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Missouri BOTAN1CAC 
Garden Library 


< ? 3 

Volume LXIX Number 1 
January/February 1981 


The Climatron At Twenty 






«*r' ■" 


In 1958, Frits Went, who would later 
be named Director of Missouri Botani- 
cal Garden, visited the Garden and 
noted in his diary, 'The greenhouses 
are all old and in poor condition. It 
might be possible to patch them up so 
that they will last another 5 or 10 years, 
but it seems to me there is little sense 

in doing that Therefore new 

houses, new in design, in engineering, 
and in function, are indicated at pre- 
sent ..." In August of that same year, 
while he was visiting Chicago, he 
wrote, "At the Garfield Conservatories 
I was struck again by the fact how the 
superstructure of a greenhouse can 
be distracting. The less obvious it is, 
the better." 

Eugene Mackey, Jr., son of the late 
Eugene Mackey, Sr., the principal 
architect for the Climatron, remembers 
how Went proposed the idea for the 
structure of a new greenhouse. "I re- 
member Frits' challenge to my father, 
which was ... I want to create a col- 
umnless space for this greenhouse' 
. . . and, of course the dome was really 
the only way to achieve that, because 
the structure is transferred along the 
curve." Harry Richman, who worked 
with Mackey, Sr., (in the firm of Murphy 
& Mackey) in designing the Climatron 

in 1959, commented on the shape 
selected, saying ". . . while the circular 
form lends itself nicely to the 
climatological characteristics and 
properties within [it], I'm sure any 
architect would be very much attracted 
to the very simple geometrical form of 
a sphere. It's one of those things that 
is historically very compelling, and I 
have an idea — that I think many will 
agree with — that one of the first im- 
pulses of an architect would be to en- 
close a space with this particular kind 
of form ... it all fell into place as a very 
compatible system — handling all of 
the climatological requirements, the 
structural requirements, the shape, 
the functional needs and so forth . . . 
[Mackey] developed a very attractive 
and forceful concept." 

Eugene Mackey, Sr. devised the 
name Climatron, responding to Went's 
expression that he wanted it to be a 
climatological laboratory. Went had 
previously considered plantosphere, 
sylvarium and floradome. 

For their design, which was based on 
principles devised by R. Buckminster 
Fuller, Murphy and Mackey, Architects, 
(since renamed Murphy, Downey, 
Woffard & Richman) received the 1961 
R. S. Reynolds Memorial Award, given 

each year by the American Institute of 
Architects. The award is an interna- 
tional one, presented to the designer(s) 
of a "significant work of architecture, 
in the creation of which aluminum 
has been an important contributing 
factor." The award was instituted in 
1957; Murphy and Mackey were the 
first American architects to receive it. 

(Continued on Page 4) 


Letter from China 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 3 


Excerpts From 

Two Speeches 5 

From The 

Members Office 6 

Calendar 7 

Gardening In 

St. Louis — 

Orchids By 

Steven A. Frowine 8 

News Notes 10 



Mr. /Mrs. Adam Aronson 

Mrs. Agnes F Baer 

Mr./Mrs. Howard F Baer 

Mr./Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr./Mrs. Clarence C. Barksdale 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr./Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. John G. Buettner 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F T. Childress 

Mr. Fielding L Childress 

Mr./Mrs. Franklin J. Comwell, Sr. 

Dr./Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mr./Mrs. Henry R Day 

Mrs. John L Donnell 

Mr./Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mrs. Clark R Fiske 

Mr./Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund' 

Mr./Mrs. S. E. Freund 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mr. Clarence R. Goodrich 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 

Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mr. Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr./Mrs. James H. Howe. Ill 

Mr./Mrs. Lee Hunter 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley F Jackes 

Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mrs. Irene C. Jones 

Mr./Mrs. W Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 

Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 

Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 

Mrs. John A. Latzer 

Mr. Thomas F Latzer 

Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mrs. John S. Lehmann 

Miss Martha 1. Love 

Mrs. Jane S. Luehrmann 

Mrs. Eleanor Mallinckrodt 

Mr. H. Dean Mann 

Mr./Mrs. Morton D. May 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell 

Mr. Poswell Messing. Jr. 

Mr. Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 

Mr./Mrs. John W Moore 

Mr. Thomas Moore 

Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 

Mr. Spencer T Olin 

Mr. Mrs. W. R. Orthwein. Jr. 

Miss Jane E. Piper 

Miss Julia Piper 

Mr. Mrs. Vernon W Piper 

Mr. William R. Piper 

Mr./Mrs. Herman T Pott 

Mr./Mrs. A. Tmon Primm, III 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mrs. G. Kenneth Robins 

Mr. Mrs. F M. Robinson 

Mr./Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph F Ruwitch 

Mrs. William H. Schield 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 
Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 
Mr Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 
Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 
Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 
Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 
Mr. Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
Mrs. Hermann F Spoehrer 
Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F Stueck 
Miss Lillian L. Stupp 
Mr./Mrs. Edgar L. Taylor, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 
Mrs. Horton Watkins 
Mrs. Ben H. Wells 
Mr. Mrs. Richard K. Weil 
Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 
Mr./Mrs. O. Sage Wghtman, III 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene F Williams, Jr. 
Mrs. John M. Wolff 
Miss F A. Wuellner 
Mr Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 


Mr. Patrick Ackerman 
Mr. Kenneth Balk 
Mr. Mrs. Carl Beckers 
Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 
Ms. Allison R. Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 
Mr. Joseph C. Champ 
Mr./Mrs. Gary A. Close 
Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr. Bernard F Desloge 
Mr. Alan E. Doede 
Mr. Mrs. David C. Farrell 
Mr./Mrs. W Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Edward E. Haverstick 
Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr./Mrs. B. F Jackson 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 
Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 
Mrs. Leighton Morrill 
Mr. Mrs. Charles W Oertli 
Mrs. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 
Mrs. Drue Wlson Philpott 
Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 
Mrs. Mason Scudder 
Miss Harriett J. Tatman 
Mr. Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr. Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 


Tom K. Smith, Jr., 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Robert Kittner, 

President of the Executive Board 

of the Members 

Dr. Peter H. Raven. 

Book Review 

Tallgrass Prairie: The Inland Sea 

by Patricia Duncan 
(Forward by Stewart L Udall) 
Lowell Press, Kansas City (1978) 
104 Pages (113 color photographs) 

Before I ever saw a prairie, Patricia 
Duncan introduced me to its expan- 
siveness and beauty through its sea- 
sons, animals and people. Her book 
sparked my curiosity about our Ameri- 
can grasslands; revealed the prairie's 
dynamism; and chronicaled our na- 
tion's use of the prairie soil. She re- 
cords the interaction between farmers 
and ranchers and the American 

In her book, Patricia Duncan gives 
us the prairie vista in a manner 
through which we can understand that 
we do not dominate the landscape, but 
it dominates us. 

She immerses us in the color of 
prairie flowers and grasses, in the 
saturated atmosphere of a prairie sun- 
set, in the bright clothing of prairie re- 
sidents on the Fourth of July, in the 
plumage of the prairie chicken. She 
combines landscape photography with 
close-up photography to capture the 
immensity of the prairie and the deli- 
cacy of individual plants and insects. 

The book is a celebration of beauty, 
the magnificence of the prairie com- 
munity and the interaction between it 
and its people, past and present. But it 
is beauty with a point: to awaken us to 
an understanding of the fragility of the 
prairie; to an understanding that this is 
a part of our heritage that we must 
preserve. In her final paragraph, she 
says: 'Yes, the prairie was in my blood 
before I was born. Rachel, my grand- 
mother, saw to that. And it will be there 
when I die. Right now. I still hop 
around the landscape trying to drink it 
all in before it's gone." 

— George U. Wise, 
Superintendent, Shaw Aboretum 


There is a Prairie Preservation 
Project at Shaw Arboretum. Per- 
sons contributing $25.00 or more to 
that project will receive an auto- 
graphed copy of Tallgrass Prairie: 
The Inland Sea. Call 577-5138 for in- 
formation. - ed. 

Letter From China - Part II 

Along the trail up Mt. Omei. 

From Beijing we flew on August 21, 
1980, to Chengtu, the capital of Sic- 
huan (Szechuan) Province. Sichuan 
Province, which is the size of Texas 
but with a population of over 100 mil- 
lion people, is the largest province in 
China. Around Chengtu is some of the 
richest agricultural land imaginable. 
There are houses with white plaster 
walls, surrounded by dense thickets of 
tall bamboo; rich rice paddies; and 
mulberries, grown in lines along the 
paths in the rice paddies and irrigation 
ditches, to provide food for the 

The next day we spent in Chengtu 
visiting the Chengtu Institute of Biol- 
ogy at the Chinese Academy of Sci- 
ences, and the University of Sichuan, 
giving a lecture at the former. There 
are quite a few foreigners in Chengtu, 
including visitors, but westerners are 
still scarce enough so that we were 
more an object of curiosity there than 
we were in any other place we visited 
in China. 

Early in the morning on the 23rd, we 
left for Mount Omei, where we had 
been given permission to conduct 
studies of Epilobium, a genus of plants 
which Tamra and I had studied before 
and about which we had written a 
book during a year we spent in New 
Zealand, 1969-70. 

As we started the drive to Mount 
Omei, some 100 miles south of 
Chengtu, we observed an incredible 
scene; it was Saturday, market day, 
and literally thousands of people were 

walking and riding bicycles; tricycles 
and even a few unicycles along the 
road toward the markets in the smaller 
country towns. Some were driving or 
riding water buffalo; some carrying 
pigs in cages. Others had butchered 
pigs across the back of their bicycles, 
a few, huge loads of pots, rice, herbs, 
grains, brooms — anything that could 
be sold or traded in the markets. What 
seemed to be an unending procession 
passed by the windows of our van for 
the whole morning. 

After a lunch near the foot of Mount 
Omei, we began hiking in a gentle 
rain, at about 2500-feet elevation up 
the trail that lead eventually to the 
summit, at some 10,500-feet eleva- 
tion. Mount Omei has been a sacred 
place for Buddhists since at least 200 
A.D., and there are over 70 temples 
that dot its slopes, particularly at the 
middle and upper elevations. It has, 
for two millenia, been the object of pil- 
grimages for faithful Buddhists from all 
over China and other countries. Many 
of the temples offer overnight accom- 
modations and it was in these that we 
were to stay for the next three nights 
while we were on the mountain. 

The vegetation of Mount Omei, and 
similar places in southwestern China, 
provides an indication of what the 
forests of the eastern United States 
and Europe might have been, if they 
had not been so badly disrupted and 
destroyed by glaciers during the past 
million years. Conditions for the survi- 
val of plants have been far better in 
eastern Asia and have lead to a situa- 
tion where, for example, on this single 
mountain there are found five genera 
of the walnut family, five of the beech 
family, 19 genera and at least 65 
species of the buttercup family, 18 
species of the magnolia family, and no 
fewer than 42 species belonging to 
seven genera of the laurel family as 
well as, among other plants, nine 
species of Hydrangea, no fewer than 
a dozen species of wild cherries and 
their relatives, 17 native species of 
wild roses, about 40 species of wild 
blackberries, more than 15 wild hollies, 
20 kinds of maples, six camellias, 
about 30 species of Rhododendron 
and other great botanical riches. In 
most cases, these figures greatly ex- 
ceed the total for all of North America 
— remember these are figures for just 
one single mountain! 

On Mount Omei, explored by the 

famous horticulturist E. H. Wilson 
early in this century, there are three 
very distinct elevational zones of vege- 
tation; a lower zone of very rich, mixed 
broad-leaf forests in which Cunnin- 
ghamia, a relative of the bald cypress, 
is frequent; a middle elevational zone 
in which rhododendrons and conifers, 
such as the fir Abies farberi, are well 
represented; and near the summit, 
scrubby thickets of bamboo and 
Rhododendron and very scattered in- 
dividuals of Abies farberi. At the very 
summit of the mountain there is an 
area known as Ging Ding — the Gol- 
den Summit — and here, until about 
1800, stood a temple made entirely of 
bronze. The cliffs drop off precipitously 
at the summit, falling for over a mile 

The Pavilion at the junction of Black Dragon 
and White Dragon Gorge, Mt. Omei. 

vertically. From these cliffs may occa- 
sionally be observed a spectacle of 
the sun illuminating the clouds in a 
rainbow-like appearance, similar to 
the Specter of Brocken in Britain, 
which the faithful regard as the visible 
manifestation of Buddha in all of his 

We spent our second and third 
nights on the mountain at the Xi Shang 
Temple at about 6500-feet elevation, 
and climbed the mountain from this 
temple. The whole trail all the way up 
and down the mountain was crowded 
with tourists enjoying the beautiful 
mountain scenery, cliffs, and trees. 
Over the centuries, the trail has been 
paved with large blocks of stone in 
most places, actually making stairs. In 

(Continued on Page 4) 

Letter From China 

(Continued from Page 3) 

Hikers up Mt. Omei. 

our whole hike, which took the better 
part of four days, we covered some 
sixty miles and rose and descended 
about 8000 feet, making nearly fifty 
collections of plants in the evening 
primose family for later study. Mount 
Omei is located about eighty miles 
from the end of the Himalayas, which 
occasionally may be viewed from its 
summit; but the weather was not clear 
enough while we were there although 
there was no rain after the first day 
and we were able to get many glimp- 
ses of the beautiful, fertile plains of 
Sichuan far below. 
Next Month Nanjing 

Dr. Croat Receives Grant 

Dr. Thomas B. Croat, P. A. Schulze 
Curator of Botany, has received a Na- 
tional Science Foundation grant of 
$171,000 for a continuation of his re- 
visionary work with the genus An- 
thurium. This work will be performed 
principally in South America. Dr. Croat 
is currently on a three-month trip in 
western South America, where he will 
be collecting in Colombia, Ecuador, 
Peru and Bolivia. This study will in- 
volve the "bird's nest" Anthuria, so 
called because of the rosette ar- 
rangement of their unusually long, 
more-or-less erect leaves that hold 
debris which is a source of nutrients 
for the plants, whose roots often grow 
up into the rosette. Dr. Croat will be 
sending back live material of the aroid 
family to add to his research collec- 
tion, which currently numbers approx- 
imately 3,000 plants, and is already 
one of the finest collections of aroids in 
the world. 


(Continued from Page 1) 

In 1976, in a Bicentennial survey of the 
A. I. A., the Climatron was named as 
one of the most significant archi- 
tectural achievements of the first 200 
years of American history. 

The mechanical and electrical sys- 
tems of the Climatron were designed 
by Paul Londe and Associates. For 
their work on these systems, the firm 
received the Actual Specifying En- 
gineers First Place Award in 1964. 
Londe and Associates also worked on 
the geodesic dome which was the vis- 
itor center at the Montreal World's Fair, 
Expo '67. In designing the systems for 
that center, Londe used the Climatron 
as a laboratory to solve the various 
problems involved in the design of the 
Expo '67 dome, specifically those 
problems pertaining to human com- 
fort, use of solar heat gain, and heat- 
ing and cooling. 

Aside from being a structure of 
architectural innovation, Went saw the 
Climatron serving another, more im- 
portant function. He envisioned it as a 
laboratory for scientists. As he wrote in 
his diary, ". . . it should be possible 
with our air-conditioned greenhouses 
to study the distribution of temperature 
and photoperiod response in the plant 
kingdom." The reader should note the 
plural greenhouses. At that time 
(1959) it was the plan to build several 
smaller domes which would be as 
"satellites" adjacent to the largest and 
first dome-greenhouse, the Climatron. 

As Harry Richman recalls, ". . . the 
design was basically for the plants and 
a plant laboratory and not for people. 
Whenever there was a decision ... to 
be made in the design, if it worked 
[well] with the growth of the plants and 
didn't disturb the laboratory that Went 
wanted . . . that was the route we 
went." The Climatron was an adapta- 
tion of principles Went had previously 
used in his development of the Phytot- 
ron — a comprehensive set of air- 
conditioned growing rooms (growth 
chambers) for plants. These principles 
were first applied to the Earhart 
Laboratory at the California Institute of 
Technology. In fact, Went thought that 
the Climatron would attract as many 
visitors as the Earhart lab did. 

To date, approximately 6,000,000 
persons have visited the Climatron. 

In the twenty years since the Clima- 
tron was opened, its role has been re- 
defined. Rather than a laboratory, the 
Garden has found that it serves best 
as a display house of tropical plants. 

Because of the temperature gradient 
— although the gradient is not as pre- 
cise as Went desired — visitors can 
see plants from several different tropi- 
cal regions in the Climatron, and be- 
cause of the dome structure, can ob- 
serve them in a setting that is close to 
a natural one. There are no pillars or 
beams to obstruct sight, as there 
would be in a traditional greenhouse. 
The dome, too, gives the effect of a 
panorama; a suggestion that one is 
not within a building, but outside. 

Bill Wagner, Supervisor of Display 
Greenhouses suggests another rea- 

son for the success of the Climatron 
as a tropical display. "99% of the 
plants [in it] are grown in soil rather 
than pots, and are planted as near as 
possible to the way they are found in 
their native habitats." 

The Climatron is also a valuable 
educational resource, as are botanical 
gardens in general. Botanical gardens 
make it possible for people-not- 
scientists to observe the variety and 
richness of the ecosystems which 
occur on earth. The Climatron, with its 
approximately 1,700 species, allows 
its visitors to gain a notion of the diver- 
sity of tropical plants, including the im- 
portant economic plants, coffee, 
banana, papaya, and the ornamental 
pieces, such as orchids. 

LETIN is published six times each year, in 
January. March. May, July, September and No- 
vember by the Missouri Botanical Garden. PO 
Box 299. St. Louis. Mo. 63166 Second class 
postage paid at St. Louis. Mo $5.00 per year 
S6.00 foreign 


(On October 27, 1980, Dr. Raven 
presented the keynote address to the 
triennial meeting of the International 
Council of Museums, in Mexico City. 

James Hester, President of the New 
York Botanical Garden, addressed the 
Henry Shaw Associates at their an- 
nual dinner on November 13, 1980. 

We publish excerpts from them, 
below. Because they are on similar 
topics, we present them as dialogue, 
although they were delivered several 
weeks apart, and in cities two- 
thousand miles from one another. We 
have indicated those excerpts from 
Dr. Raven's address by italics. Those 
from Dr. Hester are in standard type- 
face. — Editor) 

It is particularly fitting that this ad- 
dress should be made here at the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. Not only is 
this the senior garden in America but it 
and the New York Botanical Garden 
are very closely related . . . These two 
institutions share major responsibility 
for one of the most important botanical 
tasks of our time: the identification and 
conservation of as much as possible 
of the remaining flora of the rapidly 
disappearing rain forests of tropical 


* * * 

Current estimates agree that within 
a few decades all of the remaining 
tropical forests will have been seri- 
ously altered or converted to other 
forms. Since most kinds of plants, 
animals, and microorganisms are un- 
able to reproduce outside of the 
communities in which they occur 
naturally it follows that very large 
numbers of organisms will become 
extinct in the very near future. Of the 
estimated three million kinds of tropi- 
cal organisms, perhaps as many as a 
third - a million species, of which 
roughly three-quarters have not yet 
been given a name - are likely to be- 
come extinct during the next thirty 
years. This amounts to the extinction 
of a quarter of the diversity of life on 
earth during the lifetime of a majority 
of those people who are alive today. 
Very simply, this means that the scien- 
tists concerned with museum collec- 
tions, are, in effect, confronted with an 
opportunity equivalent to having a few 
decades to study living dinosaurs, or 
life on an inhabited but hitherto un- 
known planet. 

* * * 

The principal difficulty that confronts 

our basic scientific mission is that de- 
spite the dependence of sound ecolog- 
ical and conservation research and 
economic botany on basic taxonomy, 
the role of systematic taxonomic re- 
search is not now highly appreciated 
either in the academic community or in 
Washington. Botany is given a low 
priority in the academic community 
because of fascination with molecular 
biology. The same holds true in gov- 
ernment funding agencies. National 
Science Foundation funding for sys- 
tematic biology has not even kept up 
to current double-digit levels of infla- 
tion in the past few years. For exam- 
ple, in 1978 the allocation was 7.4 mil- 
lion dollars. In 1979 this rose only 
2.7% to 7.6 million dollars. The current 
year's budget represents an increase 
of 4% over last year, to 7.9 million dol- 
lars. Thus, funding for systematic biol- 
ogy has actually decreased through 
the effects of inflation, just at the time 
when we are starting to understand 
the importance of this kind of re- 
search, especially as it includes the 

Most tropical ecosystems are 
fragile, and when they are treated as 
resources to be exploited at will, the 
soils on which they grow often de- 
teriorate seriously. 

It seems to me that botanical gar- 
dens like yours and ours provide one 
of the most effective opportunities 
possible for fighting back against con- 
ditions of modern life that disrupt the 
relationship between human beings 
and the natural environment. I am sure 
many of you agree that the relation- 
ship between plants and man is vitally 
important to our mental, psychologi- 
cal, and spirtual health. The impor- 
tance of plants to man is obviously 
ignored by some who have other 
priorities. Those of us who appreciate 
and understand the importance of 
plants to human existence are fortu- 
nate that institutions like our botanical 
gardens exist and that because they 
are private institutions they give indi- 
vidual citizens substantial oppor- 
tunities to affect what is done about 
the relationship between plants and 
man in our society. 

We live in an age when the world's 
natural heritage is rapidly being re- 
duced in scope and diversity. This 
awesome fact in itself confers an 

enormous responsibility upon the 
world's scientific community and 
especially upon those responsible for 
the museums in which systematic col- 
lections of plants, animals, and micro- 
organisms are preserved. 

* * * 

Modern technology is wonderful. 
We depend on it, and most of us want 
even more of the conveniences it pro- 
vides. But the conditions of our cities 
and suburbs, more often than not, are 
offensive to basic human instincts that 
seek identity with nature that cannot 
be achieved amidst the jarring noises 
and physical intrusions of modern 
urban life. There have been studies of 
this instinct that confirm what we al- 
ready know; that we all deeply desire 
to live surrounded by trees, shrubs 
and flowers; that most people feel a 
strong personal bond with plants. 

* * * 

In a world where so much of the 
natural landscape is being altered so 
rapidly and simultaneously, it is abso- 
lutely necessary to be able to select 
efficiently those areas that could best 
be set aside so as to preserve the 
maximum number of kinds of living 
organisms. The more developed 
countries of the world would need to 
show a willingness that has thus far 
been lacking to compensate less de- 
veloped countries for setting aside 
segments of our common natural 

* * * 

No one here needs to be reminded 
of the significance today of issues 
concerning the environment, conser- 
vation, or the possibilities of greater 
use of plants for energy, food, fibre, or 
medicine. What many people do not 
realize is that these issues cannot be 
resolved without the basic knowledge 
of plants that is obtained from our field 
expeditions and the systematic 
analysis and description of plants 
made possible by our herbaria, li- 
braries and laboratories. 

* * * 

Regardless of whether those who 
are alive today realize the importance 
of current conditions or not, we live at 
a time when the sum total of organic 
diversity is being dramatically de- 
creased. The life-support systems that 
sustain us are made up of the totality 
of this diversity, and the kind of assault 
on it in which we are now collectively 
engaged, and which can be modified, 
but not halted, should be of concern 
to every citizen of every country. 


From The Members Office 

Tired of Winter? 

Join Garden Members in... 

Baja California — January 24- 
February 4, 1981. Ken Peck, Manager 
of Instructional Services and tour es- 
cort says, "This trip is geared for those 
who are interested in seeing unusual 
desert vegetation and experiencing 
the history of a culture through con- 
tacts with its people, missions and set- 
tlements. The timing of this trip should 
find temperatures quite pleasant." 

This tour will provide an opportunity 
to see an unequalled variety of desert 
flora and spectacular panoramas 
unique to this peninsula. 

Hawaii - March 21-April 4, 1981. Visit 
private gardens and estates escorted 
by Steve Frowine, Chairman of Indoor 
Horticulture. Among other places this 
tour will take you to a Dendrobium Or- 
chid Farm and the Carlsmith and Roth 
Estates on Hilo, The Kula Botanical 
Garden and an incredible protea col- 
lection on the island of Maui, the in- 
comparable garden of Mr. John Aller- 
ton on Kauai, and the Waimea and 
Lyon Arboreta and Foster Garden in 
Honolulu — plus much more! 

On Wednesday, January 7, 1981 at 
7:30 p.m. in the Auditorium of the John 
S. Lehmann Building, Steve Frowine 
will present a slide presentation featur- 
ing many of the sights included in the 
Hawaiian tour. Members are invited to 
attend and guests are welcome. If you 
can't join us on the tour, at least join us 
on January 7, 1981. 

If you'd like additional information, 
including a detailed itinerary of either 
tour, please call the Members' Office, 

Letter From the Members' 

1980 has seen the number of mem- 
berships in Missouri Botanical Garden 
increase by almost 10% — making our 
Membership one of the largest of any 
cultural institution in the area and the 
largest of any botanical garden in the 

Credit for the success of our pro- 
gram must go to our Members. It is 
you who have introduced the Garden 
to your friends and families and who 
have "spread the word" about Garden 
activities and programs. A special 

thank you goes to the many of you 
who recently gave holiday gift mem- 
berships — a wonderful way to share 
the Garden with others. 

The decade of the '80s will be a 
challenging one, but we are convinced 
that with your support, our Member- 
ship will continue to grow and the Gar- 
den will continue in its tradition of 
commitment to the community and to 
the future of the environment. 

Revision Of Membership 

As stated in the November/ 
December Bulletin, Supporting Mem- 
bers, those who make an annual 
Membership contribution greater than 
the minimum of $25 as a way of sus- 
taining the Garden and supporting its 
programs, will be provided special 
benefits. In appreciation of their gift, 
they will receive guest privileges. A 
Supporting Member may bring any 
number of guests to the Garden, 
throughout the year, free of charge. 

Beginning January 1, 1981, Support- 
ing Members may stop at the Visitor's 
Entrance, 2101 Tower Grove Avenue, 
and upon showing their card, will be 
issued a special decal to place on their 
card which will designate that they are 
entitled to guest privileges. During the 
course of 1981 when they renew their 
Membership, they will receive a new 
Supporting Member card. 

Organizational Membership 
Category Established 

The Executive Board of the Mem- 
bers has established an Organiza- 
tional Membership category to provide 
benefits suited to the needs of clubs, 
groups and other organizations. A 
minimum of $25.00 entitles an organi- 
zation to: 

— a guided tour, once a year, with 
a choice of 

— General Grounds Tour 

— Japanese Garden Tour 

— Tour of Tower Grove House 

— Library/Herbarium Tour 

— A subscription to the Missouri 
Botanical Garden Bulletin which 
includes horticultural informa- 
tion written specifically for the 
St. Louis area and listings of 
activities and events of interest. 

— Notification of Lecture Series 

— A representative of the Speakers' 
Bureau will present a program 
about the Garden to the organi- 

No Membership card will be issued. 
Instead, organizations will receive a 
letter acknowledging their Member- 
ship contribution, outlining the benefits 
including the details of how to 
schedule a tour and/or a program. 

Individuals are encouraged to be- 
come Members and enjoy added 
benefits not available to organizations. 

For further information, contact the 
Members' Office at 577-5118. 

— Lise Barr, Executive Secretary, 

Office of the Members 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ft. Hermann and Mr. C. C. Johnson Spink (R) at Henry Shaw Associates' 
Dinner. The dinner was held on November 13, 1980, at the St. Louis Club, to honor the Henry Shaw 
Associate Members who provide leadership in support of the Garden. 

Anne Lehmann And Wayne Kennedy 
Honored At Shaw Associates Dinner 

Board President, Tom K. Smith (L); Shaw Medal recipient, Anne L. Lehmann; and Greensfelder 
Award recipient, Wayne C. Kennedy, at Shaw Associates Dinner. 

Anne L. Lehmann, a long-time sup- 
porter of the Garden, and Wayne C. 
Kennedy, director of St. Louis County 
Parks, were honored at the annual 
Henry Shaw Associates Dinner, held 
on Thursday, November 13, at the 
St. Louis Club. 

Mrs. Lehmann received the Henry 
Shaw Medal, an award which the Gar- 
den initiated in 1933 to pay tribute to 
individuals who have made significant 
contributions to the Garden, or to 
botany or horticulture. Previous recip- 
ients include Dr. Julian Steyermark, 
author of the Flora of Missouri, in 
1979, and Roberto Incer Barquero, 
president of the Banco Central de 
Nicaragua, in 1978. Mrs. Lehmann is 
only the fourth person to be given the 
Shaw Medal in its forty-seven year his- 
tory; she is the first woman to be so 

She is the widow of John S. 
Lehmann, who served as president of 
the Garden Board of Trustees from 
1953-57. The Lehmann Building, in 
which the Garden's library, herbarium 
and educational facilities are housed, 
is named for him. Anne Lehmann was 
a co-founder of the Women's Execu- 
tive Committee, and was instrumental 
in the restoration of Tower Grove 
House, the 131 year old country home 

of Garden founder, Henry Shaw. In 
1972 she was named a St. Louis 
Globe-Democrat Woman of Achieve- 
ment in the category of Creative 
Philanthropy. The Anne L. Lehmann 
Rose Garden is named for her. 

Wayne C. Kennedy was presented 
with the first Albert P. and Blanche Y 
Greensfelder Award for work in 
St. Louis beautification. The 
Greensfelder Award was established 
through the Albert P. and Blanche Y 
Greensfelder Fund, and will be pre- 
sented periodically to individuals who 
have made significant contributions to 
landscape, garden and park planning, 
and designing for urban improve- 

When Mr. Kennedy was named di- 
rector of the county park system in 
1962, there were only four parks cover- 
ing a total of 400 acres. Today, there 
are 70 encompassing over 12,000 
acres. He was able to acquire much of 
the land for the county through the use 
of donations and without expending 
county funds. The parks opened under 
his direction include Queeney, 
Greensfelder and Laumier. 

In 1961, he was the recipient of the 
A.M.F. Award for the best promotion of 
recreation in the United States. That 
award was presented by then Presi- 
dent John F. Kennedy. 

Shaw Arboretum 

Shaw Arboretum is open through 
the winter, and when the snow falls, 
head for Gray Summit to enjoy the 10 
miles of snow-covered trails and ser- 
vice roads. Come early and break 
through virgin snow, or come later and 
follow the paths opened by other 
skiers. The Pinetum is extremely 
beautiful when the conifers are cov- 
ered with a white mantel and the trees 
stand rigidly against the deep blue 
winter sky. 

Bring your own equipment; the Ar- 
boretum does not give lessons. Mem- 
bers are admitted free, and the charge 
for non-members is still only one dol- 
lar. During the week the Visitor Center 
and bathrooms will be closed, but on 
weekends when it snows, the Visitor 
Center will be open for your conveni- 
ence. Also, you can make special ar- 
rangements for your group, including 
renting the Trail House with its Franklin 

Call 577-5138 for information about 
facilities and fees. 


Through Jan. 15 

Post Holiday Sale 
Garden Gate Shop 
Jan. 7 

Hawaii Lecture 
Lehmann Auditorium 
7:30 p.m. 
Steve Frowine 

Jan. 10-Feb. 1 

Food Plant Exhibit 
Mediterranean House 

Jan. 14 

"A Botanical Journey to China" 
Lecture Lehmann Auditorium 
10:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. 
Peter H. and Tamra E. Raven 
Feb. 6 

Orchid Show 
Members' Preview Party 
Feb. 7-Mar. 8 
Orchid Show 

Feb. 14 & 15. 

Orchid Cultivation Demonstration 
Plant Shop 

Feb. 28 & Mar. 1 

African Violet Society Show 
Lehmann Building 
Mark your calendar now 
Mar. 14 

Spring Flower Show opens 

in§t. Louis 


Orchids comprise the largest plant 
family in the world. Over 30,000 
species and even more hybrids rep- 
resent this impressive family which 
is spread from tropical lands to Ant- 
arctica. The vast numbers of orchid 
varieties give at least a hint of the in- 
credible diversity of flower shape, size, 
and color which this family offers the 
indoor gardener. 

As can be expected with such a 
huge group of plants, the cultural re- 
quirements do vary, but we can estab- 
lish some general guidelines. 

Orchids are divided into three 
categories depending on their temp- 
erature requirements: 
Cool: Night temperature: 50-55°F. 
Day temperature: 60-70°F. Exam- 
ples: Cymbidiums, Odontoglos- 
sums, some Paphiopedilums 
Intermediate: Night temperature: 
55-60°F. Day temperature: 68-75°F. 
Examples, Cattleyas, Eendrobiums, 
some Paphiopedilums 
Warm: Night temperature: 60-65°F 
Day temperature: 70-85°F. Exam- 
ples: Vandas, Ascocendas, 
Phalaenopsis, some Paphio- 

The intermediate and warm 
categories are easiest to maintain in 
most homes. 

With all green plants light is a critical 
element in growth. Orchids are com- 
monly divided into three categories 
depending on their light requirements: 
High Light Intensity 
(1,500 to 3,000 foot-candles) 
Vandas, Renantheras, Angraecums 
Medium Light Intensity 
(1,500 to 3,000 foot-candles 
Cattleyas, Miltonias, Ascocendas, 
Cymbidiums, Oncidiums, Odonto- 

Low Light Intensity 

(less than 1,500 foot-candles) 
Phalaenopsis, Paphiopedilums, 
Jewel Orchids (many different 

Orchids in the high light intensity 
category are not usually grown in the 
home. Those in the medium light 
category will do fine in a south or 
southeast window; those in the low 
light will do well in an east window. In 
some cases, if the afternoon tempera- 


tures on the window sill begin to soar, 
it might be necessary to lightly shade 
your plants with a sheer curtain. 

If you live in an apartment on the 
north side of the building, do not de- 
spair. Growing orchids under artificial 
light is simple; in my opinion it is easier 
and in many ways superior to growing 
plants on a window sill. When growing 
orchids under lights you can grow 
them in any space available — in the 
basement, closet or under the sink — 
and you can provide exactly the 
amount of light which they require. A 
four-foot, four-tube flourescent fixture 
will provide enough light to grow those 
plants in the middle and low-light in- 
tensity category. Medium-light plants 
like the Cattleyas and Miltonias should 
be placed under the center area of the 
tubes and those in the low-light 
category, like Phalaenopsis and 
Papiopedilums, should be put on the 
sides and ends of the tubes. I would 
recommend using a 50:50 combina- 
tion of warm-white and cool-white or 
cool-white and wide-spectrum growth 
florescent tubes. The medium-light 
plants should be placed so that the 
tips of the leaves are just a few inches 
from the tubes; those plants in the 
low-light category can be placed 6" to 
12" away. If you are determined to 
grow those plants in the high-light 
category, it can be done by using spe- 
cial very high output fluorescent tubes. 

Proper humidity is important for all 
houseplants: 50-70% is ideal. To main- 
tain this humidity level in the home it 
will be necessary to sink the potted or- 
chids in damp sphagnum moss, grow 
the potted plants on damp pebbles, or 
use a room or area humidifier. For a 
small growing room, an inexpensive 
cool-mist vaporizer is an ideal solu- 
tion. Misting the plants is frequently 
recommended as a means of increas- 
ing relative humidity, but this is seldom 

In most homes the normal convec- 
tion of air currents will provide 
adequate air circulation. If the air does 
seem stagnant, a small fan can quickly 
solve this problem. 

Watering is an art that many begin- 
ners have difficulty learning. Orchids 
with pseudobulbs (thickened stems), 
which serve as water storage organs, 
naturally do not need as frequent wat- 
ering as' those without these struc- 
tures. Plants with pseudobulbs should 
be allowed to dry off thoroughly be- 
tween waterings. This will usually 
mean watering once every 5 to 7 days 
in the spring and summer, and once 
every 10 to 14 days in the fall and 
winter. Epiphytic orchids (ones that 
naturally grow on trees), such as 
Phalaenopsis. which do not have 
pseudobulbs, usually need to be wa- 
tered about once every 3 to 5 days in 
the spring and summer, and every 6 
to 9 days in the fall and winter. 
Terrestrials (orchids which grow on 
the ground in soil), such as Pa- 
phiopedilums, should never be al- 
lowed to completely dry out. The Plant 
Shop sells different potting materials 
which are appropriate for the various 
types of orchids. 

There are many different opinions 
regarding the fertilization of orchids. If 
you are growing your orchids in bark, a 
fertilizer high in nitrogen such as Pe- 
ter's 30-10-10 is recommended. Some 
growers like to fertilize their orchids 
once every several weeks with a water 
soluble fertilizer. I have successfully 
used a slow release material called 
Osmocote, which I apply only once a 
year, every time I repot the plants. Al- 
though it has been reported by some 
that this material can burn the roots of 
orchids, I have not found this to be the 
case with my plants. 

Fortunately, orchids are relatively 
pest-free. Prevention is the key word 
in disease control. To prevent disease, 
carefully wash your pots in a special 
disinfectant like Physan or a 1:9 solu- 
tion of chlorox and water, and be care- 
ful to buy clean, disease-free plants. 
Most diseases like leaf spots and 
crown rots can be controlled with Phy- 
san or benomyl. Insects like aphids 
and mealybugs can also be controlled 
with Physan or benomyl. Insects like 
aphids and mealybugs can be con- 
trolled with malathion or Orthene; 
mites can be killed with kelthane. If 
you notice snails, you can use Zectran 
or Mesurol for control. 

— Steven A. Frowine 
Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

William E. Maritz 
Named A Trustee 

jf4s Mediterranean Food Plants Exhibit 

Board Chairman Tom K. Smith an- 
nounced that William E. Maritz, presi- 
dent of Maritz, Inc., and chairman of 
the board of Laclede's Landing Rede- 
velopment Corp., has been elected a 
member of the Garden's Board of 

Mr. Maritz, a St. Louis native, is 
president of Maritz, Inc., one of the 
largest and most successful sales and 
production motivation firms in the na- 
tion. He is a graduate of the Woodrow 
Wilson School of Public and Interna- 
tional Affairs at Princeton University 
and serves currently on the boards of 
directors of a variety of local or na- 
tional institutions, including Princeton 
University, the American Youth Foun- 
dation, the Camping and Education 
Foundation, the Cystic Fibrosis As- 
sociation, the Boy Scouts of America 
and the Regional Commerce and 
Growth Association. 

He replaces Mr. A. Timon Primm, re- 
tired executive vice-president and 
business manager for the Pulitzer 
Publishing Co., who is leaving the 
Garden Board after 16 years. During 
his board tenure, Mr. Primm worked 
principally on environmental and con- 
servation issues, and was instrumen- 
tal in the 1970 expansion of the Shaw 
Arboretum, Gray Summit, MO., to its 
current size of 2,400 acres. He was 
named an Honorary Trustee in ap- 
preciation of his contributions to the 

Often, the richness of a food ex- 
tends beyond its taste and substance. 
There are foods which symbolized, for 
the people of cultures of several mil- 
lenia ago, life, death, peace and fertil- 
ity. Others figured prominately into the 
myths which explained the seasons; 
which gave meaning to an almost in- 
comprehensible world and universe. 
This is especially true of certain food 
plants which are found in the five 
Mediterranean regions of the world. 

The pomegranate, not the apple, is 
considered by some to be the fruit of 
the "tree of knowledge" which, when 
consumed, caused Adam and Eve to 
be banished from Eden. That same 
fruit was the indirect cause of winter, 
according to the ancient Greeks. Per- 
sephone, who was the daughter of 
Demeter, goddess of the earth, was 
kidnapped by Pluto and carried off to 
his kingdom of the dead. Through the 
intercession of Zeus, Persephone was 
returned to her mother. But since she 
had eaten food — a single pomegra- 
nate — while she was with Pluto, she 
was compelled to return to him once a 
year, for three months. During those 
months, Demeter grieves and the 
earth is barren, since she does not 
tend it; we have winter. 

The consequences of our eating the 
pomegranate are not severe, as they 
were for Adam, Eve and Persephone. 
On the contrary the fruit is a rich one, 
the meat, seeds and juice of which can 
be enjoyed. 

The first sherbet was made by com- 

bining the juice of the pomegranate 
with snow. 

Another food plant of the Mediterra- 
nean, the olive, is the symbol for 
peace. It was an olive branch that the 
dove brought back to Noah, giving him 
the sign that the deluge waters were 
receding and that land was beginning 
to appear once more in the world. In 
parts of Italy, some people still hang an 
olive branch over their doors to keep 
evil away. 

The fruit of the olive can be eaten in 
all stages of ripening, from green to 
black, which is the color of the ripe 

Some growers cultivate olive trees 
only for olive oil, which is pressed from 
the fruit. Approximately one million 
tons are produced each year, with one 
hundred pounds of the fruit yielding 
about thirteen to fourteen pounds of 
oil. The finest quality oil is cold- 
pressed from ripe fruit; it is practically 
odorless. To determine the quality of 
the oil, pour a few drops into your palm 
and rub both palms together. Smell the 
aroma in your cupped hands. The 
stronger the odor, the less pure the oil. 

The olive and the pomegranate, as 
well as the grape and the fig will be 
among approximately forty plants fea- 
tured in the Food Plant Exhibit in the 
Garden's Mediterranean House from 
January 10 to February 1, 1981. There 
is no charge for admission to the 
show, over the usual fee to enter the 
Garden. Members of course are ad- 
mitted free. 

Botanist Proposes Antarctic Gene Bank 

In mid-October, Dr. Boguslaw 
Molski, Director of the Botanic Garden 
of the Polish Academy of Sciences in 
Warsaw, visited the Garden. He was 
visiting botanical institutions in the 
United States in conjunction with a 
project he has proposed to establish a 
plant gene bank in the Antarctic. His 
reasons for constructing a gene bank 

The King George Island facility where the gene bank would be located. 

there were two. First, the Antarctic is a 
continent which falls under the gover- 
nance of no single country, and there- 
fore any scientific installation there 
would be accessible to scientists of all 
nations with no bureaucratic interfer- 
ence. Second, gene banks which now 
exist are dependent on sources of 
electricity to maintain temperatures 
cool enough to preserve the seeds 
held within the banks. Because energy 
has become such a costly commodity, 
Dr. Molski sought a location in which 
the amount of energy required was 
minimal. The temperatures in the Ant- 
arctic are low enough to preserve 
seeds with no additional energy ex- 
pense necessary. The gene bank 
would be located on King George Is- 
land, South Shetlands. The Antarctic. 

cTVews c£Notes 

The Garden In Winter 

If, by the time you're reading this, 
you're tired of the grey, cold and 
snowy days of winter, there are a few 
suggestions of places you might visit 
in the Garden to forget, for an hour or 
two, the unkind weather. 

Outside, the Japanese Garden is 
beautiful, especially in the snow. It was 
designed with consideration of the 
Japanese tradition of snow-as-flower. 
The English Woodland Garden is 
serene under a white mantle. 

Inside, the four display greenhouses 
are not only warm, but also pleasing. 
In the Linnaean House, the oldest 
operating greenhouse west of the Al- 
legheny Mountains, camellias bloom 
in late January and in February. The 
house will be especially nice this 
winter because of recently completed 

From February 7 to March 8, the 
Orchid Show comes to the Climatron; 
we will celebrate the Climatron's twen- 
tieth anniversary concurrently with the 
show. The Mediterranean House, 
where you will find the Food Plant 
Exhibit from January 10 to February 1, 
is at its peak during the early winter; 
that is whem most of its plants are in 
bloom. And the Desert House — well, 
in the midst of cacti, it becomes dif- 
ficult to remember that outside it is ten 
degrees and snowing. 

Special, heated trams run during the 
winter, so it is possible to tour the 
grounds and keep warm simultane- 

Also, snow is removed quickly and 
efficiently from the parking lots and all 
Garden paths, so that our visitors can 
enjoy the Garden and not be troubled 
by the white stuff that we all get so 
tired of, so quickly. 

Post-Holiday Sale 

The Garden Gate Shop's post- 
holiday sale, which began on De- 
cember 26, will continue during Janu- 
ary, until the 15th. Decorations and gift 
items are being offered to members at 
special, reduced prices. 

Tower Grove House will be closed for 
two months, from Monday, January 5, 
1981, through Saturday, February 
28, 1981, for housecleaning and refur- 
bishing. It will reopen for visitors on 
Sunday, March 1, 1981. 

Plant Shop: Winter Flowers 

During January and February, The 
Plant Shop will have camellias in 
bloom at the same time these flowers 
are blooming in the Linnaean House. 

Also, in conjunction with the Orchid 
Show, The Plant Shop will feature an 
excellent assortment of orchids, in all 
price ranges. According to Debbie 
Colombo, manager of the shop, 
"Some people think that orchids are 
difficult to grow, but really, anyone who 
has had success with ordinary house 
plants should be able to grow orchids. 
We'll have several species that are 
fairly easy to care for, including 
Phalaenopsis (moth orchid) and 
Paphiopedilum (lady slippers). And 
we always have plant-care sheets for 
every plant we sell.'' The plant-care 
sheets are available at no cost, on re- 
quest, with every purchase in the 

Most of the orchids will be either in 
bud or in bloom. Young plants will also 
be available. 

China Lecture Scheduled 

Peter and Tamra Raven will present 
a lecture "A Botanical Journey to 
China," describing their recent trip to 
the Peoples Republic of China, on 
Wednesday, January 14, 1981, in the 
Lehmann Building Auditorium at 10:30 
a.m., and 8:00 p.m. The program is 
open to all members and their guests. 

Orchid Show 

The annual Orchid Show will come 
to the Climatron on February 7, 1981, 
and will continue until March 8. On 
February 14 and 15, there will be 
orchid cultivation demonstrations. 
Garden Members are invited to visit 
the Orchid Show, and the Climatron 
during our celebration of its twen- 
tieth anniversary. 

Shaw, Engelmann Papers 

Inventories of the Henry Shaw and 
George Engelmann Papers, a task 
which has been in progress for the 
past year, under the auspices of the 
National Historic and Public Records 
Commission, is now complete. The in- 
ventories, and access to the Shaw and 
Engelmann Papers through them, are 
now available to qualified researchers 
and scholars. Application should be 
made through the Garden library. 

Rosalie Hinch Named To 
New Garden Post 

Dr. Raven announced that Rosalie 
Hinch, a former Famous-Barr advertis- 
ing executive, has been named an As- 
sistant Director for the Garden. She 
will direct the newly established Divi- 
sion of Marketing. 

"The establishment of this division 
represents a new direction for us." he 
said. "It is an indication of our ongoing 
commitment to community service and 
our intentions to provide new pro- 
grams and new services to the people 
of the St. Louis area." 

The new division will include the 
Publications and Special Events De- 
partments, and the Plant Shop, Gar- 
den Gate Shop and Greenery Restau- 

"It's a reorganization as well as a 
new direction," said Dr. Raven. "We 
hope it will help us to be more efficient 
in meeting the changing needs of our 
constituency. And we feel fortunate to 
have found an individual of Ms. 
Hindi's experience and ability to direct 
the new division." 

Ms. Hinch, who holds a bachelor of 
journalism degree from the University 
of Missouri-Columbia, has also served 
as reporter and feature writer for the 
Baton Rouge (LA) Morning Advocate 
and as assistant director of publicity, 
Baton Rouge Department of Public 

Education Department 
Planning Spring Programs 

Several new programs will be of- 
fered by the Education Department in 
its spring schedule of classes. Accord- 
ing to Judy Studer, Chairman of the 
Education Department, "We want to 
make courses available that will help 
people in their own gardening, 
whether they grow vegetables in large, 
backyard plots, or in just a few pots on 
a sun porch. The emphasis will be on 
the practical. Where do you plant an 
azalea? What about using ground 
covers instead of grass? That sort of 
thing. We're considering courses in 
home landscaping, fruit trees, decorat- 
ing with plants, and the operation of 
small greenhouses. We're very ex- 
cited about the possibility of offering 
some of these to the community." 

The final schedule of programs will 
be announced in early February. For 
further information, call 577-5140. 


America's Best! Botanical Garden 

C. Paul Luongo, in his book America's Best! 100 (Sterling 
Publishing Co., 1980) designates the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den as the best botanical garden in the country. The entry, 
appearing on page 38, describes the facets of the Garden 
which caused him to select it, including the Japanese Gar- 
den, the Climatron, the rose gardens, Tower Grove House, 
and the Linnaean House. He also commends the Garden for 
its scientific work. 


Walter Thompson 

Walter Thompson, volunteer in the 
library archives, died October 14, 

He had worked in the Corps of 
Engineers library after leaving the 
service, gaining knowledge which 
was invaluable in his work with the 
Garden's biographical files. 

His quality of "mother wit", as 
another volunteer called it, as well 
as his quiet meticulous work, will be 
missed by all at the library. 

(Required by 39 U.S.C. 3685). 

Publication No 00266507 

2. Date of Filing: November 4, 1980 

3. Frequency of issues: Bi-monthly — 6 issues per year $5.00 per 

4. Location of known office of Publication: 2345 Tower Grove Av- 
enue. St. Louis, Missouri 63110 

5. Location of the Headquarters or General Business Offices of the 
Publishers: 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 

6. Names and complete addresses of publisher and editor are: 
Publisher: Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, 
MO 63166. Editor: Joseph M Schuster; PO. Box 299, St. 
Louis. M0 63166 

7. Owner: Missouri Botanical Garden. P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, 
Missouri 63166 

8. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders 
owning or holding 1 percent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities: None 

9. The purpose, function and nonprofit status of this organization 
and the exempt status for Federal income tax purposes has not 
changed during preceding 12 months. Authorized to mail at 
special rates (Section 132.122, PSM) 

10. Extent and nature of circulation: 

Average no. copies 

Actual no. copies 

each issue during 

of single issue 

preceding 12 

published nearest 


to filing date 


Total no. copies 




(Net Press Run) 


Paid Circulation 
1 . Sales through 
dealers and 
carriers, street 
vendors and 

counter sales 



2 Mail subscriptions 

12 000 



Total paid circulation 

12 000 



Free distribution by 
mail, carrier or other 
means samples, 
complimentary and 

other free copies 




Total distribution 




Copies not distributed 
1. Office use, 



spoiled after 




2. Returns from 

news agents 




Total (Sum of E. F1 
and 2 — should 
equal net press run 

shown in A) 



I certify that the statement made by me above is correct and 


(Signed) Joseph M. Schuster, Editor 

Manager of Publications 



Echo Valley Foundation 


Dr./Mrs. Arthur Auer 
Mr./Mrs. James M. Beggs 
Mr. Tom Blank 
Mr. Charles H. DeCiechi 
Dr./Mrs. E. S. Hallinger 
Mr. Paul T. James 
Mr./Mrs. D. B. Jenks 
Dr. Robert L. Quaas 
Mr./Mrs. John R. Roberts 
Mr./Mrs. Henry T. Schlapp 
Schnuck Markets, Inc. 
Drs. Kevin and Chris Smith 


Mrs. Mary E. Baer 

Mr./Mrs. Charles Baker 

Mr./Mrs. S. F. Bennett 

Mr./Mrs. Jim Branhan 

Mrs. Oscar E. Buder 

Mr./Mrs. Richard E. Butler 

Mr./Mrs. Clarann Budke 

Dr./Mrs. Ralph Capp 

Mrs. Theo. P. Desloge, Jr. 

Mr. B. L. Duchinsky 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Duddy 

Mrs. Theodore C. Eggers 

Mrs. Michelle C. Fennessey 

Mr. Edward M. Finkelstein 

Mr./Mrs. Eugene W. Frederich 

Mrs. Helen Gantcheff 

Dr./Mrs. Charles 0. Gerfen 

Mr./Mrs. Israel Goldberg 

Mr./Mrs. Harold S. Goodman 

Mr./Mrs. Frank J. Grindler, Jr. 

Mr. Michael G. Gunn 

Mr Robert E. Hill 

Mrs. Mildred C. Hines 

Mr./Mrs. M. Kataoka 

Mrs. Richard J. Kantzman 

Mr./Mrs. E. 0. Klein 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph Kutten 

Mr./Mrs. Walter G. Majtas, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Mass 

Mr./Mrs. Francis J. McKeon, Jr. 

Mrs. Margaret Meinhardt 

Mr. Owen H. Mitchell 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley Moon 

Mr. James A. Morrell 

Mr./Mrs. Gilbert G. Munroe 

Mrs. John C. Naylor 

Mr. George A. Newton 

Fr. Lammert Otten, S.J. 

Dr. Virginia H. Peden 

Mrs. Robert Powers 

Ms. Sandra Posen 

Mr./Mrs. Louis Putzel 

Ms. Mary W. Ross 

Mrs. James S. Schindler 

Mr./Mrs. John A. Semmelmeyer 

Mr./Mrs. Wallace H. Smith 

Mrs. Karl Spencer 

Mr./Mrs. G. C. Stribling, Jr. 

Mr. James G. Thompson 

Mr./Mrs. Thomas B. Thompson, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Jacob Van Dyke 

Mr./Mrs. D. Wallace Weil 

Mr. Eldon Weinhaus 

Mr./Mrs. W. M. Whitmire 

Mr. Jack L. Williams 

Mr./Mrs. Robert S. Yates 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Sterling Alexander's 
50th Wedding Anniversary 

Mr./Mrs. Herbert Kipp 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom's 
40th Wedding Anniversary 

Mr./Mrs. Charles D. P Hamilton 
Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 
Mr./Mrs. Boardman Jones, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 
Mrs. John Schoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl L. A. Beckers' 
50th Wedding Anniversary 

Mr./Mrs. Alan S. Atkins 
Margaret and Stanley F. Jackes 
Mr. John P. Stupp 

In Honor of Lee Blumoff 

Idah Rubin 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Kyrle Boldt's 
50th Wedding Anniversary 

Mr./Mrs. Melvin Barad 

In Honor of Mr. and Mrs. 
Frank Lewis Dinsmore's 
50th Wedding Anniversary 

Mrs. Paul Bakewell, Jr. 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. J. 0. Kramer's 
First Granddaughter 

Dorothy and Sam Rosenbloom 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Loren LaMore's 
50th Wedding Anniversary 

Mrs. Robert C. Bleikamp 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Albert H. LeRoy's 
50th Wedding Anniversary 

Milton L. Daugherty 

In Honor of Mrs. Francis Mesker 

Paul and Eleanor Ring 

In Honor of the Birth of Mr. and Mrs. 
M. D. Manesberg's New 
Granddaughter and Grandson 

Dorothy and Sam Rosenbloom 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. 0. W. Rash, 
Ill's Anniversary 

Mr./Mrs. Carl Kottmeier 

In Appreciation of 
Tamra Engelhorn Raven 

St. Louis Woman's Club 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. S. I. Rothschild's 
40th Wedding Anniversary 

Peggy Hellman 
Mr./Mrs. Nicholas Scharff 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Don Samuels' 
Special Anniversary 

Frank and Janis Gollub 

In Honor of 
Mrs. Joseph (Meriam) Schaefer's 
75th Birthday 

Mrs. Gerald Eder 

In Honor of Mrs. Helene Semple 

Claybreakers Garden Club 

In Honor of 
Rodger and Mary Shultz's 
40th Wedding Anniversary 

Elizabeth and John Kouri 

In Honor of 
Mr. and Mrs. Whitelaw T. Terry's 
Golden Wedding Anniversary 

Mrs. Raoul Pantaleoni 

In Honor of Mr. Jay Tohtz 

Four Seasons Garden Club 

In Memory of Roy W. Accola 

Miss Jeanette Rammelsburg 

In Memory of Bertha Benner 

Mrs. Norman Schaumburg 

In Memory of Mrs. Bick 

Mrs. Paul von Gontard 

In Memory of Karel Bruce 

Mr./Mrs. D. 0. Boettler 
Mr./Mrs. William R. Frielingsdorf 
Mr./Mrs. William M. Haack 
Mr./Mrs. George Nikolajevich 

In Memory of Dorothy Bryson 

Mrs. D. B. Ayars 

In Memory of Dr. Rolf Buchdahl 

Dr./Mrs. William E. Koerner 

In Memory of Ernest Camos 

Ladybug Garden Club 

In Memory of Mrs. Betty Cope 

Mr./Mrs. M. S. Van Devanter 

In Memory of Mary Buchanan Drew 

Mr./Mrs. Calvin H. East 
Mr./Mrs. John J. Reed 

In Memory of 
Mrs. Ruth Edom Fogarty 

Mrs. Beelis 0. Burkitt 

Mrs. Clifford L. Lamar 

Mrs. L. A. Morrison 

Jerry and Mary Phelan 

Mr./Mrs. V. James Rosengreen 

Agnes M. Sauer 

Mrs. Frederick Schuermann 

Employees of 

Southwest Medical Center 

Dr./Mrs. W. P Stewart 

Dr./Mrs. L. J. Tolmach 

Mrs. Estelle E. Zukoski 

In Memory of 
Katherine Hannah Graham 

Philip E. Graham 

In Memory of Nicolai De Gubaretf 

Mr./Mrs. L. N. Mattson 

In Memory of Sidney Holtzman 

Mrs. Gloria Hogbin 

In Memory of Mr. Edward A. Korn 

Dr./Mrs. Michael Glines 

In Memory of Martha Langhoff 

Mr./Mrs. Lester Adelson 
Mrs. Ruth A. Robinson 

In Memory of Charles D. Long 

Mr/Mrs. Edwin R. Waldemer 

In Memory of Clarence J. Maender 

Irwin R. Harris 

In Memory of Mr. and Mrs. 
Edward Mallinckrodl, Jr. 

John and Anita Schoenherr 

In Memory of Mrs. Helen Margaretta 

Miss Jeanette Ramelsburg 

In Memory of 
Louise Marie (Canova) Preston 

Mr./Mrs. Ray E. Oberkramper 

In Memory of Mr. Leslie Ruble 

Mrs. Dent McSkimming 

Member of 

The Arts and Education 
Fund of Greater St. Louis 


In Memory of 
Mrs. Carroll Smith (Eleanor) 

Mrs. Lloyd C. Stark 

In Memory of Mr. J. G. Taylor Spink 

Mr. C. C. Johnson Spink 

In Memory of Mr. Henry J. Sprenger 

Good Earth Garden Club 
Mr/Mrs. John B. Kirchner 

In Memory of Mr. George M. Start 

Mary and Kenneth Tisdel 

In Memory of Mrs. Dekle Taylor 

Dr /Mrs Ben H. Senturia 

In Memory of Kasumi Teshigahara 

St. Louis Chapter. 

Ikebana International 
In Memory of Walter Thompson 

Friends in the Library 

In Memory of Dr. Henry P. Thym 

Dorothy Fleshman 
Phil Frankel 
Karen Krager-Palmer 
Harva Kennedy 
Kathy Lane 
Carla Lange 
Vera Maeser 
Barbara Mykrantz 

Marge Purk 

Jim Reed 

Rosemary Rudde 

Clara Szabados 

In Memory of Mr. James Travilla 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

In Memory of 

Clarence and Lottie Williams 
Gerry and Marian Barnholtz 
In Memory of 

Mrs. Minnie Witterschein 
Mr./Mrs. M. S. Van Devanter 
In Memory of Miss Alice Wittkopf 
Adah W. Fantilli 

Hildegarde Wunderlich 

In Memory of Mrs. Hazel Zbaren 

Mr./Mrs. Carl Kottmeier 

Seasons Greetings to 
Dr. and Mrs. Marvin Cornblath 

Dr./Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Seasons Greetings to 
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Swanson 

Dr./Mrs Ben H. Senturia 

Seasons Greetings to 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Prince 

Dr./Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Thank you very much for taking the time to show us the Japanese Garden. It is the most impressive Japanese garden I have ever seen outside of 
Japan. I wish to commend you most sincerely for this achievement. " - from a letter to Dr Raven from Yoshio Okawara. Ambassador of Japan. 


PO. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 







Volume LXIX, N timber 2 
March/April 1981 





9,981 Years In a Garden 

"There is no ancient gentleman but gardeners.... they hold 
up Adam 's profession. " —Shakespeare 

Hamlet, Act V, Scene 1 
If we are to accept certain implications of Genesis, then 
it appears that the first garden (Eden) required no tending 
and that the only labor re- 
quired of our first ances- 
tors was to pick the fruit, 
nuts and vegetables and 
eat them, according to 

Since that time, how- 
ever, man has had to exert 
some amount of energy to 
bring forth even a small 
crop. As Charles Dudley 
Warner says, in My Sum- 
mer in a Garden, "What a 
man needs in gardening is 
a cast-iron back, with a 
hinge in it." 

The origins of garden- 
ing are found in agricul- 
ture, with the earliest culti- 
vators of food found near 
Jericho in Palestine about 
8,000 B.C. These earliest 
gardens were strictly utilitarian, and it wasn't until about the 
fifteenth century B.C. in Egypt that people began making 
gardens decorative in design. 

It is a common theory that the roots of agriculture lie in a 
time of severe famine; that a community of early men could 
not depend on the capricious yield of the earth for their food 
and so began a systematic cultivation of food plants to en- 
sure their survival. Others dispute this theory, claiming that 
faced with the peril of starvation men would not have had 
sufficient time or determination to develop techniques of 
:ultivation which would yield the food necessary for their 
survival. They propose that cultivation and agriculture rose 
Dut of deliberate, methodical experiments. 

But, whether it was a desperate measure or a carefully 
Jeveloped science, agriculture arose and was one of the 
principal contributors to the establishment of civilization, 
since once man had the ability to cultivate the earth, stable 
societies were able to form. Whereas hunter-gatherer tribes 
vere nomadic, moving with the sources of food, agricultural 
:ommunities could remain in one place since they con- 
rolled, to some degree, their food supplies. Too, individuals 
:o-operated in the cultivation and so formed societies 

based on this co-operation. 

This early cultivation was limited principally to food 
crops which were easy to grow, edible roots and some 
fruits; plants which could be cultivated using the simplest 
of tools— digging and picking implements made of animal 


Later, medicinal herbs 
were cultivated, with a 
herbal record appearing in 
Sumer (Iraq, today) about 
the third millennium B.C. 
These herbs required 
watering, and it was the 
Sumerians who developed 

Once communities had 
moved beyond subsis- 
tence level, they could be- 
gin growing plants for 
qualities other than food 

Besides Egypt, the an- 
cient Greeks, Romans and 
Chinese contributed 
much to the art of decora- 
tive gardening. The Hang- 
ing Gardens of Babylon 
(Sumer), one of the "seven wonders of the ancient world" 
were constructed between the late-sixth and early-ninth 
century, B.C. 

Plants were so much a part of the lives of Romans that 
they were the first to make gardens an essential extension 
of their homes. Many apartment dwellers, owning no land, 

(continued on page 4) 

Tax District Support 

The League of Women Voters of Metropolitan St. 
Louis will support the effort of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden to become a sub-district of the Zoo-Museum Tax- 
ing District so that the Garden will be able to receive pub- 
lic funds from the property tax. The League reached this 
support position after a comprehensive study of the Zoo- 
Museum Taxing District and member discussion of the 
issues pertinent to the future of the District. The League 
considers the Missouri Botanical Garden an important 
cultural asset to the community and deserving of public 
financial support. 



I am pleased to say that work is pro- 
gressing well on the new Visitor Center at 
the Garden's north end. McCarthy Broth- 
ers, the contractor for the project, reports 
that the Center should be completed by 
the end of the year. Later in this Bulletin 
are details on the project, including a de- 
scription of the features currently under 
contract for construction. 
I am also happy to report that the Garden received a major 
challenge grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, 
becoming the first botanical institution to receive such a 

It is the purpose of challenge grants to motivate institu- 
tions such as ours to raise additional funds to meet the 
grants. The N.E.A. grant is a one to four match, for capital 
funds raised in 1981. That is, for each four dollars we receive 
this year from other sources, they will match with one dollar. 
Our goal then, to meet their challenge, is $1.4 million. 

We are grateful that the N.E.A. has acknowledged, in such 
a concrete manner, the important work conducted here in 
horticulture, education and botany. It is only through such 
generous help that we can maintain and continue our vital 

The history and progress of the Garden are inseparably 
bound with the generosity of its many benefactors, large and 
small, and I would like to thank all those who have contrib- 
uted to the Garden. I want also to thank, in advance, all who, 
through their gifts and pledges to the Capital Fund during the 
year, will enable us to reach our goal motivated by this N.E.A. 
challenge grant. .— ^ , ^-> 


3 Letter from China— Conclusion 

by Peter H. Raven, with photographs by Tamra 
E. Raven 

5 Gardening in St. Louis 

Steve Frowine writes on Getting Ready for Spring 

6-7 From the Members' Office 

Spring, Lectures and a Grant 

8 Board of Trustees Elect New President 
Interviews with Tom K. Smith, Jr. and C. C. 
Johnson Spink 

9 N.E.A. Challenge Grant to Assist in Visitor Center 

11 Calendar 

March and April in the Garden 

DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo. 
63166. Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
$6.00 foreign. 



Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr. /Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

/Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 
/Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell. Jr. 
/Mrs. Clarence C. Barksdale 
Mr. /Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 
Mr. /Mrs. Albert Blanke. Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder. Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 
/Mrs. John G. Buettner 
Edward G. Cherbonnier 
3. F. T. Childress 
Fielding L. Childress 
/Mrs. Gary A. Close 
./Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 
/Mrs. William H. Danforth 
./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 
s Joseph Desloge, Sr. 
Alan E. Doede 
/Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 
s. Clark P. Fiske 
/Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 
s. Florence T. Morris Forbes 
s. Eugene A. Freund 
Henry L. Freund 

/Mrs. S. E. Freund 
Samuel Goldstein 
/Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 
Clarence R. Goodrich 
/Mrs. W. L. H. Griffin 
>. H. C. Grigg 
/Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 
s. John H. Hayward 
/Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 
/Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 
/Mrs. James H. Howe, III 
/Mrs. Lee Hunter 
;. John Kenneth Hyatt 
Mr. /Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 
Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 
Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 
Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 
Mrs. Irene C. Jones 
Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 
Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 
Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 
Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 
Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 
Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 
Mrs. John A. Latzer 
Mr. Thomas F. Latzer 
Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 
Mrs. John S. Lehmann 
Miss Martha I, Love 
Mrs. Jane S Luehrmann 
Mr. H. Dean Mann 
Mrs. James S. McDonnell 
Mr. Roswell Messing, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 
Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 
Mr. Thomas Moore 
Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 
Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 
Mr. Spencer T. Olin 
Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein. Jr. 
Miss Jane E. Piper 
Miss Julia Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 
Capt. William R. Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Herman T. Pott 
Mr./Mrs. A Timon Primm, III 
Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 
Mrs. G. Kenneth Robins 
Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 
Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 
Mrs. William H. Schield 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 
Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

/Mrs Warren M. Shapleigh 
s. John M. Shoenberg 
./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 
./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg. Jr. 
./Mrs. John E. Simon 
./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
s. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 
./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 
s Sylvia N. Souers 
./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
s. Hermann F. Spoehrer 

/Mrs Cornelias F. Stueck 
ss Lillian L. Stupp 

/Mrs. Edgar L. Taylor, Jr. 

/Mrs. Jack Turner 

/Mrs. James Walker 

I. Horton Watkins 

/Mrs. Richard K. Weil 

l. S. A. Weintraub 

i. Ben H. Wells 

/Mrs. 0. Sage Wightman, III 

/Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 

>. John M. Wolff 
ss F. A. Wuellner 

/Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 

/Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 


Mr. Patrick Ackerman 
Mr. Kenneth Balk 
Mr./Mrs. Carl Beckers 
Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 
Ms. Allison R. Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 
Mr. Joseph C. Champ 
Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 
Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 
Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Mr./ Mrs. Edward E. Haverstick 
Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr./Mrs. B. F. Jackson 
Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 
Mrs. Leighton Morrill 
Mr./Mrs. Charles W. Oertli 
Mrs. Henry E. Papin, Jr. 
Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 
Mrs Miquette M. Potter 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 
Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 
Mrs. Mason Scudder 
Mr. Frank H. Simmons 
Miss Harriett J. Tatman 
Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 
Mr./Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Robert Kittner 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H. 


Letter From China — Conclusion 

From Shanghai we departed on Sep- 
tember 2 by train for Nanjing, Sister City of 
St. Louis. Building on a relationship that 
began even before Nanjing and St. Louis 
became sister cities, the Sun Yat-sen Me- 
morial Botanical Garden in Nanjing and 
the Missouri Botanical Garden have estab- 
lished a close, working relationship. The 
assistant director of the Nanjing Botanical 
Garden, Professor Sheng Cheng-kui, vis- 
ited St. Louis as a member of the Chinese 
Botanical Delegation in 1979, and was 
very impressed with our facilities at the 
Garden and Arboretum. When our train ar- 
rived in Nanjing we were greeted by Pro- 
fessor Sheng and by the director of the in- 
stitute, Professor Shan Jen-hua, who com- 
pleted his Ph.D. at the University of Cali- 
fornia in Berkeley in 1949, just a few years 
before I arrived in the same department. 
Professor Shan, Sheng, and their entire 
staff were exceedingly hospitable during 
our stay in Nanjing. In our orientation sessions at the Botan- 
ical Garden, they presented us with a beautifully prepared 
volume that contained newspaper articles from both Chi- 
nese and American papers celebrating the establishment of 
the Sister City relationship between Nanjing and St. Louis, 
photographs of plants taken in both gardens, as well as bo- 
tanical literature for our library. The commemorative volume 
will be a treasured memento in the archives of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. 

We have been exchanging seeds of plants with the Nan- 
jing Botanical Garden since 1974, and some of them have 
already proved successful in our Garden. When Professor 
Sheng was here in 1979 he was particularly pleased to see 
large specimens of Zelkova schneideriana, an attractive 
small tree in the elm family, growing near the Homeyer 
Water Basin along the west side of the lake in our Japanese 
Garden, and also just outside the Administration Building in 
the area south of the Shoenberg Fountain. 

In turn, when we visited Nanjing we were very pleased to 
see plants of several species of gumweed, Grindelia, grow- 
ing in the experimental fields from seeds that we had ob- 
tained for them by correspondence from the western United 
States. The staff of the Nanjing Botanical Garden were test- 
ing these as a possible commercial source of gum. 

One of the striking uses we saw was that of a plant of the 
sunflower family, Sfew'a rebauldiana, which originally came 
from Paraguay and had been cultivated as an artificial 
sweetener in Japan. A small taste of a leaf of this plant im- 
mediately reveals it as containing high concentrations of an 
artificial sweetener much more potent than sugar. Obtain- 
ing seeds of this plant from Japan, the staff of the Nanjing 
Botanical Garden has converted it into a commercial crop 
in Jiangsu Province which, for the first time in 1980 was 
able to export 12 tons of dried leaves back to Japan. Pro- 
duction should increase considerably in the future. 

The climate at Nanjing is much milder than the climate in 
St. Louis, with temperatures below the 20's extremely rare. 
At Nanjing, the staff of the botanical garden was much con- 
cerned with developing hardy strains of olives, which they 
had done successfully and which are now being grown as a 

Professor Chen Shu-Hang (left), Professor Shan, 
Dr. Raven, and Professor Sheng (in front of 
Dr. Raven), examining specimens in the herbarium 
at Nanjing. 

commercial crop in Jiang- 
su Province. 

Notwithstanding the 
fact that our climate is 
much more severe, many 
of the plants that can be 
grown in Nanjing will suc- 
ceed here, and we plan to 
enlarge and extend our ex- 
change of living material 
in the future. Seedlings of 
Missouri oaks and other 
native trees were in the 

A gate at the tomb of Sun Ya t-sen in 

nurseries at Nanjing, having been grown from material col- 
lected by the garden staff and other materials kindly sup- 
plied to us by the Missouri Department of Conservation. 
During the time we were in Nanjing, and elsewhere in 
China, we were able to collect seeds of a number of inter- 
esting plants and to take notes on others which we will ob- 
tain in the future from our Chinese colleagues to test in the 
St. Louis area. 

In addition to this important exchange of plant material, 
we are also actively exchanging botanical literature with 
Nanjing, Kunming, and Beijing, enhancing the Garden's li- 
brary in this way and insuring that we have a full coverage 
of Chinese botanical literature for students to use here in 
St. Louis. We will also exchange herbarium specimens, es- 
pecially of grasses. We have on our staff a scientist who 
specializes in this family of plants, the most economically 
important group of plants in the world: Dr. Gerrit Davidse of 
our staff and Miss Chen Shu-liang of the staff in Nanjing. 

Another exciting area of research being pursued by the 
staff of the Nanjing Botanical Garden concerns air pollu- 
tion. One of their departments is concerned with testing 
plants for resistence to air pollution. They do this principally 
by two methods: one, by drawing air containing common at- 
mospheric pollutants through cabinets and noting the reac- 
tions of plants exposed to the air. Second, in cooperation 
with the various utilities found in the Nanjing area, by con- 

(continued on page 4) 

9,981 Years In a Garden 

(continued from page 1) 

grew plants on window ledges and 
roofs, as do urban residents in our 

The Romans, however, did not origi- 
nate the cultivation of plants in con- 
tainers, as there is evidence of plants 
grown in pots in Egypt as early as the 
twenty-first century B.C. In fact, the 
Romans appear not to have been inno- 
vators in gardening, but were impor- 
tant because of their adaptation and 
development of techniques learned 
from other societies. 

As men became more experienced, 
over the millenia, in the cultivation of 
plants, they were able to devise tech- 
niques which would ensure greater 
success in raising plants. 

Theophrastus, who is called "Fath- 
er of Botany" and who was a contem- 
porary of Aristotle— in fact, Aristotle 
bequeathed his garden to Theophras- 
tus— set forth several practical culti- 
vation techniques. He saw the need 
for the presowing treatment of seeds, 
suggesting soaking cucumber seeds 
in milk or water for quicker germina- 
tion, and was also the first to write of 
starting plants from cuttings. He also 
understood that manure had a warm- 
ing effect on soil; he claimed that by 
spreading it over land, a gardener 
would gain a twenty-day start com- 
pared with ground not covered by 
manure. The use of manure as fertiliz- 
er was first recorded about 3,000 B.C. 
in Egypt. 

Columella, a Roman of the first cen- 
tury B.C., described a simple method 
of soil testing. Dampened soil was 
kneaded in the hand, and if it "sticks 
to the fingers of the person holding it, 
in the manner of a pinch, it is fertile." 

Other methods of soil testing which 
were suggested through the ages in- 
clude the reliance on soil color as an 
indication of quality— the darker the 
soil, the better; using taste to deter- 
mine quality— making a mixture of 
soil and water and tasting it, after 
straining, with a sweet-tasting mixture 
being made of good soil, and sour- 
tasting mixture of poor soil; and a test 
which required the gardener dig a hole 
and then try to refill it with the dirt he 
removed— if after pressing it with his 
foot, there was an excess, it was fer- 
tile, since poor soil would not fill the 

By the end of the middle-ages gar- 
deners were aware of the need for soil 
quality and that different plants had 
different soil requirements. 

Throughout the history of garden- 
ing, men have fought garden pests by 
various means. Two methods, which 
were suggested about 1800 years 
apart from one another, are not recom- 

Columella advised leaving placa- 
tory sacrifices for gods to ensure a 
pest free garden. And in 1742, Peter 
Kalm wrote of someone who sug- 
gested keeping pet sea-gulls "for de- 
vouring little beasts injurious to kitch- 
en gardens." 

This spring, the Garden presents 
several programs designed to instruct 
the individual gardener in the best 
techniques for his own garden. These 
programs include both courses and 
lectures, details of which are printed 
elsewhere in this Bulletin. 

There is also a Demonstration Veg- 
etable Garden which will open within 
the next two months, and planned to 
show the possible vegetables, com- 
mon and unusual, which can be culti- 
vated in this area, as well as to demon- 
strate, by example, efficient methods 
of the cultivation of these vegetables. 

Another source of information for 
the St. Louis gardener is the library lo- 
cated on the second floor of the John 
S. Lehmann Building. Members of the 
Garden are invited and encouraged to 
use the library, and a special collec- 
tion of books on horticulture are avail- 
able for members to borrow on a lim- 
ited basis. 

Finally, the Garden's Answerman 
Service recommences operation in 
March. Members with questions or 
problems pertaining to their lawns, 
gardens, trees or houseplants may 
call the Answerman between 9:00 a.m. 
and 12:00 noon, Monday through Sat- 
urday, March through October. 

Letter From China 

(continued from page 3) 

structing experimental plots of plants 
in beds at varying distances from the 
different kinds of utilities, then study- 
ing their reactions in relation to the 
kinds of pollutants that are produced 
by these utilities. They have already 
identified over 50 kinds of plants, in 
Nanjing alone, that are highly resis- 
tant to pollution, and similar studies 
are being conducted at botanical insti- 
tutions throughout China. Their re- 
sults should be of interest to utilities 
and industrial plants in the United 
States. We hope to begin some ex- 
change in personnel in this research 
area in 1981. 
Three scientists from Nanjing will 

be coming to the United States in 
1981. Madam Chin Hui-chen will be 
studying plant anatomy and systemat- 
ics at the Garden for about six 
months, and the others will visit here 
for shorter periods. In return, Alan 
Godlewski will visit Nanjing and other 
botanical gardens in China, for a peri- 
od of about two months. These long- 
term visits will be valuable in enhanc- 
ing cooperative relationships that we 
have now begun. _ Peter H , Raven 

Photographs by Tamra Engelhorn Raven 

Tropical Deforestation 

In a recent issue of the journal Sci- 
ence, Garden botanist Dr. A. H. Gen- 
try, and his co-author, J. Lopez-Parodi, 
report that the extensive deforestation 
of upper parts of the Amazon water- 
shed appears to have resulted in a sig- 
nificant change in the Amazonian 
water balance. They point out that the 
height of the annual flood crest at 
Iquitos, Peru, has increased notice- 
ably in the past decade although there 
has been no significant change in re- 
gional precipitation patterns. This in- 
creased flooding indicates that the 
long-predicted climatic changes for 
the region may have begun. The possi- 
bility that these changes would occur 
has concerned scientists for some 

The consequences of the rapid trop- 
ical deforestation are manifested in 
both immediate and gradual ecologi- 
cal changes. The immediate change is 
the higher annual flood-level which is 
caused by increasingly rapid run-off of 
rain water. Because there are fewer 
trees— Gentry and Lopez-Parodi cite 
that "one-fifth to one-fourth of the 
Amazonian forest has already been 
cut, and the rate of forest destruction 
is accelerating"— there has been a 
great loss of water retention capacity. 
This more rapid run-off also causes 
greater erosion. 

The more gradual change, and one 
which is more severe, is that the defor- 
estation interrupts the natural process 
of transpiration— trees soaking up the 
moisture that falls and recycling it into 
the air. Scientists have determined 
that about one-half of the precipitation 
of the entire Amazonian basin results 
from this process. The reduction of 
this process, Gentry and Lopez-Parodi 
say, could "convert much of.. ..Ama- 
zonia to near desert." 

They conclude that this evidence 
"suggests the need for planned devel- 
opment that takes into account this 
delicate ecological balance." 

Gardening In St. Louis 

Getting Ready For Spring 

Now is the time to sow annual flower 
and vegetable seeds to produce trans- 
plants for your home garden. There are im- 
portant rules to insure success: 

Obtain fresh seed of good quality. To 

skimp is false economy. Seed is inexpen- 
sive, but the same amount of work is in- 
volved raising poor quality seed as good 
quality, so why waste time and effort to 
produce poor results with inferior seed. 
Buy fresh seed which has been packaged 
for 1981. Date information will be stated 
on the package. Old seed will not produce 
inferior plants, but the germination 
(sprouting) rate will be lower. If you have 
leftover seeds, it is important they be 
stored properly. 

They should be kept cool and dry. This 
can be accomplished by putting the opened 
seed packets in a glass jar and placing a 
tablespoon or two of a desiccant (a drying agent such as sil- 
ica gel, a material commonly used in drying flowers) or 
dried milk in a porous packet or a small bag fashioned from 
an old nylon stocking. Place jar with seeds and drying agent 
in refrigerator. 

Sow seeds at the proper time. Most annuals and vegeta- 
bles can be sown indoors six to seven weeks before plant- 
ing. Cool season plants such as cabbage, lettuce, onions, 
broccoli, endive, leeks and parsley can be started in mid- 
March. Warmer crops such as eggplants, tomato, pepper, 
and cucumber should be sown around mid-April. 

Sow the correct amount of seed. Be careful not to sow 
too many seeds. When seeds are sown thinly, the tiny 
plants' leaves and roots have more space to spread. If you 
make the error of sowing too many seeds, thin them out by 
eliminating the weakest plants and allowing the healthiest 
to thrive. In general, 66 to 75 percent of seeds you sow will 
germinate, so it is usually safe to sow twice as many seeds 
as you will need. Store excess seeds as described earlier. 

Use a proper germination medium. Any well-drained pot- 
ting soil will do if baked for 30-40 minutes at 180 degrees 
Fahrenheit to kill insects, weed seeds and disease orga- 
nisms. A good mix consists of one part each of peat-moss, 
sharp sand, soil and leafmold. 

The most trouble-free medium to use is a soilless mix 
consisting of two parts of spagnum peatmoss, one part 
perlite and one part vermiculite. To each gallon of this mix 
add one tablespoon of dolomitic limestone to offset the 
acidity of the peatmoss. A soilless mix is easy to obtain and 
mix, and is sterile so it doesn't have to be baked to kill vari- 
ous pests. 

Maintain proper moisture, temperature and light. Con- 
stant soil moisture and high humidity is necessary for good 
seed germination. When a seedling begins to germinate, it 
has few roots and is vulnerable to drying out. Another criti- 
cal factor is temperature. Almost all seeds germinate best 
at 70 degrees. Seeds of certain trees, shrubs, and wild- 
flowers require freezing before sowing. Check seed packet 

for this information. Low temperatures, 
which cause poor germination, are caused 
by moisture evaporating from seed flats 
(this can cool the soil 10 degrees or more), 
using cold tap water (40-50 degrees), or lo- 
cating the seed flat next to a cold glass 
window. There are several ways to assure 
warm germination temperatures: 

• Use a heating cable or propagation 
mat with a thermostat beneath seed 

• Place seed container near a radiator 
or furnace. 

• Put seed flat in closet or on top of 
flourescent light fixture (the ballast 
gives off a gentle heat.) 

Some seeds sprout better in light; 
others in darkness. It is recommended you 
leave the seed container in a bright area, 
so when seedlings germinate they will 
grow compactly and not become spindly. 

Other Spring Gardening Tips 

Don't work the soil too early in the Spring. Make sure it 
has dried out enough so that when you make a ball of the 
soil that this ball when dry, crumbles easily. If you work the 
soil too early, you can destroy its draining capabilities and 
create large clods of soil which will make working the gar- 
den a difficult job for the whole summer. 

Prune roses during the first half of April. Be sure to cut 
out all diseased and dead cane. The entire bush can be cut 
back to 12-1 8". 

If you are cramped for space in your garden, try some of 
the compact varieties of lettuce, bush forms of cucumbers, 
patio tomatoes, dwarf cabbage, and dwarf eggplants. To 
conserve space, you might also try growing most of your 
leaf vegetables and other compact growing vegetables, like 
beans, in wide rows. When you grow plants in wide rows, 
you develop a row about 1 foot wide in which the plants 
which are chosen are interspersed at 6-8" spacings. You 
can grow much more lettuce in a small space this way. 

Fertilize your lawn with a 10-6-4 fertilizer, or one with a 
similar ratio, anytime in March of early April. Be sure that 
part of the nitrogen in the fertilizer is a long-lasting, slow- 
release type. Follow the directions on the bag for the quan- 
tity which should be applied. 

Take time out to take a soil sample and send it to your 
Cooperative Extension Agent. His address is: 

St. Louis County Extension Center 

701 South Brentwood Blvd. 

Clayton, MO 63105 
Send $4.50 with the soil sample for complete results. The 
soil test is the only way you know for sure which fertilizer 
should be applied to your garden. 

— Steven A. Frowine 
Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 


From the Members' Office 

Spring Activities to Focus on St. Louis Lawn and Garden Care 

Spring activities at the Garden and 
at the Shaw Arboretum will focus on 
lawn and garden care in the St. Louis 
climate. Members' lectures as well as 
education programs will focus on top- 
ics such as residential landscape de- 
sign, lawn care, rose culture, and prun- 
ing. A demonstration vegetable gar- 
den will open in March or April. 

Courses offered by the Education 
Department will be highlighted by a 
weekend program on edible landscap- 
ing, or the "art" of integrating fruit and 
nut crops into residential and public 
landscape design. The program will be 
conducted by Robert Kourik, a staff 

Spring Lecture Program 

Before you begin your garden, join 
us for "How to Grow" in St. Louis. 

Garden Members are invited to at- 
tend the 1981 Spring Lecture Series. 
The Series will focus on "how-to" in- 
formation designed specifically for 
the St. Louis area gardener. Learn 
what grows best in the St. Louis cli- 
mate, when is the best time to plant, 
how best to care for your garden and 
the best way to solve your gardening 

The lectures will be held in the Audi- 
torium of the John S. Lehmann Build- 
ing and will be offered at 10:30 a.m. 
and 8:00 p.m. on the indicated dates. A 
question and answer period will follow 
each presentation. 

March 18 Fruits, Nuts and Berries 

Paul Stark, Jr. 

Stark Brothers Nurseries and 
Orchards Co. 

March 25 Roses 

David Vismara 


Missouri Botanical Garden 

April 1 Lawn Care 

Rudy Zuroweste 
Horticulture Specialist 
University of Missouri Extension 

April 8 Perennials 

Alan Godlewski 

Chairman, Outdoor Horticulture 

Missouri Botanical Garden 

April 15 Herbs 

Holly Shimizu 

Curator, National Herb Garden 

National Arboretum 

April 22 Vegetable Gardens 

Steven Frowine 

Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

Missouri Botanical Garden 

horticulturist with the Farallones Insti- 
tute of California. 

Other new programs include a six- 
session course in residential land- 
scape design. Austin P. Tao, ASLA, 
Tao Design and Associates of St. 
Louis, will conduct the course. "Interi- 
or Plantscaping" will focus on coordi- 
nating live plants into home and office 
spaces. Lisa Cady Leiweke, of St. 
Louis Plantscape, Inc. will conduct 
the course. 

Programs offered at the Shaw Arbo- 

The Annual Spring Flower Show this year will 
bring an Ozark woodland to urban St. Louis. 
The show, which opens March 14 and contin- 
ues through April 12, will be an informal, pro- 
gressive exhibit, designed after the fashion 
of a natural Ozark woodland and will feature 
spring flowering bulbs, azaleas, annuals and 
flowering trees and shrubs. 

Spring in the Garden's Shops 

Besides in the Spring Flower Show, 
the "season of rebirth" also shows it- 
self at the Garden in the Plant Shop 
and Garden Gate Shop. 

During March, the Plant Shop will 
have Oxalis tricolor, a variety of sham- 
rock, available for St. Patrick's Day. In 
April, the Spring Plant Sale opens with 
a Members'-only Preview on April 24, 
from 10:00 a.m. until 6:30 p.m. Garden 
Members receive a 20% discount on 
all merchandise. The sale continues 
on April 25 and 26, when the general 
public will receive a 10% discount, 
Member's 20%, on all merchandise. 
The Shop will feature Geraniums, Im- 
patiens, Petunias, Azaleas, Dogwood, 

return will be highlighted by a course 
on planting residential areas to attract 
wildlife. Floyd J. Ficker and Charlotte 
E. Schneider of the Missouri Depart- 
ment of Conservation will conduct the 
course. Bill Davit, a naturalist on the 
Arboretum Staff, will conduct a one- 
day program on organic gardening. 

For additional information and to 
register for the courses, please con- 
tact the Education Department at 
577-5140. To register for courses at the 
Shaw Arboretum, call 577-5138. 

Littman Scholarship 

A scholarship in memory of the late 
Mr. and Mrs. Ellis C. Littman was es- 
tablished through The Harry Freund 
Memorial Foundation in December to 
aid students in botany and horticul- 
ture at the Garden. Peter H. Raven, Di- 
rector of the Garden, said "We are de- 
lighted at the fact that it will make it 
possible for students here to extend 
their activities and to accomplish 
more than would otherwise have been 
possible." Since the initial contribu- 
tion establishing the Scholarship, sev- 
eral others have been received. The 
other donors include: 

Mary E. Baer 

Jerome M. Barker 

Mr. and Mrs. Joel E. Cater 

Mrs. Morris Glik 

The Hager Family 

Sue and JoeHoran 

Mrs. Walter M.Jones 

Dorothy and Hubert Moog 

St. Louis Herb Society 

Ben and Nancy Senturia 

Redbud trees and several herbs. Also, 
there will be vegetable and flower 
seeds, clay pots and plant supplies. 

Wildflowers are manifested in the 
Garden Gate Shop in several fashions: 
on trays, in botanical prints and dried 
arrangements. There will be vases in 
which to display your own, fresh, 
hand-picked wildflowers gathered 
from your yard or along the roadsides; 
and, to assist you in identifying the 
wildflowers you pick or merely see, is 
Erna Eisendrath's Missouri Wildflow- 
ers of the St. Louis Area. The shop 
also has a selection of gardening 
tools and how-to books to assist you 
in your own garden. 

Flower Sunday in 1981 is April 26 at Christ 
Church Cathedral. It was originally estab- 
lished by Henry Shaw through his will, in 
which he provided that an annual contribu- 
tion be made "to the Bishop of the Episcopal 
Church of this diocese, in consideration that 
an annual sermon be preached. . ..on the wis- 
dom and goodness of God as shown in the 
growth of flowers, fruits..." The Cathedral, at 
1210 Locust, will be decorated with several 
hundred potted flowers, including azaleas, 
chrysanthemums and geraniums. 

Herb Society Tour 

The St. Louis Herb Society is spon- 
soring a tour of gardens and historic 
homes in Washington, D.C., and Wil- 
liamsburg, Virginia, between May 9 
and 13, 1981. The trip will include a vis- 
it to the United States National Arbo- 
retum, the White House, Gunston 
Hall, Woodlawn Plantation, Stratford 
Hall, Williamsburg houses and gar- 
dens, and several James River planta- 
tions. Space is limited. Please call 
Martha Jones of Sante Travel Agency, 
726-3040, for information and reserva- 
tions. A portion of the trip fee is a tax 
deductible contribution to the Garden. 

Garden Receives Joyce 
Foundation Grant 

In January, the Garden was advised 
that it was the recipient of a $100,000 
Challenge Grant from the Joyce Foun- 
dation of Chicago. The Joyce Founda- 
tion is a philanthropic organization 
that makes grants in several fields, pri- 
marily to midwestern, non-profit orga- 
nizations. The Garden had previously 
received a $5,000 grant from the Joyce 
Foundation in 1979 to enable Latin 
American botanists to participate in a 
symposium on The Flora of Panama. 

The Joyce Foundation grant of 
$100,000 will be divided over 1981-82, 
and was given to encourage the Gar- 
den to seek to increase its basic level 
of support. 

J. Nicholas Goodban of the Joyce 
Foundation said, "The Joyce Founda- 
tion has a strong interest in assisting 
organizations to increase the breadth 
and quantity of constituent support. 
To this end, the first $50,000 of this 
grant is in the form of a two-part chal- 
lenge to run during the calendar year 
of 1981, the comparison period for 
which is the calendar year of 1980. 
One-half is to challenge the Garden to 
obtain at least 1,000 new members 
making cash subscriptions of twenty- 
five dollars or more. The other half is 
to challenge those members who 
made donations during 1980 to in- 
crease their total contributions by at 
least $50,000." 

A Tour of Chinese Gardens 

Tamra Engelhorn Raven will pre- 
sent a lecture, "A Tour of Chinese Gar- 
dens," on Wednesday, March 11. The 
lecture will be in the John S. Lehmann 
Auditorium at 10:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. 

Earl Shreckengast, 
New Assistant Director 

In early February, Earl Shrecken- 
gast joined the Garden staff as Assis- 
tant Director for Development, to 
direct the fund raising and member- 
ship programs at the Garden. He was 
previously Senior Research Analyst at 
the Governmental Research Institute. 

"There are several things I look for- 
ward to, immediately," he said. "One 
is working with the Garden's present 
members to extend membership 
throughout the community. The Joyce 
Foundation's challenge grant pro- 
vides us with an excellent opportunity 
in this regard. During 1981, I hope to 
meet the goal of 1,000 new members 
and $50,000 in increased giving by 
members set forth in the conditions of 
the Foundation's grant. 

The National Endowment for the 
Arts, through its challenge grant, also 
presents us with an opportunity to 
meet our $3 million goal for the Capi- 
tal Fund. If we meet this goal, it will be 
possible to complete the Visitor Cen- 
ter as planned. 

'Both of these grants present a 
great opportunity for the Garden to im- 
prove its position, both in the commu- 
nity, and as a world-class institution." 

December/ January 

Mr. & Mrs. E. R. Grant 

New Contributing Members 


& Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, III 

New Membership 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P. Hopkins 


& Mrs. James H. Harriss 

Mr. Harry W. Kroeger 

Mr. Daniel Armbruster 


C. P. Herzog 

New Sponsoring Members 

Dr. & Mrs. Maurice J. Lonsway, 

Mr. Donald Bennett 


& Mrs. William J. Hoeffel 

Mr. Thomas O. Hall, Jr. 


Mr. & Mrs. L. P. Berri 


& Mrs. Jack E. Krueger 

Mr. & Mrs. Bruce G. Roberts 

Mr. & Mrs. Andrew S. Love 

Mrs. Irvin Bettman, Jr. 


& Mrs. Eugene A. Leonard 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph E. 

Dr. & Mrs. W. E. Magee 

Mr. & Mrs. Erwin R. Breihan 


Elizabeth Mann 


Mr. & Mrs. Tom E. McCary 

Mrs. W. F. Campbell 


& Mrs. Franklin P. Rogers 

Mrs. J. S. McDonnell, III 

Mr. & Mrs. Morgan B. Carroll 


& Mrs. Anton Sestric 

New Sustaining Members 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack W. Minton 

Dr. & Mrs. John Colla 


Valerie Pantaleoni Terry 

Mr. & Mrs. R. E. Bates 

Ms. Alice M. O'Dell 

Ms. Katherine Day Denby 


Kevin Twellman 

Mr. & Mrs. Jimmy A. Corbet 

Mr. & Mrs. Peter A. Puleo 

Dr. Clara Escuder 


& Mrs. S. L. Van Petten 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward M. Durham, 

Mr. Dominic Ribando 

Mr. & Mrs. William D. George, 


& Mrs. Elmer F. Wander 


Mr. & Mrs. John Ruhoff 



& Mrs. W. M. Whitmire 

Mr. & Mrs. James H. Ewold 

Mrs. Howard A. Stamper 

Mr. & Mrs. W. K. Gilstrap 


George Willson III 

Mr. & Mrs. E. B. Feutz 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald Wildman 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur C. Giuliani 


& Mrs. John E. Wilsher, Jr. 

Board of Trustees Elect New President 

C. C. Johnson Spink, Chairman of 
the Board and Chief Executive Officer 
of The Sporting News, was elected 
President of the Garden's Board of 
Trustees on January 21, 1981. He suc- 
ceeds Tom K. Smith, Jr. who served as 
president of the Board since January, 
1975. Mr. Smith will continue as a trus- 
tee. The Board also re-elected William 
R. Orthwein, Jr., as First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Daniel L. Schlafly as Second 
Vice-President, and Charles R. Orner 
as Secretary. 

Mr. Spink, a member of the board 
since 1974, is also a member of the 
Board of the St. Louis Sports Hall of 

Daniel L. Schlafly, Second Vice-President; 
C. C. Johnson Spink, President; and William 
R. Orthwein, Jr., First Vice-President 

Fame, the Board of the St. Louis Sym- 
phony, and the Trustees Committee of 
the American Association of Mu- 
seums. He has been active with The 

Two Presidents 

Since Henry Shaw, there have been 
fourteen Presidents of the Board of 
Trustees. All have been deeply con- 
cerned for the Garden and its place in 
the world as a valuable scientific and 
cultural resource. Like their prede- 
cessors, Tom K. Smith, Jr. and C. C. 
Johnson Spink have vigorously dem- 
onstrated their concern through the 
devotion of their time, energies and 
unique abilities to Garden leadership. 
Tom K. Smith, Jr., 
the immediate past 
President, was an of- 
ficer of the Monsan- 
to Company for al- 
most twenty years, 
prior to his retire- 
ment in the summer 
of 1979. He joined 
the Garden's Board in 1963, and was 
elected its President in January of 
1975. During the six years following 
his election, the Garden was involved 
primarily in the development and im- 
plementation of its Master Plan. As a 
part of the Plan during those years, 
the Japanese Garden and English 
Woodland Garden were opened, and 
planning was completed and con- 
struction begun on the new Visitor 
Center at the Garden's north end. But, 
he says, to cite any one of those ac- 
complishments as the single, most 
important event during that time 
would be to render an incomplete de- 
scription of the Garden's progress. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Smith, "The Japanese 
Garden, the English Woodland Gar- 
den, the new Center are all but parts of 
the plan. What is important is the fact 
that we have created and are carrying 
out this long-range program aimed at 
utilizing the significant scientific re- 


sources of the Garden. This sets the 
background to make even greater con- 
tributions." The use of these re- 
sources should be the primary pur- 
pose of the Garden, he feels. "We 
must make certain that our research is 
maintained and directed toward areas 
of lasting importance. We must utilize 
these past and present technical ac- 
tivities so that our educational pro- 
grams are more sophisticated and our 
displays more pertinent to the botani- 
cal problems of modern life." Mr. 
Smith points out that the Garden "is 
essential in modern life and even 
more essential to future life." He feels 
that the new Visitor Center is neces- 
sary to the Garden if it will continue to 
fulfill this role and that it is one of the 
most important additions to the Gar- 
den during its entire history. 

1y~~"«H| C. C. Johnson Spink. 
f ^0 I new,v elected Board 

_ m I President, agrees 
3?} v^J I tnat tne new center 
•^ «*# '"» I w i" increase the val- 

M A Jm Ue °^ tne G arClen aS 

^B wmX a resource < anci a ' so 
^ M I concurs it is but a 
M I part of the important 
progress the Garden has made during 
the past decade. Coming into the 
presidency of the Board, he acknowl- 
edges this progress and the work that 
has occurred before his election. 
"Through the leadership of Tom Smith 
and Peter Raven, my job is compara- 
tively easy. All the hard decisions have 
been made; construction is almost 

He sees his task as that of main- 
taining the growth, of keeping "both 
functions (scientific and cultural) mov- 
ing ahead at a pace we can cope 
with." He stressed the importance of 
controlled growth, saying he was 

Sporting News for over forty years and 
was the recipient, in 1969, of the Ellis 
Bruce A. Campbell Memorial Award 
for Meritorious Service to Sports, and 
an award from the Advertising Club of 
Greater St. Louis. 

During the six years Tom K. Smith, 
Jr. was President of the Board, the 
Garden was in perhaps its most active 
time since Henry Shaw established it 
in 1859. The 14-acre Japanese Garden 
and the English Woodland Garden 
were opened, and planning was com- 
pleted and construction begun on the 
new Visitor Center at the north end of 
the Garden. 

"concerned over the possibility of 
over-reaching; of undertaking too 
many activities." This possibility rises 
out of the enormous potential the Gar- 
den has because of its development 
over its entire history, and especially 
during the implementation of the Mas- 
ter Plan. 

One of the first projects the Board 
will undertake, Mr. Spink said, is the 
formation of a Future Planning Com- 
mittee to derive a five-year plan which 
"will establish goals from the Gar- 
den's standpoint and from a botanical 
standpoint." He continued, "We want 
to make the Garden available to the 
people of St. Louis and to visitors so 
that they can enjoy the beauty. We 
also want to make it a headquarters 
for scientists. People can be lost in 
concentration on two levels here. For 
example, the visitor in the Shapleigh 
Fountain; and a Swedish scientist in 
the herbarium and library." 

"If you visit the United States and 
love Gardens," he said, "the one to 
see is this one, just as if you visited 
Great Britain, you would see Kew. This 
is what we've been trying to accom- 
plish for quite some time." 

Presidents of the 

Board of Trustees 

Rufus J. Lackland 


David F. Kaime 


Edwards Whitaker 


Edward C. Eliot 


George C. Hitchcock 


Richard J. Lockwood 


JohnS. Lehmann 


Robert Brookings Smith 


Henry Hitchcock 


Harry E. Wuertenbaecher, Jr 


C. Powell Whitehead 


Joseph H. Bascom 


Tom K.Smith, Jr. 


