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NASA TECHNICAL 

TRxA.NSLATION 



NASA TT F-11,531 



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SPACE DEVELOPMENT IN JAPAN 



Kankurp Kaneshiee 



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ff 653 July 65 

Translation of a paper presented at the Japan 
Productivity Club, September, 1967, Tokyo 




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TEGORyf 



NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 
WASHINGTON, D. C. ^0546 JANUARY 1968 



SPACE DEvliLO.:.L;;T IK oJixM 
Kanicuro Kaiiesuige 



STaJOffllAPHIC RECORDS OF THE ONE HUNDREDTH LUNCHEON MEETING 

Tiiae: 19 September 196? (faU) 

Place: Japan Prod\ictivity Headquarters 

Guest Weaker: Kankuro Kaneshige, Emeritus Professor, 
Tokyo University 

Topics ^ace Developments in Japan 



The Productivity Club 



Introduction by the Master of Ceremonies 

Productivity Club 

Masanoske Tsuxaki, Vice President 

As indicated in your programs. Prof • Kaneshige was going to speak 
today on the theme "The influence of American space development on the 
industrial world," but instead of this he will address us on "Space develop- 
ments in Japan." You will therefore forgive him if references to America 
slip into his talk at appropriate places ♦ 

I do not intend to subject Prof. Kaneshige to a long introduction, 
but he is the one who founded the National Space Activities Council and 
served as its chairman. He has a broad background in science and technology 
and served three terms as chairman of the Council, From this experience he 
would like to discuss the futtxre of space development in Japan. I myself am 
completely lost in this field, but looking on as an individual citizen I can 
see that great sums of money are needed in space development. For this reason 
a single group or enterprise cannot do it alone. You see articles in the 
newspapers discussing whether the Japanese economy can assume these great 
burdens in the future and how it shoiild be done. There is a controversy on 
splitting the budget into two parts. Laymen are considering what things 
should be taken as essential, but today we hope to hear from an expert in a 
simplified form what stage Japanese space development is in, where it is 
likely to go, and how it relates to that of other countries. Prof. Kaneshige, 
pleas e . (Applause ) • 

Sjpace Development in Japan 

Kankuro Kaneshige, 

Emeritus Professor, Tokyo University 

As you have just been told, I am Kankuro Kaneshige. I understand that 
this is the 100th meeting of your society and I am very much honored to speak 
to you on this occasion. I hope that what I have to say will be appropriate. 
If you are disappointed at what I say, let me beg your indulgence now. 

Space Development 

I don't know when we began to use the expression space development in 
Japan, but it was 16 May I960 that an advisory body called the ^ace Activi- 
ties Council was created by the Prime Minister. There was nothing comparable 
to this previously as far as I am aware. Mr. Tsuruoka, who recently was 
appointed our delegate to the UN, was asked, since he was one of the commit- 
teemen involved who was then with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Even that 
brief time ago there was hardly any technical vocabulary to describe space 
development in foreign languages, not even in English. 



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What is Sjpace? 

Space has two meanings in Japanese. One is the traditional space, 
referred to as universe in English. The other is of more recent origin, 
the region bounding the earth. This is called space in English. There are 
words corresponding to this in both French and German, but in Japanese we 
have decided on the expression universe-space. Therefore space research in 
English becomes universe-space research in Japanese. Unfortunately I am no 
authority on the semantics of space terminology in Japanese so let me go on 
with things I am more familiar with. I do not profess to know the dimensions 
of space or what its limits are. However, the most distant galaxy that can 
be detected with present day telescopes is 10 billion light years away. The 
galaxy of which our sun is a part, the Milky Way, coiild be traversed in about 
100,000 years at the speed of light. Within the Milky Way there are many 
stars just like the sun, some bigger and some smaller. Vie estimate that there 
may be 200 billion. The Milky Way itself is but one of several billion 
galaxies that fall within the range of the largest telescopes. Even the star 
closest to our sun is more than k light years distant, and if we could travel 
in a space ship at a speed of 36,000 km/hr (10 km/sec), it would still take us 
more than 100,000 years to reach it. Astronomical numbers dwarf those that we 
use in everyday living. 

Man of the 20th century has made very great technological strides. Ke 
can circle the globe in an ho\ir and a half and even leave the earth's gravi- 
tational field. Feats that used to be impossible are now becoming simply 
difficult. However, if we speak in terms of time and space that we can com- 
prehend, space exploration is still a very difficult goal. For practical 
purposes it is in the realm of the impossible or only something that we can 
dream about. Still do any of us feel that these dreams will not someday be 
fulfilled? 

