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NATURAL 
HISTORY 



THE JOURNAL OF THE 
AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



VOLUME XXVII 

1927 



/ 



Published bimonthly by 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

NEW YORK CITY 

1927 



n 



NATURAL HISTORY 

IS SENT FREE TO ALL CLASSES OF MUSEUM MEMBERS 
AS ONE OF THE PRIVILEGES OF MEMBERSHIP 



An illustrated magazine devoted to the advancement of natural history, the 
recording of scientific research, exploration, and discovery, and the development of 
museum exhibition and museum influence in education. Contributors are men eminent 
in these fields, including the scientific staff and members of the American Museum 
as well as writers connected with other institutions, explorers, and investigators in 
the several branches of natural history. 



CONTENTS OF VOLUME XXVII 



jANfAUY-KKHIUAUY, .\o. 1 

Cover: Dragon Lizard, Vnraiius komodoensis 

The Quest for the Dragon of Koinodo Douglas Bdrden 3 

Ishiiuls of t lie East facing 18 

Sninos — Honiantic Isle of the .Egean Barnu.m Brown 19 

Nortlnvard for Narwhal H. C. Raven 33 

What Is Inherited? G. Kingsley Noble 45 

t'.lacial Clays Near New York City Chester A. Reeds 54 

The Nest and Nesting Habits of the Hutterfish or Gunnell, Pholis gunnellus E. W. GnoGER 65 

Fossil-Hunting in the South African Karroo R. Broom 72 

A Journey in South America T. D. A. Cockerell 77 

A Museum PilRriinage Herbert Whitlock 03 

James Furman Kemp, 1S59-1926 Chester A. Reeds 105 

News from the Field 107 

News from the Laboratory 108 

March-April, No. 2 
Cover: "Thinking About the Gorilla" 
"To a Traveler" 

Frontispiece: Carl Akeley facing 115 

Akelcy, the Conservationist Baron de Cartier de Marchienne 115 

Akeley, 'the Explorer Kermit Roosevelt 118 

Akeley, the Sculptor James Earle Eraser 120 

Akeley, the Inventor F. Trubee Davison 124 

Akeley, the Man George H. Sherwood 130 

Carl Akeley's Early Work William M. Wheeler 133 

Akeley as a Taxidermist Frederic A. Lucas 142 

Groups in the Field Museum and Elsewhere 153 

In Africa with Akeley Mary Hastings Bradley 161 

Scenes from Akeley's Africa facing 172 

Epilogue Henry- Fairfield Osborn 173 

Notes 175 

May-June, No. 3 
Cover: "White House," Caiion de Chelly, Arizona 

Frontispiece: Mountains of the Sun, Zion Canon How.^rd Russell Butler 

The Aztec Ruin National Monument Clark Wissler x9t 

The Museum's Expeditions to Canon de Chelly and Canon del Muerto A. V. Kidder 202 

Time and American Archseology A. M. Tozzer 210 

.\n Anthropologist among the Navaho Beatrice Bl.ackwood 222 

The Antiquit.v of Man in America J. D. Figgins 229 

New Geological and Palseontological Evidence Bearing on the Antiquity of Mankind in America 

H.AROLD Cook 240 

The Fifth Bernheimer Expedition to the .Southwest Charles L. Bernheimer 248 

Indian Music from the Southwest Helen H. Roberts 257 

Primitive Surgery H. L. Sh.apiro 266 

Hydras as Enemies of Young Fishes E. W. Gudger 270 

North to 88 and the First Crossing of the Polar Sea Lincoln Ellsworth 275 

Charles Sprague Sargent Frederic A. Lucas 290 

Commemorating the First Crossing of the Polar Sea 292 

Notes 293 

Jult-August, No, 4 
Cover: A Y'outhful Follower of Linnfeus 

Frontispiece: ' Original Observation is a Force in Creative Education" facing 309 

"Creative Education" Henry Fairfield Osborn 309 

The Story of the Museum's Service to the Schools George H. Sherwood 315 

The Museum's Part in Nature Education 339 

The Museum as an Educational Interpreter Paul B. Mann 351 

The Child Discovers His World Rit.\ Scherman 355 

Education as Natural Development Marietta Johnson 360 

Nature Study on the Lower East Side M.arg.aret Knox 367 

The Still-open Road Frank E. Lutz 373 

The New Projection Planetarium W. J. Luyten 383 

i^n Opportunity Cly'De Fisher 390 

Notes 391 

September-October, No. 5 
Cover: Exploring an Ozark Cave for Blind Salamanders 

Creatures of Perpetual Night G. Kingsley Noble 405 

In the L'nderground Home of the Blind Salamander G. Kingsley- Noble facing 410 

The Coral Seas of Michigan E. C. Case 420 

The Truant Tides of Tahiti H. A. Marmer 430 

irhe Peruvian Guano Islands Seventy Y'ears Ago Robert Cushm.Os Murphy- 4.39 

Desert Landscapes of Northwestern Nevada Chester A. Reeds 44S 

Frog Hunting in Fukien, China Clifford H. Pope 462 

Light and Darkness in a Tropical Forest H. C. Raven 474 

How the Cassowary Goes A-fishing E. W. Gudger 485 

Two Mongolian Folk Songs L. B. Roberts 489 

Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927') Clyde Fisher 493 

Notes 494 



IV 



INDEX 



Xo\ kmuku-Dkck.mukh, No. (i 
Cover dcsifin: Lions, by l.ynii Homic Hunt 

Frontispiece: Tlie Penk of Mt. Milieno at Sunset W. 1{. Leioh 514 

The Vanisliinf; Wild TJfe of Africa He.nry Faihfiki.o Ohuok.v 51 t 

In the Land of His Dreams Maby L. Jouk Akklev 525 

A Safari in Africa G eokgk Kast.m an 533 

Picturing Africa Marti.n Johnson 539 

The Land of Glorious Adventure Martin Johnson 545 

" .At Home" in Africa Osa Johnson 501 

Adventure Land Philip Percival 570 

Painting the Backgrounds for the African Hall Groups W. R. Leigh 575 

Color Study for the Water Hole Group A. A. Jansson 57.S 

Collecting Large Mammals for Museum Exhibition R. H. Rockwell 583 

Angola as a Game Country Arthur S. Vbrnay 588 

Natives of East Africa A. A. Jansson 595 

With the Fuzzies After Ibex H. E. Anthony 600 

Ruwenzori from the West Ja.mes P. Chapin 615 

Albert Operti (1852-1927) Herbert P. Whitlock 628 

Notes 632 



NATURAL 

I c nrr^ o 






THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 



DEVOTED TO NATURAL HISTORY, 

EXPLORATION. AND THE DEVELOP- 

MENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 

THROUGH THE MUSEUM 




THE MUSEUM IN FIELD AND STUDY 



A. KATHERINE BERGER. EDITOR 



JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1927 

[Published March, 1927] 

Volume XXVII, Number 1 

Copyright, 1927, by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. 



ATURAL HISTORY 



Volume XXVII CONTENTS FOR JANUARY-FEBRUARY Number 1 
Cover; Dragon Lizard, Varanus komodoensis. 

One of the giant lizards captured alive and brought to America by the Douglas Burden East 

Indian Expedition 
Photograph by E. R. Sanborn, of the New York Zoological Society 

The Quest for the Dragon of Komodo Douglas Burden 3 

The Douglas Burden East Indian Expedition finds real adventure on the island of Komodo in 
search of scminiythical dragons 

Islands of the East opposite 18 

Scenes in the Lesser Sunda Islands 

From photographs taken by the Douglas Burden East Indian Expedition 

Samos — Romantic Isle of the iEgean Barnum Brown 19 

Bones of the naiads and Amazons of the ancient Greeks prove to be Miocene mammals 

Northward for Narwhal H. C. Raven 33 

The American Museum Greenland Expedition under the leadership of George Palmer Putnam 
collects a complete series of narwhal for the new Hall of Ocean Life 

What Is Inherited? G. Kingsley Noble 45 

The role of environment and of heredity in an animal's inheritance as determined by analysis in 
the laboratory 

Glacial Clays Near New York City Chester A. Reeds 54 

A study of the stratified clay sediments and glacial lakes in the vicinity of New York City 

The Nest and Nesting Habits of the Butterfish or Gunnell, Pholis gunnellus 

E. W. Gudger 65 

A description of an interesting phenomenon in the life history of Pholis gunnellus 

Fossil Hunting in the South African Karroo R. Broom 72 

Adventures in fossil hunting as told by a veteran collector 

A Journey in South America T. D. A. Cockerell 77 

Impressions of a fossil collector on a journey in South America 

A Museum Pilgrimage Herbert Whitlock 93 

An American Museum curator finds museums in foreign lands an interesting field for the study of 
installation methods 

James Furman Kemp, 1859-1926 Chester A. Reeds 105 

News from the Field 107 

News from the Laboratory. 108 



Published bimonthly, by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. Subscription price $3.00 
a year. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to James H. Perkins, Treasurer, American Museum of Natural History, 
77th St. and Central Park West, New York City. 

Natural History is sent to all members of the American Museum as one of the privileges of membership. 

Entered as second-class matter April 3, 1919, at the Post Office at New York, New York, under the Act of 
August 24, 1912. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized 
on July 15, 1918. 



Vol. XXVII JANUARY-FEBRUARY, 1927 



No. 1 



INATURALI 
[HISTORY! 



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3 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN g 
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY g 

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EXPLORATION RESEARCH-EDUCATION /' 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION $3.00 SINGLE COPIES 50 CENTS 

FREE TO MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS OF THE MUSEUM 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Scientific Staff for 1927 

IIeniiy Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., Piesident 

Geokge H. Sherwood, A.M., Director and Executive Secretary 

Frederic A. Lucas, Sc.D., Honorary Director 

Wayne M. Faunce, Sc.B., Apsistaiit to the Director and Assistant Secretary 

James J. Clark, Assistant Director, Preparation 



I. DIVISION OF MINERALOGY, GEOLOGY, 
GEOGRAPHY, AND ASTRONOMY 
William Diller Matthew, Ph.D., F.R.S., Curator-in- 
Cliief 

Adronomy 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., In Charge 

Minerals and Gems 
Herbert P. Whitlock, C.E., Curator 
George F. Kunz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Gems 
Lea McIlvaine Luqueu, Ph.D., Research Associate in 
Optical Mineralogy 

History of the Earth 
W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., F.R.S., Curator-in-Chief 

Fossil Vertel^rates 

W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., Curator of Geology and Palai- 

ontology 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, Honorary 

Curator 
Walter Granger, Curator of Fossil Mammals 
Barnum Brown, A.B., Curator of Fossil Reptiles 
Charles C. Mook, Ph.D., Associate in Pateontology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Research Associate in Pake- 
ontology 
Childs Frick, B.S., Research Associate in Palseontology 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Chester A. Reeds, Ph.D., Curator 

II. DIVISION OF ZOOLOGY, AND ZOO- 
GEOGRAPHY 

Frank Michler Chapman, Sc,D., N.A.S., Curator-in- 
Chief 

Marine Life 
EoT Waldo Miner, Ph.D., Curator 
WiLLARD G. Van Name, Ph.D., Associate Curator 
Frank J. Myers, B.A., Research Associate in Rotifera 
Horace W. Stunkabd, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Parasitology 
A. L. Treadwell, Ph.D., Research Associate in Annulata 

Insect Life 
Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Curator 
A. J. Mutchler, Associate Curator of Coleoptera 
Frank E. Watson, B.S., Assistant in Lepidoptera 
William M.Wheeler, Ph.D., Research Associate in Social 

Insects 
Charles W. Leng, B.S., Research Associate in Coleoptera 
Herbert F. Schwarz, A.M., Research Associate in 

Hymenoptera 

Fishes 

William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 

Bashford Dean, Ph.D., Honorary Curator 

John T. Nichols, A.B., Associate Curator of Recent 

Fishes 
E. W. Gudger, Ph. D., Bibliographer and Associate 
Charles H. Townsend, Sc.D., Research Associate 
C. M. Breder, Jr., Research Associate 
Van Campen Heilner, F.R.G.S., Field Representative 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
G. KiNGSLEY Noble, Ph. D., Curator 
Clifford H. Pope, B.A., Assistant [Central Asiatic 

Expeditions] 
Bertram G. Smith, Ph.D., Research Associate 
A. B. Dawson, Ph.D., Research Associate 

Birds 
Frank M. Chapman, Sc.D., Curator-in-Chief 
Robert Cushman Murphy, D.Sc, Curator of Oceanic 

Birds 
W. DbW. Miller, Associate Curator 
James P. Chapin, Ph.D., Associate Curator of Birds of the 

Eastern Hemisphere 



Birds (continued) 
l;UDLOw Griscom, a.m., Assistant Curator 
Jonathan Dwight, M.D., Research Associate in Nortli 

American Ornithology 
Elsie M. B. Naumberg, Research Associate 

Mammals of the World 
H. E. Anthony, M.A., Curator 
George G. Goodwin, Assistant 
Frederic A. Lucas, Sc.D., Research Associate 

Comparative and Human Anatomy 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 
S. H. Chubb, Associate Curator 
H. C. Raven, Associate Curator 
J. Howard McGregor, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Human Anatomy 
Dudley J. Morton, M.D., Research Associate 

III. DIVISION OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 

Science of Man 
Cl-vrk Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 
Pliny E. Goddard, Ph.D., Curator of Ethnology 
N. C. Nelson, M.L., Associate Curator of Archaeology 
Charles W. Mead, Honorary Curator of Peruvian 

Archseology 
Harry- L. Shapiro, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Physical 

Anthropology 
Margaret Mead, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Ethnology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Associate in Physical 

Anthropology 
Clarence L. Hay, A.M., Research Associate in Mexican 

and Central American Archeology 
MiLO Hellman, D.D.S., Research Associate in Physical 

Anthropology 

IV. DIVISION OF ASIATIC EXPLORATION 
AND RESEARCH 

Roy C. Andrews, D.Sc, Curator-in-Chief 

Walter Granger, Curator in Paleontology 

Charles P. Berkey, Ph.D. [Columbia University], Re- 
search Associate in Geology 

Frederick K. Morris, A.M. [Central Asiatic Expeditions], 
Associate in Geology and Geography 

Amadeus W. Grabau, S.D. [Geological Survey of China], 
Research Associate 

V. DIVISION OF EDUCATION AND 
PUBLICATION 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 

Library and Publications 
Ida Richardson Hood, A.B., Acting Curator 
Hazel Gay, Assistant Librarian 

Jannette May Lucas, B.S., Assistant Librarian — Osborn 
Library 

Education and Public Health 
George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., Curator of Visual In- 
struction 
Grace Fisher Ramsey, Associate Curator 
Nancy True, A.B., Assistant 
Paul B. Mann, A.M., Associate in Education 
Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Outdoor 
Education 

Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, D.P.H., Honorary 

Curator of Public Health 
Mary Greig, A.B., Assistant Curator of Public Health 

Public Information 
George N. Pindar, Chairman 
George H. Sherwood, A.M. 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D. 
Wayne M. Faunce, Sc.B. 
Clark Wissler, Ph.D. 



Natural History Magazine and Advisory Committee 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Chairman 

Departmental Editors 

A. Katherine Berger, Assistant Editor 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D. Frank AL Chapman, Sc.D. 

W. D. Matthew, Ph.D. Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D. 

George N. Pindar 



.4iipai|Mf|»^< 




PALM TREES AXD PIXXACLES 

These pinnacles of igneous ror-k, which form the most characteristic physiographic features of Komodo, give silent 
testimony of the live volcanoes that once were booming here. The low country in the foreground, covered with long grass 
and gubbong palms, is teeming with deer and wild boar. Yellow-crested coclcatoos and a variety of game birds are also 
plentiful. Here it was that the first giant lizards were seen and captured. This beautiful landscape will be used as a 
background for the Dragon-Lizard Group in the American Museum 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Volume XXVII 



AMAU^- i'i:iu:rAin . i'.h't 



Number 1 




The Quest for 
The Dragon of Komodo 



The giant lizard, Varanus komodoensis. — The skin of these beasts forms a veritable dermal armor or coat 
of mail, for each scale is underlaid by a plate of bone. (Photograph by E. R. Sanborn) 

By DOUGLAS BURDEN 

Trustee of the'American Museum 



FOR a long time there have been 
various fantastic reports in circu- 
lation with regard to the size and 
habits of Varanus komodoensis, a big 
lizard from Komodo, one of the Lesser 
Sunda Islands in Malaysia. The first 
description of the species was given in 
1912 by P. A. Ouwens of the Botanical 
Gardens at Buitenzorg, Java. Since 
that time only a few skins and no 
skeletons have made their way to 
European museums. Except for the 
original description, nothing whatso- 
ever has appeared which added to our 
knowledge of these semimythical 
dragon lizards. 

Our desire to study these beasts, 
coupled with the fact that the Ameri- 
can ]\Iuseum of Natural History had 
no collection from the Lesser Sunda 
Islands, and that there were many 
interesting problems in geology and 



zoogeography to be worked out in this 
region, finally resulted in our determin- 
ing to go to the East Indies. There- 
fore, with the big lizard as the chief 
incentive, a small expedition was 
organized, the personnel of which 
included Dr. E. R. Dunn, one of the 
foremost herpetologists of the United 
States, F. J. Defosse, a great hunter 
from Indo-China, whose chief task was 
to capture the lizards alive, and a 
Chinese camera-man from Singapore, 
Lee Fai, by name. Mrs. Burden pre- 
pared herself to take charge of the still 
photography. Through the kindness of 
the Dutch Government, we obtained 
the use of an official yacht, the S. S. 
"Dog," for a period of two months. 
The Rajah of Sumbaw^a, a neighboring 
island, acting on orders from the 
Colonial Government, assigned to us 
fifteen Malav hunters. Thev were a 



NATURAL HISTORY 



wild outfit, consistinij; of independent 
tribesmen from the innermost jungles 
of the isles, — and rough looking cut- 
throats they were, their mouths all 
stained from chewing betel nuts, their 
lips distorted, and their teeth blackened 
or gone entirely. 




The S. S. "Dog" on which we traveled more than 
1500 miles. This official yacht was lent to our expedi- 
tion by the Dutch Colonial Government 

It was in Bima that we unexpectedly 
had our first sight of Varanus. Certain 
Chinese poachers had been brought in 
with two large specimens which they 
had just taken. The lizards caused 
great excitement among the natives, 
who had known the beasts only by 
villainous reputation. The larger of 
the lizards had increased this ill fame 
by attacking a horse that wandered too 
near, and inflicting such damage that 
the injured animal had to be shot. 

On June 9, after a journey of 15,000 
mileS; we at last sighted the island of 
Komodo. At the first sign, I hurried 
up to the bridge and examined the 
dim outline of mountains through the 
glasses. In some respects it differed 



from what my eager imagination had 
pictured. Instead of lofty peaks, there 
were great areas of high land. A few 
wisps of white cloud hung over the 
mountains, and with the powerful 
lenses I could discern patches of jungle. 

It was an important moment, yet, 
as I turned to the captain, I noted that 
he preserved his usual professional 
calm. I expected him to show at least 
some realization that we were entering 
waters which were said to be very 
difficult of passage, for we were now in 
Linta Straits, of which Wallace writes 
that the violent tide rips cause the sea 
to "boil and foam and dance like the 
rapids below a cataract, so that vessels 
are sometimes swamped in the finest 
weather and under the brightest skies." 
Already we were entering the zone of 
rough water, and I could see it boiling 
and churning between the upraised 
coral reefs strewn about. But the 
captain, instead of barking out new and 
excited orders, stood silent, with an air 
of entire confidence in the boat and 
in the orders already given. 

On returning to the deck, I found my 
companions attempting to continue the 
occupations of the moment, but there 
was an unmistakable undercurrent of 
excitement. That wily old hunter, 
Defosse, was itching to stretch his legs 
on shore. I could tell by the way he 
was polishing his rifle and fingering the 
trigger. Doctor Dunn was restlessly 
thumbing the pages of his book, while 
Mrs. Burden, swinging in a hammock, 
forced herself to continue with her 
novel as if real adventure could wait. 
Lee Fai, with true Chinese conceptions 
of geography, hadn't the slightest 
notion where we were, but rather ex- 
pected to reach Manila soon. 

