kind, and moderately dry. 

Fourthly, When Sugar is ufed, that it be the very bed refined. 

Fifthly, That the Vinegar, Salt and Sugar, be proportioned 
to the heat or cold of the Stomach, as near as can be. 


102 New Principles of Gardening. 

Sixthly, That the Sallet be compofed of fiich Herbs as are 
agreeable to both Weather and Conftitution ; which laft may 
be performed by the Directions of the firft Table, and the for- 
mer by Difcretion. 

A r . B. That Sallets mould be fo chofen, as to be agreeable 
to both Weather and Conftitution, as is faid before, viz. thofe 
which are hot, for cold Weather and cold Stomachs; the tempe- 
rate ones, for temperate Weather, and the very cool ones, for 
very hot Weather, as well as hot Stomachs. 

N. B. That Sallets maybe fo mix'd, as to be hot and moid:, 
hot and dry, temperate, &c. as for Example, Onions and Cu- 
cumbers being mix'd together, viz. double the Quantity of 
Cucumbers as of Onions, the one being cold and moid in 
the iccond Degree, and the other hot and dry in the fourth 

This Mixture moderates the oppofite Natures of both, and 
caufes them together to be of a temperate Quality, and the 
like of all others. 

The beft Dimes to drefs Sallets in, are China Dimes', on 
Account that the Oil and Vinegar arc difagreeable to both Silver 
and Pewter. 

The Oxokon. 

Take of clear and perfect good Oyl Olive three parts ; of 
fharp Vinegar, Limon, or Juice of Orange one part ; and therein 
let (Iccp fome Slices of Horfc Radifh, with a little Salt, and 
fomc in Vinegar alone j gently bruife a pod of Guinea- 
Pepper Graining both the Vinegars apart, to make ufc of either, 
or alone, or of both as they belt like. Then add as much good 
dry Muftard grated as will lie upon an half Crown piece, beat 
and mingle all thefe very well together; but pour not on the 
Oyl and Vinegar^ till immediately before the Sallet is ready 
to be eaten; and then with the yolk of two new laid Eggs 
boil'd, fquafh and bruife them all into mam with a Spoon: 
And Laftly, pour it all upon the Herbs, ftirring and mingling 
them till they are well and throughly imbib'd, not forgetting 
the fprinkling of Aromatick Flowers that are in Seafon, as well 
asthinilicesofredBeer, Horfc Radilh, Berberries, &c. 

N. B. That the Liquids may be made more or lefs acid, as is 
moft agreeable to the Tafle. 


New Principles of Gardening. 103 


Of the fevered Sallet Herbs, Roots, &c. fo\ 

the Months of April, May and June. 

r SEC T. I. 

Of Afparagus. 

THE feveral Names, Dcfcription, Temperature, medicinal 
Virtues, Pans and Quantity for Ufe, being already de- 
clared at large in the rlrit Part hereof, needs no Repetition : 
And therefore, as this Herb is now in its greateft Perfection, I 
therefore advife that great Care be taken in the cutting, as I 
have before advifed, and that the lateft time of cutting be ne- 
ver longer than the firft Week in June. 


Of Artichoke. 

1 . Its Names. 

TH E Artichoke is called in Greek actively, in Latin Cinara 
otCinis, Ames, a Manure wherewith it delights to be 
drcis'd, in Italian Carcioffi Archiocchi, in Spanijh Alcarrhofa y 
in High "Dutch Strooild.rn, in Low "Dutch Artichoken, where- 
upon divers call it in Latin Articocalus, and Articoca, in French 
Artichaux, and in Engltjh Artichoke. 

2. Its 

■ 04. New Principles of Gardening. 

2. Its "Befcription. 
Artichokes being univerfally known, I need not give any 
Dcfcription thereof; but as they by Degeneration are now be- 
come of many Kinds, fome good, and other very bad, I fhall 
by the way advife, that when Plantations of this Herb is made, 
that the Slips are ^aken from a very good Kind, as from thoie 
planted in the Ncat-Houfe Gardens near Lmdon y or other 
riaecs, where the Kind is known to be very good. 

j. Their Temperature is windy, and medicinal Virtues little 

or any at ail. 

4. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The young Leaves blanch'd, and the Chokes when fully grown, 
before they offer to bloJlbm. 

•5. The Quantity of either is at Plcafure. 

6. Their Cultivation. 

Artichokes delight in a warm, rich and deep Soil, and arc 
propagated from Suckers or Slips, taken off and planted in March 
or dpril, in Holes or Cups as pickling Cucumbers, about two 
Feet and half apart in Lines, and about four Feet defiant from 
each other. In every Hole or Cup you mull plant three Plants 
in the Form of an equilateral Triangle, at about eight or nine 
Inches apart, having firit prun'd their Heads to about the fame 
Number of Inches. 

This young Plantation being kept very well watcr'd will 
thrive very Urongiy, and many of them produce good Chokes 
about September, but I cannot recommend that they fhould ; 
for it very often happens that they die after, or arc greatly 
weaken'd thereby. Therefore to prevent the Lofs of your 
Plantation, as loon as the young Chokes appear, break them 
off, and the Plants will be greatly ftrengthcn'd thereby. 

When you fli.p Artichokes, be careful of leaving a fufficicnt 
number of Slips behind for a Crop, which ought always to be 
confidcrcd, with refpect to the ftrength of the Plant. 

Therefore when your Plants arc very ftrong, you may allow 
to each Moot, three Heads, or four at the mon\ and to thofc that 
are weaker, two or three at the moft. 


New Principles of Gardening. 105 

When the old Stems have done blowing, which is about 
July, break them off clofe to the Ground, and their Roots will 
afterwards break out and furnifh themfelves with frefli Shoots 
for the Winter. 

About the middle of November they require to be dig'd, and 
at the fame time their large fpreading Leaves muft be pruned 
away; and inftead of flat digging them, they muft be ridged in 
fuch a Manner, as the Roots may ftand in the middle of every 
Ridge, to preferve them from the Frofts of the Winter, which 
it they prove to be very hard, you muft not fail to defend them 
with frefli HorfcDung, or other long Litter, that will keep the 
Frofts from their Roots. r 

When Artichokes are planted in ftrong wet and cold Lands 
they feldom laft longer than the firft Year. 

rh l A ™ at aIth °; \ advired the bfe ^"g of the young 
Chokes or Flowers of the young Plantation, which is intended 
for future Times ; yet 'tis very necelTary that a fmall piece be 
planted every Year, and fuffer'd to grow up to huge .Chokes 
fit for the Table, to fucceed thofe produced from the old or 
mother Plants in June. 

sect. m. 

Of (Lisbon WWindfor) Beam. 

r __^ l • Its Name. 

T^HE Bean is called in Latin Faba, and that which we 
hh ? XU te&**jrindfir y or Garden Bean, Faba major 
hotenfis the great Garden Bean, and the Hog or Horfe Bean 
originally growing wild, was called Faba Sylveftris , the wild' 

2, Their 'Defcription. 
IJ^r^^/ 11 " a Gardcn Bean is > wouId ^ a needlefs 
2 And"!! fe f ing ?£ CVCry B °y is Wdl ac ^ ai »^ there 
with . And therefore I mail proceed to the Defcription of fuch 
Sorts as are molt advantageous and worth our Notice 

P The 

[o6 New Principles of Gardening. 

The Bean having very great Varieties, it would be endlefs, 
as well as ufelefs , to defcribe all its feveral Kinds , and 'as 
there are but two Kinds that are very good, and valuable among 
Gardincrs , therefore I (hall take notice of thofe two, and o- 
mit all the other. The firft is the Sjtanijh or Lisbon Bean , 
which in Nature is hardy enough to endure mod of our Winters 
Frofts, &c. and produces an early Crop about the end of April 
or beginning of May. 

This Kind of Bean is commonly planted under Eaft , 
South or JVeft Walls, in Otlober , or November, at about fix 
or eight Inches diftant from the Wall , and the like diftance 
in the Row : And altho' by this Means they come in very early 
in the Spring, and at firft gathering receive a kind Welcome^ 
or if fold, a tolerable good Price j yet I cannot by any Means 
advife their being planted fo very near to the Fruit Trees y 
which, if great care is not taken, are very much damaged thereby. 
I have too often feen, that for the fake of three or four Beans,* 
not worth one Penny, a good Peach or other Fruit Tree, 
worth half a Crown, .as been deftroyed, by fuffering thofe Beans 
to grow fo very near, as totally to deprive the Tree of its pro- 
per Nourimment, and thereby became (if not quite dead) good 
for nothing and irrecoverable. 

And befides, it is not the Lofs of the prime Coft and Ex- 
pence of planting it only , but the great Difappointment and 
Lofs of one Year, which is a very great part of a Man's Life. 

Now that this Pra&iee may be laid afidc, the Fruit Trees no 
ways injured, and the Table be well and early fiirnifh'd with a 
good Supply ; I advife that about the end of Augujl, or mid- 
dle of September, you plant or fet as many of thele early Kinds 
of Beans, in an open Border, at about three Inches every way 
diftant from one another, as you may have Occafion for , for 
your firft Crop, which when grown about three Inches or there- 
abouts in height, muft be taken up and tranfplanted againft 
inch parts of your Walls as are naked, but never nearer to 
the Root or Stem of any Fruit Tree, than three Feet on each 
fide thereof at the leaft : And others may be tranfplanted in 
Lines about fix Inches apart, at two Feet and half afunder. But 
the neareft Line of thofe planted from the Wall, muft not be 
nearer to the firft than fix Feet at the neareft. A Plantation 
of this Kind will produce a much greater Crop , and earlier, 


New Principles of Gardening. 107 

than thofc fet with the Dibber, and not tranfplanted after- 

In March when your Beans are in full BIoiTom pinch off 
their Topi, and carefully cut away all Suckers that may break 
out, and grow from the bottom of their Roots; which if 
carefully perform'd , as they firft appear will caufe the mother 
Stem or Stalk to let its Bloom and produce its Beans a fort- 
night or three Weeks fooner than if let run, without being 
top'd and iucker'd. 

And as foon as the Stalks arc cleare'd of their Beans, pull 
them up, and clear the Ground ; or if you cut them down 
clofe to the Ground, they will break out again, and produce 
a fecond Crop. 

By the time thofe planted under your Walls are gone, the 
others planted from the Walls will fucceed, and produce fuch a 
plentiful Crop, as will afford a very considerable fupply to 
a Family. And that our Table may be always furnifh'd ; 
'tis beft to plant fome others in open Quarters, at different 
Times, vix. Some about the middle of December, other about 
the middle of January, and again about the middle of Febru- 
ary, at which time we may begin to plant our noble large Bean, 
called the Windfor Garden Bean, and continue Plantations 
thereof during the Months of March, April, May and June : 
And if the Weather happens to be very dry at any of thofe 
Times of Planting, 'tis beft to foak the Beans in Water before 
they are planted , as alfo to water the Drills wherein they are 
fown ; for in thefe hot Months, 'tis better to drop them in 
Drills at five or fix Inches apart, than to plant them with Dib- 
bers, as in the Spring. 

If the Seafons continue very hot, be fure to let them have 
Water enough , and particularly when in Blofibm and Fruit, 
'twill very well anfwer your Labour. 

] New Principles of Gardening. 

Of Balm. 

i. Its Names. 

Balm is called in Greek p&io-nQvXhw, of T liny Melittis \ 
in Latin Melijfa 'Apiaftrnm and Citrago, of fome Melif- 
fophyllon and Mehphyllon, in T>utch Confille degreyn, in Italian 
Cedronella and Arantiata, in Spanifi Forongtl, in French Toit- 
cyrade ou Meliffe -, and in English Bawme or ifo/w. 

2. 7fo Ttefcription. 
The common Balm, called in Z4//0 Melijfa, is very well 
known to mod People, being valued by many for its fragrant 
Smell, which is not much unlike that of the Citron: But 
befides the common Balm, there is another Kind much more 
valuable called Meleffa Turcica , the Turky Balm, whofe Leaves 
are of a more acute Form and more indented, producing fmall 
Clutters of purple Flowers. The Root is imall, and dies at 
the very firft approach of Winter, 'tis propagated by Seed fown 
in April or May, and loves a rich Soil. 

3. Their Temperature. 
Balm is hot and dry in the fecond Degree , according to 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

Balm being infufed in Wine, and that drank, comforts the 
Heart, drives away Melancholy, and is good againft the Bitings 
of venomous Bean's. 

Serapio affirms it to be comfortable to a moift and cold Sto- 
mach, to ftir up Conco&ion, to open the Brain and drive Sor- 
row and Care away. 

Avicen, on the Infirmities of the Heart, affirms that Balm 
makes the Heart merry and joyful, and ftrcngthens the vital 
Spirits, which I iiippofe good Wine will do alone alfo. 

y The 

New Principles of Gardening. 109 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The young Shoots, or tender Leaves. 

6. The Quantity is at Pieafure. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

Balm is a very ufeful Herb for Diftilling, as well as for ufing 

in Wine, and therefore mould never be wanting in our Kitchen 

Garden. Tis propagated by parting the Roots any time in the 

Spring, and will thrive very well in raoft Kinds of Garden Soils. 


Of the Beet. 

* I * H E two Kinds of Beets being already defcribed in Sec- 
JL tion III. Part i. with their Culture, &c. I need not 
fay any more thereon, but that they are now in their greateft 
Perfection, and are of very great Service in Soups, &c. 


Of Borage. 

1. Its Names. 

BORAGE is called by many Borago, of the ancient Wri- 
ters favyiaovov, which is in Latin Lingua Bubula: Tliny 
calls it Euphrojinum, becaufe it makes a Man merry and joy- 
ful, as teftified by the old Latin Verfe, 

Ego Borago gaudia femper ago. 

Thus Englifh'd 
I Borage bring always Courage. 

Tis called in High Dutch Burnt fcb, in Low Dutch Bemagie. 

o New Principles of Gardening. 

in Italian Boragine, in Spanish Boraces ; and in gng/ifb Bo- 

2. The "Defer -iff ion. 

Of Borage there are four different Kinds, viz. The Garden 
Borage, call'd in Latin Borago hortenfis ; the white flowcr'd 
Borage, Borago flore albo % the never dying iW^*, Borago fem- 
per wrens ; and a fourth Kind whole Leaves are like unto the 
laft, but much thinner, letter, rough and hairy, dividing its felf 
into many Branches at the Head of the Root, which produce 
very beautiful fair red Flowers. And altho' there is this va- 
riety of Borage, yet the three laft are to be rejected; the firft 
being for our uie only. The Leaves of Garden Borage are 
broad, rough and of a very deep green Colour, and generally 
lying flat upon the Ground : From rhe Head of the Root, a- 
mongft the Leaves, ri fes a Stalk, fometimes about eighteen or 
rwenty Inches high, divided at the upper part into many Branches, 
producing beautiful blew Flowers, each compofed of five Leaves, 
which are fucceeded by Seed, ripe in the Autumn. 

3. Its Temperature. 

Borage is evidently moift, and temperately hot and cold, or 
rather a mean between both. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 

The Flowers being eaten in Sallets , exhilarate and make 
the Mind glad. 

The Leaves being boiled in Soup make the Body foluble. 

<Diofcorides and "Pliny affirm , that the Leaves and Flowers 
being put into Wine and drank, drive away all Sadncfs, Dul- 
nefs, and Melancholy, and make Men and Women glad and 

A Syrup made of the Flowers comforts the Heart, purges 
Melancholy, and quiets the phrantick or Junatick Perfon. 

The Flower of Borage made up with Sugar performs all the 
aforefaid, with greater force and crTed. 

The tender Leaves being eaten raw in a Sallet, with other 
Sa let Herbs, create good Blood, and efpecially in thofe that 
have bten lately Sick. 

2 5. The 

New Principles of Gardening, j 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The Flowers and tender Leaves, when eaten in a Sallet, the 
Leaves, or young Tops with their Bloflbms, when ufed for a 
cool Tankard, in Wine, ire. 

6. The Quantity of either is at Pleafure. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
Borage delights in good rich mellow Loam , and is raifed 
from Seed fown in the Spring, 

SECT. vir. 

Of Buglofs. 

1. Its Names. 

Bugloss is thought to be a kind of Borage, degenerated 
therefrom ; but as c Diofcorides, Tliny, and other ancient 
lathers have divided them, I fhall therefore follow their Rule 
of Buglofs: There are two Kinds , the one called Buglojfa, and 
Buglofa T>omeftiea, or Garden Buglofs ; and the other Lange 
de beefe, in Latin Lingua bovis, and Buglojfum luteum, and of 
iome Hieracio cognatum, and Buglojfa Sylveftris or wild Buglofs. 

2. Their ^Defcription, 

The Leaves of the common or Garden Buglofs , are longer 
than thofe of the Borage, fharp pointed, rough and hairy, and 
longer than the common fize of Beet Leaves. 

The Stalk rifes to the fame height as the Borage, and is 
divided into many Branches alfo, which produce Flowers of a 
bluifh Colour, fomething inclinable to a purple before they 
are open'd, and when quite open'd, more inclinable to a blue. 

The Root is long, thick, grofs, and of a long Duration. 
The other wild Kind, called Lange de beefe , is much lefs > 
but the Leaves more rough, like unto the Tongue of an Oxe, 
from which it took its Name, 

5- Tht 

i New Principles of Gardening. 

3 . The Temperature and Virtues. 
The Leaves and Flowers arc of the fame Temperature as the 
Borage, and their Virtues alfo. 

4. The "Parts for Ufe. 
The fame as of the Borage. 

5. The Quantity is at Pleafure alfo. 

6. The Cultivation. 
Tis encreafed as the Borage from Seed, but its Root doth 
not die in the Winter as the Borage, wherein is the only dif- 
ference between them. 

Of Burnet. 

t. Its Names. 

OF Burnet there are two Kinds, the one called Garden Bur- 
net, and in Latin Timponella Hortenfis, and the other 
Timpinella Sylveftris or wild Burnet. 