The Definition of Space Research 

The planet on which we live has an atmosphere. The atjnospheric 
pressure at sea level is about 1 kg/cm^ and in an area of 1 m^ the weight is 
about 10 tons. Ninety- nine percent of the atanosphere is within 30 km of the 
earth's surface, and the proportion of the earth »s atmosphere above 100 km 
is less than 1 part per million of the whole. The bo\indary between the atmo- 
sphere and space has not been precisely defined but broadly speaking it is 
that region beyond 100 km. Since the diameter of the earth is 12,800 km, 
100 km is less than 1% of this distance, and if 99% of the atjnosphere lies 
below 30 km, then it is attenuated to 0,5^. Perhaps this is exaggerated but 
let's take a soccer ball as an analogy. If the ball is UO cm in diameter 
and 0.<% of this is 1 mm, then this is barely the thickness of the hide 
covering it. Today's jets fly at an altitude of 10,000 m (10 km). The SST 
now under construction will fly at an altitude of 20 km, in other words not 
more than 0»5 mm from the surface of our kO cm soccer ball. Although manned 
spacecraft have orbited at an altitude of 200 km, this is still equivalent to 
no more than 6 mm from the ball's surface. When Soviet cosmonaut Gagarin 
flew in the world's first manned spacecraft, newspapers reported that he said 

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the earth was round. At that time my family imagined that the earth must 
have looked like the moon, but simple calcxilations will show that the space- 
craft was much too close to earth to give this illusion. 

Let me emphasize the importance of this thin layer of atmosphere, 
however. We must be thankful for it since life as we know it never could have 
originated on earth. I don't know what space conditions are like, but you 
know how painfully one can get sunburned at the beach when we stay in the sun 
too long. It would be very serious if there were no preventative for this. 
Thus certain kinds of radiation are intercepted and absorbed by the atmosphere. 
From another viewpoint, however, the atmosphere is a hindrance. Earth-based 
telescopes and other instruments have limitations because no matter how big 
we make them or how sensitive they are we must still make observations from 
beneath a layer of atmosphere. We can compare ourselves with organisms 
living in the ocean depths where light does not penetrate; their world is a 
very dark place. 

I would like to explain in simple terms the significance of observations 
made outside the earth's atmosphere. In 19U7 the small sounding rocket 
Aerobee was launched in the United States and measured radiation from the sun 
and UV from stars and nebulae. On 2$ Feb. 19li9 a two stage rocket consisting 
of the German V-2 and the Corporal, developed in the USA, was launched at 
White Sands, N.M., and reached an altitude of 390 km. In Japan, between 19$h 
and 195$> Prof. Itckawa, then at Tokyo University, began to develop small 
rockets, such as the Pencil and the Baby. 

^ace 

On k Oct. 1957, 10 years ago, the Soviet Union succeeded in placing 
into earth orbit i^utnik-? and in doing this astounded and shocked the world. 
On 31 Jan. 1958, the United States laionched Explorer-1. These shots marked 
the beginning of the space age. Since Gagarin's space flight on 12 j^ril 
1961 the US and Russia have sent up so many manned spacecraft that we can 
hardly keep track of them. It is no exaggeration to say that coxmtless 
tinmanned spacecraft and probes have been launched, the number being between 
1000 and 2000 that have orbited the earth. It wovild be difficult to present 
to you now the new knowledge that we have learned from space research; I am 
not competent to do this nor is this an appropriate occasion. 

I do not know of any precise records of how far an unmanned space 
probe has gone from the earth. I can give you several examples. The Russian 
Lunik-1, launched toward the moon, missed by a wide margin and went into orbit 
around the sun as an artificial planet. America's Pioneer-5 set a record by 
sending back signals from a distance of 37,000,000 km in I96O and went into 
an orbit between the sun and Venus with a period of about 311 days. It has 
been calculated that it attained a maximum distance of 290,000,000 km from 
the earth in September 1962. It was 26,000,000 km distant in November 1965 
and in I989 it is expected to approach to within 3,000,000 km. American 
space scientists may have reported on whether radio contact was made in 1965 
and 1966 to confirm the actual distances. I have not personally checked on 
this. Mariner-2, which radioed back valuable infoiiriation while passing 
by Venus at a distance of 35,000 km on lU Dec. 1962, also went into orbit 



as an artificial planet. I believe that radio contact was made on 3 Jan, 
1963 when it was about 87,000,000 km from earth. All of you will probably 
recall when Mariner-li came within 32,000 to 37,000 km of Mars, took photo- 
graphs, and relayed signals back to earth. This probe also became an arti- 
ficial planet that orbits the sun. Its signals were tracked until they were 
lost on 1 Oct. 1965 at a distance of about 300,000,000 km. Even after passing 
by Mars it continued to send back useful data. The present record for dis- 
tance is that set by Mariner-U> a distance twice that between the sun and 
earth. Electric signals, traveling at the speed of light, take about 17 min 
to span this distance. 

The average distance from the earth to the moon is 385,000 km and the 
region beyond this is commonly referred to as deep space. Of our neighboring 
planets only Venus and Mars have been targets for space probes. The next 
most distant planet after Mars is Jupiter. If the solar unit of distance 
between the sun and the earth is expressed as 1«0, then Venus is 0»72 and 
Mars 1.52, but Jupiter is a much greater 5.20. After the US fulfills its 
mission to send a man to the moon, I suspect that the Saturn vehicle could 
be used to send a space probe to Jupiter, as I saw in a newspaper article 
apparently reported in Germany. Nevertheless, even at the relatively short 
distance to Mars radio contact was a serious problem. The most distant planet 
in the solar system is Pluto, some 6 billion km away. It takes 5 1/2 hr for 
light and radio waves to reach it. Let's imagine that we are sending a space 
probe to Pluto. Even traveling at a speed of 10 ki^/sec it would take 20 years 
to reach the planet. Actually, then, if we are to define space as the region 
from which we can receive information transmitted by space probes, it is still 
premature to refer to the whole of the solar system as space. However, we do 
have hopes of investigating all of the solar system and should therefore con- 
sider it as space. Semantic confusion arises in the Japanese mind since our 
word space includes this meaning as well as that of the universe. 

In this respect there is also some confusion on terms for rockets. 
You often read in the newspapers about a moon rocket or a Mars rocket, but 
in reality it is a satellite or other instrumented craft that is launched by 
a rocket vehicle and in the past few years given names like Ranger, Mariner, 
or Surveyor. I am no rocket authority but all rockets work on the principle 
of expelled gases. Although oxygen is essential for jet engines, a rocket 
engine carries its own oxidizers along and is not dependent on an oxygen- 
containing atmosphere. In English it is the launch vehicle which has attitude 
controls and receives signals and puts a space probe or spacecraft into orbit. 
Mr. Kogawa has often criticized his fellow Japanese for using so many foreign 
words. Our language, however, has few appropriate terms and it is cumbersome 
for us to invent our own vocabulary. 

Space Development in Japan 

As I earlier mentioned, our space rocket development program began 
at Prof. Itokawa's technological laboratory at Tokyo University in 195ii^ where 
I was working at the time. Although doing research on aerodynamics, I reman- 
ber being told to get data on rocket flight at high speeds rather than con- 
struct wind tunnels. 

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The International Geophysical Year (IGY) was held from July 1957 to 
Decanber 19$8* One part of the program was observation of the upper atmos- 
phere using sounding rockets. In addition, the US and Rtussia were not only 
going to use sounding rockets but intended to send up orbiting satellites. 
The European countries also participated in the rocket program, and the 
earth was divided into two main regions with three parts of 120*" each. Japan 
assumed responsibility for some of the observations in region 3 since it 
would have been unfortunate to miss out on these. When Japan formally re- 
sponded in the IGT program, it came as a surprise to most that we were already 
experimenting with rockets. Most people thought that the rockets would come 
from the United States. It was S. Okano who brought in the rocket that was 
being developed at the Institute of Industrial Sceinces at Tokyo University 
and ^o until very recently was the university technology advisor to the 
Ministry of Education. 

Development of a sounding rocket for IGY was speeded up but the work 
was done under severe budgetary limitations and with considerable difficulty. 
There was no problem in getting cooperation between thoe who wanted to use 
it for purely scientific purposes and those who were in charge of rocket 
development. A special committee for rocket observation was established; 
this was the former space research committee, now included within the Science 
Council of J^an. A chaiXTnan was sought and that is hew I became involved in 
the project of 1956. 

Many observations were made during IGY at Michikawa, Akita-ken, but it 
was not till the end of 1958 that an altitude of 6o km was reached. After 
this our efforts paid of gradually, and in 19^, five years after we started 
on rocket devdojxnent, we reached 200 km, penetrating the &-layer of the 
ionosphere and reaching the F-layer, much to the delight of the scientists. 

On l8 June 1959 Mr. Nakazone was appointed director of the Science 
and Technology Agency. In order to study plans for promoting space technology 
he set up a committee with 16 members and on 10 July they held their first 
meeting. These sixteen included of course Prof. Itokawa, then director of the 
Tokyo Astronomical Observatory, the head of the Meteorological Agency, director 
of the Nishizaki Electronics Laboratory, as well as Y. Okano, Council for 
Aircraft Industries, and Horikoshi, head of the Federation of Economic Organ- 
izations. Nakazone himself was included as director of the Science and 
Technology Agency and I as chairman of the Science Council. 

I had recently been invited to go to West Germany and after returning 
to Japan at the end of the month first heard of these plans. When asked, I 
first told them to hold off because I was unprepared. Most of you will not 
remember whether both Nakazone and Prof. Itokawa made the Asahi newspaper but 
some of you may recall an article about launching an artificial satellite by 
Japan. I did not intend to cross swords with Nakazone yet I had to express 
my own opinions. Mr. Nakazone had just been made a Minister and was the 
yoimgest cabinet member. I knew he was turning his attention to new fields and 
had his feet solidly on the ground. We did have a difference of opinion but 
we have been able to cooperate willingly. Later I learned that I was to 
be chainnan of the National Sjpace Activities Council at the suggestion of 
Nakazone 's agency. The preliminary committee which had advised the director 
of the Science and Technology Agency was dissolved when the %)ace Activities 
Council came into being on 16 May I96O. Before that it had deliberated and 

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reached some conclusions on plans for developing research urgently needed in 
space technology. These plans were first communicated to the US and Russia, 
then to England, France, Canada, Australia, etc., actually this being the 
first time that they were revealed. Briefly we felt that in the present 
world situation we would fall seriously behind other countries if we did not 
establish and organize a program for space development. It would enhance 
our status and give us the right to speak in the world's councils* The 
pressing need now in Japan is to establish a national policy for space devel- 
opment and research, inform the people on the basic principles of space re- 
search, assure efficient use and cooperation of facilities for research 
development now being supported, and move toward more progress in research 
development as has been done with atomic energy. Thus we subscribed to the 
basic principles of peaceful use and independent public development. 

International cooperation through the activities of the scientific 
organization COSPAR is to be strengthened and accelerated. Our urgent needs 
are meteorological and sounding rockets that can attain 300-UOO km, with a 
capability of 500-1000 km within several years. The first objective would be 
to conduct research on critical space phenomena and later develop scientific 
satellites and a communications satellite. This is still a sound program. 

A program for research development would have these goals: 1) to 
establish as soon as possible a committee on space science and technology 
(a tentative name) in the Prime Minister's office and a council to take up 
matters of importance to space science and technology; 2) to promote research 
development and expand and strengthen training facilities at universities and 
related national facilities; and 3) to establish appropriate research facili- 
ties basic to the development of these plans in the future. Of these first 
goals a committee on space science was formed immediately and later became 
the nucleus of the National Space Activities Council. The activities of the 
first few years, however, were quite different from \&ia,t had been first 
envisioned. At the request of the Council, a rocket section was created at 
the Tokyo University aeronautics laboratory and its name changed to the 
Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science. It seems to be following along 
lines as originally conceived, but in fact I don't think that this is the 
case. 

The Space Science and Technology Advisory Committee 

Shortly after the National l^ace Activities Council was foiTned, the 
advisory committee visited the United States, Canada, and various European 
countries for a period of six weeks, in February and March of I96I. I was 
leader of the group. The first place visited was the JPL laboratory at 
California Institute of Technology, which was just embaricing on a program 
of deep space studies under contract with NASA. At that time the Ranger 
program, which is now well known through a series of successes, was just 
beginning, the Surveyor program was beginning to harden, and we had a brief- 
ing on the Mariner. We also heard about the Voyager which is planned for 
laimching in 1971 and will be modified after 1973. It is now the instrument 
for a Mars shot which has apparently been delayed. Another interplanetary 
probe, as yet unnamed as far as I know, is being developed with the capability 
of orbiting Mars and soft landing an instrumented package on the surface of 

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the planet. It will take more than 10 years to develop the Voyager space- 
craft and actually send it on this mission. At NASA headquarters in Washing" 
ton I got firsthand briefings on Tiros and Nimbus, both weather satellites, 
and Echo and Relay, communications satellites. Private industry is moving 
ahead with the development of a communications satellite which has aroused 
considerable interest. For example, there is Telstar, proposed by AT&T, 
a Comsat in polar orbit at mid-altitude with capability of 2k hr relay thro\igh- 
out the world. In addition General Electric proposes a system of 10 satellites 
in equatorial orbit at mid-altitude to relay signals to the main countries of 
the world. There are also stationary satellites like NASA's Syncom and Com- 
sat's Earlybird. At the present time communications satellites pose few 
problems, but at that time it was not known just when a satellite would be 
launched into synchronous orbit. There were questions of reliability and 
endurance. A stationary satellite must be placed in an orbit 36,000 km hi^ 
and it takes more than 0»2 sec to transmit signals. I remember that some were 
afraid that such a signal delay would be an obstacle to telephone communica- 
tion. 

During my visit I was asked the same question by everybody: Why was 
Japan embarking on an expensive space pix)gram? My answer was the same each 
time; namely, we are not doing it on the scale of the US and Russia and space 
development must be pursued by any and all countries in the world. It's the 
same as an orchestra. It doesn't matter what kind of instruments you have, 
it matters more how well you play them and how much of a contribution you can 
make. Once when I said that we were not considering the launching of any 
artificial satellites ourselves, one scientist said that I must really mean 
that we wouldn't try it at this timel 

Report of the National S^ace Activities Council 

A report on basic plans for promoting space development incorporated 
the results of the observations and study I have just mentioned and was pre- 
sented to the Prime Minister on 11 May 1962. Two years had passed since the 
first advisory committee had presented its conclusions and developments made 
in the interim were included. Although ihe plans were extremely detailed, 
things had not really changed that much. However, a report on important 
objectives in space development and plans for achieving these was issued, 
to be put into effect 30 Jan. 1963. The Council reported on these 3 Feb. 
19^, stating that a satellite should be launched in the near future using 
our own resources and that a centralized agency should be set up in order 
to make maximum utilization of technological, financial, and other resources. 
The advisory committee was to be continued and reports made on the items 
previously mentioned in this talk. Of these, three were raised: l) the 
construction of a satellite in Japan but launching to be accomplished with 
a booster rocket from a foreign nation so as to speed up the work; 3) 
fostering rocket capability and development of long range plans for these; 
5) development of research with sounding rockets. 

An Agency for Effecting the Plans 
For quite a long time I felt a concern for this kind of advisory 

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committee, but the Prime Minister, who receives this kind of report, passed 
it along as was without any special suggestions to the administrative agencies 
concerned. The matters taken up by the National Space Activities Council lie 
not only within the province of the Science and Technology Agency, they also 
involve national universities • The committee came under the jurisdiction of 
the Prime Minister's office and the report was made out for the cabinet and 
the Prime Minister. Since the Prime Mnister can't be expected to make deci- 
sions on every minor item, I think we need some means of taking action within 
the administration, but I haven't heard that this was actually being considered. 
Therefore, after the report is passed along by the Prime Minister and reviewed, 
we can start implementing anything in the report that we want to. Certainly 
it is held in high regard, but if there is something there that we don't waint 
to try to do, there is nothing to make us do it. For example, the first item, 
satellite development, while surely very important, does not really have sudi 
urgency. We are expected to develop and produce satellites, although we 
have not come very close to this. By contrast, we have been encouraged by our 
program to foster rocket capability. This program has attracted considerable 
attention and I get the impression that we are making real progress. 

After I returned from abroad in 1961, I was faced with the question of 
whether to enter into a five year program with radio astronomers for developing 
a scientific satellite and make observations in cooperation with NASA* It 
would have cost about $5,500,000 a year or almost $30,000,000 in five years. 
I recently heard that the British and Canadians, although moving ahead with 
the plan and not encountering any great delays, are not now planning to carry 
it through. Some disagreed with our decision at the time, and now that we 
have just about finished our first satellite, it is too late to go and ask 
NASA again. Our only alternative is to achieve a launch with a Jspanese 
rocket as quickly as possible and I fervently hope that this will be done 
soon. Last fall we tried three times to launch the LUS at the Tokyo Uni- 
versity space and aeronautics laboratoiy. We did not succeed and have been 
severely criticized for these failures. However, the Tokyo University group 
did not say that they would launch a satellitej they said there was a possibi- 
lity of doing so. The press reports do not seem to agree on this point, but 
if you believe the newspapers, Tokyo University is not telling the whole truth. 
I am not the judge of who is telling the truth or not. Going back to the 
story told by Tokyo University, they claim that the launch was to be made with 
the simplest attitude control system yet devised. Those who later criticised 
them wondered just how did we ever expect to achieve an orbit with that kind 
of system. If you side with the university, they did not admit to trying to 
develop and launch a satellite, even if only a scientific satellite, at least 
not before the National ^ace Activities Council report was made public. In 
any event they probably would have been accused of developing an ICBM if the 
control system were of a hi^y sophisticated degree of technology. For 
all we know it may have been the simplest attitude control system in the 
world, but actually we cannot claim that it had not previoxisly been devised 
by anyone. A system similar to ours had earlier been developed by a private 
space concern in the United States. The requirements for putting even the 
simplest satellite into orbit pose tremendous difficulties. The Scout 
rocket control mechanism is apparently the simplest successful one. First 

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used about I960, Scout is a i^-stage solid fuel rocket, still in use to launch 
scientific satellites* Either orbicular or elliptical orbits can be achieved 
and the reliability has been very high from the beginning* No matter what 
the orbit, the velocity of a satellite must exceed a certain minimiira value 
and it must be placed close to the proper angle to the horizon. As an example 
let me explain the IBM display at the Seattle World's Fair which opened in 
1962 and which some of you may have visited. IBM had an electronic computer 
to which visitors could address three numbers. The computer calculated at 
once when orbit was reached and your number became a satellite. A print-out 
of the shape of the orbit was handed over to you and the machine said congrat- 
ulations. I had a low elliptical orbit at a velocity of 8 km/sec. Rocket 
fuel was expended at an altitude of 253 nii with a final velocity of 23,000 mph 
and an angle of ♦l.S^*. The final orbit print-out gave an apogee of 33,60U 
mi, perigee 2U8 mi, and a period of 1,022 min. 

A synchronous orbit is attained at an altitude of 35,790 km with a 
perfectly orbicular path. Not only must rocket speed and precise attitude 
control be exact, it is essential to have instruments which receive radioed 
commands to control jets for movement. Whether or not transmitting stations 
will be ready in time in Japan is a question. It is necessary to employ the 
same technology that one would use in sending a scientific satellite to the 
moon. As I mentioned earlier the Russians launched the first satellite ten 
years ago. I really doubt that after this long a time that a launching en- 
hances national pride. Other Japanese obviously feel the same way. Even a 
friend of mine at an American university — a Japanese naturally — said that 
we would of course be delighted to launch a satellite with a Japanese flag 
but having done this we must consider what comes after this. Nevertheless, 
technicians working on the development of a rocket in Japan are enthusiastic, 
those working on satellite applications seem to be more on the defensive from 
what I have seen* I don*t think we have placed enough emphasis on satellite 
development and technology. Perhaps I am mistaken in thinking that the British 
and Canadians are not worried by the delays in developing their own observa- 
tion satellites. 

Improvement of the Level of Technology and ^ace 
Development 

The benefits accruing from expenditures in developing space technology 
are many, especially as they improve the level of industrial technology. For 
example, the Orbiting Solar Observatory -1 was launched 7 Karch 1962 to make 
observations on the sun. After achieving a circular orbit at an altitude of 
580 km, the receivers were turned toward the sun. The degree of accxrracy was 
equivalent to aiming at and hitting a one cent coin at a range of a half mile. 
It is obvious that a number of technological problems had to be solved in 
order to attain this level of accuracy. The same holds true for a comsat. 
The technology for making synchronous satellites is very high, and we can 
expect more progress in the development of communications satellites. It is 
worth trying for us because of Japan's emminent position in electronics. 
Certainly it is one area in space science where Japan can contribute much. 
When I say worth trying, I do not mean that Japan will go it alone in setting 
up a world-wide comsat network. We should remember that space communication 

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is a relatively old concept. While my information may not be perfect, it was 
in 19U6 that a conversation took place between Washington and Hawaii xising 
the moon's surface as a reflector. I know that plans for such a development 
were also being made at NASA when the agency was created in 1958 • In addition 
it is significant that private industry in the United States was conducting 
research quite early. I don't know how actively it was pursued at first or 
whether NASA provided funds* I suspect they did. 

Photographs of Mars taken by Mariner-U, which I mentioned earlier, were 
assembled from individual numerical values radioed to earth. It took more than 
eight hours to transmit one photograph* Now, if you think ahead to future 
interplanetary probes, you can realize how far our technology rmst still go, 
for the eigjat hours needed to transmit a photograph with the Mariner must be 
reduced to a matter of seconds. It is predicted that this goal can be reached 
in five years. Many new kinds of technology result as spinoff from this kind 
of development, and these are not limited to the field of general communica- 
tions. Cumulative circuits so actively discussed of late probably first came 
about through the needs of the military, but they are generally acknowledged 
as a real contribution to the progress of the American space program. We are 
lucky of course not to have to support a large military establishment, but we 
must take up problaEns which are in great need of investigation and then move 
into areas where the technological development is incomplete. The Americans 
started ten years ago and were looking ahead five years. We must now start 
with a long range program. 

Finally I would like to digress on the US Apollo program briefly. If 
it succeeds, Astronauts will return with rock samples from the moon's siir- 
face. These will be measured and analysed so as to gain firsthand knowledge 
of the moon. Proposals on how this should be accomplished were sought from 
scientists all over the world. The deadline for these proposals was 1$ June 
last year but I received a cable only on 12 May. NASA also requested pro- 
posals on applications for astronomical observations by satellite, for example 
solar or geophysical observations, but up to now not a single Japanese appli- 
cant was accepted. One exception was a proposal by Prof* Tanaka at Nagoya 
University on cosmic ray electrons, a proposal which also originated with a 
Dutch scientist at Delft Technological University. The satellite, OGO-E, is 
to be launched next year and the NASA people knew about Prof. Tanaka's pro- 
posal yet they officially decided to collaborate with the Dutch scientist at 
Delft. Under these circumstances I have serious doubts that there will be 
many successful applicants from Japan, even if moon sairples are obtained. 
Fortunately there was a proposal from Prof. Hisano at Tokyo University, an 
evaluation of which was published in March of this year. Three items in his 
proposal were adopted. These were summarized rather fully in the Asahi news- 
paper at that time and perhaps some of you remember them. We are not just an 
isolated group conducting space research, we are part of an international 
effort. As you can imagine, the samples brought back from the moon will be 
very small. Obviously NASA will not be able to distribute samples to every 
scientist in the world who would like to analyse them. That Japan should 
get recognition for three items is a real achievement in this field! 

As the astronauts return from the moon they will be quarantined and 
the samples turned over and classified. It will be essential to do this with 

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extreine care so as to avoid contamination with terrestrial organisms ^ gases ^ 
and other substances. NASA is constructing a special facility at Houston, 
the LRL (Lunar Receiving Laboratory) in order to accomplish this. Since this 
is almost completed, we were invited to attend an opening conference there 
18-20 September. Natiirally we were to provide our own travel expenses, but 
none of the governmental agencies were prepared to pay them. Luckily a 
Japanese scientist was on his way to Columbia University in New York and we 
asked him to attend the conference by stopping off at Houston en route. He 
needed about $280 to be able to go there and I was asked to find this sum. 
I finally went to the Toyo Foundation (Society for Promoting Rayon Technology) 
which was able to give us this paltry sum. The conference started yesterday 
in Houston and I hope our man is there. 

In closing I ask your indulgence if I have talked too much about 
myself. I am but one player in the orchestra that makes up the whole Jap- 
anese effort. I have already gone over my time and will stop here. 
(Applause). 

Discussion 

Tsuzaki: Frankly I was concerned about your topic and when you con- 
sented to come I had planned a talk of about one hour followed by a question 
period. We are right on schedule. Now that we have heard an account of the 
status of our space program, let us have some questions from the audience. 

Question; How much progress has Red China made? 

Kaneshige: I don't have any idea. They are certainly aiming for an 
ICBM and this is a very difficult goal. It will not be easy but just re- 
member how fast they developed nuclear weapons. Perhaps they can duplicate 
this success with an ICBM. 

Question: You have worked both in the Science and Technology Agency 
and in the academic world. We are always hearing about coordination or 
unification of our programs. How would this affect our rocket program? 
Would unification be an improvement? 

Kaneshige: A question like this is very difficult to answer, but I 
think that an excessive amount of technological research at universities is 
not desirable. If something can be better developed in another laboratory, 
then it should be done there, if it is to be done well, peaking from the 
present funding aspects, the actual amount of money is relatively small and 
I don't think the taxpayer's money is being wasted. At tJie same time I 
would not say that the two main groups working in space development have 
cooperated very much, at least until very recently. This is truly a waste. 
There should be cooperation, but there are many ways to interpret "unification" 
and many ways to achieve it. Yet I question whether this should be done in 
one place. We would not have this problesn if there had been mutual consulta- 
tion in the past as well as specific responsibilities • However, just because 
other countries have unified programs does not mean that this would 
be the best course in Japan. When done in other areas it has sometimes 
proved to be a wasteful step. 

The Science and Technology Agency is in charge of a weather satellite, 
and a report on this is actually being written new. In March we conducted 

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joint experiments with NASA at Wallopps Island. We sent ten rockets and 
they had ten. These were launched simultaneously to get comparative data on 
temperature, etc. This was accomplished in cooperation with the Meteoro- 
logical Agency, the Science and Technology Agency acting as the intermediary. 
The rocket used in these tests was the MT135 developed at Tokyo University. 
The people in charge of the Science and Technology Agency are highly qualified 
and there is really no problem in that they did not develop the rocket. They 
instigated the cooperative effort. I would like to see everything go this way. 
Last year the groups concerned with satellite tracking had mutual consultations, 
and the Science and Technology Agency assumed responsibility for this phase, 
with the cooperation of the rfi.nistiy of Posts and Telecommunications as well 
as the assistance of Tokyo University in experimental work. The Science and 
Technology Agency will take over tracking of satellites that Tokyo University 
is planning to launch. This year's budget for the Science Agency has been 
increased. The funds are needed for this work and there is no duplication. 
This is an example of how we shoixld move ahead with our space program. 

Question: I realize that there has been much talk about unification^ 
but I wonder if it is absolutely essential or not. When a project takes a 
large amount of money, there must be some unification, for otherwise there 
would be a scattering of efforts and greater cost. However, each worker will 
do his best if there is flexibility. Perhaps the National ^ace Activities 
Council could give some direction, or some other committee help out. 

Kaneshige: I recently read about a similar idea; it seems very rea- 
sonable to an outsider and also iinderstandable. But an advisory committee 
has its limits. If the people who make it up do not take an active interest 
in it, not much is going to happen. The space advisory committee was termi- 
nated in June, but no new members have been appointed and nothing is being 
done. If the council doesn't have the incentive to meet and confer, our ex- 
pectations cannot be very high. 

Question: If so, the National Space Activities Council being an ad- 
visory council, is it not the Science and Technology Agency that determines 
the broad direction? 

Kaneshige: Not that agency alone. Universities are making some con- 
tribution and they must be taken into consideration. We have avoided telling 
the universities what they should do. I personally believe we should give 
them a certain amount of direction, but we can't do this entirely in a uni- 
lateral fashion. Those in universities m\ist carefully weigh how any limita- 
tions should be construed. There are many people outside of the universities 
who are convinced that the Science and Technology Agency should have an over- 
all view of the program, at least those not connected with universities* 

Question: Don't you feel, though, that there should be an agency 
which clearly has authority to decide these matters? 

Kaneshige: I first worked on that, and when later considering how it 
would best be done, we thought it proper to combine the present two groups 
into one. A finalized plan for effecting this, however, is very difficult to 
arrive at. I was appointed to a special committee of the Liberal Democratic 
Party recently established. At that time I said that I didn't know what form 
of organization would be best, but in any event that was the first thing to 
decide. The Atomic Energy Commission is now trying to set up a very similar 

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committee. However, I don't know who is going to put in the hard work to 
organize it. The newspapers emphasized the budgetary demands of the Science 
and Technology Agency, some hundreds of millions of dollars, but failed to 
note the iiiqportance of creating this committee. If we organize a committee 
that is left behind, it will be difficult to gain a picture of the whole, 
although expenses will increase. At such a time they might tell me to do 
something about the problem because I had previously been connected with it, 
but I am siBrply not aggressive enough to do it. 

Question: Aren't there many beneficial by-products in a large scale 
space program? For instance, there is teflon, now found in every household. 
Would you tell us about several of these products that have practical applica- 
tions? 

Kaneshige: There are a number of such products, but not having had 
much to do with them I really can*t answer your question. Perhaps the most 
significant by-product is communications. Communications satellites are 
cheaper than underseas cables. Next year a comsat will be put in synchronous 
orbit over the Indian Ocean, making three of these. Chann^s are becoming 
clogged. The satellite over the Pacific Ocean is very busy and a second one 
is supposed to be latuiched. 

Question: I remember seeing an article in the newspapers to the effect 
that a satellite would be launched in a synchronous orbit about 1973 • Does 
Japan really have this capability? 

Kaneshige: I don^t know but if the Science and Technology Agency is 
going on this assumption, I have considerable doubt as to what plan will be 
used, how many scientists will be needed, and how much money it will take to 
complete the job. I can't say that it won't be done. 

Question: I am a rank amateur in these matters and I may be asking a 
stupid question, but as far as space development is concerned, what is our 
rank in the world as you see it? Vill we become a strong space nation and 
how would we compare with Russia, the United States, or Canada? 

Kaneshige: It is also difficult to answer this question. We have an 
international committee called COSPAR which I mentioned earlier. This com- 
mittee has nothing to do with rocket development but deals only with scienti- 
fic observations. There are 35 countries that have ties with this committee, 
but when first formed it was nowhere near that big. In the beginning any 
country which had launched a satellite contributed $10,000 each year, these 
inclxiding Russia bM the United States. Countries which had launched soixnding 
rockets paid $5>000. Japan was one of the original members along with England, 
France, and later Canada. It is still growing. 

As you are well aware, the United States, Russia, and France have 
launched satellites. There are still two other international organizations 
in Europe different from COSPAR. One is ELDO (European Launcher Development 
Organization) for satellite launching. This group had its origin when England 
was developing a rather large rocket, the Blue Streak, in which they had in- 
vested close to $300,000,000. They finally decided to purchase military 
rockets from the US and xised the Blue Streak for a cooperative scientific 
program with other European coimtries. The Blue Streak is the booster, the 
second stage is being made by France, the third stage by Germany, and the 
satellite by Italy. The whole program will take several years. The initial 
outlay is about $200,000,000 with 10 countries participating. So far it has 

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not been completed and promises to cost much more than this. 

The second organization is ESRO (European Stoace Research Organization )• 
It is planning scientific satellites and coordinating projects. At first it 
cooperated with NASA. 

Now, hew can we assess Japan* s rank in space achievement? The question 
of a satellite had not previously been discussed much in Japan. If we had 
asked the United States for help in a launching, it would be said that we 
lack advanced technology but given time and money we would be better off 
launching our own satellite. When Mericazis see this argument, they say ob«^ 
viously we have less developed technology but it is unreal to speak of anyone 
being ahead since countries with satellites have built vp a satellite techno- 
logy. The Japanese can hardly assess their satellite technology and this has 
not come up. Since you have only brought up the question of booster rockets 
or launching technology, look at it this way. If one coxmtry asks another for 
help in a launch, it is the requested coimtry that has the advanced technology. 
There is a highly significant technological value implicit in rocket launchings, 
but it is unjust to say that scientific satellites have less significance. For 
example, the Italians have set up and are now executing an interesting program 
called the San Marco Plan. A satellite was launched from a sea-based plat- 
form at the equator at an angle of O*. The launching was successfully made 
last spring with an Airterican Scout booster. Extremely interesting observa- 
tions resxilted because of the equatorial orbit, but I don*t know any details 
about them. The woitananship was outstanding, yet there was hardly a single 
woi*d about it in the Japanese newspapers. The Italians were not judged merely 
on whether the booster rocket was made in Italy or not. On the other hand, 
France's satellite launching was widely acclaimed in the press here. Every- 
body knows that we are trying to launch a satellite with a rocket developed 
at Tokyo University. 

Since I960 there has been at least one symposium in Japan in which 
many foreiga scientists have participated. More than half of the papers 
presented deal with rockets and industrial technology. In this respect 
countries like the United States have little to learn here. When results on 
work with scientific satellites are presented, they like to come to hear them, 
but on the whole not many scientists are coming. Papers in satellite techno- 
logy are often published by Japanese but not many of these appear in the sym- 
posium. The symposium is called "^ace Technology and ;^ace Science Sympo- 
sium." A number of countries have'^pace science and technology," but the fact 
that only the Japanese convene a symposixun with the theme "space technology 
and science" is perhaps indicative that people who are technologically 
oriented are extremely positive. There have recently been many enthusiastic 
scientists oriented to pure science but "Uiey can't possibly exceed the number 
in technology. In conclusion, although it is difficvilt to say what point we 
are at and make comparisons, we can be counted among the countries with space 
programs. I don't know if we are third or fourth. After all, you can't say 
that the differences between the first and second position are very great# 

Tsuzaki: I think that is all of the questions and it is time to 
adjourn. Thank you very much. (Applause). 



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