After all, however, the period be- 
tween sighting the island and the actual 
landing was a long one. There was 



THE QUEST FOR THE DRAGON OF KOMODO 







A N D A SEA 



fQ 






^ 



The route of the expedition. — The dotted line represents the outward journey from Surabaya, Java, to the 
little town of Bima in Sumbawa, thence to Komodo (the small island lying between Flores and Sumbawa), and to 
Wetta. The crosses show the return journey to Singapore by way of Api volcano, Lombok, and the far-famed island 
of Bali 



really no way for us to show the excite- 
ment we felt. I have no doubt that those 
intrepid explorers who finally reached 
the North and South poles could say 
little more than, ''Well, here we are. 
What now?" 

We were soon threading our way 
among the outlying coral rocks. The 
beauty of the scene recalled to my mind 
a bit of poetry by Oliver Wendell 
Holmes that seemed to have been 
meant to describe this very spot: 

The venturous bark that flings 

On the sweet summer wind its purpled wings 

In gulfs enchanted where the siren sings, 

And coral reefs lie bare, 
Where the cold sea-maids rise to sun their 
streaming hair. 

As we came closer to the island, I 
could see beyond the scant growths of 
tall "gubbong" palms naked pinnacles 
of rock whose black heads reared up 
to the sky. Their sculpture was bold 
and their outline fantastic. These 
wonderful phj^siographic forms showed 
us at once that Komodo is not lime- 
stone, as has been reported, but vol- 
canic, for these striking features of the 
landscape are volcanic necks, or plugs, 
formed bv the coolino- of molten magma 



within the vents of volcanos. From 
the condition of these plugs it was 
evident that the volcanic action had 
ceased long since, for erosion had 
washed away the cone, leaving the more 
durable igneous core standing aloft 
as a record of the ancient turmoil. 

It struck me that the process of ero- 
sion was far more advanced on 
Komodo than on the other Sunda 
islands. In the others visited by the 
expedition it was still in a youthful 
stage. Since the climatic conditions 
and the character of the rock are uni- 
form throughout the chain, this differ- 
ence indicates either that volcanic 
activity became dormant very early, or 
that Komodo is actually older than the 
others — an interesting consideration in 
determining the reasons for the re- 
stricted range of Yaranus komodoefisis. 

I soon put aside theorizing, however, 
for we had slipped suddenly from the 
churning waters into the calm of a 
little harbor, and had come to anchor 
in the lee of a tiny island. After the 
cramped quarters on the boat, we 
were eager to land, and the weird 
beauty of the spot was alread}^ begin- 
ning to work its magic. The shore 



NATURAL HISTORY 





The home of the dragon lizard.— A glimpse of the rugged mountains of Komodo. 
sun. it was exhausting work to climb around these precipices 



Under a broiling, tropical 



was a curving ribbon of shining sand; 
bej^ond, the tall gubbongs stretched 
aloft like sentiiials to the sky. 

As we neared the beach, we jumped 
out of the small boat and waded in to 
shore. Mrs. Burden and I ran along 



the edge of the surf casting our eyes 
this way and that to enjoy the glorious 
scenes that charmed us at every turn. 
Everywhere we caught signs of abun- 
dant game, — particularly deer and wild 
boar. They seemed to be countless. 



THE QUEST FOR THE DRAGON OF KOMODO 



Just as we went on hoai'd a^ain, lliesun 
was setting, and the rocky islets and 
piuple sea were eatehin^ tints of gold 
Ironi the sun and showers of color from 
the changing sky overhead. 

Late that night I heard torn tonis 
beating across the water, a thrilling 
and barbarous rhythm, in a ceaseless 
monotone. A native prau was an- 
chored in the bay, and the drum beats 
were a summons to the god of the winds 
to send good blowing weather on the 
morrow. The potency of this summons 
is never doubted by the children of the 
Eastern Seas. 

Early on the morning of June 11 
we started to explore the island. Our 
object was to find a camping site where 
tracks of the big lizard were plentiful. 
Defosse and Doctor Dunn set out to 
the north, w^hile I went directly west 
over the mountains. Lee Fai, as 
tired as if he had been laboring for 
months, remained on the ship in repose. 

After many hours of hard climb- 
ing, we reached the divide. Here we 
saw an abundance of game, and I had 
no difficulty in bringing down a fine 
buck which we needed as meat. 

A da}^ later I discovered a beautiful 
camping site at an altitude of nearly 
2000 feet, w^here there was an ample 
suppty of good water. It was a glori- 
ous spot, so I hurried back toward 
the bay to announce my find. The 
return was not without adventure, 
however, for I had my first encounter 
with a Komodo wild buffalo or " carra- 
bao" which we had not known existed 
here. And I found the beast a more 
pugnacious customer, if anything, than 
those of Indo-China. I was intent 
upon locating some blue pigeons whose 
booming I had heard, and pushed into 
some thick bamboo jungle at the edn*'' 
of a w'ater hole. The place was far 
from deserted. First a flock of ducks 



flew up, and tiien there was a terrific 
crashing off to my right. A native 
with me cried in terror "Carrabao!" 
and at the same moment I saw a wild 
buffalo not twenty-five yards away, 
headed toward me. His nose was in 
the air, his horns seemed to be laid back 
against his flanks, his nostrils were di- 
lated, and from the speed with which 
he was coming, I saw that he intended 
to charge me. I had no steel bullets, 
and as lead bullets were of no use in this 
case, I took to my heels. I was much 
relieved when he finally stopped on the 
edge of a thick jungle whither I had run 
knowing that these animals will only 
attack on hard, open ground. 

I arrived at the beach dead tired, 
and found that Doctor Dunn and De- 
fosse had enjoyed a highly satisfactory 
day. They had found plenty of lizard 
tracks, and such a variety of bird life 
that even Defosse felt that Komodo 
hardly needed the addition of tigers 
and elephants to make it a sportsman's 
paradise. ""' The game birds included 
blue pheasant, jungle fowl, five or six 
different species of pigeon of untold 
beauty, turtle doves, quail, ducks, and 
a yellow-legged running hen which beare 
a close resemblance to the tinamoo of 
Central America. Moreover, the noisy 
yellow-crested cockatoos were alwaj^s 
in evidence, flying over the jungle and 
chattering raucously. 

By the middle of June we were com- 
fortably encamped in a spot command- 
ing a -wide view. The whole front of 
our little hut was open to the sea breeze. 
The roof of woven palm leaves was 
mellow^ and bearded with age, and 
rattled dryly in the wind. From the 
edge of it dangled all manner of 
tangled growths amid which a swarm of 
malignant things found concealment, — 
spiders, scorpions, centipedes, lizards, 
snakes, — w^e never knew what to 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Tracks of a large Varanu." in the mud. In the milUons of years to come 
such tracks as these may well be the fossil imprints of an extinct species 



expect next. Very early we found a 
green pit viper there. 

Inside, we soon had many evidences 
of a real home. Clustered around the 
lamp on the table was a miscellaneous 
collection, — ammunition, notebooks, 
flash lights, boxes of every variety. We 
slept on a raised bamboo platform. 

As soon as we put out baits for 
Varanus, they began to flock around in 
considerable numbers. Doctor Dunn 
took his stand where he could not be 
seen by the creatures and watched them 
all day. His notebooks soon began to 



bulge with meticulous notes recording 
every move of each beast and the 
exact time of each move. Lee Fai 
obediently went out under orders to 
take pictures, but always returned soon, 
grumbling to himself that "walking 
much trouble. ' ' Def osse was not wholly 
content with scientiflc observation; 
he wanted action. He pulled his 
mustache; he cleaned his rifle; and 
his conversation always reverted to 
Indo-China, and the glorious hunting 
in the countrj^ north of Saigon. 
For the rest of us, we found sufficient 



THE QUEST FOR THE DRAGON OF KOMODO 



excitement for a while in observing tlie 
feeding habits of the great dragon 
lizards. For hours together we watched 
them from the "bomas" or blinds, as 
they devoured the bait. Voracious as 
they were, it was interesting to note 
what careful watch they kept, especially 
the smaller ones, who seemed terrified 
when an adult made his appearance. 
Whenever we saw a smaller one turn 
and dash away with lightning-like 
rapidity, we knew that a big lizard 
was approaching. For several minutes 
no lizard would be seen, then suddenly, 
from behind a tree, a big black head 
with two beady eyes would appear. 
For a while it would remain absolutely 
motionless; only the hawklike eyes 
would move, peering grimly from under 
bony "ej'ebrows," while they .surveyed 
ever}^ inch of the surrounding terri- 
tory. Then, assured of safety, the 
beast would lower his head, and with 
his long, 3^ellow, bifurcated tongue con- 
stantly darting forth, he would move 




Mr Burden studying Malay. — It was so cool in 
camp on the siunmit of Komodo that one could sit in 
the bright noon sunlight without discomfort 

ponderously toward the bait. As he 
walked, the impression he gave was of 
tremendous weight and strength. 




The miraculous Chu, our Chinese boy from Peking, cooking at seashore camp. The palm-leaf boxUke structure 
— the handiwork of Chu — is an improvised oven 



10 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Although the small ones are I'ather 
slim and agile, the adults are thickset, 
muscular creatures with very heavy 
bodies. After they have attained a 
length of seven feet their weight in- 




Dr. E. R. Dunn of Smith College, a leading authority 
on reptile life, and herpetologist of the expedition, 
holding a green pit viper. Komodo can boast of all 
three classes of poisonous snakes- cobras, \'iperp, and 
pit vipers 

creases out of all proportion to their 
length, and doubles, I think, between 
seven and eight feet. 

In the process of gorging, the long 
sharp claws are used indiscriminately 
for scraping and tearing, while the 
thin, recurved teeth with sharp serrated 
edges are employed to rip off chunks 
of the meat . The beast maneuvers this 
by seesawing back and forth on braced 
legs, giving a wrench at the bait with 
every backward move. Seen thus, 
with jaws buried in the meat, and neck 
curved forward and down, he bears a 
remarkable resemblance to Tyranno- 



saurus as restored in modern paintings. 

Whatever he can wrench off, regard- 
less of size, is swallowed at a gulp. 
One big fellow took in the whole hind 
quarters of a deer, — hoofs, legs, hams, 
vertebrae, and all. If he is surprised 
when feeding, the result is likely to be 
disastrous, for the weird beast becomes 
excited and immediately disgorges . 

With such pictures in mind, I tingled 
with excitement at my first sight of one 
of the huge creatures in the open. 

I was at the foot of the pinnacle 
country, on a gently sloping talus 
cone covered with short grass and a 
few palm trees. This was the very 
section of the country in which the 
Duke of Mecklenburg is said to have 
shot three of the beasts in chance 
encounter. Here I saw a lizard working 
his way slowly down the mountain. I 
scrambled up to a point of vantage, 
taking care not to expose myself to 
view, as the eye sight of Varanus is 
much keener than that of a deer. It 
was a marvelous picture, — a prmieval 
monster in a primeval setting. Had he 
only stood up on his hind legs, as I 
now know he can do, the dinosaurian 
picture would have been complete. 
Against a background of sunburnt 
grass he looked quite black with age. 
As he approached, three pigs dashed 
away into the distance. Once he 
stopped for a long time with his nose 
buried deep in the grass, as if scenting 
out some shrew or rat or small lizard to 
add as another choice morsel to his 
already distended stomach. In my 
glasses he filled the whole field of 
vision, and as there was nothing by 
which to compare his size, I could quite 
easily imagine him to be twenty^or 
thirty feet long. I was wrong, however, 
for they do not exceed ten feet in length. 
I was filled with a longing to bag one of 
these creatures alive, and after he disap- 



THE QUEST FOR THE DRAGON OF KOMODO 



11 



poar(>tl from si<!;lit, I liunicd hack to 
aiTaiii!;o for more active ium1inj>;. 

It was Mrs. Burden., however, who 
had the first exciting encounter with 
one of the Hzards. Together with De- 
fosse, she went out early one morning 
to see if any marauding Varanus had 
been at the bait during the night. 
Upon reaching the bhnd, they were dis- 
mayed to see that the bait had been 
torn in half, and the entire hind quarters 
devoured. It was hardly conceivable 
that one V. K. was responsible for so 
much mischief. As there was now no 
animal in sight, they hunted for tracks 
around the bait. Defosse followed 
them around on one side of a hill, 
while Mrs. Burden searched the other 
side. Suddenly a movement at the 
edge of the jungle to her right fixed her 
attention, and then one of the ante- 
diluvian monsters peered out from the 
cover of the jungle. For a moment he 
stood so, then with ponderous move- 
ments he crawled out into the light of 
day. At the same instant, Mrs. Burden 
sank motionless into the tall grass. 

As he approached step by step, the 
great bulk of his body was held clear 
off the ground, and the black beady 
eyes flashed in their deep sockets; 
from time to time, as he stopped and 
raised himself on his powerful forelegs 
to look around, she could observe the 
blistered scars on his bony armor. 

"As he drew nearer," she afterward 
related, "I suddenly realized my pre- 
dicament. My gun was propped against 
the blind where I had left it a few 
moments earlier. Defosse was 'out of 
sight, and the great reptile was con- 
tinuing straight toward me. Should I 
jump up and run, thus losing the largest 
lizard we had seen? Should I not rather 
lie without moving in the chance that 
Defosse would come back in time to 
shoot him, or that he would change his 



course and pass \}y me unheeded? 

"Nearer he came and nearer, his 
glim head swinging heavily from side 
to side. I remembered all the fantastic 
stories I had heard of these creatures 
attacking both men and horses, and 
was in no wise reassured. 

"The creature was now less than five 
yards away, and its subtle reptilian 
smell was in my nostrils. Too late to 
leap from hiding, — if I did, he would 
surely spring upon me, rending me and 
devouring my remains as he had 
devoured the dead deer. Better to 
take my chances where I lay, so I 
closed my eyes and waited. 

"Then I opened them in time to see 
Defosse's head appearing over the hill. 
The next instant there was a flash, and 
a bullet buried itself in the great 
monster's neck. Like lightning he 
whirled and crashed toward the jungle, 
but the rifle once more did its work, and 
he lay still." 

Later, upon measuring him, we dis- 
covered that he was not quite ten feet 
long, but he must have weighed around 
250 pounds, and in his stomach we 
found the whole hind quarters of the 
deer ! 

A¥e were by now even more anxious 
to capture alive some of these very 
large lizards for closer study. Several 
times the Malays had seen a particu- 
larly ugly brute on the edge of the 
"prehistoric" wood, which they ex- 
citedly described as the biggest 
"boeaja darat" (land crocodile) yet 
seen. He was a very wary fellow^, and 
we decided that the best way to get him 
alive would be to build a trap at the 
edge of the forest, bait it with deer or 
pig, and then hide close by in a boma, 
ready to run out and lash him to a 
pole as soon as he was caught in the 
noose. Accordingly, Defosse killed an 
old razorback for bait and the coolies 



12 



NATURAL HISTORY 




One of the lizards shot by Mrs. Burden 



set to work on the trap. Heaw stakes 
were pounded into the ground all 
around the bait,, except for a large 
opening left at one end. The stakes 
were then lashed together with rattan 
and the whole contraption carefulh' 
camouflaged with branches and leaves. 
A Hve tree was selected as the spring 
pole. The branches were cut, the 
rope tied to the top, and then, \\dth the 
combined strength of fifteen coolies, 
the tree was bent over and the noose 
set at the opening in front of the trap. 
To avoid having the trap sprung by 
some small and unimportant specimen, 
however, we arranged that the tree 
should be released only by a string 
running along the ground to the 
boma. 

A test proved that this would work 
perfectly; already we \'isualized the 



surprise of the old dragon when the 
noose should snare him and the spring 
pole immediately snatch him aloft 
dangling at the end of his tether. The 
trap was Defosse's handiwork, and a 
credit to his ingenuity. 

We were on hand earh' next morning, 
for the bait had already begun to smell. 
The sun was well up before anything 
happened to arouse our hopes. Pres- 
ently a small V. K. appeared and 
maneuvered around and around the 
trap, not daring to enter. He was 
followed soon by a much larger beast 
about the size of those which we later 
brought back to the Xew York Zoo. 
This one immediately entered the trap 
and tried to drag the whole boar out, 
but the razorback had been lashed in 
place, and could not be budged. Pre- 
sently I saw him look up and then 




Building the trap. — Uiie end of this boxlike trap is left open. At this opening the noose is set. The natives 
are seen camouflaging the trap with leaves. (From the motion picture) 




Setting the trap.— The trap is now completely camouflaged so that it lesembles a bush. The natives are 
bending the spring pole, while Def osse, at the entrance to the trap, is setting the noose. (From the motion picture) 





-^Ji 



HUNGRY 

Varanus komodoen.Hs, as he is frequentlj' seen prowling around foraging among the gna>-led mountains of 
Komodo. In the lowest picture he is seen coming full speed toward the bait. (From the motion picture) 



14 




FEASTING 

When a dragon lizard attacks his food, he tries to swallow it whole. Failing in this, he rips and shakes it to 
pieces, greedily gulping great hunics much larger than hLs own head. (From the motion picture'* 



15 



16 



NATURAL HISTORY 



turn and flee as if the very devil were 
after him. 

Only a very large V. K. could create 
such panic in one of adult size, so we 
waited with ill-repressed excitement. 
There was no reason to lower our 
voices, as the beast is practically stone 
deaf, yet a hush fell upon us which 
became a positive strain as time length- 
ened into half an hour, and no big beast 
arrived. 

Suddenly a coolie peeping through 
the leaves at the back of the boma 
made a strange sound. Others looked, 
and stirred • with excitement. When 
I looked, I could well understand 
their feelings, for what I saw was 
a V. K. so large and so villainous of 
aspect that I trembled with instinc- 
tive repulsion. 

He started forward, headed straight 
for the boma. I could see the brute, 
now, very well. He looked black as ink. 
His bony armor was scarred and 
blistered. Half his tail had been lost in 
battle. His eyes, deep set in their 
sockets, looked out from underneath 
overhanging brows. Now his footsteps 
were plainly audible. He passed so 
close to our boma that I could have 
reached out and touched him. 

I was so excited that I wondered at 
the great calm shown by the hunter 
Defosse. He was able to give his 
principal attention to keeping the 
nervous coolies quiet, and did not seem 
to share the agony of waiting I felt for 
the next half hour, while the great 
reptile was making up his mind 
whether to enter the trap. He was 
wary and suspicious. He would put 
his nose almost in the noose, and 
then withdraw it. He inspected every- 
thing closely, his snaky tongue in 
constant motion. Then he would walk 
away abruptly, and sit for five minutes 
at a time looking into the surrounding 



jungle. It seemed as though we should 
never take him. 

Then, of a sudden, it happened. He 
walked straight up to the opening, 
stepped through the noose, and seized 
the bait. I pulled the release, and the 
great dragon was catapulted into the 
air. Down he came as quickly,, his 
great weight dragging the tree back 
again. Then it was a contest of 
strength between him and the tree, 
which began to crack noisily with the 
strain as he clawed at the ground, 
tugging at the rope which was tightened 
about his middle. 

The coolies rushed out to surround 
him, but he held them off, not only by 
his fierce lunges, but also by vomiting 
and foaming at the mouth. 

It was now up to Defosse, who had 
been practising with a lasso for months 
past. His first throw missed as well 
it might, for the great beast was leap- 
ing in every direction. But Defosse, 
keeping carefully and coolty out of 
reach, recoiled his rope as methodically 
as though he were practising on a tent 
peg in camp. -Awaiting a favorable 
moment, when the lizard was trying to 
drag himself away in the opposite 
direction, Defosse stepped up close 
behind him, and dropped the lasso 
neatly about his neck. As soon as the 
rope was made fast to a stout tree the 
lizard was ours, and it required only 
the precaution of roping his tail also, 
to prevent his damaging anything by 
its lashings, to enable ouv coolies to do 
their share of the work. They now 
brought their long pole, hog-tied the 
lizard to it, and carried him trium- 
phantly back to camp. 

A special cage had been built for him, 
and as we thrust him in at one end, 
we cut the thongs one by one, till he 
was entirely free but securely enclosed 
And then came fireworks! Feeling 




The long, yellow, protiusible, bifurcated tongue of the varanid lizard is used 
organ 



as a sensory 



'HP^Ti 




The "rumah" as the natives call it, of Varanus komodoensis. The deaf beasts use their long 
claws to excavate these burrows under rocks and tree stumps, and retiro into them for the night 



17 



18 



NATURAL HISTORY 



himself at first free, and then confined 
within four walls, he lashed himself 
into a great fury, vomiting and giving 
out such a vile smell that we left 
him. 