The later Herbarifts call Burnet Timpinella Sanguiforba, that 
it may differ from the other, and yet 'tis called by many San- 
guiforba, and Sanguinaria. 

Gefner chufes to call it Teponella of the fmell of Melons 
to which it is like, and by others 'tis called Timpinella, or 
Bipennula , and Solbaftrella ; in High "Dutch 'tis called Kol- 
kleskraut, her Gots Bartlin, Blutkraut, Megelkraut, in French 
Timpennelle, Sanguiforbe, and in Englijh Burnet. 

2. The "Defcription. 
The Leaves of Garden Burnet are very fmall, indented, and 
thick fet upon Tingle Stems or Ribs , each Leaf oppofite to an- 
other, and withal fomewhat hairy. N 
The Stalk rifes from the Head of the Root, bearing divers 
of thofe compofed Leaves on its Sides, dividing themfclves 
4 into 

New Principles of Gardening. i 1 3 

into feveral Branches towards their Tops, whereon they pro- 
duce little round Heads of fmall brown purpled colour'd Flowers 
which are fucceeded by Seed, clofely placed together. The 
Root is, in make, not much unlike that of a fmall Parfnip, and 
fmells fomething like a Melon. 

The wild Burnet is much larger in all its Patts, but has not 
that pleafant fmell as the other. 

3. The Temperature. 
Garden Burnet is temperately cold. 

4- The Medicinal Virtues. 
The tender Leaves being eaten in a Sallet, with other Herbs, 
make the Heart merry and glad , as alfo being put into Wine, 
to which it yieldeth a pleafant Tafte in Drinking, 

5. The "Parts for Ufe. 
The young Sprigs or Shoots in Wine, the tender Leaves in 

<5. The Quantity is at Pleafure, as of Balm, Borage, and 

7. The Cultivation. 
Burnet produces its Biofibms from June tc the end of Au- 
guft, at which time, or very foon after, the Seed is ripe, which 
may be fown in the Spring, and the young Plants, when large 
enough, tranfplantcd out in Borders at fix or eight Inches di- 
stant from one another. 


Of Chervil, Creffes, Corn-Sallet, white Muflard, Ra+ 
dijh) Spinage and Turnip. 

CHERVIL being an excellent Sallet Herb, is ftill to be 
cultivated, but need not be fown upon old decayed hot 
Beds under Glafles, ire as before. The Seafon being now 
Q^ warm 

i^ New Principles of Gardening. 

warm enough for its Growth in the natural Borders , as the 
heat of the Spring advances, make choice of fuch Borders to 
fow your Seed in, as are not fo fully expofed to the heat, as 
a South Border. 

When you find your young Salleting begins to ftart , or 
run away as foon as out of Ground, then remove your place 
of raifing to fome Eaft Border, which the Sun will depart from 
about eleven in the Morning, and your Salleting will be much 
finer : And whenever you find that in very hot Weather your 
Salleting begins to run, as before in the South Border, then 
remove to a North Border, wherein you may raife it with 

N. B. That what is here delivered in relation to the fow- 
ing of Chervil , the fame muft be underftood in the fowing 
of CrcfTes, Corn-Sallet, white Mulrard, Radifh, Spinage, Tur- 
nip, Lettuce, &c. and all other Imall Salleting in general. 


Of Indian Creffes. 

INDIAN CrefTes, called in Latin Nafturtium Indicum, is 
raited from Seed fown early on a hot Bed , at the back 
of Cucumbers, Melons, &c. which produce great plenty of 
Flowers very early, that are very beautiful and agreeable in 
our Sallets. 

There are two Kinds of N afturt turns > the one of a fmall 
Growth, which is that commonly raifed in a Hot-Bed, and 
the other of a larger Rind, which would run beyond the Bounds 
of a Frame if planted therein. 

And altho' the fmall Kind is raifed in a Frame for the fake 
of having them early, yet it will grow very well in the na- 
tural Earrh, as alio will the larger Kind. 

The Seeds which fucceed the Flowers, being gathered be- 
fore they are fully ripe, and pickled, make a fine Sallet in 
the Winter. 


New Principles of Gardening. 1 1 $ 

When this Plant is planted at the foot of Standard Trees, 
or clofe under Hedges of Elm, Hornbeam, &c. they make a 
very agreeable and plealant Figure, being tycd up in and about 
the fame. Their Branches are many, and incapable of fupport- 
ing their own Weight, and therefore require help. 

Their Nature is, to extend themfelves a very great way from 
their Roots, and delight in a rich moift Soil. 

Their Leaves are of a round Form and light green Colour, 
and in Tafte and Smell like unto the Garden C relics. 

The Flowers are difperfed throughout the whole Plant, of 
a yellow Colour, intermixed with Purple 5 having a Spur or Tail, 
exactly as theLarkfpur orLarkhec', but much larger. The Seed 
is rough, of a brown Colour, and in Form very like unto the 
Beet, but fmaller. 


Of Cucumbers. 

TH E Cucumbers raifed on hot Beds, having hitherto plenti- 
fully furniih'd our Tables, we may now make fmall 
Holes in the natural Ground, and be plentifully ferved there- 

The only care to be obferved herein is , that the Ground be 
tolerably rich, and if not, to be made fo. 

The Manner of performing the fame is as follows, Firir, 
fet out the diltance of your Holes, which ought to be about 
four Feet ( fquare ) from one another ; then if the Ground was 
dug before, open fmall Holes about eighteen Inches over, and 
one Spit deep, and therein throw a Spit or two of good rot- 
ten Horfe-dung, which work in and mix very well with the 
Earth, and having work'd it very fine, form it with a Con- 
cavity like unto a Bafon, as termed by Gardincrs, viz. hol- 
low like unto a Dim to receive the Water : And therein fow 
at leaft ten or a dozen Seeds, at about two Inches apart from 
each other, and the like Depth j for 'tis much better to have 
too many Plants than too few ; and if the Seafon be very dry 
at the time of fowing, 'twill not be improper to give the 
Q^z Seed 

n6 New Principles of Gardening. 

Seed a gentle refrefhing of Water, as alfo at all times when 
above Ground, if the Weather proves hot and dry. 

About the middle of May is a very good time to fow, in the 
very fame manner, fuch Quantities as you may have occafion 
to pickle, which will alfo f-^kifll your Table, during the 
Months of July and Augufi\ plentifully : For be as careful as 
poilibly you can, forne will efcape your Eye, which will ap- 
pear the next time of gathering and be fit for the Table. 

Tis a Pra&ice amongft many to put the Seed, at the time of 
fowing, all in a heap, which caufes the Plants to grow in a 
Clufter, but in my Opinion cannot thrive fo well, as when 
each Plant is about two Inches apart. There is another Prac- 
tice amongft many Gardincrs , to fow their Seed for Pick- 
ling on a gentle Hot-Bed , and afterwards tranfplant them in- 
to their Holes at the diftances aforefaid. Now I confefs that 
this Method is a very good one , when the Land defign'd for 
them is not clear of its firft Crop, at the Time when 'tis 
the Seafon for the Seed to be fow'd ; for whilft the Crop is 
clearing away, the Seed is coming up, and when quite clear'd, 
the Plants may be taken up with Earth, and tranfplanted therein, 
and the Land fully crop'd again. 

But where Land has not a Spring Crop in like manner 'tis 
much better, and lefs extenftve, firft, to fow the Seeds in the 
Holes where they are to remain as before directed, and thereby 
the Trouble and Danger of tranfplanting is faved. 

When young Cucumbers are thus tranfplanted, they mould 
be fhaded with Flower- Pots, &c. for the fpace of three or 
four Days, in which time they will have ftruck Root, and be 
able to withftand the heat of the Sun, 

And as I directed in Sect. XV. Part i. continually to keep 
the Earth about their Roots from binding, by often removing 
it gently 5 fo you muft obferve the very fame herein, and 
when they are arrived into their third Joint, to peg them 
down, and raife the frelh Earth amongft their Stems, which will 
caufe them to ftrike frefh Roots therein, and grow away 

As foon as ever you obferve them to turn out Fruit , you 
muft not fail of giving them plentiful Refrefhings of Water* 
otherwife the Fruit will dwindle and die away, and you 11 be 
difappointcd of your Hopes. 


New Principles of Gardening. 117 

The beft Kind for pickling is the long prickly Cucumber, 
the choiceft of which leave for Seed, as before direded in Sett. 
XV. Part 1. 


Of the Colly flower. 

THE Collyflower is called in Latin Brajfica florida, and 
Cauliflora, and in Italian Caulifiore, is oncof the mod 
delicious boil'd Sallets that we have in England, and the moft 
difficult to have of a good Kind. 

The greatest Care herein, is to be well furnifh'd with good 
Seed; otherwife all the Labour will prove unfuccefsful : But 
that being taken for granted, about the beginning, or tenth 
Day of Augvft at lateft, prick or dig up a fmall Border that is 
in tolerable good Heart, and therein fow your Seed 5 or if you 
have any decay'd Hot-Bed, 'tis better to make ufe of that, in 
which fow your Seed, giving it when dry gentle refrefhings 
of Water, and when the Plants are come up, and in their firit 
Leaf, exclufive of their Seed Leaves, then tranfplant them upon 
fome other well prepared Bed, at about three or four Inches 
diftance irom each other ; and therein let them remain till near 
Michaelmas , at which- time 'tis belt to tranfplant them out 
for good in the Places where they arc to blofibm : And for 
fear of lofing any by Frofts, &c. plant in every place where 
you intend one to continue, five Plants, and in fuch a Com- 
pafs, as all to be cover'd with a fquare or Bell-Glafs during 
the Severity of the Winter: And if they all endure the Win- 
ter's cold, 'tis a very eafy thing for the Gardiner, with his 
Trowel, to take up and tranfplant fuch as are unncceflary in 
that place, in fome other prepared part of the Garden. 

But that we may not he .difappointcd of a Crop, in Cafe 
we fh'ould lofe all thofe planted out at Michaelmas, under the 
Glades, we muft, at the lame time, tranfplant other Plants, ei-r 
ther on a very warm South Border , to be hooped and covered 
**vcr. in time of Frofts and Snow, (which J aft is the meft 

u8 New Principles of Gardening. 

prejudicial to them) or on an old decay'd Hot- Bed , where 
we can place over them a Frame and Glaffes to preferve them ; 
or in large Flower-pots, to be lifted into the Greenhoufe, &c. 
during all fuch hard Weather ; and in the Spring, when all 
■the cold Blafts are blown over, tranfplant them out for good 
in Rows about two Foot and half apart , and the Rows three 
Feet alunder. 

The Soil wherein you plant Colly flowers ought to be very 
rich and naturally moift, and for want of the laft, great Care 
muft be taken to give them plenty of Water, and always clean 
from Weeds. 

When Collyflowers are planted out for good at Michaelmas* 
and withftand the Winter's Frofts and Snow , they never fail 
of producing better Flowers, and much fooner than thofe 
planted out in the Spring ; for whilft they are recovering their 
Removal, the other is going forward, getting very ftrong Roots, 
which enable them to produce thefe Flowers about three Weeks 
fooner than the other. 

However, altho' they don't come in fo very foon as the other, 
yet they come in a very good time, to fucceed them, and there- 
fore I advife their being planted at both Seafons. 

And that your Table may not be deftitute of this matchlefs 
Sallet, I advife, that at the beginning of March you fow more 
Seed upon a gentle Hot-Bed , which when iu their flrft Leaf 
tranfplant out at about three Inches apart, and as the heat of 
the Spring comes on, make them more acquainted with the 
Air ; ibthat when they are large enough to tranfplant out, they 
may be perfectly hardy, and not any ways unacquainted with 
their Removal. 

About the middle of April we may fow another fmall Quan- 
tity of Seed in the natural Ground, which being ordered as 
the others before directed, will produce Flowers that will fuc- 
ceed the former, as well as produce large Flowers in the 

When their Flowers begin to appear , break down over them 
two or three of their Leaves, to preferve them from the Rains, 
and heat of the Sun, which caufe them to be either green 
or yellow, inllead of a beautiful white; and during all this 
Work, great Care muft be taken to keep them well water'd, 
for 'tis what they are great lovers of; and cfpecially at flrft 
4 planting 


New Principles of Gardening. 1 1 9 

laming in Afoy, d^ . It the conveniency and quantity of your 
Abater is fuch, that you can Qow their Alleys between them, 
'twill add a much greater Nourifhment to them than the com- 
mon way of watering the Holes only. 

It often happens, that many of the laft Plantation, if planted 
in a (hady Place, will not produce their Flowers till after 
Michaelmas, at which time fuch Plants mould be taken up 
with the Earth to their Roots, and planted upright in Sand, 
within a Greenhoufe, &c. giving them plenty of Water at 
planting, which will produce very good Flowers fit for life 
in the Winter, even until Chrijlmas, as I have often experi- 

To continue a good Kind of Seed, make choice of fome 
of the very beft and earlieft Flowers, which let ran to Seed, 
fecuring them from the Injuries of Winds, by Stakes, &c. And 
as foon as the Seed VelTels and Seed are fully perfected, cut 
away the whole Stem, and carry it into your Greenhoufe , 
and there let it be throughly dry'd before you rub or thrafh it 
out : For as Mr. Bradley ingeniouQy obferves, 'tis not neceffary to 
leave the Seed upon the Plants 'till the Pods arc dry, left they 
toed the Seed, or be damaged by Rains, Mill-dews, &c. 



Of Dill. 

i. Its Names. 
ll is-calledinGr^v^, in Latin Anethumznd Ane- 
tum, in High "Dutch <Dyllm t in Low "Dutch <Dille, in 
ftaiian Anetho , in Sfanifi Eneldo , in French Anet, and in 
Englifi "Dill and Anet. 

2. Its "Defcription. 
'Dill for the generality produces a little Stalk, about fixteen 
or eighteen Inches high, round in form, and jointed like unto 
Fennel, as alfo are the Leaves which are finely cut, but much 
(mailer. The Flowers are very (mail and of a yellow Colour, 
growing in fpokie Tufts like unto thofc of Parfnips, but no- 
thing near fo large, * 1C 

120 New Principles of GM dining. 

The Seed is round, flat and thin, in form very like Parf- 
njp Seed, and has a fmcll very like unto Caraway Seed. 

3. Their Temperature. 
According to Galen, Dill is dry in the end of the firft, and 
hot in the end of the fecond Degree. 

4- The medicinal Virtues. 
The Deco&ion of the Tops of Dill dried , and likewife of 
the Seed, being drank, allays Gripings and Windynefs, and 
provokes Urine. 

I 5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The green Tops and BlofToms in July, being then ufed in 
the pickling of Cucumbers. 

6 The Quantity is at Pleafure, in proportion to the Quan- 
tity of Cucumbers pickled. 

7. Its Cultivation. 
The Seed being ripe about the end of Auguft, may be fown 
any time in February or March, and a very fmall Quantity 
is fufficient for a large Family. 


Of French or Kidney Beans, 

1. Their Names. 

THIS Herb is called by Hippocrates, Diodes, Theophraftus, 
and moll of the other ancient Writers ifaixw, and ibme 
others call it Ac'/3cc, and Ae&«, in Latin Siliqua. 

< Diofcorides calls it Smilax, becaufe it climbs up Branches, 
Sticks, &c. as Smilax doth. Others call it (peto-iotov, a Dimi- 
nutive derived from cpdrriXos 3 for (pdtrqXog and <pa<recAc£, are not 
one and the fame Pulfe called by different Names, as fome 
fuppofc } but are different from one another, as Galen has very 
plainly proved, in his firft Book of the Faculties of Nourifii- 
3 ments. 

New Principles of Gardening. 121 

ments. The 'Dutch call it Turckshoonen, the French Feues de 
Romme, and the Englijh call it Kidney Bean, in regard to the 
Bean being of the form of a Kidney. It is alfo called Sperage 
Bean, Fafelles or long Peafon, Garden Smilax , which I lup- 
pofe to be taken from T)iofcorides, who, as 1 faid before, named 
it o-fzlAcL^ xr l7 ra,U, viz. Smilax hortenfis , Garden Smilax ,• the 
Englijh alfo call it Roman Bean, and many French Bean. 

2. The "Defcription. 
The white ^T/V»^ Bean, called in £*//'» Thafeolus albus , 
hath long and fmall Branches growing very high, taking hold 
with its clafping tendrels upon Poles , Sticks , Branches of 
Trees, &c. as Hops do, for without fuch Supporters, they are 
not able to bear their own Weight, and therefore run ramb- 
ling upon the Ground, which caufes them to be almofr fruit- 
lefs or barren, to what they arc when ftick'd with Branches 
of Trees to climb upon. Their Leaves are very round on that 
part whereunto the Stalk is flx'd, and the oppofire part very 
acute. Their exterior form is very like unto the Ivy (but 
are not fmooth) each Stem or grand Rib having three Leaves, 
the one at the end thereof, and the others near thereunto, op- 
polite to one another. The Flowers are produced from the 
upper part of thofe grand leaf Stalks, at their communication 
with the grand Stem or leading Branch, and are of divers Co- 
lours, as white, red, pale, mixt, &C. which are iuccccdcd by 
long Cods, whereof fome are (traight and others crooked, 
wherein their Seed or Beans are contained, and when ripe are 
of a fhining white Colour. 

But befides this white Kidney Bean, there are many other 
Sorts cultivated in our Gardens, and 1 believe more for Varie- 
ty's fake, than that they are better, or even as good, as the 
white Kidney Bean : However , as moll ingenious Gardiners 
think it worth their while to give them place in their Garden?, 
I (hall not difputc them a place herein, of which the firft is 
the black Kidney Bean, called in Latin Thafeolus nrgen the 
lecond, the red Kidney Bean, called in Latin Smilax hortenfis 
rubra-, the third, Smilax hortenfis flava, or the pale yellow 
Kidney Beam the fourth, the Kidney Bean of Brafil, called 
in Latin Thafeolus Brafiliamis, and the Party-colour'd Kidney 
Bean of sJEgypt, called Thafeolus rJEgypltacus. 

