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J v, 4 (Ornamental' }Jlant$; 






BOTANIST; 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS; 



CONDUCTED BY B. M^JJND, F. L. 5 
THE REV.J.S.HENSLOW, M.A. F.L.S 



Mo. Bot- Garden, 

1806. 



This is not the age in which it is necessary to offer a laboured defence in favour 
of any particular branch of Natural Science, much less to point out the pecu- 
liar claims which the Study of Botany possesses on general attention. If one 
source of human happiness may be clearly allowed to flow from the proper em- 
ployment of our time, then has Paley rightly observed, that "Any engagement 



ns, there is a natural charm 
tot fail to excercise a salu- 

where more clearly to be understood than in the many testimonies of power 
and wisdom shown us by the great Creator in the exquisite symmetry and mani- 
fest design exhibited in the organic structures of different plants; and few 
who employ their leisure in the delightful recreation which the culture of 
flowers affords, can fail of experiencing the effects which a more intimate ac- 
quaintance with the works of God are calculated to produce upon the minds of 

naturally flows from these sources, it may always be greatly enhanced by the 
superaddition of some portion of scientific acquirement. However pleasing to 
the eye the curious Bfc In >uring of a flower may be,we can 

feel nothing of that still higher interest which flows from the possession (how- 
ever imperfect) of some degree of knowledge respecting the relation which each 

wisdom alone could so have contrived such endless diversity of form, and strange 
complexity of structure, that all should, nevertheless, be referable to a few gen- 
eral types, still further connected by certain simple laws regulating the arrange- 
ment of the subordinate parts according to fixed principles. 



If together with a knowledge of the general structure of plants, and the me- 
thod of grouping them systematically, the cultivator will combine some degree 
of information respecting their physiological condition, a force and meaning will 
be given to the most trifling operations of horticulture, far beyond anything 
which an empirical rule, the result of practice and experience, can possibly sup- 
ply. He may then connect a series of well-directed experiment or observation 
with the commonest routine of garden culture, and may soon lay up a store of 
facts calculated to establish or refute many of the uncertain points in vegetable 
physiology. It is true that greater care and diligence are necessary for con- 
ducting most experiments than Florists are generally inclined to bestow, but 
even without entertaining any such object, a knowledge of those laws of vegeta- 



We 


willvcj 


lture yet further, and attem 


pt to uphold another important claim 


which 


i our favourite pursuit po se se up 


on the general attention. To a mind 


impressed wk 


h the belief in the infinite 


wisdom and goodness of the Creator, 


Bolar 


>• «n»r«l 


s a perpetual source of the * 


-ery highest description of mental gra- 


tiiical 




i he n. .er ending proofs it 


unfolds of an all-pervading intelli- 


tfciu-t.— in the miiuberks. 


>rds of those marvellous contrivances 


bywli 




ins are palpably employed 


to secure an end— in the striking in- 




.•sitcxlr 


ibits of that universal harmony which prevails between the works 


,,r Q*> 


*> wri i 


>f the mutual dependance it 


i which one part of the Creation sub- 


sists V 


rith ivs. 


»ect to another. These claims have long been acknowledged, and 






excellent John Ray, the fat 




in his 


work 


ii the Creation, has offered 


convincing arguments in support of 


them. 


demcd 


from (he resources at his eo 


mmand more than two hundred years 


ago, 


Since 1 


lis day our science has assui 


ned a new garb— almost innumerable 


treasu 


res hav< 


i been pouring iu upon us 


from every quarter of the globe, and 


phjrt 


.logical, 


geographical, 


»tany are departments of very recent 


birth. 


If he 


then could derive argumei 


its in favour of Divine Wisdom and 


Good, 


less, f r( „ 


a a contemplation of materials in his pos- 


sessio, 


| at the 


period when he was rnnnin 


ig his earthly career of humility and 


useful: 




ought not to be backward i 


n avowing and proclaiming thesame 


lcsM.n, 


,wita oi 


ir improved demonstration , 


of its truth, now that so much deeper 


iUMgh 


t has he, 


. ■ Lhe general 


1 scheme of nature. 



idition of the public mind. 1 1 vas no work which 

jcisely combined a-,, isional appeal to 

; imagination, and to the moral and religious feelings. The manner in 

enomena as the plant under description seemed naturally to force upon the 

the contrivance,as th . oftlier. -uls obtained 1>\ 

instrumentality. In the arts of life we give credit to the mechanic in pro- 
rtion as he constructs a machine which performs its work with accuracy and 
vision; and so as we extend our knowledge of the various functions of vege- 



of Natural History in their writings. There are other Botanical periodicals of 
long established reputation, conducted by individuals of the highest scientific 
merit as Botanists, but their pages are devoted, almost exclusively, to systema- 

tions. There are other works professing the same object, but of inferior ^repu- 
tation, and to which we are unwilling to refer in terms of dispraise. The posi- 
tion in which we have endeavoured to place the Botanist with respect to other 
periodicals of the si ich it is presumed that it cannot be 

tion of the plates and the beauty of their colouring, we will venture to assert 
that the Botanist will stand advantageously in comparison with any work now 
before the public. We hope too that our scientific descriptions will not be found 
less accurate and valuable for the use of the proficient Botanist, than those in 
works of an exclusively scientific character, at the same time as such descrip- 
tions are made expli the merely English reader. We 
have also endeavoured so to classify our miscellaneous information as to give 
to it uniformity of arrangement and facility of reference. Further, we claim 
for ourselves the pei -cientific reader by 

whereby some of the prominent features of both the natural and artificial sys- 
tems are continually kept und< r tin iyc < i the iva I. r, and will be rendered fa- 
miliar to him without application for that particular purpose. The Guide or 



eral Introduction to the Science of Botany, and the Dictionary 
e Treatises apart from the body of the work, and we trust they x 
i in no inconsiderable degree to its general usefulness. 



i most distinguished public and private botanical establishments in Great 
itain. - It would have been more agreeable to him to have given expression 
tus feelings by enumerating the many instances in which he has been obliged, 
t to mention all would have been tedious, and to make any selection invidi- 
s. The pages of the Botanist have already borne testimony to some of the 
Suable assistance which has been supplied; and he would add, in conclusion 
it he is deeply sensil r ka of favour have increased the 



TO THE FIRST VOLUME 



THE BOTANIST. 



English Na 
..Pubescent Acacia, 

.TrifidBirthwort,.. 
. Sweet-fruited Berb 



Cactus speciosus, ...... Showy brick-red Cactus, 1 

Ceanothus collinus, Ceanothus of the hills, 1 

Calochortus venustus, Graceful Calochortus, 3' 

Clianthus puniceus, Crimson Clianthus, or Glory Pea, 4 

Crinum Capense, Cape of Good Hope Crinum, 3 

rno-purpureus, Purple Laburnum, 

Delphinium tenuissimum, .... Most slender Delphinium, 3 

Dendrobium moschatum, Musk-scented Dendrobium, 3 

Dendrobium pulchellum, Showy Dendrobium, 

Dianthus ferrugineus, Rusty Pink, 2 

Enkianthus reticulatus, Netted Enkianthus, 

Eriostemon cuspidatus, Pointed-leaved Eriostemon, 

Galphimia glauca, Glaucous-leaved Galphimia, . . . . 1 

Gesnera lateritia, Brick-coloured Gesnera, 3 

Gardoquia multiflora, Many-flowered Gardoquia, 

Gilia coronopifolia Raven-footed Gilia, 3 

Hibiscus roseus, Rose-coloured flowered Hibiscus, 1 

Hovea Celsi, Cels's Hovea, 4 



Ipomsea Horsfallia?, 


Mrs Horsfallsl 


' 


Leontice chrysogonum,. . . 
Lilium speciosum, 


Golden-kneed Lion's Leaf, . . . . 


.,50 


Lophospermum scandens,. 




r 








Mentzelia stipitata, 




..11 


Mimulus Cardinalis, 




„ 








Oncidium papilio, 


Crisped-flowered Oncidium, 


..26 


Oxalis Bowiei, 






Philibertia gracilis, 






Phlox Drummondii, 






Polygala speciosa, 






Rhexia Mariana, 






Ribes speciosum, 
















, -1 




Tree-like Statice, 


..17 


Symphoricarpos montanus 


;, . . . .Mountain St. Peter's Wort 


"-0 


Tecoma australis, 


Southern Tecoma, 


g 



THE DICTIONARY, 



EXPLANATION 



NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL DIVISIONS. 



FLOWERING Plants are grouped naturally into two great Classes, 
the Dicotyledones or Exogenae, and the Monocotyledones or Endo- 
ucna . (whicli terms are often anglicised into Dicotyledons or Exogens, 
and Monocotyledons or Endogens;) and after a little practice, almost 
every species may be very readily referred to its proper Class, with- 
out the necessity of recurring to any of those minute but most impor- 
tant characters by which it U |)iiii.,nil\ ili-'uitniished. Notwithstanding 
the great diss - sts between such prominent organs 

as the stems, leaves, and flowers of plants in the same class, we may 
almost always detect some peculiarity or other in the structure of each 
of them, which alone is sufficient to indicate the class to which the 
plant belongs. There an certainly a few anomalous cases which will 
sometimes puzzle even the experienced botanist, but generally speak- 
ing it requires very little practice to enable any one to pronounce at a 
iiagle glance, to which of these two classes every flowering plant belongs. 
The first cuts, figures 1 and 2, by which we illustrate one of /£|g\ 
the important distinctions between these two great classes, i 

in such as are woody. One class has been termed "Exogenae," jBk 
(?£w exo, outside, ytwaw gennao, to beget) because the stems of BB 
the woody species are increased by an annual deposition of new «**. 
wood on the outside of that which was previously formed. At first they 
•consist only of a central column of pith, composed of cellular tissue, 
(which is made up entirely of little membranous bladders, forming in- 
numerable cells) and surrounded by a cylinder of vascular tissue (which 
consists of delicate tubes or vessels) and this cylinder is termed the 
medullary sheath; and this again is invested by a thin membranous skin 
or epidermis. Fresh tissue, (composed of cells and vessels,) is gradually 
developed between the medullary sheath and epidermis, one part of 



, lying immediately below the epidermis, forms a layer of 
bark. Every year a fresh development of tissue takes place between 
the layer of wood and the layer of bark formed the previous year, thus 
adding an additional layer to each of these parts, that to the wood be- 
ing on its outside, whilst that to the bark is on its inside. The old lay- 
ers of bark are necessarily thrust outwards, crack, and decay. Besides 
this arrangement of the woody parts of the stem into concentric zones, 
there are plates of cellular tissue placed vertically, and extending from 
the centre to the circumference, which in a transverse section appear 
like rays, and form what is termed by artizans the " silver-grain." The 
stems of Exogena? therefore may be recognized by one or other of the 
following characteristics : 1, A distinct cellular pith, surrounded by 
its vascular medullary sheath; 2, Concentric layers of wood, form- 
ed of both cellular and vascular tissues; 3, Medullary rays of cel- 
lular tissue; 4, A distinct bark of cellular and vascular tissue. 

Although all these characteristics are not necessarily combined in 
every Exogenous stem, they are all wanting in those of the second 
class, or « Endogeme." The latter consist of a homogeneous mass of 
cellular tissue closely resembling the pith of an Exogenous stem, but 
then the vascular bundles are dispersed longitudinally throughout it, and 
not collected into a medullary sheath. These bundles of vessels run up 
the stem, and then curve towards the outside and enter the leaves. As 
the stem elongates fresh bundles are formed towards the outside, which 
intersecting the others rise into the leaves of the terminal bud; but the 

formed. There is no true bark, but the stems are invested by the rugged 
bases of the fallen leaves. The interior continues soft, whilst the exte- 
rior condenses and hardens by the continued addition of new bundles of 
vessels. It was formerly supposed that the new matter always origi- 
nated towards the centre, and these stems were considered to grow in 
a manner somewhat the reverse of those of the Exogenae, from whence 
they obtained the name of Endogenous (?^ v endon, inwards, ytwao, 
gennao, to beget.) These stems then are recognised by the want of 
the several parts found in Exogenous species, and by the dispersion of 
(he vascular bundles throughout their whole substance : figure 2. There 
are no trees of this class in temperate climates, but a good example of 



their structure may be seen in a piece of cane, and even the herbage of 
Grasses, Asparagus, Ruscus, &c. i* suHk-irntk d»-\ eloped to exhibit the 
same appearance. 

Our next cuts, figures 3 and 4, exhibit certain peculiarities in hsssh 
the "venation" or "nervation" of the leaves. It has been re- pgpH 
marked that the great majority of Exogense have the veins *fr™ 
of their leaves distributed in a particular manner, whilst those mmm 
of Endogenae are differently arranged. The probable cause Hi 
of this discrepancy is ascribed by De Candolle to the more fre- F i g .4. 
quent absence of a true limb in the leaves of Endogeme than in those 
of Exogenae. A complete leaf consists of two parts; 1st, The petiole 
or footstalk, commonly called the tail; and 2nd, the limb, or flat ex- 
panded portion. The veins in the petiole consist of bundles of vessels 
which run parallel to each other, and are more or less united into one 
mass; but when they reach the limb they diverge in various ways, sub- 
dividing as they proceed, and branching off at acute angles into smal- 
ler and smaller threads which give the limb a reticulated or net-like ap- 
pearance, as figure 3. In certain cases the limb is not developed, and 
then the petiole is frequently flattened out and becomes limb-like, ex- 
cepting that the nerves do not branch, but either continue parallel when 
the form of the pcii middle and converge 

towards the apex and base, when it is more or less oval. There are 
certain plants whose leaves are of two kinds, some of them being com- 
posed of a petiole and limb, and the rest consisting of a petiole only ; 

marked. De Candolle therefore supposes that in other cases, where 
the venation of a leaf resembles that of these expanded petioles, we 

which it would be difficult to allow such a conclusion, but in most others 
the inference is probably correct. But whether the reason assigned for 
these differences be the true one or not, we find the great mass of Ex- 
ogena: have their leaves reticulated with veins, as in figure 3, whilst 
those of the Endogenae are seldom branched, but are disposed as in 
figure 4. 

Besides these characteristics derived from the stems and leaves, (two 
of the nutritive organs) there are others of equal or even greater gen- 



erality observable in the reproductive organs, the flower and fruit. 
The seeds of Exogenae have a structure' which may be illustrated by 
the Bean, Lupine, Radish, &c. Upon removing the outer coats of the 
seed we find the Embryo or young plant, composed of two fleshy lobes 
attached to a conical mass, which latter elongates and becomes ^ /7\ 
the root. These lobes, figure 5, are termed cotyledons, and in >wjl) 
some plants, as the Pea, they remain underground during the F i^s. 
s,as the Lupine and Radish, tin \ 
i green tinge, and more or less resemble 
true leaves. They are in fact the seminal leaves of the embryo, des- 
tined to afford it nourishment in the earliest stages of its development. 
These cotyledons are sometimes subdivided into two parts, so that we 
occasionally find three or four in plants which generally have only two, 
and this shews us the intimate connexion between these exogenous 
species and those of the fir tribe (Coniferae) which have several coty- 
ledons forming a whorl round the stem: figure 6. The term , / , . 
Dicotyledones (from J* twice, sorrow KotYiEnoN.a seed-lobe) ^/ ' 
has been also given to the Class Exogenae, because the great ma- n,, 6. 
jority of its species have two cotyledons to their embryo; and though, 
as we have stated, there are a few cases where the cotyledons are more 
than two, yet in these they are always ranged round the stem in the 
same horizontal plane, and are not placed one above another. 

A singular exception to'the Dicotyledonous structure of an Exogen- 
ous plant occurs in the genus Cuscuta whose embryos have no cotyle- 
dons; but as the leaves of these plants are always abortive, and there 
are scarcely any traces of them left, it is reasonable to consider their 
cotyledons also to be abortive rather than to suppose them essentially 

In the seeds of Endogen* there is but one cotyledon, which in A 
germination grows in the form of a fleshy cone, and then (figure (T 
and expand o*u> ™rt,;r, *k* 3?Z 
t different heights along I 
fin tire "\ Hence i 
alone, kotoXi^ov k 

Class. The embryo is frequently v 
itinguishable before germination 



ouwciKHuu aim expand one within the r'lr. 
to along the stem, as in the Grasses, \/ 
me of Monocotyledones, (pov„ c monos, ^ 
on, a seed-lobe) has been given to this rlfs. 






DENDRO'BIUM PULCHEL'LUM. 

*" SHOWY DENDROBIUM. 

@-I i::=::i ["'? 

NATURAL ORDER, RUTACE.E. 




c Character c 

or spreading, the lateral ones largest, oblique, adhering to the elonga- 
ted base, of the column. Petals generally larger, but sometimes 
smaller than the upper sepal, always membranaceous. Lip artic- 
ulated or united with the base of the column, always sessile, undivi- 
ded or three-lobed, generally membranaceous, sometimes furnished 
with an appendix. Column semi-cylindrical, greatly prolonged at 
the base. Anther two-celled. Pollen masses four, placed side by 

about 1 foot or H feet long, round, pendulous. Leaves oblong-lan- 
ceolate, somewhat plaited, veins parallel ; racemes lateral, straight, 
many flowered. Bracts short, ovate, obtuse. Sepals ovate acumi- 
nate somewhat ribbed, of a pale pink or whitish colour. Petals ob- 
long, obtuse, thinner ;> <l l>n>ad..;i than the sepals. Labellum or lip 
furnished with a claw, formed like a shell, obtuse, shorter than the 
petals, with many ciiiaB or hairs at the margin. The petals somewhat 
pink or rosy, the labellum purple at the margin with a deep orange- 
coloured centre. 

Reference to the Dissections. 



Popular and Geographical Notice. Many orcbideouj f 

are among the wonders of tropical vegetation, growing attached t 
branches of trees, yet not as true parasites which de tl i 
ment from the tree on which they grow, for they live eniirely I. 
-lure from the humid atmosphere by which they are : 
sui n It 1 and are properly termed Epiphytes. This species, 



re grown, Culture. It was introduced into 
this country about the year 1*-J!>, h\ tl; ■ Horticultural Society of Lon- 
don, and is a native of the wide-spread woods of Sylhet, in the East 
Indies, flowering genially in May and June. The specimen from 
which our drawing was made, flowered in April, 1836, in the splen- 
did stove for Orchideous plants of the M. -m». I. >dde_es, Il;u kney ; 
where it grov ■rk of dead hrauches, suspended 

h\ wire, from the roof, in a very humid and warm atmosphere. In an 
instructive memoh on the cultivation of Epiphytes of the Orchis Tribe 
by Dr. Lindley, in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society, vol. 
I, of New Series, p. A:2, - which attended the 

early attempts t . cstas i'.di these dug dai plants as in! d>i hints of our 
stoves, he proceeds to observe "By degrees, however, we discovered 
better means pi", red inm-i- preci-e information 

upon the sad ,>i growth, the suhstance of all 

win. li may he said to amount to this, that a well-drained soil, shade, a 
very high temperature, and an atmosphere nearly saturated with hu- 
midity are the conditions that are re.pdO..- to in-mc lis- it siicces-lui 
cultivation, and that soil itself is of little importance to them; we have 
used common mould, lime rubbish, gravel, decayed vegetable matter, 
and moss, and ad with espial success, prow.led she drainage was effect- 
ual and we have found all these equally useless when the drainage was 
not atte ah. I to; a circumstance which is no doubt due to the succu- 
lent nature of the plants, and to the very imperfect means that most of 
them possess of parting with supeifluous moisture, in consequence of 
the compart 1 1 of the minute size or 



GARDO'QUIA MULTIFLO RA. 

MANY-FLOWERED GARDOQUIA. 

Pi {.:sk}^-^ 

No. 6. 
Gardoqvia. Ruiz, and Pawn. Calyx tubulosus, 13 (vel nunc 



ved (in this instance often with 1 ■'> nmrs) sli-htly incurved, with the 
mouth either equal or oblique, and short teeth either equal or some- 
what two-lipped. The tube of the Corolla exserted far beyond (lie 
Calyx, straight or incurved, naked within, (in this case slightly hairy, 
within the throat, and again in the hotioni of the iuhe) the limb 2-lip- 
ped, the upper one erect, nearly straight, emarginate; the inferior 
somewhat spread; be middle one the widest, (in 

this species the 3 lobes are equal.) S iami:\s 4, more or less didyna- 
mous, the inferior | id incliamg out- 

ward, the superior pair sometimes sterile. Filaments toothless. 
Anthers 2-celled, the cells distinct, either parallel or more or less 
diverging. The lobes of the sty ie nearly emial. A chenia dry, smooth. 



obscurely crenate with the base rounded, darker green above than 
beneath; the floral leaves like the re I "d nearly 

secund, the stalked cymes scarcely dichotomous, the teeth of the 
smoothish calyx acute, its throat void of hair. The corolla more than 
three times the length of the calyx. 

Description of the cultivated Plant. A deciduous Shrub, 
rather more than a foot high, with the herbage slightly harsh to 
the touch. At first glance its habit i> wry much that of a Fuschia. 
Branches at first tetragonous, very slightly tomentose, ultimately 
round and quite smooth, scarcely woody. Leaves with petioles the 
quarter of an up inch long, ovate to ovate-oblong, 

somewhat obtuse, obscurely crenate, with the margin roughish. The 
upper surface rather darker than the lower, where the veins are pro- 
minent and often, as well as- the petiole, tinged purplish. The under 
surface covered with very minute punctures in each of which is seated 
a globubu sinning gland. The bruised leaves emit a fragrant odour 
somewhat resembling that from the Aloysia citrodora. Inflorescence 
in single cymes, from the axils of the upper leaves, with their peduncles 
a little longer than the petioles, dichotomously subdivided into three 
or five pedicels, on each of which is a minute linear -lanceolate bract. 
Flowers mostly secund. Calyx sn of an inch 

long, tubular, very slightly incurved but a little more arched above 
than below. Mouth son* ipped, the upper lip with 

3 and the lower with 2 small acute teeth which under a lens appear 
somewhat ciliate. The 5 carinal ribs most strongly marked, the 10 
sutural ones also very distinct, those between the uppermost and 2 con- 
tiguous sepals occasionally confluent thus reducing the number to 13. 
Purplish with the veins green, dotted with minute glands similar to 
those on the leaves. Interior quite smooth and free from hair. Cor- 
olla more than an inch in length, delicate purplish-red, slightly to- 
mentose externally, curved downwards before it expands, but becoming 
straight on flowering. The tube gradually dilating to the throat which 
is a little swollen. The limb bilabiate; the upper lip linear-oblong 
emarginate, somewhat ascending and reflexed at the edges; the lower 
lip subpatfiit with ;» f^ual oblmm' lubes, the middle lobe concave and 
a little inflexed, with the margin minutely erose, the lateral lobes 
spreading; a row of small scattered hairs extends from each side of the 
middle lobe in the lower lip to the bottom of the throat, and others 
- ! th. the bottom of the tube. Stamina, inserted at the base of the 
throat, the longest pair on the inferior side somewhat longer than the 



corolla, the shortest pair from the upper side exserted beyond the 
mouth. At 6rs1 t!:. . lately become 

straight with a tendency to diverge. Filaments !;!>; >nii, purpli^l!, 
jointed to a thickened connective, upon tbe suiumil ot which the two 
lobes of the anthers are adnate, distj om the apex 

at a very obtuse angle, so as \> ; line bluish- 

purple, longitudinally dehiscent, and containing white spherical pol- 
len. Style filiform with a bifid summit, the lobes somewhat unequal , 
purplish, as long as the shorter stamens. Ovary with 4 distinct cy- 
lindric-ovate lobes seated on a thick glandular base, which secretes a 
drop of saccharine fluid. 

J. S. HsysLoir. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Twenty two species of this 
Genus are described in Mr. Bentham's excellent Monograph of the La- 
biate, but not more than two of these have hitherto been recorded as 
under culture in this country viz. Gardoquia Hookeri, and (i. f;il!iesii, 
the former of which has been figured by Sir W.J. Hooker, in Ms Exotic 
Flora, vol. 3, p. 163, under the name of Cunila coccinea. In both 
these species the leaves are entire, but in the present case they are some- 
whatcrenate. This species may be considered an i!ite;e>iiiig addition 
to our horticultural stores, both on account of the beauty of its flower 
and the fragrance of its herbage. This fragrance undoubtedly arises 
from an aromatic volatile oil, secreted by the minute glands which are 
so copiously scattered over the whole herbage. The order Labiate are 
em ne I 1 r icterized by many delightfully fragrant species, of which 
Lavender, Thyme, and Rosemary, are familiar examples. The odour 
of some others is very powerful, but far from agreeable. The general 
properties of the order may be considered tonic, cordial, and stomachic ; 
and in older times when every plant that grew was supposed to possess 
some peculiar virtue, many species of this order being really valuable 
were preeminently extolled for their medicinal qualities. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The present plant was 
raised in the Cambridge Botanic Garden in 1835, from seeds from Val- 
divia, presented by the late Rev. G. R. Leathes,and which Mr. Biggs 
believes he received from Mr. Bridges. It seems to be of easy culture, 
and may be readily propagated by cuttings. It has hitherto been in a 
pot of rich loam with a little peat. It flowers in the beginning of autumn 
and probably if turned early into the open border its beauty would be 
greatly i ncreased. The whole genus are natives of the W. Coast of S. 



America, within the latitudes of Chili; for although Dr. Hooker has 
described Cardoquia Hookeri as having been brought by Mr. Ware 
from Florida to Philadelphia, it seems most likely that this is an error, 
as Prof. Don has already observed in Sweet's Flower Garden, v. 2, p. 
271. They are all shrubs or undershrubs with handsome flowers. 

Gardoquia. In honour of D. Diego Gardoqui, minister of Finance under 

Charles IV. Khvj, of Si ain, a In- ■ ■. „l B »tanv ; and Multiflora, many flowered, 



.. :'5!'is, \vlin quotes tlie two t'«l 
riFl. Per. & Chil. ined. 4, t. 495, 
.(male) I)i. [.indleyhasoblig- 
it plant with autl 



CYTISUS LABUR'NO-PURPU'REUS. 

PURPLE LABURNUM. 

@-1ii:h::}^---^ 






i heel. Standard 
ite large. Kebi and pistillum. 

amejSS monadelphous. Pod flat-compressed, many-seeded, with- 
glands. 


nt which is a hybrid belwrei 
ens, partakes of the characte 


Cytisus Laburno-purpcjreis. This 
i Cytisus Laburnum and Csii>us pu- 
rs of both. It forms a large shrub or 

■ ■ _ . 



lated, petiolated, petioles swollen at the base, forming the 
leaf consisting of three leaflets, shortly petiolated, articulate 
tral leaflet larger than the lateral ones, elliptico-obovate, i 
upper surface shining, under pubescent, or nearly glabrous, racemes of 
flowers simple, or about 8-10 inches 

long. Pedicels and Calyx either quite smooth or clothed w ith close- 
ly adpressed pubescence. Corolla papilionaceous. Petals 5, stand- 
ard large emarginate, with two auricles towards the base. Keel very 



Popular and Geographical Notice. The genus Cytisus closely 
borders upon Genista. In Cytisus the calyx has the upper lip near- 
ly entire, while in Genista it is divided ; in Cytisus the standard is 
large and ovate, in Genista oblong or oval ; in Cytisus the stamens and 
pistil are completely enclosed in the keel, in Genista imperfectly so. 
The leaves in all the species of Cytisus are ternate, in most Genista? 
they are simple. It appears, that the flowers of this variety are liable 
to change, not only to those of Cytisus Laburnum but also to those of 
Cytisus purpureas. An ' to have happened in 

the Jardin des Plantes, at Paris; see Gardener's Magazine, Vol. 12. 
Similar changes have occurred in other places; and it is further 
observed, (page 369) that "Some of the blossoms produced by this 
hybrid mine Horticultural Society's Garden were this year completely, 
and others partially, yellow." These facts are of great importance 
to the vegetable physiologist, as they tend to throw light upon the 
hitherto re thy. At present, nei- 

ther Botanists or Zoologists are able to give a satisfactory account 
of what a species realy is, or to tell us within what limits it may 
vary ; and nothing is so likely to lead us to a knowledge of those 
laws, by which the great Author oi \ i:ur. ! as lv^u a ted and re- 
stricted the reen certain 
typical forms, as experiments carefully made, and the results ac- 
curately recorded, of the circumstances which attend the produc- 
tion and cultivation of hybrid plants. The seeds of Cytisus Labur- 
num contain a vegetable principle, railed ( vn-^v v.l.ich is poison- 
ous: which it will probably be found to exist in the seeds of this plant. 
Introduction; where grown; Culture. Tin- hybrid originated 
near Paris, about tb ; ...-laud in 

plant obligingly sent us by J. C. Kent,Esq. of Levant Lodge, Upton-on- 
Severn. Theewere produced from a bud of the hybrid variety, \<.hich 
had been worked on a stock of the common Laburnum only two years 
previously. It has the air of Laburnum, but is said to be more lux- 
uriant in its growth, and to make straight shoots of 6 to 9 feet long in 

Derivation of the Names. 

Cytisus is -ail ?,. I., ,1,-rhul fr-m C\thnr.*...n. of the kI.iu.1s of the Cyclades, 
whew :i rhieh are mentioned by Hip- 

l>.< rates, Theophmstus mid Dioscorides. Laburnum is stated by Haller to be 
a latinized form of the alpine name L'Aubours. 



^f/ 




IS 



TECOMA AUSTRA'LIS. 

SOUTHERN TECOMA. 




<ior 3B Holland!^. Vol. 1, ] 


p. 471. 


SPECIES. Tecoma a 
cis, adultis integris. Cai 


istralis. Foliis pinnatis glabris: 
'sulis oblongis. Cacle volubili. 3 



Character of the Genus, Tecoma. Calyx 5-toothed. Corol- 
la subcampanulate, mouth 5-lobed, unequal. Stamens 4, didyna- 
mous, the filament of the fifth sterile, shorter than the rest. The dis- 
sepiment of the capsule contrary to the valves. 

Description of the Species, Tecoma australis. Root fibrous. 
Stem about the thickness of the finger, climbing, cylindrical, knotty, 
branched; branches axillary, opposite, of a brown colour. Leaves pro- 
ceeding from the nodi of the stem and the branches opposite, petiola- 
ted, unequally pinnated, smooth, shining, of a deep green above, paler 
below. Leaflets two or four on each side of the rachis, their petioles 
swollen and articulated at their base. Flowers in axillary and termi- 
nal compound racemes drooping. Peduncles opposite, articulated, 
bracteated, generally divided and many-flowered. Bracts three or four, 
arranged circularly around the base of the peduncles and pedicels, 
straight lanceolate, acute, very short, falling very quickly. Calyx 
very short, campanulate, smooth, 5-lobed, the lobes oval, obtuse, with 
an obscure point. Corolla monopetalous, hypogynous, tubular, irre- 
gular. Tube swollen, slightly curved, smooth without, hairy within, 
four times as long as the calyx. Limb open, two-lipped, upper lip two- 
Iobed, inferior, longer, three-lobed, lobes curved at the margin. Sta- 
mens included in the tube; four fertile, the fifth abortive, very short. 
Ovary oval, smooth, green. Fruit a capsule, elliptico-oblong. 

Hi. i 



Popular and Geographical Notice. The species of this Genus, 
although few, are widely distributed. Some are natives of various 
parts of North and South America, and the West Indies; others of 
China and the Cape of Good Hope, whilst our present plant is a native 
of New South Wales. It should be remembered that the highly orna- 
s (which is figured under No. 123, 
; Garden) is now considered as belonging to Tecoma. 
In the above description the nature of the fifth stamen is pointed, 
out, as being abortive, i. e. destitute of the anther, the most essential 
part, or that which prepares the pollen or fertilizing principle. In 
this state therefore it is useless, as far as any direct share which it 
could have in the function of reproduction, but it is far from useless in 
shewing us that in the works of nature, there are no abrupt or sudden 
tniiMiinns; for as 5 is the normal number of the parts of the flower 
in many and perhaps all exogenous plants, so before we pass to such 
cases as Labiate plants, (of which the Gardoquia multiflora in the pre- 
sent number may be taken as an example) in which generally, four" per- 
fect stamens only are found: we perceive in the Bignoniaceae, and some 
Scrophulariaces, this abortive stamen more perfectly, but yet insuffici- 
ently developed, by which the transition from 5 to 4 is rendered^more 
gradual. f 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This species was in- 
troduced from New South Wales, in 1792. The plant from which 
this representation was taken flowered in May, 1836, in the beautiful 
Conservatory of W. Leaf, Esq. of Park-Hill, Streatham Common. In 
habit it is a climbing shrub, producing numerous groups of very hand- 
some flowers. It thrives best in a light sandy soil, but will succeed 
in any. Young cuttings root readily, when taken off at a joint, and 
planted under a bell-glass, in a pot of sand, plunged in a gentle heat- 



s's Botanical Repository, 86. 
t Plantes de M : 
1 Magazine, 865. 



ANEMO'NE VITIFO'LIA. 

"vine-leaved anemone. 



NATURAL ORDER, 



I3C1 <^-^ 

JTJLACEJE. 

) * * ss 



mis cauleque adpresse lanuginosis, radical.! 

; 

glabris ; caryopsidibus pedicellatis, muticis, densissim^ lanuginosis. Wallich. 
Character of the Genus, Anemone. Involucre three-leaved dis- 
tant from the flower, its leaflets cut or incised. Calyx petaloid, the 
sepals varying in number from 5 to 15. Petals absent. 

Description of the Species, Anemone vitifolia. Plant erect, 
from two to three tret hi-li, suilruticose below, herbaceous above, spar- 
ingly branched ; while young, clothed with a white c!,m 1> udpiv^-d 
pubescence, less so as it grows older. Root per]., ndicular. mu.Uim- 
form. Stem round, twice or thrice almost dichotomously divided, 
branched. Branches erect, elongated. Radical leaves numerous, 
erect, petioles long, lamina about the size of the palm of the hand or- 
biculari-cordate, 5-7 lobed, lobes unequal, acute or obtuse, incised or 
toothed, rounded at the base, comment, Upper smi.ee shi 
smooth, very deep green, under surface covered with a snowy down. 
Nerves numerous, prominent, and reticulated. Stem-leaves some- 
what whorled, and i,i\..ln. .. -I.ki , ^.,i a-bi u. shortly petiolate or sub- 
sessile, unequal, about ■> inches Ion-, 3-5 lobed, Lobes ovate, subac- 
cuminate. Petioles channeled, dilated at the base, amplexicaui. 
Peduncles terminal, ereet.es i,:; tiuee, some- 

times more, of which some are trifid at the middle, furnished with an 
involucellum, three-flowered, the others one-flowered, 3-5 inches long, 
those which bear the perfect seeds being the longest. The mvolucel- 
lum of leaflets about an inch long, which are subsessile, three-cleft and 
serrated. Flowers large, opening wide, nearly two inches across, 
*hiteorfaim: \fennil -urlaee .-h.thed with a mIIv> 

down of a light violet hue. Sepals six or eight, oval, obtuse, nearly 



an inch in length, spreading, somewhat unequal, the bases of the in- 
ner ones somewhat contracted or narrowed. Stamens numerous, 
smooth, very short, somewhat spreading and ascending. Pistils very 
numerous, acute, smooth above, villous. Caryopses small compres- 
s,.d,«.il 1 a.|.lir.,irM..lk.n.tp..iiihMlor i ,«i..-.lattli.- i . | M-v,butcovered 
with long snowy wool, and the whole forming a white globular head. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This genus of plants, as its 
Greek name implies, was known to the ancients, but the only species 
with which they were acquainted, was the Anemone coronaria of mod- 
em botanists. It was in reference to that species that in the indulgence 
of their fancy, and carried away by a graceful, but erroneous, mythol- 
ogy, they invented the fable of the Anemone originating in the grief of 
Venus for the loss of Adonis, (A^« H™ ™ r "> «* Si Sfapva rav avt^vav, 
his blood produces the rose, her tears the Anemone). The number of 
species known at present may be reckoned 65 or 70, exclusive of the 
Hepaticas, most of which inhabit the woods, thickets, and mountains 
of the temperate regions, more especially of the northern hemisphere. 
Anemone vitifolia was discovered by Dr. Hamilton Buchanan, at 
Suemba in Upper Nepaul, where, according to Dr. Wallich "It grows 
in all the forests of the great valley and the sunoundiiiL; mountains, 

similar places, and also near Gossam-Than, in the Himalaya. 

Introduction; whf.rf. !,ro\vn; Culture. This showy species of 
Anemone was introduced to England, in 1^20, b\ seeds brought from 
India, by the Rt. Hon. the Countess Amherst, and cultivated in her 
Ladyship's choice collection at Montreal, Kent. For the specimen 
from which our drawing was taken we are indebted to the kindm-s> of 
Lady Harriet Clive. Her Ladyship's Gardener at Hewell, Mr. Mark- 
ham, informs us that the seeds were sown in October, the young plants 
kept in the greenhouse till May, then put out into beds, where they 
flowered luxuriantly from August to November inclusive. Spring- 
sown plants will not blossom till the following year. Increase may 
be obtained by cutting the crowns of the roots into pieces. 
Derivation of the Names. 
Anemone, wind-flower.fromawjuoc.ANEMOs, the wind, as many of the species 
flower during the boisterous weather of early spring, or grow near mot 
in w m,l\ , xj„,„, ,i situations. It is necessary to remark that when used as a La- 
ti[| *wd, ■; note oi last syllable but one of anemone 

is long, while as an English word custom authorizes the same syllable being 
made short. Vitifolia, from vitis, a vine, and folium, a leaf. 
Stnontmes. 
Avem.vsk vitifoua. Bmhanaii, in the herbarium of Mr. Lambert. Decan- 
di'llc. Swcma Natural Reitni vegetabilis, Vol. 1, p. 211. Decandolle, Pro- 
<lr-imis s_\stfii ui-, Natui ili> R t _- m V. _aral.il>. Part l,p 21 Don's General 

l>u ti-uiin .»i'<.anl. nins; and Botany Vol. 1. p. -JO. Wallich, in Botanical Reg- 
ister, 1835. Don,Prodromus Florae Nepalensis,p. 193. Botanical Magazine,3376. 



ONCIDIUM PAPI'LIO. 

BUTTERFLY ONCIDIUM. 



r? 



- 



No. 10. 

• ,■■■■■ ' 



GENUS. Oncidium. Swartz. Perianthiu 
pi us undulata: lateralibus nunc sub labello coi 
Labeixum maximum, ecalcaratum, cum columna continuum, varie lobatum, 

trato. Polmnia duo, postice sulcata, caudicula plana, glandula oblonga. 

LlNBLEY. 

SPECIES. Oncidium fapilio. {Lindley.) Pseudobulbis <> 

o, sepalo supremo petalis- 

dia emargiiicttu sui>rotun- 
-is, crista glandulis formam 
rana? cubantis referentibus, columns alls serratis. Lindley. 

Character of the Genus, Oncidium. Perianth spread out. 
Sepals often wavy: the lateral ones sometimes connate under the lip. 
Petals uniform. Lip very large, without a spur, continuous with the 
column, variously lohed, tuberculated or crested at the base. Column 
free, semi-cylindrical, apex winged on both sides. Anther nearly two- 
celled, the rostellum sometimes very short, at other times greatly elon- 
gated. Pollen masses two, furrowed behind, the caudicula flat, the 
gland oblong. 

Description of the species, Oncidium Papilio. The spurious 
bulb (pseudo-bulb), of which there are two or three in each plant, is 
roundish, compressed, rough, deep purple, giving origin to a single 
elliptic-oblong leaf, both surfaces of which are spotted or reticulated 
with dark purple irregular lines. Scape or flower-stem, springing 
from the base of the bulb, two-three feet long, wavy, jointed, with 



ling membranous pink bracteae at the joints 
, two-edged towards the top, spotted; few — 



slender, roundis 



flowered. Flowers large, shewy, remarkably singular, nodding. 
The upper sepal of the calyx and the petals linear, very long, contract- 
ed at the base, with distant green spots; lateral sepals oblong tapering, 
blunt at the apex, revolute and wavy at the margin, longer than the 
lip, which they nearly enclose, striped with transverse yellowish 
green stripes or spots ; the lip* consisting of three segments, the central 
one of which is large, round, emarginate, spread out, crisp, crenated 
or curved at the margin, outer portion of a cinnamon colour, central 
part greenish yellow, very uneven, contracted at the base, the two lat- 
eral segments roundish, spotted ; the glands of the crest resembling 
a frog sitting; the wings of the column serrated. Pollen masses 
two-lobed. Ovary small, linear-club-shaped, striated. - 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This most singular plant 
grows in the island of Trinidad, clasping its white roots around the 
branches of trees, from which, however, ii does not directly derive any 
nourishment, being ;in epiploic, not a parasite. The greater num- 
ber of the members of this tribe grow in those parts of the world, 
where heat and great h imidiu co-exist, as the\ l'ue chiefly by absolu- 
tion from the atmosphere. Hun lifetime of an art- 
ist would not be sufficient to represent the splendid orchideous plants 
which are produced in the deep awe-inspiring mountain-vallies of the 
Peruvian chain of the Andes." An equal luxuriance of this kind of 
vegetation prevails in the moist forests of both Indies; while it is al- 
most entirely absent from the South-sea islauds. For some 
notices of the habits of Epiphytal Orchidacese, see Loudon's 
Magazine for January, 1835, p. 1. and also March, 1835, p. 137. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This species was in- 
troduced into the stoves of Great-Britain, from Trinidad, by the late 
Baron De Schack, in 1823. The specimen from which our drawing 
was made, flowered in June last, in the choice collection of Orchidaceous 
novelties of John Willmore, Esq. of Oldford, Staffordshire, where its 
slender stem attained the height of two feet and a half, supporting its 
solitary flower, which like a splendid insect seemed ready to take wing 
and leave behind its more earth-bound kindred. 




/ 



v 



ECHEVERIA RACEMO'SA. 

RACE3IOSE-FLOWERED ] 






itylos subulatos abeuntia. Decandolle. 

SPECIES. Echeveria kacemosa. Otto. Foltis radicalibus rosulato- 
, <»nfeitis,elli 1 



Character of the Genus, Echeveria. Calyx five-parted. Se- 
pals resembling the leaves, erect, somewhat concrete at the base. 
Petals 5, united at the lower part, erect, thick, rigid, thickening to- 
wards the central nerve and almost triangular at the base, acute. Sta- 
mens 10, shorter than the petals, to which they adhere at the base. 
Scales 5, short, obtuse. Carpels 5, terminating in awl-shaped styles. 
Description of the Species, Echeveria racemosa. Plant 
herbaceous, fleshy. Root above the ground, prolonged into a sort of 
tuberous neck, which is dark brown and wrinkled. Radical Leaves 
crowded, roseate, elliptic-lanceolate, succulent, glaucous, or almost 
Pulverulent, persistent. Flower stems about 2 feet high, with small, 
distant alternate, ovate-acuminate deciduous leaves. Raceme of nu- 
merous crimson flowers, the calyx glaucous like the lea\es. Corolla 
fleshy, the petals acute and spreading towards the apex. Stamens 10, 
in two rows, those of the outer one shorter and adherent to the petals; 
those of the. inner longer and free. Ovary 5-celled, many-seeded, 
seeds small. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The tribe of plants of which 
the one now figured is a member, grows on the rocks and arid sands of 
most countries, but more particularly of the Cape of Good Hope : all 



the species, however, of the Genus Echeveria with which we are ac- 
quainted are natives of Mexico. This species grows on Monte Serata, 
and is called Talapulacajhata, by the aboriginal inhabitants ; among 
whom it serves, like the Myosotis palustris, or Forget-me-not among 
the European nations, as an emblem of remembrance. The wish to 
be remembered by those we love, is as strong in the breast of an Indi- 
an savage, as in the most refined member of chiliztd *ociet\ , and at 



;d for this purpose, and no gift c 
value arising not from any intri 
! intention of the giver. A flow- 
;ed with new charms ; for it is tb 

Affection's tribute, friend 

Whose silent eloquence, more rich 



The epidermis of succulents possess very few of the minute pores or 
organs termed stomata, through which moisture is constantly exhaling 
in other plants when they are exposed to the influence of light. Hence 
most of the plants of the present Order are pre-eminently fitted to live 
in the arid spots where they usually grow ; thus affording one among 
the many examples which Botany offers to our notice of that wisdom 
with which natural objects jk distributed over the surface of the earth, 
each in a position best adapted to its peculiar nature. May we not 
rather say that each has been so constructed in order that it might be- 
come fitted to occupy a specific station, and add one more illustration 
to the truth "And God saw every thing that he had made, and behold 
it was very good." Gen. 1,31. 

There are few natural Orders where the species are so liable to vary 
in the number of the parts of which the floral whorls are composed as 
in the Crassulaceae; and hence we find them dispersed through not less 
than six Classes of the Linnean Artificial System. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The plant from which 
our drawing was taken, flowered in the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 
October, 1836. It should be potted in light sandy soil, and kept in 
the stove, or a sunny part of the Green-house. 
Derivation of the Names. 

Echeveria, in honour of M. Echever, a Botanical Painter, who executed 
many of the finest designs for the Mexican Flora, begun by M.M. Sesse, Mocino, 

ing arranged in that form of inflorescence. 



# 



CACTUS SPECIOSUS; 

SHOWY BRICK-RED CACTUS. 






basi ovario adnata, i a< reta, exteriora breviora calycin- 

alia, media longiora colorata, intima petaliformia. Stamina numerosissima 
mm tubo concreta. Stylus filiforuiis apice multifidus. Bacca sepalorum re- 
[iquiis areolata tuberculosa aut squamata. Cotyledones nulla;? (nunc dis- 
tinctae ineumbentes). Frctices carnosi elongati axi ligneo interne medulli- 



gulorum orti. De Can dolls. Prod. 3, 463. 

SPECIES. Cactcs Speciosls, var. lateritius. Floris tubo limbo petalo- 
rum breviore, ramis dipteris trigonisque. 

imbricate, cohering by their base witli the ovaiy, and forming a long 
tube, the outermost shorter and resembling calycinal segments, the in- 
termediate longer and coloured, the innermost petaloid. Stamens 
very numerous concrete with the tube of the flower. Style filiform 
many-cleft at the apex. Berry invested with the remains of the se- 
pals in the form of blotches, tubercles, or scales. No cotyledons ? (in 
the present case they are distinct and incumbent). Shrubs with long 
fleshy branches, having an internal woody axis containing pith, and 
regularly furrowed in vertical ridges bearing bundles of spines. Ridges 
or wings either very numerous or very few, less frequently only two, 
and then the branches become compressed and winged. Flowers large, 
springing from the bundles of spines or crenations of the ridges. 

Character of the Variety. The tube of the flower shorter than 
the limb of the petals, the branches both winged and trigonal. 

Description of the present Plant. Several stems or branches 
Reference to the Dissections. 



rise from the ground, which are at first round, hut soon dilate into 
fleshy flat laminae, or become triangularly expanded. The margins are 
broadly crenate, with a tuft of short hair, and occasionally a few spines 
in the sinuses. The branches are contracted at intervals, and fresh 
branches appear jointed upon them, round below, gradually becoming 
multangular, but soon ending in trigonal or flattened expansions like 
the rest. Flowers not very numerous, from the sinuses of the flat- 
tened and trigonal branches, 4 to 5 inches long, of a bright crimson 
and lasting, after expansion, for 4 or 5 days. Segments of the perianth 
not strictly separable into calyx and corolla; the outermost retaining 
the character of bracts, and the rest gradually becoming more and 
more petaloid as they proceed inwards. They cohere below into a 
fleshy tube which completely invests the ovary and extends for some 
distance beyond it. The segments of the limb are more or less 
lanceolate, slightly patent. Stamens very numerous, nearly as long 
as the perianth. The filaments adhere to the tube; but the greater 
part of them become free at about one third the distance from the 
mouth and hang out in a separate bundle from the rest, which cohere 
through the whole length of the tube and form a distinct whorl at its 
summit. They are whitish, with yellow anthers and white pollen. 
Ovary unilocular, with numerous ovules on long twisted funicular 
chords, attached to the paries. Style one, filiform, branched at the 
apex into 7-9 stigmata, a little longer than the stamens. Fruit a pul- 
py berry with fragrant smell and taste, ripe at the time when the new 
flowers expand. Seeds with a hard, dark, shining punctate testa and 
a thin membranous tegmen : no albumen, a fleshy embryo with thick 
radicle and incumbent cotyledons. j.S. Henslow. 

N. B. In the Natural Order of Cacteae, as defined by De Candolle, 
the genus Rhipsalis constitutes a distinct tribe (Rhipsalideae), whilst 
all the other genera may be considered as sub-genera of the old genus 
Cactus, and form the tribe Opuntiaceae. Our plant belongs to the 
group, whether genus or sub-genus, termed Cereus. This group has 
been further subdivided artificially into minor groups, one of which 
constitutes Mr. Haworth's genus Epiphyllum, where the stem is flat 
and foliaceous. De Candolle, however, remarks in his treatise on the 
Order, in the Mem. du Musee. Vol. 17. p. 55, that this group cannot 
be formed into a distinct genus from such a consideration alone, and 
the present plant most completely confirms his opinion, as we find 
some of its stems are trigonal, *hiU others are flat. It is not strictly 



correct, as De Candolle supposes, to say that this group never pro- 
duces true leaves, since they are sometimes very distinctly formed on 
young shoots of Cactus sp ton fall off. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant is evidently 
most closely allied to Cactus speciosissimus, var. lateritius, figured 
in No. 1596 of the Botanical Register; but no details are given with 
that figure, and it is merely referred to as a hybrid. Whether the pre- 
sent plant be a hybrid, or nieivK an extraordinary variety of Cactus 
speciosus, is involved in some degree of uncertainty. It was raised in 
the Botanic Garden at Cambridge, with 23 others, from seeds of Cac- 
tus speciosus, sown in the year 1828. The person who raised these 
plants (Wm. Scott) feels convinced that there was no specimen 
of Cactus speciosissimus in the garden at that time, by which the hy- 
bridity could have been produced; 1ml in the absence of any precise 
record it must remain very doubtful whether his statement can be trust- 
ed. How many interesting facts are daily lost to science by the want 
of sufficiently accurate details respecting the numerous varieties and 
hybrids which the practical gardener is continually producing; and 
how desirable it would be for such persons always to record the exact 
circumstances under which their experiments are conducted. We might 
then hope to secure sufficient data for unravelling much of that mys- 
tery which at present hangs over our subject, especially as regards the 
identification of species; and so obtain some sound knowledge of the 
laws upon which the variation of different individuals from a particular 
type depends. The close resemblance which Cactus speciosissimus la- 
teritius bears to Cactus Jenkensonii is noticed in the Botanical Regis- 
ter, and the flowers of the present plant also appear to differ from it 

the Jenkensonii in having the segments of the perianth more conmvent, 
and the whole flower stands out horizontally, and does not droop as in 
that species. In Jenkensonii the anthers and stigmas are purplish, but 
we possess a seedling from this species where several of these trifling 
distinctions are less marked, and where none but the eye of the horti- 
cultural amateur would be inclined to recognize much difference be- 
tween it and the present plant, always excepting the herbage, since the 
stems of Jenkensonii are all flat and less fleshy. 

The irritability exhibited by the leaves of the Sensitive plant is a 
phenomenon with which most persons are familiar; and many of our 
readers have probably also witnessed the effect produced by touching 



the stamens of the common Berberry. In these and some other cases 
on record, certain parts of the flower or leaves move, as it were spon- 
taneously, upon being stimulated in various ways, especially upon being 
slightly touched or shaken. It has been noticed by De Candolle that 
the stamens of the tribe Opuntiacese also show some degree of irrita- 
bility; and C. Darwin Esq. informs us that he met with a small species 
of Cactus, common on the arid plains about Port Desire and Port St. 
Julian in Patagonia, whose flowers possessed this property in a remark- 
able degree; and it will be well worthy the attention of'all cultivators of 
this interesting Tribe, to see whether they cannot detect a similar pro- 
perty in other species. Upon thrusting a straw or his little -finger into 
the tube of the flower, he found the stamens immediately collapsed 
round it, and that in a short time the segments of the perianth also 
slowly closed together. 



CLERODEN'DRON SQUAMATUM. 

""" SCALY CLERODENDRON. 






« SQtAMiTUM. Vahl. Foliis conlatis snbinte 
rem duplo superante, genitalibus longissimis. 



Character of the Genus, Clerodendron. Calyx 5-cleft (some- 
nes merely 5-toothed.) Tube of the corolla cylindrical, limb 5-part- 
, spreading, segments somewhat unequal. Stamens inserted near 
; throat, protruding, ascending; cells of the anthers parallel. Berry 



Shrub, with smooth, four-angled, furrowed branches. Leaves petio- 
late, two inches or more in length, cordate, with a deep sinus at the 
base, not much pointed, three or five-nerved : delicate, smooth, obscure- 
ly angled towards the !.;.-.•. lit scarcely toothed, occasionally having 
very minute hairs at the margin, the under surface covered with very 
minute orbicular scales. Flowers in a panicle, which is terminal, 
spreading, and smooth. Peduncles thrice dichotomously divided, 
pedicels scarcely branched the pedicel in each dichotome one-flowered. 
Segments of the calyx ovate, acute, coloured, smooth. Tube of the 
corolla twice the length of the calyx. Stamens 4, didynamous, fila- 
ments long slender; anthers somewhat versatile, two-cleft below the 
point of attachment to the filament. Style simple, sliuhtU bifurcate 
at the apex. Fruit capsular, two-celled, 4-seeded. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This remarkably splendid 
plant is a native of China and Japan, where it seems to have been first 
noticed by Kaempfer, on which account it is called Ksempfer's Scar- 

Reference to the Dissections. 



let Clerodendron; a name which is correctly bestowed, provided the 
present plant and that figured in the Botanical Register, t. 649, be 
identical with the plant described by Jacquin, under the name Volka- 
meria Kaempferi, in his Icones Plantarum rariorum. Vol. Ill, t. 500: 
All the most eminent authorities consider them identical, and especi- 
ally Dr. Robert Brown admits the Volkameria Keempferi as a syno- 
nyme of Clerodendron squamatum, in the 2nd Edit, of the Hortus 
Kewensis, Vol. 4, p. 63; and from a careful inspection of the plate of 
Jacquin with that in the Botanical Register we are satisfied of their 
i«l.iitii\ with our present plant. 

We feel regret whenever it is necessary to fill our pages with discus- 
sions about species and their synonymes, but it is a duty we owe the 
ice we have attempted to promote by the publication of The Bota- 
and we must discharge that duty when required. Although this 
r —t has been known in Britain for nearly fifty years, it has been re- 
cently passed off as a new species and designated Clerodendron Speci- 
osissimum. This may have resulted from ignorance of its being already 
in the country, and of its having been described under the name of 
Clerodendron Squamatum, a name which cannot be disturbed. 









I liis |>hml 



duced into Britain in 1790, by Sir Joseph Banks, but has obtained 
additional attention lateU on account. nfvnnno- «!«„*«, ««•;♦ i^__ i.-_ 



received Iron 



lately on account of young plants of it having been 

->ntinent into two or three English nurseries, where 

jt known. The individual plant from which our drawing was 

taken, was obligingly sent to us from the collection of J. Jarrett Esq 
of Camerton House, near Bath. Mr. Robert Abbot, the gardener, at 
Camerton House, not only displays good feeling in the zeal of his pro- 
fession, but he gives real information, to which we are happy in being 
able to give circulation. He says, « I hope that the Clerodendron will 
soon be in every stove in the country; indeed it will be the proprietors 
fault >t it be not, for assuredly it will soon be a very cheap plant, as it 
strikes so freely from cuttings; indeed, a single leaf, with a bud at the 
base, put into a pot of sand, under a bell-glass, will in a few days make 



NELUM'BIUM LUTEUM. 
"yellow nelumbium. 

natural order, nelumbiaceje. 

mf {::h:}## = 

No. 14. 
i. Nelumbium, (Jussieu.) Calyx 4-5-sepalus. Petala 16-28 cum 



intra carpellum germinans. Decandolle. Systema Naturale RegjniVegeta- 
bilis. Vol. II, p. 44. 

SPECIES. NEiniuini Iateoi. ( Willdexow.) Corolla polypetala, 
antheris ultra loculos in appendicem, linearem productis. Decandolle Sys- 
tema, Vol. II, p. 46. 

Character of the Genus, Nelumbium. Calyx of 4-5 sepals. 
Petals oblong, 16-28 in several rows, inserted along- with the sepals 
into the base of the torus or receptacle. Stamens numerous, in seve- 
ral rows, filaments prolonged beyond the anthers, so as to form an appen- 
dix. Torus obconical, enlarging during and after the period of fer- 
tilizing the ovules, truncated above, and hollowed into as many pits or 
cavities as there are carpels. Ovaries 8-30; each with one style. 
Carpels nut-shaped, at first concealed in the cavities of the torus, 
ultimately becoming free, each containing one seed. Albumen ab- 
sent. Embryo thickened, germinating within the carpel. 

LUMBIUM LUTEUM. PLANT 

reeping. Petioles and pe- 
duncles rising above the surface of the water, roundish. Leaves 
perfectly round and centrally peltate, from 1 foot to 18 inches in dia- 
meter, of a rich velvety green above, very pale beneath; the upper 
surface marked by about 25 radiating nerves; petioles from 2 to 3£ 
feet long, Flowers pale yellow, globose, resembling a double yellow 






tulip, about 3 to 4 inches in diameter, springing from a scape about 
3 feet in length, which is generally muricate or rough with tubercles 
towards the upper part, a condition which likewise exists in the upper 
parts of the petioles. Calycine leaves small, reddish green. Petals 
about 16, of a lemon yellow colour, in two or more rows, the interior 
ones narrower. Stamens numerous, the anthers drawn out beyond 
the cells into a linear appendage. Torus obconical, truncate above, 
with several depressions containing the carpels, which become cary- 
opsides, each containing one seed. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This most beautiful species 
of water-lily is native of the lakes, rivers, and stagnant waters of North 
America, extending from New Jersey, to East Florida: and inwards 
as far as Louisiana. It is believed to have been introduced into the 
ponds and lakes in Brobston Meadows, near Philadelphia, its natural 
limits not being supposed to reach so far North; though Michaux ap- 
pears to have met with it in the district of Illinois. Walter mentions hav- 
ing met with a variety with white flowers. Some writers regard this as 
a variety only of the Nelumbium speciosum, the Sacred or Egyptian 
Bean of the ancients. In this opinion Barton concurs both in his Pro- 
dromus, and also in his Compendium Florae Philadelphia-. What- 
ever may be the accuracy or incorrectness of this opinion, all will 
agree with him when he states "There is not surely in North America 
any plant comparable to this for grandeur, simplicity, and beauty. 
Truly it may be styled the Queen of American Flowers." It is the 
largest flower produced in N. America, that of Magnolia macrophylla 
excepted. It seems conscious of the place assigned it, and its beauti- 
ful flower, being raised on a flexible stem three or four feet above the 
water, waves to and fro in the most majestic manner. It generally 
keeps near the edges of the rivers, but Bartram has seen it extend 
across Cape-Fear river, in North Carolina, though two miles broad 
and twelve feet water, its leaves covering many acres and forming a 
delusive wavy plain. 




Along the plashy 

Of the " 
Rocked gently there 



Nor are they merely ornamental plants, for independently of their 
affording shelter to the fish, and often a resting-place to birds, their 

Indians and boys. 

The flower, like that of the Nymphrea alba or white water lily of the 
lakes of Europe, closes at sunset, and opens on the following day, the 
object being to exclude the humidity that is deposited from the air, 
and which, if it had access to the pollen while yet in the anthers, would 
rupture it prematurely and prevent the fertilization of the ovules, there- 
by hindering them from becoming perfect seeds. This regularity in 
the opening and closing of the flowers, dependent upon the intensity 
of light, caused Linneus to place the water-lily on his Dial of Flowers; 
and has been frequently remarked by the poets, as the most noted ex- 
ample of those >< their beauty to the sun." 



Her spotless purity of bre 



The mode of germination of Nelumbium luteum has been most beau- 
tifully represented and elucidated l»\ F'oitctu. in the Annales du Mu- 
seum d' Histoire Naturelle, Vol. 13, p. 395, t. 29, f. 42-46. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This species of Nelum- 
bium appears to have been introduced into Britain in 1810. Our 
drawing was taken from a plant which flowered splendidly in Septem- 
ber last, in the stove of Mr. Miller, at Durdam Down Nursery, near 
Bristol. It requires to be kept in a very warm situation in the stove. 
Sweet in his Botanical Culihafor >r..;>> iliai •• it -honld be grown in a 
large pot, in a rich loamy soil, and requires a strong heat to flower it 
in perfection. The pot or tub should be kept full of water all the time 
the plants are growing, but may be allowed to get dry when the flow- 
ering season is over. The plant may be increased by dividing at the 
root, but is obtained more readily from seeds, which vegetate freely." 
In order to sow the seeds successtulh ii i^ n< < t >-aiv to surround them 



with a mass of clay, before they are thrown into the water, that they may 
be kept at the bottom. Some cultivators of Nelumbiums always care- 
fully open the points of their seeds, and then keep them in water, in the 
stove, till they begin t'o vegetate. They are then planted in large pots, 
half filled with strong loam, and filled up with water— the water being 
frequently changed with care, and the plants repoted as their size may 
demand. 

Derivation of the Names. 
Nelumbiim, a latinized form of Nelumbo the Cingalese name of Nelumbium 
E. Smith, and Mr. Salisbury wished to ii, , not only on 

;"' S " f its Pri^ty, but because the name Cyamus has been bestowed by 

upon a genus of Crustaceous animals. Luteum, from luteus, yellow, 
'he colour of the flower. 



Compendium Flora; Philadelphia;, : 



rj , Vol. II. p. 75, also Pursh, 
f American Plants, 2, p. 25, also Barton 



PHLOX DRUMMON'DII. 

DRUMMOND'S PHLOX. 



:h::}^-^ 




. of the Genus, Phlox. Calyx |»rism;tti<-,d O-rlH'i. 
Corolla having a 5-lobed salver-shaped limb. 

Stamens unequal, inserted upon the tube of the Corolla. Capsule 
3-eelled, 3-\alved, containing 3 seeds. 

Description of the present Specimen. Root small, annual. 
Stem I|to2 feet high, branched, covered with tomentum and a few 
long spreading hairs, lower leaves opposite, oblongo-spathulate, supe- 
rior alternate, ovate, oblong, - lij ! lat cordate at the 
base, occasionally auiiculaic, and souii-uiii|il<'\ic;uil, slightly ciliated 
at the margin, and hairy, all of a pale green colour. Corymbs termi- 
nal, of several shewy flowers. Pedicels short, they as well as the 
calyx and awl-shaped bracteas, covered with long spreading hairs, 
occasionally glandular at the top. Calyx of 5 long awl-shaped seg- 
ments, but united by a pellucid membrane for about half their length 
into a tube; limb reflexed. Cop.<»li.\ >al\cr-v|iaped, tube about thrice 
as long as the tube of the calyx, hairy, hairs spreading, limb of 5 
spreading, obovate, somewhat rhomboidal lobes, pale purple without, 
within of brilliant rose-red, but of varying intensity in different indi- 
viduals. Stami ns in* luil. «l within t> e tube, but of different lengths. 
Filaments nearly their whole length adherent to the tube. Ovary 
ovate. Stigmas 3, as long as the style. Capsule ovate-globose, tip- 
ped with the persistent sl\ le and included in the persistent calyx. 



Introduction ; where grown ; Culture. It was raised in several 
gardens, in Great Britain, in 1835, from seeds collected in Texas, and 
and transmitted hence by the late Thomas Drummond. 

The specimen from which our drawing was made, was obligingly 
sent us by R. Nuttall, Esq. of Kempsey, Worcestershire. It had been 
previously exhibited at a meeting i t the Worcestershire Horticultural 
Society, where its beauty and novelty excited much admiration. Not- 
withstanding the number of beautiful species contained in this genus, 
the present plant is the first annual one which has presented itself, and 
certainly is a most desirable addition to the flower garden. We also 
received specimens of it from Mr. Miller, of the Bristol Nursery, 
amongst which were flowers of various shades from a pale pink to a 
rich deep crimson. As an annual this Phlox requires no peculiar 
treatment, and is equally suited to ornament the greenhouse or the open 
borders. Our friends will be gratified to know that when favourite 
varieties occur these may be increased h\ cuttings. We struck several 
of these last summer, (1836) and although when placed under glass, 
in a northern border, their roots were emitted rather tardily, the season 
being far advanced, on being removed to the greenhouse the young 
plants grew with renewed vigour, and have flowered partially through 
the whole of the winter. If the cuttings be rooted early in the season, 
there can be no doubt but they may be safely wintered in a cold frame. 

Phlox, from *\^ a flame, from the brilliant red colour of the flowers. Drum- 
mondii, in honour of the late Thomas Drummond, originally of the Forfar Nur 
sery, afterwards the assistant nata ; /:i a s 0VerIaud 

dition, subsequent to which he settled at Belfast, but a few years ago set out to 
explore the Southern regions of the united states, whence he sent many valua- 
ble species and seeds, and afterwards proceeded to Cuba, where he died in 1835. 



CEANO'THUS COLLI'NUS. 

CEANOTHUS OF THE HILLS. 



\]^> — yj/ 



GENUS. 


CeANOTHCS. 


LixxEn 


?. Calyx 5-fi 


dus campanulatus, pos 


thesin medic 


























locularis,) co 










bus. Semis 


[a ovata sulco 


destituta. 


Decandocle 




SPECIES. Ceanotht 


S t'oi.T.IXl 


s. Douglas. 


foliis ovato-oblongis 


tusis, gland, 










bulatis, pedunculis axillaribus, pani, 



panulate, the upper portion aii lization separating 

circularly from the lower, which remains under the fruit, to which it 
slightly adheres. Petals five, small, with very long claws, the limb 
cucullate, seldom absent. Stamens protruding, opposite the petals. 
Styles 2-3 united as far as the middle. Berry dry 3-celled, rarely 
2 or 4-celled, cocci parchment-like one-seeded, open at the base; de- 
hiscing on the inner side. Seeds ovate, devoid of a furrow. 

Description of the Species,Ceanothus Collinus. Low Shrub, 
branched, branches spreading, round, nearly smooth. Leaves alter- 
nate, stipulate, (si I ^ 
minutely crenulate and glandulose at the margin, three-nerved, nerves 
proceeding from the summit of the petiole, nearly simple, the central 
one only becoming branched near the apex of the leaf, nerves more 
conspicuous on the under surf- r surface smooth, 
shining, under surface clothed with closely adpressed hairs, which are 
most obvious along the course of the nerves. Peduncles axillary, 
branched, forming loose panicles of whitish flowers. Calyx minute, 



5-lobed. Corolla of 5 petals, spreadiug. Stamens 5, filaments slen- 
der, anthers two-celled. Ovary surmounted by a single style, stigma 
capitate. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This hardy ever-green 
shrub is one of those for which we are indebted to the zeal and intre- 
jiiiliu v'.i tin i:.,r< -ii!!, ■.<[-• Omn •_],[-, who, by the number of American 
plants he introduced into Britain, has secured for himself the grateful 
remembrance of all genuine lovers of the sciences of botany and horti- 
culture. From the apparent hardiness of this shrub, and its very free 
production of flowers about the month of May, it promises to become 
a desirable addition to this class of plants. Its height, as far as can at 
present be judged, will be from three to four feet; it is spreading and 
ornamental. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Seeds of this species 
were forwarded by Mr. Douglas, in 1826-7, to the Horticultural Soci- 
ety of Lou ' Nil; some having for- 
tunately fallen to the share of Messrs. Pope and Sons of the Hands- 
worth Nursery, by whom the present plant was raised : all the other 
-> ■ -U having failed. The cause of their general failure is to be found 
in the peculiarity of the seeds of this, and several other plants, re- 
quiring to be sown immediately after attaining maturity, for if kept 
any considerable time they lose their vegetating power. The long- 
voyage proved destructive to the germinating property of the whole 
seeds of the collection, save that above mentioned (see Botanic Garden, 



No. 572, article Ceanothus i 
of that peculiar kind which 


is charactei 


The venation of the leaves is 
istic of the Rhamnacese. 


thorny plant, bu 


Derivation of the Names. 

t which has been transferred to this g 
he ancients. Collinus, from collis, i 


n by Thee 


sss 



LOPHOSPERMUM SCAN'DENS. 

CLIMBING LOPHOSPERMUM. 




Corolla campanulate 
celled, dehia 



Description of the Species, Lophospermum Scan. 
is an extremely handsome herbaceous climbing- plant, 
cylindrical, copiously clothed with soft viscid jointed hai 
alternate, numerous, petiolate, cordate, acuminate, inc 
rough, 5-nerved, from 3 to 4 inches long, and 2 to 3 broad, 
roundish, villose, 2 inches long. Flowers pendulous, 
axillary, solitary, one-flowered, round, villose, without br 
twice as long as the petioles, turned together with the le 
side of the stem. Calyx rough, deeply 5-parted : tli 
ovate, acuminate, entire, or !hi<- and theiv cxhihitinu- a ■ 
the two exterioi ■. Corolla la 



tubular at the base, dilated at the llm>at, liiuli ->-!<<l>ed, nearly e<pial, 
lobes broad, rounded at the top, with imbricated a-stivation. Stamens 
4, didynamous, fertile, inserted on the lower part of the tube, a little 
shorter than the corolla. Filaments linear, compressed, glandulose 
at the upper part. Anthers two-lobed, two-celled, not pointed, naked. 
Ovary globose, two-celled. Style very long, slender, filiform, smooth, 
thicker below. Sn,M\ simple, emarginate. Capstle spherical, 

valved, splitting irregularly. Seeds numerous, imbricated, ascending, 



compressed, surrounded by a membranous or scarious, irregular mar- 
gined border, truncate at the top, and having at the base a depressed 
hilum. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This truly magnificent 
plant, as Professor Don justly terms it, was first made known to Euro- 
peans as a native of Mexico by Sesse and Mocinno, whose specimens 
are still preserved in the herbarium of Mr. Lambert. The species here 
figured is the genuine scandens, as Professor Don has been so obliging 
as to determine for us ; that which commonly passes for such being the 
Lophospermum erubescens. Both are climbing plants, and desirable 
subjects for cultivation, possessing the great advantage of unfolding a 
succession of flowers for some months. This depends upon the pro- 
gressive development of the main stem and branches throughout the 
summer and autumn months, whilst the flowers being axillary are also 
continually produced as the new leaves are formed. The same habit 
is seen in the Maurandia, a genus very closely allied to Lophospermum. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Although this plant 
was made known by Professor Don, from dried specimens in the 
» William Bates, Esq. that we are in- 
oofitsliviim mot> to this country. Mr. Bates 
found it growing very generally over bushes, making a splendid ap- 
pearance in the valley of Mexico. Here he observed other species 
also, and amongst them one with pure white flowers. Our present 
plant first flowered in the collection of Charles Tayleure, Esq. of Tox- 
l Park, who presented it to the Liverpool Botanic Garden. From 



the rich collection of this most ii 



i|>< wain « -tii'.iMiment specimens \ 



liberally handed to Mrs. E. Bury of Everton, to whose kindn 

Mr. Shepherd, the Curator, informs us that its root is thick and 
fleshy, not unlike those of the Dahlia. He further states that he planted 
it last spring (1836) against a south wall, to which it was trained. 
Here it grew as luxuriantly as the Lophospermum erubescens. In 
the autumn the root was covered over with dry peat earth, to the depth 
of about eight inches; and on examining it in the present month of 
April, he found it perfectly sound, and beginning to grow. 



Richard at the expense of the genus Malpighia, only by the deficiency 
of glands on the calyx. The two genera have many points in coi 
mon, and a peculiarity of several species of Malpighia appears to ex 
in the present subject of observation, viz. the very thin scale-like cl 
racter of the leaf-bud in the axil of the leaves ; this condition of t 
leaf-bud is likewise found in some species of Erythroxylon, which 1 
Ionics to ;\ tribe very closely allied to the Malpighiaceae. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This species was 
troduced into Great Britain, we believe, in 1830, by the Rev. B 
Keen, of Leatherhead, Surry, who raised it from seeds, received from 
South America. For the specimen from which our drawing was 
taken, we are indebted to J. Jarrett, Esq. of Camerton House, Somer- 
setshire. It is an elegant plant for the greenhouse ; and although it 
can scarcely be called a climber, it is indispensable that it be trained 
to a treillage or other support ; or along the rafters of the greenhouse, 
where its numerous odoriferous flowers become highly ornamental. 
Some cultivators of this plant hav< ke] I tiis does not 

appear to be requisite to the successful growth of the plant ; indeed, it 
is by no means improbable but it may bear the open air, against a 
wall of southern aspect, where it may have protection from the seve- 
rity of our variable winter climate. It grows freely in light loamy 
soil, or mixture of loam and peat, with well decayed manure. Cut- 
tings strike root very readily, placed in sand under a hand-glass, with 
heat. 

Dekivation of the Names. 

Galphimia, an anagram of Malpighi, a being added for the termination ; 
adopted in honour of Malpighi, an eminent Italian physiologist and vegetable 
anatomist of the seventeenth century. Glauca, from glaucus, alluding to the 



traversed by ten or twelve longitudinal veins, -which are pinnately 
branched. Stamens numerous, united into a column, surrounding 
the style, the external stamens separating from the internal ones at a 
lower point of the main column as it ascends ; anthers kidney-shaped ; 
pollen pale yellow. Ovary 5-lobed, 10-furrowed. Style somewhat 
longer than the stamens, 5-parted towards the apex, each segment 
thickly clothed with long spreading hairs, and terminating in a flat 
capitate stigma. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. A hardy perennial herba- 
ceous plant, from two to four feet high, producing from July to October 
a number of beautiful rose-coloured flowers. It iS a native of Gascony, 
growing on the banks of the river Adour. The species of the genus 
Hibiscus are natives rather of warm than temperate climates : among 
those of the West Indies i> the Hibiscus mutabilis, or changeable rose- 
hibiscus, the flowers of which are white in the morning, pale red at 
noon, and bright red in the evening ; but this change does not happen 
if the thermometer fall below 67° of Fahrenheit, but it then passes in- 
directly into yellow, the colour assumed by the petals of most of our 
fruit trees when dying. The seeds of most hibisci are mucilaginous 
and nutritive; hence those of several species are used in the Levant 
to thicken soups. 

Hibiscus was first raised in England in' 1827, from seeds collected in 
Italy, by the Hon. W. F. Strangways ; our drawing was, however, 
made from a plant raised in the Birmingham Botanic Garden, from 
seed taken from a dried specimen received by F. Westcott, Esq. from 
the German Union. Very few collections possess this species. It may 
be increased slowly by division ; and also by cuttings of the young 
shoots, taken off when about three inches high, with a heel of the hard 
substance of the crown to them. It should be planted in a deep soil, 
and remain undisturbed. A rather moist situation for it has been 
thought most suitable. 



Hmscts. The word i^ CK oc occurs in Dioscorides, but it is supposed to ap- 
bird JT* l md ° f malW - R iS Said t0 be derived *° m Msa stork, that 
bird eatmg the seeds. Rose™, from rosa, alluding to the colour of its flowers. 

Prod^us Bj^JiB^^^^^St^ ^ DeCaDd0lle ' 



SYMPHORICARTOS MONTA'NUS. 

MOUNTAIN ST. PETER'S WORT. 






GENUS. SrMrHOHicARPos. Dillev. Elth. Calycis tubus globosus, 
limbus parvus 4 5 dentatus. Corolla infundibuliformis subsequaliter4-5 loba. 
Stamina 5, breve exserta. Stigma semiglobosum. Ovarium adnatum 4-Iocu- 

nata 4-loculata, loculis 2 vacuis, 2 monospermis. Decandollb. Prodromus 
Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis, Pars IV, p. 338. 

SPECIES. Svmphoricarpos MoNTAN-rs. Humboldt, Bonp. and Kvnth. 
Floribus axillaribus solitariis, foliis ovatis acuto-submucronatis glabriusculis. 

Generic Character of Svmphoricarpos. Tube of the calyx 
globose, limb small, 4 or 5-toothed. Corolla funnel-shaped, almost 
equally 4 or 5-Iobed. Stamens 5, slightly protruding. Stigma semi- 
globose. Ovarium adnate 4-celled, the fertile cells containing one 
ovulum, the sterile a small number. Berry crowned with the calyx, 
4-celled, 2 cells empty, 2 cells one-seeded. 

Stem much branched, branches opposite, round, striated, smooth or 
pubescent. Leaves opposite, with short petioles, ovate, acute, slightly 
mucronate, rounded at the base, entire, reticulately veined, membra- 
naceous, smooth or pubescent on both sides especially the under, of 
a deep green on the upper, paler on the under surface. Flowers 
axillary, solitary, or rarely geminate, opposite, on very short peduncles, 
furnished with two bracts, somewhat reflexed and spiked. Calyx 
adherent to the ovarium (superior), urceolate, smooth, irregularly 
5-toothed; teeth acute. Corolla somewhat funnel-shaped, smooth ; 
limb 5-cleft ; segments roundish, equal, thrice as short as the tube ; 
inner side of the throat and tube pubescent. Stamens 5, springing 
from the throat of the corolla, with the segments of which they are 

Reference to the Dissections. 



alternate, and nearly equal to them in length ; filaments short, smooth. 
Anthers oblong-linear, acute, two-cleft at the base, two-celled, smooth, 
with a longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary inferior, obovate, smooth, 
4-celled,two of the cells 4-5 seeded, the two alternate cells one-seeded, 
ovules pendulous. Style erect, smooth, shorter than the tube of the 
corolla. Stigma capitate two-lobed ? Berry globose, crowned with 
the persistent calyx, smooth, white, transparent, two-celled, cells one- 
seeded. Albumen fleshy. Embryo lodged in the upper part of the 
albumen, straight, inverted. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This species, according to 
Humboldt, i- scarcelj different from his Symphoricarpos microphyllus, 
(which he seems to have accidentally called Moracensis) except that 
the leaves and flowers are much larger. Found native at the height 
of seven or eight thousand feet in the mountains of Mexico, near Santa 
Rosa, where it flowers and ripens its fruit in September. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This desirable shrub 
was raised in the year 1829, in the garden of the late Mr. Barclay, of 
Bury Hill, from seeds received from Cervantes, professor of botany at 
Mexico. Other seeds may, possibly, have been introduced to Great 
Biitain, bin ii is moiv rl.au probable that from this source have ema- 
nated all the plants now existing in this country. That from which 
our drawing was derived was introduced into the Birmingham Botanic 
Garden direct from Bury Hill. It is a shrub which at present is 
very little known amongst nurserymen. 

The Symphoricarpos montanus is perfectly hardy. It becomes a 
dense bush, much branched, five to six feet high, and almost evergreen. 
It commences flowering in August, and continues it till autumnal 
frosts check the further progress of its gaiety. It may be rapidly in- 
creased by layers, and seems to require no peculiarity of soil or ma- 
nagement. 







Derivation o, 


• the Names. 






Svm 


being crowded close 


> together. 


collect, and Kapiroc i 
Montanvs, from mom 


a fruit, from tl 








Stnoi 








Symphoricarpos Moxta 
Species. III. n :Vi-> t •>',<; 


ncs. Humb. Bonp. et Kt 
Decandolle, Prodromus, Vol 
>rengel, Syst. Veget. Vol. I, p 


. IV. 


Nova Genera i 
p. 339. 


Sym 


«.««,; 


I Montana, Sj 



RCVSA ALPI'NA. 

ALPINE ROSE j OR, ROSE OF SHARON. 
NATURAL ORDER, ROSACEjE. 

iz:i: Ǥ <$> irsi: } ^ # = 

No. 21. 
GENUS. Rosa. TowjivJzroRr. Calycis tubus apice contractus, 1 



VARIETAS a, Vulgaris. Dcs^rx. Pedi sculis hispidis elongatis, caly- 
ius. Decandolle. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegeta- 

Character of the Genus, Rosa. Tube of the calyx contracted 
at the throat, limb 5-parted, lobes somewhat spirally imbricated at the 
apex during actuation, often |>imint<-l\ dhided. Petals 5. Stamens 
numerous. Carpels several, springing from, and included in, the 
tube of the calyx, (which ultimately becomes berried) dry, indehiscent, 
somewhat crustaceous, bearing a style on the inner side, the styles 
protruding beyond the contracted throat of the calyx, either entirely 
free, or united into one columnar style. Achenia one-seeded. Seed 
without albumen, inverted. Embryo straight, cotyledons nearly 
flat. 

Description of the Species, Rosa Alpina. Variety, Vulgaris 
ob [kermis. Shrub with smooth spreading, sometimes procumbent, 
stems and branches, of a shining red colour, occasionally hairy or 
brUiU, but not thorny. Leaflets seven or nine, elliptic-oblong, 



usually more than an inch in lenglb. or sharply 

serrated, paler beneath, with some hairs now and then on the midrib. 
Flowers generally solitary, of a rich and elegant rose-colour, on 
drooping red stalks, clothed with glandular bristles. Calyx downy, 
with long, simple, slender, rather leaf-pointed segments ; tube generally 
smooth, but occasionally with bristles ; segments with a few bristles. 
Petals obcordate, two-lobed. Fruit pendulous, crowned with the 
connivent segments of the calyx, of a rich deep red colour. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The species of the genus 
Rosa having been so long the objects of admiration and cultivation, by 
mankind in almost all countries, have undergone such modifications 
from variety of soil, climate, and possibly also from hybridization, that 
it is extremely difficult to determine what are genuine species, what 
artificial or accidental varieties, and to fix the synonymes. Those 
synonymes of the correctness of which we feel perfect 1\ satisfied, we shall , 
as usual, append to the last page, leaving the determination of others 
to those who may choose to submit them to a more extended examina- 
tion. This plant is unquestionably the Rosa non spinosa of Haller, 
Opuscula218; and the Rosa inermis, foliis septenis glabris, calycis 
segmentis indivisis of his Historia Plantarum Helvetia?, Vol. II, p. 42, 
n. 1107; and the fruit, as we have ascertained by comparison, agrees 
with that re jm-s.e.u.i in M-.ul.une Marian's I nseeten Europa's, to which 
he refers. It is likewise the true Rosa alpina of Linneus's Species 
Plantarum, Edit. 2, p. 703 ; and of Smith, in Rees's Cyclopaedia, 
under that name. 

The powers of language, both in poetry and prose, have been ex- 
hausted in vain attempts to do justice to the charms and beauty of the 
rose, which, without disparagement to other flowers, may be truly 
styled " most perfect." The ancients, by dedicating it to Venus, the 
goddess of beauty, intimated its fitness to be the type of the"™ kuXov," 
or " the beautiful ;" and her votaries, on her annual festival, 



ned with each other to produce the most acceptable tributary 
, from the multitude of which it is difficult to select the best; but 



we think we do not err when we give the preference I 
of a longer poem than our pages will 
volume, and from the pen of the autho 
Holland) called "Memoirs of the Rose,' 

1824. 

In colour rich, and opulent of leaves, 

None which, so redolent of perfume, flings 
A sweeter fragrance on the zephyr's wings. 
I lore the rose, — its presence to my eye 

Like heauty, youth, like hope and healt 
Recalling the gay dreams of early years 



Well might Clusius exclaim, in reference to such plants, " Non ca 
altissimi montes praeruptique scopuli suis etiam delicns." ' The i 
lofty mountains ami most rugged precipices arc not wiflioul their 

common in private, gardens. It is difficult to account for this neg 
since not only is il " simplex munditiis," elegant in its simple ornal 
but it enjoys the rare and envied character of being "the rose witl 

;i thorn ;" and Mill n (Imimhi it won!,;, ot admission into his Liai 



LTURE. ror the opportunity 

•able species of Rose, we are 
of Bitton, near Bristol, who 



applied to it by an old Scotch gardener, who told him that he had 
known it all his life by this name, because, said he, (clasping his hand 
round one of the branches near the ivm, and drawing it all the way to 
the top) " It is harmless and without a thorn from the root upwards." 
" Surely," says our Reverend friend, " there is not one of the genus so 
emblematical of Him who would not break the bruised reed, and was 
' harmless.' " It flourishes in any common garden earth, and is most 
easil\ increased by layers. 



sa, from the Greek PoSov, rob 

. but mi- dyed by the blood of Venus, wh 

she fled from Mars, after he slew Adonis • o 



Rosa Alhna. Linneus, Species Plantarum, Edit, secunda, p. 703. Willde- 
now, Species Plantarum, N •_-. \ U ur ,. Plain < I, P.iuphine, Vol. Ill, p. 
552. Smith, Rees's Cyclopaedia, under word Rosa. Miss Lawrance, Collection 
of Roses from Nature, plate 30. 



DIANTHUS FERB.UGI'NEUS. 

RUSTY PINK. YELLOW VARIETy . 
NATURAL ORDER, SILENACE^l. 



tata. Embryo vix curvatus. Decazdolle. Prodron: 
Regni Vegetabilis, Pars I, p. 355. 

SPECIES. DlANTHCS FeRRVGINECS. LlNNEVi 



Character of the Genus, Dianthus. Calyx tubular, five- 
toothed, and with two to four scales at its base, placed oppositely and 
Petals 5, with long claws. Stamens 10. Styles 2. 
one-celled. Seeds compressed, convex on the outside and 
rithiu, peltate. Embryo scarcely curved. 

the Species, Dianthus Ferrugineus. Flowers 
aggregate, with the scarious involucrum and calyx-scales rufous, oblong, 
awned, a little shorter than the calyx. Leaves linear, connate at the 
base to a considerable extent. 

Description of the Cultivated Variety. Flowering Stems 
numerous, about one foot high, rigid, slightly compressed. Leaves 
on the barren branches (?) Those on the floweriug stems about four 
pair, varying between half to the whole length of the internodia, rigid, 
erect, linear-lanceolate, pungent, connate from one-sixth to one-fourth 
their length; margins slightly scabrous, three-veined beneath. In- 
florescence in fascicles of about eight flowers, composed of two con- 
tracted spikes, nearly sessile, within a pair of involucrate lanceolato- 

Reference to the Dissections. 



subulate leaves as long as the fascicle. Bracts in opposite pairs, 
obovate-subulate, the uppermost narrowest, all more or less scarious, 
striate, and membranous at the edges. Calycine Scales (or partial 
bracts) two pair to each flower, resembling those on the axes, above 
half the length of the calyx, the innermost somewhat the broadest, 
their apiculate summits divaricating. Petals 5, with the claws twice 
as long as the limb, and clothed along the whole of the inner surface 
by an appendage attached down the middle and free at the edges ; the 
limbs wedge-shaped, irregularly toothed or jagged at the outer margin, 
of a clear sulphur colour on the upper surface, which is slightly 
frosted with a few short pellucid hairs, the under surface partially 
shaded towards the margin with rusty purplish red. Stamens 10, the 
five longest alternating with the petals, the five shortest opposite to 
them, the latter about the length of the claws, the former exserted. 
Anthers oblong. Germen mate, live-furrowed at first with the stigmas 
included, l>ul afterwards much increased, and the stigmas exserted. 
Styles filamentous, clothed by the stigmas through more than half 
the inner sides. J. H. Henslow. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. After minutely examining 
the characters of the present plant, and comparing it with dried spe- 
cimens of the nearest allied species, we believe it to be a variety of 
Dianthus ferrugineus, which Decandolle considers may itself be only 
a form of Dianrlui-. earthusiai orum. Willdenow notices the tendency 
which the petals of Dianthus ferrugineus have to become yellow on 
the upper surface, "petala subtus rufa, intus llavescentes;" and in the 
present variety they show a decided tendency to become rusty purple 
on the outside. But there is great uncertainty in discriminating the 
species of Dianthus, and Sir James Smith, in the second volume of 
the Linnean Transactions, when endeavouring to unravel their s\ do- 
nymes, has described his attempt as having led him into the most inex- 

fusion we feel persuaded must have arisen from the unnecessary 
multiplication of species in a genus where it has been so long known 
that some of them at least are subject to great variation. From such 
a consideration we think there may be sufficient grounds for supposing 
that such closely allied forms as those of Dianthus carthusianorum, 
capitatus, and ferrugineus, (and one or two more that might be men- 
tioned) will ultimately prove to be only varieties of one species, as they 
were originally considered by Linneus. The proportionate length of 



cii]y\, ami <>i tlio pair of \n\ olucral leaves to 
the head of flowers, are inconstant on the same plant, and consequently 
v.r\ (iiisalisliictoiv marks of distinction ; and we consider the greater 
or less degree of compactness in the heads of flowers of still less value. 
> <»t ferrugineus heing bifid, with the 
laciniae three-toothed, cannot be trusted, and mi^hi well !>e suspected 
in a genus when- i h«- I : •'■>■>• species Dianthus 

caryophyllus, are so well known to sport to a very great extent. The 
i ice of the petals of Dianthus cai'ilm-iaiionim are more or 
less villose, whilst those of Dianthus capitatus have been described as 
smooth; although in specimens of the latter from Georgia, distribute d 
by the Unio Itineraria, there is a distinct villosity apparent, and in 
our present plant also these parts are covered with short glandular 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This elegant novelty 
was exhibited last August (1836) at Bristol, to the botanical section 
of the British Association, by H. F. Talbot, Esq. of Laycock Abbey, 
Chippenham. This gentleman stated that he had received the seed 
from which the plant was raised a few years back from Italy. He 
had found it to be perfectly hardy, and to flower very freely in the 
open border. Italy and other parts of the south of Europe are prolific 
in respect to this genus, which occasioned Shaw's allusion in the 
following lines. 



Oft by sc 

Where d 

Once] 
Sweet flower, beneath thy natal sky 

No fav'ring smiles thy scents invite ; 

And paint her meadows with'delight." 
It should be remembered that perfumes are held in aversion by the 
Italians, which circumstance has drawn from the author the above 
forcible remark. 

The Dianthus has been so universal a favourite in our gardens, and 
so many beautiful varieties have originated under the hand of the 



florist, that the difficulty of determining species will not occasion sur- 
prise. Phillips, in his Flora Historica, has justly said, " England, as 
well as Spain, France, Germany, and most other temperate and warm 
climates, possess a native Pink, but to state how many of them have 
been changed b\ culii\atioii, and from which each peculiar variety first 
sprang-, would be as arduous a task as to attempt to define the pa- 
rentage of each peculiar apple, which, like the Pink, owes its excel- 
lence and variety to the labours of the cultivator. And the Pink, like 
the apple, com inn!- u< nan to preserve il from 

dtuviirratiiii: into ii- • i the hand of 

the uaid . ie petals ot the i'ink, he cannot 

render their beauties permanent, for nature seems to have allowed her 
works to bear a temporary improvement only, in order to create indus- 
trious habits in man, her most noble and finished work." 
Derivatiov of the Names. 
DiANTHL-s,froni Aior, dios, divine, A vQoq, anthos, a flower; the genus having 
long been est the beauty of some of its species, espedallj 

those varieties of the Dianthus caryophyllus, termed carnations, pic 
common pinks. Ferrugineus, from the rusty purple colour of t! 



EUPHORBIA SPLEN'DENS. 

SPLENDID EUPHORBIA. 

#-| {£&} ^P ^ 

NATURAL ORDER, EUPHORBIACEjE. 



GENUS. Euphorbia. Xiwwb 

xtus appendiculis plnndnlnsis, (P 

i pedicelli incerti numeri, singuli cum singulis 






Germen pedicellatum, centrale. Styl 
Species Plantarum, Vol. Ill, p. 758. 

SPECIES. Euphorbia Splendens. Bojeti. Friticosa, aculeis validis 
mimerosissimis, foliis oblongo-spathulatis mucronaU- 

Hooker. Botanical Magazine, folio 2!»u2. 

Character of the Genus, Euphorbia. Involucre androgynous, 
4-5 cleft, externally furnished with glandular appendages, (called Pe- 
tals by Linneus, Nectaries by other authors.) Those pedicels 
which are arranged around the central one, are variable in number, 
each bearing a single stamen, with which it is articulated. Ovary 
pedicellate, central. Styles 3, each 2-cleft. Capsule formed of 
three cocci. 

Description of the Species, Euphorbia Splendens. Stem 
shrubby, branched, both branches and stem beset with strong, straight 
thorns, pointing in various directions, of a dark colour when old, of a 
purple hue towards the top of the branches. Leaves alternate, atte- 
nuate at the base, spathulate-oblong, mucronate at the tip, somewhat 
fleshy, midrib raised, and extending from the base to the top of the 
leaf, the veins more parallel than is usual in the leaves of exogenous 
plants, bright green, except when old, then assuming a red or purplish 
hue, glabrous on both surfaces. Peduncles axillary, jointed in the 
middle, having at the joint two small bracts, above which they are 
twice dichotomously divided, at each division furnished with two small 
bracts ; higher still are two large bracts, rose-coloured above, pale 
pink below, roundish, spreading, united at the base, where they are 



cup-shaped and greenish. In the hollow formed by their union is the 
involucre, consisting of a single piece, cup-shaped, greenish at the 
base, with five reddish yellow, fleshy, erect or slightly spreading, 
rounded lobes, alternately with which are five small, red, fleshy lobes 
an ards and inwards. Staminiferous Flowers 
numerous, several of them abortive and mixed with numerous hairs. 
Pedicel green, but filament with which it is articulated red, forked, 
each fork bearing a one-celled anther, of a dark purple colour. Pis- 
tilliferoits Flowers formed each of a solitary pistil surrounded by 
the stamens. Pedicel very short. Ovary 3-lobed. Style 3-parted 
or rather one style springing from each coccus, adhering to the others 
to nearly the middle, then distinct, each style bifid. Stigmas capi- 
tate. Fruit consisting of three cocci, each containing one cell, and 
one seed. Seed oblong, blunt at each end, glabrous. 

Popular and Georaphical Notice. This very showy species was 
discovered by Professor Bojer, along the borders of fields in the pro- 
vince of Emirne, in Madagascar. Its native name is Soongo Soongo. 

this country by the Horticultural Society about 1827; and to this 
establishment our thanks are due for permission to make the present 
delineation of the plant, which has been so beautifully executed by 
Mi> Withers. It grows from three to four feet high, and requires to be 
kept in the stove, where it continues a conspicuous ornament for two 
or three months; producing flowers, more or less, from "Midsummer to 
Michaelmas. Cuttings strike root readily under a hand-glass. 
Derivation of the Names. 
Euphorbia is an altered termination of the Ev<j>op(3wv of Dioscorides, so 
called after Euphorbus, physician to Juba, king of Mauritania, who made known 
the properties of some species of this genus, all of which have a milky juice, 
which is in general acrid, and poisonous " 
the inhabitants of the Canary Islands drii 
being careful first to strip off the skin < 
chiefly to reside. Splendens, splendid. 



k Splendens. Hooker n 



SYRINGA JOSIKi 

LADY JOSIKAS LILAC. 






GENUS. Syringa. Linneus. Calyx breve 4-dentatus. Corolla sul 
hypocraterifornu i | ! >tk;jia bifidum. Capsci 

Longitudinalitei hula persistente. Semina oblong 

deplana circum alata. Reichep/bacb. Flora Germanica Excursoria, Vol. J 
p. 432. 



SPECIES, 
discoloribus, supra lucidis, subtus albidis, rugosis utrinque glabris, 

Character of the Genus, Syringa. Calyx short, i 
Corolla somewhat salver-shaped, the limb consisting of four 
concave pieces. Stigma two-cleft. Capsule ovate-compressed 
acuminate, two-celled, splitting by a loculicidal dehiscence into two 
valves, the dissepiment splitting down the middle, and one half of it 
adhering to each valve. Seeds oblong, depressed in the centre, sur- 

Description of the Species, Syringa Josik-ea. An erect 
shrub, branches spreading, very slightly waited, twigs purple. 
Leaves (about three inches long, one and a quarter inches broad) 
elliptico-Ianceolate, attenuated at both extremities, shining and lucid 
above, white and veined below, wrinkled, glabrous on both sides, cili- 
ated. Panicle terminal, erect. Calyx, as well as the pedicels, pedun- 
cles, rachis, petiole, mid-rib of the leaf, and the branches, closely covered 
with short glandular pubescence ; four-toothed, teeth blunt, and much 
shorter than the tube. Corolla half an inch long, clavate, funnel- 
shaped, deep blue, glabrous, wrinkled, tube slightly compressed ; limb 
erect, four-parted, segments involute at their edges. Stamens ad- 

Reference to the Dissections. 



hering to about the middle of the tube. Anthers incumbent, oblong, 
yellow. Pistil much shorter than the tube. Stigmata large, co- 
hering. Style filiform, glabrous. Ovary green, glabrous, two-celled. 
Ovules 4. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This recent addition to 
our shrubberies has the recommendation of flowering later than the 
old species, to which it bears considerable resemblance. It is a smaller 
shrub, the flowers of a much deeper blue, and with only a faint odour. 
The tube is longer than in the common species. The leaves greatly 
resemble those of the Populus balsamifera, or sweet-scented poplar. 

Introduction ; where grown ; Culture. It is a native of Tran- 
sylvania, growing in stony places on the territory of the Countess 
Rosalie Josika, in the county of Clausenburg, in Siebenbiirgen : it was 
first made known to botanists at the meeting of naturalists at Ham- 
burg, on the 20th of September, 1830, by the younger Jacquin. A 
plant of it was forwarded by the Messrs. Booth of Flotbeck, near 
Hamburg, to the Edinburgh Botanic Garden in October, 1832, where 
it flowered the following year. Our drawing was taken from a small 
specimen which flowered in the greenhouse of J. T. Jarrett, Esq. of 
Camerton House, in June last, and which it is probable was not so 
deep in colour as if it had been grown in the open air, nor the panicles 
of flowers quite so dense. It is quite hardy, requiring no peculiarity 



String a. An Arcadian nymph ^ 
or pipe, 2vpt r |, syrinx. The namt 
use the Turks make 
Josika, on whose p 



Syringa Josik^ea. Jacquin in Botanischer Zeitung, 1831, t. 67, p. 399. 
Reichenbach, Plants Critic*, i iii. plat, Mi vj Reichenbach, Flora Germamca 
Excursoria, Vol. I, p. 432. Botanical Magazine, pi. 3278. Graham in Jame- 
son's Edinburgh Journal, Vol. XV, p. 383. Botanical Register, pi. 1733. 



>-. 



OXALIS BOW'IEI. 

BOWIES OXALIS. 



NATURAL ORDER, O 



ernis alternis brevionbus. Styli 5, ap 
Jniversalis Regni Vegetabilis, Vol. I, p. 
SPECIES. Oxalis Bowiei. Herb. 
.etiolo viridi sexunciali, foliolis magnis, 



limbo saturate roseo, expans 
excepto) mini 



Character of the Genus, Oxalis. Calyx of five sepals, which 
are either free, or united at the base. Petals 5. Stamens 10, the 
filaments being slightly united at the base into a monadelphous tube, 
the five external stamens shorter than the internal ones, with which 
they alternate. Styles 5, either brush-like at the top, or capitate. 
Capsule five-cornered, obloug, or cylindrical. 

Description of the Species, Oxalis Bow,el Root bulbous, 
m which spring bothleaves andHower-stalks, there being no obvmus 



from which s 



Leaves ternate, petioles green, about 






' * •■ i — -w-nrllv and obversely cordate, 
Folioles, or Leaflets, sessile, large, roundly anu , 

green, the central leaflet larger, nearly two inch,., th, t*» la • .. h 
■ Scape, or Flower-stalk (of which frequenth twe^ 
;arly s irr"l^n P nnslv. with a succession 



ones) longer than the petioles, green , - rect, termi- 

natum lu an umbel of about twelve flowers, surrounded at the point 
of division by minute red hracts, (In- peduncles US-flowered, of a 
greenish red colour, curved or suberect, but as the flower expands be- 
coniinu straight. Flowers a lieaatiiu! ruse-colour. Calycine Seg- 
ments oblong, acute, red at the margin. Tube of the Corolla 
yellow, limb red, flower measuring, wh- u fully expanded, about one 
and three quarters of an inch across. Stamens shorter than the tube, 
exceeding the sth-in :- in length, the fi\e internal ones longer than the 
external. The whole plant, except the flower, clothed with a minute 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Though the species of 
Oxalis are to be found in nearly all regions of the earth (the coldest 
excepted), yet the majority of those known are natives of the Cape of 
Good Hope, where the present species was found. It is difficult to ima- 
gine any one of the numerous species which could surpass this ; certainly 
none equal it either in the size of the leaves, or the size and number 
of its flowers, reckoning the whole wlii.h it producer during the flow- 
ering season. The flowers before their expansion are scarcely less 
beautiful than when quite expanded, so elegantly are their spirally 
twisted petals arranged. Every part of the plant is worthy of obser- 
vation. The leaves are compound and jointed, which permits con- 
tted h\ the 
light, the leaflets, towards evening, begin to recline, and form a sort of 
cone, of which the summit < i ihe petiole i> the apex, as may be seen 
in leaves of the Oxalis acetosella, or common wood-sorrel. The 
flowers are also verj - lj expand thoroughly 

when the strong clear sun-shine falls upon them. But they may be 
caused to open by the light of a lamp thrown upon them in a concen- 
trated form, by means of a lens, as was done by Monsieur Boryde St. 
Vincent, (Annales de Physique, Tome I, p. 112) and so cheated out 
of their sleep. The term sleep of plants may excite surprise, hut 
many plants exhibit phoenomena analogous to the sleep of animals. 
atiun on the sleep <>t plants ( l)e 
Somno Plantavum, Amanitates Academics, Vol. IV, p. ■ '>■■ 
though it occurs to a greater or less extent in all plants, yet it is chiefly 
applied to those plants in which it is most perceptible, such as the 
Oxalis, and other members of the tribe Oxalidacea;, and those of the 

i ■ . ' • ; ■ 



pudica, and Mimosa sensitiva. For an exposition of the causes, and 
accompanying circumstances of the waking and sleeping of animals, 
see Virey, Philosophie de l'Histoire Naturelle, p. 315. 

This species, like all the others, contains oxalic acid in the state of 
a binoxalate of potass, which makes the leaves a grateful refreshing 
vegetable, in the warmer climates of the world ; but the excessive use 
of which, for any considerable time, produces serious ill effects. It 
has been supposed dial (lie gradual formation of vegetable acids and 
alkalis in plants, is the cause of that change of colour which certain 
parts are observed to undergo. Thus the corollas of Echium vulgare 
and Symphytum officinale are red in the bud, but become blue after- 
wards; that of V - \ellow, then blue. A pleasing 
experiment ma> b< , < nued b |>1 it inn a bunch of flowers under a 
a glass jar and bi the sulphuric acid 
e\olved, inimed • So also any infusion of ve- 
getable blue, as that obtained by soaking the corolla of the Violet, 
Cornflower, Iris, &c. turns red In ihe application of an acid, and green 
by an alkali, (see Maund's Botanic Garden, p. 146.) Hence it has 
been supposed, thi Wch takes place in the co- 
lour of the leaf i i ; ' ! ' for on a similar principle. 
Another hypothesis article*, (or globu- 
line) contained in the cellular tissue to assume different tints of 
colour, according as it is united with different proportions of oxygen; 
somewhat in the way that the differently coloured oxides of iron are 
formed. It has been observed also, that the plant retains a larger 
portion of the oxygen inhaled by the leaf, as the season advances; 
and a change of hue ensues. We are thus deprived slowly of the 
verdure of spring and summer, while the variety of hues, which form 
the intermediate stages before the woods become universally 

« in russet clad, 

The livery of the closing year," 
are as pleasing to the eye of the painter or the poet, as the tender 
green of spring, or rich effulgence of summer ; furnishing many a 
touching memento of our own transitory state, thus yielding illustra- 
tions alike to the moralist and divine, when pointing our regards to 
another world, " the fashion of which fadeth not away." 



Introduction ; where grown ; Culture. This species was 
received, in the year 1823, from Mr. Bowie, by the Hon. and Rev. 
William Herbert, of Spofforth, near Harrowgate, so justly celebrated 
for his cultivation of bulbous plants, and author of a work just pub- 
lished, entitled, " Illustrations of the Amaryllidaceae." 

In regard to its culture, Mr. Herbert states, " This most beautiful 
and ioa id plant is hardy, and in the open groundsill flower in the 
autumn ; but it blossoms most profusely when kept in a pot under 
glass, especially if, after a short period of rest at Midsummer, it is 
placed in a stove or warm greenhouse for a very short time to make it 
start freely. Its flowers expand in a very moderate temperature." 
We must not omit to mention, that although we have observed the 
Oxalis Bowiei live and increase in the open ground, it has never 
flowered well in such exposure ; and we presume that it is under very 
favourable circumstances only that it will do so. It grows very freely 
in light sandy loam, either with or without the addition of peat. 
Dei t jn of the Names. 
Oxalis, from 0%vq, oxys, sour, alluding to the acid taste of the plants of this 
genus. Bowiei, in compliment to Mr. Bowie, who discovered, and sent to 



Herbert in Botanical Register, i 



ONCTDIUM CRISTUM. 

CRISPED-FLOWERED ONCIDIUM. 



&£) fi 



~- * ::) * 



GENUS. Oncidium. Swartz. Perianthium explanatum. Sepala 
saepiusundulata; lateralibus nunc sub labello connatis. Petala conformia. 
Labelloi maximum, ecalcaratum, cum columna continuum, vara- b.butiuii, 
basi tuberculatum vtl cristittum. I'ommna libera, scmitcres, apice utrinque 

trato. Pollinia duo, postice sulcata, caudicula plana, glandula oblonga. 
Lindley. 

SPECIES. Oncidicm crispum. Loddiges. Pseudo-bclbis oblongis sulca- 
tisrugosisdiphylH-.: rfmplid noltificw©, 

nosis. Lindley. Genera and Species of Orchideous Plants, p. 197. 
Character of the Genus, Oncidium. Perianth spread out. 



Petals uniform with the sepals. Lip very large, without a spur, con- 
tinuous with the column, variously lobed, tuberculated or crested at the 
base. Column free, semi-cylindrical, apex winged on both sides. 
Anther nearly two-celled, the rostellum sometimes very short, at 
other times greatly elongated. Pollen-masses two, furrowed behind, 
the caudicula flat, the gland oblong. 

Description of the Species, Oncidium crispum. Pseudo- 
bulbs oblong, furrowed, rugose, bearing at the summit two leaves, 
which are lanceolate, coriaceous, acute, 6-7 inches long, marked with 
purple at the base. Scape springing from the base of the bulb, about 
two feet long, bearing here and there subulate leaves, vaginating, and 
sometimes connate. Inflorescence racemose, raceme spreading, 
flowers large, numerous, sometimes 50-60, about three inches across 
brownish. Sepals recurved, undulating, obtuse, the lateral ones half 
united, greenish, spotted. Petals twice as large, oblong, undulating, 



iti.uiii.-ii'.i:.-. m:.ri:i!i much crisped, obtuse, of a rich brown on the 
upper surface, marked with dark lines, red towards the claw, which is 
yellow. Labellum, or Lip, greatly contracted towards the base, the 
lateral lobes horn-shaped, recurved, small, the central lobe large, 
roundedly cordate or emarginate, waved or crisped. Crest deltoid- 
shaped, beset with a double row of teeth, yellowish at the base, red 
towards the summit. Wings of the Column rounded, toothed, 
fleshy. Anther-case ovate, acuminate, but truncated at tin.' top. 
Pollen-masses oval, yellow, on a long, broad, white stalk, furnished 
with an ovate, brown gland at its base. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This interesting species 
of Oncidium was found growing among the Organ Mountains of Bra- 
zil, on the dead trunks of trees. While in northern climes the barks 
of trees are clothed with common mosses and lichens, the stems of 
trees in tropical forests exhibit, in astonishing profusion, the richest 
and most superb vegetation : the most singular and elegant orchi- 
deous plants spring from the clefts and chinks of the bark ; and 
around the stem itself the Pothoses twine, and pn-li forth their white 
and -Inning flowers from between t Jit given 

leaves. Gazing on such scenes we might be tempted to consider them 
paradisaical, were it not for the knowledge, sometimes purchased at a 
fatal price, that " Iatet anguis in herba," — amidst the grass on which 
we tread, the serpent with its poison-fangs, lurks for its prey. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The lovers of orchi- 
deous plants are indebted for the introduction of this elegant plant to 
the zeal and enterprise of the Messrs. Loddiges of Hackney. The 
specimen from which our drawing was taken flowered in October, 
1836, in the handsome collection of William Taylor Copeland, Esq. 
M. P. at Leyton, Essex. It grows well in a pot filled with drainers 
and sandy peat, on a stand in the stove. It should have a hot moist 
atmosphere whilst in vigorous growth. 

Derivation of the Names. 

The generic name, Oncidium, bears a reference to two prominences on the 
alludes to the crisped margin of the petals of this species. 



ONciDitM crispcm. Loddiges' Botanical Cabinet, 1854. 
and Species of Orchideous Plants, p. 197 



'■• 



fl 



GESNE'RIA ELONGATA. 

ELONGATED GESNERIA. 



ORDER, GESNERACEjE. 

:: : £:, :: ,i:} f W=r 



GENUS. Ge«n 



SPECIES. Gesi 



ovarium; limb free, five-parted. Corolla tubular, widened towards 
the upper part; limb two-lipped, upper lip enmrginately two-lobed, 
lower lip three-cleft. Stamens 4, dhhnamous. Stigma two-lobed. 
Capsule, covered by the calyx, one-celled, two-va!ved ; placenta; ->, 
parietal, opposite, musi^in^ each ol'tuo piaies, or lamella'. 

with quadrangular hranelies. e).,tlied with ruuuh wool. Leaves oppo- 
site, petiolate, oblong. acuminate, attenuate al the base, nearly entire, 



Petioles about eight lines long, woolly. Peduncles axil- 
:e inches long, hairy, four-flowered. Flowers umbellate, 
e, erect, fourteen to fifteen lines long. Pedicels nearly an 
, round, pilose. Bracts 2, placed opposite each other at 
)f the pedicels. Calyx woolly or downy, five-cleft, segments 



limb five-cleft, segments roundish, nearly equal, spreading, spotted. 
Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted on the base of the corolla, slight!] 
protruding beyond the throat. Filaments smooth. Anthers ovate, 
two-celled, cohering in pairs. Ovary half-inferior, pilose. Style 
pilose, included within the corolla. Stigma two-lobed. Capsule 
ovate-conical, invested by the persistent calyx, pilose, one-celled ; de- 
hiscing only at the apex into two valves ; placenta? 2, opposite, 
parietal, formed of two lamellae, or plates. Seeds numerous, small. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The majority of plants 
belonging to the tribe of Gesneracere, of which the genus to which our 
present specie- ;(ppiTTni!!- i- the type, aiv found evelu-ively in South 
America and the West India Islands. The native spot of Gesneria 
elongata cannot be stated with precision, since Humboldt, who disco- 
vered it, does not seem to remember where he found it ; he, therefore, 
sets down Quito as its habitat, but with a note of interrogation, ex- 
pressive of his doubts as to the accuracy of this locality. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The leaves ofmany 
species of Gesneria, and probably of this one among others, when 
taken off close to the stem pable of producing a new 

i perfect root and stem. The explanation of which pecu- 
v be, that at the base of the petiole of the leaf, where it joins 
the stem, are situated some latent or undeveloped buds, which, when 
placed under the new conditions above mentioned, are stimulated and 
become fully developed; see Professor Henslow's Descriptive and 
Physiological Botany, page 286, (293) for an account of the leaves of 
the Bryophyllum; and also at p. 52 (60). Our drawing was made 
from a plant, two feet high, which flowered in September last, in the 
stove of the Messrs. Pope, of Handsworth, Staffordshire. Several Bri- 
tish cultivators imported this species from the Continent in 1835. 
We are not aware of its having been introduced previously. 
Derivation of the Names. 
Gesneria, or (as it ought to be) Gesnera, in honour of Conrad Gefiner, m4 
Elongata, elongated, in reference to the length of the peduncles bearing the 



.. V..1. II. J, :J!s. t 



KHEX'IA MARIANA. 



mdolle. Prodromus Systematis Uni 

ventricose at the base, contracted at the apex into a neck, limb four 
cleft, persistent. Petals 4, obovate. Anthers 8, the connectivun 
neither visible nor prolonged at the base. Capsule free in the swollei 
tube of the calyx, four-celled, the placentae lunate and pedicellate 
Seeds cochleate. 

Character of the Species, Rhexia Mariana. A perennia 

Branches oppo hairy. Leaves opposite, la n- 

ceolato-oblong, acute, contracted at the base, rcticulateh lluee-uervcl, 
sharply toothed, teeth pointed w'nh hairs, hriJit green. Fi.oinr. 
Leaves small, lanceolate, bract-like. 1'i.rioi ,>;> ihort, ch a n ne ll e d, 
with scattered hairs. Flowers with short smooth pedicels. Calyx 

tals 4, adhering to the limb of the calyx, spreading, roundish, faint! \ 
mucronate, smooth, purple. Stamens *, protruding. Amui.:^ 
linear, somewhat falcate, yellow, smooth, two-celled. 0\ary ovato- 
globose, smooth. Style slender, smooth, scarcely longer than 1 1 j - - 



Popular and Geographical Notice. All the species of the 
genus Rhexia, at present known, are natives of North America, and 
our present subject is found in several states, from New Jersey to 
Carolina; also in Maryland and Louisiana. They are characterized, 
among the other members of the tribe, by their four-cornered stems, 
their sessile entire linear-lanceolate or ovate, three-nerved leaves, and 
the flowers, which are ternate, of a purple or yellow colour, being 
disposed in a corymbose cyme. The venation ol the leaves is of that 

< haraeti-ri/ed is the family • i tin- M< laMomacra', that from the exami- 

ledge of the structure and aspect of tin- whole tribe. Certain -enera 
shew an approximation to the tribe of Myrtae.se, and others to the 
Lythracea>. The fruit of several is edible, and frequently eaten 1>> 
children; by which their mouths become blackened, in like manner as 
we see those of little rustics in our own country, from eating black- 
black ; and aropa, stoma, mouth. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The Maryland Rhexia 
was originally introduced into tia> country in 17o!).!m; was h»t again 
till recovered by some of our late botanical collectors. Our drawing 
was made from a plant which flowered in the greenhouse of the Bir- 
mingham Botanical Society, in the month of August. It may, not- 
withstanding, be considered a frame plant, and will even hear the 
winter in the open border, when planted in sandy peat, in a favourable 
situation. Its roots are tuberous, and may be divided in the spring. 

Rhexia, a name used I. j .•_. tin :x»,a protrusion 01 

genus, though containing totally different plants. 



i Mariana. Nuttall, Genera Americ. I, ] 
iLudovicianv. Rafinesqu. { 
W Amer. I, p. 221. /3,Rvbf. 



BRUGMAN'SIA SANGUI'NEA. 

BLOOD-COLOURED BRUGMAXSrA. 



z\w ~w 



, ORDER, SOLANACEjE. 



t 



conglutinatjc. Sti itam. Capsula 2-1o- 

SffiKnu reniformia. Da no Dox. 
SPECIES. Bnt-GMAxsu sanwixea, I)o.\. Foliis sinuato-lobatis, sub- 

Character of the Gems, Brugmansia. Calyx tubular, ven- 
tricose, 5-angled, persistent, contracted at the apex, which is two or 
three-lobed. Corolla funnel-shaped, five-plaited, five-lobed ; lobes 
terminating in a long point. Stamens .3, included in the corolla, con- 
tracted. Anthers closely approximating. Stigma thick, two-Iobed, 
revolute at the margin. Capsule two-celled, smooth, many-seeded. 
Seeds kidney-shaped. 

Description of the Species, Brugmansia sanguinea. Stem 
woody, from three to five feet high, (in its native country often twelve 
feet) simple below, branched above. Branches short, somewhat 
herbaceous, leafy, clothed with white prominent hairs. Petioles 
thick, one to three inches long, hairy, nearly round, but slightly flat- 
tened above. Leaves alternate, often two springing from near the 
same point, ovato-oblong, obtuse, waved, sinuate, lobes blunt, both 
surfaces covered with soft white hairs, upper surface dark green, under 
paler, presenting numerous reticulations, very prominent veins spring- 
ing from a thick round midrib, whence proceed lateral branchings ; 
the leaves are from two to nine inches in l.-nuth, and from one to five 



the third had flowers of a fine yellow colour, which, though not so 
showy, were perhaps more elegant. The seeds were sown in 1832, 
m id the plants, tried both in the conservatory and stove, grew fast, but 
did not show for flower : one was, in the summer of 1833, plunged in 
the open border in a pot, and left there by way of experiment. In 
the winter it died down to the ground ; but in the spring sent up four 
vigorous shoots four feet high, which in September produced many 
flowers. The first frost of the subsequent winter so much affected it, 
(although the gardener took every precaution) that, for fear of losing 
it, he removed it into the house. When he took it up, he found that 
it had forced a long taproot, above one foot six inches in length, 
through the pot. Two other plants were planted, without pots, last 
summer, in the flower borders ; and when they showed for flower, were 
removed into the border of the conservatory, where they flowered well 
late in the autumn. The plant appears to require more room for its 
roots than a pot affords ; for those only grow luxuriantly and blow 
which are in the ground. Miss Traill's gardener says he does not 
think ii will stand the winter without protection, as it is nipped by the 
first frost. He has not yet succeeded with the cuttings he has tried : 
indeed, ii is difficult to obtain them from the plants. The plants in 

into fine flower ; and it is hoped that the time of the year being more 
favourable, seeds may be obtained from them. The last year the 
seed-pod formed well, but dropped off before it swelled to any size." 

We would call the attention of our readers to a superior method of 
cultivating the Brugmansia suaveolens, which is, doubtless, applicable 
to saimuinea. It was published in the Gardener's Magazine, Vol. XII, 
p. 589, whence we derived it for the Auctarium of the Botanic Garden, 



t Species Plantarum, ' 

tGMANsiA bicolor. Persoon, Synopsis Plantarum, Vol. I, p. 216. L: 

t Botanical Register, t. 1739. 

cgmanha SANGtJiNEA. David Don in Sweet's British Flower Garden, t. 



CALOCHOKTUS VENUSTUS. 

GRACEFUL CALOCHORTUS. 




hacter of the Genus, Calochortus. Calyx herbaceous, 

3 sepals. Petals 3, coloured, larger than the sepals, bearded 

within, resting upon a channelled claw. O vary superior, three-celled, 
many-seeded, the ovules in two horizontal rows. Stigmata petaloid, 
involved. Capsule three-valved, at ih. j u\>ox, dehiscing with a septi- 
cidal dehiscence, sometimes obtu-rl\ ilin . -,u:li1< •!. oblong and beaked, 
at other times three-cornered and roundish. Seeds flat, arranged in 



Description of the Species, CaLwu^^o ._„„.,..«. 

bulbous, part bearing the flowers long, slender, having towards the 
middle two lanceolate leaves. Flowers, rarely exceeding two, on 
long peduncles. Sepals 3, green, lanceolate. Petals 3, ovato-ob- 
long, white, having towards the base a pencil of hairs, at which part 
are streaks of deep red on a yellow ground ; another red spot is seen 
nearer the margin of each petal. Stamens 6. Filaments short. 
Anthers nearly twice as long. Ovary oblong, crowned by three 
petaloid stigmas. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The present species bears 
considerable resemblance to Calochortus macrocarpus and Calochortus 
splendens : from the last it differs by the straight petals marked with 
a dark spot at their base, while it differs from Calochortus macrocar- 



pus by the absence of the green rib on the petals ; and from both by 
the colour of the flower, which is pure white, except where the lower 
part of each petal is marked in streaks of deep red on a yellow ground, 
with a spot near the margin, somewhat resembling a spot of blood. 

This most pleasing flower was discovered in California, by the late 
Mr. David Douglas, and by him introduced into the garden of the 
Horticultural Society of London. It forcibly recalls to mind the lines 
of Cowper. 

But shows some touch in freckle, streak, or stain, 
Of his unrivalled pencil. He inspires 
Their balmy odours, and imparts their hues, 
And bathes their eyes with nectar, and includes, 

The forms wii ; the earth. 

Happy who walks with Him. Whom what he finds 



e green blade, that twinkles in the sun, 
pts with remembrance of a present Goi 
resence, who made all so fair, perceive* 



here grown ; Culture. The specimen of this 
beautiful species of Calochortus from which our drawing was made, 
grew in the Nursery of Mr. Henderson, of Pineapple Place. It is a 
most attractive flower, and but little known, having blossomed in this 
country for the first time in 1833. It usually grows about two feet 
high, under greenhouse protection. The bulbs will begin to vegetate 
in December or January, according as they have been kept more or 
less warm, when they should be planted immediately in pots of light 
compost, and have greenhouse or other protection for flowering. Or, 
in May they may be turned into the open borders, where they will 
flower luxuriantly. The bulbs must be taken up as soon as the stem 
and leaves are dead, and kept in paper bags, till they again require 
planting. 



CALociioims,froni KaW, kalos, beautiful; and Xoprog, chortos, grass; 
referring to the beautiful flowers, which the species with grass-like foliage pro- 
duce. Venustcs, from Venus, alluding to the graceful and charming appear- 
ance of the plant when in flower. 



Transactions of Horticultural Society, Second 



IPOMJS'A HORSFALLI.E. 

~MRS. HORSFALLS IPONLEA. 

No. 31. 

GENUS. Ipomjea. Jacqvw. Calyx 5-partitus, midus. Corolla cam- 
panulata vel infundibilifonnis, 5-plicata. Ovarium 2 3-loculare, loculis dis- 
pennis. Stylus indivisis. >: e.;\i\ i-ai>i!atum,2-3-lobum. Capsvla2-3-1ocu- 
laris Robert Brown. Prodromus Flora? Nova? Hollandise. 

SPECIES. Ipojlsa Horsfalli.e. Hooker. Volubilis glaberrima, foliis 
quinato-digitatis, foliolis lanceolatis integerrimis margine unduhttis, v\ mis .li 
fhotomis, calycis i . ; infan.libilitY.nui, 

stigmate bilobo. Hooker in Botanical Magazine, folio 3315. 

Character of the Genus, Ipom^a. Calyx five-parted, naked. 
Corolla ranipamilate or funnel-shaped, five-plaited. Ovary two- 
three-celled, cells two-seeded. Style entire. Stigma capitate, two- 
three-lobed. Capsule two-three-celled. 

Description of the Species, I pom r v Horsfalll32. A climbing 
evergreen ; stem, as well as every part of the plant, glabrous. Leaves 
alternate, petiolate, quinately-digitate. Leaflets generally five, rarely 
six or seven, lanceolate, entire, somewhat pointed, contracted towards 
the base, margin slightly undulate. Pedcvci.es axillary, about as 
long as the petioles, supporting a dichotomous many-flowered cyme. 
Pedicels club-shaped, smooth. Calyx five-lobed, lobes equal, 
roundish or ovate, obtuse, dark purple, imbricated. Corolla funuel- 
shaped, limb short, spreading or reflexed ; lobes rounded, emarginate, 
shining, of a rich rose-colour, of equal depth on external and internal 
surfaces. Stamens 5, equal, extending beyond the tube; filaments 
smooth, inserted upon a hairy scale-like uland, which is arched be- 
neath. Ovary globose, surrounded by a large fleshy ring or disk. 
Stigma capitate, two-lobed, hairy. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. It is a subject of doubt 
with Mr. Horsfall, whether the seeds from which this species was raised 
in England in 1832, at his seat at Everton, near Liverpool, were re- 



celved from Africa or the East Indies ; its native country is therefore 
lor the present unknown. It is, however, a most acceptable addition 
to our stove plants, as if pnxlves its rich and elegantly formed blos- 
soms in winter, ami nartialh ihrough the year. 

The genera Ipomaea and Convolvulus are so similar, that many 
unite them into one, but the best botanists keep them separate. In 
Convolvulus the ealw sometimes hits two small bracts, in Ipomaea it 
is always naked ; in Convolvulus the stamens are shorter than the 
limb of the corolla : ovan is two-, seldom three-celled; and the stig- 

blance to the Ipomaea paniculata of Brown, Imt is distinguished 1>\ its 
quinately compound leaves; while those of paniculata are simply lobed. 
The roots of many species of Convolvulus contain a resin which 
renders them useful in medicine ; and even the Convolvulus arvensis, 
and the more showy Calystegia sepium, or Hedge-convolvulus, may 
be employed in the same way as the exotic species. The Ipomaea 
sensitive displays great irritability of its corolla ; and even the more 
common sorts « \ .. and contract when touched. 

The flowers remain expanded for a very short time ; their beauty and 
perishable nature have " pointed the moral " in the following lines. 
1 ro^chS" ° WD 






( [,.,„ 1 






only gift, is gone !" Miss Twamley. 

Introduction; where grown j Culture. Our drawing was 
made from a specimen grown in the stove of John Willmore, Esq. of 
Oldford, Staffordshire. Mr. Williams, his gardener, has obligingly 
informed us, that In taking young cuttings of this plant with a slice 
of the old wood, accompanied by a perfect leaf, they strike root imme- 
diately when placed in a hotbed, in sand, under a bell-glass. Mr. 
" difficulty in its propagation. 



DELPHINIUM TENUISSIMUM. 

~ MOST SLENDER 1 



© - iiiHi:::}^-"^ 

NATURAL ORDER, RANTJNCULACEjE. 

rzratt {rnci^f :=: 

No. 32. 
GENUS. Delphinium. Tourneport. Calvx deciduus petaloideus, irre- 

periora basi in appi ■ l>uta. Decaxdolle. 

Prodromus System - F, p. 51. 

SPECIES. DELPHixnMTEsrisM-.uM. Sibthorp. Cacle erecto gracili 

Decandolle. Prodromus Systematis Universalis Regni Vegetabilis, Pars I, 
p. 52. 

petaloid, irregular, viz. having the upper sepal prolonged downwards 
so as to form a spur. Petals 4, of which the two superior are pro- 
longed downwards and lodged in the spur. 

herbaceous plain. ill most delicate pubescence. 

Stem scarcely a foot high, erect, round, slender, leafy, dividing above 
into a many-flowered panicle. Radical Leaves with petioles nearly 
an inch long, lobed, lobes two or three, broad, stem leaves with shorter 
petioles, three-parted, lobes trifid, subdivided, upper leaves sessile, 
entire, very narrow. Panicli lly even compound 

or branching, very slender. Pedicels one-flowered, filiform, with 
bracteolae at the middle. Fi.tnvr.ns small, blue or violet-coloured, 
spur straight, hairy. Petals el liptico -lanceolate. Nectary without 

Seeds roundish, pale, surrounded with oblong white scales, which 
are imbricated upwards. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Though this plant is a 
small annual, with no very showy flowers, it yet possesses an interest 
from it - place of growth, which r 

Reference 



native site is Mount Hymettus, near Athens, celebrated alike for its 
marble and its honey. Both these productions of this locality are 
frequently alluded to by ancient authors, and the source of the latter 
is alluded to by a modern writer, whose prose is scarcely less poetic 
than his verse. " What is Greece at this present moment ? It is the 
country of the heroes from Codrus to Philopcemen, and so it would 
be, though all the sands of Africa should cover its corn fields and olive 
gardens, and not a flower were left on Hymettus for a bee to murmur 
in." Coleridge's Friend, Vol. I, p. 202. For the present state of Hy- 
mettus, see Hobhouse's Journey through Albania, Letter XXVI, p. 388. 
The seeds of Delphinium staphisagria yield an alcaloid, called 
Delphmia, which exists in it in the state of a malate of Delphinia, and 
winch is possessed of great virulence. It probably exists in the other 
species of the genus, nol onh in the seeds, but probably also in the 
leaves. It is remarkable that insects do not prey upon the leaves of 
any species of Delphinium, which may possibly be owing to the fine 
instinct with which the> are endowed, indieaiing to them the presence 
of a principle which would !.<■ detrimental. The consequence of in- 






DKLrniMi M,tV.mi to 
lectary to the imaginary 
I Lark-spur, from the s 



t cultivation ; hut the\ should he 
s the poisonous properties they 

Culture. The Delphinium 
ens by Dr. Sibthorp, and pub- 
dtivated in England till the year 
several botanical establishments 
warden of St. Petersburg. Our 
applied by Mr. Shepherd of the 



ora Gneca, plate 505. Prodrome 
le Regal Vegetabilis, Vol. I, p. 315 
salis Rcgni Vegetabilis, Pars I, p 

i Fischer U Meyer lad. iScm. Hon 



GILIA CORONOPIFO'LIA. 

RAVEN-FOOTED GILIA. 



L ORDER, POLEMONIACEjE. 



GENUS. Gilia. Cavanillbs. Calyx campanulatus, 5 fidus, margine et 
sinubus membranaeeis. Corolla infundibulil'ormis vel subcampanulata, limbo 
o-partito, biennis obovatis iuteyris. Stoiina ad fauceiu vel vix intra tubmn 
inserta. Anther.? olyspermi. Bentham 

in Botanical Register, folio, 1622. 

SPECIES. Gilia coronopifolia. Peksoon. Caulibusstrietispanieuhiiis 
glanduloso-pubes.'. - Qliformibus apice 

' • 
Character of the Genus Gilia. Calyx campanulate, 5-cIeft, 
margin and inden Corolla funnel-shaped or 

subcampanulate, limb o-parted, segments obovate, entire. Stamens 
inserted at the rtu the tube. Anthers ovate or 

roundish. Cells of the capsule many -seeded. 

Description of the Species, Gilia Coronopifolia. Root 
fibrous. Stem simple, about 3 or 5 feet high. Radical Leaves 
crowded, dark green, somew] tat ingly clothed with 

hairs, which are most numerous along th oiidrib r rachis; the tipper 
leaves undivided : the hairs on llu- >tem uhitnhilose. Flowers paui- 
cled, aggregated, nodding; calv\ with i^laiulnlose hairs, obhmgo- 
campanulate, genera 11% -">-.!tt'i . segments ereet. a %\ I -shaped. Corolla 
reddish, or brick-- tbe nearly an inch in length, 

limb o-cleft, segments bhint, spread im.: nr r< Hexed, the upper surface 

scarcely longer than the tube of the corolla. Ovary oblong, obtuse, 



crowned by a portion of the style. Seeds in each cell few, in a dou- 
ble row, somewhat oblong or cubical, angles slightly prominent. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. For the introduction of 
this plant we are indebted to Mr. Douglas, who discovered it on 
the North-west side of America. We may imagine the rapture expe- 
rienced by this intrepid explorer, when rewarded for his toils by fortu- 
itously meeting with such an elegant production. Even here we can- 
not forbear adopting the language of the accomplished authoress of 
" The Romance of Nature " and exclaiming, 

Oh! to behold ye in your native homes, 

Ye strange and glorious creations! There 

Springing 'mong giant trees, whose soaring tops, 

Are roofed by the o'erarching sky, ye grow, 

And bloom, and flourish in uncultured pride, 

Gorgeously beautiful. I close mine eyes, 

And fancy paints a wilderness of wealth, 

And sunny prairies of the western world, 
Where birds on wings of every glittering dye, 
Flit in gay freedom, through their forest homes, 
And insects sparkling in the sunlight, fill 



into the Garden of the London Horticultural Society, where, from a 
finely grown plant, our drawing was taken in the month of July. 
Though in its native country it is a perennial, with us it is seldom 
more than biennial. It should be sown in the autumn, and the young 
seedlings transplanted into small pots, and protected, during winter, 
in a cold frame; or, which is preferable, near the glass in an airy 
greenhouse. In spring they should be repotted as frequently as the 
roots become matted within the pots, using plenty of drainers, and a 
fresh loamy soil. If planted in the borders it should have a shady 
situation, but it rarely flourishes under full exposure. 
Derivation of the Names. 
Gilia, in honour of Dr. Gil, a Spanish physician. Coronopifolia from 



Sweet's British Flowej 



■ ■"■.' 

, /k 






, : 





% 



MENTZE'LIA STIPITA'TA. 

STALKED MENTZELIA. 

®-i {irss:;} %>-^ 

NATURAL ORDER, LOASACEiE. 



lobed, or angular, pointed at the top with large unequal teeth, both 
surfaces hairy, upper surface deep green, under lighter. Flowers 
large, orange-yellow, solitary. Peduncles springing at a distance 
above the axils of the leaves. Tube or the calyx cylindrical inclos- 
ing the ovary, lobes 5, awl-shaped or lanceolate. Petals 5 attached to 
the interior of the calycine tube, limb free, obovate, mucronate, lon- 
ger than the segments of the calyx. Stamens 30-40, of which the 
10 exterior are longer than the rest, and curved towards the pistil- 
lum, the othei deflected all towards one side of the pistil. Ovary 
concealed in the tube of the calyx to which it adheres. Style simple, 
subulate, stigma pointed. Seeds 3, enclosed in a transparent jelly 
which fills the seed-vessel. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The present species of 
Mentzelia is a native of Mexico, whence it was sent by Mr. Bates. 
The flowers of all the species hitherto known are orange-coloured, 
and only expand when exposed to strong direct solar light, and con- 
tinue in bloom only a few hours, but follow each other in rapid suc- 
cession. They are devoid of perfume. The hairs of many species of 
Loasa, and of Blumenbachia insignis, secrete a pungent juice, much 
more potent than that of the nettle, and as it is probable that this pro- 
perty is possessed by the hairs of some Mentzelias, it is prudent to 
avoid touching them carelessly. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Introduced by William 
Bates, Esq. into the Liverpool Botanic Garden, where it flowered in 
the Green-house in October, 1836. It may be propagated by cuttings, 
in sand, under a hand-glass, or raised from seeds. A mixture of sandy 
loam and peat seems to suit it best. 



n honour of Christ! who was Physician 

f Brandenburg, and died in 1701. He was a celebrated orien- 
■ell as botanist. He published Lexicon plantarum polyglotton 
ies Arborum fructkum et herbarum, and left in Manuscript, Bo- 



Decandolle Prodromus Systematis Universalis Reg- 
p. 343. G. Don. System of Gardening and Botany, 



BRO'DLEA GRANDIFLORA. 

LARGE-FLOWERED BRODI^A. 




SPECIES. Brodlea. grandiflora. Smith. Peduncclis umbellatis 

Character of the Genus, Brodlea. Perianth resembling 
a corolla, (from the external sepals being of the same colour as the 
internal), campanulate, angular, limb six-cleft. Stamens 6, attach- 
ed to the throat of the perianth; :i i< nil. . with \< i\ short flat filaments; 
3 sterile, scale-like, attached opposite to the external lobes of the limb. 
Disk hypogynous, fleshy, three-lobed. Ovary resting on a short pedi- 

the ovary. Stigma 3-lobed. Capsule pedicellate, surrounded by 
the perianth, 3-celled, splitting with a loculicidal dehiscence into 
3 valves. Seeds in each cell 4-5, obovate, compressed, with a black 
membranaceous testa. Embryo orthotropous in the axis of a fleshy 

Description of the Species, Brodi^ea grandiflora. Stem 
bulbous, small, round, solid, externally wrinkled. Outer leaves 
scale-like, membranous, forming a sheath around the bases of the in- 
ner leaves, which are few, long, linear, acuminate, channeled on the 
internal surface. Scape, or flower-stem equal in length to the 



leaves, erect, round, terminating in a bracteated, few-flowered umbel 
of handsome blue flowers. Bracts small, early becoming membran- 
ous and withered. Pedicels of the outer flowers of the umbel about 
an inch and half long, those of the central flowers shorter. Perianth 
tubular below, and green as long as it continues adherent to the ovary, 
angular, owing to six elevated brown lines, upper part forming a limb 
of six spreading, lanceolate segments, of a blue or purplish colour. 
The throat or faux exhibits three stamens, with oblong, yellow an- 
thers, which dehisce by a line the entire length of their sides, fila- 
ments winged and short ; alternating with these, and attached to the 
three external segments of the limb, are three abortive stamens, in the 
form of 3 lanceolate or oblong scales, which are white, and somewhat 
fleshy. Pollen oblong, diaphanous. Ovary obovate, attenuated at 
the base into a pedicel, three-lobed above. Style filiform, as long 
as the stamens, white. Stigma 3-cleft. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This truly elegant plant 
was first discovered l>\ Mr. Mi-n/ics, the companion of Vancouver, in 
New Georgia, on the North-west coast of America, in 1792; from 
whose dried specimens Sir James E. Smith drew up his description, 
and on which he founded the genus. It has subsequently been found 
by Dr. Scouler and Mr. Douglas, at Puget, Fort Vancouver, and 
throughout the dry plains west of the Rocky Mountains. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Introduced by bulbs, 
sent by Mr. Douglas to the Garden of the Horticultural Societv- in 
1826 ? The plant from which our drawing was derived flowered in 
the nursery of the Messrs. Pope of Handsworth, in the month of July. 
It prospers when planted in a shady border, in peat soil ; and may be 
increased by offsets and seeds. 

Derivation of the Names. 
Broth**, so called by Smith, after James Brodie, Es 




GESNE'RA LATERI'TIA. 

BRICK-COLOURED GESNERA. 



5-partito. Coroi.s labiate; labio supe- 

riore emarginato-bilobo, infenore trifido. Stamina 4, didynama. Stigma 
bilobum. Capsula • - bivalvis; phu-entis parktalibus 

duabus, oppositis, >r, Boxpland, et Kvnth. Nova 

Genera et Species Plantaruni, Vol. Ill, p. 315. 

SPECIES. Gesnera lateritia. Lindley. Hmwacea, foliis subrotundo- 

busque geminatis, br is, oorollis tomento- 

sis, labio superiore oblongo concaro bilobo, inferiore truncate. Likdley. In 
Botanical Register, folio 1950. 

Character of the Genus, Gesnera. Calyx attached to the 
ovarium; limb free, five-parted. Corolla tubular, widened towards 
the upper part; limb two-lipped, upper lip emarginately two-lobed, 
lower lip three cleft. Stamens 4, didynamous. Stigma two-lobed. 
Capsule covered by the calyx, one-celled, two-valved; placentae 2, 
parietal, opposite, consisting each of two plates, or lamellae. 

Description of the Species, Gesnera lateritia. A herbace- 
ous plant with an erect simple stem, which like every part of the plant 
is clothed with hairs. Leaves opposite, roundedly or ovately-cordate, 
crenate or toothed, rugose, hairy, veins very conspicuous on both sur- 
faces. Peduncles axillary, or terminal, the lower ones solitary, the 
upper ones geminate, the bracts sessile, amplexicaul, plane ; pedicels 
reddish. Calyx ovate, 5-toothed, teeth lanceolate acute. Corolla 
woolly, of a brick-red colour, about an inch long, nearly cylindrical, 
but contracted at the base, divided into an upper and under lip, upper 
lip oblong, concave, of equal width at the base as at the apex, two- 
lobed, over-hanging the mouth of the corolla, lower lip obscurely three 
lobed, truncated. Stamens 4, didynamous adhering at the base to 
the tube of the corolla, at the upper part free, and protruding beyond 



the lower lip, but not equalling the upper lip. Ovary conical. Style 
as long; or nearly so as the stamens. Stigma 2-lobed. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant is a native of 
Brazil, whence it was received by the Horticultural Society. It was, 
till lately, considered to be Gesnera Sellowii of Martius, a mistake 
discovered by Dr. Lindley, who has bestowed upon it the name it must 
in future bear. It does not even belong to the same section of the 
species as Gesnera Sellowii, but belongs to the group of which Gesnera 
bulbosa is the type It is very nearly allied to Gesnera faucialis, from 
which however, it differs in the leaves being more round, while the 
flowers are smaller. It attains the height of two feet. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Introduced about 
1832, by the London Horticultural Society. This, as well as several 
other species of Gesnera, the whole of which are stove plants, have 
tuberous roots, by which they may be easily increased. The best 
time for dividing these is when they have begun to vegetate; for if 
division be performed earlier they will sometimes perish, particularly 
if kept too moist, whilst in a dormant state. Another method of in- 
crease is by cuttings. When the young shoots are two or three inches 
high, they may be taken off with a heel of the fleshy tuber, and they 
will make root quickly, and become fine flowering plants in the same 

Derivation of the Names. 
./thV fiXr^of'moVZ 1 !! t' lH , , f - ESN "' V' ^ h ° n0Ur ° f C ° nrad G6Sner ' ° nC 
« cr, » oncK, or tile, in reference to the colour of the flowers. 

Gesnera latsritia. Lindley in Botanical Register, folio 1950. 



4>. 



3 







DENDRO'BIUM MOSCHATUM. 

*"" MUSK-SCENTED DENDROBIUM. 
NATURAL ORDER, ORCHID AC EM. 

i {:::h:}## = 



GENUS. Dendrobicm. See No. 5. 

SPECIES. Dendrobum moschatcm. Wallich. Caulibus teretibus, 

Description of the Species, Dendrobium moschatum. Roots 
numerous, attached to branches of trees, consisting of simple waved 
and stout fleshy fibres. Stem of the thickness of the little finger, as- 
cending from a span to a foot or more in length, cylindrical, jointed, 
striated, having t( iv . -pleading, vagin- 

ating, lanceolate, entire, obtuse, shining leaves; from the lower part of 
the stem springs the raceme, b uie, tawny orange 

or buff-coloured flowers. Peduncle 6-8 inches long, jointed, with 
several sheathing scales at the base. Bracts, striated, at the base of 
each pedicel, short, oblong, obtuse. Flowers when fully expanded, 
which they are only when the sun shines upon them, from 2| to 3 inches 
wide. Sepals oblong obtuse spreading, prolonged at the base ; petals 
oblong refuse, broader than the sepals ; both sepals and petals ob- 
scurely tesselated. Lip erect, jointed upon the prolonged base of the 
column, and doubled upon it, large, extremely ventricose, resembling 
a Cypripedium, of a deeper colour than the sepals or petals, hairy with- 
out, inner surface darker than the outer, marked on each side with a 
blood-red spot. Column very short, of a pale colour, except at the 
margin which is red, greater part of its length united with the perianth, 
much prolonged down the front of the ovary. Filament of the sta- 
men very short; anther deep purple, attached by a filamentous process 
to the top of the column, 2-celled, each cell having a dissepiment, and 
containing two double pollen-masses, of an oblong shape approxima- 



ting dial forming 2 pairs. Ovary very long, round, scarcely twisted, 
slightly thickened upwards, Style none. Stigma a viscid concave 
disc, situated immediately below the anther, with a stigmatic canal, 
which extends to the ovary. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Few more interesting spe- 



; which we have just described. Yet it is by no means a newly-dis- 



covered plant, for besides 



, Dr. Wallich, who described 



' Dendrobium Calceolus, from Dr. Carey's Gar- 
den, in India, it was found in the progress of Symess interesting Em- 
bassy to Ava, in 1795, and described by Dr. Hamilton (now Buchan- 
nan) in Symes's Narrative, 4to Edit. London, 1800, p. 478, from which 
we learn that the Birmese name is Thee-kna-nec. It would appear to 
have a considerable geographical range, for it occurs at Rangoon in 
Gosuingstham in Nepaul, and at Pegu. Neither is the superb character 
of the flowers their only recommendation, for they diffuse a faint odor, 
resembling musk; a conjunction of properties which never fails to at- 
tract us most forcibly towards their possessors. 

Notwithstanding the different colour of the flowers, and the narrow 
leaves of the plant, which Dr. Hooker describes in Exotic Flora, plate 
184, under the designation of Dendrobium Calceolaria, we agree with 
Dr. Lindley in his conjecture that it is the same as Dendrobium mos- 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This plant was sent, 
some years ago, by Dr. Wallich, from Calcutta, to the Liverpool Bot- 
anic Garden. To this extensive and well-conducted establishment, we 
are indebted for the opportunity of figuring it, in which we have been 
admirably assisted by the experienced pencil of ] 
Liverpool. It flowered in June of the present year, 1837. 
Derivation of the Names. 



Ava,4top.478. 
ic Flora, 184. 

uik! SiK-i-i.-. >>l Orchidaceous 



III'BES SPECIO'SUM. 

SHOWY GOOSEBERRY. 



?££}<¥> -W 



NATURAL ORDER, GROSSULACEJ2. 



w 



GENUS. Ribes. Linxjevs. 
Petala 5 parva albida lutt a v.! •. 
ris. Sts-li 1-2-3-4-fida. Bacca v 
arillata oblonga subcompresSa. Decandolle. 

SPECIES. Ribes specioslm. Pursh. Subgemmis 3-plicato-aculea- 

- • ■ ; ■ - 

brevibus. Pi jei minibusque 

glanduloso pilosis. Decandolle. Ibid, p. 478. 

Character of the Genus, Ribes. Calyx five-lobed, segments 
more or less coloured. Petals five, small, whitish, yellow, or red. 
Stamens 5 seldom 6, filaments free Styles 1-2-3 or 4-cleft. Berry 
one-celled, receptacles lateral. Seeds generally furnished with an 
arillus oblong, somewhat compressed. 

Description of the Species, Ribes speciosum. Shrub about 
four or five feet high, branched, branches alternate, surface covered 
with glandular hairs. Thorns three, placed under each bud. Leaves 
alternate, fasciculated, petiolate, wedge-shaped, lobed, smooth veined, 
light green above, greyish green below. Flower-stalks axillary 
two or three-flowered, longer than the petioles. Flowers pedicellate, 
bracteate; the pedicels and ovaries covered with glandular hairs. 
Calyx tubular, coloured. Petals 5, small. Stamens 4-5, greatly 
exceeding the calyx in length. Filaments slender, red. Anthers 
two-celled. Style long, slender, shorter than the stamens, stigma 
two-cleft. Fruit a berry, one-celled. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Every one who has seen 
this very beautiful species of gooseberry is struck with the apparent 



similarity of its flowers to that of several species of Fuschia, which has 
led some botanists to insist upon an affinity between the Currant tribe 
and Evening-primrose, tribe, to which the genus Fuschia belongs. The 
closeness of this affinity is questioned by other*, (see Lindley's Natu- 
ral System of Botany, 2nd Ed. p. 240.) The genus Ribes cannot be 
confounded with the genus Fuschia, as the flower of the former has 5 sta- 
mens,of the latter 8. This species is a native of the West coast of North 
America, in North California and Montery ; apparently also of Mexico. 
Introduction ; where grown ; C ulture. This species was first 
raised in England from seeds sent by Mr. Collie, at Montery, in 1828, 
to the garden of that zealous patron of botany and horticulture, A. B. 
Lambert, Esq. of Boynton House, Wiltshire, where it flowered in 1831. 
Our drawing was made at the Nursery of the Messrs. Pope of Hands- 
worth, from a standard plant in the open ground, where its gracefully 
pendent branches, decked with innumerable flowers, as with glittering 
rubies, shone brilliantly in the sunny rays of May and June. It is cer- 
tainly one amongst the most showy of small flowering shrubs, and is 
admirabU adapted lor training against a wall or trellis, where it will 
attain the height of six or eight feet. Although of deciduous charac- 
ter, it has in some degree the advantage of an evergreen, on account of 
the perpetual growth of small leaves from almost every bud along its 
slender branches, which afterwards contrast prettily with its < ■nm- 
son flowers. Nor is the growth of these suspended even in winter, but 
by theirconhin.il e\pan>ion lI.o! 1. n ai 1 refresh inn eyes with the 
pleasing verdure of Spring, in the midst of the wintry chills of Decem- 
ber and January. It is very readily propagated by cuttings. We do 
not know whether any culinary use can be made of the berries, which 
may possibly ripen well in the more southern parts of this country. 



urn-Kin urn Tubes, I.inneus, but which Tragus th< 
i of gooseberry. Speeiosum shewy, from its attr: 


1. Pursh. Flora Ann 


Flower Garden, t. 149. D< 
vegetabilis, pars III, p. 47S 
p,812. Botanical Registe 



^v 



■ > 



15 y 



CRFNUM CAPENSE. 

CAPE OF GOOD HOPE CRINUM 







evalveexsulcum, dissijiim.niis ..bsoletis; scui 
osa) Herbert Auiaryllidaceaj. p, 78. 
e. Herbert. Fm.n- latolanreohttis nun 
His brt'vissiniis, tulxi corollae elongato, limbo 
inte. Sprbngbl bpecies Plantarum 



1 the germen. Filaments 

bent. Stigma 3-comered or trifid. Capsule soft, deformed, without 
valves or furrows. Dissepiments obsolete. Seeds very irregular in 
form, size, and number. (Leaves properly tubular at the base.) 
Description of the Species, Crinum Capense. Stem bulbous, 

thong-like, lanceolate, ron-h at tin- mar-ins, l,i\l\ reclined at the up- 
per part, glaucous on both surfaces. Si pekior Leaves upright,chan- 
nelled their whole length, very narrow. Scape about two feet long, 
straight, roundish or sliuhtlv compressed. Umbel few or many-flow- 
ered. Spatha two-leaved, lanceolate. Pedicels short. Ovary glo- 
bose elliptical, de\oid of furrows, smooth. I' no win white, segments 
tinged with red on the outside. Tcbe angular or roundish furrowed, 
twice as short as the limb, recurvedly funnel-shaped, segments ellipti- 



perianth. Stigma mu;i1I. «»i».u*wlan-. open, >Iiuhrly hairy. Seeds 
from 20 to 50. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The genus Crinum, which, 
in the recent revision of the tribe of Amaryllidaceae, by Mr. Herbert, 
is stated to consist of about 46 known species, is spread round the 
whole belt of the globe, within the tropics, and within a certain dis- 
tance from them, p. 348 : many are found in the East and West Indies, 
while a considerable number are native of the Cape of Good Hope, of 
whose botany bulbous plants form a characteristic feature. The species 
of the genus Crinum do not possess in any great degree the acrid or 
poisonous properties of the tribe to which it belongs; nevertheless Cri- 
num Asiaticum is poisonous to dogs, and Zeylanicum may be sub- 
stituted for the Scilla maritima, as it possesses analagous properties. 

The species of this genu.-, lend themselves with more or less faeilitv 

to the formation of hybrids, many of which are more shewy, and at 

cies. Respecting those 

aln i'h [ii i lul i uh i 1 1 k < i % J i. pi !■'!. i u< h interesting 

ion may be found in the late publication of the Hon. and Rev. 

W. Herbert, who has paid great attention to this subject for many years. 

been introduced into this country about the middle of the last century. 
We have bt • m and some other Ama- 

rylKdaceee, to our readers, on account of their beauty and the very 
little care which they require at the hand of the cultivator. The ori- 
ginal of our present eng by a p la at which was 
presented to us at least seven years ago, and has lived through all vi- 
eissitudes, under neglect, and we me 11 ilowering, 
iiliy. Ii reminds us of humility, as described by a female 
writer. " It endures « ut. It ne- 
ver thinks itself worthy of a recompense, therefore it asks for none." 
This is an estimable qua its, for it must be confes- 
sed that some demand more attention than their good qualities can ever 
repay. During winter our plant has never had further indulgence 
than the shelter of a cold frame, or a shed, and not always so much as 
this. In summer it has generally been placed beside a small foun- 
tain, where the pot which contains it, usually stands in water, an inch 
deep. During one summer the pot and plant was entirely submersed 
in wa tef ; and even then, it floweret 1,1 



to our own experience, we shall give that of Mr. Herbert, who says, 
"It is a very hardy species, endures the winter, and flowers in 
profuse succession during 5 or (i monllis, in a bed covered with leaves, 
and with me it ripens seed by the bushel. It delights in wet, and 
will flower in a pond, but its fibres are rather disposed to rot in the 
water of a cold pond in the winter. In a warm situation it may 
remain always in water. I do not know that its fibres would rot if it 
was growing in the soil under the pond. It might be advantageously 
placed by the edge of any ornamental piece of water, and would form 
a beautiful clothing for a small island, where it would afford thick co- 
vert for water fowl. Nursery gardeners might easily rear it from seed 
to sell by the hundred. A covering of leaves is not necessary to it, 
and its own dead foliage would give it a good deal of protection. I 
have had the neck of a bulb, which was left in a pot standing in a small 
pond, clasped tight by ice two inches thick for a fortnight, without 
its receiving any injury." Anmi-yllidaeea?, 270. "The seed of the 
tropical species of Crinum will often lie for a very long time without 
vegetating. It may be made to grow immediately, by cutting off 
carefully, a portion of the fleshy mass, so as to expose the point of the 
embryo, after which the seed should be set edgeways in a small pot of 
earth, just covering the radicle. The operation requires however a 
cautious hand; for if the point is cut h\ the knife, the vitality of the 
seed is destroyed, and its direction is uncertain, though more likely to 
bend towards the bikini or scar than elsewhere. Small bits of the flesh 
should therefore be pulled off with the point of a knife rather than cut, 
till the embryo is discovered." Ibid, p. 402. "All the hybrid Crinums 
raised between Capense and tropical species, which are now very nu- 
merous, are hardy enough to stand out of doors against the front wall 
of a stove ; where, if a mat is thrown over them in sharp frosts, they 
preserve much of their leaves through the winter, and from May to 
November continue throwing up a succession of flower-stems in great 
perfection. Crinum senbro-Capeiise bears the most beautiful flower; 
Crinum pedunculato-Capense is of the largest stature." Ibid, p. 356. 

Flued Borders. "The vigour with which mules of the genus Cri- 
num, and many other plants, grew out of doors against the front wall 
of a stove, persuades me that a great variety of plants might with a 
little care be cultivated better in the open mound than under glass, if 
the border in which they are to grow were flued under ground, and a 



tarpauling, or any water-proof covering, placed over them at the time 
when it might be requisite to exclude either rain or cold. The cover- 
ing might hang on the two sides of a strong longitudinal pole, like the 
two slopes of a roof, and be made to roll up either with or without a 
spring. There are many plants which seem to enjoy a cool atmos- 
phere, but will not flower or thrive vigourously without the stimulus 
of heated earth at the root. Having chosen a situation where a fur- 
nace and boiler could be placed under ground, I would carry the 
smoke-flue as far as its heat would extend on one side, and hot-water 
or steam-pipes in a diib'ivn! direction, us might be found convenient, 
enclosed in a stone or brick flue, to as great a length as its influence 
might reach. In such a border I believe the genus Hedychium and 
many others, would flower perfectly, with the assistance of fire in 
summer, requiring nothing in winter but a covering to throw off the 
wet; and the heat might be turned into other pipes for the advantage 
of plants which might require the warmth in winter rather than in 
summer. If in front of a wall, a moveable verandah, which might be 
either ornamental or made of I eu die-gates, would 

throw off the wet, which is the principal cause of injury in winter; for 
many plants will endure the access of severe frost to the head, if all 
wet can be effectually excluded from the base of the stem and from the 
root by any sloped heading. Under such a verandah, with occasional 
heat to the flue, during the early summer, -and perhaps in severe frost, 
Amaryllis, Brunsvigia, Buphane, Nerine, Haemanthus, and all the al- 
lied genera of African bulbs, as well as the South Americans, would 
certainly succeed better than with any other treatment." Herbert, p. 



HOVEA CELSI. 

CELS'S HOVEA. 



<¥> ^ 



(JEM'S. Hovea. Robert Brown. Calyx bilabiatus, labio superiore 
;emibifido lato retus<>, mi<n..r<- tnr>;utit.>. Cvrjna obtusa. Stamina omnia 

entricosuin, dispermum. Semina strophiolata. Decandolle. 
SPECIES. Hovea Celsi. Bonpianb. Foliis Ianceolatis subrhombcis 



lip semibifid, broad, retuse,lower lip t 

or less detached at the upper pari. J.r.oi ur.N i.r pod sessile, roum 

swelling, two-seeded. Seeds strophiolated. 

Description of the Species, Hovea Celsi. An upright sit 
about 4 feet hi- - about the middle of the s 

Li w ESSCatt co-lanceolate, re: 

lately veined, mucronate, villous In n • .ith. with more prominent ne 
than the upper surface. Peduncles axillary, solitary, longer than 
petioles, racemose, bearing from :j--> dowers with -J small adpre 
bracts at the hase of each flower. Flowers bhie, reined, about 
an inch ia length, somewhat nodding. (' \\.\ \ dioil.-i than ilu'-taiul 
4-cleft, of a fawn-colour, el », 2-lipped. 

PER LIP much tlie longest, hi-oa<l!\ wedge-shaped or turbinate wit 
broad round margin. oh-run-h uot< lied at the top, somewhat kei 
at the hark: , raaJ, straight, acute. Stand 

u j. rig! it. spread ig smooih.ola , ,1 .t. I\ - oimd \< r\ mm h !a -< i i 

short. Wings; spathu!a!<!\ oblong, lidding within them the k 



which is much smaller. Keel obtuse, compressed, purple. Stamens 
mon- or diadelnhous, njiul ; anther* •■mall yellow. Ovary pedicellate, 
short, compressed, 2-seeded, smooth, whitish. Style long, smooth. 
Stigma formed of a small pubescent head. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This like all the rest of 
the genus Hovea, with which we are acquainted, is a native of New 
Holland. It exhibits the peculiarity of the flower-buds of the suc- 
ceeding year app aose expanded during the pre- 

sent. This is a common condition of leaf-buds which are always vis- 
ible the season preceding their expansion, but not frequently so with 
flower-buds, which though they may be formed seven years before their 
development externally, generally remain concealed till the period of 
unfolding. Those of the Hovea Celsi, are perfectly protected by the 
scales in which they are enveloped, which is one of the means by which 
the God of Nature manifests his care of his creatures, 

He marks the bounds which winter may not pass, 

And blunts his pointed fury ; in its case, 

Russet ai [erfrerm 



Designs the blooming wonders of the next.— Cowper. 
The under surface of the leaf and stalk are very liable to be infested 
with an insect, the Greenhouse Coccus, (Coccus Adonidum of Fabricius, 
Coccus Hesperidum of Kirby and Spence) which can only be remo- 
ved by the nail being insinuated below it, and so taken from its hold. 
For some interesting notices of this insect, see Taylor's Scientific Me- 
moirs, Vol. I, p. 214. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Introduced into the 
Nursery of Mons. Cels, at Paris, by the French expedition, under 
Capt. Baudin, whence it was brought to Britain in 1817. 

The plant from which our drawing was made, flowered in the ele- 
gant conservatory of W. Leaf, Esq. Parkhill, Streatham, in May, 1836. 
It is not so advisable to grow Hoveas in pots, which Would seem to be 
detrimental to them, as in the border of a conservatory. They thrive 
admirably in an equal mixture of sandy loam and peat; 
Derivation of the Names. 

i Botanist; who tra- 
ld sent many plants to the Kew Gardens, 
a, nurseryman of Paris. 



e ProdromusSystematis Universalis Reg. Veg. v. II, p. 1 



LUCITLIA GRATIS'SIMA. 

SWEET-FLOWERED LUCULIA. 

GENUS. Luculia. Sheet. Calvcis tubus turbinates, limbus 5-parti- 
tus, laemiislineari-subulatis a?qualibus dceiduis. Corolla hypo-craterimor- 
pha, tubo calyce duplo loi;u' . limbo expauso fere 

5-partito, lobis tin nit.*: oblongse ad faucem subsess 

iles subinclusae. Stigmata 2, carnosa. Frictis capsularis oborato-oblongus 

suwura imbricat; . Mina,apk-e latiorr. 

Decam>olle. I'i i.\l» Regui Vcgctabilis, Pars IV. 

SPECIES. Licvlia Gratissima. Sweet. Foliis elliptic^ acuminatis 

Character of the Gems, Luculia. Tube of the Calyx tur- 
binate, limb S-f [-shaped, equal, deciduous. 
Corolla salver-shaped, twice as long as the tube of the calyx, not 
much dilated at the top, limb expanded nearly 5-parted, lobes obo- 

fleshy. Fruit capsular, obcvate-cddunu', naked, marked at the top 

septicidal dehiscence. Placenta elongated, at last separating from 
the dissepiment. Srj :i» minute closely imbricated upwards, sur- 
rounded by a toothed membranous wing, very short at the base. 
broader at the apex. 

Description of the Species, Luculia Gratissima. Stem 
shrubby, in its native country a small tree, branched, branches oppo- 
site, round, pubescent. Leaves opposite, spreading elliptical, with a 

Reference to the Dissections. 



short point, petiolate, smooth above, the under surface strongly nerved, 
villous along the course of the nerves. Stipules longer than the 
petioles, solitary on each side, broad at the base, pointed at the apex, 
deciduous, inflorescence a terminal corymb, many-flowered, the 
branches dichotomous, the superior ones three-flowered. Bracts oppo- 
site, under each division, and at the base of the pedicels, linear deci- 
duous. Flowers large, elegant, of a delicate pink, or rose-colour. 
Calyx, 5-parted, of 5 distinct sepals, which are linear, bluntish, pale 
red below, with green points, slightly pubescent on the outer surface, 
resting upon the ovary, deciduous. Corolla funnel-shaped, tube 
slender, angular, slightly furrowed, twice as long as the calyx, scarcely 
widened at the throat, which is destitute of pubescence \ limb spread- 
ing, deeply 5-lobed, lobes imbricated at the base, margins rounded 
renulatt'. St whins -">, i -, -rv 1 at the throat, the fila- 
ments short, thin, anthers erect, scan I the throat, 
Pollen yellow. Sttle smooth, red, not more than half the length of 
the tube. Stigmas 2, thick and fleshy, oblong or spathulate, spreading 
at the point. Ovary top-shaped, fleshy, clothed with a fine down, 
2-celled. Ovules numerous. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant, which in its 
native country is a small tree, grows on the exposed hills in the valleys 
of Nepaul and Silhet, blossoming, according to the situation in which 
it is found, all the year round. The flowers possess a fragrance which 
perhaps is not surpassed by any other tree, and they even retain the 
odor when dried and placed in the herbarium. The bark possesses 
febrifuge properties, and may be substituted for Cinchona bark, in the 
treatment of fever. In Bengal it is called Ussokoli, and in India, 
generally, the Nepaul Cinchona bark. 

As one of the objects in view, in commencing The Botanist, was to 
aid in extending a beneficial knowledge of the vegetable kingdom, 
by treating of the various plants figured in this work, not merely 
as interesting from their beauty, or as isolated members of that 
kingdom, but by pointing out the relationship or affinity of one plant 
to another ; and as the present subject is well fitted to exemplify our 
meaning, we avail ourselves of it to make the following remarks. In 
former times, the end proposed by the study of botany, was seldom 
more than to ascertain the name imposed upon a plant, and then, 
perhaps, refer to some work, for information respecting its properties, 



or points. For this purpose. an\ classification, howeve 
that led easily to the discovery of the name, was sufficier 
ohserved by Professor Daubeny, in his Inaugural Leci 
time seems at length arrived, when a more philosophical o 
of the multitudinous objects which present themselves to us in our sur- 
vey of the vegetable kingdom, seems feasible — when, instead of resting 
satisfied with the mode of da-... m i, . -• ihlMu-d by Linneus, in 
which the individuals grouped together possess no necessary resem- 
blance in structure, our primary object should be, to bring together those 
species, which offi i analogies to each 

other, in the hopes ' r< , • i'eoi meting a system, when tin ven 
place which the plant occupies in it, shall, in a manner, announce 
its most prominent characters, thi \irtuesi hie] it may possess, and its 

Method, in which plants are associated in uioups, or tribes; and it is 

tany a claim to the title of a Science — the only one by which the prin- 

tribe is neither more '.tor Ie>> than ih • <>!■- i-.t-l <tead\ association of 

genera. A natural tril><\, ihereti.re, may he supposed to e a circle, (a 



of Peru, employ for the cure of fever, the species 
among them, those species universally known f 
the Brazilians employ with a similar intention, 
tribe, native of Brazil ; while in French Guiana, I 
in Carolina, the Pinckneya pubens, and in I 
lands, various species of Exostem ma, yield febrifi 
the bark of species of this tribe, furnish excel 



•while in the East Indies, in addition to the Luculia Gratissima, tin- 
barks of several species of the Hymenodictyon, yield febrifuge barks. 
In short, it may be stated, that of forty-four kinds of bark, which are 
used as substitutes for the Peruvian Barks, thirty -two are obtained 
from plants of the tribe of Cinchonaceae. Nothing can more forcibly 
demonstrate the advantage of acquaintance with the natural method of 
botany, as it supplies a key to the knowledge of the properties of plants 
in every part of the globe. 

Introduction; where Grown; Culture. The first plant of 
this species which grew in Britain, was raised a! Ashridge, the Seat of 
the Countess of Bridgewater, from seeds received from Nepaul. The 
specimen from \\ - taken flowered in the Green- 

house of the Messrs, Henderson, Nurserymen, of Pine Apple Place ; 
London, in December, for which a prize was awarded by the Metro- 
politan Society of Florists and A n... en . Much has been said regard 
ing the culture of this plant. Some persons have found it rather diffi 
cult of management, from the precise temperature which seems to be 
most suitable to its successful growth, being intermediate between that 
of the stove and the greenhouse. In general, however, a warm green- 
house, with frequent pottings, in a mixture of peat, sand, and loam, 
and the use of plenty of drainers, will ensure rapid growth and splen- 
did flowers. When young plants are required, cuttings should be taken 
of the half-ripened shoots, which will strike root in sand, under a bell- 
glass, without bottom heat. They should not be exposed to the direct 
rays of the sun, nor be kept too moist. 

Lcculia, a Latinized form of the native name Luccli Swa. Gratissima, 
superlative degree of gratus, sweet or grateful, to express the exquisite perfume 



tissima. Wallieh in Roxburgh's Flora Indica, p. 1, 1. 
:ulia, Don, Prodromus Flora; Nepalensis, p. 139. 
ssima. Decandolle Prodromus Regni Vegetabilis, V< 



r 






BER'BERIS DUL'CIS. 

SWEET-FRUITED BERBERRY. 



<^> tip 



■iiruia. B.m 



. Bebbehis DtLcis. Dov. Friticosv 



attached laterally at the base of the seed-vessel, erect, oblong, with a 
crustaccous te-t . ■ l.-dun> leafy, elliptical; ra- 

dicle long, capitellate at the top, 

Description of the Species, Berberis duxcis. A shrub, 

Stem much branched, 4-li) I'eH hi-h; hrauehr-. hVxuose, sharply triau- 

shorl hair. Spines 3-5, united at the base, and closely attached to 
olate, terminating in a sharp point, attenuated downwards, with a 
on the upper side, paler beneath ; amused in tuft-, or fasciculi a'ong 



rough glands, ii each toft of leave* 

along the stem, small, of a fine yellow or orange colour, supported by 
a peduncle, nearly an inch and half long, which is slender, drooping, 
and clothed with a short glandular pubescence. Sepals 6, of une- 
qual size, bright yellow, ovate, concave on the upper side, rounded at 
the points, 3 outer ones about a third less than the inner ones. Pe- 
tals 6, opposite the sepals, shorter than the inner ones, ovate, entire, 
concave inwards, somewhat undulate at the margins, rounded at 
the points, of a rich orange 1 
filaments fleshy, thickened a: 
of the anther distinct, pollen granular, glossy. Ovary smooth, roundly 
oval, tapering towards the stigma, which i- large, pt Itate and orbi- 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The discovery of this 
interesting plant is due to Mr. Anderson, the botanical collector at- 
tached to Capt. King's expedition to the Straits of Magellan. Ac- 
cording to 1. ■ aits of Ma- 
gellan, unless the plant of Chiloe be u eumstance 
■seat plant, 
and by having deciduous leaves, while this one possesses evergreen 
leaves. Th< fi not merely ornamental, but useful, 
being employed to make tarts, sweetmeats, and preserves. 

There are many curious points in the structure and habits of the 
Berberry : the spines are leaves, of which the parenchyma is absent, 
and the mid-rib indurated; the stamens are remarkable for their irri- 
tability, for if the base of a stamen be touched with a pin or knife, 
it springs forward and strikes the pistil.' The same occurrence is ob- 
served when the opposite poles of a glavanic battery are attached, one 
to the petal, to which the stamen is fixed, the other to the pistil. 

Introduction; Where Grown; Culture. Introduced about 
1828, by Mr. Anderson, to Lowe's Nursery, at Clapton. It is quite 
hardy, and may be propagated by layers, or may be inarched on the 
common Berberry ; or young cuttings, planted under bell-glasses in 
pots of sand, will strike root readily. A mixture of sandy loam and 
peat, or sandy peat alone, is suitable to it. 

Derivation of the Names. 
Berberis, according to some, from Btpfiapi, the Greek for a shell, the 

Berberis dulcis. Don. In Sweet's Flower Garden, 2nd Series, Folio 100. 



POLYGALA SPECIO'SA. 

"* SHEWY MILKWORT. 



LACE^E. 

6 * SS 



SPECIES. Poikw.v Sfi-.m.-:^. ,SV.!W. Fours inieriorihus oblong- 
cuneatis obtusis. - tf s -lahris, bracteis 

deciduis; pedicelli- ; Decaxdolle. Prodromus Sys- 

tematis Universalis Regni Vegetabilis, Part I, p. 391, 233. 

Generic Character of Polygala. Calyx consisting of 5 per- 
sistent sepals, of which the two interior are wing-shaped. Petals 3-5, 
united to the tube of the stamens, the inferior keel-shaped, ( pro- 
bably formed of two petals cohering.) Capsule compressed ellip- 
tical obovate, or heart-shaped. Seeds with haiiy pubescence, 
carunculated at the hi] urn, not comose. 

Description of the Species, polygala speciosa. Stem 
shrubby, erect, 5-6 feet high, not much branched, green, inclining t<> 
purple. Leaves alternate, linear-oblong, obtuse or emarginate, some- 
times mucronate. Flowers in terminal racemes, large, shewy ; bracts 

large, wing-shaped. ; i pie, L unii |l\ veined; two of the petals 
small, the third ' d. S i \\i ens eight, united 

at the base into a two-cleft tube. Anthers oblong, adnate. Style 

nearly enclosed by the keel, long, slender, curved, stigma two-cleft, 

Reference to the Dissections. 



one of the sides erect, and emarginate, Hum >ilur han-intr down, green, 
glutinous on the under side, hy which it attaches the pollen. Cap- 
sule, compressed. 

Popular and Geographical Information. This species which 
is one of the most shewy of the genus, is like many of its allies, found 
exclusively at the Cape of Good Hope. So many plants indeed are 
limited to that region of the earth, that the vegetation of the extra-tro- 
pical part of South Africa is quite peculiar and charaetcn-tV. 
Schouw has called it the kingdom of Stapelias, and Mesembryanthe- 
mums,but it might with more propriety be termed that of Ericas and 
Pelargoniums. 

Introduction; Where Grown; Culture. This species was 
introduced into the gardens of this country, in 1814, by the Messrs. 
Young of Epsom, having been raised by them from seeds furnished 
by Sir John Jackson. It requires the shelter of the greenhouse; and 
thrives well in a mixture of sand, with two-thirds peat, and one-third 
turfy loam. To obtain cutlings til (i»r planting, the branches should be 
topped, when numerous young shoots will spring out, which should be 
taken off close to the old branches, when about three inches long, and 
in a growing state; then planted in pots of sand under a hand-glass, 
and placed in a close frame. It is a very showy plant, when in flower, 
but at other times, appears deficient of foliage, and being a deciduous 
shrub, it is completely denuded in winter. It is a suitable conservatory 
plant, and is said to be so hardy, as to bear the open air, at Dysart, 
close to the sea-shore, in Fifeshire. It is well known, that near to the 
coast, many plants will bear to be exposed, during winter, which can- 
not be so treated in the interior of the country. The caloric of the sea 
being given out at that season, equalizes and moderates the temper- 

Derivation of the Names. 

.mull, an.! yeika, mitt, either on account of the 



roLYGAtA Speciosa. Sim's in Botanical Magazine, 1780. ( The o 
ce given in Don's Diet, to Bot. Mag. is a mistake. Ker in Botanical 

U ° nm ' • iiiiurami Untauv, Vol. I. 



CLIANTHUS PUNI'CEUS. 

CRIMSON CLIANTHUS, OR GLORY-PEA. 




calyce 5-dentato, legumine glabro. Lindley. Botanical Register, 1775. 

Character of the Genus, Clianthus. Calyx widely campan- 
ulate, nearly equal, 5-toothed. Standard acuminate, reflexed, lon- 
ger than the parallel wings, keel skiff-shaped, much longer than the 
standard and wings, completely monopetalous. Stamens manifestly 
perigynous, diadelphous, all fertile. Style twice as long as the sta- 
mens, towards the apex slightly hearded, stigma quite simple. Legu- 

pedicellate, coriaceous, a< 
what woolly within, dorsal 
Seeds kidney-shaped, attached by rather long chords. 

Description of the Species, Clianthus puniceus. Stem 
branched from 2-4 feet high, round, smooth, except when cracked, de- 
void of all pubescence save on the under surface of the young leaves, 
and on the green parts of the flower ; branches green. Leaves alter- 
nate, stipulate, oddly pinnate, of 8 pairs of folioles; folioles oblong, 
obtuse, subemarginate, distinctly alternate : stipules green, ovate, re- 
flexed, very much smaller than the folioles. Racemes pendulous, ma- 
ny-flowered; axis flexuous; Bracts ovate, reflexed, very much shorter 



than the slender bracteolated pedicels. Calyx 5-toothed, teeth acu- 
minate. Standard ovato-lanceolate, acuminate, reflexed, 2 inches 
long, externally of a rose-colour, internally of a deep blood-colour 
except when to-.. 

or lines. Wings of a blood-red colour, obtuse, about H inch in length. 
Keel quite monopetalous, acuminate, nearly 3 inches long, of a red- 
ish orange colour, pale towards the base. Pod nearly 3 inches in 
length, dark-brown, veined. Seeds kidney-shaped, brown, speckled 
with black spots. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The enterprising natural- 
ists, Banks and Solander, who accompanied Captain Cook, in 1769, 
first discovered this plant in the northern interior, of New Zealand; 
it was again discovered by the missionaries in 1831. Its native name 
is Kowainqutukaka or Parrots-bill : but it is most justly entitled to 
the name, given by Solander, of Flower of Glory. A group of such 
shrubs would realize the description by the poet — 
Of flowers that with one scarlet gleam 



;re grown; Culture. Mr. Richard Davi>. 
Missionary Catechist at New Zealand sent the seed of Clianthus puni- 
ceus to the Rev. John Noble Colman, of Ryde, Isle of Wight, who 
sowed it as soon as it was received in the autumn of 1831. In the fol- 
lowing spring they produced several fine plants. The specimen from 
which our drawing was made flowered in May, 1836, in the rich col- 
lection of William Leaf, Esq. Parkhill, Streatham. Cuttings strike 
root most readily under a hand-glass, indeed where its branches touch 
the ground, they will take root like Verbena Melindris. Trained 
to a southern wall, it will grow luxuriently, but notwithstanding its ap- 
parent health, during winter, in such situation, when spring succeeds, 
it betrays its southern origin, and either dies, or recovers with diffi- 
culty. 

Derivatjon of the Names. 
Ciianthus, from kXuoc glory, and avBog a flower. Pcnicecs, scarlet, from 
Pumcus, of or belonging to Phoenicia, of which Tyre was famous for its dye of 



, New Series, Vol, F. j< .?2i, 
n D VoT tt CSICEA ' Geor « e Dtms General Dictionary of Gardening and Bota- 



LI1/IUM SPECIO'SUM. 

SHEWY LILY. 
NATURAL ORDER, TULIPACE^E. 

ft (=:*:> #* = 



stiyiiKi subtrilnhum. C.ai w i .-. loculicido-trivtil- 

subspongioWti mi ml phejhinc per marginem decurrente. 

Embryo in axi albi segmoideus,extremitate radiculari 

umbilico proxima. Endlicher. Genera Plantarum, p. 141. 

SPECIES. Lilium sWCtOBCM. Thinderg. Foliis sparsis petiolatis; 
eaule ramoso, ramis unifloris, flore cernuo, eondlis nwilmi-, intus pupuloMi- 
dentatis. Willdenow. Species Plantarum, Vol. II, p. 86. 

Character of the Genus, Lilium. Perigone resembling a 
corolla, deciduous, of six pieces or folioles; folioles slightly cohering 
at the base, funnel-shaped or campanulate, spreading at the apex, or 
curved back, having on the inner surface a nectariferous groove. 
Stamens six, slightly adhering to the base of the folioles of the peri- 
gone. Ovary three-ndi. <!. Cycles numerous, in two rows, horizon- 
tal, anatropous. Style terminal, somewhat club-shaped, straight or 
only slightly curved j stigma somewhat three-lobed. Capsule three- 
cornered, six-furrowed, three-celled, becoming three-valved by a locu- 
licidal dehiscence. Seeds numerous, in two rows, horizontal, com- 
pressed into a flat form, test yellowish, somewhat spongy, furnished 
with a membranaceous margin, be runs. Embryo 

either straight or segmoid in the axis of a fleshy albumen, the radical 

Description of the Species, Lilium Speciosum. Stem a scaly 
bulb, from which springs the part bearing the leaves and flowers. 
Leaves scattered, alternate, shortly petiolate, lanceolate, acute, about 
six inches long, green on both surfaces but of a lighter hue beneath, 



which is almost shining. From the base to the apex of each leaf run 
several parallel veins ornenes, which are very prominent on the un- 
der surface, the central ones most conspicuous, the lateral ones less so. 
Flowers axillary and terminal, solitary. Perigone (corolla of Lin- 
nean writers) of a tiree are exterior, three placed 

more internal, of an exquisite rose-colour. Each fohole unguiculate 
at the base, but with the limb reflected, whitish towards the base, but 
near the central part, of a pink or red ground, marked with prominent 
points and round spots. Stamens six, filaments thick below, taper- 
ing towards the apex; anthers versatile: pollen brownish yellow. 
Style one, somewhat club-shaped. Stigma yellow, 3-lobed. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This species, perhaps one 
of the most gorgeous of that tribe which Linneus termed the patricians 
of the vegetable kingdom, is a native of Japan, a country with the 
productions of which we are very imperfectly acquainted, owing to 
the jealousy of its people, which is as great as that of their Chinese 
neighbours. Siebold was, however, allowed to penetrate into the inte- 
rior, and brought off* the present plant among his other spoils. 

sent by Siebold to Holland, and by propagation are now in the hands 
of the nurserymen of Ghent, from whom bulbs were purchased by the 
Messrs. Loddiges at Hackney, in 1836. In their conservatory, flow- 
ers were produced in August, 1837, and to their extreme politeness we 
are indebted for the opportunity of figuring it. It is not yet ascer- 
tained what degree of temperature this splendid Lily will bear, but it 
may be presumed that protection from frost will be all that is requisite. 
A light loamy soil, upon a dry bottom, is favourable to the growth of 
such plants. From various trials of bog earth, however well it may 
have been pulverized by frost, or the addition of sand, we believe it to 
be injurious to-the growth of Lilies. 




PHILIBERTIA GRACILIS. 

SLENDER PHILIBERTIA. 






teeth interposed; tube short, adnate by means of a fleshy torus, by the 

of the gynostegium (the staminal column of Brown.) Staminal co- 
R»>v\ siiii|il,.. o-plnllon-: tMioIfs rlesin, inserted on the top of the 
gynostegium, entire. Anthers terminated by a membrane. Pol- 
u;\ massls cvliudriralK -elub-s a|>ed, attached almost to the apex. 
Stigma very short, or shortly beaked, two-pointed at the apex. 

Description of the Species, Philibertia gracilis. Plant 
perennial, entirely clothed with soft spreading hairs. Stems very 
slender not thicker than a crow-quill, twining, attaining the length of 
six feet. Leaves opposite, petiolate, cordate, oblique, acuminate, 
pubescent, soft, of a greyish green, lighter on the under surface. 
Petioles slender, about half-an-inch long. Inflorescence umbel- 
late; umbels solitary, interpetiolary, of from 3 to 5 flowers. Pedun- 
cles filiform, from 1 to 2 inches long; pedicel- hracteate, about half- 
an-inch in length. Bracts linear, acute. Calyx of 5 leaves coher- 
ing at the base; segments linear-lanceolate, acute, spreading. Co- 
rolla three times as long as the calyx, campauul ac. externally hairy, 



smooth within, the ground of a yellowish white, blotched with purple 
or flesh-coloured spoS; limb spreading, 5-lobed ; lubes triangular, 
acute, the sinuses or intermediate parts prolonged into short teeth. 
Corona double, the exterior one annular, entire, interior one of 5 
fleshy gibbous, yellow segments, having each a short spur-like point 
on the inner side near the apex. Stamens 5, filaments short, mem- 

ed, truncate, membranous appendage. Pollen-masses club-shaped, 
somewhat compressed, smooth, yellow, waxy, glossy, pendulous, con- 
nected by a short, somewhat arrow-shaped chocolate-coloured gland. 
Gynostegium thickened, obtusely 5-angular, placed immediately be- 
low the two prominent lobes of the stigma; angles obtuse, resembling 
a gland, viscid. Ovaries two, swelling, smooth. Styles subulate, 
longer than the ovaries. Stigmas small, truncate. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This addition to the ge- 
nus Philibertia is a native of the district between Buenos Ayres and 
Tucuman, where it was discovered by Mr. Tweedie, who sent it to his 
friends in this country, under the name of "Green-flowering Ascle- 
pias of Saint Kathrens." Its flowers serve well to exhibit the curious 
structure of asclepiadaceous plants, for our general knowledge of which 
we are indebted to Mr. Robert Brown (Memoirs of Wernerian Society, 
Vol. I, p. 19.) whose acumen has also revealed to us the singular mode 
of fecundation of these plants. (Trans, of Linnean Society, Vol. XVI. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Seeds of the Philiber- 
tia gracilis, were sent by Mr. Tweedie, in the later part of the year 
1835, to various British cultivators. A portion of these were received 
by Mr. Nevin, of Glasnevin Garden, Dublin, who kindly supplied us 
with a drawing from one of his plants, which had been trained to a 
support in the stove, where it had proved evergreen, and flowered 
from May till October. It can scarcely be doubted but that if young 
plants be turned into the open ground, in May, and trained to a wall, 
they will become very ornamental. Cuttings strike root readily, and 
a soil composed of a sandy loam and peat proves suitable to its growth. 



STATICE ARBO'REA. 

TREE-LIKE STATICE. 



v:B:;:.\^--w 



ovatis obtusis nm< >■ 

panicuhe alato-aneipitihus. H [Lluexoh. Eiumieratio Plantarum Horti 

Character of the Gents, Statice. Flowers spiked, or pa- 
nicled. Calyx of a single piece, monosepalous, plaited, somewhat 

disposed to become woody. 1 i \ ■ - v.! i> '. , <• \u !> s : radical leaves 
6-8 inches long, 2$ inches broad. Stem leaves crowded at the top 
of the brandies. Panicle supported on a loim peduncle, terminal, 
resembling a corymb, which is roundish, or two-edged, the pedicels 
winged on each side. Calyx cup-Imped, angular, limb undivided, 
but acutely pointed, of a fine lilac colour, persistent. Corolla 

caducous, or quickly falling. Stamens 5, not so long as the tube of 
the corolla. Ovary oblong. Styles slender. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Among the many beau- 
tiful species of Statice, none surpass the present one in elegance. It 
is a native of Teneriffe, and so forms a connecting link between the 
vegetation of tropii 1 ; nd ; mj < rate climates. 

Introduction; wnr.ni crov.x; ('(ltlrf.. Though this species 
was introduced into the Botanic Gardens of the continent about the 
beginning of the present century, it was not known in this country till 
very lately. The merit of introducing it is due to Philip Parker 



Webb, Esq., who has spent several \mrs in exploring the natural pro- 
ductions of the Canary Isles, and is now engaged with M. Berthollet, 

relle des Isles Canariennes. This gentleman sent it to his garden, near 
Guildford, and permitted it to be propagated by Messrs, Penny and 
Young, of the Guildford Nursery. It is still extremely rare. Our 
drawing was made from a plant helougiiur to YVm. Leaf, Esq., Park- 
hill, Streatham. It may be kept in the Conservatory, but when the 

There is not, perhaps, a more singular and beautiful display of the 
adaptation of vegetable action, to the purpose of reproduction than ex- 
ists in the Statice. It is, indeed, true that wonders meet us at every 
step we take through the mazes of vegetable ph\ biology; and it should 
be esteemed a high privileg. whi hmati < njo\s in being admitted to a 
knowledge of these operations of the Creator in the economy of His 
works. When we consider that such pri\ iieges are granted as a means 
of intellectual improvement and gruliiieation, il would betray an apa- 
thy and a negligence u:i\\oi'th\ of rational beings, were we to shut our 
eyes to these evidences of divine power and wisdom. The physiolo- 
gical fact to which we have alluded exists in the arrangement of the 
parts of fructification within the ovary of the Statice. It is known to 
the vegetable physiologist that the pollen has, generally, a direct com- 
i through the style to the ovules. In these parts of the Sta- 



tice, an obstacle to such commun 



interposition of 



a Miian memiuauous strap; D ,,. influence of the 

pollen exerted thereon but it slips aside, and a passage is opened be- 
tween the pollen and the ovules. To render this subject quite intelli- 
gible to all our readers, engravings would be necessary, and it will be 
one of our objects in the Guide (attached to the Botanist) to eluci- 
date such facts as these in the most distinct manner; and as far as we 
are able, to open to our readers that page of nature descriptive of her 
mysterious operations. 



arhorescens. Broussonet. Catalopw 
ice arrorea. Willdonow. Enumeratio B 
'••^■v.-lupcdif M thu.liiuie: Supplement, Vol. V,p.236. 



ACACIA PUBES'CENS. 

PUBESCENT ACACIA. 



URAL ORDER, LEGUMINOS^E. 



varia 10-200. Legumes continuum exsuccun 
SPECIES. Acacia pubescens. R. BrntvPf 

nis :U<> ja-is, f.-li-.lh tils ju^is liiu-arilms -i;ii 
: ellatis secos pedunculum ax 

Calyx 4-5 toothed. Petals 4-5, someti 
into a 4-5 cleft corolla. Stamens vary 



jiiiln><ciii. branched, naked I 



PnmetT) I 



zontal hairs. Petit 
below. Petioles of t 



lyx campanulate, smooth, of a pale yellow, very short, limb of 5 
straight teeth. Corolla of 5 straight petals, oval, acute, concave, 
inserted at the base of the calyx. Stamens numerous, yellow, ap- 
proximating at the base, distinct and spreading towards the upper 
part; filaments slender, longer than the corolla; anthers straight, 
rounded, two-lobed, opening by lateral lines. Ovary oval, obtuse, 
slightly compressed, smooth. Style lateral, straight, slender, longer 
than the stamens. Stigma simple. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant is a native of 
the Eastern part of New Holland. While the true Mimosas are almost 
completely confined within the tropics, the Acacias extend more to- 
wards the Poles, but chiefly the South Pole ; their leaves are less 
irritable than those of the genuine Mimosas, such as the Sensitive 
Plant, but the Acacia pubescens is influenced by light in a very pecu- 
liar manner. Towards evcuin;:;, or duri;ig gloomy weather, the pri- 
mary petioles bend downwards, while the secondary petioles take a 
horizontal direct io eh other by their faces. These 

movements, and the prevalence of such shrubs in the Southern hemis- 
phere, justify the introduction of them by James Montgomery, as a 
part of the scenery of the Pelican Island. 

Light flexible shrubs, among the greenwood played 
FantaMi budded, 

And Sang I j q the sun ; 

As the breeze taught, they danced, they sung, they twined 
Their sprays in bowers, or spread the ground with net-wort. 
Introduction ; where Grown ; C ulture. Introduced into Bri- 
tain in 1790. The plant from which our drawing was made, flowered 
in March, 1837, and continued in flower for two months, in the elegant 
conservatory of Wm. Leaf, Esq., Parkhill, Streatham. It grows about 
18 feet in height, and constitutes, when in flower, the most beautiful 
sight we have witnessed in any collection in Europe. It requires, like 
most New Holland plants, a free supply of water. 

Acacia, from ana^u Akazo, to sharpen, many species having sharp thorns. 
Pi-i!i-;s( ens, pub, k wBcence, with which 

nearly all the plant is covered. 

Synonymes. 

Acacia pcbescens. Robert Brown, in Hortns Kewensis, Vol. 5, p. 467. Bo- 
tanieal Magazine, Folio 1263. DecandoUe. Prodromus Systematis Naturalis 



SOLANUM BALBI'SII. 

~ BALBIS'S SOLANUM. 



{ rss:.i <^p-^p 



c r {:: 



f # 



GENUS. Solanum. Linne 


us. Calyx 4-15 dentatus lobatusve, persistens, 


,bato, patente. 1 








antluris ,,!.h>;i-is bilwnluribus, stepius aequal- 




:-e pons duobus dehiscentibus. Ov Aim m sub- 


, hlifonni. - 


tigma obtusum subsimplex aut 2-3-4-fidum. 


Bacca subrotunda, 2-3 4-loculai 


is. Pouchet : Histoire des Solanees, p. 205. 


SPECIES. Souxvji Bum 


sn. Dvnal. Cu i.k frfcticoso, villoso, acute- 



• Hutmre de teolanum, p. z#z. 
Character of the Genus, Solanum. Calyx of 4 to 15 teeth or 
or lobes, persistent, often accrescent. Corolla rotate; tube short, 
limb large, plaited, 5-angled, sometimes 4-6 lobed, spreading. Sta- 
mens 5, occasionally 4-6, filaments awl-shaped, short, sometimes une- 
qual ; anthers oblong, 2-celled, generally equal, approximating coad- 
nate, dehiscing by two pores at the apex. Ovary roundish; style 
slender, stigma obtuse, either simple, or 2-3-4-cleft. Berry roundish, 
2-3-4-celled. Seeds numerous, ovate, often compressed, surrounded 
by a thin diaphanous pulp. 



shrub and a herbaceous plant, branched. Whole surface, except the 
superior surface of the corolla, clothed with rough pubescence, having 
interspersed, on the stem, the mid-rib and principal nerves of the leaves 
on the peduncles and the calyx, stiff sharp-pointed aculei or prickles. 
( Yn intermixture similar to the hairs and prickles of many species of 
Roses ) Leaves alternate, petiolate, somewhat ovate, deeply pinnat- 
ind,segments sinuately lobed or toothed, both surfaces P 1 ^ 1 ^ 

d^reen, under lighter, >liuhth w,cid when touched. Racemes of 



flowers, both lateral and terminal disposed in cyme-like groups. Ca- 
lyx 5-lobed, pubescent, with few aculei. Corolla large, spreading, 
5-lobed, lobes rather acute, under surface slightly pubescent : upper 
surface smooth, colour nearly pearly white. Stamens 5, equal, free, 
filaments short, anthers long, yellow. Ovary globose, style short, 
stigma capitate. Fruit nearly the size of a cherry, almost entirely cov- 
ered by the persistent accrescent calyx. Seeds numerous, kidney-sha- 
ped, margined. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The present species is a 
native of Brazil and other parts of South America ; there are several 
varieties of it, as far as difference in the colour of the flowers is suffi- 
cient to constitute a variety, some being blue (which is the more gen- 
erally their hue) others purple (Bot. Mag. 2828) while our plant has the 
flowers white, and is altogether more delicate than the other two sorts. 
To this difference little importance should be attached, as the same di- 
versity of colour may be observed in the flowers of the common potatoe 
(Solanura tuberosum.) The fact of the calyx being in this, and sev- 
eral other species of the genus, accrescent is worthy of more notice, as 
a similar disposition to enlarge exists in the calyx of the Physalis Al- 
kekengi (the Winter Cherry) and the Nicandra physaloides (the Alke- 
kengi of the gardens.) 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The blue-flowered 
variety was introduced in 1816, but we are ignorant at what time the 
present variety became known to British cultivators. We are indebt- 
ed to Mrs. Lawrence of Drayton Green, for the opportunity of hav- 
ing it drawn. It is kept in the greenhouse, which probably its greater 
delicacy renders advisable ; but the others seem capable of enduring 
our out-of-door climate. "A specimen" says Mr. Loudon in his Arbo- 
retum Britannicum,p. 1268. "planted against the wall in the Horticul- 
tural Society's garden, in 1833, grows vigorously, and flowers freely 
every year." 

Derivation of the Names. 



Dunal: HistoiredeSolanum,p.232. Sprengel Systei 
3LICM. Encyclop. Method. IV, p. 307. 



LEONTICE CHRYSO'GOtfUM. 

GOLDEN-KNEED LION'S LEAF. 

NATURAL ORDER, BERBERACE.E. 



C w-i i,\ vesicariit -J- 1 sp.-nn 
Decaivdolle. Prodromus reg 

Character of the G 
case varying from 3 to 6 



Description of the Species, Leontice chrysogonum. The 
lower part of the stem forms a subterranean tuber, usually considered 
as part of the root, about the size of a hazel nut, from the bottom ol 
which the fibres forming the actual root proceed. From the upper 
part of the tuber spring about 4 leaves, with long petioles, the limb 
pinnately subdivided into 5 to 8 sets of segments, the uppermost gen- 
erally in pairs, the others in fours and so arranged as to be semi-ver- 
ticillate and nearly cruciate, uiviti- the leaf a compound appearance; 
The segments cnn - to 3 acute teeth, 

the terminal one largest and more divided, glabrous, glaucous-green, 
and mostly with a pale transverse band of purple. The scarious stipu- 
le at the base of the petiole are concealed beneath the ground. Scape 
branched, long 
rising' from the axil of a blu: 
golden yellow. Sepals (in this specimen) 4 of unequal size, ovato- 
lanceolate, very caducous, somewhat coloured. Petals 6, obovate, 






eroso-truncate, with short claws, on the inside of which near the base 
is ;i iK'ctaiili'rons poiv. ,St\\h-:\s (i, with short filaments; the anthers 
adnate, 2-celled, each cell bursting inwardly by a valve opening up- 
wards. Pistil with a membranous one-celled ovary, the style short, 
laterally attached. Sticma dilated and crisped at the margin. Ovules 
(in this specimen) 2, erect, attached by funicular chords to a pedicel- 
late receptacle. J. S. Henslow. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant is found in the 
corn-fields of Greece and Asia Minor, and was noticed by Rauwolf so 
long ago as the year 1573 as the "true Chrysogonum" of Dioscorides. 
He describes it in a chapter of his travels the title of which it ia thus 
given in the translation by Ray. "A short and plain relation of plants 
which I gathered during my stay at Halepo, in and round about it, 
not without great danger and trouble, which I glued upon paper very 
carefully." We believe that no figure of it has been published within 
the last century, but it has been represented five or six times in the 
rude cuts of the early botanists between 1582 and 1714. Meyen has 
separated this species from the rest of the Genus, under the name of 
BongardiaRauwolfii, on account of the want of the scale on the inside 
of the petals, and the dilated stigma. But we are unwilling to admit 
the validity of the former as a sufficient generic character, since a similar 
circumstance takes place in the genus Ranunculus; and we are not 
suthYieutK impressed with the importance of the latter to consider it 
worth while to subdivide so small a genus as Leontice from this alone. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This specimen flow- 
ered last March (1837), in the Botanic Garden, Cambridge, where 
two of the tubers had been sent the previous August by Mr. Hunne- 
man, with a note that they were the "Bongardia Rauwolfii, from Persia; 
made use of by the natives as an edible vegetable." It grew about six 
inches high, and should be potted in a sandy compost. A cool part 
of the greenhouse is better suited to its early habit of vegetating than 
the cold frame. 

Derivation or the Names. 



. 15, fig. 7. give a rude representation of it. 



MIMTUS KO'SKO-CAHDIXA'LIS. 



•#-■{:-:} <^> ^ 






: s \- 



length as the flower. (In Roseus they are generally rather shorter, 
and in Cardinalis much longer) Calyx pentangular, five-toothed, 
(exactly intermediate between that of Cardinalis and Roseus. In the 
former, the teeth are about i f the Calyx,, and 

in the latter, about one-sixth; whilst the angles in the sinuses of the 
former are acute, and in those of the latter, right angles), spotted, with 
purple above, but only faint traces of spots below. (In Cardinalis 
the purple spots are distinct above and below ; but in Roseus, there 
are faint spots on the upper side only). Corolla. Tube distinctly 
longer than the Calyx, (In Cardinalis it is scarcely longer, and in 
Roseus, distinctly longer), laterally compressed, and somewhat angu- 
lar, or sub-carinate above, with three lobes or folds below (In Cardi- 
nalis it is still more compressed, and sub-carinate, both above and be- 
low. In Roseus it is not at all compressed, convex above, and with 
three folds below). Limb bilabiate ; the upper lip composed of one 
notched erect lobe, of which the lacinise are very slightly reflexed. 
(Much the same in Roseus; but in Cardinalis the lacinia? are com^ 
pletely bent back, so that their edges are brought close together). The 
lower lip has three spreading lobes, of which the lowermost is largest, 
and emarginate, and all are somewhat reflexed at the margins, which 
are slight!} hiciniate and clothe*! ,\iih villus;.- cilia-. ( In Cardinalis, the 
margins are much more reflexed, irregularly laciniate, and have cilire 
only towards the bottom of the sinuses. In Rosens, the margins are even, 
and nearly like those of the Hybrid. Throat bearded along two longi- 
tudinal!} disposed lines, with the intermediate space tomentose). In 
Roseus much the same ; but in Cardinalis the beard is composed of 
shorter and more succulent hair). Colour of a deep pink, with pur- 
pit- spots in the throat, some of which are more or less confluent in 
longitudinal lines. ( In Roseus, the colour is paler, the spots more 
distinct ; whilst in Cardinalis, the colour is scarlet, and the spots more 
confluent, and il»r lines). Stamens didynamous, 

attached to the base of the Corolla; the superior pair, a little shorter 
than the inferior. The inferior pair slightly exserted; whilst in Ro- 
seus they are just inserted. Filaments with a few purple spots; con- 
nective succulent. Pistil. Ovary cylindric, shorter than the style. 
(In Cardinalis the style is about three times, and in Roseus twice as 
long as the ovary). The style reaching beyond the stamens, com- 
pressed towards the summit, and dilating into a bilabiate stigma. 
The style and stigma remain green for a long time, and when they 



wither, the ovules in all the specimens we examined turned brown 
and withered also ; whereas, in both the parent species (as in other fer- 
tile plants) the ovules begin to swell as soon as the stigma withers. 

been expressed at the production of hybrid plants, because they intro- 
duce a certain degree of confusi ■ our technical de- 
scriptions and systematic arrangements. But surely the searcher after 
truth, the philos o( the works of nature, must 
greatly rejoice al tg result (however embarrassing 
for the moment) which has been obtained by the judicious application 
of a direct experiment. The more our experiments are multiplied, 
and the more precautions we take in securing the accuracy of our re- 
sults, the greater will be our chance of detecting those physiological 
law swhich regulal forms in different 
species. One remarkable result, observable in the production of hy- 

perfect their seed ; and if this character were constant in them all, we 
should possess an excellent | hybrids from true 

species. But it is now asserted that many hybrids do perfect their 
seeds ; still an obvious question presents itself, whether we ought not 
always to consider the parents of such hybrids really to belong to the 
same species, ho a, iv be in external form, whilst 

the parents of those which do not perfect their seed should be consid- 
ered to be distinct. The evidence which has hitherto been adduced, 
militales strongly against the existence of any such law, though we 
may hardly allow it to be sufficiently complete and definite to have 
completely settled the question. Besides the existence of certain hy- 
brids which neu-r : .iii,i- which readily pro- 
duce them, there are some whi urely, do so; and 
such we find to be the case with the present plants. Professor Hen- 
slow examined a great many of its ovaries in the Bury Garden, last 
summer, (1837) in all of which the ovules were abortive, and Mr. 
Hodson informed him at the time, that no perfect seeds had been pro- 
duced; but since then we have heard from Mr. Turner, (the gardener 
in that establishment) that " a, few good seeds" have been produced. 
We shall be anxious to h-aru \\h<-thiT plant- haw been raised from 
these, and if so what are the forms which they assume. May we not 
ask whether those h\!>rioN which refuse to perfect their seed in one 
climate, and under the combination of circumstances to which they 
are now subjected in the present state of the earth's surface, might not 



in another climate, and undei a olhei >> mhination oi circumstances 
than that at present existing, he rendered productive, and thus he en- 
abled to assume the character of true species. If so, fresh light ma\ 
he thrown upon the remarkable fact with which geology has made us 
accpiainted, of a succession of perfectly distinct races of animals and 
vegetables at different epochs <>i die world's existence, each adapted to 
some peculiar condition of our planet. Such a succession of different 
races seems to require us to admit that there must either have been a 
succession of fre-h < n ations, < 1 t Ise su« li a marked transition between 
the forms of existing species and those of their offspring, that we are 
unable to recognize them am longer as specifically identical. These 
speculations are fraught with the deepest interest. They serve to im- 

undcrstanding lags behind the perceptions of the divine wisdom, and to 
humble any petty conceit-, that we might he inclined io entertain of our 
own limited powers. If then en in preparing a 

mere technical des iption i'tln vorksofct ati as they may he seen 
and handled by us, how much greater must he those difm ulties v hieh 
we have to surmount, when we seek to enquire into those laws by which 
the past has been altered into the present state of things; and to trace 
the means by which organic heings tune been framed, altered, and 
adapted to the several changes to which the earth has been exposed. 
Here we are trenching upon those paths of wisdom which possibly we 
shall never in this life be able to penetrate to any great extent ; and of 
which we must remain content to believe that " God (alone) under- 
standeth the way thereof, and he knoweth the place thereof. For he 
looketh to the ends of the Earth, and seeth under the whole heaven." 
Job, 28 ch. 23 v. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. This showy plant may 
be considered as a decided improvement upon the Mimulus Rosens. 
It was obtained from the seeds of a plant of that species, which had 
been fertilized by pollen from Mimulus Cardinalis. Many speci- 
mens were raised in the Botanic Garden of Bury St. Edmunds, which 
all resembled each other, and flowered for the first time, during the 
summer of 1837. We are indebted t<< Mr. Hudson, the diligent and 
intelligent director of the Garden, for the specimen here figured. 
Derivation of the Names. 
MlMtLrs, from /ii/ao mimo,u in nk. v.in allusion to the seeds, which resemble 
the face of this animal. Roseo cvrihn u.i-. a distinctive term, compounded of 

sanguinea-pedata, in Maund's Botanic Garden. 



[POMyEA RUBRO-CCERU'LEA. 

REDDISH-BLUE IPOSLEA. 



;si:.!V- , * / 



irf 






twining, smooth, tinged with purple, with rounded herbaceous branches. 
Leaves alternate, membranous, light-green, markedly cordate, having 
a deep sinus at the base, sliortk but acutely pointed, entire, wavy, 
veined, petiolate; petioles about equal in length to the leaves. Pe- 
duncles axillary, 2 or 3-flowered. Inflorescence somewhat race- 
mose, pedicels thicker than the petioles of the leaves. Calyx 5-part- 
ed, segments small, erect, adpressed, lineari-subulate, of a brownish 
purple colour, with a whitish margin. Corolla, before expansion, 
white at the base, becoming red towards the upper part, but when the 
flower is fully expanded, changing to a fine purplish or blue colour, 
5-angled, 5-plaited; angles mucroiiate. Stvmkns 5; filaments une- 
qual in length, hairy at the base, attached to the lower part of the tube. 
Anthers oblong, yellow. Ovary oblong. Style slender. Stigma 
2-lobed. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The present species, 
which is regarded as one of the finest of the genus, is a native of Gua- 
naxuato, in Mexico. The disposition whicb ii possesses in common 



with many species of the tribe, to extend itself by climbing, is but im- 
perfectly displayed in our stoves, compared willi (he freedom of range 
which it enjoys in its own country. One species of Convolvulus an al- 
lied genus in the Caraccas was trained 5,000 feet in six months ; which 
shews the extraordinary activiu <•( the vital principle, when stimulated, 
and ministered to, by the intense power of physical agents within the 
tropics. The change of colour which is observed in the flower of this and 
many other plants, is one of (lie must < -i;ri »u> an. I interesting phenome- 
na, effected by the chemistry of nature. However varied the hues or 
brilliant the colours of flowers may be, there is originally no difference 
between these parts and the most unadorned portion of the plant: "for 
such colours do not exist in their primitive state, but are communica- 
ted, as it were, to vegetation, by its own act. The tissue of plants is 
in itself completely colourless, of a silvery white (as may be seen in 
the pith of the elder, or petals of the white camellia), or of an exceed- 
ingly pale yellow; the matters contained in the cells, are with a few 
exceptions, of the same hue : but all is changed, when they are once 
exposed to solar light." The sunlight enables them to decompose 
carbonic acid, and forma peculiar principle called ehromule, which 
has the property of combining with variable quantities of oxygen. " It 
is therefore probable that all the various colours of flowers with the 
exception of certain special cases, depend in general upon the various 
degrees of oxygenation of their ehromule." See more extended ob- 
servations on this subject translated from Decandolle, in Library of 
Useful Knowledge. Botany, p. 120. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The seeds were 
mitted from Mexico about 1831, by Mr. Samuel \lu hards.. n 
cer of the Anglo-Mexican Mining association) to' J. D. Powles, Esq, 
of Stamford Hill, by whom they were liberally distributed. The 
plant from which our drawing was made, flowered in the stove ol 
Robert Barclay, Esq. of Layton, Essex; and we were obligingly sup- 
plied with specimens of the same variety of a more purple hue, 
W. Taylor Copeland, Esq. M.P. of Layton. It requires the us 
treatment of the stove species of Ipomwa. Flowers in October. 



£*** 



RONDELETIA ODORATA. 

SWEET-SCENTED I 



3 : 






GENUS. RONDELETIA. 



in vah Ii 2 vp ip 



SPECIES. RONDELETIA ODORATA. Jacqi I.\ . Foliis vix pi-tiolatis ..vati 

aut subcordatis a> illidioiilras in aei 

Character of the Genus, Rondeletia. Tube of the Caly: 
subglobose, limb 4 or 5 parted, lobes oblong, or linear, acute, and per 
sistent. Tube of the Corolla cylindrical, very slightly ventricose a 
the apex, limb spreading, 4-5 lobed, lobes roundish. Anthers 4-5, in 
eluded within the apex of the tube, sessile. Stigma two-cleft. Cap 
scle globose, crowned by the calyx, two-celled, dehiscing from th 
apex into 2 valves, which are frequently cleft at the top, which give 
the appearance as if it were 4-valved. Dehiscence, generally loculi 
cidal, seldom septicidal. Placenta central. Seeds numerous, ovate 
angular, of which often two only ripen in a cell. 



(in its nati 


ve country, about 5 feet hi g 


d,brs 


inches 


round. 


rugose, th( 


: younger ones 


villose. Leaves opposit 


b, shortly petiolate, 


ovate, or « 




, obtuse, the younger acu 




■umh-d 


at the 


base, entire, reticulately 


veined, the primary veins 


and 


middle 


nerve 


prominent 


on the under 


side, leathery, hispid or r< 


mjrh, 


with In 


urs on 


the upper 


side, which is 


of a deep green, the u 




Mutaee 


'"'"'■ 






and only slightly hairy. Sup; us internet;, ur, ovate, acuminate, 
pilose, erect, scarcely longer than the petioles. Peduncles terminal 
and axillary, opposite, disposed in a terminal panicle, which is dicho- 
tomous, and villose. Flowers shortly petiolate. Calyx superior, 
five-parted, pilose, segments lin< . C OROLLATry- 

pocrateriform, flesh-coloured, externally clothed with silky hair; tube 
cylindrical, swelling towards the apex, twice the length of the calyx ; 
limb five-cleft, spreading, segments roundish, equal, internally smooth 
and orange-coloured, throat devoid of hairs. Stamens 5, inserted into 
the throat, scarcely protruding. Filaments slender, smooth. An- 
thers oblong-linear, smooth, attached to the back, two-celled, dehis- 
cing by a longitudinal dehiscence. Ovary inferior, somewhat pear- 
shaped, with silky hairs. Style, the length of the tube. Stigma 
two-cleft. Capsule globose, crowned with the persistent calyx. 
Popular and 



sent acquainted with, are natives of America and the West Indies, 
with the adjacent Islands. This species is found in Cuba, near the 
town of Havannah, on bush-covered rocks, near the sea, and occasion- 
ally on the naked rock itself. Under the powerful influence of the tro- 
pical sun, it evolves a sweet odor, but this, in plants in our stoves, 
is so faint, as scarcely to be perceptible. An odorous principle is of 
frequent occurrence in the members of this tribe, of which the beauti- 
ful Luculia grati ig number is an instance. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Sent to the Messrs. 
Loddiges, in 1830, by Wm. Sharpe M c Leay, Esq. The plant from 
which our drawing was made, flowered in the stove of the Messrs. Lod- 
diges, at Hackney, in October, 1836. It is entirely a stove plant, and 
cannot bear exposure to cold, even in summer. In a compost of 
sandy loam and peat it will grow vigorously. When increase is re- 
quired, cuttings may be struck in clear white sand, under a bell glass, 
which should be wiped occasionally. 

Derivation of the Names. 
Rondeletia, in compliment to GuiUaume Rondelet, a physician, and author 
of works on Mgx, and Fishes. Odorata, odorous, from the fragrance of the 




w 






CYCNO'CHES VENTRICO'SUS. 

VENTRICOSE CYCNOCHES. 



:s^i-i 



ideous Plants, p. 154. 

SPECIES. Cycsoches vi:vtrtcosi ^. Skpalis pi talisque lanceolatis acu- 

vi ; columna arcuata sepalo supremo duplo breviore. Bateman. Orehiikicea' 
of Mexico and Guatemala, pi. 5. 

Character of the Genus, Cycnoches. Perianth spread 
out. Sepals Lati united at the base under 

the lip ; upper sepal narrower. Petals broader than the sepals, fal- 
cate, curved downwards. Lip free, -without a spur, continuous with 
the column, lanceolate, entire, claw abrupt, callous. Column elon- 
gated, arched, round, club-shaped at the point, with two falcate auri- 
cles at the sides of the clinandrium. Anther two-celled. Pollen- 
masses two, furrowed behind, on a short pedicel, the tail linear, gland 



SCRIPTION OF THE SPECIES, CyCNOCH 

lie. Stems about a foot high, fleshy, slightly compressed, pro- 
f 5 or 6 lanceolate, acute, plaited leaves, of which the superior 
3 longest; these, after the flo ben the stem 

es shorter, and more swollen, and then is marked by longitudi- 

» proceeding from 



weight of the fl<> ays seen in an in- 

verted position. Flowers of a yellowish green. Sepals lanceolate, 
acuminate, the upper one being rather narrower, and the lateral ones 
slightly unmiiculate. Petals broader than the sepals, curved down- 
wards. Lip somewhat heart-shaped, very much swollen on the upper 
side, hollow beneath, of the purest white, communicating with the co- 
lumn by a short claw, which, at its junction with the base of the lip, 
presents a black callosity. Column round, and club-shaped, only 
half the length of the upper sepal, and at its extremity bearing two 
small falcate hon ather. Capsule very large, 

oblong, beat ii ate seeds. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This remarkable plant, 
"simillima eyeno" is a native of Guatemala, and was discovered in 
the neighbourhood of Istapa, by the indefatigable researches of Mr. 
Skinner. Frequent as are the resemblances among Orchidaceous plants 
to some members of the animal kingdom, it was reserved for this ge- 
nus, to present the likeness of a swan, which is more observable in the 
Cycnocb.es Loddegesii, a nati. the present plant. 

To discover the similarity, it is necessary, in both species, to reverse the 
flowers, which however is only restoring them to their original posi- 
tion. The observation of these singular forms excites the mind to en- 
quire, what is the object of their formation. This enquiry however, 
cannot at present end in a satisfactory result, unless we look upon 
them as designed perhaps chiefly to vary the mantle with which the 
Author of all has covered the surface of our globe. — 
■ For not to use alone did Providence 

In bird, be ping thing, 

Introduction ; Where grown ; Culture. It was first received 
iu Britain, in I >:?•,!, sent by .Mr. Skinner, to James Bateman, Esq., of 
Knipperslay Hall. Our plant flowered in August, 1837, in the stove 
of Messrs. Loddiges. The mode of culture is the same as for that of 
Dendrobium, already detailed under No. 5. 

Derivation of the Names. 

to the graceful curve of the column of this plant, which resembles a swan's neck. 
Ventricosis. turgid, or swelling, from the sw 



BOTANIST- 



ORNAMENTAL PLANTS, 



CONDUCTED BY B. MAUND, F. L. S 
BY THE REV. J. S. HENSLOW, M.A. F.L.f 



deigned to employ itself can, properly 



VOL. II. 

; 

!S98. 



INDEX 
TO THE SECOND VOLUME 



THE BOTANIST. 



lia, Long-leaved Acacia, .... 

Acrophyllum venosum Veined Acrophyllum, . . 

Agapanthus umbellatus, ...... White-flowered Agapantl 

Anigozanthus Manglesii, Mr. Mangles's Anigozanth 



.Fringed Aristolociiia 

. Purple-flowered Barbacenia, 
. Hawthorn-scented Boronia, . 



Candollea Cunninghamii, Mr. Cunningham's Candollea,. 

Carolinea alba, White Carolinea, 

Chlorsea longibracteata, Long-bracted Chloraea, 

Chorozema cordatum, Heart-leaved Chorozema, 

Crnsea rubra, Pink-flowered Crusea, 

Cycnoches ventricosus, Ventricose Cycnoches, 

Cypripedium insigne, Remarkable Cypripedium, . . . 



Systematic Name. English Name. 

Helichrysum macranthum, .... Large-flowered Hehehrysum, 

Hovea purpurea, Purple-flowered Hoyea, 

Ipomcsa rnbro-caerulea, Reddish-blue Ipomcea, 

Justicia speciosa, Shewy Justicia, 

Kennedya Marryattiana, Mrs. Marryatt's Kennedya, .. 

Liparia sphserica, , Ruscus-leaved Liparia, 

Lobelia ramosa, Branching Lobelia 

Manettia cordifolia, Heart-leaved Manettia, 

Maxillaria eristata, Crested Maxiltaria, 

Mimulus ****j-cardinalis, Hodson's hybrid Mimulus, . . . 

Pimelea lanata, Woolly Pimelea, 

Platystemon Californicum, .... Californian Platystemon,. . . . 

Poinsettia puleherrima, Most beautiful Poinsettia, . . 

Poinsettia puleherrima, Showy poinsettia, 

Portalaca Gilliesii, Dr. Gillies' Portulaca, ...... 

Quisqualis Indica, Indian Quisqualis, 

Rondeletia odorata, Sweet-scented Rondeletia, . . 

Solanum lanatam Woolly Solanum, 

Sparaxis pendula, Pendulous- flowered Sparaxis, 

Telopea speciosissima, Most showy Telopea, 

Thunbergia grandiflora, Large-flowered Thunbergia,. . 

Tweedia caerulea, Blue-flowered T weedia, 

Verbena Tweedieana, Mr. Tweedie's Vervain, 



THE DICTIONARY, 



TWEE'DIA CGERU'LEA. 

BLUE-FLOWERED TWEEDIA. 



{:HC} ^^ 2SST 



GENUS. 


T« 




ffooArj?* ai 


nd Jflwrr. C 


Corolla rotata, 5 


I-ar'irn 




-i-l.viia: 


' 


pice revolutis, basi auri 






yramidatum. 






minatse. M 




p.Jlinis 


ex apice It 


,. nil peiulul:p, c 


























mosa. D. Don,i 


in Sweet's British Flow< 


«;-i.- :■■;). n.ii' 


, 407 




CffiBDU5A ; 


Don. Cacle \ 


'olubili,tomento! 


«,J foli 






oblongis. Ibid. 








Charac 




OF T 


UK (.FM. 


\, TWEEDIA. 


Corolla ro: 




parted; co 




simple, 5-leaved, 


folioles liguL 


ate, entire, rev. 


Dlute i 



the apex, auricled at the base. Gynostemium 5-angled, pyramidical. 
Anthers terminated by a membrane. Pollen-masses pendulous 
from the top of the cell, clavate, each pedicel one-toothed : gland li- 
near, obtuse, erect, channelled. Stigmas acute. Folioles smooth. 

Description of the Species, Tweedia cozrulea. A peren- 
nial evergreen plant, with fibrous roots, and herbaceous or somewhat 
woody twining slender stem, attaining the height of 6 feet, scarcely 
branching ; the whole surface, except the upper lamina of the corolla, 
clothed with downy whitish hairs. Leaves opposite, petiolate, cor- 
date, lanceolate, i i from one and a half to two 
inches long, half an inch broad; interior lobes rounded, approximat- 
ing or overlapping, upper surf.ice <!<■<;> green, under lighter. Inflo- 
rescence umbellate, interpetiolar, umbels 3-5 flowered. Pedun- 
cles longer than ibont half an inch 
long, with two awl-shaped bracts at the base. Calyx 5-parted, seg- 
ments lanceolate, acute, hairy externally, smooth internally. Co- 
rolla rotate, 5-parted, under surface pinkish, upper light blue, the 
Referem e to t 



base having five nectariferous ravine-; segments elliptico-oblong, 
scarcely pointed ; corona simple, of five segments, which are ligulate 
obtuse, fleshy, revolute at the apex. Stamens 5, forming a mona- 
delphous tube around the styles ; filaments membranous ; anthers yel- 
low, terminated by a broad, oval, retuse, membranous appendix. 
Pollen-masses club-shaped, compressed, amber-coloured, pendu- 
lous; each pedicel hav'nm a s'tarp recurved tooth. G laxd linear, ob- 
tuse, erect, channelled externally, of a chocolate colour, shining, longer 
than the pollen-masses. Gynostemium 5-angled, the apex prolonged, 
conical, white ; at . in-1 Ovaries 2, smooth, 

swelling. S m < - -hurt. S: h,\i ;-, < ouipre-vd, acute. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This highly ornamental 
plant was discovered by Mr. Tweedie, at Tucuman, in South Ame- 
rica. In addition to the beauty of its flowers, which are displayed 
from April till August, their colour merits attention, as the hue which 
they present is of rare occunv _h frequent in the 

allied one of the Apocynace, a or periwinkle is 

an example), yet a similar colour exists in the Marsdenia tinctoria, 
growing in Silhet, Is an excellent in- 

digo, and it is not i might be procured from this 

Tweedia. The Gymuema tiii^e ;>, has also blue flowers, and is used 
in dying. The Nerium tinctorium, (Rottler), now Wrightia tinctoria 
(R. Brown), among the Apocviuuea*, is preferable fur cultivation in 
India, as a source ot indi-o, to any Indigofera, (See Royle's Illustra- 
tions of the Flora of the Himalaya, p. 270). Sir W. J. Hooker re- 
gards this genus Tweedia as allied to Metastelma; Prof. Don, to 
Sarcostemma, which last has the corona double. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. Seeds were sent by 
Mr Tweedie, in 1835, to Mr. Niven, of the Glasnevin Garden, Dub- 
lin, to whom we are indebted, for the opportunity of publishing this de- 
sirable novelty, as well as for the following information. " The 
seeds were sown on a smart bottom heat; I grow it in flat seed 
pans, filled with sandy loam, and a little peat, trained to a mat trellis in 
a sunny exposed situation in the stove. The effect of its lovely sky- 
blue flowers, when so managed is beautiful in the extreme. It may 
be propagated by seeds or cuttings." 

Twf.edu. Justly nam. ,1 in c-mipliment to Mr. Tweedie, its discoverer. 



L\ PRIPE'DIUM INSIG'NE. 

REMARKABLE C YPRIPEDI CM. 

;:h..:; I- i 



li^uiutis snipe, pii , iperiore {Wmeata 

emarginatalaterali >»uhescentibus, infe- 

riore labello venoso basi inflexo paulo longiore. Liwdljsy. Collectanea Bot- 
anica, t. 32. 

Character of the Genus, Cypripedium. The external folioles 
of the spreading- peii-one (perianth of some writers) lateral, one-ner- 

nerved: internal folioles narrower. Lip large, inflated, slipper-shaped. 
Column short, nodding, 3-cleft at the apex, the lateral lobes antheri- 

with the cells distinct, nearly two-valved. Pollen pultaceously 
granular. SriiiM lace of the column below the 

anthers. Capsule one-celled with 3 parietal placentae. Seeds nu- 
merous, resembling grains of dust. 

ceous, stemless, Leaves !>ase, distichous, 

cartilaginous, ligi i than the flower stein or 

scape, keeled on the under surface, glabrous, of a yellowish green 
colour. Scape round, pilose, nearly a foot long, curved down- 
wards at the upper part, where it is furnished with an ovately-oblong, 
green, smooth, compressed spatha. Flower terminal, solitary, of con- 
siderable size, from 3 to 4 inches wide. Outer segments of the peri- 



anth 3, (but apparently only two, the lower being formed oft 
hering)- broadly ovate, or rounded; the lower entirely green, tl 



per green, 



irds the top, I 



brown spots. Inner, segments two, lateral, spreading, oblong, be- 
coming wider towards the extremity, yellowish green, traversed by 
purple lines, connected by the transverse bars. Lip large, saccate, 
reddish green externally, internally yellow. Column short, having at 
its extremity a large lobe, whi< art-shaped, and 

slightly convex, glandular below, covered with minute reddish hairs 
above : beneath this, towards the base, are two filaments, each bearing 
one anther. Anthers yellow, sessile, two-lobed. Lobes somewhat 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This species of one of the 
most shewy of the genera of u - native of a part of 

the world, where few of the genus have hitherto been found : Dr. Wal- 
lich <]iv,o\i'ivd it in \.|i,;ii!, wlini. ( vpripedium venustum was sent 
by the same botanist, coj lium purpuratum, 

more recently brou a Archipelago, a small tropical 

section of a genus, the majority of species of which he found in the 
temperate and colder parts of the northern hemisphere. Even Britain 
can exhibit one species, Cypripedium calceolus (Ladies' Slipper). 
Many are found in North America. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. It was sent by Dr. 
Wallich to the late Mr. Sheppard of Liverpool, about 1822. The 
plant whence our drawing was made flowered in the inexhaustible 
collection of tbe Messrs. Loddiges. It grows in a pot of very light sandy 
peat, placed on a stage. Like many other plants from Nepaul and 
the more northern parts of India, it by no means requires a high tem- 
perature. It may be kept in the conservatory, or even have the pot 
sunk in the open ground, during the summer months, without endan- 
gering its existence, or impairing the freeness of its flowering. 
Derivation of the Names. 



HARDENBER'GIA MONOPHYL'LA. 

-~ Variety: longin 



vel breviter emarginatum basi exappendiculatum,vix unguiculatum, alis longi- 
us. Ai.^: oblique obovato-oblonga:. Carina alis ultra medium adherens et iis 

basi recto inarticulate-. Ovakidm pluriovulatum. Stylus brevis adscendens, 
lubulatus. Stigma capitatum subpenicillatum. Leglmen lineare, com- 
pressum, intus i-.' 1 il * uLare. Semina strophiolata. 

Frutices volubiles Australassici saepius glabri. Folia pinnatim trifoliolata vel 
unifoliolata, foliolis stipellatis. Stipule et bracteas minutae, pedunculi axil- 
lares, multiflori. Pedicelli ebracteolati. Calyces glabri. Corollje caeruleae 
vel violaceae. Bentham in the Annalen des Wiener Museum v. 2, p. 124. 

SPECIES. Hardenbergia monophylla. Bentham. Foliis unifoliola- 
tis, foliolo lanceolato vel oblongo, basi subcordato, racemis petiolo multo lon- 

Character of the Genus Hardenburgia. Calyx bell-shaped, 
with 5 short-teeth, slightly two-lipped. Standard of the corolla or- 
bicular, entire or slightly emarginate, without any appendages to the 
base and with a very short claw, longer than the wings. Wings ob- 
liquely obovate-oblong. Keel adhering to the wings beyond the 
middle and shorter than them, curved and blunt at the extremity. 
Stamina distinctly diadelphous, the free stamen straight and not ar- 
ticulated. Ovary with several ovules. Style short, ascending, subu- 
late. Stigma capitate usually with a short tuft of hairs. Legume 
linear, flattened, almost divided into several cells by a cellular sub- 
stance. Seeds with a strophiola. 



Branches slender, rather 
lternate. Stipules mem- 
■d, about 2 lines long. Peti- 
n half an inch to an inch and a half long, bearing a single 
the base of which are two minute stipellae. Leaflet lance- 
blong, blunt at the extremity, with a minute point at the end 



of the midrib, truncated or somewhat heartshaped at the base, coria- 
ceous and very much reticulated on both sides. Racemes axillary 
or terminal, varying much in length, but always considerably longer 
tban the petioles, and many flowered. Pedicels one flowered, gener- 
ally two together from the same point, with minute bracteae at the base, 
Bracteol/e wanting. Calvx bell-shaped, pale green, with five short 
teeth, of which the two upper are joined together into a sort of upper 
lip. Petals in the ordinary variety of a deep blue, in that now fig- 
ured of a reddish lilac. Standard patent or bent back, nearly orbi- 
cular, emarginate at the top, and contracted at the base into a short 
stalk, marked in the centre with a double green spot. Wings and 
keel borne on longer stalks and darker coloured than the standard. 



in general appearance and colour of the flowers, and all highly orna- 
mental from the great profusion of their flowers when under proper 
treatment, and next to the Zichyas, they form the handsomest of the 
groups of which the old genus Kennedya consisted, and which are still 
known under that name in our gardens. 

As this dividing of Kennedya may probably be the occasion of 
a repetition of the complaint against botanists, that they are con 
tinually changing the names of plants, it may not be out of place to 
add here a few remarks on the principles which have guided those who 
have made really useful changes; and by which, however much they 
may have been lost sight of by many an aspirant to botanic fame or 
notoriety, the validity of any proposed alterations should ever be tested. 

The name under which a plant was first published,' 
from the time of Linneus, should not be altered except ii _ 
ing cases: • -v»«« 

1 ■ Unless it be preoccupied by another plant. 

gel. U ° lKS ^ Pr<>greSS ° f "'— Knder k «?•*•* «• *«de .he ■ 
plan, ha* been preoccupied by Z„„ Iogists it ought to be ^^ 



but since the great increase in the number of genera, both in Zoology 
and Botany, has rendered an extensive study of both sciences by the 
same individual almost impossible, this evil can scarcely ever now be 
corrected without r confusion. 

5. Others again, without sufficient reason, have proposed to dis- 
card certain names because they were contrary to the Linnean canons ; 
and this has been done more especially for the sake of euphony. But 
this, in the present day, would lead to interminable alterations ; for 
what is considered harsh in one language is often not so in another, 
and botanical nomenclature is made for the whole scientific world, 
not for any one nation. Thus the Russian Kraschennisiikovia, the 
Polish Andrzejowskia, the < . i . Schwenkfeklia, 

or Escholtzia, which sound so awful to us, are perfect harmony to their 
respective authors when compared to ourWilloughbeia,Cunninghamia, 
Sedgwichia, Matthewsia. Changes therefore for mere euphony are to 
to be deprecated. 

It is uuder the sanction of the third of these cases— viz. the subdi- 
vision of genera, that the most frequent alterations are made, and it is 
here that the imperfection of fa m lead to variation 

and uncertainty. Wherever, as the science advances and the number 
of species increases, the expediency of breaking up a genus is very 
evident, if undertaken by a competent author, the result of his labour 
is usually at once adopted, and but little inconvenience follows ; but 
unfortunately, it is now very much the custom for young and inex- 
perienced botanists to commence their career by splitting up old gen- 
era into groups, which they establish on arbitrary principles ; others 
then refuse to accede to the alterations, and so every species acquires 
two or more names, until nothing but confusion ensues, which the 
true botanist regrets sincerely though the remedy be out of his power. 

The subdivision of Kennedya, first proposed in the second volume of 
the Annals of the Vienna Museum of Natural History and now adopt- 
ed, was only resolved upon after a careful examination of the greater 
number of species now known (about 20) and of all those of neigh- 
bouring groups which could be obtained, and the result was a convic- 
tion that the arrangement would be much more conformable to the 
principles upon which other Phaseolae are distinguished, and the genera . 
be much easier understood and defined, if four distinct groups were es- 
tablished, independantly of the Kennedya tabacina, which with the Gly- 



cine clandestina, and some others, belongs to a very distinct faith genus. 
It will also, it his hoped, be readily admitted that the divisions so formed 
are easily recognisable without entering into the minutiae of botanical 
characters, and are therefore natural; for surely the small blue or 
somewhat pink flowers in slender branches of Kennedya monophylla, 
Comptoniana, &c (which are all Hardenbergias) are very different 
from the large long scarlet or purple flowers of Kennedya Marry- 
attiana, prostrata, nigricans, &c. We confidently trust, therefore, 
that we shall not, on this occasion, be set down by more able botanists 

ticulture will not refuse to adopt a name destined at once to do honour 
to a lady, most zealous in the promotion of botany and horticulture at 
Vienna, and to her brother whose tour of six years over a great part 



of natural science. G. B. 

Introduction; where Grown; Culture. The Hardenbergia 
monophylla was first introduced from Botany Bay, about the year 
1790, since which time it has been increased and become a great orna- 
ment to most greenhouses. This very elegant variety of the original 
plant was raised from New Holland seeds, by Messrs. Rollisson of 
Tooting, in 1830. The specimen here figured was obligingly supplied 
from the Birmingham Botanic Garden, where it flowered in March, 
and had grown to the height of four feet. As may be seen by our 
figure of this elegant twiner, it is well adapted for ornamenting small 
columns or a light trellis in the greenhouse. It will grow still more 
luxuriantly if planted in the border of the conservatory. Sandy loam 
with a small proportion of peat makes a suitable soil for it, and in- 
crease may be obtained from cuttings. 

Hardenbergia in honour of Frances Countess Hardenberg, sister of Baron 
£g"n ttfe s Slut one" Tr M ° N ° PHYI ' LA oneIea ™ d > <*eh petiole hav- 



(Ventenat) 



t i:hh::]« 



No. 85. 
GENUS. Candollea. Labillardiere. Sepala quinque, ovata, mucro- 

rosa, omnia, vel pleraque plus minusve connata in adelphias plurimas petalis 
oppositas, subsequalia vel exteriora breviora interdam stcnha fihfonma. An- 
thers oblongae. Carpella tria ad sex, ovoidea intus dehiscentia, stylo acu- 
minata, oligosperma. Semina ovoidea; Albumen carnosum; Embryo minu- 



SPECIES. Candollea Cunninghamii. Glaberrima, foliis linearibus in- 



a of the Genus, Candollea. Sepals five, ovate, mucro- 
nate, persistent. Petals five-, obovate or obcordate. Stamens nume- 
rous, all or most of them, more or less connected at the base into several 
bundles opposite to the petals, nearly equal in size, or more frequently 
the exterior ones shorter or sterile. Anthers oblong. Carpels 
three to six, ovoid. Albumen fleshy. Embryo very minute. 

Description of the Species, Candollea Cunninghamii. A 
low shrub, perfectly glabrous in all its parts. Branches slender 
flexuose, and disposed to climb, reddish, smooth and shining. Leaves 
alternate, linear, about an inch and a half long, with one nerve, ter- 
minated by a little point, no cross veins apparent, the margin entire 
and a little curved downwards, rather narrowed near the base, and 
then dilated and clasping the stem, breaking off transversely close to 
the base, leaving a semicircular scar round the stem. Flowering 
branches very short and axillary, having the appearance of a small 
bunch of axillary leaves, from whence springs the peduncle, from an 
inch, to an inch and a half long, bearing at its summit a single yellow 
flower. Sepals five, very much over-lapping each other, green, with 
whitish edges, and with a bract resembling the sepals, but smaller, 



close under them. Petals five, half as long again as the sepals, 
nearly as broad as long, and slightly emarginate. Stamens nume- 
rous; the filaments nearly all free to the base, but collected into five 
bunches, alternating with the ovaria, the inner filaments about twice 
as long as the oblong anthers, the outer ones much shorter, filiform 
and sterile. Ovaries five, glabrous, each with two erect ovules, the 
styles nearly as long as the stamens, with an obtuse slightly capitate 
stigma. Seeds unknown to us. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. That the plant figured 
under the name of Hibbertia Cunninghamii, t. 3183, of the Botanical 
Magazine, cannot remain in that genus, without a considerable modi- 
fication of the generic character is evident, as the stamina of Hibber- 
tia are expressly given as "aequalia" in contradistinction to those of 

are abortive, and reduced to filiform rudiments. It is not, however, 
a Hemistemtna, as in that genus all the stamina are inserted on one 
side of the ovaria. The habit and foliage of our plant brings it nearer 
Candollea, and although the stamina are but very slightly connected 
together, yet they are distinctly grouped into five bunches, and it ma^ 
require less change in the character of Candollea, than in that of 
other genus to include it, provided the seeds are not essentially differ- 
ent. The pedunculate species of Candollea are very ornamental 
they have a further claim to a place in the collection of every lover o 



ence is so deeply indebted ; not only for the herculean labour o 
" Prodromus " but for the clear, and logical manner in which he ha; 
lected, digested, and expounded the principles of botany, in his nume- 
rous theoretical works. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The plant figured 
in the Botanical Magazine, was introduced by Mr. Allan Cunningham, 
from King George's Sound, to the Royal Gardens at Kew, where it 
flowered, in 1832. Our drawing was made from a fine specimen in the 
greenhouse of the Birmingham Botanic Garden, in June. It should 
be potted in a mixture of peat and loam ; and may be obtained from 
cuttings of the young shoots, which quickly strike root under a bell- 

° Derivation of the Names. 

Candoiiea, named by Labillardiere, in honour of Professor De Candolle of 
Genera. Ccnninghamit, in honour of Mr. Allan Cunningham. 



AGAPANTHUS UMBELLATUS. 

WHITE-FLOWERED AGAPANTHUS 



Character of the Genus, Agapanthus. Perigone of the 
nature of a corolla, tubular, the tube short, the limb divided into six 
equal spreading divisions. Stamina six, inserted in the base of the 
limb, filaments unequal in length, tending downwards. Ovary of three 
cells. "Ovula several, placed in two rows, ascending, anatropous. 
Style filiform, tending downwards, stigma somewhat three-angled, 
smooth. Capsule oblong, three-angled, three-celled, splitting in the 
middle of the cells into three valves. Seeds several, ascending, flat ; 



embryo minute, situated at the base of the albumen next the hilum. 
Description .of the Species, Agapanthus umbellatus. Root 
consisting of a bunch of thick fleshy fibres. Leaves folded at the 
base, and somewhat bifarious, about a foot long, somewhat obtuse, 
flat towards the extremity, and varying from half an inch to an inch in 
breadth in the different varieties. Scape erect, shorter, or more fre- 
quently longer than the leaves, cylindrical, smooth, bearing at the 
apex a large umbel of fifteen to forty flowers, enclosed when young in 
an ovate convolute membranous spatha, which splits into two valves 



and falls off as the flower opens. Each peduncle is from one to two 
inches long, having at its base a linear bract. The flowers vary much 

long, sometimes split almost to the base, and in colour they vary from 
an intense blue to white. 

The Agapanthus umbellatus, perhaps the only species known of 
the genus, is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, and has been long in 
cultivation. It is a great ornament to those gardens where space can 
be afforded for the larger growing species of tender Cape bulbs. 
Several remarkable varieties in the size and depth of colour, in the 
breadth of the leaf, and height of the plant have already been figured, 
but the present one appears to be both scarce, and as yet unpublished! 
In the aspect of the plant, and the form of the flowers, it approaches 
nearest to the narrow-leaved variety figured by Redoute, vol. 7, No 
403, of his Liliaces.but there is not any blue in the colour of the flow- 
er, and the tube is perhaps more deeply divided. *The peduncles in 
this, as well as in Redoute's No. 403, are generally longer than the 
corolla, though not perhaps double the length, and this is so variable 
a character, that unless some differences in the internal structure be 
found, it is difficult to consider as a distinct species either the Agapan- 
thus precox, or the Agapanthus multiflorus of Willdenow. G. B. 
Frl!* A f apan u thuS ' a most vall *able plant where, as in the South of 
France, it can be grown in the open border and treated as a common 
hardy hhaceous plant, requires in this country the same kind of pro- 
tectmn as the generality of Cape bulbs, but is in other respect! easv 
of cultnation, requiring only plenty of room to come to perfection 
Ou drawmg was m ade by Mr. Linneus Pope, of Handsworth, from a 
finely flowered plant m the possession of Captain Bennett, of Dudley 
whose garden comprises many plants which rank amongst the rarest 
m cultzvatmn It is doubtless a seedling variety but of very rare <L 
currence. Should be planted in loam. 
a ^ Derivation oe the Names. 

AOAPANXHC8 PBjEcox . WiUdenow ; EQUmerati0) p _ ^ 



MANETTIA CORDIFOLIA. 

HE ART- L E A V£i> H A XE TTI A . 

JT"l trie} <^-V 



s ssepe interpositis. Co- 



latis. CvrstLA ovata, compressa 
i septicide dehisceas, mericarpiis 
tje. Semina imbri 



SPECIES. Manettia cordifolia. Mahtws. Glaberrima vel minute 
pubescens, foliis o rdatisve, pedunculis 

iniirtoris. corolla tuho intus hasi pi!oso fauce glabra. 

Character of the Genus, Manettia. Tube of the calyx 
turbinate, the limb divided into as many lobes as those of the corolla, 
or twice as many. Corolla . terete or marked 

with four angles, hairy inside either at the throat or at the base, the limb 
of four or very seldom five divisions. Anthers sessile or nearly so, the 
filaments adnate to the corolla up to the throat. Capsule ovate, com- 
pressed, crowned by the persistent lobes of the calyx, splitting at the 
dissepiment into two mericarps. Placenta projecting from the dis- 
sepiment. Seeds imbricate peltate, nearly sessile en the placenta;, 
surrounded by a membranous wing, which is often toothed. Embryo 
erect, in a fleshy albumen. Cotyledons leafy, lanceolate. 

Description of the Species, Manettia cordifolia. Stem* 
and branches slender, twining, and, like the whole plant, glabrous in 
all the specimens both wfld we have seen; 

minutely pubescent, according to Martius. Leaves on short foot- 
stalks, an inch or rather more in length, ovate, acuminate, rounded, 
or in older plain- ed at the base. Stipules 



i each side into a short point. Pedun- 
r axillary by the elongation of 
> inches long, slender, ebracteate. 
r lanceolate, varying in size, but usu- 
r longer than the tube, narrowed at the base, and in each 
interval is a very small accessary tooth. Corolla of a rich red, above 
an inch and a half long, tube narrowed at the base, ample in the up- 
per part, perfect! i gfos ootade, far- 
nished inside near the base with four longitudinal rows of appressed 
hairs, throat glabrous, limb of four broad, short, rather unequal and 
reflexed divisions. Filaments projecting about a line beyond the 

Popular and Geographical Notice- This Manettia with the 
Manettia gracilis, pubescens, and villosa, of Chamisso and Schlech- 
tendal, the Manettia attenuata of Nees and Martius, the Guagnebina 
ignita of the Flora Fluininensis, v. 1, t. 115, and a Peruvian species, 
probably new, form a distinct section, differing in several particulars 
from Decandolle's generic character, which we have modified accord - 



properties, ami all are said to be very < 

shrubs in their native wilds on the skirts of the primitive forests. 
In our hothouses they certainly are among the most beautiful twiners 
for training on wire frames; the foliage itself is neat and elegant, and 
leaveT^ 11 ^ ^ PedUn ° ,eS enaWeS 6Very fl ° Wer to P ro J ect be y° nd the 
Introbuction;«Where crow; Culture. The Manettit'cordi- 
foha was first raised in this country by Dr. Neill of Canon Mills 
Edinburgh, m 1831, from seeds sent by Mr. Tweedie from the neigh- 
bourhood of Buenos Ayres. Our drawing was made at Mr. Hender- 
son s, Pme Apple Place, Edgeware Road. Although a stove plant 
this Manettia will probably succeed in the greenhouse. We planted 
it out of doors, against a south wall, early in June, where now, in Sep- 
tember, it has attained the height of ten feet, but without promise of 



Xavier Manetti, Curator 




\ 



\ 




DAHLIA EXCEL'SA. ,„.»„«, 



ray li-rulafe, female or neuter, those of the disk hermaph- 
iV>-tootheil. I won cre double, the external consisting 

■ct, Ion-, leaflets arranged imperfectly in two rows, mem- 

vli-lulv curved, thick and hearim: hairs outside. An- 

e, compressed at the top, without a pappus but ob- 

HE Spe(i;-. Dun. iv enxtlsa. Roots fasci- 
•ennial, cylindrical, and fibrous, others swelling- into tu- 



hers. Stem perennial, very thick, becoming woody, growing to the 
height of twenty feet and upwards, less branched, and assuming more 
the aspect of a tree than any other species, hollow inside, smooth and 
glaucous on the surface, marked with horizontal rings formed by the 
lir.iail stem-clasping base of the petioles, and sometimes emitting 
near the base a great quantity of fibrous roots. Leaves opposite, at- 
taining the length of two feet and a half, by about two feet in breadth, 
dniililj pinnatipartite, the general petioles broadly connate round the 
stem, the segments borne on sharp partial footstalks, those of the lower 
leaves ovate and heart-shaped at the base, those of the upper leaves, 
especially the end ones, often contracted at the base, acuminate, toothed, 
nearly smooth or with a few short scattered hairs,of a pale glaucous green 
i n Ki citl Flower heads on long opposite monocephalous pedun- 
cles, collected five to eight together in a sort of corymb at the end of the 
branches, with occasionally a few axillary solitary ones along the stem. 
OUTER involucre consisting of five or six linear spreading foliaceous 
s<jiiama',the inner one of about twelve, oblong, obtuse, erect, membranous 
ones. Florets in the specimen we have seen all altered from their natu- 
ral state, so as to give to the head of flowers the form known in other 
Dahlias by the name of anemone-flowered. The florets of the ray ap- 
pear to be nearly in their ordinary state, and to be naturally neutral and 
sterile, those of the disk are shorter but all converted into irregularly 
formed semi-Iigulate sterile florets having lost their original colour to 
assume that of the ray. All traces of the organs of fructification are 



and Geographical Notice. The genus Dahlia con- 
es, one of them, the Dahlia variabilis, is the 
eties which for some years past have 
uie duel ornament of our gardens at the close of the summer 
r species, the Dahlia coccinea, has also been for some time in cul- 
, and is a desirable plant, on account of the rich colouring of 
although its flowers seldom become double, and what is remark- 
:annot be made to intermingle with the common Dahlia varia^ 
s. This circumstance,togetherwith the differ- 
are neuter in the one, whilst they 
Id in the case of other Compo- 
rate them into different genera. 
character, derived from the flo- 
ie whole series of Coreopsidea? 



from the Verbesineae; and it was Linneus's mark of distinction between 
his orders Polygamia superflua and Polygamia frustranea. Yet the 
resemblance between the several species of Dahlia is, in other respects, 
so great, that it has never occurred to any botanist, not even to Cassini, 
who a-. ailed himself of every perceptible modification to make genera 
in Compositse, to propose their separation; nor could it be done with- 
out lavini; a-idc all idea of natural genera. 

The Dahlias are all names of the mountainous districts of Mexico, 
where the present species had probably been discovered some years 
ago, as it appears to have long been cultivated in the Botanic Garden 
of the < ity of Mexico. It may possibly be the same as the Dahlia gigan- 
tea, mentioned by Bullock in his List of Plants procured from that es- 
tablishment, but no mention of it is to be found in the Nova Genera of 
Humboldt and Kunth,norin any of the writings of Spanish botanists, 
to whom the plants of the Mexican garden were usually transmitted. 
G. B. 
Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The Dahlia excelsa 
was first introduced to (his country about the year 1830, in a manner 
somewhat unintentional. Messrs. Loddige's of Hackney perceiving 
that some thick stakes which were used to protect a basket of plants, 
received by them from .Mexico, showed signs of life, planted them in 
the open ground, where they grew to the height of ten feet in the first 
season, but were destroyed in the subsequent winter. The plant was 
again imported both by" roots and cuttings, in 1834, by William Bates, 
Esq. who presented it to Charles Tayleure, Esq. of Toxteth Park, near 
Liverpool, by whom it was liberally distributed to the Liverpool Bot- 
anic Garden, and to Mr. Skirving of Walton nursery, near Liver- 
pool. From the latter admirable and liberally-conducted establish- 
ment, a plant two feet high was obtained by George Eliins, Esq. of 
Rigby Hall, Worcestershire, and planted in the border of his conserva- 
tory in the sprin«- of 1837. In November of the same year it had at- 
tained the height^ twelve feet, and produced a handsome corymb of 
flowers at the summit of the stem, in the manner represented by the 
largest of the two miniature outline sketches in our plate. From one 
of these flowers our drauinu and dccrij-lion was made. Tl.i- !:,..d- 
some plant, 12 feet high, wholly devoid of side shoots, but with it* .mu- 
nificent foliage, spreading five feet from side to side and di 
single spreading crown of flowers, was highly attractive. The very 
handsome style of growth of this individual plant does not, however, 



appear to be invariable, nor perhaps general, in the Dahlia excelsa ; 
for we have since seen other younger plants with many branches, but 
still preserving a main or leading shoot, in a manner wholly distinct 
from the garden species. This habit is represented by our smaller out- 
line sketch. A plant now growing in the greenhouse of the Liverpool 
Botanic Garden, where it has been about three years, has attained the 
height of twenty feet, but although a few buds have appeared, it has 
not perfected any flowers. In its native country it grows thiity feet 
high, and if productive of numerous flowers, must indeed be an object 
quite worthy of the contemplation of the most zealous Dahlia fancier. 
Mr. Shepherd of the Liverpool Botanic Garden informs us that Mr. 
Bate, to whom this country is indebted for the species, possesses dried 
Mexican specimens of the flowers, both single and double, which were 
produced by the same plant ; we may therefore conclude that it pos- 
sesses a sportive character similar to that of its congener, now so well 
'-own and admired by every person even of the most ol 



i floral affairs. 
In the " Bolanic Gardei 



being that which t 



on the same day as the number of the Botanist, which we are now wi 
ing, we have published the Tree Violet. This has much the sai 
relation to the gay Pansy, Viola tricolor, as the Tree Dahlia has 
those brilliant objects of cultivation, the Dahlia variabilis. The obs, 
i hybridizing the two species of Violet £ 



equally applicable 



present instance to the Tree and Garden 



1 ' ' - v rt mixlure o1 thei * lamina may possibly be tnveu to 

.weaker, or a habit of free flowering to the stronger. However un- 
■tjun may be the result, it is highly desirable that the experiment be 
tde. To obtain tins gigantic species of Dahlia in perfect],,, „ | m ,. 
do»bt but preference should be given to planting it in the border 
atory, not near any wall, but where it can enjoy the 
the light, and spread without obstruction from other 
3e easily increased from cuttings. 
Derivation of the Names. 

■"i^boln^wor DaW ° f C ° penha ^ en ' a 



CHOROZEMA CORDA'TUM. 

HEART-LEAVED CHOROZEMA. 

O ^if~L^'^ 




Character of the Genus, Chorozema. Calyx split to the 
middle or not so deep into two lips of which the upper one is broad and 
shortly two-cleft; the lower one deeply three-cleft. Standard scarcely 
longer than the wings, round, emarginate or two-cleft. Wings oblong, 
narrowed at the base. Keel shorter than the wings, ventricose, blunt. 
Stamens free, the filaments smooth. Ovary sessile or born on a short 
stalk, with several ovules. Style short, hooked, smooth. Stigma 
oblique or nearly straight, slender or capitate. Pod ovate, sessile or 
nearly so, swollen, without any pithy substance inside. 

Description of the Species, Chorozema cordatum. A slen- 
der shrub perfectly glabrous, except a few small appressed hairs on the 
younger branches, much branched and more leafy than the other spe- 
cies. Leaves borne on short foot-stalks, ovate, obtuse, sinuately 
toothed on the margin, each 1 1 somewhat prickly 

seta, heart-shaped at the base, coriaceous, with the midrib projecting 
underneath and strongly reticulate. Stipules small, subulate. Ra- 
cemes terminal; unilateral, slender, 6 to 8 flowered. Each pedicel at 



the axilla of a lanceolate subulate bract and bearing, below the calyx, 
two very small braetedii'. Flow i.r:> ol the size of those of Chorozema 
rhombeum and Chorozema ovatum. Calyx green with a few very 
small appressed hairs, the upper lip broad. Corolla red, the stand- 
ard spotted with yellow at the base. Ovary covered with long silky 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The Chorozemas are all 
natives of the south western portion of Australia from King George's 
Sound to the Swan River, and by the graceful elegance of their flow- 
ers, fully justify the feeling with which Labillardiere and his fellow- 
travellers selected the original species to commemorate their joy on 
the occasion mentioned below. The ten or eleven species known, have 
all of them red flowers closely resembling each other in every partic- 
ular, although the foliage and general aspect divide the genus into two 
very distinct sections. The Chorozema cordatum is apt to run into 
leaf, but if well grown it equals any of the species in beauty. G. B. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The present species 
was received by seeds from the Colony of Swan River, by Robert Man- 
gles, Esq. and originally raised in his garden at Sunning Hill, in 1836. 
Owing to his liberality it is now to be found in many collections. Our 
drawing was made in the month of April, in the nursery of the Messrs. 
Lowe of Clapton, where an admirable collection has been made of the 

as soon as the t n so far ascertained as to ena- 

ble us to do them justice. The Chorozema cordatum should have green- 
house protection, under which there is not the least difficulty in its 
management. It succeeds perfectly when potted in sandy peat, mixed 
with a small quantity of ! 




This welcome refreshment, of which he speaks feelingly in his book, seems to 
have suggested a name for his plant, which he had properly determined to con 
stitute a new genus. He called it Chorozema, evidently, as 1 presume, from 
Xopoc CHORos,a da a d i >n ia zejea a drink in allusioi 

to the circumstance just mentioned. Smith: Transactions of the Linneai 
Society, v. 9, p. 252. Cordatcm from the heart-shaped form of the leaves. 



EPIMEDIUM MACRAN'THUM. 

LARGE-FLOWERED EPIMEDIUM. 

•Hi (:hc.} <W~^ 

No. 90. 
GENUS. Epimedium. Linnevs. Perigonii partes opposite distichag qua- 



dnplo brevionbns. Ltndley : Botanical Register, p. 1906. 

Character of the Genus, Epimedium. Parts of the Perigone 
opposite, distichous, four outer ones (or calyx) sepaloid, of a different 
colour from the inner ones, four intermediate ones (petals or outer pe- 
tals) petaloid, flat or concave, four innermost (inner petals or nectaries) 
hood-shaped tapering into a spur, nearly of the same colour as the 
intermediate. Stamens four, placed at the base of the inner petals. 
Ovary one, unilateral. Capsule siliqua-shaped, with several seeds. 

branched at the base, about nine inches to near a foot high, swollen 
and reddish at each branching or at the insertion of the leaves, with 
long reddish spreading hairs. Leaves twice or usually three times 
ternate, the leaflets borne on long spreading footstalks, which, as well 
as the main stalk, are swollen at each insertion, and hairy like the stem ; 
the main stalk has a gland above the lower pair of branch stalks. 
Each leaflet is about an inch long, heart-shaped, acuminate, sharply 
toothed,the teeth terminated in a seta, thin, of a light green, quite 
smooth on the upper sufface and slightly hairy underneath, the lateral 
one very oblique at the base. Flowers in terminal panicles, of which 
the branches are spreading, with few hairs. Pedicels about half 
an inch long, one-flowered, thickened under the flower, nearly smooth, 



with one or two small bracts at their base. Calyx of four oblong 
pointed deciduous sepals of a brownish colour, about two lines long. 
Outer petals four, about four lines long, ovate, lanceolate, sharp, 
white with more or less of a violet tint. Inner petals four, nearly 
of the same colour, hood-shaped, tapering into a long obtuse spur as 
long again as the outer petals and yellowish at the extremity, two of 
them distinctly inserted below or outside the two others. Anthers 
four, nearly sessile at the base of the inner petals with a small appen- 
dage at the top, consisting of two cells opening in valves from the base 
to the top. Ovary unilateral, oblong, smooth, with many ovules 
placed in two rows. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The genus Epiraedium, 
as limited by Morren and Decaisne, in'an excellent paper on the sub- 
ject, in the Annales des Sciences Naturelles, vol. 2, second series, com- ' 
prehends a small number of mountain plants, extending from the south- 
ern range of the E lore or less interruption, to the 
Japanese islands. The latter coi Species so remark- 
able from the size of their flowers and especially of the inner petals, as 
to induce the authors of the above-mentioned paper to include them in 
a subgenus or section, under the name of Macroceras. The same cir- 
cumstance render rving of cultivation as orna- 
mental plants in our own gardens as well as in those of the Japanese, 
in which they are said to bear a conspicuous part. G. B. 
Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The Epimedium ma- 
cranthum was one of about 160 species of plants, which Dr. Siebold 
brought alive from Japan in hollow pieces of silex filled with clay. It 
first flowered in the garden of the university of Ghent, from whence it was 
introduced into this country, with many other valuable plants of the 
same collection, in 1S36. Our drawing was made from a plant which 
was obligingly sent us by the Messrs. Pope of Handsworth in April 
last. Subsequently a well-flowered specimen was sent to ns by Mr. 
Atkins, Nurseryman, of Northampton ; who states that the plant must 
be quite hardy, it having been wintered in a cold frame, where the pot 
of soil in which it grew was thoroughly frozen. 

Epimfphm, from a supposition that this was the Epimedium of Dioscorides 
and Pliny, which it certainly is not, that heing described as an ivyleaved mar- 
shy plant without flowers,and of a strong smell. Macranthum large-flowered. 



BORO'NIA PINNATA. 

HAWTHORN SCENTED BORONIA. 
NATURAL ORDER, RUTACE^l. 



GENUS. Boron 



., compressa, embi 



SPECIES. BORONIA FINN ATA. SMITH. 

mis, f.-linlis 3-9 liuearibus acutis, pedunculis 



d v 1 Petals four, oval, persi>,tt:nf. Sr.\Mr.vs eight, either all 

bearing anthers, or sometimes four alternating with the sepals, abor- 
tive, the filaments ciliated and curved inwards. Styles four, erect, 
adjoining or ifonnected together in one. Stigmas four, or all joined 
into one four-lobed one. Carpels four, opening inwardly in two valves 
and connected into a four-lobed four-celled capsule. Seeds usually 
solitary in each cell, ovate, compressed, with a slender cylindrical 
embryo, and a superior radicle. 

two or three feet in height, perfectly smooth in all its parts. Branches 

mon petiole one to two inches long ; leaflets two to four pair with an 
odd one, articulate on the petiole, linear, pointed and slightly scythe- 
shaped, somewhat thick and dotted. Peduncles axillary, dichoto- 

than the leaves, of a red colour. Bracts, two, small and sharp, at the 
base of every bifurcation, and two on each pedicel. Sepals ovate, 
smooth, very small. Petals five or six times as long as the sepals, 
oval, somewhat pointed, narrowed at the base, spreading, with a mi- 
nute down on the inside. Stamens eight, all fertile and equal, the 



filaments yellow, about a line long, inflexed and bordered with long 
hairs. Anthers small, two-celled, borne on a very short slender stipes 
at the top of the filament. Ovary of four carpels connected together 
and terminated in a very short style with a terminal stigma. One 
erect ovule in each carpel or cell of the ovary. Capsule smooth, of 
four carpels. Seeds solitary, black, with the adhering endocarpium 
white and polished, 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Boronia is an Australian 
genus, comprehending a considerable number of species, natives of 
different parts of the southern and western coasts, most of them of 
great beauty. Some of them, and especially the present species, have 
long contributed to the ornament of our greenhouses, and it were 
highly desirable that many others, known as yet only from dried spe- 
cimens, were introduced into cultivation, more especially those from 
Van Diemans Land, which in the South of England would probably 
prove half-hardy. C R 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The Boronia pin- 
nate was first introduced in the year 1795, to the nursery of Messrs. 
Lee and Kennedy of Hammersmith, and has ever since remained in 
our greenhouses, but has not always been cultivated with the success 
which attends the generality of New Holland plants. The chief occa- 
sion of this, has been over watering; or exposure, in summer with 
other greenhouse plants, to all the rain of the season. To avoid this 
it should be retained, at all times under glass, be sparingly watered, 
and have a soil composed of peat and sand, with a very small 

loam, so loose and pervious as to prevent the possibility < 



> mese observations, with a ff ood 
drainage, obtained by the use of a stratum, a, least two inches thick 
of pofcherds, or broken tile, ,01 secure saeeess to the cultivator, and 
yield him the gratification of possessing a lovely little shrub as odor 
ilToLo J S re eaUtifU '' CU " ingS reqUire ** Same PreCai " i0nS '» ">&»* 
Derivation of the Names 

B Tr:::; s :^tni it':\ s \ r Ja r Edward *■**■ «■ —p^t * 

?S21SS2^?? X >« H^ory 3 Tracts, p. 290, t. 4. Andrews's 



EUPHORBIA JACQUINI^EFLO'RA. 

JACQUINIA-FLOWERED EUPHORBIA- 

|-1 ess:) <¥>-^ 

NATURAL OR 



ts f 



GENUS. Euphorbia, 


Linhmvs. Flore s monoid in eodem inv ] 


lucro; fe- 




dcus centralis: 












, 4-5-ndum, laciniis i 


otegris fimbriatisve 


aut mul- 


. 


(juibus exterio: 


res appendices totidem 




.«» glan- 








plures, singuli cum 














Pistillum longius pedunculatum bi 




calicula- 




li tres bifidi, rarius connati in unum i 










km triloculare, loculis 


uniorulatis. Frccti 




aris,pedur! 




msidenset eodem deflei 










admodum 


varise. Inflo 


rescentia axillaris ve] 


t, ii.m.. ...peduncul 


is umbel- 




SPECIES. Euphorbia -. 
longe petiolatis-oblongo-lanceolatis acummati 

mis pauciflnris, Imiavmmi. 

Character of the Genus, Euphorr 
in the same involucre, one female central 
it. Involucre bell -shaped or top-shaped, four to five-cleft, the lobes 
entire, fringed, or divided into several, and outside the lobes are an 
equal or lesser number of outer ones alternating with them, and of a 
glandular, fleshy or petaloid consistence. Male Flowers consisting 
of single filaments, bearing one anther, and articulated upon a very 
short pedicel, at the base of which is frequently a bract. Ffmale 
Flower: a pistil, borne on a peduncle, either naked or with a little 
calycule at the base. Styles three, bifid, or rarely joined in one. 
Stigmas, six, or rarely three, bilobed. Ovary trilocular, the cells 
one-ovulated. Fruit a capsule, placed on a long peduncle bent 
downwards, of three cocci, each opening elastically in two valves. 

Description of the Species, Euphorbia jacquini^flora. 
Shrub, four to five feet high, with slender branches, leafy in the upper 
part, smooth in all its parts. Leaves on rather long foot-stalks, all 
pendant, oblong lanceolate, narrowed at both extremities, strongly 



penninerved, of a dark green, paler underneath, the younger ones 
having often a deep red tint. Peduncles placed in the axils of the 
upper leaves, at first much shorter than them, but at length nearly 
equal to them, bearing from three to seven, so called, flowers, (pro- 
perly involucres.) Bracts ven minute, linear, and scarlet. Invo- 
lucres with a bell-shaped _r so five roundish, 
or slightly obcordi L;es, having the 
appearance of petals, with a transverse gland at the base of each, and 
live internal lobes alternating with the external ones, but not project- 
ing beyond the tn : , 
Male Flower, or at lea>l the outer one-. - Mended by a linear 
ciliated scale, often slightly coloured at the base. Female central 
flower in our specimens sterile, reduced to a pedicel about a line 
long, and a short globular empty ovarium, with six abortive stigmas. 
Popular and Geographical Notice. Among the several spe- 

i brilliant colour of its involucres, 
and their long duration. Its country is unknown, but it is probably 
a native of South America, and evidently very nearly allied to Eu- 
phorbia laiuifblia, a Peruvian plant, described by Lamarck and Per- 
soon, from Jussieu's herbarium. Judging, indeed, from the descrip- 
tions, we should not have hesitated considering the two as identical, 
were it not for the constant abortion of the female flower in the indi- 

plant is no further known than that it was sent from°the Berlin 
Botanic Garden a few years since, and has spread itself into the stoves - 
of a number of ov riste. Our drawing was made 

from a specimen in Mrs. Lawrence's collection, which had several times 
excited the admiration of the %Mu»rs ,„ U„. Horticultural Society's 
exhibitions in Regent-street; being taken, however, at a rather, ad- 
vanced stage, it represents the flowers more lax, and with fewer leaves 
than is usually the case when the plant is less advanced in flowering. 
It requires to be kept in the stove, and should be potted in a mixture 
of peat, loam, and sand. Cuttings will strike root in sand, under a 
bell-glass, with bottom heat, but water should not be given them for 
several days after they are put in, that their juices might be somewhat 
exhausted, which would otherwise endanger their decay. 

Derivation of the Names. 
LrpHoRniA, taken by modern botanists from the iv0opj3io 
called, as it is said, because Euphorbus, physician to Juba. kino- of M 
ma.farst mad, riyed fr()m a species of £up] 

b and fopjSi,, good pasture, though that be n 
me case w,th any species. Jacoa ,*,.*: flora, flowers like those of a Jacquini 
Syxonyme. 
Euphorbia Jacqciniwlora. Hooker : Botanical Magazine, t. 3673. 



ACUOPHYLXUM VENO'SUM. 

VEINED ACROPHYLLUM. 

f- 1 uik} v^V 

NATURAL ORDER, SAXIFRAGACE^. 



LKNTiv Bxillai i, la, multiflora. 

Character of the Genus, Acrophyllum. Calyx free, regu- 
lar, divided near to the ba se wis. Petals five, 
linear-oblong, clawed. Stamens ten, inserted on a small thin disk, 
entirely adnate to the base of the calyx. Ovary sessile, free, hairy, 
two-celled, the cells separating very easily from one another, each 
with several ovule-. Styles two, subulate, smooth, pointed, the stig- 
mas oblong, lateral, at the end of the styles. 

Description of the Species, Acrophyllum venosum. Stem 
shrubby, erect, brand d, ila ~\- riiia i ligured about eighteen 
inches high. BRANCHES red h a few appressed 

hairs in the upper part. Lf w r.s opposite, sessile or nearly so, articu- 
lated on the stem, ovate or oblong-ovate, deeply and regularly toothed, 
smooth, green, and reticulate on the upper side, white, with a very 
minute pubescence on the other side, the mid-rib and pinnated veins 
prominent, red and smooth, of a leathery consistence, and somewhat 
folded on the margin. Stipules lanceolate, deciduous, 
concrete. Flor 

lar to them in form. Flowers num. 

leaves, forming a sort of interrupted raceme crowned by a tuft of ste- 
rile leaves similar to those of the stem, but at the time of flowering 
smaller and reddish. In each axilla is a very short, common peduncle 
' red, slightly hairy pedicels, each 
acts are found at the base of some 



of the pedicels. T th pai of th erdwveiy -m I], thickened inside 
into a hairy disk. Divisions of the limb ian: e< late, acute, about 
two-thirds of a line long', smooth, of a delicate pink colour, collapsing, 

Stamens longer than the pi I hers nearly glo- 

or eight ovules. Styles the length of 



l ; ii'i 



EN. jm 






e New Zealand Wein- 
ixtratropical Autralia. 



, '"' * lr " I! ' ' I th inflorescence. It, relation 

1 Galdehuia of Don, or Di : y. { more remo te, 

'• ; " u li,:L "- a lvi '' «■"■»!."„ viih it ilnn -/:;:, all other Cunonieae! 
i of little or no imp»r\ tl i.-<> jis tl m. ,„,,;,. ( i^ii, 1( G B . 



greenhouse pla 

Garden, from s 


ion; Where 

ee.k revived i 


niLOvrx; Cxlture. This very pretty 
n the year 1836; and it flowered in J„np 


1838, in that e 


stab! 


- 




our drawing was mad-. 


At the 










' 




tofts of delicate floi 

of to Messrs. Lucoi 


nbe and ] 


i a beautiful appearance. It was 

.'incc, N'uiservmeu of Exeter. ^ 




(November, 1838) 




possession. Mr. Pince in 


likely to 


that it succeed, 
ripen seeds. 


> adi 


nimbly h. 




1 :dr\ gre< uln use, and is 






• Derit.v 




r THE Names 




So™d aU t 


s"^': 


^he^uftfofktv 


strongly marked 


res at the 






L Floral 


l-u-iiue 


VYM 81,t.8.3, ' 





ARISTOLO'CHIA CILIO'SA. 

FRINGED ARISTOLOCHIA. 



:i Qp-^j 



■<j^,~\,, zv-^9 ss 



'ards, two-celled, admit.- l»y (heir Lack to the sijle. Ovary adhe- 
Jnt, six-celled. O* i u s -everal. iked in mhuIc n.ws to the central 

ito six valves at ■ ■<• bracteate, the 

:sta coriaceous, wit broad, corky at 

ta. Embryo very small at the base of the Jle liy rr h.>rn\ alinmien. 

imbing-, perfectly smooth, as well as the rest of the plant. Stipules 
me. Leaves p.- M he base, entire 



but slightly crisped on the margins, of a bright green, above pale and 
marked with prominent veins below. Peduncles one-flowered, nearly 
as long as the leafstalk, spreading, the ovary incurved and ascending. 
Perigon hanging in the lower part which is inflated, obliquely-ovate, 
about half an inch long, it then suddenly ascends in the form of a 
cylindrical straight entire tube, about half an inch long, at the 
top of which it spreads into flat orbicular limbs eight or nine lines 
broad, fringed round with a number of bright yellow cilioe tipped 
with purple; the outside of the perigon is of a pale yellowish green, 
slightly striped with purple, the inside of the swelled part of a pale 
yellow, and somewhat downy, with a purplish ring near the base, 
the tubular part has a few hairs near its base and is smooth and pur- 
plish towards the top, the limb is of a rich purple near the base and 
then beautifully reticulated with a htiuht greenish yellow on a purple 
ground. Anthers almost sessile, oblong, two-celled, the cells pointed 
at the top, bursting outwards longitudinally, adnata by the back to 
the fleshy rays of the style which are lanceolate, pointed, rather longer 
than the anthers, and bears the stigmatic surface along the margins on 
the outside. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Among the great variety 
of extraordinary forms which the perigon of the Aristolochiae assume 
in the warmer parts of America, this is by no means one of the least curi- 
ous. Though the flowers are not in sufficient abundance, nor project 
enough beyond the leaves to make much show, yet the beautifully 
variegated limb, with h> « le_ui;i fringe, amply repays a close inspec- 
tion. It is a native of North Patagonia, a country which has of late 
years, through the laborious exertions of Mr. Tweedie, so much en- 
riched our collections, and which with the neighbourhood of Buenos 
Ayres, and the southern extremity of Brazil, is now through his means 
rivaling North California in ornamenting our flower borders. The 
genus Aristolochia is one of those which t"™ *"» «=«^ +« *>-™ ™ c "' 1 - 
cial fatherland, as it is found represented „■, 
species, in nearly every tropical or temperate 
cepting perhaps the southern extremity < " 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. Seeds of this species 
were transmitted by Mr. Tweedie of Buenos Ayres, in 1836, to the 
Glasnevin Botanic Garden, Dublin; where it was raised by Mr. Niven, 
the talented curator, to whose kindness we owe the opportunity of fig- 
uring it. It flowered in the stove, in the autumn of 1837, having been 

: b many cilise, alluding to the limb 
of the perigon. 



LIPARIA SPH^E'RICA. 

RUSCUS-LEAVED LIPARIA. 



brcvi, limbo 3 lobo, lobis 4 sin. . snbaequalibns, inferi- 

or longissimo elliptit-o petaloi(U-o. I'.moi.i \. glabra, vexillo ovali-oblon^o, alis 

bicipiti. Stamina diaiMpha. Ovaricm sessile brevissimum. Sttixs filifor- 
mis. Legvmen ovatum oligospern m. Uli-amjoi.l, Pmilronius Systematis 
uuivi-rsalix rcgni vegetabilis, II, p. 121. 

SPECIES. Lipvriv SPHT.RICA. Lixnevs. Fruticosa foliis lanceolatis 
nervosis glabns. floribus capitatis. 

Character of the Genus Liparia. Calyx with the base pres- 
sed inward,, tub sho t, I Qtth & ■■' I, '!■ foul ipper lobes lanceolate 
acute, nearly equal, the inferior very long, elliptical petaloid. Corolla 
smooth, standard oral-oblong, wings oblong, the one during aestiva- 
tion wrapping the other, keel straight acute tiarr »\v two-headed. Sta- 
mens diadelphous. Ovary sessile, very short. Style filiform. Pod 
ovate, few-seeded. 

Description of the Species, Liparia Spherica. A shrub 
with the stem about four feet high, smooth. Leaves alternate, sessile, 
distant, lanceolate, mucronate, entire, stiff, nerved. Flowers in a 
terminal capitule, which is smooth, sessile, surrounded by leaves 
or bracts of considerable length, which form a sort of involucre. 
Flowers of a yellowish or russet hue. Calyx having the lower sepal 
very long and petaloid, emarginately three-cleft. Corolla papilio- 
naceous, fawn-coloured, the wings and keel twisted together, so as to 
require careful separation to shew their real character. Wings two- 
Jobed at the lower margin. Keel straight, acute, narrow, two-headed. 



Popular and Geographical Notice. This remarkably intei 
esting plant is a native of the Cape of Good Hope : we are ignorant i 
what locality it grows, but most probably on the Zwellerdam moun 



tains, where it a , ;' the genus Erica, 

which ceases to form a part of the Flora of the Cape at this point. 
The species of Erica are replaced on these mountains by Blrerias and 
the genera Struthiola, Passerina, Phylica, Podaliria, (P. buxifolia, 
myrtillifolia, vulgata) Polygala (P. oppositifolia,) Aspalathus, Lipa- 
ria, Rafnia and Cleome. 

The shining character of the leaves bears a striking resemblance to 
that of the Leucadendron argenteum R. Br. (the Protea argentea, 
Linn.) and both approximate to the appearance of the leaves of Astelma 
eximimum R.Br, (the Gnaphalium eximimum Willd.); this silvery 
hue n * l 1 k Nersifythe scenery, while the clothing of the 

leaves with so thick a coating of silky hairs must materially protect 
them against the effects of the intense heat to which they are exposed. 
That a compact coating of hairs hinders excessive exhalation, and 
thereby preserves the plants from destruction in periods of universal 
heat and drought is manifest from the fact that plants so provided 
survive when others perish. Kalm mentions " that when the excessive 
drought of the spring of 1749 had completely parched up the hills 
and high grounds in Albany (U.S.) the Verbascum Thapsus (great 

when every other leaf was burnt up See Kalm's Travels, Vol 2 
p. 109. 

Introduction; Where grown: Culture. Th. A* to ~e ♦*.«. :„ 



ivator it wi,j grow tall and slender, but by frequently stopping 
the leading shoots much more handsome and bushy plants may be ob- 
aine . kept in a pot, in the greenhouse, its roots should have plen- 
« o r „„ m .„, free d „ iMge . but jt wi]| 8tow most V 

planted ,. the e„„ S e„»„„ ., , i„ . ,„„.,,,, fo|me(| of , ' 



of the head of flowers. 
268. Sims: Bot. Mag. 1 



icoDENDRON- splendexs, Bunuann : II 



CALOCHORTUS AL'BUS. 

WHITE CALOCHORTUS. 



each cell, usiialK in one or two row:,, horizontal, somewhat compressed, 
testa brown, membranous, rather loose, with the raphis running along 



erect, an inch and a half to two inches long, without bracts. Flowers 
disposed, two to four together in the upper part of the stem or branches 
in loose racemes, almost shortened into umbels, each flower pendulous 
from the top of the peduncle, of an ovate-globose form, about an inch 
and a quarter long. Outer leaflets of the perigon ovate-oblong, 
greenish in the middle, membranous on the edges, ending in a short 
point, somewhat concave, but without any beard or nectariferous pit. 
Inner leaflets double the length of the outer ones, petaloid, white, 
concave, conmvent and blunt at the top, contracted into a short stalk 
at the base, marked on the inside with a slightly impressed nectariferous 
pit covered with inflected hairs, glabrous below it, above it slightly 
covered with scattered hairs and almost naked at the border, where 
the few hairs that straggle so far are turned inwards and do not form 
a fringe. Capsule above an inch long, narrowed at both ends, sharply 
three-angled, each valve being keeled and somewhat winged on the 
'ong point. Seeds numerous, in two 



Popular and Geographical Notice. The Calochorti, natives 
of the North American continent to the west of the longitudinal ridge, 
whence many species h ;ve been introduced in meat abundance by the 
Horticultural Society, are almost all of them highly ornamental and 
very desirable acquisitions to our gardens. We had originally refer- 
red the present species to Cyclobothra, but are now persuaded that 
Schultes and Endlicher are right in uniting the two genera as mere 
sections of one; and this Calochortus albus, with the Calochortus pul- 
chellus of Douglas, and Calochortus elegans of Pursh would form an 
intermediate section, differing from the true Calochortus by the pen- 
dulous flowers and comment petals; from Cyclobothra by the outer 
leaflets of the pengone being without pits or beards. On this ac- 
count the section may be called Tribothra. G. B. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The Calochortus 
albus was transmitted to the Horticultural Society by Mr. Dou-las 
their collector, in the year 1833, and has since been extensively°dis- 
tnbuted by that Society. Like other Calochorti it is liable to decay 
in summer, probably owing to the same cause which makes Cape 
»» >s generally so difficult to preserve— the want of those months of 
dry scorching heat, during which the bulb is matured and hardened, 
»nd preserved from all tendency to ferment and rot during its season 
of rest. Flowers in June. It is usually potted in sandy peat. 
Derivation of the Names. 



HELICO'NIA BI'COLOR. 

TWO-COLOURED HELICONIA. 



GENUS. Helicons 



vvMirs. Perigonii epigyni foliola exteriora ^qna- 



Character of the Genus, Heliconia. Perigon epigynous, the 
exterior leaflets equal, growing together at the base, the two lateral 
inner ones nearly similar to them, placed near together, embracing 
the genital organs, the upper one very small. Stamens five, the 
sixth upper one being entirely wanting, adnate to the base of the 
perigon. Ovary adherent, three-celled. Ovules solitary in each 
cell, ascending from the base of the axis, anatropous. Style filiform; 
stigma slightly depressed, obscurely six-cleft. Capsule somewhat 
drupaceous, formed of three bony indehiscent nuts. Seeds solitary in 
each nut, obovate, or globose, attached by the base; the testa scarcely 
separable from the endocarp. Embryo orthotropous, linear, placed 
in the axis of a farinaceous fleshy albumen. 

tuberous. Leaves numerous; foot-stalks stiff; erect, solid, three feet 
high, with scattered blotches of a fine brownish down, sheathing the 
wenty inches long, contracted 



i base, and terminated in a long 



i longitudinal 



impressed veins, perfectly smooth, excepting a longitudinal row of 
hairs on each side of the midrib on the under side. Flowering stem 
rising to the height of the leaves, terminated in a distichous spike of 
flowers, the lowest spathe or upper stem-leaf without any flowers, 
coloured at the base like the spathe, terminated in a green leaf like the 



the stem at the base, hollow, but less so than in most species, rather 
longer than the flowers, and like the flower-stem the pedicels and 
ovaria of a brilliant scarlet. The two lower spathes contain six, the 
two next four pedicels, and as many membranous whitish bracts, 
tinged with pink. Flowers inodorous. Divisions of the perigon 
of a pure white tinged with green at the top, and of a firm wax-like 
consistence, the five upper ones adhering firmly nearly to the top; 
the lower one spreading, all of them narrow, linear-lanceolate. Sta- 
mens five, fertile; filaments flattened, linear, terminated by a [linear, 
oblong anther; sixth rudimentary stamen lanceolate, not half as long 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This splendid genus, 
allied to the Bananas or Plantain trees, is confined to the tropical 
parts of America and the West Indies; and although the growth of the 
plants is slow, and they therefore occupy a valuable place in the stove 
for many years before they flower, yet they fully repay the cultivator's 
patience and care, by the great beauty and long duration of their spikes 
of flowers. The present species, a native of the Brazils, is peculiarly 
conspicuous by the contrast of the richly coloured flower-stem and 
spathe, with the white of the flower itself. It appears to come nearest 
to the Heliconia acuminata of Richard, but differs especially in the 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This new Heliconia 
was sent, ten or twelve years since, by Baron de Schach, from the 
Brazils, to the Botanic Garden at Liverpool. It has there been 

and flowered in the months of February and March, when our drawing 
was made. It may be propagated by offsets or by division. 



r of the spaths and that of the flowers. 



ANTHOCERCIS LITTO'REA. 

SEA-COAST ANTHOCERCIS. 



( ::he:.} ^-^ 



GENUS. ANTHOCERCIS. 

parallels insertis. Semina retii n! isculi. Folia altema 

petiolato sive attenn; ■■ laiululoso-punctata. 

Flores axillares, subsolitarii pedunculo minute bracteato, ad arth-ulum ne- 
pius solubili. Coao striate, limbo quan- 

doque sex-ad octo-partito. Robert Brown. Prodromus Flora Novee Hol- 
lands, p. 4 18. 

SPECIES. Anthocercis littorea. Labillardieee. Foliis obovatis im- 
punctatis margine Itevibus utrinqne ramulisque glaberrimis, corollae laciniis 
tubo longionbus, capsula oblonga calycem bis superante. 

Character of the Genus, Anthocercis. Calyx five cleft. 

Corolla bell-shaped; the tube < ,..;•. - ( i ;n : <! bearing the stamens 
at its base; the limb equally five-cleft. Stamens included in the 

emarginate. Capsli tw<>-< H I, two-valved, the margins of the 
valves bent inwards, attached to the parallel placenta. Seeds reti- 



small point, perfect !\ cniiiv, narrowed nnd sometimes shortly stalked 
at the base, thickish, one-nerved, not dotted, and perfectly smooth as 
well as the branches. Flower either solitary, or one or two together 
from the axillae of the upper leaves, or more frequently several together 
in loose terminal racemes. Pedi nclls furnished with a few small 
bracts, pedicels larger than the calyx, naked or furnished with two ex- 
ceedingly minute bracts Calyx bell-shaped, the tube narrowed at 
the base, five-ribbed, smooth ; division of the limb linear, rather longer 



than the tube, but much shorter than the tubeof the corolla. Cor- 
olla bell-shaped, smooth, yellow, slightly ribbed outside, the inside of 
the tube marked with from thirteen to fifteen longitudinal purple 
stripes; divisions of the limb linear, somewhat broader at the base, 
spreading, longer than the tube. Stamens inserted in the base of 
the corolla, shorter than its tube, the filaments dilated at the base, 
the anthers nearly globular, the cells parallel, bursting by longitudinal 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This, the original species, 
^as discovered by Labillardiere, on the South West Coast of Australia, 
where Mr. Brown found also a second species, and two others have 
since been detected by Mr. Cunningham in the interior, from Port 
Jackson. The genus, thus confined to Australia, belongs to the same 
group as the South American genus, Salpiglossis, and which is as it 
were intermediate between Scrophulariacese and Solanacete; but as the 
stamens are always didynamous, and the aestivation of the corolla in 
the young bud decidedly bilabiate, we have no hesitation in refer- 
ring it to Scrophulariaceae, notwithstanding the slight curvature of the 
embryo, 'which probably induced Mr. Brown to class it amongst 
Solanaceae. G. B. 

Where grown; Culture. The Anthocercis 
s first introduced into this country in the year 1803,>nd 



Though inferior to Anthoc 

tlieless a desirable plant, and ' 
during 
Our drawing was made in 
Drayton Green. 




BEGONIA INCARNATA. 

ROSE-COLOURED BEGONIA. 
NATURAL ORDER, BEGONIACE^. 



LiENUS. Begonia. LirtyiEvs. Fk 



unlk-nma. Pktai.v d .,..■.,;,. 






[ua. Stipule scariosa:. Pendunculi axillares 

SPECIES. BEGONIA INCARNATA. LlNK ET 



us or dioecious. Males : Sepals two, distinct, folded against each 
er in the bud. Patals two, concave, alternating with the sepals 
I smaller than them. Stamens indefinite in number, placed in the 
tre of the flower and more or less joined together at the base. 
5TIL none. Females : Calyx with the tube completely adnate to 
ovarium, unequal the hmb divided 

j two nearly equal parts folded against each other in the bud. Pe- 
ls usually two, one bifid or bipartite, the other smaller and entire, 

Reference to the Dissei 



)r more. Stamens none. Ovary adnate, three-an- 
gled, three-celled, with polyspermous central placentae. Style short 
and thick, three-lobed. Stigmas three, waved or two-lobed. Capsule 
membranous three-sided, unequally three-winged, Hiree-celled, many 
seeded, opening at the base in slits along the margin of the wings. 
Seeds with a thin transparent reticulata testa, a very cellular embryo, 
no albumen, and a short radicle directed towards the hilum. 

Description of the Species, Begonia Incarnata. Stem 
herbaceous, three to four feet high, smooth, swollen at the joints. 
Leaves on rather long foot-stalks, very unequally cordate, acuminate, 
angularly toothed or almost lobed, and also furnished with a number 
of small ciliate serratures of a shining green, with a few scattered hairs 
above, smooth and often reddish underneath. Stipules lanceolate, 
pellucid. Peduncles two or three times dichotomous, at first appa- 
rently terminal, but becoming at length lateral, nodding. Bracteas 
ovate cordate, deciduous. Flowers monoecious, large, rose-coloured. 
Males: Sepals large, round-cordate. Petals nearly as long, but 
narrow, spathulate. Stamens connected together at the base. An- 
TFir.ns nblong-clavate, rather rt of the filaments. 

Females: Lobes of the calyx smaller than tin sepals of the males, 
and not so broad. One petal (opposite the convex side of the ovary) 
as large as the divisions ol ih cal\\, and, more or less deeply and 
unequalK divided into ;v.o; me other petal nearly as long, but much 



merous in species, and widely diffused in the hotter regions of both 
hemispheres, with the exception, perhaps, ,,| (he continent of Africa, 
has, by the singularity of its structure, much puzzled the most distin- 

to the affinities of (he genus forming hy itself the order Begoniaceaj 
it was formerly consider* .1 a- Inning but a simple lloral envelope, and 
as being allied amongst Monochlamydea- to Polygonaceae. This 
opinion is now, howe\er, gem/rally abandoned. All appear to agree 
in classing it amongst vegetables of a higher order of structure, with 
a double flora] envelope; some considering (he divisions of the appa- 
rent perigon as a true corolla, the calyx being supposed to be abor- 
tive; and others i perigon of the ordinary species 

corolla. The affinities of the order have been severally ongfat m 

Hydrangea-, Umbelliferae, Campanulaceae, Cucurbitacea?, and Ona- 



gard to the floral envel 
gans are intrinsically ( 



leaves, and that the difference between calyx and corolla depends 
merely on their relative position, we may observe that in Begonia 
there are (at least in the species I have been enabled to examine) in 
both male and female flowers, two external divisions always enclosing the 

the two principal wings of the ovary ; these alone ought perhaps to be 
considered as the calyx ; whilst the others, whether two, three, or more, 
placed within the sepals in the bud, much later in their development, 
much more intimately connected with the stamens in the males, ap- 
pear to me to hare all ..(petals. 

One objection to the theory of a disepalous calyx with an adherent 
tube, may however be derived from the nervation of this supposed adhe- 
rent part, where we a!ua\> o!»en v three «ums or prominent nerves, and 
three intermediate less marked nerves. Let us however suppose the 
tube of the calyx so completely adherent as to form but one substance 

is the strong orjran, and the (unction*, (it tin ovarium not yet called into 
action, to find the form approaching that which the calyx would give 
it, and as this organ withers ;m\,i\ and the ovarium commences to de- 
velop itself, the outer form might be expected to suit itself more or less 
to the structure of the ovarium. Accordingly in the young bud, of 
many species at least, we find the tube very much compressed, 
the two edges con the sepals promi- 

nently winged, one side perfectly flat with a vein along the centre 
where the sepals m the other side convex with 

prominent than the other; and if in this early stage intermediate veins 
may be traced on the convex side and not on the flat one, they are so 
faint as to show that they are of a secontlary nature, or perhaps belong- 
ing to the ovarium and not to the calyx. As the fruit swells after fe- 
cundation, the convex side becomes more prominent, the intermediate 
veins more marked; and finally, though even the fruit is usually very 
irregular, in this respect, yet we may sometimes see a nearly equi- 
lateral triangular three-winged capsule. In one species I have occa- 
sionally found one cell of the ovary not developed, and a regular 
compressed two-winged capsule. 

It is probable that no immediate affinities to Begoniaceae can be 
traced amongst am p anl- hi in rt > known, and that some remote an- 
alogy is all that can be looked for with an order so strikingly charac- 
terised. Laying entire! \ a-ide the lew order, still left amongst Mono- 
chlamydea?, and neglect in-- a No Monopetabc, for it does not appear 
that anything but the dehiscence of the capsule, the least important of 
all carpological characters, led to the approximation with Campanula- 



in particular, have the same unisexual flowers, ternary inferior fruit, 
and want of albumen, uith a certain decree of resemblance in the 
Htjles and anthers; but on the other hand their habit, their tendrils, 
definite stamens, the absolute as well as relative number of the floral 
parts, their parietal placenta', and the structure of their seeds, are 
equally important characters in which they wideh differ. The regu- 
lar, isomerons, qu rpeUary parts of Onagraceae, 
are still more incomp iil>!e with Begoniacese. Perhaps some affinity 
might also be traced in Portulacese, many of which have, like Bego- 
iiiacea', stipulate leaves, a i!,« 

occasionally semi-adherent, with a ternary ovarium, axile placentae, 
and petals and stamens bearing no regular relation either to the calyx 
or to the ovary; but In ■ . .■_ n, tin structure of the seeds, and the 
want of dissepiments in the is er, usually feee, 

are ven important (mints of difference. 

The species, of wMcb a slight mm ty, very graceful in appearance, 
is here figured, is a native of the warmer parts of Mexico, a country 
which has furnished an\ hi uititu] i). . . itas. They are equally 
ornamental with the Brazilian ones, and have the advantage of 

Introduction; where grown; culture. The Begonia incar- 

uata was tivsi obi 

were sent to the Berlin Garden from M. Deppe. It was thence sent to 
Edinburgh, by son name of Begonia ciliata, and 

Dr. Graham ascertaining it was not that species, described it as a new 
one, giving it the name of lb go i i isi-n Sj l>\ - hich it is generally 
known in this country. Like other Begonias it likes a light mixture 

oi peat. loam, and sand. Without lv.piiring, in ordinary c 

any high degree of temperature, it is easily forced, and made t 
duce its handsome drooping branches of flowers in great profusion at 
all times of the year. Our drawing was made trom a plant in the Bir- 
mingham Horticultural Society's garden. We were favoured also with 
a diav.mg imm a fine specimen in the nursery of Mr. Henderson, of 



ERICA PSEU'DO-VESTTTA. 

" CLOTHED HYBRID HEATH. 

© i una <^>-^ 

No. 104. 
GENUS. Erica. Z/iViv^. Calvx ffi qualis profunde quadrifidus Tel s«e- 
pins quadripartitus. Coaoiu I -. urceolata, campan- 

ulata Tel globosa, 1 recta recurTO revoluto vel stellato- 

patente. Stamina octo rarius sex Tel septem, sub disco hypogyno sape gland- 
uloso inserta. Filamenta libera Tel rarissime submonadelp'ha. Anthers 

vel quadrilirtuiii. ("ai'.si i.a quadrilocularis, loculicide quadrivalvis. Semina in 
loculis numerosa,pla<< -n txil litis 1 i t! i u t s Europaete Tel maxima parte Aus- 
tro- Africans?. Foli lineariarigida. Ped- 

is ibraeteati. 
Character of the Genus, Erica. Calyx deeply four-cleft, or 
more frequently divided into four distinct sepals of equal size. Co- 
rolla tubular, salver-shaped, pitcher-shaped, bell-shaped, or globular, 
with a short four-cleft limb, which is erect, recurved, rolled back, or 
spreading. Stamens eight, or rarely six or seven, inserted under an 
hypogynous disk, wlmh is I'lvqueiitU glandular. Filaments free, or 
slightly monadelphous. Anthers terminal or lateral, with or without 
two subulate or crest-shaped appendages at the insertion of the fila- 
ments. Ovary four-celled, each cell with many ovules. Style 
filiform. Stigma capitate, or sometimes broad and peltate, entire 
or four-lobed. Capsule four-t vi!t <!. >j>Iiiiinu- through the middle 
of the cells into four valves. Seeds numerous in each cell, attached 
to central placentae. 

Description of the clothed hybrid Heath. An erect shrub, 
having much the appearance of the smaller varieties of Erica vestita. 
Branches smooih, driiM'K o>\uvd v\ i 1 1 1 leaves. Leaves subulate, 
about half an inch long, smooth, six or more in a whorl. Flowers 
drooping, growing one, two, or three together, at the end of the axillary 
branches, shorter than the leaves, which gives the appearance of an 
irregular spike below the extremity of the branches. Bracts linear, 



unequal in length, much shorter than the sepals, and at some distance 
from them. Sepals about three lines long, shortly ovate at the base, 
keeled, with a membranous margin, and terminating in a long subulate, 
green, and leaf-like point. Corolla seven or eight lines long, pink, 
with a whitish limb, tubular, straight or slightly curved, slightly 
swelling in the middle or above it, and scarcely contracted at the 
top, perfectly smooth, and obscurely ribbed; the limb short, somewhat 
spreading. Anthers at the throat of the corolla with subulate appen- 
dages. Style rather longer than the corolla, with a rather large 
capitate stigma. Ovary turbinate, ribbed, woolly. 

merable artificial hybrids, \\h 
did tribe by our indefatigable I 
catalogues as natives of die Cape of Good Hope, where, indeed, their 
ancestors grew, but where it would be in vain to search for anything 
like these their degenerate, though beautiful, descendants. There 
seems no reason to suspect that a single Heath, naturally hybrid, 
has ever been found in a wild state; and as it appears absolutely 
necessary that the same artificial process which produces them, should 
be made use of to enable them to mature their seeds, their repug- 
nancy to the regular laws of nature is as clearly demonstrated in the 
case of this genus as in that of any oilier. With regard to the origin 

have been one of the parents. The 
l selected from amongst the tubular 
species with terminal flowers and awned andiers; or, more probably, 
from some one of the already numerous hybrids between Erica vestita 
and Erica ventricosa. G. B. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This beautiful vari- 
ety i,l Heath »as raised from seed by Mr. Thomas Williams, gardener 
to John Williams, Esq. of Oldford, Staffordshire; and is one amongst 
many hundred varieties raised by the same indefatigable cultivator. 
The generating, as it may be termed, numerous attractive plants, like 
that which we now figure, may be counted amongst the benefits accru- 
ing to society by the united zeal of a liberal proprietor and intelligent 
gardener. With the description of another beautiful variety of Heath, 
raised at Oldford, we intend giving some original observations on the 

Derivation of the Name. 

this genus that Pliny 

plant to Erica vestita, 

good botanical 



GLOXINIA SPECIOSA. 

" SHOWY GLOXINIA. 

No. 105. 
GENUS. Gloxinia. L' Heritier. Calyx ovarii dimidio adnatus, limbo quia- 



Loci F 



Character of the Genus, Gloxinia. Calyx adnate to the lower 
half of the ovary, the limb five-cleft, free. Corolla semi-superior, 
oblique, funnel shaped or bellshaped somewhat gaping at the mouth, 
the tube gibbous at the base on the upper side, swelled in the middle, 
the limbs preading two-lipped, the upper lip of two, the lower of three 
divisions. Stamens four, didynamous, the anthers cohering. Rudi- 
ment of a fifth stamen on the upper side. Glands five, perigynous. 
Capsule one-celled, two-valwd, with two parietal two-cleft placenta?, 
and numerous oblong seeds. 

Description of the Species, Gloxinia speciosa. Tuber 
thick. Stem (hi. !. short and entirely concealed 

always more or less hairy. Leaves varying in size from four to six or 
eight inches in length, borne on short or long footstalks, more or less 
ovate and elliptical, sometimes very Ixoad -,nA rounded or even heart- 
shaped at the base, occasionally, especially the upper ones narrowed 
at the base, always eremite, soft, thick, convex or bullate, and covered 
with whitish hairs on both sides; upper floral leaves generally reduced 
to a very small size. Flowers large and numerous, forming a hand- 
some bunch within the leaves, usually shorter than they i 



far out-topping them. Each flower is borne on a long axillary ebracte- 
ate peduncle. Calyx broadly campanulate, the tube short.and adher- 
ing to the ovarium, the divisions more or less broadly lanceolate, ter- 
minating in a point, from half an inch to three quarters in length, 
green, hairy, and foliaceous. Corolla nodding, from one and a half 
to two and a half inches in length, violet coloured on the outside, the 
divisions of the limb broad rounded, the lower one rather longer and 
smaller and more deeply separated than the others, all of them pale on 
the inside, the throat purple and the tube streaked inside white and 



Popular and Geographical Notice. Two supposed species of 
Gloxinia, speciosa and caulescens, are well known to our hothouse ama- 
teurs by name, but, in any large collection, so gradual a connecting link 
between the one and the other may be observed, as to render it impos- 
sible to draw any line of distinction; and this is not entirely owing to 
hybridising, although that has been much practised, but owing to their 
being naturally but varieties of one species, as shown by native speci- 
mens, and consequently garden seedlings must be expected to sport 
even beyond the limits observed in their own country, the Brasilian em- 
pire. The present variety, intermediate between the two extremes in 

length of the stem, exceeds most of them in the beauty of colour and 






G.B. 

C ulture. The species was first 



exotics. This fine variety of Gloxin 



Introduction; Wh 
introduced about the yea 
common in our hothouses. The beautiful variety, the subject of the 
present plate, Mas raised by Mrs. Lawrence of Drayton Green, where 
our drawing was made. To this lady— a most liberal patron of flori- 
culture, we are also indebted for numerous specimens of the most 
splendid new]y-ii!fro.t U ct:<I 
speciosa requires to be kept in t 

have a season of rest, by keeping the soil nearly dry when its tuber 
becomes dormant. It may be raised by cuttings, either of the leaves 
or stems, and should be potted in a rich soil, mixed with coarse sand. 

DERIVATtON OF THE Na»B. 

S^E I c, I oLXa e utiful L ' H ' ritier iD h ° n0Ur0f G1 ° xin > a botanist of Colmar - 
G G^t,?!?!°.i A ' L ° ddi i es ' Botanical Cabinet, t. 28. Botanical Re*, t. 213. 



CHOROZEMA DICKSO'NII. 

DICKSON'S CHOROZEMA. 



<y>-Vf/ 



:*<*»] 



GENUS. Chorozema. Labillar 

dlabiatus. labio superiore Iato brevitei 

longius, ii 



lanconlatis, snbcilJi Bub-pilosis; racemis 

foliis oppositis, spi< , :• ribus, vestito. 

Character of the Genus, Chorozema. Calyx split to the middle 
or not so deeply into two lips, of which the upper one is broad and 
shortly two-cleft; the lower one deepK thiee-elett. Standard scarcely 
longer than the v ; or two-cleft. Wings oblong, 

narrowed at the base. Keel shorter than the \\ inu-s, ventricose, blunt. 
Stamens free, the fiiau i,i> >n < o h <)\ \ry sessile or borne on a short 
stalk, with several ovules. Style short, hooked, smooth. Stigma 
oblique or nearly straight, slender or capitate. Pod ovate, sessile or 
nearly so, mi thy substance inside. 

erect, branched, slender, twigs ascending, green, hairy, and sprinkled 
with darker green spots. Leaves lanceolate, spreading or reflected, 
ciliated, and having generally, on both surfaces,' a few long spreading 
hairs, mucronate, * petiolate. Racemes oppo- 

site to the leaves, spieate; pedicels cernuous, solitary in the axils of 
subulate deciduous bracts. Flowers few on each raceme, collected 
near the apex, large and handsome, orange-red. Calyx bilabiate, 



and rachis hairy, the hairs being partly long, white, and spreading, 
partly short, adpressed, and black, on the inside purple and less 
hairy; upper lip bifid, the lobes diverging and broad; lower lip tri- 
partite, the segments lanceolate-subulate, reflected. Petals inserted 
near the base of the calyx, vexillum large, semi-orbicular, reflected, 
notched, of nearly uniform red orange on both sides, and towards the 
keel with an oblong yellow spot which is rather longer than the upper 
lip of the calyx; wings spathulato-elliptical, redder and darker than the 
vexillum, connivent along the upper edge and at the apex, pitted on 
the outside, and having a corresponding blunt tooth within; keel sub- 
acute, covered by the wings, inflated, its petals agglutinated from the 
apex to the claws, which are linear and distant. Stamens included 

Pistil about the same length as the stamens; stigma slightly pointed; 
style flat, with a dense tuft of short white hairs immediately below the 
stigma on its outer side, and a small hook above; germen stipulate, 
closely covered with rather long adpressed hairs, colourless and silky 
on the sides, black at both sutures. Ovules numerous, (about ten.) 
R. G. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Australia, that fertile, and 
most promising conimy, li i- c\< hisivch furnished us with numerous 
genera of plants, particularly of the order Leguminosae, amongst which 
our present subject ranks with conspicuous heauty. The first plant of 
this genus was diseo\ -ivd b\ I.ahilhvrdiere, who was attached to the 
voyage of research, which had lor its principal object the discovery of 
the lost La Perouse, and the genus thereby bec< 
by its connexion with these celebrated men. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This very handsome 
plant was raised by Messrs. James Dickson and Sons, of Edinburgh, from 
seeds received in 1836, from Mrs. Murray of Lintrose, Forfarshire, 
having been originally imported from Swan River. Its present height, 
(January, 1839) is three feet, but it appears not unlikely to grow to 
double this height. It flowers in the greenhouse from May to Septem- 
ber. It may be propagated either from seeds or cuttings, and should 
be planted in sandy peat antl loam. 



JATROPHA PANDUILEFO'LIA. 

FIDDLE-LEAVED JATROPHA. 

NATURAL ORDER, EUPHORBIACEjE. 



A.U-l. 11 «I< J ussieu de Euphorbia 



Character of the Genus, Jatropha. Flowers monoecious. 
Calyx five-cleft, more or less deeply convolute in the bud. Corolla 
of five petals or none, twisted in (he bud. Glands or little scales 
five, seldom none, d together in a little ring or 

disk. Male flowers: Stamens eight or ten, the filaments joined 
together at the base, three or five inner ones longer than the others. 
Female flowers: Styles three, two-lobed or two-cleft, or several 
times dichotomous. Stigmas six, or several. Ovary three-celled, 
with one ovule in each cell. Fruit capsular, of three cocci. 

Description of the Species, Jatropha pandur.efolia. Shrub 
of two or three feet in height, without any hairs, but the stem often 
marked with oblong tubercles. Leaves on short foot-stalks, three or four 
inches long, usually obovate-oblong, ending in a long point, broad and 
entire, or with here and there a very small tooth in the upper part, 
contracted below the middle, and near the base there are more or less 



nged more or less with red underneath. Stip 



foot-stalks. Bracts lanceolate at the base of each ramification, the 
lower ones half an inch long, the upper ones much shorter. Calyx 
reddish, bell-shaped, with five teeth or short lobes. Petals five, 
three times as long as the calyx, slightly connected at the base, 
obovate or obcordate, of a rich red colour. Stamens in the males, 
ten, five outer ones just projecting above the tube of the corolla, five 
longer inner ones. Capsule of the females large and smooth. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This genus, chiefly in- 
habiting the tropical regions of both continents, is numerous in species, 
even after the deduction of the Manihots (Janipha), and the Sipho- 
nias, or American Caoutchouc trees. They are many of them very 
ornamental, and furnish some very powerful medicines, amongst 
others the celebrated Curcas of East India. The present species 
belongs to a West Indian group remarkable for their large red petals, 
all of which would be very desirable acquisitions. G. B. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The Jatropha Pan- 
dursefolia was first introduced by Mr. J. Fraser from the island of 
Cuba, in the beginning of the present century. It has ever since 
remained in our stoves, though not very frequently seen. The great 
impulse lately given to Horticulture has induced not only the intro- 
duction of novelties, but the searching out of many old but beautiful 
plants lying almost neglected in our stoves; amongst others the 
present one certainly rivals in appearance many of the handsome new 
Euphorbias. Our drawing was made in July, from a plant in the rich 
collection of* Mrs. Lawrence of Drayton Green. When successfully 
cultivated, it is not only a handsome shrub, but a very free flowerer, 
and deserving a place in every well-stocked stove. It should be potted 
in a mixture of loam, peat, and sand; and, like other milky succulent 
plants, have an ample quantity of drainers beneath its roots, and be 
rather sparingly watered in winter. It may be propagated by cuttings, 
which should be made in spring just before it commences growing. 
J taken from the parent plant, they should be laid by 



, for luciity-four hours at 1 



This will reduce 1 



' juices, and prevent ] 



planted. 



wards plant them in sand, and give a strong bottom heat, which will 



t of the Roman pan 
>tanical Magazine, 



GONGO'RA ATROPURPU'REA. 

DARK PURPLE i 






GongoS-A. Ruiz 1 



..:■.,.■■■,,. : .'. .■.■■ '■■■ .:.,■:■-.,■.■;■..•. : .■: ■ ■ 

wmminato. Colc 

pli u> biloeularis. 

linia duo linearia Bilia. Herb* Americana:, epipl 

pseudo-bulbosa?. Foi.i.v plieuta. U \< i:mi dongati, flexuosi, multiflori. j 
/./« //£R ■ Genera Plantarum, p. 199. 
S PIXIES: Goxgora atropubpirea. HooKzn. Foliis multiplicatis, 



Character of the Genus, Gongora. Perigon spreading, the 
outer lateral divisions free ami iliwtrieate, the upper one adnate to the 
back of the column, the inner one smaller, adnate to the middle of the 
column. Labellum continuous with the base of the column, free, 
unguieulate; the hypochilium spreading, cornute on both sides, the 
epichilium vertical, flattened, with the opposite faces folded together 

a margin. Anther incompletely bilocular. Pollen-masses two, 
-iK-, on a wedge-shaped caudicula. 
Description of the Species, Gongora atropurpurea. Pseu- 
do-bulbs oblong-cylindrical, deeply sulcate, two-leaved. Leaves 
ovate lanceolate, with many longitudinal folds, rather wavy, a foot 
long. Racemes from the base of the pseudo-bulbs, about two or 
sometimes three feet long, hanging, lax, simple, of a deep brown or 
chocolate colour which pervades every part of the flower. Upper 
sepal lanceolate, obtuse, adnate at the base to the back of the column, 
the margins revolute. Lateral sepals broader, likewise revolute at 
the margins, spreading from the base of the column. Petals much 




5 with the base of 
irtiat spreading, with 
s; those next the column 
i pointed apex; extremity 
i folded, with the faces adnate so as to 
form a vertical triangular plate, sharp at its lower edge, furrowed on 
the upper edge, Kttsdbed by o tose, the two other 

angles terminating in a fine point, Column about an inch long, 
curved, somewhat club-shaped. Anthers terminal, yellow. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. A small but very singular 
South American genus, one species being found in Peru and the 
present one in Trinidad, where, like other epiphytes, they hang from 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This species was 
transmitted to this country from the isle of Trinidad, by the late Baron 
de Schach, and first flowered in the Liverpool Botanic Garden, in the 
year 1825. It has since been much multiplied, and under the hands 
of such cultivators as the Messrs. Loddiges, in whose splendidly 
stocked Orchidaceous plant house our drawing was made, specimens 
may be seen with twenty or thirty magnificent spikes hanging from 
the same tuft, all round the pot in which it is grown. Dr. Lindley 
has observed in his Lady's Botany, " It is in tropical countries, in 
damp woods, or on the sides of hills in a serene and equal climate, 
that these glorious Bowers are seen in all their beauty. Seated on the 
branches of living trees, or resting among the decayed bark of fallen 
trunks, or running over mossy rocks, or hanging above the head of 
the admiring traveller, suspended from the gigantic arm of some 
monarch of the forest, they develope flowers of the gayest colours, 
and the most varied forms, and they often fill the woods at night with 
their mild and delicate fragrance." Notwithstanding the beauty which 
they display in their own tropical woods, it is questionable whether 
native specimens were ever found equalling those to which we have 
alluded. 

Derivation or the Names. 
Gongora, named by Ruiz and Pavon in honour of a Spaniard of that name. 

Stnonymes. 

^aIITZ^Z™*' Hooker: Exotic Flora ' *• 17a Lindle * : Genera 




, ffik 



ENKIAN THUS RETICULATUS. 

NETTED ENKIANTHUS. 



«rM>, Enkian thus. Calyx 5-cleft persistent. 

, 5-cleft, and easily separable into 5 petals (with 
a nectariferous pit at the base of each) alternate with the segments of 
the calyx. Stamens hairy, inserted into the base of the corolla. An- 
thers two-horned. Ovary 5-celled many-seeded. Stigma simple. 
Capsule crowned by the persistent style. 

Shrub. Branches naked, erect, nearly simple, leafy towards the top. 
Leaves oblong, narrowed at each end, reticulated, slightly petiolate. 

ous pale linear-lanceolate bracts. Flowers solitary, drooping from 
club-shaped pedicels. Calyx sum! I, m-nu- minuteU ciliated, and ma- 
ny times shorter than the ovary. Corolla nearly white, monopetalous 
campanulate, 5-toothed, teeth obtuse, at the base are 5 nectariferous 
pits, scarcely transparent, crimson, smooth within. Stamens 10, half 
the length of the corolla, into the base of which they are inserted; fila- 
ments subulate hairy dilated and approximating at the base. A nth ers 
two-horned, opening at the apex by a double pore. Ovary oblong, 
5-celled, many seeded. S rvi r. persistent, fiiiiorm, as long as the cor- 
olla. Stigma simple. Fruit a capsule, crowned with the style. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This and another species 
of this beautiful genus of shrubs, were long held in great veneration by 
the Chinese; the former was not introduced into Britain till 1812. ft 
closely approaches Arbutus in character, but is distiii-uidied by its 



Introduction; wfffri crown; (Ylture. We are indebted to the 
kindness of John Wilhnoiv, I-],.,. ,,!' Oldlord, Slallbrdshire, for the spe- 
cimen drawn. Mr. T. William*, his zealous and talented gardener, in- 
forms us that to encourage this plant to flower it should be actively 
Stimulated when it begins to shoot, by being removed from the Green- 
house into the Stove. Mr. R. A. Salisbury, who wrote an interesting 
notice of it, was of opinion that it might bear full exposure in the 
southern parts of the island, if planted against a wall, and protected 
during frost. He was led to this view by observing the structure of 
the buds, which are large, scaly, and viscid, like those of the Rhodo- 
deiulra. This is an important uuide m arc linialiMiiy- plants, since those 
shrubs and trees, the buds of which are either naturally provided with 
scales, or have the power of forming them when placed in a colder situ- 
ation than their natural locality, and, above all, if created with a vis- 
eid resinous juice like those of the horse-chesnut, and many poplars, 
will Ixar without injury a very low temperature. 

The nectariferous -lands of ibis plant produce much honey, and Mr. 
Salisbury observed, that bees were very instrumental in assisting the 
functions of fertilization of the seeds, as the anthers do not discharge 
their pollen spontaneously like those of many plants, but by sudden 
jerks, when their spurs are bent down by insects attempting to get at 
the honey below. He therefore suggested that, when kept where 
the bees have no access, the stigma should be artificially fecundated 
l»\ -|»t-n klinir the pollen over it. 




MIM'ULUS CARDINAXIS. 

CARDINAL MONKEY FLOWER. 

® - i \:bc} w - V 

GENUS. Mimc 
SPECIES. Mo 






■ 



of its development, it certainly will reopen, unless such a portion of 
pollen remain attached to it as to continue the irritating influence. It is 
not any peculiar quality of the pollen that excites the stigma to action, 
for the like effect is produced by the contact of any other substance. 
If it be touched with the finger only, it immediately closes, but as such 
touch would not leave any matter resting on the stigma, it would soon 
recover from this effect. Although there exists a great difference be- 
tween the interior and exterior surfaces of the plates of the stigma, their 
capability of excitement seems to be nearly equal. The outer surface is 
entirely smooth, whilst the inner one is wholly clothed with transparent 
glandular little spines, in the manner of the palate of some animals, 
which may bid defiance to the escape of a captured insect in the one, 
as would be the case with a grain of pollen in the other. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The Mimulus cardina- 
lis was introduced from California, hy the late Mr. Douglas, into the 
garden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick. It may be propaga- 
ted by seeds or roots, and very readily from cuttings. Cultivated, dur- 
ing summer, in the open ground, it will flower from June to September; 
and if planted in moist rich soil, it will not suffer from a powerful sun. 

it loses much of its beauty, not only by growing to a loose and strag- 
gling pi ant, but also by the inferiority of the colour of its flowers. Still 
we are not confident that it will bear full exposure during winter. We 
were kindly favoured, amongst other beauties, with a small plant of the 
Mimulus cardinalis, by Mr. Widnall, nurseryman of Granchester, in 
April last, the splendour of which, ultimately, far exceeded that of any 
plant of the same species we have seen. We repotted it, several times, 
into pots gradually increasing in size, using a rich compost, princi- 
pally of leaf mould. It had the night protection of an almost exhaust- 
ed hotbed, till the middle of May, after which time it was fully expo- 
sed, and the pot in which it grew was kept continually standing in wa- 
ter , about an inch in depth. Here it developed its character in perfec- 
fechon, and although it may be reproached with reflexing its petals 
unduly, still they emit a splendour that would at once overpower the 
taunts of the most illnatured antiflorist of the dark ages. 

i y, the seeds resembling the face of this animal : 



ARISTOLO'CHIA TRIFIDA. 

TRIFID BIRTHWORT. 

©-H i^k) ^" : % 

GENUS. Aristolochia. Lixmus. Calvx coloratus, tnlnili>sus, basi x< 
trieosus ft wrpius appendix , \iM.., hi li-nlai.i < 

vix alius. Stigma scx-purtituni. Cvi-slla sex locularis. 

SPECIES. Aristolochia trifida. Lamarck. Cacle volubili, sulcs 
. arrato. Labioconfc 
ita, reflexa. 

Character of th« di\i s, Aijim'oeochia. C vlyx coloured, luhul; 
s\volihu;-at the base, and of. : appendix, diiat 

at the apex, and prolonged into a strap-like tongue. Anthers si 
Mib.sessiif. placed under the .-ti-uia. Style nearly deficient. Stigh 
six-parted. Capsule six-celled. 

Description of the species, Aristolochia trifida. Root aho 
the thickness of the thumb, and two feet long, dividing into three 
four parts, twisted. Stems several, slender, flexible, and smooth, < 
flier trailing al .Jung up trees. Lower leav 

about the size of the hand spread out; upper leaves smaller, alicnia 
i are a:np!exirai 

tarv, p.-dti cuhite, laru'e, divt< <bd, doubled < . ■ . a'>out an inch wi' 
at the orific< 

Externally the f 

■ in!! n-d, nearh 



This u< nibiil' plants is one 

>f the vegetable world, one 

the most incurious observer. 

. ated thread- 



like apex of the lip. It i.s delightful to the natuidli-t to catch a glimpse 
of secondary causes; but here he must meet disappointment. Man is 
sometimes permitted to discover the applicabilit\ of floral appendages 
to the requirements of the plant ; and 1ml slidn attention to the wis- 
dom displaced in these functions of vegetables will forbid the naturalist 
doubting for a moment, the wisdom that gave to the Aristolochia tri- 
fida a lip of such length, and so fragile. 

Some doubts having esi.sted respecting the identity of this species of 
Aristolochia, we examined the specimen contained in the Banksian 
Herbarium, and found it correspond precisely with that from which our 
drawing was taken. It grows in the Caraccas, and near Portobello, 
ascending from the plains, to 2,700 feet. Whether our present species 



ame genus, we have no means oi ides, the Greek 

otanist, treated of one of its species; Pliny followed him, and com- 
aented on the same, and several others, indigenous to the south of Eu- 
ope, which were well known to his countrymen. Subsequently, Galen 
ind our own Gerard described several species, and dwelt much on their 
irtues; and the Pharmacopoeias of the present day have their prepa- 
atious of Aristolochia; in these, however, an American species has 



, from a period antece 

fida is of late introduction to this country. The original of our draw 
ing grew luxuriantly in the hothouse at Weston, Salop, the seat of tin 
Rt. Hon. the Earl of Bradford. It is a free climber, which flourishei 

when planted in a mixture of peat and loam. 

Derivation of the Names. 
'flie -< m n ■ name, Arist. .lochia, is precisely that of Dioscorides, (Apiirro\o xia 



Lamar, k. in the Encyclopedic Methodique Botani- 
Jniiplan.l, et Kunth, Nova Genera et Species Plant- 
olochia, Genvs, see Sprengel Systema Vegetabi- 



ERIOSTE'MON CUSPIDATUS. 

• LEAVED ERIOSTEMON. 



No. 4. 
GENUS. Eriostemon. £.v/™. Calyx 5-pa: 



minal. Styles vers >hoit. ('ariti^ •>, unite*! ni ihe base. Seeds 
1 or 2 in each cell. Emmjyo siidith curved. Radicle long. 

Description of the species, Ekiostemon < i spidatus. Strong 
Shrub, from 2 to 4 1< - I 

oblong-lanceolate somewhat acute, rath, r daucotis, their apex with a 



Popular and Geographical Notice. All the 

,n-. hit!.- it.. .ii>cm«iv<I, are nati\.> of AuMralia. v.] 
i \eueJaUnn alaa-M j., enliar to it>-elf. The foliage 



is generally of a bluish grey or green hue, and nearly of the same col- 
* our on hoth sides of the leaf, a circumstance which gives a very mon- 
otonous character to the landscape scenery of that part of the world. 
The strong odour of these plan's an-,- fioin ,t \ulatile oil copiously 
dispersed through the leaves and hark, and even the petals and stamens, 
under the form of minute glandular spots, appearing transparent by 
transmitted light, as in the Myrtle tribe. 
Introduction; where grown; Culture. Seeds of this scarce 
plant -were first imported into this country by the Messrs. Loddiges, 
and young plants were raised by them in 1823. The specimen from 
which our drawing was taken flowered in their rich collection, at Hack- 
ney, in March, 1836. This species of Eriostemon succeeds best in an 
airy greenhouse, Iree from the shade of larger shrubs. It may be in- 
creased from cuttings of the young wood, as these will readily strike 
root in sand, or sandy peat, under a bell-glass. Fresh sandy loam, 
mixed with peat, form a soil in which it may be successfully grown. 



a< m. h -pointed iolia-e of this species. The w„rd Eriostemon has been 



inn-ham .,., Field's N. S. Wales,p.331 
>ons Dictionary of Gardening and 1 
iromusRegmVegetabilis, L. p. 720. 







** • 



EPACRIS NIVALIS. 

SNOWY EPACRIS. 



NATURAL ORDER, EPACRIDACEjE. 



GENUS. Epaceis. Smith. Calyx coloratus, multil>r a ct ea tus, brae 
textura calycis. Corolla tabulosa, limbo imberbi. StaMina e PipetaIa; 

tin lis supra 111, (limn \n liatis. Squamclje 5 bypogynas. V, \V X '.v. place' 
columnse central! adnatis. Brown. Prodromus Flora? Not* ^ollanditf 



superante. Lindley, in Botanical Register, folio 1531. 

Character of the Genus, Epacris. Caly x coloured, fur- 
nished with many bracts, the bracts of the same te*tu r e as the calyx. 
Corolla tubulose, limb without a beard. Stasias e l>ipetaloiis ; 
anthers, peltate above the middle. Scales 5, hypogyn us> The cap- 
sules having the placentae adnate to the central column. 

Description of the Species, Epacris nivalis. An evergreen 
shrub, from two to three feet high, branched; branches of a brownish 
purple colour, with an arachnoid pubescence, most of the branches 
laden with snow-white pendulous flowers. Leaves alternate, sessile, 
ovato-lanceolate, reflexed, spreading, very much acumiu^tf, sino<>ll'> 
green, striated on the under surface. Flowers axillary 5 solitary, ped- 
icellate, secund, and drooping. Calyx 5-toothed, or f 5 nearly dis- 
tinct sepals. Sepals and Bracts, ovate, acute, white, wi *h a lit' le 
down along the margins. Corolla as long as the l*-;i\>"v <';unpami- 
late, limb of five spreading, or reflexed segments. S T i«E\s o, at- 
tached by the filaments to the corolla ; anthers, without uny spur, or 
other appendix, one-celled, Style one, a little longer tl» ai > the tithe 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Few shr u H* : 're more 
Reference to the Dissections. 



'.■ iicu ii. j>: iidi.m l.raiieia > display their lines 
of snow-white and enduring flowers. Like all the other species and 
genera of the order, il is a native ol Australia, (it (lie peculiar testa- 
tion of which, il constitutes one of the most remarkable members. 
The resemblance of the plants of the tribe Mpacridaeea-, to the Erica- 
ceae or Heath Tribe is so great, that any casual observer would, at the 
. refer the plants of she former tribe to the latter. Nor is 
there any essential distinction between them, except that the Ericaceae 
have 2-celled anthers, generally furnished with spur-like, or other ap- 
pendages (see Plate I of Kiikiaiithu>retieulat s),wl ile (hose belonging 
to the Epacridacea?, have only 1 -celled anthers, and are always devoid 
of any appendix. There is a \ er\ important difference, in respect to their 
bile scarcely any of the Ericaceae in- 
trude within the limits of the Australian territory, none of the Epicri- 
dacese venture beyond it, finding in its climate and atmos] 
conditions best fitted for th ir or- mi/alio i and functions. The cha- 
racter of the pollen is worthy of observation. In Epacris and all the 
genera of the same seeti r pericarp (seed-vessel) 

and the cells of the ovary many-seeded (such as the genus Sprenuaha, 
of which the species Sp] for the great 

duration of its flowers, which even till their seeds are ripened have 
nearly the same appearance as at their expansion) the pollen consists 
of three little spheres, whereas in the genera of the section, where the 
seed-vessel is generally closed, and the cells of the ovary one-seeded, 
the pollen is simple. 

Introduction; Wheri oh own ; € i i/n i;r. Si ds of thi pi t 
were received from New Holland, in 1829, by Henry Moreton Dyer, 
Esq., at that time, Vice President of the Horticultural Society. 

It requires the protection of the greenhouse in winter, but may be 
placed out of doors in summer. Sweet says, the species " thrive best 
in a sandy peat soil, the rougher and more turfy the soil is, the better 
the plants will thrive : these should always be shifted in full pots, before 
they are turned out of doors in spring." It requires a free supply of 
water ; and may be increased by cuttings. 



SOLA'NUM LANATUM. 

WOOLLY SOLANUM. 



o 






toire des Solanum, p. 205. 

Character of the Genus, Solanum, Calyx of 4 to 15 teeth or 
lobes, persistent, often accrescent. Corolla rotate ; tube short, limb 

large, plaited, o-angled, Munetimes 4-G lobed, spreading. Stamens 

lg, 2 -celled, uenerallv e:pial, : t : > | > l . > - iuialinic coudna'e, 
two pores at the apex. Ovary roundish ; style slender, 
, either simple, or 2-3-4-cleft. Berry roundish, 2-3-4- 



erect, from five to six feet high, above much branched, scarcely hav- 
ing prickles, but rough and woolly. Lower Branches smooth, with 
the exception of some prickles, woolly and of a rusty colour. Leaves 
altevnale, petiohite, shining', those of the vounir lower branches oblon- 
go-lanceolate, angular, woolU on l.oth sides; the upper leaves some- 
times geminate, ol , iroollj on the under side, 
roughish or hispid on the upper side. Calyx 5-cleft, woolly, seg- 



different lengths. Corolla pale purple or 
5i lobed, lobes irregularly notched, scarcely 
filaments short, anthers long, cylindrical, yel- 
by a small orifice at the apex of each cell. 



1'opular and bEOGRAPtCAL Notice. This species of Solanum 
is a native of Peru, growing in precipitous places, near the fortress 
of Huassanace. Of this vast genus, comprising above 300 species, 
some are natives of the temperate parts of the earth, but the greater 
number exist between the tropics of both hemispheres. In the colder 
parts of the world they are herbaceous, but in the warmer, shrubby 
plants ; about one half the species are prickly. An apparent anomaly 
pervades the genus, inasmuch as while some species are wholesome, 
such as the common potatoe, (Solanum tuberosum), others are re- 
markably poisonous, such as the garden night-shade, (Solanum nig- 
rum), and others. The poisonous property which some possess, 
seems to depend upon an alkaloid, termed Solania, which exists in 
(lie state of a malate or solanate, lc.it which is not present in all parts 



ire<|iiently the pan in which it resid< s, 
•omuls in this locality, a pulpy matter 

whilst the wholesome kinds are des- 
t in the common potatoe, it is by no 
c; and being diffused through the large 
• taber, ifl quite harmless, at least after 
nir.ann.de by which many other acrid, 
ed. The stalks of the potatoe, seem to 

concentration, for a tincture prepared 
otic power than tincture of hvoscya- 



ANTHOCER'CIS YISCO'SA. 

GLUTINOUS ANTHOCERCIS. 



eulata. Brown. Prodromus Floras Novae 



>-)>arted, e:jual. Stvmens included in the tub •, tlid\ uammi*, 
ill ! i Sricii \ cap to- i -•'matt ( vest 1 1 

rallel placenta. Seeds reticulated. 

t plant, erect, about 3 feet high. Lewis articulated with the 
ii' branch, alternate, obovate, with ulandular dots, rough or 
\ -i riated a* tli i. i •_ n,; ih in ah d at tin l>a •< ,-c, ,, , k n- tiulafe, 

>elow. Pedi i , with two or 



segments 


linear-lanceolate, pen 


pressure < 


jf the tube of the con 


has fallen off. Corolla not pli 


. 


; liml J leit <e D me 


marked e 


eternally, 1m. more dist 



lines. Stamens 4, didynamous, attached to the base of the tube. 
Filaments short. Anther nearly round, 2-lobed, extrose. Stigma 
capitate, 2-lobed. Capsule 2-celled. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. On the southern coast of 
New Holland this plant was found by Mr. Robert Brown, while attached 
to Captain Flinders Expedition sent to explore that region; where 
Labillardiere bad previously <Ii-> m>M the Vnihocercis littorea. 
l\lr. (tmniniihain has since described the Anthocercis albicans, and 
a fourth species has been sent from Swan River, by Air. Fraser to 
Sir W.J.Hooker, who has called it Anthocercis ilicifolia. Thus all 
the -jieeies which we at present know belong to Australia, and it is 
eted, they will be 
found in the same portion of the globe. Examples of certain types 
or forms of organization, whether of small extent, as a genus, or of 
larger, such as a tribe, being confined to peculiar regions, are of fre- 
quent occurrence, some of which we have already noticed, such as the 
Epacridacese, alin L8ts strongly with the free and 

extensive range enjoyed bj at of the Samolus 

Valerandi, which may be found lie globe. "If we 

study the physiology of plants" observes Dr. Royle, "as well as the 
circumstances controlling their growth, and the nature of their secre- 
tions, we find thai ffected by the different physi- 
cal states of the soil and atmosphere, as well as by the supply of heat 
and light; hence we may conclude, that there are different sets of 
plants fitted by nature for the p lea in which they 
are placed." 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Introduced to this 
country by seeds sent by Mr. Allan Cunningham, in 1822, to the 
Royal Gardens at Kew, gathered at King George's Sound. It is one 
amongst the handsomest greenhouse shrubs, and continues long to 
produce a succession .it i!.>wei> in tin- ■ irh j irt of summer. Unlike 
many New Holland |>iuui-, i; doe, not hear much water. It may be 
propagated by cuttings, and should be potted in peat, loam, and sand. 
Our drawing was made in June, in the Binuinuham Botanic Garden. 

Anthocercis, from AvBoq ASTiios.a flower, and K£^-tcR>nKis.a ray, alluding 






VERBENA TWEEDIEA'NA. varAm 

MR. TWEEDIE'S VERVAIN. rrajiS!il . riawmiX 

sr f ♦ SET** ■= 



Character of the Gems, VzuxBNh. Calyx o-cleft, one of 
the teeth somewhat shorter than the rest. Limb of the Coroixa ir- 
regularly 5-lobed. Stamens included in the tube. Utricle 4-seed- 
ed, rupturing- at . . ;h, s-> that the mature fruits 

i:\opses. 

Description of the Species, Verbena tweedieana. var. Ar- 
raniana. A perern'ml suiirnti. <>»!■ plant, pub< scently hairy through- 
out, except the corolla. Root fibrous. Stem slender, 4-feet high, 
1 ranched. Lower Leaves petiolate, entire at the base, from ovate- 
lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, slightly lobed, largely and irregularly 
toothed, scarcely acuminate; upper leave* sessile, narrower, tocthed or 
notched, pointed. Inflorescence, a terminal corymbose raceme, of 
elegant purplish flowers. Pedicels very short, bracteate. Calyx cylin- 
drical, -5-toothed, 5-ribLed, in the lower flowers of the raceme one-third 
shorter, in the upper nearly one half shorter than the tube of the corol- 
la. Tube of the Corolla exfvnialU whitish, slender, limb spread- 



Verbena Tweedieana chiefly in its lower leaves, which are broader, less 
attenuate at the base, and less acutely pointed, and also in the colour of 
the flowers being more purplish. It is clearly a transition link between 
Verbena Tweedieana and Verbena incisa, figured by Sir W. J. Hook- 
er in Botanical Magazine, folio 3625 j and hence it may be doubted 
whether all the three plants ought not more properly to be grouped as 
one species, as Professor Don has done with many forms of Fuschia. 
Our plant partakes in a high degree of the beauty of the allied species, and 
to the introducers of these charming plants their countrymen, not only of 
the present but of all succeeding generations, owe a debt of gratitude, 
which it is alike impossible to c We hold that those 

enterprising individuals who, !< mil, seek to beau- 

tify it, and to give our gardens something of paradisaical loveliness, 
by collecting, and transmitting the seeds of those flowers, which they 
meet with in their wanderings, confer a benefit which cannot be too 
highly estimated. :owledged. The 

common Verbena officinalis, a native of Britain, now neglected, 
once held potent sway over the minds of our ancestors. " The Druids, 
both in Gaul and Britain, regarded the Vervain with the same ven- 
eration which they bestowed on the Misletoe, and like the Magi of the 
East, they offered sacrifices to the earth, before they cut this plant in 
the spring, which was a ceremony of great pomp." Philips's Flora 
Historica. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. Seeds were sent by 
Mr. Tweedie,iu 1834, to Mr. Niven, of theGlasnevin Botanic Garden, 
Dublin, by whom a single plant was raised. To the courtesy of Mr. 
Niven we owe the drawing, and following instructive notice. "This 
plant may be pi < ipi tings; and grows best in sandy 

loam, in an airy and well exposed situation. It will be found another 
most interesting i . ; ut in the flower garden. It is 

a remarkably free- grower, and should be preserved in the greenhouse 
or frame, during winter, in small thumb pots, to be ready for turning 
out in spring. It flowers the whole summer." 
Derivation of the Names. 
Verbena, VEm » i . perhaps from the Celtic,FARFAEN. 



PIMELEA LANATA. 

'woolly pimelea. 



RAL ORDER, THYMELACE^E. 



fi/V.V>. P 1: : 



SPECIES. Pimelea lanata. Foliis orbiculatis.ovato-rotundatisve, obtu- 
sis, subsecundo-adversis, planis, subtus lanato-tomentosis supra glaberrimis, 

Character of the Genus, Pimelea. Perianth (a calyx) fun- 
nel-shaped, its limb 4-cleft, and throat without scales. Stamens two, 
inserted in the throat, and opposite to the two outer lacinise. Style 
lateral. Stigma capitate. Nut generally covered with a bark, rarely 

Description of the Species, Pimelea lanata. Branches 
clothed with dense white tomentum. Leaves orbicular, the upper- 
most more or less ovate and obtuse, scarcely petiolate, plain or slightly 
concave. Their upper surface dark green, and very smooth and glossy ; 
their under, covered with dense white somewhat woolly tomentum. 
They are placed opposite and decussate, but are twisted half way 
round on the petioles, so as to range vertically with the upper surfaces 
facing outwards, or towards the light, which arrangement somewhat 
conceals the tomentum beneath, and gives the plant a pleasing appear- 
ance. Inflorescence in terminal capitula, of about 20 flowers, 
subtended by about 4 leaves, nearly disposed as an involucrum. 
Flowers white, with a pink tinge towards the lower part of the tube. 
Calyx monosepalous, the margins of the 4 laciniae somewhat inflexed. 
The tube is jointed, and falls off immediately above the germen, to 
which the lower portion adheres as a covering. The whole is tomentose 

Reference to the Dissections 



. , n ihe outside. Stamens 2, with the free part of the filaments rising 
from the throat, and about the length of the calyx-limb. Anthers 
orange, oblong, 2-celled, erect, but united half way along the back to 
the filament. Ovary ovate, one-ovuled. Style excelled, unilateral. 
Sin. ma capitate, but small; both stamens and style are deflected at 
the throat, so as to lie flat upon the segments of the calyx. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant appears to be 
very closely allied to Pimelea nivea of Labillardiere Novae Hollandiae 
I'iiui iiuiu Specimen, Vol. 1, PI. 6, but differs in the margin of its 
leaves not beiim n oh n a id ii lni iny ih In un lies < >vered with 
very long and dense tomentum. It is highly probable that a more 
perfect acqui lities, would 

enable us to detect several intermediate forms to those already enu- 
merated, and prove many of them to be mere varieties and not true 
species; but in the present state of our knowledge we must be con- 
tent to add one more to the list, without \enturing to reduce it to an 
already described form. The Genus Pimelea is composed of elegant 
shrubs, inhabitants of rocky places in Australia and New Zealand. 
Many plants in the family to which this belongs (Thymelaceae) have 
their inner bark remarkably -i!ky in its texture, and among them is 
theLagettalinieaiia .4' Jamaica. ; ■ ■ d Lace-bark 

is procured ; so called from the delicacy of its structure, and which is 
capable of being subdivided into numerous thin layers, each imitative 
of fine lace. 

Introduction; where grown; Culture. The seed was sent 
in 1834, from Van Dieman's Land, to Alderman Copeland, and the 
plant from which our drawing was taken, flowered freely in 1836, and 
is now (May 1837) five feet and a half in height, covered with flowers 
from top to bottom. It is in the pos-e.^iou of .Miss Copeland, of Ley- 
ton, and we are indebted to the pencil of Miss Hall for the 
who also obli_imJ\ tarnished us with the fresh specimen from which 
our description has been made. The luxuriance with v\hieh this at- 
tractive plant grows, and the abundance of its flowers recommend it to 
the notice of the cultivator. Cuttings will strike root in fine sand un- 
der a bell-glass. The young plants should be potted in sandy peat. 

*ata, woolly, in al- 
;he branches. 



SPARAXIS PEN'DULA. 

PENDULOUS-FLOWERED SPARAXIS. 

-1 iri::.} [ : T 



v Vl , tUilnrmis stkmuta J lineana i-omplu-uto i-aniiata, recurva. Cipsila 
nieinbranaeoa olxnh-to tri-oua. - ■ .r.licicl,. tnvalvis. 

Skmisa phirima subglobosa. £jv»^c//£«. Genera Plantarum, p. 168. 

SPECIES. Spakaxis fb W di;la. K E n. Foliis linearibus strictis scapo 
polvstachyo duplo brevioribus, spicis pendulis multiflons. 

Character of the Genus, Sparaxis. Perigone (perianth) 
corolla-like, superior, funnel-shaped, tube short, slender, limb large, 
six-parted, segments nearly equal, stellately spreading. Stamens 3, 
inserted on the tube of the perigone, ascending, included; filaments 
awl-shaped, anthers linear, attached by the back, somewhat above the 
base. Ovary inferior, obtusely 3-angled, 3-celled. Ovules several, 
arranged in two rows, along the central angle of the cells. Style fili- 
form; stigmas 3, linear, complicately-keel-shaped, recurved. Cap- 
sule membranaceous, indistinctly 3-cornered, somewhat turgidly 
knotty, 3-celled, by loculicidal dehiscence 3-valved. Seeds nume- 
rous, subglobose. 



nial herbaceous plai 
which spring numen 






i-d, pendulous at the top, 
jbaseofeach; spikes pond 
r, li.-aulifiilly veined, each f 



.1, sessile. Perianth six-parted, sepals and petals uniform, 
oblong, obtuse. Anthers linear, dark purple. Capsule 3-celled, 
3-valved, loculicidal, each cell containing two roundish brown seeds. 
Popular and Geographical Notice. Thtmberg found this 
plant in wet situations near Krumrivier, at the Cape of Good Hope. 
The moist locality in which it grows enables it to preserve some signs 
of life and I ■• the power of an al- 

most tropical sun, which occasions nearly the same effects, that cold 
does in high latitudes. The progress of vegetation in sandy dis- 
ilmost completely checked till the return of the rainy season, 

: : 
earth, by thtir numerous scaly coats. Many bulbs might be found in 
regions which seem barren, and without a trace of vegetable life, were 
the\ tra\t rsed in tin rain\ seo> n, 01 pr p. rl\ examined, b\ diuuini; 
some inches under the MiiTace, in the dry mould. Meyen in his voyage 
round the World, records the following. "5th February, (place) Cor- 
dilleras. The continued heat had p the whole 
; :<» the Min's ra\N, thai a tew --eanered halms 
of wild oats and some flowering shrubs were all that remained. On 
aeeidi'iitalh turning up t!;e rlavey soil, it was found comph-t 
with small bulbs, the flowers and leaves of v hieh had long since dis- 
appeared. How beautiful must be the aspect of this plain, and all the 
dec!i\ith> of these mountains in the spring of the year, when they are 
clothed with the splendid mantle of the ul: e b. Here and 

seen traces of thi> fii>t l>eaut\ <t the spring." 

Tate of Sloane Street, in 1825. Flowered in May, in the greenhouse 
of the Messrs. Pope, of Handsworth. A light sandy soil with plenty 

the side of any ornamental pi ee ot water,, which thi- graceful flower 
beautify. A bright warm sun will expand its 
expanded our artist had m> ..ppovtnnity of drawing it. 
Derivation of the Names. 

Tlumhcnr : Divert at i ... \„. 16. Prodromus 9, Florae Capen- 



FUCHSIA FUL'GENS. 
"brilliant fuchsia. 









Decandolle. Prodromus Systematic Natural!- I'w-ni \ .■iretal.ilis, III. p. :J(i. 
SPECIES. Fuchsia fik.ens. (.1/«v.yo and .SW. Fb.ra Mexk-ana, inc- 

iii us racemosis, caly- 
cislobis ovato-laiu t . , 

Character of the Genus, Fuchsia. Tube of the calyx adher- 
ing to the ovary at the base, but above prolonged into a cylindrical 
4-cleft tube, the lobes of which drop off, soon after the anthesis, by a 
distinct articulation'. Petals 4, seldom none, inserted on the tube of 
the calyx, with the lobes of which they alternate. Stamens 8. Ovary 
crowned with an urceolate (pitcher-shaped) gland. Style filiform. 
Stk.iiv capitate. Berry oblong or ovato-globose, 4-celled, 4-vaIved, 
many-seeded. 

Description of the Species, Fuchsia fulgens. A Shrub, in 
its native country from 4 to G fed hiuh. smooth, glaucous, tender, 
almost of the texture of a sub-succulent herbaceous plant, surface suf- 
fused with a vinous hue. Leaves opposite, thin, ovately cordate, acute, 
irre ularly toothed or denticulate, ciliated, petiolate, petioles slightly 
pubescent, roundish, channelled, the lamina twice the length of the 
petioles. Flowkrs a\illary, solitary, sprinuiim' from the axils of the 
leaves on both sides of the stem, but so inclined as to form a secund 
pendulous raceme. Peduncles' slender, about half an inch long. 
Ovary oblong, pubescent, 4-celled, many-seeded, ovules in double 
rows. Calyx about 'J 1 , indie-, hum, tmun l-shaped, ventricose at the 
base, slighth pubescent, of a tine Vermillion colour; segments trian- 
gular, acute, greenish at the tips. Petals ovate, obtuse, a little short- 
er than the sepals, blood-coloured. Stamens 8, inserted on the 



throat of I the sepals, opposite the petals, than 

which they are a little shorter; anthers often extrorsely resupmate. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This very striking species 
of Fuchsia, of which the first notice was given by Mocino and Sesse, 
is a native of Mexico. South America however is the great store-house 
of Fuchsias, and the species, particularly those of Peru, surpass even 
the present plant in splendour and the size of the flowers, of which it 
is sufficient to mention Fuchsia apetala (Ruiz) the tube of the flower 
being often five inches in length. As a few of the species extend into 
North America, inhabiting Mexico, so a very few stray into New Zea- 
land, where in addil ta the late Mi*. Richard 
' FucIim.i [>!«.. .i,ul). u- ( u'muiL-ham Mss.) 
1 k. wi-, an > ji i,\l >us plant. The occurrence of these species of an ' 
almost exclusively American genus confirm the sagacious remark of 
Robert Brown, that some resembta the Flora of 
New Zealand and that of America. (See General Remarks on the 
Botany of Flinders' Voyage, Appendix 2, p. 589). 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The lovers of orna- 
mental plan M ssrs. tee, of the Hammersmith 
Nursery, for the introduction of this glowing novelty among >i them. 
It was procured by these gentlemen through Mr. Louis Deschamps, 
who brought it from Mexico last year, (1837), and to theii 
we owe the permission to have the drawing made by our accomplished 
ailist, Mrs. Withes. Nothing is more splendid than a bed or border of 
Fuchsias, and they require but little care, for as it is observed by Mr. 
Loudon, in his invaluable Arboretum and Fruticetum, "All the species 
and varieties hitherto introduced or originated, when planted in a dry 
soil, <ind a sheltered situation, in the neighbourhood of London, 
though they may be killed down to the ground by the frost, may have 
their stools preserved alive through the winter, by covering them with 
lifter, haulm, or haves, in such a way as to throw off the wet; and 
this cove; ins- being removed in spring, the plants will shoot up vig- 
orously, and flower freely during the whole summer." This splendid 

Derivation of the Names. 

Fuchsia, called after Leonhard Facte (Fox), one of the earliest botanical 

writers after the revival of letters. Fclgens, from the brilliancy of the flowers. 

Fuchsia ft i.cens. Mocino and Sesse, in Decandolle: Prodrome, Purs 
III, p. 39. George Don: Dictionary of Gardening and Botany, Vol. II, p. 479. 
,: ..lister, I. 



BARBACENIA PURPUREA. 

PURPrE-FLOWERED BARBACENIA. 



lTURAL order, h^modorace^b. 



erecta inclusa; ilam ita, dente medio mi- 

nori- iinthcrifcro, audi; ni> linearis, medio dorso vel prope basim affixae. Ova- 
s.it m inlWurn tri!.)i-uUirc. <>\i • ' ~»1" eentrali ex- 

stTtis plurima. Styu - tri.|u. ■. . < apitato-trigonum. 

<• u'sm ini't-ra, subtri^na, trii . , . valvis medio septi- 

"■eris, placentas aniVr t.augulata. EsvLicnER,Gvnera. 

Plantarum,p. 172. 

SPECIES. Babbaceiua prBPtBEA. Hooker. Foliis linear! -acuminatis 
berculato, antheris basi filamentorum aifixis. Hooker, in Botanical Magazine, 

Character of the Genus, Barbacenia. Perigone (perianth 
of some writers) corolla-like, funnel-shaped, externally coated with re- 
sinous hairs, tube united at the base with the ovary, limb 6-cleft, seg- 
ments equal, somewhat erect, spreading. Stamens 6, inserted on the 
lower part of the segments of the limb, erect, included; filaments flat, 
compressed, 3-toothcd at tin' ;\[>v\, n-ntral tooth smallest, antheriferous, 
anthers linear, attached about the middle of the back or near the base. 

from the central angle of the cells. Style triangular, divisible into 
three portions ; stigma capitate, 3-cornered. Capsule inferior, some- 
what 3-cornered, 3-celVd, becoinimr b\ loculicidal dehiscence 3-val- 
ved, the valves having a septum in the middle, bearing the placentae. 
Seeds numerous, angular. 

Description of the Species, Barbacenia purpurea. Stem 
short, dichotomously divided, having at the base brown scales, higher 

leaves, rigid, scarcely rcllexed at the upper half, margins spinulose, 



teeth remote, minute, pointing upwards. Scape or flower stem con- 
siderably longer than the leaves, obscurely 3-cornered, scabrous, hairs 
pointing upwards, one-flowered. Flower erect, spreading, of a rich 
purple colour. Pi:ri<,o\f (perianth) of six segments, united into a 
tube at the base, the 3 outer segments narrow, lanceolate, acuminate, 
reflexed, with dark parallel veins on the upper surface; 3 inner seg- 
ments broader, undulating, more erect, obtuse, or emarginate, similar- 
ly veined. Throat displaying 6 broad, linear, petaloid, purplish 2- 
cleft filaments, opposite the petals, to the base of which, by the back, is 
attached the linear erect anther, 2-celled, shorter than the filament; 

but marked with ( > nos, having minute dots rising 

up between them. Ovary 3-celled, with large cordately perforated dis- 
sepiments, between which, in each cell, are two vertical plates, forming 
the placenta} the margins of which are lined with numerous oblong 
ovules. Style as long as the anthers, acute, 3-angular,purple, stigmata 
below the apex, having the appearance of 3 white oblong glands. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This genus consists of 
herbaceous perennials, natives of Brazil, of which 13 or 14 species are 
known, occurring between the 14° and 23° S. Lat. Though one or two 
were known to Vandelli, we are chiefly indebted for a more extensive 
acquaintance with them, to Von Martius, from whose travels, the fol- 
lowing extract is taken. "We were particularly surprized, as we were 
ascending the steep Morro de Gravier, a continuation of Serra do Oiro 
Branco, at seeing some arborescent lilies, the thick naked stems of 



which, di\ id. d i 






tuft of long leaves, and being frequently scorched on the surface by 
burning of the meadows, are some of the most singular forms in the 
vegetable kingdom. The two species which have these forms, Barba- 
cenia and Vellozia, are called in the country Canella *d' Ema, and on 
account of the resin they contain, are much used for fuel, wood being 
scarce. They appear to thrive only on quartzy mica-slate, and are 
considered by the inhabitants as a characteristic mark of a country 
abounding in gold and diamonds. They are most frequently met with 
here at an elevation of from 2000 to 4000 feet, always accompanied by 
a varietj of the prettiest shrubby Rhexias, Eriocaulon and Xvris." 
It is further observed, "All this part of the mountain (Serra Branca,) 
a the northern tracts. But on the other hand, 



riuiahas, 



i diversity of flowers. 



Rhexias, in particular, are a great ornament. There is an endless va- 
riety of species, all low shrubs; the numerous, thin, profusely-leaved 
stalks, are covered with beautiful red ami violet-coloured blossom 
Stately stems of blue Vellozias and gay Barbacenias, the represent* 
tives of liliaceous plants, principal} adorn the stony eminences. C 
the family of the Gentians, there are many species of Lisianthus, whic 
call to mind the equality of the diffusion of certain families, throug 
many remote countries." Srix and Martils's Travels in Brazil, Ii 

The limited geographical range of the genera Vellozia and Barba 
cenia is not the only peculiarity connected with them, as the stem pre 
sents a remarkable organization. " This part consists of a centra 
slender subey lindrical column, which never increases in diameter after 
its first formation, and vlnr'n has the ordiinm nionnroH ledoiio 
dogenous) structure. Outside of the column are arranged great ^ 
tities of slender fibrous roots, which cohere firmly by their own cellular 
surtao-, and form a spurious kind of wood, .\hieh is extreme! \ lil 
of some kinds of Palm wood, only ii is developed l>v constant additions 
to the very outside of the original stem. Something analagous occurs 
in Paiidamis." Lindley : Natural System, '1 ed. p. 334. 

A difference of opinion exists among systematic Botanists as to the 
tribe to which Barbacenia and Vellozia properly belong. Martius, 
Bartling, and Endlicher, (and Lindley in the first edition of his Natu- 
ral System) refer them to Hsemodoraceae, while Kunth places them 
under Bromeliacea?. Don considers them as forming a group inter- 
mediate between Iridacese and Hypoxidacese, and designates it Vello- 
ziese. Lindley has subsequently adopted Kunth 's opinion, and removed 
them to Bromeliacea?. The somewhat spiral position of the leaves of 
Barbacenia, resembling those of the Ananas or pine-apple, gives some 
countenance to this measure, but on the whole we lean to the view taken 
by Martius, who has a greater knowledge of them than any mere Eu- 
ropean botanist. 

servation of the Honourable and Reverend William Herbert, of Spof- 
forth, the lovers of new objects of cultivation are indebted for this 
plant. He picked the seeds out of a parcel of Brazilian moss, and 
was rewarded by this novel flower, in 1825. It is an attractive ever- 
green stove perennial, which still continues scajjfe in our gardens, and 



therefore the more desirable. It requires to be potted in rough sandy 
peat; and judging from the observations of Von Martius, which we 
have quoted, it may readily be supposed that if small lumps of broken 
quartz, mixed perhaps with a little micacious sandstone were to consti- 
tute the necessary stratum of drainers, at the bottoms of the pots, the 
plant may be cheated into a belief that it is luxuriating on the golden 
mountains of Serra Blanca. Its roots are strong and numerous for its 
size, therefore it requires to be frequently removed into larger sized 
pots. If it be grad I then turned into a border, in 

front of the stove or greenhouse, in June, it will grow vigorously and 
flower very freely till the middle of September. As this species of 
Barbacenia frequently perfects its seeds, on these we would recommend 
the chief dependance for increase ; for although it may be propagated 
by division of its roots the plants do not readily recover this treatment. 
It should be kept in the stove, and probably would flourish with 
pretty nearly the same management as its near ally, the pine-apple. 
In the article previously referred to, in Dr. Lindley's Nat. Syst.it i3 ob- 
served, in reference to the genera belonging to this family, that " They 
are all capable of existing in a dry hot air without contact with the 
earth ; on which account they are favourites in South American gar- 
dens, where they are suspended in the dwellings, or hung to the balus- 
trades of the balconies ; situations in which they flower abundantly, 
filling the air with their fragrance." 



PLATYSTE'MON CALIFOR'NICUM. 

"" CALIFORNIAN PLATYSTEMON. 



h:.}^-^ 









Behtham. Flore; 



s terminalibus et axillaribus, longe pedunculatis. Ibid. 

aracter of the Genus, Platystemon. Parts of the flower 

:rnary series. Calyx of 3 sepals. Corolla of 6 petals, in two 



straight. Carpels 9-1-f 

when ripe the carpels slightly cohere 

knotty; sep; 



A herbaceous annual, erect, about a foot in height, glaucous, branch- 
ed, rounded, smooth, except the margins of the leaves, the peduncles, 
the calyx, and ovaries, all which ,uv spann^U i;n ni-hcd with stitl hair-. 

oblong, entire, obtuse, veined, the lines parallel (resembling the vena- 
tion of endogens). Peduncles axillary and terminal, about three 
times longer than the leaves, ascending, straight, one-flowered. Se- 
pals 3, concave, caducous. Petals 6, disposed in two rows, ovate, 
pale yellow, the three interior petals smaller than the outer whorl. 
Stamens numerous, hypogynous ; filaments petaloid, broad, the inte- 



Reference to the Distentions. 



pels 9-12, hairy on the outer and lower portion, arranged in several 
circles, perfectly distinct ; stigmata linear, erect. The ripe fruit, form- 
ed by the cohesion of the carpellary leave-, <>\al. Inistly, crowned by 
the persistent styles, furrowed; ultimately separating into distinct 
carpels, which are knotted or lomentaceous, consisting of one-celled, 



i Notice. Mr. Menzies first met with 
this plant in Califon i into our gardens, 

we are indebted to the lamented Douglas. The interest of this flower as 
an ornament to our gardens, considerable as if is, tails far short of its 
importance in a botanical point of view. The ternary arrangement of 
the parts of the flower, a character not common in the order Papa- 
veraceae, and more especially the numerous distinct carpels bring it into 
an approximation with the order Kanunenlaeea' ; which is, perhaps, 

leaves existing in Ranunculus Lingua and graminea. The lomentaceous 
character of the carpels indicates some affinity to the Cruciferae. This 
remarkable state of the seed vessel has its prototype in the genus Hype- 
coum, of the order Papaveraceae, and the two genera obviously form the 
transition link, through Trollius to the Ranunculaceae. The calyx in 
both tribes is generally noted for its fugacious character, which belongs 
unfortunately to our present plant. This disposition to fall off soon 
after the expansion of the flower, has supplied the poet with one of 
his emblems of the fleeting nature of human enjoyments : 
But pleasures are like poppies spread, 



Introduction ; Where grown ; Culture. Though seeds were 
sent by Mr. Douglas, in 1834, to the Horticultural Society, where our 
drawing was made, the first plants raised produced only a few seeds 
which failed to vegetate; so that it must have been again introduced. 
It Is sufficiently hardy, flowering freely in June and July in the borders, 
where it ripens seeds abundantly. It possesses some odor of an agree- 
able kind. 



Butanual Ma-azin 



DIPO'DIUM PUNCTA'TUM. 

DOTTED DIPODIUM. 
NATURAL ORDER, ORCHIDACE^. 



GENUS. Dipodh-m. 




Brown. Perianth 


iim patens, petalis se- 


palisque aequalibus. Lvr, 
























is glandule comm« 


mi affixis. Ltsdley: 


Genera and Speeds ..f Or. 








SPECIES. Dipodicm 








bus distantibus, labello re 








Character of the 


: Genus, 


Dipodium. Perianth spreading, 


petals and sepals equal 


1. Lip i 


nearly similar, ha 


ving an auricle at- 


tached to each side below the ] 


middle, the disk 1 


bearded, saccate at 


the base, and united to the colum 


n. Column erec 


t, margined, round- 


ish. Anthi 


mous, pe. 


rhaps two-celled ? 


POLLEN MASSES 


■2, iil.li.juely two-lobed, 


■ 


1 to a common j 


dand, by two little 


stalks (caudiculae.) 








Description of tf 


[E Speci 


es, Dipodium pi 


jnctatum. A ter- 


restrial plant with a fib 


rous root 


, some of the fib; 


res thick, succulent 


• 


slender ; 


md perpendiculai 


Stem about H 


to 2 feet high, of a bro* 


nish purple, round, smootl 


i, devoid of leaves, 



cated, higher up remote ; scales Bhort, obtuse. Inflorescence race- 
mose. Flowers purple. R a< i mi: e\lindrical, loose; peduncles of 
a bright purple, at first erect, afterwards, horizontal or drooping. 
Perianth brownish purple, spotted with red or blood-coloured dots; 
sepals and petals linear oMoug, nearl> e«pial. I.abki.lum (lip) ob- 
long, three-lobed, pubescent at the base, in the central part of which 
is a furrow, saccate, connected with a short attachment to the base of 
the column; three-lobed ; lateral lobes narrow, falcate, recurved, they 
as well as the ditk hairy, the central lobe oblong, flat, apiculate, con- 



tracted at the base, the hairs limited to a line along the middle. Co- 
lumn erect, roundish, truncate, glandulose at the margin ; clinandri- 
um with little teeth. Stigma short, transverse. Pollen masses two, 
furrowed behind, with two little stalks (caudiculoe) attached to a sublu- 
nate or crescent-shaped gland. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The orchidaceous plants 
which we have hitherto figured, have been of the kind termed epiphy- 
tes, but the present species is a terrestrial one. This character might 
have been predicted of it in some degree, from its native place being 
in a higher latitude than the former subjects of our plates. A reduction 
of temperature attends this removal from the equator, and the air is no 

^ , , . ■■ . . ; , . ■ . .- VI. i-M •. ■ 1 ,. i ' 

ous vapour, charged with the materials of nourishment for plants grow- 
ing on the branches of trees. All the orchidaceous plants of Europe 
are terrestrial, and deck our meadows and slopes, instead of hang- 
ing from the spreading arms of trees, like most of those of tropical 
countries. The closer vicinity of New Holland, and Van Dieman's 
Land, to the Southern Pole, likewise causes the orchidaceous plants of 
that region to seek nourishment directly from the earth, and they are 
consecpiently terrestrial. This species is found in New South Wales, 
near Port Jackson, and likewise in Van Dieman's Land. The leafless 

species, Dipodium squamatum, a native of New Caledonia. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This accession to 
the charming orchidaceous plants under culture, was imported by the 
Miosis. Luddiges, in 1836. To their liberality we owe the opportunity 
of figuring it, having blossomed in March, 1837. It grows in a pot, 
standing on the shelf of the conservatory, not requiring a stove heat. 
Derivation of the Names. 
Dipodium, from Aie dis, two, and novg ttoSoc, a foot, referring to the two 
stalks of the pollen masses. Punctatum, from punctum, a point or dot, in al- 



3 Hollandiae,p. 331. Lindley: Botanical Reg- 



ANIGOZAN'THUS MANGLE'SII. ^ <^W T&t 

MR. MANGLES'S ANIGOZANTHUS. 
NATURAL ORDER, H^MODORACE^. 



i aDgulo centrali prcmiin. ■vti',, .■ ;.lu 
. Cafscla infera, subglobcsi trio. 



capitato. D.Dos. i . lUvrden, New Series, III, 2(i-J. 

Character of the Genus, Anigozanthus. Perigone resem- 
bling a corolla, externally woolly, the tube united at the base with 
the ovary, elongated, at last deciduous, the segments of the 6-cleft limb 
nearlv equal, taking ;< >:'-nmil <lii'«.'c!io;i alnno. St amens 6, inserted 
on the throat of the perigone, ascending; filaments slender, the cells 
of the anther anteriorly adnate to the connective. Ovary united 
with the tube of the perigone, 3-celled. Ovules numerous, attached 
to placenta? which project from the central angle of the cells. Style 
slender, stigma simple. Capsule inferior, subglobose, 3-celh-rl spliuiug 
at the top, by a loculi ;<lal (lelii.-cin:-, into 3 valves. Seeds numerous. 



, tufted, with a fasciculated root, composed 
uniform, erect, from half to 1J feet long, 
idate, point brown, rigid, cauline leaves 



semivaginating a 
high, branched a 



springing from opposite ensatc bracts : pedicels, round, attended by 
short reddish bracteolae, all which parts are clothed with brownish 
red down. Perigom. lubular, cylindrical, from 2 to 3 inclus long-, 
sometimes splitting longitudinally, densely clothed with thick plumose 
hairs, base swollen roundish, of an orange or blood-colour, which 
verges to a yellowish green towards the top of the tube : limb erect, 
divided into 6 lanceolate, pointed, equal segments; segments green on 
the inner side. Stame\> <», ilu- upper ones somewhat projecting, in- 
some what recurved, two-celled, oi'iinnv. ue;ii'i> in climes longer than 
the free portion of the filaments, cells opening lengthwise. Ovary 
ovato-oblong,3-celled. Ovules numerous, attached to a longitudinal 
placenta. Style Blender, longer is,stigma capitate. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The present plant is a 
native of Swan River, but whether the same as that described by Pro- 
fessor Don may be doubted. It bears such resemblance to the original 
Anigozanthus rufa of Labillardiere as to inspire a belief that it may 
be identical with it: if merely a variety of Anigozanthus Manglesii it is 
certainly a much handsomer specimen than the one figured in Bot. 
Reg. t. 2012, the chief character of vhieli, lies in its having a few scat- 

Introduction ; Where grown; Culture. Seeds were sent in 
1833, by Sir James Sterling, Governor of Swan River Settlement, to 
Robert Mangles Esq. Whitmore Lodge, Berks, whose very intelligent 
gardener, Mr. Donald Mackay, gives the following account of the 
treatment. "The seeds were sown in August, 1833, and the young 
plants were potted of!', and kept in an airy part of the greenhouse du- 
ring winter. Early in the spring they were repotted, and in April they 
were planted out in a border, composed of maiden loam, leaf mould, 
and bogearth,in equal proportions, with a -liuht mixture of pounded 
chalk, in which the plants were found to thrive amazingly, shewing 
flower at the age of 10 months. A cold frame will protect them well 
enough in winter." Brit. Flow. Gard. 265. Our drawing was made 
in the Birmingham Botanic Garden, where the plant continued to flow- 
• !• nearly three months, in the Greenhouse. 



i Flow. Gard. m,t. 966. 



BOSSI^'A LINOPHYL'LA. 

^FLAX-LEAVED BOSSI^EA. 



GENUS. Bossijea. 



SPECIES. Boss 



Character of the Genus, Bossisa. Calyx two-lipped, the 
upper lip larger, nearly two-cleft, oljtu.se. .Stamf.xs united into a mo- 
nadelphous tube. Pod flatly compressed, stalked, many-seeded, both 
Violated. 

Description of the Species, Bossisa linophylla. Shrub 
erect, about three ft.-:-t liiu'u lir.mrii.-d, branches leafy, compressed, 
flexile. Leaves stipular, stipules subulate, alternate, spreading, linear, 
somewhat pointed, margins recurved. Flowers axillary, solitary , 
nearly clothing the branches from the base to the tip. Calyx green- 
ish, two-lipped, upper lip two-cleft, under lip 3-toothed. Corolla of 
5 petals. Standard large, orbiculate, slightly emarginate, of an 
orange-yellow, with l>iv,«.vni>.ij iv 1 -inviU t-\tern;dly, and a brownish 
red spot, with radi be l>ase or claw. Wings small, 

spreading, orange streaked with re 
petals. Stamens 10, monadelpf 
pressed, one-celled, many-seeded. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This pleasing little plant 
is a native of the south-west coast of New Holland, where it was first 



discovered by Robert Brown : a few other species are found on the 
south-west of the Australian i rnioiy, but the greater number belong 
to the east coast; one only has been found in Van Dieman's Land. 
All the species yet known have yellow flowers. Thus the peculiar 
type of vegetation which these plants present, has its locality assigned 
to it, and observes limits in ii- ition, with as un- 

varying uniformity, as their flowers assume the hue which characterizes 
them. Other remarkable points may be noted in the genus; particularly 
the disposition of the branches to become flat, and thereby resemble 
leaves, the office of which thej . the leaves them- 

selves being often wanting, as happens in the species Bossisea Scolo- 
pendra, Bossi&'a rufa, ami others. In this respect they resemble certain 
speceis of Phyllauthus. They thus serve to diversify the aspect of the 
foliage and landscape scenery, in a coutun where an unusual degree of 
monotony in the appraram e ol ih woods is everywhere observable. 

Introduction ; Where grown ; C ulture. It was first introduced 
to British cultivators in 1803. Our drawing was made in the month 
of June from a fine plant grown in the Birmingham Botanic Gar- 
den. It does not require more protection than the conservatory affords, 
in which it freely unfolds its lively blossoms in May and June. The 
following notice respecting its culture occurs in the Botanical Cabinet, 
of the Messrs. Loddiges, from which we take the liberty of extracting 
it. "It is not easih inch iscu\ e\e •[>! 1>\ seeds. A light loam with a 
little peat mixed, is the proper soil for it. It is not particularly ten- 
der,aud onlyrequi house protection, with a mod- 

erate cpiantity of water. Planted out in the conservatory it grows far 
more luxuriantly, and flowers much better than when confined in a 
pot." 

Derivation of the Names. 

La Perouse. LiNopHYM.A,from\ivoj> LiNON.flax; and (pvXKov phullon, a leaf, 
the leaves resembling those of the common flax. 



EUPHORBIA PUNI'CEA. 

CRIMSON-FLOWERED EUPHORBIA. 



CHC) <^>-^ 



■•■ •: y 



GENUS. Euphorbia. Liwi > -. Iin..in< nun a::i!n>i;vnum 4-5-fidum, ex- 
tus appendiculis gla; rum.) Flore s mas - 

Sprmngbz,; - nl. p. 758. 

SPECIES. Euphorbia punicea. Swartz. Umbella sub-5 -fida, radiis 

L'..Tvli»i.lfi--, tolii- ; Sprengel-. Species Plantarum, 

Vol. Ill, p. 790. 

Character of the Genus, Euphorbia. Involucre androgyn- 

;. pondages. Those 
pedicels which are arranged around the central one, are variable in 
number, each bearing a single siainnt, with v hi<li it i- articulated. 
Ovary pedicellate, central. S r\i.r.s :$, each -i-eh it. Capsule form- 
ed of three cocci. 



ing near the toj) ; brandies >mooih, dichotomous, spreading, swollen 
ii summits leaves 
which are crowded, almost sessile, oval, lanceolate, somewhat acute, or 
pointed, of a deep green aln>\i . J hi o Ik n. ath, often of a red co- 
lour at their base. Inflorescence of about 5 monoeceous pedicellate 
capitula, arranged as an umbel. Pedicels pubescent bearing 2 large 
bractese arranged 'ike partial imohicres a little below each capitulum. 

son colour; they are more or less abortive on the innermost pedicel, 
and are sometimes all crowded together in the form of a general invo- 
lucrum, when the part of the pedicel L i .v h : u is not well developed, 
(see Botanical Magazine, Vol. 15, PI. 1961). The true involucres 



(or anthodia surrounding the capitula) are fleshy, urceolate, deep 
crimson, pubescent, hairy within, and bear from 5 to 6 bright yellow 
oval cap-shaped glands on the margin. Staminiferous flowers 12 to 15 
in each capitulum, each composed of a single stamen, jointed on a 
small pedicel. Pistilliferous flower solitary in each capitulum; the 
ovarium globose greenish, on a pedicel which becomes longer than the 
involucrum, inclines to one side, and curves downwards, the style 
short reddish, branching into 3 obtuse black stigmata ; at the base of 
the floral pedicel are numerous filamentous bracts. Capsules smooth, 
roundish, of the size of a small cherry : seeds smooth, brown. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This handsome species 
of Euphorbia, is a native of Jamaica, growing among stones on 
interior. An acrimonious juice is found in this spe- 
d in almost all euphorbiaceous plants; yet it is strange, as re- 
by Dr. Lindley, that from such plants should be obtained 
jst innocuous substance. But what appears still more 
extraordinary is the fact, that silk is not improbably a modification of 
the caoutchouc of these plants, elaborated by the silk-worms, which it 
has been maintained feed exclusively on milky-juiced and caoutchouc- 
yielding plants. Such at least seems to be the legitimate inference 
from the extensive generalization of Dr. Royle, whose statement we 
subjoin. 

"In a paper read to the British Association, at Bristol, on the 
plants which yielded caoutchouc," I observed that they all belonged to 
the milky-juice families of Cichorace*, Lobeliacese, Apocynacere, As- 
clepiadacese, Euphorbiacere, and Artocarpese, a tribe of Urticaceae. In 
the first place it may be observed that many of the plants of these 
families are remarkable for the strength and tenacity of the fibre 
they yield for rope-making: secondly, that bird- lime is prepared from 
plants belonging to families which yield caoutchouc, as from the 
apocyneous Voacanga in 3L> ., from different 

species of Ficus and Artocarpus. But the most interesting fact which 
I obtained from the investigation, was one most unexpected, and the 
least connected with the subject. Having been previously employed 
in considering the proper means for extending the cultivation of silk 

silk-worms prefer, next to the mulberry leaf, should be found in those 
families which yield caoutchouc. Thus, in England, the lettuce and 
dandelion leaves, belonging to Cichorac*, and in India, Ficus religio- 
sa, belonging to Artocarpese, have been ascertained to be the best sub- 



stitutes for the leave* of the mulberry ; while the Arindy silk-worm of 
India, Phalaena Cynthia, feeds upon those of the castor-oil plant, Ri- 
cinus communis. I • Considering that a cir- 

cumstance of this nature was not likely to l>e accidental, I was induced 
to think that it, depended upon the presence of some principle com- 
mon to all these vegetable*, and thereibre that ca mtchouc (perhaps in 
a modified state) might realh be contained in the juice of the mulberry, 
though this is describ -si as 1 1 ■. > t lu.-inn milky. I therefore requested Mr. 

chouc, to ascertain whether my conjecture was well-founded. In a 
few days he informed me that the mulberry-tree sap was of a milky 



amily , 



at a i-atei-pillar which form* a 
t coarse kind of silk, feeds on 
the leaves of the South-American caoutchouc tree, Siphonia elastica. 
This is but one of the important and interesting results which may be 
expected to follow from studying and arranging plants in groups, ac- 
cording to their affinities, as has been attempted by what is termed 
the Natural Method. Led away by the apparent simplicity of an 
artificial arrangement of plants, botanists neglected the stiong proofs 
furnished by the instinctive propensities of the whole animal kingdom, 
that plants which agree in structure generally possess similar proper- 
ties. It was long known that certain animals fed on particular plants, 
and both durin"- the last i-eiitnry ami the present, this fact has been 
adduced as an evidence of the paternal care of the Creator, in provi- 
ding food convenient for all bis creatures, "so that each should have 
its allotted portion" (See Stillingfleet's Tracts ; Art. " The Swedish 
Pan," translated from the Pan Suecicus, in Amcenitates Academicae,Vol. 
II; also, Church of England Magazine, Vol. Ill, p. 211); but it is 
available also to shew the correctness of botanical analogies. In this 
way has Decandolle (Essai sur les Proprietes Medicate* des Plantes) 
applied it, and it is so much the more convincing, that the prool »1 MM 



species of Scorzonera, 
France. We have also 


I a good subst 
been informed 1 


very large c< 


jcoon, and 


spins i 


i tough b 



species belonging to any other tribe of plants. And indeed, the fact 
of the Cionus Scrophulariae feeding on species of Verbascum may be 
allowed to decide the point of the genus Verbascum belonging to the 
Scrophulariacea\ and not to the Solanacese, as some think it does. The 
Meloe vesicatoria, (Spanish blistering fly) gives the preference to the 
ash, then to the lilac, or privet, and last to the olive, all members of 
the tribe Oleaceae. This insect is never found on any plant of the 
Jasminaceae, though it is not uncommon on willows, from which it is 
remarkable that manna may be obtained, as well as from the Ornus 
Europrea, or flowering ash. The Pontia Brassicae or Cabbage Butter- 
fly feeds only on Crm in rous plants, with the solitary exception of the 
Tropa-olum majus, or Indian cress, the similarity existing between 
which and some Cruciferous plants, has procured for it the name of 
Nasturtium. While the Tinea (flavella) of Reaumur, the natural food 
of which is the Astragalus glycyphyllus, in the absence of that, what- 
ever variety may be presented to it, will only feed on some other legu- 

These examples, the number ot which mi -hi easily be increased, 






' 



thod of classification, to discover which, Linneus devoted the latter 
portion of his life, leaving it upon record as his opinion, that "The 
Natural Method, as it was the first, so will it ever be the highest, ob- 
ject of botany." Robert Dickson. 

Introduction; where Grown; Culture. This splendid trop- 
ical subject was first introduced to Great Britain from Jamaica, in 
1778. To the kindness of John Wilmore Esq. of Oldford, we owe the 
present opportunity of figuring this plant, ll requires to be kept in 
the stove. It may be propagated by cuttings; but to prevent the 
exhaustion and decay of these by an exudation of their milky sap, 
they should be nearly separated from the plant and then left three or 
four days till the sap has coagulated, so as to prevent further waste of 
it. They may then be wholly cut through and struck under glass. 
Further practical dim-lions shall lie given at a future opportunity. 

Euphorbia, so cai . king of Mauritania. 

Pt-sicEcs, scarlet, from Pi 
dye of purple, said to be obi 

Euphorbia punicea. Swartz: Prodromus, p. 76. Flora India; Occidental, 
II, p. 873. Hortus Kew cnsis -J. p. I 13. Smith : hones pictac, III, t. 3. Jacquin: 
Icones Plantarum rariorum III, t. 18 1. C'olleetaiH.-a,-2, P . 179. Sprengel : Species 
Plantarum, III,p.7'.»(». Hotanii al Ulster, !!«>. Botanical Magazine, 1961. 



3 




POINSETTIA PULCHER'RIMA. 

SHOWY POINSETTIA. 



NATURAL ORDER, EUPHC 



fceminei solitarii, centrales, germen trilobum; ovulum solitarium singulis lobis. 

Character of the Genus, Poinsettia. Involucre mono- 
phyllous, ovate, androgynous (bearing both male and female flowers), 
5-celIed at the base, having a single external nectariferous appendix 
near the top. Ft k.d; the staminiferous flowers 

arranged in two rows in each compartment, each flower consisting of 
one stamen (monandrous); the pistilliferous flowers solitary ; ovary 
three-Iobed, containing one ovulum in each lobe. 

Description of the Species, Poinsettia pulcherrima. 
var. albida. Shrub erect, branched, branches hollow, round, 
when young obscurely four-angled. Leaves alternate, sometimes 
opposite, petiolate, ovate, acute, unequally lobed, veined, veins often 
parallel, limb of the largest leaves about five inches long, and three 
broad, the mid-rib not in the centre, pubescent on both sides, but espe- 
cially the under, which is of a lighter green. Bracts resembling the 
leaves, but smaller, the largest three inches long, not so much lobed, 
but unecpial, and in the present variety of a white, or very pale yellow 
colour. Panicle cymose; pedicels articulated; involucres likewise 
articulated, greenish yellow, turbinate, or ovate, toothed, externally 
marked by five furrows, with which internally alternate five falcate 
processes, which are narrow at the mouth of the involucre, but become 
broader as they descend toward 



partincnts ; erect fimbria? arising from their margins partially divide 
the upper part of the involucre into a similar number of cells ; teeth 
of the involucre numerous, comment, whitish, woolly on the inner side; 
near the top of the involucre are several appendages, or nectaries, of 
which four are abortive and one perfect, which is round, entire, peltate, 
and so constructed at the margin, as to appear two-lipped. Stamini- 
ferous flowers about 10-12, in double rows in each compartment 
of the involucre, from the base of which they spring, each accompanied 
with a scale, which is hairy towards the top ; monandrous. Stamens 
articulated on small pedicels, filaments whitish, anthers two-lobed, 
yellow. Pistilliferous flowers solitary, central, supported on a 
short stalk, naked, ovary three-lobed, styles three, each style simple, (?) 
bifurcate at the apex. Ovule solitary in each cell. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This variety was disco- 
vered about 400 miles from the city of Mexico, by Wm. Bates, Esq., 
by whom it was sent to Charles Tayleure, Esq., ToxtethPark, near 
Liverpool. Whether it is a distinct species, or merely a variety of pul- 
cherrima, is somewhat doubtful; we deem it safer to regard it only 
as a variety, rather than create new species on imperfect data. Poin- 
settia pulcherrima was in flower in the Liverpool Garden, at the same 
time, a coincidence which further disposes us to think that they are 
the same ; and this view we are happy to have strengthened by Pro- 
fegsdr Graham, who has carefully compared both plants. A white 
milky juice, flows from any wounded part. Large drops of clear sweet 
fluid collect at the mouth of the nectariferous appendix. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The plant from 
which our drawing was made in December, was obligingly supplied 
from the Garden of the Liverpool Botanical Society, to which it had 
been presented by Charles Tayleure Esq. This gentleman had also 
received the red-bracted Poinsettia pulcherrima from Wm. Bates, Esq. 
previous to its introduction from Philadelphia by Mr. James M° Nab, 
so that it was by his exertions in the gardens of England before the 
specimen from which the drawing in the Botanical Magazine, 3493, was 
made. It should be kept in a cool stove or warm greenhouse. 
Derivation of the Names. 
Poinsettia, so called in honour of J.R. Poinsett, the United States Consul 
at Mexico, (Author of Notes ..n Mexico, Svo., London, 1*M), wl... 



TEJLO'PEA SPECIOSIS'SIMA. 

MOST SHEWY TELOPEA. 



[JRAL ORDER, PROTEACE-K. 



Telopea. i?. Brown. Perianthicm irregulare, bine longitu- 
:um inde 4-fidum. Stamina apicibus concavis perianthii immersa. 
ypogyna unica, subannularis. Ovarium polyspermum, pedicella- 

SgMKA apice alata, ala hinc immarginata inde 
oblique recurrente. Tn \ «J nibi) imbri- 

jfjv. Prodromus Florae Novas Hollandiae I, p. 388. 
SPECIES. Telopea speciosiksima. Foliis cuneato oblongis inciso-den- 

Character of the Genus, Telopea. Perianth irregular, be- 
ing sometimes longitudinally split, sometimes 4-cleft. Stamens hid 
in the concave points of the perianth. Gland hypogynous, single, 
Ovary many -seeded, stalked. Style persistent. Stig- 
ma oblique, club-shaped, convex. Follicle one-celled, cylindrical. 
Seeds winged at the apex, wing sometimes immarginate, sometimes 
vascular, the nerve obliquely recurrent. Involucre (whether of the 
raceme or corymb) imbricated, deciduous. 

Description of the Species, Telopea speciosissima. A 
Shrub, whicl > becomes 8 or 10 feet In- 

definite branches, which are simple, round, and wand-like. Leaves 
scattered , e \ • . • -shaped, obtuse, toothed or incised, 

from 4 to 8 inches long, attenuate at the base, smooth, veined, green 
on the upper surface, lighter almost glaucous beneath. Flowers 
forming a terminal raceme, which from the aggregation of the flowers 
has a capitate appearance, surrounded by an involucre of numerous 
lanceolate veined leaves, of the richest crimson, somewhat downy on 
the upper surface. Each flower pedicellate, with one bract to each 
pair of footstalks. Sepals of the perianth cohere at the base, except 



at the back of the flower, till the anthers cause them to separate. Seg- 
ments long, linear, hollow at the apex. Stamens 4, filaments short, 
anthers yellow, kidney-shaped, lodged in the concave pits at the apex 
of each sepal. Ovary stalked, Style long, slender, curved. Stigma 
large, obtuse. Pericarp a coriaceous follicle, cylindrical, smooth, 
recurved, splitting along the ventral sutu/e. Seeds several, flattish, 
having a long narrow wing attached to the apex. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Of all the splendid pro- 
ductions of New Holland, none surpass the present plant, which liter- 
ally dazzles the eyes of the beholders, when decked in all its brilliancy 
in it-- r.ative land. v. here it tlov. ets in October. The name among the 
Aborigines is Waratah, by Europeans it is sometimes termed Tulip 
tree; but this must not be confound. ,u or Tulip 

tree of North America. Like some of the Banksias of New Holland, the 
tube of the flower is charged with honey, a property which causes it 
to be still more prized by the natives. It is not uncommon in the vales 
on the east coast of New Holland, near Port Jackson, in stony places, 
particularly when somewhat shaded. See Bennet's Wanderings in 
New South Wales. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. It was introduced 
many years ago, by living plants, sent from Sidney Cove, to the Dow- 
ager Lady de Clifford, Nyn Hall, near Barnet, Hertfordshire. The 
plant from which our drawing was made flowered in the greenhouse 
of W. Moore Esq., of Wychdon Lodge, Staffordshire. This gentle- 
man had a drawing made of the plant, with the use of which he most 
politely favoured us, as well as the flower itself. We know of no other 
instance of its blossoming in this country for several years past. His 
gardener, Mr. Thomas Vickerstaff, informs us that the plant which is of 
i single shoot, 2| feet high, was potted in a mixture of sand, peat, and 
" was at all times sparingly watered. 



:!:;;:: 


a, from T^Xo>7roe a thing seen at a dis 
ing the plant visible from afar. Spe< 
shewy, alluding to the splendour of 


tam-e,the 
tie flowe 


brilliant head of flow- 


P . 19ft 


speciosissima. Brown: Transactioi 


is of Lu 


mean Society,, 


r* x. 


'.MBOTIIK 


HM -n-«ii,M,siMni, Smith: New 


Holluml. 


19, t . 7. Sims 


i Bet- 



ury: Paradisus Lon< 



HOTEA PURPUREA. 

PURPLE-FLOWERED HOVEA. 



@-I ess;} <¥>- 

NATURAL OEDER, LEGUMINOS,E. 



GENUS. Hovea. Robert Browk. Calyx bilabiatus, labio superiore 
semibifido lato retuso, inferiore tripartite. Carina obtusa. Stamina omnia 

Systematis Universili- R.-ni \ '. ■-: tabilis II, p. 115. 
SPECIES. Hovea purpurea. Sheet. Foliis lineari oblongis obtusis 

geminis. Lindley .• Botanical Register, folio 1423. 

Character of the Genus, Hovea. Calyx two-lipped, upper 
lip semibifid, broad, n-t use, !<> ■■ er !i|> :h; ee pa; tt ■■!. IvEELobtuse. Sta- 
mens all united into a monadelphous tube, or the tenth stamen more 
or less detached at the upper part. Legumen or pod sessile, roundish, 
swelling, two-seeded. Seeds strophiolated. 

Description of the Species, Hovea purpurea. A shrub, six 
feet high, branched, bushy , braiiehes thickish, round or slightly angled, 
covered with a greyish puheruleiit down. Leaves alternate, petiolate, 
stipulate ; stipules simple, small , subulate ; linear, oblong, obtuse, either 

gins, upper surface very « I* i ,. «I, smooth; under 

surface densely clothed with an arachnoid down, grey in the old leaves, 
or a rusty colour in the expa ib conspicuous on 

both, but especially on the under surface. Flowers axillary, clothing 
the upper branches, geminate, pedicellate; pedicels shorter than the 
petioles of the leaves: flowers purple, diverging to each side of the 
branches, every flower provided with 3 bracteoles, which are ovate, 
adpressed, of a rusty brown colour, the two superior nearly equal to the 
teeth of the calyx, the interior smaller and more remote. Calyx 
densely covered with down ; upper lip truncate, emarginate, lower lip 

KlIEBEME TO THE DlSSECTIO] 



> 



i 



QUISQUALIS IN'DICA. 

* INDIAN QUISQUALIS. 






No. 73. 
GENUS. Qcisqcalis. Rvmphius. Calycis tubus supra ovarium 
s gracilis deciduus, ore 5-fido. Petata 5 ovali-oblonga 
'bus majora. Stamina. 10 exserta, calycis fauci inserta, i 

uwi<iru. HuKini omto obtonguni 4-ovulatum. Hew- 



rhombeis aristato-acuminatis sub quoque flore, petalis ovali-oblongis adpresse 

Character of the Genus, Quisqualis. Tube of the calyx 
slender, deciduous, greatly prolonged beyond the ovarium, rim 5-cleft. 
Petals 5, oval -oblong, obtuse, larger than the calycine teeth. Sta- 
mens 10, protruding, inserted on the throat of the calyx, the alternate 
ones shorter. Ovary ovato-oblong, containing 4 ovules. Style 
filiform, obtuse, exserted, agglutinated below to the tube of the calyx. 
Drupe dry, 5-angled, 1-seeded. Cotyledons fleshy, flattish convex. 

Description of the Species Quisqualis Indica. A climbing 
shrub, pubescent throughout, except the tube of the calyx, branched, 
branches round, leaves opposite or alternate, petiolate, ovato-lanceolate, 
slightly cordate at the base, upper surface dark green, mid-rib and 
nerves strongly marked. Inflorescence in terminal panicles, each 
flower with an ovately rhomboidal, acuminately awned bract. Tube of 
the calyx long, slender, somewhat club-shaped towards the apex or 
throat, five-cleft at the top, segments lanceolate, acute. Petals 5, spa- 
thulato-ovate, blunt, inserted on the rim of the calyx, with the segments 
of which they alternate; when the petals first expand in the morning 
they are white, become reddish about noon, and rose-coloured in the 
evening, presenting next day a blood-red colour. These changes are 
more or less rapid according to the intensity of the light. Stamens 
10, in two rows, attached to the inner side of the throat of the calyx, 



the stamens of each row alternating with those of the other, upper row 
protruding. Ovary adherent to the base of the tube of the calyx, one 
celled, 5-angled ; style long, slender, protruding beyond the anthers. 
Popular and Geographical Notice. As the name implies, 
India is the native land of this elegant and interesting plant. It be- 
longs both to the islands and peninsula of India, and if Drs. Wight and 
Arnott (Prodromus Florae Peninsula; Indiae Orientalis, I, p. 318), are 
correct in reducing several supposed species (Q.pubescens, Q. glabra, 
Q. Loureiri, Q. villosa) to mere varieties of the present plant, it has 
a still wider range, being found in Cochin-china. The whole order 
Combretacese consists of plants known only in the tropical, none being 
found in the extra-tropical, parts of Asia, Africa, and America. They 
number amongst them many remarkable for their beauty, and several 
for their utility. One of the latter is thus mentioned by Humboldt. "Our 
host was employed in joining large pieces of wood by means of a kind 
of glue called guayca. This substance, used by the carpenters of An- 
gostura, resembles the best glue extracted from the animal kingdom. 
It is found perfectly prepared between the bark and the alburnum of 
the Combretum guayca. It probably resembles in its chemical pro- 
perties birdlime, the vegetable principle obtained from the berries of 
the misletoe, and the internal bark of the holly. An astonishing abun- 
dance of this glutinous matter issuer h mi tho twining branches of the 
vejuco de guayca when they are cut. Thus we find within the tropics 
a substance in a state of purity, and deposited in peculiar organs, which 
in the temperate zone can be procured only by the processes of art." 
Personal Narrative, vol. VI, part I, p. 5. 

this plant took place in 1815. The specimen from which our drawing 
was made was obligingly communicated by Mr. Cameron, Curator of 
the Birmingham Botanic Garden. The best soil is a mixture of loam 
and peat, and cuttings root freely in sand in a moist heat, under a 
hand-glass. Few more beautiful ol>j,.rts can be seen than the Quisqua- 
lis Indica trained either along the rafters, or covering the trellis-work 
of a stove, as it goes on flowering for several months in summer; and the 
changeable character of the flowers give it constantly a new aspect. 

Qosqcalis, a sing i, from Quis, which, and qualis, 

Synontmes. 
QriSQiALis Indica. Rumphias Amboina, 5, t. 38. Linneus : Species, 556. 
Botanical Magazine, folio 2 



JUSTICIA SPECIO'SA. 

SHEWY JUSTICIA. 






a srECiosv. RnxBunoH. Pedtnct lis axillaribus pau- 
is ,,;,]„, -iti- i lato-ovatb ob- 

jto. SPHEyGEL. Ibid, p. 85. 

the Genus, Justicia. Calyx 4-5 cleft, bracte- 
ate. Corolla 2-lipped. Anthers 2-celled, cells often separate. 
Capsule oval, two-celled, cells two-seeded, dissepiment bearing the 
chords of the seeds or hooked processes of the placenta adnate. 

Description of the Species, Justicia Speciosa. Shrub tall, 
spreading; stem and old branches ash-coloured, younger branches 
green, glabrous, rounded, scarcely striated. Leaves opposite, petiolate, 
ovate, acuminate; lower and larger leaves subcordate, and crenate, 
dark green, roughish above, paler beneath; nerves oblique, promi- 
nent on the under surface. Peduncles axillary and terminal, often 
ered. Bracts forming a double involucre, cilia- 
the outer circle composed of four leaflets, two of 
which are oblong, two spathulato-oblong; the inner circle consisting 
of four upright, lanceolate, smaller, leaflets, surrounding each flower. 
Calyx small, of 5 deep, linear, acute segments. Corolla purple, 
externally pubescent; tube very long, curved, singularly twisted, limb 
divided into an upper and under lip, which by the curvature of the 
tube are transposed; the upper (naturally under) lip broad, blunt, 
three-toothed, with one large, and several small dark spots at the base ; 
lower lip entire, or obscurely two-toothed. Stamens two ; filaments 
slender, long, extending much beyond the throat. Anthers of two 
cells, one obliquely above the other. Ovary ovate, with a fleshy an- 
nular disk. Style nearly as long as the stamens. Stigma obscurely 
two-cleft. 



Popular and Geographical Notice. Among the numerous 
splendid productions of tropical forests, this has been pronounced by 
Dr. Roxburgh, than whom scarcely any could be a more competent 
judge, "to be one of the greatest ornaments of the forests of the inte- 
rior of Bengal." Man} "i the peculiar characters of the tribe of Acan- 
thaceje may be studied in this plant; one of the most remarkable of 
which is the position of the two cells of the anthers, which are not 
opposite as in most instances of two-celled anthers, but obliquely one 
above the other. Nees von Essenbeck imagines that this irregularity 
is connected with a general tendency to unequal dichotomy, which is 
more particularly indicated by one of the opposite leaves being une- 
qual, by the bases of the leaves being frequently oblique, by the one- 
seeded spikes with two rows of abortive, and two of flower-bearing 
bracts, &c. The attachment of the seeds to the placentae is also very 
peculiar. The seed-vessel opens with considerable elasticity and pro- 
pels the seeds to a distance. Several species of Justicia are fragrant, 
while others yield colouring principles. It is probable that the juice 
of the flowers of the Justicia speciosa would furnish the best pigment 
for colouring drawings of the flower, as is the case with the juice of 



Introduction; Where grown; Culture. This species first 
found a place in British gardens in 1826. It was raised by Lady 
Bunbury, of Barton Hall, Suffolk, from seeds received by her from 
St. Helena, to which island it had probably been introduced from the 
Botanic Garden, Calcutta. The plant from which we were kindly 
permitted to have a drawing made, flowered in the stove of Robert 
Barclay, Esq. of Leyton, Essex. The Justicia speciosa may be grown 
either as a stove or greenhouse plant, but its beauty is most perfectly 
developed in the stove, where it makes a noble appearance during au- 
tumn and part of the winter. It should be potted in rather strong 
rich loam, and have plenty of pot room. May be rapidly increased 



Derivation of the Names. 
Justicia, in compliment to Mr. James Justice, a Scotch Gardener, author of 
' The British Gardener's Director." He lived about the middle of the last cen- 
tury. Speciosa, shewy, from the hand 



i Speciosa, Roxburgh: Floral 



MAXILLA'RIA CRISTATA. 

CRESTED MAXILLARIA. 









'a; intt-rinm suho.mt'i.niiia. ! i columnar articula- 

:uin T sessile triJobum, etunillatum. Cohjisa semiteres, aptera. Anthera 
ncompk-te bilocularis, npemiluris. Poluma 2, Mpartilnlia v.i iiueffra, cawli- 

SPECIES. Maxilhria cristata. Lindley. Pseudo-bulbis oratis sul- 
atis monophyllis, foliis oblongo-lanceolatis plicatis, scapo pendulo bifloro 



Character of the Genus, Maxillaria. The perigone (peri- 
anth) spreading- or comment, with the external folioles lateral, and 
prolonged at the base, united to the column so as to form a sack ; the 
internal folioles nearly uniform. The labellum which has its base 
prolonged, articulated with the column, sessile, three-lobed, and cucul- 
late. Column roundish without wings. Anther imperfectly 2-cel- 
led, operculate. Pollen masses 2, separable into two or united, 
affixed by little tails to the transverse gland. 

Description of the Species, Maxillaria cristata. Pseudo- 
bulbs ovate, furrowed, producing each one leaf. Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate, plaited, scape pendulous, two-flowered, vaginating with 
loose scales. Flowers spreading. Sepals (external folioles) nearly 
two inches long, whitish interruptedly marked with red lines and 
bands. Petals (internal folioles) equal and uniform, blood-red at 
the top, spotted at the base, white on the back. Lip purple, claw 

fimbriated with moniliform hairs: the claw formed of 4-6 little claspers 



straight and submoniliform. Teeth of the disk compressed, spread- 
ing, crenate at the margin, the hinder one double the size of the others. 
Column green at the base, yellow at the apex, awl-shaped on both 
sides, the beak extremely long and awl-shaped. The tail of the pol- 
len masses very long, the gland small and subtriangular. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. Trinidad has supplied 
this additional species of a genus, most of which belong to the tropical 
parts of America. This, like the others, is an epiphyte, growing on 
old dead branches of trees near the Mud Lake. Singular as the 
appearance generally is of the tropical Orchidacea;, this one out-runs 
the greatest number of them, in the very remarkable character of its 
lip. The hairs of the crest will be found to furnish interesting objects 
for inspection with the microscope, as most necklace-like hairs are, 
such as those of the Tradescantia Virginica or Spider-wort. The 
seeds of many on ' supply very beautiful subjects 

for microscopic observation. The difficulties which attended the study 
and investigation of orchidaceous plants have been greatly diminished 
by the persevering a of Robert Brown. (See his 

Prodromous Flora? Novae Holla bis Memoir on the 

Fertilization of the Orchidese, Trans, of the Linnean Soc. vol. 16) of 
L. C. Richard and his son, A. Richard ; by the Drawings of Bauer (Il- 
lustrations of the Genera and Species of Orchidaceous Plants;) and 
by the various writings of Dr. Lindley, especially his last beautiful 
work, entitled Sertum Orchidaceum. 

Introduction; Where grown ; Culture. It was first received 
in this country about 1^:3-3, In Mr. Knight, of the King's Road Nur- 
sery, Chelsea; and for its singularity and beauty has been added, at 
considerable cost, to several of the best collections. The plant from 
which our drawing was made, flowered at the Messrs. Loddiges in July. 
It requires to be kept in the stove; and perhaps cannot be better 
treated than by being suspended from the branch of a tree, so as to 
imitate, as much as possible, its natural site. It is usually potted in 
sandy peat, broken into pieces about the size of a walnut. 
Derivation of the Names. 



Synonymes. 
Maxhaama cmstata. Lindley : in Botanical Regis 



s genus from the resemblance 
gan in this species being very 



THUNBER'GIA GRANDIFLO'RA. 

LARGE FLOWERED THUNBERGIA. 



$P - ^ 



GENUS. Thi'mur. ; ia. Li^ns. Cvlvx duplex externe diphyUu; 
SPECIES. Thunbergia grandiflora. Roxbvrgh. Scandens, foliis coi 



er of the Genus, Thunbergia. Calyx in a double 
xternal whorl of two leaves, the internal generally of 12 
5ule two-celled beaked. 

:he Species, Thunbergia grandiflora. A 
climbing shrub. Stem smooth with somewhat tumid joints. Leaves 
opposite, petioln or lobed, cordate at the base, 

acuminate at the apex ; both the petiole and lamina of the leaves 
clothed with soft hairs; upper surface green and marked with some 
strong primary veins, from which diverge less prominent ones; under 
surface paler. Flowers soJil les as long as the 

petioles of the leaves. Segments ol the calyx in a double series; 
the outer consisting of two ovate folioles, rough from having small 
black points scattered over them, the internal segments sometimes 
wanting, when present generally 12, resembling teeth. Corolla 
large, of a blue or lilac colour. Tube at first tapering, then enlarging 
so as to form a b 1 on the upper side, and con- 

vex on the under: limb 5-lobed, spreading, lobes ovate-oblong, 
rounded, lower lobe larger than the rest; traversed by dark purple 
veins, somewhat resembling those of the leaves. Stamens 4, the fil- 
aments of the upper pair curved at the base, the shorter pair com- 
pressed, gibbous. Anthers oblong, bearded, and furnished with a 
spur. Ovary superior, conical, iw in- on ,i lohnlate annular disk. 
s ' "> i '•(' <'<jual in length to the stamens. Stigma concave, 



Popular and Geographical Notice. This species, like most 
of those -which we at present know of the genus Thunbergia, is a native 
of the East Indies, adorning uncultivated places of the province of 
Bengal, even in the immediate neighbourhood of Calcutta. It flowers 
there during the rainy season. The species which are found in Africa, 
or the islands adjacent, only serve to confirm the accuracy of Robert 
Brown's observation, that there is a greater analogy between the plants 
of equinoctial Africa and equinoctial India, than between those of 
India and equinoctial America, and this holds good, both as a gene- 
ral remark, and also of the members of the tribe of Acanthaceae in 
particular. See Brown's Appendix to Tuckey's Voyage to the Congo, 
p. 450 and 478, also Royle's Flora of the Himalaya, p. 159-61. Many 
of the members of this tribe are possessed of an odour, which is some- 
times agreeable, but occasionally very unpleasant; of the former set 
are the Thunbergia fragrans, Justicia odora, &c. while the latter com- 
prise Ruellia foetida, R. viscosa, &c. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. It was first seen in 
Britain, in 1820; and to the politeness of Mrs. Lawrence, of Drayton 
Green, we owe the opportunity of figuring this ornamental plant. 

fully to develope their showy character. It should be planted in a 
large box, or bed of earth, in the pit of the stove, and if its branches 
be not allowed to become too crowded it will flower freely and show 
itself to great advantage, through the whole of the summer. It may 
be increased by cuttings, at all seasons of the year. These should be 
struck in a sandy compost ; and when rooted, potted singly into a 
mixture of peat and loam. 

Derivation of the Names. 
In compliment to Ch. P. Thunberg, one of the most celebrated of the pupils 
of Linneus, and afterwards his successor as Professor of Botany at Upsal. 



ACACIA LONGIFOLIA. 

LONG-LEAVED ACACIA. 

O ■ izk* <¥>-^ 

No. 77. 
GENUS. Acacia. Neckss. Flores polygami. Calyx 4-5 dentati 
'etala 4-5 nunc libera, nunc in corollam 4-5 fidam coalita. Stamina nume 
aria 10-200. Legumen continuum exsuccum bivalve. Decandolle. 
SPECIES. Acacia longifolia. Willo. Phyllodiis sublanceolatis utri; 
ue attenuates integerrimis ' " " 
xillaribus binis breFissime ] 
Character of the 
k 4-5-toothed. 

into a 4-5-cleft corolla. Stamens varying in number from 10-200. 
Pod continuous, dry, two-valved. 

Description of the Species, Acacia longifolia. Stem from 
10-18 feet high, straight, cylindrical, branched, smooth, of an ashy 
brown colour. Branches axillary, alternate, articulated. Leaves al- 
ternate (Phyllodia) articulated, vertical, lanceolate. Spikes of flow- 
ers axillary, seldom solitary, shorter than the leaves, cylindrical, the 
axes articulated, covered with flowers along their whole length, furnish- 
ed with bracteas. Flowers sessile, close together, some having sta- 
mens only, the greater number possessing both stamens and pistils. 
Bracteas solitary, at the base of each spike, and of each flower, calyx 
monosepalous, campanulate, five-toothed, three times shorter than the 
corolla. Petals five, alternating with the segments of the calyx. 
Stamens numerous, inserted upon the calyx, united at the base. An- 
thers straight, i small. Ovary free. Style 
lateral, straight, slender, longer than the stamens. Legumen coriaceous 
cylindrical, pointed, jointed. Flowers of a citron colour, diffusing a 
faint odour, similar to that of peach-blossoms, owing to the presence 
of hydrocyanic acid. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The vertical position of 
the phyllodia or flattened petioles which constitute the whole of the 



leaf, by which means each side is presented to the spectator, gives a 
peculiar aspect to the scenery of New Holland, where these plants 
abound. The immense number of exhaling pores (Stomata) on both 
sides of these, by permitting the escape of a large quantity of aqueous 
vapour, causes a great degree of dampness in the atmosphere in their 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. Introduced in the 
year 1792. It may be propagated easily by cuttings; or by seeds, 
which are plentifully produced by this species. It thrives best in a 
light sandy soil, but will succeed in any. The Acacias require to be 
very freely watered, during warm dry weather. Our drawing was 
made in the garden of the Birmingham Botanical Society. Mr. 
Loudon, in his inestimable Arboretum and Fructicetum Britannicum 
(now brought to its conclusion) has the following observations on the 
genus Acacia. "This is a very extensive genus of shrubs or trees, 
with beautiful foliage and flowers, and of intense interest to the Brit- 
ish gardener, because, in mild winters, they are found to live in the 
open air, as standards, attain a tree-like size in 2 or 3 years, and 
flower profusely, very early in the spring. They are all of easy pro- 
pagation, either by cuttings or from seeds, either imported or produced 
in this country, and their growth is so rapid, that plants 2 years 
established, have been known to make shoots 16 feet long in one 
season. In dry sandy soils, and in sheltered situations, the greater 
number of the species of Acacia might be grown together as a wood 
or thicket, by which means the plants would protect one another ; 
and though their tops might be annually killed down for 2 or 3 feet 
by the frost, yet the dead portions being cut off annually, in May, 
the plants would grow again with vigour. An Australian forest might 
not be realized in this way in England, but some allusion might be 
created to an Australian coppice wood." Vol. II, p. 662. 

Derivation of the Names. 
Acacia, supposed to be from atalta, akazo to point or sharpen, many of the 

species having the stipules in the form of sharp thorns. Longifolia, long- 



, i.osr.iFOLiA. •■ Jitory,207. Ventenat: Plan- 

Malmnison, ivJ. I)f.-an<l..Ile : I'ro.lroinus, \\,Aol . 
i macrostachya. Poiret : Supplement I, p. 61. 



PORTULACA GILLIE'SII. 

DR. GILLIES' PORTULACA. 



lsc.} <^>-^ 



V 



1-loeularis medio circumscissa. Semina indefinita placenta; centrali adfixa. 
Decandolle: Prodromus, Pars III, p. 353. 

SPECIES. Portulaca Gilliksii. Hooker. Caulibus suberectis bad ra- 

Character of the Genus, Portulaca. Calyx either free, or 
adherent to the base of the ovary, two-parted, finally cut round at the 
base, and so deciduous. Petals 4-6 equal, either unattached to each 
other, or slightly united at the base, inserted on the calyx. Stamens 
from 8 to 15, filaments free, sometimes attached to the base of the cor- 
olla. Ovary roundish. Style 1, 3-6-cleft at the apex, or the style 
absent and the stigmata 3 to 8 in number, elongated. Capsule sub- 
globose, 1 -celled, dehiscing horizontally in the middle. Seeds inde- 
finite, attached to the central placenta. 

Description of the Species, Portulaca Gilliesii. A peren- 
nial herbaceous succulent plant, stem erectish, about 12 inches high, 
purple blotched with white, branched, branches mostly near the base 
or apex of the stem. Leaves sparse, sessile, reflexo-patent, on the 
stem, closer and almost rosulate on the branches, obtuse, roundish, 
compressed, slightly purple at the top, spotted on the rest of the sur- 
face with white dots or lines. Hairs axillary, erect, white, pellucid. 
Calyx consisting of two somewhat unequal, oval, membranaceous 
sepals, with white and scarious margins. Petals 5, of a rich reddish 
purple, spreading (under exposure to the strong solar light, at other 



times erect or nearly closed) obovate round, notched or undulating. 
Stamens varying frum 8 to 15 or more; filaments purplish ; anthers 
orange-coloured. Ovary roundish; style slender, longer than the sta- 
mens; stigmas seven, awl-shaped, reflex, downy or fringed with glan- 
dular ? hairs. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This plant is a native of 
the plains of Mendoza, in South America. It inhabits the most arid 
localities, and it is only under the influence of the most powerful light, 
which parches the ground of its place of growth, that it fully unfolds 
its handsome blossoms, which seem to return the fervid glow of the sun- 
beams. Few are the hours, and still fewer the days, in this country, 
that the atmosphere is sufficiently clear, and the light sufficiently strong 
to cause it to display all its beauties, but even the occasional exhibi- 
tion which it makes of them will recompense any lover of flowers for 
the care he may bestow upon it. It is in general between the hours 
of 9 and 12 that the flowers expand. Portulaca oleracea, and P. flava, 
when boiled, are eaten as pot-herbs ; but little use is made of the spe- 
cies of this genus, though Portulaca curassivica is used in the East 
Indies, against asthma and inflammation of the liver. Claytonia 
perfoliata and Claytonia cubensis are esculent, as are likewise the roots 
of Claytonia tuberosa, and Ullucas tuberosus. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. Seeds were brought 
to England, in 1827, by Dr. Gillies. Our drawing was derived from 
a plant which flowered in August, at Mr. Henderson's Nursery, Pine 
Apple Place. It is of short duration and should be frequently increased, 
which may be most easily effected, for a single leaf, when laid upon 
moist soil, will produce several plants. Except when growing, and 
setting for flower, it should not be watered, and then only sparingly. 
It must be kept in the stove, or a very dry greenhouse during the 

Derivation of the Names. 
Portulaca, a word respecting the origin and meaning of which writers are not 
agreed : by some it is said to he from porto I carry, and lac, milk. Gilliesii, 
in compliment to Dr. Gillies, who brought the seeds from Mendoza. 



POINSETTIA PULCHER'RIMA. 

MOST BEAUTIFUL POINSETTIA. 



CHD %P-^ 



NATURAL ORDER, EUPHORBIACE.E. 



GENUS. Poiksettiv. Graham. rvv„r.rr Rr ,, nmnophyllum, ovatum 

pcdictllati, nndij ordinati, monandri; 

ftpmimi Bolitarii, itariwn singulis lobis. 

Graham in litt. 

Character of the Genus, Poinsettia. Involucre mono- 
phyllous, ovate, androgynous (bearing both male and female flowers), 
5-celled at the base, having a single external nectariferous appendix 
near the top. Fi aminiferous flowers 

arranged in two rows in each compartment, each flower consisting of 
one stamen (monandrous) ; the pistilliferous flowers solitary; ovary 
three-lobed, containing one ovulum in each lobe. 

Description of the Species, Poinsettia pulcherrima. An 
erect shrub, branched, branches hollow, when young obscurely four- 
angled, green, glabrous. T,r wes scattered, hut occasionally opposite, 
petiolate, petioles from f to H inch long, those of the upper leaves 
reddish, lamina ovato-elliptical, acute, irregularly lobed, or sinuate, 
mid-rib strong, with numerous nearly parallel lateral ribs, most pro- 
minent on the under side, which meet and form a border along the 
margin of the leaf : leaves soft, slightly fleshy, pubescent on both 
sides. Bracts numerous, somewhat similar to the leave-, hut nar- 
rower, more acute, and less notched, of a brick red (occasionally 
vermillion) colour, arranged in a more or less roseate manner around 
the head of flowers. Inflorescence cymose, cyme terminal, subtririd, 
articulate, peduncle at length falling off at the joint. Involucres ar- 
ticulated, on short thick foot-stalks, green, ovate or orbicular, toothed, 
marked externally with five sutures, with which alternate on the 
inside five falcate processes, which are narrow at the mouth of the 
involucre, but widen as they descend towards the lower part, where 

involucre into five compartments; erect fimbria' arising from their 



margins imperfectly divide the tipper part of 
lar number of cells ; teeth of the involucre n 
bracts, woolly, connivent. Near the top of the 
appendages, or nectaries, of which four 
which is round, entire, peltate, and so c< 




in double rows in each compartmei 
of which they spring, each accompanied with a i 
towards the top ; each flower consisting of but < 
articulated with a small j i-h, anther two 

lobes diverging, dehiscing by a deep furrow along the outside. Pol- 
len granules yellow, lenticular. Pistilliferous flowers solitary, 
central, supported on a short thick pedicel, naked; ovary three-celled, 
styles three, each style simple (?), bifurcate at the apex. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. In Plate 70, we published 
what we considered a variety of the present plant, under the name of 
Poinsettia pulchei ml with this one before them, 

in deeming the former merely a variety. Less importance should be 
attached to colour than to any other feature of a plant, and it is pro- 
bable that the bracts are white in the other plant, owing to its being 
more delicate. It is perhaps worth mentioning that the bracts of 
many species of Euphorbia are yellow during the early period of flow- 
ering, but afterwards become green ; as do the white sepals of the Hel- 
leborus niger also change to green, (See Treviranus, Vermischte 
Schriften, vol. IV, p. 145). 

Introduction; where Grown; Culture. Sent from Mexico 
to Charles Tayleure Esq., of Toxteth Park, near Liverpool, in 1835. 
About the same time it was sent by Mr. James M c Nab, from Phil- 
adelphia, to the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. Our drawing was made 
from a plant belonging to the Messrs". Pope of Handsworth. The gar- 
dener of Henry Pratt, Esq. of Philadelphia says he treats it in every 
respect as a Geranium, except keeping it in the hot-house during winter. 



herbima, superlative of pulcher 

errima. Graham: in Edinburgh 
Graham : in Botanical Magazim 



CAROLFNEA ALBA. 

WHITE CAROLINE*. 

<® less;} <*£!$ 

GENUS. C.vRoi.iNF.A. Liwecs. Calyx nudus, subtruncatus, persist 

Pf.tw.v .(uintjnc nhl,, 115:1 longissima. Stamina basi monadelpha supenit 
iidelpbias pluivs diuU-candras fasiculata. Stylus longisi 

necgossypionec 

Regni Vegetabilis torn. 1 , p. 478. 

tico laneeolatis, coi neutosa, tubo staminifero longo 

quinquelobo(nuncvixsinuato?) filamentis dichotomis. Hooker-. Exotic Flora, 

Character of the Genus Carolinea. Calyx destitute of 
bracteae externally, somewhat truncate, persistent. Petals five, ob- 
long, of considerable length. Stamina monadelphous below, but 
forming several dodecandrous bundles above, (in the present case 

ticed. Willdenow's character is "filamenta ramosa " the filaments 
branched, which is strictly applicable.) Style of great length. Stig- 
mata five. Capsule woody, multivalvular, of one cell, and with many 
seeds. Seeds void of all covering, of a cottony or farinaceous de- 

Description of the Species, Carolinea alba. Leaf pal- 
mate, with seven leaflets, petiole 4 inches; leaflets 3 to 6 inches, scarcely 
petioled, oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, glabrous, veined, margin very 
entire. Flower axillary, but close to the extremity of the branch. 
Peduncle thick, half an inch long. Calyx half an inch long and of 



the same breadth, cupshaped, glabrous, truncate with the margin entire, 
and clothed internally with velvety brown tomentum, except near the 
base which is also paler. Petals five, about four inches long, and 
apparently somewhat coriaceous, linear-oblong, very slightly con- 
nected together at the base and to the staminiferous tube ; whitish 
inside and tomentose more than half way down; on the outside densely 
covered with minute fascicled short and dark brown hair, the fascicles 
arranged in interrupted subconfluent transversely waved lines; a near- 
ly obsolete channel runs down the middle of the back. Tlbe formed 
by the stamens an inch and a half long, fleshy, with the orifice appar- 
ently sinuate or obscurely lobed. Numerous white filaments spring 
from the extremity and outside of the tube, over a surface of about one 
quarter of an inch. Filaments two and a half inches long, forked 
above the middle, each branch bearing a reniform one-celled anther, 
placed transversely. Pollen of trigonal vesicles intermixed with 
waxy matter. Ovary ovato-oblong, pentangular, with five spurious ( ?) 
cells, and containing numerous ovules arranged in two lines along 

half, filiform, reddish towards the apex. Stigma minutely five lobed. 
N.B". This description is drawn up from an examination of the dried 
ng was made. 



Popular and Geographical Notice. This genus is confined 
to the West Indies and other parts of tropical America; and the few 
species which it includes are all handsome trees with large flowers. 
It is closely allied to the genu- \ negal, and which 

is celebrated for containing the thickest and oldest trees which have 
hitherto been discovered. As it is unlikely that we shall ever obtain 
flowering specimens of this "oldest organic monument of our planet" 
as Humboldt calls it, some notice here, of so extraordinary a produc- 
tion may not be uninteresting to our readers. We copy the substance 
of the following observations from the first volume of Don's System of 
Gardening and Botany. Michael Adanson, the celebrated French 
naturalist, after whom the genus was named, measured several of these 
trees growing in Africa. They were from 65 to 78 feet in circumfer- 
ence, but very low in proportion. The trunks were from 12 to 15 feet 
high before they divided into many horizontal branches, which touch- , 
ed the ground at their extremities; these were from 45 to 55 feet long, 



and were so large, that each branch was equal to a monstrous tree ; 
and where the water of a neighbouring river had washed away the 
earth, so as to leave the roots of one of these trees bare and open to 
the sight, they measured 110 feet long, without including those parts 
of the roots which remained covered. The tree yields a fruit which 
resembles a gourd, and which serves for vessels of various uses; the 
bark furnishes a coarse thread which they form into ropes, and into a 
cloth, with which the natives cover their middle from the girdle to the 
knees • the small leaves supply them with food in a time of scarcity, 
while 'the large ones are used for covering their houses. The dried 
leaves, reduced to a powder, constitute halo, a favourite article w, h 
the natives of the eastern coast of Africa, and which they mix daily 
with'thdr food for the purpose of diminishing the excess of perspira- 

hur its colour or appearance, destroys life, and readers the part so 
out into chambers, and within them are become 

acious pulp envelope tbe seeds taste .^^ 

aud is ea.eu with or without sugar by the natives. b 

_, „„,„,, ,«■ —••■»£— , „,„, ,„ 






men was sera J Trinidad hy the la 

Tl he 7lhenreofBolha Xq nadra„ 6 u,aris. The plautisnow 

Shack, under the name oi iwm i 

about 8 feet high with spreading branches, the young ones g 



is probably quite denuded at the time of flowering. The petals are 
erect at first, but soon become reflexed. It is not unlike the Caroli- 
nea alba of Hooker's Exotic Flora, but that plant is of much larger 
growth." Notwithstanding this latter circumstance, we cannot observe 
a sufficient difference between these plants to warrant our considering 
them as distinct species. The number of the subordinate parts of the 
pistil and the degree of development in the lobe3 of the stigma are 
very \ unable characters; but beyond these, the chief difference in our 
descriptions of the present flower and that of Dr. Hooker, consists in 
our specimen having the inner surface of the Calyx and petals clothed 
with a velvety tomentum. Dr. Hooker has noticed the close resem- 
blance which exists between C.alba and C. iusignis, the flowers of the 

on the petals not in fascicles. The flowers of our plant are still smaller 
than those of Dr. Hooker's, and although the tomentum is distinctly 
fascicled in many places, yet in I uacter, probably 

from the fascicles being so much crowded that they cannot be distinctly 
observed. From these circumstances we cannot help suspecting that 
C. alba may after all be a dwarf form i,f ( . iusignis. Dr. Hooker 
remarks (apparently from examining the ovarium only) that "in hav- 
ing cells to the i; ta from the generic character of 
Carolinea" and he has figured the ovules attached in several rows to 
a large central placenta. But it may be observed that this central 
placenta readily separates into as many subordinate portions as there 
are dissepiment >. I t placentae at their inner edge, 
to which the ovules are attached in double rows. So far then as the 
examination of a dried specimen may enable us to judge, these separ- 
ate placentae do not cohere into a solid central column. It seems there- 
fore extremely probable that in the ripened capsule both the dissepi- 
ments and central mass may be so far obliterated or modified, as to 
give the pericarp the character of a unilocular fruit, as in the other 
species from which the generic character has been framed. 

Derivation of the Names. 
Carolinea in honour of the Princess Sophia Caroline of Baden. Alba white, 
from the colour of the inner surface of the petals. 

Carolinea alba. Loddiges's Botanical Cabinet, vol. 8, PL 752. Hooker's 



BOSSIiE'A RU'FA. 






GENUS. Bossi.t.i. Fnfn;, 



SIM;Cli:s. liown mn. I.or>i,u,i:s. Kuniis tnmplanatis linearibus 
apliyllis, ilt-ntifulis Hi.riferis, carina submula, bracteis superioribus ab inferiori- 
bus distantibus pediceilo brevioribus. Decakdolie. Prodromus, II, p. 117. 

Character of the Genus, Bosslea. Calyx two-lipped, the 
upper lip larger, nearly two-cleft, obtuse. Stamens united into a 
naonadelphous tube. Poo flatly compressed, stalked, many-seeded, 
both margins thickened. Seeds strophiclated. 

Description of the Species, Bossijea rcfa. A shrub 
'ranches, nearly two feet high; branches leafless, flat, 
pressed, or more properly roundish, narrow, and winged on each side 
owing to the base of each bre , the wings toothed 

and bearing the flowers, which are placed in the teeth of the upper 
branches. Fi < . bracteolate4 : the bracts c 

two pairs, the one pair at the base of the pedicel, the other pair re 
mote, placed about mid-way between the first and the calyx, an 
shorter than the pedicels : flowers solitary, rarely extending to th 
extremity of the branch. Calyx slightly pubescent, two-lipped, up 
per lip larger, obscurely two-cleft, obtuse, under lip also somewha 
two-cleft, and more acute. Corolla papilionaceous, standard lurm 
spreading or reflexed with a long slender claw, limb emarginate, din 
gy vellow, with a brownish spot at the base and reddish brown line 
diverging thence to the marg! we, yellow, carim 



Reference to the Diss 



(keel) of two petals, slightly cohering near the apex, claw long, slen- 
der, limb broad, obtuse, brownish purple. Stamens forming a tube 
round the pistil. Ovary very slender. Style subulate. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. New Holland is the na- 
tive land of this, as well as nearly all the species of Bossisea. It 
differs from the plant represented in plate 68, by belonging to the 
leafless section. The name which was given to this plant by Siebold 
in his collection of dried plants of New Holland is preferable to that 
which it bears at the head of this article. He termed it Bossiam en- 
sata, or Sword branched Bossiaea, which is highly characteristic of 
its appearance, and the adoption of which would prevent any confu- 
sion with the species Bossiaea rufa of Robert Brown, which, however, 
very greatly resembles thi* | in ihe keel being 

fringed, and the upper bracts being deciduous, and having the calyx 
smooth. This plant corresponds with the Bossiaea rufa, of Loddiges' 
Botanical Cabinet, plate 1119. 

Introduction; where Grown; Culture. It was first raised 
in Britain in 1825. The plant from which our representation was 
taken flowered in May, 1837, as one of the many ornaments of the 
superb Conservatory of Wm. Leaf Esq., Parkhill, Streatham, which 
has so often farad pages. It will prosper best if 

planted out in the border of the conservatory, in a mixture of light 
loam with a little peat. Young plants may be raised from cuttings, 
but seedlings will not only make the handsomest, but the most free 
growing shrubs. 

nion of La Perouse. Rufa, from the 



Bossi.carcf\. f ,; !1( , t> ni9. 

Bossi^aensata, - , Nft.434 Sweet: Flora A ustralas 

ica, ■'>, 1. Dmiu.lolle : Prmlroinus, II, p. 117. George Don ■ 1m. ti.>nar\ , 



CRUSEA RUBRA. 

PINK-FLOWERED CRUSEA. 










Character of the Genus, Crusea. Tube of the calyx con- 
tracted above the ovary, limb deeply 4-eleft, the divisions lanceolate 
or linear and hispid, with many small accessary teeth between them. 
Corolla salver-shaped with a long tube widened at the top, the throat 
without hairs, the limb 4-cleft. Stamens exserted. Style exserted, 
shortly 2-cleft at the top. Fruit dividing when ripe into two one- 
seeded indehiscent nuts, separating themselves from a plane membra- 
naceous axis which regains with the persistent limb of the calyx. 

Description of the Species, Crusea rubra. Annual, erect, 
of several feet in height. Branches numerous, opposite, square, cov- 
ered with long stiff white somewhat reflexed hairs, each rising from a 
small tubercle. Leaves opposite, an inch and a half to two inches 
long, ovate or somewhat oblong, acuminate, entire, rounded or con- 
tracted at the base into a leaf-stalk from three to six lines long, hairy 
on both surfaces, the under side paler green than the upper, nerves 
diverging from the midrib, prominent and very hairy underneath. 
Stipules connected with the base of the petioles in a membranous 
hispid sheath bordered on each side by 7, 8, or 9 erect hispid setae. 
Heads of flowers terminal, surrounded 1,\ an involucre of from four 
to seven leaves resembling those of the stem, but narrower and very 
unequal in size. 1 1 1 those of a Pi- 

melea. Calyx sessile mi the receptacle, intermixed with long white 



and usually branching set*; tub-.- *hort, liain : -livisions of the limb 
rather longer than the tube, linear, two rather shorter than the other 
two. Tube of the corolla about halt an inch long, slender, perfectly 
smooth, slightly dilated at the top, divisions four, oblong, spreading. 
Stamina inserted into the throat of the corolla and rather longer than 
its divisions ; filaments slender, glabrous ; anthers oblong-linear, pur- 
plish. Style about the length of the stamens, often shorter, cleft 
at the top into two recurved divisions, lined on the inner side with the 
stigmatic surface. 

Popular and Geographical Notice. The small genus Cru- 
sea appears to be confined to the Mexican states, extending perhaps 
as far as the neighbouring island of Cuba, for the three Cape species 
lately added by Ernst Meyer from amongst Drege's collection differ 
much in the calyx, corolla, and inflorescence, and evidently form a new 
genus. The present species and two other Cruseas from the same 
country, are perhaps the only plants among the numerous tribe of Sper- 
macoceae worth cultivating, a tribe so generally remarkable for their 
weedy appearance, and which in the warmer parts of America and 
Asia, appear to take the place of our Galiums and Asperulas, but with 
a much coarser foliage and very small white or bluish flowers. The 
Cruseas, on the contrary, have all of them much larger flowers, of a 
pink or scarlet colour, especially the C. coccinea, which is perennial 

he size of C. rubra, and which it would 

s into this country. 

ell marked Order of Rubiaceae, originally 
retained in its full integrity by 
, Achille Richard, and Decandolle, all 
ally the author of the Prodromus, have illustrated the 
. Lindley, however, in his Natural System, a work 
remarkable for the clear and concise manner in which the characters, 
affinities, and anomalies, of the Natural Orders are expounded, differs 
from all these authors in considering the Tribe of Stellatae (including 
Rubia itself) as a distinct Order, and consequently changes the name 
of the remaining portion of the Order to that of Cinchonaceae. But 
in this view, it is difficult to agree with him, great as his authority 
must be considered in most cases. The grounds of his opinion are 
thus stated in speaking of Stellatae. "Usually a material dissimilarity 
in habit, if accompanied by any clear character, whether of vegetation 
or fructification, is considered sufficient ground for the separation of 
a group of plants into two Orders ; in this case the weak angular stems 
cause a peculiarity of habit that cannot be mistaken, and the total 
absence of stipules, to say nothing of the didymous fruit, afford a cer- 
tain mark of recognition. Surely there is some inconsistency in sepa- 
rating, by the absence of siipuh>, ( april.. m, < .. which are indistin- 




uuidiahle in habit, while the very same character is rejected when 
applied to the separation of an assemblage of genera, all distinctly 
combined by their habit." The opinion of Decandolle and others, 
that the apparent haves of Stellatfe are in part true leaves and in part 
leaf-like stipules, is thus objected to. If a part of the leaves of each 
whorl of Galium were stipules, they must bear a certain proportion to 
the true leaves; suppose the whorl to consist of two leaves, each will 
have two stipule.-, and < u-.- u, utly the whole number of parts in the 
whorl must be six, and in all cases the number must be some power 
of three. The frequent tendency in the whorls to vary from 4 to 6, 
or from 5 to 6, or from 6 to 8, seems to me an incontrovertible proof 
that the apparent leaves of Stellatae are true leaves and not a modifi- 
cation of stipules." 

The weak angular stems and didymous fruit of Stellatae are very 
common in two other tribes retained by Lindley in his Cinchonaceae, 
viz. the Spermacocese, and the Anthospermeae, and the whole of the 
lalter tril>e, and main of the Spermaeoeca . have precisely the habit 
either of some Galia, or more frequently of the Asperulae ; There re- 
mains therefore the sole question, whether the whorl of leaves in Stel- 
lati . consists of two true leaves, and two or more leaf-like stipules, or 
of four or more true leaves without stipules. In the first place it may 
be observed, that in most Dicotyledoneae, where the leaves are verticil- 
late, the number of leaves in each whorl bears a regular proportion 
to that of the angles of the stem, either the same number, double the 
number, or half the number; the stem of Stellatae is almost always 
quadrangular, and the number of leaves varies from 4 to 10 or 12; 

this is confirmed by the number of cases (especially in Asperula) 
where two opposite leaves are much larger than the others. In the 
next place, comparing Stellatae to the nearest Tribes of Lindley 's Cin- 
chonaceae we observe in many of these, especially in Hedyotideae, Cof- 
feacese, Spermacoceae, and / 
ted with the petioles of the leaves into < 
from the maruin ot which ari-c two opposite leaves, and between the 
leaves on each side, one, two, three, four, or more teeth or setae, these 
teetli or seta- are generally, it is true, either membranous or very slen- 
der, but they not unfrequently are to a certain degree foliaceous, and 
in (iaillonia ihe\ an ■ utorm, sometimes exactly 

like the true leaves. So in Stellatae the apparent leaves are all con- 
nected together at the base in a sheath, very short it is true, but almost 
always evident, and the lateral leaves supply the place of the teeth or 
setae in the other tribes. Thus, when the whorl consists of four, there 
are two real leave- and one stipulary process on each side, as in most 
Anthospermea andmam Hed\otidese, Coffeaceae,&c; where the whorl 
consists of six, there are two stipularv processes on each side, as in 



sidered as stipulary processes, similar to the sette of Hedyotidea; and 
Spermacoceae. The few cases where the number of leaves in the 
whorl of a Galium is uneven, are probably due to accidental abortion, 
as they are very inconstant, not only in the same species, but in the 
same plant. 

As to Caprifoliaceae, they are certainly closely allied to Rubiacese, 
and perhaps in this case, as in that of many of the most Natural Or- 
ders, a precise artificial line would be difficult to draw, but indepen- 
dently of the almost constant absence of stipules, there is on the one 
hand (as observed by Lindley) an approach in habit and structure to 
Saxifragaceae, and in another point of view, the ordinary carpellary 
number of Caprifoliaceae is three, and that of Rubiacea but two. G. B. 



tion of Crusea rubra into European gardens was about the year 1797, 
when it was cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Schoenbrunn, where 

brunnensis ; a much less elegant variety appeared in our own gardens 
in flic year 1*12, and v us fig ired in the T. .tunica! Magazine, t. looS. 
Our drawing was made in the Glasnevin Botanic Garden, and was 
accompanied by the following n u In m ." „ \ iven. "It was raised 

Mexico. It is an annual, grows to the height of from five to six feet 
if properly shifted ; is a plant of very handsome growth, being regu- 
larly furnished with opposite side shoots from the surface of the pot 
upwards. Flowers during the months of October and November in 
great beauty. One specimen which flowered here this season, could 
not have less than 300 heads of flowers such as those in the 'figure 
The plant grows freely in sandy loam with a little peat, it flowered in 
great perfection in a dry part of the stove; seeds freely, and strikes 
from cuttings. The habit of the plant in summer, with its beautiful 
foliage and very curiously armed stem, is highly attractive. It is a valu- 
able ornament, as it comes into flower in rich profusion at a time when 
the stove is rather barren of flowering plants." 



ejbra. Jacquin : Hortus Sohoenbrunnensis, v 
higosa. Sims: Botanical Magazine, t. 1558 
ChamissoandSchlechtendahl: Linna-a, v..l. 
««.,ToLIV,p.a67. 



KENNED YA MARRYATTIA'NA. 

■MRS. MARRYATTS KENXEDYA. 



SPECIES. Kenn-e 



ped, upper lip with two teeth, lower three-cleft. Standard with a short 
claw, obovate-oblong, about equal in length to the wings, bent back, 
narrowed at the base with two small inflexed appendages. Wings, 
adhering to the keel, which is as long or longer than them, oblong, 
straight on the in > the point. Sta- 

mens distincik dia<l.!j>' «>u-. the tipper free filament straight at the 

Jong, filiform, slightly incurved and slender at the apex, with a very 
small obtuse stigma. Leoi '"} compressed, 

divided transversely by a cellular substance into several spurious cells. 
Seeds with a strophiola. 

coarse climber; th< duncles, calyces, 

Leaves alternate. Stipules veiy br.uul, tblia.eoiis, acuminate at 
the top, broadly heari-haped ar the ba-e. Pi im»u> an inch and 



distance from the lateral ones, with two stipellae at its base. Leaflets 
obovate, or oblong, blunt i slid tl\ . argiuate, sometimes with a 
small point, undulate on the edges, smooth on the upper surface, hairy 
underneath, an inch to an inch and a half long. Peduncles axillary, 
shorter than the leave*, bearing two or (our ilov.ers, with one or two 
pair of bracteae connected into one orbicular one, and two small brac- 
teolas at the base of each pedicel. Flowers large, of a rich scarlet, 
the standard having a double orange spot in the centr . Keel rather 
longer than the wings, and almost straight. Legume about an inch 
and a hall' lo'i'i, eompre-seil or u. arl\ <\ limit i.. .1 ! I nit not inflated, 

Popular and Geographical Notice. This is a true Kennedya, 
as this genus is proposed in the above quoted memoir, to be limited. 
The small blue-flowered species are there included under the name 
of Hardenbergia ; those with bunches of scarlet flowers and short 
keels under that of Zichya ; and others again with inflated pods as 
Physalobium. The ren onsist of five or six spe- 

cies, which appear to be coast plants, most of them being found trail- 
ing on sandy ground. They are most of them showy, but less so than 
the Hardenbeigise and Zichyse, for the peduncles bear but few flowers, 
and unless ithcare many of them remain con- 

cealed by a rather coarse foliage. We have, however, seen specimens 
of the present species in great beauty. G. B. 

Introduction; Where grown; Culture. The Kennedya Mar- 
rvattiana was first m 'dr. Robert Mangles, and 

in the gardens of Mrs. Marryatt, from seeds sent home by Sir James 
Sterling, and has since spread into most considerable collections. It 
is easily propagated by cuttings, and also ripens its seed occasionally, 
from which source some very slight varieties have been obtained. 
It should be potted in peat, loam, and sand, and have greenhouse 
protection. Our drawing was made from specimens in the garden of 
Robert Barclay, Esq. of Leyton, Essex. 

Kennedya named by Ventenat, in honour of Mr. Kennedy, at that time [.art 
ner with Mr. James Lee, in the Establishment of Messrs. Lee and Kennedy, 
Hammcrsuntl Marrt, rru\A,inl t'M-s M >att ..t Y\ imbledon,