There was a large air-hole at the top 
of the cage, which we had covered with 
the strongest steel netting that could be 
obtained in Batavia, yet when we came 
out the next morning to look at him, 
we found to our dismay that the wire 
had been ripped off, and the cage was 
empty. Thetwisted steel and the gaping 
hole were evidence of a strength which 
we had never suspected. Thus we lost 
the greatest prize of our expedition. 
We had felt so sure of him that we 
hadn't even taken the precaution to 
photograph him. 

We caught many other lizards in our 
traps, but none so big. The Colonial 
Government had given us a permit to 
kill or capture only fifteen of the beasts, 
so we had to release many of those 
caught. We were enabled, however, 
during the process to study the habits 
of the animals. One evening we re- 
leased five on the beach to test their 
swimming ability, and to see whether 
they would take to the sea of their own 
free will — an important question with 
regard to their distribution. Of five 
lizards let loose, one large and one small 
one immediately fled to the sea without 
the slightest hesitation. Two others 
headed for the jungle, while a third ran 
down the beach for 150 yards, went up 
into the grass, and then, after looking the 



situation over, deliberately proceeded to 
swim far out into the bay. The largest 
one which had taken to the water sub- 
merged for a full two minutes, and then 
appeared a hundred yards away, swam 
down the beach for a half mile, and 
ambled slowly off into the jungle. 
When swimming, their heads were 
carried well up above the surface of the 
water, so that they could be seen at a 
great distance, but on the whole, we 
considered them rather clumsy and 
ineffective swimmers. 

On one point we were greatly dis- 
appointed. We found no eggs, nor any 
trace of them . But as part of a large 
herpetological collection numbering 
several thousand specimens we did 
succeed in bringing out twelve dead 
and two live Varanus komodoensis, 
sufficient to make an excellent museum 
group. 

Concerning the place of Varanus 
komodoensis in evolution, it is interest- 
ing to note that these varanoid lizards 
represent the group from which snakes 
were evolved, which accounts for their 
snakelike appearance, their mobile 
head, and long, protrusible, bifurcated 
tongue. 

According to the most recent in- 
vestigation, it has been definitely 
shown that Varanus komodoensis is 
closely related to the Australian mon- 
itors which gave rise in Pleistocene 
times to such monsters as Megalania 
known to have attained a length of 
thirty feet. 



I 



Islands of the East 

])\ DOrCLA.S lUiRDKN 

A scries of vulcimic ishiiuls wliicli have luiscn uliiiiK the axis of tlie Siiiidii fold extend eustwajd from .Ihvii 
toWHi'd New (luiiioa. These arc known as the liCaser Siiiula Ishuuls. Althoimli l.licy belong to a Minnie Kroiip, the 
oxtraorilinary difforenecs in the people who inhabit theni, and also in the islands thcinaelves, are strikiiiK 




A HINDU TEMPLE IN BALI 

The temple gateways form the most characteristic and prominent architectural features of this beautiful and 
luxuriant island. Bali and Lombok are the only islands in the East Indies where the Hindu religion still holds sway 




BALINESE SISTERS 
The maidens of Bali possess a natural beauty of form and a lithe grace of movement characteristic of peoples who 
practice carrying loads on the head. Except for the inevitable sarong, clothes are regarded as a mere encuml>rance 




BEAUTIFUL BALI 

Picturesque doorways where the sunlight splaslies through, weird temples outUned against 
an azure sky, shaded vistas of verdure where it is always cool, and thatohed vdlages nesthng iti 
coconut groves are all a part of beautiful Bali, the toyland of the l^ast 




A FAMOUS DANCING GIRL OF DEN PASSEAR 

The gold headdress crowned with the sacred lotus flower and the gorgeously colored brocade costume 
form a pifture of striking beauty when worn by a graceful BaHnese maiden. The dam^ m Bah is a religious 
ceremony in which ancient mythological legends are enacted. The little dancer is only ten years old. She has 
been trained from babyhood, but must cease dancing when she reaches puberty 




A CANON OF WETTA 
The rugged, inhospitable island of Wetta, situated at the extreme eastern end of the Lesser Sunda C^'?'". '« 
inhabited bv Papuans whose primitive culture is in striking contrast with the cmhzat.on of the BfUnese No less 
a contrast with the gentle, luxuriant slopes and peaceful coconut groves of Bah are the n\ounta.ns of \A etta that 
havebeen splintered intoamilHon jagged fragments, and the deep, forbidding canons cut out of ancient lava flows. 
These form insurmountable barriers that oppose the travelers' way 




A FINE OLD CANNIBAL 

" Livid with skin disease, his teeth gone, his eyebrows arched meanly together, and his 
nostrils dilated, he stood there on splayed feet, with his long finger-nails scratching among the 
folds of a tattered hide — as rascally an old savage as ever I hope to see. 

"With manv gutteral explosions and low rumblings and mumblings, he eventually 
allowed himself to he pushed into tlie sunlight, and 1 obtained my picture, "—h ROM thk 

JOUKN.\l. OF THK KXHKUITION 




FISHING ON KOMODO 

The monsters that swam alon? the shores of Komodo were of such a size that Mrs. Burd( n lost nearly all 
her tackle. Eventually she had to use manila rope and a leader of chain. The above is a large grouper 
probably Epiticplieluft imritherinns CLacepede) 




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Samos, near-by islands, and adjacent Turkish coast. The hatched area indicates fossiliferous Miocene deposits 
with quarries 

Samos — Romantic Isle of the ^gean 



By BARNUM brown 

Curator of Fossil Reptiles, American Museum 



(( 



B 



E IT ENACTED THAT THE GrEEK 

Government permits any 
part or all of the fossils 
collected in samos by Barnum 
Brown to be shipped to America as 
an expression of thanks to the 
American people for the many 
benefits given." 

This order of the Greek Ministry 
issued in September, 1924, became a 
law when pubHshed in the official 
journal, and permitted the American 
Museum to secure the first collection 
of fossils ever sent out of Greece intact. 



With its wealth of antiquities rapidly 
disappearing, Greece, in order to retain 
in the country unique examples of its 
ancient masterpieces, was long ago 
compelled to prohibit the exportation 
of antiquities. The wisdom of this 
policy is recognized everywhere, for 
the works of any great artist, or school 
even, are necessarily limited. Unfortu- 
nately the restrictions on "antiquities" 
have been construed to include fossils, 
examples of which are usually limited 
only by the amount of search neces- 
sary to secure them. In consequence 



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Picturesque Vathy, the modern capital, is built around the best harbor of the island. The name Vathy means 
'deep" 




In Vathy, the houses, built on narrow, cobbled streets reminiscent of Turkish occupation, are crowded almost 
to the water's edge and extend up the mountain-sides 



SAMOS— ROMANTIC fSLh' OF THE .KCK.W 



21 



the two great fossil areas ol' Cireece ;it 
Pikermi and at Samos are not as ^vw- 
erally known as the classic fossil local- 
ities in other countries. 

Pikenni lies about tw(Mit>' miles 
northeast of Athens and a few miles 
south of the famous field of Marathon. 
When the courier on "Winged" feet 
sped to Athens with news of the victory 
of the Athenians and Plata)ans over the 
Persians in 490 b.c, he passed within a 
stone's throw of this celebrated fossil 
locality. 

Samos is probably an unfamiliar 
name to most readers, yet there are few 
cigarette smokers who have not at some 
time burned incense that was grown on 
this beautiful island, now celebrated 
for its wine and tobacco as it was in 
ancient days for wine and pottery. 

Although a minor island, it is one of 
the most fertile areas in modern Greece 
and is surpassed by none in climate or 
in beauty of scenery. 

Like a tiny dot on the ordinary-sized 
map, the island lies close to the main- 
land of Asia Minor, approximately 
fifty miles south of Smyrna. Actually 
it is twenty miles in length and eight 
miles across at its greatest width, the 
narrow eastern end being separated 
from the mainland by the narrow strait 
of Mycale. 

Generally its bold cliffs rise abruptly 
from the sea along almost the entire 
coast line, and two great mountains, 
Kerki and Karvuni, rise respectively 
4724 and 3730 feet above sea level, 
with their connecting elevations form- 
ing the backbone of the island. This 
series of heights was elevated when the 
island mass was torn from the mainland 
by a great land movement that at the 
same time deflected the course of the 
Maeander River of Asia Minor, which 
once flowed northeastward across the 
eastern end of the island. 



Tlic sin face l()pogra|)liy isso irregulai 
tli;it on the eiilire island t hei-e are not 
nioic I h.Mii .")()()() .Mcics of |('\-c| hind, and 
niost of the \iiicyards and toUacco 
(ields aic pichn('S(|ni' gardens thai 
cling to I lie hillsides in narrow \\alli'(| 
terraces. 

Vathy, a modcin lowii of l.j, ()()() in- 
habitants, is the capital and diicf poil . 
snuggled undei- the hills in a l>eaiit il'ul 
bight on the noi'th shore. ( )!' the 
several smaller towns, Tigani, on I lie 
south shore, is of chief interest , as it is 
built on the site of a splendid aneient 
city, AstypaUra. 

The present poi)ulation of Samos 
numbers about 65,000, and at no time 
in ancient days did the population ever 
exceed 100,000, but what a wealth of 
historic events cluster about this little 
island ! 

Samos was the mightiest state in 
Greece in the days of Polycrates, and 
it was a formidable rival of Athens even 
in the days of Pericles. In the war of 
independence the Samians were the 
first Greeks to take up arms and the 
last to lay them down. 

In ancient days Astj'^palsea was a city 
of great importance. Its surrounding 
walls may still be traced and at points 
still remain entire. Here was a great 
harbor, the chief source of Samian 
wealth, for the ancient Samians were 
a maritime people and they built so 
well that the mole and harbor are still 
in use. The three wonders of the city, 
the mole of the harbor, the aqueduct 
of Eupalinus, and the ruins of the 
noble temple of Hera still exist. Be- 
tween the temple and the city two 
miles distant, stretched a road bordered 
by magnificent baths, noble buildings, 
and the graves of celebrities of the city. 
The Herffium was one of the largest 
and richest temples in Greece and was 
erected in very early times by Rhoecus, 




Modern Tigani ("frying pan") built on the ruins of Astypalsea. — The ancient mole and a Byzantine fortress 
guard the sea face. The arrow points to the HerEeum 




Along the hilltop, marking the outer limits of the citadel, the huge Cyclopean wall still stands, in some places 
eiitire, defying the elements as it once did the enemies of Astypala?a 



22 



S AMOS— ROMANTIC ISLE OF 77/ A' .lyilJAX 



23 




A monument to its departed glory, a lone column of the Hera?um still stands, its ilruius askew from eartii- 
quake shocks 



or b}' Rhcecus and Theodorus. Like 
Artemis, Hera was the mistress of the 
moon, and Hke Persephone she ruled 
the springing up of the crops. She 
was also goddess of marriages. 

The Heraeum and the aqueduct which 
brought water from distant springs, 
part way through a mountain, have 



been excavated, but the wonderful 
old city has been only partly exhumed 
and still contains a buried wealth of 
historic data. A small museum in 
Tigani holds some choice Greek and 
Roman figures, one a rare example of 
archaic sculpture showing Egyptian 
influence. 



24 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Of the celebrated characters in 
ancient Greek history Samos produced 
Rhoecus and Theodorus, archaic work- 
ers in bronze; Pvthasoras, mathe- 




Bases of outer columns along the sides of the temple of 
Hera 



matician and astronomer, driven from 
his home by the tyranny of Poly crates ; 
Mandrocles, who built the bridge of 
Darius over the Bosphorus ; Timanthes, 
the great painter; Assius, the poet; 
and Durus, the historian. 

Many pages of Samos' history have 
been lost, for the island was frequently 
the pawn of more powerful communi- 
ties and was at least twice completely 
depopulated during historic times. Its 
first inhabitants were descendants of 



the Pelasgians, but its true founder 
was Ancee, King of the Leleges, who 
settled there with the Cephalonians 
and the lonians. He planted vineyards 
and built the city of Astypalaea in 
memory of his mother. 

One of the most famous men of 
olden times was Polycrates, who re- 
duced the Samians to slavery, but the 
tyranny of Polycrates brought Samos 
to its highest point of external pros- 
perity about 536 b.c. He was the 
inventor of the Samian war galley. 

After the death of Polycrates, Samos 
passed into the control of the Persians. 
Aeces became tyrant of Samos, and 
between 404 and 439 B.C. was succeeded 
by Theomestor, who was set over the 
island by Xerxes as a reward for his 
bravery at the battle of Salamis. He 
was ruler at the time of the battle of 
Mycale, where the Samians contributed 
not a little to the victory. During this 
period, Samos shipping was famed in 
many seas. 

Alternating between the rule of 
Athens and Persia several times, the 
history of Samos, like that of all Greek 
communities, is a continuous record 
of factional fights between the aristo- 
crats and the democrats. During the 
long wars which followed between the 
successors of Alexander, history has 
little to say of the fate of Samos. 
During the early Roman conquests 
the Samians suffered severely. The 
island was captured by pirates and 
the temple of Hera was despoiled and 
destroyed. In 129 B.C. Samos was 
reduced to a Roman province along with 
the cities of Asia Minor. Proconsuls 
and pirates pillaged it in turn and all 
of its wealth was carried away. 

Up to the time of Vespasian, Samos 
retained nominal independence under 
all of the emperors, but in 70 a.d. it 
definitely became a Roman province 



SAMOS— ROMANTIC ISLE OF Till': .EGEAN 



9.-1 



and until tlic ('ifi;hlli ccntui-}- Sanios 
was forgotten. The 'ruikish 'I'zachos 
owned it at tlio end of the eleventh 
cent my, then it passed successively 
into the hands of the Venetians, the 
Pisans, and the Genoese, and was made 
a part of the Latin empire in 1204. 

In 1453 it finally fell into the hands 
of the Ottomans. The poj^ulation 
visibly ch^creased antl when the last of 
the Samians had emigrated the island 
IxM'ame a mere rendezvous. It was 
repopulated under Kilijd Ali by people 
of different islands, and upon his death 
in 1587, was returned to the Sultan. 
From this period until the war of in- 
dependence there was nothing notable 
in the history of Samos. Through the 
great European powers, France, Eng- 
land and Russia, Samos in 1835 begged 
for and obtained from the Sultan 
Mahmoud an autonomous govern- 
ment. From that time until 1912 
Samos was subject to the Porte, after 
which it came under the Greek govern- 
ment. 

So much for the history of Samos. 

It is a curious fact that whereas 
numerous passages are found in the 
works of ancient authors which prove 
their knowledge of the presence of 
fossils on the island of Samos, one does 
not meet with a single trace of this in 
modern writers until comparatively 
recent times. Euphorion recounts in his 
writings the fact that the island of 
Samos was inhabited in olden times by 
wild animals of gigantic size, called 
naiads, the bones of which still existed 
in his time. Two natural phenomena 
had evidently given rise to this myth. 
The roaring of the naiads which caused 
the earth to tremble and quake, refers 
beyond a doubt to the earthquakes 
which are still frequent in Samos and 
which were particularly mentioned bj' 
some of the ancient authors. The bones 



ot the naiads wliicli existed in the day.s 
of JMipliorion ar(; without doubt fossil 
bones. Plutarch, on th(> other hand, 
ascribes the.s(> l)ones, which wore still 
to be seen, to the Amazons who had 
been pmsued and slain by Bacchu.s, 
and he also adds that the piercing cries 
were in reality the cracking of the side 
of Mount Phlion. A Greek physician 
of Mitylinos, Dr. Achille Stephanides, 
fiist identified these bones as those of 
fossil animals, but they wei-e l)rought to 
the attention of the scientific world by 
Dr. C. J. Forsyth Major, who studied 
Doctor Stephanides' specimens when 
he made a systematic collection for the 
British Museum in 1887 and 1889. 

Subsequent to Dr. For.syth Major's 
work and previous to the world war, 
representatives of German and Austrian 
museums carried on extensive excava- 
tions. In 1921 I made a preliminary 
reconnaissance of the Samian fossil 
field, locating several favorable spots 
where bones were exposed. Fine 
paved roads, built under the Turkish 
suzerainty, connected many of the 
villages, but donkeys and a few saddle 
horses were the only means of getting 
about . 

From Hora northwai'd across the 
narrowest section of the island, there 
is a series of sedimentary river deposits 
totalling nearly a thousand feet in 
thickness, composed of creamy, buff- 
colored claj^s alternating with beds of 
volcanic ash which are in some places 
fifteen feet thick. The entire series is 
unquestionably a river deposit and 
represents the original course of the 
Maeander River, now debouching 
fifteen miles to the south, but which 
evidently had followed this course 
before Samos was broken awaj'' from 
the mainland. The village of Mitylinos 
is near the center of these fossil deposits 
and is situated at the foot of the 



26 



NATURAL HISTORY 




A street scene in Vathy 



Threading tol 



f-a\es on drying poles 



Ambelos range of mountains. Along 
the Potomis stream, several deposits of 
bones have been located, and fre- 
quently where new vineyard or tobacco 
terraces are being established the 
farmers uncover them. 

In 1923 I obtained a permit from the 
revolutionary government in Athens 
to excavate and collect fossils for one 
year in Samos. 

Early one morning in September the 
trim ship ''Muskantha," erstwhile 
palatial yacht of Egypt's Khedive, 
nosed along the verdant coast of Samos, 
and as we anchored in the peaceful 
Vathy harbor, almost among the build- 
ings, her musical siren echoed and re- 
echoed from every hillside, awakening 
the famous oracle of the historic isle. 
There are no trains to break the ennui 
of island life, but the powerful siren of 



the weekly mail boat brings farmers 
from long distances to the port for news. 

Many Samians have relatives in 
America; some have labored there, and 
I was informed by post office officials 
that 3000 were pensioners of Uncle 
Sam. Few speak more than the 
emphatic words of the English 
language, but fortunately I secured the 
services of an excellent interpreter. 

What a change had taken place since 
my last visit two years before! War 
with Turkey had been disastrous to 
Greece, and had brought thousands of 
Greek refugees to the island. Eveiy 
abode was filled to overflowing, and the 
steep, narrow streets were busy places. 
Around the street tables in front of 
every coffee shop sat groups of people 
talking politics and the price of tobacco 
as they sipped their coffee and Oj^zo. 




Villagers, in national nostume, smoking water pipes 



Sheep and goats graze the mountain-sides 



SAMOS— ROMANTIC ISLE OF T//K .KGEAN 




Christmas day in camp. — This snow was the first Samians had seen in many years. Rarely was there ice on 
our water buckets during the printer 



The tobacco fields of Asia Minor 
had been devastated, and that yeax 
Samos produced several million pounds 
of the golden leaf. Motor cars now 
made regular daily trips to the inland 
villages, and everywhere there was an 
air of activity and prosperity. 

From the inland village of Mitjdinos 
mules packed our camping outfit along 
the rocky trails to a camp site among 
the pines. After long search we found 
a spot level enough for the tents, not 
fa]' from our first quarry. The natives 
told us we could not winter in tents 
because of the heavy rains, but series 
of drainage ditches defeated their 
prophecy. 

Our advent soon brought scores of 
refugees seeking employment, and in 
two days our force was complete, 
eighteen men digging with picks, and 
six girls carrying out the dirt in baskets 
on their shoulders. Our first quarry 



was a large one, 30 feet long and 50 
feet deep, and it took long hours in the 
quarry to unco^'er the bone laj'er before 
the rains started. 

The seasons are very regular in the 
.Egean, and almost to a day, year after 
3'ear, the storms start ; likewise finish. 
Two days before our first big storm, 
countless flocks of geese filled the skj^ 
in V formation, migrating in tlieir long 
j ourney from the Arctic region to Egj'pt . 

By the time our first quarry was ex- 
cavated down to the bone laj^er, about 
the middle of December, the rains had 
started, and continued almost inccs- 
santh' until the middle of ]\Iarch. l)ut 
rain, snow and winds were not the 
worst part of our winter, for api:)arentlj^ 
all the fleas of the island, not already 
occupied, came to share our quarters. 

In October the underbrush was 
aglow with cyclamen ; in November the 
hills were abloom with heather, and 




The hillside before excavation was started. — The two men in the stream bed are pointing to the bone layer 




Work of excavating Quarry 1 by a series of terraces. — The bone layer is marked by a helmet on the bank 



28 




Eighteen refugee men loosened the clay with picks, and six women carried it out in baskets on their shoulders 




Quarry 1, 60 ft. long, 25 ft. into the bank, ^0 ft. deep. Old German quarry shown at left, workmen's tent above 

29 



30 



NATURAL HISTORY 




The climate of Samos is similar to that of southern California. Wild flowers grow in greatest profusion. 
Each day in spring brought forth a new variety of plant or shrub 



when the rains ceased, each day of 
spring brought forth a variety of wild 
flowers, in color and profusion surpas- 
sing any I have seen elsewhere in an 
equal area. 