C.C.Johnson Spink 

1981- — 

Biblical Plants Exhibit 

From the initial mention in Genesis 
1:1 1 of the creation of the earth's vege- 
tation, plants are important parts of 
the stories and poetic symbolism in 
both Testaments of the Bible. 

The first reference to individual 
plants in the Bible occurs in Genesis 
2:9 "...the tree of life in the center of 
the garden . . . and the tree of the knowl- 
edge of good and evil." While no other 
name is given to either tree, no de- 
scription of the fruits of these trees, 
one tradition has it that the pomegran- 
ate was the fruit of the tree of life. An- 
other tradition names the pomegran- 
ate as the fruit of the tree of knowl- 
edge of good and evil, although the 
most common fruit associated with 
this tree is the apple. 

In Genesis 3:7, the first specific 
plant is named, the fig, "so they 
(Adam and Eve) sewed fig leaves to- 

The story of the great deluge in- 
cludes mention of three plants. In 
Genesis 6:14, Noah is told "Make 
yourself an ark of gopher wood 
(cypress)." After the rains had ceased 
and the water began to recede, Noah 
sent out a dove to search for dry land. 
The dove returned with " her 
mouth a freshly plucked olive leaf," a 
sign that there was land, once more. 
The third reference to plants in the 
story of Noah appears in Genesis 

9:20-21, in which "He planted a vinyard 
and hedrankof the wine..." 

Wine, grapes and grapevines are 
important symbols in both the Old and 
New Testaments, with one source list- 
ing seventy-eight references to the 
common grape, Vitis vinifera, and 
three references to Vitis oriental is, the 
wild grape. In the Psalms, the Jewish 
people were symbolized by "a vine 
(brought) out of Egypt" (Ps. 80:8) and 
"a fruitful vine" (Ps. 128:3). Jesus 
names himself "the true vine," and his 
apostles branches of the vine in John 
15:1,5. In Matthew 26:28, wine be- 
comes a symbol for "the blood of the 
new covenant," and remains as a sym- 
bol today in Christian services. 

The infant Moses was saved when 
his mother put him into " ark of 
bulrushes" (Exodus 2:3) and set 
among some reeds, where it was 
found by Pharoah's daughter who 
adopted Moses. This story is echoed 
in Isaiah 18:2, where Egypt is said to 
"send ambassadors by the Nile, in 
vessels of bulrushes upon the 

Other plants mentioned in the Bible 
include myrrh, which was one of the 
gifts presented to the infant Jesus by 
the Magi, (Matthew, 2:11); Galbanum, 
an ingredient for incense, prescribed 
by God to Moses, in Exodus 30:34-35; 
the Date Palm, which was waved by 
the crowds at Jesus to honor his com- 
ing into Jerusalem after raising Laza- 

rus (John 12:12-13); and Henna, which 
is used metaphorically in the Song of 
Solomon (1:14). 

These plants are among approxi- 
mately thirty-five which will be fea- 
tured in a Biblical Plants Exhibit. The 
Exhibit, in the Mediterranean House, 
begins March 28 and continues 
through April 19. There is no admis- 
sion fee required for the exhibit, above 
the usual Gate fee. Members, of 
course, are admitted free. 

Prairie Trail 

The Arboretum recently established 
a trail through the experimental prairie 
tract. This step precedes the develop- 
ment of an interpretive guide for the 
1.8-mile trail. The path meanders 
through the tallgrass to the top of a 
hill which provides a spectacular vista 
of the surrounding countryside. The 
trail enters a grove of trees where a 
bench provides a resting place, and 
then it leaves the grove and circles a 
small pond. The varying moisture lev- 
els and drainage conditions provide 
numerous microenvironments for hun- 
dreds of prairie plants. The staff began 
introducing prairie grasses and flow- 
ers to the site in 1980. The site will 
eventually include a prairie plant dem- 
onstration area and interpretive signs. 
The Missouri Prairie Foundation has 
provided most of the funds for this 

N.EA Challenge Grant to Assist in Visitor Center Completion 

In December, 1980, the National En- 
dowment for the Arts awarded a 
$350,000 Challenge Grant to the Gar- 
den. Announcing the grant, N.E.A. 
Chairman, Livingston L. Biddle, Jr., 
said "This $350,000 grant will provide 
important leverage in the Garden's ef- 
forts to launch the second phase of 
the capital effort to complete the Visi- 
tor Center and related support facili- 

The Garden is the first botanical in- 
stitution to receive a challenge grant 
from the N.E.A. 

Responding to the grant, Garden Di- 
rector Peter H. Raven said, "We are 
pleased, indeed, to have received this 
challenge grant. We are proud that we 
are the first botanical institution to re- 
ceive such a grant, and happy be- 
cause the grant will assist us in the 
completion of our Visitor Center. Us- 
ing this grant as a base, we are striv- 
ing to raise $3 million for the comple- 
tion of the building." 

He expressed the conviction that 

"this new Center will insure the con- 
tinuation of the Garden's status as a 
world-class institution." 
Visitor Center Progress 

According to McCarthy Brothers, 
contractor for the new Visitor Center, 
the Center will be completed by the 
end of the year, with the formal open- 
ing and dedication tentatively sched- 
uled for April, 1982. 

Presently contracts exist for the 
construction of all features of the 
building except the Floral Display 
Hall. These features include the 400- 
seat Shoenberg Auditorium; a 150- 
capacity Visitor Orientation Theatre, 
which will feature a six-minute, contin- 
uously running, multi-media presenta- 
tion informing visitors of the Garden 
exhibits; the educational facilities and 
offices; the Spink Gallery containing a 
unique collection of porcelain birds; 
the plant shop, gift shop and restau- 
rant; and the ticket booth. Access to 
the Garden grounds will be from the 
second level of the building. 

Exterior features for which con- 
struction contracts exist include the 
Latzer Fountain, to be located in an 
entrance plaza opposite the Linnean 
House; and a tram turn-around path 
which will run past the Climatron and 
Mediterranean House. 

Architect for the project is 
Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum of 
St. Louis. 

The recent N.E.A. Challenge Grant will assist 
in the completion of the 80,000 square-feet 
building and its adjacent facilities. 


Book Review— "How-To" 

While there are many good books 
that treat the gardener's skills with 
justice, there is not just one book to 
do it all. If one book did do it all, it 
wouldn't be any fun, so we have 
elected to review several. 

Gardening for People 

(who think they don't know how) 

by Douglas Moon 

Illustrated by Judy Daniel 

John Muir Publications, Sante Fe 


266 Pages 

To begin, a good, general gardening 

reference which I can recommend is 
Gardening for People (who think they 
don't know how) by Douglas Moon. 
The book is divided into three sec- 
tions: The Generalities of Gardening, 
Landscaping and The Specifics of 

The generalities section attunes the 
reader to what might be expected 
both from the book and from garden- 
ing. The landscaping section is a bit 
brief and very elementary, but has 
some excellent counsel about plan- 
ning and integrating lawn and garden 
areas along with the placement of 
paths, fences and utility areas. In 
treating the specifics, the usual topics 
occur and include lawns, watering and 
fertilizing, composting, vegetables 
and herbs and many others. Probably 
the greatest value of this book is that 
the author does not try to overwhelm 
you with his knowledge and leaves 
you with a great sense of freedom 
about what kind of gardener you 
would like to be. 
The Seed Starter's Handbook 
by Nancy Bubel 
Illustrations by Robert Shetterly 
Photographs by Mike Bubel 
Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA (1978) 
363 pages 

Many gardening efforts are initially 
frustrated by an uncertainty of just 
how to begin. Although most garden- 
ing references devote sections to be- 
ginning procedures, not too many 
books address the processes of get- 
ting started. Nancy Bubel's The Seed 
Starters Handbook does just this. It is, 
just as she has called it, a handbook, a 
handy reference. Her methods are 
sound and workable. 

There are five sections. The first 
one treats in a clear, detailed manner, 
the mechanics of growing plants from 
seed. Section Two appropriately deals 


with the treatment of plants past the 
seedling stage, preparation and plan- 
ning of garden beds, and garden 

The Third section describes the cul- 
tural requirements of nearly 60 vegeta- 
bles, including herbs and grains. Sec- 
tion Four is very unusual in gardening 
books. It discusses in some detail the 
value of saving seeds from one's own 
plants and instructs the gardener on 
the mechanics of pollinating and hy- 
bridizing his own plants. Section Five 
is a brief discussion on garden record- 
keeping, catalogues and seed ex- 

The Complete Vegetable Gardener's 

by Duane Newcomb 
Avon (1980) 
340 pages 

In the past decade, vegetable gar- 
dening has enjoyed a resurgence of in- 
terest which probably surpasses that 
of the World War II victory gardens. 
There are numerous excellent books 
on vegetable gardening, but one that 
was particularly interesting was The 
Complete Vegetable Gardener's 
Sourcebook by Duane Newcomb. The 
outstanding feature of the book is its 
impressively comprehensive list of 
vegetable varieties, complete with 
notes on the average number of days 
required to bear, the size, shape or col- 
or; remarks on performance— and 
most important!— sources for all the 
varieties named. The chapters on cul- 
ture are good. There is even a section 
on greenhouses, and two sections on 
the use of hand and power tools. In 
contrast with the other two books, the 
information in this book is overwhelm- 
ing and it is important to remember 
that it is a resource book. 

A Book about Soils for the 
Home Gardener 

by H. Stuart Ortloff and 

Henry B. Raymore 

William Morrow and Company (1972) 

189 pages 

A very useful soils book is A Book 
About Soils for the Home Gardener, 
Ortloff and Raymore. One of the prob- 
lems with books that treat technical 
subjects for lay people is that the in- 
formation is either too difficult or so 
watered down that it says almost 
nothing. Ortloff and Raymore have 
struck a good balance between these 
two extremes and present the facts of 

soils in a clear, objective and readily 
understood manner. The book is di- 
vided into two sections. The first dis- 
cusses the nature of soils, describing 
physical properties, chemical nature, 
and organic and inorganic fertilizers. 
The second section treats soil tests 
and the application of test results, 
watering and fertilizing, and methods 
of tilling. —Kenneth O. Peck 

Manager, Instructional Services 
These books are available through 
the Garden Gate Shop. If they are not 
in stock, they can be ordered through 
the Shop. —Editor 

John Elsley 
Accepts Position 

John Elsley, former Superintendent 
of the Japanese Garden, accepted the 
position of Director of Plant Purchas- 
ing for the George W. Park Seed Co., 
of Greenwood, South Carolina, effec- 
tive February 1, 1981. 

Mr. Elsley, who came to the Garden 
in 1973 as Curator of Hardy Plants, 
was the designer of the English Wood- 
land Garden. He was a frequent lectur- 
er on the history and design of English 
and Japanese Gardens, and led sever- 
al Members' Tours to England, and 
one to Japan in 1975. 

"I've been grateful for the opportuni- 
ty afforded by the Director," he said. 
"It's been exciting to have been a 
small part of the development of the 
Garden during its most exciting time; 
in its period of its greatest develop- 
ment during the past seven years." 

In his position with Park Seed Co., 
his role will be to help broaden the 
spectrum of plants available to the 
American gardener by the locating of 
seeds not before commonly offered 
through catalogues. 

Tower Grove House reopens on 
March 1, 1981, after having been 
closed during January and February 
for cleaning and maintenance. 

The Garden library recently received 
Volumes 2 and 3 of the New York Bo- 
tanical Garden Illustrated Encyclo- 
pedia of Horticulture. In the Novem- 
ber-December, 1980, Bulletin Steve 
Frowine called volume one of the En- 
cyclopedia "a fine comprehensive 
work which will certainly be recog- 
nized as a classic horticultural refer- 



/ saw green banks of daffodils, 

Slim poplars in the breeze, 

Great tan-brown hares in gusty March. 

■E. W. Tennant 

March 1-7 

African Violet Society Show; Final Day— March 1 
John S. Lehmann Building, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. 

1981 Orchid Show: continues through March 8 
Climatron, 10:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. 

Lecture: A Tour of Chinese Gardens: March 11 
John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 10:30 a.m. & 8:00 p.m. 

Spring Flower Show: Opens on March 14 

Tent, Main Gate, 9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m. (through April 12) 

Spring Flower Show continues 

Lecture: Fruits, Nuts, Berries: March 18 

John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 10:30 a.m. & 8:00 p.m. 

Spring Flower Show continues 

Lecture: Roses: March 25 

John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 10:30 a.m. & 8:00 p.m. 

Biblical Plants Exhibit: Opens March 28 
Mediterranean House, 9:00 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 


You know how it is with an April day 

When the sun is out and the wind is still... — R. Frost 

March 8-14 

March 15-21 

March 22-31 

April 1-4 

\pr\\ 5-11 

\pril 12-18 

Vpril 19-25 

Spring Flower Show continues 

Biblical Plants Exhibit continues 

Lecture: Lawn Care: April 1 

John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 10:30 a.m. & 8:00 p.m. 

Gregg Furber Photography Exhibit opens April 1 
John S. Lehmann Lobby (through May 1) 

Spring Flower Show continues 

Biblical Plants Exhibit continues 

Gregg Furber Photography Exhibit continues 

Lecture: Perennials: April 8 

John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 10:30 a.m. & 8:00 p.m. 

Spring Flower Show continues 

Biblical Plants Exhibit continues 

Gregg Furber Photography Exhibit continues 

Rock Garden Exhibit: opens April 12 

Outside the Mediterranean House, 9:00 a.m. -5:00 p.m. 

(through May 9) 

Spring Flower Show: Final Day— April 19 

Biblical Plants Exhibit: Final Day— April 19 

Gregg Furber Photography Exhibit continues 

Rock Garden Exhibit continues 

Lecture: Vegetable Gardens: April 22 

John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 10:30 a.m. & 8:00 p.m. 

Member's Spring Plant Sale Preview: April 24 
Plant Shop 10:00 a.m.-6:30 p.m. 
(20% discount on all merchandise) 

Spring Plant Sale: April 25-26 

Plant Shop 9:00 a.m. -5:00 p.m. 

(Members 20% off, public 10% off— all merchandise) 

Carniverous Plant Display: opens April 25 

Climatron patio & Lehmann Building (through May 16) 

Gregg Furber Photography Exhibit continues 

Rock Garden Exhibit continues 

Flower Sunday: April 26 

Christ Church Cathedral, 1210 Locust Street 

^2 Member of 

^m The Arts and Education 

und of Greater St. Louis 

,pril 26-30 


In Honor of Mr. Lester P. Ackerman, 
Jr.'s 60th. Birthday 

Mr. & Mrs. Jay V. Zimmerman 
In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. Carl L. A. 
Beckers' 50th. Wedding Anniversary 
Margaret and Stanley F. Jackes 
Women's Association of the 

Japan American Society of 

St. Louis 
In Honor of Miss Carol Bitting 
Mr. & Mrs. Whitelaw Todd 

Terry, Jr. 
In Honor of Or. & Mrs. Marvin Comblath 
Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 
In Honor of Miss Corinne Denning 
Mr. & Mrs. Whitelaw Todd 

Terry, Jr. 
In Honor of Mildred Duchon 
The George V. Hogan Family 
In Honor of the Or. Joseph C. Edwards 

The George V. Hogan Family 
In Honor of the Elsberry Garden Club 
Mrs. Arch (Ruth) Taylor 
In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. William 
Firestone's Wedding Anniversary 
Mr. & Mrs. Jerome Michelson 
In Honor of Florence Morris Forbes 
Jeanne G. Bruns 
In Honor of Mrs. Leonard Hornbein's 

Mrs. Jerome E. Cook 
Mrs. B. M. Vogel 
In Honor of Or. B. Jasper 
The George V. Hogan Family 
In Honor of Dr. M. Jasper 
The George V. Hogan Family 
In Honor of Casey Jones 
Nan Thornton Jones 
In Honor of Mr. A. B. Kurrus 
Mr. Clifford M. Kurrus 
In Honor of Mrs. Albert B. Kurrus' 80th. 

Emma May Giger 
In Honor of Joseph Laba's Birthday 
Mr. & Mrs. Leon Boderheimer 
In Honor of Miss Jane Loitman's 

Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. Jose Molina 
Mr. & Mrs. Niederlander 
In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. Edward Prince 
Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 
In Honor of Michele Rosen's Graduation 
Bert and Margie Talcoff 
In Honor of Sandy Rosen's Graduation 
Bert and Margie Talcoff 
In Honor of Mrs. Sidney Rothschild, Jr.'s 

Mr. & Mrs. Louis R. Putzel 
In Honor of the Allen Sabol Family 
Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. Julian G. and 
Birdie Samuels' 67th. Wedding 
Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 
Richard S. Samuels 
In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Scharff 
Ann R. Husch 
In Honor of Mrs. William Schield 
Michael Schield 
In Honor of Or. A. Shah 
The George V. Hogan Family 

In Honor of Or. N. Shah 

The George V. Hogan Family 

In Honor of the Joyce Shelnutt Family 

The George V. Hogan Family 

In Honor of Mrs. Hazel Smith 

Magna Carta Dames of 

In Honor of Samuel Soule 

Dr. & Mrs. Franz U. Steinberg 

In Honor of Your Special Birthday 

Mrs. Lloyd Stark 

Mrs. William Henry Schield 

In Honor of Mr. & Mrs. Howard Swanson 

Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

In Honor of Beatrice Wolff's 

70th. Birthday 

Jeanne & Lester Adelson 

In Memory of Roland C. Baer 

Mr. James M. Canavan 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mrs. E. R. Hurd, Jr. 

Mrs. Priscilla B. McDonnell 

Mr. & Mrs. William F. Reck, Jr. 

Florence Stern 

In Memory of Mr. J. Kennedy Beeson 

Mr. & Mrs. John Brodhead, Jr. 

In Memory of Mr. Block 

From David 

In Memory of Mr. Block 

The George V. Hogan Family 

In Memory of Mrs. Alma C. Blum 

Mrs. Edward Boeschenstein 

Rose Society of Greater 
St. Louis 

In Memory of Mrs. Charles (Gus) 


Helen R. Generelly 

In Memory of Mr. George R. Bryant 

Whitehall Club, Inc. 

In Memory of Ernest Camos 

Mrs. George Camos 

In Memory of Jacqueline Claeys 

Towne South Garden Club #1 

In Memory of E. C. Combe 
Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Memory of Catherine Conger 
Bonnie and Frank Muldey 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward P. Sullivan 
In Memory of Mr. James A. Cullom 
Mr. Thomas B. Donahue 
Mr. & Mrs. Tom S. Eakin, Jr. 
Whitehall Club, Inc. 
In Memory of Ann Danzer 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert Baeyen 
Eileen Garcia 
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Thies 
Enola Ziebol 

In Memory of Mr. Juergen DeRiel 
Mildred Trotter 
In Memory of Mrs. Phil M. Donnelly 
Clarence and Drew Benage 
In Memory of Bertha Baumann Ecker 
Dolores I. Fiege 
In Memory of Mrs. Adelaide Eggers 
Dr. & Mrs. Armand D. Fries 
In Memory of Michael F. Fallen 
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Eck 
In Memory of Dale Grant Farmer 
Eunice Farmer and Family 
In Memory of Father 
Mr. Gabriele DeWitt 
In Memory of the Father of Mr. David Felix 
Sylvia Kalachek 
In Memory of Mrs. Barbara Fincke 
Mr. Bernard S. Wildi 


In Memory of Ruth E. Fogarty 

Mrs. Mervyn H. Sterne 

Mrs. McClellan Van der Veer 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles F. 

Zukoski, Jr. 
In Memory ot Brian Frawley 
Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Memory of Grant Gibson 
Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Memory of Lenora Wildred Gunn 
Mr. & Mrs. J. William Flaig 
In Memory of Adelaide Hackett 
Mildred B. Phillips 
In Memory of W. Alfred Hayes 
Sue and Kip Rapp 
In Memory of George C. Hetlage 
Mr. & Mrs. George C. Jensen 
In Memory of Mrs. Penny Holmes 
Mr. & Mrs. George Watson 

In Memory of Sidney Holtzman 
Mrs. Gloria Hogbin 
In Memory of Oscar Kahan 
Albert and Phyllis Fitzgerald 
In Memory of Mrs. Clara Wirth's Mother, 
Mrs. Kirks 
Mrs. J. Jacobs 
In Memory of John Kloepper 
Sue Straub 

In Memory of Mr. Elmer J. Kulla 
Mr. & Mrs. William L. Redmond 

In Memory of Mr. Milton S. Landau 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin Waldemer 

In Memory of Mr. George Lane 

Mrs. William Carson 
Mary E. Clymonts 
Rose T. Engel 
Mrs. Wilbur B. Jones 
Martin M. Kerwin 
Lane Machinery Co. 
Mrs. Willis E. McClain 

In Memory of Raymond E. Lange 

Mrs. Raymond Lange 

In Memory of Mrs. Dorothy Laswell 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter Hosea 

In Memory of Joseph Leah, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Hardin Smith 
In Memory of Roslyn and Ellis C. 

Mary E. Baer 

Jerome M. Barker 

Mr. & Mrs. Joel E. Cater 

Mrs. Morris Glik 

The Hager Family 

Sue and Joe Horan 

Dorothy and Hubert Moog 

Mrs. Walter M. Jones 

St. Louis Herb Society 

Ben and Nancy Senturia 

In Memory of Rene J. Mechin, Jr. 
Mrs. E. R. Hurd, Jr. and children 

In Memory of Mrs. Pauline Norrenberns 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 
In Memory of Oliva Nova 
Mr. & Mrs. Lonnie Lucy 
In Memory of John O'Neil 
Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Memory of Mrs. Francis Palmer 
Alexander and Elizabeth 

In Memory of Charles Priwer 
Patricia Smith Hogan 
In Memory of William Pyburn 
Edwina Medlock 
In Memory of Henry Ruger 
Mr. & Mrs. John K. Bryan 
In Memory of Lee W. Sanders 
Georgia M. McGowen 
In Memory of Mr. J. Glennon Schrieber 
Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 
Eileen Craver 

Mr. & Mrs. D. Goodrich Gamble 
Mr. & Mrs. William Hallett 
Mrs. John Roger Pahmeyer 
St. Louis Herb Society 
Mrs. Albert C. Stutsman 
In Memory of Mrs. Edith Shelton 
Mr. & Mrs. William S. Knowles 
In Memory of Robert H. Silber 
Mr. & Mrs. Victor A. Silber 
In Memory of Sam Singer's Special 


Bert and Margie Talcoff 

In Memory of Mr. & Mrs. Elis Sittman 

Mrs. Raymond Lange 

In Memory of Mrs. Eleanor Smith 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Johanson 

Little Gardens Club 

Mr. & Mrs. George W. Skinner 

Mrs. Lloyd C. Stark 

In Memory of Dr. and Mrs. Spinzig 

Mr. & Mrs. C. J. Maurer 

In Memory of William H. M. Talbot 

Mr. & Mrs. Lee C. McKinley 

Dr. & Mrs. Henry Schwartz 

In Memory of "The Thirties for Val 

& Libby" 


In Memory of William E. Vesser 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert H. Smith, Jr. 

In Memory of Helen White 

Patricia Smith Hogan 

In Memory of Edith Wicklifle 

Robert J. Scharnberger 

In Memory of Emma L. Zwerg 

Bob and Grace LaMear 

Persons interested in 
contributing to the Tribute 
Fund may contact the Develop- 
ment Office, 577-5120. 

During early-1981, the Linnean House was restored to its circa 1900 appearance. The ridgecrest, at apex behind worker, was part of the 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 






Volume LXIX, Number 3 
May/June 1981 





A Regard For History: Restoring the Linnean House 

Walking through the Linnean House with Gerhardt 
Kramer, we begin to understand what he meant when he 
said, "Buildings have a story to tell." He points to things we 
had probably looked at before, but with our untrained eyes, 
never really seen nor understood the significance of: a 
slight, diagonal paint line on the inside wall near the roof; 
a section of bricks in the east wall which does not match, in 
color, those around it; a small, rectangular relief on a door 
frame. These are the elements from which the building's 
story is structured. The paint line indicates to Gerhardt 
Kramer that there was originally a lower ceiling in the 
House. The off-colored bricks tell him there was once a 
window that extended to within a few inches of the ground 
where now the window stops several feet short of it. The 
small area of relief shows that there was a hinge there, 
once, and that the door originally opened into the House 
instead of out of it, as it now does. 

Kramer, of Kramer & Harms, Architects, was com- 
missioned in 1977 to restore the Linnean House, 
the oldest operating greenhouse west of the 
Mississippi River, located at the north end of 
Missouri Botanical Garden. The Linnean House 
is one of four historical buildings in the Garden 
built by its founder, Henry Shaw, a nineteenth- 
century Englishman who came to St. Louis as a 

merchant in 1819. He retired at the age of forty, in 1840, and 
opened his Garden twenty years later. In the early 1880's he 
built three greenhouses, the Linnean House and two others 
which still stand in Tower Grove Park and are used there as 
garages. Because he could see the Linnean House from his 
home, Shaw made it the most ornate of the three. 

Between 1882, when the Linnean House was opened, 
and 1977, when restoration was begun, the structure of the 
greenhouse was changed several times. Working from old 
photographs, written records from the Garden's archives, 
and "The stories the building, itself, tells," Kramer pro- 
duced a history of those changes. 

Shaw built the Linnean House as an orangery, which is 
a place to store, during the winter, potted plants which can- 
not survive freezing temperatures. Early in the twentieth 
century, the building was converted to a greenhouse and 
some modifications were necessary. The most radical of 
these was in changing the roof from two-thirds slate 
and one-third glass to all glass in order to admit the 
light necessary to grow plants there throughout 

the year. 
Also about this time — 1918 — four windows on 
the northern elevation were filled in with con- 
crete; the coverings on the end wall parapets 
were changed from copper to terra cotta; and 

(continued on page 4) 

The Linnean House was designed by George I. Barnett, one of the premiere Victorian architects, who also designed Tower Grove House and 
the Museum Building. Today, the Linnean House contains the Garden's camellia collection. 


Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. of 
Des Moines, Iowa, recently established 
the William L. Brown Fellowship at 
Missouri Botanical Garden. This post- 
doctoral fellowship commemorates the 
retirement of William L. Brown as Chair- 
man and Chief Executive at Pioneer Hi- 
Bred, and will be used to assist the 
Peter h. Raven Garden in its work of cataloging, under- 

standing, and preserving plant genetic diversity. Pioneer Hi- 
Bred International is one of the largest seed companies in 
the world and is a leader in the genetic supply industry that 
develops, produces, and markets improved seed stocks 
used in agriculture. 

The Fellowship was announed at a retirement dinner for 
Dr. Brown, which I attended, that was held in Des Moines on 
January 26. Dr. Brown received his Ph.D. in genetics from 
Washington University in 1941, working with Dr. Edgar 
Anderson of the staff of the Garden and the Henry Shaw 
School of Botany at Washington University. He has made 
substantial personal contributions to the understanding of 
plant genetics and to the progress of Pioneer Hi-Bred Inter- 
national in this area and was recently elected a member of 
the U.S. National Academy of Sciences in recognition of his 
important scientific work and his role in the field. 

Connections between Missouri Botanical Garden and 
Pioneer Hi-Bred International are even more extensive than 
would be suggested by Dr. Brown's background. Dr. Donald 
N. Duvick, Director of the Plant Breeding Division of Pioneer 
Hi-Bred International is also a student of Edgar Anderson 
and a graduate of Washington University. The first president 
of the company was Fred W. Lehmann, Jr. who was presi- 
dent from 1933 to 1954 and then Chairman of the Board of 

(continued on page 4) 


3 Letter From Peru, Dr. Thomas B. Croat 

g Gardening In St. Louis 

Steve Frowine discusses temperature, water and 
"Fungus among us" 

Q From the Member's Office 

Shaw Fund Success, China Tour, Rose Evening 

Oceans, Deserts and Whales 

A tiny fruit with enormous potential: Jojoba 

3 Climatron Anniversary Report 

And two festivals to look forward to 

J_Q Winter Photography Contest Winners 

Calendar — May and June in the Garden 

DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo. 
63166. Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
$6.00 foreign. 


Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 
Mr./Mrs. Howard F. Baer 
Mr./Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 
Mr./Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Clarence C. Barksdale 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 
Mr./Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. John G. Buettner 
Mr./Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 
Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 
Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 
Mrs. F. T. Childress 
Mr. Fielding L. Childress 
Mr./Mrs Gary A. Close 
Mr./Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 
Dr./Mrs. William H. Danforth 
Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 
Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 
Mr. Alan E. Doede 
Mr./Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 
Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 
Mr./Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 
Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 
Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 
Mrs. Henry L. Freund 
Mr. S. E. Freund 
Mr. Samuel Goldstein 
Mr./Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 
Mr. Clarence R. Goodrich 
Mr./Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 
Mrs. H. C. Grigg 
Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 
Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 
Mrs. John H. Hayward 
Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 
Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 
Mr./Mrs. James H. Howe, III 
Mr./Mrs. Lee Hunter 
Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 
Mr./Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 
Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 
Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 
Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 
Mrs. Irene C. Jones 
Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 
Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 
Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 
Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 
Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 
Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 
Mrs. John A. Latzer 
Mr. Thomas F. Latzer 
Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 
Mrs. John S. Lehmann 
Miss Martha I. Love 
Mrs. James S. Luehrmann 
Mr. H. Dean Mann 
Mrs. James S. McDonnell 
Mr. Roswell Messing, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 
Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 
Mr. Thomas Moore 
Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 
Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 
Mr. Spencer T. Olin 
Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 
Miss Jane E. Piper 
Miss Julia Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 
Capt. William R. Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Herman T. Pott 
Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 
Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 
Mrs. C. Kenneth Robins 
Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 
Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 
Mr./Mrs. David Sanders 
Mrs. William H. Schield 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 

Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 
Mr./Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 
Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 
Mr/Mrs. John E. Simon 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 
Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 
Mr./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
Mrs. Hermann F. Spoehrer 
Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 
Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 
Miss Lillian L Stupp 
Mr./Mrs. Edgar L. Taylor, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 
Mr./Mrs. James Walker 
Mrs. Horton Watkins 
Mr./Mrs. Richard K. Weil 
Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 
Mrs. Ben H.Wells 
Mr./Mrs. O. Sage Wightman, III 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 
Mrs. John M. Wolff 
Miss F. A. Wuellner 
Mr./Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 


Mr. Patrick Ackerman 
Mr. Kenneth Balk 
Mr./Mrs. Carl Beckers 
Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 
Ms. Allison R. Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 
Mr. Joseph C. Champ 
Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 
Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 
Mr./Mrs. David C. Farrell 
Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Edward E. Haverstick 
Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr./Mrs. B. F. Jackson 
Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 
Mrs. Leighton Morrill 
Mr./Mrs. Charles W. Oertli 
Mr. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 
Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 
Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 
Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 
Mrs. Mason Scudder 
Mr. Frank H. Simmons 
Miss Harriett J. Tatman 
Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 
Mr./Mrs. John K.Wallace, Jr. 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Robert Kittner 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H 


Letter From Peru 

Dr. Croat collecting in Peru 

I am now almost midway through a trip of 3 months dura- 
tion in South America. My specialty, and the emphasis of 
the collecting trip, is the aroid (jack-in-the-pulpit) family 
(Araceae). This family seems to have its richest diversity in 
the mountain valleys between Costa Rica and Peru with 
perhaps the greatest concentration of species in Columbia 
and Ecuador. The family consists largely of epiphytes— 
"air plants" — and thus thrives in wet forests, especially 
cloud forests, where the plants, which must derive all of 
their moisture from runoff from the trees, manage to sur- 
vive best. Because the plants have evolved to endure 
periods of drought, it is possible to ship live specimins to 
St. Louis for cultivation at Missouri Botanical Garden. 

I collect the plants from trees and remove all the leaves 
and most of the roots from the stem. Then I scrub them 
with a brush in water to remove all dirt and debris from the 
stems, wrap them in aluminum foil to prevent excessive 
dehydration, and package and ship them by air freight to 
St. Louis, where they are buried in beds of moist sphagnum 
moss for several months until they develop new roots and 
begin to leaf out. On this trip I have shipped back more than 

a thousand cuttings, representing collections from all over 
Ecuador and Peru. 

Currently I am working with a National Science Founda- 
tion grant that provides funds to do a revision of the birds- 
nest Anthuriums, so named because the leaves form a 
nestlike basket which collects debris and moisture. The 
densely rooted stems are usually short and some of the 
roots grow up into the debris to obtain nutrients. This 
special adaptation allows these plants to grow in relatively 
dry areas. In fact, one area along the Pacific coast was so 
dry I was very dubious of finding any aroids. I was drawn 
there, however, by a collection made recently in the area by 
another botanist. Sure enough, the species was there in 
abundance, but no other aroids were found. 

This trip began in Ecuador where I rented a car and 
covered nearly all of the tropical areas where aroids occur. 
After a month there, I came to Peru. Here I made use of a 
special fare which allows a tourist to fly anywhere in Peru 
in a 15-day period for $120. This permitted me to cover 
many parts of Peru quickly and obtain most of the species I 

Next I will fly to Bolivia for two weeks of collecting. There 
are fewer species in Bolivia since it is so far south that it is 
somewhat out of the range of the family. I will return to 
Quito to pick up equipment stored there and then begin a 
trip overland into Columbia. I will fly back to the states from 
Medellin after a trip into the Department of Choco, which is 
a rich area adjacent to the Darien jungles of Panama, in 
which few collections have been made. The area (or parts 
of it) is reputed to have the world's highest average annual 

By the time I return to St. Louis I expect to have made 
almost 2000 aroid collections. These will be added to the 
approximately 2500 plants already growing at the Garden, 
making this collection the largest of living Araceae in the 
world. —Tom Croat, Paul A. Schulze Curator of Botany 

State Senate Passes Tax District Bill 

In March, the Missouri State Senate passed a bill 
calling for the establishment of the botanical garden 
sub-district of the Zoo-Museum Tax District. The bill is 
now being considered by the State House of Represen- 

The voters of St. Louis and St. Louis County must 
approve the measure before the Garden will receive 
funds through the Tax District. 

Prairie Day 

Missouri Department of Conservation will hold a Prairie 
Day on Saturday, May 16, at Paint Brush Prairie. Beginning 
at 8 a.m., the day will include informal lectures, guided 
walks, historical exhibits and storytelling for children. For 
more information, contact Gordon Maupin at Dept. of Con- 
servation; P. O. Box 180; Jefferson City, MO 65102. Phone, 

February and March 1981 

New Sponsoring Member 

Mr./Mrs. Leon Strauss 

New Sustaining Members 

Mr./Mrs. Allan Booth 
Mr./Mrs. Albert Kuhn 
Mr. Frank J. Matula 
Mr./Mrs. Louis Sprandel 
Mrs. Joseph W. Towle 

New Contributing Members 

Mrs. Ralph Appel 

Ms. Ellen Barker 

Mr./Mrs. William M. Bates, Jr. 

Mr. Robert N. Beck 

Mr./Mrs. Walter C Bergmann 

Mrs. O. C Boileau, Jr. 

Miss Merry J. Chandler 

Mr. William B. Davis 

Mr./Mrs. Lavern O. Dressel 

Mr./Mrs. Roger P. English 

Mr./Mrs. F. C Ernest 

Mr. John H. Ford 

Ms. Janet Gentilini 

Mr./Mrs. James B. George 

Mr. Jay S. Goodgold 

Ms. E. Green 

Mr. Albert P. Gronemeyer 

Mrs. Florence Dimmitt Hammack 

Mr./Mrs. James J. Hennessy 

Mr. James Higgins 

Mrs. James Holsen 

Mr./Mrs. Richard W. Horner 
Mr. August E. Hurrelmeyer, Jr. 
Dr. Yasuo Ishida 
Mr./Mrs. Norman C. Jamieson 
Mr./Mrs. H. W.Johns 
Mr./Mrs. Ben Jurczyk 
Mr./Mrs. James R. Kaye 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel Kempff 
Mr./Mrs. Harry B. Kennedy 
Mr. R. O. Kirchmeyer 
Mrs. Virgil Loeb, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Vincent C Long 
Mrs. Helen M. Longmire 
Mrs. Hazel Maxwell 
Mrs. Howard L. May 
Mr./Mrs. R. L. McCandless 
Mrs. Frances F. Meyer 
Mr. T. C Miller 
Mr./Mrs. John C Palecek 
Mr./Mrs. Robert O. Palmer 
Mr./Mrs. J. A. Peterson 
Mr./Mrs. J. A. O. Preus 
Miss Helen L. Schmitt 
Mr./Mrs. Thurman Schmitt 
Mr. Robert E. Schultz 
Mr. William J. Snyder 
Mr. Edward F. Sylvia 
Dr./Mrs. Francis O. Trotter, Jr. 
Miss Bessie Van Antwerp 
Mr./Mrs. John A. Vassallo 
Mrs. Edna Ward 
Ms. Sara B. Waterbury 
Mr. David Wells 


(continued from page 2) 

Directors of the company from 1954 
until his death in 1961. Mr. Lehmann 
originally founded the company with 
Henry Wallace who soon left to 
become U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. 
He maintained his law practice in St. 
Louis while serving as President and 
was the brother of John S. Lehmann, 
who was an important benefactor of 
Missouri Botanical Garden and served 
as President of its Board of Trustees 
from 1953 to 1957. 

At a time when plant genetic diver- 
sity, especially in the tropics, is being 
drastically reduced with every passing 
year, this new fellowship will make 
possible a significant increase in the 
Garden's ability to perform studies of 
plants throughout the world. The first 
recipient of the fellowship will be 
Dr. James C. Solomon, a recent grad- 
uate of Washington University, who 
will shortly leave for Bolivia with his 
wife, Andrea, to take up residence 
there and contribute to our apprecia- 
tion of the little-known plants of that 
large South American country. We are 
most appreciative to Pioneer Hi-Bred 
International for recognizing the 
importance of our work in commemo- 
rating, in such a significant way, the 
services of one of our graduates. 

A Regard For History 

(continued from page 1) 

wooden trellises were attached to the 
brick on the south elevation. In 1927, 
the glass roof was severely damaged 
by a hail storm and the roof was 
changed again, this time to one-third 
asphalt tile and two-thirds glass. 

The building has also been 
affected by almost a century of wind, 
heat, cold and precipitation. 

After writing the history, Kramer, 
with the Garden staff, considered how 
to approach the restoration. It was 
not a simple matter of returning the 
edifice to its 1882 appearance. "Most 
restoration is a compromise between 
the practical and the original, but 
generally highly impractical condi- 
tion," Kramer said. "For example, it 
would be impractical to restore the 
roof to its original state, in which only 
one-third of it was glass, because the 
building's purpose has changed since 
then. It would also be impractical to 
return to the all-glass roof of 1918, 
because of the experience of the 1927 
hailstorm." The compromise which 
Kramer and the Garden staff reached 
was to retain the practical, two-thirds 

glass roof, and replace the asphalt 
roofing tile with slate tile similar to 
that used in the construction of the 

Sometimes, it is necessary to take 
some license in restoration, and the 
architect must select materials that 
were not used in the original construc- 
tion or even throughout the history of 
a building. Again, any license taken 
rises out of practical considerations. 
With the Linnean House, Kramer 
decided that limestone window sills 
were more practical than the wooden 
sills installed on the interior a century 
ago. He says, "Since most of the 
original wood sills had rotted out 
because of the moisture content of 
the building, we decided it would not 
make any sense to replace them with 
new wooden sills, because they 
would rot out too, and have to be 
replaced later. That is impractical. 
They made a mistake in the original 
construction; there is no sense in 
repeating it, so we substituted lime- 
stone. There is a precedent for using 
that. It's consistant with construction 
of the era." 

Looking at an eighty-year-old 
photograph, Gerhart Kramer demon- 
strates how a historical architect is 
sometimes a detective. "When this 
ironwork was removed is a mystery," 
he says, pointing with a pencil to the 
ornamental ridgecresting at the apex 
of the building. "We think the crest 
was taken off in about 1918, but can't 
know for sure. There are no records," 
he says. "To duplicate it, we deter- 
mined the width of each unit of the 
crest by dividing the actual number 
of units shown in the photograph 
between a measured horizontal dis- 
tance below. When the width was 
determined, the height and details 
were easily determined by proportion 
from an enlarged photograph." Mag- 
nifying the photograph and producing 
a close detail of the crest, Kramer was 
able to draw a pencil sketch of the 
ironwork. Then a wood model was 
made, and from that, a casting. 

In the same photograph, Kramer 
indicates the upper, semi-circular por- 
tions of three windows in the east wall 
which are darker than the lower sec- 
tions of the same windows. We think 
it is a shadow, perhaps a trick of 
lighting, but he tells us they were sec- 
tions of colored glass. Taking us to 
Tower Grove Park to one of the other 
two greenhouses that Shaw built he 
shows us the colored glass that re- 

mains in the east and west walls of 
that house. "We used the windows 
here to determine the color of glass to 
install in the Linnean House." 

In that house in Tower Grove Park, 
among parked trucks and machinery, 
we can see something of how the 
Linnean House appeared a century 
ago, with the lower ceiling and the 
roof that is only one-third glass. "We 
used this building as a model for our 
restoration," Kramer says. 

At the Linnean House, he tells us 
that the paint on the trim and doors 
matches the original color. The 
method through which he determined 
the original color sounds like more 
detective work. He says, "We used a 
solution of three parts alcohol and six 
parts ammonia. This dissolves the 
paint layers slowly and is not as hard 
on the wood as commercial solutions. 
As the solution softened the paint, we 
scraped away one layer at a time. It 
took about two or three hours of work 
to find the original color." 

He shows us the other changes 
that are part of the restoration. The 
terra cotta covering on the end wall 
parapets have been replaced by cop- 
per with a rolled seam. The word "Lin- 
nean" has been repainted on the fan- 
light transom over the door, and the 
front doors have been changed to 
resemble the original. The building 
has been cleaned and tuckpointed, 
and the steps at the east and west 
doors have been repaired. 

Talking with Kramer a few days 
later, he tells us, "Restoring this 
building is important for several 
reasons. One, because of its impor- 
tance in the new plan of the Garden- 
it will be the first building people will 
see when they come out of the new 
Center. Also, because in restoration, 
you are able to conserve natural 
materials. But, most importantly, I 
think it gives us and future genera- 
tions the chance to see how the peo- 
ple of the past performed. It presents 
a true story with no distortion or in- 

The restoration of the Linnean 
House was made possible by funds 
from Missouri Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, the Heritage Conservation 
Recreation Service through the 
Missouri Department of Natural 
Resources, The Swedish Council of 
St. Louis, St. Louis Community 
Development Agency, and the Garden 
Club of St. Louis. 

Gardening In St. Louis 

Summer Gardening 

Time to water. Hot, dry weather brings to the gardener 
the constant and important job of watering plants. Rose 
bushes require about 5 gallons of water per bush per week 
to be most productive. Vegetable gardens require about 1 " 
of water per week. Annuals and perennials have about the 
same requirements. Plants which do not receive adequate 
water can suffer permanent tissue damage and will never 

Temperatures also have critical 
effects on plants. If the evening tem- 
peratures drop to 59 °F or below, the 
flowers will drop from tomato plants 
and no fruit will form. Also high tem- 
peratures, especially when accom- 
panied by wind, will dehydrate plants 
quickly and make more frequent 
watering necessary. On hot, dry, windy, 
summer days you will notice that 
some plants will wilt even when the 
ground is moist. This happens when 
water is evaporating from the small 
holes in plant leaves (called stomates) 
quicker than it can be replenished 
from the roots. This will not usually 
lead to permanent damage and the 
leaves will regain their stiffness dur- 
ing the evening. You can help the plants during these hot, 
dry periods by thoroughly watering them. Water applied in 
the noonday sun to plant foliage will cause no harmful 
spotting of leaves (an old-wives'-tale), but will greatly 
benefit the plant by lowering the temperature of the leaf 
surface and by quickly restoring water to the leaf tissue. 

Fungus among us. Insects and diseases are multiplying 
rapidly at this time of the year. To give you some idea of 
how fast insects reproduce, an entomologist named Dr. 
Hodge computed that if a pair of flies started reproducing 
in April, by August they would be the progenitors, if all off- 
spring were to live, of 191 quintillion individuals. Allowing % 
cubic inch per fly, there would be enough flies produced to 
cover the earth 47 feet deep! 

The most intelligent approach to controlling garden 
pests is to try integrated control. This involves employing 
biological, cultural and chemical controls concurrently. 

When biological control is used by trained entomolo- 
gists for specific pests it can be very effective. For the 
home gardener to purchase quart containers of lady 
beetles to kill aphids or scales or to buy praying mantis egg 
cases is essentially a waste of time and money. The pur- 
chased lady beetles usually either migrate soon after they 
are released or starve to death from lack of food. Praying 
mantises are effective in killing large insects, but unfor- 
tunately most destructive insects are small, such as 
aphids, white flies or spider mites. Mantises are also in- 
discriminate killers; they eat beneficial insects as well as 
each other. A good gardener should encourage the estab- 
lishment of beneficial insects by judicious spraying. To 
protect pollinating insects, especially honeybees, spray in 
the early evening after the bees have returned to their hive. 

There are many tangible ways that a gardener can con- 
trol insects and diseases by cultural methods. Only use 

seeds, bulbs and cuttings from healthy plants; disinfect 
seeds and bulbs before you plant them with a fungacide 
such as captan or benomyl; and pasteurize all soil used for 
sprouting seeds or rooting cuttings by baking the soil at 
180°F for 30 minutes or by drenching the soil with a 1:9 
solution of cholorine bleach and water. Let the drenched 
soil sit overnight before using it for rooting cuttings or 
transplanting. Take precautions against transfer of disease 
by using clean garden tools. Whenever you spot suspicious 
growth or damage on your plants, 
remove the limb or dispose of the 
entire plant. Weeds should also be 
controlled. They serve as hiding 
places for insects and carriers of 
various diseases. 

One of the best cultural controls is 
to grow disease-resistant varieties of 
plants. Hybridizers have made great 
strides in producing more vigorous 
plants which resist insect and 
disease attacks. Also, be sure you pro- 
vide the right growing conditions for 
your plants. If they are being im- 
properly watered or fertilized, the 
plants will be more susceptible to 
disease and insect infestations. 

Chemical control of insect pests 
has come under attack as being very 
hazardous to people and the environment. It can be, but it 
does not have to be. If chemicals are carefully chosen and 
used at the correct dilutions, they are a safe and effective 
control for insects and diseases. Chemicals should not be 
used exclusively, but should be combined with biological 
and cultural controls. Use chemicals which are not residual 
and which have a low animal toxicity. Insecticides in this 
category include malathion, diazinon, rotemone and sevin. 
Some low-toxicity fungicides are phaltan, captan or 
benomyl. Before using any chemical material always read 
the label! 

Summer Gardening Checklist 

• Lawn mowers should be set to cut 2-2V4 " for a bluegrass 
lawn and % "-1 " for a Zoysia or Bermuda lawn. 

• Pinch all annual flowering plants to make them bushy. 

• Mulch your tomatoes 3-5" with any organic material like 
straw or bark. Do not let the soil around them get too dry 
or the fruits will develop blossom end rot (a black spot in 
the center of the fruit). 

• If you have had your vegetables and flowers in for 4-6 
weeks, side dress them with about 1-2 lbs. of 5-10-5 
fertilizer per 100 sq. feet. 

• If the weather is hot, be on the lookout for spider mites on 
junipers and other plants. For minor infestations, hose 
the plants off with a strong jet of water. If you have a bad 
infestation, apply Kelthane. 

— Steven A. Frowine 
Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 


From the Members Office 

Henry Shaw Fund Success 

Harry Wuertenbaecher, Jr., Chair- 
man of the 1980 Henry Shaw Fund, 
announced that the Fund surpassed 
its goal of $325,000. He made the 
announcement at the February 
meeting of the Garden's Board of 
Trustees and at the same time 
acknowledged the effort of those who 
participated in the Fund. Addressing 
the Fund Committee members, he 
said "This was a difficult task and 
was accomplished only because of 
the work that you and others like you 
contributed to this endeavor. The 
work you have started, and I hope will 

Matching Gifts 

Many Garden Members increase 
the value of their contributions to 
the Garden through corporate 
matching gift programs. In 1980, 
employees of several companies, 
including Monsanto, Granite City 
Steel, Brunswick, Lever Brothers, 
Times-Mirror, Citibank and Phillip 
Morris, doubled their contribu- 
tions through their employers' 
programs. Over fifty St. Louis area 
companies have such programs. 
Members can determine if their 
companies provide matching 
gifts by inquiring with their per- 
sonnel departments. For further 
information or assistance, they 
may contact the Garden's Devel- 
opment Office, 577-5120. 

continue, will certainly help us in the 
years to come." 

Committee members included Carl 
Beckers, Jules D. Campbell, Gary 
Close, Alan E. Doede, Charles G. 
Houghton III, W. Boardman Jones, 
Robert Kresko, Hugh Lewis, H. Dean 
Mann, William R. Orthwein, Jr. 
Lucianna Gladney Ross and Warren 
M. Shapleigh. 

The Henry Shaw Fund assists in 
the support of the education pro- 
grams and provides that the Garden 
and its facilities are available to the 
greatest number of people. 

Members of the 1980 Henry Shaw Fund Com- 
mittee were honored for their successful 
efforts at the February Trustees meeting. 
Shown are (I. to r.) Carl Beckers, Gary Close, 
Alan Doede, H. Dean Mann, Harry Wuerten- 
baecher, Jr., (Chairman), and Hugh Lewis. 

Tamra Raven To Lead Chinese Garden Tour 

Tamra Engelhorn Raven will lead a 
tour of Garden Members to China in 
Spring, 1982. The tour, scheduled for 
April 24 through May 13, 1982, will in- 
clude visits to Chinese gardens, 
museums, temples and palaces in 
Beijing (Peking), Nanjing, Wusi, 
Suzhou, Shanghai and Hangzhou. 
After leaving China, Members will 
visit Kyoto, the garden city of Japan, 
for three days. 

"We will view the gardens, tombs 
and palaces as indexes to the ways 
the Chinese have looked at their 

The annual meeting of the Missouri 
Prairie Foundation will be held Satur- 
day, May 2, in the John S. Lehmann 
Building, from 9 a.m. until 12 noon. 
Members of the Garden are invited to 

natural environment," Mrs. Raven 
said. "This is an exciting opportunity 
for Members to learn something 
about a culture that has, until recent- 
ly, been inaccessible to us.'" 

Members interested in further 
details about the trip or in joining the 
tour may call the Members Office, 

A portion of the tour fee is a tax- 
deductible contribution to the 

Rose Evening 

Members of the Garden are invited 
to attend Rose Evening on Friday, 
June 5, 6-8 pm, in the two rose 
gardens. There will be music and 
refreshments. Members will receive 
further details in the mail. 

Dr. Bassett Maguire (right) visited the Garden 
recently in connection with his special interest 
in the Guyana highlands of South America. Dr. 
Maguire, Senior Scientist and Director 
Emeritus of Botany and Research at the New 
York Botanical Garden, spoke with Dr. Gerritt 
Davidse (left) of the botany staff here. Dr. 
Davidse is in charge of the Garden's research 
in Venezuela, where the Guyana highlands are 

Anthropologist Visits Garden 

Anthropologist Brent Berlin, of the 
faculty of University of California- 
Berkeley, visited the Garden in March. 
He has been working, for almost a 
decade, with the botany department 
in his research in folk systems of 
plant classification in cultures of 
Mexico and Central America. Collect- 
ing plants identified by folk names, he 
sends them to the herbarium here for 
identification by our staff members. 
He has found remarkable similarities 
between the folk classifications and 
those developed by European and 
other scientists over the past several 
hundred years, arriving at the theory 

that folk taxonomies function in the 
same manner as the western ones, 
both systems being confined by the 
same biological realities. 

"This exchange demonstrates the 
tremendous value of cooperation 
between the sciences," said Dr. 
Marshall Crosby, the Garden's Direc- 
tor of Research. "Both the fields of 
anthropology and botany benefit from 
our work with Dr. Berlin. Our collec- 
tion of plant specimins is increased in 
size and importance by those he 
sends us and he is able to continue 
his work of studying folk taxonomies 
because of our identifications. 

Oceans, Deserts and Whales 

Call it a whale in a dry ocean, the 
jojoba (pronounced ho-HO-ba). Ac- 
tually^ shrub native to the Sonoran 
Desert of southwestern United States 
and northern Mexico, the jojoba 
yields a dark brown fruit, slightly 
larger than a peanut, which produces 
a yellowish, odorless, liquid wax. The 
wax, known as "jojoba oil," has some 
amazing properties which have stirred 
the interest of investors, scientists, 
farmers and environmentalists. The 
last are interested because jojoba oil 
is a "virtual duplicate" of sperm whale 
oil, that assessment coming from a 
report of the National Academy of 
Sciences in a 1975 study. The sperm 
whale had become an endangered 
species because of the tremendous 
industrial demand for its oil; approx- 
imately 20,000 of the mammals were 
being killed each year. Environmental- 
ists hope that domestic cultivation of 
the jojoba will decrease the demand 
for sperm whale oil. 

A list of the uses of jojoba oil filled 
two pages in the NAS study, and in- 
cluded: lubricant of high-speed 
machinery; additive to other lubri- 
cants; transformer oil; ingredient in 
hair oil, shampoo, soap, face creams 
and sunscreens; stabilizer of 
penicillin products; cooking oil; furni- 
ture, automobile, and floor wax. 

The Indians of the region have long 
used jojoba oil as grease and as 
medicine, but it was not until the 
mid-1970's that the commercial 
potential of the oil was recognized. Its 
similarity to sperm whale oil is only 
one of the reasons for its attractive- 
ness to investors and growers— Wall 
Street Digest named it as the third 
best investment of the eighties, after 
real estate and rare coins. Reading 
the available literature on jojoba is 

like reading a litany of praise: drought 
resistant; apparently disease and 
pest resistant; grows in soils of 
marginal fertility; requires little 
water— in Israel, where the plant was 
introduced in the 1960's, jojoba is ir- 
rigated with salt water; low labor- 
intensive crop. One investor claims 
that within ten years jojoba crops will 
return 200% profit annually, calling it 
"the silver of the 1990's." 

However, sifting through the praise, 
it becomes apparent that there are 
some difficulties extant in large- 
scale, commercial jojoba cultivation. 
Ralph Boyd, whose company, Ameri- 
can Jojoba Industries, Inc., is planting 
6000 acres of the crop in Arizona and 
California, warned, "There's no such 
thing as a safe agricultural invest- 
ment. It isn't as easy as throwing a 
couple of seeds on the counter and 
becoming a millionaire." 

In order for the jojoba to become 
commercially viable, it needs to be 
domesticated. The yield from wild 
shrubs is not large enough to ensure 
the supply of oil that industry needs if 
it is going to use jojoba in place of the 
sperm whale. Domestication is not a 
quick and simple process and, for 
now, according to the Wall Street 
Journal, "Cultivated plants are too 
new to add substantially to produc- 

Herbarium Curator Appointed 

Nancy R. Morin has been appointed 
Administrative Curator of the Herbari- 
um in the Department of Botany. She 
received her Ph.D. in 1980 from the 
University of California at Berkeley 
and has just completed a postdoctoral 
fellowship at the Botany Department, 
Smithsonian Institution. Dr. Morin will 
supervise the curatorial staff of the 
herbarium. The herbarium contains 
approximately 3-million individual 
plant specimens, and employs a sup- 

port staff of twenty persons to mount 
newly-acquired plants, ship and 
receive loan and exchange specimens, 
type labels, and file and retrieve 
plants from the compactor storage 
units in which they are permanently 

In addition to her supervisory 
responsibilities, Dr. Morin will edit the 
Garden's quarterly scientific publica- 
tion, Annals of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden, and continue her research in 
the bluebell family, Campanulaceae. 

Also, as is the case in all mono- 
cropping, there is the danger that 
disease or pests could swiftly 
obliterate an entire crop. Genetic 
variety needs to be introduced into 
the jojoba so tht there would be 
enough resistant individuals to main- 
tain the existence of the species if 
disease should occur. 

There is also the problem of sex, 
since jojoba is a dioecious plant (male 
and female flowers occur on separate 
plants). Because the commercial 
value of the plant is in its fruit, it is the 
female plant in which growers are in- 
terested. The male is useless, com- 
mercially, except to provide pollin for 
the female plant in which growers are 
interested. Further, there is no prac- 
tical way to determine the sex of an 
individual plant until it bears flowers, 
which occurs in the second or third 
year. A grower pays for many seed- 
lings that he cannot use. 

Despite the potential drawbacks, 
which are not insurmountable, and 
inspired by the possibility of great 
profits, investors are placing more 
and more of their financial resources 
into the crop. During 1981, 
somewhere around 200 tons of jojoba 
oil will be produced, which is about 
52,000 gallons. By the end of the cur- 
rent decade, production is expected 
to reach approximately 127,000 tons. 
In conjunction with the Mammil- 
laria Exhibit in the Desert House, May 
2-24, the Garden will display a collec- 
tion of several jojoba shrubs along 
with samples of jojoba products, 
beans, oil and interpretive text. The 
display of jojoba is part of the 
Garden's continuing effort to inform 
and instruct its Members and the 
community in general about the im- 
portance of plant life to humanity. 

Nancy R. Morin 

Climatron Anniversary Celebration 

In February, the Garden celebrated 
the twentieth anniversary of the open- 
ing of the Climatron. Cited by the 
American Institute of Architects in 
1976 as one of the outstanding archi- 
tectural achievements in American 
history, the tropical greenhouse was 
designed by Murphy & Mackey, Archi- 

Joseph Murphy addresses celebration audience. 

Supporting Members attended a special 
preview of Climatron celebration. 

tects. Joseph Murphy of that firm was 
one of the principal speakers at the 
ceremony which opened the celebra- 
tion. Other speakers were Eugene 
Mackey III, son of the principal archi- 
tect of the Climatron; Wayne C. 
Kennedy, Director of St. Louis County 
Parks; William R. Orthwein, Jr. First 
Vice-President of the Garden's Board 
of Trustees; and Garden Director, 
Peter H. Raven. 

In his comments, Dr. Raven ex- 
pressed gratitude to Dr. Frits Went 
and Robert Brookings Smith, respec- 
tively the Garden Director and Board 
President at the time of the Climatron 

Dr. Raven said, "The Climatron is 
unequalled in its ability to display 
tropical plants in a naturalistic set- 
ting. We take this very seriously 
because it is very important for the 
public to have at least one image of 
what the tropics look like if they are to 
understand the importance of this 
vast resource. 

"So, we celebrate the twentieth 
anniversary of this building for those 
who had the vision and for those who 
designed and built it, but most of all 
for you, the public, who have enjoyed 
it, learned from it, and supported it." 

Japanese Festival: June 13-21 

The sixth annual Japanese Festival, 
nine days of exhibition, demonstra- 
tion and performance, and one of the 
cultural highlights of a St. Louis sum- 
mer, opens on June 13. The festival 
will include traditional, Japanese 
music and dance, food, costumes, 
and martial arts. There will be 
demonstrations of Japanese cooking, 
bonsai, ikebana and oregami, as well 
as lectures, films and travelogues on 

The popular Taiko Drummers from 
San Francisco will return to the 
Festival for the fourth consecutive 

A special children's day is scheduled 
for Saturday, June 20. The Festival 
continues through Sunday, the 21st. 

Through the generosity of the 
Japan America Society, one round- 
trip airfare to Japan, via Japan Air 
Lines will be awarded as an atten- 
dance prize. The flight will depart from 
St. Louis on October 10, 1981, and 
return October 24. (Dates subject to 


During the Festival, on weekends 
the admission charge will be increased 
for non-Members and Members will 
be charged a nominal fee. Further 
details will be announced later. 

Robert Brookings Smith 
Elected Honorary Trustee 

At its January meeting, the Board 
of Trustees elected Robert Brookings 
Smith as an Honorary Trustee in grati- 
tude for his service to the Garden. Mr. 
Smith was President of the Board 
from 1958 until 1962, and under his 
leadership the Garden realized 
several significant achievements, 
most notably the construction and 
opening of the Climatron. 

Also during his presidency, the 
Garden celebrated the centennial 
year of its opening, the first Rose Test 
Garden for the All America Rose 
Society was established and the 
rehabilitation and renovation of Tower 
Grove House was completed. Atten- 
dance increased from 240,000 in 1958 
to over 400,000 by 1961. 

Israeli Festival 

An Israeli Festival, sponsored by 
the Jewish National Fund, will be held 
at the Garden on Sunday, May 24 from 
11:00 a.m. until 4:00 p.m. The Festival, 
a celebration of culture and tradition, 
will include music, dance, food, drink, 
art, crafts, childrens' activities and a 
photography exhibit chronicling the 
work of the Jewish National Fund in 
Israel. The JNF, founded in 1901, is 
Israel's Land Development Authority, 
administering, developing and 
holding in trust 92% of Israel's public 
land for the Jewish people. 

Summer Youth Programs 

This summer, the Garden offers 
several exciting educational pro- 
grams for students 7 to 16 years old. 

The Pitzman Nature Program, begun 
twenty-four years ago, provides 
courses in solar energy, microscopes 
and desert ecology in one-day in- 
vestigative workshops, and experi- 
ence in cooperating with the natural 
world in three several-day-long pro- 
grams at the Shaw Arboretum. The 
purpose of all courses in the Pitzman 
Nature Program is to educate children 
in the ways of the earth through ac- 
tual experience; through experiments 
with solar energy, cultivation of desert 
plants, harvesting wild food; through 


In addition to the Pitzman Program, 
the Garden offers a unique opportuni- 
ty for students to learn about a culture 
different from their own, in the 
Japanese Summer Program, created 
through a grant from the National 
Endowment for the Humanities. 
Students will learn the arts of haiku, 
ikebana, oragami and bonsai. 
Through film, lecture and tour of the 
Japanese Garden, they will learn the 
symbolism, history and legends of the 
Japanese people. Persons interested 
in Summer Youth Programs should 
contact the Education Department at 

Shaw Bench Reproductions Available 

In 1883, Henry Shaw purchased 
"[wrought] iron park seats" from 
Shickle, Harrison and Company of St. 
Louis. About the benches, Antiques 
said, "Birds, floral devices, and 
gracefully flowing plant tendrils from 
a medallion of neoclassical inspira- 
tion. An example of fine quality pro- 

Tower Grove House 
Summer Luncheon 

The Tower Grove House Tea Room 
will offer a summer menu — chicken 
salad or fruit plate — beginning May 1. 
The Tea Room is open Tuesday and 
Thursday by reservation only, which 
must be made twenty-four hours in 
advance. Price of the luncheon is 
$5.50; there is no tax. Individuals and 
groups of less than fifteen who come 
to the Garden to have luncheon in the 
Tea Room will pay a reduced admis- 
sion rate of $2.25 at the Main Gate. 
Members of the Garden are free. For 
groups of fifteen or more, the 
Garden's standard reduced admis- 
sion rate is $1 .85. For Tea Room reser- 
vations, please call Jane Coultas, 

duced in a city where cast-iron- 
fronted architecture was, until recent- 
ly, an important part of the river front." 
The Garden recently commission- 
ed Southern Heritage, Ltd. of 
Birmingham, Alabama, to produce a 
limited number of reproductions of 
these century-old benches. The 
benches, samples of which are dis- 
played in the Plant Shop and the Lin- 
nean House, may be purchased from 
the Plant Shop for $1,875 each. Cost 
of delivery is extra. 

Sleeping Cat, Marie Taylor 

Marie Taylor Sculpture 

The work of St. Louis sculptress 
Marie Taylor will be exhibited in the 
Linnean House on May 2 and 3, 10 am- 
4 pm. Reproductions of her most 
famous piece, Sleeping Cat, will be 
available, by special order, through 
the Garden Gate Shop for $60 
(Members, $54). 

"Two Piece Reclining Figure No. 2" 

" / realized I was simplifying the essential 

elements of my reclining figure theme. It's a 
metaphor of the human relationship with the 
earth, with mountains and landscape." — 
Henry Moore 

Moore Sculpture Moved 

"Two Piece Reclining Figure No. 
2," a Henry Moore bronze sculpture 
that had been located near the Main 
Gate, was moved to the north side of 
the John S. Lehmann Building, near 
the English Woodland Garden. Since 
1969, the bronze, with a companion 
sculpture, "Two Piece Reclining 
Figure No. 1" had framed the view of 
Tower Grove House from the lily 
pools. "Piece No. 1" was transferred 
to the new Sculpture Terrace at the St. 
Louis Art Museum. 

The two bronzes were brought to St. 
Louis in 1961 by Mr. and Mrs. Howard 
F. Baer, and installed at Lambert 
Field. Because of the volume of traffic 
there, Mr. Baer felt the pieces could 
not be adequately appreciated and he 
requested they be transferred to the 
Art Museum in 1969. At the time, the 
Museum did not have an appropriate 
area for them, and they were moved 
again, to the Garden. 

Arts Group Seeks Members 

Missouri Citizens for the Arts, the 
year old arts advocacy organization, 
is currently soliciting new members. 

MCA seeks to promote the arts in 
the state by working with legislators, 
businesses, foundations and individ- 
uals on behalf of the Missouri Arts 
Council, the source of state funding 
for the arts. The Garden is one of the 
organizations and institutions which 
benefit from the Missouri Arts Council. 

Persons interested in supporting 
M.C.A. may write to them at P.O. Box 
14119, St. Louis, MO 63110. 


Winter Photography Contest 

Four first-prizes and ten honorable 
mentions were awarded by the judges 
in the Garden's winter photography 

First-prize winners were Linda 
Newman in the category of color, 
senior division (21 and over); John 
Schwent, for color, junior division 
(under 21); Melanie Bascom, black- 
and-white, senior division; and Mev 
Puleo, black-and-white, juniordivision. 

Honorable mentions in color were 
awarded to George Hasegawa, Linda 
C. Yust, Charles Sherwin and Ralph 
Newman, in the senior division, and 
March E. Bauer in the junior division. 

In black-and-white, honorable men- 
tions went to Al Hollon, Robert Peter- 
son, Bill Hartman and Randi Knofsky 
in the senior division, and Barbara 
Blain in the junior division. 

Judges were Mrs. Robert H. Kittner, 
President of the Executive Board of 
the Members; Kristin Peterson, a St. 
Louis professional photographer; and 
Gene Knackstedt, Vice-President of 
Shaw Camera, Inc. 

Haiku Exhibit 

Haiku is a traditional Japanese 
poetic form of seventeen syllables in 
three lines, the first line containing 
five syllables, the second, seven, and 
the third, five. 

In connection with the Japanese 
Festival, the Garden will present a 
Haiku Exhibit in the Climatron, with 
approximately 100 plants displayed 
with appropriate haiku, from June 14 
through July 14. 

The photographs at left, captioned 
by haiku, are the four first-prize reci- 
pients in the Garden's winter photog- 
raphy contest held earlier this year. 

Ken Peck Departs 

After nearly a quarter of a century of 
service in the Garden's Education 
Department, Kenneth O. Peck resigned 
in late February to accept the position 
of Technical Adviser at the Hummed 
Seed Co. He joined the Garden's staff 
in August, 1957, and saw the number 
of students participating in educa- 
tional programs increase from a few 
hundred in 1957 to approximately 
40,000 in 1980. He was instrumental in 
the creation and development of 
several popular programs, including 

the windows frosted 

sound of wind in barren trees 

and the ice shining 


Mr. John Schwent 

hillside and hedgerow 

the tree stark against the sky 

pond's mouth growing small 


Ms. Linda Newman 

the trees still barren 

thin rings of ice melting 

ground fresh with dank leaves 


Mrs. Melanie Bascom 

where the stream bends left 

no bird sings in the willow 

alone on the bank 


Ms. Mev Puleo 

Haiku by William York 

the Pitzman Nature Program, Satur- 
day Morning Activities and the Plant 
Science Program for elementary and 
high school students. 

"I've seen quite a bit of change in 
the Garden and in education since 
starting here," he said. "Working here 
was a tremendous experience for me; 
it was always interesting and exciting. 
I'm very fond of the Garden and its 
people and look forward to a long, 
continued association with it." 

Ken Peck will return periodically as 
a guest lecturer and instructor for the 
Education Department. 

Japan Tour Scheduled 
For October 

The Japan American Society of St. 
Louis will sponsor a fifteen-day cul- 
tural tour of Japan in October. Depart- 
ing from St. Louis on October 10, the 
tour will visit Tokyo, Mt. Fuji, Suwa 
(Sister City of St. Louis), Kyoto and 
several other cities and villages. 

Persons interested in further infor- 
mation or in joining the tour should 
contact Kikue Atkins of the Japan 
America Society at 469-3065. 



May's warm slow yellow moonlit summer nights — Robert Browning 

May 1-2 
May 1-9 

May 10-16 

May 17-23 

May 4-31 

Marie Taylor Sculpture Exhibit: Linnean House, May 2-3, 

10 am-4 pm. Unique sculptures in a whimsical display. 

Mammillaria Display (with jojoba): Opens on May 2 , 

Desert House, 9 am-5 pm (through May 24). 

Jack Jennings Photography Exhibit: Opens on May 4, 

John S. Lehmann Lobby, 9 am-5 pm (through May 29). A 

photographic celebration of four seasons in the Garden. 

American Red Cross Day: May 9, John S. Lehmann 

Building, 9 am-6 pm. Exhibits in honor of 100 years of 

the American Red Cross. 

Mammilaria Display continues 

Jack Jennings Photography Exhibit continues 

Mother's Day at the Garden: May 10, Main Gate, 

9 am-6 pm. A nice day for anyone's mother. Rose 

Society Miniature Rose sale. 

St. Louis Horticultural Society Show: May 16-17, John S. 

Lehmann Building, 2-5 pm on May 16; 9 am-5 pm on 

May 17. The Society's 53rd Annual Show. 

Dahlia Society Plant Sale: May 16-17, Visitors' Parking 

Lot and Main Gate, 9 am-6 pm. 

Mammilaria Exhibit continues 

Jack Jennings Photography Exhibit continues 

St. Louis Horticultural Society Show: Last day, May 17 

Dahlia Society Plant Sale: Last day, May 17 

Mammilaria Exhibit: Last day, May 4 

Jack Jennings Photography Exhibit: Last day, May 29 

Israeli Festival: May 4, Grounds & John S. Lehmann 

Building, 11 am-4 pm. 

Rose Society Show: May 30-31, John S. Lehmann 

Building 9 am-6 pm. "The mystic, the improbable, the 

Rose" — H. P. Putman 

Opuntia Exhibit: Opens May 30, Desert House, 

9 am-5 pm (through June 20). 


And what is so rare as a day in June? 

Then, if ever, come perfect days— James Russell Lowell 

June 1-6 
June 7-13 

June 14-20 
June 21-30 

Opuntia Exhibit continues 

Members Rose Evening: June 5, Rose Gardens, 6-8 pm. 

Opuntia Exhibit continues 

Japanese Festival: Opens June 13, Garden grounds, 
9 am-6 pm (through June 21). 

Opuntia Exhibit: Last day, June 20 

Japanese Festival continues 

Haiku Exhibit: Opens June 14, Climatron, 9 am-5 pm 

(through July 14). 

Japanese Festival: Last day, June 21 
Haiku Exhibit continues 

f^J Member of 

^■The Arts and Education 

Fund of Greater St. Louis 

May/June 1981 

Mr. /Mrs. L W. Baldwin 
Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 
Dr. Joseph C. Edwards 

The George V. Hogan Family 

Mr. Dan Goetz 

Valley of Flowers Garden Club 

Mr. /Mrs. Whitney Harris 

Dr./Mrs. Leigh Gerdine 

Mr. /Mrs. L. Brewster Jackson 

Mrs. W. Rumsey Skinner, Jr. 

Albert B. Kurrus 

Alice Kurrus Eshelman 

Mr./Mrs. Clifford Kurrus 

Caroline Kurrus 

Clifford Kurrus, Jr. 

Philip Kurrus 

Dr./Mrs. Clemont B. Sledge 

Claire Sledge 

John Sledge 

Margaret Sledge 

Mathew Sledge 

Mr./Mrs. Edwin Lopata 

Bud and Ida Steinberg 

Mrs. Clarence Mange's Special Birthday 

Rose and Meyer Levy 

Mr./Mrs. Clarence Mange's Special 

Rose and Meyer Levy 
Mrs. S. I. Rothschild, Jr.'s Birthday 
Ben and Nancy Senturia 
Dr. George Sata & Dr. Richard Sato 
The George V. Hogan Family 
Shaw Arboretum 
Eye Associates, Ltd. 
Pat Silversmith 
Morton and Norma Singer 
Or. Sam Soule 
Mr./Mrs. Ronald Prince 
Mr. Jay L. Tohtz 
A Friend of the Garden 
Fleur De Lis Garden Club 


Mrs. Frieda Angelbeck 

Mrs. George E. Bengard 

Mrs. Ruth Warren Becker 

Elizabeth G. Brokaw 

Miss Francis Lutz 

Wendy Berman 

Mrs. Gabriele DeWitt 

Paul E. Bielicke 

Joe and Peggy Tucker 

Fred J. Bopp 

Jeanine M. Prickett 

Margaret G. Brereton 

James L. Sloss, Jr. 

Mrs. Laura Carter 

Mr./Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

Ann Danzer 

Mrs. Ray Baeyen 

Richard A. Baeyen 

Robert A. Baeyen 

William and Pauline Battiste 

DCS Engineering Services 

Jinny Danzer 

Kenneth & Judith H. Groff 

Elizabeth Ann Hunter 

L. Karl Kittlaus 

Louis & Pauline Kittlaus 

Mr./Mrs. Walther Lorenzen 

Prairie Chapel Church 

Laurelle & Ann Shanklin 

Robert T. Shanklin 

Susan and Gregory Shanklin 

Eugene O. Umbright 

Governor Forrest Donnell 

Mrs. W. Rumsey Skinner, Jr. 

Adelaide L Eggers 

Jack and Adeleide Krueger 

Mrs. Norman E. Schaumburg 

Jeanne E. Elsfelder 

Eleanor D. Griffin 

Dr. Julius Elson 

Mrs. Pat Hanick 
Renate S. Engel 

Mr./Mrs. Erwin R. Breihan 

Michael Failed 

Your Friends in MISD 

Mrs. Alice Ferguson 

Dr. and Mrs. Harry Agress 

William J. Flynn 

Gwen Springett 

John S. Ford 

Mr./Mrs. Robert L. Blanke, Jr. 

S. E. Freund 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph Lewis 

Lottie Gabelmann 

Bob and Marge Purk 

Dr. Charles Garner 

Mr./Mrs. Carl Harris 

Martha Forrest Gentry 

Ruth Aylesworth 

Mrs. John F. Bredehoeft 

Ernest and Rita Brinner 

Mldred Brooks 

Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Truman G. Drake 

Grace Feeney 

Louise Griffin 

Ruth K. Henderson 

Colleen Kalinoski 

Lou Kosterman 

Col. and Mrs. James J. Milligan 

Ruth O'Leary 

Helen H. Pickel 

Col. and Mrs. F. A. Rickly 

Mrs. M. L Seyffert 

William J. Sims 

Mrs. Ben Smith 

Study Club 

Mr./Mrs. E. A. Talley 

Dr. and Mrs. William F. Wenner 

Alice and Ted Zahorsky 

Mrs. Isabelle L. Zimmerman 

Otto W. Geyer 

Beatrice C. Obermeyer 

A. Fuller Glaser 

Howard F. Baer 

Mr. Joseph Glynias 

Rose Society of Greater St. Louis 

Mr. Dan Goetz 

Valley of Flowers Garden Club 

William Goudy 

Dick Dohack 

Missouri Botanical Garden Guides 

Jan and Ron Rutter 

Daniel and Adelaide Schlafly 

Staff of the Arboretum 

Staff at the Greenery 

Mr./Mrs. Leroy Weinhold 

Mrs. Hugo Graf 

Mr./Mrs. C. Calvin Christy 

Mr./Mrs. Calvin H. East 

Mr./Mrs. Edwin F. Guth, Jr. 

J. R. Pahmeyer 

Mr./Mrs. Frederic M. Robinson 

Mary Cowan Harford 

Louise and Scott Ittner 

Mr./Mrs. Stifel William Jens 

Mrs. J. F. Hassinger 

Mrs. Alroy S. Phillips 

Doris Haverstick 

James G. Alfring 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph Lewis 

W. Alfred Hayes 

Dr./Mrs. Dean Sauer 

Pauline Hickey 

Claybreaker's Garden Club 
Stix, Baer & Fuller, Crestwood 

Area 212 
Mr./Mrs. Blaine Ulmer 

Fern Hill 

Hazel B. Duncan 
Mrs. Jo G. Heys 
Esther Rowell 


Dr. C. 0. Hughes 

Sunnyside Garden Club 
Mrs. Fred Hume, Sr. 
Mr/Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
John W Kilroy 
Ms. Dorothy Becker 
Kurt Krueger 

William A. and Ella Lahrmann 
Martin Lammert, III 
Mr./Mrs. Newell Augur 
Mrs. William S. Bedal 
Mrs. Kenneth H. Bitting 
Mr./Mrs. John Brodhead, Jr. 
John and Dodie Brodhead 
Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 
Mrs. Leicester B. Faust 
Mrs. George R. Fink 
Eleanor & Henry Hitchcock 
Mr./Mrs. Harold Jolley, Jr. 
Sen. & Mrs. A. Clifford Jones 
Mr./Mrs. H. Leighton Morrill 
Mrs. A. Wassel Shapleigh 
Mrs. A. B. Lansing 
Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 
Mrs. James E. Crawford 
Mrs. John H. Hayward 
Meyer Levy's Brother-ln-Law 
Mr./Mrs. Clarence Mange 

Lorraine Lowry 
Ada S. Kling 
Irene Steinman 

Pauline Luer 

Rose Society of Greater St. Louis 

Eleanor Scott Mallinckrodt 

Harriet Rodes Bakewell 
Mr./Mrs. Burdick V. Burtch 
Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas, Jr. 
Nancy and George D'Arcy 
Mr../Mrs. Lewis C. Green 

Mr./Mrs. A. H. Homeyer 

Nan and Cliff Jones 

MaryJo Arpe Klosterman 

Mr./Mrs. William Knowles 

Mrs. Albert Krueger 

Ladue Garden Club 

Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm 

Mr./Mrs. Oscar W. Rexford 

Mrs. John R. Ruhoff 

Althea & Carl Schumacher 

Mr./Mrs. Robert B. Smith 

The Grass Roots Garden Club 

Mr./Mrs. Wylie Todd 

Town and Country Speakers Club 

Mr./Mrs. William M. Van Cleve 

Donald H. and Gladys I. Webb 

Mr./Mrs. David Q. Wells, Jr. 

Jane H. Wilson 

Erwin Mandel 

Mrs. Gloria Hogbin 

Norman Mann 

Mrs. Gloria Hogbin 

Howard L. May 

Mrs. George S. Metcalfe 

Mrs. Eugenia Mitchell 

Mr./Mrs. Dave Hall 

Mr./Mrs. John E. Hoffman 

Mr./Mrs. S. T. Kauffman 

Mr./Mrs. Doug LeResche 

Mr./Mrs. A. J. Widmer 

Mr. Vaughn Morrill 

Mr./Mrs. C. Calvin Christy 

Mr./Mrs. Frederic M. Robinson 

Helen Muchnick 

Morton and Norma Singer 

Mrs. Viktor Miiehlenbach 

Mr./Mrs. Morton K. Lange 

Robert and Mary Purk 

Mr. Oscar D. Norling 

Dr./Mrs. John E. Hobbs 

Carl Ott 

Mr. Elmer W. Wiltsch 

Andrew B. Reeves 

Patricia A. Purk 

Mrs. Repetti 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

Joseph A. Riedisser 

Mr./Mrs. A. H. Faenger 

Precious Rives 

Mr./Mrs. Charles J. Bogard, Jr. 

Mrs. Bernie A. Ross 

Janet F. Dahl 

Ann and Peter Husch 

Mary J. Sattler 

Edwin S. Baldwin 

Betsy, Daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth 

Missouri Botanical Garden Guides 
J. Glennon Schreiber 
Malcolm L and Mary Langs Holekamp 
J. Marshall and Ernestine Magner 
Mrs. John A. Schreiber, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Edwin R. Waldemer 
Eugene S. Schweig 
Rose and Meyer Levy 
Edith Case Shelton 
Mrs. Edson P. Burch 
Mr./Mrs. Charles S. Drew, Jr. 
Mrs. R. J. Gunter 
Mr./Mrs. Carl Harris 
Mr./Mrs. James C. Millstone 
News Department-St. Louis Post 

Mr./Mrs. Vance E. Ross 
St. Louis Post Dispatch 
Mr. Guy Snyder 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph Lewis 
Mr. Edward Anson Sprague 
Paul and Helen Miller 

Arthur 0. Straub 

Dorothy Jean Becker 

John Tarr 

Pattie Calamici 

Ronald and June Danzer 

Capt. and Mrs. Timothy E. Davis 

Carroll L. Eslinger 

Mrs. Marlene Ford 

Mr./Mrs. Larry Fritsch, Zachary 

Mr./Mrs. Jim Furtkamp 

Mr./Mrs. Larry Shirley, Jason & Justin 

Rosalyn Stein 

Marge Thomas 

Laverne Wodraska 

Eugene Titmann 

Mr./Mrs. John Brodhead, Jr. 

Vera Vanderpearl 

Clayton Garden Club #2 

Mr. Charles L. Walker 

Mr./Mrs. L. A. Bainter 

Franklin E. Walton, M.D. 

Ida Mae & Willis McClain 

Mrs. Etha Walz 

Dorothea Seibel 

Richard Webb 

Mrs. W. C. Brown, Jr. 

Lenore Weissman 

Richard and Florence Carter 

Frank Wright 

Mr./Mrs. Harry A. Bagley, Jr. 

Margaret Joyce 

Mary Miller 

Dr. Johann Friedrich Zwicky 

Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 

Persons interested in 
contributing to the Tribute 
Fund may contact the Develop- 
ment Office, 577-5120. 

Missouri Botanical Garden Gate. 
Photographed in 1907 by William 
Trelease, the first Garden Director 
after Henry Shaw. A limited edition 
reproduction of this photograph 
was presented to each of the Henry 
Shaw Associates at their annual 
dinner in 1980, in gratitude for their 
significant support of the Garden. 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 







Volume LXIX, Number 4 
July/August 1981 

Marks On Paper 

The written word remains.— Horace 

im Reed opens the 
book carefully and 
lays it onto the table, 
showing a color 
plate of Allium lusi- 
tanicum, from root to 
fine, pink flower. Op- 
posite the plate is a 
brown sheet of paper 
printed with a ghost 
of the A. lusitani- 
cum. "This is the 
printer's proof of the 
plate," Reed says. 
"This book is one of 
only two known cop- 
ies that include the 
black-and-wh ite 
printer's proof of all engravings." The book is one volume of 
Les Liliacees by P. J. Redoute, printed in 1809, and commis- 
sioned by Empress Josephine who was Redoute's patron- 

Turning the pages of Les Liliacees, Reed, the Garden's 
librarian, emphasizes the careful accuracy of each of the 
engravings. "Redoute used stipple engraving to get the de- 
tail necessary for accurate botanical illustration." Stippling 
is a process of using tiny dots close together to produce 
subtle gradations of light and shade. The work of Redoute 
s among the most highly regarded in the history of printing, 
Decause of the care he took in the creation of each piece. 

There are many volumes like the Redoute in the rare 
Dook collection of Missouri Botanical Garden; books with 
landpainted plates, precise drawings. Some are displayed 
n cases, open showing illustrations of herbs, a rose, a 
woodcut of a medicinal plant, a single page from a fif- 
eenth-century manuscript, Book of Hours. This last is the 
)ldest item in the collection. "We have it not for its religious 
'alue," says Reed, "but because it was illuminated with f lor 
\\ devices." These are the items that Reed and his staff 
;how to visitors who tour the rare book rooms; the Redoute, 
he display cases, a novel item— Hortus Gramineus Wobur- 
wnsis, published in 1816, and illustrated with actual dried 
)lant specimens pasted into the book— pieces visually ex- 
iting, with histories of intrigue, success, failure, deceit, 
"aking a book from the shelf, Reed says, "The earliest illus- 
rated herbal we own is the Latin Herbarius, printed in 1484. 
t's in its original dogskin binding; text in Latin. It was 
•rinted by Peter Schoeffer, whose father-in-law drove 





Gutenberg into bankruptcy." Johann Gutenberg had bor- 
rowed money from Johann Fust to establish his press. Fust 
demanded payment before Gutenberg had realized any 
fruits from his invention, and when Gutenberg was unable 
to pay, Fust confiscated the press, establishing his own 
firm. Ten years later, Fust was dead from the plague and 
Schoeffer inherited the business. 

Anecdotes and fine, attractive plates are interesting but 
it is not for these that the collection exists. 

"One of our most important collections is of nineteenth- 
century German high school programs. We have several 
hundred of these. They have not much financial value; 
they're printed on cheap paper and not at all visually attrac- 

Where is their value; why are they important? 

Jim Reed sips coffee and continues. "In the nineteenth 
century, German high schools employed botanists as 
teachers. The scientists would present papers on their work 
at graduation ceremonies and the papers would be re- 
printed in the program. They're of interest to only a small 
group— taxonomists. 

"Our library is important because we have one of the 
most comprehensive collections of botanical literature in 
the world; we provide services to scientists in this country 
and in others. To visiting scientists and science historians, 
we are important because we have many of the original 
source materials showing the development of botany. We 
have hundreds of items that are unique— which are the only 
copy known to exist on the planet." 

First editions of Darwin's Origin of the Species, Lin- 
naeus' Species Plantarum and Schoeffer's Gart der 
Gesundheit stand on the shelves with 3,500 other works. 
Schoeffer's book, which appeared in 1485 as a German revi- 
sion of the Latin Herbarius, is one of 1,000 volumes that are 
the pre-Linnean collection {those written prior to 1750), the 
basis of the entire rare book collection. Most of those 1,000 
books were given to the Garden in 1892 by E. Lewis Sturte- 
vant, a nineteenth-century physician and agricultural scien- 
tist. Sturtevant was prophetic when he, commenting on his 
gift, said, "I have a strong desire that the library will serve a 
purpose. The time will come. ..when attention will be given 
to the problem of the changes that mankind have [sic] ef- 
fected in plants." 

Over one-half of the rare book collection, approximately 
1,800 volumes, is the Linnean collection: books by and 
about Carl Linneaus, including those on botany, zoology, 
medicine and poetry. "Linneaus was a great scientist," 
says Reed, "but his poetry is not very good." That collection 

(continued on page 4) 




^^^ For almost half a century, the Garden 

^ ^^^P has been concentrating its research effort 

on the tropical and semitropical areas of 
' South America, principally Peru, Ecuador, 

Colombia, and Venezuela. We are now ini- 
tiating an active program in Bolivia and, to 
some extent, Paraguay; Dr. James C. Solo- 
mon, the first recipient of the William L. 
Brown Fellowship, generously donated by 
Pioneer Hi-Bred International to the Garden recently, will 
begin a residency in La Paz, Bolivia, this month to study the 
plants of that country. The tropical flora of Bolivia and of Par- 
aguay differ from those of Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Ven- 
ezuela, resembling rather much of the flora of northern 
Argentina, which I visited for two weeks in May. Because of 
the rapid destruction of the tropical regions there, it is vital 
for us to greatly increase our efforts for research coordina- 
tion with the many botanical institutions and botanists of 

On my visit, I traveled first to Tucuman, where the meet- 
ings of the Botanical Society were held. A full three days of 
outstanding papers emphasizing many subjects of direct in- 
terest to the Garden were presented. I opened the confer- 
ence with a lecture on the role of continental movements on 
the distribution of plants, and closed it with a paper on the 
destruction of tropical forests and the reasons that Argen- 
tina, like the United States, ought to have a real and substan- 
tial interest in the fate of these forests, because of national 
self-interest. At the conference, most of the botanists in 
Argentina were gathered and I was able to renew acquain- 
tances with many whom I had met over the past 25 years. I 
was deeply honored with the presentation of a Honorary 
Membership in the Argentine Society of Botany which I ac- 

(continued on page 4) 







Bath, Parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica— Marshall 
Crosby reports from Jamaica 

Gardening in St. Louis— Steve Frowine writes 

about water 

—Also a special report on Pine Wilt Disease 

From the Members' Office 

New Officers; Shaw Trust Amendments and two 

new Trustees 

Demonstration Garden Opens 
Gift of Lackland Resolution 

Dr. Raven Receives A.I.B.S. Award 
Prairie— A Missouri Heritage 


DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo. 
63166. Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
$6.00 foreign. 


Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 


Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 
Mrs. Mason Scudder 


Mr./ Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 

Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr./Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 

Mr./ Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr. /Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 

Mr./ Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr./ Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mr./ Mrs. Clarence C. Barksdale 

Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg. Jr. 

Mr. /Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr./Mrs. John E. Simon 

Mr. /Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 

Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 

Mr./Mrs. John G. Buettner 

Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. Hermann F. Spoehrer 

Mrs. F. T. Childress 

Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 

Mr. Fielding L. Childress 

Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 

Mr./Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Miss Lillian L. Stupp 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr./ Mrs. Edgar L. Taylor, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 

Dr./Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr./Mrs. James Walker 

Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 

Mr./Mrs. Richard K. Weil 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 

Mr./ Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mrs. Ben H. Wells 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr./Mrs. O. Sage Wightman, III 

Mr./Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 

Mr./Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. John M. Wolff 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Miss F. A. Wuellner 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Mr./ Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 

Mr. S. E. Freund 

Mr./Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mr. Clarence R. Goodrich 

Mr./Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 


Mrs. H. C. Grigg 
Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 


Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 


Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr. Patrick Ackerman 

Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Mr. Kenneth Balk 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr./ Mrs. Carl Beckers 

Mr./Mrs. James H. Howe, III 

Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 

Mr./Mrs. Lee Hunter 

Ms. Allison R. Brightman 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mrs. Richard L. Braumbaiegh 

Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 

Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 

Mr Joseph C. Champ 

Mr./Mrs. Henry 0. Johnston 

Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 

Mrs. Irene C. Jones 

Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 

Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 

Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 

Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 

Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr./Mrs. David C. Farrell 

Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 

Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr./Mrs Edward E. Haverstick 

Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 

Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 

Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 

Mr./Mrs. B. F. Jackson 

Mrs. John A. Latzer 

Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 

Mr. Thomas F. Latzer 

Mrs. Leighton Morrill 

Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mr./Mrs. Charles W. Oertli 

Mrs. John S. Lehmann 

Mr. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 

Miss Martha I. Love 

Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 

Mrs. James S. Luehrmann 

Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 

Mr. H. Dean Mann 

Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell 

Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 

Mr. Roswell Messing, Jr. 

Mr. Frank H. Simmons 

Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 

Miss Harriett J. Tatman 

Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 

Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 

Mr. Thomas Moore 

Mr./ Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 

Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr./Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 

Mr. Spencer T. Olin 

k, tlii * 

Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 


Miss Jane E. Piper 


Miss Julia Piper 


Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 

Capt. William R. Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Herman T. Pott 
Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 

C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mrs. C. Kenneth Robins 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 

President of the Executive 

Mr./Mrs. G. S. Rosborough, Jr. 

Board of the Members 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 

Mr./Mrs. David Sanders 

Mrs. William H. Schield 


Bath, Parish of St. Thomas, Jamaica 

"Jamaica is more than a beach: It's a country" say the 
tourist posters in the airport, hotels, and shops. In fact, 
though this is my fourth trip to Jamaica, I can recall only 
one visit to a beach: In 1963 our plant collecting group 
camped on some north-shore beach because it was the flat- 
test piece of ground we could find. When I think of Jamaica, 
I think of rainy, cloud enshrouded mountains, where the 
trees and ground below them are covered with mosses. The 
reason I have come to Jamaica this time is to collaborate 
with Dr. William R. Buck of the New York Botanical Garden 
who is beginning a project to write a moss flora of the entire 
West Indies. He is beginning his project by visiting the 
islands of the Greater Antilles— Jamaica, Puerto Rico, His- 
paniola, and, he hopes, Cuba. Since he had not been to 
Jamaica before, he invited me along to guide him to some 
of the more interesting spots for mosses. Over 300 species 
of mosses have been reported from Jamaica, starting in the 
late 1700s when Olaf Swartz reported a few in an early flora 
of the West Indies. While these 300 or so species are pre- 
served as thousands of herbarium specimens, it is impor- 
tant for Dr. Buck to see the mosses in their native habitats 
to prepare proper descriptions of them and to be able to dis- 
cuss them in his forthcoming flora. 

Our three-week trip to Jamaica has begun with a visit to 
the Bath area here on the southeastern end of the island, 
near the southern end of the John Crow mountain range. 

Jamaica has several botanical gardens, and the oldest 
s at Bath. It was founded in 1779, some 80 years before the 
Missouri Botanical Garden. At that time, the population of 
Jamaica was well over 200,000— the overwhelming majority 
)f these were slaves— while the population of St. Louis was 

only a little over 1,000. The Bath Botanic Garden was estab- 
lished as a plant introduction center, and it was here that 
the breadfruit was introduced to the West Indies in the late 
18th century by Captain William Bligh of Mutiny on the 
Bounty fame. The size of the garden has been decreased to 
only a few acres now and it really is no more than a public 
park, though it does contain many interesting, exotic tropi- 
cal trees. 

The other interesting feature of Bath is the hot mineral 
spring which was first discovered in the early 1700s by a 
runaway slave. Soon thereafter a public bath was estab- 
lished, and generations of Jamaicans have come here for 
the "cure." A large hotel, run by the Jamaican government, 
now straddles the Sulphur River, into which the hot mineral 
springs flow. Since the site is only about a mile from the 
botanical garden and since both places have been active 
for well over 200 years, it is not surprising to find many exot- 
ic plants now naturalized along the steep valley walls of the 
Sulphur River. In fact, as I sit on the balcony of the hotel and 
write this letter, I can look directly across from me at the 
heavily vegetated valley wall and am reminded of the beau- 
tifully painted ceiling of the Museum Building at the Gar- 
den. That ceiling contains paintings of an improbable mix- 
ture of the world's flora: no one would expect to find many 
of the plants shown growing together on our Museum ceil- 
ing actually growing together in nature or even under culti- 
vation. But the walls of the Sulphur River valley certainly ap- 
proach it in their colorfulness and diverse origin of the 
plants growing there. 

—Marshall R. Crosby, Director of Research 

Dperation Clean Stream 

The fourteenth annual Operation Clean Stream, spon- 
sored by The Open Space Council of St. Louis and Monsan- 
o, is scheduled for Saturday, August 29. For the second 
'ear, Shaw Arboretum will participate in the project, which 
s an effort to clear debris from the Meramec River. Persons 
nterested in joining Operation Clean Stream should meet 
it the Arboretum at 9:30 a.m. on the 29th; they should bring 
:anoes, paddles, life jackets and lunches. The Arboretum 
>rovides beverages. For further information, contact The 
)pen Space Council at 727-2311, or the Arboretum at 


Missouri Botanical Garden has completed the first na- 
tional directory listing names of people who are experts on 
the germination and culture of wildflowers. The Directory to 
Resources on Wild flower Propagation, by Gene Sullivan 
and Richard Daley, was supported by the National Council 
of State Garden Clubs as part of their program, "Operation 
Wildflower," the purpose of which is to stimulate interest in 
the use of native plants for roadside plantings. 

More information on the Directory can be obtained from 
the National Council of State Garden Clubs, Inc., 4401 Mag- 
nolia Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 631 10. 

rogress in the construction of the Visitor Center continues. The Cen- 
ir will be completed by the end of 1981 and will open in spring of 1982, 
s originally scheduled. 

Tax District Bill Passes 

In May, the Missouri House of Representatives ap- 
proved Senate Bill 48 providing for the establishment of a 
botanical garden subdistrict of the Zoo-Museum Tax Dis- 
trict. The vote in the House was 139 to 15; the bill was 
previously approved by the State Senate. After the meas- 
ure is signed into law by Governor Christopher Bond, it 
must be approved by voters in St. Louis and St. Louis 
County before the Garden will receive funds through the 


(continued from page 2) 

cepted on behalf of the Garden and all 
who are working here in connection 
with our outstanding efforts in tropical 

After the conference, I was able to 
visit centers in Cordoba, Buenos 
Aires, and La Plata, presenting lec- 
tures and visiting with scientists at 
these centers. My chief host in Argen- 
tina was Ing. Agr. Armando Hunziker, 
President of the Argentine Society of 
Botany this year, and Professor at the 
University of C6rdoba. Armando is the 
brother of Dr. Juan Hunziker, who is a 
professor in the School of Agronomy 
at the University of Buenos Aires and 
who is studying here at the Garden 
and Washington University for 10 
months as the holder of his third Gug- 
genheim Fellowship, an almost very 
rare award. 

My trip to Argentina was a fine 
success, not so much for the opportu- 
nity to meet and talk with so many bot- 
anists about important issues, but for 
the possibilities arising from this visit, 
of the future exchange of personnel, 
ideas, specimens and materials. As 
we attempt to understand the tropics, 
in the limited time remaining before 
their virtual disappearance, it is impor- 
tant that we continue to cooperate 
with scientists of all countries, shar- 
ing our resources, to ensure the ac- 
complishment of this significant work. 

Marks On Paper 

(continued from page 1) 

is one of the three largest such collec- 
tions in the United States; the other 
two are at the Hunt Botanical Library 
in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the 
University of Kansas in Lawrence. 

The other approximately 700 vol- 
umes in the collection include post- 
Linnean botanical works, horticultural 
works, and historical works. There are 
also a number of travel and explora- 
tion narratives, written between the 
sixteenth century and the present. 
"These are important historically, but 
are important to us because they con- 
tain descriptions of plants that were 
collected," Reed says. 

Luck and perseverance; that's how 
they're collected— the books. 

Sometimes there are rumors: a 
book thought not to exist turns up. 
"C.H. Grey published a work, Hardy 
Bulbs, in 1937. We had volumes one 

and two. Almost every copy of volume 
three was supposed to have been de- 
stroyed when the publisher's ware- 
house was bombed during the war. 
Someone told me they had heard that 
a few copies of volume three survived. 
I spent four years looking for that vol- 
ume and finally found it. Along the 
way, I found the author's galley proofs 
for all three volumes, with corrections. 
We have those, also." Perseverance. 

And luck. "One day, someone 
showed up with a copy of Mattioli's 
commentary on Dioscorides, an edi- 
tion published in 1565. He had found it 
in his attic and just gave it to us." 
Dioscorides was a first century Greek 
physician who was a slave to the 
Roman army; he described plants he 
found on his travels with them. Mattioli 
interpreted Dioscorides, determining 
to which plants Dioscorides referred. 

"Most of the books we purchase 
through catalogues and lists provided 
by book dealers," Reed says. On his 
desk are piles of catalogues from New 
York, London, Amsterdam, Philadel- 
phia. I've seen Reed scanning them 
while he waited in line at the Green- 
ery, the Garden's restaurant, taking a 
pencil from his pocket to mark an item 
that would be appropriate for the li- 
brary. "If an important piece appears, 
we try to acquire it if it is reasonably 
priced." Reed also visits bookstores, 
advertises in trade journals, and looks 
for private collections offered for sale 
to acquire books. "About two years 
ago, we bought the private library of 
William Campbell Stere, who was the 
former director of New York Botanical 
Garden. He had a large collection of 
books and pamphlets on mosses pub- 
lished from 1750 to the present. 

"A lot of botanists, even though 
they're not associated with the Gar- 
den, who find books offer them to us. 
They consider us such an important 
institution to the international botani- 
cal community, they think of us when 
they are out collecting or when they 
see a book somewhere." 

During the autumn months, the 
Garden's library will host "Lines and 
Curves; Paper and Ink: A Festival of 
the Book Arts," a series of exhibitions, 
lectures and workshops on various as- 
pects of creative book-making. The 
Festival begins in September with an 
exhibition of bookbindings to cele- 
brate the 75th Anniversary of the Guild 
of Book Workers. Other exhibitions 
scheduled for later in the fall include a 
display on the art of the wood engrav- 
er; an exhibition on the botany of 

papermaking and accompanying dis- 
plays of unusual and handmade pa- 
pers; a bookplate display; an exhibi- 
tion of calligraphy and type designs by 
Herman Zapf; and the Garden's own 
exhibition on the history of botanical 

Accompanying these exhibitions, 
the library has scheduled a variety of 
public lectures and educational work- 
shops by nationally known authorities 
on topics such as papermaking by 
hand, bookbinding, publishing, fine 
printing, calligraphy, book illustration, 
book collecting and other aspects of 
the book arts. 