' R %>Tk<tr 

14 New Principles of Gardening. 

3 . Their Temperature. 
The Arabian Herbarifts allow them to be of a hot and moid: 
Nature, but I don't find that our Englijb Herbarifts have taken 
any Notice of their Temperature. 

4. Their medicinal Virtues. 

The Cods being boiled when young make an excellent Sailer, 
they gently loofen the Belly, provoke Urine, ereate good Blood, 
and are very great Nourifhers. 

The Beans themfelves, when ripe and dry, are eaten by many, 
being boiled and buttcr'd, but are very unwholefome. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 

The Cods when about half grown, fo as, when broken, not 

to have Strings on their Sides, holding the parts together : And 

when ufed for pickling, they muft be very young, and frefh 


6. The Quantity is at Pleafure. 

7. Their Cultivation. 

Altho'I did not mention the different Kinds of white Kid- 
ney Beans in the Defcription, yet I cannot proceed to their 
Culture, before I explain the fame. 

Of the white Kidney Beans there are divers Kinds , which to 
mention in general, would be both a needlefs and endlefs Work, 
and therefore ftiall defcribe but one Kind 5 for in fad, I cannot 
recommend any other, and that is the true Batter fea Bean, 
which is of the fame form as the others, but very fmall, 'tis 
a very great Bearer, comes early, and of an excellent delicious 
Tafle 5 all which Qualifications arc not to be found in anv o- 
ther Bean of the Kidney Tribe. 

This Kind of Kidney Bean delights in a light, warm, frefh Soil, 
(and not in wet, for that is prefent Death to them) if it takes 
them before they are above Ground ; therefore to fow them 
very early in wet Weather, is needlefs, for 'tis very fcldom or 
ever that they efcape being rotted by the wet : But if the 
Spnn- is not over dry, we may begin to fow fome for our 
nru Crop, about the latter end of March, or a Week fooner, 


New Principles of Gardening. 115 

provided you give your felf the trouble to fow them in the 
following manner, viz. 

About the middle of March (your Ground being dig'd) 
draw Drills (under, or near unto a South Wall) at about 
two Feet and half or three Feet apart , or rather double Drills, 
within a Foot of one another, and then leaving a fpace be- 
tween them of four Feet, wherein may (at the Seafon) be planted 
a Crop of Savoys to fucceed them when done bearing. Your 
Drills being thus drawn drop in your Beans about an Inch di- 
ftant from one another, and cover up the Drills with the Earth, 
leaving a fmall Ridge over the Beans to throw off the Rains. 

This being done, drain a Line within three Inches of the 
Beans in the Drills, and with your Spade chop out, and open a 
fmall Trench, about three or four Inches deeper than the bot- 
toms of the Drills, which leave open till your Beans are above 
Ground, and got out of their Seed Leaves, for then they are 
part all the Dangers that can happen from wet j and then fill 
them in again and earth up the young Plantation as is ufual. 

The Reafon of my advifing thofe Trenches, is to draw off 
the great Rains, &c. ( if any mould happen ) from the Beans, 
which, if invaded by it, would deftroy them. This Method of 
opening Trenches , I have praftifed with very great Succefs 
in divers Springs , and often in very wet ones j for let the 
Spring be ever fo wet, thefe Trenches never fail of preferving 
the Beans from it. When you make ufe of ilngle Drills, 'tis 
belt to draw them Eaft and Weft, that the Trench may be made 
on the South fide , the better to receive the advantage of the 
Sun, to keep dry that part of the Drill next thereunto. But 
when you make ufe of double Drills , they muft be drawn 
North and South , that the Morning Sun may dry that Drill 
next to the Eaft, and the Afternoon Sun that next to the 
Weft : For was you to draw double Drills Eaft and Weft, the 
hindermoft Drill towards the North could have very little or 
no help from the Sun in keeping it dry. 

As foon as you find your Beans are in a thriving State, 
then they muft be thin'd, and left at about five or fix Inches 
apart, and thofe which you draw from them may be tranfplanted 
at the fameDiftances, in fome other warm part of your Garden. 

The Reafon why I advife their being lown fo very thick is, 

that in cafe fome fhould fail by badnefs of Seed, wet, &c. 

R 2 there 

n8 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of Onions* 

TH E Onions neceffary for our Sallets are thofe that arc 
very young, and that we may be well furnifh'd with 
them, they muft be fown every Fortnight or three Weeks at 
moft, by which Means they will be always very young, tender, 
and fit for our Purpofe. 


Of Orange and Limon Seedlings. 

THE feedlings of Oranges and Limons being raifed, and 
eaten in Sallets, (as before direded in Sea. XXVI. Part 
the i ft. ) are very grateful to the Stomach ; and altho' I mention 
them here again, being proper amongft our Sallets for thefe 
Months, yet their Culture is the very fame as before, the dif- 
ference of the Weather's heat only excepted. 

Of Pur/lane. 

i. Its Names. 
TJURSLANE is called in Greek d v fyJ Z v>!, in Latin Tor- 
J|7 tulaca, in High 'Dutch Burkelkraut , in Italian Trocac- 
chia, in Spanijh Veraolagus, in French Toupier, and in Englijh 
Turflane and Torcelaine. 

2. Their c Defcription. 
We have two Kinds of Purflanc cultivated in our Gardens, 

New Principles of Gardening. 119 

the one called the green , and the other the golden Purflanc, 
-but are both vulgarly called Garden Turjlane. 

The Stalks of both Kinds are in their Form like unto one 
another, as alfo their Leaves , the difference being in their 
Colour only ; and to defcribe their Forms of Leaves, Stalks, &c. 
would be but a needlefs Work, they being well known to every 
one that delights in Sailers, and therefore I fhall proceed to their 

3. Their Temperature, 
Purflane is moid in the fecond Degree-, and cold in the 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 

Purflane being eaten in Sal lets, cools a hot Stomach, recti- 
fies inflamed Blood, provokes Urine, and is very good for the 
Bladder and Kidneys. 

The Juice of Purflane being drank, (lops the bloody Flux, 
fpitting of Blood, and all other Fluxes whatfoever. 

5. The Tarts for Ufe. 
The young and tender Shoots or Tops. 

6. The Quantity in a Sallet. 
This Sallet Herb not being in Seafon until the Weather be- 
gins to be very warm, and of fuch admirable Virtues, is there- 
fore eaten in much greater Quantity, than any other iort of 
Sallet Herb. The common Quantity is fix times as much as 
of any other, young Radifh excepted. 

7. Its Cultivation. 

Purflane of both Kinds are raifed from Seeds fown in March 

under Glafles upon a decayed Hot-Bed, or in April, in fome very 

warm place in the natural Ground: It delights in a rich boil, 

and to be plentifully water'd in hot Weather. 

128 New Principles (if Gardening* 


Of Peafe. 

I. Their Names. 

THERE being divers Kinds of Peafe, are therefore called 
by many Names, and are diftinguifhed by their feveral 
Degrees of Magnitude, as well as by the Perfons or Places by 
whom they were firft cultivated. 

The great Peafe arc called by Theophra ( hts and other old 
Writers, in Greek ma-ov, in Latin T?Cum Romanum> or *Pi- 
fum majus, in French des Tois, in Low D 'itch, Koomfcheerwiten, 
and in English Roman Teafe , or Teafe of the Garden : We 
have many other Sorts much fmaller, that jre cultivated in the 
Gardens alfo, which the Ancients call'd 'tifum minus, and in 
Englijh little Teafe, or the common Teafe. 

But ftnee that Peafe were firft cultivated in Gardens they 
have been greatly improved, and now con fid of a great many 
new Kinds, which our ancient Herbarifls and Gardiners never 
.knew, or heard of. 

The feveral Sorts of Peafe now cultivated in Gardens are as 

Eirft, of fmall Peafe, viz. fuch as the Ancients called Tifum 
minus, viz. 

The feveral Sorts of Hotfpurs, of which thofe are the heft that 
were firft raifed and improved by Mr. Cox, late of Kesv Green 
near Richmond mSurrey, Nurfery Man, deceafed : And another 
Kind, called and known by the name of Mafter's Hots, firft 
railed and improved by an ingenious Gardiner and Nurfery Man 
of that Name, now living at Strand in the Green, near old Brent- 
ford in Middlefex. The other Sorts of fhort and long Hotfpur 
Peafe, are the Reading Peafe, Rofe Peafe, and Dwarf Peafe. 

Secondly, of large Peafe, fuch as the Ancients called Ti- 
fum majus, viz. 

4 (i.) The 

New Principles of Gardening. 129 

(1.) The marrow Teafe, vulgarly called marrow fat Teafe. 

(2.) The fugar Peafe, vulgarly called fugar Polands. 

(3.) The grey or blew Roncivals , or "Dutch Admiral, and 

(4.) The Spanijh Marratta. 

And befides all thefe,there are many other Kinds, which arc very 
difficult to diftinguifh from the abovenam'd, fome few excepted, 
whofe Names I mail forbear to mention, knowing that thefe' 
Sorts arc not only the very beft Kinds, but will fuifice for 
any Garden, and plentifully furnifh the grandeft Table re- 

2. their Ttefcription. 

To defcribe the Forms of the Leaves, Shoots, Cods, and 

Seed would be very unneceffary, they being fo well known j 

therefore I mail only take notice of the difference of their 


Firft then, all Sorts of Hotfpurs and Readings are of a mid- 
ling Growth, rifing ( when flicked ) about two Feet and half 
in height, producing their Bloffoms at their feveral Joints, 
from the bottom to their Tops , which are of a white Co- 
lour , with a purple fpot in their middle. The firft Bloffoms 
are from the firft or fecond Joints , which at firft appearing 
before they are in Bloffom, are then faid to be in Bell ( a term 
ufed by Gardiners only.) The Bloffoms of all other Peafe 
that are white, are of the fame Colour, but the Bloflbms of 
thofe Peafe as are grey, or any other Colour, are of a tran- 
fparent blew on the outer Parts , and a very fine purple mix'd 
with crimfon within. 

The Rofe Peafe, fo called in regard to their Bloffoms, which 
are produced at the extreme part of the Haulm ( growing 
about the fame height as the Hotfpur) in a round Tuft or 

The Dwarf Peafe , fo named from the fmallnefs of their 
Growth, their Haulm being feldom above one Foot in height; 
'tis a great Bearer, and a very fweet kind of Tea. There are 
a very (hort kind of Dwarf Peafe , that I have raifed very early 
on gentle Hot- Beds, which have produced great Quantities 
during the Months of February, March and April, that feldom 
rife higher than fix or eight Inches, and altho' fo very fmall,- 
S yet 

130 New Principles of Gardening. 

yet they -will yield very near as many Peafe for the Quantity 
of Ground, as any of the largeft Kinds. 

The other Kind of Peafc are in general of a much (Ironger 
Growth, and will, when ftick'd, climb up five or fix Feet high, 
producing great Quantities of Cods as they afcend. 

3 . Their Temperature and Virtues. 

As to their Temperature of Heat or Cold, neither the ancient 
or modern Herbarifts have difcovered in publick ; and 'tis my 
humble Opinion that they are neither hot or cold, but of a Tem- 
perature between both. 

Galen, in his Book of the Faculties of Nourifhments, fays, 
that their whole Subftance are very near like unto that of 
Lisbon and Garden Beans, but are not fo windy, and withal, 
have not that cleanfing Quality as the Bean hath. 

4. The Tarts for Ufe. 

The young Peafe or Seed , when near full grown , whilft 
green and tender, before they begin to turn , of a very pale 
white Colour, and mealy when boiled. 

The tender Leaves, when about three Inches high, are an ex- 
cellent boil'd Sallet. 

5. The Quantity of either is at Pieafure. 

6. Their Cultivation. 

All the fcveral Kinds of Peafc delight in good frefh Land, 
rather than that which is very rich with Dung, which caulcs them 
to grow very rank. 

The Sealon for fowing the firft Crop is about the mid- 
dle of October, or beginning of November , and fometimes 
not till December, which I think is rather too late to have 
them early, and cfpccially when the Winter proves very mild : 
But however, for fear it mould not, 'tis Deft to fow at both 
Seafons, and then, if the firft Hands the Winter's Froft, that 
Crop will come very early in April, and be fucceeded by 
the other in May. The Hotfpur Peafe are the Kinds we 
fow for our firft and fecond Crops, the Readings for the third, 
the marrow Peafc, fugar'd Peafe, frc. for the fourth, and the 


New Principles of Gardening. 131 

dwarf and marrow Peafe, &c, for the remaining part of the 

The Hotfpur Peafe for the firft and fecond Crops may be 
fown at the times aforefaid in Drills, about two Feet and half 
diftant from each other, of a tolerable thicknefs in the Drills ; 
for you muft always remember that you are not in danger 
of the Frofts only , but of Mice, Crows, and Slugs, againft 
which you muft carefully guard, otherwife few will come to 
your mare ; and for thefe Reafons 'tis beir to allow Seed enough 
at firft fowing. 

When your Peafe begin to appear above Ground, be dili- 
gent in furveying them every Morning, and to deftroy all the 
Slugs you can find near them. 

Slack'd Lime, and Sea Coal Allies itrewed upon the Drills, 
before the Peafe are come up, will prevent their being dcitroy'dj 
be careful to do the fame after Rains ; and when they are grown 
about four Inches high, draw up fome Earth on each fide clofe to 
their Roots to preferve them from cutting Winds, &c. 

It has been the common Pra&ice for many Years amongft 
Gardiners , to fow one Drill of Peafe clofe under a South, 
Eaft, or Weft Wall, and very often under every one, when 
they have them } but I cannot recommend that Method, for 
it feldom fails of doing the Fruit Trees very great Damage : 
But however, I am not for entirely banifhing of Peafe from 
warm Walls, which caufe them to come much earlier ; and 
therefore I advife that they be fown under fuch Walls, but not 
nearer than three Feet at the lead. 

When you fow Peafe in open Quarters, 'tis belt to draw 
their Drills North and South , that when the very cold and 
Wafting Eaftern Winds do blow, they may be defended there- 
from by fmall Ridges or Banks drawn up with a Hough on 
the Eaftern Sides thereof. 

The ufual diftance that Hotfpur Peafe are fown , is about 
two Feet and half each Drill from the other : And when they 
arc about eight or nine Inches high they mould be well earth'd 
up, and ftuck with Sticks about three Feet high, and to pre- 
vent their being damaged by Winds, 'tis belt to place a dou- 
ble Row of Sticks, that the Peafe may be between them, and 
as they run up be fecured from the Winds, and much better 
expofed to the Sun, than when lying on the Ground. 

S 2 To 

> New Principles of Gardening. 

To have Peafe come in very early , obferve to flop them 
as foon as they appear in Bell, that is, pinch off their lead- 
ing Shoots , and 'twill caufe them to ripen a full Fortnight 
before the others which are not fo ftopt -, and indeed 'tis very 
prudent to leave fome untop'd to come in and fucceed the firft. 

About the middle of January we fow a third Crop, which 
may be of Readings, if you have not Hotfpurs, in the fame 
manner as before directed ; as alfo again in the middle of Fe- 
bruary and March, for the pleafure of Gardening confifts in 
having great plenty throughout the whole Summer, and not 
for a very fmall Seafon, and then no more , as is too often 

This laft fowing of Hotfpur or Reading Peafe is very, fuffi- 
cient for thofe Kinds, and therefore we muft about the begin- 
ning of April think of fowing the other Kinds, viz. the Dwarf 
Pea, the Marrow Pea, the Sugar Pea, £yc. which Sorts alfo 
ought to be fown in May and June , and thereby we mall 
have a conftant Supply throughout the Summer. 

The manner of lowing thefe laft Kinds of Peafe, differs 
very much from thofe of the Hotfpurs, or Readings, as will 
appear by the following. 

i. Dwarf Peafe are fown in Drills as the Hotfpur Peafe, but 
with thefe Differences : Whereas Hotfpur Peafe are fown very 
thick in the Drills, to allow for Accidents, &c. or even free 
from them ,- thefe muft not be fown, or drop d nearer to one 
another than four or five Inches, excepting in a very wet Year, 
when the Slugs are very numerous, when they may be drop'd 
at about two Inches apart, to allow for fuch a lofs : And in- 
ftead of drawing the Drills at two Feet, or two Feet and half 
apart, they muft not be more than eighteen or twenty Inches. 
And when Dwarf Peafe are fow'd for Seed, the diftance be- 
tween the Drills need not exceed one Foot 5 becaufe there will 
be no occa/ion to go between them , except to hough the 
Weeds, &c. till they are ripe and fit to pull up. 

A T . B. ft is obfervable, that altho' a Perfon is as carefuL 
and nice as poflible a Man can be, in the faving of Peafe for 
Seed ; yet there are always, amongft all Sorts of Peafe, fome 
few that will degenerate the very nrft Year of fowing, and 
will not either be in bloom , or ripe fo foon as the others, 
by a full Fortnight, and oftentimes three Weeks. 

3 Thefe 

New Principles of Gardening. 1 33 

Thefe degenerate Peafe are by the Gardiners called Rogues > 
and are difcovered by the Over-ranknefs of their Haulm, as 
well as by their late and untimely Produce. 

The Reafon why I mention thefe degenerate Peafe is, that 
you may take a careful Survey of them amongft all your Peafe 
intended for Seed : For if they are not carefully pricked out 
from the others, but are fuffer'd to mix therewith, your Kind 
will immediately be worth nothing, and very much deceive 
every one that lows the fame. 

The other Kinds of Peafe, as the Marrow Tea, the fugafd 
^Poland, the Roncival, &c. are alfo fubjed to the like Dege- 
neracy , which with a very little Care may be eafily pre- 

The large Kinds of Peafe are fown in Drills, as I directed 
for the large Kind of white French Beans , viz. in double 
Drills about fixteen or eighteen Inches apart, with Alleys be- 
tween them of two Feet and half, or three Feet wide, and are 
ftuck with high Branches of Trees, &C. for them to run up ; 
which they in general delight to do , and will bear plenti- 
fully, which they never will do if not ftaked up, or if planted 
nearer, and have not fufficient Air. 

The large Kinds of Peafe muft not be fown or dropM near- 
er to each other in the Drills than three Inches, for they 
break out into many Shoots when above Ground, and become 
very thick and fruitful. 


Of the remaining Sallets for the Months of April, 
May and June. 

THE remaining Sallet Herbs for thefe Months, are Cab- 
bages, Parlley, Spinage, Succory, the French and Green- 
land Sou^Xs, Sampler, red Sage, Turnip and Mint, whofe Cul- 
ture being delivered at large in the firft Part, need not be re- 
peated here a^ain ; and having thus gone through the two firft 
parts of the Year, lfhall now prefent you with Tables of the 
Temperatures, and medicinal Virtues of fuch Sallets as have 
been in Seafon for the laft Quarter. <* **' 

34 New Principles of Gardening. 

A Table of the Degrees of Heat, Cold, dec. contain d in 
the feveral Sallet Herbs, for the Months of A p r i l, 
May, and Junjj. 

Sallet Herbs hot and dry. 

BALM fecond Degree. Radifh hot in the third Degree, 
Garden Creffes, D°. and dry in the fecond. 

Dili, Do. Horfe Radifh 3 d Degree. 

White Muftard 4 th Degree. Red Sage, almoft in the third 

Onions almoft in the 4 th Degree. Degree. 

Sallet Herbs temperately hot and dry. 
Chervil, and Seedlings of Oranges and Limons. 

Sallet Herb hot and moift. 
Young Carrots fown at Michaelmas laft. 

Sallet generoujly hot. 

Sallet Herb cold and moift. 
White Beet. Spinage, 

Cucumber. and 

Lettice. Purflanc. 

Sallet Herb cold and dry. 

Sallet Herbs moderately cold and acid. 
The feveral Kinds of Sorrel. 

Sallet Herbs dry and binding. 
The feveral Kinds of Cabbages, Coleworts and Colly-flowers. 


New Principles of Gardening. 13$ 

Sallet Herb nourifhing. 

Sallet Herbs windy. 
Artichokes and Garden Beans. 


Of the fever al EjfeBs, which the S diets for April, 
May and June have on human Bodies. 

1. To excite Appetite. 
riUCUMBERS, Muftard, Radifh, Onions and Sorrel. 

2. To help "Digeftion. 
Afparagus, Muftard and Horfe Radilh. 

3 . Good for the Head and Brain. 
Red Sage. 

4. To attenuate grofs Humours. 
Garlick, Onions, and Sorrel. 

5. Loofening. 

White Beer, Cabbage, Corn Sallet, and Spinage. 

6. Re freeing. 

Corn Sallet, Crefles and Chervil. 

7. To comfort the Heart. 
Balm, Borage, Buglofs and Burnet. 

8. To open Obftrnttions. 
Garlick, Onions and Sorrel. 

9. To 

i%6 New Principles of Gardening. 

9- To help a cold and weak Stomach. 
Balm, Chervil, Garlick, Muftard , Mint, Orange and Limon 
Seedlings, Onions, and Horfe Radifh. 

10. To help a hot Stomach. 
All Sorts of Lettice, Purflane, and Sorrel. 

n. To provoke Urine. 
Afparagus, Chervil, Garlick, Onions, Purflane and Radifh. 

12. To flop the [pitting of Blood or bloody Flux. 

i. The Yaw Salletsfor April,May, and June are, 

BORAGE Rowers. Orange and Limon Seedlings. 

Chervil. Young Onions. 

Cowflip Flowers. Purflane. 

Corn Sallet. Radifh. 

Garden Crefles. Horfe Radifh. 

Cucumber. Red Sage, 

Lcttices. Sorrel. 

White Muftard. Spinage. 

Mint. Turnip in Seed Leaves. 
Nafturtium Indicum Flowers. 

2. The boiled Salletsfor April, May, and June are, 

Afparagus, Colly-flowers. 

Artichokes. Carrot. 

Garden Beans. Lettice. 

White Beet. Kidney or French Beans. 

Early Cabbages. Peafe. 

Coleworts. Spinage. 

New Principles of Gardening. \ 37 

The pickled Sallets for April, May, and June are, 

Broom Buds. 
Radifh Pods. 

Red Cabbage. 
Small Onions. 
French Beans. 
Nafturtium Seeds. 
Berberries, e^r. 
As in the laft Quarter. 


Of the fever 'al Sallet Herbs for the Months 
of July, Auguft, and September. 


TH E Sallet Herbs for this Quarter are Balm, Garden Beans 
Beet, Borage, Burnet, Buglofs, Chervil, Garden Crefles, 
Corn Sallet, Cucumbers, Col lyflowers, Cabbages, French Beans, 
the fevcral Kinds of Lettice, Nafturtium Flowers, Onions, 
Purflane, Peafc, Sorrel, Tarragon and Melons : And as their 
Culture is already laid down in the preceding Parts, I refer 
you thereunto. 

138 New Principles of Gardening. 

T A B L E I. 

Of the Degrees of Heat and Cold i &c. contain d in 
the fever at Salle t Herbs for the Months of J u l y, 
August, and September. 

Sallet Herbs hot and dry. 

BALM fecond Degree. Onions. 
Garden Creffes, D°. Horfe Radifh. 


Sallet Herb temperately hot and dry. 

Sallet Herb hot and moift. 

Sallet Herbs cold and moift. 
White Beet. Melons. 

Cucumber. Spinas. 

Lettice. Purflane'. 

Sallet Herbs moderately cold and acid. 
The feveral Sorts of Sorrel. 

Sallet Herbs dry and binding. 
The feveral Sorts of Cabbages and Collyflowers. 

Sallet Herbs windy. 
Artichokes and Windfor Beans. 

New Principles of Gardening. 139 

TABLE 11. 

Of the feveral EffeBs, which the S diets for Jul y , 
August, and September have on human Bo- 

r. To create an Appetite. 
r^\ UCUMBERS, Muftard, Onions, and Sorrel. 

2. To help Ttigeflion. 

Muftard, and Horfe Radifh. 

3. To make thin grofs Humours. 

Garlick, Onions, and Sorrel. 

4- Loofening. 

White Beet, Cabbage, Corn Sallet, and Spinage. 

5. Refrejhing. 

Corn Sailer, Crefles, and Chervil. 

6. To comfort the Heart. 
Balm, Borage, Buglofs and Burnet. 

7. To open ObftruBions. 
Garlick, Onions, and Sorrel. 

8. To help a cold and weak Stomach, 
Balm. Minr. 

Chervil. Onions, 

Garlick. and 

Muftard. Horfe Radifh. 

9. To kelp a hot Stomach. 

All the Sorts of Lettice, Purflane, and Sorrel. 

10. To provoke Urine. 

Chervil, Garlick, Onions, and Purflane. 

T 2 11. To 

140 New Principles of Gardening. 

11. To flop the [fitting of Blood, or Bloody -flux. 


1. The raw Salleu for July, August, and 

BORAGE Plowers. Melons. 

Chervil. Nafturtium Plowers. 

Corn Sallet. Young Onions. 

Garden CrelTes. Purflane. 

Cucumber. Horfe Radifh. 

Lettice. Sorrel. 

Muftard. Tarragon. 

2. The boiled S diets for J u l y, August, and Septem- 
ber are, 
Artichokes. Carrot. 

Garden Beans. Lettice. 

White Beer. Kidney, or French Beans. 

Savoys. Pcafe. 

Colly flowers. Spinage. 

j. The pickled Sallet s for July, August, and Septem- 
ber are as before, viz. 
Broom Buds. Melons. 
Cucumbers. Small Onion. 
Radifh Pods. French Beans. 
Walnuts Nafturtium Seeds. 
Muflirooms. Berberries. 

N. B. That the above Pickles are feldom eaten in thefe 
two laft Quarters, except by fome particular People, who de- 
light more therein than raw Salleting, for whofe Ufe they are 
herein inferted. 

New Principles of Gardening. 141 


Of the feveral Sallets, Roots, &c. for the 
Months of Oaober, November, and 


TH E feveral Sallet Herbs for this Quarter are Beets, Cab- 
bages, Savoys, Carrots, Creffes, Chervil, Clary, Corn 
allet Endive, Gariick.Horfe Radian, Lettice, Muftard, Onions, 
Parfalps Poutoes, ParQey, Radilh, Sellery, Spinagc, re Sage, 
Sorrel! and Turnips both in Seed Leaves and Roots And a 
*he Culture of all thefc feveral Herbs are already declared, I 
iLl proceed to the Tables of their Temperatures, &c. 


Of the Degrees of Heat, Cold Sec conta^dmthe 

J feveral Sallet Herbs Jor the Months of Octo 

ber, November, and December. 

Sallet Herbs hot and dry. 

PRESSES .'Degree. S^E&«**P? 

Horfe Radifh 3 d Degree. e f«- 

Garlick + ,h Degree. 

Sallet Herbs temperately hot and dry. 

Chervil, and ^ 

nj.2 New Principles of Gardening. 

Sallet Herbs temperately hot and moift. 
Carrots, and Skirrcts. 

Sallet Herb generoitfty hot. 

Sallet Herbs cold and moift. 
White Beet, Lettice, and Spinage. 

Sallet Herbs cold and dry. 
Red Beet, Endive and Succory. 

Sallet Herbs dry and binding. 
The fcveral Sorts of Cabbages and Savoys. 

Sallet Herbs windy and moift. 
The feveral Sorts of Turnips. 

Sallets nourishing. 
Parfnips, Potatoes, and Rampions. 


Of the feveral EffeBs which the Sallets for Octo- 
ber, November, and December, have on 
human Bodies. 


i. To create an Appetite. 
US T A RD and Onions. 

2. To help "Digejlion. 
Muftard, and Horfc Radifti. 

3. To make thin grofs Humours. 
Garlick, and Onions. 

a 4> Lwferiwgi 

New Principles of Gardening. 143 

4. Loofening. 
White Beet, Cabbage, Corn Sallet, and Spinage. 

5. To cool the Liver. 
Endive, and Sellery. 

6. Refrefhing. 
Corn Sailer, CreiTes, and CherviJ. 

7. To open Ob flr notions. 
Garlick, and Onions. 

8. To help a cold and weak Stomach. 
Chervil. Mint. 

Clary. Onions. 

Garlick. Parfnip, and 

Muftard. Horfe Radifh. 

9. To help a hot Stomach. 
All Sorts of Winter Lettice. 

10. To provoke Urine. 
Chervil. Parfnip. 
Endive. Radifh,. 
Garlick. and 
Onions. Turnips. 

1 1 . Stone and Gravel. 

Wild Carrot Seed, Mint, Parfnip, and Radifh. 

12. Wind in the Stomach. 

13. Worms. 


144 ^ ew P r * nc *pl es Sf Gardening. 


i. The raw Sallets for the Months of Octo- 
ber, November, and December. 

CRESSES. Chervil. 

Corn Sailet. Endive. 

Horfe Radirti. Lettice. 

Muftard. Onions. 

ParClev. Radifh - 

Sellery. Spinage. 

Red Sage. Turnip. 

2. The boiled Sallets for the Months of October, No- 
vember, and December. 

Beets. Cabbages. 

Savoys. Carrots. 

Onions. Parfnip. 

Potatoes. Parfley. 

Spinage. Turnips. 

3. The pickled Sallets are the fame as in the precedin 


New Principles of Gardening. 145 


Of the Names, Defcriptions, Temperatures, 
Virtues and Cultivations of fuch Diftil- 
ling, and other phyfical Herbs, as are 
abfolutely necejfaryfor the Service of all 
Gentlemen, (and other) Families in ge- 

SECT, h 

Of the fever al Drilling Herbs , necejfary for the 
life of every Family. 

TH E feveral Phyfick Herbs neceflary to be cultivated for 
the Ule and Service of a Family are, Angelica, Annifced, 
Balm or Baum, Camomile, Carduus, Clary, Comfrey, Clove- 
gilli flowers, Dragons, Dill, Dwarf Elder, Elicampane, Fennel, 
Featherfew, HylTop, Lavender, white Lilies, Lavender Cotton, 
Lavender Spike, Liquorifh, Mint, Marjoram, Marfli mallows, 
Marygolds, Penny-royal,ParQey, Peonie, white Poppy ,Rofcmary, 
Rhue, red and damask Roles, red Sage, Tea Sage, Wormwood 
Sage, Savory, Solomon Seal, Saffron, Thyme, Tan/ie, To- 
bacco, Scurvy-grafs, Violets and Wormwood. And as J have 
already explained the Culture of Balm, Dill, Fennel, Mint, 
Penny-royal, Pariley, red Sage, Tanfve, and Scurvy-grafs in 
the preceding Parts, I mall now proceed to the Defection, 
Culture, &c. of the others. 

1^6 New Principles of Gardening. 


Of Angelica. 

r . Its Names. 

GArden Angelica, is called in Latin AngeBca Sativa, 
in High 'Dutch, Angelick, Bruftwurtz, or Desheilighen 
Geyjl Wurtzel, that is Spiritus Sancli Radix, or the Root of 
the Holy Ghoft, as witnefled by Leonhartus Fuchfms, in Low 
'Dutch, 'tis called Angelijka, in French Angelic, and in Englijh 

2. Its Defcription. 

The Leaves of Angelica are very large and broad divided into 
many Parts or lefler Leaves, which are indented like unto the 
Leaves of Spondilium or Cow Parinip, but grow much nearer 
to the Eye, are much thicker, of a deeper^green, and of a 
ftrong Savour. The Stalk ttfes up from the head of the Root, 
and very often riles fix or feven Feet in height, and especially 
when 'tis planted in good Land. Tis very large and hollow, 
divided into many Joints, from which grow out other fmall 
Branches, at whole ends grow Tufis of whitifh Flowers, very 
like unto thole of Fennel, which are afterwards fuceeeded by 

It flowcrcth in July and Augt/Jl, and the Seed is ripe in Sep- 

The Root is generally very large, producing an oily Li- 
quor when broken, and the whole Plant is of a very pleafant 

And befides the aforefaid Kind of Angelica, there is ano- 
ther Kind, which in Form is exa&Jy the fame, but the Leaves 
next the Ground are of a purple red Colour , the Roots of 
a more aromatick Savour, and the whole Plant of a lefler 

The wild Angelica, called Angelica Sylvejlris, delights in 

cold and moift Meadows, and is very like unto the Garden 

Angelica, excepting its Leaves, which arc not lb much indented, 

* and 

New Principles of Gardening. 747 

and are of a blackifh green and narrower, the Stalks are alfo 
much flenderer and Ihorter, the Flower much whiter, the Root 
much lefs, and of not fo ftrong a Savour. 

3. The Temperature. 
The Garden Angelica is hot and dry in the third Degree. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

The Roots of Garden Angelica is a fingular Remedy againit 
Poifon, tne Plague, and other Infe&ions taken by bad Air: 
For if the Heart is infe&ed by Peftilence , 'tis laid by many 
famous Men, that the Root being chewed in the Mouth, will 
inftantly drive it out again by Urine and Sweat. 

'lis a very great Opener of the Liver and Spleen, and exte- 
nuauth grots and Lough Phlegm. 

The Leaves pur into Wine and drank make the Heart merry; 
Tis a fi iguiar -Medicine againft Surfeits, and bad Stomachs, and 

gj the linings of mad Dogs, and all other venomous Beafls. 

5. Its Cultivation. 

The Seed is ripe generally in Stptember, and may then be 
fown, or in the Spring following, and afterwards traniplantcd 
our at two Feet and half, or three Feet apart. 

When the Plants are fuffer'd to run up to Sced t their Roots 
die foon after their Seed is ripe , but it you prevent its growing 
to Seed, by cutting off the Stem as it appears, 'twill endure 
a great many Years. 

& B. That the tender Stalks are of a very plcafant Tafte, 
when candied. 


Of Annifeed. 

1. Its Names. 

ANise or Anniseed, is called in Greek Zvirov, in La- 
tin Anifum, in High "Dutch Anifz, in Low "Dutch A- 
niffaet in Italian Anijo> in Spanijb Matahalua, in French Ams, 
and in Evglifi Annifeed. U 2 2. Its 

I4& New Principles of Gardening. 

i. ItsTtefiription. 
The Stalk is round and hollow, divided into many Branches 
which are let with indented Leaves, and thole that grow towards 
the top of the Branches are very like thole of young Parlley, 
but the others nearer the Ground are much larger. On the 
ends of the Stalks, about the end of June or beginning of July, 
the BloiToms appear in fpokie Heads or Tufts, like unto thofe 
of Parmip , Parlley , &c. which are fucceeded by Seed that 
ripens in Augufi, which is of a very delightful Smell. 

3. The Temperature. 
According to Galen, the Seed of Anife is hot and dry in the 
third Degree, but by others 'tis faid to be only hot in the fc- 
cond Degree, and not very dry? and indeed 'tis my Opinion, 
that it is fo, for was it dry in the third Degree, it could not 
breed Milk in Women, as it is known to do However, al- 
tho' Galen and others of his Time could not agree about 
the Temperature of this Herb ; yet others of latter Days have 
found it by Experience to be dry in the tirit Degree, and hot 
in the fecond. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 
The Seed is very good for thofe who are troubled with Wind, 
Belchings, Upbraidings of the Stomach, Gripes, provokes Urine 
gently, and breeds plenty of Milk in the Breafts of Women 
who fuckle young Children. 

5. Its Cultivation. 

This Herb is a Native of Candie, Syria, zyEgypt, and other 

of the Eaftern Countries 5 but if 'tis fown with us in a rich 

warm Soil in May, 'twill thrive very well, and ripen its Seed 

in Augufi as afore faid. 

New Principles of Gardening. 149 
sect. iv. 

Of Camomile, 

1. The Names. 

CAMOMILE, is called Chamamelum, and by fomc Leu- 
canthemis, and alfo Leucanthernon, efpecialiy the double 
Flower Camomile; and altho' there ate four Kinds of this 
Herb, yet they are all call'd Camomile, as the (ingle Camo- 
mile, the fweet naked Camomile , the double flower'd Camo- 
mile, and the Romijh Camomile. 

2. Their "Defcription. 

(1.) The fingle Camomile growing in great plenty on Com- 
mons, Meadows, &c. is well known to every one. 

(2.) The fweet naked Camomile has no difference from 
the preceding, excepting in the Flowers, which are quite naked 
of thofe fmall white Leaves, which are placed round the lower 
part of their Flowers. 

(3.) The double Camomile is of the fame make as the 
two others, its difference con fitting in the Flowers only, which 
are as clofe fct with fmall white Leaves, as the laft was want- 
ing, being very like unto a double white Daify. 

(4.) The Roman r or Romifh Camomile has many {lender 
Stalks, but much ftronger than any of the others, nor doth it 
creep upon the Ground, as the others do. 

The Leaves are of a pale Colour, and their Flowers very 
like unto the fingle Kind. 

N. B. The double Camomile is the beft Sort for our Vic, 
and therefore the others may not be regarded. 
3. Its Temperature. 

Camomile, according to Galen, is hot and dry in the firft 
Degree, and is of thin Parts. 

4 Its Medicinal Virtues. 

Camomile is very good again* the Choliek an/ W, 

$o New Principles of Gardening. 

provokes Urine, and is molt lingular in Gliftcrs, againft the 
afore (aid Difeafes. 

The Oil of Camomile is exceeding good againft all man- 
ner of Aches, Pains, Bruifes, Cold, Swellings, and fhrinking 
of the Sinews. 

The Decoction of Camomile made in Wine and drank is 
very good for a cold Stomach, fowcr Belchings and Wind. 

Galen reporteth, that the {^Egyptians ufed it againft Agues, 
wherein it had fuch Succefs, that for its great Virtue, they did 
therefore confecrate it. 

The Herb boiled in Poffet-Drink, and drank, eafeth the Pains 
of the Cheft, expells tough and clammy Phlegm. 

The Herb ufed in Baths caufes Sweat, opens the Pores, eafeth 
the Gripings and Gnawings of the Belly, foft ens hard Swell- 
ings, and waftes raw and undigefted Humours. 

5. Its Cultivation. 

Camomile isencreafed by parting the Roots, and is beft when 
new planted every Year. 

It delights in good mellow holding Land, and may be planted 
any time in Marcfj, in Beds or Borders, each Root a Foot apart. 

Of Cardum Benediffus. 

1 . Its Names. 

CArduus Benedictus or the Holy Thifik , is called by 
many Apothecaries Car do Benedtclus , and by fome 'tis 
caned Acraclylis wild baftard Saffron, and often Atractylis 
hirjuttor, hairy wild baftard Saffron. 

Valerius Cordus names it Cnecus fupinus, and in High "Dutch 
'tis called Befeegnete Ttiftell, Kardo Benedict, which lift Name is 
known by the LowT>utch, in Spanijh 'tis called Cardo Santfo, 
in French Charaon Benoift, or Beneift, and in Ertglifh Bleffed 
Thiftle, but more commonly by the Latin Name Carduus Be- 

2. Its 

New Principles of Gardening. i$i 

2. Its T>efcription. 

The Stalks of the Bleffed Thiftle arc round, rough and pli- 
able, divided into many Branches, moft of which reft upon 
the Ground. The Leaves are jagged, and full of tender Prickles 
on their Edges, and on the Tops of their Stalks they produce 
Heads of Blofifoms fct with Prickles, and environ'd with fharp 
prickly Leaves. The Flowers are yellow, which are fucceeded 
by long Seed, fet with a fdrt of a hairy down on their Tops. 
The Root is white, and the whole Plant above Ground, vig. 
its Stalks, Leaves, and Heads of BlolTom or Seed, are cover'd 
with a foft and thin downy Subftance. 

3. Its Temperature. 

Hot and dry in the fecond Degree, and withal cleanfing and 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 

Carduus BenedicJus, being boiled in Wine and drank hot, 
healeth the griping Pains of the Belly, kills and expells Worms, 
caufes Sweat, provokes Urine, expels Gravel , cleanfeth the 
Stomach, and is very good againft a quartane Fever. 

Hitrome Bock witncileth, that the Juice of Carduus taken in 
Wine or any other way, is lingular good againft all Poifon, 
and according to Joachtmus Camerarius of Noremberg , it helps 
the Inflammation of the Liver. 

The Powder of the Leaves given in the quantity of half a 
Dram, is very good againft Peftilence, provided that 'tis taken 
within twenty four Hours from the time of the Infedion and 
the Party fweat upon the fame. 

N. B. That the Wine wherein the Leaves have been infufed 
has the fame EfFe&. 

5. Its Cultivation. 

The Seed of Carduus BenedicJus is ripe in September , and 
mould at that time be fown : It delights in good Land, and 
when large enough totranfplant out, mould be planted in Beds 
at one Foot diftant each Plant from the other. 

N. B. That the time of its greatcft Perfection for phyfical 
Ufes is July and Auguft, when 'tis in its full BlolTom .^ 

fjjl New Principles of Gardening. 


Of Comfrey, 

i. Its Names. 

COmfrey otherwife called Bugle, is reckon'd amongft 
the Confoundes or wound Herbs, and is called by fomc 
Confolida media, Bugula, and Buglum, in High "Dutch 'tis cal- 
led Guntzely in Low 'Dutch Senegroen, and in Englijh Brown 
Bugle, Sicklewort, and middle Comfrey. 

2. Its Definition. 
The Nature of this Herb is to fpread its felf and creep a-' 
Jong the Ground like Moneywort. The Leaves are long and of 
a brownifh Colour. The Flowers grow in Parcels, encompaffing 
the Stalk towards the Top with fmall Intervals between each 
Parcel , and are of a fair blew Colour, and fometimes very 
white i but I rake the Bu^le which produces white Flowers to be 
that called the white Bugle, and in Latin Bugulafiore albo, 

I. The Temperature. 
This Herb is of a mean Temperature, being neither hot nor 
dry in any Degree whatfoever. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

This Herb is very good for inward Burftings, Member torn, 
rent or bruifed, and therefore 'tis put into Potions that ferve 
for Nodes, in which 'tis of fuch wonderful Virtue, as to dif- 
iolve and waftc away congealed and clotted Blood. 

Ruellius writes, that 'tis a common faying in France, that 
he who hath Bugle and Sanickle, needs no Thyfician or Surgeon : 
For its Virtues are fo great, that it does not only cure Wounds 
being inwardly taken,but outwardly alfo, being applied thereunto, 

'Tis alfo very good for the Infirmities of the Liver, it takes 
away the Obftrudtions, and gives great Strength thereunto. 

The Decodion of Bugle being drank, dififolvcth clotted or 
congeal'd Blood within the Body , and heals ail manner ot 
Wounds either inward or outward. The 

New Principles of Gardening. i$g 

The Decoction doth alfo open the (toppings of the Liver 
and Gall, is very good againft the Jaundice, Fevers of long 
continuance, and cureth the rotten 'Ulcers of the Mouth and 

In fhort, this Herb, called vulgarly Comfrey , and that cal- 
led Self-Heale, are two of as good wound Herbs as any the 
Earth produces, and for which Reafon I recommend their Cul- 
tivations in the Phyftck Garden, to be ready at Hand upon 
every Occafion that may happen. 

5. The Cultivation. 
Bugla, or Comfrey delights in moift and fhady Lands, and 
is propagated by Seed fown in March. 


Of Clovegilliflower. 

1 . Its Karnes. 

THE Clovegilliflower is called by the modern Herbarifts 
Caryophy Ileus flos y of the fmell of Cloves , wherewith 
'tis poffefled : In Latin, of molt Ocellus Ttamafcenus, Ocellitt 
Bar baric us, and Barbaric a, mltalmkGarofoli, in Spanife Clave l^ 
in Low T>utch Ginoffelbloemen, in French Ocilletz, and in 
Englijh Carnation and Clovegilliaower, and of fome 'tis cal- 
led Vetonica, and herba Tunica. 

2. The Ttefcrtption. 

The Stalks and Leaves of. the Clovegilliflower, have little 
or no Difference from thofe of the Carnation, which are well 
known to every one, and the Flowers are not unlike thofe : of 
the clofe blowing Kinds, excepting in their Colour, which is 
all red, without any Streaks or Variegations of any other Co- 
lour whatfoever, and are as double as any of the Carnation 
Tribe, but are not near fo large as fome of them are. 

There is another Kind of Clovegilliflower, which no way 
differs from the other in its Leaves and Stalks that produces 
a fugle Flower, like unto a very large nngle Pink, which a- 

54 New Principles of Gardening. 

mongft Gardiners is called a Stamel, and is of no XJfc in PhW 
lick 5 therefore not to be entertain'd ia a Garden. 

3. 7#* Temperature. 
The Giiliaower is temperately hot and dry. 

4. 7fo Medicinal Virtues. 
The Confcrvc made of the Flowers and Sugar is an ex- 
ceeding good Cordial, and being eaten now and then comforts 
the Heart beyond Expremon , as alfo doth the Syrup being 
drank in Brandy, and is very opening. ' V 5 

n iT hC C K° n n Cr T e iS WQ Jl § °° d againft P eftilen tial Fevers, ex- 
Stomad' ^ ^ **"** and *""* comf °™ the 

S- Its Cultivation. 
r . The , CowpilMHower is propagated by Layers, as the Cam* 

*. 5. If the flowers are gathcr'd when wet, and lay'd clofe 
together, they will immediately heat and turn black. 


Of Dragons, 
1. Their Names. 

T"JS£ Ued <Dr , ai " n ' £ ca,Ied in Greek ***«»* 
in L.atm T>racunculus, or 'Dracantium, and as there are 
two Kmds cultivated in our Gardens, vi Z . the maior and the 
minor, they are therefore called 'Dracmimn maius and fflw 

sardsr oftcn ***•* -£ is ? i 


New Principles of Gardening l£$ 

genkraut, in Low 'Dutch Speerwortele, in Spanijh Taragontia, 
in French Serpent aire, and in Englijh Dragon, or Dragon-wort. 

Apuleius calleth Dragon Dracontia, and to that adds many 
ftrange Names, but whether they agree with the greater or the 
letter, or both, he has not demonftratcd : As Tythonion, An- 
chotnanes, Sauchromaton, Therton, Schtenos, Dorcadion, Ty- 
phonion, Theriophonon, and Em'mion. Athenaus (heweth that 
Dragon is alfo called Aronia, becaufe 'tis like unto Aron. 

2. The Defcription. 

The great Dragon rifeth up with a ftraight Stalk about two 
Feet and half, and ibmetimes three Feet high, being generally 
very thick, fmooth, and fpotted with Spots of divers Colours, 
very like unto the Belly of a Toad, or back of a Snake, the 
Leaves are very large, confiding of (even or eight Parts, or 
rather fo many lefler Leaves, which in Form are very like thole 
of the Dock, being very fmooth and flippcry. And out of the 
top of the Stalk grows a long large Husk very like that of 
the Cuckow Tintle, but much larger, of a greenifh Colour 
without, and Crimfon within. 

The Tejtal which grows inthemidit of the Husk is of a black ifh 
Colour, very long, thick and blunt pointed , and when the 
Seed is grown pretty large, the Skin or Film that covers them 
being itretch'd and broken thereby, they appear like unto a 
Bunch of Grapes, which at firft appears of a green, and after- 
wards of a red Colour and full of Juice, wherein are contain'd 
the Seed, which are fomewhat hard. 

The Hoot is bulbous, cover'd with a white thin peel, with 
many fmall fibrous Roots appendent thereto. 

The lefler Dragon is like unto Aron or Wake-Robin^ in 
Leaf, Husk, Peftal and Berry, but inftead of their Leaves being 
fprinkled with black Spots, they are fprinkled with white Spots, 
and the Berries are not of a deep red as the other, but of a Co- 
lour inclining to Saffron. The Bulb is very like that of Cuckow 
Tintle, full of fmall ftringy Roots and young Off-fcrs whereby 
'tis propagated. 

3 . The Temperature. 

Dragon is hot, and of thin Parts. 

X 2 4- K# 

i $6 New Principles of Gardening. 

4. The medicinal Virtues. 

The Root of 'Dragon clean fes the Entrails , and attenuates 
thick and tough Humours. 

The Leaves are good for Ulcers and green Wounds, being 
apply'd green , for when they are dry , they have very little 
Virtue to heal, and are of a more fharp or biting Quality than 
is neceflfary for green Wounds. 

'Pliny affirms , that Serpents will not come near any one 
that hath 'Dragons about him. The diftill'd Water of Dragons 
is very good againft the Peftilence, or any peftilential Fever or 
Poifon, being drank warm with the beft Treacle or Mithridate. 


Of Dwarf Elder. 

1. Its Names. 

BWarf Elder is commonly called Danewort, and in 
Greek xttfieuclicTii 9 that is, Humilis Sambucus , or low 
', in Latin Ebulus and Ebulum, in High Dutch Attich, 
in Low Dutch Hadich, in Italian Ebulo, in Spanijh Tezgos, 
in French Hiebles, and in Englifh Wallwort, Danewort and 
Dwarf Elder. 

2. The Definition. 

Wallwort or Ttwarf Elder is very like the common Eider 
in its Leaves, fpokie Tufts of Bloom, and Fruit 5 but hath not 
woody Stalks, as the common Elder hath. 

It produces green Stalks which die in the Winter, and are 
jointed as the young Shoots of Elder. The Leaves grow in 
Couples , and confift of many fmall Parts or letter indented 
Leaves, which are placed upon a thick rib'd Stalk, and their 
Flowers are produced at the top of the Stalks in white Tufts, 
which are fucceeded by Blackberries, very like unto thofe of 
the common black Elder, wherein arc contain'd fmall long 


New Principles of Gardening. i$7 

The Root is very tough, of a rcafonable fize and length, and 
of greater Virtue than the Roots of the black Elder. 
3. Its Temperature. 
Hot and dry in the third Degree. 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 

The Roots of Dwarf Elder boil'd in Wine and drank is 

very good againft the Dropfie, by purging away the watery Hu- 

m °The Leaves wafte and confume hard Swellings , being ap- 
Dlved as a Pultife, or in a Fomentation; one Dram ot the Seed 
beins drank in Ale, &c. is the mod excellent Purger of watery 
Humours of any in the World, and therefore very good againft 
the Dropfie. 

5. Its Cultivation. 
Dwarf Elder or Danewort is increafed by parting the Roots 
in the Spring, and delights in mellow Land. 


Of Eikampane. 

1. Its Names. 
T^TICAMPANEis called by the Grecians i&w & £* 
V^t£lnlt*Enula, and by feme Enula carnpana m 
Ifaiian Enoa, and Enola, in High Dutch Alantwurtz, in Loj 
DZ Alanduwortele, '^^hEn^c^^^ .£«"££ 

ftole het away into Thrygta. 

2 The Defcription. 

158 New Principles of Gardening. 

tifn green Colour on their upper Parts, and very white under- 
jieath, being flightly indented about the Edges. 
, The Stalk very often rifes four or five Feet high , and fome- 

thing more than a Finger's thicknels, oover'd with a fort of 
downy Subftance, very like the upper part of the Leaves, and 
divided towards the upper part into many Branches, upon whofe 
extreme Parts are produced large round yellow Flowers, which 
are fucceeded by long and {lender Seed. 

Tiie Root is very large, of a darkifh Colour without, and 
white within, whofe Subftance is fweet of Smell, but very 
bitter in Tafte. 

3. Its Temperature. 
The Root of Elicampane is hot and dry in the third De- 

4. Its Medicinal Virtues. 
Tis good for (hortnefs of Breath, and an old {landing Cough, 
the Root preferved is very good for the Stomach, and being 
eaten after Supper helps Digeftion , and keeps the Belly fo- 
Juble. The Root taken with Honey or Sugar, made into an 
Eleduary, cleanlcs the Bread, ripens tough Phlegm, and caufes 
it to be eafy fpit forth. 

5. Its Cultivation. 
This Herb is in bloffom in June and July, after which their 
Seed ripens, which mould be fown as foon as gather'd j it de- 
lights in deep mellow frefh Land, and the Roots are in grcatefl 
Perfection in April or the Autumn. 


Of Feverfew. 

1. Its Names. 
TpEVERFEW is called by T>iofcor ides in Greek irafl'wn, 
Jj of Galen and Taulus, Afia^ac; ; in Latin Tarthenium , 
Matricaria , and Febrifuga , of Fuchfais Artemifia Ttnuifolia, 

New Principles of Gardening. i$9 

in Italian Amarella, in "Dutch Moedercruyt, in Froth Efpar z 
goute, in Englifh Fedderfew and Feverfew. 
2. Its Defcription. 

Feverfew produces many finall round Stalks divided into 
many Branches. The Leaves are tender, and as it were torn 
and jagged, and fomething indented on their Edges. 

The Flowers are produced at the tops of their Branches, 
whole yellow Balls are environd with fmall white Leaves 

The Root is of a hard and tough Subftance, and of a ftrong 
Smell and bitter Tafte. . , 

There is another Kind of F«*r/fei; , called in Latt n Ma- 
tricaria dnpliciflore, oiVarthenium, whofe Smell, Stalk and 
Leaves at/the fame as the preceding ; but the Flowers are 
double, and is therefore called in Engufh double Feverfew. 
3. Their Temperature. 

Feverfew* dry in the fecond Degree, and hot in the third. 
4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

This Herb is of a cleanfing Nature, and purges, opens, and; 
fully performs all rhat bitter Herbs can do. 



1. Its Names. 

HYssop is called in Latin Hjfopus, as alfo in It*** 
SpaniSh, French, and German. 

2. Its "Defiriptim. 

Htf* being a very common Herb ,n the Garden, -* no 

Defcription, and altho' there be ioui K nds ot ^^ q£ 

clare their fcvcral Names. 


rtfo New Principles of Gardening. 

The firft Kind is called in Latin Hyffopus Arabum, Hyffop 
with blue Flowers; the fecond Hyffopus Arabum /lore rubra 
Hy fop with rcddim Flowers ; the third Hyffopus albis ftoribus\ 
and laftly, Hyffopus tenuifolia, thin leafed Hyffbp. 

3. The Temperature and Medicinal Virtues. 

A Decodion of Hyffop made with Figs, and the Mouth 
and Throat gargled therewith , ripens and breaks the Tumors 
and Impofthumes of the Mouth and Throat, and heals the 
Parts, fo as to (wallow with eafe. 

A Decodion of Hyffop made with Figs, Water, Honey, and 
Rhue, being drank helps the Infiammation of the Lun^s an 
old Cough, fhortnefs of Breath, and the Obftruftions of the 

The Syrup or Juice of Hyffop, taken with the Syrup of Vi- 
negar purgcth by Stool tough and clammy Phlegm, and ex- 
pels Worms being eaten with Figs. 

The diftill'd Water is alfo very good for the aforefaid Dif- 
eafes, but not with that Speed and Strength. 

4- Its Cultivation. 
The blew flower'd Hyffop, being the ben for our Purpofe 
may be raifed from Seed fown in March or April, or propa- 
gated from Slips, planted any time in the Spring, and delights 
m a frefh mellow Soil. 5 


Of Lavender Spike, fweet or Clothes Lavender^ and 
Lavender Cotton. 

1. Their Names. 
l ' T AVENDE * SPIKE is called in Latin Lavandula 
JLj and bpica, in Spanijh Spigo and Languda, of which there 
are two Kinds, the one called in Latin Lavandula fore c£- 
rueo, common Lavender Spike, and the other Lavandula fiore 
albo, white flower'd Lavender Spike > the firft bcins; the Male, 
and the fecond the Female. 

New Principles of Gardening. 161 

(2.) The other Kind of Lavender common in our Gardens, 
and chiefly ufed by the common People, who put the Flowers 
amongft their Linen, is called in Latin, Lavendula hortenfis 
minima, the fmallcft Lavender. I 

(3.) Lavender Cotton is called in Latin Chamacypartffus, 
and by the Italians Santolina, and there are many that would 
have it to be Abrotanumfoemineum, or the female Southernwood, 
but they are abfolutely as wrong, as thofe who take it to be 
Scriphium, Sea Wormwood \ for 'tis impoilible to refer it to 
one particularly, becaufe 'tis a Plant participating of both Worm- 
wood and Southernwood. 

2. Their "Defcription, 

All the Lavenders being already well known, need no De- 

3. Their Temperature. 

Lavender is hot and dry in the third Degree, and is of a 
thin Subftance, confuting of many airy and fpintuous Particles. 

The Seed of Lavender Cotton is of a bitter Tafte, and is 
hot and dry in the third Degree. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

The blew Flowers of Lavender, exclufive of their Husks, be- 
ing mixed with Cinnamon , Nutmegs and Cloves, made into 
a Powder and drank in the diitiil'd Water, help the panting 
and paffion of the Heart, Giddmeis, and the Me mbers ; fub,ed 
to the Palfic : As alio doth the Confcrvc made of the Flow- 
ers with Sugar, taking the Quantity of a Bean in a Morning 

^ The Lavender Cotton being given green or dry «« 
in human Bodies, and if the Seed be taken, it hath the fame 
Eflfeft, but expels them with greater Force. 

Mnj fays /that Lavender Cotton drank - w ^ „ 
ccllent Medicine again the Poifons of Serpents ana 

5. Their Cultivation. 

AU t 'hc Kind, of I^&Z$A?3r£g£ 
Year's Growth, planted in March or jipr g £ c ^ 

li^ht frefli Soil. 

1 62 New Principles of Gardening. 

sect. xiv. 

Of Liquorijh. 
r »• The Name. 

2. Their T)efcription. 
The common L/ fwr ^ in its StaIks andL 

saws s-r- b " - -v-- em* 


New Principles of Gardening. itfg 

The Cods are of a fmall Magnitude, and in form like unto 
the Tare. The Roots are of a ftraight Make , much fweeter 
in Tafte than the other , of a brown or earthy Colour with- 
out, and of a beautiful yellow within. 

3. The Temperature. 
The common Liquorijh is temperately warm and moid. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

The common fort of Liquorijh is good againft Hoarfenefs, 
Inflammation of the Lungs, Pleurifie, fpitting of Blood and 
Matter, Confumption, all Infirmities of the Cheft, and greatly 
helps fliortnefs of Breath, and decay'd Lungs. 

It takes away Inflammations, mitigates the fliarp and fait 
Humours, conco&s raw Humours, and caufes eafy fpitting. 

The Decottion being drank very much helps the Kidneys and 
Bladder that are ulcerated. 

It cures the Strangury, and generally all Infirmities that pro- 
ceed from fliarp, fait, and mordicant Humours. 

5. Its Cultivation. 

The common Liquorijh thrives beft when planted in very 
deep mellow frefh Land, for its Nature is to run down very 
deep : Before that Liquorijh is planted, the Land mutt be very 
well trench'd, full two Spit and both Crumbs in Depth j and 
if 'tis trench'd in the Autumn, as direded for Afparagus in Seel. 
II. Parr I. having the bottom Spit ridged, to be meliorated 
by Frofts, &c. during the Winter, 'twill very much add to the 
fuccefs of your Plantation. 

Liquorifl) is propagated from Runners, or fmall Roots, as thofe 
of Horfe Radifh, each being prun'd to about fix or feven Inches 
in length, and planted about eight or nine Inches span, in 
Beds about three Feet wide, with Alleys of two Feet wide 
between them, for the conveniency of cleaning them, during 
the time of its Growth, which is generally three, and very 
oftentimes four Years. 

And that you may (after three Years time) Have a run 
Crop comin^ in every Year j you muft therefore plant as much 
every Spring as you have taken up rhe Autumn and Winter 
before, ancfthercby you will be plentifully and conftantly fur- 
nim'd at all Times. y 2 To 

164 New Principles of Gardening. 

To preferve Liquorijh from drying after being taken up, you 
muft prepare a Bed of Sand within your Grcenhoufe, &c and 
therein place all the Roots in Beds or Rows, about half an 
Inch afunder, which will preferve them very moift throughout 
the whole Winter. 


Of Marjorams* 

i. Their Names. 

MARJORAM is called in Latin Major ana , and^W 
racus znd alio Sampfyckum, in High -Dutch Mayoran, 
in Spamjh Majorana Moradax, and Almoradux, in French 
Manolame and mEnglifi fweet Afcr/^w or Summer ikf^r- 
^w», and Pot Marjoram or Winter Marjoram. 

2. 7fe> T>efcription. 
Summer fweet Marjoram, or the great fweet ^r>™* cal- 
led in /,#/» Majorana major, is a low and fhrubby Plant of 
a very light green Colour, andpleafant aromatick Smell. The 
Stalks are llendcr, rifing about one Foot in Height , divided 
into many imall Branches, about which are placed divers fmall 
loft and hoary Leaves. The Flowers are produced near to the 
upper parts of the Stalks, in chaffy or fpiked white Ears The 
Root is compart of many fmall Fibres, and the whole Plant 
is of a mod delightful aromatick Smell. 
• V °) V Win rn r Mar J ora ™> "lied in Latin Majorana ma- 
jor Anglua y confifts of feveral fmall Branches, whereon are placed 
iucn Leaves as the former, but not fo hoary, nor of fo plea 
fant an aromatick Smell. v 

The Flowers are produe'd at the tops of the Branches in fmall 
Tufts, of a whitiflx Colour, and withal fomcthing tending to 
a purple. The whole Plant is of a long Duration, which the 
other is not, for that being not able to endure the violence of 
the Winter, is then pcrifiVd. Whereas the Pot Marjoram keeps 
green all the Winter, and is therefore called Winter Marjoram 

New Principles of Gardening. 16$ 

And befide thefe two Kinds of Marjoram, there are two 
other Kinds, the one called Marjoram gentle, and in Latin 
Majorana tenitifolia, and the other laced Marjoram, in Latin 

The Marjoram gentle confifts of feveral Branches, which are 
adorn d with foft and ruflet colour'd Leaves, of a very pleafant 
fwect Smell. The Flowers are produced at the very extreme 
parrs of the Stalks, compofed of divers fmall Leaves of a white 
Colour, fomething ting'd with a blufhing red. The whole 
Plant is in form very like unto the great fweet Marjoram, but 
fomething leiTer of Growth, and of a much finer Smell. 

The laced Marjoram, or Epimajorana , is alio a very fine 
Kind of Marjoram, and differs very little from the preced- 
ing. Tis a Native of Candia, where its Branches are adorn'd 
with Laces, or fmall Threads, which are not produced in this 
Climate. . 

The other Kinds of wild M.irjorams, as the biltard Marjo- 
ram called in Latin Origanum Heracleoticum, the white baftard 
Marjoram, Origanum Album, the Origanum Creticum or wild 
Marjoram of Candia, the Origanum Anghcum or Englijh wild 
Marjoram, the Tragoriganum or Goats Marjoram, the Tragort- 
eanum Clufi, ox Candia Goats Marjoram, being very rarely culti- 
vated in our Gardens, the firft two Kinds being fully lufncient j 
I mall therefore filcntly pafs over their Defcription, and proceed 
to the Temperature of the Summer and Winter Marjorams. 

3 . Their Temperatures. 
Both the Summer and Winter Marjorams are hot and dry 
in the fecond Degree, and by tome laid to be the lame m 
the third Degree. 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

Sweet Marioram is a very good Remedy againft cold D; 4 

cafe, of ^Kaod Head", being dry'd and inufd up the 

l f/ lls \ fwpet M^foram mix'd with Tobacco and fmoal 
t ^f^of^T^H, and b*,*^ in A, 

N Dr r ycd <Vcct Marram mix'd with Tobacco and ftnoaked, 
is very good for a cold Scorn 

Wine and drank provokes Ur 

The Leaves boiled, and the 

<V>r thofe that are entering int< 

ScS.he Pains of the Belly. 

W ^ a ^avcTtSXS £ Dccoaion dran k is g, go. 
for thofe that are entering into a Dropf.e, provoke Lr 

166 New Principles of Gardening. 

The Leaves dried and mirmled with Hon™ b hj . t 
wardly diflblvcth congeal* and clotted fe' ^ '^ ^ 

5- 7^«> Cultivation. 

">£& . ~4"",,f£?" " f/ 1 " f,o ° Sttd r ~" » 

And becaufe, that the Summer fweet Marjoram will nn. 

Of Marjhmallow. 

T i- The Names. 

. 2 - /* Vefcription. 

, Marjhmallow is a kind of Mallow, whofe Leaves are very 


New Principles of Gardening, 167 

broad towards the bottom of the Plant, and leffer towards the 
top, being very Toft, of a whitifh Colour, and (lightly in- 
dented about the Edges. 

The Stalks are ftreight and round, of a grey Colour, and 
often rife about three or four Feet high. 

The Flowers are produced at the feveral Joints of the Stalks 
from the upper part of the Stem of each Leaf, where they joyn 
to the feveral Stems, and are in Form like unto the wild Mal- 
low , but not red as they are, being commonly white, and 
ting'd with a purple. The Knob or Button, which mcceeds 
the BlolToms wherein their Seed is contain'd, is very like that 
of the wild Mallow. 

The Root is generally very large, tough, white within, con- 
taining a clammy and flimy Juice. 

3. Its Temperature. 

MarfomaUow is moderately hot, and drier than the wild 
Mallow. The Root and Seed are more dry, and of thinner 
Parts, and likewife of a digefting, foftning, and mollifying 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

The Leaves of Marjbmallows, digeft, flacken, and mitigate 
Pain, and are very good, being mixed in Fomentations and 
Pultifes, againft the Stone, pain of the Sides, and of the Bladder. 

The Decodion of the Leaves drank does the fame , and not 

1 nC 1>»CIUU1U1I Ul "»v -. — . 

only affwages the Pain, but eafily expclls it. 

The Decoftion of the Roots is very good againft the Bloody 
Flux, and that not by a binding Quality, but by mitigating ; he 
Gripings and-Frettings thereof 3 for they are not of a bind.n 
N The\oots boiled in Wine, and the Deeoa^nd„ nk expels 
.he Stone and Gravel, is very good ^»'«°g^ 

Flux, and all other likes hTues of B^ood. 
5 . The Cultivation. 

«68 New Principles of Gardening. 

refill out Winter's cold, ate thereby period, but the Root 
remain, good, which in the March following fend fonh a 

47h Z7Z«i $t ^' , LC ' 1V , CS ' a ' ld FIo -«s, S which blow in 
Jnh^Augufl; and the whole Plant fhould be »athcr'd for 

\ ootTpif Sd> T hC R ° 0tS ?? gen " aUy P>»«^bo«one 
root aparr, and del 2hr m a m^ n f..„a. c-n 

,7 »•/""«"• *'■>- i^ouis are generally 

foot apart, and delight in a moift fteth Soil. 


Of Marigolds. 

f i ■ Their Names. 

T^HE Marigold is call'd Calendula, in regard toils bein- 
I in bloilom moft Months of the Year. Ir isalfo called Cbrl 
fizSM r ^Colour, «« "«* ©"<* fi|C 
hill iP } G ° Ud i Bi0emen ' in Fw ^ *tf» and OW, in 
**** F '" '*»**/* and EngUJh Mangolds, and *»*£. 

2. 27j«> Tiefcription. 

3" l %^ [ ^ alen i" lam '>^P<>b''»thos. Fourthly, The dou- 
2 I'r , W co!ourcd d °«W= Afiw*«A/, called Ca'en- 

Calendula fimpl lct flare. And Seventhly, The /*«,?* " 


^ "-7 J "J J Aim ocvcntniy, li\Q trench 

can Mangolds, called in £**/» Caryophyllus Indicus 
upon rhe /W call it 0tiUetK J& Vu^uiel 

that is the Gilhflower of /*<&*. &A calls it Tanatetum 
ZZT b' beCaU S ' tS LCaVCS a ' C likc Unt ° thofe of Tanfi" 
from VhL' '", ? ^T.° { T l m ' a Province «J*"ricJ, 
trom whence tis thought "twas brought into Europe. 

Would h, the * t3lks > Leavcs > &'■ °f thefe fevcral Kinds, 

H to «n«7 y tCd '° US m"? UfdefS W ° rk ' ftdn S that they 
a te m general pretty well known. 

?. 7»«r 

l New Principles of Gardening. 169 

3. Their Temperature. 

The Flowers of the firft fix Kinds of Marigolds are tempe- 
rately hot, almoft in the fecond Degree. 

The two laft, viz. the French and African Marigolds, are 
of a cold and poifonous Quality, and altho' they produce very 
beautiful Flowers, yet they are not to be ufed in either Meat 
or Medicine ; and therefore are only ufeful to mix amongft 
other Flowers for Variety's Sake. 

4- The Medicinal Virtues. 
The Flowers of the firft Kind of Marigolds ftrengthen and 
comfort the Heart , and withftand Poifon , being boiled and 
eaten in Soup, Broths, &c. 

5. Their Cultivation. 

The feveral Kinds of Marigolds begin their BIoiToms m 
April, and continue 'till the Winter's cold deftroys them ; and 
as they are continually blowing and decaying, fo they are con- 
tinually fuccecded by crooked Seeds, which may be fown as 
foon as ripe, or any time in the Spring. 

It is obfervabie, that thofe Seeds which grow on the outermoft 
part of the Pods, or Heads, generally produce fingJe Flowers, 
and thofe of the middle part double : Therefore to preferve a 
good kind from degenerating, 'tis Deft to make ufe of thofe Seeds 
which grow in the middle, and to rejeft the other. 

Of Garden Poppy. 

1. The Flames. 

I^OPPY is called in Greek pqW, in ^n Tapaver , in 

170 New Principles of Gardening. 

is furnamed of THofcorides ^ lov> or wild, and is, as he faith, 
called pom , bccauic Opium is gather'd from it. But the black 
Garden Poppy is called Tapaver Jativum nigrum, 

2. Their c Defiription. 

The Leaves of the white Poppy are of a very irregular Form, 
being long, broad, fmooth, and cut or jagged on their Edses 
very much, and of a very light green Colour. 

The Stem or Stalk is very ftreight and brittle, and is very 
often towards the middle divided into two, three, four, or five 
imaller Stalks, each bearing a white BloiTom, which before 
open'd, is cnclofed with a foft green Husk, compofed of two 
light- colour'd green Leaf-like Skins, or Coats, between which 
the Bloifoms break forth, in which at the very firft appears a 
imall Head, fet round or adorn'd with a great Number of 
fmall Petals or Threads, like to a Fringe 5 which Head, when 
fully perfected, is of a round Form, but lbmething flat on the 
upper part, (excepting thoie who are degenerated from the 
true Garden Poppy, which are of a fpheroidical rather than a 
globular form) whereon is placed a very beautiful Cover or 

The inward part of the Shell is wonderfully divided into 
many curious Cells, between which its white Seeds are vene- 
rated and are many in Number. Out of one Poppy Head 
which was produced from one Seed only, I have taken up- 
wards of twelve hundred Seeds, and all very found and -cod 

The Root runs down in the Ground, like a very final I Parf- 
nip , with fomc few horizontal Roots , breaking from the 
Sides of that which grows downright. When the Heads are be- 
ginning to turn hard, and become almoft dry, 'tis then that 
they are to be gather'd, which, when ftring'd, are hung up in 
Lines for Ufc. Y 

The black Garden Poppy very little differs from the preced- 
ing in its Leaves and Stalks y but the Flowers or Bloflbms are 
not altogether white, they having a mixture of purple there- 
with, nor are their Heads near fo large as the white Poppy ; 
and whereas the Coronet of the white Poppy is very dole in 
all its Parts, fo, on the contrary, the Coronet of the black 
Poppy is open on the lower Parts thereof, through which it 
ihedi, its Seed, which when ripe is of a black Colour, and is 
therefore called the black Poppy. And 

New Principles of Gardening. 171 

And altho' by Garden Poppies, the white and black Kinds 
are underftood only ; yet there are many other Kinds culti- 
vated in the Garden, but more for the fake of their beautiful 
BlolToms, than for any medicinal Ufe ; and fuch are, firft, the 
double black Poppy called in Latin Tapaver nigrum Tolyan- 
thon. Secondly, The double white Poppy, or Tapaver album 
multiflorum. Thirdly, The double purple Poppy, or Tapaver 
purpureum Tolyanthon. Fourthly, The fcarlet double Poppy, or 
Tapaver multiflorum coccineum. Fifthly, Tapaver album Toly- 
anthon minus, the fmall double Poppy ; and Laftly, the wild . 
double Poppy, called Tapaver multiflorum fylveftre. 

3. Their Temperatures. 
All the feveral Kinds of Poppies are cold, as teftified by 

4"; Their Medicinal Virtues. 
The Heads of white Poppies being boil'd in Milk, caufe 
Sleep, reprefs Diftillations or Rheums, and come very near in 
force to Opium, but are more gentle. . 

Opium, or the hard Juice of Poppy Heads, is the ftrongeft 

° Meconium (which is the Juice of the Heads and Leaves) is 
weaker, but either of them taken , either outwardly or in- 
wardly, caufes much Sleep, and if taken inwardly in too great 

3 f^«£S£ro m Shell, aslarge as a ha.f Crown 
piece, being boiled in Milk or Wine .s a very good Quan- 
tity to be ufed, where Sleep is required , and if that has not 
the defired Effed , you may double the Quant! y, bM nem 
more, left the Confequence proves fatal to thofe that take the 

5. Its Cultivation. 

The Seed of the Garden Poppies is ripe ^out the beg nmng 

of Auguft ., and if 'tis then £wn '^™j$*™™5 

is ufual, 

r? « ThC 

172 New Principles of Gardening. 

,K Tl l e Tv* P ° PPy delishts in a fand y frc(h Loam, and h 
the chief that is cultivated for phyfical Ufes, which when he 
young Plants are about the fee of a half Crown or fome- 
S*'£S h rC , k° b£ ,hhVd With the Hough, 'as Turnips 
twelve nT I'™" S re "« Di ^nces, w*. about ten or 
twelve Inches each Plant from the other; and when they 

Z'JZ abOUt , f ° l,t ° r fi ! C InchcS hi § h > ^ ™" though a 
rf tL g H T th ? 8rCat dMl ° f Carc ; f0f whe «ver the coVner 
^t*f eKhCr , T ° r brUifK an >' of the Pi™* they im- 
mediately decay and become ufelefs. ' 

^" d aS ; I n tOM y ° U ', inthei rDefcription, that they threw out 
W*/«/ Roots; therefore this laft time of Hon'hin- vou 
muft take Time and Care to remove the Earth very deep' fhat 
thofe Roots may eafily ftrike therein, and receive their prone' 
Nounlhmcnt, otherwife, rho' clear from Weeds, they wfl T 
come very fmall, and not worth your Labour * 


Of Rofemary, 

i. Its Names. 
"P O SEMARY is called in Greek A.SW* «<ZWW ' 
X\^ Latln MmarinusCoronati a , which Surname is given 
L a d, ? ,n S" fll » from the ^her LibmutUe,, which by 
J^/Lf n r ^« fe / CCk0n ' d £ ° be Kinds o( Roftmary, the 
Fril f^ R0 I r Tr C0rOnarh - ^ Spaniards Ron/ero the 
French and ©«** Afwj,, and the Engtijh Rofemary 

2, The 'Defer if tien. 

Rofemary is a fmall Evergreen Shrub, which when nlantM 
agamft a Wall, will rife to fever, or eight Feet 3, bu S 
near fo much when planted alone. °' 

It confifts of many fmall Branches, which are very thick fee 
with fmall, long, and narrow green Leaves, fomlwha (urd 
and of an aromarick Tarte, and pleafant Sme.J, S w fi 

Colon 8 ; 1a Tr in ^"S"fi. being of a very light blue 
colour, and pleafant Smcil. i. The 

New Principles of Gardening. 173 

3. The Temperature. 
Rofemary is hot and dry in the fecond Degree, and of an 
aftringent or binding Quality. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

Rofemary is given againft all Fluxes of Blood. The Flowers 
are very good againft all Infirmities of the Head and Brain, 
proceeding from a cold and moift Caufc. They dry the Brain, 
quicken the Senfes and Memory, and ftrcngthen the mufcu- 
lar Parts. 

The diftiil'd Water of the Flowers being drank every Mor- 
ning and Evening, the firft and laft thing after riftng and going 
to Bed, takes away the Stench of the Mouth and Breath, espe- 
cially when there are a few Cloves, Mace, Cinnamon and An- 
nifeed fteep'd or infufed therein. 

5. Its Cultivation. 

Rofemary is increafed by Slips of the laft Year's Shoot, be- 
ing twifted at the lower end, and planted in March or April 
in any kind of Soil. 

N B. That Slips of two Years Growth will not ftrike Root, 
the Wood being too hard ; the like of Lavender. 

Of Garden Rue. 

1. Its Names. 

GARDEN RUE is called in Latin Ruta hortenfis , as 
alfoin , Italian, in Wgh Duteous ••****"* * 
Low 'Dutch Rmjte, to Spamjb Aruda , in French Rue de 
7ard,n, and in EngUJh Herb-Grace and Rue 
J iZ e is another kind of Rue that is wild, cal cd ,n Greek 
2~L, in Lat,n Ruta fylveflris, to Galat.a and CafpadocM 
ZIC and of feveral Harmala; the Aryans call it Harmel, 
and the Syrians Befara, 


f74 New Principles of Gardening. 

foldf rnow D n efCriPti ° n ° f GardCn ^ " nCedkfS > k be -S 

The wild Rue is very Jikc the Garden Rue in Stalks, Leaves 

Flowers, Colour, Tafte and Savour, but much lefs; it being 

an Annual, dies every Winter. ° 

2. The Temperature. 
Garden Rue is hot and dry in the latter end of the third De- 
gree and is of thin and fubtiie Parts ; wild Rue is hot and 
4ry in the fourth Degree. 

3 . The Medicinal Virtues. 

Garden Rue being taken, breaks and con fumes Wind, di- 
geils all grots and tough Humours, and provokes Urine Be 
ing boiled in Vinegar and drank, is very good againft Gripe., 
Stitches ofthe Side and Cheft, Shortnefs of Breath upon a cold 
Caufe, and Pains in the Joints. 

The young Shoots being boiled, or rather fcalded and kept 
m a Pickle, and eaten, are a very great help to the Sight, whereof 
is written ° ' wu ^ wl 

Nobilts eft ruta, quia Iumina reddit acuta j 
Auxilio rut£, vir lippe videbis acute. 

The Juice of Rue made hot in a Pomgranate Rind, and 
dropp'd into the Ear, takes away the Pain inftantly. The 
Leaves of Rue, beaten and drank with Wine, are an Anti- 
dote againft Poifons. 

The Leaves of Rue eaten with the Kernels of Walnuts or 
Pigs damped together and made into a Parte , are very good 
againft all infeaious Airs, Peftilence, Plague, Poilbn &i 

Rue boil'd with Dill, Fennel Seed, and fome Sugar'in Wine 
and drank, afiwages the Torments of the Belly, as Gripings, &c 
the Pains in the Sides and Breaft, helps thole that are'fhort 
winded, or breathe with great Difficulty, is very good azainft a 
Cough, and flopping of the Lungs, and very much helps thofe 
that are inclining to the Dropfie. 

N. B. That Rue ufed very often in ^leat or Drink drieth 
up the natural Seed of Generation, as alfo the Milk of thofe 
that give fuck. 

1 N. B. Ruta 

New Principles of Gardening. 17$ 

N B. Ruta Sylveftris, or the wild Rue, is much more ve- 
hement, both in Smell and Operation, and therefore the more 
Km and pernicious, and not to be ufed in either Meat or 

4. Its Cultivation'. 

Garden Rue delights in a light, frelh, toady Soil, wherein 
is no Dung, that being its mottal Enemy s us encreafed by 
Slips planted any time in March or jfyrtl, being twifted at the 
bottom at the time of planting. 


Of Red and Damask Rofesi 

1. Their Names. 
HE Rofe is called in Greek ?IU and the Plant it felf 
■ iU, and in Latin Rofa, and according to Tlutauh, 
•tifcalled Rodon, bccaufc it fends forth great plenty of Smell, 
"-The Red Rtris called in Lat,n Rofa rubra, in French Rofe 
Franche, Rofe de Trovins, a Town in Campaign, and by 

SeIra^cTtyia& whence 'tis thought 

there needs no Description. 

3. Their Temperatures. 
n«l Rofes being dried, do bind and dry, and al fo cool, but 
Damask Ses are* of a moift, airy and ipintuous Nature, 

4. Their Medicinal Virtues. 
*We diftiU'd Water of Rofes is a great Strengthens of the 
Heart, and a very great Reirefher of the Spirits. ^ 

\-j6 New Principles of Gardening. 

*£*££ f^ST^l^ ****** as 

The Oil of Rotes mitigates all kind of Heat **A -n 

f£ffSSSZ h ™ s """'" 8 ' - *KwW 

J. Their Cultivation. 

w£~ Rcd , ai ! d , r ? amask Rofes are in ««fcd by Layers «, 
Suckers and delight in a frc/h fandy Loam X 7 ' 0r 
The belt time to ttanfplant them is October or November 
m Rows about thtce Feet apart; but in the GardVn ^ ' 
London they generally plant them in the mfdft of /cf""' 
bcrry^edsattheaforefaidDinance, or ^^£g£ 

■r ^'u B f' Th l at thc Red Rofes arc gathcrtl for Ufe ^ > 
nr tl Keyt y f unS:° Wn ° Pe "' - d S °«* 


Of Saffron. 

i. //j Names. 

f^\ jJVT? names. 

// J T>efcription. 

Saffron is a bulbous rooted Flower a, n,* r , ~. . 


New Principles of Gardening. 177 

Crocus that blows in the Spring. The Flower appears be- 
fore the Leaves, wherein is contain'd a Still or Tiff ilium, which 
is the pure Saffron its felf, and not the Flower wherein it grows. 

This Still otTiftillum of the Saffron Flower mud be gather'd 
very early in a Morning before the Sun rifes, otherwife when 
the Sun begins to influence them, they fhrink very much, and 
withdraw themfelves almoft into the Earth. 

The Soil wherein it has been known to thrive very well, as 
at Saffron fVald:n, is a fhallow chalky Loam, not but I have 
feen very good Saffron produced in the Kitchen Garden of 
the Honourable James Johnftone of Twickenham, whole Soil 
is inclinable to a brick Earth. And I my felf have had it in 
very great Perfection on a frefh fandy Loam. So that 'tis my 
humble Opinion, it will thrive in mod Sorts of Land, a hot 
Sand or Gravel, and cold Clay excepted. 

3. Its Temperature. 
Saffron is dry in the firft Degree, and hot in the fecond. 

4. The medicinal Virtues. 

Too much Saffron beins taken prevents Sleep, but when 
taken with Moderation , 'tis good for the Head , revives the 
Spirits, cxpells Drowfinefs and makes the Heart merry. 

It alfo ftrenothens the Heart, concofts crude or raw Hu- 
mours of the Cheft, opens the Lungs, and removes Ob- 

r Tis°an excellent Remedy for thofe that have a Confumption 
of the Lun-s, when ten or fifteen Grains arc given in good 
Stomach Wine, and is alfo a very great Rcftorer of Breath 
where People breathe with great Difficulty 5 'tis alfo very good 
againft a Surfeit, and Tellow Jaundice. 
5 Its Cultivation. 
The proper Seafon for planting o( Saffron is about :M4 
rammer at which time having digg'd and prepared your Ground, 
(nTdWidcd the fame into Beds about three Feet wide wi h 
Aitvs between of one Foot or fifteen Inches plant therein 
A 7voun- Bulbs three or four Inches diftant from one an- 
y °u /and about three Inches deep, but that you may be furc 
°?i ; ir Gtowth, obfervc the following Method, 
of their uiv A a ^ our 

178 New Principles of Gardening. 

Your Beds being prepared and fet out as before mentioned, 
ftrain a Line on the Edge or beginning of a Bed, by which 
draw a Drill with the corner of a fmall Hough about three 
Inches m Depth, and therein place your young Bulbs at about 
three Inches apart, with their bottom dofeto the Earth , then 
remove your Line three Inches farther into the Bed, and draw 
a fecond Drill, wherein place the Bulbs as before, and fo on till 

r ,Yd .f Bed . is P'f? tcd ; thm takin 8 a Rakc > level down the 
fmall Ridges of the Drills, and rake the Border or Bed level and 
in hke Manner proceed till your whole Plantation is ended 

This manner of planting being duly obferved, you will have 
your new Plantation come up every Year in a very reeular 
Manner, and if the Bulbs are all found , thJsLnfta 
mifcarry, except fuch as are deftroyed by Vermin. 

The common Method of planting bulbous Roots with a 
h» tht%? CC Til "SB great Mifcatriagesi for the Hole made 
by the Shoe of the D.bber being much fmaller at bottom than 

tU S B «r a u Part n ° f the Dibbcr > P rcvents the Kb«s of 
he Bulb from ftr.kmg Root, and therefore muft inevitably pe- 

nfli i for when the :Bulb is put into the Hole and cannot get to 
he bottom, but flicks by the way at fuch a Depth as the? J,! 

Life , H I neCe(r T y ' k the " h3S but one on] y Cha «« ferta 
Life and that is, being catelcfsly put in the Hole, ildewav 
with the bottom of the Root to the fide of the Hole inftead 
of being placed downward, as they ought to be planted 

This Chance I fay is the only one, for then the Earth being con 
tiguous to the fibrous part of the Bulb, it has Power ro take 
therein and prefervc its Life , as alfo when the fibrous or lower 
?£, , r * oot is P la " d u P w "ds inftead of downwards, and 
then at fuch times the leading Bud is obliged to extend its 
felf in a horizontal Pofition (which is againft their Nature 
beyond the outfidc of its Bulb before it can proceed to its na tu 
ral perpendicalar Pofition. However, as 'tis a very difficult mat 
rer to beat fome ftubborn Humours out of their old Road who 

assr ftoniy sbs?. t^Bctt 

nee T d^l' V rn DirCa . i0nS f ° f *' kceping ° f y° ur Plantation is 
needle fs, fince that is natural to every good Gardiner. 


New Principles of Gardening. 179 

You will reap the firft Fruits of your Labour the fecond 
September after planting, at which time you'll gather about one 
fourth part of the Quantity that is gathered in the third and 
fourth Years, when 'tis in its greateft Perfection 5 and when 
your Saffron has thus remain'd in the Ground for the fpace or 
four Years, it muft then be taken up, and replanted, as at the 
firft time of planting four Years before : But to have always 
a full Crop, you mould plant an equal Quantity every Year to 
come in and fuccced the other that is taken up. ■ ... 

The manner of drying Saffron after 'tis gather'd, is perform d by 
putting it between two Sheets of clean writing Paper, and dry 
it over a very gentle Heat. 

At Littlebury near Walden in Effex, where Saffron grows in 
sreat plenty, every one that propagates it is furniflvVl with 
a fmali Kiln, whereon they dry their Saffron with Charcoal 


Of Savory. 

1. Its Names. 
I AVORT is called in Greek 3»>e ? «, nor has it any truer Name 
v-1 in Latin than Thymbra, notwithstanding 'tis called Satureia, 
which is repugnant to Columella, an old Latm Author who de- 
rnonftrates a Lnifeft Difference between thymbra and Sature.a, 
^s tenth Book ; wherein he lays , that Savory has the Tafle 
of Time, and of Thymbra, or Winter Savory. 

Et Satureia Thymi referens Thymbraque Saporem. 
K^ory is called in High <Dutcb Kunel Saturey and Sadaney, 
n Low 'Dutch Ceulen, in Italian Savoreggia, in Spanf Axe- 
ZaZdSagorida, in French Sarriette, and in Savor,. 
d nfSavorf we have two Kinds, the one called Satureia hor- 
° r \ or the Garden Winter Savory, and the other Satureia 
Serf* *Jliva, « Summer Savory. 

A a 2 2- Their 

180 New Principles of Gardening. 

z. Their 'Defections. 
(i.) Winter Savory is an Herb very like unto My/Top , but 
left, more tender and brittle. It conlifts of many fmall Branches 
beautifully with narrow lharp pointed Leaves, which are 
fomethmg longer than thofe of Thyme, among which out o? 
Htttki grow white Flowers, fomething inclinable t Ugh 

KM t$:°V\ VCry fmaI1 ' asal fo «e the feveral Bran che 
(as is laid before) but are m general very hard. 

(a. Summer Savory has very little Difference from the Win- 
er Savory, excepting that its Leaves are not fo elofe fe 7<Z 
periftes " "* ^ " "^ " * C AutUmn ' ic ™mcdia^ 

3. 7#tVr Temperatures. 

Winter Savory is hot and dry in the third Deeree but 

Summer Savoy is not quite ib hot. ^ c & rcc > out 

4- Tfer Medicinal Virtues. 
Both Kinds oi Savories doth naturally in2ke tk:« j i r 

5. r^/r Cultivation. 


Its Names. 

alio /fc^//,,,, jfr.^ J |°^Cu ", Wound, ^, 
very common Herb in the Fields, and well known * * 

one ? yet I cannot but recommend £ g SSS^diTS 


New Principles of Gardening. 181 

us> I (hall omit the Defcription. 

2. /« Temperature. 
Self-Healis hot and dry, and fomcthing binding. 
,. The Me •dtcinal Virtue. 

the tame Difeafes as the &gA. 

4. Its Cultivation. 

Summer, W hieh then ^'^£jfcS ^out B-r^ 
^ 5iXS-S^*i-* be great* improved, 


0/ Solomon Seal 

but t*o 

[82 New Principles of Gardening. 

natum, or Solomon's Seal, and the other called Tolygonatum 
Minus, the fmall Solomon's Seal. 

2. Their T>efcription. 

The firft kind of Solomon Seal hath long round Stalks, which 
for the moft part, are adorn'd with long furrow'd and rib'd Leaves, 
very like in form unto thofe of Tlantane, which are generally 
placed all on one fide of the Stalk, with very fmall white Flowers, 
refcmbling the Flowers of Lily Conval. On the other fide 
when the Flowers are faded , there appear round Berries of a 
green Colour, which afterwards turn to a very dark or blackifh 
blue, which when ripe, are as large as Hotfpur Peafe, and 
of an exceeding fwcet and pleafant Tafte, The Root is of a 
white Colour, and very full of Knobs or Joints clofe fet to- 
gether, which in fome Places have very odd Marks, that the 
Ancients fuppofed to be the refemblance of an Impreflion or 
Mark of a Seal , from which it took the Name of Sigillum 
Solomonis ; its Tafte is fweetatfirft, and of a fharp Bitter at laft. 

The fecond kind of Solomon Seal, differs but very little 
from the preceding, excepting in the Leaves which are nar- 
rower, and are placed round about the Stalk , and not on one 
fide only as the other. The form of the Flowers are the fame, 
but are of a light green Colour, and are fucceeded by Berries, 
as the former, but of a reddifh Colour. The Root is like unto 
the former, having fome few Fibres breaking out of its Joints. 

3 . Their Temperature and Virtues. 

Diofiorides makes mention, that the Roots of Solomon Seal 
arc excellent good to feal or clofe up green Wounds, being 
ftamp'd and laid thereon ; whereupon he faith it was called Si- 
gillum Solomonis , of the fingular Virtue that it hath in heal- 
ing of Wounds, broken Bones, &c. 

The frefh Roots of Solomon Seal being ftamp'd and applied 
to any Brtiife , black or blue Spots acquired by Falls, &c, 
take them away in one night or two at moft. 

Galen was of the Opinion, that neither the Herb or Root 
fhould be given inwardly 5 but People of lefs Capacity fincc his 
time have expericne'd the contrary; for in Hampshire and many 
other Places, 'tis adminifter'd inwardly with great Safety : For 
when any unhappy Accident happen'd, fuch as Bruifes, broken 
2. Bones, 

New Principles of G«rkm,- \ l8 3 

a very ftrange manner , fot altho t & . ls rf s c . 

have the fame Effeft. manner of a Pnltifc, and 

Wine, helps any ™fjX ^ thereis not fuch another 
dotted Blood: a^^ ^ known to be fo good for 
Herb growing in the E a«n ^ oiSolemn Seal. 
Bruifes, broken Bones, &c 

+ Its Cultivation. ■ are 

time in March or April. 


0/* Southernwood. 

i. J/j Ata^- . 

■tneedsnoDcfcription. ». J/x 

184 New Principles of Gardening. 

2. Its Temperature. 
Southernwood is hot and dry in the end of the third Degree. 

3. The Medicinal Virtues. 

The Tops, Seed, or Flowers being boiled or fo™^ 
with Water and drank, are a very good Remedy fir Zr T 
are troubled with the Cramp, the fsaaicT /J , hU 
thofe whofe Sinews are ftrunk. ' ^ &C ^ he, P 

Bang taken in Wine, it kills Worms andexpells them 3 nl 
is very good againft deadly Poiibn. P m ' and 

The Leaves of Southernwood boiled in Water until thev 1 
foft, and being Ihmp'd with Batley Meal and HoTt a < I 
apply'd as a Plainer, duTolveth all cfd Humours ^l^J"' 

4. Its Cultivation. 
Southernwood or Sothernwood is increaOH h» or 

"xBTn+t ^•wfftoSSSiras p,amcd 
!«£ L£« 2SJS35S2EIS niuft twift ** 


1. The Kinds and Names. 

l" H Pot?W Ki L t,o° f l^ ^'r tcd '"-hardens are 

every one, andlhS SK^ggg^ Wdl k — «» 

_. . , 2 - ^"r Temperature. 

Thefe Kinds of 7^«w are hot and dry in the third Degree. 


New Principles of Gardening. 185 

3. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

being boiled in Water with H°ney and drank s very goo 
againft a Cough, and Shortnefs of Breaths « P^okes Urine, 
and diffolves congealed or clotted Blood. 
4. Their Cultivation. 
All the feveral Kinds of Thyme are raifed either from Seeds 
fown in March or April, or increafed from Slips planted at the 
SeTmeTbut of th'efe'two Ways, I recommend the forme. 
The Pot 27^ and Limon Thyme will thrive in any Kuia or 
Soil that is not over hot or cold; fo hkewife th Maftick 
and Cat Thyme, ptovided they are planted in the warmelt pare 
of the Garden. 



Of Englifliroto, or yellow Henbane. 
1. Its Names. 
UGL1SH Tobacco, « 3^ ^Sif 3 P^ 

has been often taken. 

2. 7£* T>efcription. 

H^nrtdlslMedTnro'many Branches, which arc fet 

££ iS' Leaves that are very f ' even> 

° f V SoKware produced at the top of the Branches, and 
T ' ie r « orderly placed, being of a pale yellow Colour, and 
^J t c h r f n J lefs than thofe of the black Henbane. 

B b The 

1 86 New Principles of Gardening. 

The Cups wherein their Flowers are fituated, are very like 
thole of the Henbane, but much lefs, and without acute Points, 
wherein is placed the Husk or Pod, of a round Form full of 
very fmall Seeds, not much unlike thofe of Marjoram. 

3. The Temperature. 
This Herb is thought by fome to be cold and moid, but 
according to L'Obelius, it rather heats than cools. 

4. The Medicinal Virtues. 

This Herb is very good againft all Apoftemcs, Tumours, 
inveterate Ulcers, Blotches, &c being made into an Unguent 
or Salve as following. Take of the green Leaves three Pound 
and a half, ftamp them very fmall in a Stone Mortar , and 
put to them one Quart of Olive Oil : Having put them in 
a Brafs Sauce-pan, &c. over a gentle Fire, let them boil un- 
til the Herb appears of a blackifh Colour, keeping it continually 
ftirring all the while ; and when it will not boil or bubble any 
more, take it off and ftrain it, and put the clear Oil (which 
will then be of a green Colour) over the Fire again, with an 
Addition of half a Pound of Bees- wax, four Ounces of Roftn, 
and two Ounces of good Turpentine, and when they are all 
melted together, pour it out into a large Gallypot, &c. for 
Ufe. . 

This green Salve thus made, is of very great Ufe to all Fami- 
lies, and is what they ought to be never without. 

Tis alfo of great Service, being apply'd to Burnings, green 
Wounds, Cuts, &c. 

This mod ufeful Herb is raifed from Seed, which is ripe in 
the Autumn, and may at that time be fown, or in the March 
following: The Seed is very hardy and will refill our Winter's 
cold, and wherever 'tis planted and iuflfcrd to grow up to 
Seed, 'tis very difficult to get clear of it again. It delights in 
i'refh rich mellow Land, and when the Plants are of the big- 
&cfs of a half Crown or more, are tranfplanted into Rows 
at a Foot afunder each Plant from the other. 

New Principles of Gardening 187 

Of Violets. 

1. Their Names. 

1. laetr i\ame*. 

XHE Violet is called in Greek m, of Theophrfus ^ both 
s blackiilTpurple Colour of the Flowers The Apothe- 
caries retain the * Latin Name (whieh is fomethmg wonderful, 

SrL 'in Hilh^Uht called ****/, in^ f 2W 

French Alette de mars ; and in E*/,/b Violet. 

Nkanderin to&Geopmeks believes as £frn»fa« (heweth) 
thaftheGrS did fcaU it ,», becaufe that fome certam 
JVvUfo ?/«»X gave that Flower fitft to >*/*r , and others 
S that it wa^calfea iiv, becaufe that when fatter had turnd 
he young Damfel Io , whom be tenderly loved mtoaCw, 
the Earth brought forth this Flower for her Food and as it 
the tattn ^« U S received that Name from her. And 

K/rg/7 in his Bucolicks. 

Alba liguftra cadunt, vaccinia nigra leguntur. 

Notwithftaoding W * » is loth ^ (heWS that VaCd ' 
nium and P/0/0 do differ. , . 

-^-£f «/£/•<* viol* & vaccinia nigra. 
Of Violets we have a very great Variety, as firft, The pur- 

1 88 New Principles of Gardening. 

Viola martia alba multiplex. Fifthly, The yellow Violet, cal- 
led Viola martia lutea. And Laftly , Dog's Violets , or wild 
Violets, called Viola caninafyheftris. Thcfe feveral Kinds of 
Violets are in general very common , and therefore need no 

2. Their Temperature. 
The Flowers and Leaves of Violets are cool and moift. 

3. Their Medicinal Virtues. 

The Flowers are good for all Inflammations , efpecially of 
the Sides or Lungs. They take away the Hoarfnefs of the Cheft, 
allay the extreme Heat of the Liver, Kidneys and Bladder, 
mitigate the fiery Heat of burning Agues, temper the Sharpneis 
of Cholcr, and take away Third. 

The Leaves of Violets being taken inwardly, do cool, moiften, 
and make the Body foluble ; and being outwardly apply'd, mi- 
tigate all Kind of hot Inflammations. 

The Syrup of Violets foftens the Belly, and purges Choler. 

The Decoction of Violets is good in hot Fevers, and the In- 
flammation of the Liver, and other interiour Parts j as alfo is 
the Juice, Syrup, or Conferve of the fame. 

The Syrup is alfo very good againft the Inflammation of the 
Lungs and Bread, againft the Pleurifte and Cough, againft Fe- 
vers and Agues in young Children ; and efpecially if you put 
to one Ounce of Syrup eight or nine Drops of Oil of Vitriol 
mix'd together, giving the Child a Spoonful at a time. 

The fame being given as aforefaid is very good againft burn- 
ing Fevers, and peitilential Difcafes, greatly cooling the in- 
ward Parts, and comforting the Heart. 

4. Their Cultivation. 
Violets are increafed by parting their Roots, they love a 
good mellow Soil, and delight very much, when partly fhaded 
The beft time to make new Plantations of Violets, is the latter 
end of March when they have done blowing, and are planted 
in Beds of three Feet wide, about nine Inches apart, 

New Principles of Gardening. i j 


Of Wormwood. 

i. Its Names. 

WOELMWOODis called in Greek d-^Aov, and is named 
of Apuleius Abfinthium rufticum, Country Wormwood, 
or Teafants Wormwood, in Latin 'tis called Abfinthium la- 
ti folium Jive ponticum, and Abjinthium latifolium, broad leafd 
Wormwood, to diftinguifh it from the Abfinthium tenuifoltum 
feu Romanum, or fmall leafd Roman Wormwood, commonly 
called Abfinthium Romanum, and in Low "Dutch Roomfche al- 
fene. The Italians call Wormwood AJfenfo -, the Spaniards 
Axenxios, Affenfios, and many of them Donzel/ 1 the Tortu- 
guefe Alofnai in High "Dutch fVeronmut, wermut ; in trench 
Aluynei and in Englifh Wormwood. 

And as both the common and Roman Wormwood are very 
plentiful throughout moft, or all Parts of England , therefore 
I need not trouble you with their Defcriptions. 

2. Their Temperatures. 

The common or broad leafd Wormwood is hot in the fc- 
cond Degree, and dry in the third. 

The fmall leafd or Roman Wormwood is alfo hot and dry, 
and bitter alfo, but nothing near fo much as the other, its 
grcateft Force being in binding. 

3. The Medicinal Virtues. 

Wormwood is very good for a weak Stomach, that is trou- 
bled with Choler, for it cieanfes through its Bitternefs, and by 
its binding Quality, it ftrengthens and comforts the Stomach. 

Tis oftentimes a good Remedy againft a long and lingering 
Ague, cfpecially Tertians, it greatly ftrengthens the Stomach, 
creates an Appetite, and clears away Obftruaions, bad Hu- 
mours, &c. by Urine. . . 

The Herb being boiled in Milk, or the Seed given in Trea- 
cle to young Children or older grown People, kills and ex- 
pels Worms out of the Guts. T« c 

190 New Principles of Gardening, 

The Herb withftands all Putrifa&ions, and is good againft 
a (linking Breath, and prevents Moths from deftroying Clothes. 

4. Their Cultivation. 

Both the Kinds of Wormwood are either raifed from Seeds 
Town, or Slips planted in March, and will thrive in any Sort 
or' Garden Soil. 

And as I have now pafs'd through the feveral Kinds of Phyilck 
Herbs necciTary for the Ufc of every Family, as appears by their 
fcvcral Virtues ; I (hail now conclude with an excellent Receipt 
for a Confumptien, or Shortnefs of Breath, which I have known 
by Experience to have made found and perfect Cures of tome 
Hundreds of poor afTMed People, who after a long and ex- 
penfive Time have been given over by fome of our learned 
D-o--c--t-o -r-s as incurable. 

The Receipt is as follows. 

Take of Solomon Seal, Comfrey Leaves and Roots, Marjh* 
mallows, Hyjfop, Pot Thyme, Mother Thyme, Succory, Agri- 
mony, Tlantane Leaves and Roots, Clivers, Nettle Tops, Sca- 
bious both Kinds, dandelion, Rofemary, Violets (or their 
Leaves if the Flowers are gone,) icarlet Strawberry Leaves, 
Ground- Ivy, Borage Leaves, Balm, Mint, Timpernel, and of 
Colts Foot, each one Handful. 

Of Couchgrafs Roots, and five leafed Grafs, each one Hand- 
ful and half , with a fmall Quantity of Rue , and one Head 
of Gar lick. 

Of Figs one pound diced, of Raifins in the Sun , one pound 
(toned, and one quarter of a pound of Liquor i/h fliced. 

Put all thefc Ingredients into a large Saucepan with one 
Gallon of Water. r^nd boil them till one half of the Water 
is confumed : Then ilrain.orf the Liquor and let it ftand and 
fettle, which being done, pour it off clear, and boil it up with 
one pound of brown Sugar-candy, and four pound of the beft 
double refined Sugar-, and when all the Scum is boil'd and 
taken off, and the Syrup appears clear and fparkling, 'tis then 
completed , and is fit for Ufc. The manner of keeping it is 
in Glais Bottles, being well dry'd when put in, and bound over 
with a piece of Leather pierced full of Holes inftead of a 

N. B. That 

New Principles of Gardening. i 

tJ B That the afflicted muft take three Spoonfuls «v»*y 
four Hours, or oftner if their Stomach will beat it, and 'tis 
beft taken when fuck'd from off iLiquorifi Suck, cut ,agged 

" To fay d anv more in the Praife of this excellent Syrup is 
fuperfluous, for whoever makes Ufe of it will receive fuch 
Benefits will be fuffkient to eftablilh its Praife, fo that need 
not give my felf any farther Trouble than what I have already 
Sone! in communicating it for a publickGood, which will al- 
ways be my only Study, durante vita. 


Books punted for, and fold by J. Batley at the 
Dove in Pater- nofter-Row. 

THE General Hiftory of the vaft Continent and Iflands of Ame- 
nca, commonly calPd the IVejl-Indies : From the firft Difcovery 

coal?!;^ f ' T efen A TimC : W ^, the beft AcCOunts thofe P ^p\c 
could give of their Antiquities. Collected from the Original Rela- 
tions lent to the kings or Spain. By Antonio de Herrera, Hifto- 
nographcr to his Catholic* Majefty. inflated into Englijh by C pt . 
John Stevens. In 6 Vol. Illuilrated with Cuts and Maps. V P 

A new Journey through Greece, Mgypt, Palejiine, Italy, Swifferland, 
He r th 2 d r he N£therla lK Wntten ^ a F ™ h Officer who tt 
toEn^f Cou »tnes in the Years i 7 n, zz, 23. Now firft done in- 

Surveying improv d, or the whole Art, both in Theory and Prac- 

SSwT UMinf- In ^Jr^ L Arithmctick, VdJaT and 

.decimal. I[. All Definitions, Theorems and Problems ; with ohm 
1 ngonometiy, and whatever elfe is neceflary to the ThToVy oftrv^- 
n g nnci L\ De ^ u ?l\^ Ufc of Inftruments proper to be Jed 

SS Co ""»cs, Roads, Rivers, &, aVo to reduce a Phn To a 
Padded ,n 4 fo ' ™k'»g«™(p"ent Colours for Maps. To which 
•m Sb ' «£EV :Hn S' and C0 ™W Water to 

tiS^N^es" ° f thE K ' nS 0i »** D <™ **» Wfi 

Sden« W .v? f i f'T a ' 7 , 0fHe ? ,d ''>'' "fining the Terms us'd in that 
science, wi h their Etymology, and differait Vcrfions into Lri* 

SyS5SB E are^Le^ Zfc 

SciencefeN Rmteif° k f¥ t0 ™^ that 
lifter, by Mr. Jama Ual< cor,£acd > with a Letter to the Pub- 

I a 7/u^^r^Z^£^ wMyUutffics ateut fa /?te/d& ^Jdpa^wtodwcarfrtkfajfrvy; atyQir 'A&Oer and ' J/sr/ry Jcd/cV/^f 


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