The people of the island live huddled 
in villages, reminiscent of ancient days 
when individual safety depended on 
numbers. Early spring sees them 
climbing the stony trails out to their 
little terraced fields, each followed by 
his milk goat. They go to cultivate 
their vineyards, small patches of 
tobacco, and their meager gardens of 
tomatoes and beans. It is difficult to 
wrest a living from these rocky hill- 
sides where there is no pasturage for 
cattle; hence meat is a luxury in the 
island diet. Bread, beans, olives, and 
goat cheese, washed down with native 
wine, constitute the daily menu of 
the farmers, who are content with a 
bare living. 

Different was the lot of our quarry- 



men, destitute refugees, many of whom 
had been prosperous farmers in Turkey. 
They were thankful to have escaped 
with their lives, and eager to work in 
the quarries. Current wages on the 
island were low, but the attractive 
sum of 35 drachmes (70 cents) per day 
for the men and 20 drachmes per day 
for the girls secured the best workers. 
During their working day of ten hours 
they had four rest periods for eating 
and smoking. 

A large tent was supplied for the 
community dwelling of the men; 
another for the girls, most of whom 
had never been away from home before. 

Our camp in the fragrant pine grove 
was a Mecca for curious villagers, who 
were astounded at the ingenuity of the 
''Americanos" who could build buffet, 
table, bureaus, and chairs out of 
ordinary packing boxes. Our stove, 
the only one on the island, always 
brought forth ejaculations of "Oh 




Encasing individual specimens and blocks of fossils in plaster of Paris jackets. — Quarry 1 was a faulted area 
with fossils at the closed bank side 6 feet lower than those on the exposure 





'^''-^' ^ 




At the end of the season, large blocks, too hea\-j- for pack horses, were carried down the narrow, rocky trails 
by men 



31 



32 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Papa" and " Oreo." Turkish coffee and 
sweet crackers were a climax to these 
visits, after which they would wander 
homeward laden with empty cans, 
bottles, and old newspapers. 

Such luxuries as canned foods could 
not be found on the island and had to 
be shipped from Athens. The weekly 
trip to Vathy, a day's journey of eight 
miles bj" mule, brought fresh meat, 
potatoes, and the welcome mail from 
distant parts. 

TMien the rains ceased, quarry work 
was resumed and a large series of 
fossils was collected from the six 
quarries that were excavated during 
our year's work on the island. 

Transporting the large blocks from 
the hills for several miles along narrow 
rocky trails presented unusual difficul- 
ties, as many of the large specimens had 
to be carried on poles by groups of 
men in tandem. 



The fifty-six large cases of fossils 
secured comprise skulls, jaws, and 
partial skeletons representingthree spe- 
cies of three-toed horses, rhinoceroses, 
chalicotheres, many species of ante- 
lope and gazelle, samotheres, birds, 
and a variety of carnivorous mammals, 
a fauna that was contemporaneous 
with that found at Pikermi, Greece, 
and at Maragha, Persia, of Pontian 
Upper Miocene age. 

Our chief diversions were visits to the 
fascinating ruins of Tigani, and the 
picturesque monasteries high up in the 
mountain fastnesses, where we were 
always welcome. From the eyrie 
balcom" of the Monastery of Uranda 
we could look across to the hills of 
Ephesus, where St. Paul preached to 
the Ephesians, and visualize the stirring 
events that have marked the vicis- 
situdes of this little island during the 
history of the ages. 




Ephesus: — Amphitheater with view of small agora to the right and road leadins to the marble-lined harbor, 
indicated by the arrow. The cross marks the hill on which St. Paul was imprisoned 




Fig. 1. — One of the earliest pictures of the narwhal or "Piscis Monoceros" as figured by 
Francisci Willughbeii in 1686 as plate ii of his Historia Piscium 



Northward for NarwhaF 



By H. C. raven 

Associate Curator, Comparative and Human Anatomy, American Museum 

And there we hunted the wilrus, 

The narwhal, and the seal; 
Ha! 'twas a noble game! 
And like the lightning's flame 

Flew our harpoons of steel. 

— Longfellow." 



IN the middle ages a person setting 
out to hunt the ''mighty Mono- 
ceros" probably would not have 
known in what direction to go, also 
he might have looked for some ter- 
restrial beast; an animal with the 
form of a horse, the tail of a lion, 
cloven hoofs, and a long, straight, spi- 
rally twisted horn protruding from its 
forehead. Such a fabulous creature 
was made the supporter of the arms 
of Great Britain by James T. 

However, as early as 1655, the 
naturalist Wormius showed that the 
long, straight, spirally twisted tusk 
so often figured as the horn of the 
unicorn was in reality the tooth of a 
small whale, which lived in the ice- 
bound waters of the north Atlantic 
Ocean. At one time it was common in 
the seas about Iceland and Greenland, 
and was named "narwhal" or corpse 
whale by the Icelanders on account of 

2From "The Discoverer of the North Cape," 
quoted by Colin Matheson, 1927, in "Sea Ivory of 
Old Wales." Discovery, VIII, No. 85, p. 10. 



the pure white coloration of veiy old 
individuals. 

Eric the Red visited Greenland about 
the year 983 and soon afterward 
started a Norse colony on the south- 
west coast. Certainly these Norsemen 
must have found the narwhal in Green- 
land waters, though we have no records 
of their doing so, and probably they had 
known of it about Iceland for ages be- 
fore they reached Greenland. Even so, 
I believe the ancestors of the Eskimos 
were very likely the first people to 
hunt this remarkable mammal. 

The Eskimos with the kayak, a 
completely decked-over canoe evi- 
dently evolved for hunting the sea 
animals, were able to encounter rough 
water without fear of being swamped, 
and could sit warm and dry on a fur 
rug in the bottom of their tiny sea- 
going craft as they hunted the narwhal. 

Early in 1926 Mr. George Palmer 
Putnam organized an expedition to 
Greenland of which he was the leader. 



iPhotographs by H. C. Raven 



sa 



34 



NATURAL HISTORY 



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POLE 






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iYDNEY 



Fig. 2. — The arrows indicate the route followed by the American Museum Greenland 
Expedition of which Mr. George Palmer Putnam was leader 



One of the purposes of this expedition, 
known as the American Museum 
Greenland Expedition, was to obtain 
specimens of the narwhal for exhibi- 
tion in the Museum's new Hall of 
Ocean Life. The expedition left New 
Yorkthe latter part of June and reached 
Holstenborg, Greenland, early in July. 
The latter part of July found us much 



farther northward, at Cape York, 
where we first met the Polar Eskimos. 
Here, too, we first heard that narwhal 
were near by, and we saw parts of these 
animals which had been slain by the 
Eskimos, though we saw no living ones. 
A few days later the "Morrissey" 
was going at half speed among the ice- 
bergs near Northumberland Island on 




Fig. 3. — Parker Snow Bay, North Greenland, where the American Museum Crockerland 
Expedition spent the winter of 1915-1916. On the cliffs to the right, light patches indicate 
the nesting site of hundreds of murres and kittiwakes, while on the left, water from the 
glacier tumbles over the moraine 




Fig. 4. — Dovekies or little auks, nesting on the talus slopes at Parker Snow Bay, come in 
with their throats distended with tiny shrimplike animals which they feed to the young 
birds do^Ti among the rocks 



35 



36 



NATURAL HISTORY 



account of the dense fog. Thousands 
of dovekies, or little auks, flew and 
swam and dived near by, feeding on the 
countless invertebrate animals, and 
carrying countless others as food to the 
young dovekies which were secreted 
among the rocks on talus slopes of 
neighboring islands. Through the fog 
one of our party spied the body of an 
animal floating at the surface of the 
still water. A moment later a dory was 
put over and we learned that it was 
the body of a narwhal. It may have 
been dead several months, but the icy 
waters had prevented its decomposition . 
This specimen was not perfect ex- 
ternally, but its skeleton was as good 
as that of any other. Most interesting 
of all was the discovery that this adult 
female contained a foetus that was 
just about ready for birth at the time 
of the mother's death. The foetus 
was more valuable than the adult, con- 
sequently it was embahiied entire, to 
be used as the basis for studies on the 
soft anatomy of this whale which, on 
account of its boreal habitat, few 
anatomists have had an opportunity to 
examine. 

I remember very well the night we 
arrived at Kama. The fog had cleared ; 
there were beautiful cloud effects about 
Herbert Island to the westward; the 
sun was low in the north at midnight, 
throwing a pale pink glow over the 
icebergs before us and over the several 
glaciers on the south side of Whale 
Sound, the warm light contrasting 
beautifully with the cold blue of the 
shadows. 

On the north side of Inglefield Bay 
we found quite a large settlement of 
Eskimos. Through our friend Dr. 
Knud Rasmussen, the services of these 
hunters were enlisted. 

The Eskimos said in answer to our 
inquiries that there had been no nar- 



whal here for several weeks past, that 
they were all up at the head of Ingle- 
field Bay. This was disappointing news 
but plans were immediately got under 
way for two of our party to accompany 
some of the Eskimo hunters up the 
gulf in search of the narwhal which 
were the chief desiderata for the Mu- 
seum. Supplies for the trip were being 
gathered and loaded into the motor 
dory, when to our great surprise and 
delight, several narwhals were seen 
coming down the bay. Some of them 
came so close inshore that they passed 
between the beach where we stood and 
the "Morrissey" as she lay at anchor. 
I saw dozens of narwhals coming along, 
breaking the still surface of the water. 
The round bullet-shaped heads were 
forced upward and forward, and a little 
puff of spray was fljang from each blow 
hole. The glistening blackish backs 
were exposed for a moment, and as these 
disappeared, broad, horizontal flukes 
spread like wings; then the animals 
completely disappeared, leaving radiat- 
ing rings of wavelets momentarily 
reflecting the light of the midnight sun. 
The narwhals were not speeding but 
just quietly moving along in small 
groups. Most often there seemed to be 
three or four together. Watching 
them with the binoculars, I saw the 
members of a group come almost simul- 
taneously to the surface to blow, then 
dive and again come up about one 
hundred yards farther on. Sometimes 
I could distinguish the tusk of a male 
just as he rose to the surface. The 
sky and water reflected a beautiful 
light, and numberless drifting icebergs 
formed . a splendid background for 
these sleek cetaceans. 

Upon sighting the narwhals, we 
immediately postponed further prep- 
arations for the trip to the head of 
the gulf. Eskimo hunters arranged 



NORTHWARD FOR NARWHAL 



37 



their gear and put out at once in ka>'aks 
in pursuit of the quarry. There was no 
wild haste on the part of tlie hunt(M-s. 
Each in his slender kayak paddled 
swiftly and quietly away from the 
shore in a direction that would soonest 
coincide with the apparent course of the 
animals. We on the shore 
watched intently, expecting 
to see the Eskimos hurl 
their harpoons as soon as 
they neared the narwhals. 
They slowed down as they 
approached the spot where 
ripples on the water indi- 
cated narwhals had risen a 
few moments before. Then 
they cautiously followed in 
the wake of the torpedo- 
shaped beasts, at a speed 
sufficient to bring them a 
little closer to the animals 
each time they came to the 
surface to breathe. This 
required infinite patience, 
skill in handling the kayak, 
and an intimate knowledge 
of the animal's habits. 

After following the nar- 
whals for a tune, some of 
the hunters gave up the 
chase, as the animals dis- 
tanced them or changed their course, 
coming to the surface in unexpected 
places. On one occasion a narwhal 
came to the surface just behind a kayak 
and discovered the hunter. It dived at 
once, and when it was next seen it was 
far away, going fast, and still in com- 
pany with its associates which had all 
apparently received the alarm signal. 

Two of the hunters were successful. 
A big male narwhal was the first to be 
harpooned. After following it for a 
considerable distance, until the animal 
had come up in exactly the right posi- 
tion, a few feet ahead and to the right 
of the kavak, the hunter skillfully 



throw his harpoon with such force that 
it penetrated several inches into the 
bluhlxM- beneath the skin. As the 
harpoon pierced his skin he gave a 
convulsive jerk, a splash with his tail, 
and disappeared under water. The 
strong seal- or walrus-hide line, one 




Fig. 5. — The Eskimo hunter sits comfortablj' on a fur 
rug in his kaj-ak with his harpoon beside him, its line 
coiled'on the rack before him on deck 



end of which was made fast to the head 
of the harpoon, was coiled on a little 
frame above the deck just forward of 
the sitting Eskimo. The other end of 
the line was fastened to two objects: 
first the float, an entire sealskin inflated, 
and second, the drag, a shallow boxlike 
structure with sides of wood and the 
bottom covered with sealskin. Both 
were on deck close behind him. In 
diving, the narwhal pulled the line 
after him. It quickly uncoiled from 
the frame, but before all of it had run 
out, the Eskimo pushed overboard the 
float and the drag. 

This part of the procedure is espe- 





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40 



NATURAL HISTORY 



cially dangerous, for if the kayak 
should swing around to the right, or if 
the narwhal should turn to the left 
before the hunter was able to push over 
the drag and float and get clear of them, 





Fig. 8. — Heads of male (lower) and female 
(upper) narwhals. (1) shows the position of the 
eye; (2) indicates the location of the aperture 
of the ear, which is just large enough to ad- 
mit a broom straw 

thej' would certainly be fouled and 
drag the dusky huntsman to inevitable 
death. 

The whale, with the barbed head of 
the harpoon embedded beneath its 
skin, plowed through the water at a 
great rate, towing the float and drag 
on a tense and vibrating line. The 
Eskimo with apparent unconcern 
paddled along behind. A few strokes 
brought him to the shaft of his harpoon 
which had functioned properly, slip- 
ping out of the socket in the harpoon 
head, after expending its force against 
the narwhal. The kayak was so low 
that the hunter picked the shaft from 



the water without even bending down, 
and placed it with its throwing stick 
beside him on the deck. 

Paddling along in the general direc- 
tion taken by the narwhal, the hunter 
soon caught sight of the tell-tale 
float. He immediately started in that 
direction. It was perhaps a minute 
between the time the float bobbed up 
and the time the animal appeared at 
the surface to blow. The narwhal came 
up several tunes before the Eskimo 
caught up with it. However, it was 
not long before the excitement and 
exertion began to tell on the narwhal. 
It did not dive so deep, nor stay down 
so long. The float, of course, indicated 
what the animal was doing. 

The Eskimo inspected his lance as 
he neared the narwhal, in anticipation 
of delivering the death blow. The float 
was up and being pulled along the 
surface at a lively rate. The hunter 
seemed ahnost to move aside to let the 
narwhal break the surface of the water. 
Then, with lightning quickness, the 
little flat-faced man thrust the lance 
deep into the shining back just between 
the flippers. There was a great com- 
motion in the water and it looked as 
though thefrailkayak would be crushed 
by a blow from the hea\^ flukes. The 
narwhal dived again but stayed down a 
very short tmie. When it reached the 
surface, frothy blood was pouring from 
the blow hole and from the wound in 
its back. Twice more the lance was 
thrust into its lungs. It floundered, 
was unable to dive, and after a few 
convulsive quivers lay still. 

Shortly after thenarwhalhadexpired, 
another Eskimo paddled up alongside 
of the first one, then together they 
tried to tow it to shore, but progress 
was very slow against the silent 
strength of the tide. It was very early 
in the morning, between two and three 



NORTHWARD FOR NARWHAL 



41 




Fig. 9. — The Cape York Eskimos lives at the foot of a talus slope beside a great glacier 
which pushes into the bay. From this point of vantage they are constantly on the watch 
for animals of the sea 



o'clock, when Bob Peary learned that 
the annual had been killed. With char- 
acteristic vigor and enthusiasm he 
immediately set out in the motor dory 
with a couple of Eskimos, and about 
four o'clock he returned, awakened me, 
and said "I have just brought a big 
narwhal alongside, a male. The 
Huskies (Eskimos) have killed another 
which they say is just around that point 
to the east. Now we are going after 
that one, — probably have it here for 
you in an hour." 

As I had turned-in in a huny, 
dressing that morning consisted of 
putting on my shoes and coat, conse- 
quenth^ I was on deck in about two 
minutes. The mate and the two men 
in his watch were there, too, and there 
were several Eskimos aboard, plenty 
of hands to help in getting the prize on 
deck. A stout piece of rope was made 
fast around the tail just ahead of the 



flukes and the " Morrissey's " fore 
and main throat halj^ards were hooked 
into this. After an hour of pulling and 
hauling we raised the animal out of 
water and lowered it to the deck. 

This fine specimen measured just 
fifteen feet from the tip of the nose to 
the notch between the flukes, exclusive 
of the remarkable tusk which added five 
feet nine and one half inches, protrud- 
ing straight out in front from the roof 
of the mouth. The first thing I did 
was to make photographs and measure- 
ments of it. Later in the day, INIr. 
Lmiekiller, taxidermist of the expedi- 
tion, made plaster molds of all the 
more characteristic parts of theanimal's 
bod}^ such as the head, flippei*s, flukes, 
rudimentaiy dorsal fin, etc. With the 
aid of these casts, measurements, and 
photographs, a very accurate model of 
the narwhal will be made for exhibition 
in the Hall of Ocean Life. 







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44 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Before I had finished measuring this 
animal the other one was towed along- 
side and we immediately set about 
hoisting it aboard. This was a female 
and of course lacked the projecting 
tusk characteristic of the male, and 
was somewhat smaller. The color of 
these two specimens differed decidedly. 
The male was almost black along the 
midline of the back, there was some 
dark brown intermixed with the black, 
the sides were mottled blackish and 
white, the dark color appearing as if it 
had been put on by the strokes of a 
brush. The darker markings were fewer 
on the lower parts of the sides, and the 
belly was pure white. The female had 
a little white on the belly but on the 
sides gray replaced the white, and the 
still darker markings showed through 
this. The foetal specimen already 
mentioned was dark slaty gray all over. 
I thought the differences in color 
between the adults was a sexual one. 
The Eskimos, however, insisted that it 
had nothing to do with sex, that it was 
merely a matter of age. 
X Besides these specimens ■ other nar- 
whals were later secured for us in the 
same manner by the Eskimos. The 
total narwhal collection amounts to 
five adults, a young one probably not 
more than a few weeks old, a large 
foetus, an embryo about ten inches 
long, and skulls of other specimens. 
Much anatomica] material was pre- 
served besides the afore-mentioned em- 
balmed foetus : an embryo in utero, the 
brain of an adult, the head of an adult 
male, male and female urogenital organs, 
a stomach, and flukes and flippers. 

The adult narwhal has but two teeth. 
In the female these are straight, taper- 
ing, usually less than a foot in length, 
as large round as a pencil at the tip, 
and sometunes more than an inch in 



diameter at the base; the surface is 
rough and warty and the teeth are 
composed entirely of dentine. They 
remain buried in the upper jawbone 
throughout life. The right tooth of the 
male resembles those of the female, the 
left one (or very rarely both) grows 
from a persistent pulp and is sometimes 
more than two inches in diameter at 
the base and eight feet in length. The 
largest tusk we secured measured ex- 
actly seven feet, of which five feet, 
nine and one half inches, projected 
beyond the skin. The tusk of the male 
narwhal affords the only instance 
among the Cetacea of a striking second- 
ary sexual character. 

At the present time the narwhal along- 
the Greenland coast follow the edge of 
the ice, that is they keep close to bays 
which are covered with ice. As the 
bays of north Greenland freeze com- 
pletely in the latter part of the summer, 
some, at least, of the narwhal move 
southward. They arrive off south 
Greenland in October or November and 
leave again to go northward in April. 

To judge from my own observations, 
the food of the narwhal is principally 
fishes. One of the specimens I ex- 
amined contained remains of the 
Greenland rock cod, small flounders, 
and questionably salmon. 

The narwhal is of great economic 
value to the Eskimo. The Eskimos 
we met seemed to prize the raw skin, 
which is about an inch thick, above 
any other food. They eat the entire 
outer surface of the animal. The layer 
of blubber, four or five inches thick 
beneath the skin, is used for fuel, while 
most of the flesh is fed to the dogs. 
The tusk of the males is used in the 
construction of various implements and 
utensils and for trade with white men 
whenever opportunity offers. 



What Is Inherited? 