Further details will be announced 
in the next issue of the Bulletin. Mem- 
bers interested in participating in any 
of the workshops may call the Gar- 
den's library at 577-5155 to receive 
mailings about the planned events. 

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Gardening In St. Louis 

Hot, dry days of July and August can be devastating to 
plants in your garden. Try following these guidelines to help 
your plants beat the heat. 

1. Mulch to conserve water. A mulch is anything which 
covers the ground around plants and between rows. Mulch- 
ing conserves moisture in the soil by reducing the rate of 
evaporation. Mulch also greatly reduces the presence of 
weeds, which compete with your plants for precious water 
and nutrients. 

Many organic materials may be used as mulches. You 
may try a 3- or 4-inch layer of grass clippings (let the grass 
dry a bit before applying to the garden), straw, partially de- 
composed leaves or compost. A layer of several sheets of 
newspaper works effectively if weighted down with a top 
layer of soil or other material. 

Plastic mulch also works well, is easy to use, and is re- 
usable for several seasons. Plastic mulch, when applied in 
the spring, keeps the soil warmer and gives summer crops, 
like tomatoes and peppers, a faster start. 

2. Use shade to advantage. Moisture evaporates more 
slowly in shaded soil than in sun. Leafy vegetables such as 
cabbage, lettuce, spinach, and Swiss chard do well in par- 
tial (not complete) shade— that is, areas which receive full 
sun for only part of the day. Basil, mint, parsley, and tarra- 
gon are a few herbs that thrive in partial shade. Fruiting veg- 
etables such as tomatoes, peppers and vine crops need full 
sun for satisfactory production. 

3. Space plants closely. Space plants and rows so that 
the maturing plants just overlap. This will shade the ground 
to reduce moisture loss and weed competition. If you use a 
mechanical cultivator, you may need to switch to hand cul- 
tivation in the narrower rows. 

4. Harvest young. Pick your vegetables when they are 
at their prime— don't let them over-ripen. Picking reduces 
the moisture requirements of the plants and encourages 
continued production. 

5. Weed regularly. Weeds compete with vegetable 
crops for every drop of water— and often the stronger, deep- 

rooted weeds win the competition! Remove the weeds as 
soon as they show themselves in your garden. 

6. Water deeply, not often. Water in the evening or early 
morning. Use special soil-soaking hoses which allow water 
to drop slowly into the ground, and place the hoses quite 
close to your plants. Or set your garden hose, nozzle re- 
moved, directly on the ground to irrigate one part of your 
garden at a time. Let the water run slowly for as long as nec- 
essary to soak deeply into the soil. Adeep soaking is needed 
only every 10 to 14 days, unless your plants show signs of 
wilting from insufficient moisture. Remember that oscillat- 
ing-type lawn sprinklers, if used, throw water where you 
may not need it and allow more evaporation than other 
watering methods. 

7. Provide windbreaks. Strong or constant winds speed 
evaporation. If your garden is fairly small, it may be possible 
to set up a temporary windbreak using fencing materials or 
cast-off construction materials. Just be sure windbreaks do 
not shade plants that need full sun. 

— Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

Pine Wilt Disease Afflicts Trees 

Pine wilt disease is a newly recog- 
nized problem of pine trees, especially 
ornamental species such as Scotch or 
Austrian pine. It is a major problem in 
pine forests of Japan now, having 
reached epidemic status in certain 
areas of that country where extensive 
forest plantations of Japanese red 
(Pinus densiflora) and black (P. thun- 
bergii) pine have been severely dam- 
aged. It was rediscovered in Colum- 
bia, Missouri, in 1979 and is presently 
known in thirty-two states of the U.S., 
affecting nineteen species of pine. 

The cause of the disease is a 
microscopic animal that lives in the 
resin canals of pine trees. These orga- 
nisms are carried from infected to 
healthy trees by wood-boring beetles, 
fhe insects lay their eggs under the 

bark of pines in the summer or early 
fall, usually selecting trees that are 
under stress from various causes, in- 
cluding this disease. The egg devel- 
ops into a grub that tunnels in the 
wood and overwinters to emerge as an 
adult the following year. If the tree has 
nematodes, these invade the beetles 
as they emerge and travel along when 
the insects fly to healthy trees for their 
feeding. The beetle strips the bark 
from growing tips; the nematodes mi- 
grate into the tree, multiply to large 
populations and kill the pine. Trees 
that look perfectly healthy may wilt 
rapidly, lose color and die within a few 

What can be done? Research on 
this problem in the U.S. is just begin- 
ning. If you suspect that your tree has 

died suddenly from pine wilt, and if it 
retains its needles, contact Mr. Frank 
Rycek, State Department of Agricul- 
ture, Plant Industries Division, P.O. 
Box 630, Jefferson City, Missouri 
65102, for analysis of a sample to con- 
firm that your tree has pine wilt dis- 
ease. Then cut and burn the wood, in- 
cluding branches. Dig up the stump 
and dispose of it as well. Do not put 
wood from a diseased tree into a 
wood pile. The beetles will complete 
their life cycle and fly to healthy trees. 
We do not yet know how to protect 
healthy trees from this disease but 
hope to find a' way by learning as 
much as possible about the associa- 
tion of nematodes, beetles and trees. 
—Dr. V.H. Dropkin 
Department of Plant-Pathology 
University of Missouri-Columbia 

From the Members' Office 

Members' Board Names New Officers 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. was 
named as President of the Executive 
Board of the Members at the Board's 
May meeting. She succeeds Mrs. Rob- 
ert H. Kittner, who was President from 
May, 1979. The Board also named Mrs. 
Bernard C. Brinker as First Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mrs. Rudyard K. Rapp as Second 
Vice-President, Mrs. W. Ashley Gray III 
as Treasurer, and Mrs. Henry C. 
Lowenhaupt as Secretary. 

The Executive Board of the Mem- 
bers was founded in 1964 to promote 

Garden membership and to plan and 
provide activities for Members, includ- 
ing flower show preview parties, lec- 
ture series, Members' tours and spe- 
cial events. 

Mrs. Morris said, "Our goals dur- 
ing the next year are to further extend 
Membership throughout the area and 
to draw the attention of the communi- 
ty to the Garden and its important 
work. We will also seek to involve 
more of our Members in the activities 
the Garden provides for them." 

Amendments to Henry Shaw's Trust 

The St. Louis Circuit Court has, on 
application of the Board of Trustees of 
Missouri Botanical Garden, ordered 
amendments to the Garden's century- 
old Trust agreement including one al- 
lowing the expansion of the size of the 
Board of Trustees. 

"The Missouri Botanical Garden 
was established for the public good by 
the will of its founder, Henry Shaw," 
said C.C. Johnson Spink, President of 
the Garden's Board. "The Trustees pe- 
titioned the Court to amend the Trust 
created by that Will to adapt the Gar- 
den to changing circumstances and 
new developments in urban life." 

Johnson explained that the peti- 
tion was filed because of the Board's 
feeling that membership in the Board 
of Trustees should be broadened and 
that technical changes were impor- 
tant to provide the Board with modern, 

Thomas R. Fitzgerald, S.J. 

effective management tools and poli- 
cies designed to improve the efficien- 
cy of Garden management. 

"Things have changed dramatical- 
ly since the Garden was a half-day's 
ride on horseback from downtown," 
Spink said. "The world of Henry Shaw 
is not the world of the Missouri Botani- 
cal Garden in 1981. We felt we needed 
to operate under a modern trust docu- 
ment, empowered to employ modern 
business procedures to ensure the 
continued greatness of the Garden." 

Amendments to the Garden's orig- 
inal indenture of Trust, granted by the 
Court in its decision, include: 

1. A provision adding up to ten 
Trustees, to be elected by the existing 
Trustees, for fixed terms. 

2. A provision appointing the Pres- 
ident of St. Louis University as an ad- 
ditional ex officio member of the 

Fr. Fitzgerald Appointed to Board 

On April 30, as a result of the Cir- 
cuit Court's approval of amendments 
to the Deed of Trust governing the 
Garden, the Reverend Thomas R. Fitz- 
gerald, S.J., President of St. Louis Uni- 
versity, was named an ex officio mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees. In mak- 
ing the announcement, Board Presi- 
dent C.C. Johnson Spink said, "We 
have a long history of close coopera- 
tion with St. Louis University. Father 
Fitzgerald's joining the Board will 
serve to strengthen the bond between 
our two institutions; we look forward 
to the contribution he will make to the 
Garden through his active participa- 

Responding to his appointment, 
Fr. Fitzgerald said, "I'm happy to be- 
come a member of the Board because 
there is already close collaboration 

Mrs. Rudyard K. Rapp (left). Second Vice- 
President; Mrs. Bernard C. Brinker, First Vice- 
President; Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Presi- 
dent; Mrs. W. Ashley Gray III, Treasurer; and 
Mrs. Henry C. Lowenhaupt, Secretary: the 
newly-elected officers of the Executive Board 
of the Members. 

Board. Current ex officio members in- 
clude the Chancellor of Washington 
University, the Bishop of the Episco- 
pal Diocese of Missouri, the President 
of the Public Schools of the City of St. 
Louis, the President of the Academy 
of Science of St. Louis and the Mayor 
of the City of St. Louis. 

3. A number of provisions empow- 
ering the Board to manage the affairs 
of the Garden according to sound, ac- 
cepted and contemporary business 

Spink said, "The definition of our 
responsibilities toward the Garden in- 
cluded in Shaw's will— having 'for the 
use of the public a botanical garden 
forever kept up and maintained'— re- 
mains our responsibility today. And 
we must recognize that as the world 
changes, our needs and the needs of 
the Garden change with it." 

between the Garden and the Universi- 
ty, specifically through the number of 
graduate students performing re- 
search in the Garden's Botany Depart- 
ment. Second, both our institutions 
serve St. Louis." 

Over the past quarter century, 
members of the Garden's botany staff 
have served as professors and ad- 
junct-professors for the graduate bota- 
ny program at St. Louis University. 
Presently there are five students work- 
ing toward a graduate degree from 
SLU through the Garden. 

Fr. Fitzgerald has been President 
of St. Louis University since 1979. 
Prior to that, he was President of Fair- 
field University in Fairfield, Connecti- 
cut, from 1973 until 1979, and Academ- 
ic Vice-President of Georgetown Uni- 
versity in Washington, D.C., from 1966 
to 1973. 

New Coordinator of 
Membership Services 

Patricia A. Arnold was recently ap- 
pointed Coordinator of Membership 
Services. She was previously Director 
of Volunteers for the Thomas F. Eagle- 
ton Campaign Committee and Direc- 
tor of Field Services for the Cystic 
Fibrosis Foundation. She is a gradu- 
ate of the University of Missouri- 

As Coordinator of Membership 
Services, Mrs. Arnold will assist in the 
development and implementation of 
membership activities and programs; 
she will function as liaison between 
the Executive Board of the Members 
and the Garden's staff, and will assist 
members in their use of Garden ser- 

C. C. Johnson Spink (right), President of the 
Garden's Board of Trustees, presents Mrs. 
Robert H. Kittner with a gift in appreciation of 
her service as President of the Executive 
Board of the Members. 

Patricia A. Arnold 

April and May 1981 

New Sponsoring Members 

Dr./ Mrs. Clarence Weldon 

Mr./ Mrs. Louis I. Zorensky 

New Sustaining Members 

Ms. Anna Ballmann 

Mr. A. J. Bardol 

Mrs. H. L. Barthels 

Mr./ Mrs. Robert Bard 

Mr./ Mrs. Robert L. Best 

Mr./ Mrs. Bernard C Brinker 

Mrs. Phillip J. Dahl 

Mrs. Ralph E. Geer 

Mrs. Henry Griesdedieck 

Mr./Mrs. Donald B. Johnson 

Mr./Mrs. Carlisle D. Kinyon 

Mr. Gregory G. Klapp 

Mrs. Sears Lehmann. Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Thomas S. McPheeters 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur L McWilliams 

Mr. David W. Mesker 

Dr. Charles A. Nester, Jr. 

Mr. Jack E. Olsen 

Mr./Mrs. Tom Pixley 

Mr./Mrs. John Rapko 

Mr./Mrs. Frank Roth 

Mr./Mrs. James W. Singer, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. L. D. Slane 

Dr./Mrs. Richard S. Sohn 

Mr./Mrs. William Stern 

Mr./ Dr. Joseph M. Touhill 

Ms. Jane Walther 

New Contributing Members 

Mr./Mrs. George A. Akers 

Mr./Mrs. Andrew A. Allan 

Mrs. Mae Allen 

Mr./Mrs. Raymond Armstrong 

Mrs. William Milton Bahr 


Peter hi. Raven (left), Garden Director, and C. 
C. Johnson Spink, President of the Board of 
Trustees, present a painting of the Japanese 
Garden, by artist James G. Scott, to Tom K. 
Smith, Jr., the immediate past-President of 
the Board. The presentation was made on be- 
half of the entire Board to honor Mr. Smith for 
his six years as President. It was during Mr. 
Smith's tenure that the Japanese Garden 
was opened. 

Schoemehl Is 
Ex Officio Trustee 

Following his election in April as 
Mayor of the City of St. Louis, Vincent 
C. Schoemehl, Jr. joined the Garden's 
Board of Trustees as an ex officio 
member. According to the terms of 
Henry Shaw's will, the Mayor of St. 
Louis, by virtue of his office, is a trus- 
tee of the Garden. 

Members are invited to bring their 
children to celebrate the 181st birth- 
day of Garden founder, Henry Shaw, 
on Friday, July 24. ... The details of 
special activities in honor of the day 
will be announced later. 

Mr. Gary Baker 

Mr. James Barbero 

Mr./ Mrs. George Bates 

Mr./Mrs. Edmond S. Bauer 

Ms. Elizabeth Beall 

Mr. Jack D. Becker 

Dr./Mrs. Joe D. Belleville 

Mr./Mrs. Walter Blaine 

Dr. H. T. Blumenthal 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley C. Blumenthal 

Mr. Thomas Blumenthal 

Mr./Mrs. Charles J. Blumer 

Mr./Mrs. Alfred P. Bofinger 

Mr./Mrs. Carl Bohl 

Mr. Michael Boyd 

Mrs. Elsie Branneky 

Mr./Mrs. David Brennan 

Miss Bernice Brookman 

Mr. Theodore Bruere 

Mrs. Linda J. Brunk 

Mr./Mrs. Louis Buchhold. Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur Bux 
Mr./Mrs. Anthony Capitano 
Mrs. C. C Christy 
Mr./Mrs. Arthur Chuchian 
Mr. Richard Claybour 
Mrs. John B. Clayton, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Tom Cline 
Mr. John W. Close 
Mr./Mrs. David V. Collignon 
Dr./Mrs. Robert Cornwell 
Mr./Mrs. Henry Croskell 
Mr./Mrs. Walter W. Dalton 
Sister Jane M. Dempsey 
Mr./Mrs. Jack C. Derington 
Miss Bertha Deutsch 
Mr./Mrs. Carl J. Deutsch 
Mrs. Norman DeWeese 
Mr./Mrs. Gerald R. Diehl 
Mrs. Lillian H. Doebber 

Dr. Robert M. Donati 
Mr. Austin Doyle 
Mr./Mrs. David Drinkard 
Mr./Mrs. Fredrick H. Eickhoff 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Emnett 
Miss Margaret L. Erby 
Mr./Mrs. John Fanger, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. John M. Feltmann 
Mr./Mrs. James E. Fischer 
Dr./Mrs. Fred J. Fleury 
Mr./Mrs. Robert C. Flory 
Mr. Jerome D. Fortenberry 
Mr./Mrs. John H. Forest 
Ms. Mildred Fry 
Ms. Catherine K. Gamble 
Mr./Mrs. John J. Garrett 
Mrs. Lindell Gordon, Jr. 
Mr./ Mrs. Walter Gray 
Mr./Mrs. James A. Greenblatt 
Mr. Edmund Griesedieck 
Mr. Darin Buhr Groll 
Dr. Wilbur Haines 
Mr./Mrs. H. E. Handkins 
Mr./Mrs. E. F. Hartke 
Mr. Joseph Harmon 
Mrs. James C. Haselhorst 
Mr./Mrs. John B. Heald 
Mrs. Susan L. Heimburger 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas K. Hendrix 
Mr./Mrs. Philip N. Hirsch 
Mr./Mrs. Richard H. Hirsch 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph Hoffman 
Mr./Mrs. Russell R. Hopmann 
Mr. E. Hopper 
Mrs Betty Horton 
Mr./ Mrs. G. E. Hurford 
Mr./Mrs. Steve Hutchison 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E. James 
Mrs. Lyle W. Johnson 
Miss Martha E. Jones 

Miss Catherine Kane 
Mr./Mrs. Theodore Karros 
Mrs. Hortense Katz 
Mr./Mrs. Richard H. Kettler 
Mr./Mrs. Frank C. Kirtz 
Mr. James D. Knox 
Mr. Gene Koshner 
Mr./Mrs. William Kountz 
Mrs. Stephen M. Kovac 
Mr./Mrs. Werner R. Krause 
Ms. Lenora Kriege 
Mr./Mrs. A. F. Kriegshauser 
Mr./Mrs Donald J. Krogstad 
Mr./Mrs. Edward R. Krueger 
Mr./Mrs. Milton Kushkin 
Mr./Mrs. William H. Lang, Sr. 
Mr./Mrs. Lawrence Langsam 
Mr./Mrs. Keith D. Laughbaum 
Mrs. Ray W. Linnemeyer 
Mr. Kent Lion 
Mr./Mrs. John Lively 
Mrs. Nellie Loane 
Mr./Mrs. Michael J. Luepke 
Mr./Mrs. Frances R. Lynch 
Mr./Mrs. Gordon MacConnell 
Mr./Mrs. Mark J. Malley 
Mr./Mrs. Ronald W. Maret 
Mrs. David Marrs 
Mr. Jeffrey L. Marsh 
Miss Mildred L. Mattes 
Mr./Mrs. John E. Max 
Mr./Mrs'. Toy A. Mayo 
Mr./Mrs. John McCue 
Mr./Mrs. Dennis M. McDaniel 
Mr./Mrs. David McDougal, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Robert McGlaughlin 
Mr./Mrs. John R. McGregor 
Mr. J. Speed Medart 
Mr./Mrs. Edgar Meinhardt 

(continued on back page) 

Gift of Lackland Resolution to Archives 

The Garden's archives recently re- 
ceived, as a gift from Marie Taylor, a 
resolution passed by the Board of 
Trustees on February 9, 1910, to Mr. 
Rufus J. Lackland, first Board Presi- 
dent, expressing their appreciation for 
Mr. Lackland's years of service. The 
resolution reads in part: 

When this Board organized in 
1889, you were the unanimous choice 
of its members for the office of Presi- 
dent... You may rest assured that the 
community appreciates your work, 
and rest assured further that. ..posteri- 
ty will accord to you no small degree 
of credit for such happy result. 

Rufus J. Lackland, who served as 
Board President for nearly 21 years, 
was born in Poolesville, Maryland, in 
1819, the year Henry Shaw first settled 
in St. Louis. Lackland himself moved 
to St. Louis in 1835, and began work- 
ing at Mulliken and Pratt, a commer- 
cial house at Market Street and the 
Levee. Shortly after that he became a 
clerk on the steamer Clyde and spent 
the next ten years on the river between 
St. Louis and New Orleans. In 1847 he 
formed a partnership to open a whole- 

sale grocery, specializing primarily in 
sugar and produce. In 1871, he was 
elected president of Boatmen's Bank, 
serving until his death. He was also a 
director of the Belcher Sugar Refining 
Company and President of the St. 
Louis Gas Company. 

During Mr. Lackland's tenure as 
President of the Garden's Board many 
significant events occurred, including 
the relocation of Henry Shaw's town- 
house from 7th and Locust to its pres- 
ent site at the south end of the Gar- 
den. The south wing of the administra- 
tion building was also added during 
his tenure. Many of the policies and 
practices that have served to make the 
Garden an internationally prominent 
facility for research, education and 
display can be attributed to Lack- 
land's foresight. 

Marie Taylor, Mr. Lackland's great- 
grand-daughter, recalls that her earli- 
est memory of sculpture occurred at 
the Garden when Mr. Lackland showed 
her Shaw's mausoleum one day. Al- 
though she is unwilling to trace her 
creative work back to that incident, 
she has become an internationally 

Demonstration Garden Opens 

It's the building that you notice 
first, a small cedar structure with scal- 
lopped shingles. It reminds you of a 
chalet in the Alps. But there are no 
skiers here, only shovels, hoes, rakes 
and cultivators. It's a utility structure; 
a very fancy tool shed. 

That shed sits on the edge of a 
new feature at Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, a Demonstration Vegetable Gar- 
den, located along the pathway be- 
tween the Japanese Garden and the 
Climatron. The demonstration garden 
covers 200 square yards. 

"We built this to be on a home- 
owner's scale," says David Goudy, 
Assistant Director of the Garden. "It's 
actually a little more ground than a 
family of four would plant in vegeta- 
bles, but the intent is to show visitors 
the types of things they can do with 

their own backyard gardens." 

The demonstration garden was 
constructed because of response to a 
survey the Garden conducted in the 
summer of 1980, which indicated that 
people were interested in such a dis- 
play. "The garden," says Goudy, "will 
give people an idea of the varieties of 
vegetables that can be grown in our 
climate. It will also give examples of 
different cultivation techniques." He 
points out several small, square plots 
on the south edge of the garden. "This 
is a turf demonstration area, which 
consists of the different grasses that 
can be used in lawns in this area." 

Beyond the western side of the 
garden are about fifteen small trees; 
the tallest is no more than twelve feet. 
"Those are dwarf fruit trees. They have 
considerable advantages for the 
homeowner with an average yard. 
They're smaller than standard-sized 
trees, so they use less room and are 
easier to harvest, and still maintain 
high yields. And for people with even 
less room, it's still possible to grow 
fruit trees." Growing along the west- 
ern fence are several saplings, each 
no more than thirty inches tall. "These 
are espalier fruit trees," Goudy says. 


all l 

1 ■■ 

• : 

recognized artist whose sculptures 
can be found in the St. Louis Art Mu- 
seum, the Hirshhorn Sculpture Mu- 
seum in Washington, D.C., at the Man- 
sion House on the St. Louis riverfront 
and in many other collections, public 
and private. Her most recent exhibit, 
here at the Garden in early May, in- 
cluded a variety of pieces sculpted 
from her favorite medium of field- 
stone. Her work has been exhibited in 
many museums and galleries in St. 
Louis, Memphis, New York, Houston, 
Helsinki, and other cities. —Jim Reed 

Espalier is the training of a plant to 
grow flat against a surface, such as a 
wall. "We'll let them grow only to the 
top of the fence (about six inches 

"Can three foot trees bear fruit?" 

"Yes, but we won't let them bear 
for several years. Their growth will be 
concentrated in the branch and root 
development so that they will be able 
to support their future fruit crops." 

The majority of the garden is 
planted in traditional crops, peas, 
spinach, lettuce, onions and cabbage. 
There are squash, peppers and toma- 
toes, and perennials, such as rhubarb 
and asparagus. 

"We'll also have displays demon- 
strating composting, mulching and 
the necessary tools for gardening. It's 
designed so that beginners, as well as 
those who have been gardening for 
years, can learn something they can 
apply to their own garden or yard." 

The Demonstration Vegetable Gar- 
den is part of the Garden's continuing 
efforts in education, and can be vis- 
ited during all regular Garden hours. 

Funds for the construction of the 
utility structure were donated by the 
Ladue Garden Club. 

"...I used to bring my daughter..." 

When we asked visitors to the 
Spring Flower Show why they came to 
the Garden, we received over 4,500 re- 
sponses. One man said, "Just needed 
an uplift." Another said he came "To 
put the world back into proper per- 
spective." One said, "Spring is here!" 
Another, "To see God's work;" and an- 
other, simply, "We're in love." 

One woman wrote on her card, "To 
relive old memories— I used to bring 
my daughter, now I bring my grand- 
daughter," a sentence more full of 
meaning than we can understand, 
speaking, as it does, of years passing, 
a child discovering perhaps roses, a 
mother's delight in that discovery, and 
another child, a new generation to dis- 
cover roses and much more. 

Prairie— A Missouri Heritage 

Four families of plants dominate 
the prairie: grasses, composites, le- 
gumes, and sedges. May's heavy rain- 
fall should guarantee a lush growth of 
Big Bluestem Grass rising nine feet 
high and a dense stand of Indian 
Grass reaching six feet. The grasses 
produce a surprising range of colors. 
Some forms of Indian Grass are an ex- 
citing glaucous blue; selected and 
mass produced for gardeners they 
would make attractive background 
plants. In August, Indian Grass will 
produce numerous deep yellow flow- 
ers. The nodes of Big Bluestem are 
bluish but this grass saves its best dis- 
play for a frosty day, when it assumes 
a deep color of fine wine. Other 
grasses turn autumn hues of tan, 
bronze and brown and dangle heavy 
heads of seed, a rich harvest for birds, 
mice, ants and others. 

Often standing shoulder to shoul- 
der with the grasses are the showy 
and diverse composites. Many of 
them, like the Sunflowers, have yellow 
blooms; their leaves may be long and 
narrow like Maximillian Sunflower, or 
heart-shaped like Ashy Sunflower. 
Other yellow giants of the prairie are 
Compass Plant, with its basal- 
branched leaves oriented north and 
south, and Cup Rosinweed, with its 
opposite leaves grasping each other 
across the stem. The yellows are re- 
peated by Goldenrods, Coneflowers, 
Heliopsis and Black-eyed Susan, in 
different flower forms and sizes. 
Asters produce daisy-like flowers in 
white, pink, lavender and purple, and 

may remain attractive as summer 
wanes and frost collects in the low 
spots. Several species of Gayfeather 
produce tall spikes of pink among the 
yellow and Ironweed dominates with a 
tall purple, flat-headed cluster. 

Most members of the pea family— 
the legumes— completed their flower- 
ing earlier, but they produce various 
types of seed pods. Wild Senna has 
long skinny pods; Wild Indigo has 
short bloated ones. Illinois Bundle- 
flower produces contorted clusters of 
pods, while Beggar's Ticks fragment 
forming clinging hitchhikers and Sen- 
sitive Briar develops pods armed with 
recurred spines. 

The sedges grow green, forming 
colonies that reproduce and die back 
each year, sacrificing this year's 
growth with all the other plants to pro- 
duce a winter mulch and future com- 

The prairies of the Midwest are a 
bountiful environment; rich in soil, rich 
in plant diversity, rich in color, rich in 
insect life, rich in its usefulness for 
agriculture, and rich in history. Visit 
the Experimental Prairie at Shaw Ar- 
boretum any day this summer or fall 
and walk the windswept, buzzing 
grassland. Hike the newest trail at the 
Arboretum and absorb some of the 
richness of our natural and cultural 
heritage, or join a guided walk Thurs- 
day and Friday August 27 and 28 at 
7:30 p.m. until sunset. Fee is $2.00 and 
reservations are required (577-5138). 

— George Wise 

Superintendent of Shaw Arboretum 

Dr. Raven Receives 
AIBS Award 

American Institute of Biological 
Sciences announced in June that Gar- 
den Director Dr. Peter H. Raven was 
the recipient of its 1981 Distinguished 
Service Award. The Award, instituted 
in 1972, is given annually to persons 
who have made an outstanding contri- 
bution to the advancement and inte- 
gration of biological disciplines, the 
application of biological knowledge to 
the solution of mankind's problems, 
and the improvement of public policy 
and planning by the introduction of 
pertinent biological consideration. 

A.I.B.S. is a scientific association 
with 7,500 individual members and 40 
member professional scientific socie- 
ties representing approximately 80,000 
biologists. Founded in 1974, its pur- 
pose is the advancement of biological, 
medical and agricultural sciences and 
their applications to human welfare, 
and to foster, encourage and conduct 
research in the biological sciences. 

Previous recipients of the Distin- 
guished Service Award include Arthur 
D. Hassler, A. Starker Leopold, Ruth 
Patrick, Lee M. Talbot and Theodore 
C. Byerly. 

The award will be presented at the 
Annual A.I.B.S. meeting in August. 

Excerpt from A.I.B.S. Citation 

"In your role as Director [of the 
Garden] you have not only provided 
the leadership which has estab- 
lished the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den as one of the most active and 
progressive institutions of its kind, 
but you have also become a leading 
proponent on the urgent need for 
sampling, documenting and preserv- 
ing for present and future genera- 
tions, the diversity of living orga- 
nisms—in an age when the world's 
natural heritage is rapidly being re- 
duced in scope and diversity. Of 
special significance are your recent 
activities as Chairman of the Na- 
tional Research Council's Commit- 
tee on Research Priorities in Tropi- 
cal Biology. In this capacity, you 
not only guided the effort to com- 
pile the basic data and develop the 
published report, but you have also 
been an eloquent spokesperson de- 
crying the despoliation of our tropi- 
cal forests many of which will not 
exist in their present form by the 
end of this century." 

Skylight Installed In 
Museum Building 

A skylight was installed as part of 
the restoration of the Museum Build- 
ing at Missouri Botanical Garden. The 
Museum was constructed in 1859 by 
Henry Shaw, the Garden's founder, to 
house his library and natural history 
specimens. It was designed by 
George I. Barnett, one of the foremost 
Victorian architects, after the plans for 
a similar building at Kew Gardens in 
England. The original skylight was re- 
moved approximately fifty years ago. 

The ceiling mural around the sky- 
light was commissioned by Shaw and 
painted by Leon Pomarede, and repre- 

Cactus This Summer 

During August, there will be two 
exhibits of cactus. From August 15 
through September 6, a Monster Cacti 
Display will be featured in the Desert 
House. The exhibit includes crested, 
monstrose, grafted and other interest- 
ing cactus mutations. The hours are 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m. 

The annual Henry Shaw Cactus 
Society Show comes to the John S. 
Lehmann Building on August 29 and 
continues through September 7. The 
hours of the Cactus Society Show are 
also 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. 

New Coordinator 
of Funding 

Pat Rich was named Coordinator 
of Funding in April. She was previous- 
ly Project Director for the Capital Fund 
Drive Study of the Metropolitan Asso- 
ciation of Philanthropy and is a past- 
President of the League of Women 
Voters of Metropolitan St. Louis. In 
1977, she participated in the Danforth 
Foundation Leadership Program. 

As Coordinator of Funding, she 
will investigate sources of foundation 
support for the Garden's tropical re- 
search and other technical areas. 

sents the flora and fauna of the world 
during the nineteenth century. 

The Museum Building currently 
houses a restaurant, The Greenery. 

The Garden Gate Shop recently added anoth- 
er item to its collection of uniquevases. Called 
Little Danish Vases, it is a cluster of four 
vases made from hand-formed glass. The 
four globes are artistically grouped by hand 
to provide an easy way to create exotic and 
attractive floral arrangements. A mirror base 
is included. (Price, $6.50. Members, $5.85) 

Mrs. Forest Claggett of Union, Mis- 
souri, donated over 150 Sedums and 
Sempervivums to the Garden recently. 
They have been planted in the outdoor 
hardy garden outside the Desert 

The gazebo at the south end of the Anne L. 
Lehmann Rose Garden was featured as the 
cover of the 1981 St. Louis Visitors Guide, 
published by the Convention and Visitors 
Bureau of Greater St. Louis. 

Students Provide Haiku 
for Exhibit 

The haiku displayed in the Clima- 
tron for the Haiku Exhibit, which con- 
tinues through July 14, was written by 
St. Louis area high school students 
who participated in a new program at 
the Garden this year. 

The Partnership Program of the St. 
Louis Public Schools was initiated in 
1979 to provide students with pro- 
grams and special workshops at area 
businesses and cultural institutions. 
The Garden joined the Partnership 
Program with the beginning of the 
1980-81 school year. Ilene Follman 
and Mimi Jackson are the coordina- 
tors of the program at the Garden, 
which offers students programs in 
many areas, including "Plants of 
Africa," "Carnivorous Plants: Spring- 
board to Science Fiction Writing," and 
"The Plant World: Inspiration for Crea- 
tive Writing," the course in which the 
haiku was written. Many of these 
courses will be repeated in subse- 
quent years. 

Lovely bird in lake 

trees like wings blowing in wind 

many years to come. 

— Jim Blake 
grade 12 
Soldan High School 

Garden by the pond 

as waterfall flows quickly— 

with a silent noise. 

—Mike Andrews 

grade 11 

Soldan High School 

Through dripping branches 
the woods and I are as one 
in the eyes of rain. 

—Veronica Bohlen 
Central High School 

Education Department 
Receives Grant 

The St. Louis Community Founda- 
tion has awarded a $6,100 grant to the 
Education Department to design and 
conduct a symposium for high school 
science teachers. The symposium is 
tentatively scheduled for spring, 1982, 
and will provide Metropolitan-area 
high school science teachers with in- 
formation on current research in the 
biological sciences as well as with 
skills to transmit such information to 



The golden sun of midsummer is shining in the skies. — Mary Howitt 


July 1-4 

July 5-11 
July 12-18 
July 19-25 

Haiku Exhibit: Climatron. Continues through July 14. 
9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Family Picnic Day: Garden Grounds, July 4, 
9 a.m. -6 p.m. A pleasant Independence Day. 
Haiku Exhibit: Continues 
Haiku Exhibit: Continues (Last Day, July 14) 
Henry Shaw's Birthday: Garden Grounds, July 24, 
1 p.m. -4 p.m. Celebrate the 181st birthday of the ' 
Garden's founder. 

The summer evening ripened and fell open 

And people walking... 

Were suddenly what they were meant to be.— Winifred Welles 

August 1-15 

August 16-22 
August 23-31 

September 1- 
December 31 

Monster Cacti Exhibit: Desert House, opens on 
August 15, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. (through September 6) 
Monster Cacti Exhibit: Continues 
Henry Shaw Cactus Society Show: John S. Lehmann 
Building, Opens August 29, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. (through 
September 7) 

Operation Clean Stream: Arboretum, August 29, 
9:30 a.m. -approximately 4:30 p.m. 
Monster Cacti Exhibit: Continues 

Lines and Curves; Paper and Ink: A Festival of the 
Book Arts: Library and John S. Lehmann Building 

June/July 1981 


Another Lovely Summer 

Mr./Mrs. Harry Milton 

Mr. Howard F. Baer 

Caroly and John Isaacs, Jr. 

Ivan T. Bauman 

Carroll and Wyona 

Mrs. Robert B. Forbes 

Four Seasons Garden Club 

Geraldine Friedman and Packy McFarland 

Mel and Gloria Cotlar 

Irv Gordon 

Walter and Beverlee 

Mr./Mrs. Homer Korn 

Friends in Rock Hill Garden Club #1 

Benjamin Kram 

Marilyn and Art Boettcher, Jr. 

Steve Loeb 

Ann and Paul Lux 

Mr./ Mrs. Minard T. MacCarthy 

Mr./Mrs. George J. Herbst 

Mr./Mrs. Otway W. Rash, III 

Marjorie and Ken Robins 

Katherine B. Schroth 

Bill and Georgia Van Cleve 

Mr./Mrs. Bernard Mellitz 

Jeanne and Lester Adelson 

Kenneth Peck, the Education Department and 
the Library 

Lucy Levy 

Carroll Stribling 

Richard and Charline Baizer 

Mrs. Irving Talcoff 

Margie, Bert, Susie and Gail 

Mr. J. Tohtz 

Castlereagh Garden Club 

Ferguson Garden Club 

Mr./ Mrs. Bob Weiss 

Harold and June Kravin 

Mr./Mrs. Herman Wilier 

Mr./ Mrs. Myron Glassberg 

Mr. Jay Zimmerman 

Sunny and Myron Glassberg 

A Beautiful Spring Day 

Mrs. D. S. Lewis, Jr. 

Mr. Arthur B. Ambler 

Mr./Mrs. W. King Ambler 
Phoebe Anderson 

Mr./Mrs. H. L. Carson 

William and Elizabeth B. Schroer 

Mrs. Phoebe Bailey 

Lisette E. Schaumburg 

David J. Biller 


Mrs. Arnold Binggell 

Mr./Mrs. William F. Reck, Jr. 

Mrs. Gertrude Bluestone 

Dr. /Mrs. Leigh Gerdine 

Sunny and Myron Glassberg 

Art and Helen Scharff 

Max Brink 

Mr./Mrs. C. Harry Pujol 

Earl Bumiller 

Mrs. Earl Bumiller 

Chester Cadle 

Bert and Margie Talcoff 

Bertha Clemens 

Mr./Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Mrs. Virginia Cohen 


Mr. Joseph Corn 

Dr./ Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Ann Danzer 

American Association of Retired 
Persons, Inc. 

Mrs. Mary I. Codd 

Mr./Mrs. Robert N. Pigg 

John J. Degnan 

Mr./Mrs. G. Harvey Jobe 

Virginia Fisher 

Missouri Botanical Garden Guides 

Mr. John Simpson Ford 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Rose Francis 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur Haack 

Mrs. Julie Freund 

Lotsie and Rick Holton 

Bob and Susie Schulte 

Isadore Gers 

June and Bill Stewart 

Mr. Sam Glaser 

Mr./Mrs. K. F. Sherman 

Mrs. Linda Grass 

Mrs. Dorothy W. Eppinger 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur Green 

Roger and Joycelyn Seeker-Walker 

Maurice Gruber 

Mr./Mrs. Michael Suchart 

Willamene Hawkins 

Mr./Mrs. Richard K. Crowell 

Mrs. Pauline Hickey 

Mr./Mrs. Jordan C. Singleton 

Dr. Marathon High 

Terry T. Schaeffer 

Earl W. Hobbs, Sr. 

Pat Brock 

Irene J. Honig 

J. L. Sloss, Jr. 

Mr. F. E. Hornsby 

Mr./Mrs. Jerome C. Allen 

Mr./Mrs. William G. Jenkin 

Edith and Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Edward D. Jones 

Mr./Mrs. Jerome C. Allen 

Hilda J. Young 

Mrs. Ursula G. Jones 

Jack and Anne Heisler 

Mr./Mrs. Paul Von Gontard 

Mr./Mrs. Edwin R. Waldemer 

Dr. A. D. Karandjeff 

J. A. M. Brock 

Sam Kaufer 

Bert and Margie Talcoff 

Mrs. Monta Batterton Keene 

Edith and Johnson Spink 

Mr./Mrs. Richard Keene 

Edith and Johnson Spink 

Martin Koller 

Mr./Mrs. G. Harvey Jobe 

Samuel E. Kozak 

Mrs. L. D. Feuchtenberger, Jr. 

Martin Lammert III 

Mr./Mrs. Thomas R. Collins, Jr. 

Mr. Harold S. Cook 

Mrs. Henry Cook 

Mr./Mrs. Ernest Eddy 

Mrs. M. M. Jenks 

Mrs. W. Gillespie Moore 

Mr./Mrs. G. F. Newhard 

Mr./Mrs. Robert B. Smith 

The Garden Club of St. Louis 

Mrs. Nelson Lawnin 

Mrs. William M. Akin 

Mrs. William S. Bedal 

Carl Lindenschmit 

Misses Anne and Hedwig Lange 

Mr./Mrs. Ellis Littman 

Col./ Mrs. R. E. Smyser, Jr. 

Christine Gempp Love 

Mr./Mrs. William H. Giese 

Col. /Mrs. R. E. Smyser. Jr. 

Maurita E. Stueck 

John Purdue McCammon 

Mr./Mrs. John M. Bogdanor 

Mr./Mrs. Jean S. Goodson 

Rev. George McCowan 

Mr./Mrs. T. T. Okamoto 

Marjorie Maechling 

Betty, Chuck, Emily and Lucy 

Lisette Schaumburg 
Mrs. Lawrence E. Mallinckrodt 
Mr./Mrs. Andrew H. Baur 
Dr./ Mrs. Carlyle A. Luer 
Norman Mann 
Pat Brock 

Mrs. Eugenia U. Maritz 

Mr./Mrs. William A. Frank 

Robert R. Hermann 

Mr./Mrs. Monte C. Throdahl 

Rynolds Medart 

Julia Lamy Anstey 

Mrs. Madge Moline 

Gwen Springett 

Julie Moody 

Dr./Mrs. D. R. Herbold 

Mrs. Viktor Muehlenbachs 

Florence S. Guth 

Mr. Harold Norman 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur L. Rettig 

Mabel Patterson 

Mr./Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Michael C. Paul 

Mr./Mrs. Dan Schopp 

William Parker 

Dr./Mrs. G. S. Kieffer 

Agnes Quest 

Amy and Ruth Entwistle 

Carol Entwistle 

Mr./Mrs. James Entwistle, Jr. 

Jeanne Entwistle 

Paul Entwistle 

Rosalie Hays 

Mr./Mrs. Christopher Scholbe 


Precious Rives 

Byron B. Gross, D.D.S. 

Louis L. Roth 

Elizabeth and Alexander Bakewell 

Mrs. John W. Calhoun 

Mr. J. Glennon Schreiber 

Jessie and Mary Lansing 

Isabelle R. Schwerdtmann 

Joan Y. Henry 

Mr. /Mrs. Patrick R. Walsh 

Sister Rose 

Mrs. Louis W. Rubin 

Mr. Guy Snyder 

Mr./ Mrs. Robert B. Smith 

Mr./ Mrs. Charles C. Spink 

Edith and Johnson Spink 

Mr./ Mrs. J. G. Taylor Spink 

Edith and Johnson Spink 

John Tarr 

Art and Velma Faltus 

Hf ry TekJon 

Ber; and Margie Talcoff 

Dennis Thaman 

Mr./ Mrs. Howard Dissly 

Lorene Mueller Tribout 
Mr./ Mrs. W. R. Kleypas 

Mr. Milton H. Tucker 

Eleanor and Henry Hitchcock 

Tamra and Peter Raven 

Mr./ Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mrs. Stanley Wald 
Majel Obata 

George Weiss 

Helen K. Hartwig 

Dr. W. G. Woebling 

Jim and Jeanette Kille 

Mrs. Sara Taylor Woodyard 

Mr./Mrs. H. C. Gaebe, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Milton Greenfield, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Robert M. Hamlett 
Ann and Jerry Mandelstamm 
Missouri Botanical Garden Guides 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas H. Pollihan 
Mr./ Mrs. George S. Rosborough, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Alphonso H. Voorhees 
Hillary and Ira Zimmerman 

Rose Works 

Georgia M. Richardson 

Mr./Mrs. Irwin Yare 

Marian and Gerry Barnholtz 

Persons interested in 
contributing to the Tribute 
Fund may contact the Develop- 
ment Office, 577-5120. 


(continued from page 7) 

Mr. Andrew S. Meyer 
Mr./Mrs. Bruce Meyer 
Mr./Mrs. David G. Miller 
Miss Marie G. Miller 
Mrs. Richard I, Moore 
Ms. Cheryl Morrow 
Mr. Hugh S. Mosher 
Ms. H. Muckler 
Mr./Mrs. John R. Muldoon 
Mr./Mrs. Michael Mulligan 
Mr. Richard Napier 

Mr./Mrs. William M. Nicholls 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Nolan, Sr 
Mrs. John P. Nulsen 
Mr./Mrs. G. L. Osborn 
Mr./Mrs. N. M. Osborne 
Ms. Carmen L. Pagel 
Mrs. Evelyn Palisch 
Drs. Paul and Nancy Patchem 
Mr./Mrs. Richard B. Patty 
Mr./Mrs. William E. Peacock 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas E. Phelps 
Dr./ Mrs. Lawrence A. Pi I la 
Mr./Mrs. William Randol 
Mr. James J. Raymond 
Mr./Mrs. Kerry U. Richmond 
Mr./Mrs. Claire M. Roffmann 
Mr./Mrs. Joel Sampson 
Ms. J. A. Schaefer 
Ms. Lynn L. Schaefer 
Dr. Robert F. Scheible 
Mrs. William C. Schock 
Dr./ Mrs. John Schoentag 
Dr. /Mrs. Neal J. Schopp 
Dr. /Mrs. Richard C. Schulz 
Mr./Mrs. Martin W. Schwarze 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Schwartz 
Mrs. Margaret N. Scohy 
Ms. Monica M. Scott 
Dr. Melissa M. Sedlis 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Shanahan 
Mr./ Mrs. Clarence Sheata 
Mr./Mrs. J. J. Shinkle 
Mr./Mrs. Charles D. Short 
Mr. Steve Simmons 
Mr./Mrs. Fred Smalley, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Arthur J. Smith 
Mr./ Mrs. Geoffrey Smith 
Mr./Mrs. Stephen M. Smith 
Mr. Richard V. Snyder 

Miss Alice Sontag 
Mr./Mrs. Charles T. Spalding 
Mr./Mrs. Victor E. Sparling 
Mr./Mrs. Edwin Spiegel, III 
Mrs. Robert Starbird 
Mr./Mrs. Kenneth Stevens 
Mr./Mrs. Richard E. Stevens 
Mrs. A. S. Stockstrom 
Mrs. Lawrence E. Stout, Jr. 
Miss Mary M Stueber 
Mr./Mrs. Michael Suchart 
Mr./Mrs. Edwin S. Taylor 
Mr. Gerald Tessler 
Mr./Mrs. Ralph R. Thomsen 
Mr. Stan Tillotson 
Ms. Darlyne Tipolt 
Ms. Joyce A. Torrey 
Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Turner 
Mr./Mrs. R. E. Van Buren 
Ms. Mary B. Voiles 
Mr. Sixton L. Wagan 
Mr. Alan D. Walker 
Mr./Mrs. James C. Walker. Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Robert L. Walter 
Ms. Nancy Edith Ward 
Mr./Mrs. Malcolm W. Warren 
Mr. Wesley D. Wedemeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Weinstock 
Mr./Mrs. Burton M. Wheeler 
Ms. Sue Wheeler 
Mr./Mrs. Maurice P. Wichmann 
Miss Eleanor J. Witte 
Mr./Mrs. A. L. Woodward 
Dr./ Mrs. Glen H. Woofter 
Mr./Mrs. David Worley 
Mr. Thomas H. Wotka, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Glenn A. Wrinkle, Jr. 
Dr. Richard D. Yoder 
Dr. /Mrs. E. Younger 

"No one who visits Saint Louis 
should fail to see Shaw's Garden 
...Ten acres are devoted to flow- 
ers and shrubbery of every known 
variety, a number of greenhouses 
sheltering tropical plants and 
other exotics .. .and there are a 
museum and a botanical library in 
connection with the Garden. Dur- 
ing the week the grounds are open 
to the public, but on Sunday only 
strangers are admitted, who must 
procure tickets for the privilege." 
— from Down the Great River, Cap- 
tain Willard Glazier, 1887, page 
326. (Photograph printed from a 
magic lantern slide from Missouri 
Botanical Garden archives.) 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 







'olume LXIX, Number 5 
leptember/ October 1981 

Working Through the Eleventh Hour 

The passages in italics are 
eprinted from "Tropical Rain Forests: 
$ Global Responsibility," by Peter H. 
laven, and are published with permis- 
sion from Natural History, February, 
'981, Copyright, The American 
Museum of Natural History, 1981. 

Everyone who reads the popular 
)ress nowadays is aware of the extraor- 
linary biological richness of the world's 
ropical rain forests and of the present 
as t pace at which they are being cut 
iown. Less generally recognized is how 
'ttle we know about the many species 
>f tropical plants and animals and how 
he current destruction of the rain 
orests makes the need to increase our 
nowledge a pressing one. Of the esti- 
nated 3 million species of plants and 
nimals in the tropics, only about 
00,000 have been recognized and 
ataloged. In comparison, the 
3mperate regions of the world contain 
ome 1.5 million species, of which 
lore than a million have been cata- 
~>ged. A large majority of virtually every 
nown group of organisms occurs in the tropics, making 
opical forests the richest and most diverse association of 
lants and animals anywhere on the earth. About as many 
inds of plants exist in the tiny country of Panama, for exam- 
le, as in the entire continent of Europe, and nearly as many 
inds of fishes — some 5,000 — live in the drainage basin of 
le Amazon River as in the whole Atlantic Ocean. The diverse 
<nds of plants and animals in the tropics represent a poten- 
ally inexhaustible source of raw materials, only a minute 
action of which has been utilized or even tested up to this 

Every week the remain 
ing tropical lowland 
forest diminishes by an 
area about the size of 





identify it. 

The German is Stephan Beck, an 
ecologist who has been working for the 
last two and one-half years in Bolivia, 
helping the Bolivians to improve their 
Department of Biology at the Instituto 
de Ecologfa, teaching the people of that 
nation, and studying the most impor- 
tant ecosystems of the country. 
Through the Herbario Nacional de 
Bolivia, he has been working, through 
correspondence, with the herbarium at 
Missouri Botanical Garden. "We have 
been trying to get plants identified," 
Beck says. "We can't study the ecology 
of an area without doing very basic 
research, without knowing the flora. 
Bolivia is one of the least collected 
areas of South America. Before the In- 
stituto de Ecologfa was established 
recently, there were few trained 
biologists in Bolivia; few specimens; 
little literature. Now— the next fifteen 
to twenty years— is the only time we 
will have to study some regions of 
Bolivia in an undisturbed conditions. 
And not only Bolivia; virtually all the 

vegetation types of Latin America are under pressure." 

Three men are studying a one-foot by one-and-one-half- 
>ot sheet of stiff paper. Affixed to the paper is a dried plant, 
s brown leaves pocked by insect holes. Holding a handful of 
>ose, dry leaves beside the mounted plant specimen, they 
Dimpare the two. One of the men says that the loose 
Decimen matches the mounted one; after another minute of 
udy, the other two concur. One of the men, speaking in a 
'onounced German accent, says that he had collected the 
ose specimen ten years before on the eastern slopes of the 
olivian Andes and had carried it with him since then trying to 

Against this background, the tiny effort that is being 
undertaken to learn more about tropical plants and animals 
and the natural communities in which they live is embarrass- 
ing. Worldwide, there are no more than an estimated 4,000 
scientists primarily concerned with studies of this kind; the 
total in the United States amounts to some 1,500 individuals. 
Probably no more that 1,500 scientists in the world are able to 
catalog and describe tropical organisms or are even compe- 
tent to make professional identification of them. The number 
of unknown tropical organisms — five out of six have never 
been seen by any scientist — amounts to a staggering total of 
some 2.5 million species, or about twice as many as all 
species described during the 225 years since our current 
system of naming organisms was begun by Linnaeus. 

An even smaller number of scientists throughout the 
world — no more than two dozen — are competent to super- 
vise and undertake large-scale studies and experimental 
modification of tropical ecological systems. Of the handful of 
these individuals in the United States, no more than three are 

(continued on page 3) 


Governor Signs Tax District Bill 

On August 4, Governor Christopher Bond signed the bill 
calling for the establishment of the botanical garden sub- 
district of the Zoo-Museum Tax District. The measure will ap- 
pear on the ballot in St. Louis City and St. Louis County for 
voter approval in 1982. If a majority of voters in both the city and 
county approve the measure, the Garden would be able to 
receive tax support of up to 4* per $100 of property valuation. 

Pictured (l-r): Frank P. Wolff, Jr. (attorney for the Garden), State Senator John 
E. Scott (one of the tax bill's sponsors), Governor Christopher S. Bond, Dr. 
Peter H. Raven. C. C. Johnson Spink, and Richard A. Daley. Not pictured is 
Representative Russel E. Egan, who is the Speaker of the Missouri House 
and a sponsor of the legislation. 

Dr. Raven's 10th Anniversary 

Peter H. Raven became Director of the Garden on August 1, 
1971. Since then, the Japanese Garden was constructed, as 
were the Anne L. Lehmann Rose Garden, the English 
Woodland Garden and the Shapleigh and Shoenberg foun- 
tains; the John S. Lehmann Building was completed and the 
Linnean House restored; construction of the Visitor Center was 
begun; and the size of the research program tripled to make it 
the most active tropical botany program in the world. 




Gardening in St. Louis 

Steve Frowine gives some Fall gardening tips 

Wasps, Pines and the Daily News 
Some words on paper about paper 

Maps: Where Did Nueva Granada Go? 
Rosemary Rudde, a Volunteer who cares for 
the maps 

Sales, Lectures, Special Events: 
Items of interest to our Members 


And a report on the Visitor Center 

DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo. 
63166. Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
$6.00 foreign. 

5^2 Member of 

^3 The Arts and Education 

Fund of Greater St. Louis 


Mrs. William H. Schield 


Mr./Mrs. Daniel L Schlafly 
Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 


Mrs. Mason Scudder 

Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 

Mr./Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr./Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr./Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 

Mr./Mrs. Edward L Bakewell, Jr. 

Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 

Mr./Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. John E. Simon 

Mr./Mrs. John G. Buettner 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mr./Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 

Mrs. F. T. Childress 

Mr./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mr. Fielding L. Childress 

Mrs. Herman F. Spoehrer 

Mr./Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 

Mr./Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr 

Miss Lillian L. Stupp 

Dr./Mrs. William H. Dantorth 

Mr./Mrs. Edgar L Taylor, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Ms. Mane Carr Taylor 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 

Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mr./Mrs. James Walker 

Mr./Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr./Mrs. Richard K. Weil 

Mr./Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 

Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Ben H Wells 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Mr./Mrs. O. Sage Wightman, III 

Mrs. Henry L Freund 

Mr./Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 

Mr. S. E. Freund 

Mrs. John M. Wolff 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Miss F. A. Wuellner 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mr./Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 

Mr. Clarence R. Goodrich 

Mr./Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 

Mr./Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 


Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 


Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 


Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Mr. Patrick Ackerman 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr. Kenneth Balk 

Mr./Mrs. James H. Howe, III 

Mr./Mrs. Carl Beckers 

Mr./Mrs. Lee Hunter 

Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Ms. Allison R. Brightman 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 

Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 

Mrs. Richard L. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs Eugene Johanson 

Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Irene C. Jones 

Mr. Joseph C. Champ 

Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 

Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 

Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 

Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 

Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 

Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr./Mrs. David C. Farrell 

Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 

Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 

Mr. Edward E. Haverstick 

Mr./Mrs. Charles S. Lamy 

Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 

Mrs. John A. Latzer 

Mr./Mrs. B. F. Jackson 

Mr. Thomas F. Latzer 

Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 

Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mrs. Leighton Morrill 

Mrs. John S. Lehmann 

Mr./Mrs. Charles W. Oertli 

Miss Martha I. Love 

Mr. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 

Mrs. James S. Luehrmann 

Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 

Mr. H. Dean Mann 

Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell 

Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 

Mrs. Roswell Messing, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 

Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 

Mr. Frank H. Simmons 

Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 

Mr./Mrs. Leon B. Strauss 

Mr. Thomas Moore 

Miss Harriet J. Tatman 

Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 

Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 

Mr./Mrs. Charles L Tooker 

Mr. Spencer T. Olin 

Mr./Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 

Mrs. Jane K. Pelton 


Miss Jane E. Piper 


Miss Julia Piper 


Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 


Capt. William R. Piper 

Mr./Mrs. Herman T. Pott 

C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 

President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mrs. C. Kenneth Robins 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 

President of the Executive 

Mr./Mrs. G. S. Rosborough, Jr. 

Board of the Members 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 

Mr./Mrs. David Sanders 


Working Through the Eleventh Hour- Continued 

engaged in tropical studies at present. 

The extremely serious nature of these deficiencies can be 
understood properly only when viewed against the 
background of tropical deforestation. The lowland tropical 
forests, which a century ago made up an area twice the size of 
Europe, have been reduced to about half their former extent. 
Every week, the remaining tropical lowland forest diminishes 
by an area about the size of Delaware, and every year, an area 
about the size of the island of Great Britain is removed. 

The Guest Book that lies open on a shelf fifteen feet from 
the entrance to the herbarium contains page after page of 
visiting scientists' names and their countries of origin; 
Nicaragua, Argentina, Germany, 
Nigeria, Peoples' Republic of China, 
Israel, Japan. Names of the Chinese 
scientists are entered in the book in 
Chinese characters. Their arrivals and 
departures, the nature of their work, the 
lectures and seminars they present for 
the scientific staff and other interested 
persons here, are noted on the bulletin 
boards and in an informal, photocopied 
newsletter that is distributed weekly. 
The newsletter, called MO, was first 
published in January of this year 
because of the intensity of work and 
the large number and frequency of visitors to the 
herbarium at the Garden. 

As a member of the botanical community, the Garden 
each year sponsors an international systematics symposium 
—this year will see the twenty-eighth annual symposium— at 
which scientists meet, present papers, and discuss current 
botanical problems. The symposium this year, scheduled for 
October 16-17, will focus on "Biological Studies in Central 
America" and speakers will include botanists from Costa 
Rica, Great Britain, Mexico, California, Arizona as well as one 
from the Garden's staff— Dr. Alwyn H. Gentry. 

There are other signs of the high level of activity in the 
Herbarium: piles of folders of plant specimens being lent to 
lerbaria throughout the world; specimens having been bor- 
owed; specimens, received from botanists collecting in the 
ield, in various stages of cataloging— identifying, mounting, 
)eing sorted; correspondence; articles for scientific journals; 
scientific journals received. In numbers: In 1980, 70,018 
specimens mounted and added to the herbarium bringing the 
otal of numbered specimens to 2,809,019 and the complete 
otal of specimens to over three million; 29,496 specimens 
oaned to other herbaria, with over 150 publications in twenty- 
)ne significant journals resulting from work with the her- 
>arium specimens. Scientists and government leaders on 
wery continent, most who have never seen the Climatron or 
lapanese Garden, know the work of the herbarium here; MO, 
is it is known, that being its internationally recognized 

The cutover area often 
becomes a wasteland, 
with restoration to any 
productive use virtually 

animals that occupy tropical soils are relatively stable when 
undisturbed. They have remained stable for millions of years 
and are as appropriate to the climate and soils of their areas 
as the forests, swamps, and prairies in the United States are 
to theirs. When farmers plow up a prairie in the Midwest to 
plant crops, they are modifying a natural ecological system in 
order to create another productive, sustainable system. When 
agriculturists cut down a forest in the humid lowland tropics, 
they are often trying to accomplish the same thing. The many 
differences between the ecological processes involved in the 
two instances, however, have potentially tragic conse- 
quences for a large and rapidly growing portion of the human 
race. Once the sorts of forests that occupy most tropical 
areas are cut down, a reasonable 
agricultural yield is usually possible for 
only a few years. The cutover area, 
depleted of its fertility, often becomes a 
wasteland, with restoration to its 
original state or to use for any produc- 
tive purpose virtually impossible. 

Our ignorance about ecological 
processes in the tropics is compound- 
ed by our general lack of knowledge 
about tropical organisms. To give just a 
few examples, some ten to fifteen thou- 
sand kinds of plants in Latin America, 
including many trees, have not yet been 
scientifically described and listed. These plants, which con- 
stitute perhaps an eighth of the total plants in Latin America, 
are generally viewed as a valuable resource, but as long as 
they remain unknown, they cannot be utilized rationally for 
human benefit. Similarly, many people are counting on ma- 
nipulating the populations of fishes in the Amazon Basin and 
its tributaries as a way of increasing food production in the 
future. Competent students estimate, however, that approx- 
imately 40 percent of these fishes have not yet been recogniz- 
ed and cataloged. In other words, hopes are pinned on 
manipulating a system in which only somewhat over half of 
the elements have been registered, much less understood. 
Imagine trying to build a computer or an airplane from such a 
starting point! 

The organisms that make up the ecological communities 
'f the tropics are linked together in extremely complex ways, 
undamental processes such energy flow and mineral cycl- 
ig, which are complex and poorly understood even in 
?mperate regions, are virtually unknown for the tropics. We 
o know that the rich and diverse communities of plants and 

The principal area of scientific concentration at Missouri 
Botanical Garden is the study of the flora of the tropical and 
sub-tropical regions of the globe, especially Latin America; 
its program is, in fact, the largest and most active in tropical 
botany in the world. The herbarium, the fourth largest in the 
country and one of the world's ten largest, is the North 
American repository for African specimens, which means 
that scientists collecting in Africa know that they can deposit 
their specimens at the Herbarium for the greatest amount of 
subsequent exposure and use. The Garden also has a very ac- 
tive program in New Caledonia. However, the scientific work 
was not always concentrated on the tropics. 

When Henry Shaw founded the Garden in the middle of 
the last century, his principal interest was in the creation of 
an attractive garden for visitors. It was George Engelmann 
who suggested to Shaw that a complete botanical garden 
should have a scientific program and Shaw commissioned 
Engelmann to acquire books and specimens for the 
establishment of a research program. In 1857, Engelmann 


The Eleventh Hour 

purchased the herbarium of the late Dr. Johann Jakob 
Bernhardi for $600. Bernhardi (1774-1850) was a German 
physician and director of the botanical garden in Erfurt in 
that country. Then it was common for individuals to ac- 
cumulate private herbaria and Bernhardi was no exception. 

This collection contained over 62,000 specimens of an 
approximate world-wide representation of species. At the 
time there was little else in the United States to match it. 
For the next three decades no specimens were added to 
Shaw's herbarium until the death of Engelmann, who will- 
ed his private herbarium of about 100,000 specimens to the 
Garden in 1884. When William Trelease succeeded Shaw 
as Garden Director, he began to increase the scientific pro- 
gram using the Bernhardi and H^^^^HHH 
Engelmann herbaria; it was during 
Trelease's directorship that the first 
Garden botanists made collecting 
trips to other continents. But these 
early collections and the two herbaria 
that were the basis of the Garden's 
herbarium were broad, not concen- 
trated in any specific area. 

The Garden's botanical interest in 
the tropics can be actually traced to 
its horticultural interest in orchids. 
During the first quarter of this century, 
several individuals made gifts of or- 
chid collections to the Garden. In 
Bulletin it is reported that, "Mr. D. S 

Lewis's reason for concentrating on the tropics "It only 
made sense to build on what was there. The Flora of 
Panama program was there and Lewis reactivated it." 

Current conservation 
efforts tend to concen 
trate on a few well- 
known plants and 
animals, while 
thousands of other 
species go extinct 
without fanfare. 

the January, 1916, 
Brown of Kirkwood, 
Missouri, whose collection of orchids is known throughout 
the world, has recently presented to the Garden some of 
his choicest plants, and these, added to the orchids 
already at the Garden constitute one of the largest and 
most representative collections. the country." His gift 
included about 350 plants, 200 of them are rare hybrids. In 

1918, he made an even larger gift to the Garden and by 

1919, the Garden's orchid collection was said to "excell all 
in the United States," this from the January, 1920, Bulletin. 
In 1923, George Pring, Horticulturist, visited Central and 
South America to collect orchids for the Garden's display; 
because of the war, it had become difficult to acquire or- 
chids in the United States and it was necessary to go to the 
native home of the plants. Pring's trip received much na- 
tional attention. Three years later C. W. Powell of the Canal 
Zone donated his orchid collection to the Garden also. 
Much of that collection remained in Balboa, Canal Zone, 
for the purposes of experimentation. The Canal Zone 
government set aside a tract of land for an orchid garden 
and the Garden established there a Tropical Research Sta- 
tion. During the 1930s, because of the presence of the 
Tropical Station, Garden staff botanists made several 
botanical expeditions there. By the end of that decade, 
several "Contributions toward a Flora of Panama" were 
published in the Garden's scientific journal, the Annals. In 
1943, Robert E. Woodson, Jr., Herbarium Curator, formally 
initiated the Flora of Panama project, with publications in 
the Annals. From the early 1950s until the mid-1960s, the 
Garden's scientific work became progressively less and 
less until at Woodson's death in 1963 it was all but inactive. 
With the arrival of Woodson's successor, Walter H. Lewis, 
the botanical work was revived. Dr. Marshall Crosby, cur- 
rently the Garden's Director of Research, explained 

When they learn that tropical forests are rapidly disap- 
pearing, many people accept the destruction as warranteo 
since they believe it will lead to the implementation of pro- 
ductive forms of agriculture that will help feed the hungry 
people of the world— much as the clearing of the forests in 
Europe and North America made possible the widespreac 
of productive agricultural systems in these regions over the 
centuries. Unfortunately, the comparison is totally withoui 
basis in fact. The current estimate of many Brazilian of- 
ficials, for example, is that with currently available 
technology only approximately 0.3 percent of the vas\ 
■ lowland forests in the Amazon Basin 
can be put into sustainable agriculture, 
about 95 percent of all the land in Brazil 
that is capable of sustained agricultural 
productivity is already under cultiva- 
tion. The country now has some 90 
million people of which about a thirc 
are malnourished. Since the population 
is expected to double during the nex\ 
twenty-three years, how malnutrition 
could be held even at the same propor 
tionate level as it is today is unclear. In 
deed, if the plans of the Brazilian 
^^^^^^^^* government to alleviate the nation's 
acute energy shortage by planting sugar cane for the produc- 
tion of alcohol are implemented, approximately one-sixth o) 
the currently productive agricultural land of Brazil could be 
taken out of production, a sacrifice that surely cannot be sus 
tained in a country where a very large number of people are 

Poor people, denied access to arable land, cause aboui 
two-thirds of all destruction and alteration of tropical forests. 
These forest farmers cut out a section of forest and grow a 
crop or two before the soil deteriorates to the point where 
cultivation is no longer feasible. A variety of other factors are 
responsible for the remaining destruction of tropical forests 
In Southeast Asia, the wholesale exploitation of forests foi 
timber by foreign-owned corporations, which make little more 
than a gesture toward the replacement of the forests, is the 
major factor. In Latin America, the relentless effort to produce 
cheap beef for the United States and other developed coun 
tries is causing the disappearance of vast areas of forest. 

Regardless of whether they are developed wisely or un 
wisely, tropical forests are being cut down, and if thei, 
destruction and conversion is indeed irreversible, approx 
imately one million kinds of plants and animals, or one 
quarter of all that exist, will become extinct during the nex 
thirty years, and possibly another million during the course o 
the twenty- first century. 

The loss of biological diversity in the tropics as a result o 
these extinctions will have serious consequences for tht 
human race. Every species is genetically unique. We canno 
study an extinct species, we cannot use it, and we canno 
develop it into something more useful. 

Tourists do not go where they go, over unpaved trails; up 
mountains that the casual hiker would never attempt; througf 
the thick brush. When they return to St. Louis, there are the 

stories about the campertruck that wouldn't run and that re- 
quired days to repair, leaving them confined to only a small 
area in which to collect; days out of touch with no news of 
crimes, legislative hassles, sports' scores. 

"Of course, often you can sleep late," Nancy Morin says. 
Dr. Morin is the present Curator of the Herbarium. "You wake 
up and collect where you are. But it's more than just walking 
along a trail and picking flowers. The family I am interested in, 
Campanulaceae (the Blue Bell family), grows low to the 
ground. I spend a lot of time walking while bent over; 
sometimes I walk a long way without seeing a single one. You 
collect until almost dark then go back to camp, load up your 
jeep, and drive for several hours to the next good campsite, 
then stop for the night— maybe one or two in the morn- 
ing—unroll your sleeping bag and collapse, and wake up the 
next day to start over." ^^m^^^^^^^ 

to the paper. Herbarium sheets are 100% cotton paper which, 
unlike wood pulp paper, can last indefinitely. Herbarium 
specimens are meant to be preserved for centuries, and in 
fact there are many speciments in the herbarium that are well 
over two centuries old that show no signs of deterioration. 

After mounting, the specimens are filed, being stored in 
large compactors, arranged throughout the herbarium accor- 
ding to botanical family and within the families genera are 
divided alphabetically; species are divided by geographical 
location— for cataloging purposes, the globe is divided into 
nine areas— and then arranged alphabetically under location. 

"All herbarium paper is about one 
foot by one and one-half feet, plus or 
minus a few centimeters." Marshall 
Crosby guides me through the her- 
barium explaining what occurs there. 
There and thousands of miles away, 
where the botanists work in the field. "A 
botanist cuts a branch from a tree or 
digs up a plant, keeping in mind that the 
specimen must fit onto a herbarium 
sheet. He inserts the plant into a folded ^^^^^^^^^ 
sheet of newspaper— newspaper is l^MMHMMHI 
used because it is readily available everywhere, and a stan- 
dard folded sheet is about the size of herbarium paper. He 
marks a number onto the newspaper and puts it into a field 
press." Crosby shows such a press, two separate pieces of 
plywood, slightly larger than the folded newpapers and held 
together by two leather straps. "The botanist records in a 
notebook the number he gave the specimen— each botanist 
numbers his collections throughout his career, beginning 
with number one. He also records where the specimen was 
:ollected, the conditions of the area — hot, dry; cool, 
noist— when it was collected. Often he'll record the flower 
:olor, if the specimen is in bloom, because flowers tend to 
: ade when they are dried. When he returns to his camp, he 
Jries his collection in a drying press— it's similar to a field 
Dress, except it's made of inch-wide wooden slats, the slats 
crossing one another horizontally and vertically. Sheets of 
corrugated cardboard are placed between the sheets of 
lewspaper to speed drying. He sets the press over a heat 
source, a small stove maybe, to dry and ships the collection 
)ack to us when it's thoroughly dried." 

The herbarium workroom, located upstairs from the her- 
>arium, has boxes on tables and on the floor; files of 
ipecimens stacked two feet high. Here all specimens from 
he field are received, and the postal stamps on the cartons 
hat fill the room would keep a collector busy for a long while, 
iuch is the diversity and number of their places of issue. From 
he workroom the specimens are sent to be fumigated; they 
re treated with Dawson -37 to rid them of insects; even a 
mall number of rapidly reproducing insects admitted into the 
lerbarium could be catastrophic to the collection. 

After they are fumigated, they are sent to the mounting 
epartment. There, nine mounters glue the specimens onto 
erbarium sheets and weight them by laying small flat rec- 
angles of lead wrapped in teflon-coated, self-adhesive shelf 
aper until the glue dries and the plant is permanently affixed 

As-yet-unknown plants 
might well contain 
chemicals that would 
assist in the cure for 

Current conservation efforts, unfortunately, still tend to 
concentrate on a few obvious or well-known plants and 
animals, such as the Furbish lousewort, the snail darter, the 
II^hhmh elephant, or the tiger, while tens of 
thousands of other species go extinct 
without fanfare. Probably twenty times 
as much is spent annually to try to 
preserve the roughly thirty surviving 
California condors as is spent to find 
new kinds of tropical plants that might 
be important sources of food, fuel, or 
medicine. We must ask ourselves 
which kind of action has the greatest 
potential for alleviating human misery 
and helping to create a stable world. 
^^^^^^^^^_ What happens in the tropics affects 

^^^^^^^^™ the entire world. For example, the short- 
ages of many kinds of commodities, which developed coun- 
tries formerly obtained from the tropics at very low prices, are 
already contributing to worldwide inflation and hence in- 
stability, and they will do so to a greater extent in the future. 
As a matter of self-interest and national security, all 
temperate, developed countries ought to begin to contribute 
substantially to the development of sustainable productive 
agricultural and forestry systems in the tropics. 

Conversation with Dr. Marshall Crosby, Director of Research 
Marshall Crosby "If you look back over ten years ago, and 
compare the number of dollars going into tropical botany, you 
see that it is more now than in 1970. Too, if you look at the 
staff here ten years ago, you see that there were four perma- 
nent staff members with Ph.D.s here, while currently there are 

Bulletin "Why is there this increased activity in tropical 

MC "The tropics are interesting — they're extremely rich 
botanically. About one-third of all the world's plant 
species— about 80,000 species— occur in the American 
tropics — between Mexico and Chile. Or to give a more 
specific example, there are about 1,900 species in Missouri, 
while on Barro Colorado Island in the Panama Canal there are 
about 1,300. That island is six square miles; Forest Park, by 
comparison, is a little over one-third that size. But more im- 
portant than their being interesting, the tropics are barely 
known and they're threatened." 

B If I may play the devil's advocate for a minute, why study 
plants at all? 

MC For several reasons. By studying plants, you can under- 
stand the evolutionary process; you can understand natural 

B But is all the cataloging necessary? 
MC Well, let me use a metaphor here. If you like a book by 



The Eleventh Hour 

Faulkner and you want to read more Faulkner, and your books 
are unorganized, it would be difficult to find anotherFaulkner. 
But if they're arranged in some system, say alphabetically, 
you can go to the section for Faulkner and find what you 
want. Now, if you are farming and you have a crop that you 
like and want to plant one similar, it is easy to find one if 
plants are organized in some fashion. Likewise, if you have a 
crop and it is going nicely over several years until one day it is 
diseased and you need to find a disease-resistant strain, it is 
easier to locate one if you can go to a herbarium and find 
other strains and where they occur in the world. The same is 
true if you are growing a crop and want to raise a more pro- 
ductive strain. Having a systematically organized area that 
you can go to to find similar plants, to find where these plants 
grow is easier than traveling around the world looking at all 
the plants. 

B But not all plants that you study and catalog have practical 
uses, like the crops you mentioned. 
MC True. However, we can't know which plants are useful un- 
til we study them. And another thing, it's important to study all 
plants, not only the so-called useful ones. For example, 
mosses are good for nothing; they have no practical 
uses— except one genus, Sphagnum (peat moss), which is 
used for horticultural purposes. People want mosses to have 
a use— I suppose they want everything to have a use. I've 
been studying mosses for a long time, and I can't tell them, 
'Yes, they will have a use.' But it is as important to study them 
as to study other plants. If you decide that we're just going to 
study certain organisms because they're useful, and exclude 
the so-called unuseful plants, you can't understand the useful 
ones. You can't understand corn without studying its 
unuseful relatives. On another plane you can't understand the 
higher level plants without knowing the lower 
plants— mosses being one of these. 
B Briefly, why is the scientific work at the Garden important? 
MC First, because it's important for mankind to know about 
all organisms; to know— curiosity— is part of the human con- 
dition. Second, specifically regarding the tropics, we can't 
manage tropical forests without knowing how they work and 
we can't understand how they work without understanding 
their parts. Finally, man uses very few plants— probably less 
than 1 ,000 species; most of our food comes from about twen- 
ty different plants— but there must be more out there to be 
used because there are so many that have not been 
characterized. The beginning of finding out about these 
plants is finding out what they are. 

Greater knowledge about the tropics is certain to result in 
many discoveries that will promote human welfare. Approx- 
imately 45 percent of the medical prescriptions currently writ- 
ten in the United States, for instance, contain at least one pro- 
duct of natural origin, and as-yet-unknown plants might well 
contain chemicals that would assist in the cure for cancer. 

The countries of the world, developed and undeveloped, 
can prosper and exist in peace only in a relatively stable 
world. If we are to enjoy the benefits of global stability during 
the next century, indeed if we are to survive, we must seize the 
opportunities that are still available to us but which are 
diminishing every day. 

Wednesday, October 14, with Dr. Nancy Morin, Herbarium 
Curator, presenting a talk on the beginning of the scientific 
work and the involvement of Henry Shaw and Dr. George 
Engelmann. On October 21, Dr. Marshall Crosby, Director of 
Research, will discuss William Trelease and the Garden's 
work in the early twentieth century. On October 28, Dr. William 
D'Arcy, Research Botanist and Editor of the Flora of Panama 
Project, will discuss the Flora of Panama and the Garden's in- 
troduction to the tropics. All lectures are held in the 
Auditorium of the John S. Lehmann Building and are 
presented at 10:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. Members and their 
guests are admitted free of charge. 

The Garden's research program, its history and function, 
will be the topic of the Fall Lecture Series, beginning on 


Mr. Zac. O. Gbile, Nigeria 

"We had thought that a species, Solanum nigrum, oc- 
curred in Nigeria. I came to the Garden to collaborate with 
Dr. [William] D'Arcy, who is a renowned specialist on 
Solanaceae, the family that S. nigrum is part of. We were 
able to determine that it was not, sensu stricto [in the strict 
sense], S. nigrum but a species that was a member of the S. 
nigrum complex." 

It is more than splitting hairs to say that a particular 
plant is not one species but a member of that species- 
complex. "Precise identification is important for several 
reasons," D'Arcy said. "Species of the genus Solanum are 
important food crops in Mr. Gbile's country. When they 
begin to hybridize species, they must know exactly the 
species of plant they are working with. Also some plants 
closely related to Solanum nigrum are toxic." 

Dr. Uzi Plitmann, Israel 

"This institution should be an example to others 
because it combines research, public education, preserva- 
tion and public recreation. This is what you expect from 

"I came here for two reasons. To talk with Peter [Raven] 
about a project we have been working on for ten years. Also 
to work in the herbarium, to look for a few species of phlox 
and vetches. I wanted to see seeds of some American in- 
diginous species and compare them with Old World 
species, to get an idea of what the common species here 

"My primary interest is in the evolution of cultivated 
plants and how they relate to their wild relatives, specifically 
biosystematic problems concerning legumes." 

For the inhabitants of many countries, legumes— peas 
and beans— are the primary source of protein. "Legumes 
are the meat of the poor." Dr. Plitmann said. 

Dr. Juan Hunziker, Argentina 

"I have been in contact with the Garden since I was 
twenty years old; mostly through correspondence, sending 
specimens and receiving publications in exchange. This is 
the first time I have actually visited here. I came to work or 
Zygophyllaceae, the creosote bush family; at present I anr 
studying the genus Bulnesia. It has a very peculiar pattern oi 
distribution and I came partly to have the advice of Dr. Raver 
on the problem of this distribution." 

Two species of Bulnesia are used in Argentina for the 
construction of fences and other structures that are inbedd 
ed into the soil. Because of its high resin content, it does no 
rot when it is in the ground, like many woods might. 

Gardening In St. Louis 

Autumn is Lawn Care Season If you fertilize your lawn 
one time a year, do it in the fall, applying a high nitrogen for- 
mulation (the first number of the fertilizer bag). Lawn fertilizers 
that contain ureaform (nitroform) are slow-releasing and are 
especially recommended if you only fertilize once a year. 

Lawns may be reseeded now. Damp, cooler weather en- 
courages good seed germination. Use high-quality seed; do 
not buy cheap grass seed! It contains many undesirable, 
wide-blade grass varieties. Use a cyclone-type spreader for 
even coverage. 

Alan Godlewski, the Garden's Chairman of Landscape 
Horticulture, recommends the following grass varieties for St. 
Louis: Bluegrass— Merion, Touchdown, Baron and Nugget; 
Perennial Rye— Regal; Tall Fescue— Rebel or K-31. For a 
high-quality lawn you might try a blend of 80% of any of the 
above Bluegrass varieties with 20% of Perennial Rye Regal. 
For a play or picnic area you might try a blend of 80% of one 
of the Tall Fescue varieties plus 20% of Bluegrass. 

Build a Cold Frame This invaluable structure can be used 
in the fall for overwintering seedlings of biennials and peren- 
nials and for tender bonsai specimens. A cold frame can also 
be used for forcing spring flowering bulbs. If you put an elec- 
tric heating cable in your frame you can use it as a miniature 
greenhouse to grow winter lettuce and spinach or cool 
greenhouse pot plants like primroses, pansies, calceolarias, 
cinerarias and cyclamen. 

Make a Compost Pile No time of the year is richer for 
available organic matter than is fall. If you can shred the 
material with the lawn mower or a commercial shredder 
before you stack it in heaps, it will decompose more quickly. 
Add a handful of any high-nitrogen fertilizer (extra lawn fer- 
tilizer is fine) to each 1-foot layer of the compost pile. 

Use a blend of organic material such as leaves, garden 
refuse (that does not contain insects or diseases) and grass 
clippings. Never stack grass clippings deeper than an inch or 
two or they will become a soggy and smelly mess. Compost 
materials can conveniently be stacked in cages made of wire 
fabric or, if you have little space, can be stored in sealed 

plastic gargage bags. Be sure the compost is slightly damp 
but not wet. If you do not want to go to the trouble to stack 
your compost pile, you can practice sheet composting. This 
consists of using the organic matter as a 2" to 5" mulch. It 
can be applied on the bare ground of your vegetable and 
flower garden and rototilled or spaded into the garden next 

Houseplants Do not wait too long to bring your 
houseplants inside from their summer vacation on the porch 
or patio. Usually the middle to late part of September is not 
too early. The plants should have a chance to become ac- 
climated to their indoor home before they are faced with the 
dry air from the furnace. When the plants are brought in, 
check them closely for insects and diseases. If they have any 
of these pests, this is the time to treat them while they can 
still be sprayed outdoors. You might want to try a new product 
called Safer Agro-Chem's Insecticidal Soap. It is very safe to 
use and is supposed to be highly effective for mealybugs, 
mites, aphids and whiteflies. 

Prepare Now for Early Winter Blooms Plant bulbs of 
paperwhites and Soleil d'or daffodils from mid to late October 
for early flowering indoors. Also try some Roman hyacinths or 
pre-cooled miniature hyacinths. Take cuttings of begonias 
and plant bulbs of caladiums, gloxinias (properly called sinn- 
ingias) and amaryllis. 

Check List 

Now is a good time to: 

• Clean up the garden. Insects and diseases overwinter in 
garden refuse. 

• Watch for signs of powdery mildew. Spray with Karathane, 
Benlate or Actidione PM. 

• Dig compact plants of herbs, such as parsley and chives for 
growing and pot plants for winter use. 

• Plant spring bulbs in mid to late October so they have time 
to root well before the ground freezes. 

• Keep the leaves raked off your lawn. Leaves can easily 
smother the grass. 

• Order roses for fall planting. 

• Divide and re-set perennials and biennials. 

Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

Henry Shaw Birthday Card Contest Winners 

In honor of Henry Shaw's 181st 
birthday the Garden and Bussmann Divi- 
sion, McGraw-Edison Company, co- 
sponsored a party and a birthday card 
contest. Three winners were selected; 
they each received $100 educational 
scholarships, courtesy of Bussmann. 
Pictured at right are James N. Mills, 
President of Bussmann; Susan Romano 
(9); one of the scholarship winners; C. C. 
Johnson Spink, President of the Gar- 
den's Board of Trustees; and Jennifer 
Goedeker (6), another scholarship win- 
ner. The third winner, Michele Douglas 
(11), was not available for the photo- 
graph. Despite a day of heavy rain, over 
1,000 attended the celebration, which 
included music, clowns, magic, mimes 
and juggling. 

Wasps, Pines, and the Daily News 

This Bulletin, newspapers, books, 
calendars, towels, tissues, money, 
photographs, boxes, stationary, cups, 
plates, sugar packets; paper that we 
write on, read, spend, cover walls with. 
We are so surrounded by it that we pro- 
bably accept it as one of the base 
elements, like chemicals; like fire, 
earth, water and air; a fifth essence. In 
truth, of course, it is manufac- 
turer—over 63,900,000 tons produced 
in the United States last year, according 
to the American Paper In- 
stitute—whether in large commercial 
mills in Canton, North Carolina, or in a 
kitchen blender in Webster Groves, 
Missouri; trees are cut, chopped, 
pulped and processed. 

The manufacture of the first sheet 
of paper is credited to a Chinese 
nobleman, Ts'ai Lun, who in 105 A.D. 
produced a thin, felted material from 
macerated vegetable fiber. Until the 
mid-eighth century, the craft was con- 
fined to the Orient, with the primary raw 
material being mulberry bark. In 751 , the 
Samarkand army captured a number of 
skilled Chinese papermakers in a battle 
and the art was brought to the Arab 
world. Because there was a scarcity of 
mulberrys in Samarkand, the paper- 
makers began using other materials, 
primarily linen and cotton. The first 
papermaking in Europe occurred in 
about the twelfth century and, because 
it came to that continent from the Mid- 
dle East, the Europeans used cotton 
and linen as the Arabs had; until the 
end of the eighteenth century, most 
European paper was made from these 
materials. In the middle of that century, 
because printing technology had ad- 
vanced to a stage at which books and 
other materials were available and 
demanded on a large scale, the con- 
sumption of paper reached the level at 
which it became difficult to acquire suf- 
ficient cotton and linen rags. By the last 
third of the century, legislatures were 
urging citizens to save every scrap of 
cloth; newspapers were advertising for 
its subscribers to sell their rags to mills. 
The North Carolina Gazette suggested 
to its women readers that if they sent 
"to the paper mill an old handkerchief 
...there is a possibility of it returning to 
them as a billet doux from their lovers." 

As early as 1719, however, Rene 
Antoine de Reaumur, a French natur- 
alist, foresaw that the use of paper was 
increasing so rapidly that the common 
materials were not available in the 


necessary quantity to support that in- 
crease. In a treatise written that year he 
noted, "The American wasps form a 
very fine paper... they extract the fibres 
of common wood... and teach us that 
paper can be made from the fibres of 
plants without the use of linen or rags." 
Since that time, it has been common to 
acknowledge the wasp as the first 
papermaker. Reaumur observed that 
the wasp chewed dry wood, mixing it 
with saliva to size it, and used the 
material to make its nests; this process 
is analogous to groundwood pulping, a 
mechanical process used in the manu- 
facture of inexpensive papers, such as 
the newsprint on which newspapers are 

It was a man who was one year old 
when Reaumur published his paper on 
wasps and papermaking who made the 
greatest contributions to the use of 
materials other than rags in European 
paper. Jacob Christian Schaffer 
(1718-90), a Bavarian clergyman with an 
interest in botany, principally the flora 
of his country, performed experiments 
in which he produced paper from 
numerous materials; the six volume 
work he published in 1 765 on his experi- 
ments contained, as an appendix, 95 
paper specimens, each from a different 
material. Those samples included 
paper from poplar down, tree moss, 
grapevine bark, hemp, aloe, stinging 
nettle, cabbage stalks, potato skins and 
bulrushes. It is interesting that one 
of his earliest samples was produced 
from wasps' nests. 

About thirty-five years later an 
Englishman, Matthias Koops, became 
the first to manufacture paper from 
various vegetable fibers on a large com- 
mercial scale. His venture was bank- 
rupt within three years; however, he 
was granted three patents in 1800-01 
for his process. The majority of today's 
commercial paper manufacturing is 
based on Koops's work. 

Almost all of the paper manufac- 
tured now is from plant pulp, with nine- 
ty percent coming from trees. The cot- 
ton and linen. fibers that were the 
primary source of paper in the first six 
centuries of European papermaking are 
used mainly in fine writing papers, bank 
notes and drawing paper. The essential 
material in the paper pulp is cellulose 
that is extracted from wood (or cotton 
or other plant material) through several 
processes, one being the groundwood 
process mentioned above, and the 

others being any of several chemical 
processes in which the wood is cooked. 
The best sources of paper pulp are 
those trees and plants that economical- 
ly yield a large quantity of cellulose. 
When the cellulose is extracted, im- 
purities and other components of the 
pulp source that would weaken the 
paper are removed; fortunately 
cellulose is resistant to the action of 
alkaline materials used in the paper- 
making process, so while the impurities 
are broken down, the cellulose remains 

While the use of wood pulp permits 
the manufacture of sufficent paper to 
meet the high demand, wood pulp 
paper is less permanent than that from 
cotton. Rare book librarians and collec- 
tors have expressed concern that 
books published in the past century will 
not survive as pre-nineteenth century 
volumes have. 

The specific wood used in a 
specific paper depends on a number of 
factors, but primarily on the location of 
the mill that produces it. A mill in Erie, 
Pennsylvania, uses mostly oak and 
maple; a mill in the Carolinas uses a 
large quantity of southern pine; while 
the mill that manufactured the paper on 
which this article is printed, being 
located in Michigan, uses hemlock and 
spruce. This paper is a combination of 
those two woods. For ordinary con- 
siderations, the quality of paper is not 
contingent on the precise tree used, but 
is greatly controlled by the milling pro- 
cess. Although, generally speaking, 
soft wood trees (conifers) yield a 
cellulose fiber that is longer than hard 
wood (deciduous) trees, and long fibers 
make for a stronger paper. Often, fibers 
from softwood trees are mixed with 
those from hardwoods. Fiber length 
depends also on moisture and soil 
quality — a tree grown in rich soil with 
sufficient moisture will yield longer 
fibers than one grown in poor, dry soil. It 
also varies within a single tree; fibers 
are shorter in branches than in trunks; 
also, fiber length increases from the 
center outward in both the trunk and 
branches until the tree has reached its 
maximum height. 

Other plants can also be used in the 
manufacture of paper. Hemp, jute, 
sugar cane, cereal straw and cornstalks 
all yield sufficient cellulose to be 
economically useful. It is possible to 
make paper from the leaves and stalks 
of several common garden flowers in- 

eluding iris, begonia, gladiola and 
nasturtium. Paper produced from these 
materials is unsuitable for writing 
unless mixed with another pulp. Most 
commercial pulp sold for this purpose 
is from banana leaves. 

As part of its Festival of the Book 
Arts, the Missouri Botanical Garden 
Library will feature a display of "The 

Botany of Papermaking" from 
September 21 to October 16. The 
display will include specimens of 
plants used throughout the eighteen- 
hundred year history of the craft of 
papermaking, along with examples of 
common and unusual papers. The 
Festival of the Book Arts, a four-month 
program beginning September 1, will 

offer displays, workshops, demonstra- 
tions, lectures and films about many 
aspects of the art and craft of the book, 
including fine printing, calligraphy, 
book binding, paper marbling and 
papermaking. Further information on 
the Festival may be obtained by calling 
the Garden Library at 577-5155. 

Maps: Where Did Nueva Granada Go? 

She is dissatisfied with the way 
he paper is buckling as she brushes 
he paste over it. Repeatedly, she 
)ulls at a corner of the paper to 
Himinate the wrinkles while 
spreading the methyl cellulose, but 
he paper is too fine and too large — 
i two-foot by three-foot sheet of 
sns paper — and the wrinkles do not 

Rosemary Rudde is mounting a 
9th Century sub-division map of 
>t. Louis to preserve it; it is brittle and 
ddled with holes. "Probably eaten by 
smites or roaches," she says. As she 
loves the map onto the sheet of lens 
aper coated with paste, a tiny irregular 
iece of the map flutter onto the 
ounter. She takes the piece and 
latches it against several holes before 

she finds the place from which it came; 
where the boundary lines match, and 
the letters on the piece complete a 
word on the map. Using the brush dip- 
ped in water, she smooths the map on- 
to the lens paper that will now be its 
backing, then lays wool over the map to 
dry it, sets square pieces of half-inch 
thick wood on top of the wool to ensure 
that the map will dry flat, and weighs 
the boards with bricks wrapped in 
brown paper. The bricks are wrapped to 
keep dirt and attritus from the map. 
After the map dries, it is encased in 

The map is one of more than 5,000 
in the collection of the Garden's library, 
which includes maps from 17th century 
Africa to those of contemporary South 
America. The contemporary maps are 
used by researchers, planning field 
trips, to study the topography of the 
area to which they are going. Resear- 
chers also use old maps to locate place 
names inscribed on old herbarium 
specimens; a botanist working with a 
specimen collected in Nueva Granada 
in the 18th Century, by consulting a 
map of the period, would learn that to- 
day Nueva Granada is Colombia and 
know the geographic origin of the 
specimen. The collection also contains 
maps of St. Louis throughout its history 
which enable historians to study how 
the Garden fits into the geography of 
the area during the past century. 

For the last six years, Rosemary 
Rudde has worked as a Volunteer in the 
Archives, caring for the map collection. 
She is a retired cartographer, having 
worked for the Aeronautical Chart and 
Information Center from 1943 until New 
Year's Eve 1969. 

When she volunteered for the 
Garden she requested placement in the 
Herbarium because of her interest in 
Botany, but there were no positions 
available. At the time the Archives, 
organized not quite two years before, 
needed someone to maintain its map 

collection. Mrs. Rudde, with her ex- 
perience as a cartographer was offered 
that position. 

House Plants Grow Up 

You know that three-foot philoden- 
dron that sits in a pot in your living 
room? Its relative is a vine that reaches 
over fifty feet toward the Climatron 
dome. "Philodendrons are more spec- 
tacular the higher they reach, growing 
up along trees," says Steve Frowine, 
Chairman of Indoor Horticulture at the 
Garden. "People that grow these as 
house plants should see one in a 
natural setting to really appreciate it." 

Philodendron, schefflera, and rub- 
ber tree growers will have the oppor- 
tunity to see their favorite house plants 
in their mature form in an exhibit in the 
Climatron from September 26 through 
October 11, 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. The 
exhibit will contain approximately 100 
plants throughout the Climatron, each 
displayed with a label that includes 
cultural information. 

Where Do Bananas 
Come From? 

When most of us buy our bananas, 
we pick a bunch from a table in a super- 
market or a produce store, inspect it for 
bruises, pay for it and take it home. 
Vanilla comes in little bottles we store 
in a spice cabinet; coffee comes from 
jars or cans. Coconut is shredded and 
is contained in plastic bags on the 
grocer's shelf. Buying food this way, it 
is easy to forget the natural origins of 
the things we eat. 

From October 31 until November 
29, the Garden will feature an exhibit of 
tropical and sub-tropical food plants in 
the Climatron. About sixty-five plants 
will be displayed, including the banana, 
papaya, coconut, vanilla, yams, coffee, 
oranges and lemons. Each plant will be 
exhibited with descriptive text. Hours of 
the exhibit are 10 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. 


Education Department 
Fall Workshops 

A practical course in rose care and 
culture will initiate the fall series of con- 
tinuing education workshops offered 
through the Education Department. 
David Vismara, Garden Rosarian, will 
conduct the four-session class which 
begins September 8. Sessions will 
focus on the selection and ordering of 
plants, bed preparation and planting, 
fertilizing and mulching. One session 
will be held in the Rose Garden on the 
grounds of the MBG. Evening sessions 
are scheduled for September 8, 15, and 
22 and will run from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m.; 
the Saturday field session is scheduled 
for September 12 from 10:00 to 12:00 
a.m. The fee for Members is $18.00. To 

Fall Lectures 

Mrs. Rosemary Verey will open the 
Garden's series of Fall Lectures on 
Tuesday, October 6, at 10:30 a.m., with a 
special presentation entitled "Garden- 
ing in the Cotswolds." The Cotswolds 
are hills in Gloucestershire in 
southwest-central England. Mrs. Verey, 
co-editor of The Englishwoman's 
Garden and the author of a book on 
English women gardeners, will be in the 
United States to deliver the First Annual 
Plantman's Lecture at Wave Hill in 
Riverdale, New York in September. 

The Fall Lecture Series continues 
on October 14, with Dr. Nancy Morin 
presenting a talk on the pre-1900 scien- 
tific work of the Garden. Dr. Marshall 
Crosby presents "Dr. William Trelease 
and the early twentieth century 
research of the Garden" on October 21 , ' 
and Dr. William D'Arcy presents a lec- 
ture on the Flora of Panama Project on 
October 28. The lectures will be held at 
10:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. on the schedul- 
ed dates in the John S. Lehmann 
Auditorium and will continue through 

Two September Sales 

Both of the Garden's shops will 
feature sales during September. On 
Sunday, September 13, the Garden 
Gate Shop will have its annual 
Sidewalk Sale from 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. 
The sale will offer china, gifts, trays, 
vases and accessories at prices reduc- 
ed by twenty to fifty percent from 
regular retail prices. 

On September 25, Garden Members 

register, contact the Education Depart- 
ment, 577-5140. 

Nancy Morin, Administrative 
Curator-of the Herbarium, has designed 
a mini-course in botany fo the non- 
botanist— interested amateurs, 
teachers, and others interested in in- 
creasing their knowledge of plant 
classification and identification. The 
four-session workshop is scheduled for 
September 15, 22, 29 at 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. 
A field day is scheduled for September 
19. The fee for Members is $13.50. 

The Arboretum has scheduled pro- 
grams which include walking tours of 
that 2400-acre nature reserve. "Evening 
Hikes at the Arboretum" will be held on 
one evening a month through autumn 
beginning September 18 at 8 p.m. 

SCAPINO in the Garden 

Theatre Project Company will open 
its seventh season with a performance 
of SCAPINO at Missouri Botanical 
Garden from September 17 to 20. 
Directed by Courtney Flanagan, the 
play is an adaptation of Les Fourberies 
de Scapin by the seventeenth-century 
French dramatist Moliere. 

"We selected this particular play 
because it is well-suited for outdoor 
production," said Fontaine Syer, Artistic 
Director of Theatre Project Company. 
"It's full of mistaken identities, clowns 
and juggling. It is broad comedy that 
can be appreciated by all ages." 

Performances are scheduled for 8 
p.m. on all days, with a 2 p.m. matinee 
on Sunday, September 20. Garden 
members will receive a discount from 
the price of admission to SCAPINO. 
The presentations of SCAPINO are 
'sponsored by the Seven-Up Company. 

are invited to a preview of the Plant 
Shop's Fall Plant Sale. Members will 
receive a twenty percent discount on all 
items in the shop, including foliage 
plants, spring bulbs, trees and shrubs, 
bonsai, tropical plants, and plant care 
materials. On September 26 and 27, the 
sale will be open to the public who will 
receive a 10% discount on all pur- 

"Autumn Walks" will be offered on 
Tuesdays from September 29 through 
October 27, and "Macro Nature 
Photography 'Walkshop' " is planned 
for Sunday, September 27. 

Other workshops scheduled for 
early fall include: Advanced 
Photography; Evening Walks in the 
Japanese Garden; Principles of 
Residential Landscape Design; 
Photography for Children; A Child's 
Garden: A Course for Adults; Plants in 
Poetry: A Course in Creative Writing; 
Prairie Restoration. 

Pre-registration is required for all 
classes. For information on fees and 
schedules, please contact the Educa- 
tion Department (577-5140), or the 
Arboretum (577-5138). 

Answer Service Seeks 

The Missouri Botanical Garden 
Answer Service is seeking men and 
women who are knowledgeable and ex- 
perienced in home gardening. 

The Horticultural Answer Service 
was established nearly 20 years ago 
and today responds to more than 
12,000 telephone inquiries each year 
regarding lawn and garden problems. 
Volunteers participate in an extensive 
training program that includes 
seminars on subjects ranging from in- 
sect control to lawn care, pruning, and 
diagnosis of disease. Training sessions 
are scheduled from November through 

Applications are available in the 
Education Department (577-5140), and 
must be submitted by September 15. 

Tower Grove House 
Fall/Winter Menu 

The fall/winter menu for luncheons 
in the Tower Grove House Tea Room 
will be available beginning Thursday, 
October 1 . That menu includes Chicken 
Divan, Lasagna, Turkey au Gratin, and 
Spinach Quiche. 

Luncheon is served at Tower Grove 
House on Tuesday and Thursday of 
each week, except holidays, 11:30 a.m. 
to 1:00 p.m. Reservations are 
necessary, and must be made by noon 
Monday for Tuesday luncheons and by 
noon Wednesday for Thursday lun- 
cheons. Meals must be ordered at the 
time of reservation. Groups of fifteen or 
more may schedule luncheons for Mon- 
days, Wednesdays or Fridays by mak- 
ing special arrangements with Tower 
Grove House. For information or reser- 
vations, please call 577-5150. 

C.P. Whitehead Dies 

Charles Powell Whitehead, Presi- 
dent of the Garden's Board of Trustees 
from 1970 until 1972, died on June 22 at 
the age of 81. He was elected to the 
Board in 1964, and was an important 
participant in the 1969 Capital Fund 
Drive that made possible the construc- 
tion of the John S. Lehmann Building 
which houses the Garden's herbarium, 
library and educational department. It 
was during Mr. Whitehead's term as 
President that the building was con- 

Mr. Whitehead was president of 
General Steel Industries from 1945 until 
1964, and was board chairman from 
1964 until 1966. He was active in many 
civic activities in both Missouri and Il- 
linois including the United Fund Drive, 
the Arts and Education Fund, the Sym- 
phony Development Fund, the YMCA 
and the Municipal Opera. In 1968, he 
was selected as the St. Louis Globe- 
Democrat Man of the Year. In 1980, he 
was elected an honorary trustee of 
Missouri Botanical Garden. 

500 Years of Botanical Illustration Exhibit 

The exhibit, 500 Years of Botanical 
Illustration, which was first shown at 
the Garden in January, 1980, will be 
repeated as part of The Festival of the 
Book Arts from October 15 through 
November 30. The exhibit includes 
significant examples of botanical art 
from the Garden's extensive collection, 
documenting the development of 
scientific botanical illustration and the 
use of plants as decorative art. 

500 Years of Botanical Illustration 
has been shown in museums 

Euphorbia Exhibit 

Euphorbia is a diverse plant genus 
that includes the commonly known 
plants poinsettia and crown of thorns, 
but also includes some interesting and 
economically important species as 
well. Euphorbia tirucalli is considered a 
possible source for a gasoline-like fuel. 
Another species, Euphorbia phos- 
phorea, glows in the dark. 

Scented Garden Moved 

The Scented Garden, originally 
located on the Knolls, south of the Main 
Gate, has been moved to the south- 
east side of the Linnean House. Accor- 
ding to Alan Godlewski, Chairman of 
Landscape Horticulture, plantings will 
be installed in September and October. 
"Visitors will start seeing the first real 

Bring-A-Guest Weekend 

On Saturday and Sunday, September 12 
and 13, all Members are invited to bring 
two guests to the Garden. Guests will 
be admitted free of charge when they 
present the coupon (right) at the Main 
Gate. Any current Member whose guest 
joins the Garden on that weekend will 
receive a botanical illustration (suitable 
for framing) or a free plant as a token of 
appreciation from the Garden. 

throughout the midwest since 
November, 1979, by the Mid-American 
Arts Alliance and has proven to be the 
most popular touring exhibit in 
M -AAA's history. It is scheduled to tour 
through the end of 1982, and the M-AAA 
has commissioned the Garden to 
create a second exhibit in botanical il- 
lustration, using different examples 
from the library's collection. 

The hours of the exhibit located in 
the John S. Lehmann Building, will be 9 
a.m. to 5 p.m., Monday through Friday. 

These four plants, and others from 
the Euphorbia collection at Missouri 
Botanical Garden, will be featured in an 
exhibit in the Desert House from 
October 17 through November 15. 
Hours of the exhibit until the end of 
October are 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. After 
November 1, the exhibit will be open 
from 9 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. 

displays in early Spring, with the height 
of the Garden coming around May 
first," he said. 

Trees and shrubs scheduled for fall 
planting include several species of 
honeysuckle, lilac, calycanthus, and 
yew. The Scented Garden was first 
opened in May, 1972. 

Coupon for Bring a-Guest Weekend 

September 12-13 

(Member's guest must complete coupon and 

present at Main Gate for admission.) 





Goudy Appointed 
Museum Director 

David Goudy, formerly the Garden's 
Assistant Director for Operations, was 
appointed Director of Montshire 
Museum in Hanover, New Hampshire, 
in July. Montshire is a ten year old 
natural history museum associated 
with Dartmouth University. 

Goudy joined the Garden's staff in 
1969, working part-time to develop a 
work-study program for potential high 
school drop-outs. In 1970, he was ap- 
pointed Superintendent of the 
2400-acre Shaw Arboretum in Gray 
Summit. He was named Director of 
Public Services in 1977 and Assistant 
Director for Operations in 1979. In this 
last position he directed the education, 
horticulture and maintenance depart- 
ments. During the last two years, he 
also managed the construction of the 
Visitor Center at the Garden's north 

"The Garden is a marvelous institu- 
tion. It has been doing some very 
creative things, and I'm pleased to have 
had the opportunity to have par- 
ticipated in them," Goudy said. "The 
building program is especially exciting 
and forward-looking. When it is com- 
pleted, it will be a tremendous boost to 
all the programs here." 

1 r 

Coupon for Bring a Guest Weekend 
September 12-13 

(Member's guest must complete coupon and 
present at Main Gate for admission.) 



State Zip 



Calder Sculpture for Garden 

In early June, Alexander Calder's 
sculpture, "The Tree, was removed 
from the Promenade area at the Man- 
sion House and delivered to Davlan 
Engineering, where it will be restored 
for exhibition near the tf^e new location 
planned for the Boxwood Garden. The 
site chosen for its installation at Man- 
sion House proved damaging to the 
piece because of wind conditions. The 
loan to the Missouri Botanical Garden 
was arranged through the efforts of 
Robert H. Orchard, Chairman of 
Mayor's Committee on St. Louis Arts 
and Fountains, and Gerald A. Rimmel, a 
St. Louis attorney. Thanks to their con- 
cern for the preservation of the piece, 
Calder's mobile will be available for 

Landscape Design 
Course Offered 

The second in a series of Land- 
scape courses offered by the National 
Council of State Garden Clubs, Inc., will 
be offered on October 12, 13 and 14, 
1981, at the Lehmann Building of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2345 Tower 
Grove Avenue. There are no prere- 
quisites for this course and it is open to 
the public. 

Outstanding instructors in the 
fields of horticulture, botany, and land- 
scape design have been scheduled to 
teach the following topics: "Develop- 
ment of Landscape Design from 1840 to 
1930," "Urban Design," "Architecture 
and Related Professions," "Landscape 
Graphics," "Execution of Landscape 
Architectural Design," "Site Design," 
"Art and Nature Appreciation," "Plants 
in Composition," and "Elements in 
Landscape Architectural Design." 

The faculty teaching these courses 
is: Douglas Counts, Robert Goetz, Fred 
Kellams, and Stuart Mertz— landscape 
architects; and Dr. Gary Long, Dr. Ray 
Rothenberger, and Prof. Willard Sum- 
mers, University of Missouri hor- 

The course fee is $25.00 for two 
days, $15.00 for one day, and $2.00 ex- 
amination fee for those taking the op- 
tional exam. The course is sponsored 
by the Federated Garden Clubs of 
Missouri, Inc., the University of Mis- 
souri Extension-East-West Gateway 
Area, Missouri Botanical Garden, and 
the National Council of State Garden 
Clubs, Inc. For further information con- 
tact: Glenda Finnie, 4623 Littlebury, St. 
Louis 63128 (894-2655). 

viewing in an appropriate setting 
towards the end of this summer. 

Orchid Sale 

Because of the success of last 
November's Orchid Sale, a second sale 
is planned for this year. Scheduled for 
Saturday, November 14, 10 a.m. to 4 
p.m., with the Preview Sale on Friday, 
November 13, from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m., the 
sale will offer individuals the opportuni- 
ty to purchase orchid plants from the 
Garden's internationally renowned col- 
lection. Over 1,000 plants will be 
available and persons with questions 
on orchid culture may talk with experts 
from the Garden's staff and members 
of local orchid societies. Proceeds from 
the sale will be used to purchase new 
plants for the Garden's collection and 
an orchid display case. For further infor- 
mation, members may call 577-5190. 
There is a $5.00 admission fee for the 
Orchid Preview Sale on November 13. 

Fall Flower Show 

The 1981 Fall Flower Show opens to 
the public on Saturday, October 3, and 
continues through October 24. The 
show this year will be a gardenwide ex- 
hibit of chrysanthemums and other 
traditional fall flowers. 

A Members'-only preview party is 
scheduled for Friday, October 2. Details 
will be announced later by mail. 

The St. Louis Herb Society will 
begin selling hand-crafted items in 
Tower Grove House beginning 
November 12. Items will include 
lavender sticks, tea cozies, potpourri, 
herb apple wreaths and woven wheat. 
Tower Grove House, the country home 
of Garden founder Henry Shaw, is open 
from 10 a.m. until 5 p.m. through Oc- 
tober. From November through April, it 
closes at 4 p.m. 

Dr. Raven Elected 
President of A.S.N. 

Dr. Peter H. Raven, Garden Director, 
was elected President-Elect of the 
American Society of Naturalists earlier 
this year. The Society, founded in 1883, 
is an international organization of per- 
sons interested in a variety of biological 
disciplines. Its purpose is the advance- 
ment and diffusion of biological 

Cohen Court Announced 

The Sidney and Sadie Cohen Foun- 
dation recently contributed funds to the 
Garden for the construction of a garden 
in memory of Sadie M. Cohen. The 
garden, to be located on the east side of 
the Linnean House, will be approx- 
imately 1,600 square feet and will con- 
tain a brickwork courtyard, trees, 
hedges and a granite drinking fountain. 
It is scheduled for completion by the 
end of this year. 

5-6- Pick Up Sticks... 

The Education Department has 
recently developed a new activity for 
young children called "The Collector's 
Bag"; its purpose is to encourage 
children to collect leaves, seeds, and 
other natural, fallen objects from the 
ground when they visit the Garden, in 
order to help them study and under- 
stand plant life. 

According to llene Follman, coor- 
dinator of the project, "Small children 
are much closer to the ground than 
adults and often observe things that 
bigger people do not notice. Many in- 
teresting and lovely seeds, leaves, 
flower petals and other plant parts fall 
to the ground at various times during 
the year. Children can learn a great deal 
from these unattached objects." 

"The Collector's Bag" is available at 
the Main Gate for a nominal fee. 

Reservations Available 
for China Tour 

A few reservations are still available 
for the Spring, 1982, China Tour, led by 
Tamra Engelhorn Raven. The tour, 
which leaves St. Louis on April 24, 1982, 
will visit Beijing, Hanjing, Wusi, 
Shanghai, and Kyoto, Japan, returning 
to St. Louis on May 13, 1982. For infor- 
mation or reservations, Members may 
call 577-5118. 



No spring nor summer beauty hath such grace 
As I have seen in one autumnal face. — J. Donne 

September 1-5 

September 6-12 

September 13-19 

September 20-30 

Monster Cacti Exhibit, Desert House, Continues 
through September 6, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. 
Henry Shaw Cactus Society Show, John S. Lehmann 
Building, continues through September 7, 9 a.m.- 
5 p.m. 

Guild of Bookworkers 75th Anniversary Exhibition, 

part of the Festival of the Book Arts, John S. 
Lehmann Building, opens September 1, 9 a.m.-5 p.m., 
week-days only (through October 1). 

Labor Day Picnic at the Garden, Garden grounds, 
September 7, 9 a.m. -6 p.m. A nice day for the family; 
bring a picnic or buy one in the Greenery. 

Bring a Guest Weekend, Grounds, September 12-13, 
9 a.m. -6 p.m. 

Guild of Book Workers' 75th Anniversary Exhibition: 


Garden Gate Shop Sidewalk Sale, Main Gate, 
September 13, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 
Men's Garden Clubs' Fall Show, John S. Lehmann 
Building, September 19-20. 1-5:30 p.m. on the 19th; 

9 a.m. -5:30 p.m. on the 20th. 

SCAPINO, Grounds, September 17-20, 8 p.m. (with 
2 p.m. matinee on the 20th) 

Guild of Book Workers' 75th Anniversary Exhibition: 


Botany of Papermaking Exhibit, John S. Lehmann 
Building, opens September 21, 9 a.m.-5 p.m., 
weekdays only (through October 16). 
Fall Plant Sale, Plant Shop, (members' preview, 
September 25; regular sale, September 26-27) 

10 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Dahlia Society Show, John S. Lehmann Building, 
September 26-27, 10 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Houseplant Exhibit, Climatron, opens September 26, 

10 a.m.-5 p.m. (through October 11). 

Guild of Book Workers' 75th Anniversary Exhibition: 


Visitor Center to Add New Curve 
to St. Louis Skyline 

Workers installed the framework for the dome-shaped con- 
course roof of the new Visitor Center at Missouri Botanical 
harden in July. The concourse, a 160-foot long public atrium, 
vill be covered by a sixty-foot high translucent archway and 
vill serve as the main visitor walkway for the center as well as a 
ihowcase for exhibits and displays that represent the history 
ind purpose of the 122-year-old Garden. 

The archway's translucent covering, to be completed this 
(ummer, will be constructed from a double-walled, insulated, 
ranslucent panel that is highly thermal efficient and one of the 
ew plastic, translucent materials that meet the rigid fire codes 
ipplied to public buildings. The Visitor Center at the Garden is 
he first structure in the Midwest and one of the first in the 
ountry to use the material on a large scale. 


Listen! the wind is rising, 
and the air is wild with leaves, 

We have had our summer evenings, 
now for October eves' — H. Wolfe 

Fall Flower Show Preview Party, Grounds, October 2, 
6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 

Fall Flower Show, Grounds, opens October 3, 9 a.m.- 
6 p.m. (through October 24). 

Rosemary Verey Lecture, John S. Lehmann Building, 
October 6, 10:30 a.m. 

Houseplant Exhibit: Continues (last day October 11) 
Botany of Papermaking Exhibit: Continues 
Lecture: "Shaw and Engelmann and the Garden's 
research before 1900", John S. Lehmann Auditorium, 
October 14, 10:30 a.m. and 8 p.m. 
500 Years of Botanical Illustration, John S. Lehmann 
Building, opens October 15, 9 a.m. -5 p.m., weekdays 
only (through November 30). 

Euphorbia Exhibit, Desert House, opens October 17), 
9 a.m. -5 p.m. (through November 14). 
Fall Flower Show: Continues 

Botany of Papermaking: Continues (last day, 
October 16) 

North American Hand Papermaking Exhibit, John S. 
Lehmann Building, opens October 19, 9 a.m. -5 p.m., 
weekdays only (through November 30). 
Lecture: "Dr. William Trelease and the early 20th 
Century research of the Garden" John S. Lehmann 
Auditorium, October 21, 10:30 a.m. and 8 p.m. 
Fall Flower Show: Continues (last day October 24) 
500 Years of Botanical Illustration: Continues 
October 25-31 Lecture: "The Flora of Panama Project", John S. 

Lehmann Auditorium, October 28, 10:30 a.m. and 
8 p.m. 

The Art of the Printer Exhibit, John S. Lehmann 
Building, opens October 25, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., 
weekdays only, (through November 10). 
Wood Engraving Exhibit, John S. Lehmann 
Auditorium, October 27, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Food Plants Exhibit, Climatron, opens October 31, 
10 a.m. -5 p.m. (through November 29). 

500 Years of Botanical Illustration: Continues 
North American Hand Papermaking Exhibit: 

New Membership— June and July 1981 

Sponsoring Members 

Mr./Mrs. Marvin Goldstein 
Mr./Mrs. Frank J. Riegerix 
Mr./Mrs. Louis I. Zorensky 

Sustaining Members 

Dr./Mrs. Arthur I. Auer 
Mr. Millard Backerman 
Mr./Mrs. R. J. Baudendistel 
Mr. Clarkson Carpenter, III 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas F. Caspari 
Dr./Mrs. William S. Costen 
Ms. Patricia Cotton 
Dr. William S. Coxe 
Mr. Darold E. Crotzer, Jr. 
Mrs. Alice H. Enders 
Mr./Mrs. Alfred J. Fleischer 
Mr. Charles R. Fletcher 
Miss Alice P. Francis 
Mr./Mrs. Milton R. Gaebler 
Mr./Mrs. John R. Galloway 
Mr. Henry A. Griesedieck 
Mr. Hord Hardin 
Mr./Mrs. F. R. Harrison 
Mr./Mrs. Robert J. Helwig 
Mr./Mrs. Adolph Hill, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Fielding L. Holmes 
Mr. T. K. Hurster 
Dr./Mrs. Raymond C. Jablonski 
Mr./Mrs. Downing B. Jenks 
Mr. Kenneth N. Kermes 
Mrs. Adele B. Killgore 
Mr./Mrs. Warren Kleykamp 
Mr. Ted Komern 
Mr. C. W. Lane, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Donald E. Lasater 
Mr. Norman B. Leppo 
Mr./Mrs. John W. Less 
Dr./Mrs. Frank Lieb 
Mr./Mrs. Henry Lowenhaupt 
Mr./Mrs. R. F. Lyons 
Mr./Mrs. James A. Maritz, Jr. 
Dr. J. R. McCurdy 
Mr. Bernard Mellitz 
Mrs. Garret F. Meyer 
Mr. I. E. Millstone 
Mr. Leo V. Mitchell 
Mr. A. F. Noecker 
Ms. Lois B. O'Hare 
Mr./Mrs. R. W. Peters, II 
Mr./Mrs. Dwight Prade 
Mr./Mrs. B. C. Pratt 
Ms. Olga M. Sobkow 
Mr./Mrs. H. Robert Shampaine 
Mr./Mrs. William Tao 
Mr./Mrs. Donald D. Wren 


Ms. Aldene Acuncius 
Mr. George Adderton 
Mr. Garland E. Allen 
Mrs. Zeline Altis 
Mr./Mrs. Oliver Anderhalter 
Mr. Frank A. Anderson 
Ms. Sylvia M. Apell 
Mr. P. T. Arenos 
Mr./Mrs. J. H. Arensman 
Mr./Mrs. R. Aubuchon 
Mrs. Ruth S. Aylesworth 
Mrs. Paul Bakewell, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Robert C. Ballard 
Mr./Mrs. A. J. Bardol 
Mrs. Earl Bartareau 
Mr. Tim Batliner 
Mr. Robert S. Bayers 
Ms. Carlotta Beall 
Mr./Mrs. Jack W. Beck 
Mr./Mrs. Norman A. Becker 
Mr./Mrs. Denis Beckers 
Mr. Walter A. Beckers 
Miss E. Behle 
Mr. Richard Beljan 
Mr. Bradley C. Benham 
Mrs. E. O. Beyers 


Mr./Mrs. L S. Billmeyer 

Mr./Mrs. Markley S. Binzel 

Mrs. Bernard E. Blomberg 

Mr. James P. Bosse 

Mr. Frank C. Bova 

Mr./Mrs. Jerome Brasch 

Mr. John A. Brennan 

Miss Sue Bretz 

Mr./Mrs. Thomas J. Briegel 

Dr. Pacelli E. Brion 

Mr./Mrs. John V. Brock 

Ms. Jean Brockman 

Mr./Mrs. Dennis Brommelhorst 

Ms. Margaret E. Brooks 

Mr. Everett Brown 

Ms. Helen Bryant 

Mr./Mrs. Charles Buchman 

Mr./Mrs. R. H. Buck 

Mr. Robert L. Buell 

Mr./Mrs. Roger Burnet 

Ms. Jackie Call 

Mr./Mrs. Charles R. Carey 

Mr./Mrs. W. R. Carneal 

Mrs. Helen L. Carter 

Mr./Mrs. David Chomeau 

Miss Diana Clark 

Mr. C Steven Cole 

Mr./Mrs. William P. Combs 

Mrs. T. K. Cooper, Jr. 

Mr. John J. Coughlin 

Mr./Mrs. Ralph L. Countryman, Jr. 

Ms. Margaret Croker 

Mrs. M. Cronin 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Croskell 

Mrs. John Crotty 

Mrs. E. D. Crotzer 

Mrs. A. B. Cull 

Mr. David M. Culver 

Mr. Lou Cummins 

Mr./Mrs. Richard Dawson 

Mr./Mrs. James E. DeLassus 

Mr./Mrs. Edgar W. Denison 

Mr./Mrs. A. S. Dennis 

Mrs. Angeline Denos 

Mr./Mrs. Dennis C. Desmet 

Mr./Mrs. Lloyd Doerflinger, Jr. 

Mrs. E. L. Dreinhofer 

Ms. Barbara Drei stein 

Mrs. C. F. Dunkel 

Mr./Mrs. Kenneth Eakes 

Mr./Mrs. Ron Eaton 

Mr./Mrs. William C. Eckles 

Mr./Mrs. Paul D. Eckrich 

Dr./Mrs. James E. Edwards 

Mrs. Elsom Eldridge 

Mr. Wayne S. Elrod 

Ms. Sue Epstein 

Mr. John Ervin 

Mr./Mrs. Roger L Eschbacher 

Mr./Mrs. Russell Fairburn 

Mr. Irwing F. Fausek, Sr. 

Mr./Mrs. Edward K. Fehlig 

Mr./Mrs. Harry Ferris 

Mr./Mrs. Murray D. Field 

Mr./Mrs. James E. Fischer 

Mr. John A. Fish 

Mr. Michael Fix 

Mr. Bernard W. Flatley 

Mrs. L M. Forster 

Mr./Mrs. John H. Foster 

Mr. Donald Freber 

Miss Marie Freiberg 

Mr. Michael Freiman 

Mr./Mrs. Victor Freyer 

Mrs. Corinne L. Froemke 

Ms. Helen J. Frohlichstein 

Mr. J. R. Fry 

Mr./Mrs. Peter Fuerst 

Mrs. Diana M. Gaertner 

Mrs. Betty Galibert 

Mrs. Dennis G. Garner 

Mr. Wayne Garver 

Mr./Mrs. Vernon G. Gaskell 

Mr./Mrs. Charles Gaskill 

Ms. Ellen Gates 

Ms. Betty Gault 

Mr./Mrs. Paul M. Gelner 

Mrs. Marion O. Georgen 

Mr./Mrs. Jerome L. Gidlow 

Mr. L. A. Gilles 

Dr./Mrs. Richard J. Gimpelson 

Ms. M. F. Go 

Mr./Mrs. Alvin Goldfarb 

Mrs. E. E. Gormon 

Mr./Mrs. John A. Gragnani 

Ms. Diane Gray 

Ms. Marjorie M. Gray 

Mr. Noah Gray 

Ms. E. C. Grayson 

Mr./Mrs. Daniel E. Green 

Mr./Mrs. Gregory F. Green 

Dr./Mrs. John G. Gregory 

Mrs. Clifford Greve 

Mr./Mrs. Henry C. Griesedieck, Jr. 

Ms. Virginia A. Grise 

Mrs. L H. Grone 

Ms. Janet Gruber 

Mr./Mrs. Gene Gruendel 

Mr./Mrs. William Grumich 

Miss Elvera C. Guebert 

Mr. Dennis L. Guillermin 

Mrs. Bernice P. Hagensieker 

Mr./Mrs. Irwin R. Harris 

Mr./Mrs. Stephen Harris 

Ms. Lucille Haupt 

Mr. Edward B. Heath 

Ms. Rosemary Hediger 

Mr./Mrs. Edward Henschel 

Mrs. Gene Herbst 

Mr./Mrs. Richard A. Hernandez 

Mr./Mrs. H. B. Herod 

Rev. John J. Hickel 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Hickey, II 

Mr. D. B. Hilleymeyer 

Mr./Mrs. James J. Hintz 

Mr./Mrs. Sam D. Hodgdon 

Mr. Frederick Hof 

Mr./Mrs. Briggs Hoffmann 

Miss Linda Holekamp 

Mr. M. Lee Holekamp, Jr. 

Ms. Brenda L Hollander 

Mr./Mrs. Jon Holman 

Mrs. J. Holtgrewe 

Holy Order of Mans 

Mr./Mrs. William G. Hoover 

Mr./Mrs. Jesse Horstman 

Mr./Mrs. Harrison N. Howe 

Mr. Mark S. Hoxie 

Mr. Fred P. Hubert 

Dr./Mrs. William Huffaker 

Mr./Mrs. Daniel C. Hurley 

Ms. Ann Jackson 

Mrs. Keith Jackson 

Mrs. Barbara E. Jacobs 

Ms. C. Colette Jaech 

Mr./Mrs. T. Frank James, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. John J. Jarvis, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. M. C. Johansen 

Mr./Mrs. M. P. Johns 

Mr. Richard H. Johnson 

Mr. Roger Johnson 

Mr./Mrs. Stephen C. Johnson 

Mr./Mrs. Nathan D. Jones 

Mr./Mrs. Thomas A. Jones 

Mr./Mrs. Wayne N. Jones 

Mr./Mrs. Gerald J. Juelich 

Mr. Clifford Kambraks 

Mr. Sylvan Kaplan 

Mrs. Robert Keyes 

Miss Julia H. Kiburz 

Mr./Mrs. James A. Kilzer 

Dr. E. E. King 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Klote 

Mr. Edward R. Knauel 

Ms. Ann Ko 

Mr. John H. Koester 

Mr./Mrs. John W. Kouri 

Mr. Paul Kraus 

Mr./Mrs. C. H. Kremmel 

Mr. Blaine Kunkel 

Mr./Mrs. Rembert W. LaBeaume 

Mr. Edmund Lammert 

Mrs. Warren Lammert, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. S. K. Landgraf 
Ms. Barbara Lange 
Mr. Paul J. Langlois 
Mr./Mrs. Frank E. Laurent 
Mr./Mrs. Edmund Lawrence 
Ms. Mary Lou Lawrence 
Mr./Mrs. Millard E. Leach 
Mr. Russell J. Lee 
Mr./Mrs. Steven R. Lee 
Ms. Anne Legerski 
Mr. Carl W. Lehne 
Ms. Norma J. Lemon 
Mr./Mrs. Meyer Levy 
Mr./Mrs. Floyd F. Lewis 
Mr./Mrs. M. William Lightner 
Mr./Mrs. Arthur C. Litchfield 
Mr./Mrs. Don Lott 
Mr. W. D. Luebbers 
Mr. Gerald Lukefahr 
Mr./Mrs. Bernard Mabry 
Mr./Mrs. J. N. MacDonough 
Ms. D. Maeser 
Dr./Mrs. George A. Mahe 
Ms. Catherine Makowski 
Dr. Robert L. Malench 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas Mangogna 
Mr./Mrs. James Mannion 
Mr./Mrs. James A. Mantia 
Ms. Dottie Marbeck 
Mr. John W. Marsh 
Mr. Howard R. Martin 
Mr./Mrs. Noble L. Martin 
Mr./Mrs. Joel Massie 
Miss Thelma Maurer 
Mr./Mrs. Francis Mc Carthy 
Mr./Mrs. L. L. McCourtney 
Mr./Mrs. James McCutchen 
Miss Marjorie Mc Farland 
Ms. Carolyn Mc Gee 
Mr./Mrs. Herbert McKinney 
Mr./Mrs. Kimball McMullin 
Mr. J. M. McNaught 
Mr./Mrs. Lawrence L. Meier 
Mrs. Harold F. Meier 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Merryman 
Mr. Kenneth Merz 
Mr. Douglas L. Miller 
Dr. Glen Miller 
Mrs. H. L Morrill 
Dr./Mrs. John L. Morris 
Mr./Mrs. William E. Morrison 
Mrs. Jeanne G. Mudge 
Dr. Robert Mueller 
Mr. Edwin Myers 
Mr./Mrs. James Myles 
Mr./Mrs. Anthony J. Naccarato 
Mr./Mrs. Gordon Neary 
Mr. Charles F. Neerman 
Mr./Mrs. Duane A. Nehring 
Mr. Dan Nelson 
Dr./Mrs. J. Roger Nelson 
Ms. Cheryl Neumann 
Mr./Mrs. G. F. Newhard 
Dr./Mrs. James F. Nickel 
Mr. Jerry Novack 
Ms. Oma L. Nunn 
Mr. Ronald M. Oakley 
Mr./Mrs. Paul Ockrassa 
Mrs. L F. Odum 
Mr./Mrs. Milton E. Oldendorph 
Ms. Chris E. O'Neal 
Mrs. Vernon Outman 
Mr. Paul L Ouys 
Mr. John R. Overall 
Ms. Mary Paasch 
Mr. C. E. Parrott 
Mr./Mrs. John A. Parsons 
Mr. Roy Pautler 
Mr. Douglas Payton 
Mr./Mrs. John H. Pearson 
Mrs. H. R. Perry 
Mr./Mrs. Norman J. Peterson 
Col. /Mrs. T. Peterson 
Mr. Richard Pisoni 
Mr./Mrs. John H. Polzin 

Mr./Mrs. Kenneth Praechter 

Mr./Mrs. John B. Prentis, III 

Mr. Russell L Prewitt 

Mr./Mrs. Lawrence W. Price 

Mr. Michael E. Pulitzer 

Mr. Martin D. Pultman 

Mr./Mrs. Austin Joseph Quackenbush 

Dr./Mrs. C. Brian Quick 

Ms. Judith A. Rager 

Mr. Edward Rehak 

Mr./Mrs. Franklin Reisenhofer 

Mr./Mrs. Byron L. Reitz 

Mr. Thomas W. Rich 

Mr./Mrs. Andrew C. Ries 

Mr. Dan Riordan 
Mr./Mrs. S. Harold Roberts 
Mr. A. J. Robertson 
Mr./Mrs. Bernard Roeber 
Mr./Mrs. John A. Rolls 
Mr./Mrs. V. J. Rosengreen 
Mr./Mrs. Milton A. Ross 
Mrs. David Rothman 
Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Rust 
Mr./Mrs. Alvin H. Sage, III 

Mr. Joseph Sanchez 
Mr./Mrs. Donald Schlapprizzi 
Mrs. O. H. Schmidt 
Mr./Mrs. Clyde M. Schmitt 
Mrs. Dorothy Schrei 
Mr./Mrs. P. Schreiber 
Mr. William S. Schuermann 
Mr. Jerry Schutz 
Mrs. Marjorie J. Seibel 
Mr./Mrs. Warren Seitz 
Dr./Mrs. W. F. Simms, Jr. 
Mrs. Herbert B. Simon 
Mr. William C. Simonton 
Miss Patricia L Skarin 
Mr. Larry A. Slater 
Mr. Edward C. Smith 
Mr./Mrs. Richard S. Snyder 
Mr. Brian Speicher 
Mr. Steven R. Spellmeyer 
Ms. Louis Stark 
Mr./Mrs. Mark Stecher 
Mrs. M. Stillman 
Ms. Joy Stinger 
Dr./Mrs. Michael E. Suden 
Dr./Mrs. Alfred Sudholt, Jr. 

Dr./Mrs. Daniel T. Sullivan 
Mrs. Janet Swailes 
Mrs. Richard Tallin 
Mr. Franklin E. Taylor 
Ms. Nancy Tierce 
Mr./Mrs. Don L Tillotson 
Ms. Donna Timmerman 
Mrs. M. E. Tinker 
Dr./Mrs. H. Token 
Mr./Mrs. C. Alvin Tolin 
Mr./Mrs. Leon P. Ullensvang 
Mr./Mrs. Rick A. Valdez 
Ms. Jo G. Vallo 
Mr. William A. Van Hook 
Mr./Mrs. Kirk M. Verseman 
Mr./Mrs. Richard V. Vieth 
Ms. Mildred E. Villa 
Mr./Mrs. Paul V. Von Gontard 
Mrs. Wm. G. Von Weise 
Mr. Robert S. Vosburgh 
Mr./Mrs. David M. Votrain 
Mr. Oliver W. Wagner 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas H. Wagner 
Mr./Mrs. William G. Ward 
Miss Delia Weber 

Ms. June Wehlage 
Mr. Peter W. Wehrsten 
Mr. Noah Weinstein 
Mr. Alan N. Weiss 
Mrs. Wendy M. Wells 
Mrs. E. K. Westrup 
Mr./Mrs. Michael Wethern 
Mr. Randy Whisnant 
Mr. Clinton L. Whittemore, 
Mrs. F. J. Wieck 
Mr. Paul Wiegers 
Mr. W. Wiese 
Mrs. Esther Williams 
Miss Judy Williams 

Mr. Donald Willmering 

Ms. Ann C. Wippold 

Mr./Mrs. Ernest Wolf 

Mr. Robert J. Wolff 

Mr. T. T. Wood 

Mr./Mrs. Richard B. Zeiss 

Ms. J. A. Zimmerman 

Mrs. Lucy Ziolkowski 

Mr. Irv Zuckerman 

Mr./Mrs. Jospeh Zucchero 

Tributes- June & July 1981 


Lois M. Austin 

Mr./Mrs. R. Leibengood 

Mr./Mrs. Howard Baer 

Mrs. Irvin Bettman, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Harry Franc 

Mr./Mrs. Irving D. Goldman 

Mr./Mrs. John Isaacs, Jr. 

Mrs. Edwin Levis 

Mrs. Lawton Levy 

Mr./Mrs. Willard L. Levy 

Mrs. Benjamin Loeb 

Mrs. Ralph Lowenbaum 

Liz and Joe Ruwitch 

Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 

Flo and Dick Weil 

Mrs. Norman Wolff 

Mr./Mrs. Hugh Baird 

Mr./Mrs. Jospeh W. Boyle 

Mrs. Bernard C. Blanton 

Mr./Mrs. John R. Averill 

Mr. Robert Cohen 

Natalie E. Freund 

Paul and Hinda Farbstein 

Milton L Daugherty 

Good Health 

Harold and June Kravin 

Mr./Mrs. Peter J. Giacoma 

Mrs. Walter M. Jones 

Mrs. Harold Gilbert 
Mrs. Gloria Hogbin 

Mrs. Sara Glotzer 

Bert and,.Margie Talcoff 

Mr. Morris Golman 

Marion Lieberman 

Sam Golman 

The Marc Seldin's 

Mrs. Albert Guze 

Mehlville Garden Club #1 

Henry Hitchcock 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mrs. May Hunter 

Kathryn Farr 

Clara R. Fieselmann 

Robert L. Jones 

Evelyn A. Riddle 

Mrs. W. B. McMillan, Jr. 

Carol And Frank Flathen 

Mr./Mrs. Walter Mazuiek 

Mitchell and Marie Grzesiowski 

Miss Harriette Moore 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Miss Gigi Newhard 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mr./Mrs. Frank Pipe 

Mrs. Walter M. Jones 

Mrs. Peter Raven 

Shirley W. Cohen 

Mr./Mrs. Justin Schuchat 

Mrs. Walter M. Jones 
Sydney Shoenberg 

Mr./Mrs. Charles Berger 

Mrs. Irvin Bettmann, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Richard B. Cronheim 

Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 

Mrs. Lawton Levy 

Mr./Mrs. Willard L. Levy 

Babsy and Stan Richman 

Mr. Joseph Ruwitch 

Kay and Llew Sale, Jr. 

Herb and Queenie Schiele 

Dorothy Schweich 

Mr./Mrs. James W. Singer, Jr. 

Florence Stern 

Jim Singer 

Peggy Hellman 

Mr./Mrs. Tobias Lewin 

Mr./Mrs. Louis R. Putzel 

Liz and Joe Ruwitch 

Robert and Genevieve Turner 

The Bridge Club 

Mrs. Fred Urban 

Four Seasons Garden Club 

Miss Conchita Werner 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 


Norton Adler 

Morton and Norma Singer 

Mary Lynn Baer 

Mary Jane and Jerry Presberg 

Jerry Bair 

Mrs. Edwina Medlock 

Evelyn Singer Baldwin 

Mr./Mrs. Walter F. Raven 

Dr./Mrs. Peter H. Raven 

Pauline Beals 

Alma Dean Simms 

Myra Simms 

Adolph Bernard 

Henry Henderson 

Nan and Jim Henderson 

Miss Etta C. Bockler 

R. L. Butterworth 

Mercedes Nitzschmann 

Frances Reasor 

Edward Boecksteigel 

Gwen Springett 

Loretto M. Braun 

Mr./Mrs. Jack E. Krueger 

Lisette E. Schaumburg 

Mrs. Gertrude A. Brinkman 

Maurine Inghram 

Mary Buswell 

Mr./Mrs. George F. Hellmuth 

Marian Lewis Clarke 

Mitchell and Marie Grzesiowski 

Mrs. Roland O'Bryen 

Mrs. Mason Scudder 

Edward A. Cox 

Vera H. Cox 

Mrs. Edward Cumliff 

Mr./Mrs. William E. Barnes 

Ann Danzer 

Dorothy and Elmer W. Pounds 

Mrs. Virginia S. Devoti 

Miss Beatrice Thake 

Mrs. Robert W. Duffe 

Mr. Walter G. Clinch 

Clara Dusky 

Mr./Mrs. William E. Koerner 

Dr. Saul Dworkin 

Melba E. Aufderheide 

Dr. Dee W. Eades 

Ms. Florence S. Guth 

Mrs. Fern Eilers 

Miss June E. McCarthy 

Rev. J. Maver Feehan 
The Hayashi Family 

Eugene A. Fehlmann 

Mr./Mrs. N. Armentrout 

Janet and Bud Berri 

Florence and William E. Feuerborn, Jr. 

Marie and William E. Feuerborn 

Viola and Joseph Fischer 

Mr./Mrs. W. Fischer 

Mr./Mrs. K. Watters 

Julie Freund 

John and Sally Levy 

Ron Littmann 

Mr. Claude M. Garner 

Mr./Mrs. Albert Krueger 

Mrs. Margaret Gerdine 

Leonard and Rosalie Hornbein 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Sam and Selma Soule 

Miss Tillie Goldberg 

Mr./Mrs. Warren Wolfe 

Mrs. Oscar Hampton 

Mr./Mrs. B. R. Yoder 

Sheldon Hause 

Susan Hartmann 

Richard Sheehan 

Mr. Joseph Heimann 

Mr./Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

Mrs. Flora Helling 

Mrs. William T. Langton 

Virginia C. Langton 

Mrs. Helen Hermann 

Mr./Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee & Meta 

Betty Jane Johnson 

Mrs. R. V. Anderson 

Gloria B. Blythe 

Mr./Mrs. Robert K. Fogleman 

Carol Goodwin 

Mrs. George C. Hetlage 

Robert O. Hetlage 

Alberta L. Nazarok 

Mr./Mrs. David F. Orwig 

Sheryl and Steve Schafers 

Marjorie Stakes 

Frank and Patricia Tozer 

Mr./Mrs. Jonathan Tuepker 

Betty and Clyde Wilson 

Helen and John Joynt 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur F. Boettcher, Jr. 

Elodia Kirtz 

Frank and Patricia Tozer 

Phil Koch 

Lorine Ruhl 

Samuel Kozak 

Joe Duvall 

Sally D. Oliver 

Mr. John Krey, II 

Mr./Mrs. B. B. Culver, Jr. 

Mrs. Lucille LaDrieve 

Mrs. James Walker 

Mrs. Maurice T. Lonsway, Sr. 
Mrs. E. L. Sheldon 

Christine Gempp Love 

Mr./Mrs. Ingram Boyd, Jr. 

Elise and Taylor Crosby 

Delphine Polk Gatch 

Anne, Louis and Peter Werner 

Mrs. Helen Wolfley 

Loretta Lux 

Mr./Mrs. H. Brune 

Lawrence J. Lynch, Sr. 

Mrs. Horace R. Perry 

Robert McCaslin 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Ely 

Mrs. Estella Brown McElroy 

Mrs. J. S. Baker 

Mr./Mrs. Rembert W. LaBeaume, Sr. 

The Bon Marche Investment Club 

Hazal McGrievy 

Mrs. Lois B. Punshon 

Nell Mallinckrodt 

Carolyn and James A. Singer 

Helene Mayne 

Ladue Garden Club 

Francis A. Mesker 

Mr./Mrs. Edward W. Fordyce 

Mrs. William H. Petring 

Bob and Jane Sharp 

Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

Fred Michelson 

Morton and Norma Singer 

Mary Elizabeth Moore 

Mr./Mrs. William C. Hanson 

Mr./Mrs. David H. Morey 

Mr./Mrs. Tom S. Eakin, Jr. 

Louis H. Muckerman 

Don and Barbara Barr & Family 

Dr. John C. Murphy 

Elizabeth Burns 


Mr. Hiram Neuwoehner, Jr. 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

The Rev. & Mrs. J. M. Feehan 

Harry Wuertenbaecher, Jr. 

Mr. Oscar Norling 

Dr. /Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Katharine Donnelly Oberwinder 

Mr./Mrs. Peter H. Husch 

Augusta Pinckert 

Joe Kraus 

Dm L. Pippin 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Irma Potashnick 

Janet and Bill Livingston 

Mrs. Lula Presley 

Dr. and Mrs. Louis Schwarz 

Mr. Walter F. Raven 

Mr./Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Elizabeth & Alexander Bakewell 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Marshall R. and Carol A. Crosby 

Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

The Dohack Family 

Mr./Mrs. Ernest A. Eddy, Jr. 

Erna Rice Eisendrath 

Executive Board of the Members 

Mr./Mrs. Robert B. Forbes 

Natalie E. Freund 

Dr./Mrs. Leigh Gerdine 

Jo Ann Hayes 

Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Eleanor and Henry Hitchcock 

Japan-America Society of St. Louis 

Ellen and Landon Jones 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr./Mrs. Hugh M. F. Lewis 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph W. Lewis 

Missouri Botanical Garden Guides 

Missouri Botanical Garden Staff 

Mr. Charles Orner 

Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. A. T. Primm, III 

Mr./Mrs. Alvin J. Rockwell 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Mr./Mrs. Daniel L Schlafly 

Mr./Mrs. Henry T. Schlapp 

Mr./Mrs. Alexander Schonwald, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. James W. Singer, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Courtney Shands, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Sydney M. Shoenberg, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. C.C. Johnson Spink 

Judy and Gary Studer 

Mr./Mrs. Harry Wuertenbaecher, Jr. 

Dr. David Rendleman 

Alexander and Elizabeth Bakewell 

Winifred S. Rice 

Mary Jane and Jerry Presberg 

Nester W. Riemeier 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 
Catherine Roberts 

Martha Hardin 
William Roof 
Mrs. George E. Bengard 
Mr. Norman Rosenfelder 

Mr./Mrs. John Warakomski 
Mr. E. R. Rudolph 
Margaret Sachs 
Edward Rudolph 
Carl and Fern Harris 
Virginia Scholl 
Carl and Fern Harris 
Mildred Selinger 
Dr./Mrs. A. H. Stein, Jr. 
Ida Smith 

David and Sue Herbold 
Mrs. Helen Sothman 
Mr./Mrs. Lawrence DeMoor 
Marjorie Grote 
Mr./Mrs. Edward Guenther 
Gary King and Family 
Mr./Mrs. R. Kolman 
Mrs. Virginia Robertson 
Mrs. Wilford O. Schwartz 
Mrs. Dorothy Stude 
Mrs. Ella Jens Boeschenstein 
Marie Taylor 
Mr./Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 
Evelyn Toenjes 
Mr./Mrs. Dan Schopp 
Dorothy Varney 
Ivy Garnholz 
William Wehking 
Carl and Fern Harris 
George R. Wells 
Mr./Mrs. William Beggs 
Mr. W. H. Wells 
Mrs. J. I. Hayashi 
Robert F. White 
Nan and Jim Henderson 
Mr. C. Powell Whitehead 
Mr./Mrs. Newell Augur 
Mrs. Roland C. Baer 
Jean and Ted Bakewell 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 
Belz Family 

Mrs. Kenneth H. Bitting 
Mr./Mrs. William A. Borders 
Mr./Mrs. John Young Brown 
Mrs. P. Taylor Bryan, Jr. 
Mr. F. Travers Burgess 
Mr./Mrs. Elzey G. Burkham 
Mr./Mrs. August A. Busch, Jr. 
Mrs. David R. Calhoun, Jr. 
Miss Mary Frances Clifford 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Cochran 
Mr./Mrs. George K. Conant 
Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas, Jr. 
Mrs. James E. Crawford 

Mr./Mrs. B. B. Culver, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. H. Harrison Culver 
Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 
Mr./Mrs. John O. Dozier 
Mrs. John Drescher, Jr. 
Mrs. Kenneth Drummond 
Mr./Mrs. Arthur A. Dunn 
Mrs. Leicester B. Faust 
Mr. S. E. Freund 
Dorothy C. Gale 
Mr./Mrs. David L. Gardner 
Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Hager Family 
Mrs. John H. Hayward 
Mr./Mrs. Frederick Hermann, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Arthur C. Hiemenz, Jr. 
Eleanor and Henry Hitchcock 
Mr./Mrs. James Lee Johnson 
Mr./Mrs. Harold T. Jolley, Jr. 
Nan and Cliff Jones 
Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 
Mrs. Wilbur B. Jones 
Mr. Henry D. Karandjeff 
Mr./Mrs. George E. Kassabaum 
Mr./Mrs. Richard B. Kobusch 
Elizabeth C. Larson 
Mr./Mrs. Charles Limberg 
Dr./Mrs. Carl E. Lischer 
Mrs. James S. McDonnell 
Mr./Mrs. Edwin B. Meissner, Jr. 
Mrs. W. Gillespie Moore 
Mr./Mrs. W. Delafield Niedringhaus 
Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 
Mrs. Henry Rand 
Mr./Mrs. Norfleet H. Rand 
Dr./Mrs. Peter H. Raven 
St. Louis Union Trust Co. 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L Schlafly 
Althea & Carl Schumacher 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 
Mrs. E. L Sheldon 
Mr./Mrs. John Shepley 
Mr./Mrs. Sydney M. Shoenberg, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. C.C. Johnson Spink 
Mr./Mrs. R. W. Streett 
Mr./Mrs. Lewis B. Stuart 
Edgar and Margaret Taylor, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Charles A. Thomas 
Mr./Mrs. Edmonstone Thompson 
Janet and Ted Weakley 
Mr./Mrs. Allen Whittemore 
Mr./Mrs. Neal S. Wood 
Lydia and John Young 
Mr./Mrs. Charles H. Zeibig 
Wilfred Winkler 
Hester and Sherwood Lee 
Willard Wolcott 
Mrs. Gloria Hogbin 
Mrs. Herman Seldin 

Mary and Kay Sherman 

Jacob Yeckel 

Rosemary W. Boules 

Nancy Gass 

Thelma Ziskind 

Leonard and Rosalie Hornbein 

Persons interested in 
contributing to the Tribute 
Fund may contact the Develop- 
ment Office, 577-5120. 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 






Volume LXIX, Number 6 
November/ December 1981 





A Conversation With Peter H. Raven 

Dr. Peter H. Raven became Director of the Garden in 
August, 1971. He has been an Associate Professor at Stan- 
ford University, a John Simon Guggenheim Memorial 
Fellow, and a taxonomist and curator at the Rancho Santa 
Ana Botanic Garden. He is a member of the National 
Academy of Sciences, a Fellow of the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences, and a Foreign Member of the Royal 
Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters. This past August 
he received the prestigious Distinguished Service Award 
from the American Institute of Biological Sciences; in 
September he was Vice President of the Thirteenth Inter- 
national Botanical Congress (the Congress meets once 
every six years). He is the author of numerous scientific 
works, a member of two dozen committees and a score of 
societies, and an editor for several publications. During the 
decade in which he has been Director, the Japanese 
Garden was constructed as were the Anne L. Lehmann 
Rose Garden and English Woodland Garden; the John S. 
Lehmann Building was completed, the Linnean House 
restored, and construction of the Visitor Center begun. The 
number of Garden Members increased from 2,800 to over 
14,000, and the size of the research program quadrupled to 
become the world's most active tropical botany program. 
In addition to being Garden Director, Dr. Raven is 
Engelmann Professor of Botany at Washington University, 
and an adjunct professor of biology at both St. Louis 
University and University of Missouri-St. Louis. 
Bulletin: Reviewing the past decade, what would you say 

was the most significant accomplishment? 
Dr. Raven: Actually there are two. The building of the scien- 
tific staff so that it contributes in a large way to the 
knowledge of the tropical sciences; it has increased to 
about four times its size of ten years ago. The Garden is 
now among the finest botanical institutions on the globe. 
Second, we have begun and implemented a Master Plan for 
the first time in the Garden's history. This includes the 
Japanese Garden, the English Woodland Garden, and the 
Visitor Center that we've almost completed. 
B And the Center is the culmination of the Master Plan. 
R Yes, and when the Center opens, it will be easier going 
from then on. There are still quite a few things to do — the 
home landscaping center, the boxwood garden. We have to 
continue to improve our activities and displays. 
B What about the future, the next decade and beyond? 
R Our major goals are twofold. First, securing tax support 
is important to insure a diverse financial base so that the 
Garden can meet the demands of the coming decade and 
continue forward. Second, the Garden's educational role 
will be its main area of concentration for the future. We 
ought to be able to make major contributions to the com- 
munity for education in horticulture, botany, ecology. The 
Garden as an educational institution in the broadest sense 
will be its greatest contribution for the future. 
B Traditionally, the function of the Garden has been divided 
into three parts, display, research and education. During 
the past ten years, display and research have been greatly 

icontmued on page 4) 


Dr. William Tai of Michigan State 
S^^?. I University and I visited Beijing (Peking) 
j^fc from July 6 to 9, 1981, on behalf of the 
Botanical Society of America. For several 
years I have been coordinating exchange 
as Chairman of the Society's Committee 
on Scientific Interchange with the 
Botanists of the People's Republic of 
China. In Beijing we had several fruitful 
discussions with officials of the Chinese Academy of 
Sciences, including Professor Tang Pei-sung, Director of the 
Botanical Institute; Professor Yu Te-tsun, Assistant Director 
of the Botanical Institute and head of the Editorial Com- 
mittee of the Flora of China project; and Mr. Su Feng-lin, of 
the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Academy of Sciences, all 
of whom visited St. Louis as members of the delegation of 
Chinese botanists in May, 1979. Our current trip was sup- 
ported by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation to the 
Botanical Society of America for the coordination and pro- 
motion of interchange with the PRC in the field of botany. 
Discussions continued on the means by which we might 
bring about the production of an English translation of the 
Flora of China, a collective work that has been in progress 
since 1957; over 200 Chinese botanists are involved in the 
project. The final work will consist of 80 volumes with 5,000 
full-page illustrations and will describe the approximately 
30,000 species of plants found in China, about one-eighth of 
all those in the entire world. 

Other items that we discussed included the interchange 
of people between botanical institutions in our two coun- 
tries. In residence in St. Louis now are Dr. Wu Peng-Cheng 
of the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 
Beijing, who is studying mosses with Dr. Marshall Crosby, 

(continued on page 4s 


Q Letter from China 

Alan Godlewski describes the Shanghai 
Botanical Garden 




Gardening in St. Louis 

Steve Frowine gives tips on holiday plant care 

The Holidays 

Gifts, decorations, and something new for our 

younger members 

That Cup of Coffee 
About that morning cup 

Four New Trustees Elected 


DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo 
63166. Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo $5.00 per year 
$6.00 foreign. 

5^fl Member of 

^■The Arts and Education 

Fund < ii ( ireater St Louis 



Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr./Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr. /Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr./Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Clarence C. Barksdale 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr./Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. John G. Buettner 

Mr./Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F. T. Childress 

Mr. Fielding L. Childress 

Mr./Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr./Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Dr. /Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mr./Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr./Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 

Mr. Gregory D. Flotron 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Mr. S. E. Freund 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mr. Clarence R. Goodrich 

Mr./Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 

Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 

Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr./Mrs. Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr./Mrs. James H. Howe, III 

Mr./Mrs. Lee Hunter 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mrs. Irene C. Jones 

Mr./Mrs W Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Dr. /Mrs. John H. Kendig 

Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 

Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 

Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 

Mr./Mrs. Charles S. Lamy 

Mrs. John A. Latzer 

Mr. Thomas F. Latzer 

Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mrs. John S. Lehmann 

Miss Martha I. Love 

Mr. H. Dean Mann 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell 

Mrs. Roswell Messing. Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 

Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 

Mr. Thomas Moore 

Dr. /Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 

Mr. Spencer T. Olin 

Mr./Mrs. W R Orthwein, Jr. 

Mrs. Jane K. Pelton 

Miss Jane E. Piper 

Miss Julia Piper 

Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 

Capt. William R. Piper 

Mr./Mrs. Herman T. Pott 

Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mrs. C. Kenneth Robins 

Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 

Mr./Mrs. G. S. Rosborough. Jr. 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 
Mr./Mrs. David Sanders 
Mrs. William H. Schield 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 
Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 
Mrs. Mason Scudder 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 
Mr./Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 
Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. John E. Simon 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 
Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 
Mr./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
Mrs. Herman F. Spoehrer 
Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 
Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 
Miss Lillian L. Stupp 
Mr./Mrs. Edgar L. Taylor, Jr. 
Ms. Marie Carr Taylor 
Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 
Mr./Mrs. James Walker 
Mrs. Horton Watkins 
Mr./Mrs. Richard K.Weil 
Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 
Mrs. Ben H. Wells 
Mr./Mrs. O. Sage Wightman, III 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 
Mrs. John M. Wolff 
Miss F. A. Wuellner 
Mrs. Eugene F. Zimmerman 
Mr./Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 


Mr. Patrick Ackerman 
Mr. Kenneth Balk 
Mr./Mrs. Carl Beckers 
Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 
Ms. Allison R. Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mrs. Richard L. Brumbaugh 
Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 
Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 
Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 
Mr. Joseph C. Champ 
Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 
Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 
Mr./Mrs. David C Farrell 
Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Mr. George K. Hasegawa 
Mr. Edward E. Haverstick 
Dr. /Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr./Mrs. B. F. Jackson 
Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 
Mr./Mrs. Charles W. Oertli 
Mr. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 
Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 
Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 
Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 
Mr. Frank H. Simmons 
Mr./Mrs. Leon B. Strauss 
Miss Harriet J. Tatman 
Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 
Mr./Mrs. John K. Wallace. Jr. 

C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H 


Letter From China 

My first few days in China were spent in Shanghai 
where I visited the Shanghai Botanical Garden; it is a new 
garden still being constructed. The major feature is a tradi- 
tionally styled peony garden. There are over 200 cultivars of 
peony in this garden with the primary species being Tree 
Peony or Paeonia suffruticosa. In order to provide adequate 
drainage for the peonies, they had to construct an artificial 
hill. Other featured spring plants included Magnolia, cherry 
and holly. 

A second area was one for hybrid roses; here roses 
were featured in a western-style garden with an Oriental 
flare — the trellis work was of bamboo, as was the entrance 
gate, with the traditional upturned corners so common 
in China. 

The next area of interest was the Chrysanthemum 
garden, designed around a pool with a traditionally-styled 
pavilion. In the newer Chinese gardens these traditional 
structures are made from concrete rather than wood as in 
ancient times and there is an expressed concern that fine 
wood-craftsmen no longer exist or are, at the best, very 
rare. The chrysanthemum garden will, as one might sup- 
pose, be a fall feature. Here many cultivars will be 
displayed showing a great deal of variation. One prize- 
winning plant from last year was described to me — it has 
over 3,000 flowers uniformly in display and was over 3 
meters round. These are shown in late November and I am 
sure are a sight to behold. 

The last, and probably the finest feature, was the col- 
lection of pen ching. which translates as "scenery in a 
pot." It is equivalent to the Japanese concept of bonsai. 
The pen ching art form was started in the Tang Dynasty 
almost 1200 years ago. There are two types — one uses 
plant material only, and the second, stone. The stone 
variety generally represents a mountain scene in miniature 

and may or may not have plant material associated with it. 
The favorite materials forper? ching include pine, especially 
a short needled white pine (Pinus densiflora), pomegranate 
(Punica granatum), wisteria (Wisteria sinensis), Chinese 
juniper (Juniperus chinensis), sasanqua camellia (Camellia 
sasanqua), Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia), trident maple 
(Acer buergeranum), and may other plants. 

Next in Shanghai we visited the Yu Yuan (Yuan means 
garden). It is of the characteristic architectural style of the 
Ming (A.D. 1368-1644) and Ch'ing (A.D. 1644-1911) 
dynasties. Its visual beauty captures the essence of land- 
scape design as it existed during these periods. It was built 
initially during the years A.D. 1559 to 1577 for a landlord and 
official of the Ming Dynasty. The area is only 3.75 acres but 
gives the feeling of a much greater expanse. This is due to 
the contrived perspective of its design including short 
bridges of small scale, divisions into three-walled sections, 
many winding passages (none are in a straight line), and 
waterways which lead under walls with a promise of more 
beyond. There are more than 30 halls in Yu Yuan in the 
traditional style and a stone mountain surmounted by a 
lovely pavilion. A favorite feature of mine was the three un- 
dulating walls that were actually the spine of a great 
dragon — dramatic and effective. I shall be next in Nanjing, 
our sister city to St. Louis, and home of the Hortus 
Botanicus Nanjingeusis Memorial Sun Yat-Sen, our sister 
botanical garden. 

Alan P. Godlewski, 
Chairman of Landscape Horticulture 

Note: The Garden Members' Tour of China, scheduled for 
April 24 through May 13, 1982, will visit the Shanghai 
Botanical Garden. For further information, please call 

Notes from the Botanical Congress 

The Garden was well represented at the XIII Inter- 
national Botanical Congress held in Sydney, Australia, 
from August 21 through 28. Seven Garden botanists were 
among the three thousand who attended this important 
Congress which convenes once every six years. Dr. Raven, 
who was a vice president of the Congress, delivered one 
of the Congress General Lectures entitled 'Research 
Priorities in Tropical Biology." In addition, he organized 
and convened two symposia, "Plant geographical results 
of changing Cenozoic barriers," and "Myrtales: composi- 
tion and relationships." Contributors to these symposia 
were drawn from the international pool of specialists in the 
areas concerned. After the Congress, Dr. Raven delivered a 
series of lectures on Australian biogeography and conti- 
nental drift and discussed this topic and others, partic- 
ularly the plight of the tropical rainforest. This lecture tour 
included Brisbane, Canberra, Adelaide, Perth, Melbourne, 
and Sydney, and was made possible by a Rudolf Lemberg 
Travel Fellowship from the Australian Academy of Science. 
The Academy grants one such fellowship per year to an 
expert in biochemistry, Australian plants, or conservation. 

Other Garden botanists attending the Congress were 
Alwyn Gentry, Thomas Croat, William D'Arcy, Peter 
Goldblatt, and Marshall Crosby. Most took advantage of 
the travel opportunity to undertake field work or other 

studies. Before the Congress, Dr. Gentry visited Gabon, 
Nigeria, and Malaysia to conduct sampling studies of the 
species diversity in various tropical forests. After the Con- 
gress he continued these studies in New Caledonia, where 
the Garden maintains a field station for collecting and 
studying the flora of New Caledonia. Dr. Crosby also visited 
New Caledonia to collect and study mosses. After the Con- 
gress, Dr. Croat conducted field work in New Guinea, the 
Phillipines, Malaysia, and Thailand on the aroid family 
(Araceae) in which he is particularly interested. Dr. D'Arcy 
visited India to discuss the upcoming international con- 
gress on Solanaceae which will be held at the Garden in 
August, 1982, then proceeded to France to visit several 
herbaria to study specimens of Solanaceae (potato family) 
important to his general research in this family. Dr. Gold- 
blatt went from Australia to South Africa to continue his 
studies of the iris family (Iridaceae). 

Marshall R. Crosby, Director of Research 

A caption in the September/October Bulletin mis- 
takenly identified Mr. Russell E. Egan, the sponsor of the 
Garden's bill in the Missouri House of Representatives, 
as the Speaker of the House. Mr. Egan represents the 
85th district which includes the Garden. Mr. Robert Grif- 
fin is the Speaker of the House. 

A Conversation 

(continued from page 11 

enhanced, so now the Garden will 
concentrate on the other third, educa- 
tion. Correct? 

R Yes. Education not only through 
classes and lectures, but through its 
publications and displays — the infor- 
mation it provides. For example, there 
is very little material readily available 
telling visitors about what they see in 
the Garden — information about the 
trees and plants. Not that we want 
people overwhelmed with informa- 
tion, but if someone wants to know 
something about a particular plant 
they will be able to easily find out 
about it. The Garden should have an 
aggressive posture for education. Not 
only in the community, but beyond it. 
The Garden can — and does — make a 
national and international contribu- 
tion through its work and the informa- 
tion it makes available on tropical 
regions and plants in general — infor- 


(continued from page 2) 

the Gardens Director of Research. 
Dr. Chin Hui-chen of the Jiangsu 
Botanical Institute, Nanjing, oursister 
botanical garden in China, is working 
on experimental plant classification 
in my laboratory and will be in St. Louis 
until the end of the year. In early 
November Dr. Chen Chi-jui of the 
Institute of Botany in Beijing will 
arrive. Dr. Chen will be working with 
Dr. Peter C. Hoch and myself on 
Epilobium, a genus of plants that we 
have been studying for some 20 years. 
Dr. Chen will be in St. Louis for about 
15 months, during which time we will 
complete a revision of the genus 
Epilobium in China, where there are 
about 40 species. 

We also laid plans for a sym- 
posium on relationships between the 
plants of eastern temperate Asia and 
eastern temperate North America to 
be held in St. Louis September 30- 
October 2, 1982. Both Chinese and 
American scientists will participate in 
this symposium which should be 
useful in promoting further under- 
standing of the plants of our two 

Alan Godlewski, our curator of 
Landscape Horticulture, has just 
returned from a two-month trip to 
China and Japan under the sponsor- 
shipof theJiangsu Botanical Institute. 

mation that can be the basis to solve 
the problems we face in food and 
energy shortages. 

B What role does the Visitor Center 
have in all this for the future? 
R The Center is very important since 
it will contribute greatly to our ability 
in education. For the first time, the 
Garden's message can be expressed 
in the greatest sense on all levels. It 
can help people understand the 
Garden when they visit. On the level of 
students who come for classes, the 
improved and increased facilities will 
aid our staff in educating them. 

B Why should people support the 
Garden through the Tax District? 
R So that the Garden can live up to its 
promise to make the fullest contribu- 
tion it can. So that it can, specifically, 
continue to be a major tourist attrac- 
tion and to be an important anchor for 
the neighborhood and St. Louis. And 
to provide a stable institution through 
which we can continue to make our 
scientific contributions. St. Louis has 
one of the finest institutions of its 
kind in the world in this Garden. When 
it is at that level, you want to keep it 
that way. 

Lecture Series Continues 

The Fall Lecture series continues 
into November with two lectures. On 
November 4, Dr. Peter Goldblatt, the 
B.A. Krukoff Curator of African 
Botany, will talk on "Exploration in 
Southern Africa." On November 11, 
Garden Director Dr. Peter H. Raven 
concludes the series with a talk 
entitled "The Future of Plant Explora- 
tion." Both lectures are held in the 
John S. Lehmann Auditorium and are 
scheduled for 10:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m. 
on the days indicated. 

Book Arts Festival Continues 

GUu^ nQ« 


The Festival of the Book Arts 
continues through November and 
December with exhibits of botanical 
illustration, hand made papers, and 
marbled and decorated papers. 

500 Years of Botanical Illustration, 
the highly successful touring exhibit 
of material from the Garden's 
archives, will be displayed in the John 
S. Lehmann Building through Novem- 
ber 30 featuring significant examples 
of botanical illustration and the use of 
plants as decorative art. Since it was 
first exhibited at the Garden in 
January, 1980, the exhibit has toured 
the midwest through the sponsorship 
of the Mid-America Arts Alliance and 
has become their most successful 
touring exhibit to date. 

Also featured in the library through 
November 30 is the North American 
Hand Papermaking Exhibit. First 
created in 1976 by the Center for Book 
Arts in New York City, the exhibit 
includes samples of hand made paper 
from 32 prominent artists. The Village 
Voice said "No two things are alike 
in this fine show where the best 
instincts and talents of artists and 
craftsmen meet." The exhibit is 

accompanied by a statement from 
each artist on his work. 

From December 1 through 30, the 
Festival concludes with the Marbled 
Papers Exhibit. The exhibit will 
include a variety of marbled papers, 
some several centuries old and some 
made by comtemporary artists. It will 
also include a selection of printed 
papers and other decorated papers 
used in book binding and as end 

All three exhibits will be held in 
the John S. Lehmann Building and are 
open Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. 
through 5 p.m. 

Shaw, Engelmann 
Course Offered 

The Education Department offers 
a course on the lives and works of 
Henry Shaw and George Engelmann 
during November. Entitled "Henry 
Shaw and George Engelmann: Their 
Roles in Founding the Garden, St. 
Louis, and Opening the West"; the 
course meets for two sessions, on 
November 11 and 18, 7 to 9 p.m. The 
fee is $12 for Members. 

Gardening in St. Louis 

Holiday Plant Care 

Poinsettias are probably the most common plants to 
decorate homes during the holidays. This year there are 
several shades of red, pink, and white from which to choose. 
For a striking accent, try a hanging basket poinsettia or 
stack several plants on inverted pots of various sizes to fill 
a corner with festive color. 

Modern poinsettias are tough plants. It used to be a 
common complaint that these plants dropped their leaves 
before the holiday season was over but today's plants will 
retain their color well into late winter and early spring. To 
assure long-lasting plants, place them where they will 
receive diffused light and not an excessive amount of heat. 
Put pots into plastic or ceramic platters to protect carpet or 

Other popular holiday plants include the Jerusalem 
cherry (Solarium pseudocapsicum), the Christmas pepper 
(Capsicum sp.) and cyclamen (many species and varieties). 
Bright red berries of the Jerusalem cherry look much 
like cherry tomatoes. This plant is from South Brazil and 
Uruguay where it enjoys a bright, cool growing environ- 
ment. When in full fruit, it needs to be watered frequently — 
sometimes once a day. New Jerusalem cherry plants can 
be started from seeds extracted from the fruits. Sow the 
seed in March for mature plants next December. 

Within the past several years, the Christmas pepper, 
which bears small white flowers and shiny, red, miniature 
peppers, has become a popular holiday plant. Its cultural 
requirements are similar to those of the Jerusalem cherry. 
If you start this plant from seed, allow six to eight months 
for a mature plant. 

The colorful flowers of the cyclamen look like shooting 
stars dangled over beautifully patterned, heart-shaped 
leaves. Unfortunately, the usual cyclamen plant purchased 
from a florist is not very well suited to the growing condi- 
tions found in most homes. It prefers a cool (50-55°F) bright 
window. If placed in a warm, dimly lit living room, the 
foliage soon stretches and the blooms fade. For more suc- 
cess, try the dwarf varieties mentioned below. 

Cyclamen can be grown from seed in a cool green- 
house, a cool, bright window, or in a hot bed. Seeds sown in 
August and September will produce blooming plants for 
the next holiday season. 

Note: A display of the holiday plants mentioned will be 
held in the Climatron from December 5 through 24 10 a m ° 
4:30 p.m. 

Christmas Tree Care 

Christmas trees will last for a long period if the follow- 
ing method is used: 

First, saw the tree stem to fit the holder. Then take a 
sharp axe to chop the end of the stem or a hammer or blunt 
instrument to crush the end. Place the tree in a holder that 
contains at least a gallon of water. In a container mix: 

• 4 Tbls. Green Guard Micronized Iron 

• 2 cups corn syrup 

• 4 tsp. chlorine bleach 

Place this solution into the tree holder and allow the 
tree to stand about 12 hours before decorating. Add tap 
water at room temperature to the container each day. 

New Houseplants To Try 

Thanks to the efforts of various horticultural hybrid- 
izers, many new plants are appearing in catalogs and in 
floral shops. Some of the outstanding ones include: Helena 
and Bambini Cylcamen. These charming cyclamen are 
dwarf growers with beautiful foliage. They are heat- 
resistant, bloom for a long period (usually 8 or 9 months) 
and come in various colors. We have been growing the 
white Helena in our greenhouses for over a year and have 
been amazed how they have continued to bloom through 
the hot summer months. These plants will probably not be 
available from your local garden supplier, but you can 
obtain seeds from various mail order suppliers, including 
Park Seed Company, Greenwood, South Carolina 29647. 

Streptocarpus-Many different Streptocarpus hybrids 
are appearing on the houseplant market. The new hybrids 
are compact growers, bloom almost constantly, and come 
in many different colors. They will provide continuous 
bloom as long as they receive enough light and do not 
become too warm. The ideal conditions for these plants 
include a bright, sunny window such as an eastern expo- 
sure in a cool spot where the temperature range is between 
55° and 75°F. Some of these new hybrids are available in 
our own plant shop as well as from some of the local 
garden centers. 

Dwarf Crepe Myrtles- An exciting new plant which 
should prove to be a real show stopper is the mini crepe 
myrtle plants. These plants can be grown in pots or hang- 
ing baskets and will provide beautiful flowering through the 
summer months. They can withstand 120° (F) in full sun 
and are hardy to 10°. This would mean, of course, that 
these plants do have to be wintered over in the home but 
can be put outside in the spring as soon as temperatures 
warm up and can be expected to bloom for up to five 
months of the year if they receive enough light. The plants 
come in various colors. As of this time I only know of one 
company that has these unique plants, and it is a mail order 
firm called Greenlife Gardens Greenhouses, 101 County 
Line Road, Griffin, Georgia 30223. I have not tried these 
plants personally, but they hold promise. Other gardens 
that have tried them are very excited about the possibilities. 

Steven A. Fro wine, Chairman of Indoor Horticulture 

The Holidays ^The Holidays^ The Holidays 

On Decking the Halls 

At Christmas we put up trees, 
hang mistletoe, drape evergreen 
because this is the way of celebrating 
the holiday that has been passed on 
to us. In our highly rational era, we 
have forgotten most of the myth and 
superstition on which many of these 
traditions are based. But some are 
interesting and worth retelling at this 
time of the year. 

There are several possible origins 
of the custom of decorating an ever- 
green as a Christmas tree. One, com- 
ing from eighth-century Germany, has 
it that on December 24 the Christian 
saint Boniface came upon worship- 
pers who were sacrificing a boy to the 
god Thor under an oak. Boniface 
struck the oak once and it fell; he indi- 
cated a small evergreen nearby and 
told them to take that as a symbol of 
God, as a sign of endless life. Another 
story, also from Germany, credits 
Martin Luther with the introduction of 
the Christmas tree. On Christmas eve, 
he noticed stars through the branches 
of an evergreen. He brought the tree 
home and lit it with candles to sym- 
bolize Christ as the Light of the World. 
A third explanation for the custom is 
from eleventh century France, which 
attributes the origin of the Christmas 
tree to the Paradise Play, a miracle 
play performed in churches concern- 
ing Adam and Eve and their expulsion 
from the Garden of Eden. It was tradi- 
tionally presented on Christmas Eve 
since the next day was the holiday for 
the birth of the Christ who would 
atone for the sin that caused their 
expulsion. The Garden of Eden was 
represented by a fir tree hung with 
apples and people began decorating 
trees in theirown homes on December 
24 in honor of Adam and Eve. 

The holly that decks the halls in 
the song was initially hung to give 
elves and fairies somewhere to "hang 
in each leaf and cling to every bough" 
that they could participate in the 
festivities. Holly was specifically 
called for since the Druids believed it 
was a comfort to wood elves, being a 
sign that the world continued to live 
through the cold and snow of winter. 
The boughs were taken down by 
Candlemas (February 2) so that the 
spirits did not become too com- 
fortable in the homes of men and 
decide to remain permanently. Holly 

was also thought to have special 
powers that assisted young women in 
finding husbands. On Christmas eve, 
a maiden placed three pails of water 
near her bed and pinned three leaves 
of green holly to her nightgown oppo- 
site her heart. The legend said that 
she was awakened by three yells from 
three bears, followed by three horse 
laughs. After this the form of her 
future husband appeared and moved 
the pails of water. 

But the plant of the holidays most 
closely associated with love is mistle- 
toe; the legends about it rise from it 
being a parasite that grows on trees. 
Since it remained green even when its 
host tree was barren in winter and 
since it appeared to have no roots, 
ancient Norsemen believed that it 
held the spirit of a god. In one of their 
myths the son of the goddess Frejya 
(a counterpart of Venus) was mur- 
dered by a dart made from a mistletoe 
branch. Because of this, she placed 
the plant under her custody and 
declared mistletoe a symbol of love. 
The Druids also accepted it as a 
magical plant since it grew on oaks, 
their sacred trees; enemies who met 
beneath a tree with mistletoe on it 
would lay down their arms and 
observe a truce for one day. 


There are four reasons to give a 
Garden membership — winter, spring, 
summer, and fall — for the Garden is 
truly a special place for all seasons; a 
gift that lasts for all season. This year, 
you can give the people in your life — 
gardeners, photographers, friends, 
neighbors, business associates- 
something that you, yourself, enjoy. A 
gift membership is tax deductible for 
you and gives your friends free admis- 
sion to the Garden, Shaw Arboretum, 
and Tower Grove House, invitations to 
special events, discounts at the plant 
and gift shops, and a year of the 
Bulletin. Regular Memberships are 
only $25, while a Contributing 
Membership, with guest privileges, is 
only $50. During the holiday season, 
you can save by giving more than one 
membership, as you receive a 10% 
discount when you buy two gift 
memberships, and 15% when you 
purchase three or more. For informa- 
tion, please contact the Membership 
Office at 577-5118. 

A membership in Missouri Botan- 

ical Garden is recognized this month 
as a "Best Buy Gift" by Consumer 
Reports. Published by Consumers' 
Union of the United States, Consumer 
Reports is a magazine nationally 
recognized for its recommendations 
on the value of products and services; 
its circulation is 3 million. Each 
November the publication lists the 
items it considers to be of the highest 
value as presents for the holidays. For 
the first time ever in its annual listing 
it suggests memberships in botanical 
gardens as possible gifts, specifically 
recommending membership in 
Missouri Botanical Garden and the 
New York Botanical Garden. 

...the Shops 

The annual Holiday Preview Sale 
in the Garden Gate Shop is scheduled 
for Wednesday and Thursday, Novem- 
ber 11 and 12, from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. 
During the sale, Members receive a 
15% discount on all merchandise in 
the shop, and a 20% discount on all 
items in the Holiday Gift Catalogue 
which Members will receive in th€ 
mail shortly. After the sale anc 
through December 24, Members wil 
receive a 15% discount on catalogue 
items. As in the past, refreshments 
will be served during the Preview Sale 
A Holiday Plant Sale is schedulec 
for the Plant Shop for December 4-6 
10 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. Garder 
Members receive a 20% discount or 
all merchandise during the sale 
Through December 31, Members wil 
receive a 20% discount on specific 
plants in the shop. Throughou 
December the shop will featun 
Christmas cactus, azaleas, camellias 
poinsettias and other traditional holi 
day plants. Special items prepared b' 
the staff will also be available 
including holiday wreaths and decc 
rated living Christmas trees. Two ti 
three types of trees will be decoratec 
including Norfolk pines. Refresh 
ments will be served during the sale 

...Tower Grove House 

Tower Grove House will be decc 
rated for the holidays and ready fc 
visitors on Tuesday, December I 
There will be natural green 
throughout the house and a tal 
evergreen tree in the north park 
decorated with authentic Victoria 

The Holidays^ The Holidays^ The Holidays 

ornaments. The antique finial for the 
tree top, a recent gift of Mrs. Hazel 
Knapp, is made of tin, with an angel, 
bells, and candles and will be used by 
Tower Grove House for the first time. 

The tea room will have three 
Christmas luncheons, December 10, 
15, and 17 with a delicious menu and 
special treats. The price will be $6.50. 
Space is limited to 40 each day and 
reservations are required-577-5150. 

On Monday and Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 28-29, Tower Grove House will 
offer a story-time for Pre-school and 
Kindergarten to Third grade children. 
The Pre-school children are invited for 
1 1 a.m. and the Kindergarten to Third- 

grade children for 1 p.m. Admission 
will be 25<p for children and 65$ for 
adults. Groups are limited to 40 
children; reservations are necessary. 
Please call 577-5150. Parents accom- 
panying children may tour the house 
during the story time. 

Another innovation this year will 
be the sale of hand crafted items 
made by the St. Louis Herb Society. 

The house will be closed on 
Wednesday, December 30 to remove 
the decorations. 

...12 Months Long 

This year the Garden offers a 
unique opportunity for Members, and 

others, to purchase a 1982 wall cal- 
endar featuring stunning full-color 
photographs of the Garden by St. 
Louis photographer Jack Jennings. 
Jennings's work was displayed in an 
exhibit at the Garden this past May. 
His photos capture not only the fea- 
tures of the Garden, but its mood as 
well — the Drum Bridge through an 
early morning mist, Tower Grove 
House after a light snowfall, a field of 
daffodils reflected in the mirrored 
glass of the John S. Lehmann Build- 
ing. The calendars may be purchased 
from the Garden Gate Shop or by mail 
order. Retail price is $6.95 (Members, 
$5.95.) Postage and handling is $1.00. 

For Younger Members % 

Some Holiday Gifts 
Are "For the Birds" 

(ages 3- 7) 

Many of us collect pine cones well 
in advance of the holidays, antici- 
pating using these delightfully 
durable products of nature in our holi- 
day decorating schemes. This year, 
let the youngest members of your 
family help you collect a few extras. 
The children can then make special 
treat gifts for the birds, using the pine 
cone as a base. Here's how to do it: 


1 pine cone (for each treat) 

1 jar of peanut butter 

wild bird seed mixture (available 

at grocery or feed stores) 

blunt knife 


bird identification handbook, if 


Procedure: Tie a length of yarn around 
the first row of scales at one end of 
the pine cone. Using a blunt knife, 
spread a layer of peanut butter around 
the entire pine cone. Dip the pine 
cone in the bird seed, and shake off 
any excess seeds. Take the bird treat 
outdoors and suspend it from a tree, 
shrub or fence. Try to have a bird iden- 
tification book available so the 
children can find pictures and names 
of some of the birds who eat the treat. 
(NOTE: If peanut butter and seed are 
replenished often, the birds will learn 
to depend on the treat as a source of 
food during cold weather. With the 
return of warmer spring weather, the 

birds will no longer need their pine 

cone treats.) 

Ilene Follman, Education Consultant 

Corn Husk People 

(ages 7-12) 

Let's pretend for just a moment 
that we can't buy any toys. So, like the 
settler children, we will make them. 
The toys we will make are called "corn 
husk dolls." All you will need for the 
project is a pot of water, several corn 
husks, yarn, an empty soda bottle, 
and some natural materials to deco- 
rate your doll. 

Begin by soaking several leaves 
from the husk in the pot of water. This 
makes them easier to work with. For 
the doll's body and neck, select a full 
husk with a stem on it. Set this husk 
over the soda bottle with the leaves 
pointing down. The soda bottle serves 
as a support for your doll. To give your 
doll shape, tie yarn around the husk 
where you think the doll's waist 
should be. Make the arms by taking 
two of the wet leaves and rolling them 
together. Bend them around the husk 
right below the stem. While holding 
them firmly in place, take a piece of 
yarn and wind it around the back and 

the front of the doll in an "x" shape. 

For the doll's head, you need to 
roll several leaves into a ball. Then 
wrap a larger leaf over the ball. Set the 
head on top of the husk's stem and 
secure it in place by wrapping yarn 
around it. Yarn or corn silk will give 
your doll beautiful hair. 

You can give your doll a touch of 
fashion by making an apron, shawl, 
pants, hat or shoes. You could make 
villages, pets, and plants out of corn 
husks or other natural material, like 
acorns, bark, twigs, leaves and 

Now that you've made your corn 
husk people, how did it feel to be a 
settler for an afternoon? 

Ann Haley-Oliphant 
Coordinator of Youth Programs 

That Cup of Coffee 

There is a story that an Arabian goatherd found his 
goats dancing one day. Fearing they were possessed, he 
followed them for a time until they came to a strange bush 
with red berries. He watched as they consumed the berries 
and resumed dancing. Tasting the berries himself, he felt 
moved to dance as well. An inman came upon the goatherd 
and dancing goats and was curious about the odd behavior. 
The goatherd showed the bush to the priest who tasted its 
berries also and joined the cavorting. Later, taking some of 
the berries to his monastery, he told his brothers what had 
happened and after they could not determine what the 
berries were nor why they caused such a reaction, they 
decided to pray. The inman fell asleep during the service 
and Mohammed appeared to him, telling him that the 
berries should be boiled in water and that the liquid should 
be drunk prior to praying to insure that the worshippers 
would remain awake. 

The spiritually inspired drink was, of course, coffee. 
Today, far from being a handful of berries boiled before 
prayer, it is one of the world's most important natural com- 
modities, second only to petroleum, with approximately fif- 
teen million tons produced last year — accounting for $12 
billion — and the livlihood of 25 million people dependent 
upon it. 

Coffee {Coffea arabica) is native to Kenya and 
Abyssinia but the first record of it, aside from the legend of 
the goatherd and the inman, appears in Arabian medical 
books of the early tenth century. By the beginning of the 
sixteenth century, it was an integral part of Islamic 
culture — consumption of twenty cups per day by members 
of the upper class was common, and as part of his marriage 
vows, a Turk promissed that his wife would never be 
without it; failure to keep his promise was sufficient reason 
for divorce. The Arabs guarded their coffee jealously and 
permitted no fertile seeds or plants to leave the country; 
they did export roasted beans, however, and the drink was 
introduced into Europe in 1528. Because of its origin in an 
Islamic country, sixteenth-century Christians called it a 
drink of the infidels; an invention of the devil. Legend says 
that the pope, Clement VIII, hearing of the drink requested 
that a cup be brought to him for his inspection. The aroma 
was so pleasing that he tasted it and, enjoying it so much, 
said that it would be a shame to leave the infidels with 
exclusive use of it so he baptized it, making it permissible 
for Christians to drink it. 

About 1690, Dutch traders succeeded in smuggling live 
coffee plants out of Arabia and establishing them in Java. 
The Dutch, like the Arabs, were careful to let no fertile 
plants out of their control, but did allow a few botanists 
to have single plants for study. One such botanist was 
Antoine de Jussieu, Royal Botanist of the Jardin des 
Plantes in Paris. The tree under his care, a gift by the Dutch 
to Louis XIV, was the progenitor of most of the coffee in 
Mexico, and the south and central Americas. That his 
specimen was so important in the history of commercial 
coffee production, however, was against de Jussieu's will. 
A French naval officer, Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu, sta- 
tioned in Martinique, suspected that coffee would thrive in 
the West Indies. In 1723, unable to obtain seeds of plants in 
any other way, he broke into de Jussieu's greenhouse and 
took a single coffee seedling. On the voyage to the New 
World, de Clieu's plant survived an attack by pirates, severe 

storms, and a water shortage during which de Clieu shared 
his small ration with the plant. 

From Martinique, coffee eventually reached the South 
American mainland where it was cultivated by French and 
Dutch Guiana. Once more, the cultivators refused to allow 
other nations fertile plants and once more another 
nation — this time Brazil — succeeded in getting fertile 
plants through devious methods. 

In 1727, the two Guiana's were involved in a border 
dispute that threatened to become war. Wishing to avoid 
this result, they requested that Brazil send an arbitrator to 
resolve the dispute. Brazil sent Francisco de Melo Palheta, 
a lieutenant colonel in its army, with the instructions to him 
to resolve the conflict quickly and return with coffee seeds. 
Palheta, diplomat enough to settle the border dispute but 
not enought to persuade either territory to give him the 
seeds, courted the wife of the governor of French Guiana. 
The day before his departure there was a banquet to honor 
his success at arbitration. There the governor's wife 
presented Palheta with a bouquet as a token. Concealed in 
the bonquet were fertile coffee seeds and seedlings. 
Palheta returned home, resigned his commission and 
began a coffee farm. By 1900, Brazil was producing 80% of 
the coffee in the world. Today, Brazil is still the largest pro- 
ducer but only grows about one third of the world's supply. 

Almost all of the commercially grown coffee today is 
Coffea arabica and its several hundred varieties. C. arabica 
is an evergreen shrub that grows to about fifteen feet in 
height; its varieties can be trees from 30 to 60 feet high. It 
requires 40 to 70 inches of rain through the year and 
temperatures of between 55 and 80 degrees Farenheit. It 
grows almost exclusively on mountains. The trees bear 
fruit in three to four years after planting and are full-bearing 
in six to eight years. They are harvested by hand because 
the berries must be picked at a precise time; too early, and 
the flavor is not fully developed; too late, they become 
bitter. Each berry contains two beans; five to six pounds of 
berries result in one pound of clean coffee. There are 
approximately 1,000 dried seeds per pound. 

After the beans are picked, they are cleaned and dried, 
then milled to remove the covering and skin on each bean. 
Then they are graded, weighed, and sorted. Inferior and 
discolored beans are discarded. The dried, green coffee 
beans are exported. They are roasted and packaged in the 
country that purchases them for consumption. 

And consume them we do. Rough calculations indicate 
that last year the population of the world drank around 
581.4 billion cups of coffee: Java, Colombian, Mocha, 
Brazilian Bourbon (many coffees are named for their place 
of origin), black, with cream and sugar, iced, espresso in a 
demitasse. There are coffee breaks (first held in English 
cotton mills during the Industrial Revolution), coffee 
klatches (originally a term coined by beer-drinking Ger- 
mans {kaffee klatsch) to deride coffee as a "woman's 
drink), coffee houses (appearing first in Mecca around 
1 500), and coffee shops. There is "the autocrat of the break- 
fast table," those cups of coffee that get us going early and 
keep us running until lunch and keep some of us running all 
day (Voltaire reportedly drank 50 cups a day). 

The primary reason most of us drink this non-nutritive 
beverage is its caffeine. Caffeine is a chemical that is one 
to one-and-one-half percent of the content of a coffee bean. 

It affects our behavior actually by countering the affect of 
another chemical, adenosine, that naturally occurs in the 
brain. Adenosine inhibits the chemicals that carry nerve 
impulses through the brain by bonding to neurons. Caffeine 
prevents adenosine from bonding by bonding itself to the 
neurons. This allows the brain's impulses to fire more 
rapidly than normal. 

Because caffeine sometimes causes nervousness and 
sleeplessness and because it has recently been suggested 
that caffeine may be linked to pancreatic cancer (though 
many doctors dispute this, claiming insufficient evidence), 
many people are drinking decaffeinated coffee. The caf- 
feine is removed from unroasted coffee beans by soaking 
them in water, which swells their cells, then submerging 
them in a solution that flushes out approximately 97% of 
the caffeine in the beans. They then are washed and 

Perhaps even a greater controversy among coffee 
drinkers than the possibility of caffeine as a carcinogen is 
the proper method of brewing a cup of coffee. (Never say 
"instant" to a connoisseur; one proprietor of a shop that 
specializes in coffee pointed to a book on coffee for sale in 
her shop and advised against using it as a reference 
source. "It's not very good," she said. "It gives recipes 
using instant coffee.") Most subscribe to the practice of 

using a drip method, (never boil it!) with freshly ground 
beans. Ground coffee, once the vacuum seal has been 
broken, loses its flavor within days if stored in a pantry, 
within a week if stored in a refrigerator; although it will last 
for up to two months if frozen. Unground coffee, however, 
can retain its flavor for six months if frozen in an airtight 
container. One coffee manufacturer suggests buying only 
enough coffee for a week, and grinding only enough for 
each use. 

The primary ingredient for the elusive perfect cup is, of 
course, water, since coffee is 97% water. Most experts say 
that if the available tap water is pleasant to drink it will 
make a pleasant cup of coffee. Some purists, however, will 
use only bottled water. 

Coffee will be featured as one of 65 plants in the Edible 
Plants Exhibit in the Climatron through November 29. The 
exhibit is part of the Garden's continuing effort to use its 
displays for education about the natural world. The Edible 
Plant Exhibit will be open from 10 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. and is 
partially sponsored by Dierberg's School of Cooking. As a 
part of the exhibit, the school will hold demonstrations on 
the use of tropical foods in recipes on Sunday, November 1 , 
from 1 to 4 p.m. A booklet of tropical recipes, published 
by the Garden's Education Department, will be available 
for $1. 

Alexander Carter's steel sculpture, 'The Tree,'' 
was Installed in the Garden in late summer 
Located in a grove of walnuts near the Demon- 
stration Vegetable Garden, -The Tree'' is a 
black stabile-mobile and is 17-feet high. Its 
mobile element is 35-feet long. Alexander 
Calder (1898-1976) is perhaps the world's best 
known contemporary sculptor, and is one of 
the few artists in history who can lay claim 
to the creation of a new art form — in this 
case the mobile. "The Tree'' is being loaned to 
the Garden by Mansion House Center Proper 
ties. Inc. 


)r. Julian K. Steyermark visited here in mid- 
\ugust to confer with Dr. Gerrit Davidse 
egarding the Garden's work in Venezuela. Dr. 
steyermark, a graduate of the Garden 's botany 
urogram through Washington University, is 
presently working on a Flora of Venezuela, 
ollowing the receipt of his doctorate, Steyer- 
nark was a member of the Garden staff and 
hen joined the department of botany at the 
ield Museum in Chicago. He is the author of 
•pring Flora of Missouri, published by the 
iarden, and the Flora of Missouri. Dr. Steyer- 
lark received the Garden's Henry Shaw Medal 
7 7979. 

' ■■-■ 

The third edition of Biology of 
Plants, by Dr. Peter H. Raven, Dr. Ray 
F. Evert and Helena Curtis has been 
released recently by Worth Publishers 
of New York. Originally published in 
1971 , Biology of Plants is the best sell- 
ing basic college botanical text. The 
latest edition is available in the 
Garden Gate Shop. 

New Merchandise Manager 

Missouri Botanical Garden has 
appointed Larry W. Reimelt as Mer- 
chandise Manager in charge of retail 
operations. Reimelt was prevously 
employed by Famous-Barr Company, 
most recently as stationery buyer. He 
is a graduate of the University of Kan- 
sas at Lawrence. 

As Merchandise Manager, Reimelt 
will supervise the Garden Gate and 
Plant shops, as well as the Garden 
restaurant, the Greenery. All three 
retail operations will be expanded 
within the Visitor Center scheduled to 
open in April 1982. 

New Trustees Elected 

Robert E. Kresko 

Marion K. Piper 

Dr. Howard A. 

Robert C. West 

At its August 12 meeting the 
Board of Trustees of Missouri 
Botanical Garden elected four new 
members. Under the terms of the 
Amended Deed of Trust recently 
approved by the St. Louis Circuit 
Court, the Board is permitted to add 
additional trustees to serve terms of 
up to four years. Elected were 
Mr. Robert E. Kresko, Mrs. Marion K. 
Piper, Dr. Howard A. Schneiderman, 
and Mr. Robert C. West. 

C. C. Johnson Spink, President of 
the Board, said, "We are fortunate to 
have them on the Board. They each 
bring unique talents and insights to 
the Garden, and the Garden can only 
gain from their contributions." 

Robert Kresko is Senior Partner 
of the Trammel Crow Company, a real 
estate development corporation. A 
graduate of Brown University, he is a 
resident of Ladue. "I'm very honored 
and enthusiastic to be a member. All 
of us who have abilities to lend 
assistance to organizations like the 
Garden owe it to do so. I look forward 
to my association with it and toward 
making a meaningful contribution." 

Marion Piper is a former instructor 
at the University of Missouri; she was 
also a member of the staff of the 
University of Illinois Extension Ser- 
vice for Agriculture. Originially from 
Highland, Illinois, she holds a 
master's degree from Teachers' Col- 
lege, Columbia University. "I have 
always been conscious of gardens 
being vital to any family's existence," 

she said. "I spent much time here with 
my own children and have always 
been interested in the Garden. It has a 
role as a pioneer in new developments 
in research. It also offers a valuable 
service for many people who have hor- 
ticultural problems. I'm delighted to 
have the opportunity to work as a 
member of the Board." 

Dr. Howard Schneiderman, Direc- 
tor of Research at Monsanto Com- 
pany, is a much-honored scientist. 
Taking his Ph.D. in Psysiology from 
Harvard University, he has been on 
the faculties of the University of 
California-Irvine, and Case Western 
Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, 

and has published over 180 scientific 
books, articles, and papers. Talking 
about his reasons for accepting his 
appointment to the Board, Dr. 
Schneiderman said, "Quite apart from 
civic reasons, I have a very deep 
interest in the preservation of 
resources and genetic diversity. The 
Garden is a place where strategies for 
the future will be made; it's one of the 
world's most important institutions. 
Being a member of the Board will pro- 
vide an opportunity for me to work 
with members of the community on 
matters that are important to the com- 
munity and beyond it." 

Robert C. West is Chairman and 
President of Sverdrup Corporation, a 
St. Louis based engineering firm, and 
was extremely active in developing 
that corporation. A graduate of the 
Georgia Institute of Technology, he 
has been involved on the boards of 
professional, civic and charitable 
organizations including the World 
Wildlife Fund, U.S., of which he was 
Vice Chairman in 1978-79, Goodwill 
Industries of America, and Webster 
College. He is also a Director of 
General Steel Industries, Inc. 

At its September 16 meeting, the Gardens Board of Trustees toured the site of the Visitor Centei 
currently under construction and due to open in April of 1982. The Center will contain the Garden s 
educational facilities, an auditorium, and its restaurant and retail shops. 


August & September 1981 

Sponsoring Members 

Mr James T. Connor 

Sustaining Members 

Mrs Doris Boschert 
Dr /Mrs. Kent E. Bruder 

Mr. /Mrs Stanley F. Franek 
Mrs. Gloria T Hull 
Mr. /Mrs. Emil A Johnson 
Mrs Sharon Kamprad 
Mr. /Mrs. Ernest Kurt/ 
Mrs. Shirley Long 
Mrs Rene J Lusser 
Mrs Mildred A Miksicek 
Mr /Mrs. R. M. Morriss. Jr. 
Mr. /Mrs. Eric Newman 

Contributing Members 

Mr /Mrs James Gilchrist Alfring 

Mr. /Mrs. Stephen Balaban 

Dr. /Mrs Wm C Banton II 

Mr. /Mrs. David L Barnum 

Dr. /Mrs. Jack Barrow 

Mr. /Mrs. James R Berchek 

Mr Ralph Blackwell 

Mr /Mrs Clyde Boeddeker 

Mr. Theodore H. Bolte 
David E Bone, Inc. 
Miss Dorothy Borgers 
Miss Annabeth Brandle 
Mrs Joyce M. Broughton 
Mrs John B. Buettner 
Ms. Anne Bullington 
Rev /Mrs Richard Bullock 
Mr./Mrs. James C. Coe 

(continued on page 12) 




November 8-14 

November 1-7 500 Years of Botanical Illustration, Lehmann Building, 

continues through November 30, 9 a.m. -5 p.m., 

North American Hand Papermaking Exhibit, Lehmann 

Building, continues through November 30, 9 a.m.- 

5 p.m., Monday- Friday 

Edible Plants Exhibit, Climatron, continues through 

November 29, 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 

Euphorbia Exhibit, Desert House, continues through 

November 14, 9 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 

Lecture: "Explorations in Southern Africa," Lehmann 

Building, November 4, 10:30 a.m. & 8 p.m. 

Garden Gate Shop Holiday Preview Sale, Garden 
Gate Shop, November 11-12, 10 a.m. -8 p.m. 
Lecture: "The Future of Plant Exploration," Lehmann 
Building, November 11, 10:30 a.m. & 8 p.m. 
Orchid Sale, Plant Shop, November 13 (Special 
preview — admission $5) and November 14 (no admis- 
sion charge), 7-9 p.m. on 11/13, and 10 a.m. -4 p m 
on 11/14 

500 Years of Botanical Illustration: Continues 
North American Hand Papermaking Exhibit: 


Edible Plants Exhibit: Continues 

Euphorbia Exhibit: Final day, November 14 

Jovember 15-21 500 Years of Botanical Illustration: Continues 
North American Hand Papermaking Exhibit: 


Edible Plants Exhibit: Continues 

Jovember 22-30 500 Years of Botanical Illustration: Final day, 

November 30 

North American Hand Papermaking Exhibit: Final 
day, November 30 

Edible Plants Exhibit: Final day, November 29 


'ecember 1-5 

ecember 6-12 

ecember 13-19 

ecember 20-26 

jcember 27-31 

Marbled and Decorated Papers Exhibit: Lehmann 
Building, Opens December 1, 9 a.m. -5 p.m., Monday- 
Friday (through December 30) 
Holiday Plant Sale: Plant Shop, December 4-6, 
10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 

Holiday Plant Exhibit: Climatron, Opens December 5, 
10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. (through December 24) 

Victorian Holiday: Tower Grove House, opens 
December 8, 10 a.m. -4 p.m. (through December 29) 
Marbled and Decorated Papers Exhibit: Continues 
Holiday Plant Exhibit: Continues 

Marbled and Decorated Papers Exhibit: Continues 
Holiday Plant Exhibit: Continues 
Victorian Holiday: Continues 

Marbled and Decorated Papers Exhibit: Continues 
Holiday Plant Exhibit: Final day, December 24 
Victorian Holiday: Continues 
Christmas, December 25: Garden Closed 

Marbled and Decorated Papers Exhibit: Final day, 
December 30 

Victorian Holiday: Final day, December 29 


August & September 1981 


Mr./Mrs. Walter Aff 

Jerry/Jean Duddmg 

Myron Glassberg 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Carol Bodinheimer 

Mrs. Henry L Freund 

Mr./Mrs. Jerry Brasch 

Mr./Mrs. Raymond Baehr 

Dr./Mrs. Charles S. Sherwin 

Myril Brod 

Ann/Paul Lux 

Mrs. J. B. Bushyhead 

Friends of the Garden 

Mrs. Fred Toelle 

Mr./Mrs. Jerome B. Cohen 

Mr./Mrs. Milton Kushkin 

Mr./Mrs. Mitchell J. Grzesiowski 

Joseph and Ellen Wallington 

Carol. Matt, MaryBeth and Michael 


Mr. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr./Mrs. Ernest A. Eddy, Jr. 

Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 

Lelghton and Irene Morrill 

Mr./Mrs. Charles Kies 

Jerry and Jean Dudding 

Mr./Mrs. Berthold L. Lange 

Irma H. Stevenson 

Suzanne Parker 

Fran and Hal Fleit 

Mr. Jerry Presberg 

Lee and Harvey Shapiro 

Mrs. Gladney Ross 

Mrs. Jamerson C. McCormack 

Mr. Joseph Ruwitch 

Mrs. George F. Berlinger 

Mrs. Irvin Bettman. Jr. 

Sally Shapiro 

Nan and Jim Henderson 

Dr./Mrs. Samuel D. Soule 

Mr./Mrs Aaron Fischer 

Mr. John L. Tomasovic 

Florist Inc. 

Mr./Mrs. Gerald R. Diehl 

Mrs. Ben Wells 

Mrs. Jamerson C McCormack 

Helena M. Alvarez 

Dr /Mrs. Luis Schwarz 
Phoebe Anderson 

Mrs. William H. Schroer 

William Frank Arbeiter 

Barbara M. Miles 

Thomas C. Atwood 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Elizabeth Bemis Avery 

Mr./Mrs. Ralph E. Piper & Family 

Emma Sampson Becker 

A Friend 

Edwin R. Waldemer 

Mr. A. Shapleigh Boyd, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Miss Frances Braden 

Mrs. John Fries 

Gary Chappius 

Bob and Grace LaMear 

Mrs. Ruth Conrad 

Mr./Mrs. George Herbst 

Mr./Mrs. John Lloyd 

Mr./Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Mr./Mrs. Seth Robins 

John H. Costello 

Mary E. Baer 

Meta Dickhaut 

Mr./Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

Mrs. June Morgens Dube 

Mr./Mrs. Edward W. Fordyce 

Major B. Einstein 

Ann and Peter Husch 


Michael and Eileen Suchart 

Mrs. Rose Ezzell 

Dr. Clinton W. Lane 

Mrs. Justine Flotron 

Mr. Gregory D. Flotron 

Margaret Gerdine 

Jeane and Earl Susman 

Sara Gross 

John, Sandy, Johnny and Christy Leo 

and Lillian Samet 

Daisy R. Hatch 

Mr./Mrs. Walter K. Hooker 

John Hoffman 

Michael and Joanne Fehling 

Tilford Holyfield 

Ann R. Husch 

Edward H. Hubeli 

James V. Moore 

Fred J. Rock 

Scott Ittner 

Mrs. Ella Jens Boeschenstein 

Bess J. Corn 

Florence I. Daniels 

Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Emnett 

Mr./Mrs. John B Kirchner 

Mr./Mrs. Edward Spiegelhalter 

Lt. Col. Helmuth F. Stude 

Mrs. Edith M. James 

Dr./Mrs. James C Sisk 

Mrs. Charles Koven 

Mr./Mrs. Nicholas Scharff. II 

Mr. Harold L. Larsen 

Mr./Mrs. Arthur L. Rettig 

Dorothy Laughlin 

Dorothy Becker 

Mrs. Ann Lewis 

Helen F. Silverman 

Mr./Mrs. Ellis Littmann 

Mr./Mrs. Irving A. Shepard 

Samuel Longo 

Mr./Mrs. Denver Wright III 

Jane S. Luehrmann 

Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 

Carl and Helen Nitchman 

Dr./Mrs. Peter H. Raven 

Florence Marie Roschke 

Florence Mueller Roschke 

Mr./Mrs. J. G Samuels, Sr. 

Whitehall Club. Inc. 

Mrs. Louretta Lux 

Mr./Mrs. William Snodgrass 

Mrs. Estella McElroy 

Mr./Mrs. George Barnes, Jr. 

Mrs. Hiram Norcross 

Mrs. Matilda McQueen 

Milton L. Dougherty 

Mr. James P. Mannion 

Mrs. R. H Brock 

Frank G. Myers 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Gary and Peggy Owens, and 

son Steven 

Don and Fran Magruder 

Mrs. Margaret Peirce 

Mr./Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

Mrs. Raymond Peters 

Mr./Mrs. William F. Reck. Jr 

Mr./Mrs. Henry T. Schlapp 

Walter F. Raven 

Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 

Oscar John Reiter 

Judy Eastover 

Mrs. Flora Robertson 

Miss Mercedes E. Nitzschmann 

J. Virgil Rohan 

Beatrice Obermeyer 

Mrs. Joseph C. Sapala 

Mr./Mrs. Burton F. Connolly 

Friends in the Laboratory, 

St. Elizabeth Medical Center 

Henderson Mine and Mill 

Dr Harry Parks 

Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Scarborough 


Mary Schnoebelen 

The Frontenac Garden Club 
C. Harold Schreiber 

Paul S Miller 
Eric H. Seiler 

Gene and Erma Herr 
Louise Skrainka 

Mr /Mrs. Peter H Husch 
Carol Cook Smith 

John E Pryom, Jr. and Family 
Col. R. E. Smyser 

Mr. /Mrs. Joseph W. Boyle 

Mr /Mrs William W Halliday 

Mr /Mrs Thomas F Latzer 

Virginia and H. L McKee 

Col /Mrs James B. Meanor, Jr 

Mr /Mrs George B Sloan 

Col /Mrs Craig Smyser 

Mr /Mrs. Walter G Staley 

Don and Gladys Webb 

West Point Society of St. Louis 

Mrs. Charles C. Spink 

Mr /Mrs C C. Johnson Spink 

Mrs. J. G. Taylor Spink 

Mr. /Mrs. C C. Johnson Spink 

Morris Suchart 

Mr /Mrs. Jack Bradley 

Reva. Lil. Robyn Bradley 

Mr /Mrs. Joe Brownstein 

Lester Cherry 

Cook Branch School Staff 

Mr. /Mrs Joseph Finke 

Paul and Dorothy Goldstein 

Mr /Mrs Morris Levitt 

Lester and Jody Rosenblatt 

Edward Ruson 

Mr /Mrs. Jack Simons 

University City Public Library Staff 

James Taylor 

Mrs E R. Hurd, Jr. and 

her children 

JoAnn Tysinger 

Donna M Reinneck 

Thomas L. Waters 

East West Gateway Coordinating 

Council Staff 

Dr. Irene Hood 

Elsie R Johnson 

Dr. /Mrs. Edward H. Remhard 

Mr /Mrs John T Riedel 

Mrs C J Royston 

Mr. /Mrs. Richard G. Tennant, Jr 

Mr. Harry Wilken 

Mr. /Mrs. Blanton Whitmire 

Lydia Wilkie 

Mr /Mrs James M. Henderson 

Edna Wolf 

Rosemary Association of 

Garden Clubs 

Florence Wulf 

Lee and Harvey Shapiro 

Persons interested in 
contributing to the Tribute 
Fund may contact the Develop- 
ment Office, 577-5120. 


(continued from page 10) 

Ms. Judy A. Cortner 
Dr. /Mrs. J. L. Croughan 

Mrs Charlotte F Danekind 

Mrs. Carl Dauten 

Mr /Mrs Glenn J. Davis 

Mr. /Mrs. W. N. Eddms. Jr. 

Mr. /Mrs. Robert C. Ely 

Mr. /Mrs. William K. Emmerich 

Mr /Mrs. Dale J Ewalt 

Ms Vera Foley 

Mr. /Mrs. Bennett Frelich 

Dr Terence A Fnskel. DDS 

Mr. /Mrs. F. C Gamelin 

Mr. Dennis Gatlin 

Mr. /Mrs. Jerome L. Gidlow 

Mr /Mrs Norman C Gilbert 

Mrs Vernita Gozenbach 

Mr E. W Grafeman 

Mr Michael G Gratz 

Mr. /Mrs Andrew Greensfelder 

Mr. /Mrs Omer J Gross 

Ms Beulah M Hahn 

Mr. /Mrs Wm W Halliday 

Mr/Mrs. Bill Hamilton 

Mr /Mrs James Hamilton 

Mr. /Mrs. Maurice A Hannon 

Ms Marilyn L. Harrington 

Dr /Mrs Albert E Hesker 

Mr /Mrs Phillip Huddleston 

Mr /Mrs Harold Hudson 

Mr. /Mrs R H Jaeger 

Dr /Mrs Ernest G. Jaworski 

Mr /Mrs Arthur C Jones 

Ms Kathleen Kelley 

Ms Diann King 

Miss Penelope M Kirk 

Mr. /Mrs. Richard Konetchy 

Mr. /Mrs. Albert D Krueger 

Mr. /Mrs. Ralph Kurgjohn 

Dr. /Mrs. Paul E. Lacy 

Mr Mrs Kenneth W Lamar 

Dr. /Mrs. Adolph C Lange 

Mrs O M Langenberg 

Mr. /Mrs. James Larson 

Mr ./Mrs Joseph G Longstreth 

Mr /Mrs T. F. Lynch 

Mrs Minard T. Mac Carthy 

Ms Lucy McClure 

Mr 'Mrs James P. McDougal 

J. Barry McGannon. S J. 

Miss Mary Markus 

Mr John S Martin 

Mr Mrs Herbert E. Matthews 

Dr, William D Merwin 

Mr. /Mrs Leo Milligan 
Mr. /Mrs. James Morelan 
Mrs. John C. Morfit 
Mr./Mrs. R P. Murdoch 
Mrs. Mary Oscko 
Dr./Mrs. Harry B. Overesch 
Dr. /Mrs. Wayne Pans 
Mr./Mrs. Arthur G Paule 
Mrs Adam G. Pausch 
Mr /Mrs. James Pettus 
Mrs T W. Pidgeon 
Mr /Mrs Richard E. Piatt 
Mr /Mrs Jack I. Pope 
Mr Joseph M Powers 
Mr /Mrs George D. Pring 
Mr./Mrs. Thomas E. Ransdell 
Mr./Mrs. Charles P. Reay 
Mr./Mrs. Gilbert A. Reed 
Ms Margaret J Rodgers 
Mr./Mrs. Chester E. Roemer 
Dr./Mrs. Gruia Roman 
Dr./Mrs. Ernest T. Rouse III 
Miss Marilyn Sax 
Mr./Mrs. Nicholas Scharff II 
Mr Robert K. Schnure 
Mr Richard L. Schirrmeister 
Mr. John R. Schoon 
Mr./Mrs. Leo F. Schwald 
Mr. Willard B. Shelp. Jr 
Mrs. M. Simmons 
Mr./Mrs. Buford D Smith 
Dr. Robert W Smith 
Mr /Mrs. Thomas H. Spence 
Mr G W Swan 
Ms Nancy L. Swan 
David E. Taylor 
Mr Mrs Stephen H. Taylor 
Dr Samer Thanavaro 
Ms Betty Townsend 
Mrs. Martha Urban 
Dr./Mrs. E Vastola 
Dr Mrs Wayne A Viers 
Mr. Sherwood R Volkman 
Mr./Mrs. John J Walsh. Jr 
Mr. B. Bradley Watkins 
Mr. Jack L Williams 
Mr./Mrs. Frank P Wolff. Jr 
Mrs A. Wolfson 
Ms Shirley J. Wood 
Mr. Wyhe Wyatt 

The Desert Spoon (Dasylirion 
quadrangulatum) blooming in the 
Desert House in September, The 
plant is approximately 150 years 
old and was blooming for the first 
time. It was given to Missouri 
Botanical Garden by the Mexican 
government after the 1904 World's 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 




Volume LXX, Number 1 
January/February 1982 

Translating Science 

Science is hard work and kids don't want to work that 
hard. They have the notion that. is something you 
can live without. — High school senior 

This program was a great learning experience. It turned 
everything around for me. I thought that I— myself— 
couldn't do anything about the quality of the environment. 
Now I feel I can. The program opened my eyes. 

— High school senior, 1981 ECO-ACT participant 

During the past several decades, statistics "proving" 
how poor American science education is have proliferated. 
Students here have been unfavorably compared to science 
students in Japan and the Soviet Union. "The numbers are 
startling when compared with other advanced countries," 
reported Roger Rapoport in Science 81. "Five million Soviet 
high school students take calculus each year, but only 
105,000 Americans do. Every Japanese high school grad- 
uate receives twice as many hours of instruction in science 
and math as do American students." Mr. Rapoport's article 
is unique in that, despite the numbers he cites, he finds 
reason for optimism. Most who report such figures follow 
them with predictions of doom and words like "failure." 
"We cannot hope to maintain our technological society 
with a generation who knows nothing about science," 
they say. 

To complicate the problem, apparently pushing it in the 
direction of the expectations of the pessimists, the govern- 
ment has proposed — at this writing — cutting drastically 
the National Science Foundation's budget for science and 
engineering education. 

In order to meet the challenge of producing, if not 
scientists, then science-educated persons in a time during 
which money for such programs is becoming increasingly 
scarce, institutions are beginning to develop innovative 
programs and to redirect their priorities. "We are giving 
more and more attention to teacher education programs," 
said Judy Studer, Chairman of the Garden's Education 
Department. "Of course, we will continue to educate 
students directly, but by educating their teachers we can 
have an impact that goes much further. If we educate one 
teacher, he or she will return to the classroom and in turn 
teach thirty or 100 different students." 

One program recently developed by the Garden fills 
several needs at once by combining student-education 
/vith teacher education. Called ECO-ACT, the program 
sducates high school students who in turn teach elemen- 
ary school students. ECO-ACT was created in the summer 
Df 1980 with funds from an anonymous donor. During 
\ugust, 1981, 30 students from five high schools par- 
icipated in an environmental education and leadership 
raining program at the Garden. In the 1981-82 school year, 





these students are spending several hours a week in 
elementary classrooms. 

"ECO-ACT" is an acronym; ECO from ecology, but also 
suggesting one of the goals of the program (echo) in that 
what the high school students learn is carried by them to 
elementary classrooms. ACT stands for Acting, Creating, 
Teaching, and the acronym itself again is an appropriate 
characterization of the focus of the program. "There were 
very few lectures," said David Wilson, coordinator of the 
program. "We did not spend much time in the classroom." 

Students visited newspaper offices, sewage treatment 
plants, city planners, attorneys, labor officials, specialists 
in environmental quality and control. They camped for a 
week in the country, canoed on the Meramec, spent a day 
on a farm at which there was no running water. 

Over Wilson's desk is a typed quotation from Aldous 
Huxley that perhaps best explains the program's bias in 
favor of experience over classroom lecture: "Our education 
is predominantly verbal and, therefore, fails to accomplish 
what it is supposed to do. ..The arts of being directly aware 
of given facts of our existence are almost ignored." 

"Related to this notion is the importance of under- 
standing the broad picture," Wilson said. "For example, 
the water cycle. You might have a student who can recite 
from memory a chemical reaction, but never has considered 
the fundamental way rain and the evaporation of water are 
related to our life. Waking up in the morning with dew on 
your sleeping bag helps you understand the cycle. 

"When the students went on the canoe trip — and it 

(continued on page 4) 


With the beginning of this new year, 
" it is a good time to thank those who 
^ helped us make 1981 the excellent and 
successful year that it was. Without the 
support and encouragement of you, our 
Members, our work during the past year 
would have been exceedingly difficult. 

Those of you who volunteered toassist 
our staff — and the number of volunteers 
(413) was at its highest in our 122-year history — helped our 
education program serve 40,000 students. You taught 
classes and guided tour groups through the grounds and 
greenhouses. You helped our horticultural staff maintain 
and improve the 79 acres in St. Louis and the 2400 acres of 
Shaw Arboretum in Gray Summit. You helped in our her- 
barium, library, archives, and administrative departments. 
By speaking well of us in the community and to your 

friends, you helped our attendance increase once again over 
the previous year; by the end of October we had already had 
more visitors than for all of 1980. By introducing your friends, 
families, and associates to the Garden and its Membership 
program, you were instrumental in raising our Membership 
from 12,000 at the end of 1980 to over 14,000 currently. 

Through your generous contributions you enabled us to 
move forward with the construction of our Ridgway Center, 
which will open later this year. Through your persuasion, you 
permitted us to achieve passage in the state legislature of 
the bill that will permit us to ask the voters to establish a 
botanical garden subdistrict of the Zoo-Museum Tax District. 

For your help in these areas, and in others I do not have 
the room to mention, I wish to thank you on behalf of myself, 
the staff, and the Board of Directors of Missouri Botanical 




Mr. /Mrs. Newell A. Augur 

Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr. /Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr. /Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr/Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr. /Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr /Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr. Carl L. A. Beckers 

Mr. /Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mr /Mrs. John G. Buettner 

Mr. /Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mr./Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F. T. Childress 

Mr. Fielding L. Childress 

Mr./Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Mr Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr /Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Dr./Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr./Mrs. Sam I C. Davis 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mr./Mrs. Richard A. Dohack 

Mr./Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mr./Mrs. David C. Farrell 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr./Mrs. Guy W. Fiske 

Mr. Gregory D. Flotron 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs. Henry L Freund 

Mr. S. E. Freund 

Mrs. Clark R. Gamble 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley J Goodman 

Mr. Clarence R. Goodrich 

Mrs. Mildred Goodwin 

Mr./Mrs. W L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 

Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 

Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr./Mrs. Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr./Mrs. James H. Howe, III 

Mr./Mrs. Lee Hunter 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 

Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mrs. Irene C. Jones 
Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 
Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 
Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 
Mr./Mrs. Frederick R. Keydel 
Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 
Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E Kresko 
Mr./Mrs. Charles S. Lamy 
Mr./Mrs. Oliver M. Langenberg 
Mrs. John A. Latzer 
Mr. Thomas F. Latzer 
Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 
Mrs. John S. Lehmann 
Mr./Mrs. Willard L. Levy 
Mrs. Zoe D. Lippmann 
Miss Martha I. Love 
Mr. H. Dean Mann 
Mr./Mrs. William E. Maritz 
Mrs. James S. McDonnell 
Mrs. Roswell Messing, Jr 
Mr./Mrs. I. E. Millstone 
Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 
Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 
Mr. Thomas Moore 
Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 
Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 
Mr. Spencer T. Olin 
Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 
Mrs. Jane K. Pelton 
Miss Jane E. Piper 
Miss Julia Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 
Capt. William R. Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Herman T Pott 
Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph A. Richardson 
Mrs Howard E. Ridgway 
Mrs G. Kenneth Robins 
Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 
Mr./Mrs. G. S. Rosborough, Jr 
Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 
Mr. Louis Sachs 
Mr./Mrs. David Sanders 
Mrs. William H. Schield 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 
Mr./Mrs. Charles Schott 
Mrs. Mason Scudder 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 
Mr./Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 
Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. John E. Simon 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K Smith, Jr. 

Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 
Mr./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
Mrs. Herman F. Spoehrer 
Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 
Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 
Miss Lillian L. Stupp 
Mr./Mrs. Edgar L Taylor, Jr. 
Ms. Marie Carr Taylor 
Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 
Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 
Mr./Mrs. James Walker 
Mrs. Horton Watkins 
Mr./Mrs. Richard K. Weil 
Mrs. S A Weintraub 
Mrs. Ben H. Wells 
Mr./Mrs. 0. Sage Wightman, III 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr 
Mrs. John M. Wolft 
Miss F. A. Wuellner 
Mrs. Eugene F. Zimmerman 
Mr./Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Sander B Zwick 


Mr. Patrick Ackerman 
Mr. Kenneth Balk 
Mr./Mrs. C. Perry Bascom 
Mrs. Anne D. Bates 
Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 
Ms. Allison R. Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mrs. Richard L. Brumbaugh 
Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 
Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 
Mr Joseph C. Champ 
Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 
Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 
Mr. Hollis L Garren 
Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Mr. George K. Hasegawa 
Mr. Edward E. Haverstick 
Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Morris M. Horwitz 
Mr./Mrs. B. F. Jackson 
Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 
Mr./Mrs. Charles W Oertli 
Mrs. Harry E. Papin, Jr 
Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 
Mrs. Miquette M Potter 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A Ridgway 

CaJc^ ?/.Ca< 


Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 
Dr. John S. Schoentag 
Mr. Frank H. Simmons 
Mr./Mrs. Leon B. Strauss 
Miss Harriet J. Tatman 
Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr./Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Donald L Wolfsberger 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 

5^2 Member of 

^■The Arts and Education 

F unci of GrtMitM ! >t I our, 

DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo. 
63166 Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
$6.00 foreign. 


Current estimates have it that there are approximately 
15,000 different plant species in Bolivia, a country about 
the size of Texas and California combined. By comparison, 
in all of the United States there is a total of 15,000 species. 
Bordering Peru and Brazil, the country has a population of 
over five million, almost half of which is under 15. Seventy 
percent of the population is employed in agriculture, grow- 
ing crops of potatoes, sugar, and barley, and herding cattle, 
sheep, and llamas. "There are also a large number of root 
crops native there that are practically unknown here," said 
Dr. James Solomon. "One of my favorites is oca— Oxalis 
tuberosa — \Vs very sweet, if you allow it to sit in the sun 
five to six days after harvesting. It can be substituted for 
potatoes." Solomon was in St. Louis for several weeks in 
late fall. A member of the Garden's botany department, he 
is stationed in Bolivia as the holder of the William L Brown 
Fellowship provided by Pioneer Hi-Bred International of 
Des Moines, Iowa. "There is a tremendous diversity there 
of natural vegetation and cultivated crops," he said. "For 
example, Bolivia has a great variety of corn. In the U.S., we 
have very few under cultivation — basically there is sweet 
corn, and field corn — used in animal feeds— and corn for 
popping. In Bolivia, they grow different strains of corn for 
different reasons. One has, for example, dark purple 
kernels. It's used for making chicha morada, a corn beer. 

There are others used specifically for soups, or breads. 
What's important about these different varieties is that 
they are like living seed banks. Extensive use of a few 
species or hybrids can deplete the world of important 
genetic diversity. If farmers stop planting this large variety, 
eventually some of the strains will cease to exist, and we 
will have lost any benefits they might have provided for us." 

A similar threat to this diversity is posed by rapid 
destruction of the rich natural vegetation. "Like so many 
other tropical countries, social pressures are causing 
natural resources to be exploited without an adequate 
understanding of the complex interrelationships within 
these areas. We hope, with the cooperation of the Bolivian 
Academy of Sciences, to document what natural resources 
exist and begin to understand how they might be of benefit 
to man," Solomon said. 

Despite the number and diversity of plant species in the 
country, until recently there has been little botanical explo- 
ration in Bolivia. Aside from Dr. Solomon, there is one other 
scientist working in Bolivia collecting plants and assisting 
in the development of a herbarium for the country. "We 
have an agreement with the Bolivian Academy of Sciences 
to do this. It is an excellent opportunity to increase our 
understanding of this poorly known country and to provide 
specimens for our own herbarium and for other scientists." 

New Visitor's Center To Be Named for Ridgways 

The new Education center at 
Missouri Botanical Garden, sched- 
uled for dedication and opening to the 
public next summer will be named in 
honor of Louise G. and Edmund G. 
Ridgway, it was announced by C. C. 
Johnson Spink, president of the 
Garden's Board of Trustees. 

"The Ridgway Center will carry the 
name of Louise and Edmund Ridgway 
in order to recognize the generous 
support of Elmer G. Kiefer and his 
wife, Mrs. Ernstine Ridgway Kiefer, 
daughter of Louise and Edmund 
Ridgway," Mr. Spink announced. The 
late Mr. Ridgway was a co-founder of 
The Seven-Up Company in St. Louis. 

"The Ridgway Center represents 
the culmination of the Garden's 
Master Plan," Spink said, "which has 
been in progress since it was for- 
mulated in 1972. The building will pro- 
vide Garden visitors with an out- 
standing educational and aesthetic 
resource. And it will provide the 
means by which the Garden can im- 
prove its already well-deserved 
reputation for public service." 

"The Ridgway Center," Spink 
said, "has been a project supported 
by St. Louisans for St. Louisans. Its 
construction was made possible by 
contributions from private citizens 
and local organizations, foundations, 
the Kregge Foundation, and a Chal- 

lenge Grant for the National Endow- 
ment for the Arts. 

Contribution for Parking Lot 

Thomas Dunne, President of Fred 
Weber, Inc., has provided materials 
for the new Visitor Center parking lot 
at a cost considerably below normal. 
This amounts to a substantial contri- 
bution to the Garden. We are grateful 
to Mr. Dunne for his generous support. 

A visit to the Ridgway Center construction site 
will show the building taking its final form. 
Here workers install the translucent concourse 
roof in late fall. 

New Year of Trees 

This holiday, Tu Bishevat (mean- 
ing the 15th day of the month Shevat, 
and falling this year on February 8) is 
one of four days which mark a new 
year in the Jewish calendar— essen- 
tial for establishing important civil, 
political, and religious regulations 
connected with agricultural produce. 
The new year for trees roughly coin- 
cides with the end of the rainy season 
in Israel. 

In Israel today, this holiday is cele- 
brated as Jewish Arbor Day and has 

great significance as a symbol of the 
redemption of the land through the 
conquest of the desert. On this day, 
thousands of young trees are planted 
in ceremonies throughout Israel by 
young school children. 

From January 30 through Feb- 
ruary 21, the Garden will feature an 
exhibit for Tu Bishevat. Including 
barley, fig, acacia, and cypress, the 
exhibit will contain 15 trees and will 
be held in the Mediterranean House. 
Hours are 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. 


Translating Science 

(continued from page 1) 

was the first time for most of them — 
they got a first-hand feel for the river. 
So when they are in the classroom 
and the subject of flood plains comes 
up — or rivers — or they read about 
succession and the trees that grow 
along a river, it's no longer abstract. 
They have experienced them." 

Malcom Burns, a program partici- 
pant from Vashon High School, was 
impressed by these experiences." I 
have always lived in the city. It was a 
great learning experience, especially 
my exposure to the rural environment. 
I learned how nettles felt; what poison 
ivy looked like." 

Michelle Kollmar, from University 
City High School agreed. "I can see 
things with more depth. When you run 
water, it's not just tap water— you 
know where it came from." 

But the students learned more 
from their month than how to canoe 
and the basics of the water cycle. 
"They learned much on several dif- 
ferent levels," Wilson said. "We 
discussed and experimented with 
some of the latest research on air 
pollution and toxic chemicals. Often 
what is being taught in schools is 
several years behind the current 
research. The world of science 
changes so rapidly now; we wanted to 
provide assistance and resources to 
teachers on the most current research 
by bringing technical expertise from 
the university, from engineers and 

After hearing a lecture on the sub- 
ject, the students potted spiderworts 
{Tradescantia). They will place them 
in selected locations — along busy 
highways, in places the students con- 
sidered to be very clean, and in others 
they consider dirty. "Scientists are 
working with the spiderwort as a mon- 
itor of radiation and pollution levels," 
said Wilson. "Our doing this with the 
students is one example of what we 
mean when we say we are bringing 
current research into the classroom. 

"This is important because we are 
facing a time of environmental crisis 
in the city and world-wide. It is young 
people who will affect policies in the 
future. We wanted to give them infor- 
mation as well as leadership skills." 
Carolyn Wilson, from Southwest 
High, commented on that. "ECO-ACT 
is the future world of youth who are 
concerned about the environment. We 
are trying in our own way to improve 


Robert R Hermann, a member of the Garden's Board of Trustees, was honored with the 1981 
St Louis Award for his leadership in the creation of the first V.P Fair. The award was established in 
1931 by the late David P. Wohl and is presented annually to an individual who has made the most 
outstanding contribution to the St, Louis area during the previous year. Presenting the award to 
Mr. Hermann is William H. Danforth, chancellor of Washington University. 

the environment." 

Dave Wilson pointed to another 
benefit of the program; one apart from 
the exploration, the lectures, and 
experiments. "One of the benefits of 
having the students spend the entire 
month together was that they were 
able to discover different patterns of 
behavior among themselves. Not only 
racial, but religious and social. During 
the week of camping, one evening the 
students were sitting around the 
campfire and they began to discuss 
religion. Most of them learned for the 
first time what the differences were 
between religions. Some didn't know 
before then that there were dif- 

"One of the high points of the 
summer was the chance to share with 
kids from other schools. It will be neat 
for grade schoolers to have that 
chance," said Michele Kollmar. 

Because of the program's unique 
design and because it brings together 
students from city and county schools 
(Southwest, Vashon, Clayton, Univer- 
sity City, and St. Louis University high 
schools) ECO-ACT is recognized as a 
model for programs which advance 
the voluntary integration effort in 
St. Louis. 

Taking what they had learned 
since the beginning of August, the 
students developed activities that 
they are now directing for elementary 
school children. One exercise, entitled 
"School Yard Ecology" was devised 
to increase the children's awareness 

of their environment through their 
exploration of the school yard. 
Another, called "Web of Life," was 
intended to demonstrate the inter- 
dependence of all components of the 
life cycle. "Our objective in teaching 
is to get the grade school kids to look 
at their surrounding in a new and 
more sensitive way than they have 
previously," said Rob Wood, a 
St. Louis University High School 

Through the first week of Novem- 
ber, the thirty high school students 
had worked with 213 elementary 
school children. "A ratio of seven 
school children reached for each of 
the high school students we worked 
with," said Judy Studer. "In only the 
first two months of their teaching. 
This is what I mean when I talk about 
the effectiveness of educating people 
who will teach others." 

Gardening in St. Louis 

Coldframes & Hotbeds 

The only difference between a coldframe and a hot- 
bed is that the latter is heated (usually with electric 
cables). Both of these structures have many uses for 

Coldframes can be used to: 

1. Start cool crops such as lettuce, onions, broccoli, 
spinach, and cabbage six to eight weeks before they 
can normally be placed outdoors. 

2. Grow these same plants later in the fall. 

3. Overwinter tender plants such as seedlings of peren- 
nials and biennials. 

4. Overwinter bonsai plants. 

5. Store vegetables. To do this remove 18 inches of soil. 
Then place root crops such as turnips, rutabagas, 
beets, carrots, onions, celery on 2-inch layer of straw. 
Cover with another layer of straw. 

6. "Harden off" seedlings grown indoors. The cold- 
frame acclimates them to outdoor temperatures and 

7. Summer-over houseplants. Shade the frame with 
snow fencing or cheese cloth to cut down on light 
intensity and to protect the houseplants from wind, 
hail, and rain damage. 

8. Store spring bulbs to be forced indoors or in a green- 

9. Root hardwood cuttings. 

Hotbeds can be used for the same purpose as a cold- 
frame with the added possibilities for growing winter 
vegetables (dwarf varieties are recommended), forcing 
spring bulbs, growing cool-loving pot plants such as 
cineraria, calceolaria, primroses, azaleas, stock and 
pansies to maturity and for sowing seeds in early spring 
(annuals, vegetables, and perennials). 

Coldframes can be constructed of wood (1/2" thick) 
orcinderblocks. If you use wood, be sure to treat it with a 
wood preservative called Cuprinol. All other preser- 
vatives are poisonous to plants. 

Coldframe covers or sashes may be constructed of: 

Glass (old storm windows or doors)— advantages: 
cheap (if not purchased new), clear (will not discolor 
from sunlight) — disadvantages: inflexible, can break, 
expensive to replace, heavy. 




Plastic — advantage: light weight, cheap, flexible 
sizes, easy to replace — disadvantages: will rip, will sag, 
discolors in presence of sunlight, less light transmission 
than glass. 

Fiberglass (should be coated with Tedlar) — advan- 
tages: will not sag, easy to cut to size — disadvantages: 
less light transmission than glass, will eventually dis- 
color due to exposure to sunlight. 

Heating: hotbeds used to be heated by a 24-36 inch 
layer of fresh manure. This method was not very depend- 
able since heat from this fermenting manure was not 
steady and it was usually totally diminished by early 

Most gardeners today use heavy-duty heating cables 
which are placed beneath the soil in the frame. It is most 
important to purchase heavy duty cable which is capable 
of providing 16 watts per foot. This cable can by vinyl 
jacketed or lead armored. 

Management: it is important that the coldframe be 
properly ventilated. When sunlight strikes the frame it 
heats quickly. You can use a block of wood (1 inch by 4 
inches by 6 inches) to provide three different heights to 
elevate the frame sash. If you want an automatic ventila- 
tion system, try the new solarvents which do not require 

On cold nights, it is important to cover the coldframe 
with a blanket to prevent excessive heat loss. Double pane 
glass or a double layer of plastic with a 1 inch air space, will 
also greatly help retain heat. 

Water plants in the morning so they will have time to dry 
before evening. Keep soil moist since damp soil retains 
heat much better than dry soil. 

Steven A. Frowine, Chairman of Indoor Horticulture 

For Younger Members 

Pocket Gardening 

(ages 4- 7) 

Have winter doldrums beset your 
household? Are youryounger children 
yearning for warmer days of spring 
and summer? January and February, 
the cruelest winter months, can be 
brightened with a simple project that 
will delight the youngest family 
members. For a bit of spring in 
January, here's how to create a 
"pocket garden:" 

Materials: one or two lima or mung 
bean seeds (mung beans are available 

at grocery or health food stores), 
square of thick paper towel, small 
plastic bag (sandwich size), and water. 
Procedure: Show your child the 
seeds. Perhaps he or she has planted 
seeds before, cared for seeds, or 
watched seeds grow. If not, an even 
more special treat is in store. Cut a 
square of paper towel in half. Fold the 
half-towel in half again. Place the 
seeds in the center of the folded 
towel. Fold the towel ends over the 
seeds so that the seeds are com- 
pletely enclosed in a small package. 
Dampen the seed package with water, 

until the paper towel is quite wet. 
Wring out the excess water. Place the 
seed package into the small plastic 

Your child is now ready to place 
the entire package into a convenient 
dress or pants pocket. The "pocket 
garden" can travel with him wherever 
he goes. Encourage him to remove 
the pocket garden each day to see if 
the seeds have changed. The paper 
towel can be dampened again if 
necessary. Within a few days to a 
week the seeds will germinate. 
Ilene F 'oilman, Educational Consultant 

Chinese Trees 

When Alan Godlewski, the Chairman of Landscape 
Horticulture, returned from his two-month tour of the 
Peoples Republic of China, he brought with him several 
species of hardy plants that are common to that country 
but rare or non-existent in our own. These will be intro- 
duced into the Garden over the next few months. Sitting 
with us outdoors in the Garden on one of the warmer days 
of late fall, he described some of the interesting species 
that will be cultivated here. 

My favorite of the hardy plants I saw — and brought 
back — is Populus tomentosa. It's virtually unknown in the 
U.S. but used extensively in Beijing as a street tree. The 
foliage is very striking. On the upper side it is dark green 
and shiny, as though it has been polished. The underside is 
dull and appears silver; it is covered with fine tomenta 
(hairs). The petiole is flat, which causes the leaves to quake 
in the wind similar to a quaking aspen; the sound is like a 
rushing river in a mountain. The tree is fast growing — 
about two to three feet per year. There is one difficulty in 
cultivating — it's reproductive pattern is problematic. The 
seeds have short viability, only three or four weeks. By com- 
parison, oak seeds are viable for several months and maple 
seeds, if stored under proper conditions, are viable for 
several years. 

There are native hackberries already in the Garden — 
Celtis occidentalis— located west of the Lehmann Rose 
Garden. These differ from the Chinese hackberry (C. bun- 
geana) in leaf and fruit characteristics. Our native hack- 
berry has dull green leaves and fruit that is green when 
young and black when it is ripe. It is susceptible to a viral 
disease called witches broom which causes severe distor- 
tion of the branch ends. The leaves of C. bungeana are a 
bright shiny green; the fruit is yellow when it is young and 

Some sources claim that Orchidaceae is the largest 
plant family, with estimates of its size ranging from 500 to 
600 genera and 20,000 to 35,000 species. Other sources 
rank the family as second, behind Compositae (sunflower 

The orchid family includes between seven and ten per- 
cent of all flowering plant species. 

They are found in tropics, subtropics, alpine meadows, 
deserts and bogs. In Central and South America there are 
approximately 8,266 species, with perhaps 1 ,200 in Panama 
alone. (Panama is about one-half the size of Missouri. 
There are approximately 32 species of orchid in Missouri.) 

Most orchids in tropical areas are epiphitic, while those 
of temperate regions are terrestrial. 

Orchid flowers range from 1/16 inch to more than one- 
foot. The longest orchid plant is Vanilla, which is a vine. 
The most massive are Grammatophylum speciosum 
(Queen of Orchids) and G. papuanum, which have thick 
trunks up to 16 feet tall. Another species, Platyotele junger- 
mannioides grows to only about 5/16 inch high. 

Of all the hundreds of orchid genera, only one has 
economic importance — aside from those of horticultural 
value — and that is Vanilla. 

This is not to say that orchids in horticulture are any 


blackens as it ripens. C. bungeana reaches 40 to 45 feet in 
height when mature and has a large canopy of comparable 
size. It is also reputed to be immune to witches brooming. I 
believe it will prove a very nice tree for a large-scale setting; 
a park, for example. 

I also brought with me C. koraiensis, the largest-leaved 
Celtis. It's leaves are a nice light green and turn a light 
yellow in fall. It is more upright than C. bungeana. 

The persimmon is a member of the ebony family and as 
one might guess has very hard wood. There are several 
interesting Chinese species of Persimmon or Diospyros 
(from the Greek meaning grain of Jove which refers to the 
edible fruit.) 

Diospyros rhombifolia is a diminutive tree — about six 
to eight feet tall. Its fruit is orange and persists until ripe 
which is after the leaves fall making it very ornamental. The 
other is Diosphyros kaki (with fruit the size of an apple) 
which is the large fruited persimmon one finds in the 
market. Selective breeding and growing has led to a 
number of cultivars which are hardy in Beijing. Two types 
are commonly grown — one is astringent, the fruit of which 
must ripen until soft before it is edible. The other is a non- 
astringent type which may be eaten as soon as it turns 
orange; hence, it is crunchy. We will attempt to introduce 
these two varieties for testing here in St. Louis by grafting 
them on rootstock of our native persimmon Diosphyros 

Alan Godlewski's visit to the Peoples Republic of China 
was sponsored by the Garden's sister botanical institution, 
The Nanjing Botanical Garden. His trip was part of the con- 
tinuing exchange by the Garden for the advancement of 
knowledge and intercultural understanding. As space 
permits in future Bulletins, we will publish further descrip- 
tions of plant species brought from China by Mr. Godlewski. 

Orchids: More than a corsage 

small business. Each year, the two largest growers of 
Cattleya orchids in the United States sell a combined total 
of 800,000 to 1,000,000 flowers to floral wholesalers. 

In the 1980 catalogs of one of the largest orchid 
growers, prices ranged from $6 for a Dendrobium to $5,000 
for a Sophrolaeliacattleya. 

Many terrestrial orchids have tuberous roots that con- 
tain a nutritious starch-like substance, called Bassorin and 
also known as Salep, that was used to make a beverage 
that was popular in London before coffee was introduced 
there. It was so nutritious that it was a standard part of a 
ship's stores during the era of exploration by sea vessel. If 
provisions ran short, one ounce of Salep dissolved in two 
quarts of boiling water was considered sufficient nutrition 
for each man for one day. Salep was also used medicinally 
for gastric disorders. 

The Garden's orchid collection represents approx- 
imately 135 genera and 950 species and includes almost 
10,000 mature plants and seedlings. It is one of the finest 
collections of orchids in the United States. From 
February 6 through March 7, the orchid collection will be 
featured in the Annual Orchid Exhibit in the Climatron. 
The hours are 10 a.m. until 4:30 p.m. 

Garden Honors Busch, Krukoff at 1981 Henry Shaw Banquet 

August A. Busch, Jr. and botanist B. A. Krukoff were 
honored at the 1981 Henry Shaw Associates Banquet held 
on November 19 at the St. Louis Club. Missouri Governor 
Christopher S. Bond was the featured speaker. 

Mr. Busch received the Albert P. and Blanche Y. Greens- 
felder Medal, an award established in 1980 to honor per- 
sons who have made contributions to landscape, garden 
and park planning, and designing for urban improvements. 

In the 1950s, Mr. Busch opened a portion of his family's 
estate to the public. Known as "Grant's Farm," it includes 
much of the land farmed by Ullyses S. Grant prior to the 
Civil War. 

Besides being a popular area tourist attraction, Grant's 
Farm also includes the Busch Wildlife Area, which was 
established by Mr. Busch as a preserve for animals that are 
endangered species or are uncommon in the St. Louis area. 
The preserve makes it possible for visitors to see animals 
they would not ordinarily see in this area. It serves a pur- 
pose similar to that of the Garden, in that visitors can expe- 
rience the flora of the world within the Garden grounds. 

Dr. Krukoff received the Henry Shaw Medal, estab- 
lished in 1933, in recognition of his pioneering botanical 

Donald W. Williams 
ExOfficio Trustee 

Donald W. Williams, elected Presi- 
dent of the St. Louis Board of Edua- 
:ion on October 13, has joined the 
3oard of Trustees of Missouri Botan- 
cal Garden. Under the terms of the 
will of Henry Shaw, founder of the 
122-year-old Garden, the President of 
he St. Louis school board auto- 
natically becomes a trustee of the 
harden by virtue of his office. 

"Historically, there has been an 
excellent relationship between the 
aarden and the St. Louis public 
ichools, one that has been extremely 
►eneficial to the schools," Williams 
aid. "The Garden is one of the 

exploration of the Amazon River Basin in Brazil and his 
encouragement of the Garden's own botanical exploration. 
Born in Russia in 1898, he immigrated to the United States 
during the Russian revolution. In 1928 he made the first of 
eight botanical expeditions to Brazil; those expeditions 
resulted in the discovery of more than 200 new species 
of trees and shrubs, many subsequently named for 
Dr. Krukoff. 

During recent years, he has encouraged the Garden's 
botanical work, especially the exploration of Nicaragua 
and South Africa. The Garden's B. A. Krukoff Curatorship 
for African Botany is named for him and currently is held by 
Dr. Peter Goldblatt. 

Dr. Karl Folkers, a long-time associate of Dr. Krukoff's 
and the chemist who first synthesized Vitamin B 12 , intro- 
duced Dr. Krukoff to the Henry Shaw Associates. 

In his remarks, Governor Bond cited the importance of 
the Garden as an institution and as a cultural asset for the 
state of Missouri. 

Also speaking were St. Louis Major Vincent Schoemehl, 
Congressman Robert Young, and C. C. Johnson Spink, 
President of the Garden's Board of Trustees. 

Left: at the Henry Shaw Banquet are (L to R) the Honorable Christopher S. 
Bond, Mr. and Mrs. Frederick M. Robinson, and Mr. and Mrs. Whitney R. 
Harris. Center: August A. Busch, Jr. Right: C. C. Johnson Spink with 
B. A. Krukoff. 

cultural institutions that makes 
St. Louis a fine place to live. It con- 
tributes enormously to the quality of 
life and I look forward to having this 
opportunity to work with the Garden." 

Don Niederlander Dies 

The library has been saddened by 
the recent death of Donald R. Nieder- 
lander, who served as a volunteer in 
the library's bindery. During Don's ten 
years of service to the Garden, he 
donated more than 9400 hours of his 
time, helping to preserve and restore 
hundreds of important books in the 
Garden's library. Don particularly 
enjoyed working on large sets of 
publications, and one can enter 
almost any aisle of the library's 
shelves and find examples of his 
work, a permanent memorial to his 
dedication to his craft and to the 


Annual Systematics Symposium 

The twenty-eighth Annual System- 
atics, held on October 16 and 17, 1981 , 
was attended by nearly 300 biologists 
and graduate students. Begun as a 
midwestern meeting, in recent years 
the Symposium has become of na- 
tional and international interest, 
attracting both speakers and par- 
ticipants from all over the United 
States as well as several foreign 
countries. The Symposium has been 
partially supported by a grant from the 
National Science Foundation for all 
except the first year of its history. 

The subject of this year's Sym- 
posium was "Biological Studies in 
Central America," selected because 
of the general interest in this topic 
and because of the Garden's recently 
initiated cooperative program, Flora 
Mesoamericana, which is being con- 
ducted jointly^ with the Universidad 
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico and 
the British Museum (Natural History). 

Participants were given a broad over- 
view of the geology, flora, and fauna 
of Central America. 

Many of those attending the two- 
day event came early and/or stayed 
late in order to use the research 
facilities of the Garden's herbarium 
and library. Marshall R. Crosby, 

Director of Research 

Speakers at the 28th Annual Systematics Sym- 
posium were (L to R): Mario Sousa S., Univer- 
sidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Jay M. 
Savage, University of Southern California; 
Gerrit Davidse and Alwyn Gentry both of 
Missouri Botanical Garden; Peter J. Coney, 
University of Arizona; Christopher J. Hum- 
phries, British Museum (Natural History); Luis 
Diego Gomez, Museo Nacional, Costa Rica; 
and W. A. Clemens, University of California- 

Garden Receives 
USAID Support 

Missouri Botanical Garden has 
received a grant of $150,000 from The 
United States Agency for International 
Development (USAID) to conduct a 
3-year study of economically useful 
plants of the Eastern Andes. Focusing 
on selected areas in Peru, the project 
will survey the diverse and largely 
unknown tropical flora for new 
sources of food, timber, pharma- 
ceuticals, and oils. This is the 
Garden's first grant from USAID. 
Through its research programs, the 
Garden cooperates with institutions 
worldwide in conservation efforts, 
and planning for sound land use. 

USAID assistance programs in 
developing countries aim to increase 
productive capacities, promote eco- 
nomic and political stability, and 
develop human resources. The 
Garden will conduct the current study 
in cooperation with the Universidad 
Nacional de Amazonia Peruana in 
Iquitos, Peru. The two institutions 
have collaborated on Peruvian plant 
research for the past five years. The 
USAID funded research will increase 
scientific understanding of tropical 
plants, train Peruvian botanists, 
improve research facilities in Peru, 
and help foster cooperative relation- 
ships between the two countries. 

Author James A. Michener ana 

his wife, Marl, visited the Garden 
recently. Director Peter H. Raven 
conducted a tour of the Japanese 
Garden for them. 

Two new prints by Keith West 

are available at the Garden Gate 
Shop. "Wildflowers of the Capt 
Cod Shore" (pictured) anc 
•'Wildflowers of the Pacific 
Coast" are numbers five and si> 
in his Wildflowers of Nortf 
America series, commissionec 
by the Garden and the Britisf 
Museum (Natural History). 

Notes from the Garden 

January and February are not usually 

months in which people think of 
visiting the Garden, but there are as 
many reasons to visit during the 
winter as during the rest of the year. In 
the Climatron, Desert House and 

Mediterranean House it is hard to 
recall the winter outside. Imagine in 
February to be looking over thriving 
cactus, an acacia blooming, a papaya 
tree. It's all here. On weekends, 
heated trams run over the carefully 

Designer of the Japanese Garden 

Koichi Kawana made one of his 
regular visits here in late fall. Accord- 
ing to him, "We have begun planting 
trees along Alfred Avenue to screen 
out the buildings there from the 
Garden. We are also planning a Cherry 
Grove walk between the mounds and 
the Alfred fence. The Grove will be in 
contrast to the rest of the Japanese 
Garden, which is very open, similar to 
a daimyo lord's Garden. The planting 
in Cherry Grove will be more heavily 
concentrated to create an area of 
tranquil seclusion." 

More than flowers grow at Shaw's Garden. Minds do too. 

Educational programs for adults 

recommence in February with five 
courses offered during the month. On 
five consecutive Wednesday after- 
noons beginning February 3, Garden- 
ing from the Ground Up provides an 
introduction to essential gardening 
techniques for the new gardener. Fee 
for Members is $25.00. 

If you're intrigued by the idea of 
experiencing the Japanese Garden 
under a full moon in winter, consider 
joining the Evening Walk in the 
Japanese Garden on Saturday, Feb- 
ruary 6, 4:30 to 6:30 p.m. The walk will 
be conducted by our Curator of the 
Japanese Garden, Charles Hooker. 
Cost to Members is $5.00. Plum wine 
will be served. 

The third program in February is 
rhe Perennial Garden, scheduled for 
three consecutive Tuesdays begin- 
ning February 9. The course meets 
: rom 7 to 9 p.m. and concerns the 
nost important species of perennials 
and their cultural requirements. 

Taught by staff horticulturist Brian 
Ward, the course costs $14.50 for 

A two-session course on Winter 
Tree Identification is scheduled for 
Wednesday, February 10, from 7 to 
9 p.m. and Saturday, February 13, 
from 10 a.m. to 12 noon. The instructor 
is Robert Herman, Coordinator of 
Adult Programs, and the fee for 
Members is $11.50. 

Because of its popularity this fall, 
Botanical Illustration will be offered 
again during February. Expanded to 
five sessions, the course is designed 
to accommodate people of varying 
artistic ability and experience from 
the curious doodler to the profes- 
sional artist interested in the finer 
points of plant illustration. The course 
meets on five consecutive Thursdays 
beginning February 4, from 7 to 9:30 
p.m. The cost is $33.50 for Garden 

All five courses meet in the John 
S. Lehmann Building. 

A conference not held at the Garden, 

but one in which you may be inter- 
ested is the Global 2000 Conference, 

held on Friday, February 26, 3-9 at the 
Chase Park Plaza Hotel. The Con- 
ference concerns the results of the 
Global 2000 Report to the President 
published in 1980 by the U.S. Council 
on Environmental Quality and the U.S. 
Department of State. It predicted con- 
ditions that will develop if presont 
trends continue. Among those predic- 

tions was that 15 to 20 percent of 
plant and animal species now living 
will be extinct by the turn of the cen- 
tury, causing drastic consequences. 
The speakers include Anne and Paul 
Ehrlich and Dr. Peter H. Raven. The 
conference is partially sponsored by 
the Garden and registration is $2.00; 
dinner is $14.00. For reservations or 
information, please write: Coalition 
for the Environment, 6267 Delmar 
Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 63130. 

plowed paths in the Garden so that 
you can see the Japanese Garden and 
English Woodland Garden in the 
snow. The Japanese consider snow 
as a flower in the planning of their 
gardens, and our example here is 
possibly at its most beautiful in snow. 

The Tea House was revisited recently 

by Toshitane Hirabayashi, who super- 
vised its construction just over five 
years ago. Our Tea House was built in 
Matsumoto City, Japan, by master- 
craftsmen according to ancient tradi- 
tion. It was then dismantled, shipped 
to the Garden, and reconstructed. It 
was dedicated in a formal ceremony 
in October, 1976. 

The Isabelle Schwerdtmann Carillon 

was installed in Tower Grove House in 
December. The electronic instrument 
recreates the sound of 49 cast bronze 
bells. It will chime the hours through 
the day and play short musical selec- 
tions twice daily. 

Two lectures by Dr. Ron Taven, 

Professor of Horticulture at University 
of Missouri, will be presented on Wed- 
nesday, January 13. The first, set for 
10:30 a.m., is entitled "Trees are our 
Roots," and concerns the importance 
of trees to mankind. His second lec- 
ture—at 8 p.m. — "Our Earth is a 
Garden," deals with the reasons peo- 
ple garden. The lectures will be in the 
John S. Lehmann Auditorium and are 
co-sponsored by the Garden Club of 
St. Louis. Members are admitted free 
and may bring guests. 

The Education Department seeks 

volunteers to operate audio-visual 
equipment for lectures and special 
events sponsored by the Garden. 
Training sessions will be held on a 
regular basis to familiarize volunteers 
with the equipment, which includes 
slide projectors, a dissolve system, 
microphones, and stage lighting. 

Persons interested in further infor- 
mation should contact Judy Studer in 
the Education Department, (577-5140), 
by February 1. 

Specimen number 1,831,651 in the 

Garden's herbarium is a fern, Asplen- 
ium magellanicum, collected in 
December 1834, by a then-25 year old 
Charles Darwin. The scientist aboard 
the HMS Beagle, Darwin collected the 
plant on the coast of Chile when the 
ship docked there to take refuge from 
a storm. 


Elsewhere in this Bulletin Alan 

Godlewski describes some inter- 
esting, new hardy plants that he trans- 
ported from China to our Garden. His 
visit and those plants are part of the 
continuing cultural and scientific 
exchange between us and the PRC. 
Another part of this exchange is the 
spring, 1982, Members' trip to China. 
Leaving St. Louis on April 24, the tour 
will include visits to Beijing, Nanjing, 
Wusi, Shanghai, and Kyoto, Japan, 
and will return to St. Louis on May 13. 
Reservations are available, and may 
be made by calling the Members' 
Office at 577-5118. A brief series of 
lectures about China will be pre- 
sented by the Garden in the near 
future. Specific information will be 
included in the Spring Course Pro- 

grams brochure. You should receive 
this in the mail shortly. 
Another tour designed for Garden 

Members is also schedule for April 
2-7, 1982. Sponsored by Tower Grove 
House Historical Committee, the trip 
will visit Washington, D.C., and 
historic Williamsburg, Virginia. 
Missouri Senator John Danforth has 
arranged for a V.I. P. tour of the White 
House. The trip has been arranged to 
coincide with the blossoming of the 
cherry trees in our capitol. Part of the 
tour cost is a tax-deductible contribu- 
tion to the Garden for the refurbishing 
and restoration of Tower Grove 
House. Reservations and information 
are available by calling Martha Jones 
of Sante Travel Agency at 726-3040. 
The Christmas sale in the Garden 

Gate and Plant shops will continue 
through January 17. Larry Reimelt, 
Merchandise Manager, said. "This is 
a great opportunity for Members to 
save on some very fine items as well 
as to help the shops reduce their 
inventory to prepare for their move to 
the Ridgway Center." 
Mark Friday, February 5 on your 
calendar: 1982 Orchid Show Preview 
Party. This year's party is scheduled 
for 3:30 until 8 p.m. We have arranged 
these extended hours for your conve- 
nience so that you may have the flex- 
ibility to plan your dinner for before or 
after you attend. Angle parking on 
Tower Grove Avenue will be provided; 
we hope you will take advantage of 
these especially assigned spaces to 
avoid traffic congestion. 

October & November 1961 

Mr. & Mrs A. F. Boettcher, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs James Brickey 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Brown 

Ms. Ruth E. Buerke 

Mrs. John G. Burton 

Dr. & Mrs. Ralph Copp 

Mrs. Ernest A. Eddy, Sr. 

Mrs. Elaine W. Ernst 

Mr. & Mrs. Herbert I. Finch, Jr. 

Miss Florence E. Freyermuth 

Mr. & Mrs. T. Walter Hardy, Jr. 

Mrs. Milton H. Just 

Ms. A. Donna King 

Mr. H Terrance Kurrus 

Mr. Alan L. Lieberman 

Mr. Frederic G. Maurer, III 

Mr. & Mrs. C S. Newhard 

Ms. Sandra Posen 

Dr. Robert L Quaas 

Mr. & Mrs. John T. Ruester 

Dr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch, Jr. 

Ms. Anna E. Saban 

Mr. & Mrs. William Schueller 

Mr. & Mrs. Russell A. Schulte 

Mr & Mrs. Charles H. Spoehrer 

Miss Diana Wallach 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Williams, Jr. 


Dr. & Mrs. Oliver Abel, III 

Leona P. Aberle 

Mr Robert G. Adams 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald C. Ahrens 

Mr. & Mrs. Edmund C. Albrecht 

Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Alderfer 

Mr. & Mrs. Sterling J. Alexander 

Sister John Antonio, CPPS 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles M. Babington, III 

Mr. Tom Bade 

Mr. & Mrs. Keith J. Barbero 

Mr. & Mrs. Zane E. Barnes 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Mount Bean 

Mr & Mrs. A. Lyndon Bell 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth H. Bitting, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Blackburn 

Rev. Joseph H. Blattner 

Miss Sarah J. Bostelmann 

Mr. John H Bray 

Mr. Robert Brinkmann 

Misses D. & M. Britton 

Mrs. John B. Brnjac 

Mr. & Mrs. Lewis J Brown 

Mr. & Mrs Richard E. Butler 

Ms. Helen Capron 

Dr. & Mrs. Frank Catanzaro 

Mr. Elliot Chubb 

Mr. & Mrs. Victor Clever 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank Cloud 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Crancer, III 

Dr. Kurt R. Dahlberg 

Mr. & Mrs. A. W. Dahlgran 

Dennis Daly, S. J. 

Dr. & Mrs. B. F. Davis, Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret G. Decker 

Rev. Arpad De Kallos 

Mr. Aubrey Diller 

Mrs. Vojislav Dimitrijevich 

Dominican Community 

Mr. & Mrs. Irving Edison 

Mr. & Mrs. Leo E. Eickhoff, Jr 

Ms. Edna S. Elmers 

Mr. A. R. Elsperman 

Ms. Mary Faszholz 

Mr. & Mrs. E. C. Felt 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Finkenkeller 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Flint 

Ms. Helen E. Fitzroy 

Mr. & Mrs. Max Frederich 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Gaebe 

Mr. Glen P. Gelhot 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas E. Gephardt 

Mr. & Mrs. Israel Goldberg 

Dr. & Mrs. J. M. Grant 

Mr. & Mrs. L J Grigsby 

Mr. & Mrs. Barry Gunther 

Mr. & Mrs. Warren Handel 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack R. Harbison 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Harmon 

Mr. Elleard Heftern 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Heidbreder 

Ms. Ethel Helling 

Mr. & Mrs. James M. Henderson 

Miss Marilyn Heneghan 

Mr. & Mrs. Phil S. Hennessey 

Mrs. Gail F. Holmes 

Mrs. Thomas J. Hopper 

Jardin DuLac Garden Club 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Jones, III 

Mr. & Mrs. J. R. Jordan, Jr. 

Ms. Janet Jungclaus 

Mr. & Mrs. Ben Jurczyk 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Kaempfer 

Mr. & Mrs. M. Kataoka 

Mrs. Richard J Kautzman 

Sr. Kathleen E Kelley 

Miss Margaret C. Kiel 

Mr. Harry V King 

Mr. & Mrs. John D. King 

Mr. & Mrs. E. O Klein 

Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence M Kliewer 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard B. Kobusch 

Mr. Edwin L. Langenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Terry W. LaPlant 

Ms. Emily Lazarus 

Shirley Legibel 

Mr. & Mrs. James Lesniewski 

Mrs. Hugh M. F. Lewis 

Mrs. Allan W. Lindberg 


& Mrs Robert C. Little 


& Mrs. Leslie F. Loewe 


& Mrs. Paul Londe 


& Mrs. William R. MacGreevy 


& Mrs. Hunter F. MacWilliams 


Marshall S. Manne 

Master Typographer 


& Mrs. Francis J. McKeon. Jr 

Mrs. Marilyn H. McNamee 


T. McQueeny 

Rev. & Mrs. D. M. Megahan 


Wm. J. Meisburger, Jr 


Ralph Messmore 


& Mrs. James J Michael 

Mrs. Harry Milton 


Owen H. Mitchell 


W. C, Moody 


& Mrs. Harry L. Morris 


& Mrs. Noel Moss 


G. Mueth 


& Mrs. John E. Mullins 


& Mrs. Gilbert G. Munroe 


& Mrs. Donald K. Myers 


& Mrs. Jerry M. Myers 


Stephen J. Nangle 


& Mrs. George Nelson 


& Mrs Paul D. Nelson 


& Mrs Robet A Newsham, Sr. 

Mrs. Alice Niebur 


& Mrs. Harry A. Niewoehner, Jr 

Mrs. J. P. Ohrman 


& Mrs. Ronald L. OKelley 


Robert Packman 


& Mrs. G. Paddock 


Meredith J. Payne 


Virginia H. Peden 

Mrs. C. K. Pennington, Sr. 


Gary L. Petersen 


& Mrs. Robert Poetz 


Frank J. Pollnow, Jr. 


& Mrs. Robert Z. Reed, Jr. 


& Mrs. Richard Riezman 


& Mrs. Paul F. Ring 


& Mrs. William Robertson 


James W. Robinson 


& Mrs. Kenneth L Roffmann 


& Mrs. Edmund C. Rogers 


& Mrs Dennis A. Ruest 


& Mrs Chuck Schagrin 

Mrs. James S. Schindler 


& Mrs Lee Schnure 


& Mrs. Arthur P. Schrepfer 

Mrs. Julius S. Schweich 


& Mrs. Edward Senturia 


& Mrs. Edwin H. Shater 


& Mrs. Charles Simmons 


& Mrs. Robert J. Slattery 


& Mrs. Daniel L. Smith 


& Mrs. William Smith 

Dr. & Mrs. Stuart C Stanhope 

Mr. & Mrs. Lemoine W Stark 

Mrs. A. H. Steinmetz 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Streett 

Mrs. W. G. Sullivan 

Miss E. Sutcliffe 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry V. Svatek 

Dr. & Mrs. Robert Taxman 

Mr. & Mrs. David Thayer 

Mr. J. L. Tomasovic, Sr. 

Miss Janet M. Trost 

Mr. John Vandaveer 

Mr. & Mrs. William R. Vickroy 

Dr. & Mrs. Michael F. Vincenc 

Mrs. Robert B. Vining 

Mr. & Mrs. H. H. Vivrett 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald R Wagner 

Mr. Charles Scudder Sommer 

Mr. & Mrs. George A. Wagner 

Mr. & Mrs. Mahlon B. Wallace, III 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Waters 

Mr. & Mrs. B. K. Werner 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert H. Wetter 

Mrs. Elizabeth L. Whaley 

Mr Herman Wilier 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. L. Zielinski 


October & November 1981 


Herman J. Appel 

Ralph & Irene Ross & Esther 
Dr. Walter R. Bachhuber 

Claire Bachhuber 
Mrs. Paul D. Hamilton 
Laura Rand Baker 
Mrs W. Gillespie Moore 
Mr & Mrs. Edwin R. Waldemer 
Mrs. Mary Bardol 
Mr. & Mrs Harvey A. Hofmeister 
Mr. Clarence M. Barksdale 
Dottie & L. J. Grigsby 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert D. Krueger 
Dr. & Mrs. Peter H Raven 
Mr. & Mrs. Sydney M Shoenberg, Jr. 
Valerie Pantaleoni Terry 
Walter A. Beck 
Clayton Garden Club, Group 2 
Mary Ellen Beckers 
Mr. Erwin & Mrs. Lynn Blankenmeister 
Mr. & Mrs. Harold Blankenmeister 
Gene & Jutta Buder 
Mr. & Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 
Mr. & Mrs. Weldon L Canfield 
Consulate General of Japan, 
Kansas City 


Mrs. Fenton L. Crews 

Mr. Walter W. Dalton 

Mr. & Mrs. Calvin H. East 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Forbes 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam Fox 

Dr. & Mrs. Heinz Haffner 

Mr. & Mrs. Whitney Harris 

George K. Hasegawa 

Mr. & Mrs. Ben Jackson 

Elizabeth & John Kouri 

Guy C. Lamson, Jr. 

Mr. Henry F. Langenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Oliver M. Langenberg 

Mrs. Joseph W. Lewis 

Marsh & McLennan, Inc. 

Mr. John W. Matthews 

Mrs. Garret F. Meyer 

Mr. I. E. Millstone 

Mr. & Mrs. G. F. Newhard 

Nissho-lwai American Corporation 

Dr. & Mrs. Peter H. Raven 

Mr. & Mrs Theadore W. Riedel 

Mr. Henry C. Sharp 

Mrs. Ilsa Simpson 

Yasuo Sone 

Mr. Harold E. Thayer 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin R. Waldemer 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard U. Wilson 

Hillary B. Zimmerman 

Mr. Robert L Black 

Mr. & Mrs. John J. Bess 

Mr. A. Shapleigh Boyd, Jr. 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell 

Mr. Dan Broida 

Mr. Jerome A Gross 

Ceci & Henry Lowenhaupt 

Mr. Norman Buchre, Sr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert LaMear, Jr. 

Miss Bernadette Campbell 

Alice Nerlich 

Hartwell G. Crain 

Myra Simms 

Edwin Culver IV 

Elizabeth & Alexander Bakewell 

C. Calvin Christy 

Mrs. Kenneth Davis 

Mr. & Mrs. George Mendelsohn 

Mr. Harvey C. Doerr 

Mr. James L. Sloss, Jr. 

Dr. Saul Dworkin 

Clarissa & Ray Lippert 

Chiye Jeanne Endo 

George K. Hasegawa 

Mr. & Mrs. James I. Hayashi 

Bob & Marguerite Kuthe 

Dale Grant Farmer 

Eunice Farmer Fritsche 

Mrs. Alice Fisher 

Hazel L. Knapp 

Ruth E. Fogarty 

Mrs. Bernadine E. Zukoski 

Melba Fuder 

Mr. & Mrs. Dale W. Ehlers 

Mr. Clark R. Gamble 

Mrs. William S. Bedal 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Reine Gebhart 

Mr. W. J. Stewart 

Mr. James Haff 

George & Stephany Mendelsohn 

Debby Hansen 

Eunice Farmer Fritsche 

Mrs. Rose N. Hanson 

James Pollock 

Karen & Kirk Corbett 

Sidney M. Harris 

Ceci & Henry Lowenhaupt 

Mr. Benjamin Hayes 

Mr. & Mrs. Norman S. Cypers 

Gabriele DeWitt 

Rachel Holmes 

Josephine G. Heys 

Brother John Hotchkiss 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry Wuertenbaecher, Jr. 

Howard Van Eman Hunter 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Blanke, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Tom S. Eakin, Jr. 

39 US.C. 3685). 

1. Title of Publication: MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN BULLETIN Publication 
No. 00266507 

2. Date of Filing: October 1, 1981 

3. Frequency of issues: Bi-monthly — 6 issues per year. $5.00 per year 

4. Location of known office of Publication: 2345 Tower Grove Avenue St Louis 
Missouri 63110 

5. Location of the Headquarters or General Business Offices of the Publishers 
2345 Tower Grove Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri 631 10 

6. Names and complete addresses of publisher and editor are Publisher 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166. Editor Joseph 
M. Schuster, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, MO 63166 

7. Owner: Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166 

8. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning or 
holding 1 percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages or other 
securities: None 

9. The purpose, function and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt 
status for Federal income tax purposes has not changed during preceding 12 
months Authorized to mail at special rates (Section 132.122, PSM) 

10. Extent and nature of circulation: 

Average no. copies 

each issue during 

preceding 12 


A. Total no. copies printed 
(Net Press Run) 

B. Paid Circulation 

1. Sales through dealers and carriers, 
street vendors and counter sales 

2. Mail subscriptions 

C. Total paid circulation 

D. Free distribution by mail, carrier or 
other means samples, complimentary 
and other free copies 

E. Total distribution 

F. Copies not distributed 

1. Office use, left-over, unaccounted, 
spoiled after printing 

2. Returns from news agents 

G. Total (sum of E, F1 and 2 — should 

equal net press run shown in A) 


Actual no. copies 

of single issue 

published nearest 

to filing date 










I certify that the statement made by me above is correct and complete. 

(Signed) Joseph M. Schuster, Editor 
Manager of Publications 

Mr. & Mrs. Dustin H. Griffin 

Eleanor & Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Catherine Saxton 

The Boatmen's National Bank 

Scott B. Ittner 

Mrs. Dorothy L. Blumenthal 

Mrs. Oscar H. Fager 

Mr. Ted Florenz 

Charles & Mary Gundelach 

Mr. & Mrs. Stifel W. Jens 

Noel B. Kerth 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur R. Ocker 

Miss Grace Parle 

Ethel M. Poupeney 

Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence H. Stern 

Mr. & Mrs. Armin Stude 

Mr. & Mrs. D. J. Warren 

James Gray Jones 

Mr. & Mrs. James G. Alfring 

Elna Keitel 

Mary T. Rassieur 

Dr. Louis Keller 

Mr. & Mrs. Lester Adelson 

Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Alfred Kessler 

Donna Reinneck 

Mr. Edward Korn 

Dr. & Mrs. Michael H. Glines 

Mrs. Lillian Kratky 

General Grant Hills Garden Club 

Mr. Bernard Kuenneken 

Viola Villardi 

Mrs. Cora O. Latzer 

Mr. & Mrs. Calvin H. East 

Mr. & Mrs. Karl Hoffmann 

Mrs. Joseph E. von Kaenel 

Tamra & Peter Raven 

Mrs. Charles Schott 


Mr. & Mrs. Lester Adelson 

Mr. Joseph W. Lewis 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr. & Mrs. John Brodhead, Jr. 

Katherine Ward Burg 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur A. Dunn 

Erna Rice Eisendrath 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Raoul Pantaleoni 

Mr. & Mrs. D. L Schlafly 

Dr. & Mrs. William G. Sedgwick 

Mr. & Mrs. Sydney M. Shoenberg. Jr. 

Mrs. Lloyd Crow Stark 

Mr. James A. Maritz 

Bob & Jane Sharp 

Steven Mayhew 

Mr. & Mrs. James Hayashi 

Mr. Tom E. McCary, Jr. 

Jules & Bernice Brunner 

Edwin R. Waldemer 

Mr. Robert D. McCaslin 

Mr. James L Sloss, Jr. 
Mrs. Loraine McCormack 

Marjorie Mullins 

Mildred Trotter 


Mr. & Mrs. Lester Adelson 

Mrs. Evelyn Mooney 

Hazel L. Knapp 

Mrs. Florence D. Moore 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph K. Soebbing 

Mr. Abe Netter 

Mr. & Mrs. Peter H. Husch 

Mr. Donald R. Niederlander 

Marian & Gerry Barnholtz 

Julie Berra 

Mr. & Mrs. C. B. Blackmar 

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence Boles 

Ms. Mary B. Chomeau 

Elizabeth Clayton 

Mr. & Mrs. W. Allen Cleneay 

Mr. & Mrs. W. C. Conley 

Margaret G. Decker 

Morton Deutch 

Maryan Earl Eger 

Nancy S. Everett 

Mary K. Greensfelder 

Ellis Gregory, Jr. 

Mr. Jerome A. Gross 

Florence S. Guth 

Mrs. Caroline Hamilton 

Mildred R. Hessel 

Harriet C. Kearns 

Harva June Kennedy 

Carla Lange 

Love, Lacks, McMahon & Schwarz, 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Mykrantz 

Margaret M. Noland 

Bob & Marge Purk 

Tamra & Peter Raven 

Rose Mary Rudde 

S Sue Shear 

Janet & David Solomon 

Art & Mary Wahl 

Dr. & Mrs. Morton M. Weber 

Mr. & Mrs. George Williams 

Mrs Virginia Page 

Mrs. Kenneth C. Baker 

Four Seasons Garden Club 

Mrs. Francis R. Kohlbry 

Mr. & Mrs. C. Robert Pommer 

Liz Pappas 

Ann & Paul A. Lux 

William D. Pizzini 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Jane Prigmore 

Mr. & Mrs. R. J. Gaddy 

Mr. Walter F. Raven 

Mr. & Mrs. Frederic M. Robinson, Jr. 
Aura Roberts 

Mrs. John C. Morfit 

Mary Terry Rassieur 
Sheila Roodman 

Lester & Judy Goldmann 
Mr. Julius E. Schmaltz 

Fred & June Fangmann 

Mr. Frank H. Schwaiger, Sr. 

Elizabeth T Robb 

Vera Shellenberger 

Mitch & Marie Grzesiowski 

Mrs. Walter Skrainka 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph O. Losos 

Vera Spiegel 

Claire Hoener 

Mr. J. G. Taylor Spink 

Edith & Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Emilie Stein 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

Mr. Morris H. Suchart 

Mrs. Eileen R. Suchart 

Mr. James Taylor 

Mr. & Mrs. A. H. Baur 

Mr. Atanasio Teodoro 

Dr. & Mrs. Luis Schwarz 

Nancy Owen Thompson 

Mr. & Mrs. Gerald Pensel 

Mr. Robert Tillman 

The Bakewell Family 

Mr. William C. Traugott 

Mrs. J. Glennon Schreiber 

St. Louis Herb Society 

Mrs. Phebe Tybura 

Adams School Family 

Audrey Beatty 

Mildreta & Laura Beeh 

Fred Bonnard 

Patricia Burnett 

Rosemary Carr 

Marcella Carroll 

Mrs. Genevieve Childress 

Virginia Conyers 

Thelma Frost 

Mary Furderer 

Dorothy J. Gorsuch 

Marjorie Ivanko 

Adeline Kohn 

Mary Lewis 

Alice N. Lockwood 

Frank & Marge McCree 

Audrey Nagel 




January 1-9 After-Holiday Sale, Gate Shop and Plant Shop, 

continues through January 17, 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 

January 10-16 Lectures by Dr. Ron Taven, Lehmann Auditorium, 

January 13, 10:30 a.m. & 8 p.m. 

After-Holiday Sale: Continues 

January 17-23 After-Holiday Sale: Final Day, January 17. 

January 24-31 New Year of Trees: Mediterranean House, opens 
January 30, 9 a.m. -4:30 p.m. (through February 21) 


February 1 -6 Orchid Show Preview Party, Climatron, February 5, 

3:30-8 p.m. 

1982 Orchid Show Climatron (opens 

February 6) 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. (through March 7) 

New Year of Trees: Continues 

February 7-13: New Year of Trees: Continues 

1982 Orchid Show: Continues 
February 14-20 New Year of Trees: Continues 

1982 Orchid Show: Continues 
February 21 -28 New Year of Trees: (last day February 21) 

1982 Orchid Show: Continues 

Mr. & Mrs. Wade Norman 

Mrs. Milton M. Scharff 

Mrs. R. D. Stephens 

Carl Tasche 

Charles Tasche 

William Tasche 

August & John Tybura 

Edward & Melba Tybura 

Mrs. G.W.Welsh 

Paul Tyree 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Schogrin 

Thomas Waters 

Marian & Jim Cummins 

Mr. & Mrs. G. Gilmore 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Gribat 

Legal Dept.. McDonnell Douglas Corp. 

Doria & David Lichtenstein 

Mrs. Herbert Morisse 

Mr. & Mrs. F. M. Murdock 

Frank & Barbara Nutt 

Eleanor & Ernie Pyrmek 

John T. Sant 

Evelyn Tahan 

Dr. & Mrs. C. N Waters 

Mr. & Mrs. Dallas L. Williams 

Bill Weber 

Mr. & Mrs. T T. Okamoto 

Mrs. Hazel Weinheimer 

Mary & Kay Sherman 

Mr. William H. Wenking 

Mr James L. Sloss. Jr 

Ruth Wemhoener 

Ruth A. Hardin 

Charles Powell Whitehead 

Mr. & Mrs. M. R. Chambers 

Mary Yamamoto 

Mr. & Mrs. T T. Okamoto 

Mr. Ernest Zavadil 

Famous-Barr Employees 

Mr. Walter P. Zemitzsch, Sr. 

Ms. Bess J. Corn 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Mildred R. Hessel 


Mrs. John E. Angst 

Mr. & Mrs. William A. Bernoudy 

Mr. & Mrs. George C. Bitting 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert G. Blanke, Jr. 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

Mr. & Mrs. Calvin Case 

Dr. & Mrs. James T. Chamness 

Mr. & Mrs. William M. Claggett 

Mr. & Mrs. Edgar V. Dickson 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Ford 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Freeman 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Gardner 

Mrs. M. M. Jenks 

Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas Scharff II 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Schlafly 

Mr. & Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mr. & Mrs. Herbert M. Wilson, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald D. Wren 

The Ladue Garden Club 

The Garden Club of St Louis 

Dr. and Mrs. Peter Barker 

Mr. Jerome A. Gross 

Jacob Joseph Becker 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank Gollub 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Bussen 

Mr. & Mrs. Emil F. Schumacher 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Dr. & Mrs. Peter Raven 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles P. Duncker 

Maggie Becker 

Clark Becker 

Mrs. J. Maver Feehan 

Marjorie E Stauss 

Joseph Floret 

Jeanne & Lester Adelson 

Mrs. Florence Morris Forbes 

Seeders & Weeders Garden Club 

Myron Glassberg 

Ceci & Henry Lowenhaupt 

Jane and Milton Greenfield 

Jeanne & Lester Adelson 

Mr. & Mrs. Leon Bodenheimer, Jr. 

Malcolm Holekamp 

Mr. & Mrs. Jerome M. Rubenstein 

Mr. & Mrs. Joel Y. Lund 

Mrs Paul F. Ring 

Bettie & Arthur Koelle 

Mrs. R. V. McArty 

Mrs. Helen C. Ohline 

Mrs. S. F. Rothschild, Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Joseph Ruwitch 

Mr & Mrs. Lester P. Ackerman, Jr. 

Dr & Mrs. Max Deutch 

Mr & Mrs. Saul A. Dubinsky 

Ceci & Henry Lowenhaupt 

Carolyn & Jim Singer 

Mrs. Almaretta Schmidt 

Mr. & Mrs. Kille 

Mr. Tohtz, The BeeKeeper 

Jardin DuLac Garden Club 

The characters translate: "To Missouri Botanical Garden from Sun Yat-Sen 
Memorial Botanical Garden, China: One year is past; remember each othei 
in the song ot the swallow. " The painting was presented to Alan Godlewski 
during his recent trip to China. 


PO Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 







Volume LXX, Number 2 
March/April 1982 





Tulips: Passion and Sanity 

Fable: Once there was a Persian named Farhed who 
was in love with a woman, Shirin. Someone repeated to him 
a rumor that Shirin had died. He was so grief stricken that 
he mounted his horse and rode full speed off a cliff, killing 
himself. As the blood flowed from his wounds into the 
ground, red tulips instantly grew all around him. Today, the 
red tulip is a symbol of passionate love. 

"For most of our flower shows, we start work nine to 
twelve months in advance," Brian LeDoux said. He talked to 
us on a cold January morning. His office was crammed with 
a desk, a drafting table, another table, a chair, and a stool. 
There were reference books stacked and lined on the table; 
books on the history of plants, horticulture, and man's spir- 
itual, physical, and superstitious relationship to plants. 
LeDoux was trained as an artist and has been designing the 
Garden's flower shows for 7 years. He began designing 
them as part of his job as a horticulturist in the Climatron. 
When the number and complexity of 
shows increased, a new position was 
created for LeDoux as a full-time 

"This Spring Flower Show opens 
on March 6 and we ordered the 
bulbs for it last June. I'm beginning 
work now on the mum show for this 
September." During our conversa- 
tion, he was interrupted with several 
telephone calls about the Orchid 
Show which, at that time, was four 
weeks away. 

"Before we ordered the bulbs, we had 
to decide what we wanted. We requested 
bids from four Holland growers." Most 
spring bulbs come from the Netherlands, 
although growers in California and the Pa- 
cific Northwest have recently entered the 


Tulips came to the Netherlands from 
Turkey (to where the earliest mention of 
tulips can be traced) via Prague. A man 
named Carolus Clusius, who was pre- 
fect of the Royal Medicinal Garden in 
Prague, received some tulip bulbs 
from a friend of his in Turkey. When 
Clusius left Prague in 1593 to be- 
come curator of Hortus (the Leiden 
botanical garden), he brought tulips 

with him. Men who saw them saw a tremendous commer- 
cial potential for the flowers; some asked Clusius to sell 
bulbs to them. When he refused, they stole a number of 
bulbs from Hortus. Disgusted after the robbery, Clusius 
abandoned his work with tulips. 

By the turn of the 17th Century, Holland was in the 
midst of prosperity. Its wealthier citizens began buying 
tulips for their gardens and a competition developed. The 
price of the already costly flowers rose quickly. Men began 
investing in them, buying bulbs at inflated prices and resell- 
ing them at ridiculously higher prices. Some bulbs— single 
bulbs— were sold at a cost equal to that of a country estate. 
Ministers and legislators attempted to stop the speculation; 
sermons were preached against "the immoral folly;" laws 
were passed prohibiting it, but it continued as a black mar- 
ket. The profits— one source quoted 60,000 florins ($44,000) 
for a single month — were too tempting. 

Then on February 3, 1637, it was as if men were just 
awakening. At an auction on that date, 
buyers suddenly did not bid the prices 
that sellers established. Within three 
months, the market crashed; for- 
tunes were lost. Tulipmania became 
known as "wind trade" because 
men were dealing in something in- 
substantial. The high prices were 
extremely artificial and precarious. 

The list of flowers that will be used 

for the spring show is a long one. "We 

ordered 3,500 tulips, 1,200 narcissus, 

500 hyacinth, 400 crocus." There are 

7,350 bulbs in all, 14 different types of 

flowers. "We will have 16 forms of tulips 

alone. We wanted to emphasize to our 

visitors that there are many different 

types of tulip." 

They are named Darwin. They are 

named Rembrandt. They are named 

Chopin and Verdi. They are named 



It was a bulb named "Semper Au- 
gustus" and in 1624, it was sold 
for the equivalent of $1,200. The 
next year, two were sold for 
$3,000. A little later, three were 
sold for $30,000. A bulb named 
Viceroy was purchased for "two 

(continued on page 4) 


As most of you know, Missouri Botani- 
* cal Garden has been pursuing tax support 
jyy through the Zoo-Museum District in order 
to secure a stable financial base so that 
we can continue to provide our vital edu- 
cational, scientific, and cultural services 
to the community. In January, St. Louis 
Mayor Vincent Schoemehl and St. Louis 
County Executive Eugene McNary pro- 
posed a new economic development plan for the city and 
county which includes support for the Zoo-Museum District 
as part of a one-half cent sales tax levy. 

As this Bulletin goes to press, the Board of Trustees of 
the Garden have voted unanimously to endorse this propos- 
al; legislative hearings on the plan are imminent. This bold 
proposal offers great promise to the future of the St. Louis 
economy with its support for economic development, tour- 
ism, and cultural institutions. 

The Garden must establish a strong financial foundation 
as we move forward through the current decade and beyond, 

during which time the need for us to continue to maintain the 
diversity and quality of our services will become ever greater. 
This proposal recognizes the Garden's importance to the cul- 
tural and economic life of St. Louis and we urge all of our 
Members to support it. /'OJ. n f^~) 

Anne Lehmann 
Donates Restaurant 

Completion of the Gardenview Restaurant in the Ridgway 
Center will now be possible through a generous contribution 
by long-time Garden supporter Anne L Lehmann. The restau- 
rant, with a capacity of 175, will be decorated according to a 
tropical rainforest theme, calling public attention to the Gar- 
den's active tropical botany program. Anne L Lehmann re- 
ceived the Garden's 1980 Henry Shaw Medal. Her late hus- 
band, John S. Lehmann, was President of the Garden's 
Board of Trustees from 1953-57. 



Mr. /Mrs. Newell A. Auger 

Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr./ Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr./ Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr./ Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr./ Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr./ Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr. Carl L. A. Beckers 

Mr./ Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mrs. Richard I. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mr. /Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F. T. Childress 

Mr./ Mrs. Fielding L. Childress 

Mr./ Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr./ Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Dr./Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr./Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mr. B. F. Desloge 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mr./Mrs. Richard A. Dohack 

Mrs. H. R. Duhme 

Mr./Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mr./Mrs. David C. Farrell 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr. Gregory D. Flotron 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Mr. S. E. Freund 

Mrs. Clark R. Gamble 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr./Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mrs. Mildred Goodwin 

Mr./Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 

Mr./Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 

Miss Anna Hahn 

Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 

Mr./Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr./Mrs. Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr./Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Mr./Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Jean Maritz Hobler 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 
Mr./Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 
Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 
Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene Johanson 
Mr./Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 
Mr./Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 
Mrs. A. F. Kaeser 
Dr./Mrs. John H. Kendig 
Mr./Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 
Mr./Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 
Mr./Mrs. William S. Knowles 
Mr./Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 
Mr./Mrs. Charles S. Lamy 
Mr./Mrs. Oliver M. Langenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Sam Langsdorf, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. John C. Lebens 
Mrs. John S. Lehmann 
Mr./Mrs. Willard L. Levy 
Mrs. Zoe D. Lippman 
Miss Martha I. Love 
Mr. H. Dean Mann 
Mr./Mrs. James A. Maritz, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. William E. Maritz 
Mrs. James S. McDonnell 
Mr./Mrs. Sanford N. McDonnell 
Mr./Mrs. Roswell Messing, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. I. E. Millstone 
Mr./Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 
Mr./Mrs. John W. Moore 
Mr. Thomas Moore 
Dr./Mrs. Walter Moore 
Mr./Mrs. Eric P. Newman 
Mr./Mrs. C. W. Oertli 
Mr./Mrs. John M. Olin 
Mr. Spencer T. Olin 
Mr./Mrs. W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 
Mrs. Elizabeth R. Pantaleoni 
Mrs. Jane K. Pelton 
Mr./Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 
Mr./Mrs. Herman T. Pott 
Mr./Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph A. Richardson 
Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 
Mrs. G. Kenneth Robins 
Mr./Mrs. F. M. Robinson 
Mr./Mrs. G. S. Rosborough, Jr. 
Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 
Mr. Louis Sachs 
Mr./Mrs. David Sanders 
Mrs. William H. Schield 
Mr./Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 
Mr. Thomas F. Schlafly 

Mrs. Mason Scudder 
Mr./Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 
Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 
Mr./Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 
Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 
Mr./Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. John E. Simon 
Mr./Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 
Mr./Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 
Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 
Mr./Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
Mrs. Hermann F. Spoehrer 
Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 
Mr./Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 
Mr./Mrs. Hampden Swift 
Ms. Marie Carr Taylor 
Mr./Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 
Mr./Mrs. Jack Turner 
Mrs. Horton Watkins 
Mr./Mrs. Richard K. Weil 
Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 
Mrs. Ben H. Wells 
Mr./Mrs. O. Sage Wightman, III 
Mr./Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 
Mrs. John M. Wolff 
Miss F. A. Wuellner 
Mrs. Eugene F. Zimmerman 
Mr./Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 



Mr./Mrs. John W. Bachmann 
Mr./Mrs. C. Perry Bascom 
Mrs. Anne D. Bates 
Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 
Ms. Allison R. Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mr./Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr. 
Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 
Mr./Mrs. Joseph C. Champ 
Mrs. Frances Collins Cook 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr./Mrs. Henry P. Day 
Mr. Hollis L. Garren 
Ms. Jo S. Hanson 
Mr. George K. Hasegawa 
Mr./Mrs. William J. Hedley 

Dr./Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr./Mrs. Morris M. Horwitz 
Mr./Mrs. John C. Lathrop 
Mr./Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 
Mrs. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 
Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 
Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 
Mr./Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 
Mrs. Edward J. Riley, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 
Mr./Mrs. Louis E. Sauer 
Dr. John S. Schoentag 
Mr./Mrs. Walter G. Stern 
Mr./Mrs. Leon B. Strauss 
Miss Lillian L. Stupp 
Mr./Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr./Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 
Mr./Mrs. Donald L. Wolfsberger 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Robert Kittner 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H 


5^2 Member of 

fcASThe Arts and Education 

Fund of Greater St Louis 

DEN BULLETIN is published six 
times each year, in January, March, 
May, July, September and Novem- 
ber by the Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Mo. 
63166. Second class postage paid 
at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
$6.00 foreign. 

Board Elects 

New Trustee, Officers 

Ridgway News 

Donald Danforth, Jr. 

Donald Danforth, Jr. was elected 
to the Garden's Board of Trustees at 
the Board's January meeting. He is 
President of Danforth Agri-Resources, 
Inc., a diversified investment and man- 
agement company. He also serves as 
a director of Ralston Purina, Centerre 
Bank, and Centerre Trust Company. 
Active in civic leadership, Mr. Danforth 
is President of the Board of Trustees 
of Mary Institute, and is a trustee of St. 
Louis Children's Hospital, and the 
Danforth Foundation. He also serves 
on the boards of the St. Louis Area 
Council, Boy Scouts of America and 
the Arts and Education Council of St. 

Commenting on the election of Mr. 
Danforth, C. C. Johnson Spink, Presi- 
dent of the Board, said, "We are quite 
fortunate in this new association with 
Mr. Danforth, who brings to this office 
not only his unique abilities and expe- 
rience but also a deep commitment to 
the Garden as an important scientific 
and cultural resource." 

The Board reelected Mr. Spink as 
President, and William R. Orthwein, Jr. 
as First Vice-President. Robert R. Her- 
mann, Sr., was elected to the position 
of Second Vice-President. He succeeds 
Daniel L. Schlafly who had served in 
that capacity since February, 1975. Mr. 
Schlafly will continue as an active 
board member. 

Charles W. Orner was reelected as 
Secretary, and the Garden's Assistant 
Controller, Cheryl B. Mill, was elected 
to the newly created office of Assis- 
tant Secretary. 

Education Wing named for Jordan 

The Garden's Education Depart- 
ment will be located in the Ridgway 
Center following its completion later 
this year. Consisting of three class- 
rooms, a resource and reference cen- 
ter, a plant science laboratory, and an 
educational greenhouse, the educa- 
tion wing of the new center will be 
named for Mary Ranken Jordan and 
Ettie A. Jordan in appreciation for the 
generous support of the Foundation 
they established. "By more than tri- 
pling our educational capacity, the 
Jordan Education Wing will enable us 
to expand our programs, which pres- 
ently serve 40,000 students each 
year," said Peter H. Raven, the Gar- 
den's Director. The Jordan Founda- 
tion, a St. Louis-based foundation, 
was established in 1957. 

Resource Center 

Part of the Jordan Education Wing 
will be a resource and reference cen- 
ter, provided by the support of the May 
Stores Foundation, Inc., and the Nor- 
man J. Stupp Foundation. 

A new concept for the Garden's 
educational program, the Center is de- 
signed for use by teachers, youth 
group leaders, and others to assist 
them in developing lectures and work- 
shops. The Demonstration Room, a 
gift of the May Foundation, will in- 
clude lab tables and equipment. The 
Reference Room, a gift of the Stupp 
Foundation, will include slides, refer- 
ence books, and curricula files. 

CBS Grant for Classroom 

On January 18, the Garden re- 
ceived a grant from the Columbia 
Broadcasting System to provide for 
the design, construction, and fur- 
nishing of one of three classrooms 
in the Jordan Education Wing. The 
$132,500 grant was one of 13awards 
that CBS made to St. Louis area in- 
stitutions. In presenting the grants, 
CBS President Thomas H. Wyman 
said, "These grants serve as a rec- 
ognition of 13 marvelous, effective, 
and quite different organizations in 
this city." 

Accepting the grant for the Gar- 
den, C. C. Johnson Spink said, "Be- 
cause of this generous grant from 
CBS, we will be able to reach even 
more students of all backgrounds 
and circumstances, and increase 
our effectiveness as an educational 
resource for the community. We 
sincerely appreciate the concern 
and support that CBS has shown, 
not only to the Garden but the en- 
tire area." 

Louis Sachs, Construction Man of Year 

Louis S. Sachs, a member of the 
Garden's Board of Trustees and Chair- 
man of the Building Committee, was 
named the Construction Man of the 
Year by the St. Louis Construction 
News and Review. He was selected 
for his vision in acquiring 1,500 acres 
near Highway 40 and Clarkson Road 
in Chesterfield, and for his persever- 
ence in transforming raw land into one 
of the largest planned retail, office, 
and residential communities in the 

Louis Sachs worked as a special 
consultant to the Garden's Building 
Committee prior to his being elected 
to the Board of Trustees in January, 
1980. Following his election, he was 
named Chairman of the Building Com- 


(continued from page 1) 

loads of wheat, four loads of rye, four 
fat oxen, eight fat swine, twelve fat 
sheep, two hogsheads of wine, four 
barrels of beer, two barrels of butter, 
1,000 pounds of cheese, one complete 
bed, one suit of clothes, and one silver 

warmer, the bulbs will start growing 
like crazy, and bloom well in advance 
of the show." 

The Darwins are yellow; the Cho- 
pins are yellow touched by orange; the 
Verdi's are red and yellow. The Rem- 
brandts are worthy of their name, be- 
ing multi-colored, the color seeming to 
have been brushed on to the petals. 
The Attilas are purple. 

"The spring show this year is in 
the Linnean House," LeDoux said. 
"Since quite a few of the camellias 
that are permanently in the house will 
be in bloom, most of the bulbs we or- 
dered were meant to be compatible 
with the camellias. The color location 
of the bulbs will be based on the cam- 
ellias in bloom. You don't want colors 
to clash." 


After the tulip market collapsed in 
1637, men were financially ruined. 
Some committed suicide. Everard For- 
tius, a botany professor at the Univer- 
sity of Leiden, came to hate tulips. He 
began beating the bulbs with his cane. 

"I grow the flowers." Steve Wolff is 
a staff horticulturist who talked about 
caring for the almost 7,400 bulbs as 
though they were no more than a 
handful. "We potted these bulbs in the 
last week of October. Six tulips to a 
six-inch pan; one hyacinth to a four- 
inch pot; the narcissus are three to a 
six-inch pan. We used equal parts 
peat, soil, and turface. Turface is a 
substitute for perlite; it doesn't wash 
away as easily as perlite." 

Wolff supervised eleven volun- 
teers who potted the bulbs. "All of our 
potting for shows is done by volun- 

After they were potted, the bulbs 
were placed outside, protected by a 
cold frame. "The bulbs need 14 to 16 
weeks of cold. Most places— large 
growers and botanical gardens— can 
put them into cold storage rooting 
rooms and leave them. Two weeks at 
48°; seven weeks, 41°; 32-35° for six 
weeks. We're at the mercy of the 
weather. If a bulb needs 16 weeks of 
cold before we bring it in and in the 
14th week, the temperature becomes 

Plans for the Ridgway Center com- 
plex include cold storage facilities. 
"That will make our work easier," 
Wolff said. 

"In the cold frame, we watered the 
bulbs thoroughly and use a fungicide 
to prevent disease. About mid-Novem- 
ber we covered them with styrofoam 
peanuts— the packing material." 

"We thought the peanuts would be 
cleaner and neater," LeDoux said. "In 
the past we have used sand and or- 
ganic mulch, but then there is a diffi- 
culty in having to clean the sand off 
and having to dig them out with a 
pitchfork and run the risk of damaging 
the plants." 

"If we covered them sooner, it 
would get too warm," said Wolff. "We 
put a perforated plastic sheet over the 
styrofoam to keep it from blowing 
around. Then we placed the cold 
frame sash over it; I don't close it com- 
pletely, but leave a six-inch gap so 
that air can circulate. Once they are in 
the cold frame and are well-rooted, the 
temperature can freeze without caus- 
ing problems. If it freezes before they 
are well-rooted, the soil becomes too 
hard for the roots to grow. 

"We will bring the tulips inside 
about February third. To force them, 
they need about thirty days at 60°. 
Hyacinth need 14; narcissus, also 
about 14 days to be forced into 


Tulips can be bought today in gar- 
den stores, discount stores, drug 
stores, groceries. A teenage girl who 
babysits can buy a small package of 
bulbs for an hour's earnings— a third 
the cost of a movie admission; one 
sixth the price of a record album. You 
can buy a bouquet of cut tulips for a 
sick friend in the middle of a bad win- 
ter for about the cost of a reasonably 
priced dinner. 

Thirteen million acres of Dutch 
ground are planted in tulips. Their ex- 
ports total $200 million, almost 40% of 
which comes to the United States. 

"In the Linnean House, we put the 
flowers, still in their pots, on the sur- 
face of the ground, then mulch around 
them to cover the pots," LeDoux said. 
"The flowers are kept in pots so that 
the root systems of the camellias are 

not damaged by digging holes for the 
bulbs. It will take about two dump 
truck loads of mulch to mask the pots. 
We use leaf mold. The taller bulbs will 
be in back; shorter in front, in group- 
ings of one color. Say 20 pots of one 
color in one group. Their color can be 
appreciated in a group better than one 
here, one there. 

"Once the exhibit is in, it needs 
regular daily maintenance— watering, 
removing the plants that are finished 
blooming, and replacing them with 

"The last thing we do is the label- 
ing of the flowers and posting the in- 
terpretive material — information on 
cultivation, history, and so on. 

"After the show, it will take us two 
days to remove it. We have to leave 
the place as we found it." 

Plants Monitor Pollution 

(continued from page 7) 

will be useful in his work in monitoring 
pollution— the Tradescantia or spider- 
wort plant. 

"While at Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, I was able to visit Dr. William 
Lower (University of Missouri-Colum- 
bia), and Dr. T. H. Ma (Western Illinois 
University in Macomb). They have 
been working with Tradescantia for 
two years. 

"When it is exposed to pollutants, 
its cells grow additional micronuclei. 
The more pollution there is present, 
the more micronuclei that grow in the 
cells. We can see these under a micro- 
scope as small black dots. This will be 
very useful in our work. 

"We prefer to use plants to moni- 
tor pollution because it is simpler and 
less expensive than instruments, 
which are difficult to acquire in 

Pollution began to become a prob- 
lem in China in the early seventies, he 
said, following the end of the Cultural 
Revolution. "Farmers began coming 
to us to ask for help in determining if 
the increased pollution was causing 
damage to their crops. Our work be- 
gan in about 1973." 

Part of Wang's work also included 
the compilation, with colleagues 
throughout China, of a list of 100 
plants that were highly resistant to 
pollution. "The government wanted to 
encourage garden-factories to make a 
nice place for the workers. They asked 
us to determine which plants would 
be suitable for planting around facto- 
ries, for parks, and walkways." 

Gardening in St. Louis 

Home Vegetable Gardening Tips 

In 1981 there were 38 million home vegetable gardens. 
This amounts to 47% of all American households. It is pro- 
jected that up to 6 million more will join the ranks for 1982. 

Advantages of "Growing Your Own" 

Many people are initially attracted to vegetable garden- 
ing with the idea of cutting their food bills. Although a veter- 
an vegetable gardener will certainly save money, the begin- 
ner who has to buy tools, fertilizer, soil conditioners, etc., 
may be disappointed with how much he "saves." 

There are, however, many other even more important 
reasons to vegetable garden. At the top of my list is that 
vegetable gardening is fun. There are few greater thrills 
than seeing seeds, which you sowed, sprout and mature to 
vegetables for your table. The joys of vegetable gardening 
can be multiplied by sharing garden space with neighbors 
or developing a "mini" garden for children. 

Superior taste is another factor. Vegetables found in 
supermarkets are commercial varieties that ship and keep 
well, have a good appearance, and produce high yields. To 
most home vegetable growers these characteristics are not 
critical. When you "grow your own" you can select the most 
delectable varieties of leaf lettuce or exotic vegetables 
which will never appear in your grocer's cooler. 

Most commercial vegetable growers must harvest their 
produce before it is ripe so it can be shipped to distant mar- 
kets. Home vegetable gardeners can let vegetables ripen to 
their peak color, flavor and nutrition. 

What to Grow 

Here are some guidelines: 

• Grow vegetables that your family will eat. Do not waste 
precious space and time on less desirable vegetables. 
For instance, radishes are fun to grow, but who wants to 
eat a whole row of them? 

• Grow vegetables not available at your market, like celeri- 
ac, okra, leeks, New Zealand spinach, and shallots. 

• Grow the most perishable, but high-quality vegetables 
like leaf lettuce. 

• Grow at least a few new varieties each year. These intro- 
ductions are usually disease-resistant and vigorous. 

• If you have limited growing space, stay away from crops 
like corn and melons. They do not yield much for the 
space they need. 

One of the best vegetables all gardeners should grow is 
lettuce. It does not take up much space, is easy to grow, 
and is delicious. Lettuce is available in four types— Head or 
Crisphead, Leaf, Butterhead, and Cos or Romaine. My favor- 
ite is the Butterhead type. Unfortunately, many varieties of 
this type of lettuce "bolt" (go to seed) in hot weather. One of 
the best-quality, heat-resistant types is one called "Butter- 
crunch." "Tom Thumb" is a good miniature variety which 
can be grown in containers. If you want a variety of colors 
and textures in your salad, you may want to grow one of 
each type of lettuce. I would not recommend growing the 
head-type lettuce like Iceberg. It is more difficult to grow 
and usually yields inferior quality lettuce compared to other 

New Explorer potato from Stokes is the first potato you can grow from 
seed rather than "eyes." 

Lettuce grows best in cool weather. Begin sowing it in- 
doors in early March to be transplanted outdoors in early 
April. Seeds of lettuce can be sown outdoors in a cold 
frame in mid-March or outdoors in the ground around early 
April. These seeds can then be sown at 30 day intervals un- 
til late summer. Lettuce loves a high nitrogen fertilizer (the 
first number on the fertilizer bag). Nitrate of soda or urea are 
good ones. When your lettuce is young, apply light doses of 
fertilizer every few weeks. It is best to harvest lettuce when 
it is young because as it gets older it develops a bitter taste. 
Although lettuce grown in full sun will be most vigorous, it 
can also be grown fairly well in partial shade. 

Another excellent salad material is spinach. One of the 
best varieties for our warm summer is "Melody." This is an 
All American hybrid which is disease-resistant. Provide the 
same growing conditions for spinach as lettuce. 

New for '82 

Sugar Snap Peas are certainly one of the finest quality 
vegetables to grow in the home garden. This sweet-tasting 
pea can be eaten raw, pod and peas together, with a dip, stir 
fried, or lightly cooked. 

Unfortunately some home gardeners found the 6 foot 
growing height of this pea hard to cope with. A trellis of 
some type was a necessity. Luckily, the plant hybridizers 
were quick to realize this problem and have introduced for 
this year a new type of pea which tastes like the Sugar Snap 
Pea but has a compact, bushy-type growth habit. Several 
varieties will be available including Sugar Bon from Park 
Seed Co., Sugarrae from Hummert's Seed Co., and Sugar- 
mel from Gurney's Seed Co. 

Another exciting introduction for 1982 is the "Explorer 
Potato." Unlike most potatoes which must be started from 
sections of mature potatoes, this variety can be sown from 
seeds in the same way as tomatoes or peppers. If you have 
some extra space in your garden and haven't tried potatoes 
before, try out this new variety. 

Since these peas and potatoes are new for 1982, it 
would be advisable for you to obtain them from your seed 
supplier as soon as possible to avoid being disappointed. 
They will probably sell out early. 

— Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

Emblem of Changelessness 

We are struck by its color in autumn— the bright yellow 
that its fan-shaped leaves become. Holding a leaf, twirling it 
between thumb and index finger until it blurs from the spin- 
ning, we are struck by something else, something we recall 
reading— that this species of tree, the maidenhair (Ginkgo 
biloba), was rooted in the earth, growing, its leaves appear- 
ing, turning from green to gold, then dropping, millions of 
years before there was even a single man to find a ginkgo 
leaf, hold it, spin it until it was a blur of yellow. From the 
time the ginkgo first appeared until now, the equivalent of 
nine million generations of man has passed— more than 
180 million years. The earliest hominids (Ramapithecus) ap- 
peared about twelve million years ago; Homo sapiens, per- 
haps 400,000 years ago. 

The paleobotanist Sir Albert Seward, who wrote much 
about the ginkgo, said in 1938, "It appeals to the historic 
soul; we see it as an emblem of changelessness, a heritage 
from worlds too remote for our human intelligence to grasp, 
a tree which has in its keeping the secrets of the immeasur- 
able past." 

Ginkgo biloba is the sole-surviving species of a family of 
trees that once had an almost world-wide distribution. Fos- 
sils of the ginkgo and its relatives have been found in Aus- 
tralia, Asia, Europe, and North America. Preserved leaves 
have been discovered in Oregon, in barren Alaska bordering 
the Arctic Ocean; in Siberia, Greenland, and England. Geo- 
logic upheavals beginning about 75 million years ago, in- 
cluding an ice age, destroyed the ginkgo in most of the 
world, probably limiting its existence to China; perhaps to a 
ten-square-mile area in the Chekiang Province. Through cul- 
tivation, it has spread through the world again, being rein- 
troduced into areas it inhabited when dinosaurs dominated 
the earth. 

Since there is no substantial evidence that any wild 
ginkgos exist today (although Frank Meyer, a plant explorer 
for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and a member of the 
Garden's staff in 1904-5, reported finding a ten-square-mile 
area of wild ginkgos in China in 1905) credit for the preser- 
vation of the trees is given to Chinese priests who culti- 
vated them near temples; it has been suggested that these 
priests considered the tree sacred. 

Man's earliest records of ginkgo appear in the eleventh 
century in China; possible references to it have been found 
as early as the third century, where a fruit named P'ing 
Chung Kuo is mentioned in a poetical essay. However, as 
yet no scholar has been able to verify that this mention of a 


"silvery-colored fruit" is in fact the ginkgo. 

The tree was introduced into the west by Engelbert 
Kaempfer, a Dutch surgeon, who observed the ginkgo in 
Japan in 1690. He described it in his Amoenitatum Exoti- 
carum (1712), naming it "Ginkgo." There is much specula- 
tion that the name was an error of transcription, an errone- 
ous combination of the words "Icho," (which some claim is 
the word Kaempfer intended for the tree) and "Ginnan," (the 
name he intended for the fruit). The Latin name, Ginkgo 
biloba, was given to the tree by Carl Linnaeus; biloba be- 
cause the leaves are divided into two symmetrical halves by 
a V-shaped median. 

In 1784, an Englishman, William Hamilton, brought the 
ginkgo to this continent, planting several trees in Philadel- 
phia. Two of these still stand and are the oldest ginkgos in 
the United States. Today, the ginkgo is frequently used for 
landscaping, especially along streetsides; popular because 
it is hardy, is an excellent shade tree, and because its fo- 
liage is so striking in the autumn. Its wood is used as fire- 
wood, and for carved chessmen, and fine oriental lacquer- 
ware. Its nuts, yellow, fleshy seeds about the size of cher- 
ries are, as Meyer reported, "eagerly collected, cleaned of 
the ill-smelling pulp that surrounds them, and sold as a deli- 
cacy especially in central and southern China. They are 
always slightly roasted before being eaten, but their flavor 
does not appeal to the palate of the [West]." 

Scholars have suggested several theories to explain the 
longevity of the species. Individual ginkgos are remarkably 
long-lived; specimens in Asia are 1,000 years old, with one 
tree in Yongmun-san, Korea, being over 1,100 years old, and 
probably the oldest ginkgo in the world. They are apparently 
not affected by the numerous insects and pests that plague 
other trees, and have a high tolerance to smog and industri- 
al pollution. Edgar Anderson, writing in the Bulletin in 1967, 
suggested that the ginkgo once had parasites but that it 
has outlived them. David M. Jarzen (Neotoma 1981) observed, 
"It is ironic that the oldest living species of trees is better 
suited to man-made, often polluted environments than al- 
most any other tree." 

The longevity of the species has been partially attrib- 
uted to the fact that the individual trees are so long-lived. 
Writing in Science, Randolph T. Major said, "Evolution oc- 
curs largely through mutations of the genetic material 
[DNA]. These changes may be brought about by chemical or 
physical means. ..radiation. ..But while, both... radiation 
and chemicals are undoubtedly capable of causing muta- 
tions of. ..ginkgo trees, the importance of these changes is 
kept to a minimum by the rather long time span from one 
generation to the next. These trees do not begin to repro- 
duce until they are more than 20 years old, but they contin- 
ue to reproduce up the age of over 1,000 years... they have 
very much less chance of changing their characteristics 
than most other plants have, for most plants have a shorter 
reproductive period." 

There are ginkgos in several places in the Garden- 
along the path between Tower Grove House and the Japa- 
nese Garden; two flank the Main Gate near the lily pools; 
another is located near the Shoenberg Fountain beside a 
group of another "living fossil"— the Dawn Redwood, be- 
tween the John S. Lehmann Building and the Administra- 
tion Building. 

Letter from New Caledonia. . . 

I have recently returned to St. Louis from a two-week 
stay in New Caledonia, and I thought I would write you a 
short note describing some of my impressions and experi- 
ences there. As you may know, the XIII International Botani- 
cal Congress was held in Sydney, Australia, in late August 
and was attended by about 3,000 botanists from around the 
world, including seven of our own Garden staff members. 

I spent two weeks after the Congress with Gordon 
McPherson, our Assistant Curator stationed in New Cale- 
donia, and had an opportunity to see there, firsthand, the 
work he does. Our first week was spent camping in an area 
that was formerly mined for nickel and through which runs 
a maze of old mining roads, most still in reasonable repair. 
We were able to penetrate about ten miles into the moun- 
tains, covering the distance in about two hours in the Land 
Rover which we have stationed there. Ultimately, the road 
was blocked by sideslips, and we camped' in two different 
spots, making walking trips further down the roads to the 
patches of forest which remain on some slopes and in sev- 
eral valleys. Formerly, when prospecting was being done, 
the forest was simply burned off to make access easier. 
Due to the poor soils in the area, regeneration of the forest 
takes a tremendous amount of time, and this entire area, 
once forested, is now reduced to a low scrub dotted with 
the bare trunks of many of the trees that once stood in the 
area. This burning took place 30 or 40 years ago, but still 
there is no sign of the forest regenerating. The areas that 
escaped burning apparently escaped because they did not 
appear likely spots for mineral prospecting or perhaps be- 
cause the slopes were simply too steep and inaccessible. 

The highlight of our collecting on this trip was the dis- 
covery of a new locality for the new species of Oncotheca 
which he discovered about a year and a half ago. Oncothe- 

. . .And from Israel 

We are fortunate to be visiting colleagues at the Hebrew 
University for four days on our way to join the Garden's del- 
egation to the AETFAT Congress in South Africa. 

The joint moss project of the Garden and Hebrew Uni- 
versity is flourishing. Missouri Botanical Garden, with its ex- 
cellent world-wide collection of mosses (over 100,000 speci- 
mens), and Dr. Marshall Crosby, a world-renowned special- 
ist in mosses, allowed us to collaborate with Hebrew Uni- 
versity. Working with them through reciprocal exchanges of 
staff, we have been able to complete the initial phase of the 

ca is a tree that grows to about 60 feet. This genus is the 
only genus of the family Oncothecaceae, and before he ar- 
rived in New Caledonia only one species was known. He 
has now discovered a second and will be describing this as 
a new species later this year. The family occurs only in New 
Caledonia and its relationships to other plant families are 
obscure. In fact, the genus has been placed in several differ- 
ent families through the years as additional studies have in- 
dicated different relationships. 

The second week was spent mostly in the area of Nou- 
mea, because several other botanists arrived during this pe- 
riod, having made arrangements with Gordon ahead of time 
to have him help them with their fieldwork in New Cale- 
donia. Each botanist arrived with a long want-list of plants 
to be seen, collected, or photographed, and Gordon was 
able to find most of these plants for them. It was interesting 
to see the different kinds of projects that people are carry- 
ing out which involve plants from New Caledonia. One per- 
son who visited during my stay was Leo Hickey of the 
Smithsonian Institution, who is interested in leaves of primi- 
tive plants because he is a palaeobotanist working with fos- 
sil leaves. By doing very careful studies of the venation of 
leaves, he hopes to be able to both add to our knowledge of 
the overall classification of plants and make the identifica- 
tion of fossil material more reliable. 

For my own part, I collected about 300 specimens of 
mosses during my two weeks in New Caledonia. I also col- 
lected a few liverworts, and one is a significant addition to 
the known flora there. It is one of the most primitive liver- 
worts in the world, and will soon be described as a new spe- 
cies in the Annals, our scientific quarterly. 

—Marshall R. Crosby, Director of Research 

project, which included the difficult job of collecting, identi- 
fying, illustrating, and providing keys to the identification of 
different species, and the mapping of the distribution of 
each species. The next portion of the project, the descrip- 
tion of each species, is continuing at full-speed here, in Je- 
rusalem. Finally next year, the Israel Academy of Science 
will publish the moss flora of Israel in English, concluding 
this interesting joint project, and significantly adding to the 
better understanding of the world-wide distribution and the 
evolution of mosses. —Tamra Engelhorn Raven 

Plants Used to Monitor Pollution 

It has been known for some time 
that polluted air and water adversely 
affect plant life; in the 1920s, the Gar- 
den purchased land in Gray Summit, 
Missouri, with the intention of moving 
Missouri Botanical Garden there be- 
cause the sulphur dioxide pollution, 
caused by the burning of soft coal in 
the city, was damaging the plants 
within the Garden. Now a botanist 
from the Peoples Republic of China, 
Dr. Wang Jiaxi, reports that scientists 

there are using plants to monitor pol- 
lution generated by factories. 

"We use the gladiola and buck- 
wheat to monitor pollution levels near 
factories," said Dr. Wang. "Sulphur di- 
oxide is our most common pollutant; 
this we can monitor by using buck- 
wheat. Its leaves discolor when ex- 
posed to the sulphur dioxide. 

"We use the gladiola to monitor 
fluoride levels from aluminum and 
phosphorous fertilizer factories. Fluo- 

ride will cause the gladiola leaves to 
turn brown. We plant them at varying 
distances from the factories, then col- 
lect and study them to find the pollu- 
tion concentration." 

Wang was in St. Louis recently as 
part of the Garden's continuing pro- 
gram of exchange with the Nanjing 
Botanical Garden, at which he is the 
head of the Department of Ecology 
and Environmental Protection. While 
here, he learned of another plant that 

(continued on page 4) 

Notes from the Garden 

The Henry Shaw Fund Committee were honored by the trustees for their work. Being congratu- 
lated by Board President C. C. Johnson Spink (r) are (l-r) Robert Williams, Jr., Patrick Acker- 
man, Daniel Myers, and Gary Close, four of the Committee's members. 

The Arts and Education Fund of Great- 
er St. Louis is one of the most impor- 
tant sources of support for the area's 
fine cultural life. Organizations that 
benefit from the A&E Fund include 
KETC-TV, Opera Theatre of St. Louis, 
the Repertory Theatre of St. Louis, and 
Missouri Botanical Garden. The 1982 
A&E Fund Drive continues until April 
16, and we encourage your support. 
Further information is available from 
the A&E, 40 N. Kingshighway, St. Louis, 
Missouri 63108; phone 367-6330 

The Joyce Foundation has renewed 

its challenge grant to the Garden for 
1982. Through the grant, the Founda- 
tion challenges the Garden to obtain 
at least 1,000 new members, and 
$50,000 in increased contributions 
from current members during the year. 
If the Garden succeeds in meeting 
these goals, the Joyce Foundation will 
present a grant of $50,000 to the Gar- 
den. During 1981, the Garden met the 
Foundation's challenge, with 4,500 
new members, and 1,017 other mem- 
bers increasing their contributions or 
responding to the year-end Henry 
Shaw Fund appeal 

Four, color postage stamps featuring 
plants of the American desert were is- 
sued by the United States Post Office 
on December 1 1 The first-class, twenty- 
cent stamps depict the Barrell Cactus, 
the Beavertail Cactus, and the Sugu- 
aro of the Cactus family, and the 
Agave. The stamps were issued to rec- 
ognize the importance of preserving 
these and other desert plants in their 
native habitats. Approximately 160 
million of the stamps were printed. 

The plants featured were all origi- 
nally collected in the 19th Century by 
several explorers who shipped them 
to George Engelmann in St. Louis. Us- 


ing the specimens, Engelmann wrote 
the initial scientific descriptions of 
each and provided the Linnean name 
of the four plants. The original speci- 
mens (the type-specimens) were re- 
tained by Engelmann in his private 
herbarium. On his death, his herbari- 
um was acquired by the Garden, and 
today those four type specimens are 
housed in the herbarium in the Leh- 
mann Building where they are avail- 
able for scientific study. 

Dr. Engelmann was responsible 
for the initiation of the Garden's scien- 
tific program, today one of the most 
active in the world; Engelmann en- 
couraged Henry Shaw to include a re- 
search program as part of the Garden 
he founded. When Shaw created the 
Henry Shaw School of Botany at 
Washington University, he endowed a 
George Engelmann Professorship of 
Botany. The current Engelmann Pro- 
fessor is Peter H. Raven, the Garden's 

Contributions to the 1981 Henry Shaw 
Fund surpassed the goal of $350,000 
by more than 10%. Harry Wuerten- 
baecher, Jr., Chairman of the commit- 
tee announced at the January meeting 
of the Board of Trustees that $387,110 
was contributed to the fund during the 
year. The Henry Shaw Fund assists in 
the support of the education programs 
and provides that the Garden and its 
facilities are available to the greatest 
number of people. 

Members of the committee for 
1981 were Patrick Ackerman, Arthur 
Boettcher, Jules D. Campbell, Gary 
Close, Alan E. Doede, W. Ashley Gray 
III, William Heidbreder, Robert Kresko, 
Hugh Lewis, Dean Mann, William E. 
Maritz, Daniel Meyers, Mrs. C. W. Oert- 
li, A. Timon Primm III, George Rosbor- 
ough, Charles M. Ruprecht, Louis S. 
Sachs, Richard Shaikewitz, Robert 
Brookings Smith, Timothy K. Walsh, 
and Robert Williams, Jr 

Maureen A. Kelly was recently named 
Manager of Public Relations for Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden. She was for- 
merly the Garden's Public Relations 

"We are happy to promote Ms. Kel- 
ly to manager of our Public Relations 
program," Dr. Raven said. "With her 
abilities and experience, she is an ex- 
cellent asset in our continuing effort 
to maintain and improve our commu- 
nication with the people we serve." 

As Manager of Public Relations, 
Ms. Kelly is responsible for publicity, 
the expansion of the group tours pro- 
gram, and the supervision of the spe- 
cial events program. 

Prior to joining the Garden's staff 
in February, 1981, she was Regional 
Advertising Manager for Missouri Life 
Magazine, and a Consumer Affairs 
Analyst with The Seven-Up Company. 

Week of the Young Child: During the 
week of April 25-May 1, 1982, the St. 
Louis Association for the Education of 
Young Children (SLAEYC) will cele- 
brate the Week of the Young Child. 
SLAEYC is one of 240 affiliate groups 
of a national, non-profit organization 
with more than 35,000 members repre- 
senting a diverse range of services to 
young children. Service to the St. 
Louis area includes quality day care 
and preschool education for children 
under seven years of age. 

Shaw Arboretum offers living history 
programs for students in grades 4-12. 
These programs are designed to help 
the students understand our cultural 
and natural heritage by re-enacting 
the daily events of the lives of people 
of our past. 

In order to accomodate more stu- 
dents in this popular program, the Ar- 
boretum is soliciting materials for it. 
The list compiled by Greg Krone, Edu- 

The herbarium of Missouri Botanical 
Garden is the third largest of 1,400 her- 
baria in the United States, according 
to statistics published in the 1981 edi- 
tion of Index Herbariorum. The New 
York Botanical Garden and the U.S. 
National Herbarium at the Smithsoni- 
an Institution are the largest and sec- 
ond-largest herbaria, respectively. The 

A Missouri regional chapter of the 
North American Lily Society is being 
formed. Interested persons are invited 
to attend an organizational meeting 
on Saturday, March 27, at 10 a.m. The 
meeting will be in the John S. Leh- 
mann Building, and will feature a 
speaker on lilies, slides of the 1981 In- 
ternational Conference, and a tour of 
the Garden. For further information, 
call Fred Winterowd at 1-583-8932. . . . 

Flower Sunday for 1982 will be held on 
April 25, at Christ Church Cathedral, 
1210 Locust, in downtown St. Louis. 
An annual event provided for in the 
will of Garden founder Henry Shaw, 
Flower Sunday is intended for con- 
templation "on the wisdom and good- 
ness of God as shown in the growth of 
flowers, fruits..." The Cathedral will 
be decorated with several hundred 
potted flowers 

This year, the Week opens with a 
day of programs, entitled "Growing 
Together with Children," at Missouri 
Botanical Garden. Admission to the 
Garden on that day, April 25, will be 
free to the public, in honor of the 
week. This is an opportunity for fami- 
lies to enjoy the Garden and to share 
special experiences with their young 
children through activities in the John 
S. Lehmann Building. Details and the 
schedule forthe day will beannounced 

cation Coordinator, includes items 
used in cooking, crafts, carpentry, and 
recreation during the 19th century. 
Members having items that they think 
would be appropriate to a program 
concerning rural life in Missouri in the 
1800s should contact Greg Krone, 
Shaw Arboretum, P.O. Box 38, Gray 
Summit, MO 63039, or by calling 577- 
5138 or 742-3512. He can provide a de- 
tailed list for those interested 

Garden's herbarium is the fifteenth 
largest in the world; the largest is the 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle 
in Paris, which has 10.5 million speci- 
mens. The Garden's collection con- 
tains approximately 3 million speci- 

Index Herbariorum is an interna- 
tional directory of herbaria 

Several benches in memory of C. Pow- 
ell Whitehead, former President of the 
Board of Trustees, were recently placed 
in the Climatron. The benches were 
purchased with donations made to the 
Garden's Tribute Fund in the name of 
Mr. Whitehead 

Bible Plants for Home Gardens and 
Church Plantings, an exhibit in the 
Mediterranean House from March 27- 
April 25, is a fascinating display of 
plants resembling those of biblical 
times, with a concentration on those 
plants that can be cultivated in St. 
Louis area home and church gardens. 

The 1982 Spring Plant Sale is sched- 
uled for April 16-18. Garden Members 
are invited to a special Members'-only 
pre-sale on Thursday, April 15, 10 a.m.- 
8 p.m. Garden Members will receive a 
20% discount on all merchandise in 
the Plant Shop, including a large as- 
sortment of tropical plants, bedding 
materials, perennials, and vegetables. 

Of additional interest: Mark your cal- 
endars now for May 6-9. The Plant 
Shop will feature an Herb Sale on 
those days. The Members'-only pre- 
sale is May 6; Members will receive a 
20% discount. Details will be an- 

Something to plan for is the Garden's 
first annual Fall Festival. Members are 
invited to demonstrate and sell their 
crafts and hobbies during the three- 
day festival, October 8-10, in the Ridg- 
way Center. Booth fees are $15 for 
each day; the $45 must be paid in 
advance. For information and booth 
application, please send a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope to Fall 
Festival Committee, Missouri Botani- 
cal Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, 
MO 63166. Applications will be ac- 
cepted until September 1 

A sketching workshop is scheduled 
for May 15, 1982, at the Arboretum. 
The instructor, Gary R. Lucy, is an 
award winning, nationally-recognized, 
wild life artist. The cover of the 1981 
Southwestern Bell Telephone Directo- 
ry is a reproduction of one of his paint- 
ings. The course, How to Organize 
Your Thoughts for Nature Painters, 
will focus on loose sketching of com- 
positional elements of nature. The fee 
for members is $20. For information, 
please call Shaw Arboretum at 

The Adult Education brochure was 
mailed to Members in January. If you 
did not receive one or would like an 
additional copy, please contact the 
Education Dept. at 577-5140 or the Ar- 
boretum at 577-5138 or 1-742-3512. . . . 



(continued from page 9) 

The Garden's Director of Research, Dr. 
Marshall R. Crosby, was recently 
elected a Councilor of the American 
Society of Plant Taxonomists, a pro- 
fessional society. The Board of Coun- 
cilors is the governing body of the 600- 
member organization. The ASPT pub- 
lishes a quarterly journal, Systematic 
Botany, and a series of monographs. 
Dr. Crosby is a member of the editorial 
board for the monograph series 

C. C. Johnson Spink, President of the 
Garden's Board of Trustees received 
the 1982 Dr. Robert F. Hyland Award 
for meritorious service to sports. The 
award was presented by the St. Louis 
baseball writers at their annual ban- 
quet on January 11. Mr. Spink who re- 
cently retired as chairman of Sporting 
News, the publication referred to by 
many as the "bible of sports," was 
also selected as Sportsman of the 
Week for Today on January 11 

An eight-week training course for new 
Garden Guides will be held starting in 
September, 1982. After this training, 
guides will spend one day a week con- 
ducting tours of the Garden for groups 
ranging from pre-schoolers to senior 
citizens, and one morning a month for 
continuing education. Interested per- 
sons should contact the Education 
Dept. at 577-5140 for an interview ap- 
pointment or further information 

Because of so many requests, the 
Garden will increase its hours for visi- 
tors beginning May 1. On that day, un- 
til October 15, the Garden will be open 
from 9 a.m. until 7:30 p.m. Display 
greenhouses will open at 10 a.m. and 
close at 7:30 p.m 

For Younger Members 

Carrot Root Garden 

(ages 7-12) 

You can make a carrot root garden 
by gathering the following materials: 4 
fresh carrots that have tiny green 
shoots at the top, a shallow dish, 
sharp knife and small stones (pur- 
chased at a fish aquarium shop). 

First, you need to carefully cut 
each carrot 1 1 /2-inches from the top. 
Fill the shallow pan with the small 
stones. Place the carrot roots in the 
stones. Pour water into the shallow 
dish making sure to cover the carrot 
roots and stones. 


(ages 4-7) 

Simple and fresh and fair from 

winter's close emerging, 
Forth from its sunny nook of sheltered 

grass-innocent, golden, calm as the 

The spring's first dandelion shows its 

trustful face. 

— Walt Whitman 

A young child enthusiastically 
plucks the fluffy, white seedhead and 
gleefully blows away the seeds. Like 
tiny parachutes, they find their way to 
the ground. Such a familiar sight jogs 
all of our childhood memories. But 
when did the seedhead replace the 
bright yellow dandelion flower perched 
in its place only a day or two before? 
Many young children are not aware of 
the relationship between the yellow 
blossom and the white seedhead. The 
following activity will help them ob- 
serve the subtle changes which take 
place between flower and seed stages. 

In a few days, new fern-like shoots 
should appear atop the carrot roots. 
The best way to care for your carrot 
root garden is to water it regularly and 
to keep it out of direct sunlight. 

If no new shoots appear, your car- 
rots were probably too old. When the 
green shoots appear, they will be us- 
ing the food stored in the root. If the 
carrots are too old, the carrot root will 
not be able to provide an adequate 
supply of food. Other roots with stored 
food include beets, turnips and pars- 
nips. They can be used in root gardens 
also. —Ann Haley-Oliphant 

Coordinator of Youth Programs 

You will need: cup of water, alumi- 
num foil, sharp pencil, several dande- 
lion blossoms with long stems. What 
to do: Collect several dandelion blos- 
soms with your child. Fill a cup with 
water to a level one inch below the 
rim. Place a piece of aluminum foil 
over the top of the cup and secure it 
tightly around the rim. Using a pencil 
with a sharp point, poke several small 
holes in the foil, one hole for each dan- 
delion collected. Insert the dandelion 
stems through the foil holes and into 
the water. Place the cup of blossoms 
in a location where they may be easily 
observed by your child each day. Re- 
cord the daily changes through verbal 
exchanges with your child. Within a 
few days, the petals of the blossoms 
will close and the seedheads will de- 
velop. Your child might even want to 
pluck a few seeds, inspect them care- 
fully—and then blow the rest away! 
Ilene Follman, Educational Consultant 


December 1981 & January 1982 


William H. Armstrong, Sr. 

Robert E. Kresko 
Fred Cady Bailey 

Mr. & Mrs. Lonnie Lucy 
Mary Ellen Beckers 

Mr. Alan S. Atkins 

Dr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Bauer 

Ms. Frances J. Chapman 

Anthony M. DiPaolo 

Jean & Jackson Eto 

Mrs. Russell Fette 

J. Overton Fry 

Mrs. Lester J. Garber 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Japan America Society of St. Louis 

Mr. C A. Macllvaine 

Mae Marshall 

Paul Maruyama 

Mrs. Margie W. May 

Mr. George A. Newton 

Carol S. Smith 

Armand C Stalnaker 

Mr. & Mrs. H. Edwin Trusheim 

Wilmer J. Bergheger 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

Andrea Biggs 

Dr. & Mrs. Peter Raven 

John L. Bishop 

Bess Brinkman 

Josephine Chioni 

Mr. & Mrs. Ernst F. Frese 

Mrs. Nancy Cooper 

Elaine & John Henkle 

Harold Coyle 

Tom and Marie 

Mrs. Francis Douglas 

Jane C Allen 

Willard G. Eakin 

Mrs. H. C Grigg 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Chiye Jeanne Endo 

Robert T. Endo 

Carol Lynne Izumi 

Mae Marshall 

Sam M. Nakano 

Dr. & Mrs. George M. Tanaka 

Mr. & Mrs. Ben Wakasa 

Alice L. Fisher 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer Bowenkamp 

Mr. & Mrs. Evan Copsey 

Mr. & Mrs. John T. Davis 

Mrs. Katherine Davis 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Fisher 

Carrie L. Roehrs 

Margaret H. Spain 

David M. Freeman, M.D. 

Willis & Ida Mae McClain 

Reine Gebhart 

Mr. & Mrs. Meade Summers 

Isadore Gers 

Marcella Goldberg 

Esther Glick 

Lee & Harvey Shapiro 

Mrs. Anna Goodman 

Christy Goodman-Michner 

Mrs. Marguerite Hegyi 

Mr. & Mrs. C. J. Maurer 

Mrs. Wilhelmine M. Hemmer 

Ella Tappmeyer 

Helen D. Henry 

Mr. & Mrs. Dewitt Anderson 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas, Jr. 

Marie & Roy A. Dickie 

Patricia D. Funk 

Mr. & Mrs. William D. Harrell 

Mrs. Irene Heidemann 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Meis 

Mr. & Mrs. Arnold Schwab 


Mrs. Alvin J. Spring 

Mrs. Irma H. Stevenson 

Mr. & Mrs. Morris Stone 

Miss Katherine Hucke 

Thelma H. Bohle 

Scott Ittner 

Mrs. John W. Calhoun 

Mr. & Mrs. F. W. Florenz, Jr. 

Miss Helen A. Mardorf 

Mr. Leo Kapp 

Mr. & Mrs. Ross Luitjens 

Dr. Louis Keller 

Dr. & Mrs. Francis J. Burns 

Dr. & Mrs. John W. Fries 

Mrs. H. Edgar Kelley. Jr. 

Bert & Janet Lynch 

John V. Kilper 

Friends at Washington University 

Raymond E. Lange 

Mrs. Raymond E. Lange 

Lillian Lantz 

Garden Appreciation Club 

Clifford LaRoge 

Mr. & Mrs. William P. Evans 

Cora O. Latzer 

Mr. & Mrs. Calvin Christy 

Mrs. John L. Davidson, Jr. 

Hiram A. & Alice Fitch Lerner 

Phyllis & James L. McLean 

Alison & Nancy 

Dave Levin 

Margie & Bert Talcoff 

Mary Lewin 

Jeanne & Lester Adelson 

Mr. Joseph W. Lewis 

James G. Alfring 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Bascom 

Mr. & Mrs. Andrew H. Baur 

Mr. & Mrs. John Torrey Berger, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert G. Blanke, Jr. 

Mrs. R. Walston Chubb 

Dr. & Mrs. J. T. Chamness 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas R. Collins, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. B. B. Culver, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest A. Eddy, Jr. 

Mrs. John L. Gillis 

Japan American Society of St. Louis 

Mr. & Mrs. H. Leighton Morrill 

Betty & Roblee McCarthy 

Mrs. Glemroy McDonald 

Patricia J. Morriss 

Mrs. Frank E. Pelton, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Timon Primm 

Mrs. Walter Raven 

Eleanor L. Schlafly 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Carolyn & James A. Singer 

Gene & Tom Smith 

Robert Brookings Smith 

The Garden Club of St. Louis 

Janet & Ted Weakley 

Mr. Frank P. Wolff, Jr. 

Glenn Liebig 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Sherwood Lee 

William E. Liggett 

Mr. & Mrs. Loran G. Blaine 

Mr. & Mrs. Burton F. Connally 

Marilyn N. Koob 

Hadassah & Buddy Lebman 


Haim Oren 


Ruthi & Elia Sterling-Vancouver 

Betty & Dave Newbern 

Florence & Morgan Newbern 

Mr. & Mrs. David W. Welch 

Jane S. Luehrmann 

Mrs. Francis Holden, Jr. 

Eleanor Mallinckrodt 

St. Louis Regional Chapter, 

American Society of Landscape 

Mrs. Mayer 
Marye Kay Sherman 
Mrs. Marshall McCarthy 
Mrs. Arthur Stockstrom 
Michal J. Munie 
Mr. Ferdinand B. Zienty 

Mr. Abe Netter 

Mrs. Gloria Hogbin Luitjens 
Donald R. Niederlander 

Dorothy E. Farley 

Margaret Fox 

Elleard B. Heffern 

Mr. & Mrs. John H. Marshall 

Gary Saracrran 

Robert N. Swain 

Martha S. Taylor 

Eleanor Niesen 

Evelyn Gilsinn 

Mr. Arch Oberg 

Mr. & Mrs. L. P. Ullensvang 

December 1981 & January 1982 

Sponsoring Members 

Judge William E. Buder 
Mrs. Eleanor McK. Clark 
Mr. William N. Eisendrath, Jr. 
Dr. & Mrs. Lee T. Ford 
Mrs. Jeanne E. Haack 
Mr. Douglas B. MacCarthy 
Mrs. W. B. McMillan 

Sustaining Members 

Dr. & Mrs. Morris Abrams 

Mr. Thomas P. Anderson, Jr. 

Mr. John Beaumont 

Mr. & Mrs. John H. Biggs 

Mrs. William G. B. Carson 

Mr. & Mrs. William S. Cassilly 

Mr. & Mrs. William A. Deibel 

Mr. & Mrs. Mart E. De Tienne 

Mr. & Mrs. David Eiseman, III 

Mr. & Mrs. James H. Ewoldt 

Mr. & Mrs. Carlon E. Faust, Jr. 

Mrs. Imogene H. Hazzard 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P. Hopkins 

Mr. & Mrs. August E. Hurrelmeyer, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. George V. Kassabaum 

Ms. Mary L. Kerwin 

Mrs. John A. Latzer 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas T. MacCarthy 

Mr. & Mrs. Lewis R. Mills 

Mr. & Mrs. H. B. Morris 

Mr. & Mrs. F. H. Piepmeier 

Mr. & Mrs. C. R. Pommer 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Rasner 
Mr. Dominic Ribaudo 
Mr. & Mrs. Albert C. Roland, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. James Switzer 
Mr. & Mrs. George Swyschuk 
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas P. Taylor 
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Van Cleve 
Dr. P. Lynn Wakefield 
Mrs. James Walker 
Warehouse of Fixtures, Inc. 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter J. Weihe 

Contributing Members 

Mr. & Mrs. W. G. Alexander 
Dr. Paul R. Altsheler, Jr. 
Mrs. Mildred Armbruster 
Mr. & Mrs. R. N. Augsburger 
Mr. Norman Begeman 
Mr. Burton C. Bernard 
Ms. Esther Bialock 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Blanke, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard R. Blume 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Brown, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. M. E. Brubaker 
Mr. & Mrs. Edward P. Burke 
Miss Dorothy M. Byars 
Dr. & Mrs. Paul Carey 
Mr. & Mrs. Ed Creek, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Cox 
Mr. & Mrs. Irvin Dagen 
Dr. & Mrs. John J. Dann 
Dr. & Mrs. James W. Davis 
Mr. Donald De Fosset 

Mrs. Hisako Osawa 

Roy Pfautch 

Virginia Page 

Lillie H. Carroll 

Elizabeth Ricketts Palmer 

Mrs. William S. Bedal 

Mrs. Jean Pelot 

Mr. & Mrs. Jim Kille 

David & Kathy Lupo 

Evelyn Muether 

Gerald Presberg 

Lee & Harvey Shapiro 

John Robinson 

Mrs. R. E. Smyser 

Mr. Walter F. Raven 

Mrs. Harold M. Engelhorn 

Richard P. Ryan 

Sue & Kip Rapp 

Elsie Nutting Sansbury 

Mrs. John W. Calhoun 

Helen A. Miller 

Barbara Sapala 

Lillian & Alexander Borzym 

Harry & Jean Zdan 

Mrs. George Shimamoto 

Dr. & Mrs. George M. Tanaka 

Mrs. Katsuji (Ritsuko) Shoji 

Dr. & Mrs. George M. Tanaka 

Mr. L. M. Stewart 

Mr. & Mrs. James G. Forsyth 

Dorothy Stude 

Miss Helen A. Mardorf 

Edna L. Thias 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 

Mrs. Robert J. O'Donnell 

LaRue Van Meter 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Rose S. VonDach 

Hazel L. Knapp 

Dana Vonschrader 

Mr. & Mrs. Isaac C. Orr 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry Wuertenbaecher, Jr. 

Mr. Melchior A. Wagner, Sr. 

Mrs. Warren C. Bruce 

Mr. Charles E. Walsh 

Mr. Frank P. Wolff, Jr. 

Josephine Walter 

Ann and Judy Hutsell 

Robert H. Williams 

Mrs. William S. Bedal 

Mr. Walter P. Zemitzschand 

Evelyn Muether 


Mr. Lester Adelson 

Sam & Selma Soule 

Mary E. Baer 

Mrs. Helen K. Baer 

Mr. & Mrs. Lester Bamberger 

Mr. & Mrs. Saul Dubinsky 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley J. Birge 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald N. Brandin 

Mr. & Mrs. William M. Van Cleve 

Susie and Buck Yoder 

Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 

Mrs. E. R. Culver, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Smith 

Mr. & Mrs. H. Leighton Morrill 

Miss Catherine Whittemore 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Barsanti, Jr. 
Miss Elizabeth Gray Danforth 
Mr. & Mrs. William M. Van Cleve 
Mrs. Henry Freund 
Mr. & Mrs. Lester Adelson 
Mr. & Mrs. Leon Bodenheimer, Jr. 
Ceci & Henry Lowenhaupt 
Mr. & Mrs. Marvin Gerchen 
Lenore & Bud Rosen 
Mrs. W. E. Grand 
Judy & Jerry Rubenstein 
Mr. & Mrs. Roy Jordan 
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Key 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Bryan Martin 
Judy & Jerry Rubenstein 
Angus Dean McWilliams 
Hillary & Ira Zimmerman 
Nancy's Wedding 
Ann & Paul A. Lux 
Sophie Sachs 
Margie & Bert Talcoff 
Mrs. William Schield 
Mrs. Arthur J. Freund 
Mrs. Helen G. Wolff 
Mrs. Edward Schweich 
Ceci & Henry Lowenhaupt 
Yvonne Sunnen 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Fisher 

Ms. Sondra E. Delay 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert N. DeVan 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. T. Dooley, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Fred S. Epstein 

Ms. Nancy Fox 

Ms. Dorothy S. Franke 

Dr. & Mrs. I. I. Gottesman 

Mr. & Mrs. C. Gutdayzke 

Dr. & Mrs. Joseph E. Harvey 

Mr. & Mrs. George L. Hawkins, Jr. 

Mr. C. P. Herzog 

Mr. & Mrs. Caleb W. Holyoke 

Mr. & Mrs. Fred Jackson, Jr. 

Mr. Robert L. Kelley 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank L. Key 

Dr. & Mrs. M. K. King 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph F. Kuehnel 

Mr. & Mrs. Sol LaRico 

Mr. John L. Laufer 

Mr. & Mrs. John J. Lipke 

Mrs. Roger E. Lord 

Miss Peggy Lowe 

Mr. & Mrs. O. M. Lowry 

Mr. Mark Lyman 

Mr. & Mrs. Wilton L. Manewal, Jr. 

Dr. Joseph S. Martinich 

Mr. Arthur J. Meier 

Mr. & Mrs. Carl B. Merollis 

Mrs. Andrew S. Mills 

Mr. & Mrs. V. Monachella 

Mr. & Mrs. William O. Mullins 

Mrs. Peter C. Osterhus 

Mr. & Mrs. Carl Otto 

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Palecek 

Mr. & Mrs. H. D. Patten 

Mr. & Mrs. George T. Pettus 

Mrs. Rosetta C. Phillips 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Pillischafske 

Mr. & Mrs. Maxwell Rachlin 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Ransom 

Mr. & Mrs. W. B. Rigdon 

Mr. & Mrs. Gordon L. Roberts 

Dr. John Payne Roberts 

Mr. & Mrs. Guy T. Rose 

Ms. Louise T. Saucier 

Dr. Vicki L. Sauter 

Mr. A. Lee Shapleigh, II 

Mr. & Mrs. Paul M. Shatz 

Dr. Chung Yu Shen 

Mrs. Colleen Shen 

Mr. & Mrs. Luther Snelson 

St. Vincent Home 

Mr. & Mrs. Wayne L. Stephenson 

Mr. & Mrs. Ernest W. Stewart 

Dr. & Mrs. George M. Tanaka 

Mr. & Mrs. Matthew S. Toczylowski 

Mr. & Mrs. David F. Ulmer 

Mr. & Mrs. F. J. Weber 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Weber 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Witunski 

Mr. Ivan Wolff 

Miss Sallie S. Wood 

Mr. & Mrs. J. P. Woodward 

Mr. Joseph E. Wuller 

Mr. James H. Young 

Mr. & Mrs. David Zale 

Dr. & Mrs. John Zalewski 

Mr. & Mrs. Royall R. Zani 



In this month... the first Japanese Cherry Tree was planted in Washing- 
ton, D.C., by Mrs. William Howard Taft, on 3/17/1912. .. Mount McKinley 
National Park was enlarged to 2 million acres on 3/19/1932. . 

March 1-6 Members' Preview, Spring Bulb Show, Linnean House, 

March 4-5, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Spring Bulb Exhibit, Linnean House, opens to public. 
March 6, 9a.m. -5 p.m. (through March 21) 
1982 Orchid Show, continues in Climatron. 
until March 7, 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 

Spring Bulb Exhibit: Continues 

Spring Bulb Exhibit: Continues (Final day, March 21) 

Bible Plants for Home Gardens and Church Plantings, 

Mediterranean House, opens March 27, 
10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. (through April 25) 

Bible Plants...: Continues 

March 7-13 
March 14-20 
March 21-27 

March 28-31 


In this month .. .Arbor Day was first observed, in Nebraska, on April 10. 
1872. .. Primrose Day is celebrated in England annually on April 19... 
Charles Darwin died on April 19. 1882. .. Missouri's Arbor Day is April 

April 1-10 Bible Plants...: Continues 

April 11-17 Spring Plant Sale, Plant Shop, Members-only 

pre-sale on April 15, 10 a.m. -8 p.m. Sale open to public 
on April 16-18, 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. 
Bible Plants...: Continues 

April 18-24 Carnivorous Plant Exhibit, Climatron, opens April 24, 

10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. (through May 16) 
Bible Plants...: Continues (Final day, April 25) 

April 25-30 Week of the Young Child Celebration, Lehmann 

Building, April 25, hours to be announced. 
Flower Sunday, Christ Church Cathedral, April 25 
Carnivorous Plant Exhibit: Continues 

Note: Beginning May 1, the hours of the Garden will be 9 a.m. until 7:30 
p.m., daily. Display greenhouses will be open 10 a.m. until 7:30 p.m. 


The 1982 Spring Flower Show runs from March 6 
through March 21, 9 a.m. until 5 p.m. It is located in the Lin- 
nean House, the greenhouse constructed by Henry Shaw 
in 1882. The Linnean House is the oldest operating green- 
house west of the Mississippi River. 

The Members' preview of the Spring Flower Show will 
be on March 4 and 5, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Members will receive 
a 15% discount at the Greenery Restaurant, Plant Shop 
and Garden Gate Shop. This year, visitors to the Spring 
Flower Show will have the opportunity to order bulbs iden- 
tical to those featured in the Show. An order form with in- 
structions is located in the center of this Bulletin. 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis. Missouri 63166 






Volume LXX, Number 3 
May/June 1982 





A Tour of the Spice Rack 

The rack itself is walnut with four shelves, ten inches 
wide, two deep. A strip of beveled wood, a quarter-inch 
wide, runs along and about an inch above each shelf. This 
keeps the bottles from falling out of the rack, which is 
fastened to the kitchen wall. 

There are six bottles on each shelf, 24 four-inch 
cylinders, each an inch-and-a-half in diameter. If you con- 
sider a bottle as you would a globe, the label on it reaches 
from approximately 38° north of the equator to 38 ° south of 
it, and, using St. Louis as a longitudinal center, reaches 53° 
east to 53° west of the City. 

Each bottle is sealed with a white plastic cap screwed 
onto the glass. 

And inside? Inside each bottle of crumpled leaves, bark 
quills, dried seed, powdered bulb is — what? The essential 
flavor of spaghetti, coffee cake, chili, soup, steak au 
poivre? Yes. As well as history, prayers, lies, hope, vision. 
The bottles are lined there, on those shelves arranged 
alphabetically: Allspice, Basil, Bay Leaves, Cayenne, Chili 
Powder, Chives, on the top shelf; Cinnamon, Cloves, Cor- 
iander, Cumin, Dill, Garlic, on the next; Ginger, Mace, 
Nutmeg, Oregano, Paprika, Parsley, on the third; and, on 
the bottom, Pepper, Rosemary, Sage, Sesame Seed, Tar- 
ragon, Thyme. The labels tell us this much. 

But select a bottle at random. Cinnamon — second 
shelf, first bottle. Unscrew the lid and draw out a single, 
brown, three-inch long, curled quill. Cover and replace the 
bottle. Scrape the quill with a fingernail to release the 
scent, and have a thought of coffee cake, hot cinnamon 
toast, and 

In the Fifth Century B.C., the Arabs controlled the trade 
of cinnamon to the west, to Greece and Rome. To protect 
their market they were secretive about their source for the 
spice (the Orient) and "let slip" tales of its location and 
harvesting. Herodotus, the Greek historian we still remem- 
ber more than 2300 years after his death, recorded one of 
these tales. Cinnamon, the traders revealed, grew in moun- 
tains inaccessible to man. Large winged creatures used 
the twigs to build nests which they fastened with mud to 

even more inaccessible cliffs. To get the spice, the traders 
left large pieces of donkey meat on the ground below. The 
winged creatures swooped down, retrieved the meat, and 
carried it to their nests, which were not strong enough to 
support the weight of the meat. The nests collapsed, 
showering the ground with the cinnamon twigs. The 
traders quickly collected the twigs and escaped before the 
creature could capture them. Such a difficult and uncertain 
harvest necessitated a considerable price. 

In the First Century, A.D, Pliny the Elder pointed out 
that these stories were created by the Arabs to ensure their 

A dash of this: Prior to becoming a prophet, Mohammed 
was a part owner of a spice shop in Mecca. 

But then, what to say about cinnamon here in St. Louis, 
1900 years after Pliny disclosed the truth, about the quill 
you hold as you stand in your kitchen? That it probably is 
not the spice cinnamon, but cassia. Both spices are pro- 
duced from the bark of evergreen trees of the same genus, 
Cinnamomum, but cinnamon is from the species C. zeylan- 
icum, while cassia is from C. cassia. In 1938, the Food, 
Drug, and Cosmetic Act permitted the use of the name 
cinnamon for both spices; since then cassia has all but 
replaced cinnamon here. Cassia bark resembles the other 
but is coarser, thicker, and has a more intense aroma than 
cinnamon. Cassia powder is reddish-brown; cinnamon tan. 
When cinnamon is marketed, only the inner bark of the tree 
is sold. Cassia is the inner and outer b ark of C. cassia. 

A sprinkle of that: The Medieval Crusaders who con- 
quered the Middle East made spices available to Europeans 
at such low costs that even peasants were able to afford 
them. This new European spice trade contributed greatly to 
the prosperity of the Italian ports of Genoa, Pisa, and 
Venice, producing such great wealth that the Renaissance 
was possible; artists acquired support for their work. The 
great masters Michelangelo, Titian, and da Vinci were able 

to have Sponsors. (continued on page 4) 


In late March, I flew the length of 
Costa Rica in small planes and heli- 
copters to attend the dedication of the 
Costa Rican portion of the International 
Friendship Park, a thousand square miles 
of jungle that straddles the boundary of 
Costa Rica and Panama towards the 
southern end of the Central American 
! Isthmus. I was representing the Garden as 
well as the Organization for Tropical Studies, a 26-university 
association which includes Washington University and has 
been operating in research and graduate instruction in 
Costa Rica for some 20 years. 

Costa Rica is a small country that is extraordinarily rich 
biologically, like the tropics in general. Although only a third 
the size of Missouri, it has over four times as many kinds of 
plants (more than 8,000 species), and they are much more 

poorly known. Half of the forests that were present there 30 
years ago have been cut, most to create pastures to provide 
cheap beef for U.S. markets; pastures that subsequently lost 
their fertility and became unproductive. 

Costa Rica is staunchly democratic and a close ally of 
the United States, a bulwark of friendship in troubled Central 
America. More than eight percent of its land has been set 
aside as national parks, the highest proportion of any coun- 
try in the world. Outgoing President Rodrigo Carazo told me 
that he was especially proud of his administration's accom- 
plishments in this area. Facing severe economic difficulties 
at present, Costa Rica badly needs our help. The Missouri 
Botanical Garden is contributing in an important way to an 
understanding of the natural resources of Costa Rica and of 
the tropics in general, and will continue to do so to the limit 
of available resources. /O-i. 1 1 f^) 



Mr. & Mrs. Newell A. Auger 

Mrs Agnes F Baer 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr & Mrs. Alexander M Bakewell 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell. Jr 

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr. & Mrs Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr. Carl L. A. Beckers 

Mr. & Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert Blanke. Jr. 

Mrs. Richard I. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mr. & Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F. T. Childress 

Mr. & Mrs. Fielding L Childress 

Mr. & Mrs. Gary A Close 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr & Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Dr & Mrs William H. Danforth 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mr Bernard F. Desloge 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Jr. 

Mr Alan E. Doede 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Dohack 

Mrs. H. R. Duhme 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mr. & Mrs. David C Farrell 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr Gregory D. Flotron 

Mrs Forence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs Henry L Freund 

Mr S E Freund 

Mrs Clark R Gamble 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mrs Mildred Goodwin 

Mr. & Mrs W. Ashley Gray. Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H. C Grigg 

Miss Anna Hahn 

Mrs. Ellis H Hamel 

Mr. & Mrs Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H Hayward 

Mr. & Mrs Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr. & Mrs Robert R Hermann. Sr 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Jean Maritz Hobler 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr & Mrs. Stanley F Jackes 

Mrs John V. James. Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr. & Mrs Eugene Johanson 

Mr & Mrs Henry O. Johnston 

Mr. & Mrs W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Mrs. A. F Kaeser 

Dr. & Mrs. John H Kendig 

Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr & Mrs. William S Knowles 

Mr & Mrs. Robert E Kresko 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles S Lamy 

Mr & Mrs. Oliver M. Langenberg 

Mr & Mrs. Sam Langsdorf, Jr 

Mr & Mrs John C. Lebens 

Mrs. John S Lehmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Willard L. Levy 

Mrs. Zoe D. Lippman 

Miss Martha I. Love 

Mr H. Dean Mann 

Mr. & Mrs. James A. Maritz, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. William E Maritz 

Mrs James S. McDonnell 

Mr. & Mrs. Sanford N. McDonnell 

Mr. & Mrs Roswell Messing. Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs I. E. Millstone 

Mr. & Mrs Hubert C. Moog 

Mr. & Mrs John W. Moore 

Mr Thomas Moore 

Dr & Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr & Mrs. Eric P. Newman 

Mr. & Mrs. C. W. Oerth 

Mr. & Mrs. John M. Olin 

Mr. Spencer T. Olin 

Mr. & Mrs W. R. Orthwein, Jr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth R Pantaleoni 

Mrs. Jane K. Pelton 

Mr. & Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 

Mrs. Herman T Pott 

Mrs. Miquette M Potter 

Mr & Mrs. A. Timon Primm, III 

Mr. & Mrs Joseph A Richardson 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mr. & Mrs. F. M Robinson 

Mr. & Mrs G S Rosborough, Jr 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Mr Louis Sachs 

Mr & Mrs. David Sanders 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 

Mr. Thomas F. Schlafly 

Mrs. Mason Scudder 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr. & Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 

Mrs. John M Shoenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Simon 

Mr & Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mrs Tom K. Smith, Sr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Tom K. Smith. Jr 

Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 

Mr. & Mrs C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Hermann F Spoehrer 

Mrs. Robert R Stephens 

Mr. & Mrs Cornelias F Stueck 

Mr. & Mrs Hampden Swift 

Ms. Marie Carr Taylor 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles L Tooker 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack Turner 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard K. Weil 

Mrs S A. Wemtraub 

Mrs. Ben H. Wells 

Mr. & Mrs. 0. Sage Wightman. Ill 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 

Mrs. John M Wolff 

Miss F. A. Wuellner 

Mrs. Eugene F. Zimmerman 

Mr & Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 

Mr & Mrs Sander B. Zwick 



Mr & Mrs. John W Bachmann 

Mr. & Mrs. C. Perry Bascom 

Mrs Anne D. Bates 

Ms Allison R. Brightman 

Mr. & Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 

Mr & Mrs G A. Buder. Jr 

Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph C. Champ 

Mrs. Francis Collins Cook 

Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry P. Day 

Mr. Hollis L. Garren 

Ms. Jo S. Hanson 

Mr. George K Hasegawa 

Mr. & Mrs. William J. Hedley 

Dr. & Mrs August Homeyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Morris M. Horwitz 

Mr, & Mrs. John C. Lathrop 

Mr. & Mrs. Eldndge Lovelace 

Mr. & Mrs Shadrach F. Morris, Jr 

Mrs. Harry E. Papin. Jr. 

Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert A Ridgway 
Mrs. Edward J Riley, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. C. M Ruprecht 
Mr & Mrs. Louis E. Sauer 
Dr. John S. Schoentag 
Mr. & Mrs. Walter G. Stern 
Mr. & Mrs. Leon B. Strauss 
Miss Lillian L. Stupp 
Mr. & Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 
Mr. & Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 
Mr. Thomas L, Wilson 
Mr. & Mrs. Don L. Wolfsberger 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 


Member of 

The Arts and Education 
Fund of ' ire itei ' >1 I 

BULLETIN is published six times 
each year, in January. March, May. 
July, September and November by the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 
299. St. Louis, Mo 63166. Second 
class postage paid at St. Louis, Mo 
$5.00 per year. $6.00 foreign 

Gardening in St. Louis 

It's Tomato Time 

It is ironic that the tomato, once con- 
sidered by American colonists as poison- 
ous, is today's most popular vegetable 
(or more correctly, fruit). 

Anyone who has sampled a fresh- 
from-the-garden bacon, lettuce and 
tomato sandwich knows why every 
gardener grows at least one tomato 
plant. In addition to being tasty, tomatoes 
are a good source of Vitamins A and C. 
They can be eaten raw, fried, broiled, or 
stuffed. Dieters can eat their fill of tomatoes 
since 3Vz ounces of raw tomato contains only 22 calories. 

When you buy tomato plants, look for disease-resistant 
varieties. Plants resistant to two fungal diseases which 
cause wilt, Fusarium and Verticillium, and to nematodes, 
very small eel-like creatures which enter and damage roots, 
are referred to as VFN hybrids. 

Try several different varieties so you can see which 
ones grow best for you and which ones appeal to your taste 
buds. My favorite variety is Better Boy. It is disease- 
resistant and is a prolific producer in St. Louis. 

Here are some tips on transplanting tomatoes: 

1. Harden plants off for about a week before you plant. Do 
this by letting them get drier than normal between water- 
ings and by placing them in a coldframe to acclimate them 
to outdoor temperatures and bright light intensity. 

Ask your garden supplier if he has done this before you 
buy them. Tomatoes which have not been hardened off will 
wilt dramatically after they have been exposed to full 

2. Transplant in the morning or early evening or during an 
overcast day. This gives the plant a chance to get "settled 
in" before the searing sun causes its leaves to become 
dehydrated. It is natural for newly transplanted tomatoes to 
wilt during the day. They should, however, regain their stiff- 
ness (called turgidity) during the evening. 

3. Always water the plants thoroughly immediately after 
they have been planted. 

4. If the plant is compact, sink it into the garden soil about 2 
inches deeper than it was planted in the pot. If it is tall and 
leggy, the plant should be sunk 6 inches or more. The plant 
will quickly send roots out from this sunken stem. 

5. Choose a sunny spot for your tomatoes. These plants are 
tropical, so they need much light and warmth in order to 
produce to their maximum. 

6. Apply three to four pounds of 5-10-5 fertilizer per 100 
square feet of growing space. 

7. If your plants are purchased in compressed peat pots, be 
sure to rip off at least 1 inch of the edge of the pot and tear 
out the bottom. If you don't do this, the peat will dry and 
prevent the roots from penetrating it. 

8. Mulch the plants with black plastic. This material retains 
moisture, prevents weed growth, and provides extra 

warmth which crops like tomato plants 
relish. Black plastic also will discourage 
visits from those unwanted garden 
pests, slugs. 

Organic mulches such as straw and 
leaves will retain moisture and prevent 
weed growth, but, unfortunately, they 
also create an ideal retreat for slugs and 
9. Stake your plants. Three methods are 
most commonly used: a. Staking each plant 
individually and continuously removing all side 
shoots or suckers; b. Growing on a trellis; c. Growing in a 
cage of concrete-reinforcing wire. 

The trellis and cages can be made of 10 gauge con- 
crete-reinforcing wire (6 inch mesh) which has been treated 
with rust-proof paint or has been plastic coated. Make sure 
the gauge of the wire is heavy enough to support a fruit- 
laden vine. To make an 18 inch cage requires 5Vi feet 
of wire. 


In this issue I have reprinted a list of some of the 
vegetable varieties which our staff horticulturists have 
chosen for their own gardens. These were selected for 
taste as well as for their ability to thrive in St. Louis. Most of 
these varieties are available in our Plant Shop. 

Beans: Tender Crop (bush type), Burpee's Stringless 
Green Pod (bush), Kentucky Wonder (pole type), Fordhook 
242 (lima beans); Beets: Detroit Dark Red; Broccoli: Green 
Comet, Premier; Carrot: Oxheart, Chantenay Red; Cauli- 
flower: Early Snowball, Snow Crown; Cabbage: Golden 
Acre, Emerald Cross, Red Acre (Red Variety); Corn (Sweet): 
Honeycomb, Golden Cross Bantam Hybrid; Cucumber: 
Lucky Strike (pickling variety), Ashley, Straight Eight; Egg- 
plant: Jersey King, Black Beauty; Kale: Dwarf Siberian, 
Blue Curled Scotch; Lettuce: Butter Crunch, Salad Bowl, 
Black Seeded Simpson; Onion: Yellow Utah, Yellow Sweet 
Spanish, Southport White Globe, Southport Red Globe; 
Parsley: Double Curled, Spartan Bonus; Peas: Sugar Snap 
Peas, Green Arrow, Little Marvel Peas, Sugar Mel; Pepper: 
California Wonder, Yolo Wonder, Bell Boy; Potatoes (Irish): 
Red Pontiac, Norgold Russet; Potatoes (Sweet): All Good, 
Centennial; Radish: Cherry Belle; Rhubarb: Victoria; 
Spinach: Bloomsdale-Longstanding, Melody; Squash: 
Early Whitebush Scallop, Early Butternut Hybrid, Gold 
Rush (Gold Zucchini); Squash (Winter): Table Queen 
(Acorn)-Vining Type, Butternut, Table King; Tomatoes: 
Avalanche, Beef Master, Better Boy, Roma (Pastel), 
Supreme, Golden Boy (Yellow Acid-Free Type); Turnip: 
Purple Top, White Globe. 

-Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

The tomato, a member of the Solanaceae (potato) 
family, will be featured with other common and uncom- 
mon Solanaceae in an exhibit from July 31 to August 15. 
This will coincide with the Second International Sym- 
posium on the Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae, 
August 3-6, which will bring 200 scientists from around 
the world here to discuss current research in this impor- 
tant plant family. 

A Tour of the Spice Rack 

(continued from page 1) 

You replace the cinnamon and 
move your hand down the same shelf 
to the last bottle on the right. Garlic, 
dried and powdered. A clove on a 
string around the neck would keep 
vampires away, you recall from the 
black-and-white Bela Lugosi films. 

When you open the bottle, 
sprinkle some into your open palm, 
and lift your hand to your nose and 
inhale, the aroma is not strong. The 
garlic needs to be rehydrated, sim- 
mered in butter; a thick spaghetti 
sauce perhaps. 

Garlic, the spice, is the composite 
bulb of Allium sativum; onions and 
chives are also members of the Allium 
genus. The name, garlic, is from the 
Anglo-Saxon gar, a spear, and leac, a 
plant, and this name you understand 
if you see it growing, sometimes by a 
roadside where there was once a 
garden but there is no longer, but the 
garlic faithfully returns each year. If 
you find garlic on this roadside, stop, 
pull the bulb from the plant, and peel 
back the thin, whitish skin with a 
thumbnail, you can see several egg- 
shaped bulblets; these are the cloves. 
If you separate one of these cloves 
from the bulb, dig your nail into it, your 
finger will smell of garlic long after; 
even after washing the scent is there, 
in spite of the soap's perfume. 

This garlic, the dried powder from 
the bottle or the clove you have cut 
with your nail, was the first spice 
of which we have record. During the 
building of the Great Pyramids of 
Cheops, the 100,000 laborers who 
worked in the construction were fed 
onions and garlic as medicinal herbs 
to preserve their health and strength. 
Even today there is hope of health 
in this spice. In 1981, a Chinese physi- 
cian reported to an international con- 
ference that garlic may prevent 
stomach cancer. He disclosed a study 
of residents of two neighboring 
Chinese areas who lived similar lives 
save for a single difference in diet: 
one group consumed 20 grams of 
fresh garlic each day; the other, none 
if any. The annual death rate from 
stomach cancer was eleven times 
higher in the second area. The physi- 
cian suggested that garlic prevented 
bodily bacteria from converting ni- 
trates into carcinogenic nitrosamines. 

A pinch: In the late Middle Ages, 
certain Oriental spices were extremely 
expensive. A pound of saffron cost 

the same as did a horse; a pound of 
ginger would buy a single sheep; two 
pounds of mace, a cow. A 1393 Ger- 
man price list has the price for a 
pound of nutmeg being seven fa t oxen. 

After garlic, choose the nutmeg, 
essential to Christmas eggnog; top- 
ping for custard. No, take the mace 
from the shelf as well. The nutmegs 
are inch-long seeds, ovoid: the shape 
and color of chocolate eggs. Mace is 
a light brown powder. Like the cin- 
namon quill, you must grate the 
nutmeg to have its scent; the mace 
has a stronger aroma. 

Both spices come from the Myris- 
tica fragrans, the nutmeg tree. 
Nutmeg is the seed; mace is the dried, 
ground aril — the scarlet, net-like 
covering of the nutmeg. Until the 17th 
Century, when the use of sugar in- 
creased, making the use of strong 
spices less necessary, mace was 
more popular than nutmeg. Today, 
their positions are reversed. 

The nutmeg tree is an evergreen 
that reaches 40 to 60 feet in cultiva- 
tion. It does not usually bear until its 
seventh year, and when it does, the 
yield is about 10 pounds of nutmeg 
and a pound and a half of mace. The 
tree will bear for about 70 years. 

Grate: In the 17th Century, the 
Dutch controlled the commerce of 
nutmeg and mace, which came from 
the Moluccas (Spice Islands). 
Because mace sold for a higher price 
than did nutmeg, a colonial adminis- 
trator, ignorant of botany, ordered 
that more mace and fewer nutmeg 
trees be planted. 

And then to the pepper; wrinkled, 
black balls that are the shriveled, 
dried berries of the Piper nigrum; no 
relative of the bell peppers, the green, 
the chili, the paprika, which are of the 
genus Capsicum. How much pepper 
do we consume; how often do we pour 
the corns into the mill and sprinkle the 
powder over potato, steak, roast beef, 
chicken? This spice, so common we 
do not count it a spice with the chives, 
cloves, ginger, accounts for one- 
fourth of the world spice trade. So 
common — yet consider that in 408 
A.D. it was worth its weight in silver; 
that in the 13th Century peppercorns, 
counted one by one, were legal tener 
for taxes, tolls, and rents; that in that 
same century, if a man dropped a 
single corn to the floor, he hunted it as 
a lost pearl. 

P. nigrum is an evergreen, climb- 

ing vine native to the coast of south- 
western India. From this vine come 
both white and black pepper. Black 
pepper is produced when unripened 
berries are harvested and dried in the 
sun; white when the berries are vine 
ripened, picked, soaked to remove the 
outer flesh, and the inner corn dried. 
Black is more pungent because of the 
outer flesh; we of the United States 
import eleven times more black than 
white. Our first millionaire, Elihu Yale 
(namesake of the university) made 
most of his fortune in trading pepper. 

1 Tb: Pound for pound, paprika 
contains more Vitamin C than do 
citrus fruits. In 1937, Dr. Albert Szent- 
Gyorgyi, a Hungarian-born U.S. 
citizen, received the Nobel Prize in 
Medicine for isolating the vitamin in 
paprika pods. 

And here, between the sage and 
tarragon, the innocuous sesame 
seed, sprinkled topping for bagels, 
breads, buns, and rolls. What is the 
net weight of the bottle's contents? 
Two ounces, perhaps. Each year the 
world's production is that two ounces 
times 32 billion: four billion pounds of 
seed from the Sesamum indicum, a 
three-foot high annual indigenous to 
Indonesia and tropical Africa; the 
flowers are one inch long, pale rose or 
white trumpets. Most of this four 
billion pounds is produced for 
sesame oil — each seed contains 
about 50% of this oil, an important 
source of polyunsaturated fat, manu- 
factured for use in margarine and 
salad and cooking oils. The seeds in 
the bottle on the rack have had the oil 
expressed from them, and it is not 
until they are toasted on top of the 
bread or roll that they will have their 
nutty flavor. 

Yet this common seed, lauded in 
fast food jingles, once cost the 
average Persian laborer (Fifth Century 
B.C.) two month's pay for a single 
bushel. The early Assyrians believed 
that the gods drank sesame wine to 
prepare for creating the earth. 

The command, "Open Sesame," 
which opened the treasure cave to Ali 
Baba, is a reference to the sesame 
seed — when they are ripe, the seeds 
burst from their pods suddenly, with a 
sharp pop. This may be the oldest 
condiment known; there is a drawing 
on a 4000 year-old Egyptian tomb of a 
baker adding sesame seeds to bread. 

For news relative to herbs and 
spices, see page 12. 

Ridgway News 

For All The Senses 

Here you could sit for hours on a 
late-spring afternoon with your eyes 
closed and know full well what sur- 
rounded you: the scents are there, the 
bayberry, lilacs, magnolia. The mint is 
unmistakable; and there is thyme and 
basil and sage, as well roses and 

This is the Scented Garden, now 
open, now found near the Linnean 
House. It is considerably expanded 
from its former location southwest of 
the Main Gate. "Before, it was limited 
to raised bin planters," Alan Godlew- 
ski, Chairman of Landscape Horti- 

Jordan Wing 
to Have Atrium 

Part of the Jordan Education Wing 
of the Ridgway Center will be an 
atrium, named for Eugenia U. and 
James A. Maritz. 

Describing the 2-story, 360 square 
foot atrium, Steve Frowine, Chairman 
of Indoor Horticulture said, "It will 
provide a beautiful garden area that is 
also extremely educational. We will 
use the atrium for a revolving display 
of plants which relate to specific 
educational programs or which allow 
visitors to see some of our smaller 
collections that we ordinarily do not 

"Some of these exhibits might be 
of unusual tropical plants, orchids, 
bromeliads, gesneriads, ferns, and 
begonias. For example, we may 
feature an exhibit of all the known 
varieties of lady slipper orchids found 
in Malaysia, or bromeliads that 
possess certain color patterns. We 
could present an exhibit of a par- 
ticular genus of bromeliads which has 
a lot of variation from species to 

The Maritz Atrium was made 
possible through a gift of Mrs. Wells 
A. Hobler, James A. Maritz, Jr., 
William E. Maritz, and Maritz, Inc. 

culture, said. "Here we have addi- 
tional plants that are remarkable for 
scent. Small trees and shrubbery will 
be an important part of the design. We 
want to pique different senses other 
than sight. This area will be unique in 
that we want to encourage visitors to 
touch some of the plants." 

There are signs in the garden, 
printed and in braille, which suggest 
that visitors smell or touch a specific 

"This Scented Garden also has a 
shell fountain; this is to pique one's 
sense and awareness of sound," 
Godlewski said. 

"The garden has been designed to 
be accessible for visitors who are 
visually impaired or handicapped. But 
all visitors are encouraged to 
heighten their awareness by visiting 

Its creation was possible through 
a gift of Isabelle Lowis Zimmerman 
in memory of her grandmother, 
Susannah F. Mack, and her mother, 
Lilliam C. Lowis. 

Swift Family Garden 

One of four gardens in progress 
near the Linnean House is the John S. 
Swift Family Garden, which will be 
found between the entrance to the 
Linnean House and the Gladney Rose 
Garden. In addition to the three pools 
previously there, a fourth pool has 
been constructed. The Swift Family 
Garden will also feature a wooden 
arbor with a vine display (wisteria and 
clematis), a perennial border (peonies, 
asters, stachys), and pygmy date 
palms displayed in wooden planters 
during the summers. "Although new, 
and designed as part of our Master 
Plan, this garden, and those around it, 
will be in keeping with the Victorian 
style set by the Linnean House," Pat 
Rich, Special Assistant to the Direc- 
tor, said. "Our Master Plan plays on 
the Garden's sense of tradition, but at 
the same looks to the future. 

The John S. Swift Family Garden 
is a gift of the John S. Swift Company, 
Inc. Charitable Trust. 

Workers erected the north fan wall 
the Ridgway Center in early spring 

V T » *ik' fc"r/V Witts 

The Hitchcock Family: 93 Years of Service to the Garden 
and the Community 










HENRY HTrCHCOCK 1889 - 1902 






Less than a month after Henry Shaw's death, a promi- 
nent local attorney named Henry Hitchcock (1829-1902) 
was elected Vice-President of the newly formed Board of 
Trustees of the Missouri Botanical Garden. This estab- 
lished a link between the Hitchcock family and the Garden 
that has lasted three generations and is now in its tenth 

A descendant of Revolutionary War hero Ethan Allen, 

Henry Hitchcock came to St. Louis in 1861 to establish his 
law practice, and soon became an assistant editor of the 
St. Louis Intelligence. Later in life he served on the Board of 
Washington University, and was instrumental in estab- 
lishing the American Bar Association and the St. Louis 
University Law School. At the time of his election to the 
Garden's Board, he was also serving as president of the 
American Bar Association. 

After his death in 1902, his son George C. Hitchcock 
(1867-1949), also an attorney, was elected to the Garden's 
Board in 1903, and later served as president of the Board 
from 1928 to 1947. He was a founder of St. Louis Country 
Day School and was active in governing the Mercantile 
Library and the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial 
Association. He retired from the Garden's Board in 1947. 

Recognizing the contributions of the Hitchcock family, 
the Board of Trustees elected George's son, Henry Hitch- 
cock, to fill the vacancy created by his father's departure. 
Henry Hitchcock, in turn, served as President of the 
Garden's Board from 1963-67. In 1973, he resigned from 
active membership of the Board, but continues to serve the 
Garden in his current capacity as an honorary trustee. 

The Hitchcock family has served the Garden for nearly 
a century, and has been involved in most of the Garden's 
growth and development during the time from Shaw's era 
to the present. In recognition of these contributions, an 
office in the Ridgway Center is being dedicated to these 
three prominent members of the Hitchcock family. 

— James R. Reed, Librarian 

A Conference in Africa 

At the recent meeting of the Association pour I'Etude 
Taxonomiquede la Flore AfricaineTropicale, usually simply 
abbreviated AETFAT, in Pretoria, South Africa, the Garden 
was elected the location of the next Secretariat and 
Dr. Peter Goldblatt, B. A. Krukoff Curator of African Botany, 
elected Secretary-General. AETFAT was formed in 1951 to 
promote the study of the flora of tropical Africa through 
holding periodic meetings, publishing various works, and 
accumulating a library on African botany which its 
members can use. The Association now has over 600 
members. The next meeting will be at the Garden in 1985, 
and the fact that the Garden was elected the next 
Secretariat reflects the international importance of our 
African plant collection and the programs of research in 
African flora. 

The Garden is the North American repository for 
African collections; scientists collecting in Africa know 
that they can deposit their specimens in the Garden's her- 
barium for the greatest amount of subsequent exposure 
and use. Approximately ten per cent of the three million 
specimens in the herbarium are from Africa. 

The week-long Pretoria meeting was attended by about 
250 botanists and was highlighted by the keynote address 
by Dr. Peter Raven at the opening session. Dr. Raven's talk 
provided background for the symposium on the "Origin and 
Evolution of the African Flora" which followed. Speakers at 
the symposium reviewed the changes in the African flora 

since the beginnings of life on that continent several billion 
years ago. The Pretoria meeting was hosted by the 
Botanical Research Institute, a division of the South 
African Ministry of Agriculture and received widespread 
industrial support and radio/television coverage. 

— Marshall R. Crosby, Director of Research 

Priestley Award to Dr. Raven 

Dr. Peter H. Raven, Director of Missouri Botanical 
Garden, was the 1982 recipient of the Joseph Priestley 
Award from Dickenson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania. 
The award, named for the 18th Century scientist/ 
theologian who discovered the element oxygen, has been 
presented annually by the college since 1952 to "a 
distinguished scientist in recognition of his or her 
discoveries or contributions to the welfare of mankind." 
Previous recipients include Linus C. Pauling, Margaret 
Mead, Edward Teller, Carl Sagan, and nine Nobel laureates. 

Raven was recognized by the college for his work in 
calling public attention to the necessity of studying the 
tropics before they vanish through deforestation and 

Dickenson College was founded in 1783 and is named 
for John Dickenson a drafter of the Articles of Con- 

Wonder Drug from a Common Weed 

The idea that a common roadside weed might contain 
an essential nutrient absent from our rich and varied 
modern-day diet seems, at first, unlikely. The idea that a 
deficiency of this one nutrient might be implicated in a 
wide range of serious illnesses, including heart disease 
and arthritis, borders on the absurd. Yet the tremendous 
amount of research, mainly in Europe and Canada, that is 
now being directed at the common evening primrose 
(Oenothera) and its oil-bearing seeds seems to confirm 
these remarkable ideas, and to offer new hope in the treat- 
ment of various diseases. (Oenothera is a genus of plants 
primarily found in the Western Hemisphere, with the 
greatest concentration of species being in North America. 
Several species are common locally.) 

What is this marvelous substance found in the here- 
tofore lowly evening primrose? The substance is gamma- 
linolenic acid (GLA), one of a group of vitamin-like essential 
fatty acids, which otherwise is found in a rich natural supply 
only in human milk. These essential fatty acids (called 
essential because they are not manufactured by the body 
and so must be supplied by food) are crucial not only as a 
major component of the membranes which surround all 
cells in the body, but also as precursors of prostaglandins, 
hormone-like substances that are produced in virtually all 
cells. Prostaglandins regulate much of the body's normal 
metabolic functioning, and deficiencies in them have been 
implicated in various disorders. One of the most influential 
prostaglandins is PGE1, which does several highly 
desirable things: lowers cholesterol levels, reduces blood 
pressure, inhibits thrombosis, and inhibits inflammation, 
including that associated with arthritis. The maintenance 
of adequate levels of PGE1 is therefore of great importance 
to many body functions, and it can only be maintained by a 
dependable supply of GLA, an essential precursor to PGE1 . 

Research indicates not only that some people are 
genetically deficient in the enzyme which produces GLA 
from simpler, commonly occurring unsaturated fats, but 
also, more significantly, that the enzyme is easily inhibited 
by substances common in most people's diets. The inhib- 
itors include saturated fats, certain unsaturated fats that 
have been highly processed (as in many processed 
vegetable oils and margarine), and alcohol. Because GLA 
is rare in most diets, and inhibited in many others, the 
discovery of large quantities in oil of the seeds of evening 


primrose is very exciting news indeed. Research currently 
underway suggests that this oil may be of use in the treat- 
ment of heart disease, arthritis, eczema, multiple sclerosis, 
hyperactivity, alcoholism, and obesity. It has even been 
touted in the popular press as an effective cure for hang- 

The evening primrose is of more than passing interest 
to researchers here at the Missouri Botanical Garden. 
Dr. Peter H. Raven, Director of the Garden, has studied 
these plants in depth for some twenty years, currently with 
Dr. Warren L Wagner, a recent graduate of Washington 
University. Their research, some in collaboration with 
scientists at the University of Dusseldorf in Germany, has 
clearly established the classification of the species, and 
vastly increased our understanding of the genetic and 
evolutionary relationships of the plants. Their work has 
interested both clinical researchers anxious to learn more 
about the promising therapeutic effects of this plant, and 
those attempting to breed new strains of these wild plants 
for the commercial production of the oil they contain. 

The discovery of this new wonder drug in a common 
weed demonstrates not only the potential benefits we can 
gain from studying even inconspicuous plants, but also 
how seemingly "academic" research often yields unex- 
pected and momentous results. 
— Peter C. Hoch, Warren L. Wagner, Research Associates 

Notes from the Garden 

Dr. Robert E. Magill has joined the 
Garden staff as Assistant Curator of 
Bryophytes in the Herbarium. He 
received his Ph.D. from Texas A & M 
University in 1975 and then spent a 
postdoctoral year at the Garden under 
a National Endowment for the Arts 
museum trainee program. From 1976 
through 1981 he was on the staff of 
the Botanical Research Institute, 
Pretoria, South Africa, writing a moss 
flora of southern Africa, the first of 
four volumes of which has just been 

ECO-ACT, environmental leadership 
program, is recruiting students for the 
1982-3 school year. Two three-week 
summer sessions provide students 
with active and direct experiences in 
learning. During the school year, 
students teach environmental con- 
cepts to grade school children. 

High school students who are 
interested in learning more about 
St. Louis and in developing their skills 
as leaders, may contact David Wilson, 
577-5142, for information about ECO- 

Notes from the Garden 

7- Up to Sponsor Japanese Festival 

The 1982 Japanese Festival, June 
19-27, will be sponsored by The 
Seven-Up Company. Approximately 
50,000 visitors are expected for the 
nine-day festival. 

The popular Taiko Drummers of 
San Francisco will return once again. 

New attractions for this year's 

The Linnean House is 100 years old; 
the Garden will celebrate the centen- 
nial of this, the oldest greenhouse 
west of the Alleghenny Mountains, on 
May 8, with festivities conducted 
throughout the day in conjunction 
with the Swedish Council of St. Louis. 
This celebration will be one of the 
major events of National Historic 
Preservation Week in the area. 

Built in 1882 by Garden founder 
Henry Shaw, the house was dedicated 
by him to honor the great Swedish 
scientist Carl Linnaeus, who devised 
the system of classification of plants 
and animals used today (the latin, 
Linnaean names). Shaw used the 
building as an orangery — a place to 
store, during the colder seasons, 
potted plants which cannot survive 
freezing temperatures. Early in this 
century, the building was converted to 
a display greenhouse and today the 

Festival include Japanese master 
kite-maker Atsushi Moriyasu who is 
credited with creating the world's 
smallest kite — less than 1/4 inch- 
square (ideal flying conditions for it 
are over the rising air of a charcoal 
fire). The Bob Kramer Marionettes will 
also perform. 

On Saturday, June 26, the Garden 
will be open until 10 p.m. to allow 
visitors to see the Japanese Garden 
after dark, lit by candles in the stone 
lanterns. On other days, the hours are 
9 a.m. -7:30 p.m. 

On the two Festival week-ends, 
the admission fee will be slightly 
higher than usual; Members will be 
charged $1 

A photography contest will be con- 
ducted during the Festival, with prizes 
awarded to the best prints of the 
Festival. Further details will be 
announced in the newspapers 

The 1982 Japanese Festival offers you 
a chance to win a superb, new Datsun, 
donated by the Greater St. Louis area 
Datsun Dealers 

Garden's collection of camellias 
occupy the house 



The second annual exhibit of work by 
members of the St. Louis Calligraphy 
Guild is scheduled for May 4-27 in the 
John S. Lehmann Building. Contain- 
ing approximately 40 books, posters 
and broadsides, the exhibit displays 
the art of long-time, professional 
graphic designers as well as that of 
novice calligraphers. The Guild was 
founded in 1980 to promote the art of 
calligraphy through education, lec- 
tures, and films. For further informa- 
tion about the exhibit or the Guild, call 
621 -8609 or 576-691 8 

The Tower Grove House Tea Room is 
open for luncheon on Tuesdays and 
Thursdays, 11:30 a.m. -1:00 p.m. 
Reservations are necessary and may 
be made by calling 577-5150 by noon 
on the day before your luncheon 


If you have had a hectic day, take an 
hour or so to visit the Garden. Begin- 
ning May 1, it will be open from 9 a.m. 
to 7:30 p.m. The display greenhouses, 
shops, restaurant, and Tower Grove 
House will be open 10 a.m. -7:30 p.m. 

Effective May 1, the annual fees 
for three levels of Membership will 
increase. Regular Memberships will 
be $30 annually, Contributing 
Memberships will be $60, and Sus- 
taining Memberships, $125. Sponsor- 
ing, Directors Associate, and Henry 
Shaw Associate membership fees will 
not be increased. The organizational 
Membership category will be discon- 

A moving sale will be held in the 
Garden Gate Shop, June 1-14, 10 a.m. 
to 7:30 p.m. The Shop will be moving 
to the Ridgway Center in July. 
Members are invited to take advan- 
tage of discounts of 25% -50% during 
the two-week sale. (No additional 
Membership discount will be offered.) 

Rose Evening for this year is June 4, 
from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. Members are in- 
vited to stroll the two rose gardens 
(the Anne L Lehmann and Gladney 
gardens). Refreshments will be 
served. The evening will feature the 
dedication of the Isabelle Schwerdt- 
man Carillon which was installed in 
Tower Grove House last December. A 
carillon concert is planned 

Beginning on Rose Evening, Members 
and the public will have the oppor- 
tunity to order roses from the Garden, 
selecting from among 30 varieties 
displayed in the Lehmann and 
Gladney rose gardens. Order forms 
with instructions will be available 
beginning June 4, and roses ordered 
will be delivered in March, 1983 

Shaw Arboretum's Visitor Center will 
operate on its summer schedule 
beginning Sunday, June 11. From 
then until August 29, it will be open on 
Monday through Friday, from 9 a.m. to 
4 p.m. It is closed on weekends. The 
Visitor Center provides maps and 
information about the Arboretum; it 
also contains a small gift and book 
shop. When the Center is closed, 
maps, information brochures, and 
registration envelopes are available at 
the door. The staff invites members 
and other visitors to stop into or call 
the Center at 577-5138 for informa- 
tion, suggestions, or assistance 


Sarah Frances Price was a nineteenth 
century botanist, educator, and illus- 
trator. She built a herbarium of 
approximately 2,000 plants of the 
American south; about half of these 

A Purple Martin Evening has been 
scheduled for June 3 at 6:30 p.m. 
Including a brief lecture, outdoor 
viewing session, and a wine and 
cheese reception, the event is in 
response to interest generated last 
year for the work of W. Ashley Gray III, 
volunteer Curator of Purple Martins. In 
1981, his efforts resulted in attracting 
several pairs of the robin-sized, dark 
purple birds to the Garden. Purple 
martins are known for their acrobatic 
flying and insatiable mosquito appe- 
tites. J. L Wade, a world-renowned 
authority on purple martins has been 
invited to speak on June 3 

Garden Director Peter H. Raven 
recently was elected to the Com- 
mittee for Research and Exploration 
of the National Geographic Society. 
The Committee meets monthly to 
review applications to the Society for 
research funding. The Society, which 
publishes National Geographic, was 
founded in 1888. Its Committee for 
Research and Exploration was offi- 
cially established in 1902, although 
the Society's work in this area began 
in 1890 

Architecture News, published by the 
School of Architecture of Washington 
University, included an article about 
the design and construction of the 
Climatron in its February, 1982, issue 
(Volume 1, Number 1). The article 
characterized the geodesic-dome 
greenhouse as "a design that 
reshaped St. Louis architecture." .... 

she reproduced in pencil and water- 
color sketches. She also sketched 
and painted numerous insects and 
birds native to Kentucky, where she 
lived. For her botanical illustration 
she was honored at the 1893 World's 
Fair in Chicago. The author of one 
major work (The Fern Collector's 
Handbook, 1897) and several papers 
on the flora of Kentucky, she was also 
the discoverer of several new species 
of Aster, Dogwood, Clematis, and 
Wood Sorrel. 

On her death in 1903, her illustra- 
tions and herbarium specimens were 
given to the Garden by her sister Mary 
Price. Approximately forty of these 
specimens, sketches, and paintings 
will be exhibited in the John S. 
Lehmann Library from May 3 until 28, 
Monday through Friday, 9a.m. -5p.m. 

The next Guide Training Program will 
begin on Wednesday, September 15, 
1982, for eight consecutive weeks 
from 9:30 a.m. until 2:00 p.m. 
Graduates of the course are expected 
to conduct two tours on a given day of 
the week and to attend a Guide 
enrichment program on the second 
Tuesday of each month. 

If you are interested in becoming 
part of this active group, please call 
one of the Guide Training Co-chair- 
men, Mary Jane Kirtz (316-1200) or 
Joanne Fogarty (961-2062) or the 
Education Office (577-5140) 

Members of the Garden are invited to 
join a special tour to New England 
coastal towns, September 13-19, 
1982. Led by Steven A. Frowine, the 
Garden's Chairman of Indoor Horti- 
culture, the tour will visit Boston, 
Plymouth, Glouchester, and Martha's 
Vinyard, as well as other historic 
towns, museums, and gardens. 
Because of personal connections of 
the tour leader, participants will be 
able to enjoy two rare tours: one of a 
private garden estate outside of 
Boston, the other a special tour of 
Arnold Arboretum led by that institu- 
tion's Superintendant of Living Col- 
lections. A brochure with details has 
been mailed to all Members. For fur- 
ther information, call the Office of the 
Members, 577-51 18, or the tour agent, 
Martha Jones of Sante Travel, 

Applications for Fall Festival booths 
are now available. Please send a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope to: Fall 
Festival Committee, Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, 
Missouri 63166. This Festival, the first 
of what is planned to be an annual 
event, is an opportunity for Members 
and others to demonstrate and sell 
their hobbies and crafts. It will be held 
in the new Ridgway Center, October 

Gary Jackoway 

Five prizes and eight honorable 
mentions were awarded in the second 
annual winter photography contest. 
For the best overall print of the 
Japanese Garden, Nancy Gabianelli 
received aTokinazoom lens, courtesy 
of St. Louis Photo. Forty dollar gift 
certificates for merchandise from 
St. Louis Photo were awarded to 
Linda Yust (color) and Gary Jackoway 
(black and white) in the Senior Divi- 
sion, and Steve Dunsford (color) and 
Randal Shryock (black and white) in 
the Junior Division. The honorable 
mentions, who received copies of the 
1981 Garden calendar autographed by 
photographer Jack Jennings, were 
Carolyn Brooks, Richard Nesslein, 
Arthur Scherle, Joni Doyle, Linda 
Yust, Richard Murphy, and James 
Kladney, all of the Senior Division. 
James Platzer received an honorable 

mention in the Junior Division 


For Younger Members 

Some Interesting Facts: Some Interesting Classes 

• Fact: Can you solve this riddle: 
Without them there would be no 

Nor fruits to pick from nearby trees; 
Their pollen sometimes makes us 

But think how much it does for bees. 

What are they? Flowers. 

• Fact: Where do pickles come from? 

Would you ever eat a root or stem? 
Yes, for example, carrots, beets, 

• Fact: American Indians used plants 
of the desert southwest to: derive 
calcium (from ashes of a burned 
plant), keep a diary (carved on a stick), 
make bricks (from mud and straw). 

• Fact: The cattail was used by our 
ancesters as stuffing for pillows and 
mattresses; they also ground it for 

• Fact: The Japanese came to grow 
irises on their thatched roofs because 
of a famine. During that famine, no 
one was permitted to grow any plants 
that couldn't be used for food. Until 
then, irises were a luxury for the women 
because they supplied white powder 
the women used on their faces. The 
women insisted that if they were to 

starve, they wanted their white 
powder so they could look pretty. 
They then began growing them on the 
thatched rooves. 

• Fact: In driving a car with a combus- 
tible engine, 20,000 gallons of oxygen 
will be consumed in one hour of high- 
way driving. If there are 150,000 office 
workers in St. Louis who commute an 
average of 30 minutes each day, 
figure how much oxygen is consumed 
each day just by these commuters. 

Three billion (3,000,000,000) 
gallons are consumed. 

• Classes: The Education Department 
has designed a series of summer pro- 
grams for students of ages 4-17. The 
courses included are: Fun with 
Flowers (ages 4-6); Pea Pods, Peppers 
and More (4-6); Desert Indians and 
their Plants (7-10); Earth Odyssey 
(7-14); All About Flowers (9-12); 
Creating an Edible Flower Arrange- 
ment (9-12); A Touch of Japan (10-12); 
Early Ozark Pioneers (10-15); ECO- 
Reach (part of the Garden's ECO-ACT 
program) (11-14); and For Teenage 
Shutterbugs (13-17) . Information or a 
descriptive brochure may be acquired 
by calling 577-5140. 

— Ann Haley-Oliphant, llene Follman 
Education Department 


A World Seldom Seen 

Rain Forests and Cloud Forests, 
Photography by Kjell Sandved; Text 
by Michael Emsley. Abrams, 1979. 
(Cloth $22.95, reduced from $45) 

Rain Forests and Cloud Forests is 
a rare book, humbling you in the 
presence of the absolute beauty and 
wonder of nature. This over-size 
Abrams work brings you a seldom- 
seen world through the glorious 
photographs of Kjell Sandved, the 
renowned photographer for the 
Smithsonian Institute, and the clear, 
exciting prose of Michael Emsley. 

In photographs often measuring 
13 1 /2 x 20 inches, fern spores become 
alien, butterflies masquerade as 
spiders, and sunsets engulf you. They 
give you the story of the plants and 
animals that live and die in some of 
the earth's most mysterious regions. 


"Forests precede peoples and 
nations; deserts succeed them," 
warned Chateaubriand 150 years ago. 
Emsley and Sandved show us why 
this must not be allowed to happen. 

(Editor's note: The wall mural of 
the Ridgway Center's Gardenview 
Restaurant contains approximately 
25 photographs by Sandved; this 
represents more than one-third of the 
entire mural, which consists of 72 
photographs. Many of these by 
Sandved are included in this book.) 

Help with the Vegetables 

The Home Vegetable Garden: A Hand- 
book, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1972 
(Paper $2.25) 

The Brooklyn Botanic Garden 
(BBG) seems to have a booklet on 
almost every garden-related topic and 
vegetables are no exception. In a con- 


February & March 1982 

Sustaining Members 

Mr. John H. Biggs 
Ms. Elizabeth L. Green 
Mr. & Mrs. David E. Horn 
Mr. & Mrs. B. A. Kroen 
Mr. Frank J. Matula 
Mr & Mrs. Hugh S. Mosher 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Scheibe 
Mr & Mrs. Roger D. Smith 
Mr & Mrs. Wm T. Thompson 

Contributing Members 

Mr Kenneth A. Baker 

Mrs. E. O. Bechtold 

Ms. Leona J Beckmann 

Mr. & Ms. Albert M Bennett 

Mr. & Mrs Wm. H Biedenstein 

Dr. & Mrs. J. F. Brunner 

Mr. & Mrs. Louis Buchhold. Jr 

Mr. Gerald L. Chandler 

Claymont Garden Club 

Miss Mary J. Davis 

Mr. & Mrs Larry Deutsch 

Ms. Susan M. Dickens 

Miss Dorothy C. Dieckman 

Ms. Diane DuBois 

Mr. & Mrs Robert H. Duesenberg 

Mrs. Henry P. Duncker 

Mr. Felton Earls 

Ms. Nan D. Earnheart 

Mr. & Mrs. Bernard Edison 

Mr. & Mrs. John Ellis 

Mr. & Mrs. Allen G. Erdman 

Mr & Mrs. F. C Ernest 

Mrs Rosemary Fiance 

Mr & Mrs Donald R. Franz 

Mr. Terry W. Francis 

Mr. & Mrs. Steve Frates 

Mr. & Mrs. Ray H Freeark 

Dr. & Mrs. John Fries 

Mr Lewis A. Goldstein 

cise, readable, and easy-to-use for- 
mat, the authors approach the subject 
from many angles. Sure they'll help 
you raise asparagus and onions, but 
they also discuss growing watercress 
and girasole. Whether pests are a 
problem or your rototiller won't start, 
this BBG book can help. Garden plans 
and a planting chart for more than 40 
vegetables are included. Of course, 
this one volume doesn't have all the 
answers. If you need help with soils or 
garden statuary, fruit trees or 
mulches, you'll have to consult one of 
the 60-plus other BBG books 
— Judy Cuddihee, Garden Gate Shop 

(Ms. Cuddihee is a buyer of books for 
the Garden Gate Shop. She welcomes 
suggestions from Members regarding 
books for the shop. All books men- 
tioned in this column are available in 
the shop.) 

New Members — continued 

Mr. & Ms. John C. Govreau 

Dr. & Mrs M. W. Grimm 

Mr. & Mrs. David J. Hagen 

Mr & Mrs. E. E. Hale 

Ms. E. Halpin 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Haltenhof 

Dr. & Mrs. Homer H. Hanson 

Mrs. T. J. Hartrich 

Miss Dorothy E. Hermann 

Mr. & Mrs. Harold J Hilliard 

Mrs. Billie Hlrsch 

Mrs. James Holsen 

Mr. & Mrs. Geo. N. Hosack 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas D. Hubert 

Mr. & Mrs James W. Huck 

Mr. R. O. Kirchmeyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas W. Kirk 

Mr. & Mrs. Phillip M. Klasskin 

Mr. & Mrs. Walker Kness 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin A. Kurtz 

Mr. & Mrs. Dale R. Lankford 

Mr. Dennis M. Laws 

Lindenwood College 

Mrs. Ines H. Lucido 

Mr. A F. Lueck 

Mrs Edmund A. Luning 

Mrs. Joel Malen 

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Manifold 

Mrs. Donna C. Mathei 

Mrs. Howard L. May 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph L. Meyer 

Mr. Leo Nau, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. James J. Neskas 

Mr. & Mrs. Pete Nettle 

Mrs Margaret F. Peak 

Mr. & Mrs. E. W. Phillips 

Mr. Raymond F. Pisney 

Mr. W. J. Polk, Jr. 

Mr. H. H. Pope 

Mr. E. F. Porter, Jr. 

Mr. W. Ed Quarry 

Dr. & Mrs. A. R Qureshi 

Mr. Joe G. Rickman 

Mr. Eddy J. Rogers 

Ms Aleene K. Schneider 

Ms. Mary Schwarte 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Sincox 

Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth R. Smith 

Mr. & Mrs. Ronald L. Smith 

Mr. Glenn D. Springer 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert H Steinwachs 

Miss E. J. Stevenson 

Mr. & Mrs. James H. Stobie 

Miss G Ruth Summers 

Mr. John C. Sweeney 

Dr. Jessie L. Ternberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth S. Tisdel 

Dr & Mrs. Roland A. Triska 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Wendel 

Mrs. C. t. Wilson 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard D. Wire 

Mr. & Mrs. E. Wolfe 


February & March 1982 


Lana Applebaum 

Janis Gollub 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley Birger 

Mrs. Raymond E. Lange 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald Brandin 

Dr. & Mrs Otto C. Hanser 

Peter H. Husch 

Mr. & Mrs. S. I. Rothschild. Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. Llewellyn Sale, Jr 

Mr. & Mrs. James W. Singer, Jr. 

Jane Kahn 

Mr. & Mrs. Paul Ullman, Jr. 

Ruby O'Dell 

Pioneer Garden Club of 

Warrensburg MO 
Alice & Bob Schaeffer 
Mrs. Dwigth W. Coultas 
Audrey Senturia 
Mr. & Mrs. Lester Adelson 
Mr & Mrs. Tobias Lewin 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul Ullman, Jr 
Dr. Samuel D. Soule 
Mr & Mrs. Aaron Fischer 
Mr. Walter Work 
Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 


Helen Bach 

Mr & Mrs. Roy Stumpg 

Harvey P. Bayer 

Lisette Schaumburg 

Mary Ellen Beckers 

Mrs David R. Calhoun 

Japanese American Citizens League 

Mr & Mrs. George B. Sloan 

Lily Magnus Blabon 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Bascom 

Sam J. Bland 

Mr & Mrs. Dustm H. Griffin 

Lauren Christine Brinkley 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas W. Shields 

Lilliam Brown 

Lee & Harvey Shapiro 

Joseph T. Budde 

General Grant Hills Garden Club 

James Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Mr. & Mrs. Arthur H. Frank 

Bruce George 

Mr. & Mrs. C. Toelle 

Twenty-five Gardeners Garden Club 

Creighton B. Calfee 

Mr & Mrs. Elmber G. Kiefer 

Woodrow E. Collins 

Florence S. Guth 

Harva & Jim Kennedy 

James F. Lanier 

David & Patty Lehleitner 

Mr. & Mrs. Fred Munder 

Peter H. Raven 

Patricia Rich 

Adelaide & Dan Schlafly 

Mr. & Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 

Hans Conried 

Dr. James R. O'Neil 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cooley 

The St. Louis Herb Society 

Aileen Burnett Diederich 

Mr & Mrs. Tom S. Eakin, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Freeman 

Mr & Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

C. Robert Pommer 

Henry G. Drosten 

The St. Louis Herb Society 

Mrs. Chiye Endo 

Japanese American Citizens League 

Mrs. Anna Ferber 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. L. Redmond 

Mrs. May C. Fuller 

Mrs. Jane Hartrich 

John H. Gausch 

Friends & Neighbors on Schirmer 

& Parkwood 
Mrs. Elizabeth Gausch 
Miss Audrey A. Leibundgut 
Thelma E. Mehrhoff 
Alice Miller 
The Playground Club 
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Sandler 
Ella Tappmeyer 
Mrs. Jeannette Hayden 
Mrs. Helen E. FitzRoy 
Thomas B. Hayes, Sr. 
Mrs. Walter G. Klosterman 
Audrey Stifel Heckman 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Bascom 
Mrs Jean-Jacques Carnal 
Lynne Turner Hofling 
Dr. & Mrs. James K. Turner 
Mrs. Leona Heidenberg 
Margaret & Robert McCormick 

Steven Hochschild 

Jerome A. Gross 
Fred Hoetel, Jr. 

Grace Jean Beck 

Mr & Mrs Oliver J Belzer 

Miss Irma Haeseler 

Charlotte B. Leu 

Dennis Hufford 

Robert L. McCormick Family 

Frank Inscho 

Marine Blaine 

Ruth Hardin 

Liz Hughes 

Thelma Hull 

Libby McCane 

Dorothy Olsen 

Phyllis Rodgers 

Viola Thiel 

Mrs. Fern Jones 

Belle Coeur Garden Club 

Gloria B. Blythe 
Mrs. Irene C. Jones 

Mr. & Mrs. John Brodhead, Jr. 

Mrs. P. Taylor Bryan, Jr. 

Mrs. David R. Calhoun 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr. & Mrs Roy W. Jordan 

Dr. & Mrs Peter H. Raven 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Rice 

Mr. & Mrs Daniel L. Schlafly 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr. & Mrs. Ira Wight 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer W. Wiltsch 

Mr. & Mrs. Harry Wuertenbaecher, Jr. 

William E. Jones 

Mr & Mrs. Steve Rufer 

Mrs. Arthur Korte 

Ella Tappmeyer 

Cora O. Latzer 

Mrs. G. M Mulher 

Dr. Joseph L. Lucido 

Paul & June Neal 

Pauline Keith 

Juleta A Becker 

Dr. McCabe's Mother 

Dr. & Mrs. Ben H. Senturia 

Mr. George F. McKay 

Mr. & Mrs. Dustin H. Griffin 

Judy Madden 

Alice P. Taylor 

William Francis Magruder 

Louise C. Lewis 

Emmaline Richards 

Mrs. Jeanette Marquard 

Mr. & Mrs. Dan Schopp 

Walter G. Metzger 

Art H. Frank & Family 

Mr. Jerry Mihm 

Helen H. Hutchinson 

Edwin Milkert 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Mrs. Edith C. Mosier 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Harold Matthew 

Linda O. Murphy 

Mr. & Mrs. George P. Mueller 

Donald R. Niederlander 

Mr. & Mrs. P. D. Harrington 

James R. Reed 

Dr. Masao Ohmoto 

Toshi & Satsuko Doi 

Mr. & Mrs. Ed S. Izumi 

Mary & Paul Maruyama 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Mitori 

Mr. & Mrs George Shingu 

Mr. & Mrs. Ben Wakasa 

Our Mothers 

Charles E. & Clara Buettner 

Senator Robert L. Prange 

Ruthg Bryer 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert M. Callanan 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth E. Garthe 

Alyce Grabenschroer 

Bernadine Gravot 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Grindler, Jr. 

Ethel & Marian Herr 

Dr. & Mrs. G. Brooks Hoey 

Frank A. Johnson 

Sen. & Mrs. A. Clifford Jones 

Alice & Edward Kelly 

Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Kolkmeyer 

Pat & Russ Kroeger 

August Prange Family 

Mr. & Mrs. E. J. Roennigke 

Rose Society of Greater St Louis 

Ruth A. Seever 

Mr. & Mrs. Grayson C. Smith 

Spanish Lake Republican Club 

Mr. & Mrs. Emory Wagner 

Gerald K. Presberg 

Ellen Francis Harris 
Mrs. Gerry Pullis 

Mrs. Alroy S. Phillips 

Margaret Kinsella Rauchenstein 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Martha Gildehaus Reichardt 

Mr. & Mrs. John G. Buettne 

Irma C. Reiter 

Judy Hutsell 

Dr. David Rothman 

Jeanne & Lester Adelson 

Barbara Roberts' Grandparents 

Mr. & Mrs. R. Leiben good 

Mrs. Avis Rosenthal 

Mr. & Mrs. Ross Luitjens 

Mrs. W. D. Scheehle 

Mrs. C. Harry Pujol 

Raymond Seltzer 

Dr. & Mrs. Harold M. Cutler 

Ursula G. Sherrill 

Mr. & Mrs. H. L. Boardman 

Jerome Spector 

Jerome A Gross 

C. L. Stansbury 

Mrs George H. Sheehan 

William G. Stewart 

Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Weber 

Mrs. Ida Torrence 

Gwen Springett 

Mrs. Rhoda S. Turner 

Ruth S. DeFabio 

Mrs. Marilyn Svejkosky 

James M. Vardman's Father 

Mr. & Mrs. Tom S. Eakin, Jr. 

Mr. Dana G. Von Schrader 

Dr. & Mrs. Luis H. Schwarz 

Catherine Aldrich Wagner 

Mr & Mrs. Paul F. Ring 

Hans Weber 

Paul & Marilyn Gladis 
Ron & Susan Kloepper 
Gene & Kathleen Stumpf 

Mr. Neal S. Wood 

Miss Mary Elizabeth Bascom 
Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 
Mr & Mrs. Charles W. Freeman 
Garden Club of St. Louis 
Mr & Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 
Mr. Grant Wyatt, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Paul S. Miller 




May 1-8: 

May 9-15 

May 16-22 
May 23-31 


Beginning May 1, Garden is open until 7:30 p.m. 

Carnivorous Plant Exhibit, Climatron, through May 16, 

10 a.m. -7:30 p.m. 

Federated Garden Club Show, John S. Lehmann 

Building, May 1-2, 2-8 p.m. on 5/1; 10 a.m. -4 p.m. on 5/2 

Sarah Frances Price Exhibit, John S. Lehmann 

Building, opens May 3 (Mon-Fri, only) 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

(through May 28) 

Calligraphy Guild Exhibit, John S. Lehmann Building, 

opens May 3 (Mon-Fri, only) 9 a.m. -5 p.m. (through 

May 27) 

Members' Tour, Main Gate, May 4, 10 a.m. 

Lecture: Rexford Talbert on Thyme, John S. Lehmann 

Auditorium, May 6, 1 p.m. 

Herb Sales, Plant Shop, Members-only on 5/6 and 5/7 

Open to Public on 5/8 and 5/9; 10 a.m. -7:30 p.m. 

Linnean House 100th Anniversary, Linnean House, 

May 8, 11 a.m. -7 p.m. 

Horticultural Society Show, John S. Lehmann Building, 

May 15-16, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Carnivorous Plants: Continues (Final day, 5/16) 

Sarah Price Exhibit: Continues 

Calligraphy Guild Exhibit: Continues 

Sarah Price Exhibit: Continues 
Calligraphy Guild Exhibit: Continues 

Rose Society Show, John S. Lehmann Building, 

May 29-30, 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 

Memorial Day, Family Picnic Day, Grounds, May 31, 

9 a.m. -7:30 p.m. 

Sarah Price Exhibit: Continues (Final day 5/28) 

Calligraphy Guild Exhibit: Continues (Final day 5/27) 

Introduction to Japanese Culture, two sessions, 

A: meets on 5/4-6-11-13; 7-9 p.m. Members: $31 

B: meets on 5/18-20-25-27, same time and fee 

The Garden in Watercolors, 5/4, 11, 18, 25 & 6/1, 8, 

1-3:30 p.m., Members: $32.50 

Trees for Midwestern Gardens, 5/5, 12, 19, 26 & 6/2 

6-8 p.m., Members $29 

Glade Biology (Arboretum) 5/8, 9 a.m. -3:30 p.m. 

Members: $15 

Organize Your Thoughts tor Nature Painting 

(Arboretum) 5/15, 9 a.m. -4 p.m., Members: $20 


June 1-5 

June 6-12 
June 13-19 

June 20-30 


The Tomato, 5/18, 25, 6-7:30 p.m., Members: $8 
Nature Photography (Arboretum) 5/22 & 6/5, 9 a.m.- 
3:30 p.m., Members: $22 

Moving Sale, Garden Gate Shop, Opens 6/1, 10 a.m.- 

7:30 p.m. (through 6/14) 

Members Tour, Main Gate, 6/1, 10 a.m. 

Purple Martin Evening, John S. Lehmann Building, 

June 3, 6:30 p.m. 

Rose Evening, Rose Gardens, June 4, 6-8 p.m. 

Moving Sale: Continues 

Japanese Festival, Grounds, June 19-27, 9 a.m.- 

7:30 p.m. ('til 10 p.m. on 6/26) 

Moving Sale: Continues (Final day, 6/14) 

Japanese Festival: Continues (Final day 6/27) 

Evening Walks in the Rose Gardens, two sessions, 
A: 6/1, 5:30-7:30, Members: $5 
B: 6/8, same time and fee 

(All Education Courses meet in John S. Lehmann Building unless they are 
marked "Arboretum." For information call 577-5140) 

For persons interested in herbs and spices, the Garden provides a 
number of opportunities and features. On May 6, Rexford Talbert, a 
nationally recognized expert on thyme, will present an illustrated lec- 
ture in the John S. Lehmann Auditorium at 1:00 p.m. Mr. Talbert, from 
Washington, DC, has lectured at the Smithsonian Institute, and par- 
ticipated in herb symposia in Ohio. 

May 6 is also the first day of the Members-only presale of the Spring 
Herb Sale in the Plant Shop; Members will receive a 20% discount on 
more than 50 types of herbs (more than 10,000 plants) during the sale 
which continues through May 9. Hours are 10:00 a.m. until 7:30 p.m. 
Members of the St. Louis Herb Society will be present in the shop to 
answer questions and offer suggestions on herb use and cultivation. 

On the south side of Tower Grove House, Henry Shaw's 1849 coun- 
try home, is a fine herb garden, maintained by the Society. Here visitors 
are able to learn the variety of herbs that will grow in St. Louis, as well 
as discover how many common herbs and spices appear while growing, 
before they are dried and packaged. 

The Society, which recently celebrated its 40th Anniversary, also 
established an excellent collection of literature on the history, use, 
cultivation, and folklore of herbs. This collection is maintained by the 
Missouri Botanical Garden Library in the John S. Lehmann Building, 
and is available for Garden Members on weekdays, from 9:00 a.m. until 
5:00 p.m. 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 






„ ».»i '«»if '."Su! «».=."•= »'';:r:, '». ».*»•• »•" 

receive support througn 

proposed in January. _ percent of the 

9 cents per :?iuu v. 

supported by the sales tax. $4Q milUon 

,,d be approximately $2 mrUi™ o al base 
The Garden's share «•«« be P P tax , providing a stable, 
total annual revenue fro" t tQ 

{or the Garden's operation financial base so that we 

, i^ have this financidx .-.__ o n d homes 

here— can continue to 

displays and services. cultural institutions 

t-his will help the bt. 

even better in the years to instit utions is the 

This p „ posal £ or econo rL devei r ent u and cultur _ ^ „ on _ t 3. 

+- r Schoemehl, lr. 
Vincent <-. sui 


city of St. Lours 

Gene Mcttary 


st . Louis County 


August 3 is an important date for the 

r Missouri Botanical Garden and the St. 

^y Louis Community. On that day, a Tuesday, 
voters will decide to accept or reject the 
program for regional economic growth 
proposed by Gene McNary and Vincent C. 
Schoemehl, Jr. in January. That program 
and its significance for the community 
and the Garden are explained elsewhere 
in this Bulletin. 

We, and many others, are convinced that the future of our 
community, the City and County of St. Louis, depends on an 
organized program of economic development and support 
for our cultural institutions. With an excellent Zoo, Art 
Museum, Symphony, as well as several other museums and 
performing arts groups, St. Louis is rich in cultural 
resources. There are also undeveloped and under-developed 
areas that could be well used as sites for new business and 

industry, thereby providing jobs for our unemployed and 
under-employed citizens. 

St. Louis has much to offer both to its residents and 
those outside the area, but for it to meet its potential requires 
a stable, well-planned and managed program of develop- 
ment. This proposal by the area's two Chief Executive 
Officers will provide such a program. On behalf of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden I urge each of you to vote FOR it 
on August 3. 

GbU< #.(?< 


You can vote by absentee ballot if you will be out of 
town on August 3. Contact the election board in the City 
or County of St. Louis depending on where you are 
registered to vote. 



Mr. & Mrs. Newell A Auger 

Mrs Agnes F. Baer 

Mr & Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr. & Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr & Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr. Carl L. A. Beckers 

Mr & Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert Blanke. Jr. 

Mrs. Richard I. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mr. & Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F T. Childress 

Mr. & Mrs Fielding L Childress 

Mr. & Mrs Gary A. Close 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr & Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Dr. & Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr & Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mr Bernard F Desloge 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Jr. 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard A Dohack 

Mrs. H R Duhme 

Mr & Mrs J Robert Edwards 

Mr. & Mrs. David C. Farrell 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr. Gregory D. Flotron 

Mrs. Forence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Mr. S. E. Freund 

Mrs. Clark R. Gamble 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr & Mrs. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mrs Mildred Goodwin 

Mr & Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs H C. Grigg 

Miss Anna Hahn 

Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 

Mr. & Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H Hayward 

Mr. & Mrs Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr. & Mrs Robert R. Hermann 

Mr. & Mrs Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Jean Maritz Hobler 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mrs. John V. James, Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr. & Mrs Eugene Johanson 

Mr. & Mrs Henry O. Johnston 

Mr. & Mrs, W. Boardman Jones. Jr 

Mrs. A F. Kaeser 

Dr & Mrs. John H. Kendig 

Mr & Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr. & Mrs. William S. Knowles 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles S Lamy 

Mr. & Mrs. Oliver M Langenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam Langsdorf, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mrs. John S Lehmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Willard L. Levy 

Mrs. Zoe D. Lippman 

Miss Martha I. Love 

Mr H Dean Mann 

Mr. & Mrs. James A Maritz, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. William E Maritz 

Mr. Morton D. May 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell 

Mr & Mrs Sanford N. McDonnell 

Mr & Mrs. Roswell Messing, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. I. E. Millstone 

Mr. & Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 

Mr. & Mrs John W. Moore 

Mr. Thomas Moore 

Dr. & Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr. & Mrs. Eric P. Newman 

Mr & Mrs. C. W. Oertli 

Mr. & Mrs. John M. Oiin 

Mr. Spencer T Olin 

Mr. & Mrs. W R Orthwein. Jr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth R. Pantaleoni 

Mrs. Jane K Pelton 

Mr. & Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 

Mrs. Herman T. Pott 

Mrs. Miquette M Potter 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Timon Primm. Ml 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Richardson 

Mrs. Howard E Ridgway 

Mr & Mrs. F. M Robinson 

Mr & Mrs. G S. Rosborough, Jr 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Mr. Louis Sachs 

Mr. & Mrs David Sanders 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Mr. & Mrs Daniel L. Schlafly 

Mr. Thomas F Schlafly 

Mrs. Mason Scudder 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr. & Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 

Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mr & Mrs. Sidney Shoenberg, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Simon 

Mr. & Mrs Robert Brookings Smith 

Mrs. Tom K Smith. Jr. 

Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 

Mr & Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Hermann F. Spoehrer 

Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 

Mr. & Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 

Mr, & Mrs. Hampden Swift 

Ms. Marie Carr Taylor 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack Turner 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mr & Mrs. Richard K, Weil 

Mrs. S A. Weintraub 

Mrs. Ben H Wells 

Mr. & Mrs. O. Sage Wightman, III 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene F. Williams. Jr 

Mrs. John M. Wolff 

Miss F. A. Wuellner 

Mrs. Eugene F. Zimmerman 

Mr & Mrs Andrew Zinsmeyer 

Mr. & Mrs, Sander B. Zwick 



Mr & Mrs. John W Bachmann 

Mr & Mrs. C. Perry Bascom 

Mrs. Anne D. Bates 

Ms. Allison R. Brightman 

Mr & Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 

Mr. & Mrs. G. A. Buder, Jr 

Mr Kurt H. Bussmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph C. Champ 

Mrs. Francis Collins Cook 

Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry P. Day 

Mr. Hollis L. Garren 

Ms. Jo S. Hanson 

Mr George K Hasegawa 

Mr & Mrs. William J. Hedley 

Dr. & Mrs August Homeyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Morris M. Horwitz 

Mr. & Mrs. John C Lathrop 

Mr. & Mrs. Eldridge Lovelace 

Mr. & Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris. Jr. 

Mrs. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 

Mrs. Drue Wilson Phi I pott 

Mr & Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 

Mrs. Edward J. Riley, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. C. M. Ruprecht 

Mr. & Mrs. Louis E Sauer 

Dr John S. Schoentag 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter G. Stern 

Mr. & Mrs. Leon B. Strauss 

Miss Lillian L Stupp 

Mr. & Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 

Mr. & Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 

Mr Thomas L. Wilson 

Mr. & Mrs Don L. Wolfsberger 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 

8^ Member of 

V% The Arts and Education 

Fund of Greater St. Louis 

BULLETIN is published six times 
each year, in January, March, May, 
July, September and November by the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 
299, St. Louis, Mo. 63166. Second 
class postage paid at St. Louis, Mo. 
$5.00 per year. $6.00 foreign. 

The Missouri Botanical Garden 
Bulletin is sent to every Member of the 
Garden as one of the benefits of their 
membership. For a contribution as 
little as $30 per year, Members also 
are entitled to: free admission to the 
Garden, Shaw Arboretum, and Tower 
Grove House; invitations to special 
events and receptions; announce- 
ments of all lectures and classes; dis- 
counts in the Garden shops and for 
course fees; and the opportunity to 
travel, domestic and abroad, with 
other Members. For information, 
please call 577-5100. 

Gardening in St. Louis 

Summer Gardening: Slugs and Bugs 

Where plants flourish so do slugs and snails. To help 
control them try these methods: 

1. Beer: This has been a popular control method. It consists 
of placing beer in a shallow pan (like a pie pan) and sinking 
this pan so that it is level with the soil. The snails and slugs 
are attracted by the use of the beer and drown in the brew. 
To me this method has two (2) major drawbacks. It is a 
waste of good beverage and it leaves someone with the 
very unpleasant task of disposing of a pan full of dead 
snails or slugs. 

2. Barrier: Some people have been somewhat successful in 
preventing slugs from getting into their plants by placing a 
ring of sand, dry sawdust, or cinders around their plants. 
This creates a barrier of rough material over which most 
slugs refuse to cross. 

3. Remove mulch: Mulching plants is a valuable cultural 
procedure for reducing weed growth and retaining mois- 
ture, but when we get wet weather it does cause problems. 
The mulch keeps the soil around the plants too damp and 
cool. This creates an ideal habitat for slugs. You should 
remove the mulch around the plants until the soil becomes 
fairly dry. 

4. Poison Bait: This is usually the most effective means of 
control. You can use Mesurol on ornamental plants and 
Metaldehyde on vegetables. If you are afraid of poisoning 
animals you can place small clusters of the bail pellets on 
your garden soil and cover them with inverted margarine 
containers that have two or three one-inch openings along 
the rim which allow the slugs to enter. Place stones on top 
of the containers to prevent them from being blown over. 

Alternative Insect Control 

If you prefer not to use conventional insecticides you 
might like to try a relatively new product called Safer Agro- 
Chem's Insecticidal Soap. This is a specially formulated 
soap that's no more harmful to humans than hand soap, 
but is very effective in controlling most destructive insects 
including aphids, white flies, fungus gnats, grasshoppers, 
mites, scales and tent caterpillars. It can be used on 
vegetables, fruits, houseplants and ornamental and does 
not harm beneficial insects like honey bees or ladybeetles. 
This product is a little more expensive to use than other 
chemical controls and does require that you thoroughly 
spray the plant since the insects will only be killed if they 
are touched by the soap. Give this material a try; our Plant 
Shop has it. 

Controlling Disease on Roses 

Last summer's wet weather caused rampant outbreaks 
Df leaf diseases on roses. Although several chemicals can 
:>e used to control rose leaf diseases such as Benlate 
Benomyl) and Phaltan (Folpet), one of the newer materials 

which is effective is Funginex (Triforine). Two significant 
advantages of this material over others are that it is a clear 
liquid so that it does not leave an unsightly residue on the 
leaves and that it is effective on all three (3) of the major 
rose leaf diseases — black spot, rust and powdery mildew. 

Home Watering Systems 

Plants are 75% -95% water. During the life of a leaf 
lettuce plant it uses 9 inches of water, a cucumber or water- 
melon plant uses about 15 inches and a tomato plant 
needs about 24 inches. During a hot summer some supple- 
mentary watering is usually needed to provide optimum 
growing conditions. Gardeners commonly provide this 
needed moisture by hand watering with a hose nozzle or by 
using various lawn sprinklers. Unfortunately hand watering 
takes a lot of time and lawn sprinklers are usually ineffi- 

Today many different watering systems are available to 
the home gardener. They are easy to install, save the 
gardener time, and use water much more efficiently by 
delivering it to the plants in need. One such group of water- 
ing systems is called the drip irrigation. This system of irri- 
gation involves a controlled application of water at a very 
low rate, a "drip", which is delivered to a specific area or 
plant. It is being used extensively by commercial fruit and 
vegetable growers. I have been trying out various systems 
on my home garden and have been very happy with the 
results. Systems which are designed for the home gardener 
include Submatic Irrigation Systems, P.O. Box 246, 
Lubbock, Texas 79408. This company makes several dif- 
ferent systems for various home applications. Send for 
their catalog for more details. Raindrip, Inc., 14675 Titus 
Street, Panorama City, CA 91402. Two (2) basic systems — 
one for container plants and one for plants in open beds are 
available from this company. These systems are easy to 
install; no tools or glue are required. Our plant shop carries 
this company's products. Dew-Hose made by Chapin 
Watermatics, Inc., 740 Water Street, Watertown, N.Y. 13601. 
This system is versatile and fairly inexpensive. It is 
available in some local garden centers or directly from the 
company. This company has been in the irrigation busi- 
ness for a long time and sells many commercial systems 
for greenhouse and field crops. Shur-Flo Water Savers, 
Knobel Industries, 1146 Madison Avenue, Livermore, CA 
94551. 1 have been using this special waterhead which'this 
company sells in my rose garden and have been very happy 
with the results. These waterheads are plugged into one- 
half or three-fourths inch black polyethylene pipe. They 
create a gentle, deep soaking stream of water. They are 
ideal for roses, trees and shrubs since they drench the soil 
without getting any of the foliage wet. This is a real advan- 
tage in preventing leaf diseases. 

— Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 


A Future Together 

The City, the 

uiiii ■ 1 1 |(TH County, the Garden 

HJJ* The St. Louis area is one of 

about a half dozen metropolitan 
areas in the United States that have 
unique geo-political situations. 
St. Louis, the city, is not a part of St. Louis, the county, 
although it is surrounded on three sides by the county. The 
fourth side is bounded by the Mississippi River. San Fran- 
ciso, Philadelphia and Baltimore have similar situations. 

Because of this, the city and county governments have 
traditionally been strong competitors for attention, new 
business and industry, and income. Some experts have 
claimed this competition has hindered development of 
both areas in the past. 

In January of this year, however, the heads of the two 
governments, the City's Mayor Vincent C. Schoemehl, Jr., 
and the County's Executive Gene McNary, moved away 
from this rivalry and jointly proposed a program of 
economic development that would benefit the whole 
metropolitan area. Characterized as "an imaginative pro- 
posal" and "historic for its degree of cooperation" in 
editorials in the Post-Dispatch and Globe-Democrat, the 
Regional Economic Development Program, as it is called, 
provides for the collection of $40 million annually through a 
5/8 cent increase in local sales tax. The funds would be 
used to promote tourism, attract new business investment, 
and help support the area's major cultural institutions. It is 
anticipated that the tax, which would exclude food, phar- 
maceuticals, and utilities, will cost a family of four with a 
$25,000 annual income an estimated additional $36 per 
year. However, that same family with a $50,000 home with a 
normal assessment would have their property tax reduced 
by about $15, since the tax measure calls for reduction of 
property tax by 9<c per $100 assessed valuation. 

It is also estimated that approximately a quarter of the 
tax would be collected from non-residents such as tourists 
and visitors from other areas. 

The tax has been called by its supporters "the key to 
the area's future." Mayor Schoemehl said, "Without 
economic development and our cultural institutions there 
would be no growth. Without growth, there would be no 
jobs, and the slow death of the entire community." County 
Executive McNary concurred. "Either we grow or we 
become stagnant," he said. 

The $40 million generated by the tax would be divided: 

• Between the city and county according to the collection 
proportions: one-third in the city and two-thirds in the 

• Forty percent — $16 million — would be used to provide 
operating support for six St. Louis cultural institutions, the 
Garden, Zoo, Art Museum, Museum of Science, Museum of 
Transportation, McDonnell Planetarium, and performing 
arts organizations. 

• Thirty percent would go to a new Economic Development 
Commission and be used to buy and improve land for 
economic development and to provide funds for new busi- 

ness investments. 

• Twenty percent — $8 million — would be used to promote 
tourism and conventions in St. Louis. 

• The final 10 percent would be used for either economic 
development or tourism promotion. 

"It can be said without argument that the City anc 
County need the means to stimulate economic develop 
ment," said a Globe-Democrat February 6 editorial 
"Ultimately the voters should ask themselves whethe 
(they) find economic stagnation and unemployment more 
affordable than a. ..sales tax." 

A Garden 
for All Time 

Of the $16 million set aside fc 
cultural institutions in the Regiona 
Economic Development Prograrr 
$2 million are reserved for use by i 
new botanical garden subdistrict in the already existini 
Zoo-Museum Tax District. 

"The establishment of this subdistrict is important i 
the Garden is to continue to provide outstanding educe 
tional and horticultural services," said Dr. Peter H. Raver 
the Garden's Director. "It's important that the Garden liv 
up to its promise to make the fullest contribution it can. 
"Despite the continuing generosity of our members an 
donors, expenses continue to rise unrelentingly and at 
pace faster than our income is growing, primarily as 
result of inflation." 

Referring to the Garden and the other five cultural inst 
tutions included in the program, Mayor Schoemehl said, l \ 

(continued on page 

"The area's cultural institutions 
need a more secure source of fund- 
ing; and certainly a single tax is 
preferrable to an unhealthy competi- 
tion among them for additional 
revenues. ..Similarly, instead of com- 
peting for business and attention, the 
city and county need to do everything 
within their power to encourage job- 
creating tourism and business invest- 
ment throughout the area." 
— Editorial -St. Louis Post Dispatch 
January, 1982 

Under the conditions of the Regional Economic Development Program, the 
Garden would reduce its general admission fees. According to Peter H. Raven, 
Director, during certain times the Garden would be open, free of charge. The 
maximum adult admission fee would be $1.00; for person 6-16, it would be 50 
cents. Currently, admission fees are $2.50 and $1.00 respectively. 

A 1979 study of eight St. Louis cultural institutions revealed that those insti- 
tutions had a $63 million impact on the local economy in 1978. Conducted by 
Johns Hopkins University, the study concerned Missouri Botanical Garden, the 
St. Louis Art Museum, St. Louis Symphony, CASA, Loretto-Hilton Repertory 
Theatre (since renamed Repertory Theatre of St. Louis), McDonnell 
Planetarium, Museum of Science and Natural History, and Dance Concert 

At that time, the eight organizations employed 500 persons and generated 

$21 million in direct expenditures. They indirectly generated 2,000 additional 

jobs and $42 million in expenditures. 

The university also studied each institution 's visitors, and found that 40,000 

persons came from outside the St. Louis area specifically to visit one or more 

of the institutions. 

Of the eight institutions, four (the Garden, Art Museum, Planetarium, and 
Science Museum) are specified to receive funds through the 
Regional Economic Development Program. The other four could receive 
support through the Performing Arts Fund provided by the Program. 

A Future Together 

(continued from page 4) 

A Garden for All Time 

region's quality of life is a major factor that businessmen 
consider when deciding where to locate. If cultural institu- 
tions are atrophied for lack of money, the region will have a 
hard time selling itself." 

The Missouri Botanical Garden, the only major botan- 
ical garden in the world that does not currently receive a 
major portion of its operating income from direct tax sup- 
port, is financed through contributions, institutional and 
government grants, and admission fees in addition to the 
bequest from Shaw's will. Until 1939, the bequest provided 
100% of the support; in 1981 all investments and endow- 
ments represented only 18% of the total support. 

"The Garden must establish a strong financial founda- 
tion as we move forward through the current decade during 
which time the need for us to maintain the diversity and 
quality of our services will become even greater," Raven 

The 123-year-old garden provides horticultural displays 
and educational programs in addition to being one of the 
world's most active botanical research centers. In 1981, 
more than 46,000 students participated in programs at 
the Garden. Nearly 400,000 individuals visit the Garden 
each year. 

C. C. Johnson Spink, President of the Board, explained 
that funds from the sales tax would be used to bolster the 
educational programs and to improve and maintain garden 
features and greenhouses, some of which are more than 
100 years old. The tax support would prevent having to cut 
programs in the future. "The Garden has always operated 
within a balanced budget," he said. "Continuing to do 
so — and we intend to maintain a balanced budget — with 
our current means of support would mean a serious review 
of all of our programs and services and cutting some 
of them. 

"We feel that the proposal. ..represents a realistic 
approach to providing support for the much needed 
development of the St. Louis area, including jobs, tourism, 
and general economic development. 

"Beyond the obvious and significant economic develop- 
ment benefits the proposal promises for the St. Louis area, 
we feel it also represents an effective means of support for 
our community's cultural institutions. That support will be 
vital to the area's cultural life in the future and equally vital 
to the continued prosperity and development of the 




The $2 million the Garden would receive from the 
Regional Economic Development Program is equivalent to 
5% of the total tax the program will generate. The other 
cultural institutions would receive: Art Museum 8%, ($3.2 
million); Zoo 8%; Museum of Science, 5%; McDonnell 
Planetarium 2%, ($800,000); Transport Museum 2%, 

An additional five percent would be for capital improve 
ments at these six institutions. This $2 million would b< 
divided according to specified needs in a particular year. 

Another 5% will be used to support performing arts ir 
the area. The Zoo, Art Museum, and Museum of Science 
currently receive a total property tax of 9c per $1 00 assessec 
valuation. If voters approve the sales tax, this property ta> 
would be repealed. 

Irony and Paradox in the Corn Field 

It is ironic that, in the 10,000 years of its cultivation, one 
of the most important discoveries pertaining to corn — the 
single, most important crop of the Western Hemisphere — 
was an accident. It is also ironic that the accident occurred, 
not in an agricultural laboratory, nor in the one-third billion 
acres of cultivated American farmland — the U.S. produces 
about 7 billion bushels of corn a year, 
half the world's total — but on a 
remote, Mexican mountain. 

This discovery, that of a primitive 
relative of corn, was made by a botany 
student at the University of Guadala- 
jara, Rafael Guzman. His professor 
had mentioned to a group of students 
that in 1910 an American scientist 
discovered in Mexico a plant known 
as Zea perennis, perennial teosinte. 
By 1921, the plant was no longer 
found in the wild and was presumed 
extinct. Guzman decided to search for 
it; in 1977, he found several stands of 
it in the Sierra Manantlan Mountains 
of southern Jalisco. He sent several of 
the seeds to a mid-western United 
States university, reported his dis- 
covery in two scientific journals, and 
resumed work at his university. 

There was interest in his dis- 
covery, because it is not often that a 
plant is rediscovered after being con- 
sidered extinct, but the true signifi- 
cance of what he found in the moun- 
tains was yet to be uncovered. 

At the U.S. university, the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin, a student planted 
and grew the seeds in pots in his 
backyard. After several months, he 
showed the plants to his professor, 
Dr. Hugh H. litis. Not all were identical. "Somehow they 
didn't look right," litis, an expert in the botany of corn, said. 
A chromosome count taken from the roots of one of the 
plants showed his hunch correct. Some of the plants were 
Zea perennis; some were something else altogether. 

Zea perennis, the plant discovered in 1910 and which 
Guzman rediscovered, is what scientists call a tetraploid; it 
has four sets of ten chromosomes. The plant that litis 
examined was a diploid, having two sets of ten, or 20 
chromosomes. The difference between 20 and 40 chromo- 
somes seems at first like scientific hair splitting if you con- 
sider that a single chromosome is only a few microns in 
size. (A micron is 1/1000 of a millimeter; about 25,000 
microns equal an inch.) However, the difference between 
20and 40chromosomes becomesenormous if you consider 
that corn, Zea mays, is also a diploid. Because corn and the 
newly discovered plant, since named Zea diploperennis, 
have a compatiable number of chromosomes, the two can 
be crossed to produce a new corn hybrid that is perennial. 
Further examination of Z. diploperennis has shown it also 
is valuable for traits other than being perennial. 

When the new plant was reported in Science in 
January, 1979, there was a flurry of excitement. The popular 
press spoke of "revolutionary implications for agriculture" 


and "fundamental changes in corn." Some predicted that 
the development of a perennial corn was imminent and 
would provide a major new source of food in a world in 
which 40% of the population is undernourished. Seed com- 
panies and corn breeders began requesting seed. One 
company, Pioneer Hybrid, a leader in corn development, 
financed an expedition that included 
Dr. litis and Rafael Guzman to explore 
further for more Z diploperennis. 

The Ohio Agricultural Research 
and Development Center tested the 
plant for susceptibility to nine major 
corn viruses; it proved tolerant or 
immune to seven. This means that, in 
addition to being able to cross 
Z. diploperennis to create a perennial 
corn, scientists could also develop 
hybrids that are not susceptible to 
these viruses. 

One of the major paradoxes of 
modern agriculture and particularly of 
corn production is that the short term 
goal of high productivity runs directly 
counter to the long-term genetical 
health of the crop. Because it is such 
an important crop and the world 
depends on plants that provide a high 
seed yield, agricultural scientists 
have developed varieties of corn that 
are so genetically identical that the 
world's crop is highly vunerable to 
disease. In 1970, a fungus destroyed 
1 5 percent of the crop in the Corn Belt. 
If farmers plant millions of acres of 
corn plants, each one of which is a 
precise duplicate of the one beside it, 
and one does not possess a gene to 
make it immune to a disease, none of 
the others will possess that gene either and the disease 
will run through the crop like wildfire. It is not an accident 
that all of the ears of corn in a produce bin of a St. Louis 
supermarket are roughly the same length, thickness, color, 
and taste. But to produce such uniformity, sacrifices 
are made. 

It is not that scientists purposely sacrifice disease 
resistance to develop corn plants with high yield. The 
fungus that was so devastating in 1970 was an unforseen 
mutant strain; the known strain of that fungus had in the 
past rotted a few ears, but had never caused serious 
damage. In a field containing a natural diversity of corn 
plants, while the yield may be less, part of the crop could 
survive a disease since some could possess genes of 

The fact that high yielding corn plants are necessary to 
meet global demand is an ironic reason there will be little 
commercial demand for a hybrid, perennial corn in the near 
future. Although a large part of the cost of corn production 
is in the annual sowing of a new crop and subsequent plow- 
ing under of harvested stalks, the necessity of a high yield 
insists that commercial corn produced for grain be an 
annual. As a rule, annual plants like corn invest a large 

(continued on page 15) 

The Solanaceae or Potato Family 

For food, for ornament and for medicine, the Solan- 
aceae is a plant family of great value to man. At the same 
time, some of its members are poisonous and some are 
noxious weeds. Some well known plants in the family are 
tomatoes, potatoes, petunias, and tobacco. 

The 3,500 species of the 90 odd genera in the family are 
heavily concentrated in the New 
World, although there are many 
species in the Old World, and some 
are almost cosmopolitan. 

Members of the Solanaceae were 
important in medieval Europe as 
witchcraft plants— Deadly Night- 
shade, Bittersweet, Belladonna, Man- 
drake, Henbane — because of the 
strong alkaloids these species con- 
tain. Taken in various ways, they 
could dull pain or stimulate hallucina- 
tions. A common symptom in the per- 
son under influence of these drugs 
was a belief that he had become an 
animal, hence the origin of were- 
wolves in European mythology. 

After the discovery of America and 
European explorations into Asia, 
members of the Solanaceae became 
important food plants and were soon 
transported to and used in most coun- 
tries of the world. Hot chili peppers 
were taken back from the West Indies 
by Columbus on his first voyage, and 
soon after they were carried to India 
and Asia by Portuguese who landed in 
Brasil on their way around southern 
Africa. The chili pepper is so 
thoroughly established in the cuisine 
of Mediterranean and Far Eastern cul- 
tures that many people believe the 
plants were always there. 

Soon after the discovery of India and America, the egg- 
plant made its way across the Middle East into Europe 
where it became an important ingredient for Italian cooks. 
About the same time, tomatoes and white potatoes were 
brought to Europe, although they were not accepted as 
wholesome or even safe to eat for a long time. 

When potatoes finally were accepted, it was in a big 
way, for they soon became the basic staple in peasant 
diets of northern Europe. The effects of the potato blight 
which killed the potato crops in the middle of the last cen- 
tury were devastating, and this, the biggest crop failure in 
history, led to over a million deaths in Ireland and on the 
continent. In the last century, tomatoes also became widely 
accepted, and they are now a part of cooking in almost 
every country. The major solanaceous food crops, peppers, 
potatoes, tomatoes and eggplant, are now enjoyed by peo- 
ple all over the world. 

Besides these main crops, a number of other Solan- 
aceae are used for food in various countries. In South 
America, the lulo, naranjilla, coconilla and related species 
of Solanum have hairy fruits which make delicious juices. 
The genus Physalis in Mexico provides the tomatillo, which 
can be purchased fresh in Mexican import shops in St. Louis, 

and from South America it provided the 'Cape Gooseberry' 
which is used in pies and jams in parts of Africa. Seedsmen 
and nurserymen in the United States sometimes feature 
wonderberries, a tasty relative of the black nightshade 
from Africa, and the tree tomato, a shrub from South 
America that is an important fruit crop in New Zealand. 

The Solanaceae has provided us 
with a number of useful ornamentals, 
best known of which is probably 
Petunia. This favorite garden subject 
has been manipulated by scientists to 
come in many colors and sizes, and 
there are double and triple forms. 
Several species of Nicotiana are 
grown for their showy night-scented 
flowers. The Jerusalem or Christmas 
Cherry is sold at Christmas for its 
attractive red pepper-like fruits, and 
ornamental peppers are widely grown 
both indoors and outdoors. 

A few species are cultivated for 
other purposes: a spiny species of 
Solanum is grown around African 
farmsteads to fence out large 
animals; plants of Acnistus are 
cultivated by orchid growers for its 
branches which seem ideal for attach- 
ing these interesting epiphytes; and 
of course that 'filthy weed,' tobacco is 
a large scale crop in many countries. 
Nicotiana tabacum is the main 
species smoked today, but another 
species, Nicotiana rustica, was grown 
in Missouri and other parts of North 
America by the Indians long before 
the Europeans came. 

For medicinal or drug plants, the 
Solanaceae is well known, and it sup- 
plies several important different 
classes of alkaloids. One group, the steroids, is used as 
precursor material for making the birth control pill. Another 
group, the withanolides, have shown promise in the treat- 
ment of cancer. Still another group of alkaloids simulates 
in part the activity of vitamin D in the body and has been 
useful in the study of human aging. Tropane alkaloids are 
found in many Solanaceae. These affect the nervous 
system and can be used for dulling pain, inducing sleep, 
dilation of the pupils, to reduce muscle spasms, and as 
diuretics. They have also been used as hallucinogens, and 
the relaxant nature of alkaloids ingested as tobacco smoke 
is well known. 

Uninformed use of these alkaloids is dangerous and 
may result in self destructive behavior and sometimes 
death, so the Solanaceae must be regarded as a generally 
poisonous plant family. Except for the fruits, plants of 
tomatoes are poisonous, and all green parts of the potato 
are poisonous. There have been serious poisonings and 
even deaths of people who ate potatoes that had turned 
green from being exposed to sunlight. 

— William G. D'Arcy, Associate Curator 
Solanaceae Exhibit, Climatron and Grounds, July 
31-August 15. 

Notes from the Garden 

The officers of the Executive Board of the Members were installed at the Board's April meeting. 
Pictured, left to right, are Mrs. Shadrach Morris, President; Mrs. Bernard Brinker, Second Vice 
President; Mrs. Walter Stern, First Vice President; Mrs. Charles Schott, Treasurer. Not shown is 
Mrs. Rudyard Rapp, Secretary. 

The Linnean House is 100 years old 
thisyear, and the Garden, with the help 
of the Swedish Council of St. Louis, 
celebrated the anniversary on May 8. 
The greenhouse, the oldest still 
operating in the United States, was 
built by Garden founder Henry Shaw 
in 1882 and was named for Carl Lin- 
naeus, the great Swedish scientist of 

the 18th Century who devised the 
modern method of plant and animal 
classification. The festivities included 
a concert by a harmonic bell choir, a 
Maypole dance, and the re-enactment 
of a traditional Swedish wedding by 
Genevieve and Carroll Nelson who 
were celebrating their 50th wedding 

The Royal Swedish Academy of 
Sciences recently elected Dr. Peter H. 
Raven, the Garden's Director, as a 
Foreign Member in Botany. The 
Academy, which annually awards the 
Nobel prizes in the categories of 
physics, chemistry, and economics, 
was founded in 1739 by Carl Linnaeus 
and several other scientists. It is an 
independent scientific organization 
that conducts and supports research 
activities in Sweden and other 
selected locations of the world. There 
are 115 foreign members of the 

Dr. Raven was also appointed to the 
25-member panel of the Commission 
on Museums for a New Century, an 
independent group concerned with 
the preservation of American cultural 
and scientific institutions. The panel 
is interested in re-establishing 
museum emphasis on education and 
research, and in discovering ways in 
which museums can use modern 



Dr. Peter H. Raven, here with The Most Reverend 
John L. May, Archbishop of St. Louis (left), 
received an Honorary Doctor of Science degree 
from St. Louis University at that institution's 
graduation ceremonies in May. Dr. Raven was 
the featured speaker for the commencement. 

Roses, tulips, and African violets are 
St. Louis's three favorite flowers 
according to the Garden's recent poll. 
During the spring, visitors were asked 
to vote for their ten favorite flowers; 
viable seeds of the ten receiving the 
most votes will be included in a time 
capsule that will be placed into the 
Ridgway Center monument located 
near the building's entrance. The 
other seven flowers that will be 
included are orchid, waterlily, azalea, 
daffodil, iris, pansy, and lilac. The 
time capsule will be opened in 2059, 
the Garden's 200th anniversary 

The time capsule also contains a 
copy of Missouri Botanical Garden 
Bulletin, the Garden's 1981 Annual 
Report, a Ridgway Center floor plan 
and rendering, a McCarthy Brothers 
construction hardhat, a button show- 
ing the Garden's logo, a volunteer's 
name plate, and predictions of 
St. Louis's future by fourteen promi- 
nent residents. The volunteer name 
plate is that of Lucille Gausch who 
has volunteered in Tower Grove 
House for 20 years. Predictions were 
solicited from Christopher S. Bond, 
Vincent C. Schoemehl, Jr., Gene 
McNary, G. Duncan Bauman, Joseph 
Pulitzer, Jr., Robert F. Hyland, Carl E. 
Officer, Ruth Bryant, Martha Rounds, 
Jack Carney, Jerry Berger, Marge 
May, Dan Dierdorf, C. C. Johnson 
Spink, and Peter H. Raven 

One additional item included in the 
time capsule is one of Henry Shaw's 
razors; he had one for each day of the 
week. The capsule itself, made of 
stainless steel, was a gift of the Mon- 
day Security Corporation of Webster 

Applications for the Fall Festival are 
still available, although the space is 
beginning to be filled. The Festival, 
first of what is planned to be an 
annual event, is an opportunity for 
Members and others to demonstrate 
and sell their hobbies and crafts. It 
will be held in the new Ridgway 
Center, October 8-10. Send a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope to: Fall 
Festival Committee, Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, 
Missouri 63166 

Beginning last year and continuing 
into 1986, the Garden's Library is 
receiving a total of seventeen ship- 
ments that, together, document the 
plants collected during Captain 
James Cook's first circumnavigation 

Volunteer instructors are needed to 
assist the Garden's Education Depart- 
ment. The expanded facilities avail- 
able for the department in the 
Ridgway Center will create new 
opportunities for Members and others 
who are interested in teaching stu- 
dents of all ages. Interested persons 
should contact Judy Studer (577-5140) 
or Jeanne McGilligan (577-5187). 
There will be an orientation and train- 
ing session in September 

Wrigley Field moves to the Garden for 
two weekends in late summer, as the 
Theatre Project Company presents 
the nine-inning comedy Bleacher 
Bums. Performance of the play, about 
the (mis)fortunes of being a Chicago 
Cubs fan, are on Thursday through 
Sunday, August 26-29, and September 
2-5. Members will receive a $1 dis- 
count on tickets. Call 531-1301 for 

Members and the public can continue 
to order roses from the Garden, 
selecting from more than 30 varieties 
displayed in the Anne L. Lehmann 
and Gladney rose gardens. Order 
forms may be picked up at the ticket 

of the globe in the years 1769-71. This 
series is one of the landmark pub- 
lishing events of the 20th century. 

Accompanying Captain Cook on 
this voyage of the H.M.S. Endeavour 
was the English botanical artist 
Sydney Parkinson who with his assis- 
tants made paintings or sketches of 
the plants collected during the 
voyage. Upon the Endeavour's return 
to England, Parkinson's work was 
turned over to a group of engravers. 
These engravers produced nearly 750 
engraved copperplates, with the 
intention that they were eventually 
to be published. Sir Joseph Banks, 
founding father of the British Museum 
(Natural History) paid the engravers 
for their work, but eventually lost 
interest in the project. Consequently, 
the plates were never published, 
except for a few selections printed in 
black and white over the years. 

In 1980, nearly 200 years after the 
last plate was engraved, Alecto Edi- 
tions in London began publishing, in 
color, a comprehensive edition of the 
738 plates that have survived intact, in 
a limited edition of 100 copies. Only 

15 copies are reserved for sale in all of 
North America. 

Each of the engravings is printed 
a la poupee, with up to ten colors 
being worked directly into a single 
plate before the print is pulled, with 
additional hand water-coloring where 

As of this time, the Garden is the 
only botanical institution in the 
United States subscribing to a full set 
of the Florilegium, and one of only five 
libraries in the country to receive 
a set. 

Gifts have been received from the 
Steinberg Charitable Trust and from 
the Sidney and Sadie Cohen Founda- 
tion, but additional assistance is 
needed to complete the purchase of 
this important publication. Persons 
interested in donating toward this 
project are invited to contact the 
Garden's Director, Peter H. Raven, or 
the Librarian James R. Reed. Dona- 
tions for this purpose are tax- 
deductible. A list of all donors for the 
Florilegium will be maintained with 
the engravings. 

— James R. Reed, Librarian 

"Taxonomy has real importance. Not 
only does it create stability from 
chaos, but it allows biological dis- 
ciplines to function properly. No 
effective ecological or physiological 
study is possible without a knowledge 
of which specific organisms exist in 
the systems of experiment." Milton 
Love in New Scientist 

Off Track Dancers will present 
"Summer Shade" at the Garden on 
July 31 at 4 p.m. The program features 
Rich O'Donnell, percussionist with 
the St. Louis Symphony. The perfor- 
mance is a blend of visual art, sound 
and movement. For information call 

Watercolors and oils by artist Alan 
Suliber will be exhibited in the John S. 
Lehmann Building from August 2-27. 
Featuring paintings of Missouri plants 
and wildlife, the exhibit will be open 
Monday- Friday only, 9 a.m. -5 p.m . . . 

Henry Shaw was born 182 years ago 
this July 24. Members (especially our 
youngest members) are invited to 
celebrate with us on that day, from 
10 a.m. -2 p.m. Refreshments, enter- 
tainment, and more 

A grant for the Garden's work in 
Bolivia was awarded by the National 
Science Foundation recently. Begin- 
ning June 1, 1982, and continuing 
through November 30, 1985, the grant 
will support "A Floristic Survey of the 
Yungas Valleys of La Paz, Bolivia," 
now being conducted under the direc- 
tion of Dr. James C. Solomon. Dr. 
Solomon is the Garden's William L. 
Brown Fellow; the position is pro- 
vided by Pioneer Hybrid International 
and is named for their recently retired 
chairman. Dr. Solomon's work was 
described in the January/February, 
1982, issue of the Bulletin 

The Answer Service will provide plant 
clinics every Thursday evening, 4- 
7 p.m. beginning July 22, in the Ridg- 
way Center. Members are invited to 
bring their problems pertaining to 
plant care; small specimens of prob- 
lem plants may also be brought. Con- 
tinues through October 14 

Green Thumb Sessions will also be 
conducted by the Answer Service on 
July 26-31, 1-2 p.m. A different topic 
on each day will be discussed by a 
panel of experts. See calendar for 


1^1 \J \j\^u& (continued from page 11) 

For Younger Members 

In late April, a film crew from the British Broad- 
casting Corporation visited the Garden to film 
an episode of Bellamy's America. Using the 
lake in the Japanese Garden, the production 
company demonstrated the theory of conti- 
nental drift. 

The 1982 Henry Shaw Cactus Society 
Show opens on August 28 at 1:00 p.m. 
in the Ridgway Center. Special open- 
ing ceremonies will include a ribbon- 
cutting by the Garden's Director, 
Peter H. Raven. The show continues 
through September 5; hours on all 
days except August 28 are 9 a.m.- 
7:30 p.m 

Brunch at the Garden will become a 
regular feature every Sunday in the 
new Gardenview Restaurant begin- 
ning in early August. Watch the mail 
for further information 

Members are invited to a special 
preview of the opening of the Ridgway 
Center, Thursday and Friday, July 15- 
16, 5-8 p.m. There will be tours of the 
center and refreshments. Watch for 



What's in a Lawn? 

Most lawns consist of several dif- 
ferent kinds of plants. Clover, chick- 
weed and plaintain are but a few, in 
addition to a number of varieties of 
grasses. Try taking a "census" with 
your child of just one small area of 
lawn. Find out what kinds of things 
ive in that area. 

You will need: an empty picture 
frame (glass removed), or four strips 
of cardboard glued in the shape of 
square, approximately 10"x12"; a 
note pad; a pencil; a small cup. 

What to do: Have your child select 
an area of the lawn where the census 
will be taken. Place the empty picture 
frame down on the lawn. The area 
within the frame will be your census 
area. Find as many different varieties 

of plants as you can within this area. 
Use leaves and flowers as clues. 
Count the number of plants you find 
and write the number down on the 
note pad. Look for flowers on un- 
mowed grasses — can you find any? 
Compare leaf sizes, shapes, arrange- 
ment and vein patterns on clover, 
chickweed and grass. Collect a few 
samples of the plants within your cen- 
sus area and place them in the small 
cup. Later you can press, dry, and 
mount them with white glue. 

Be sure to notice any bugs or 
other animals that might be living 
within your census area. Just for fun, 
move your frame to another area of 
the lawn. Do the same things live 
there too? 

— Ilene Follman 
Education Consultant 


Names and More 

Who named the Daisy? Who 
named the Rose? is a delightful vol- 
ume by Mary Durant, author of many 
other books and magazine articles. 
The nature lover, whose curiosity is 
not satisfied with identification 
manuals, will be pleasantly surprised. 

Presented in dictionary format for 
easy reference, the book introduces 
us to each flower with a short history 
of its origin and travels to America, 
perhaps a few words on its namesake, 
its medicinal value, and, most pleas- 
ingly, some references to the flower in 
literature. Such persons as Haw- 
thorne, Muir, and Meriwether Lewis 
tell of their encounters with every- 
thing from Artemisia to Witch-Hazel. 

The cost for this hardcover 
journey through natures wildflowers? 
In an effort to better serve your 
interests, the Garden Gate Shop has 
recently opened a section of reduced 
price books, and as one of 50 or more 
titles, this book is only $1.98. 

Vegetable Smarts 

What's the latest in producing 
delicious summer vegetables? Home 
Gardening Wisdom by Dick and Jan 
Raymond. You'll soon be hearing 
about them on T.V. and radio spots 
but their book, along with a com- 
panion volume, Down to Earth 
Vegetable Gardening Know How, is 
here now. 

With an easy to read and use style, 
the authors treat members of related 
crop groups from top to bottom. You 
just start out with a hankering for a 
particular vegetable and the 
Raymonds will help you choose a 
hybrid; germinate, harden off and 
plant it; prepare the soil and protect it 
from pests and diseases right up to 
the peak moment for harvesting. 

So what now? You've got your 
hunger and you've got your veg- 
etables. Do you just hand 'em over to 
the spouse and hope for the best? Of 
course not! The authors tempt your 
palate with every recipe from Hopping 
John to Green Pepper Jelly. Peas por- 
ridge to Potato bread. And — If you 
can't eat it all tonight, there are direc- 
tions for canning, freezing, dry storing 
and, for onions, braiding. 

For $9.95 I have the feeling Dick 
and Jan Raymond are going to be 
around for awhile. 
— Judy Cuddihee, Garden Gate Shop 


April & May 1982 
Sponsoring Members 

Mr. & Mrs. William S. Cassilly 

Mrs. Herbert Frank 

Mr. & Mrs. John R. Galloway 

Mr. & Mrs. B. F. Jackson 

Mr. & Mrs. Downing B. Jenks 

Dr. & Mrs. Maurice J. Lonsway 

Sustaining Members 

Dr. Gladys E. Baker 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer C. Bartmann 

Ms. Pauline Bauche 

Mr. & Mrs. Harold A. Brmner 

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Mr. & Mrs. F. Carl Burt 

Mr. & Mrs. Calvin Case 

Mrs. C. C. Christy 

Mr. B. Coombes 

Ms. Vivian M. Coons 

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Mr. & Mrs. Donald L. Dempsey 

Ms. Barbara Dierstem 

Mr. & Mrs. Norman Friedman 

Mr. John J. Goebel 

Mr. & Mrs. Israel Goldberg 

Mrs. Michael Harris 

Mr. & Mrs. E. F. Hartke 

Mr. & Mrs Glennon G. Hauser 

Miss Ann Hubel 

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Mrs. Keith Jackson 

Mr & Mrs. James Hudson Jones 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry C. Kloepper 

Mr. James D. Knox 

Ms. Melissa K Knox 

Mr. & Mrs. W. R. Konneker 

Mr & Mrs. Milton Kushkin 

Mrs. Raymond E. Lange 

Mr. Gerald Lukefahr 

Dr. & Mrs. Thomas F. Maher 

Mr. & Mrs. Glenn M. McNett 

Mrs. Kenneth Merten 

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Mr & Mrs. Robert E. Otto 

Mr. William J. Pfeiffer 

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Miss Helen L. Schmitt 

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Ms. Rosemary Wohlgemuth 

Dr. Richard D Yoder 

Mr. & Mrs. William D. Zeltmann 

Contributing Members 

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Miss Bessie Van Antwerp 

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Dr. Bernard Becker 

Mr. Rudolph Benz 

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Mr. C. A. Boedeker 

Dr. & Mrs. Ronald Burde 

Mrs. Allen Burgess 

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Mr. & Mrs. R. L. McCandless 

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Ms. K. Conable 

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Miss J. Diveley 

Ms. Holly Dodge 

Mr. Larry Lamsa 

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Mrs. Thomas A. Dooley 

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Mr & Mrs. Charles Ferrano 

Ms. Kay Lynne Firsching 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Finn 

Ms. H. E. Fitzgerald 

Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth E. Floro 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward H. Flowers 

Dr. & Mrs. Eric Flug 

Mr & Mrs. R. K Follensbee 

Mr. & Mrs. C. J. Forderhase 

Mr. Gregory L. Fowler 

Dr. & Mrs. Ernst R. Friedrich 

Mr. & Mrs. Virgil A. Froussard 

Mr. Oliver Fullilove 

Mr. John R Gaebe 

Mrs. Leone C. Gale 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward W. Garnholz 

Mrs. Betty Glenn 

Mr. & Mrs. George Goding 

Ms. Hildred F. Grady 

Mrs. C. R. Graves 

Mr. & Mrs. Ronald K. Greenberg 

Dr. A. V. Grieshaber 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Grisbrook 

Mr. C. A. Gumper 

Mr. & Mrs. Gary V. Hartman 

Rve. Albert P. Hauser 

Mr. William L. Hayse 

Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth O. Head 

Miss Joann Hediger 

Dr. Use Heilbrunn 

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Heisler 

Mr. & Mrs. William H. Hellwege 

Mr. Jeffrey R. Henry 

Mr. Russell Hill 

Miss Margaret Hilliker 

G. F. Hitschfel 

Dr. & Mrs. William E. Holt 

Mr. Daniel W. Hopkins 

Mrs. Alton E. Horton 

Mr. & Mrs. Franklkin R. Jackes, Jr. 

Ms. Ann Jackson 

Mrs. Jane Jacobs 

Mr. & Mrs. Rudy James 

Mr & Mrs. Leon U. Jameton 

Mr. & Mrs. Norman Janson 

Mr. David F. Jockenhoefer 

Vanice Johns 

Mr. & Mrs. Gary W Johnson 

Dr. & Mrs. Michael Karl 

Mr. Washington R. Keels. Ill 

Mr. Philip R. Keeney 

Mr. & Mrs. Warren G. Keinath 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin A. Kiefer 

Dr & Mrs. Francis C. King 

Mr. & Mrs. C. R. Kjellstrom 

Mrs. Hazel L. Knapp 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Kniep 

Dr. & Mrs Alfred B. Knight 

Ms Clara M. Koesterer 

Mr. Russell C. Kohn 

Mr. Glen E. Krah 

Mr. & Mrs. Casey Krakowiecki 

Mrs. C. F. Kuelker 

Mr. Eric M. Kuhlman 

Miss Arleen C. Laciny 

Mr. Michael Lackey 

Mr. Richard D. Lakin 

Mr. & Mrs. Gene Lamb 

Miss Edna Landzettel 

Mr. Clinton W. Lane, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph S Lange 

Ms. Bernice Langing 

Ms. Dorothy Lanham 

Dr. & Mrs. W. Edward Lansche 

Miss Mary Laun 

Mr. & Mrs. David J. Lehleitner 

Mr. & Mrs. Jeff Levine 

Mr & Mrs. Charles Limberg 

Mr. Louis L. Lohman 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael C. Long 

Mr. & Mrs. William G. Luehrmann 

Mr. Edward J. Lynch 

Otakar Machek 

Ms. D. Maeser 

Mr. Eric Madaras 

Mrs. Eleanora E. Maichel 

Mr. George E. Marron 

Mr. William E. Martin 

Mr. & Mrs Henry McCluney 

Mr. Robert D. McCready 

E B McDonald 

Mr. & Mrs. J. R. McEachern 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Mcintosh 

Rev. M. B. McNamee 

Mr. Russell W. Meredith 

Mr. Alfred M. Milam 

Mrs. E. C. Mikkelsen 

Mr. & Mrs. Paul Miklos 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Miller 

Mr. Alfred F. Moeller 

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence H. Mongold 

Ms. Molly E. Moody 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack E. Morris 

Mr. & Mrs. William E. Morrison 

Mr. Carl S. Mueller 

Dr. & Mrs. Wilbur A Mullarky 

Mrs. George Murphy 

Mr. Joseph A. Murphy 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph D. Murphy 

Mr. & Mrs. Francis C. Myer 

Mrs. Joseph W. Myers 

Ms. Ellen M. Newton 

Mr. Robert F. Noe 

Mr. & Mrs. Philip H. Noll 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph O Connor 

Mrs Gertrud E. Oleshchuk 

Miss Rosalyn dinger 

Dr. James R. O'Neal 

Mr. John V. Opie 

Dr. David Ortbals 

Mrs. Mary Otto 

Mr. Robert R. Owen 

Mr. Stephen C. Paine 

Ms. Nellie T. Parrish 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard B. Patty 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Payne 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Peiffer 

Ms. Rosemarie Pelech 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank Pellegrini 

Mr & Mrs. James A. Peoples 

Mr & Mrs. G. T. Perkins. Jr. 

Ms. Rose N. Perotti 

Ms. Helen R. Persons 

Ms. Deborah K. Phillips 

Mr. & Mrs. William D. Phillips 

Mr. & Mrs. Raymond C. Plas 

Dr. & Mrs Joseph Portnoy & David 

Mr. & Mrs. Austin J. Quackenbush 

Mr & Mrs Daniel T. Rabbitt 

Mr. Eugene V. Rankin 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael J. Rankin 

Mr. & Mrs. Emil L. Rajnoha 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard A Rapp 

Mr. & Mrs. Paul E. Rauch 

Mr. William R. Richardson 

Mr. Tom Richter 

Mr. & Mrs I Pierce Rhodes 

Mr. & Mrs. John L. Roach 

Dr. & Mrs. Leon Robison. Ill 

Mr, & Mrs. Ernest S. Robson 

Dr. & Mrs. Daniel L Rode 

Dr. & Mrs. Herbert E. Rosenbaum 

Mrs. Marlene D. Roth 

Mr. & Mrs. T. V. Rouse 

Mr. Lucien T Roy 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Ruberton 

Mr. & Mrs. William I, Ruhe 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam P. Rynearson 

Miss Margaret Sachs 

Ms. Gisele Sarosy 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter J. Schaab 

Mr. & Mrs. C. M. Schaub 

Mr. & Mrs. George H. Schlapp 

Ms. Mary M. Schroeder 

Rev. & Mrs. Teo Schroeder 

Dr. & Mrs. Benjamin Schwartz 

Dr. J. S. Sciortino 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward Sentuna 

Ms Mary Serra 

Mr J. E. Setzer 

Dr. & Mrs. Thomas P. Shaner 

Dr. & Mrs. Charles S. Sherwin 

Mr. Steve Sherwood 

Ms. Josephine M. Sloboda 

Ms. Kathleen Smith 

Mr. David Smuckler 

Mr & Mrs. Joseph A. Snyder 

Mr & Mrs. Paul S. Stassevitch 

Mr. Rudy Stipanovich 

Mr. Ronald Stoppelmann 

Mr. Herbert W. Strecker 

Ms. Patricia Struckel 

Mr. & Mrs. Gary Studer 

Miss M. Stuehak 

Mr. Paul D. Taylor 

Mr. & Mrs. L. W. Thilking 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack Thompson 

Ms. Pat Thone 

Dr. & Mrs. James K. Turner 

Ms. Delores Ulrich 

Mrs. L. J. Vogler 

Mrs. Maxme Waggoner 

Mr. & Mrs. W E. Walker 

Mr, & Mrs. Barney Wander 

Dr, & Mrs. Robert C. Wanless 

Mr. Gary R. Waters 

Ms. Judy E. Weast 

Mr. J. C, Weber 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Weigert 

Mr Morris C. White 

Mr. & Mrs Allen W. Whittemore 

Mr. & Mrs. Lester F Wiget 

Mr. & Mrs. Donald Wildman 

Mr. Paul G. Wilke 

Mrs. Ray D. Williams 

Mr, & Mrs. Robert B. Willoh 

Mr. E. L. Windmeyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Wingerter 

Mr. & Mrs. Ray E. Witter 

Miss N. Ruth Wood 

Mr. Robert S. Woodward 

Mr. Glen H Woofter 

(continued on page 14) 



April & May 1982 

Mr. & Mrs. Edgar V. Dickson 
Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Freeman 
Mr. & Mrs. John R. Gardner 
Mr. & Mrs. Bernhardt Kippel IV 
Mr. & Mrs. John H. Payne 
Mrs. William M. Van Cleve 
Missouri Botanical Garden Guides 
Howard Baer 
Mr. & Mrs Charles Kopman 
Mr. Carl Beckers 
Japan-America Society of St. Louis 

Women's Association 
Mrs. Eleanor Brin 
Dorothy & Sam Rosenbloom 
Mr. & Mrs. Howard P. Coleman 
Mr. & Mrs Eugene G. Monnig, Jr 
Dr. & Mrs. Harold Cutler's 

Mrs H. E. Lieberman 
Mr. Semon Frelich 
Mr. & Mrs. Jerome Michelson 
Mr. & Mrs. Clarence B. Gilley 
Mr. & Mrs. Milton Weiss 
Mr. & Mrs. Ashley Gray, Jr. 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 
Mrs. Doris Lange 
Mrs. Claranne Henry 
Mr. Bernard Mellitz 
Jeanne & Lester Adelson 
Father Edward T. Moore 
Mitchell & Marie Grzesiowski 
Genevive & Carroll Nelson 
Mr. & Mrs. David Hooker 
Ms. Julie Rennard 
Mr. & Mrs Sam Rosenbloom 
Mr. & Mrs. Eddy J. Rogers 
Dr & Mrs. John Fries 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Ruwitch 
Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 
Pauline Sakahara 
Her Flower Arrangement Class 
Mrs. Jeanne Schwaller 
The Arrowhead Garden Club 
Barbara Spivak 
Mr. & Mrs. Edw. Lieblick & Billy 
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Straubinger 
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Grattendick 
Mrs. Katherine Wagner 
Mary Soulard Bull 
Paul & Eleanor Ring 

Bert Allee 

Kevin & John Sillery 

Mr. William Armstrong 

Mr. & Mrs. E L. dePenaloza 
Mrs. Elsie Ballman 

Dale & Jacqueline Ruthsatz 
Mrs. Cindy Balven 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Johnson 
Mrs. Lucille H. Beall 

Mrs. Charles Bachar, Jr. 

Isabel C. Beall 

The Scott Beall Family 

Carondelet Orthopaedic Surgeons, Inc 

Dr & Mrs. Clifford W. Colwell 

Mrs Dwight W. Coultas 

Mr. & Mrs William T. Dettmann 

Helene A. Fattmann 

Irene E. Geer 

Gravois Township Republican 

Women's Club 
Elaine & John Henkle 
Herb & Jane Hitzeman 
Mr. & Mrs. C. L. McComb 
Hazel B. Manning 
Ms Mignon B Meyer 
Helen Reuter 

F. Leigh Turner 

Genevieve & Bob Turner 

Camille & Lois Wamhoff 

Miss Virginia Boesel 

Mrs. Marlene Holtgrewe & Family 

Mr. Clifford A. Bough 

Mr. & Mrs. John J. Reed 

Mr. John B. Brnjac 

Mrs. John B. Brnjac 

James Butler Bushyhead 

Mr. & Mrs. Cornelius F. P. Stueck 

Lisa C Toelle 

Miriam E. Toelle 

Creighton B. Calfee 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mrs. Harry B. Chosid 

Gloria & Ross Luitjens 

Mr. Walter W. Dalton 

Mr. & Mrs. John L Davidson, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. John A. Vassallo 

Mr. Arthur R. Darr 

Ruth & August Homeyer 

A. Mildred Dempsey 

Tom & Marie Lambert 

Mr. William Dewitt 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles W. Freeman 

Addie Doelling 

Erna Doelling 

Grace Behring Doxsee 

Mr. & Mrs E. Ray Siler 

Irma Franklin Dreyer 

Clarissa & Ray Lippert 

Mrs. Theodore C. Eggers 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack E. Krueger 

Mr. George Eto 

Dr. & Mrs. William A. Werner 

Irwing F. Fausek, Sr. 

William M. Livingston 

Susan & Lee Mowry 

Eleanor F. Sleight 

Judge David Fitzgibbon 

Gen. & Mrs. Martin Rockmore 

Morris L. Flotken 

Mary Flotken 

Mr. Nathaniel F. Goldstone 

Mr. & Mrs. Kay Sherman 

Mr. Earl W. Grant 

Dr. & Mrs. Francis J. Burns & Children 

Miss Mary Patricia Hackett 

Paul & John Hackett 

Mrs. Jeannette T. Hayden 

Helen S. Prange 

Mr. & Mrs. J. W. Schwaig 

Viola M. Volk 

Mrs. William Guy Heckmann 

Mr. & Mrs Thomas R. Collins, Jr. 

Fred Hoefel, Jr. 

Jean Bartel 

L.H.S.G. Club 

Miss Mane Meyer 

Mrs. Naomi M. Mundy 

Walter & Rosemary Weinhardt 

Mr. Charles E. Hoxie 

Miss Ella Tappmeyer 
David L. Huscheck 
Eva and Barrie Oehler 
Rose Hyman 

Ruth B. Brown 
Mr. Hank Iglauer 

Mr. & Mrs. William Livingston 

Mr. Sam Ingracia, Jr. 

Ms. Jane L. Stegeman 

Mr. Carl Irwin 

James K Mellow 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. G. Jenkin 

Mr. & Mrs C C. Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Irene C. Jones 

Mr. Howard C Blossom 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Stuart G. Hill 

Mr. & Mrs Charles Limberg 

Senator & Mrs. George E. Murray 

Mr. & Mrs. W. Grant Williams 

Mr. Emil W. Kaiser 

Mr. & Mrs Arthur F. Boettcher, Jr 

Mrs. Richard Keene 

Mr & Mrs C. C. Johnson Spink 
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Keene 

Mr. & Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 
Dr. Garrett S. Kieffer 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin F Guth, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. George Koob 

Mr. William H. Laib 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer L. Boehm 

Mr. James J. Langen 

Argyle Graphic, Inc. 

Mrs. Miriam R. Babbitt 

Creston N. Baumunk, M.D 

Mr. & Mrs. Cyrus S Blackmore 

Mr. & Mrs. Jos. J. Blackmore 

Hi-Speed Graphic Supply, Inc. 

Mr. & Mrs. Bruce H. Carpenter 

Helene W. Carpenter 

Mr. & Mrs. Mike Cone 

John J. Couch 

Mr. & Mrs. A. L. Drumright 

Wilfred D. Fales 

Craig Gibbons 

Mary Ruth Greene 

Mr. & Mrs John H. Harwood 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam D. Hodgdon 

Mrs. John G. Hotz 

Mr. Edward L. Horton 

Mr. & Mrs. Nelson L. Hower 

Litho Development & Research 

James McCullough 

Mr. & Mrs. Hugh A. McGaughy 

Mrs. Paula Messina 

Robert K. Mueller 

National Graphics 

Dr. & Mrs. Theodore Paul 

Printing Impressions 

Mr & Mrs. H. M. Ross 

Mr. James L. Sloss, Jr. 

H. A Snellmg Co. 

Mr. Allen H. Whitehead 

Cora O. Latzer 

Mrs. G. M. Mulhern 

Mrs. Evelyn Leopold 

Greater Town & Country Garden Club 

Evelyn Muether 

Joseph Lewis 

Mrs. Milton H. Tucker 

Naomi Lieberman 

Morton & Norma Singer 

Mr. Arthur W. Lindholm 

Mrs. Hazel M. Lindholm 

Mr. Tom E. McCary, Jr. 

Mrs. Tom McCary 

Mrs. Gertrude Meene 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles J. Cook 

Mrs. Julia Michalevich 

Mrs. Ralph Gabel 

Mrs. Andrew S. Mills 

Elizabeth G. Brokaw 

Mrs Richard Bull 

Mrs. Henry V. Moss's Sister 

Leigh & Alice Gerdine 

Dr. David H. Nicholson 

Mrs. John W. Calhoun 

Mr & Mrs. J. Eugene Johanson 

Miss Lola Niederhoff 

Miss Mathilda C. Kallmeyer 

Dr. Masao Ohmoto 

Dr. & Mrs. George M. Tanaka 

Loretto Oldham 

Nan & Jim Henderson 

Edgar F. Peters 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. A. Frank 

Mr. Herman T. Pott 

Mr. & Mrs Herman W. Brune 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Mrs. James E. Crawford 

Dr & Mrs. Peter H. Raven 

Mrs. E. L. Sheldon 

Mr. Joseph Powell 

Mrs. Ray Hotfelder 

Mrs. Leah Powell 

Russell D. Meyers, Jr. 

Senator Robert L. Prange 

Ms. Dorothy A. Brockhoff 

Ruth Bryer 

Mrs. Elizabeth B. Schwarz 

Martha Gildehaus Reichardt 

Mr. & Mrs. John G. Buettner 

Mr. Frank P. Ricca, Sr. 

Mr & Mrs Bernard Colton 

Barbara Roberts' Grandparents 

Mr. & Mrs R. Leibengood 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward R. Roesler 

Mr. & Mrs. Sterling Ryan 

James L. Scheetz, D.D.S. 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert C, Purk 
Dr. Suzanne Schaefer 

Mr. & Mrs. William Livingston 

Mr. Frederick J. Schuermann 

Mane & Lilian Cuolahan 

Emil F. Schumacher 

Mr & Mrs. R. W. Bussen 

Mrs. Cornelia B. Finnegan 

Martha Just 

Lisette E. Schaumburg 

Mrs Norman Schaumburg 

Mrs. Helen Schwenk 

Miss Viola Vogel 

Mrs. Iris Seeler 

Mr & Mrs. Rick Fournier 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles C. Spink 

Mr. & Mrs C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mr. & Mrs. J. G. Taylor Spink 

Mr & Mrs. C. C. Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Smith 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles Schagrin 

Mrs. Hazel Smith 

Mrs. John Torrey Berger, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Mitchell J Grzesiowski 

Mrs. Mary Tarr 

Mr. & Mrs. Ralph Bridges 

Mr. & Mrs. R. E. Danzer & Family 

Mr Carroll Eslinger 

Mr. & Mrs. Tim Faltus 

Mr. & Mrs. Larry Fritsch & Son 

Mr. & Mrs. Ed Lucke 

Mr. & Mrs. Lynn Reeves 

Mr. & Mrs. E. B. Shirley & Daughters 

Mr. & Mrs. Larry Shirley 

Ida Tessler 

Michael Fournier 
Mrs. Harriet M. Thies 

Mrs. Margery S. Nax 

Mr. Richard D. Schreiber 

Mr. & Mrs. George W. Skinner 

Dr. Charles A. Thomas 

Mr & Mrs Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Rhoda Turner 

Emily & Helen Novak 

Mrs. Lee Parks 

Harold J. Vasconcelles 

Mr. & Mrs. J Harold Matthew 

Hans Weber 

International Association of 

Machinists & Aerospace Workers, 
Tool & Die Makers Lodge No. 688 

Robert E. Weeks 

Ruth B. Brown 

Mrs. Janice Weil 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard B. Rosenthal 

Mary D. Welch & 
William J. Welch 

Tom & Marie Lambert 

George D. Will, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. Wm. E Barnes 

Mrs H C. Grigg 

Marion & George Herbst 

Mrs. Estelle M. Zacher 

Adelaide & Dan Schlafly 

New Members 

(continued from page 13) 

Dr & Mrs. Thomas A. Woolsey 

Mr. John A. Works 

Mr & Mrs. David Worley 

Mrs. Carol L. Wright 

Mr David Wright 

Mr. Edward G. Wuller 

Mr. & Mrs. Dupne G. Yadon 





July 1-10 
July 11-17 

July 18-24 

July 25-31 

Family Picnic Day, Grounds. July 4, 9 a.m. -7:30 p.m. 

Members' Reception, Ridgway Center, July 15-16, 
5-8 p.m. 

Ridgway Opening, Ridgway Center, July 18 
Plant Clinic, Ridgway Center, every Thursday 
beginning July 22, 4-7 p.m. (through Oct. 14) 
Henry Shaw Birthday Party, Grounds, July 24, 
10 a.m. -2 p.m. 

Green Thumb Series, Ridgway Center, July 26-31, 
1-2 p.m....(Mon., Vegetable Gardening; Tues., Lawn 
Care; Wed., Fruits; Thurs., Flower Gardening; Fri., 
Trees & Shrubs; Sat., Roses) 

Solanaceae Exhibit, Climatron and Grounds, begins 
July 31, 10 a.m. -7:30 p.m. (through August 15) 

Summer Shade, by the Off Track Dancers, Grounds, 
July 31, 4 p.m. 

August 1-7 

August 8-14 

August 15-21 

August 22-31 

Alan Suliber Exhibit, John S. Lehmann Building, 
August 2-27, Mon.-Fri., 9 a.m. -5 p.m. 
Solanaceae Exhibit: Continues 

Century Plant Exhibit, Desert House, opens 
August 14, 10 a.m. -7:30 p.m. (through Sept. 11) 

Solanaceae Exhibit: Continues 
Alan Suliber Exhibit: Continues 
Century Plant Exhibit: Continues 

Solanaceae Exhibit: Final Day August 15 

Alan Suliber Exhibit: Continues 

Bleacher Bums, by Theatre Project Company, 

Lehmann Rose Garden, August 26-29 (also Sept. 2-5) 

8 p.m., except 2 p.m. on Aug. 29 

Cactus Society Show, Ridgway Center, opens 

Aug. 28, 9 a.m. -7:30 p.m. (through Sept. 5) 

Century Plant Exhibit: Continues 

Alan Suliber Exhibit: Final Day August 27 

Irony and Paradox in the Corn Field 

amount of their growth energy in the production of seeds in 
order to ensure a subsequent generation and to preserve 
the species. Perennial plants, like Z diploperennis, exert 
their growth energy in the formation and strengthening of 
root systems, rhizomes, buds, stems and leaves. A single 
Z. diploperennis plant produces relatively very few seeds; 
commercial varieties of Z. mays, relatively many more 
seeds or kernals per plant. 

The perennial nature of the plant however, has inter- 
ested fuel producers. Standard Oil of Ohio is working with 
perennial corn developed from Z. diploperennis and 
Z. mays as biomass plant material to produce alcohol 
based fuel. 

It appears, then, that the cause for the initial excite- 
ment over the discovery of a perennial that can be crossed 
with corn — namely that a perennial corn could result — 
has quieted, however, there still remains considerable 
value in Z diploperennis. First, of course, its immunity or 
tolerance to seven major corn viruses can be bred into 
corn. Second, agriculture researchers also hope that its 
stronger root system can be introduced into corn to help 
hold soil better against erosion. Third, there is a chance 
seen by some that a high yielding perennial corn can be 
developed by 2000, in which case the discovery would be 
invaluable and hold the "revolutionary implications" 
predicted when the new species was reported. 

Fourth, and perhaps most important, the discovery of 
Z. diploperennis increases the known genetic stock of corn 

and its relatives. Cultivating a genetically uniform crop, in 
addition to increasing the danger of it being obliterated by 
a disease, also contributes to the reduction of genetic 
diversity. If a farmer — as many in Mexico do — cultivates a 
crop that is genetically diverse one year, and the next, in 
order to increase his yield, plants a modern hybrid, he 
reduces the range of genes in corn, litis and his col- 
laborators have determined that Z. diploperennis grows 
only in a three-acre area. If before Guzman's exploration a 
farmer, or land developer, had cleared those three acres to 
plant a high-yield hybrid, there would have been no new 
species to find. All of the new opportunities this discovery 
has provided would not be possible. 

Z. diploperennis and Missouri Botanical Garden are 
closely connected. The American scientist who first dis- 
covered Z, perennis in 1910, Albert S. Hitchcock, who was 
on the staff of the Smithsonian at that time, was a botanical 
assistant at the Missouri Botanical Garden and instructor 
in the Henry Shaw School of Botany at Washington Univer- 
sity from 1889 to 1981. Dr. Hugh H. litis received his Ph.D 
from Washington University in 1952. 

Persons interested in seeing Z. diploperennis and a 
perennial corn hybrid may do so by visiting the Demonstra- 
tion Vegetable Garden in late August or early September. 
The display is part of the Garden's continuing effort to 
inform its members and visitors about the diversity of the 
world's plant life and its importance to man. 


You Are Invited 




pep H Ptoweps 






^ £fiirtn*ay jrurty 

Stoiytdlins SCJERHCE 


Ridgway Center Festival 

July 18- October 15 

Watch for details to come 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 







Volume LXX, Number 5 
September/October 1982 





Victoria's Flower, Victoria's Building 

As we open, it is 1803. Thaddaus Haehnke is canoeing 
the Rio Mamore with a Spanish missionary, Father 
LaCueva. Haehnke is a Czech botanist exploring Bolivia. 
The canoe comes alongside marshes and Haehnke sees 
perhaps the most extraordinary flower of his scientific 
career and does something that the priest has seen count- 
less men do before: Haehnke falls to 
his knees. 

Next we are in Buenos Ayres In- 
tendency of the United Provinces of 
South America. It is 1821. Aime 
Bonpland is on a raft near the forks of 
the Parana and Paraguay rivers, near 
Corrientes. His raft comes upon a 
large plant floating upon the water; 
the natives call it Mays de I'Agua 
(Corn of the Water) — they use its 
seeds in making flour, a flour they con- 
sider superior to that from Mays. 
Bonpland, a colleague of the great 
Alexander von Humboldt, leans too far 
out from his raft in his eagerness to 
collect a specimen of the plant and 
almost falls into the river. His 
associates later report that he spoke 
of nothing else for a month. Bonpland 
sends seeds to the Jardin des Plantes 
in Paris. 

This plant that has brought one 
man to his knees, and another to the 
brink of falling from his raft has yet to 
be named formally or described as a 
new species. 

(In 1833, Edward Poeppig, a Ger- 
man botanist, finally names and de- 
scribes the plant. He calls it Euryale 
amazonica in an obscure journal, 
Froriep's Notizen. We note this in par- 
enthesis because hardly anyone noti- 
ces his publication and it is later decided that he has placed 
it in the wrong genus.) 

We are now 2,000 miles, approximately, north of the 
Parana, in a place recorded on the map as British Guiana; It 
is 1836. If we look at a map drawn in 1982, we would not find 
Br. Guiana; in its place is Guyana. But it is 1836 — late 1836 
— and it still carries the British name, and we are with Sir 
Robert Schomburgk. He is traveling the river Berbice, and 
with difficulty. There are rapids and cataracts which slow 
the journey; Schomburgk is deserted by some of his native 

workers and must leave behind one of his canoes; the river 
narrows, the difficulty increases; he encounters many trees 
fallen across the river and the journey slows even more; he 
is again deserted by more of his native workers; in five 
weeks, he has traveled only 120 miles. 

And it is now New Years Day, 1837. The New Year, 
usually a time for celebrating, brings 
no joy to Schomburgk; it is only 
another mark of his slow progress, the 
possible failure of his expedition. 

He speaks: "Such thoughts were 
passing in my mind when we arrived 
at a point where the river expanded 
and formed a smooth basin on its 
eastern bank... Something on the 
southern point of the bay attracted my 
attention; I could not imagine what it 
might be. ..a vegetable wonder. All 
calamities were forgotten; I felt as a 
botanist, and was rewarded. A gigan- 
tic leaf from five to seven feet diam- 
eter... rested upon the water; quite in 
character with the wonderful leaf was 
the luxurient flower. ..consisting of 
many hundred petals passing in alter- 
nate tints from pure white to rose and 
pink. The smooth water was covered 
with them, and I rowed from one to 
another, constantly finding something 
to admire." 

Schomburgk gives the flower its 
first widely recognized name: Victoria 
regia. "I thought that a better name 
could not be chosen for the handsome 
and noble plant than that. ..given in 
honor of our illustrious Queen," he 
writes. This is in the first year of Vic- 
toria's 64 year reign; she is 18. 

(Victoria regia is not quite right 
either as the name of the plant. Although it is more often — 
yet incorrectly — called Victoria regia, its correct name is V. 
amazonica because rules of botanical nomenclature de- 
mand that the earliest published specific epithet stand.) 

Imagine a decade passing, and then two years more — 
all through those twelve years too, imagine horticulturists 
trying to coax Victoria to flower. Imagine them failing; she 
will not flower. 

Now let it be England — thousands of miles of ocean 
from Victoria's home — in 1849. We are in a London train 

{continued on page 4) 


The defeat on August 3 of the sales tax 
proposal which would have provided 
revenue for economic development and 
for our cultural institutions was a disap- 
pointment for the Garden. Our Members, 
volunteers, and staff worked extremely 
hard for the approval of Proposition 1, and 
I am very proud of our efforts. 

Proposition 1 was a bold proposal, and 
we owe our thanks to Vince Schoemehl, Gene McNary, and 
Chuck Knight, who spearheaded the campaign. The kind of 
leadership they have shown is in the final analysis why the 
St. Louis area will succeed despite occasional setbacks. 

For the present, the Missouri Botanical Garden will re- 
main one of the few major botanical gardens anywhere in the 
world without a base of public support for its operation. Even 

with the generosity of individuals and corporations, we have 
had to cut back our operation in recent years below desirable 
levels. We are now reviewing all the options available to us to 
insure the vigor of the Garden. 

At the same time we are disappointed by the outcome of 
the vote on Proposition 1 , we are celebrating a very important 
victory. The Ridgway Center adds new dimension and depth 
to the Garden's operation. With it, we will be able to provide 
more and better services to our Members and to the St. Louis 
community. I thank each of you for all of your support and 
work to make the Ridgway Center come about. 

I look forward to working with you on the challenges and 
opportunities which the Garden faces in the months and 
years ahead. 



Mr. & Mrs. Newell A. Auger 

Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr. & Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr. & Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph H. Bascom 

Mr. Carl LA. Beckers 

Mr. & Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 

Mr. & Mrs. Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mrs. Richard I. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. J. Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mr. & Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Mrs. F.T. Childress 

Mr. & Mrs. Fielding L. Childress 

Mr. & Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Mr. Sidney S. Cohen 

Mr. & Mrs. Franklin J. Cornwell, Sr. 

Dr. & Mrs. William H. Danforth 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mr. Bernard F. Desloge 

Mrs. Joseph Desloge, Sr. 

Mr. Alan E. Doede 

Mr & Mrs. Richard A. Dohack 

Mrs. H.R. Duhme, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Robert Edwards 

Mr. & Mrs. David C. Farrell 

Mr. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr. Gregory D Flotron 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Eugene A. Freund 

Mrs. Henry L. Freund 

Mr. S.E. Freund 

Mrs. Clark R. Gamble 

Mr. Samuel Goldstein 

Mr. Stanley J. Goodman 

Mrs Mildred Goodwin 

Mr. & Mrs. W. Ashley Gray, Jr. 

Mr & Mrs. W.L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H.C. Grigg 

Miss Anna Hahn 

Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 

Mr. & Mrs. Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs. John H. Hayward 

Mr & Mrs. Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert R. Hermann 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Jean Maritz Hobler 

Mrs. John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr. & Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mrs. John V. Janes, Sr. 

Mrs. Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene Johanson 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mr. & Mrs. Landon Y. Jones 

Mr. & Mrs. W. Boardman Jones. Jr. 

Mrs A.F Kaeser 

Dr. & Mrs. John H. Kendig 

Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr. & Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr. & Mrs. William S. Knowles 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Kresko 

Mr & Mrs. Charles S. Lamy 

Mr. & Mrs. Oliver M. Langenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Sam Langsdorf, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mrs. John S. Lehmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Willard L. Levy 

Mrs. Zoe D. Lippman 

Miss Martha I Love 

Mr H. Dean Mann 

Mr. & Mrs. James A. Maritz, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. William E. Maritz 

Mr. Morton D. May 

Mrs. James S. McDonnell, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Sanford N. McDonnell 

Mr. & Mrs. Roswell Messing, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. I.E. Millstone 

Mr. & Mrs. Hubert C. Moog 

Mr Thomas Moore 

Dr. & Mrs. Walter Moore 

Mr. & Mrs Eric P. Newman 

Mr. & Mrs C.W. Oertli 

Mr. & Mrs. John M. Olm 

Mr. Spencer T. Olin 

Mr. & Mrs. W.R. Orthwein, Jr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth R. Pantaleoni 

Mrs. Jane K. Pelton 

Mr. & Mrs. Vernon W. Piper 

Mrs. Herman T. Pott 

Mrs. Miquette M. Potter 

Mr. & Mrs. A. Timon Primm III 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph A. Richardson 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mr. & Mrs. F.M. Robinson, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. G.S. Rosborough, Jr 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Mr. Louis Sachs 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Mr. & Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 

Mr. Thomas F. Schlafly 

Mrs. Mason Scudder 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 

Mrs. A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr. & Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 

Mr. & Mrs. Thomas W. Shields 

Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mr. & Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. John E. Simon 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Sr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

Mrs. Sylvia N. Souers 

Mr. & Mrs. C.C. Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Hermann F. Spoehrer 

Mrs. Robert R. Stephens 

Mr. & Mrs. Cornelias F. Stueck 

Mr. & Mrs. Hampden Swift 

Mr. & Mrs. Charles L. Tooker 

Mr. & Mrs. Jack Turner 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard K. Weil 

Mrs. S.A. Weintraub 

Mrs. Ben H. Wells 

Mr. & Mrs. O. Sage Wightman III 

Mr. & Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 

Mrs. John M. Wolff 

Miss F.A. Wuellner 

Mrs. Eugene F. Zimmerman 

Mr. & Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Sander B. Zwick 



Mr. & Mrs. John W. Bachmann 

Mr. & Mrs. C. Perry Bascom 

Ms Allison R. Brightman 

Mr. & Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 

Mr. & Mrs. G.A. Buder, Jr. 

Mr. Kurt H. Bussmann 

Mr. & Mrs. Joseph C. Champ 

Mrs. Francis Collins Cook 

Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry P. Day 

Mr. Hollis L. Garren 

Ms. Jo S. Hanson 

Mr. George K. Hasegawa 

Mr. & Mrs. William J. Hedley 

Dr. & Mrs. August Homeyer 

Mr. & Mrs. Morris M. Horwitz 

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Lathrop 

Mr. & Mrs. Eldrige Lovelace 

Mr. & Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 

Mrs. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 

Mrs. Drue Wilson Philpott 

Mr. & Mrs. Sidney Richman 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 

Mrs. Edward J. Riley, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. CM. Ruprecht 

Safeco Insurance Co. 

Mr. & Mrs. Louis E. Sauer 

Mr. Don R Schneeberger 

Dr. John S Schoentag 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter G. Stern 

Mr. & Mrs. Leon B Strauss 

Miss Lillian L. Stupp 

Mr & Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 

Mr & Mrs. John K. Wallace, Jr. 

Mr. Thomas L. Wilson 

Mr. & Mrs. Don L. Wolfsberger 


C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 

Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 

Dr. Peter H. Raven 

5^ Member of 

9% The Arts and Education 

Fund of Greater St. Louis 

BULLETIN is published six times 
each year, in January, March, May, 
July, September and November by the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 
299, St. Louis, Mo 63166. Second 
class postage paid at St Louis, Mo. 
$5.00 per year. $6.00 foreign. 

The Missouri Botanical Garden 

Bulletin is sent to every Member of the 
Garden as one of the benefits of their 
membership For a contribution as 
little as $30 per year, Members also 
are entitled to: free admission to the 
Garden, Shaw Arboretum, and Tower 
Grove House; invitations to special 
events and receptions; announce- 
ments of all lectures and classes; dis- 
counts in the Garden shops and for 
course fees; and the opportunity to 
travel, domestic and abroad, with 
other Members. For information, 
please call 577-5100. 

Gardening in St. Louis 

Drying Flowers, Ripening Tomatoes 

The fall evening nip in the air reminds us that cooler 
weather is on its way. Preserving the summer and fall boun- 
ty of flowers, leaves, and certain fruits for arrangements for 
winter enjoyment is easy and rewarding. Many different 
techniques have been developed for drying plant material. 

Flower Drying Techniques 

• Air Drying — This is the simplest system to use. Tie 
bunches of stems of flowers or leaves with a rubber band. 
The drying area should be warm, dry, airy and, if possible, 
dark. Hang these flowers or leaves upside down in this area; 
it usually takes about ten days for the plant material to dry 

• Micro-wave and Silica Gel Technique — To retain the 
most vivid colors when you dry flowers, you will probably 
want to dry them using silica gel (available from any floral 
supply store or the Garden Gate Shop). If you want the 
quickest results, you can use a combination of silica gel 
with a micro-wave oven. This technique is used and recom- 
mended by the National Council for Therapy and Rehabilita- 
tion Through Horticulture. 

• General Instructions for Drying Flowers — 

1. Partially fill a large glass or jar with silica gel. Place a 
flower stem into the gel then slowly fill the remaining por- 
tion of the jar with gel. Be careful to place silica gel be- 
tween all petals of each flower; use a toothpick to separate 
the petals. Cover the flower completely with gel. 

2. Place jar in micro-wave oven. Place 1 cup of water in the 
left rear corner of the micro-wave oven. Heat in micro-wave 
oven on full power for one to three minutes, depending 
upon size of the flower. Longer heating times are required 
for larger flowers. (Check chart below for specific times.) 

3. Use separate jar for each flower. Silica gel may be re- 
used only after it is completely cooled. Remove flower from 
jar when it is cooled. (See chart below for standing time.) 

4. After the standing time, slowly pour silica gel from the 
jar and carefully remove the flower. Gently brush any ex- 
cess grains of gel from the petals or stem. Allow silica gel 
to cool before reusing. 

5. Floral wire may be used to support stem. Artificial color- 
ing may be added to the flowers when flowers are com- 
pletely dry. Leaves should be dried separately and then add- 
ed to stems. 


Heating Time 

Minimum Amount 

Flower Type 

Full Power 

Standing Time*** 


2 1 /2-3 minutes 

5-10 minutes 


IV2 -2 minutes 

5-10 minutes 


1st drying 

45 seconds 

5 minutes 

2nd drying 

1-1 Vi minutes 

10 minutes 


IV2 minutes 

2-5 minutes 


1 3 A minutes 

1-1 1 / 2 days** 


IV2-2 minutes 

5-10 minutes 


2-2 V2 minutes 

5-10 minutes 

*For best results dry three carnations at one time. 
**Sunf lowers should be covered with a plastic bag during stand- 
ing time. 
' * * You may wish to increase the standing time for some flowers. 

Preserving Fall Foliage 

You can enjoy beautiful fall-colored leaves for many 
months by preserving them for home decoration. There are 
several ways to do this depending on how you want to use 
them later in the season. If you want a natural looking leaf 
form, dry the leaves with silica gel. These leaves work well 
in dried arrangements. If you want flat leaves that you can 
hang or fasten to flat surfaces, press them between heavy 
books. Any brightly colored leaves will work well. No matter 
which way you dry the leaves (inside the books or with silica 
gel) never use them later in a humid place. You will end up 
with limp leaves if you do. It is better to dry them then save 
them until the winter to decorate your home. The humidity 
is lower in the winter than in the fall and the leaves will last 

• Glycerinizing Foliage — Glycerinizing foliage makes it 
permanent and perfect for dried arrangements. It usually 
turns the foliage a dark green or a shade of brown and gives 
the leaves a leather-like texture. 

The first step in this procedure is to mix a solution of 
one part glycerine and two parts hot water. Split the stems 
two to three inches and place them four to six inches into 
the hot liquid; the heat starts the capillary action that 
causes the solution to be drawn into the stems and leaves. 
When the leaves have turned uniformly dark green or brown, 
they are properly conditioned. This time period will vary 
from two or three days to two weeks. After taking the stems 
out of the solution, hang them upside down. Take care to 
protect the floor area from dripping glycerine. Foliage you 
can try glycerinizing includes Mahonia, Leucothoe, Rhodo- 
dendron, Laurel, and Beech. 

Be sure to be selective in choosing branches to treat. 
Use this season's growth which is hardened and will not 
wilt. Do not use foliage which has been noticeably damag- 
ed by insects or diseases. 

Turning Green Tomatoes Red 

How frustrating it is to have tomato plants covered with 
nice, large, but green tomatoes. Here are a few pointers to 
help them ripen quicker: 

1. Cut off the top foot of a few of your tomato plants. This 
will force all of the strength of the plant to go towards 
developing those green fruits (tomatoes are technically 
fruits) which are already on the vine. 

2. Strip away a few of the leaves which hide the fruits from 
the sunlight. The sun warms the fruit and it is the warmth, 
not the light, that causes them to turn red. 

3. Reach down to the base of the plant and give the base of 
the plant a gentle pull until you hear some of the roots snap. 
This shock treatment also causes earlier fruit ripening. Until 
you have mastered this technique it is best to try it only on a 
few of your plants. 

4. Plan ahead for next year. Make a note to yourself to try 
some of the early fruiting varieties in combination with 
some of the varieties with which you have already had good 

— Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 


Victoria's Flower 

(continued from page 1) 

station shortly after dawn on August 
3. A man named Joseph Paxton, re- 
turning home to Chatsworth from 
Scotland, disembarks. Paxton is head 
gardener at Chatsworth, the estate of 
the Duke of Devonshire. 

From the station he goes to Kew 
where he receives a small Victoria. By 
nine a.m., three hours after he arrived 
in London, he is aboard another train, 
moving northwest through the English 
countryside toward Chatsworth. He 
carries with him a box holding the 
fragile and stubborn Victoria; his plant 
has five leaves, the largest of which is 
five and one-half inches in diameter. 

He has built a home for Victoria at 
Chatsworth: a tank 12 feet square, 
three feet, four inches deep, with a 
water wheel that keeps the water mov- 
ing gently like the river the plant knew 
as home. The tank is heated and 
lighted to imitate the tropics. 

In the tank, the plant begins to 
grow — at one point at the rate of 
almost 650 square inches a day. Pax- 
ton's Duke, who is in Ireland, receives 
regular bulletins: By mid-September 
the leaves are three feet, six inches in 
diameter. By October 1, they are four 
feet, and by the fifteenth, four and a 
half feet. 

On November 2, Paxton's bulletin 
reads: "Victoria has shown flower!... 
No words can describe the grandeur 
and beauty of the plant." 

Paxton presents a flower to the 
Queen. "We were immensely pleased," 
she says. He continues to be reward- 
ed for his attention to the Victoria: by 
September, 1850, it has produced 140 
leaves and 112 buds, as well as seeds 
from which other plants are produced. 
All England hears of Victoria; the Duke 
says, "All the world comes to look" 

Victoria outgrows the home Pax- 
ton has given her. He builds a new 
one. He explains his design — one 
that incites much attention because 
of its uniqueness — "Nature was the 
engineer," he says delivering a paper 
after the building is finished. "Nature 
has provided the leaf with longitudinal 
and transverse girders and supports 
that I, borrowing from it, have adopted 
in this building." Illustrating his talk, 
he shows his audience the underside 
of a five-foot diameter Victoria leaf, 
with its obvious venation. 

Writing in the same year, botanist 
Richard Spruce observes, "When 
more closely surveyed, the leaves ex- 
cited the utmost admiration for their 

immensity and perfect symmetry. A 
leaf, turned up, suggests some 
strange fabric of cast iron, just taken 
from the furnace — its ruddy color, 
and the enormous ribs with which it is 
strengthened increasing the similari- 
ty." Whether Spruce's and Paxton's 
observations were coincidental or 
whether Spruce was inspired by Pax- 
ton using the lily as his model for the 
ironwork in the structure of his green- 
house, we do not know. 

London. It is 1849 and Prince 
Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, 
has announced that in two years, on 
May 1, 1851, a Great Exhibition of the 
Work of All Nations will open in Hyde 
Park; it will be the first international 
exhibition ever held. There is a com- 
petition for the design of the display 
hall to contain the exhibits and 245 ar- 
chitects respond with entries. 

The Building Committee of the 
Royal Commission rejects all 245. It 
announces that it will construct its 
own design, which is a synthesis of 
some of the entries. When the plans 
are published, there is a general hue 
and cry; someone comments that it 
reminds them of a railroad station 
hybridized with a cathedral; the design 
requires 19 million bricks and more 
construction time than is available. 

Paxton reads of the design and the 
public outcry and shortly thereafter at- 
tends a railway board meeting; an 
employee is being tried for a minor of- 
fense. Throughout the hearing he is 
observed making furious notes on a 
sheet of blotting paper — a sketch for 
the exhibition hall. It shows a building 
similar to his greenhouse; he has im- 
itated the support work inspired by the 
Victoria. The building is to be of iron 
and glass, like the Victoria green- 
house, and will cover nineteen acres. 

It is June, 1850, when he makes 
this blotting paper sketch; there are 
eleven months until the exhibition 

The Crystal Palace design was 
eventually accepted by the Committee 
despite initial resistance and was con- 
structed in the alloted time: 46 weeks, 
even though there was a short labor 
strike during the time. The final dimen- 
sions were: Length — 1,848 feet; 
Width — 450 feet; Height — 66 feet. 
The barrel vault at the center of the 
building was 108 feet high. 

In all, 4,500 tons of iron, 24 miles of 
Paxton gutter, and 600,000 cubic feet 
of timber were used. Nearly one 

million square feet of glass were 
manufactured for the Crystal Palace. 

The Building itself— the fitting 
shrine for the objects of mingled beau- 
ty and utility which it encloses — is as 
original and novel as the occasion; 
and if the ancient peoples had ad- 
vanced far enough in civilization, and 
had possessed wisdom enough to 
conceive such a project as this friend- 
ly rivalry of the industrious workers of 
all climes and races, this Building 
would have been commemorated by 
the history and tradition of three thou- 
sand years, in the songs of bards and 
in the proverbs of the people, as a 
wonder of the world, worthy to rank 
with the Pyramids, or with the gates 
and walls of Thebes or Palmyra for 
its greatness, and with the Colossus 
that bestrode Rhodes harbour for its 

— The Illustrated London News, 
Exhibition Supplement, May 10, 1851 

The Missouri Botanical Garden's 
new Ridgway Center is reminiscent of 
the great Victorian Crystal Palace. The 
Victoria amazonica venation, inspira- 
tion for Paxton's structure, is sug- 
gested in the Ridgway Center's barrel 

Victoria amazonica herself first 
came to the Garden in 1894, brought 
here by James Gurney, the man Henry 
Shaw had hired as his head gardener 
in 1857. Throughout the almost ninety 
years since she arrived here, Victoria 
has been a visitors' favorite, impress- 
ing them with her tremendous rate of 
growth (about an inch to an inch and 
one-half per hour at the peak) as well 
as her final size (the leaves of the Vic- 
toria grown at the Garden — actually a 
hybrid of V. amazonica and V. cru- 
ziana — now in the Victoria Pool be- 
tween the Climatron and the old Main 
Gate, reach five to six feet in diameter. 
These hybrids were the result of work 
by George Pring, a Garden horticultur- 
ist from 1910-1963.) 

There will be two exhibits at the 
Garden this fall for those interested in 
Victoria and the Crystal Palace. One, 
in the second level hall of the Ridgway 
Center, is a permanent exhibit on the 
history of V. amazonica, the Crystal 
Palace, and the Missouri Botanical 
Garden. The second exhibit, opening 
on September 4 and continuing until 
October 3, is of living Victoria water- 
lilies. Found in and near the lily pools 
east of the Climatron, the exhibit also 
includes interpretive material. 

Three New Trustees Elected 

Three St. Louis area business and 
community leaders have been named 
to serve on the Board of Trustees of 
the Missouri Botanical Garden, it was 
announced by C.C. Johnson Spink, 
Board President. 

Elected to the Board of Trustees 
effective June 16, 1982, are: William 
H.T. Bush, Chairman and Chief Oper- 
ating Officer of the Boatmen's Na- 
tional Bank in St. Louis; Stephen H. 
Loeb, President of Alvey, Inc.; and 
Wayman F. Smith III, Vice-president- 
Corporate Affairs, of Anheuser Busch 
Companies, Inc. 

Mr. Bush, a native of Greenwich, 
Conn., is a graduate of Yale University 
and has had a long and distinguished 
career in banking and financial man- 
agement. He was named Chairman 
and Chief Operating Officer of 
Boatmen's in 1978 and currently 
serves on the Board of Directors of 
Boatmen's Bancshares, Inc.; the 
Boatmen's National Bank of St. Louis; 

the Covenant Insurance Group, Hart- 
ford, Conn.; the Valman Corp., 
Minden, Nev.; and the St. Louis 
Regional Commerce and Growth 

Mr. Bush is also active in a number 
of cultural and community organiza- 
tions, serving as a trustee of St. Louis 
University, the Repertory Theatre of St. 
Louis, the St. Louis Symphony; the St. 
Louis Area Council, Boy Scouts of 
America, and St. Peter's Episcopal 

Mr. Loeb, a St. Louis native, is a 
graduate of Country Day School and 
Princeton University. He joined Alvey, 
Inc. — manufacturer of automated 
materials-handling systems — in 1961, 
and served as Vice-president/Admin- 
istration and Executive Vice-president 
before being named President of the 
company in 1972. 

Mr. Loeb is a director of Commer- 
cial Bank and is Vice-president of 
Renard Linoleum and Rug Company. 

He serves as Director of the Bi-State 
Chapter of the American Red Cross 
and as Co-chairman of the Special 
Gifts Division of the 1982 United Way 

Mr. Smith, also a St. Louis native, 
is a graduate of Monmouth College in 
New Jersey and holds a J.D. degree 
from Howard University School of 
Law, Washington, D.C. Since 1966 he 
has been in the private practice of law 
as a partner in the St. Louis law firm of 
Wilson, Smith and McCullin. He has 
served as private legal counsel to 
Anheuser-Busch and was named 
Anheuser-Busch Vice-president-Cor- 
porate Affairs, in 1980. He serves also 
as a member of the Board of Directors 
of Anheuser-Busch, Inc. 

Mr. Smith serves as a member of 
the St. Louis Board of Aldermen, 
representing the 26th Ward in the City 
of St. Louis. He has been a Municipal 
Court judge, and has served as Direc- 
tor of Conciliation for the Missouri 
Commission on Human Rights. 

"My wife and I have enjoyed the 
Garden immensely since moving to St. 
Louis four years ago. It's a great honor 
to be elected to the Board; the Garden 
is one of the most prestigious institu- 
tions in the country. I'm pleased to 
serve. " 

— William H.T. Bush 

It is well known what a tremen- 
dous institution the Garden is for peo- 
ple in St. Louis; beyond that, however, 
its involvement in tropical research 
has even greater, far-reaching benefits 
for mankind. I am looking forward to 
being a part of an organization that 
provides such a necessary and unique 
service to St. Louis and the world in 
general. " 

— Stephen H. Loeb 

"The Garden is one of the city's 
most important resources. It's, frankly, 
a jewel in the middle of St. Louis, I was 
flattered by the opportunity to join the 
Board of Trustees. " 

— Wayman F.Smith III 


(I. to r.) E. Arthur Bell, C.C. Johnson Spink, Peter H. Raven 

In honor of the Ridgway Center dedication, held on Sat- 
urday, July 24, 1982 (Garden founder Henry Shaw's 182nd 
birthday), Kenneth J. Rothman, Lieutenant Governor of the 
State of Missouri, issued a Declaration of Recognition, 
which read in part: 

"By this declaration of recognition I do hereby recognize 
the Missouri Botanical Garden for playing a leading role in 
the advancement and appreciation of the plant world 
through exhibitions, education, and research and I com- 
mend the Missouri Botanical Garden for its most recent ac- 
complishment, the Ridgway Center." 

"We are here today to conduct formal opening ceremon- 
ies for the Ridgway Center, the Garden's new education 
and visitor orientation building. In a sense, in fact, we're 
here to give the building away — to present it formally to the 
people of the St. Louis area who built it and to those it will 
serve during the next 123 years of the Garden's service to its 

— Peter H. Raven 

Director, Missouri Botanical Garden 

July 18, 1982 

"The Ridgway Center is not a monument or a static 
display, despite its beauty and its historical importance. It 
is a tool, a life-style resource, and it is as such that we pre- 
sent the Ridgway Center to the people of the St. Louis area 
today. Everything in the Ridgway Center is designed to help 
the Garden do a better job in the most critical task of its dai- 
ly life — contributing to the worth and the enjoyment of the 
daily lives of hundreds of thousands of St. Louisans and 
visitors every year. That's why it is entirely appropriate that 
we give this building away at the moment it is opened. I 
hope each of you will accept this gift." 

— C.C. Johnson Spink, President, Board of Trustees 

July 18, 1982 

"The Missouri Botanical Garden has grown from being 
a child of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, into one of the 
few great botanical gardens of the world. No one is more 
pleased or more proud than its parents. 

"Missouri is now as much an inspiration to Kew as Kew 
was to Missouri in the past. 

"The Ridgway Center which we are now dedicating is 
not only a splendid and beautiful building, it is also tangible 
proof of your commitment to the plant world. 

"In building the Ridgway Center you have shown that 
you understand these needs and I know that the educa- 
tional programs which these new facilities will provide will 
instruct and give pleasure to very many who might other- 
wise be ignorant of the fascinating world of plants and 
completely unaware of man's total dependence upon it." 

— Ernest Arthur Bell 
Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 

Ernest Arthur Bell, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
was the featured speaker at the dedication of the Ridgway Center on 
July 24, 1982. 

Peter H. Raven, John Temporiti of the Office of the Mayor of St. Louis, 
Mrs. Anne L. Lehmann, and C.C. Johnson Spink at a luncheon honor- 
ing Mrs. Lehmann in the Gardenview Restaurant. The proclamation 
from Vincent C. Schoemehl, Jr. declares Wednesday, June 14, 1982, as 
Anne L. Lehmann Day in recognition of her support of the Garden. 

For persons interested in the architectural heritage of 
the Missouri Botanical Garden, from the construction of 
Tower Grove House to the completion of the Ridgway 
Center, the Garden has recently published In the Light of 
the Crystal Palace. An attractive booklet containing 20 
photographs or illustrations, and three maps, with text by 
the Garden's head librarian James Reed, it is available in 
the Garden Gate Shop for $1.95. (Members receive a 10% 

The Ridgway Society of the Missouri Botanical Garden is a 
forum for the discussion of issues and an organization for 
the planning of lectures, seminars, and other activities of in- 
terest to persons new in St. Louis or those at the beginning 
of their careers. Further information on the Ridgway Society 
will be announced shortly. 

TROPICAL WONDER: New Restaurant Features Mural 

In the Gardenview Restaurant of the Ridgway Center is 
a mural of 72 photographs of tropical rainforest life — from 
a NASA satellite photograph showing an area of approx- 
imately 150 square miles to the nymph of a beetle. The 
mural was designed to show the beauty and diversity of the 
tropics and to call attention to the Garden's tropical botany 
program, the most active in the world. 

Several thousand photographs from 22 sources were 
studied by the mural's designers, Hellmuth, Obata, and 

Kassabaum (also the architect for the Ridgway Center) who 
made a preliminary selection of 250. Together with 
members of the Garden's staff, the designers chose the 
final 72 photographs from those 250. Almost one-third of 
the photographs are by Kjell Sandved, photographer for the 
Smithsonian Institution. 

The Gardenview Restaurant, a gift of long-time Garden 
supporter Anne L. Lehmann, features Sunday brunch, and 
daily lunch, dinner and snacks. 

Mushroom (Mycena) by Kjell B. 
Sandved. (Photographed in Brazil 

Mantis by E.S. Ross. 
(Photographed in Zaire) 

Cetonid Scarab beetle by E.S. 
Ross. (Photographed in Borneo) 

Woodnymph hummingbird by 
Walter E. Harvey Photo Research- 
ers. (Photographed in Brazil) 

"/ say, in general, that the trees of these Indies are a 
thing that cannot be explained, and the earth is so covered 
with them in many parts, and with so many differences and 
dissimilarities between them, that not even the native Indi- 
ans know them, nor know how to give names to the major- 
ity. And in many parts one cannot see the sky from below 
the woodlands (for their being so tall, and thick and full of 
branches) and in many places one cannot walk between 
them; because besides their thickness, there are other 
plants and herbs so interwoven and twined about them that 

it is only with much effort and by force of knives and axes 
that it is possible to open a path. And in this respect one 
could say that this is a Great and Dark Sea; because though 
part is seen, much more is not, since their names and prop- 
erties are unknown, as I have said. Some have fruit and 
others flowers and others burst into growth and each kind 
enjoys the season in its own way and one may see every 
stage of development at a given time and during any part of 
the year. " — Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes (1535) 

From Gardenview Restaurant mural 

To celebrate the opening of the Ridgway 
Center, the Garden's horticulture staff creat- 
ed a floral peacock and shipped it to NBC's 
TODAY Show. The peacock, made of iris, 
statice, marigold, carnation, and chrysanthe- 
mum, was featured on the program on July 16 

W. Ashley Gray III, volunteer Curator 
of Purple Martins, installed a "Purple 
Martin castle" earlier this summer in 
anticipation of attracting more of 
these popular, beneficial birds to the 

The Garden's Director, Peter H. Raven, 
was recently elected Vice-president 
and President-elect of the American 
Institute of Biological Sciences. AIBS 
is a scientific association for the 
advancement of biological, medical, 
and agricultural science. Dr. Raven re- 
ceived the Institute's Distinguished 
Service Award in August, 1981 

Dr. Raven was recently awarded an In- 
ternational Environment Leadership 
Medal from the United Nations Envi- 
ronment Program. Presented in cele- 
bration of UNEP's first decade and the 
10th anniversary of the Stockholm 
Conference on the Human Environ- 
ment, the medal recognizes a "distin- 
guished contribution to the cause of 
the environment" over the last 
decade. Raven was one of 16 Ameri- 
cans to receive the award 

Tom Economou, an expert in tropical 
fruit, will present a lecture at the 
Garden on November 3, 10:30 a.m. and 
8:00 p.m 

The Garden's library, along with the 
library of The New York Botanical 
Garden, has been awarded a grant of 
$225,042 from the U.S. Office of 
Education under its Strengthening 
Research Library Resources Program. 
This funding will enable the two 
libraries to continue their shared 
cataloging program through OCLC, 
Inc., a nationwide computerized 
library network 

The St. Louis Herb Society has given 
the library a gift to help strengthen its 
collections of books on herb garden- 
ing, herb lore, medicinal plants, and 
cookery. The Herb Society's library is 
housed as a special collection of the 
Garden's library in the John S. Leh- 
mann Building in order to increase its 
availability to members of both the 
Herb Society and of the Garden 

Bromeliads will be featured in a 
Climatron exhibit from September 11 
through October 10. Cultural informa- 
tion prepared by the Garden's horticul- 
turists will be available for those in- 
terested in growing bromeliads 


Shaw Medal to Paul Kohl 

(/. to r.) 

Paul Kohl, a member of the 
Garden Staff for 62 years, received the 
Henry Shaw Medal in early July. Mr. 
Kohl, who graduated from the Henry 
Shaw School for Gardening in 1917, 
was appointed Floriculturist in 1920. 
In 1927 later he began 40 years of de- 
signing the Garden's popular flower 
shows. In 1970 he started working 
part-time as an Answerman. 

Presenting the Medal to Mr. Kohl, 
C.C. Johnson Spink, President of the 
Board of Trustees, said, "It's difficult 
— no, I'll say impossible — to figure 
what the Garden would be today had 
not this man cared so much for it and 

Peter H. Raven, Paul Kohl, C.C. Johnson Spink 

given so much of himself to it. 

"After this presentation, people 
will report that the Missouri Botanical 
Garden honored Paul Kohl today, but I 
think it is actually we who are 
honored. Honored by his 62 years of 
dedication, by his love of the Garden 
and we are honored as well to ask him 
to accept this Henry Shaw Medal." 
Previous recipients of the Henry Shaw 
Medal include Dr. Julian K. Steyer- 
mark, Anne L. Lehmann, and B.A. 
Krukoff. S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of 
the Smithsonian Institution will 
receive the Medal at the Henry Shaw 
Associates Dinner on November 18. 

!W ^1 

Secretary Ripley To Speak 
at Shaw Banquet 

S. Dillon Ripley, Secretary of the 
Smithsonian Institution, will receive 
the Henry Shaw Medal and will be the 
featured speaker at the annual ban- 

quet of the Henry Shaw Associates of 
the Missouri Botanical Garden, No- 
vember 18, 1982. The banquet is held 
each autumn to recognize the leader- 
ship in support of the Garden provided 
by the Henry Shaw Associates. 

Secretary Ripley, internationally 
recognized for his administration of 
the Smithsonian and his work in 
zoology, assumed his current position 
in 1964. In the past 18 years, his 
philosophy that the museum experi- 
ence should "be a practical annex to 
the bookbound education offered by 
schools" has guided the Smithso- 
nian's work and has increased the 
stature of the institution both in the 
U.S. and abroad. 

Under his direction, the Smithso- 
nian has emerged as a national center 
for the arts as well as science. It has 
also completed the $40 million, three- 
block-long National Air and Space 
Museum, which attracts close to one 
million visitors each month. The com- 
bined attendance for all of the Institu- 

Leonard Hall To Give 
Greensfelder Lecture 

Leonard Hall, nationally known 
author and Missouri's most widely 
read nature writer, will deliver the 1982 
Greensfelder Lecture, The Sassafras 
Tree, on October 22 in the Shoenberg 
Auditorium of the Ridgway Center. Mr. 
Hall will receive the Albert P. and 
Blanche Y. Greensfelder Medal at the 
November 18 Henry Shaw Associates 

For more than three decades 
Leonard Hall has been a contributer to 
the St. Louis Post-Dispatch and the St. 
Louis Globe-Democrat, writing about 
conservation, natural history, and 
country living. His popular books in- 
clude the Ozark classics Stars 
Upstream and Journal of the Seasons; 
his articles have appeared in LIFE, 
Audubon, and Harpers. 

The Greensfelder Medal was es- 
tablished in 1980 in memory of Albert 
P. and Blanche Y. Greensfelder to 
honor persons who have made con- 
tributions to landscape, garden and 
park planning, and designing for ur- 
ban improvements. Previous reci- 
pients are Wayne C. Kennedy and 
August A. Busch, Jr. 

The Greensfelder Lecture on Octo- 
ber 22 is open to the public. 

tion's museums is 24 million each 

Individuals interested in becoming 
Henry Shaw Associates, and in at- 
tending the banquet on November 18, 
should contact the Garden's Develop- 
ment Office at 577-5120. 

Notes from the Garden 

A small but potentially fascinating 
project has been the propagation, by 
members of the Boxwood Society of 
the Midwest, of 24 plants of eight dif- 
ferent Buxus cultivars for shipment to 
China. The plants are being sent from 
the Missouri Botanical Garden to the 
Nanjing Botanical Garden, a part of 
the Jiangsu Botanical Institute, Nan- 
jing (Nanking), China. The Missouri 
Botanical Garden and the Nanjing 
Botanical Garden are "sister 
gardens," a relationship which began 
in 1979 following a visit of Professor 
Sheng Cheng-hui to St. Louis as a 
member of a Chinese delegation. 
Subsequently, Nanjing has become 
the "sister city" of St. Louis 

Garden Members are invited to join a 
Garden-sponsored tour to Costa Rica 
and Panama during January, 1983. 
Led by Garden horticulturist Steve 
Frowine and Tom Economou of Path- 
finder Tours, the tour departs from St. 
Louis on January 19, and returns on 
January 30. For further information, 
Members should call Martha Jones of 
Sante Travel at 726-3040 

Three volunteers were honored at 
Volunteer Evening in June. Mary Jane 
Kirtz, currently co-chairman of the 
Guide Training Program, received the 
Award for Achievement for her re- 
search and authorship of "Sculpture 
at the Missouri Botanical Garden." 
The Award for Special Services was 
presented to Henry Bowman in recog- 
nition for his long and extensive work 
in horticulture and maintenance. Dan 
O'Gorman, was honored as Volunteer 
Emeritus. He was active as an An- 
swerman until 1977; since then he has 
been a consultant to the Answer Ser- 
vice and has worked in several other 
areas in which assistance was needed 

The third in a series of Landscape 
Design courses offered by the Na- 
tional Council of State Garden Clubs, 
Inc., will be offered on October 18, 19, 
20, 1982 at the Ridgway Center of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 
Shaw. There are no prerequisites for 
this course. It is open to the public — 
homeowners as well as professionals 
in the landscaping field. For informa- 
tion call Glenda Finnie at 894-2655 . . . 

Rick ForrestaTs unique photograph of 
a carp banner (above) received a First 
Prize in the Japanese Festival 
Photography Contest sponsored by 
Japan Air Lines and the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. Forrestal's prize 
was for the category of 18 and over, 
Black-and-White. Other First Prize 
photographers were Kenneth Hong 
(18 and over, Color) Jason Hawkins 
(under 18, Black-and-White) and 

Photograph by Rick Forrestal 

Steven D. Dunsford (under 18, Color). 
Each received an award of $50 from 
Japan Air Lines. Honorable Mentions 
were awarded to Jerome Hawkins (18 
and over, Black-and-White) and Robert 
Beck, G. Richard Fox, Deborah Herin, 
Joni Doyle, and Anacia Henleben (all 
for 18 and over, Color). The First Prize 
and Honorable Mention photographs 
will be exhibited in the Ridgway 
Center through September 

Peter H. Raven received the Gold Seal Award 
from the National Council of State Garden 
Clubs. The Gold Seal, the Council's highest 
honor, was given to honor Dr. Raven for his 
work in botany and in administering the 
Garden. Shown are: (left to right) Mrs. Carl A. 
Dahlgren. Past President of the Council; Mrs. 
W.J. Hedley, Past President; Dr. Raven; and 
Mrs. Francis A. Fink, President. 

The Members' Preview of the 1982 Fall 
Flower Show will be on October 1. 
Refreshments will be available. 
Members will receive additional in- 
formation in the mail. October 2 is the 
first day the Fall Flower Show will be 
open to the public. It continues 
through October 24. See Calendar for 
other news of exhibits 


The Three Graces, (shown here reflected in 
its pool) a bronze sculpture by Gerhard 
Marcks (1956) was lent to the Garden recently 
by Dr. and Mrs. Thomas S. Hall. The sculpture 
is located in the circular pool south of the 
Linnean House. 



(continued from page 9) 

The Mary Institute Class of 1932 recently 
held their 50-year reunion at the Garden. 

Stapeliads, commonly referred to as 
carrion flowers or starfish flowers, will 
be the topic for a special lecture and 
slide presentation. Mr. D.C.H. Plowes, 
accomplished photographer and dis- 
tinguished Natural Historian from 
Zimbabwe, will be speaking in the 
Garden Room of the Ridgway Center, 
October 12. The lecture is scheduled 
for 10:30 a.m. to 12 noon and will be 
repeated in the evening 8:00 to 9:30 
p.m. It is free and open to the public . . 

Life on Earth, David Attenborough's 
widely acclaimed series, will be 
shown at the Garden during Septem- 
ber and October. Even if you saw it on 
PBS previously, you will want to take 
this opportunity to see it, in all its 
magnificence, on a large screen. See 
Calendar for details. The book, Life on 
Earth, is available in the Garden Gate 

From the Garden Gate Shop come 
these notes: The Fall Plant Sale will be 
held September 16-19, Members will 
have two preview days on September 
16-17. Hours of the Plant Sale are 
from 9:00 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. Members 
can save 20% on all plants and 
materials carried in the Plant Sales 
portion of the Garden Gate Shop. The 
Sale is tentatively scheduled in the 
new Floral Display Hall in the Ridgway 
Center, but may be under a large tent 
on the parking lot if the Floral Display 
Hall is not yet complete 

A special thank-you to Betty Sims and 
Margaret Baldwin — buyers for the 
Garden Gate Shop. On Wednesday 
evening, July 14, Board Chairman C.C. 
Johnson Spink and Director Peter H. 
Raven presented two Garden plaques 
to these very dedicated Garden volun- 
teers. Their efforts have been instru- 
mental in the development of the 
Garden Gate Shop as one of the finest 
gift shops in the St. Louis area 

A great new selection of merchandise 
with the Missouri Botanical Garden 
logo is at the Garden Gate Shop. 
Choose from a necktie for $12.50, ten- 
nis hats for $12.00, belts for $16.00, 
tote bags for $22.50 and much more! ! ! 
You should see the great new post- 
cards — a great thing to send a friend . 

Don't forget the First Annual Fall 
Festival on October 8, 9, and 10. We 
will have a great group of craftsmen 
demonstrating and selling their wares. 
Also plenty of entertainment and food. 
Come to the Garden from 10:00 a.m. to 
7:30 p.m. for all the fun 

"The unique world of the tropics: its 
people, plants, animals, and climate" 
the 1982 Fall Lecture series begins on 
Wednesday, October 6. Details will be 
announced. See Calendar for dates 
and times 

On September 1, 1982, luncheons in 
the Tower Grove House tea room will 

be $5.75. The tea room is open Tues- 
day and Thursday by reservations. 
Please call 577-51 50 

"Brunch at the Garden" is now 
available every Sunday morning from 
10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. in the Garden- 
view Restaurant. Brunch is $6.95 and 
the menu is superb 


June & July 1982 

Sponsoring Members 

Mrs. Norman Schaumburg 
Mr. & Mrs. John C Steger 
Mr. James A. Van Sant 

Sustaining Members 

Mr. & Mrs. Allan Booth 

Miss L. Cella 

Mr. Mike B. Comperre 

Mr & Mrs. Fredrick H. Eickhoff 

Mr. George Faux 

Mr. & Mrs. Norman Friedman 

Mr. & Mrs. Ramon Gallardo 

Dr & Mrs. John J. Garrett 

Mr. & Mrs. John A. Gragnani 

Mr. Willis D. Hadley 

Mr. Susan L. Heimburger 

Mr. & Mrs. Leslie F. Loewe 

Dr. & Mrs. Dan Luedke 

Mr. William B. McMillan 

Mr. & Mrs. N.H. Nilson 

Mr. John J. Nooney 

Dr. & Mrs. Robert P. Poetz 

Mr. Robert H. Quenon 

Dr. & Mrs. M.S. Rao 

Ms. JoAnne Rocklage 

Mr. Paul D. Sander 

Mr. & Mrs. Walter R. Stringer 

Ms. Jo Goeke Vallo 

Mrs. Hilda Voss 
Mr. Sixto L. Wagan 

Contributing Members 

Mr. David H. Adolphsen 

Mr. Edwin F. Allsaier 

Mr. Arthur J. Baisch 

Mr. Kenneth R. Bender 

Dr. & Mrs. Walter F. Benoist 

Mr. & Mrs. F.A. Berger, Jr. 

Dr. & Mrs. Harry Berland 

EM. Blackmore 

Dr. John M. Blalock 

Mr. & Mrs. James M. Blubaugh 

Mr. & Mrs. J.S. Braden 

Mr. Donald C. Boisseau 

Mr. & Mrs. John Y. Brown 

Mr. Todd A. Brown 

Mr. Richard L. Bux 

Mrs. Arthur Bux 

Mr. & Mrs. John C. Calhoun 

Mr. Thomas P. Caufield 

Mrs. Jill M. Clayton 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert V. Coleman 

Mr. & Mrs. Jesse Colvin 

Ms. Joan Corwin 

Mr. Joseph P. Cunningham 

Mr. Robert L. Curnutte 

Mr. Richard A. Cutler 

D.C. Diehl 

Ms. Margaret Draege 

Mr. John J. Duggan 

Mr. & Mrs. Leo E. Eickhoff 

Dr. Robert W. Elliott 

Mr. & Mrs. Michael Ellis 

Miss Margaret L. Erby 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank J. Guyol, Jr. 

Ms. Shirley Haas 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Haggard 

Mr. Albert Halsband 

Mr. E.A. Hancock 

Mr. Chester Hart 

Mr. Earl Heckel 

Mr. Joseph F. Heidolph 

Mr. Gary S. Heifetz 

Ms. Mary Ann Hendel 

Mr. & Mrs. A.L. Hess 

Ms. Vera Hicks 

Mr. Daniel Hopkins 

Mr. Walter G Hunt 

Miss Rebecca F. James 

Mr. Michael V. Janes 

Mr. Joe R. Jeter 

Mr. & Mrs. Gary W. Johnson 

Mr. William Keslar 

Dr. Stuart A. Kornfield 

Mrs. John F. Krey 

Mr. William J. Kubat 

Mr. Ervin J. Lang 

Mr. James C. Lesher 

Mr. & Mrs. Raymond E. Lorenz 

Ms. Esther J. Luce 

Mr. & Mrs. Matthew M. McCarthy 

Mr. William E. McCourt 

Mr. William B. McMillan 

Mr. & Mrs. W.H. Macon 

Mr. & Mrs. Frank Mangles 

Mr. & Mrs. Richard B. Markham 

Dr. & Mrs. David Marrs 

Mrs. D.D. Mattis 

Mr. Edward L. Maus 

Mr. William F. Means 

Mr. & Mrs. Joyce Meckfessel 

Mrs. Roland Merckel 

Mr. Russell W. Meredith 

Mr. Athan G. Mertis 

Mr. & Mrs Robert Moccioli 

Dr. & Mrs. J.G. Mudd 

Mrs. Joseph W. Myers 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert R. Nagel 

Mr. Richard F. Nash 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert Nevin 

Ms. Gertrud E. Oleshchuk 

Dr. & Mrs. R. Joseph Oik 

Mrs. Evelyn Palisch 

Dr. & Mrs. Elmer Palitang 

Mr. & Mrs. G.T. Perkins, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Herbert F. Pfeifer 

Mr. Ray Pott 

Mr. & Mrs. Francis A. Rankin 

Mr. & Mrs. Isham Reavis 

Mr. John W. Rick 

Dr. & Mrs. Herbert E. Rosenblum 

Mr. Robert F. Rudolph 

Dr. & Mrs. William F. Schallert 

Mrs. Stanley R. Schuchat 

Mr & Mrs. Richard B. Shelvey 

Mrs. Maria Sherk 

Mr. & Mrs. Edwin G. Shifrin 

Mr. John S. Shores 

Ms. Rose Silvertone 

Mr. & Mrs. John F. Sisson 

Mrs. Anthony Slay 

Mr. Stephen G. Sneeringer 

Miss Marie M. Soell 

Mr. Ronald Stopplemann 

Mr. & Mrs. Francis A. Stroble 

(continued on page 1 1) 


New Members 

(continued from page 10) 

Mrs. Leona Suhre 
Ms. D. Nadene Taylor 

Mr. John C. Theodorow 
Mr. & Mrs. Gene Wehking 
Mr. Joseph H. Vatterott 
Mr. & Mrs. N.H. Wallach 
Mr. & Mrs. WE. Waller 

Mr. John W. Waltz 

Mr. & Mrs. Burton M. Wheeler 

Mr. & Mrs. W.N. Wilder 

Mrs. Ray D. Williams 

Mr. Glen H. Woofter 

Dr. & Mrs. Thomas A. Woolsey 
Mr. & Mrs. Harry E. 

Wuertenbaecher, Jr. 
Mr. Paul A. Young 
Dr. & Mrs. Sultan Zikryia 


June & July 1982 

Howard F. Baer 

Dr. & Mrs. Peter H. Raven 

Mr. & Mrs. Sydney M. Shoenberg, Jr. 

The Arthur E. Sprung Family 

Mrs. Milton H. Tucker 

Mrs. Wm. S. Bedal 

Elizabeth Goltermann 

Elinor T. Hayward 

Florence Binder 

Mort & Edie Binder 

Mrs. Stanley J. Birge 

Mrs. A.V.L. Brokaw 

Warren & Mariana Bourne 

Mitchell & Marie Grzesiowski 

Dr. & Mrs. Harold M. Cutler 

Mr. Clark V. Graves 

Charles J. Francis, Jr. 

Ms. Ellen Francis Harris 

Mr. & Mrs. G.A. Freeman 

Ruth G. Williams 

Mr. & Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mr. & Mrs. J.H. Bascom 

Mr. & Mrs. John Brodhead. Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. B.B. Culver, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. William L. Desloge 

Mr. Clark V. Graves 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Louis Putzel 

Mr. & Mrs. Wm. R. Orthwein, Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. Smith 

Mr. & Mrs. J. Sheppard Smith. Jr. 

Mr. & Mrs. Edgard L. Taylor, Jr. 

Matt Kardesch 

June & Harold Kravin 

Mr. & Mrs. Jarvis Lambert 

Mrs. J. Lamy Anstey 

Kerry & Chuck Meyer 

June & Harold Kravin 

Missouri Botanical Garden 

St. Louis Japanese Language 

Mr. Julian G. Samuels 
Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 
Mr. Sam Singer 
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Brown 
Mrs. Leonard Strauss 
Mrs. J. A. Jacobs 
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Wegusen 
Mr. & Mrs. Saul Dubinsky 


Mrs. Gladys Asadorian 

Mr. & Mrs. James M. Henderson 

Mr. Edmond S. Bauer 

Mr. & Mrs. C.E. Fischer 

Mr. Isadore Baumgarten 

Mary & Kay Sherman 

Mrs. Lucille Hunter Beall 

Mr. & Mrs. Howard Barnard 

Dr. Lynette Beall 

Mr. M.S. Beall 

M. Scott Beall, Jr 

Mr. & Mrs. G.R. Bohm 

Dr. and Mrs. Clifford W Colwell, Jr. 

Mrs. Patricia Doss 

Mr. & Mrs. Thos. Turner 

Dr. & Mrs. Jas. Whitaker 

Mrs. Agnes H. Beatty 

Mr. & Mrs. W.P. Kundermann 

Mr. Melvin K. Bellows 

Miss Kim Einig 

Norriene Bird 

Jim Moore 

Fred Rock 

Mrs. Clara Birk 

Jane & Wayne Bennetsen 

Mr. & Mrs. Leroy Weinhold 

Dr. F. Donald Blake 

Blair &Selma Balk 

Mr. Oliver Blase 

Lynn Hagee 

Mrs. Howard Boyntan 

San Fernando Garden Club 

Mr. & Mrs. Earl W. Volz 

Mr. Otto P. Broeder 

Mrs. Isabelle Griffitts 

Mrs. Lottie Bruning 

Mr. and Mrs. James F. Godat 

Mr. Joseph Buzzotta, Sr. 

Mr. Donald Flanagan 

Mr. Creighton B. Calfee 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Robert Pommer 

Catherine Chaffin 

Carroll H. Lorenz 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

The Alexander Bakewells 

Mrs. Ralph F. Bixby 

Mrs. Oliver Branneky 

Mr. and Mrs. James Coe 

Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 

Mr. Andrew R. Coultas 

Harriet H. Damon 

Mrs. Pauline Pitzman Eades 

E. Smiley Foster 

Mr. and Mrs. Jean S. Goodson 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank T. Heffelfmger 

Beatrice T. Hoskins 

Hazel L. Knapp 

Mr. and Mrs. Newell S. Knight 

Mrs. George B. Knowles, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edwin A. Kurtz 

Mr. and Mrs. Rembert W. LaBeaume 

Mr. and Mrs. V.L. Mclntire 

Mr. and Mrs. Lee C. McKinley 

Mrs. Carroll S. Mastin 

Mr. and Mrs. Carl Otto 

Mr. William Pagenstecher 

Jean M. Pennington 

Mr. and Mrs. Georgbe T. Pettus 

Dr. and Mrs. Peter H. Raven 

Mr. and Mrs. Sam Shelton 

Gene and Tom K. Smith 

Mrs. Arthur Stockstrom 

Mrs. John C. Tobin. Jr. 

Charles and Midge Tooker 

Mr. Fred Clamp 

Mr. and Mrs. James Denby 

Helen Clark 

The Alexander Bakewells 

Harry and Virginia McKee 

Mrs. June Schaetzel 

Lillian Zemelman 

Mr. David Cohen 

Mr. and Mrs. K.F. Sherman 

Mrs. Doris H. Conrades 

Edwin R. Waldemer 

Mr. Ray Cooper 

The Eresh Family 

Mrs. Grace Dee 

Milton L. Daugherty 

Elaine and John Henkle 

Grace Doyle 

Jean Deker 

Jim Reed 

Mrs. Anna M. Dreifke 

Elizabeth Goltermann 

Elinor T. Hayward 

M.E. Stauss 

June Morgens Dube 

The Planters Garden Club 

Mary Clinch Duffe 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Clinch 

Robert W. Duffe 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter E. Clinch 

The Christner Partnership, Inc. 

Sidney R. Feiner 

From His Neighbors 

Mrs. Dorothy Earl Fleissner 

Gilbert Gottschalk 

Ruth Edom Fogarty 

Dr. William M. Fogarty, Jr. 

Mrs. Marjorie Fowler 

The ACM Engineering Department of 

Monsanto Company 
William E. Fuetterer 
Mr. and Mrs. Barnard Blomberg 
Mr. L.S. Gilliam 
The Frontenac Garden Club 
Mary Morse Hadley 
The Planters Garden Club 
Mrs. Charles C. Simmons 
Mr. George Hall 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl Harris 
Mr. Edward E. Haverstick 
Mrs. Dwight W. Coultas 
Mr. and Mrs. George T. Pettus 
Mr. Edwin R. Waldemer 
Walter A. Hilgendorf 
Mr. and Mrs. Carl F. Morisse 
Mrs. Margaret Horn 
Ethel and Virginia Schaefer 
Mrs. Rosene Horn 
Ms. Alma Klobe 
Mrs. Henry Keeler, Sr. 
Mrs. Elizabeth L. Sheldon 
Glenn Keen 
Mrs. Julia M. Strangio 
Dr. G.Sidney Keiffer 
Mrs. and Mrs. Eugene M. Reese 
Florence Keller 
Jane and Waymne Bennetsten 
Mrs. Esther M. Klose 
Mr. A.P. Klose 
Miss Irma Kroenlein 
Miss C. Ballmann 
Mr. James J. Langen 
Betty and Harry Babbitt 
Mr. George O. Baumunk 
Betty and Martin Bergeron 
Luther Blackmore 
Robert K. Fales 
Mr. and Mrs. Richard F. Gault 
Mr. and Mrs. James Long 
Lorraine Miller 
Mr. Randall T. Murrill 
Mr. Evert B. Skoglund 
Ruth Haines Zeiss 
Mr. Joseph W. Lewis 
Mr. and Mrs. David S. Lewis. Jr. 
Dr. Carl Lischer 
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Reinhart, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar Littmann 
Mr. and Mrs. Ellis Littmann 
Ms. Carol L. Littmann 
Mrs. Pat Danes 
Mr. and Mrs. Walter J. Barry 
Mrs. Samuel C. McCluney, Jr. 
Officers and Directors of 

The Boatmen's National Bank of 
St. Louis 
Eleanor Scott Mallinckrodt 
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Scott 
Mr. Henry Medcalf 
Mr. and Mrs. J.L. Dudding 
Mr. Orval E. Schifferdecker 
Mrs. Andrew S. Mills 
Mrs. Leah L. Gardner 

Maude Claire Morton 

Art and Helen Scharff 
Mr. Robert L. Murphy 

Mrs. Arden Fisher 

Mr. A. Netter 

Mr. and Mrs. W.R. Orthwein, Jr. 

Mr. Joseph Powell 

Herbert C. and Antonia B. Wiegand 

James Reil 

Mr. and Mrs. Meyer Levy 

Henry and Edna F. Reitz 

Miss Alma A. Reitz 

Ms. Eileen A. Reitz 

Mr. Henry M. Reitz 

Judith Richter 

Miss E. Behle 

Mr. and Mrs. Roy Diener 

Miss Dorothy Hanpeter 

Mr. and Mrs. Milton Hearle 

Nancy and Evertt Kling 

Mr. and Mrs. M. Marecek 

Vera Parsh 

Mr and Mrs. John C. Rasp 

St. Louis Community College 
English Department 

Mr. Albert B. Scoles 

Derk and Linda Sher 

Miss Gwenn Springett 

Mary W. Tureen 

Mrs. D. Wallace 

Captain David Robinson 

Mary and Kay Sherman 

Mrs. Frederick M. Robinson, Sr. 

Judge and Mrs. Roy W. Harper 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry T. Schlapp 

Mrs. Leona S. Robinson 

Leslie Gleason-Hawksbee 

Mr. John A. Rodabough 

Mr. Fred H. Perabo 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard D. Schreiber 

Mrs. Anola Ryker 

Mr. and Mrs. Charles Duecker 

Mrs. Saueressig 

Dr. and Mrs. Leigh Gerdine 

Mrs. Henry Schwenk 

The James Henderson 

Dr. Ben Senturia 

Directors and Officers of 

The Boatment's National Bank of 
St. Louis 
Ann and Peter Husch 
Marie Schaeffer Shields 
Mrs. Thomas W. Shields 
Bernice Simpson 
Viola Villardi 

Mrs. Theresa (Terri) Sinner 
Mr. and Mrs. James Lesniewski 
Mr. Anthony Slay 
His Friends and Neighbors 
Mrs. Garland Smith 
Clayton Garden Club No. One 
Mrs. Margaret Snyder 
Judge and Mrs. George E. Murray 
Madge Margaret Stewart 
Robert Stewart 
Mr. Walter A. Swift 
Mr and Mrs. Thomas Lambert 
Lt. Col. Thomas R. Swisher 
Mary F. Swisher 
Sgt. Chester A. Warrell 
Mrs. Ethel Helling 
Mrs. Minerva Primm Wharton 
Mr. and Mrs. Daniel Schlafly 
Mrs. Emma Weigert 
Viola Villardi 
Harriette Wolff 
Virginia C. Culver 


It is Open 

Above: A special guest for the July 
18 opening of the Ridgway Center 
was Garden founder Henry Shaw, 
plucked from a summer's day in 
1859. Once past the shock of motor- 
ized vehicles, computers, and the 
splendor of the Japanese Garden 
("a breathtaking sight and some- 
thing even I never dreamed of," he 
said) Mr. Shaw enjoyed himself. 
"I'm very glad I can share in this 
proud moment," he said. (Henry 
Shaw portrayed by actor James 

Above: The first Garden visitors to 
enter the Ridgway Center on July 
18, 1982. 

At left: The Latzer Fountain at night. 
The Fountain, located iust outside 
the south door of the Ridgway 
Center, was given in memory of 
Robert Louis Latzer. It will be the 
most prominent feature of the plaza 
which is scheduled for completion 
late this fall. 

The Ridgway Center is the 
new visitor entrance to the 
Garden. It also contains, as 

Visitor facilities, the Shoenberg Auditorium, Spink Gallery 
of porcelain sculpture, visitor orientation theater, Garden 
Gate Shop, Gardenview Restaurant. A Floral Display Hall 
will open shortly. 

St. Louis. July 18, 1982. 2:00 p.m. 
The Garden's new Ridgway Center opened today 

Educational facilities in- 
clude three classrooms, a 
teacher resource center, a 
multi-purpose room, an atrium, and an educational green- 

Members will receive shortly a commemorative booklet 
describing both the visitor and educational facilities. 


P.O. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166 







Volume LXX, Number 6 
Movember/December 1982 

Season's Greetings 

-ebruary 4, 1830 Pittsford, N.Y. 

I tell you what fine sleighing 
/ve have had for the last three 
weeks; and what a delightful 
sleigh ride we had last week. 
M ladies and gentlemen 
mostly from this place rode 
Dver and partook of a splen- 
did dinner provided for the 
occasion at the Hotel in 
3anandangua and re- 
urned by moonlight in the 
3vening. I suppose you 
southerners know nothing 
M the pleasures of a sleigh 

December 25, 1834 
D ittsford, N.Y. 

A merry Christmas and a 
Happy New Year to you dear 
Henry . . . there was a fine 
snow last night and the sleigh 
)ells have been jingling past 
5ver since early this morning— 
now I do wish for a sleigh ride. 

-ebruary 3, 1839 Rochester, N.Y. 

It commenced snowing and blowing tremendously and 
here has never been such a storm in this part of the country 
hat any one can remember — the churches were open in the 
norning last Sunday but there were so few there ... the 
drifts about our house were six feet deep and we could not stir 
)ut until Mr. Lathrop kindly got us two men to dig ways for us 
. . of course, there is too much snow for good sleighing. We 
nust have two or three warm days to settle the snow and then 
t will be fine. At present it is very cold but we manage to keep 
/ery comfortable in the house. 





From Sarah Shaw 

about the Missouri Botanical 
Garden Archives. 

December, 1982 
St. Louis, Mo. 

The era out of which 
Henry Shaw's sister Sarah 
wrote to her brother returns 
to the Missouri Botanical 
Garden on December 7- 
28. Tower Grove House, 
the completely restored 
country home of Henry 
Shaw, will be decorated 
much as it would have 
been in the Victorian age. 
Greens, boxwood, holly, 
juniper, and pine will be 
throughout the house. And 
displayed beneath the twelve- 
foot balsam Christmas tree 
in the North Parlor will be a 
collection of 19th Century dolls 
and toys loaned to the Garden 
by the Missouri Historical So- 

Four special Christmas lunch- 
eons will be served by the Tower Grove House Auxiliary on 
December 7, 9, 14, and 16. For reservations, please call Mrs. 
Coultas at 577-5150. 

The letters of Sarah Shaw, from which the above three ex- 
cerpts were taken, are part of the collection of the papers of 
Henry Shaw held in the archives of the Missouri Botanical 
3arden. Including almost 13,000 letters, cancelled checks, 
nvoices, and notes on business transactions, the papers of 
Henry Shaw are a valuable resource for historical research 
ind have been used by graduate students, architectural stu- 
dents, and authors of St. Louis histories, including James 
sleal Primm who wrote Lion of the Valley: St. Louis, Missouri. 
The January/February, 1983, Bulletin will feature a story 

Season's Greetings From You? 

A gift Membership in the Missouri Botanical Garden 
could be one of the finest presents you give to a friend or 
relative. Think of some of the other gifts you could buy for 
the same price ($30) and compare those to a gift that 
gives all year long; the winter, spring, summer, fall visits 
your friends can make to the Garden; the opportunities 
they'll have for lectures, educational programs; the spe- 
cial receptions; the discounts on gifts and plants in the 
Garden Gate Shop. If you'd like to give something special 
to someone this year and would like information on gift 
Memberships, call the Garden's Membership Office at 


I am pleased to announce that, begin- 
^ •^^P x J ning in January, we will be offering our 
Members a new opportunity. All of our Sup- 
porting Members (those who contribute $60 
or more to the Garden each year) will begin 
receiving a subscription to an extremely 
attractive bi-monthly publication, Garden, 
which is issued by The Garden Society, a 
consortium of institutions from across the 
country who cooperate to publish the magazine. 

We are excited about presenting Garden to our Members 
for two reasons. 

First, the magazine contains excellent feature articles 
about gardening and natural history; these are illustrated by 
many beautiful full-color photographs. Some recent issues 
have included articles about orchids of Australia, the Arizona- 
Sonora Desert Museum, the Amazonian forests, and the new 
Japanese Garden in Chicago. Garden regularly publishes 
reviews of the newest books of interest to gardeners. 

Second, we are excited about bringing Garden to you be- 

cause the publication is a cooperative effort of several of our 
country's finest horticultural societies and botanical gardens, 
including the Chicago Horticultural Society, the California 
Arboretum Foundation, the New York Botanical Garden, the 
Horticultural Society of the Indianapolis Museum of Art, and 
several others. Garden provides a chance for these organiza- 
tions—and will now provide us with this opportunity as well— to 
exchange information and ideas with institutions that have 
similar goals and purposes. 

Because Garden will arrive in your homes on about the first 
of January, and the first day of every second month thereafter, 
we will be delaying the mailing of our Bulletin by a few weeks 
each month. The January/February issue will arrive about the 
end of January. 

If you are not already a Supporting Member but are inter- 
ested in this exciting publication, Garden, please contact our 
Members' Office at 577-5118. 

After you have received your issue of Garden, please feel 
free to share your comments with us. 

GUu )+Gtc 



Mr. and Mrs. Adam Aronson 

Mr and Mrs. Newell A Auger 

Mrs. Agnes F. Baer 

Mr. and Mrs. Howard F. Baer 

Mr. and Mrs. Alexander M. Bakewell 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward L. Bakewell, Jr. 

Mr and Mrs. Clarence C Barksdale 

Mr and Mrs. Joseph H Bascom 

Mr Carl L. A. Beckers 

Mr and Mrs. Brooks Bernhardt 

Mr. and Mrs Albert Blanke, Jr. 

Mrs. Richard I. Brumbaugh 

Mrs. J Butler Bushyhead 

Mrs. Lucy T. Calhoun 

Mr. and Mrs Jules D Campbell 

Mrs. Jean Jacques Carnal 

Miss Adelaide Cherbonnier 

Mrs. F T Childress 

Mr. and Mrs. Fielding L. Childress 

Mr, and Mrs. Gary A. Close 

Mr. Sidney S Cohen 

Mr. and Mrs. Franklin J Comwell, Sr. 

Dr. and Mrs. William H Danforth 

Mr. and Mrs. Sam'l C. Davis 

Mr Bernard F. Desloge 

Mrs Joseph Desloge. Sr. 

Mr. Alan E Doede 

Mr. and Mrs Richard A. Dohack 

Mr. H R Duhme. Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs J Robert Edwards 

Mr. and Mrs. David C Farrell 

Mrs. Clark P. Fiske 

Mr. Gregory D. Flotron 

Mrs. Florence T. Morris Forbes 

Mrs. Eugene A Freund 

Mrs. Henry L Freund 

Mr S. E. Freund 

Mrs. Clark R. Gamble 

Dr. and Mrs. Leigh L Gerdine 

Mr. Samual Goldstein 

Mr, Stanley J Goodman 

Mrs. Mildred Goodwin 

Mr. and Mrs W Ashley Gray. Jr 

Mr. and Mrs. W. L. Hadley Griffin 

Mrs. H. C. Grigg 

Miss Anna Hahn 

Mrs. Ellis H. Hamel 

Mr. and Mrs Whitney R. Harris 

Mrs John H Hayward 

Mr. and Mrs. Harvard K. Hecker 

Mr. William Guy Heckman 

Mr. and Mrs Robert R. Hermann 

Mr and Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 

Mrs. Jean Maritz Hobler 

Mrs John Kenneth Hyatt 

Mr. and Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 

Mrs. John V Janes, Sr 

Mrs Margaret M. Jenks 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Johanson 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry O. Johnston 

Mr and Mrs Landon Y. Jones 

Mr and Mrs. W. Boardman Jones, Jr. 

Mrs. A. F. Kaeser 

Dr. and Mrs John H Kendig 

Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Kennard, III 

Mr. and Mrs. Elmer G. Kiefer 

Mr A P. Klose 

Mr, and Mrs, William S. Knowles 

Mr, and Mrs, Robert E, Kresko 

Mr. and Mrs Charles S. Lamy 

Mr. and Mrs. Oliver M. Langenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Sam Langsdorf. Jr 

Mr. and Mrs. John C. Lebens 

Mrs John S Lehmann 

Mr, and Mrs Willard L. Levy 

Mrs Zoe D Lippman 

Miss Martha I Love 

Mr H Dean Mann 

Mr. and Mrs James A. Maritz, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs William E, Maritz 

Mr Morton D, May 

Mrs James S. McDonnell. Jr 

Mr and Mrs. Sanford N. McDonnell 

Mr. and Mrs. Roswell Messing. Jr. 

Mr and Mrs. I. E Millstone 

Mr and Mrs. Hubert C Moog 

Mr Thomas Moore 

Dr and Mrs Walter Moore 

Mr and Mrs Eric P. Newman 

Mr. and Mrs C. W. Oertli 

Mrs John M. Olin 

Mr Spencer T. Olin 

Mr. and Mrs W. R. Orthwein. Jr. 

Mrs. Elizabeth R. Pantaleoni 

Mrs Jane K. Pelton 

Mr and Mrs Vernon W. Piper 

Mrs. Herman T. Pott 

Mrs Miquette M. Potter 

Mr and Mrs. A. Timon Primm III 

Mr and Mrs Joseph A. Richardson 

Mrs. Howard E. Ridgway 

Mr. and Mrs F. M Robinson. Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs G. S Rosborough. Jr 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mr. and Mrs Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Mr Louis Sachs 

Mrs William H. Schield 

Mr and Mrs. Daniel L. Schlafly 

Mr Thomas F. Schlafly 

Mrs Mason Scudder 

Mr and Mrs. Richard Shaikewitz 

Mrs A. Wessel Shapleigh 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren M. Shapleigh 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Shields 

Mrs. John M. Shoenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert H. Shoenberg 

Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Shoenberg. Jr 

Mr. and Mrs John E, Simon 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert Brookings Smith 

Mrs. Tom K Smith. Sr 

Mr. and Mrs. Tom K. Smith, Jr. 

Mrs. Sylvia N Souers 

Mr. and Mrs. C. C, Johnson Spink 

Mrs. Hermann F. Spoehrer 

Mrs Robert R. Stephens 

Mr and Mrs Cornelius F. Stueck 

Mr and Mrs. Hampden Swift 

Mr and Mrs Charles L. Tooker 

Mr. and Mrs. Jack Turner 

Mrs. Horton Watkins 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard K Weil 

Mrs. S. A. Weintraub 

Mrs Ben H Wells 

Mr and Mrs. O. Sage Wightman III 

Mr. and Mrs. Eugene F. Williams, Jr. 

Mrs. John M. Wolff 

Miss F. A. Wuellner 

Mrs. Eugene F Zimmerman 

Mr and Mrs. Andrew Zinsmeyer 

Mr. and Mrs Sander B. Zwick 



Mr and Mrs John W. Bachman 
Mr and Mrs. C. Perry Bascom 
Ms Allison R. Brightman 
Mr and Mrs. H. Pharr Brightman 
Mr and Mrs G. A Buder, Jr. 
Mr Kurt A Bussmann 
Mr and Mrs. Joseph C. Champ 
Mrs Francis Collins Cook 
Mrs Dwight W. Coultas 
Mrs. Elsie Ford Curby 
Mr and Mrs. Henry P. Day 
Mr Hollis L Garren 
Ms. Jo S Hanson 
Mr George K. Hasegawa 
Mr and Mrs William J Hedley 
Dr. and Mrs. August Homeyer 
Mr. and Mrs. Morris M. Horwitz 
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Lathrop 
Mr. and Mrs. Thorn Lewis 
i Mr. and Mrs. Eldnge Lovelace 

Mr. and Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris. Jr, 

Mrs. Harry E. Papin, Jr. 

Mr and Mrs. Richard B Perry 

Mrs Drue Wilson Philpott 

Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Richman 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Ridgway 

Mrs. Edward J Riley, Jr 

Mr and Mrs. C M. Ruprecht 

Safeco Insurance Company 

Mr. and Mrs. Louis F, Sauer 

Mr Don R. Schneeberger 

Dr and Mrs. John Schoentag 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter G. Stern 

Mr. and Mrs Leon B Strauss 

Miss Lillian L. Stupp 

Mr. and Mrs. Harold E. Thayer 

Mr. and Mrs. John K Wallace, Jr, 

Mr. Thomas L Wilson 

Mr and Mrs Don L. Wolfsberger 

C. C. Johnson Spink 
President, Board of Trustees 
Mrs. Shadrach F. Morris, Jr. 
President of the Executive 
Board of the Members 
Dr Peter H. Raven 

8^ Member of 

P^S The Arts and Education 

Fund of Greater St. Louis 

BULLETIN is published six times each 
year, in January, March. May. July. Sep- 
tember and November by the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. P.O. Box 299. St 
Louis. Mo 63166 Second class postage 
paid at St. Louis, Mo. $5.00 per year. 
S6 00 foreign. 

The Missouri Botanical Garden Bul- 
letin is sent to every Member of the 
Garden as one of the benefits of their 
membership. For a contribution as little 
as $30 per year. Members also are en- 
titled to: free admission to the Garden. 
Shaw Arboretum, and Tower Grove 
House; invitations to special events and 
receptions; announcements of all lec- 
tures and classes; discounts in the Gar- 
den shops and for course fees; and the 
opportunity to travel, domestic and 
abroad, with other Members. For infor- 
mation, please call 577-5100. 

Gardening in St. Louis 

A Gardener's Christmas Wish List 

Fine garden tools, which combine the qualities of beauty, 
function, and durability, are a rare find. They can make rou- 
tine and sometimes arduous jobs easier. These tools are 
some of my favorites: 

1 . Haws one-gallon watering can, ($60.00) Sixty dollars for a 
sprinkling can?! That's right, and it's worth it. Haws of London 
has been making watering cans for about 100 years. This one 
is carefully balanced and crafted to perfection. It has a long 
spout so you can easily reach those plants in the back row 
and has a fine rose (watering head) to produce a soft spray of 
water. We use them in our greenhouse. 

2. Woodman, ($5.95) Every good gardener knows that tools 
should always be kept clean and sharp. It is an unpleasant job 
to clean mud from shovels after you've used them and as a 
result it is frequently not done. Because of this, the tool rusts 
and is not suitable the next time it is needed. Woodman is the 
answer. It's a very well designed and sturdy tool scraper. This 
handy, solid-oak item has a leather strap and can be hung in 
the tool shed so you can find it easily when you need it. 

3. Felco Hand Pruners, ($35.00-$39.00) These Swiss-made 
pruners are well crafted and are molded to fit your hand com- 
fortably. Almost all parts are replaceable. Most of our horti- 
culturists use them everyday. 

4. Trigger Grip Hand Trowel and Fork, ($8.50, each) Most 
gardeners use these tools more than any others. The Trigger 
Grip Hand Trowel and the fork are works of art with function. 
Both of them are one-piece, hand-polished, cast aluminum; 
there are no parts to rust or to pull apart. They are molded to 
fit your hand and are constructed so your index finger can 
grip the tool. This is an especially important feature for ar- 
thritic gardeners. 

5. Nap-A-Ram Garden Gloves, ($5.45) While most garden 
gloves are made of cowhide or cloth, these are made of goat- 
skin which is superior to other materials. Goatskin remains 
supple after it becomes wet (cowhide becomes stiff), yet is 
much more durable than cloth. Because goatskin is a thin 
leather, it gives the gardener a more sensitive touch than 
most other cowhide or cloth gloves. 

6. Brookstone Pocket Pruner, ($10.95) This handy, 5-inch 
stainless steel pruner is just the right size to carry in your 
pocket or purse and yet is substantial enough to cut flower 
and leaf stems. This is a favorite tool of our orchidist, Marion 
Pfeiffer. She carries one on her key chain. 

7. Smith and Hawken Heavy Duty Spade, ($45.00-$49.00) A 
good spade is an essential tool for all gardeners and this one 
is probably the best on the market. It is not too heavy but very 
strong. The handle is solid American Ash and the blade is 
solid steel made with carbon and manganese so it is tough 
and long-wearing. 

8. Missouri Botanical Garden Apron, ($12.00) There are 
many gardening aprons sold, but few have the good features 
of this one. It is tough (canvas) and attractive (navy blue with 
yellow MBG logo). The pockets in the front are handy and the 
length seems just right. If you need more convincing about 
this apron ask the people who work in the Plant Shop who 
wear it everyday. 

(All of the above tools, and many other gifts of interest to 
gardeners, are found in the Garden Gate Shop.) 

Poinsettias Are Not Poisonous 

Just about every Christmas season brings with it reports 
of how children can be poisoned by eating "just one leaf of 
the deadly poinsettia." It is unfortunate that this spectacular 
holiday plant has been branded as a dangerous plant, espe- 
cially since very thorough laboratory tests completed by Ohio 
State University in 1971 proved conclusively that poinsettias 
are not poisonous. The latex (white, milky sap exuded from 
broken stems or leaves) was fed in large quantities to rats, 
standard laboratory test animals. None of the rats, even those 
fed very high amounts of the latex, showed any signs of poi- 
soning. Despite various stories of poinsettia poisoning which 
have appeared in the popular press, there has not been one 
medically documented case of such a poisoning. (However, 
the latex is irritating to eyes and to the skin of some sensitive 

As houseplants, poinsettias have been much improved. 
Today's hybrids come in colors from white to mary variations 
of red and pink. Their bracts, the colored leaves which are 
sometimes referred to as "flowers," are much larger and they 
maintain their color well past the Christmas season. As any- 
one who has received one of these plants knows, they are so 
tough that they seem to defy abuse. 

To make them last the longest, keep the plants in a bright, 
cool (60-70°F) spot. Water them thoroughly when they need 
it, but be sure to let them dry out between waterings. 

This Christmas season enjoy your poinsettias for their 
unique beauty and be assured that they are not poisonous. 

Forcing Paperwhites for Christmas Bloom 

Paperwhite or Soleil d'Or Narcissi in a bowl are perfect 
holiday decorations and gifts. If you would like to grow some 
indoors, here are some tips. 

Fill two-thirds of the planting bowl with pebbles. Place 
bulbs, about 1 inch apart, on the pebbles and add water so it 
barely reaches the base of the bulbs. Then continue to fill the 
bowl to within two inches of its rim with pebbles. Set the con- 
tainer in a cool (50°F), dark area for two to four weeks for 

After roots appear and the pale green shoots are 3 to 4 
inches tall, move the pot to a sunny window where the tem- 
peratures do not exceed 70° Fahrenheit. Be sure to maintain 
the water level so roots are constantly covered with water. 

To assure constant bloom, Paperwhites and Soleil d'Or 
Narcissi can be planted at two-week intervals starting Octo- 
ber 1. Those started in early October will bloom for Thanks- 
giving; those started in early to mid-November will blossom 
for Christmas. 

— Steven A. Frowine, Chairman, Indoor Horticulture 

A Shrub with Bounce 

Today some people wish they hadn't burned those thou- 
sands of acres of desert in 1945. Wishing that, they think of 
the 21 million pounds of rubber that, literally, went up as only 
so much smoke— enough rubber to put four new tires on 20% 
of the automobiles that Detroit produced that year. 

What was burned 37 years ago, just after the end of the 
World War, was 27,000 acres of guayule (Parthenium argen- 
tatum), a squat, apparently common one-meter high, desert 
shrub of the sunflower family (Compositae). Apparently com- 
mon, but not in fact. Guayule contains, in its stems, branches, 
and roots, about 15 to 20 percent of its dry weight as rubber. 

Last year, the United States imported natural rubber at a 
total value of approximately one billion dollars. The U.S. 
annually consumes about 20% of the total world production. 
Most of this natural rubber is produced in Southeast Asia and 
comes from the rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, of the 
Euphorbiaceae family. The tree is actually native to South 
America (and was introduced into Asia in the 1800s), but a 
leaf blight early in this century devastated the western 
hemisphere stands of H. brasiliensis, leaving the Asian crop 
as the viable source for commercial production. 

Now, for a number of reasons, government and rubber in- 
dustry experts foresee a major shortage of natural rubber as 
early as the 1990s— a shortage of about one-half million tons 
per year. 

The first reason is ironic: in the early 1960s, with a prolif- 
eration of predictions that synthetic rubber would totally re- 
place natural rubber, many growers of Hevea cut back their 
production. But synthetic rubber has not replaced natural rub- 
ber. That produced on a large scale is inferior, for many pur- 
poses, to natural rubber. Many products, such as tires, still 
require a content that is partially or entirely natural rubber. 
Automobile radial tires, for example, are about 30% natural 
rubber. Airplane tires are entirely of natural rubber. (Although 
scientists have developed a synthetic rubber that matches, 
more closely, natural rubber, it has not been produced com- 
mercially.) Even if synthetic rubber of comparable quality 
would reach the market, experts agree that natural rubber 
would retain about 25% of the market. 

Complicating the situation is the fact that synthetic rub- 
bers are produced from petroleum by-products. With the 
unstable prices for petroleum, it becomes less and less eco- 
nomical to produce synthetic rubber. A second reason a 
shortage is anticipated is that, because of a world-wide con- 
cern for food shortages, still more growers of Hevea are 
reducing their replantings of the rubber tree, substituting food 

The world's supply of Hevea rubber becomes even more 
precarious given the political instability of Southeast Asia (in 
the 1940s, during much of World War II, the United States 
was cut off from 90% of its natural rubber sources) and the 
chance that the leaf blight which devastated the South Amer- 
ican Hevea stands could be introduced into Southeast Asia. 

In response to the continued world demand for natural 
rubber, and the predicted shortages of the next decade, and 
the general precariousness of the Hevea crops of Asia, the 
government and rubber industry have revived interest in 
guayule for the third time in this century. 

At the beginning of the 1900s, guayule became a major 
source of American rubber and by 1910 provided about 50% 
of the rubber used in this country and 10% of that used in the 

world. However, this rubber was taken from wild (as opposed 
to cultivated) plants. Though the stands were extensive, they 
were soon depleted by the constant harvesting. (Rubber is 
taken from guayule by harvesting the entire plant: Hevea 
rubber is taken by tapping into the tree.) By 1912, guayule 
was no longer a viable commercial source of rubber. 

Thirty years later, during the war, the government insti- 
tuted, as one of its many war measures, the Emergency Rub- 
ber Project, under which 32,000 acres of desert was planted 
in guayule. By the end of the three and one-half year project, 
15 tons of rubber were being produced daily. But when the 
war ended and access to Hevea rubber was regained, the 
government abandoned its ERP and destroyed 27,000 acres 
of guayule. 

Interest this time arose in the late 1970s when the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences concluded extensive investiga- 
tion into guayule and recommended "a national commitment 
to guayule research and development." Responding to that, 
Congress passed the Native Latex Commercialization and 
Economic Development Act in 1978, setting aside $30 million 
for research into the plant's economic potential. The largest 
rubber companies in the United States have since begun the 
cultivation of several million guayule seedlings in south- 
western American deserts. 

Guayule Facts 

Its scientific name is Parthenium argentatum: the spe- 
cific epithet comes from its characteristic silvery sheen. It 
is a bushy perennial and can survive in the severe desert 
conditions for up to 50 years, where annual temperatures 
range from 0°F to 120°F. It develops a tap root that can 
penetrate 20 feet into the desert soil and an extensive 
system of roots that can spread 10 feet out from the 

This system allows the shrub to absorb sufficient 
amounts of precious desert moisture. 

In severe drought, as well as in times of extreme cold, 
guayule becomes semi-dormant. It is important for per- 
sons interested in guayule for its rubber that it is when the 
plant is stressed during these adverse conditions, and 
becomes semi-dormant, that its rubber content increases 
as its growth slows and the plant concentrates on rubber 

This rubber— assessed by the 1977 NAS report as 
being virtually identical to Hevea rubber— forms within 
cells throughout the plant, with concentrations highest in 
the roots and stems. These cells, which are microscopic, 
are not connected to one another and so, for the rubber to 
be extracted, the entire plant must be harvested and the 
rubber separated from the other parts of the shrub. Cur- 
rent technology can recover about 95% of the rubber 
within any one plant. 

An exhibit of guayule, with information and samples of 
the rubber, will be held in the Desert House from Novem- 
ber 6 to December 5. This exhibit is part of the Garden 's 
continuing effort to present to its visitors information about 
the plants important to man. 

Keeping Track of 810090-1 

When you come to look at the Guayule Exhibit in these 
next few weeks (see p. 4), you'll see, attached to the guayule 
plant by a piece of wire, a small zinc tag, about IV2" x 3". On 
the tag are the words Parthenium argentatum and a number, 

Here are some facts about the plant you are looking at: It 
is on the north side of the Desert House (the side nearest the 
Climatron), and toward the middle of the house. Near it are 
planted Agave attenuate (cliff maguey) and Celtis pallida 
(desert hackberry). The guayule was sent, as seed, to the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden from the University of California, 
Riverside. In California, it was collected near Moreno. The 
Garden received the seeds on January 15, 1981. They were 
sown five days later and germinated on February 27; 18 days 
after that five seedlings were transplanted into one of the 
Propagation Greenhouses. On November 3, 1982, one of 
those five seedlings was transplanted into the Desert House. 

This information — the location of the plant, its history and 
source — was derived without entering the Desert House, 
without seeing the specimen. It was derived by looking at two 
pieces of paper: a 5" x 8" card and a map. 

These two pieces of paper, and tens of thousands more, 
are in file drawers in the office of plant records at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden. 

Every plant, seedling, and seed that is received by the 
Garden is catalogued here as was the guayule. In all, Audrey 
Thompson, who cares for the records, estimates that there 
are about 25,000 cards on file in her department, each card 
representing at least one plant, seedling, or seed that is 
somewhere in the Garden, whether in a display greenhouse, 
on the grounds, or in a propagation greenhouse. 

The number on the zinc tag — in the case of guayule, 
81 0090-1 — is the accession number for the plant. Every plant 
received by the Garden has one of these numbers. Decoding 
it: the first two digits represent the year in which the plant was 
accessioned (81 for 1 981 ). The last four digits before the dash 
represent the numerical order in which the plants for a par- 
ticular year are accessioned: the guayule was the 90th plant 
recorded in 1981. 

The number following the hyphen represents the number 
assigned a specific plant out of a single accession. Some- 
times one accession includes only a single plant; often it 
includes more than one. In the case of the guayule, five seed- 

lings came from the seeds given to the Garden by the Univer- 
sity of California, Riverside, and those five seedlings were 
coded 810090-1 through 810090-5. In this way, accessions 
can be divided between several locations — in this case, one 
plant was installed in the Desert House while others remained 
in the propagation greenhouse— and the staff can still easily 
trace the origin of a plant through the first six digits of the 
accession number. 

And then there are the maps, long sheets of paper, 
marked off in a grid of squares, and bearing the names of 
each plant in the Garden, whether on the grounds or in a 
display greenhouse. Again, considering the guayule: On its 
5" x 8" card is the notation: Desert House, N-7. If we pull the 
map of the Desert House out of the tall cabinet in which all 
the maps are stored, some of them seeming impossibly long 
— since the opening of the Japanese Garden, the maps of it 
have been gradually increased to four times their original size 
in order to legibly bear the names of each plant in the area — 
and spread it open on a table, we can locate square N-7. 
(There are three alphabetical coordinates for the Desert 
House: N, for the north side, S, for the south side, and IS for 
the island near the rear of the house. There are 17 numerical 

And there are maps for the other Garden areas: the Cli- 
matron, the Mediterranean House, the English Woodland 
Garden, and the others. 

Leaving the office of plant records and walking through 
the grounds, we can find other evidence of the work done in 
that Department: the display labels affixed to the trees or 
standing midst a bed of flowers. 

These labels tell us more than do the zinc tags: these give 
us the common name of the plant, the scientific name, the 
family, and its distribution. Soon, the labels will tell us even 
more than this. Some will be marked with a glyph: a silhouette 
of the state of Missouri. Plants marked with labels bearing this 
sign are those native to Missouri. 

This is the second in a series of articles about areas of the 
Garden not usually seen by those who visit here. Persons inter- 
ested in volunteering to work in the Plant Records Department, 
as well as in any Department in the Garden, should contact 
Jeanne McGilligan at 577-5187. 

Garden Library Praised at National Meeting 

The Library of the Missouri Botanical Garden was praised 
at the annual meeting of the Guild of Book Workers held in 
New York earlier this year for its Festival of the Book Arts, a 
four-month long series of exhibits, demonstrations, lectures, 
and workshops held at the Garden in the autumn of 1981. 
Those attending the annual meeting were urged to use the 
Festival as a model for future, similar events. 

Because of the Garden's extremely active work in preser- 
vation of books (the Garden has the only institutional book 
preservation department in the state of Missouri) James 
Reed, Missouri Botanical Garden Librarian, was recently 
appointed to membership on the Education Committee of the 
American Library Association's Preservation of Library Mate- 
rials section. During his three year term, Mr. Reed will work 
with other committee members to develop educational pro- 
grams for librarians and others in the preservation of library 
materials, book binding, and related crafts. 

Symposium Brings Together American, Chinese Scientists 

Approximately 400 scientists were at this Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden on the last weekend of September for the 29th 
annual Systematics Symposium. Sponsored by the Garden, 
the Symposium has, for more than the last quarter-century, 
brought together scientists from across the world to discuss 
current work in systematics. At this latest Symposium, scien- 
tists attended from the People's Republic of China, Japan, 
Sweden, Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, and 38 states. The 16 
scientists from the PRC represented the largest group of Chi- 
nese scientists ever to attend a botanical meeting held in the 
Western Hemisphere. 

The topic for this year's Symposium was the relationship 
between the plants and animals of temperate Eastern Asia 
and temperate Eastern North America. 

Dr. Gerrit Davidse, a botanist on the staff of the Missouri 
Botanical Garden and the coordinator of the last eleven Sym- 
posia, said that, important as was the scientific work dis- 
cussed during the three day meeting, perhaps even more im- 
portant were the new contacts made by scientists of the US 
and the PRC and the possibility of the beginning of several 
new programs of cooperation between the two countries. 

For a number of years, the Missouri Botanical Garden 
itself has been working closely with institutions in the 
People's Republic of China to mutual benefit. Peter H. Raven, 
the Garden's Director, has been coordinating exchange 
efforts for the Botanical Society of America with the PRC for 

Our Own Ice Age 

Trees, by their nature, have a look of permanence to 
them: their solidity, the relative immovability, their almost 
mute changelessness. If we were to visit a forest we knew 
when we were very young, it would seem (unless altered by 
man) to be as it was those years ago. 

It seems that that forest has always and will always be 
there. On a little larger scale, it seems the appearance of the 
vegetation of the areas familiar to us (that of the state of 
Missouri, for instance) have always and will always remain as 
they are at this instant: No matter how often and no matter 
over how many years we take the same drive west to Gray 
Summit and Shaw Arboretum, the scenery, the hillsides and 
trees will appear the same. 

Actually a very short time ago (a very short time ago geo- 
logically), around 10,000 years ago, the face of Missouri was 
drastically different, and was dominated by forests of 
conifers. Today, of course, our area is dominated by forests of 
deciduous trees (the oaks, maples, and hickories we know so 
well), with only a few species of conifers (juniper and some 
pines) being native. 

In another short period of time (again geologically speak- 
ing), after another several thousand years, the face of Mis- 
souri will again be vastly different than during our lifetime. 

Over the last two million years, during what scientists call 
the Quaternary Period, glaciers have been advancing and re- 
ceding over the entire Northern Hemisphere. Actually during 
about 90% of these two million years, the hemisphere has 
been covered by these glaciers. The other 10% of the time (or 
200,000 years in total) is represented by 18 to 20 relatively 
brief periods during which these glaciers have retreated. 
These periods have lasted from 10,000 to 20,000 years each. 
We are in one of these periods now, what scientists call inter- 
glacial periods. 


the past five years. Two years ago he visited China on a spe- 
cial invitation from the Chinese Academy of Science; since 
then, and arising out of discussions held during that visit, he 
has been working closely with Chinese scientists and those 
from other nations on an English translation of the mon- 
umental Flora of China, an 80-volume work begun more than 
30 years ago and scheduled for completion by 1990. 

In 1974, the Garden began exchanging seeds with the 
Nanjing Botanical Garden and the two institutions established 
a formal sister-garden relationship. As part of this relation- 
ship, staff members of each garden have visited the other. In 
the fall of 1981, Alan Godlewski, Chairman of Landscape 
Horticulture here, spent several weeks visiting Chinese insti- 
tutions and returned with seeds and other plant material to 
cultivate here. 

Many of the 400 scientists who attended the Symposium 
arrived early or remained after the Symposium to use the 
herbarium and library at the Garden. Both facilities are recog- 
nized as among the finest in the world. 

The Symposium was supported, in part, by a grant 
from the National Science Foundation. In addition, gen- 
erous contributions from Mark Twain Bancshares and 
anonymous donors helped to defray the expenses of some 
of the American scientists who attended. 

Our period is a temperate island in the middle of an ice 

This phenomenon was discussed in a paper delivered by 
Dr. Margaret Davis of the University of Minnesota at the 
recent Systematics Symposium held at the Garden. 

During the times in which the glaciers have extended far 
into the hemisphere, the climate is cooler and drier than in our 
own era. Deciduous forests cannot survive in this climate and 
so are reduced to extremely small pockets of favorable hab- 
itats in which are found fewer species than are present in the 
forests of our day. 

In the interglacial periods, like the one in which we live, 
the deciduous forests can spread from the small areas in 
which they survived the glacial periods. 

On our own continent, beech trees (Fagus) began to ex- 
pand about 14,000 years ago from their refuges in the Coastal 
Plains of the southern United States and only reached their 
northernmost limit about 3,000 years ago. Chestnut (Cas- 
tanea) reached its northern limit only about 2,000 years ago. 

Since the diversity of species that survives in these hos- 
pitable pockets (called refugium) in each glacial period is dif- 
ferent, the appearance of deciduous forests during each of 
the interglacial periods is also different; the vegetation of our 
time, that of our own island in the middle of an ice age, is 

If we were to study the flora of a previous interglacial 
period, and scientists can do this using fossil evidence, we 
would find that, although the climates were similar, that flora 
would be quite different from our own period. 

Because of these changes which have been continually 
occurring over the last two million years, many trees which 
one time had a distribution across the entire hemisphere have 
been reduced to habitats which are, in our own day, quite 

limited. Three of these are the dawn redwood (Metasequoia), 
bald cypress (Taxodium) and maidenhair tree (Ginkgo). 

The dawn redwood and maidenhair tree survived in south- 
eastern Asia; the bald cypress in southeastern North Amer- 
ica. Fossils of all three have been found in areas across the 

The dawn redwood was, in fact, first described from fos- 
sils—in 1941— and was presumed extinct. In 1944, a Chinese 
forester discovered a living specimen of dawn redwood in 
western Hubei province. Two years later, another forester 
found approximately a thousand native trees about 100 miles 
further south, in the province of Sichuan. 

Chinese Botanical Art 


In 1955, the botanical world was stunned by the discovery 
of not one, but two species of a genus of conifers (previously 
totally unknown) in southern China. Other genera of conifers, 
such as pines, firs, and spruces, are well-known and of great 
economic value, but there are only about 50 genera and 550 
species of the group in the entire world. 

This new genus, discovered in China 27 years ago, was 
named Cathaya (after the ancient name of China), and is 
known only in cultivation in that country. The few plants that 
are cultivated are less than two-feet tall. 

Cathaya, like the dawn redwood (Metasequoia; see this 
page, above), was subsequently found, by studying fossil 
evidence, to have been widespread millions of years ago, not 
only in Asia but in North America and Europe as well. 

The illustration of Cathaya that appears above (right) is 
one of 100 botanical illustrations now exhibited in the Old 
Gate Building of the Missouri Botanical Garden. Continuing 
through December 31, Chinese Botanical Art contains water- 
color paintings, drawings, and other kinds of illustrations of 
plants that are native to China; many of them, like Cathaya, 

For Younger Members 

(All three of these trees are cultivated in the Garden. A line 
of dawn redwoods shades the eastern side of the John S. 
Lehmann Building. Now about 70 feet tall, they were planted 
from seed received from Nanjing, via the Arnold Arboretum, 
in 1947. 

Maidenhair trees are found at several locations: near the 
same line of dawn redwoods (opposite the Shoenberg Foun- 
tain) and flanking the Old Main Gate. 

Also near the Old Main Gate, lining the pathway that 
extends west from the Gate to the Climatron, are bald 

are found nowhere else. Some are very rare. 

The works included in the exhibit were shown earlier at 
the XIII International Botanical Congress held in Sydney, 
Australia, in August, 1981, and were, in fact, produced espe- 
cially for the Congress. The display at the Missouri Botanical 
Garden is only the second time these paintings and drawings 
have been on public display. 

Included are works by 42 artists from the People's Repub- 
lic of China from 15 institutions. 

The hours of the exhibit are 10 a.m. -4:30 p.m. Admission 
is $1; Members are admitted free of charge. 


Investigate Animal Tracks 

Children of all ages have, at one 
time or another, made "angels" in 
fresh-fallen snow. They also delight in 
seeing their big snowboot tracks and 
mitten prints etched in a wintery blanket 
of white. But children are not the only 
living beings who leave evidence of 
their comings and goings during the 
winter season. Their footprints may be 
only one of many sets that encircle the 
snowman or skip randomly across the 
yard. Even a light dusting of snow re- 

veals a footprint parade of such crea- 
tures as dogs, cats, squirrels, birds, or 

How many sets of tracks can you 
and your child find in the snow? To 
whom do the tracks belong? Let's find 

You will need: Bits of bread, small 
pieces of carrot, bits of hamburger, 
animal track identification booklet (li- 

What to do: Wait until there is a light 
snowfall. Sprinkle the bits of food over 
the snow in an undisturbed area near 
your home. Leave the food overnight. 

The next morning, inspect the area to 
see if you have had any animal visitors. 

Study the tracks you have found. 
How many different tracks are there? 
Can you find pictures of them in the 
track identification booklet? Do the 
tracks belong to large animals or small 
animals? See if you can determine how 
the animals were moving. Were they 
hopping, running, walking? 

Make up a story with your child 
about the animal visitors who left their 
footprints in the snow near your home. 

—Ilene Follman, Education Consultant 

Notes from the Garden 


"There is a saying . . 'Art imitates life.' But I think it would be more accurate to say that in these Art 
captures life and holds it still so that we can appreciate ... the life it captures." 

— C. C. Johnson Spink at the dedication of the Spink Gallery. 

Porcelain sculpture by Edward Marshall 
Boehm and the Boehm Studios of Tren- 
ton, New Jersey, is featured in the 
Spink Gallery on the second floor of the 
Ridgway Center. The Gallery was made 
possible by the generosity of Edith and 
C. C. Johnson Spink in memory of 
Blanch and Taylor Spink. Mr. and Mrs. 

Spink presented to the Garden their 
collection of more than 132 porcelain, 
hand-sculpted birds from the Boehm 
Studios, as well as Dorothy Doughty, 
and other artists. The Gallery contains 
one of the finest collections of porcelain 

An Orchid Exhibit comes to the Ridgway 
Center on November 6 and 7. Spon- 
sored by the Orchid Society of Greater 
St. Louis, the show will include entries 
in 15 different categories; it will be 
judged by the American Orchid Society. 
Hours of the exhibit are, on 11/6, 11 
a. m -4:30 p.m., and on 1 1/7, 9 a.m. un- 
til 4:30 p.m 

The annual Holiday Plant Exhibit will be 
the first Garden exhibit to be held in the 
new Floral Display Hall of the Ridgway 
Center. Opening to the public on De- 

(I to r) C C Johnson Spink, President of the 
Board of Trustees, and John G. Buettner, Chair- 
man of Shipping Utlities, Inc. 


cember 4 and continuing until January 
2, the exhibit will feature poinsettias, 
cyclamen, white chrysanthemums, 
gloxinia, and Christmas cactus. The 
ficus trees in the barrel vault of the Cen- 
ter will be decorated with small, white 
lights. There will be a Christmas tree in 
the center of the Latzer Fountain out- 
side the Center. 

This promises to be the first in a 
long line of exciting exhibits that will be 
held in the Floral Display Hall in the 
years to come 

A new tram especially designed to ac- 
commodate handicapped visitors has 
been in operation for several weeks 
now. It is a gift from the estate of 
Isabelle Schwerdtmann, former Garden 
Member and volunteer, and was also 
made possible by the generosity of 
Shipping Utilities, Incorporated and its 
Chairman, John G. Buettner. Handi- 
capped visitors may ride the tram free 
of charge. The trams feature a 20-min- 
ute, tape-narrated tour of the Garden 
grounds. An earlier gift from the estate 
of Isabelle Schwerdtmann was the caril- 
lon in Tower Grove House, installed in 
December, 1981 

There are also newly recorded versions 
of the tram and acoustiguide tours. 

f i 

Mrs. Christopher S. Bond, wife of Mis- 
souri Governor Christopher S. Bond, 
was in Tower Grove House at the Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden in August to an- 
nounce a fund-raising campaign for the 
preservation of the Governor's Mansion 
in Jefferson City. Tower Grove House 
was selected as the location for the an- 
nouncement because of the Garden's 
own active historic restoration program 
and because both Tower Grove House 
and the Governor's Mansion were de- 
signed by George I. Barnett, the re- 
nowned Victorian architect who also 
designed the Museum Building, the 
Linnean House, and the Townhouse 
(now Administration Building) at the 
Garden. Persons interested in the pro- 
gram for the preservation of the Gov- 
ernor's Mansion may write to: The Mis- 
souri Mansion Preservation, Inc., P.O. 
Box 1133, Jefferson City, Missouri 

The Tribute Fund of the Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden is an excellent way to rec- 
ognize the special people and events 
in your life. Contributions have been 
made by Members in the past to honor 
their friends or relatives on their birth- 
days, anniversaries, graduations. Con- 
tributions have also been made in 
memory of parents, grandparents, and 
other relatives. For your convenience, 
an envelope for Tribute Fund contribu- 
tions is bound into the center of this 
Bulletin. For information about the - 
Fund, contact the Development Office 
at 577-5120. . 

With winter coming, a tram tour of the 
Garden— the trams are heated— can be 
a pleasant way to spend a half-hour. No 
matter how often you've been to the 
Garden, if you've never taken a formal 
tour, you could learn some things you 
don't know 

Birds of Prey, a lecture by Walter Craw- 
ford at the Arboretum on November 13 
from 9:30 a. m -2:00 p.m., will feature 
live hawks and owls. The lecturer works 
with the Raptor Rehabilitation and 
Propagation Center, which is involved 
in the raising of hawks and owls. This 
past winter, the Center's staff released 
Barn Owls at the Arboretum; Barn Owls 
are endangered species in Missouri. 

For more information about the lec- 
ture on these fascinating predators, or 
to register for the lecture, call the Arbo- 
retum at 577-5138. The fee for Mem- 
bers is $5 

Nature themes, fairy tales, and fables 
. . . The Gateway Storytellers of St. 
Louis are presenting stories for children 
every Saturday morning at 10:00 a.m. 
in the Garden Room of the Ridgway 
Center. The series will end with a story- 
telling round on December 18, 1 until 5 
p.m., featuring several storytellers. Hot 
chocolate and Christmas cookies will 
be served throughout the afternoon. 
There is a nominal fee for the sessions; 
for information, call 577-5140 

« <w 

£* I 

Stanley Elkin, novelist, will present a 
reading from his own work as the sec- 
ond program of River Styx P.M., a se- 
ries of readings held in the Shoenberg 
Auditorium of the Missouri Botanical 
Garden and sponsored by Big River As- 
sociation. Elkin is the author of The Dick 
Gibson Show, and the recently pub- 
lished George Mills, and is a member of 
the faculty of Washington University. 
Tickets are available at Paul's Books 
and Left Bank Books. Garden Members 
receive a 10% discount 

A recent gift from the family of a former 
library volunteer has resulted in the es- 
tablishment of the Donald R. Nieder- 
lander Memorial Collection in the li- 
brary's bindery. The Niederlander Me- 
morial Collection consists of several 
hundred publications on bookbinding, 

Donald R. Niederlander 

preservation of library materials, paper- 
making, paper marbling, and related 
arts and crafts. Mr. Niederlander 
served as a volunteer in the library's 
bindery for 10 years, and was respon- 
sible for restoring many of the Garden's 
rare and fragile books 

A unique plant native only to New 
Guinea and eastern Australia, Eupo- 
matia laurina belongs to a primitive 
genus that now has no close relatives. 
Pollen very similar to modern-day Eupo- 
matia pollen has been found in deposits 
70 million years old. Eupomatia is the 
only member of the family Eupoma- 
tiacea and it includes one other species, 
E. bennettii, that is found in eastern 
Australia only. (Compare this with Ro- 

saceae or the rose family for example, 
which has one hundred genera and 
2,000 species.) 

These shrubs or small trees bear 
small flowers that have an inside-out 
look to them. The petal-like structures 
are near the center of the flower and the 
stamens (pollen-bearing parts) are on 
the outer edge of the flower. They are 
both attached to a firm cup or recep- 
tacle in which the female, seed-bearing, 
parts are buried. The "petals" are ac- 
tually stamens that are fleshy and 
sweet-smelling. Beetles are attracted to 
these "petals," eat them, and probably 
act as pollinators, transferring pollen 
from one flower to another. 

Few collections of this genus are 
known. It is a rare and wonderful oppor- 
tunity to have this unusual plant bloom- 
ing in our Garden 

Three more lectures remain in the Fall 
Lecture Series, The Unique World of the 
Tropics. On November 3, Tom Econ- 
omou, Master Gardener and Botanical 
Explorer will lead the celebration of a 
"Tropical Fruit Fiesta." Janet Cath- 
erine Berlo, Assistant Professor of Art 
History at UMSL will discuss "The 

Maya: An Ancient Civilization of the 
American Tropics" on November 10. 
The lecture series closes on November 
17 when Peter H. Raven, Director of the 
Garden, talks on "The Future of the 
Tropics." All lecture dates are Wednes- 
days and lectures are presented at 
10:30 a.m. and 8 p.m. on each date. . . 



(continued from page 9) 


The Sullivan Fountain, on the path between the 
Old Gate Building and the Museum Building, 
placed in memory of Owen Jacquemin Sullivan 
and Sarah Ott Sullivan by Sally Sullivan Bernhardt. 

Staghorn ferns will be exhibited in the 
Climatron from November 6-28. Mem- 
bers of the genus Platycerium, staghorn 
ferns are epiphytes native to the trop- 
ics, from Africa to Southeast Asia to 
Australia and New Guinea. Hours of the 
exhibit are 10 a.m. until 4:30 p.m 

The Garden on your wall for 1 983— the 
1983 Missouri Botanical Garden Calen- 
dar, featuring stunning close-up pho- 
tography of flowers of the Garden, is 
now available in the Garden Gate Shop. 
The photography is by Jack Jennings, 
whose pictures were featured in the 
1982 calendar, and Steve Frowine, 
Chairman of Indoor Horticulture at the 
Garden. (The price is $4.95; Members 
receive a 10% discount.) 

Two sales are scheduled for Members 
of the Garden. The annual Holiday Pre- 
view Sale in the Garden Gate Shop will 
be held on November 10-11. All mer- 
chandise, including the finest in gifts, 
plants, china, and botanical prints, will 
be available to Members at a 20% dis- 
count. The book department includes 
one of the most complete selections of 
books on gardening, botany, and nat- 
ural history in the country. 

On December 10, 11, and 1 2, Mem- 
bers are invited to the annual Holiday 
Plant Sale in the Plant Sales area of the 
Garden Gate Shop. All plants will be on 
sale at a 20% discount, and the shop 
will feature the plants traditionally asso- 
ciated with the season. Members will 
receive further information in the mail. 

Members' previews of the Holiday Plant 
Exhibit are scheduled for December 
3-4. On Friday, the third, Members are 
invited for a reception for the opening of 
the exhibit from 5:30 until 7:30 p.m. On 
Saturday, the fourth, from 10 a.m. until 
2 p.m., the Garden has planned a spe- 
cial Family Holiday, with storytelling 
and family entertainment. Details will 
be sent to all Members shortly 

The next time you are at the Garden, 
stop for a few minutes into the orienta- 
tion theater on the first floor of the Ridg- 
way Center. The theater features a con- 
tinuously running film about the Gar- 
den, its history and displays 

Taxes and Charitable Gifts 

As you approach the end of 1982, 
you should be considering your year- 
end tax planning strategy. An important 
part of this strategy is charitable con- 
tribution. In addition to the personal sat- 
isfaction that comes from gift-giving, 
you also derive many tax benefits. 

This year it is even more important 
to carefully plan your tax strategy. Be- 
cause the Economic Recovery Tax Act 
of 1 981 provides for a decrease in taxes 

in 1983, a deduction in 1982 is of 
greater value than one in 1983. 

In general, cash contributions to 
charitable and cultural organizations, 
like the Missouri Botanical Garden, are 
fully deductible from your adjusted 
gross income, up to 50% of this in- 

For donations of long-term capital 
gain type property — for example real 
estate and securities held more than 
twelve months — the limit is 30% of your 
adjusted gross income. 

Richard Daley has been named as Di- 
rector of the newly created Division of 
Public Services at the Missouri Botan- 
ical Garden. Mr. Daley, formerly Spe- 
cial Assistant to the Director, has been 
a member of the Garden's staff since 
1973. He has been active in the Gar- 
den's efforts to seek public funding. He 
has also supervised the historic restor- 
ation program, which has resulted in 
the recent restoration of the Linnean 
House and the Museum Building. 

The Division of Public Services in- 
cludes the Departments of public rela- 
tions, special events, education, mer- 
chandising, and the Arboretum 

Dr. Peter Goldblatt was the recipient of 
the first Harold Compton Prize from the 
National Botanic Gardens of South Af- 
rica. The Prize was created to honor 
"the author of the best contribution to 
botanical science . . . concerning the 
South African flora." Dr. Goldblatt is 
the B.A. Krukoff Curator of African Bot- 
any at the Missouri Botanical Garden. 

If you contribute capital gain prop- 
erty that has appreciated, you may de- 
duct the full market value. However, 
securities that have depreciated to a 
value below their original cost should 
not be used as charitable contributions, 
since you would forfeit the tax loss. It is 
better to sell the securities, take the tax 
loss, and then contribute the cash pro- 

— Richard Markow, Alexander Grant 
& Co., Certified Public Accountants 


August & September 1982 

Sustaining Members 

Ms. Susan M Dickens 
Mr. and Mrs Irving Edison 
Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth R Fiala 
Mr. and Mrs Stephen H Loeb 
Mr. and Mrs Clark B. Payne 
Dr and Mrs John B Shapleigh 
Mr. and Mrs. Buford D. Smith 

Contributing Members 

Mr and Mrs. Lowell L. Barton 

Mr and Mrs. Hunt Benoist 

Mrs W. F. Boldt 

Mr and Mrs Richard H. Bosch 

Mr and Mrs Jim Brennan 

Mr. and Mrs Steven W Bromley 

Mr and Mrs. Jack Carey 

Mr, and Mrs. Anthony J Chivetta 

Mrs. Horace E. Corey. Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. F. J. Cornwell 

Mr. and Mrs. James J Denby 

Mr. John O. Felker 

Mr. and Mrs. Donald C Flinn 

Ms. Bonnie Gates 

Miss Cheryl Gates 

Mr. Robert Gnesbaum 

Mr. and Mrs. Bruce Halliday 

Mr. and Mrs. George L. Hanna 

Mr. Gordon D. Holt (Holt Family) 

Mr. Thomas Janosky 

Dr and Mrs. Robert Karsh 

Ms. Donna M Kinder 

Sister Helen LeDuc 

Ms. Bobbie Mackay 

Ms. Jeanne E. Martin 

Mr. R. V McCreary 

Mr. and Mrs. Wayne Miller 

Mrs. W. E. Moser 

Mr. and Mrs. Chris Mott 

Mr. and Mrs Clifford Pyles 

Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Rabbitt 

Mr and Mrs. Ralph A. Ross 

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Rottler 

Ms Barbara A Rubmelll 

Mr. and Mrs. Steven T. Rufer 

Mr and Mrs William J. Schmidt 

Mr and Mrs. Jack H. Schwarz 

(continued on page 1 1) 


New Members 

(continued from page 10) 

E. M. Schueneman 
Dr. and Mrs. Leon S Shanley 
Dr. and Mrs. C. Shaw 
Mr. Ned Siegel 
Mr. and Mrs. Scott Stanley 
Mr and Mrs. Grant A Sudholt 
Mr. and Mrs. Edgar L. Taylor 
Dr. and Mrs. James Utley 
Dr. and Mrs. James V. Vest 
Mr, and Mrs. Arthur Woodall 
Mr and Mrs. Paul O. Wright 
Mr. and Mrs. Robert G. Zwart 


August & September 1982 

Mrs. Harold M. Baer 

Mr. and Mrs. John Blumenfeld 

Mr. Alvm Burstein 

Mr. and Mrs. Jospeh Floret 

Hortense Katz 

Ruth Planje 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Schiele 

Mr. and Mrs J. Henry Schwelch 

Mr. and Mrs. Malcolm Steiner 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert McN. 

Mr. and Mrs. Robert B. Smith 
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Cook 
Mr. and Mrs. Gerard Faigen 
Mrs. Jane Coultas 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Hopper 
Mrs. Samuel Crasilneck 
Seva Roberts 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Ehlers 
Mr and Mrs. Dale W. Ehlers 
Mr. and Mrs. John Felker 
Mr. and Mrs W. T. Dooley, Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Wm. A. Frank 
Mrs. Stephen Gould 
Mrs. Helen Marie Bruce 
Mrs. Wm. H. Frank 
Mrs. H. W. Hagnauer 
Mrs. lone A. Pilkmgton 
Mrs. Gus Riesmeyer 
Mrs. C. F Spaethe 
Mrs. Dorothy Von Hoffmann 
Mr. David Gutman 
Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Mange 
Mr. Whitney Harris 
Mrs. Henry Freund 
Mrs. Henry Hitchcock 
Mrs. J A. Jacobs 

Mrs. Use Jordan 

Mr. and Mrs Walter J. Heiman 

Mr. and Mrs. Joe Laba 

Mr. and Mrs Leon Bodenheimer 

Mr. Jerome Lane 

Dr. and Mrs Milton Kardesch 

Mr. Ira Lang 

Mrs. Herbert Frank 

Mr. and Mrs. Abe Lewin 

Mrs. Ben H. Sentuna 

Mr. R. E. Lortz 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Hopper 

Joyce Niewoehner 

Seven Pines Garden Club 

Mr. and Mrs. Richard Ostrow 

Myrtle G. Weinrobe 

Ms. Mimi Postol 

Mr. Peter Postol 

Miss Kathryn Amelia Raven 

Executive Board of the Members 

Mrs. William H. Schield 

Mrs. Lucianna Gladney Ross 

Mrs. Jamerson C. McCormack 

Mr. and Mrs. Sydney M. 
Shoenberg, Jr. 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph F. Ruwitch 

Florence G. Stern 

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Henry 

Helen and Jerry Flexner 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Schweich 
Dr. and Mrs. Samuel D. Soule 
Mr and Mrs. Aaron Fischer 
Miss Evelyn Stark 
Use Jordan 
Mr. Hy Stolar 
Dorothy and Hub Moog 
Mr. Don Thebeau 
Country Lane Woods Garden Club 
Mr. Jonas Weiss 
Mr. and Mrs. K. F. Sherman 
Mrs. Ben Wells 
Mrs. Jamerson C. McCormack 


Suzanne Trepp Adler 

Lad and Francis Curley 

Mr. William Akins 

Mr and Mrs. Robert LaMear 

Frank Afdrige 

Betty and Dean Garner 

Donald Alnutt 

Mr. and Mrs Milton Johnson 

Phoebe Anderson 

St. Louis Herb Society 

St. Louis meeting of the 
Religious Society 

Mr. James Barbero 

Mr and Mrs B. R. Yoder 

Mr. Bronson S. Barrows 

Mrs. P. A. Gardner 

Mr. and Mrs. James K Mellow 

Lucille Beall 

Dr. Lynette Beall 

The Brook Family 

Pauline Beil 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Lerman 

Lucille Berry's Mother 

Mrs. June Kravin 

Mr. Carl A. Bischoff, Jr. 

Norma Kissner 

Dean Lowman 

Robert Lowman 

Mrs. Howard Boyntan 

Mrs Leroy Royer 

Mrs. Valarie Bryant 

Mr. and Mrs. Joe R. Blankenship, Jr. 

Mrs. Helen Callahan 

Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Kocot 

Gussie Mohlman 

Mrs. Chester Chapline 

Hazel L. Knapp 

Mr. Edward G. Cherbonnier 

Mr. and Mrs. M. M. Eakins 

Louise Goulding 

Mary Frances Hazelton 

Miss Phyllis McPheeters 

Mrs. Samuel B. McPheeters 

Owen H. Mitchell 

H. B. Sperling and Family 

Mrs. Leo Chrobot 

Mr and Mrs. Gerald A. Koettmg 

Mr. Albert Cohen 

Ben Cohen 

B'nai B'nth Bowling League 

Mrs. Gladys Dawson 

Mr Fred Rock 

Mrs. Grace Dee 

Country Lane Woods Garden Club 

Homer M. Dinzler 

Mr. Ron Glazer 

Mr. Edmond Dreyfus 

Ellen F. Harris 

Barbara Aleen Flynn 

Art and Betty Hegedus 

Mrs. Anna M. Forsing 

Mr. Jim Moore 

Mrs. Flora M. Froehlich 

Mr. and Mrs. Michael Weigert 

Mr. Joseph Gerchen 

Mr. and Mrs. I. B. Rosen 

Mr. Boyd Rogers Goodloe 

Mr. and Mrs. John B. Henkle 

Mrs. Stanley Goodman 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Bakewell 

Dr. and Mrs. Peter H Raven 

Mr. Raymond Grant 

Mr. and Mrs. R. Garrett 

Mr. and Mrs. G. Greenwald 

Mr. and Mrs. A. Notorangelo 

Robert Wilson (Bob) Grier 

Mr. and Mrs Arthur P. Skinner and 

the Skinner Family 
Mrs. Hilbert W. Hagnauer, Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Marion Engler 
Mr. and Mrs. Wm A. Frank 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward Hopper 
Mrs. George H. Hall 
Mr. and Mrs. Jerome C. Allen 
Mr. and Mrs. D. Goodrich Gamble 
Armin F. Hanpeter 
Fred Rock 
Mrs. Joy Harper 
Mr. and Mrs R. D Garner 
Waverly P. Hays 
Mr and Mrs. Milton Johnson 
Mabel Hodson 
Miss Marian Barnholtz 
Miss Beverly Blackburn 
John and Helen Joynt 
Mr and Mrs. Arthur F. Boettcher, Jr. 
Mr. George E. Kassabaum 
Mr. and Mrs. W. R Orthwem. Jr. 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Parker Smith 
Pete Kobzoff 
Phil and Carol Chew 
Mr. Robert H. Koenig 
Mr. and Mrs. W. R Orthwem. Jr. 
Mrs. Phyllis Krueger 
Judy Hutsell 
Anthony S. Kubon 
Ms Carol L. Kubon 
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Smalley. Jr. 
Mrs. W. Landwehr 
Mr. and Mrs. Irvin H. Landwehr 
Mrs. Louise Loveridge 
Edwin Codding 
Barbara Painter 
Claudia C Sarber 
Lucille Smith 

Mr. Eugene C. McCarthy, Sr. 
Mr. and Mrs. Fred Fangmann 
Mrs. Beatrice Marsan 
Ella Tappmeyer 
Elizabeth T. Meisenbach 
Jos. W. Daues 
Forest Haven Association 
Diane Heiss Moore 
Audrey and Bill Smith 
Mr. Walter B. Muckerman 
Mr. and Mrs. James G. Forsyth 
Mrs. P. A Gardner 
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley F. Jackes 
Mrs. James Mullally 
Mr. and Mrs. John Eirten 
Mrs. Vern Nicol 
Patricia R. Williamson 
Mr. William Nolte 
Mr. and Mrs. John Eirten 
Mr. Frank Pelton 
Mrs. Jean-Jacques Carnal 
Mr. and Mrs. W. R. Orthwem. Jr. 
Mr. Wilhow Pokela 
Mr. and Mrs. A. L Guise 
Mrs. Marjorie R. Reimers 
Mr. and Mrs. James M, Henderson 
Mr. and Mrs Robert LaMear 

Mrs. Mary L. Rhoads 

Mr. and Mrs. Si C. Dietz 

Heritage House Garden Club 

Clifford E. Lecoutour 

Mercedes E. Nitzschmann 

Dr and Mrs. Robert H. Rhoads 

Judith Richter 

Mr and Mrs. C. Richard Beard 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W. Hizar 

Mrs. Donald Riffle 

Mrs. Wm. H. Schield 

Don Rishoi 

C J Maurer 

Mr. Leslie E. Robinson 

Mr. Jim Moore 

Mr Fred Rock 

John E. Rodabough 

Elise S. Coleman 

Dorothy V Daniel 

LaSalle Park Homeowners 

Wallace McNeill 

Julia I. Mellor 

Mrs. Valma Rothenberg 

Ms. Ellen F. Harris 

Edward R. Schmidt 

C. J Maurer 

Alois P. Schneiderhahn 

Mrs. Alois P. Schneiderhahn 

Gertrude Schunk 

Mr. and Mrs T. F. Atteberry 

Mr. and Mrs. A. V. Bartelsmeyer 

Miss Nellie M. Browning. 

Pi Chapter, Delta Kappa Gamma 

Mr. and Mrs Alvm Busse 

Mrs Dwight W. Coultas 

Mrs E. W Fitzgerald 

Roberta L. Harris 

Mabel A. McSkimming 

Mr. and Mrs. R. J. Mullen 

Mrs. Richard Mullen 

Lorraine and George Rendleman 

Mabel Schray 

Mildred M. Shortal 

Mr. and Mrs. John C. Smith 

Marjorie E. Stauss 

Marian Bannister Sherrill 

Virginia Culver 

Mrs. Rudolph E. Smyser, Jr. 

Mrs. Cecelia Silverman 

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Croskell 

Janet Slifer 

Bob and Susie Schulte 

Mrs. Margaret Snyder 

Frances and Harry Weier 

Mr. Morris H. Suchart 

Mr and Mrs. James Lane 

Mr. Frederick B. Swarts 

Mr. and Mrs James G. Alfnng 

Mr and Mrs. George C. Bitting 

Mr. and Mrs. Albert Blanke 

Dr. Harold M. Cutler 

Mr, and Mrs. J. M. Rubenstem 

Mr and Mrs. James W. Singer, Jr 

Adolph Tegtmeyer 

Mr and Mrs. Jules D. Campbell 

Mr. Thomson 

Mr. Michael Fournier 

Miss Mary Towle 

Mrs. Raymond E Lange 

Mr. Frederik van Hogendorp 

Dr. and Mrs Thomas A. Woolsey 

Mrs. Audrey Wagner 

Mr. and Mrs Allan C. Shelton 

Mr. Donald L. Watson 

Mr. and Mrs Arthur Haack 

Mrs. Kramer J. Weissenborn 

Mr, and Mrs. Robert L, Blanke. Jr. 

Father of Ms. Caren Lorelle 

Mr. and Mrs. Lester Goldman and Ken 

Father of Mrs. Richard Wyman 

Mr. and Mrs. Stephen H. Loeb 

Mr. Frank H. Schwaiger 

Mrs. Frank H Schwaiger 


Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers 

comme le pan de mur jaune que peignit avec tant de 
science et de raffinement un artiste a jamais inconnu, 
a peine identifie . . . 

On a ground of pale gold water of watered silk 
The painter of a thousand years ago 
Angled his wrist so rapidly and right 
The hairs of the brush bent in obedience 
To do the swerve and diagonal of these fish 
Swimming in space, in water, on watered silk, 
And stippled in the detail of their scales, 
The pale transparency of tail and fin, 
And dotted at the brush's very tip 
The petals falling and the petals fallen, 
And scattered a few lotus and lily pads 
Across the surface of the watered silk 
Whose weave obedient took all this in, 
The surface petal-flat, the fish beneath 
The golden water of the watered silk, 

So that a thousand years of the world away 

On this millennially distant shore of time 

The visitor to the museum may stare 

Bemused down through the glass hermetic seal 

At the silken scroll still only half unrolled 

Past centuries invisible as air 

To where the timeless, ageless fish still swim, 

And read the typescript on the card beside 

That says "Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers" 

A thousand years ago, and seeing agree 

That carp have always swum, and always will, 

In just that way, with just that lightning sweep 

Of eye, wrist, brush across the yielding silk 

Stretched tight with surface tension as the pool 

Of pale gold water, pale gold watered silk. 

—Howard Nemerov 

Howard Nemerov, a member of the faculty of Washington University, has 
received both the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award for his Col- 
lected Poems. 


"" F ~ 


(The picture, in the St. Louis Art Museum, is attributed to the Northern Sung 
painter Liu Ts'ai. Proust's painter of the pan de mur jaune was, of course, 

Readers interested to check out Liu Ts'ai's version against current carp 
going about their business will do well to look down from the bridge over the 
lake at the Japanese Garden called Sei-wa En at Shaw's Garden, St. Louis. 
Between life and art there are differences, but only the ones you would 
expect; ink is thicker than water, not by much. —H.N. 

The painting, Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers, is one 
of more than 100 works currently featured in Treasures from 
the East: Asian Art from the Collection which continues at The 
Saint Louis Art Museum until November 14. For information, 
call the Museum at 721-0067. 

Asian art with a slightly different emphasis is currently dis- 
played at the Missouri Botanical Garden. Chinese Botanical 
Art, in the Old Gate Building, continues through December 
31. Further information about this exhibit is found on page 7 
in this Bulletin. 


RO. Box 299 

Saint Louis, Missouri 63166