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Hilgard, Theddore Charles 
l8^6, April 27th 
Belleville, III. 


Belleville, 27 April, l&f6. 

Dear Doctor, 

Yesterday, Sunday, I received your paper and put in imraediately l^fO specimens 

of black oak, putting in 20 more than required. Selecting the specimens, I loiakoa 
to it that they had at least 2 flower buds and nuraerous catkins; since I was in 
doubt in which stage I should collect the male flowers, I picked mostly some 
catkins already opened which had pollen sacs, rather than those which were still 
closed. However, since this was not always possible for me to do, I took for the 
rest all with still closed pollen sacs, but none, where all catkins already lost 
their seed, because these looked very brown and meager.-For maße and Sassafrass 
flowere specimens, thepaper arrived too late for an entire week; Saturday beütore 
last, I had a large specimen box made and the next day I rode with it to Dr. Jürg 
who has a great number of maples in his yard and took from there 120 specimens. I 
arrived just at the right time since the flowers were already beginning to fall. At 
that time, the Sassafrass was also in füll bloom and now it ie completely ceased 
blooming. — I put the box füll of maple specimens in the basement and sprayed the 
bfanches a little and they kept a few days, but then the male flowers and leaves 
became spotty and brown and mouldy and the flower stems were falllng off and I 
could not use them any more. Furthermore, the paper is barely enough for the IkO 
specimens since half of them have always to be dried even though I only used one 
sheet for each specimen, but still in such a way that each specimen can be covered 

sideways. I don't beliebe that the paper is enough for Aristolochia, and hardly 
for Diospyros since they have to be turned and one side of the sheet has to remain 
empty. Should you perhaps have more paper or could dispense with some, it would 
really be very good if you could still send it, especially since there will be much 
more later when the rest of the plant s are to be dried and at the same time the 
leaf and fruit specimens of Sassafrass (220), oak and later maple. — As far as 
Juniperus is c one e med, I never saw any growing wild here and, there fore, don(t know 
it at all. Only here and there one can see planted in the gardens some coniferous 
or scaly trees, but it is hard to get some from there and then there is always the 
question whether it is Juniperus. Does it perhaps grow in the bluff s? Perhaps I 
can collect fruit specimens if I only knew where to find it. 

Please permit me to ask you for the name of a sraall plant which I did not 
find described in Beck.-It grows in the gardens, in the meadows, is a span high, 
has a round, smooth, juicy stem,opposite standing leaves which are a bit fleshy, 

where one specimen has been put in 

Approximately of this shape rjg^J^ , at the bottom of the stem somewhat dentate. There are 

k sepals, divided, irag^csksjnKi lanceolate, 9 fleshy, not deciduous, longer than the flower 

which is Short, tube-shaped, mostly with k 'or <Sften with 5 lobes, white, with 2 small,bent 

anther fllaments at the base, very deciduous. The fruit has two oompartments,sometimes 3» 
pushed together from the side, heart-shaped (7^ % almost as in Th i aspi Bursa-pa-toris . ?he 
flowers Single in the leave axils, almost Tdthouth stem. In the inflorescences, the leaves 
are smooth-edged, and alternating . Flowers, there fore, in end Clusters with large supporting 

Furthermore, a little weed which must be related to Silene or Arenaria. Stem round, 
soft, a little glabrous because of the hairs, also with lanceolate ^ ^ t opposite 

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standing leaves. Flowers Single in the leave axils from which also alwäyir ä little branch 

is Coming out. After the flowering, the flower stem becomes more than one inch long, straight 

Calyx of 5 divided pointed leaves, half as long as the flower, flower leaf 5, slender, at the 
top with a deep cleft, white. Anther filaments 10, stigmas 5, somewhat curly. Capsule cylindri- 
cal, scaly, high, clefted at the top with ten teeth. — I see that one has to begin with the 
description of the flowerj 

Recently I found in the vicinity in the woods the orchid which you brought with you from 
the bottoms, with striped, meager leaves. I cannot remember the name you mentioned at that 
tirne.-- This time, two plants were hanging together from a very bulby root stem. When Eugen 
saw this, he said we should call it in the future Hildegardis cnollis . 

Düring a botanical walk, I also found an umbelliferous piant; its root, if cut through, 
smells like anise ... It only had root leaves; I don't know it, therefore am asking you for 
the name.- 

Last winter one could see that all laurel oaks in the vicinity had thick bulby outgrowths 
on the branches, or rather swellings. These are now rather soft and brittle and opened up, 
bored through, from the inside from many slender spindle-shaped pointed white, at the lower 
point hollow outgroivths, in which holes the larvae of, if I am not mistaken, ichneumon fly 
are lying. The bulbs itself look as if covered with points. — I shall tie up some of these 
swellings so that I won't miss the insects which mfcght come out.- 

I stillhave to ask you something about the paper which I use for drying plants. A great 
part of it is namely newspaper, unprinted, from the former Illinois Observer. I chose this 
because it was especially soft. Now, Dr. Reuss teils me that the softness is probably caused 

and then in a pointed curve downward 


by chiorine which is not good since it spoils the colour of the plants. I only noted 
the spoiled colours a few times and should like to know whether this is caused by the 
paper or not. Namely the flowers of Solanum violaceum became very dim and spotty, the 
flowers of Trillium recurv . black, even though they dried rather fast. The leaves and 
stem of an Aster flower (Ionquille) (which, however, dries very slowly) yellow; the 
flowers of Pulmonaria very light and pale. — I have to close now. — £±kscxk Best greetings 
to you and Dora from father. 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. C. Hiig ar( i. 

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Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
I8*f6 f May 12th 
Bellev/ille, III. 


Belle ville f 12 May l8k6. 

Bear Doctor, 

I have to bother you again with some questions regarding the plants which I 
undertook to dry. ^ugen and I made a botanical excursion last Sunday to the bluffs 
and a little bit to the bottoms. At that tirae we also looked for maple and found that 
the fruit s were already rather large, approximately as large as the figure 
Should the fruit specimens be taken when the fnuits are 
ripe or some time before?. Furthermore, I don't know 
at which tirae they are ripe. — We also looked for Aristolochia, 
bat did not find any. Should there be some to be found near > 
Falling Spring? We intend to go there sometime and could then 
also use the opportunity to collect Aristolochia« As I heard, there 
are also raany cedars supposed to grow near Falling Spring; at what time 
should the fruit specimens be taken? — I can hardly take the roots of Fraseria in 
their entire length, but shall have to cut them as much as necessary. I don't have 
to buy paper for drying, but for keeping the dried specimens. 