THE BEARING OF SOME RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN THE AMERICAN 
MUSEUM ON THE PROBLEM OF AN ANIMAL'S INHERITANCE 

By G. KINGSLEY NOIiLE 

Curator, Department of Amphibians and Reptiles, American Museum 



HOW can a single cell of proto- 
plasm, such as an amphibian 
egg, produce within a few days' 
time such a highly organized animal as 
a tadpole? No signs of the many 
structures of the animal are visible in 
the egg. The processes of heredity 
and development must be closely inter- 
woven and may well be considered 
together in attempting to answer the 
age-old question: What is inherited? 

The frog or salamander begins life 
as a single cell, the fertilized egg. The 
sperm brings to the egg little besides 
nuclear matter. Its acrosome, or 
point, has been formed by the trans- 
formation of certain cytoplasmic 
materials and the middle piece by 
others. But there is at present no 
definite evidence that these substances 
play any part in heredity. The heredi- 
tary factors of the male parent are 
brought in by the sperm nucleus 
while those of the female are located in 
the nucleus of the egg. The nuclear 
matter of both parents is composed 
largely of a number of bodies called 
chromosomes. These are now known 
from the combined researches of 
genetics and cytology^ to be the bearers 
of the determiners of heritable char- 
acters. The determiners are called 
genes. They lie in a linear order along 
the chromosomes. It is the segregation 
and recombination of the chromosomes 
during successive generations which 
gives the orderly sorting out and pre- 
dicta,ble regrouping of the so-called 
imit characters so readily observable 
in domesticated animals. 



The real nature of the gene, however, 
is still unknown, but the latter has 
been compared to a protein body. Wo 
may liken each chromosome to a 
laboratory table with a row of chemical 
reagents, the genes, in bottles along the 
leng-th of it. In the laboratory of the 
body cell there are two series of such 
tables (the chromosomes), one set 
derived from the female and one from 
the male parent. Each bottle on every 
paternal table corresponds in position 
to one on the homologous maternal 
table. Usually the reagents may be 
alike in each pair of bottles, but oc- 
casionally something has happened to 
one reagent or the other and it is found 
to be a different substance, but one 
related to that in the corresponding 
bottle of the other table. 

When germ cells are formed at the 
time of maturation and cell labora- 
tories are produced with only half the 
number of tables (chromosomes) found 
in the body cells, it happens by the 
rules of chance that certain germ cells 
will have chromosomes with chemicals 
different from those found in others, 
for each germ cell after maturation 
comes to contain some maternal and 
some paternal chromosomes, one or 
the other member of each pair of 
chemical tables just desciibed. The 
individuals resulting from the fertiliza- 
tion of these chemically different germ 
cells are equallj' different. Almost 
every species found in natm'e is, there- 
fore, composite, for it includes a number 
of genetically distinct strains. 

It would seem hopeless at first glance 

45 



46 



NATURAL HISTORY 



to ascertain the original complement 
of chemicals in any one individual. 
Careful breeding experiments of 
geneticists, however, have disclosed 
the specific effects of certain genes. 
The results produced in later genera- 
tions after one chemical has spontane- 
ously changed into another may be 
very marked. More often, however, 
many small and insignificant changes in 
man}^ parts of the animal's body result 
from the mutation of a single gene. 
These changes may be of the same size 
and extent as the differences which 
systematists seize upon to define sub- 
species or species. All the heritable 
differences ever described in animals 
have been found when fully anatyzed 
to have been caused ultimately either 
by changes in the genes or in the whole 
chromosomes. 

A gene, however, is not a substance 
which will give rise to an organ or a 
part of an organ. It is the combined 
effect of all the genes working together 
which produces any one organ. The 
genes are the hereditary factors, but 
they are part of a cell system which 
acts as a whole. This is well shown in 
the recent work on sex determination. 
It is a balance of the genes of one or 
more sex chromosomes working against 
those of the other chromosomes which 
conditions a reaction in the developing 
egg, resulting later in the development 
of one sex instead of the other. 

The chromosome complex is handed 
on by cell division to all the cells of the 
body. As the cells of the skin have the 
same number of chromosomes (except 
in certain unusual cases) as the fertil- 
ized egg, the question arises : What has 
determined that thej^ shall become skin 
instead of remaining germ cells? In 
brief, what determines the differentia- 
tion of cells? 

The frog's egg even before fertiliza- 



tion has a certain organization which 
affects the pattern of differentiation. 
It has an apico-basal polarity as shown 
externally by the distribution of the 
pigment. As development continues 
and the egg rotates, this polarity be- 
comes the antero-posterior axis of the 
embryo. Polarity is a phenomenon 
characteristic of most cells and its oc- 
currence in the unfertilized egg is no 
more mystical (or better understood) 
than the same condition in the skin 
cells. Many investigators have con- 
cluded that polarity is inherent in 
protoplasm itself and is due to the 
polarization of the ultimate structural 
particles of the ooplasm. Nevertheless, 
the polarity may be altered by gravity 
or other external forces, as Morgan 
and others have shown. 

A second axis in the frog's egg is 
established at the moment of fertiliza- 
tion. ' The egg becomes bilateral on 
the appearance of a gray crescent 
(caused by the retreat of pigment into 
the interior) opposite the point of pene- 
tration of the spermatozoan. Thus, 
before the male and female nuclear 
matter have come together in the 
act of fertilization, both the antero- 
posterior and the transverse axes of 
the future embryo are already estab- 
lished. 

Cleavage, or the division of the egg 
into cells, begins with a definite relation 
to the first of these axes, but is soon 
modified by the quantity of yolk pres- 
ent. At the end of cleavage the egg has 
grown no larger but it has distributed its 
chromatin as nuclei throughout the egg. 
The chromatin may have increased in 
amount by growth, but in some 
Amphibia the increase is not marked. 
The cleavage period is one of re- 
arrangement of chromatin as regards 
the cytoplasm of the egg but not a 
period of visible differentiation. 



WHAT IS INHERITED? 



47 



Novortheloss, a certain amoiiiit of 
diffenMitiation must have taken place 
at the nionuMil (ho ^vny crescent was 
formed, for this region now take? the 
lead in active cell proliferation. It 
becomes the dorsal lip of the blastopore. 
The embryo, at the moment this region 
is beginning to proliferate, is not a 
mosaic of potential parts. If the 
region which would become the eye is 
transplanted into the region which 
would become the gills of another speci- 
men it promptly develops into gills. 
As development continues the situation 
changes. Now when the potential eye 
is transplanted into the gill region, it 
becomes an eye. During this short 
interval of time the potentialities have 
become fixed. Spemann and his asso- 
ciates have analyzed this problem of 
fixation further. A piece of the dorsal 
lip region of one species of newt was 
transplanted into the indifferent ecto- 
derm of another. Here it asserted 
itself and formed partly out of its own 
-cells (distinguished by their color), but 
mostly out of the tissues of the host, a 
partial embryo. The growing dorsal 
lip region is endowed with a superior 
power by which it can organize not 
onty adjacent tissues but even the 
indifferent tissues of another species of 
animal into which it has been grafted. 

The nature of this organizing in- 
fluence is not known. But it is impor- 
tant to note that what a cell becomes is 
dependent as much on the influence of 
an adjacent part as on its own chroma- 
tin constitution. This holds equally 
true as development continues. The 
first rudiment of the brain is organized 
out of the indifferent ectoderm by the 
dorsal lip tissue, turned in to form 
mesentoderm. As the brain develops, 
it produces a pair of optic cups which 
come to lie under the adjacent ecto- 
derm. Here, in some Amphibia at 



least, each cu]) indu(!es a lens to form 
even out of foreign ectoderm brought 
by the experimenter into its immediate 
vicinity. If we call the original dorsal 
lip tissue a primary organizer, we may 
well call the optic cup which it forms a 
secondary organizer, foi- it in turn has 
the power of organizing indifferent 
tissues. Thus, it appears that tissue 
first organiz(Ml may become in turn an 
organizer. Development is a progres- 
sive adjustment of cells to sui-rounding 
cells. 

Most organs are determined long 
before they appear as visible structures. 
Organized cells may influence the 
development of tissues in other parts of 
an animal's body. Thus, Harrison has 
shown that the factors which call forth 
the development of the salamander 
balancer, that characteristic process on 
either side of the mouth of the earh'- 
Ambystoma larva, are early localized 
in a certain region of the ectoderm. 
This takes the lead in balancer forma- 
tion and Harrison suggests that it may 
possibly affect the underljdng tissues 
by enzjane action. As development 
continues, the balancer attracts a twig 
from the mandibular branch of the 
fifth nerve. If the balancer rudiment is 
transplanted to an abnormal position 
it may attract a twig from a more 
posterior nerve or even from similar 
nerves in a frog tadpole. 

Development is, therefore, a highly 
epigenetic phenomenon, each part being 
built up out of the cooperative action 
of preceding parts. Throughout all 
the changes of development the original 
chromosomes, quantitatively' divided 
many times and distributed throughout 
the body as the most conspicuous j-jart 
of cell nuclei, are present, giving the 
distinguishing specificity to each devel- 
opmental stage. A hereditary altera- 
tion in the equipment of genes mil give 



48 



NATURAL HISTORY 



a corresponding alteration in some or 
all of the stages of development. 

Any stage of development may be 
affected by the external environment. 
Genes are present, but only able to 
produce their effects when certain 
environmental conditions are present. 
Geneticists have shown numerous muta- 
tions carried concealed by different 
stocks and only appearing when certain 
optimum conditions of food, moisture, 
or temperature are reaHzed. Without 
suitable environment, no characters 
can appear. Certain \dviparous sala- 
manders regularly produce more young 
than they can bear. The embryos that 
happen to be in unfavorable parts of the 
oviduct never develop beyond a certain 
point. 

The primary and secondary organiz- 
ers of the developing embryo seem to 
act by producing an internal environ- 
ment which stimulates the development 
of those tissues which happen to lie in 
the proximity of that influence. The 
nature of this environment is entirely 
unknown, for no one has yet succeeded 
in isolating a part of it distinct from 
the tissue producing it. As the embryo 
develops, there arises still a third group 
of organizing centers. These are the 
glands of internal secretion and they 
usually differ from the secondary or- 
ganizers in that they affect many parts 
of the body at one time. They are in 
some ways more satisfactory to stud^^ 
than the other organizers, for their 
secretion may be isolated as a distinct 
substance and analyzed chemically. 

The glands of internal secretion in- 
clude the thyroid, the parathyroid, the 
adrenal organs, the pituitary, the 
thymus, the islets of Langerhans in 
the pancreas, and the gonads. Some 
of these glands consist of two or more 
parts having very different functions. 
If an animal should inherit an ab- 



normally large or small gland of internal 
secretion, it would have a profound 
effect on the animal's body. The func- 
tions of some of these glands may be 
considered in more detail. 

Perhaps the best known endocrine 
gland in the Amphibia is the thyroid. 
The hormone secreted by this gland 
produces metamorphosis. In other 
words, it causes in a very short time 
pronounced changes in the skin, skele- 
ton, digestive tract, musculature, sense 
organs, and beha\dor. If the thj^oid 
be removed from an amphibian larva 
no metamorphosis will take place. The 
thyroid, however, is affected in turn, by 
other internal "environments." A re- 
moval of the anterior lobe (actually 
posterior in position in Ajnphibia) of 
the pituitary prevents metam.orphosis; 
in the absence of this lobe the thyroid 
fails to function and frequently degen- 
erates rapidly. 

The hormone of the pituitary has no 
effect on metamorphosis except as it 
affects the functioning of the thyroid. 
The pituitary has other functions to 
perform. The anterior lobe has a 
profound effect on growth and, as 
shown by Uhlenhuth, the addition of 
anterior lobe substance to the body of 
the salamander produces gigantism. 
Acromegalous men and the ponderous 
dinosaurs seem to owe their gigantism 
to their enlarged pituitaries. 

The pars intermedia of the pituitary 
has a totally different influence on the 
body than the jpars anterior. Its 
secretion produces an expansion of the 
black pigment cells, or melanophores, 
of the skin, resulting in a darkening of 
the coloration. A removal of the pitui- 
tary results in a contraction of the 
melanophores and the animal becomes 
ghostly white. In the normal daily 
color change of Amphibia the hormone 
of the pars intermedia probably acts 



WHAT IS INHERITED? 



49 



against the hormone fi'oni the ach'enal 
organs, for the secretion of the hitter 
is well known to bring about a eon- 
traction of the nielanophores. 

Without attempting to analyze the 
functions of the other endocrine glands, 
it is of interest to i)ass on at this point 
to animals as they occur in nature. 
The older naturalists finding such 
bizarre creatures as Proteus, the blind 
cave salamander of the mountainous 
region east of the Adriatic, were sure 
that here was a splendid example of 
the effect of the environment. ''Com- 
mon sense" made it clear that any 
animal such as Proteus, living in sub- 
terranean waterways would have no 
use for the structures of the land ani- 
mal, for nielanophores or for eyes. 
The failure to use these structures 
caused them to degenerate and in time 
this defect was inherited. 

A closer examination of the problem 
showed, however, that some sala- 
mander larvffi of other species, which 
would ordinaril}^ metamorphose, fre- 
quently failed to do so in nature even 
under enviromiiental conditions which 
permitted metamorphosis in their 
brothers and sisters. In these cases 
the thyroid was found to be deficient 
in size or structure. This led the Dutch 
anatomist Versluys recently to examine 
the thyroids of all the neotenous 
urodeles, that is, all those groups which 
never metamorphose. He found some 
of the genera had actively secreting 
thyroids while in others the thyroid 
was apparently incapable of function- 
ing. He concluded that the thyroid 
of the first group was deficient in the 
metamorphosing principle, and that 
all permanent larvae, including Proteus, 
owed their neotenous condition to a 
deficiency of the thyroid. 

In the American Museum, however, 
the problem was attacked by the ex- 



perimental method. The thyi'oids of 
Siren, Cryptubranchus, and Amphiuma 
were fed to Amby stoma larvse deprived 
of their thyroids. Witliin fourteen 
days all of the animals began to meta- 




A salamander which has become a perma- 
nent larva is merely juvenile, not necessarily 
primitive. The phylogenetic relation of the 
permanent larvae is expressed in the above 
diagram, which also shows the different 
developmental levels attained by the various 
families 

morphose, proving conclusively that 
the thyroids of these forms were not 
deficient in the metamorphosis-induc- 
ing principle. Further, young and 
old specimens of these same genera, as 
well as ver\' young larvae of Necturus, 
were kept for months in a solution of 
iodothyrine, known to produce a 
metamorphosis in Amby stoma, but 
without result. Injection experiments 
and attempts to metamorphose the 
very young hypophysectomized Crypto- 
branchus showed conclusiveh' that the 




FROM NATURE'S LABORATORY 
An albinistic permanent larva produced by Nature. Proteus anguinus, the bUnd salamander 
of Europe, is a product both of its heredity and of its environment, for the latter "molds 
what the former provides. This effect of the environment is, however, never transmitted to 
the next generation 



50 




FROM THE MUSEUM'S LABORATORY 
An albinistic permanent larva produced in the laboratory: a tiger salamander deprived 
of its thyroid and pituitary glands early in Ufe. These glandular deficiencies bring the same 
apparent result that Nature has obtained by the method of mutation 



51 



52 



NATURAL HISTORY 



tissues of these permanent larvae were 
not sensitized to the thyroid hormone. 
In some way these urodeles had become 
immune to the action of their own 
thyroids. 

But, how could such an immunity 
have been brought about? Immunity 
as a genetic factor is well known. A 
change, a mutation in one or more of 
the genes has made certain laboratory 
animals resistant to the action of certain 
diseases. And the same thing has been 
witnessed in nature. \\Tien the plague 
was destroying thousands of rats and 
men in the Orient some years ago, 
there suddenly appeared a strain of 
rats resistant to the plague. The 
data at present available seems to 
indicate that the permanent larvae owe 
their neoteny to a mutation of some 
gene which rendered their tissues non- 
sensitive to the action of their thyroids. 

This does not mean that all neoteny 
is due to genetic factors. Urodeles, 
such as the axolotl or even the common 
two-Hned salamander, owe their pro- 
tracted larval period to the non- 
functioning of the thyroid. All uro- 
deles that lay their eggs at high alti- 
tudes show a tendency toward neoteny, 
for the cold waters prevent the thyroid 
from functioning and the larvae do not 
metamorphose. If any of these larvae, 
however, have thyroid substance fed 
to them, or if a sudden rise in the tem- 
perature permits their thyroids to 
function, they will metamorphose with- 
in two or three weeks into land ani- 
mals. It is clear that in this case an 
environmental factor, cold tempera- 
ture, is causing, at least for a limited 
period, the same result as the genetic 
one in the other group. 

Proteus, itself, illustrates admirably 
how greatly the environment may 
affect the outward appearance of an 
aliimal, covering up, so to speak, the 



features which are determined by the 
genes and which would appear under 
other environmental conditions. If 
Proteus is kept in the light for a time it 
will become completely pigmented. 
Each individual apparently inherits a 
complete equipment of tyrosin or other 
chromogen base. But its oxidizing 
enzyme which would convert this into 
melanin can act only on a prolonged 
exposure to light. This is different 
from the conditions in other Amphibia 
which may become pigmented even in 
the absence of light. No doubt, all 
Amphibia contain in their genetic 
make-up numerous potential characters 
which are destined never to appear un- 
less special environmental conditions 
present themselves. In other words, 
the developmental expression of the 
same heredity complex may vary with 
the environment, but in cases where 
this variation occurs, the heredity 
complex is not altered in the slightest. 
It is carried unimpared and ready to 
produce the more usual results when 
enviromnental conditions permit. 

In some cases, the result of a genetic 
factor (but not the factor itself) may 
be completely reversed by environ- 
mental influences. This is well shown 
in the case of sex reversal where an 
internal ''environment" said by some 
to be of a nutritional, by others of a 
hormonic nature, is known to have re- 
versed the sexes of various salamanders, 
frogs, and toads. A change in the 
character of the gonads results in a host 
of changes in the body of the animal. 
By transplanting a testis into the body 
of an adult female salamander we have 
caused cloacal glands, the structures 
which produce the spermatophores of 
the male, to develop in the female 
cloaca. The removal of the testis in 
the male caused its monocuspid pre- 
maxillary teeth to be replaced within 



WHAT IS IM/J'Jh'/ri'JD? 



53 



SL\ week's time by shorter bicuspid 
ones. Most secondary sexual charact ers 
are well known to be controlled by 
secretions from the gonads. 

The analysis need not be carried 
further. It is clear that characters 
are never inherited as such but appear 
only after a long series of interactions 
between the hereditary components 
and a series of internal and external 
environments. Heredity gives an ani- 
mal more potential characters than 
can ever develop. Environment de- 
termines which of these shall appear, 
but it cannot produce characters which 
are not provided for by heredity. The 
actual inheritance of an animal is thus 
ultimately dependent on the original 
complement of genes. But what 
determines the gene complement? Do 
mutations always arise spontaneously 
or may the environment cause a change 
in a gene? The recent work of Harrison 
on induced melanism in moths, and the 
work of Guyer and Smith on heritable 
eye defects in rabbits make it seem 
possible that under certain conditions a 
gene may actually be affected by an 
abnormal environment. But this 
change is not adaptive, it is rather to 
be compared with alterations in the 
chromosomes which have been pro- 
duced by X-ray irradiations, except 



that the defect seems to be localized to 
a single gene. The attack on the 
nature and nmtability of the gene goes 
forward, but so far it has taught only 
in regard to adaptations that they are 
chance associations. Certainly most 
adaptations, and, so far as our experi- 
mental data show, all inheritable 
adaptations have arisen independent 
of the environment. Even such highly 
adapted mechanisms as the "sucking 
disks" of tree frogs we now know from 
studies made in the Museum's labora- 
tories to have arisen before some groups 
of frogs became aboreal and are re- 
tained by others which have reverted 
to an aquatic habitat. Animals make 
the best of what nature gives them. 
The blind Proteus with its juvenile 
habitus and deficient pigmentary and 
optic equipment has sought the only 
habitat where negatively heliotropic 
and thigmotactic habits would take a 
permanent larva. Nevertheless, Pro- 
teus is a product of its environment, for 
if it had not sought the caves, its trans- 
lucent skin would have become densely 
pigmented. Proteus like many other 
living organisms might have been a far 
different and, according to salamander 
standards, a better animal in another 
environment. What more can be said 
of Man? 




The dwarf salamander Manculus. — The 
elongated teeth and cirrus are secondary sexual 
characters found only in the male 




FIG. I. VARVED CLAY FROM THREE GLACIAL LAKE BED8 NEAR NEW YORK CITY 

The thick dark bands denote the winter accumulation; the intervening lighter colored layers represent the 
summer deposition. A pin at the upper edge of each of the dark winter bands marks the limits of each 
varve. The distance between pins thus represents a varve, or annual deposit. 

Section No. 34 contains eighteen varves deposited in glacial Lake Passaic one half mile north of Mountain 
View, New Jersey. An offset in the layers near the right margin represents a fault; the joining of two dark winter 
bands in the upper right of the section is due to a lateral slide. 

Section No. 422 is a bottom sample taken from clay deposited in Lake Hackensack, one mile north of Little 
Ferry, New Jersey. The bottom varve (-1086), which rests upon the glacial drift or till, has been disturbed by a 
slide. The numbers with negative sign represent the author's count of the varves below a datum plane for the Little 
Ferry district, described in American Museum Novitates No. 209, 1926. This section was cut by a special clay 
sampling tool, at a depth of ten feet, below the lowest working level of the Gardiner clay pit. 

Section No. 172 from the Archer pit, Haverstraw, New York, shows nine varves deposited in Lake Hudson. 
The varves in this sample are thicker than those in the other two samples. Sections No. 34 and No. 172 are gray 
in tone, while No. 422 is of a pronounced red color. The color of the clays is ascribed to the difference in the color 
of the underlying rocks, which were scored and scoured by the advancing glacier. 



54 



Glacial Lakes and Clays Near New York City 



Bv CHESTER A. REEDS 

Curator of Invertebrate Pala ontology, American Museum 



INTRODUCTION 

THE writer's attention was first 
directed to the need of an ex- 
ploration of the glacial lakes and 
associated clays in the vicinity of 
New York City, on the occasion of the 
visit of Baron Gerard de Geer and his 
party to the American Museum of 
Natural History in the summer of 
1920. Baron de Geer^ came here from 
Sweden for the specific purpose of 
examining the seasonally banded clay 
deposits in the Hudson River valley, 
from Haverstraw northward, and to 
compare the time element of the Ameri- 
can deposits with the thousands of 
years which he had established for 
the deposition of similar clays in 
Sweden. Since there were no exhibits 
of such material in the American 
Museum, or in any other museum 
in the United States, it was desirable 
that a series of sections of American 
clays should be assembled in New York. 
The clays are unique in that they 
are bilaminar for each year (Fig. 1). 
One lamina represents the amount of 
"summer" deposition, the other the 
"winter" accumulation. Taken to- 
gether, the paired bands constitute a 
varve or annual deposit. 

The clays are of glacial age, since 
each layer had its origin in an annual 
retreat stage of the ice of the last glacia- 
tion. They were developed as follows: 
As the ice melted and retreated slowly 
northward during the warm summer 
months of each year, the swollen rivers 
which flowed out from under the ice 
mass picked up the fine sand and clay 

'James F. Kemp, "Baron Gerard de Geer and His 
Work," Natural HiSTORr, Vol. XXI, pp. 31-33. 



particles and transported them to 
fresh-water lakes which occupied the 
lower portions of the enclosed Vmsins in 
front of the glacier. As the stream 
currents on entering the still waters of 
the lake gi'adually lost their power to 
transport their load of sediment, tiic 
fine sand and coarse clay particles 
settled down over the lake bottom to 
form the sandy summer layer. During 
the cold winter months of each year the 
ice-front became stationary, the en- 
glacial and subglacial stream courses 
either ran dry or congealed, and little, 
if any, sediments were transported by 
the rivers into the lakes. The surface 
of the lake also became encrusted with 
ice and snow, and the fine clay particles, 
which had been held in suspension in 
the milky water following the summer 
incursions, slowly settled to the bottom 
to form the bluish, reddish, or dark 
winter layers composed of pure clay. 
Before the end of the winter season, the 
lake waters cleared, and a sharp line of 
demarcation was estabhshed between 
the top of the "winter" layer and the 
base of the succeeding "summer" 
layer. This well-defined line is of 
value to the collector or student in 
separating the seasonal layers into 
varves or annual deposits. 

LITTLE FERRY AND HAVERSTRAW CLAYS 

In the summer of 1923, the writer, 
with Mr. P. B. Hill as field assistant, 
sectioned the clay banks in five pits 
along the west bank of the Hackensack 
River in the vicinity of Little Ferry, 
New Jersey, and brought samples of all 
of the exposed varves to the American 
Musermi for preservation and study. 

66 




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= s S 



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I c3 tn 



::S'3s 



^ +j HH "^ 






-S t..S CO 

3.^ oj'o 






03 



1^1^ 
C3 fe C3 S 

_ 0) rj (U 



5^ ^(i. 



0) ^Tf^j 

:£•- g c 

"o ° OJ S 

-- " ^ 

0) g c « 



C >, <" J- m 

^ "^ '^ C3 

3.°^ m 03 

p. >.2 s * 












GLACIAL LAKES AND CLAYS NEAR NEW YORK CITY 



57 



In the field, varves were foiiiid in j^reat 
abundance in all the pits, hut no one 
excavation contained all of them. A 
composite section from the five pits^ 
gave us forty-five feet of clay and a 
continuous series of 2550 varves, repre- 
senting as many years for the deposi- 
tion of the material as the ice-front 
retreated slowly northward up the 
HackenSack valley. 

In 1925, the writer, with Mr. Lewis 
W. MacNaughton as field assistant, 
sectioned the clay banks in five differ- 
ent pits at Haverstraw, New York, 
and two near Dutchess Junction on the 
Hudson. The various banks were not 
conveniently situated for piecing to- 
gether a continuous section; however, 
more than 1500 separate and distinct 
varves were obtained in the samples 
procured. 

The clay pits near New York City 
having been sectioned, an entirely 
different method of sampling the near- 
by clays was developed and tried suc- 
cessfully in 1926. Open clay pits were 
seldom worked with steel form and 
copper tray as in the previous years; 
instead deep holes of small diameter 
were bored, followed by an ingenious 
slicing tool which cut an undisturbed 
section of the clay and fed it into copper 
trays, each two feet long. This method 
made it possible for us to obtain 
samples in selected places, even the 
first varves that were laid down on the 
bottom of the lake (Fig. 1, No 422). 

ADVANCE AND RETREAT OF THE ICE 

An examination of the map (Fig. 2) 
will show that the southernmost point 
reached by the ice of the last glaciation 
was Prince's Bay, Staten Island, and 
Perth Amboy, New Jersey. The 
terminal moraine, which indicates the 

iReeds, Chester A., 1926, "The Varved Clays at 
Little Ferry, New Jersey," American Museum Novi- 
tates. No. 209, pp. 1-16. 



soiilliciii liinil of glaciation, is not only 
well-developed at Perth Amboy, but it 
extends northeastward across Staten 
Island and Long Island, and north- 
westward tiu'ouuh Suminit and Monis- 
town. New Jei.sey. The fnjnt of the 
glacier thus assumed a sinuous lobate 
outline due no doubt to the i-ather 
broad open features of the Ilackensack 
valley, throughout the fifty miles of 
its north-south extent, as compared 
with the narrow and deep defile of the 
Hudson River, the major stream, to the 
east. The Pahsade ridge along the east 
flank of the Hackensack valley, and the 
Watchung Mountains and New Jersey 
Highlands along the northwest margin, 
tended to retard the glacier as it moved 
southward in those areas. The direc- 
tions of ice movement, derived from 
the glacial scratches or strite, are indi- 
cated in Figure 2 by the dotted radial 
fines. The Hackensack valley thus 
became the main line of advance of the 
glacier, and being lower in elevation 
than the adjacent areas, it contained 
the greatest thickness of ice. 

At the present time no one knows 
how long the ice-front stood at the 
terminal moraine ; we can merely guess 
and say several thousand years. 
Neither does anyone know definitely 
what positions the ice-front occupied 
at successive stages of the annual re- 
treat northward. We can assume, 
however, as a working hypothesis, that 
it retreated equall}' along the entire 
sinuous front. On the map (Fig. 2) 
the assumed stages, at intervals of one 
mile, have been indicated, following in 
reverse direction the same radial lines 
(dotted) along which the ice is known 
to have advanced. According to this 
theoiy the ice-front at anj'- one posi- 
tion, for example, the ten mile stage 
(Fig. 3), was very irregular, with the 
ice-tongue in the Hackensack valley 



58 



NATURAL HISTORY 



persisting after the adjacent highlands 
had been cleared of ice. Such a working 
hypothesis is very helpful in attempting 
to correlate contemporaneous varves in 
lakes ha\dng the same latitude. 

GLACIAL LAKE PASSAIC 

When the ice-front reached its maxi- 
mum extent, a glacial lake known as 
Lake Passaic partially filled the 



developed, and must have existed for a 
considerable period. For a detailed 
mapping of the shore-line and deposits 
of this well-known glacial lake, one 
should examine the Passaic and Raritan 
FoKos of the United States Geological 
Survey, and Volume V of the New 
Jersey Geological Survey. 

As the glacier retreated from year 
to year, varved clays were deposited 



m-- 




Fig. 5. — Profile drawing sho ving up.varped shore-line and vertical distribution of the stratified deposits inglacia 
Lake Passaic. ^.Data from glacial geology sheets of the Passaic and Raritan Folios, U. S. Geological Survey 



natural basin to the south of the termi- 
nal moraine, in the vicinity of Summit 
and Morristown, New Jersey. Its 
southern shore followed the recurved 
basaltic rock of the second Watchung 
Mountain at an elevation of 345 feet 
(Fig. 2) . The lake waters did not rise 
above this height, for the Moggy 
Hollow outlet at the southwest corner 
permitted the water to flow out into a 
tributary' of the Raritan River and 
eventually into the sea. 

As the glacier retreated northward 
down the valley of the upper Passaic 
River, the waters of Lake Passaic 
followed the ice-front as far as Pomp- 
ton Plains (Fig. 4) , and filled the entire 
basin lying between the Watchung 
Mountains and the New Jersey High- 
lands up to an elevation of 360 feet 
above sea level. The present lowest 
point in the lake basin is 160 feet above 
mean tide, so that the lake during its 
maximum extent must have had a 
depth of 200 feet. In some places the 
shore-line of this glacial lake is faintly 
preserved; in others it is well- 



in certain areas on the floor of the lake, 
particularly in low places near where 
the subglacial streams debouched. 
The basin has not been fully prospected 
for glacial clays, but the writer in 
1922 observed a few varves close to the 
terminal moraine in Morristown, and 
in a claj^ pit at ^^'llippan5^ Some four 
hundred varves, many of which were 
contorted, were also examined in a clay 
pit one-half mile north of Mountain 
View, New Jersey. 

UPWAEPED SHORE-LINES OF 
LAKE PASSAIC 

Since the glacier disappeared from 
eastern North America, the shore- 
lines of former glacial Lake Passaic 
have been warped upward 67 feet 
(412 feet less 345 feet) more at their 
northern end than along their southern 
margin (Fig. 5). The lake had an 
extent of 30 miles along its northeast- 
southwest axis, or 26 miles on the 
meridian. This represents a differen- 
tial upwarping of the region in the 
vicinity of New York City, in a north- 
south direction, of approximately 2}i 



GLACIAL LAKES AND CLAYS NEAR NEW YORK (irY 



59 



feet per mile, or twenty foot in nine 
miles. This marked cliaiific in eleva- 
tions of the land is known to have 
affected all the territory occupied by 
the continental glacier in central and 
eastern North America, extending from 
a zero or hinge line in central New 
Jersey up to approximately 1000 feet 
to the north of Quebec, Canada. Such 
differential changes in elevation are 



thirty years ago brick yardp were 
established at various points in the 
northern half of the Hackensack valley 
but at present all these enterprises 
have been discontinued except in the 
vicinity of Little Ferry, where large 
open pits have been excavated below 
sea level. To the south of this point 
the basin is for the most part covered 
by salt water or salt-water marshes. 



CRANFORD 




■« MAURER 



Fig. 6. — Profile drawing showing upwarped shore-line and vertical distribution of the stratified deposits in 
glacial Lake Hackensack. Data from the glacial geology slieet of the Passaic Folio, U. S. Geological Survey, and the 
author's field notes 



not confined to eastern North America, 
for it has been noted that the glaciated 
territory of northwestern Europe has 
been upwarped in a similar manner. 
Where the relief of the land was 
affected most, it is believed that the 
ice was thickest. It was the removal of 
the load of ice and certain subcrustal 
or isostatic movements that took place 
within the earth, that in all probability 
brought about the changes in elevation. 

GLACIAL LAKE HACKENSACK 

The main lines of railroad that 
approach New York City from the 
west, cross the Hackensack meadows 
just before reaching the Hudson River. 
No doubt many a traveler who has seen 
this broad expanse of marsh has asked 
the question: Why is this? Prior to 
1922, when the writer began his investi- 
gation on the geochronology of the 
clays, glacial Lake Hackensack had not 
been outlined or recognized. The 
commercial value of the clays, how- 
ever, had been noted by various state 
and federal geologists. Twenty to 



The varved claj^s, however, were 
deposited in a fresh-water glacial lake 
and not in an arm of the sea.^ While 
the shore-lines of this glacial lake have 
not been traced in detail in the field, 
we know the amount of post-glacial 
upwarping for the Lake Passaic basin, 
and can apply that data with profit to 
the Hackensack valley. 

Glacial Lake Hackensack, as shown 
on the sketch map, Fig. 4, was out- 
lined by the writer in 1924, and pre- 
sented in abstract the same 3'ear at the 
Ithaca meeting of the Geological 
Society of America.- The approximate 
shore-line starts with the jVIam-er 
delta deposit which rises from sea level 
to 30 feet, inside the terminal moraine 
less than two miles north of Perth 
Amboy. With this delta as a bench 
mark, the 20, 40, 60, SO, 100, and 120 feet 
contour lines on the topographic maps 
were followed for nine miles each, the 

lAntevs, Ernst, 1925, "Condition of Formation of the 
Varved Glacial Clay," BuU. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 36, 
pp. 171-172. 

=Reed3, Chester A., 1925, "Glacial Lake Hackensack 
and Adjacent Lakes," BuU. Geol. Soc. Amer., Vol. 36, 
p. 155. 



60 



NATURAL HISTORY 



last one of which encompasses the 
northern end of the Hackensack valley. 
The reason for changing contours every 
nine miles is that the amount of post- 
glacial uplift of the ground averages 
two and one quarter feet per mile, or 
twenty feet in nine miles. Lake Hack- 




Fig. 7. — Varved clay of Lake Hudson smoothed for 
sectioning, Washburn and Fowler clay pit, West 
Haverstraw, New York 



ensack as thus outlined contains not 
only a number of ridges as islands, but 
also the glacial clays and the stratified 
sands, gravels, and delta deposits which 
rise to successively higher and higher 
elevations in passing from south to 
north. 

The glacial clays which occupy only 
the lowest levels are reported in deep 
wells in south Newark; at Homestead 
the top of the clay is 10 feet below sea 
level; at Little Ferry approximately 
at sea level; at Oradell about 15 feet 
above; at Norwood 30 feet above ; and 
at West Nyack 50 feet above tide. 

The delta deposits and stratified 



sands and gravels, which occur at such 
discordant elevations that heretofore 
they have baffled explanation, also rise 
to higher and higher levels in going 
northward. For example, the delta 
deposits in North Hackensack occur at 
an elevation of 40 to 50 feet above sea 
level, while farther to the north the 
sandy delta plains in the vicinity of 
Tappan rise from 60 to 80 feet above 
sea level. To show the vertical rela- 
tions of the various stratified deposits, 
as mapped on the glacial sheet of the 
Passaic Folio, to the newly outlined 
shore-line of Lake Hackensack, and the 
relation of similar deposits in Lake 
Passaic, Figs. 5 and 6 are presented. It 
is surprising how well these varied 
deposits fall in below the shore-lines in 
both lakes. The exceptions in the 
Hackensack valley are the deposits at 
Willow Grove, Cranford to Springfield 
and South Orange to Glen Ridge, which 
occur at higher elevations, and which 
were in all probability deposited not in 
Lake Hackensack, but in small lakes 
which lay at higher elevations hemmed 
in by early retreat stages of the ice- 
front and the back slopes of the term- 
inal moraine and of the Watchung 
Mountains. 

GLACIAL LAKES HUDSON AND FLUSHING 

The same bench mark and methods 
of induction and deduction that were 
used in establishing the outline of Lake 
Hackensack were applied to the terri- 
tory immediately to the eastward of 
the flackensack basin and northward 
of the terminal moraine. The results 
of this endeavor, as noted on Figs. 3 
and 4, give us the suggestive outlines of 
variously connected bodies of fresh 
water which we have designated as 
Lake Hudson and Lake Flushing. 
Varved glacial clays are not known to 
be exposed above sea-level in Lakt 



GLACIAL LAKES AND CLAYS NEAR NEW YORK CITY 



01 



Hudson south of Havorstraw, New 
York. There and to the northward 
they are well-developed, at, below and 
above sea level (Fig. 7). In Lake 
Flusiiing, they have been noted by 
Dr. E. Antevs^ in the valley of the 
Qiiinnipiae River at New Haven, 
Connecticut, and reported at Fishers 
Island farther eastward in Long Island 
Sound. Logs of various wells in Brook- 



to thai found by the writer at Little 
l-'eriy in the Ilackensack basin, he 
assumes that the\' are banded and of 
glacial oi'igin. 

POST-GLACIAL STRATIFIED SANDS 

The varved clay (U^posits at Moun- 
tain View in Lake Passaic are overlaid 
by some five to ten feet of stratified 
sands. This is also true at Little Ferry 



yy. Pj7 P3fc Wnb Wnll 



WnZI P33 Ws 30 



Wn3Z MnilA sg/^ LEVEL Mt32 Ma3l 




Fig. S. — Cross-section of the depo.sits in the Hudson River, developed from exploratory borings for the Penn- 
sylvania railroad tunnels, Thirty-second Street, NewYork City. (After G. S. Rogers) 



lyn and to the eastward yield records of 
clay lying below the overlying sand 
and gravel beds. 

In New York City blue clay was en- 
countered in 1925, by the engineers of 
the New York Central Railroad in test 
borings on the right of way at the foot 
of We.st 14th Street, 44 to 72 feet below 
sea level. Blue clay has also been 
found in borings along the east bank 
of the Hudson River off West 10th 
Street at 98 to 162 feet, and off West 
Houston Street at 92 to 128 feet below 
sea level. The exploratory borings for 
the Hudson River tunnels of the Penn- 
sylvania Railroad also revealed the 
presence of extensive beds of clay 
immediately overlying the basal till in 
the filled channel of the river at depths 
of 175-200 feet on the west side, 
125-175 feet on the east side, and 
200-275 feet in the east central portion 
(Fig.- 8). Clay is also reported over- 
lying morainal material in the bottom 
of the filled East River channel. Since 
the relation of these submerged cla}- 
deposits to the underljang till is similar 

lAntevs, Ernst, 1922, "Conditions in New England 
During the Deposition of the Varve Clay," Amer. 
Geogr. Soc. Research Series No. 11. 



in Lake Hackensack where beds of sand 
5 to 20 feet in thickness overlie the 
varved clays (Fig. 9) . At New Bridge, 
near the west bank of the Hackensack 
River, and at Oradell, gravel 5 to 20 
feet in thickness appears above the clay 
deposits. At Haverstraw in Lake 
Hudson, and at points northward, beds 
of sand and gravel, varying in thickness 
from 2 to 25 feet, rest upon the varved 
clays (Fig. 10). The stratified sands at 
Croton Point, Harmon, and Peekskill 
are very thick and rise to elevations a 
little over 100 feet, the approximate 
position of the shore-hne of Lake Hud- 
son at these places. They represent 
delta deposits made in the lake. Sandy 
varves about one foot in thickness, 
observed on Croton Point in borings 
made near sea level, indicate late 
glacial age. 

Contractors, who have erected build- 
ings on Manhattan Island, know that 
the southern one-third of the island and 
the Harlem and Dyclanan sections are 
for the most part covered by stratified 
sandy deposits, which vary in thickness 
from a few feet to 100 feet. In the 
Subwav excavation at 134th Street and 




Pig, 9.— Post-glacial stratified sands, eight feet thick, overlying the varved glacial clay of Lake Hackensack. 
Mehrhof Brothers' clay pit, one mile south of Little Ferry, New Jersey 




1 7 -^^ 



.-2^y^W;J>. 







Fig. 10.— Post-glacial sand and gravel (a tributary delta deposit) overlying varved glacial clay of Lake Hudson. 
Hombeeker'B sand-pit, West Haverstraw, New York 



62 



GLACIAL LAKES AND CLAYS NEAR NEW YORK CITY 



63 



St. Nicholas Avenue, stratified sands 
were exposed in January, 1920, the 
uppermost stratified layer being 26 
feet above mean sea level. Sjiccial 
interest is attached to this locahty 
because the skeleton of a horse Equus 
caballus was found by the writer, em- 
bedded in the bank (Figs. 11 and 12). 
The skeleton laj'- on top of the 
highest stratified bed and in some six 
feet of unsti'atified yellowish gray clay 
which may have been washed down in 
post-Columbian time from the hill- 
side below the site of the College of the 
City of New York. 

In the excavation for the New York 
Telephone building at Barclay, Vese}^, 
and Washington streets, New York, 
bed-rock (Manhattan schist) was en- 
countered seventj^-five feet below high 
tide on the Hudson River side and 
sixty-five feet on the eastern side. Be- 
tween the bed-rock and the surface, 
stratified gray and red sands were 
noticed with occasional pockets of 



pebbles and a few ice-transported 
bowlders. At a depth of 45 feet be- 
low high tide, a bed of peat eighteen 
inches in thickness was oljserved by 
the writer, interbedded in the coarse 
sand, and associated with it the 
prostrate trunks of several juniper 
trees, Juniperus communis, some ten 




Fig. 11. — Skull of horse, Equus caballus, found at 
base of the post-glacial clay. Subway excavation 134th 
Street and St. Nicholas Avenue, New York City 




Fig. 12. — Stratified poet-glacial sands west bank of Subway excavation 134th Street and St. Nich(^s Avenue, 
New York City, Skeleton of horse, Eifuus caballus, probably 300 years old, found at elevation marked X 



64 



NATURAL HISTORY 



feet in length. The bark and a number 
of the branches still adhered, indicating 
that the trees and peat had grown in 
situ. Dr. Arthur Hollick^ of the 
New York Botanical Garden examined 
a cross-section of the trunk of one of the 
trees and counted some two hundred 
rings representing as many years for 
its growth . These ob j ects indicate that 
during their period of development the 
sands containing them were at sea 
level. The present position indicates 
later subsidence of the region. 

The stratified beds of sand and 
gravel which rest upon the varved clay 
deposits are, without doubt, of post- 
glacial age. Since this is true where the 
clay is exposed, it is also evidently true 
where the clay beds are concealed from 
view by sands and silts, as in the Hud- 
son River opposite 10th, 14th and 33d 
streets, New York, and in the East 
River channel. The stratified sandy 
deposits which occur at higher levels 
in Manhattan and Brooklyn are also 
considered to be of post-glacial age. 

CONCLUSION 

In conclusion it may be stated that, 
following the retreat of the ice of the last 
glaciation, glacial lakes occupied the 
basins between the terminal moraine 
and the various annual positions of the 
ice-front. The more notable of these 
lakes in the vicinity of New York City 
were glacial lakes Passaic, Hacken- 
sack, Hudson, and Flushing. As the ice 

iHollick, Arthur, 1926, " Report on a Tree Trunk and 
Associated Lignitic Debris Excavated in Manhattan 
Island," American Museum Novitates, No. 213, pp. 1-6. 



retreated from year to year, varved 
glacial clays were laid down on the 
bottoms of these lakes. The presence 
of more than 2500 varvet in the Hack- 
ensack valley indicates that the rate of 
retreat was slow, probably 100 feet 
per year. As the load of ice was gradu- 
ally removed, the region was differen- 
tially uplifted approximately two and a 
quarter feet per mile from central New 
Jersey northward into east central 
Canada. This post-glacial uplift re- 
juvenated the streams and caused them 
to transport and deposit gravel, sand, 
and silt over the seasonally stratified 
beds of clay. Following the differen- 
tial uplift of the land, the presence of a 
peat bed and tree trunks in the post- 
glacial sands forty-five feet below high 
tide in lower New York City, indicates 
that the region about the mouth of the 
Hudson River has gradually subsided. 
These various geologic events imme- 
diately precede the present day; how 
far back they go in time we can but 
estimate, yet the exploration and the 
counting of the clay varves which are in 
progress are affording a precise record 
of the annual retreat stages of the ice 
and the duration of the glacial lakes. 

The present investigation has yielded 
not only an interesting series of Mu- 
seum specimens, but also a new 
chapter in the palseogeography of the 
region. Further study will reveal 
additional data, a more accurate 
geochronology and a better under- 
standing of glacial and post-glacial 
events. '>•■'■ 



%m 




Fig. 1. — Nest of the butterfish, Pholis gunnellus. Here the egg mass guarded l)y the 
female fish is shown in the reversed upper valve of a dead oyster shell. A numljer of live 
limpets were attached to the inner surfaces of both valves. Photograph from exhil)it in 
American Museum 

The Nest and the Nesting Habits of the 
Butterfish or Gunnel, Pholis gunnellus 

By E. W. GUDGER 

Bibliographer and Associate, Dept. of Ichthyology, American Museum 



ONE freqiientl}' reads in the daily 
papers brief notices of small 
fishes found in dead oyster 
shells, and only a few weeks ago a 
clipping of such a notice was sent to 
me by a correspondent. The matter 
never became very real, however, until 
December 16, 1924, when Nagele 
Bros. Inc., of 1066 Madison Avenue, 
New York Citj^, sent to the department 
of ichthyology a dead oyster shell con- 
taining a little fish partly coiled around 
a ball-shaped mass of eggs. This shell 
with its contents had been dredged in 
Peconic Bay, at the eastern extremitj- 
of Long Island, on December 14. The 



fish and the eggs were dead, but the 
weather being cold, both were in per- 
fect condition. The specimen, at once 
recognized as a gunnel nest, was taken to 
the department of preparation, where a 
sketch in colors was made of the shell 
with its attached limpets, of the fish, 
and of the egg mass. The fish and the 
eggs were then presei'ved in formalin. 
It is a pleasui'e hei-e to express our 
hearty appreciation of the courtesj'^ of 
Nagele Bros, in sending this unique 
specimen, and all the more, since this is 
by no means the first interesting fish 
which the}' have contributed to the 
department. 

^66 



66 



NATURAL HISTORY 



PREPARATION OF THE GROUP 

As soon as the little fish and the egg 
mass had become hardened by the 
formalin, a model of the fish was made 
and another of the eggs, exact in size 
and coloration; the shell was cleaned of 
mud, the limpets extracted from their 
shells and these latter reattached to the 
oyster shell in their exact positions. 
Then the fish and the egg mass were 
replaced in the "nest " just as they were 
when they came to us, and some artifi- 
cial water was poured into the shell. 
Thus we have an exact repKca of the 
gunnel in its "nest." Figure 1 shows 
the fish and nest as it will appear on 
exhibition in our new fish hall. 

DESCRIPTION 

The oyster shell (110 mm. long), as 
found on the bottom of Peconic Bay, 
was upside down, and the little fish 
and its egg ball were in the hollow of 
what is normally the upper or concave 
valve of the shell. 1'he egg mass lay 
slightly forward of the middle of the 
valve longitudinally, and considerably 
nearer the back edge of the shell (that 
side next the observer) than the front. 
It was in about the deepest hollow of 
the shell. In order to estimate the 
eggs accurately, I found it necessary to 
tear the ball to pieces. Careful count 
then showed that there were 686 ova, a 
truly surprising number for such an 
apparently small mass. Unfortunately 
no measurements were made of these 
eggs before placing them in formalin, 
but, after they had been in this preserva- 
tive for about seven weeks, repeated 
measurements showed that they were 
slightly (a mere fraction) over 2 mm. in 
diameter. Each egg contained an 
embryo in the black-eyed stage, coiled 
around the yolk. There are no fila- 
ments of attachment on the shells, but 
evidently when the eggs are extruded. 



the shells are glutinous and stick fast to 
all the other egg shells with which they 
come in contact. The eggs are cer- 
tainly rounded up into a ball by the 
fish; how this is done will l)e described 
later. 

Dissection showed that the guardian 
fish is a female. In European waters 
both sexes of this species are reputed to 
guard the nest, and the same thing is 
presumably true here. The warden of 
the nest shown in Figure 1 is 117 mm. 
(4.63 inches) in total length, and 13 mm. 
(0.5 inch) in greatest depth. Mounted 
as found, she lies in the shell with her 
head in the region of the hinge and her 
tail at the broad extremity. The first 
section of the body of the fish (about 
47 mm. long) is comparatively straight, 
then the tail bends abruptly outward 
and forward, and in this sharp bend the 
egg mass is partly enclosed. This 
bent portion of the body measures 
about 30 mm. The remainder of the 
tail (about 35 mm. long) extends back- 
ward in a line roughly parallel with the 
anterior part of the body, the caudal 
fin lying on the shell in a somewhat 
horizontal position. 

HISTORICAL ACCOUNT 

Nilsson is quoted by various authors 
as sajdng that the gunnel spawns in 
November, but as no writer gives a 
specific reference to him, it has been 
impossible to verify this. However, it 
is undoubtedly true of our waters, since 
the eggs of our specimen on December 
14 had embryos in the black-eyed stage, 
from which one would judge that they 
were at least two weeks old. Couch 
alleges that Peach found the ova of the 
butterfish in June attached to the 
under side of a stone in the harbor of 
Fowey, near Ptymouth, in Cornwall, 
England. Since, however, there is no 
statement that the eggs were rolled into 



NESTINd HABITS OF THE BUTTERFISII oh' i;[^NNEL G7 



a ball, and since th(> only in-oof thni 
he had was tlic picscncc ncMihy of .■! 
supposed ikwciiI, mid I'lifl licMudfc 
since all o\\\vv ohsiM-x'ers Ikix'c roiind I lie 
egg-laying season confined to the 
winter months, one is forced to con- 
clude that Peach was in error — his ova 
must have belonged 1o some other fish. 

The first definite notice of the ova of 
Pholis is from the pen of Wm. Ander- 
son Smith (1886). In March, 1883, 
between tidemarks on the shores of 
Loch Crcran in western Scotland, he 
found ''lumps" of ova and with each 
a pair (male and female) of suckerfishes, 
Lepadogaster decandolli. At first he 
thought that these were the eggs of the 
suckers, but as he knew that the eggs 
of those fishes were pinkish in hue and 
were more or less evenh^ spread over the 
stones, and since these eggs were in 
ball-like masses and "pale and opales- 
cent" in color, he recognized them as 
the ova of Centronotus (the old name for 
Pholis); hence he decided that the 
lepadogasters had merely sought 
refuge under the stones where Pholis 
had deposited her eggs. 

In a later article (1887) Smith fixes 
the breeding season as extending from 
about the middle of February to about 
the same time in April, March being the 
month of principal activity. The balls 
of opalescent ova (about the size of a 
walnut) entirely unattached but at- 
tended by both parents, may then be 
found under loose stones on the sea- 
shore at low tide. He thinks that the 
parents get no food save as the tide 
brings it to them, and that they undergo 
at least partial starvation. This I have 
found true of the male of the toad fish, 
Opsanus tail, which lays its adhesive 
eggs inside a Pinna shell or some other 
such hollow receptacle, and guards 
them. It is also true of the marine 
catfish, Felichthys felis, the male of 



\\iii( li incubalcs the eggs in liis mouth 
;iiid (Iocs iKJt feed a1 all dui-ing the 
period of gestation (about SO days). 

Sniit li further adds a 1 hiiig uliicji has 
not been reported l)y any other ob- 
server, thai iti captix-itx- both parents 
lie coiled ai'ound tiie ova with heads 
and tails reversed, and that as the 
development of the ova proceeds the 
circle expands. When the young are 
hatched and free swinnning, the 
parents (in captivity, at least) pay no 
further attention to the young l)ut seek 
to get away from the light . 

More definite is the information 
given by Mcintosh and Piince (1890), 
who say of the ova of Centronotus giin- 
nellus that : 

At St. Andrews they have hitherto been 
obtained amongst the rocks in March, ma.sses 
about the size of a walnut . . . occurring in 
the holes of Pholas [the boring mollusk]. the 
adults in each case being coiled beside them. 
The ova adhere together Uke those of Cot I us 
or Clupea harcngus, and have a diameter of 
0.076 inch [1.9 mm.]. . . . 

Further on in this pajjer they say of 
the same fish that : 

Masses of ova about the size of a Brazil- 
nut [English walnut rather] have more than 
once been found in cavities (holes of Pholas) 
at the Pier Rocks [St. Andrews], with the 
parent fishes coiled beside them. The 
e.xamples specially dealt with occurred on 
March 14, 1S87. 

Here, then, we have evidence of a long 
breeding season such as would be ex- 
pected in the cold waters of Scotland. 

Still more definite is the report of 
Holt (1893) whose work was also done 
at St. Andrews. Beginning in Novem- 
ber, he made constant search at low 
tide among the rocks but found no 
nests. However, he did collect a 
number of the fish, which were placed 
in aquariums and kept under observa- 
tion. Early in February a female was 
noticed with enlarged abdomen, and a 



68 



NATURAL HISTORY 



fruitless attempt was made to "strip" 
her. Shorth^ thereafter unfertilized 
eggs were found in the aquarium and 
artificial fertilization was attempted 
but failed. On February 10, when 
attention was again called to the 
aquarium, one of the fish had spawned, 
the eggs had been fertilized, and the 
female was engaged in rounding up the 
mass of eggs into a ball. Of this process 



^V'(»r 



Fig. 2.- — The first figure ever published showing 
the egg mass surrounded by the body of the parent 
butterfish (either male or female). After Holt (1893) 



Holt gives a beautiful figure which is 
reproduced herein as Figure 2. The 
process he describes as follows : 

The body was bent so that the head rested 
on the back of the caudal region, the ball of 
ova being held in the loop so formed. In this 
position she sometimes rested for a short time, 
at intervals constricting her body so tightly 
that the egg mass slid over her back, only to 
be again encircled. I did not on this occasion 
observe that any assistance was given by the 
male. Several males were present in the same 
vessel, and I do not know which one fertihzed 
the eggs. 

Holt was fortunate in having another 
female spawn on February 22. He 
notes that the eggs were treated in the 
same v/ay and adds that : 

This time, however, the male parent, much 
smaller than the female, took turns with the 
latter in compressing the eggs. The two 
parents did not seem ever to interfere with the 
eggs at the sarne time, but if one left them, the 
other very soon approached and encircled 
them. From the fact that the first clutch of 
ova, which were not fertilized, were also not 
rolled together by the parent, I suppose that 
the male is largely responsible, or takes the 



initiative, in this process, probably also 
fertilizing them at the same time. The object 
is evidently to prevent the ova, which are 
adhesive only when first extended [sic — ex- 
truded?], from being scattered and lost, and 
it may be supposed that the operation is 
performed before the eggs are deposited in the 
narrow crevices in which they have been 
found. 

Holt comments upon the unusual 
fact that both parents take part in the 
formation of the egg ball and in the 
later care of the "nest." His conjec- 
ture that the male constricts the egg 
mass at the same time that he fertilizes 
the eggs seems sound, since this would 
certainly bring about a thorough ad- 
mixture of eggs and sperms, insru'ing a 
high percentage of fertilization. How- 
ever, his suggestion that the egg-ball is 
made and then placed in the constricted 
places where usually found, seems 
hardly probable to me. The question 
at once arises as to how the ball could 
be carried, lifted, and guided into 
crevices and into holes bored by 
Pholas. Furthermore, in our speci- 
men, the two shells of the oyster were 
in place and closed when brought to us. 
If they had not been closed, fish and egg 
mass would have been lost when the 
oysterman's dredge was hauled or in 
the course of transportation the ninety 
miles to the city. And if the shell were 
closed, how could the fish have opened 
and held it open while the egg mass was 
being carried into it? The shell was 
lying with the upper valve below, and 
with the lower and lighter valve above. 
The two valves do not fit accurately, 
and it seems entirely possible for this 
active little blenny to have insinuated 
its snout between the edges of the 
valves and to have raised the lighter 
upper (really ventral) valve enough to 
have permitted the entrance of its 
slender eel-like body. Thus every- 
thing goes to prove that in our specimen 



NESTixc iiMurs or riih: nirrrh'F/sii or gunnf.l 



m 




Fig. 3. — Photograph of the gunnels and their nest in a dead oyster shell from Helgoland. .\s in the Amer- 
can Museum specimen, the eggs and guarding parent are in the hollow of the overturned upper valve. After 
Ehrenbaum, 1904 



at least the eggs were extruded and the 
ball formed within the shell, the ''nest." 

The eggs of Holt's specimen when 
still young (i.e. immediately after the 
formation of the perivitelline space) 
measured 1.75 mm. in diameter, while 
the clear, translucent colorless yolk 
had a diameter of 1.37 mm. These 
accurate measurements were evidently 
made with a micrometer eyepiece or 
slide, and are of no small value. Of 
equal interest and of more value to us, 
is his beautiful figure of the fish en- 
circling the eggs as seen in No. 2 herein. 
His figures and descriptions of the 
development stages need not detain us, 
since they are apart from the purpose 
of this paper. 

Our next, practically our last, and 
certainly our most illuminating data 
comes from Ehrenbaum (190*4) who 
studied the fish at Helgoland. Ehren- 
baum's photograph is reproduced here- 
in as Figure 3 and his account is quoted 
as follows : 

The nut-sized egg balls are deposited from 
November to January' in rather shallow water, 
mostly wdthin empty oyster shells, or in holes 
bored by Pholas, and are there guarded by 



the parent fish. The eggs are whitish opaque, 
iridescent, on the surface, and in Helgoland 
are 1.9-2.2 mm. in diameter, with a 1.7 mm. 
yolk mass, which leaves quite a large peri- 
vitelline space. In the yolk, surrounded by a 
detritus-Uke mass, Hes the oil globule 0.53- 
0.63 mm. in diameter. From January to the 
end of March, the larvae hatch out with a 
length of about 9 mm. ... By May or June 
the young have attained a length of from 
25-30 mm. 

The "knifefish" (so called because 
its body is shaped somewhat like the 
blade of a knife) is very abundant at 
Helgoland, and Ehrenbaum set himself 
the task of working out its breeding 
habits. Of his observations he writes: 

It is easy at all times of the year, mth the 
exception of the winter months, to coUect the 
fish in the shallow waters on the west side of 
the island and on the reefs — where one finds 
it in the holes bored by Phola.9 in the chalk 
cliffs, holes Uke those at St. Andrews. But 
there was never any success in finding egg 
clumps of this fish in these locahties and 
particularly in shallow water. They were 
always found onl}- in water about 2-lra. deep 
and moreover in one locality only— the Helgo- 
land 03-ster banks, which lie about 4 miles 
southeast of the reefs. In 10 years only six 
times have I found the walnut-sized egg 
clump which proved to be that of Pholis 



70 



NATURAL HISTORY 



gunnrilus and I was not at any time success- 
ful in getting the parent fish with it. xVt 
first the egg balls were onh' seen lying loose 
among the haul of the oyster dredge, but 
later it appeared that more normally they 
were in the empty oyster shells and \^-ere 
caught with these. 

When the same kind of shells ■with their 
egg balls were put in the aquarium where 
there were '"ripe" Pholis, one or even more 
fishes would regularly place them.selves within 
the empt}' shells as sho'mi in the photograph 
from life (PL XIII). It is possible, as Holt 
has obsei-ved, that the fish were guided by 
some instinct that impelled them to guard the 
eggs. I could not make out whether the male 
or the female played the more important role 
in this guarding. One could only have been 
sure of this if the ripe fish had deposited their 
own eggs in the empty oyster .shells. Even 
then one could not be certain since apparently 
the fish could not shed their spawTi, and 
regularh' died after a certain time. 

However, that the fish do regularly deposit 
their eggs -n-ithiu empty oyster shells and then 
stay in the shells to guard them, I was 
assured by Oberfischmeister Decker, who has 
often observed this occiu-rence on the Sjdter 
oj'ster banks and has often caught fish and 
egg ball together in the empty oj^ster shells. 
The Sylter banks are neither so distant nor 
so deep as the Helgoland ones, and it may be 
explained that it is easier to take the fishes 
in the oyster di'edge there, whereas, when the 
dredge has to be dra^'n through a greater 
chstance, they escape into the water more 
easily through the meshes of the net. Accord- 
ing to Decker's statement the butterfish and 
its eggs are also a common occurrence on the 
oyster banks in the shallow waters of north 
Friesland. 

Ehrenbaum kept numbers of these 
fish in aquariums in his laboratory, 
hoping to see the method of spawning 
and the making of the egg ball. For a 
long time he was unsuccessful, but on 
January 28, 1904, after the above was 
in type, a mass of eggs was laid, fertil- 
ized, and underwent normal develop- 
ment. These eggs varied in diameter 
from 1.98-2.11 mm. with an average of 
2.06 mm. Ehrenbaum noted with 
surprise that the parent fishes were very 



careless in guarding these ova, but this 
is possibly explicable on the ground 
that they were free in the aquarium 
and not sequestered in a "nest" — 
they were in an abnormal habitat and 
the behavior of the fish was for that 
reason abnormal. 

It is interesting to point out that in 
Ehrenbaum's photograph both parents, 
the egg ball, and the oyster shell are 
shown almost in natural size. One of 
the parents rests on the bottom just 
outside the shell, with its body bent in 
semi-coils almost exactly like the body 
of our fish. The other fish with the egg 
mass in front of it is found within the 
empty oyster shell as in our specimen, 
but wdth the head at the gaping mouth 
of the shell and the tail in the region of 
the hinge. But most significant of all 
is the fact that fish and egg mass are 
in what is morphologically the upper 
valve of the shell and are covered by the 
lighter ventral valve — exactly as in 
our specimen here in the Museum. The 
reasoning given for this state of things 
for our specimen is, of course, entirely 
applicable here. 

Ehrenbaum fiu-ther notes that the 
egg laying takes place late in the 
calendar year; that butterfishes taken 
then have the sexual organs " ripe," and 
that their coloring is very vivid, partic- 
ularly so in the males. Then he 
specifically records the following facts : 

The egg balls that I saw were all taken in 
December and Janxiary, — the earliest on 
December 23. In these particular eggs, 
however, the embryos were quite far developed, 
about 10 days before hatching, so that the 
eggs must have been laid in November. 
The date of the latest collection was on 
Januarj- 17. The size of these eggs ran from 
1.92-2.17 mm., and the average diameter 
varied [presumably for each lot] from 1.99- 
2.12 mm. Each egg contained a large oil 
drop, clear as water, with a diameter of from 
0.53-0.63 mm. All these measurements some- 
what exceed those given for British specimens. 



.VA'NVV.w/ iiMiirs or ri/r: HrrTi'.h'risii oi; ccwkl 



Two oilier citations iua>' he noted 
l)(>(h tVoin .1. T. CiiiiniiiiiiiMiii. In ;i 
hook puhlisluHl in ISDd, lie liiicll\- 
refers to the nestino; habits of the 
<>:unnel aiul rei')ro(hu'es Holt's h<2;ure 
ali'cvuly *>;iv(Mi lu>rein as Fii>;ure 2. Af>;ain 
in 1012, in a woi'k in which, as joint 
author, he wrote the section on fishes, 
Cunningham syn()i)sizes the data with 
regard to the breeding habits of Pholis 
gunuellus, and on plate XXVII he gives 
a figure which, as may be seen in No. 
4, is very interesting and attractive. 
In his text he refers to Holt's observa- 
tions and then (separately) refers the 
reader to this figure. Next he speaks 
of Ehrenbaum's studies of the oyster 
shell "nests." There are three figures 
on Cunningham's plate XXVII, of 
which the first and second are copied 
from Ehrenbaum. The third figure 
(that of the butterfish and egg ball) 
is probably made up from Ehrenbaum's 
photograph. 

In conclusion, attention may well be 
called to the fact that the American 
Museum group is the only known 



gunnel "nest'" on exiiiliilion in any 
museum; and that in it the only repi'o- 
(IucchI pai'ts ai-e tlu; perishable fish and 
hall of eggs. l''url lieiniore t liis is hut one 
of a number of small "<iroups" which 




Fig. 4. — The butterfish coiled around its egg mass , 
After Cunningham, 1912 



we plan to install in the new Hall of 
Fishes in the Museum, each to porti-ay 
the most interesting phenomenon in 
the life history of some particular fish 
— and, if possible, to show some episode 
in its domestic life. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



CorcH, Jonathan. 1869. A History of the 
British Fishes. 2nd ed. Vol. II, p. 237. 

Ehrenbaum, Ernst. 1904. Eier und Larven 
von Fischen der Deutschen Bucht. III. 
Fische mit festsitzenden Eiern. Wis- 
senschaftliche Meeresimtersuchungen, 
1904, n.s. Vol. 6, Abth. Helgoland, 
pp. 160-16.5. ])1. 13. 

Holt, E. W. L. 1S93. Surve}- of FLshing 
Grounds, West Coast of Ireland, 1890- 
1891 : On the Eggs and Larvae and 
Post-Larval Stages of Teleosteans. 
Scientific Transactions Royal Dublin 
Society, 1893, 2 .ser., Vol. 5, pp. 42-47. 
pi. 10, fig. 76. 

Lyddekker, Richard, Cunningham, J. T., 
BouLENGER, G. A., and Thomson, J. 



.4rthur. 1912. Reptiles, Am phil-ians, 
Fishes, and Lower Chordatcs. London, 
1912, p. 326, pi. XXVII. 

McIntosh, W. C, and Prince, E. E. 1.890. 
On the Development and Life-Histories 
of the Teleostean Food and other 
Fishes. Transactions Royal Society 
Edinburgh, 1890, Vol. 3.5, pp. 676 and 
867. 

Smith, W. Anderson, 1886. Notes on the 
Sucker Fishes, Liparis and Lcpado- 
gaster. Proceedings Royal Physical 
Society Edinburgh, 1886, Vol. 9, p. 14.5. 
— 1887. Domestic Habits of Butterfish 
(Bletinius gunuellus. Linn.) Proc. and 
Transiciions N'atural History Society 
Glasgow [for 1883-86]. 1887, n.s. Vol. 
1, 137-140. 




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Fossil Hunting in the South African Karroo 



By R. broom, F. R. S. 

Corresponding Member of the American Museum of Natural History 



SOME time during 1912, I resolved 
for various reasons to dispose 
of my collection of fossU reptiles 
to the American ]\Iusemn. I had 
come out to South Africa in 1897 to 
work up the wonderful reptiles of the 
Karroo, and to tr}-, if possible, to 
solve the problem of the origin of mam- 
mals: but it was not until 1900, when 
I settled at Pearston, that I was able 
to do any collecting or even to handle 
more than half a dozen specimens. 
Pearston is not rich, but I found 
enough specimens to keep me weU 
occupied, and I began to send off 
numerous papers to London dealing 
with the fossil forms. 

One or two EngUsh scientists in 
those early days seemed to appreciate 
the work I was doing, but it was from 
America and Germany that the princi- 
pal encom-agement came. The great 
importance of the Karroo fossils in 
the geological history of the world 
had been recognized years before. 
Owen, more than eighty years ago, 
first revealed the wonderful half- 
mammal haK-reptHe tj'pes. In 1888 
Seele}' ^'isited South Africa under the 
auspices of the Roj-al Societ}' and, 
with the assistance of I\Ir. T. Bain, 
collected many new, interesting forms 
and greatl}' added to our knowledge. 
His discovery of many new, striking!}' 
mammal-hke reptiles showed that the 
Karroo reptOes were much more im- 
portant than had been reaUzed, and 
the scientific world became intensely 
desirous of still more knowledge of 
them. Just before the Boer War, the 
American ]\Iuseum was planning a fos- 



sil hunting expedition to the Karroo, 
but by the time the war was over, in 
1902, 1 was in the field and had already 
done considerable work. Professor Os- 
born, who for some years had been deep- 
ly interested in the problem of the origin 
of mammals, wrote me kind letters of 
encouragement and of appreciation of 
the work I was doing. For a number 
of years I was attached to the Cape- 
town ^Museum, and was unable to re- 
pay my debt of gratitude to America, 
but, after going to the Transvaal, in 
1910, I hoped to get together a collec- 
tion that would find a resting place in 
the American INIuseum, and one of 
which America would be proud. 

I had a good representative collec- 
tion from our lower fossil beds, and 
I got a fairly good one from the higher 
beds, but little was known of the fos- 
sils of the intermediate period, and 
there was no good collection in any 
museum. I learned that fossils had 
been seen at Xew Bethesda, a little \il- 
lage about forty miles north of Graaff 
Reinet, and, as this was almost cer- 
tainly on the horizon I wished to study, 
I made a journe}' to it at the end of 
1912. The \-illage is situated in a deep 
vaUe}' on one of the upper tributaries 
of the Sanday's River. The surround- 
ing hills are composed of shales and 
sandstones, with here and there layers 
of igneous rock. Though not entirely 
barren, the shales of these hills I soon 
found were verj' poor in fossils. But 
in the vOlage, the river, which for the 
greater part of the year is dry, has a 
flat bed of shale about 200 yards vdde, 
and this I found to be exceptionally 

73 



74 



NATURAL HISTORY 



rich. I don't know how long it would 
take an expert museum collector to 
collect from an area 50 to 200 yards 
wide and three-fourths of a mile long, 
but it took me the best part of a 
month working hard every day. The 




Fig. 2. — Skull of Youngina capensis Broom. 
About one and one-half times natural size 

most striking specimens were skulls 
of a fairly large new species of Dicyno- 
don which I named Dicynodon platy- 
ceps. It is a mammal-Hke reptile 
about the size of a half-grown pig, and 
of a somewhat similar robust build. 
The dicynodons are represented in the 
Karroo by many species — some as 
small as a rat and others nearly as 
large as a tapir. They had horny 
beaks like the tortoise, but with, in 
addition, usuallj^ a tusk in the male. 
Specimens were found of young ani- 
mals of all ages, some as small as kittens. 



One or two interesting skulls were 
found of the carnivorous types belong- 
ing to the Gorgonopsia, — a suborder 
of reptiles very near to the mammalian 
ancestor. Some remains were also ob- 
tained of a small Pareiasaurian, — a 
little form about five feet in length, 
with a broad head and the back cov- 
ered with bony plates. But b}^ far the 
most interesting discovery I made 
was the skull of a small new type of 
reptile, which I named Youngina. 

Youngina is a Uzard-like animal 
with a pointed skull of a primitive and 
most interesting type. The crocodiles, 
the dinosaurs, and many early reptiles 
have in the back region of the skull two 
large temporal openings. The hzards 
have only an upper one, but it looks 
as if there has been a lower one lost 
by the non-development of the lower 
bar; hitherto, we have had very few 
specimens which throw hght on the 
early development of the Uzard skull, 
and this skull of Youngina is the oldest 
known in good condition with two 
temporal openings. Two other speci- 
mens of Youngina have since been 
found, and the writer holds that it is 
the representative of a new order of 
reptiles which he calls the "Eosuchia." 
This order he beheves contained the 
ancestors of the crocodiles, the dino- 
saurs, the birds, and the Hzards. If he 
is correct in this, the great importance 
of Youngina in the evolution of the 
reptiles will be manifest. 

I spent a few daj^s on the farm Wil- 
gebosch about four miles from New 
Bethesda and on a higher horizon. 
Here I found a number of new and 
interesting specimens, including the 
fine carnivorous skuU which I named 
Scymnognathus angusticeps. Mr. I. H. 
Martins was also a guest at this farm 
at the same time, and, taking a keen 
interest in fossil hunting, he gave me 



FOSSIL IICNTIXC IX THE SOUTH AFh'KAX KARROO 



much help. It was he who cUscovered 
the beautiful Httle skull which I namofl 
after him, Ictidoshinas niartmsi. 

As Wilgebosch is only about five 
miles from Compass Berg, the highest 
mountain in Cape Colony, Mr. Mar- 
tins suggested that we climb it, as I 
might not again have so favoi-a])le a 



gerous till we reached the top of the 
crest overlooking the precipice, but 
liere we seemed cut off from the very 
top, only 100 yards away, by a bridge 
about 30 yards long and 8 or 10 yards 
wide. Its top had a slope of 45° 
toward the 2000-foot precipice and 
thei-e was onh' a ledge less than a foot 




Fig. 3. — Scymnognathus angusticeps Broom. This is one of the South African 
reptiles from New Bethesda closeh- aUied to the better known Russian Inostrancevia 
alexandri 



chance. We agreed to go the follow- 
ing morning. At 6 o'clock the moun- 
tain peak was covered with mist, but 
at 8 it began to clear. We got a pair 
of horses and started. The usual as- 
cent is by the northwest side, where 
the chmbing is not dangerous, but is 
very troublesome because of the broken 
nature of the ground, so we resolved 
to ascend by the east side. We rode 
as far up the base as possible and tied 
our horses to bushes, and ascended by 
a long, steep gully. The mountain, 
which is 8000 feet high, is formed by 
a huge sheet or mass of igneous rock 
so arranged and weathered that the 
north side has an irregular slope of 
about 45°, and the south side has an 
abrupt precipice of 2000 feet. The 
climbing was neither difficult nor dan- 



wide on which to walk. After some 
hesitation and a ten-minute rest, we 
risked it. But at the end of the 30 
yards we seemed balked again. AVe 
climbed up the few yards of slope to 
find a precipice of some hundred feet 
on the north side. With my help Mr. 
Martins cHmbed first over a project- 
ing block which overhung the preci- 
pice, and then helped me up over the 
same block. Soon we were .at the top, 
and had a glorious view for over 100 
miles around. We descended by the 
same dangerous track as we had come, 
as it would have been difficult to get 
our horses otherwise. Near the bot- 
tom of the mountain I found another 
good Dicynodon skull. We were back 
at Wilgebosch in time for dinner. 
Coming down the mountain, I saw 



76 



NATURAL HISTORY 



burrows of the little garden mole, and 
was greatly interested, as I knew it 
must be a very rare species or a new 
one. I told Miss Jansen, the farmer's 
daughter, and asked her to try to get 
me one. When I returned to South 
Africa in 1916, I found she had a speci- 
men in spirits awaiting me. It turned 
out to be the rare Chrysochloris 
schalteri which I had named some 
years before from near Beaufort West. 
Only six specimens have been seen, 
and this specimen is now in the British 
Museum . 

I always think it is well for the fos- 
sil hunter or other naturalist not to 
confine his attention to one group only. 
When in the veldt after fossils, I al- 



ways keep my eyes open for rare 
plants and have been able to add a 
considerable number of new species 
to the South African flora; and one 
of the most conspicuous aloes of the 
northern Karroo has been named 
after me, Aloe hroomi. When one has 
gone fossil hunting and has drawn a 
blank, as often happens, it cheers one 
to discover a new or rare lizard or 
mammal or to find a new plant. Not 
long ago, when after fossils, I found a 
rare, succulent Hoodia dregei which 
was discovered in 1830 and has never 
been seen since. Even the ordinary 
tourist would find a new joy in fife, if 
he took a keen interest in field botany 
or some branches of natural history. 




A Journey in South America 

By T. D. a. COCKERELL 

Department of Biology, University of Colorado 



WE went to Siberia because Mr. 
A. Kiiznetzov discovered 
fossil insects on the banks of 
the Kudia River. For similar reasons, 
it appeared necessary to visit Argen- 
tina when we learned that Mr. G. L. 
Harrington had found insects of Ter- 
tiary Age in the rocks at Sunchal, in 
the Province of Jujuy.^ The matter 
was of peculiar interest, as until very 
recently no fossil insects of any kind 
were known from South America. The 
first to be found were two species from 
the Rhsetic beds near Mendoza, in the 
foothills of the Andes. These were 
discovered by Dr. G. R. Wieland, of 
Yale Universitj^, in 1917, but not 
pubhshed until 1925. One of them, a 
ver}' fine specimen, belongs to the 
Homoptera; the other is fragmentarj^ 
and dubious.' In 1923 I described two 
small flies from amber found in 
Colombia, of uncertain age, but not 
earlier than Tertiar3^ Ameghino, as I 
learned from Doctor Spegazzini, had 
some impressions of Pleistocene insects 
from Argentina, but they were not de- 
scribed, and cannot now be found. 

Mr. Harrington's discovery was 
made in the course of his investigations 
for the Standard Oil Company. Going 
up a narrow trail in the Santa Barbara 
district, examining the greenish beds so 
prominent in that region, he was sur- 
prised to find a layer or pocket of well- 
preserved fossil insects, nearlj^ all 



'CockereU, "Tertiary Fossil Insects from Argentina," 
Nature, Nov. 14, 1925, p. 711. 

'A figure published by F. Kurtz (Act. Acad. Nac. 
Cienc. Cordoba, VII) of a fossil from Cacheuta, in the 
same \'ioimty, appears to represent the end of the wing 
of an Orthopterous insect rplated to Elmna, of the 
European Lias. Dr. Wieland kindly furnished me with 
a photograph of this figure, with the comment that it 
was surely an insect, though named as a plant (Baiera 
argentina) . 



beetle wing-covers. Not only were 
these the first South American Ter- 
tiary insects, with the dubious excep- 
tion of the amber flies, but they 
were of considerable importance as a 
possible means of dating the deposit, 
hitherto supposed unfossiliferous. 
Most of the specimens were sent to 
Dr. R. S. Bassler at the U. S. National 
Museum, and were transmitted to me 
for study. ^ 

Thus it came about that on June 
13 we took passage from New York on 
the S. S. " Vestris" of the Lamport and 
Holt line. For reasons of economy we 
w^ent second class, and had no occasion 
to regret the arrangement. Indeed, it 
was especially fortunate, as I found 
next to me at table the enthusiastic 
Swiss anatomist Dr. Ernst Huber, now 
of Johns Hopkins University. The 
officers of the ship, from the captain to 
the cabin steward, did everything 
possible to make the voj-age pleasant 
and interesting. As we crossed the line 
Father Neptune and his beautiful 
daughter came on board, and after the 
initiation ceremonies we were all 
presented with certificates, promising 
aid and comfort from the powers of the 
sea whenever needed. Actually, I 
have not felt the slightest tendency to 
sea sickness since that time. Neptune, 
when not engaged in his regular 
duties, appears on earth disguised as a 
noted polo player, a fact in natural 
history perhaps now first recorded. 
As we passed through the region of 
sargasso weed,"* we tried to secure 



'Seven beetles and a caddis fly were described ; Proc. 
U. S. National Museum, Vol. 68 (1925) Art. 1. 

*Sar(iassum, a genus of large floating seaweeds with 
verj' numerous species. 

77 



78 



NATURAL HISTORY 




RhEetic locality at Minas de Petroleo, Argentina. (Photograph by D. O. King. 



some by means of an improvised wire 
hook on the end of a string. Many 
trials were unsuccessful, but at last a 
persistent passenger secured a piece, 
and with the aid of a small microscope 
we were able to demonstrate the 
presence of various small animals. 
Later on, the captain interested him- 
self in securing samples of the ocean 
bottom for us, which he brought up on 
the sounding lead. The surface waters, 
expected to be full of plankton, were 
barren so far as our few examinations 
showed. 

We had a day and a half in Rio de 
Janeiro. I have elsewhere^ described 
my visit to the Institute Oswaldo 
Cruz, one of the finest scientific estab- 
lishments I have ever seen. However, 
it was not possible to do any natural 
history work of consequence at Rio, but 
I managed to collect a number of 
insects and snails in a vacant lot just 
across from the docks. Most conspicu- 

^Nature, Dec. 26, 1925. 



ous were the Orthoptera or grass- 
hoppers.^ 

On the evening of July 3 we had a 
short time in Montevideo, where we 
saw armadillos and snails offered for 
sale as food. The snails were Helix 
lactea, or a closely related form, in- 
troduced from southern Europe, where 
it is much eaten. 

It was dark on July 4 when we 
arrived in Buenos Aires, and we made 
our way to the hotel in a storm of rain. 
Although it was not freezing, we had 
rarely felt so cold, coming as we had 
out of the tropics, and not being suit- 
ably dressed for such weather. The 
hotel was not heated, and we thought 
we were in for a rather uncomfortable 
time. From this discomfort we were 
rescued by Mrs. Harrington, the wife of 
the discoverer of the fossils. Mr. 

2For determinations of species collected or observed 
I am greatly indebted to Messrs. Rehn (Orthoptera), 
Aldrich (Diptera), Wetmore (birds), Rohwer (Hymen- 
optera), Dyar (mosquito), Killip (flowering plants), 
Seaver (fungi), