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March/April 1979 

Los Angeles County Department of Arboreta and Botanic Gardens 

UT""<he sun never sets on the Brit- 

1 ish flag" used to be a capsule 
comment on the worldwide scope of 
the British Empire. A similar saying 
might be applied today to the Los 
Angeles State and County Arbore- 
tum. No longer merely a Los Ange- 
les institution, the Arboretum in re- 
cent years has made its name known 
and has set a pattern for arboreta 
and botanic gardens internationally. 

With an eye to the 1980s and be- 
yond, the Trustees of the California 
Arboretum Foundation commission- 
ed an independent consulting firm 
to prepare a long-range development 
plan for the Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum. 

The cornerstone of the develop- 
ment plans calls for the construction 
of the Hall of Environmental Edu- 
cation, a building already past the 
planning stage, as the key to other 
development within the garden. 

The need for the building has 
been well documented; prefabrica- 
ted structures built years ago as 
"temporary" and flimsily partitioned 
basement rooms used for purposes 
for which they were not intended 
all contrive to dampen, if not de- 
feat, education and public service 
programs designed to serve the pub- 
lic. As Director Francis Ching re- 
cendy stated, "We have found it 
necessary to turn away many people 

Regional edition of Garden 


who have come in search of a 
broader understanding of the plant 
world. Since the essential function 
of the Arboretum is based on a con- 
tinuing investigation of that world 
together with a public education 
responsibility, it seems timely and 
necessary to build the Hall of En- 
all for 


the people." 

The Hall of Environmental Edu- 
cation is a collection of special-use 
buildings consistent in scale and ma- 
terials with the existing Administra- 
tion Building, Gatehouse, and Pea- 
cock Pavilion. Although a group of 
separate structures, they are formed 
into a unit by an enclosing wall, 
overhanging roofs, and a connecting 
patio with rich paving patterns and 
a generous number of planters. 
Three special classrooms and a gen- 
erously sized seminar room with 
flexible wall treatments, will accom- 
modate a number of concurrent ac- 
tivities and small or large study 
groups. Adjacent to this portion of 
the Hall will be the greenhouse, an 
educational laboratory. The main au- 
ditorium and multi-use space will 
have a central folding partition, por- 
table platforms, and generous stor- 
age spaces for chairs, tables, and 
exhibit materials. Adjacent rooms in- 
clude a kitchen and preparation 
room. With the unification of the 
surrounding garden court the many 
different indoor and outdoor spaces 
coalesce into an effective environ- 
mental hall well suited to a myriad 
of people-oriented activities, all in 
celebration of the horticultural and 
botanic wonder that is the Arbore- 

A final step in the development 
plan is concerned with establishing 
program priorities at the Arboretum 
over the next five years. It takes 
cognizance of the fact that funding 
for programs will increasingly have 
to come from private sources as a 
result of the passage of Proposition 

ing community institutions and in- 
dividuals (and reviewed by the 
Trustees of the California Arbore- 
tum Foundation ) to determine prior- 
ities for funding. They are: 

Youth Education Programs 

Adult Education Classes 

Library Expansion 

Plant Collections and Introduc- 

Horticultural Displays and 

Expanded Public Services and 

Dissemination of Information 

Upgrading and Integration of 

Physical Plant facilities 

It was further determined that the 
California Arboretum Foundation 
has the potential to undertake a $5 
million development program. With- 
in that program, a short-term pri- 
ority objective of $1.2 million is en- 
visioned for the Hall of Environ- 
mental Education, that figure taking 
into consideration that $.5 million 
has already been raised toward con- 
struction of the building. 

To make the development pro- 
gram a reality, it has been decided 
that an office of fund development 
with a full-time director be funded 
and established to provide the man- 
agement for the long term develop- 
ment program and to lend appropri- 
ate assistance to Board members and 
other volunteers in the area of fund 

In the short space of time since 
1947, the Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum has surpassed the 
vision of its originator, Samuel 
Ayres, Jr., M.D. From the modest 
sounding aim of putting "more color 
into the Southern California land- 
scape" there has grown an educa- 
tional, research, and public service 
institution to which nearly a million 
visitors annually come to enjoy the 
trees, plants, flowers, and landscape 
features, and to participate in the 
many public oriented programs. 

Not many years ago, a five million 
dollar plan for the future of such 
magnitude would have seemed fan- 
tastic; today the Arboretum finds it 

realistic and imperative. The Trus- 
tees of the California Arboretum 
Foundation, Inc., have voted to 
carry out the plan with all possible 
dispatch. Gifts are now being in- 
vited toward the part of the plan 
that is needed from private sources. 
For additional information, please 
contact Mrs. Leland Larson, Presi- 
dent, California Arboretum Founda- 
tion, Inc., 301 N. Baldwin Avenue, 
Arcadia, California 91006. Tele- 
phone: 447-8207. 

South Coast Fiesta 

This year's Fiesta de Flores at 
South Coast Botanic Garden, 
to be held the weekend of May 19- 
20, will follow the direction of last 
year's highly successful presentation 
and concentrate on the sale of 

Toward this end, Fiesta chairman 
Cindy Peters has been spending 
three days a week in one of the 
garden's greenhouses propagating a 
variety of plants proven to be popu- 
lar with the gardening public. 
Among them are Chorisia insignis, 
the white-flowered floss-silk tree the 
seeds for which she obtained from 
the Arboretum, scented-leaf pelargo- 
niums, and a variety of cacti. Among 
some rare and unusual plants she 
hopes to have on hand are some 
bromeliads from Guatemala. 

In addition to the plant sale, there 
will be a number of horticultural 
demonstrations, notably bonsai and 
sumi landscape displays by Ben Su- 
zuki, well-known teacher of the bon- 
sai art. On both days there will be 
continuous demonstrations of how 
to mount bromeliads on cork. Visi- 
tors buying their tillandsias at the 
Fiesta can have them mounted be- 
fore leaving. A plant clinic will be 
in operation each day to which visi- 
tors can bring practically any horti- 
cultural problem for an answer if 
not a solution. Hours for this color- 
ful event staged annually by the 
South Coast Botanic Garden Foun- 
dation are 9 to 4 p.m. daily. As in 



the past, a preview party will be 
given the evening before the open- 
ing for Foundation members and 
their guests. 

March Shows at Descanso 

Three major shows will be pre- 
sented at Descanso Gardens 
this month starting with the annual 
camellia show staged by the South- 
ern California Camellia Council. The 
dates are March 3rd and 4th. Melvin 
Gum, president of the Council, re- 
ports that visitors can expect 1 


in the tents set up for the show. 

On the weekend of March 24th 
and 25th, the Southern California 
Daffodil Society will present its 
22nd annual show which, like the 
camellia show, will be a competitive 
event. In both shows judging will be 
done on Saturday morning with the 
exhibits open to the public at noon 
and from 9 to 5 p.m. Sunday. Jay 
Pengra, new president of the society, 
reports that visitors can expect to see 
around five thousand named varie- 
ties encompassing all shapes, sizes 
and colors known to the species. 

The following week, on March 
31st and April 1st, the Descanso 
Gardens Bonsai Society will stage 
its annual show on the main lawn 
from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. both days. The 
date is a switch from last year when 
the show was held in September. 
James Everman, president of the 
society, expects to have close to 300 
plants representing 18 classifications 
for the display. As in the past, in- 
formation booths will be set up with 
members of the society fielding 
questions from visitors and offering 
technical guidance on the various 
aspects of the centuries-old art. 

Bonanza IX 

It was on May 3rd, nine years 
ago, that members of the Cali- 
fornia Arboretum Foundation's Las 
Voluntarias staged the first Baldwin 

as a "unique treasure sale," as in- 
deed it was, offering old books and 
paintings from the Baldwin era, nu- 
merous handcrafted objects, and 
many plants. Since that time, the 

plant sale, and in succeeding years, 
as more and more unusual and hard- 
to-get plants were offered, word 
went out that this is an an annual 
fund-raiser not to be missed. As a 
result, crowds worthy of a major 
film premiere have lined up outside 
the entry gates before the standard 
9 a.m. opening, waiting to fill their 
bags, crates, and fugitive shopping 
carts with every plant goody strik- 
ing their fancy. 

This year, the opportunity comes 
on Sunday, May 6th. According to 
co-chairmen Marj Boos and Carol 
Overturf, both members of Las Vol- 
untarias, buyers can look forward to 
all of the standard popular plant 
material offered last year plus a 
larger-than-usual collection of plants 

in the uncommon category. Beferred 
to Superintendent John Provine for 
a rundown on what these might be, 
we learned there will be a large 
selection of various species of stag- 
horn ferns mounted on 8-, 10-, 12- 
and 16-inch boards, some rare eche- 
verias, some flowering anthuriums, 
many species of cycads, plus a good 
selection of erythrinas and Arbore- 
tum plant introductions. 

Mr. Provine said there will be the 
usual selection of fruit trees, the 
usual five thousand colorful pelar- 
goniums, a sizable collection of min- 
iature roses, and a larger-than-usual 
variety of orchids. He said also that 
this year's Bonanza would offer more 
plant specimens in larger sizes, cit- 
ing plenty of house plants in 12-to 
14-inch tubs as an example. 

Chairman Boos said that other 
standard features would include 
craft items and raffle prizes and that 
on the evening of May 5, the now 
traditional preview party would be 
given for Foundation members and 
their guests. 

Baldwin Bonanza 


Saturday, May 5, 1979 

Arboretum Plant Introductions 
Platyceriums (Staghorn Ferns) 

House Plants 

301 North Baldwin Av< 


( LASCA continues after page 40 ) 


Araucaria: frj 

Pines of the Southern Hemisphere ™^ 


Bunya-Bunya, Star-Pine, Klinki, 
Monkey Puzzle Tree. Such 
exotic common names refer to spe- 
cies of Araucaria, one of two genera 
belonging to the family Araucaria- 
ceae. Araucarias are graceful ever- 
green coniferous trees now limited 
naturally to the southern hemi- 
sphere, including eastern Australia, 
New Caledonia, New Guinea, New 
Hebrides, Norfolk Island, Argentina, 
Chile, Brazil, and Paraguay. 

The name "Araucaria" is derived 
from two sources: the prefix stems 
from Arauco, a province of southern 
Chile, and ria is Spanish for river 
mouth. The genus was named by 
A. L. de Jussieu, a French botanist 
who described the plants in his 
Genera Plantarum of 1789. Arau- 
carias are members of the order Pi- 
nales and are believed by botanists 
to be related to the true pines (ge- 
nus Pinus). At one time, some of the 
species were called pines; for ex- 
ample, Araucaria angustifolia is the 
Parana-Pine or Candelabra Tree, 
which dominates a large forested 
area in South America from southern 
Brazil into Paraguay and northern 

Numerically, this genus is not a 
large one. Estimates of extant 
species and varieties are from 12 to 
about 18. Most occur naturally in 
the Australian-New Caledonian area 
of the world, and none exist on 
islands east of New Zealand. Where 
they occur, Araucaria forests tend to 
be sparse in numbers and the trees 

This 27-year-old bunya-bunya 
of the Arboretum entrance pool. 


often form isolated towerlike habits. 

Aravicarias may attain a height of 
200 feet in their natural ranges. 
Under cultivation in subtropical or 
temperate regions, height of the 
trees may range from 20 to 80 feet 
or more. According to one eyewit- 
ness, some Norfolk Island-Pine 
(Araucaria heterophylla) specimens 
in Hawaii grow to 150 feet. Juvenile 
forms of different species may re- 
semble one another, at least until 
they attain a height of about 30 to 
40 feet. Mature trees are distinctive 
in both height and appearance. 

Nearly every species of Araucaria 
has an interesting growth pattern. 
Because the general form of the 
trees is more or less symmetrical, 
they make outstanding skyline speci- 
mens. Large branches are thick and 
few in number. They are spirally 
arranged or whorled around the 
main stem and bear secondary 
branches called branchlets. With age 
and sufficient growth, branches may 
lose their erect posture and become 
pendulous. Leaves are mostly dark 
green, glossy, and stiff. They may 
be nearly linear to lanceolate to tri- 
angular, with a decurrent base (ex- 
tending down along the axis) and a 
pointed tip. As the leaves of so many 
species are prickly, one is advised to 
squeeze gently when handling the 
branchlets. Leaves are densely and 
uniformly arranged around the 
branchlets, often are two-ranked, 
and are dimorphic (having two dif- 
ferent forms). Juvenile leaves tend 
to be larger and more spreading in 
relation to the branchlet and adult 
leaves may be either slightly open 
or closely appressed and overlapping 
on the branch axis. 

Araucarias do not shed individual 
leaves; instead, they gradually drop 
the smaller branchlets, which ac- 


ound the 


Branchlets of such species as the 
Bunya-Bunya or Bon-Yi (A. bidwillii) 
and the Hoop-Pine (A. cunning- 
hamii) are regarded as favorite dec- 
orative materials by fanciers of dried 
plant arrangements. 

The plants 
(sexes occur on separate plants). 
Male cones are cylindrical and cat- 
kin-like, with numerous spiral over- 
lapping cone scales called micro- 
sporophylls. They are situated ter- 
minally on branches, either singly 
or in clusters. Female cones are 
globose to cylindrical and larger, 
with their cone scales or macro- 
sporophylls in a continuous spiral 
series with the leaves. When mature, 
the large female cones shatter and 
thereby release their extraordinarily 
large wingless seeds. The female 
cone scale with its 
tinct bract is shed 

Technical i 
tive structures are the most impor- 
tant factor considered by taxono- 
mists in segregating the araucarias 
from the true pines; for example, 
Araucaria species usually have only 
one seed per cone scale while mem- 
bers of the pine family most often 
bear two or more seeds on each 
scale. There also are cellular differ- 
ences in the immature seeds of both 

Araucarias can be cultivated as 
are other conifers, although they 
tend to be more cold sensitive. The 
trees will survive in thin soils and 
will withstand neglect, but they 
thrive better in richer soil with mod- 
erate watering. Propagation may be 
by seeds, cuttings, or grafting. The 
grower should be aware that seeds 
of most species are short-lived. Ad- 
ditionally, it is best to consider 
species growth requirements before 
selecting a specimen. 

These plants are highly regarded 
for their timber and ornamental 
value in the southern hemisphere 
and as a source of industrial resins. 
As is the case with Pinus in the 
northern hemisphere, araucarias are 
one of the most important timber 
sources south of the equator. Espec- 
ially valuable for furniture manu- 
facturing and multiple construction 
uses are Araucaria angustifolia (Ar- 
gentina), A. araucana (Chile), A. 
bidwillii (Australia), A. cunning- 

hamii, (Australia), and A. klinkii 
(New Guinea). The seeds of A. an- 
gustifolia, A. araucana, A. bidwillii, 
and perhaps other species are edible. 

Among the more famous in the 
genus is Araucaria araucana. As a 
sapling, it has a pyramidal shape 
and open branches. Older trees have 
a bizarre mass of twisting, ropelike 
branches which seem to defy climb- 
ing, hence the name Monkey Puzzle 
Tree. It does best in moist coastal 
air and soil but must be container- 
ized for home gardens in the desert. 

may reach a height of 80 to 100 feet. 

Another species of exceptional or- 
namental value is the New Cale- 
donia-Pine, A. columnaris, also 
known as A. cookii. This tree is pre- 
ferred by some over A. heterophylla, 
and the two species may be con- 
fused by the amateur horticulturist. 
New Caledonia-Pine is a tall colum- 
nar tree, reaching to a height of 200 
feet on its native island. Juvenile 
leaves are broadly needlelike and 
adult leaves are oval to triangular. 
Leaves of this species are a deeper 
green but about the same size as 
those of A. heterophylla. New Cale- 
donia-Pine is also found naturally on 
small islands of the New Hebrides. 

The Los Angeles State and 
County Arboretum currently has 
three species in its collection and 
expects to acquire additional repre- 
sentatives. Araucaria trees included 
at present are the Bunya-Bunya (A. 
bidwillii), the Hoop-Pine (A. cun- 
ninghamii,) and the Norfolk Island- 
Pine or Star-Pine (A. heterophylla). 
Bunya-Bunya is an Australian tree 
of moderate growth, reaching a ma- 
ture height of 80 to 100 feet in bo- 
tanic gardens. It has a rounded top 
and long pendulous branches, and it 
casts dense shade. Branches are 
characterized by alternating seg- 
ments of larger juvenile leaves and 
smaller oval mature leaves. A. bid- 
willii may be seen south of the Ar- 
boretum's administrative complex, 
just west of the road leading to the 


lower lagoon, and i: 
sector west of the 

Hoop-Pine, another i 
tive, may reach a height of 100 feet 
when grown in the north. It is readi- 
ly identified by its elongate upswept 
branches, tufts of leaves at branch- 
let tips, and its awl-like overlapping 
leaves which clasp the branchlets. 
Several 30-foot specimens of A. cun- 
ninghamii are growing in the Aus- 
tralian section northwest of the re- 
search building. 

Among the most beautiful species 
in the Arboretum's collection is the 
renowned Norfolk Island-Pine, some- 
times called Star-Pine. A fine young 
specimen may be seen adjacent to 
the fence on the south side of the 
Santa Anita Depot. This species is 
indigenous to Norfolk Island, in the 
Tasman Sea east of Australia. It 
grows moderately in cultivation to 
around 100 feet tall, with a habit 
of a nearly perfect pyramid. All of 
its leaves have acutely pointed tips; 
the juvenile ones are narrow, short 
and curved and the adult leaves are 
fairly triangular, compact and 
crowded. It may be containerized 
outdoors in warmer climates and en- 
joyed as a house plant in colder 
areas. It was introduced into the Ha- 
waiian Islands about the 1860s and 
is still widely used there as a Christ- 
Fossilized parts of Araucaria trees 
have been found in New Zealand 
and Antarctica. These plants are 
thought to have been once wide- 
spread in North America, Europe, 
Asia, South America, and even to 
have forested parts of Africa and 
Antarctica. Araucarian ancestry 
probably dates back 150 to 200 mil- 
lion years to the late Paleozoic or 
early Mesozoic eras. If this is so, 
these early trees probably flourished 
during the age of great reptiles or 
dinosaurs, in the Jurassic and Cre- 
taceous periods of the Mesozoic era. 
Also, accumulating Araucaria fossil 
evidence lends support to the theory 
that the continents of South Ameri- 
ca, Australia, and Antarctica may 

This specimen of Norfolk Island pine (Araucaria heierophylla) was planted 
from a 15 -gallon can in 1971 and is already over 20 feet high. It is grow- 
ing next to the restored Santa Anita Depot in the Arboretum historical 


wanaland. cline? At least the climatic changes are difficult to disperse. It seems 

ly did the ancent araucarias seem to have been a factor promo- fortunate for us that some of them 


presumably die out in such large ting 

exceptionally ment's Research Division. 


Dr. Enari, Arboretum senio, 

Presented by^hyllum Society ^^M^SKoS?Nur»ery Society" 111 ^