On the bluffs we found a plant which I could not find in Beck. It may be closely 
related to Batschia, 3/V high, leaves 1 1/2" long, slender lanceolate, stiff, dark 
green, rough/ because of fcliff hairs. Five long slender calyx leaves, the high fruit 
a little more than 1" long, the five plate-shaped spread-out lobes wavy at the edge. 
Pollen sac alraost without filaments sitting at the tube. .... 
Inflorescence a scorpion tail. Weals in the throat of the tube. See fig. 

At the bottoms I also found a plant which is very similar to 
Echinospermum. However, the flowers are much large, 2 1/2" long, 
sulphur yellow. — 

Sincerely yours, 
Th. C. Hilgard. 

J Li l im I J Li 


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Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
1846, June 6th 
Belleville, III. 


Belleville, 6th June l8*f6. 

Dear Doctor, 

Up to now we are not doing very well with our deliveries. When the Persimmons were in 
flower, we tried to dry them, but were not successful; first we collected feraale flowers 
on the way to St. Louis, 3-^ miles from here; after we had them in the paper for several 
days, ha Ving turned them every 12 hours, the leaves finally began to dry, but at the same 
tirae got a brown spot at the joint and feil all off # Thereupon, we collected male flowers 
at Hilgards where they are in bloom longer than at the other spot. Eugen rode up there in 
the morning and collected the specimens and put them in the specimen box; and in the 
evening he brought them home. Many of the flowers had fallen off, but we were still able 
to select a sufficient number of specimens and to put them in the press. When we looked 
at them next morning, all open flowers had fallen off in the paper and only the buds 
remained. Now, for this year we gave up the Persimmons, since we are now trying to dry 
Aristolochia and Frasera flowers. We have put in some Frasera flowers, but by the time 
they dry, Aristolochia probably will have ceased to bloom? For two weeks we have now 36 
root specimens of Frasera in the press and they are not quite dry since the leaf ribs are 
still green. The rest of the leaves are dry, but lost its green colour and became light 
brown as the leaves of most of the Gentia species. Is this permissible or rather is it 
possible to dry them green? I believe we also shall have to put Rhus copallina in immediately 
after Frasera and that means we have to leave Aristolochia for next year. 

I am enclosing a small green plant which grows next to a road going down a steep loam 
hill. I don't know whether it is native here, I have never found it before anywhere eise. 
It does not seem to be listed in Beck, but I remember that I saw it listed in Asa Gray near 
Droseraceae in a small order to which it might belong. In case the parts of the flower shouihd 
not be ven^recognizable I shall describe it. 

Calyx 5$ lanceolate with a transparent edge, even, 5 flower leaves somewhat heart-shaped, 
light blue, alternating with the calyx leaves. Anther filaments alternating with the flower 
leaves, convergent at the top, sac light blue. The two aigm Stigmas are hanging together 
while the style is divided . I was not able to study thd capsules Bince they were still too 
small, but they seem to be hollow with hanging seeds. — I am enclosing some other plant s and 
ask you to let me know their names. — We often found in the woods a lily which is just now 
in bloom; does not seem to be listed in Beck. Stern l8"High, leaves small lanceolate, mostly 
alternate ... Flowers as big as in Lilium canad ., but straight, the leaves not rolled back, 
but petiolate, brick-or fire red, above its stem yellow with some brown spots, bulbs small. — 
We are completely out of pins. 

&incerely yours, 
Th. C. Hilgard 

J U L H m 


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Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
1846 f July kth 
Belleville, Illinois 


Bellville f k July l8k6. 

Dear Doctor, 

I just received your letter and since I have some tirae now I shall answer 
immediately.-I shall dry the oak specimens; I shall also try to dry the Frasera 
root specimens; in any event, I shall dry the fruit specimens of Frasera. Now 
regarding the fruit s; you wrote me I should collect a large branch of the flower 
panicle. When they were fl owering I thought "what does a large branch mean". I 
first took a whole Cluster of k large branches, but I found I could not get them 
into the right format. HuJ I lud Lü itf'lMke the tops only, I would have needed 120 
Frasera plants in bloom of which I could not have had found half. Furthermore, there 
were too few Fraseraplants in bloom. By the way, I left a supporting leaf on every 
tranch and if one is missing, it must have come off during the transport.- I first 
intended to pack the plants just as you wröte, but then I thought it might rain. 
Had I taken larger branches of Frasera, I woul5/nave been able to treat the Frasera 
lriHx 8 so careful. If I find enough Frasera fruit specimens, I shall give the branches 
their right shape and height. Please write me exactly how the specimens must be . . . 
Please write me explicitly and also when I can start to dry the oak specimens. I 
believe, the Frasera specimens are now advanced enough so that one can pick them. 
Sincerely yours, 
Th. C. Hilgard 

NB: I should appreciate it very much if you could send me some insect pfns, I have 
a large number of insects and small bugs and don't like to break them with an 
ordinary pin. 

_ — 


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Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
I8*f6 f July 5th 
Belleville, III. 


July 5bh, l#f6. 

Dear Doctor, 

After I wrote you the enclosed letter yesterday, I walked around to see 
whether there were enough specimens of Frasera fruit s so that I might be able 
to show the branching of the stems. I went to all places where Fräser is growing, 
in a 1/2 raile circle at least. But I only found £ all in all. Therefore, If I 
want to get enough fruit specimens, I shall have to take rather small parts. 
Frasera, i. e. plant s which flower, are rather too rare around here to take 
large parts than I took. Also, as I already mentioned, I saw to it that each 
part had a supporting leave down at the top specimens. Today I Put in 120 root 
specimens of Frasera and had to exploi^places to find them since it was high 
time because the outer leaves were already pale and rotten. Inspite of shortening 
the root, the specimens are again as long as the first time because this time 
I had to take only heart-leaves (which were the only ones r still green);but now lbost 
of the inner whorls have a much longer tube inspite of the same size as the rest 
of the leaf. I, there fore made so 

that the specimen was bent a^t 
the place where the plant comes out 
of the ground; so that one can see 
the habitus of the young plant 
better than if I had left the lower 
part straight, but bent the leaf 
tops.— I looked up in Beck the 
names of the plants you mentioned; 
With regard to Lysium hyfrrida , 
which by the wa.y is identical with your üescription, it sayH: n corol shorther than' 
the calyx" while it is twice as long in my plant. The specimen I sent you happened 
to have an especially bad flower. My good specimens were somewhere in the press. 
The äxil£xi£$i§8 of the leaves of Leonurmi card. does not fit, for it says: "cauline 
leaves lanceolate, 3 lobed, upper ones entire". But the pistil leaves are very 
broad and the lower ones, apart from the lobes, almost as round as a circle.— If it 
wouldn't cause you too much trouble I should like to send you a »spy herbarium' in 
order to learn the names of the plants; and I shall be careful to send only clearly 
recognizable specimens. —Is the enclosed plant an Arecare? Our cacalia does not have 
an especially thick root, however I shall not doubt that it is Cac. tuberosa. 


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Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
l#f6 t July 30th 
Belleville, Illinois. 

Dear Doctor, 


I received your letter day before yesterday and shall report immediately 
about Frasera and oak; I would have done yesterday, but circumst nces prevented 
me from dojng it.— I have 120 dry root specimens of Frasera, but am going to send 
them together with the oaks. Furthermore, I was able to obtain *f Frasera plants of 
which I want to dry larger pieces so that you can esch cut them up later the way you 
wish.~ IVith regard to the oaks, I found that the trees do not have any acorns which 
will be ripe this year. I found only one tree which had very many. The tree seems 
tote sickly since it was in flower last year much later. I tried toset specimens for 
you, but the leaves were in such state of öecay that of the approximately 50 specimens 
I took, I could select only 10 in medium shape which might be useable; furthermore, 
the leaves were unusually small, badly developed, lusterless and füll of little knots f 
more so than the othere trees. Therefore, it seems to me that I can do nothing but dry 
good leaves with this year's acorns and to cut off next year 120 small branches with 
young acorns and to add one to each leaf specimen; Eugen would do this. I should be 
glad to dry the specimens next year, but believe I shall have left here before the 
right time. 

My pile of dried plants of which I don't know the names is getter larger and larger. 
It is already one foot high. There is nothing I can do but to take them to you at 
the beginning of next winter, i.e. at the end of the flower ing period; also, I 
believe that you don't have much time during the summer and fall for the determination 
of plants. By the way, I shall again collect some flower of such plants which are 
easily recognizable by the *he pale buds. I am sorry that I couldn't do it with the 
Solidago species since it is hard for me to distinguish them so that I cannot determine 
them myself. Up to now only species is in flower here, but I am trying already now 
to determine the srarious species as much as pessible aecording to feteras, leaves and the 
number of leaves which form a cycle at the stem; however, now the question arises whether 
the number in some species varies? Solidago canadensis seems to me rather variable with 
regard to its looks. The plant in my collection which you called S. canad. has 5/13 
divergence; is this di. usual? Namely, I have found other Solidago plants which, as I 
can see, are not one bit different from S. canad . except that they have a divergence 
of 2/5 and the other 3/8. Furthermore, I recently read in Bischoff the following "8 
such (2-leaved) whorls, forming 16 lines would seem only as an excaption in the Canadian 
Solidago". Does that mean that the leaves of this plant have aome times whorls, or 

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that S g canad . is the only known plant where this occure regularly? 

The one Solidago which is in flower now has many distinguishing characteristics so 
that you may be able to recognize it from my description. 1 1/2-3' high, stem usually 
strong, bent, smooth, divergence 3/8, leaves with 3 nerves (i.e. the lateral ribs only 
start to grow out in the first quarter, dentation long with a small lobe. XExkKxfeHH&x 
Higher up, the teeth are closer together and some times are 3/^-1* f long. Inflorescence 
Single branches". Branches themselves yellow , the branches are subsecund racemes, i.e. 

The flower leaves have again a very short common stem, which is sitting on the main 
branch. The main branches xxk at their lower parts are without flov/er taste heads. 
The flowers are of a very vivid yellow colour; on ä flov/erless branch, the leaf 
distance was 2/5. 

1) To which species does the Dodecatheon growing here belong? 2)What is the name 
of the V high, smooth Trasecantia covered with white aromatic leaves and stems, with 
the paler flov/ers? jYFhe lower, somewhat hairy, with ckrker leaves and ciarker flowers 
which only grows to a height of 1 1/2'? ^+)l know here 2 Sisirynchium, theone is white, 
the other with bluw flowers. Are these different species? 5)The geranium with flowers 
an inch large? 6)The geranium with the small, many numbered flowers and long beak, 
which grows up to 1/2-1* , and is considered to be a weed? 7) Is the Diclytra growing 
here D. cucullata? 8) I once asked you for the name of the 1 1/2 1 high, upstanding 
red lily which grows so frequently on the |3äxx|jsc prairies. You wrote ?f probably 
philad. M . Already before I asked you I checked in Beck and found the description 
°^ £• Pfiilad « very similar, only he says "leaves in whorls", but usually there is 
only one whorl at the stem, namely underneath the flower; the other leaves vary. 
9) I know here 3 species of Phlox :<x) it is high, flowers large, purple. ß) same height, 
flowers smaller, rose-red, lobe edges turned down, with 10 dark pink little stripes 
around the tksxa throat. In both the calyx is very long, narrow,x?±HÄSti: prismatic. 
y) On the prairies, 2-3* high, flowers amiler, very red, lobes overlap so that the 
flower assumes a wheel shape, calyx short, subcam pamilate, edges of the calyx parts 
scariose. I don f t know the name of any of these three species. 10) Is the Crotonopsis 
growing here along the roads harmless? The leaves are very aromatic and onee we tried 
to make tea from them. 11) Is the white wild anemone which ms so often found with ferns, 
a species of C^nv.? 12) Does cicuta maculata always have a spotty stem? The larfee high 
umbeliferaea JWhite flowers, haart-shaped petals and thwarted, globular flat fruits which 

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grows on branches has no spots at the stem. We thought it was c. mac . Is that right? 
13) Recently I arranged my asters which are still in great disorder, which I had a long 
time. At that time I found a white flowering Aster with the white flu : fy stem and leaves 
and the lanceolate or cauline leaves without stems which grows often in dry spots and whidh 
I thought was mollis (as far as I remember) no other name than tennifolius (which as far 
as I know has blue flowers) and nowheremollis. Please help me out of this labyrinthj 
1*0 Is a garden flower. The little flowers are sitting at the end of a stalk on an oar. 
The Americans call it either blue b&ttles or bl. bubbles. 15)growth on the high prairies. 
Is it not ^f^ntkimaxkykxxäHBiXx Melanthium hybridum? 16) Ornithogalum? Grows in swampy 
areas. 17) Ornithogalum? Garden flower. l8)Is the Smilacina which grows here quite 
often on slopes, with the yellowish flowers and usually red berries S. racemosa? 20) 
Is the Uvularia which grows on damp slopes, with Uielarge pendulous flowers and leaves 
enveloping the stem Uvularia grandiflora? 2l)0n the high prairie I found a large 
Sylphium with pinnate leaves and a high little branches stem "^^^^ T he root 
leaves are double p&mate. 22) What is the name of the Fycnanthmum with the wooly 
long leaves? 23) How is it with the Hedyotis? I have found 2 identical species except 
that one had a projected style with alobed Stigmata, and the anther filaments were not 
visibile and were contrary to the other. 2k) What is the name of the common Lamium 
with the stemmed, heart-shaped leaves v/hich grows near all roads? 25) Isn't the small 
Cassia with the half sensitive leaves and large yellow flowers, the petals of v/hich have 
a spot at the root, C. chamaecrista? 26) Seems to me to be a Rubiaceae. (27 left out 
by the author) 28) Woody vine with leaves and blue berries with a seed like the seed 
in Opuntia vulg. 29) Sheath not split. Pistil like this _ x, 

- ////zx^ ■ • 

(30 left out by author) 31) Leaves 3-pinnated. Branches; \\VV^V^ 

glabrous. Probably a Lespedeza? 32) (Translator was unable to read this). 33) What is 
the name of the small wild Passiflora with the green flowers? 

It is now very hot here, usually 25-26° Reaumur in the afternoon. Düring the drought 
which just ended a few days ago many little children got sick with the summer compläht 
(the last two words were written in English), also Tittmann's small child. It did not 
survive and died on the 2*fth. Humbert f s smallest child had the same sickness, but 
survived and is now convalescing. Tittmann's Clärchen also had some swelling in her 
throat at the end which prevented her fr rn swalling so that she could not drink the 
nurses( milk or any medicine. 

Because of the many illnesses now you probably won't have time to write, therefore, 
if you agree with what I wrote about the oaks, you don f t have to write; if you disagree, 
please let me know. 

Obediently yours, 
Th. G. Hilgard 

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^ilgard, Theodor Charles 
I8k6, August 2$th 
Belleville, Hl. 


Belleville, 26th August. 

Dear Doctor, 

Lastfime Eugen wrote you in my stead since I had the fever. Since I don T t know 
whether the letter arrived I shall repeat shortly the main points. He rode to the high 
prairie and found 35 species of Asclepias glaberrina which, however, had been nibbled 
on by cattle. Only 2 had fruit s, since the flowering time was long past. In his letter 
he asked you what he should do with the fruit s and since that time we have found 
about 20 more of the same plants in our field which, however, were too young to flower 
since t$ey are alwyas disturbed by the plowing. These, as well as many from the high 
prairies we intend to plant in a Clearing surrounded by bushes in the northwest corner 
of our field. If I had my say, I would plant them in the middle of the garden and take 
good care of them, but such things are troublesome weeds. Last year, I planted more 
Helianthus and Asters on my land, but this year they had to be killed since they caused 
too much humidity and since such weeds are growing everywherej By the way, unintentionally 
without my knowledge, I had carried a basked of forest soil home which contained a very 
troublesome weed, Enalenia albida , the seeds of which where probably in there. It grows 
tremendously and spread througjjiout the garden and is impossible to get rid off and 
kills other plants by winding around them. 

Two weeks ago, Eugen went on a botanical excursion to the bottoem and brought us 
many new things. I.) Among others, a Pontederia v/hich I cannot find in Beck. It has 
blunt heart-shaped leaves, and a long spike of blue flowers which are almost labiate; 
on the upper lip (so to speak) is a yellow spot. The praefloration is circinnate, i.e. 
the flowers have been pressed flat from the front, involuted. The lower part of 
flower is reddish and stiff , a little vesicular and envelopes the three cornpartments 
of the capsule. I did not see it while the flowers were ripe. Then, he also found 
something like an Apios « II.) It is a viny leguminoeaae with three pinnate leaves, 
the flower aXmost as in Apios tuberosa ... III.) Furthermore, he found^ 
a Gornus (*f) which vines or clings around trees with broad leaves 
almost like a grape leaf , but much smaller, less heart-shaped and 
conrpletely snoetfe on both sides. The knots on the branches are swollenr the 
fruits blue, previously violet, soft, with wide spreading grapes, with two hard endecarps. 
I doubt that this description will be enough. IV.) Furthermore, a Sagittaria, with a long 
widespread vine-like stem. Flowers, as far as I remember, in Clusters. Leaves large 
almost horseshoe-shaped, however with the barbed hook of all Sagittaria leave's, /[ fi 
or shield-like with a weägeQshaped indentation. The leaves at the stem were barely VI/1! 
one inch large.- V.) Furthermore, a 1 1/2" monocotyledon with striped root leages, 



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and a yellow, thin tubed flower, on top star-like. The tube went down in the sheath of 
the leaves. It was too wilted to ba examined closer ^^^^^^^^rr^' a • Probably very 
incompletely describedj VI.) I found recently <r^^W^^^^^^^^^ 
in Krafft's field a Halianthus ... Now, I am very interested in Solidago. To-morro-w or day 
after to-morrow I shall send you with Siegmann's transport a package of green plants (care 
of Th. Kimm, Esqus.) which I shall number. These are plants which are not very easy to 
determine without leaves and stems, specially Solidago species (.N.B. I shall number them 
in such a way that what I say fits them). No.l is passed flowering for a week, grows with 
ferns, then S. missouriensis begins to flower. 2 weeks later no. 3 with the large panicles 
and horizontal spikes and small flower heads. No. k is not yet flowering, has pendulous 
branches at the ends and is much rougher than the others. Could it be S. canadensis ? VII. ) 
What other Solidago species are known in our area, except S. rigida , speciosa , nemoralis , 
ulmifolia , missouriensis , canadensis , 1-3? VIII.) I know here, apart from Pycnanthemum 
pilosum , another species with very slender leaves. Could this be P. linifolium ? VIII.) I 
found three species of Lysimachia. ljhybrida, with the smooth leaves. 2) one which grows 
frequently on branches with four-comered stem, slender ieaves and dentate flowers as in the 
others. Third, one with stemmed broad leaves (ciliata?). IX.) What is the name of the 
Passiflora which you intr&duced from Arkansas? Is it P. incarnata? x. ) The beautiful 
Texan BaxtaKStia Portulaca with the 1 1/2" high very red flowers. XI.) Engelmanns, Hilgards 
on the prairie and Körners have a Texan tnife tubiflorous plant in their gardens with very 
fine cut leaves and flowers almost as in Cyprus anemone, but spotty. They call it Ionopsis. 
Is this the correct name and what is the species name? I did not have an oppportunity to 
examine them closely and therefore, don't know to which order they belong. 

The oak specimens are now almost dry. The fruit specimens of Fräser are already pi&ed 

XII.) In former years, I found some times in the late sammer, approximately around the 
time when the hazel nuts are ripe, a dark blue Gentiana , if^am not mistaken, with 1-1 1/2 1 
high thin stem, narrow (linear) opposite leaves, and large, upright, bell-shaped flower, with 
5 lobes, with little teeth between them. Now, I should like to know where this can be found; 
once I found them near us in a hazelnut thicket and on a small prairie at Michel f s farm near 
Athens; perhaps it grows somewhere in our vicinity. - ^ I drew the flower from 

memory. What other Gentiana may be found here, 
apart from G. amarelloides and Saponaria? 


Icannot convince myself that the 2 Trades- 
cantia are identical. Some years ago, I planted some or%&chl>£ them, as ornamentals as well 
as for Observation. They are growing next to each other So that the locality cannot 

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make any difference. The smaller species, with dark, somewhat hairy leaves and darker 
flowers always grow up to 1 1/2 1 , thelarge, sraooth one to V or more. The smaller ones 
already died 11/2 raonths ago and are now beginning to sprout again, while the larger 
species next to them is still in flower. 

I have to ask you two favors, that is I had been wishing to obtain for quite a while 
Asa Gray's textbook for Eugen and rayseif; Eugen knows the local plants alraost as well 
atxxuayxKij^xgHgÄH as I, as well as to their shapes and names and I wish that he gets 
a broader outlook on the pikant kingdom. Therefore, if you yourself should not need Gray, 
I should appreciate it if you would send it over sorae time when it is convenient.- I 
believe the only possibility is Jacob who goes to St. Louis to the market sometimes. 
Furthermore, we are in need of pins, especially fine ones. For large insects one can 
us the c rüder pins, but there are so raany small gus and jumping graass hoppers for which 
the ordinary pins are too large. 

N.B. Of many plants contained in the package I know the genus, but not the species. - 
Solidago Ja seems to be damaged by insects. 3yhas undamaged flowers. 18) I already have 
in my collection. 37 is a specimen damaged by cattle. It has large oval leaves, dentate 
as in Endive salad; but the leaves are flat and stiff, not curly. 

Yours sincerely, 
Th. C. Hilgard 

N.B. I had intended to send this letter by mail, but decided to ask Siegmann to take 
it with thim (Braun?s whiskey transport.) 

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Hilgard, Theodor Qharles 
18^-6, September ; 4th 
Belleville, III. j 


Belle v/ille, kth September 18A-6. 

Please, Dear Doctor, forgive me if I bother you again with a letter, but 
I have some important questions. 

We have tte oak shipment ready now with the exception of the bark, which we 
shall finish next; I don't know whether I should take the bark from 2-3 f thick 
trunks or whether the 1-1 1/2 1 ea thick ones would be sufficient. Should you 
want the first, I would have to take the bar£k from rather fresh cut blocks 
from the saw mill; should you want the latter ones, I could take them from some 
trees in our ygard which still have leaves this spring; now, the question arises 
whether the bark of this would be the right kind. If it should be better to take 
the bark from thick trees, I can easily do it. I intend to saw the parts 3 ,ft thick 
and cut them on the cut sides with a plane down to a thickness of 2 ff, . 

Furthermore, we intend to ship as much of the other deliveries you requested. 
Lobelia inflata is now in bloom, i.e. the flowering is almost over. We were 
searching in our vicinity and found about 30 specimens, which, however, were 
mostly only 1 foot to l8 ff long. It was easy to cut them down to a format of 10xl6 
(our paper is of that size) and they are dry now. Y e sterday, Eugen rode into the 
Settlement with the botananizin& drum, near Scott 's farra, where more and larger 
specimens are growing. They were often 2 and 3 feet high and very branched so that 
we had to turn over the tip as well as the lower parts which makes the specimen 
look very "bulby" and does not show the shape at all. 
Others are short, butonly because the tips had b.een 
nibbled on or broken off earlier and sprouted a 
a large number of flowering branches, but they look 
bushy and also don't show the shape. Fig. 2. n 
T here are still others, growing upright, 
with Short branches and 1 1/2-2 1 high, 
Fig. 3. 

where one had to turn ov&zL^&fe lower, leaveless piece. Now the question arises 
whether we shoufcd take the specimens as large as possible or of medium size which 
would show the shape? If sometimes good leaves are lacking, (turned yellow at the 
edges or nibbled on) we are enclosing small leaves specimens. Furthermore, how 
small should the main specimens be? Whether they could be small enough so that 

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we would not have to bend them if we put them in diagonally; or should they not 
be put ifc diagonally at all f but rolled up at the sides? Would you consider two 
small specimens (if it should becorae necessary) both with good flowers and fruits 
as a complete one? 

Next Sunday we shall have an opportunity to go the Settlements Therefore, we 
should be happy to have your answer in time. 

I am enclosing a leave of the Asel, in our field, I am very interested to know 
whether it is gifcar glaberrina. 

Many thanks for naming the plantsj But I have to apologize for the condition 
they were in, even though I had nothing to do with it. I took the package to Siegmann 
in the afternoon as he told me to since he planned to leave in the evening. But there 
was a delay of ^ days which he did not expect and in the meantime the good people poured 
some water in to the keep the plants greenj Without that the plants might have arrived 
almost dry. 

Sincerely yours, 
Th. C. Hilgard. 


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Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
lcVf6 f September 13th 
Belleville, III. 


B. , 13th September l8k6. 

Dear Doctor, 

Some remarks in your last letter made me doubt that I really have an Asel. 
glaberrina . In order to clear this matter up, I am sending you my only speeimen. 
I only found two in flower (many others were eaten up by cattle) and from these 
I only took one speeimen. By the way, you may keep this speeimen for yourself 
since you probably can make more use of it than we can. — With regard to the 
fruit speeimens, Eugen found two, each with *f-5 fruit s, so that there will be 
only two speeimens. But inspite of all that has been said on this smbject, I 
still have to ask whether the fruit s should be colleceed ripe or near their 
ripening time when the plants still have leaves? 

We inteded to collect floday Chenopodium anthelminticum . But in your letter 
you say:"A flower speeimen and a brauch with flowersj" Now we don't know whether 
the flower speeimens should be ^ntire plants or only branches? The pieces are 
usually 1 1/2 to 2* high. There also are some smaller ones in bad shape, nibbled 
on. These pieces are almost as wide as they are Mgh, so that we would not know 
how bring them into a forraat of 10 x 16 1/2 without having them lose their shape. 
In other respects I shall do what youw sih. Please send an answer through father. 

I.) Recently I found a plant which I thought to be a Sarracenia. It is 
approximately 6" high, entirely white , stem, leaves, flower, anther filaments, 

fruit short, just as made from the sarae material as the flower leaves of the 

white lily. The leaves are closily attached, there are more on the top and almost 
envelop the flower. Flower petals 5» calix leaves sometimes non-existant , sometimes 1, 
sometimes 3» but they are not as stiff as the flower leaves. I am not quite sure 
whether real calyx leaves are existing. Anther filaments 10, capsule 5~2&b&j3 r stigma 
smooth, 5- cornere d» Small seeds... 

II. Recently 5 1 found a Bidens with leaves growing together with parsley. 

III. I don f t know yet any Folygonatum species, never even heard of ifcftKoa 'the 
name; two of them I sent you with Siegmann, but did not distinguish as many 
species as I do now so that I cannot teil what they were from my incomplete list. 
a) Leaves heart-shaped, three of the flower leaves very large ... 

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IV. A week arro I found a Liatris , differenty from L. pycnostachya an d L. scariosa. 

V. When Eugen brought branches of Vitis indivisa from the bottom, he also 
had a branch (wathout fruit) of which he Said it grew on the same plant. The leaves 
had about this shape y *v 

were sometahat wooly on the undersifte (but the leaves on Vfie fruit branche s were not ; 
on the contrary, they were sraooth on both sides) and looked so much like grape leaves 
that I thought that that was what they were, but since they differ from the other 
leaves, I thought Eugen raade a raistake. I took the branches with fruit for Cornus. 

I found Gentiana ochroleuca . At what tirae does G. rubricaulis flower? 

Th. C. Hilgard 

Postcriptum. The Ghenop. plants are only flowering at the top, but I believe we should 
still collect them. 

When TyndaleS 1 / are passing through St. Louis on their way here, please be so 
kind and give them my insects. I don't know whßre to obtain such kind of good 

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^yl ^ ^^^^ Jf^ 

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Hilgard, Theodor Charles 
l8*f6, Oc tober 2nd 
Belleville, Illinois. 

r IiA - oLATIQN 

Belleville, 2nd Ü c tober l&f6. 

Dea_r läbctor, 

Father told me just now that you mentioned to hira that I would do well to 
collect seeds of American plant s in orddr to take them to Germany. I had already 
planned to collect seeds of plants which are not mentioned in Beck and have 
already collected a great deal. Now, I believe it is probable that seeds of 
plants already known would also be welcome, but I cannot judge of which plants? 

I should, therefore, appreciate it very much if you would make a list of such 
plants of which you think xkxk there are not many in Europe and especially of 
newly discovered ones; You would do me a great favor, since it is impossible for 
me to take along seeds of all plants growing here and many of them might be as 
common in Europe as they are here. 

Some time ago Eugen visited the swamp near the meeting house in the Settlement 
and reported that everything was eaten up by cattle. Any way, this year wasnot very 
good for bofany since on one hand, the cattle ate everything that was green because 
of the bad pastures caused by the drought and also tlixanarag plants which are 
young in the summer. For instance,fcixis Lobelia inflata used to grow in great numbers 
in our area, but this late summer we found hardly a dozen of them and had to get them 
from Scott f s pasture in the Settlement. Now, after the rain and the warm weather, 
one can see here again many young plants of L. inflata . 

Recently I found a Gentiana, which was similar to G. Saponaria , except that 
all parts were more slender. The flowers are longer, thinner, the /\ shaped Segments 
bent together, but did not meet at the top as in G. sap. The sigraata seemed to be 
broader and spiral. The free ends of the calyx leaves are elongated and lanceolate 

, there are also some lanceolate bracts at the bottom of the flowers. The 
leaves are more narrow as in the others. In growth tjiey are very similar. 

I intend to take my collected plants to you shor - tly for inspection, but shall 
let you know in tinfto find out whether it will be convenient for you. 

Sincerely yours, 
Th. C. Hilgard 


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botan ical 

Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
I8*f6 f October 28th 
Belleville, III. 


Belleville, 28th October. 

Dear Doctor« 

I am sending you today with Siegmann's transport the plants I have 

collected up to now. I hope you won't have any complaints about the Lobelia 

inflata and the root specimens of Frasera , but I still have not got the 

bark specimens of Quere us tinetoria . Of Ghenopodium anth .only a few specimens 

are complete with flowers and fruits and leaves. The larger part has only 

either leaves, flowers or fruits. To be added to the latter, I still collected 

some fruit specimens and intend to add them to the other« young leaves, but 
the frost killed everything before I had the time. 

I believe, Eugen will get the bark specimens ready. I can't do it anymore 
since I have to laave for Washington in about 1^- days to visit Julius and next 
year to go to Gerrnany. I hope to come over myself end of this week with some 
of my own plants and I shall also bring you the seeds and fruits of Asel , glaberrina 
which we collected. We have planted 23 or 2k roots of this plant in a good 
place in our field. The root is about 2" deep under the surface, it is about a 
finger thick and is slanting downwards at an angle of 10-20°. 7 

In all specimens which still had leaves, I found that a*i 
correspond**g with your description. Especially in my 
former flower specimens fig.2 ^ They usually were shaped as in fig.2. 

I also gave Siegmann, the rW^£^5usent ne for drying plants as well as 
the wires. I counted everything I reeeived two days after flie receipt and found 
only 6 wires instead of 8. For the two missing ones I sent one of my neddles. 
I myself always used such thick wires which were more easy to handle taan the 
others,espially since I had to carry the paper such long distances, namely from 
the second floor or the barn in the y^ard, where I hung up the paper for drying 
for which purpose I put in some nails in the wooden fence. 

When I come over, I shall bring along the bills for my expenses since I 
want to have all my financial matters in order before I go east. 

Day before yesterday, Wilhelm plowed up two mushrooms growing under the 
soil. They were 2" long, approximately 1 1/2" wide, very irregulär white pustules 
mostly filled with some kind of gelatinous matter. In the middle, a shortened 

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mushroom trunk was sitting which instead of being covered by a cap was 
covered by a thick layer of brown spores, just like a phallus. From the lower 
end of the axil a strong root extended which, like eoutside, had a white skin, 
rather rough. Tttey reminded me very much of the bad smelling phallus with the 
stem füll of holes. ^jreJJjaw^ — ^ rn he S p 0res an d the stem were also 

:overed with a thin \ fl|?*f§| \ ^ eT of whlte cel1 tissue which in turn 
was covered with a strongeVvi / gelatinous lsiyer. Is it perhaps really a 

tru phallus? 

3incerely yours, 
Th. C. Hil^ard 

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botan ical 

Hilgard, T. C. 
l8*f9, April 5th 
Heidelberg, Germany 


Heidelberg, 5th April ^9. 

Dear Doctor, 

Please accept my apoligies for asking you to forward the enclosed 
package to Tittmanns in Belleville. I thought for a long tirae whether I 
could be of Service to you too, but did not find anything. Should you 
wish me to do anything for you here, I shall be very happy to help you. 
Here are more opportunities and certainly more book dealers. If I were not 
in such a hurry — it is now midnight and I hav^get up at 6 o'clock to cathh 
fehe first train to Frankfurt, I should write more. — 

Last winter, I took general pathology (Henle), study of medicinal plants 
(Pfeufer), obstetetrics (Nägele) and apart from H f s anthropology, also 
cryptogamy under Prof. Bischoff, a study which, I believe, has many interesting 
facets for me because of the simplicity of the life process (the cell life and 
because of the parasites as a pathological phenomena). In the summer, I intend 
to take special pathology and clinical study under Pfeufer, surgery under 
Chelius, comparative anatomy under Moleschat t to whom Henle had it turned over 
and everything eise I like. — It is a long time since I have seen your family, 
but shall probable meet Julius in Frankfurt. — Fare well, and give my best 
greetings to Dora. 

Your faithful cousin 
Th. C. Hilgard. 

Hilgard, Theodore Charles 
185^ f August l6%h 
Philadelphia Pa. 


Philadelphia, August l6th, 5*f 

Dear Doctor, 

After receipt of your letter, I imrnediately started to find something 
for Fendler to seil here and recently also Mr. Benitz appeared here with whom 
I had a long talk. It seems to me a mistake that Fendler did not send any 
catalogues, so nobody knov/s how high or how low the prices are. I learned from 
Durand that in similar circumstances, formerly a piece (species, I believe) came 
to ten cents. There are very few botanists or any other collectors here and 
Fendler should have found out about these previously and also sent sample s. A 
Iriend of Leconte's, Dr. Hanson, suggested Fendler should send cacti and orchids 
to the United States, especially to Philadelphia, since last year, a shipment 
of orchids, some 60 pieces of only a very few species were sold for 4 2 to $ 3 each. 
Drs. Leconte and Hanson happened to be at my place when Mr. Benitz came. He already 
had "distributed" his insects on the way and had I had some here, I might have 
had a buyer instead of just a vague ,T idea n .In order to get a railroad built from 
Vienna to Trieste, a shipment of r fruit was sent to certain influential "tables" and 
thus the argument was won. Since Mr. Benitz is still here, it might be possible 
that I could get some order from him. 

Mr. H. C. Hanson asked me whether I had an extra! copy of your "Notes on 
Cereus giganteus " Thurberi which he would like to have. Without knowing you, he 
asked me to ask you where he could find a copy of this. If you should still have 
some copies you would do us both a favor if you could send him or both of us a 
copy of your Notes. His address: No. 6 Merchants Exchange at the r/estern Insurance 

In New York is a nursery Thomas Hogg & Sons, 73rd Street (Yorkville), New York, 
who are importing plants. Perhaps Fendler could write them making specific offers. 

My practice is progressing slowly, which is natural, but it is growing. My 
residence is <tn the northen part of the city near the eold core where no room was 
left for "newcomers". If I can last two years and keep horse and buggy I shall soon 
myx get my practice going. However, I am not a good speculator and should prefer to 
builä my house on a solid basis and not some framed humbug "mostly because I have to ,f # 
At the beginning,my patients used to be poor people, but now I also have some 
wealthy ones and I am gaining some confidence. In my leisure time I have so much 
to study, many new things and am also involved in our Medical Reading Circle, studying 

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Missouri 
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cm Copyright reserved Garden 


German Journals and circulate them. I msrfe translat:L**3 some articles into 
English and have the possibility of selling advantageously my English translation 
of Graefe's (Berlin) reraarkable articles on eye complaints to the Medical 
Examiner for which I am indirectly obliged to Dr. Durand since we have a common 
interest in our botanical work— determination and description of Californian 
plants. D. 's eyesight is too bad to observe the minute things. However, we live 
too far apart to work much together and when I take specimens home I don't have 
the library and cannot compare the collection. Should my practice improve a 
little bit in the meantime, I am *e not adverse to give a lecture ihn the winter 
on eye diseases and I also was promised help from a different source which 
received a Charta from the legislature to found an "Independent med. College" t 
where everybody can lecture or listen to everything he wants, the Student s pay 
and they learn the basics from their teachers and can make experiments and can 
receive a diploma. The old plan and other experiments are very bad and nothing 
but nonsense 4 Coming out of it. I consider this system very promising for a free 
decision of what to learn and from which professor who is an authority, however, 
independent without connections with any other Institution . However, he has to 
have the enrollment of his students .. 

With best greetings to you and yours, Mrs. Dora and Georgie especially 
(i.e. all and everybody), 

Theo. C. Hilgard, M.D. 

Please give my greetings to Dr. Wislic, 


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H ilgard, Theodore, Charles 
1855, May 17th 
Philadelphia, Pa. 


Philadelphia, May 17th I855. 

Dear Doctor, 

I received your letters and read them with pleasure. I sent one to Fexöler 
through Vallet brothers and Mr. Durand will take care of the payment by the 
Academy. I had hoped 1/k (half) would have been to much to see you here at 
the raeeting of the Am. Ass. Physicians. Of course, you did not come. I should 
appreciate it if you, as an expert on cuscuta, would give rae a precise, latin 
diagnosis and the right name for our C. subinclusa . There will be still much 
time before the whole story is printed. Perhaps, I may have an opportunity to 
change thä whole mess. 

With regard to Sir William Hooker I have nothing to add except that he 
seems to think "outposts" are relatively stupid and seems to think your smartness 
is almost a miracle j In my curriculum vita in Würzburg I also called you as 
flouring on an"outpost"~for my and your fame. I did not only call you an outpost, 
but the center i namely of the natural sciences in the West* ... 

Your remark, i. e. ciiticism concerning the writing of our plant description 
is right; it was a mistake that the text was written giving the individual, very 
complete description of the specimens sent while Mr. Durand had the manuals ... 
It was piece-work. What kind of rules did Linne give and where can one read them? 
I still have rarely used a book after Linne, practically no library. The latter 
probably my own fault.— 

My health is very good, since with fehe beginning of the warmer weather 
I have a better appetite and can now do more to make up. For a long time I was 
in the same condition as after my Mississippi venture, also later on on the farm. 
A feeling of cold in the back, shaky while Walking and for days $kxk2 
spiring slightly, for weeks a thick tongue without any appetite ... F or a(Long 
time I had a fever and a cough*, but both are gone now. 
Fare well with wife and chil*(, with best greetings, 
Th.C. Hilgard 

I am now ordering my Spanich plants, determined by Bischoff. 


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Hil gard f T. C. ; 
1855, Oc tober jl 
Belleville, III. 


Belleville, Oct. 31st, 1855. 

Dear Doctor, 

If I were at least able to walk for more than just a few "Squares 11 , 
I should certainly go to Illinoistown to seek your personal advice. 
However, since our little railroad ±xik$xB&iqpdLxxx&±fx does not go there 
directly, I cannot take it. My last rather hurried walk across the dam 
since the bus seemed to have to wait for the next ferry, imprisoned me 
again for three weeks. That is fcoCTiricäxHHtxiackÄxaife for all 

all that time I could not walk to Belleville — since neither horse nor 
buggy still exist — and I had to stay at the farm and could ohüy collect 
in the vicinity some lichens and other cryptogams, since I don*t ha#e 
hardly anything with me to help in my studies. At the present, I am in 
Belleville and don't intend to return to my exi&e too soon. The last time 
I went to St. Louis I had xxfca some teeth filled, with codein amalgam 
which caused a very bad nervous pain in my cheeks which affected me very 
badly because of my bad back. After continous use of quinine and morphine 
the pain stopped. I have now used 1/2 Drachme of quinine and feel well, 
can chew, can eat meat which I have not been able to do for a long time 
without hurting my digestion and without having a toothache, in short 
I can chew and digest and have all reasons to expect to regain my 
strength . I also drink some red wine. Since it has become warmer now, 
the local pains, as usual, ceased, but it is still hard for me to walk 
around. If I walk uphill, I practically have to drag my legs along.... 

Now I should like to know more: First, what do you think can still 
be done for my sprain and my health in general, and secondly, what shall 
I do as far as business is concerned. With regard to the first, I believe that 
just to live well is one of the best eures. I haexs still have acough in 
the morning and at night... I believe I have enlarged bronchia resulting 
from a long lasting whooping cough. . . 

In such a risky State of health it seems impossible to me to start 
a medical practice, having to undertake long walks, even though the i^dea 
is tempting, and for financial röasons I cannot think of bjiying a horse 
and buggy. Also, I don't know how I would be able to stand the cold, 
especially in my feet, since this affects my back too. There fore, painful 

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as it was, I gave notice that I could not kepp my Office, since such a lame 
practice as myne would be, I don't intend to start. Now, I have the choice 
to stay in Belleville and receive the best of care or to move to St. Louis 
and retire in some private boarding house until next spring. If I could be 
in St. Louis I would have the advantage of being close to you and also to be 
able to make raore contacts. But my irapatience would only grow stronger and 
would put me a great State of excitement. But on the other hand, the assistance 
and Cooperation on which I could count would be greatly needed during this 
time of mrre preparation . m # Iabelieve it advisable not to undertake a course 
this winter, and if the other peor)le involved had expected more, I can't 
change that. I was told that Dr. Cooper, who seemed to nie to be a nice 
man and gentleman, intended to publish my appointment in the Sunday Rep. 
on the 21wt, how&ver, even after repeated reading I could niht find it. 
I wanted to see what is actually expected from rae. If you know where this 
is printed, please be so kind and send rae a copy to my address in Belleville. 

As long as I an not yet in St. Louis I should appreciate to receive 
some news from time to time, in the scientific line generally and in the 
various branches, even only to know «hat is new and on what one should 
place one's attention. It is not easy to put that ina letter and these 
things are actually usally Coming up during a conversation, however, 
since you receive regularly many journals and see the medical news, something 
really worth knowing would oocur to you. 

With best greetings, 

T. C. Hilgard t M.D. 

Dr. G. Engelmann. 

7 8 9 10 Missouri 
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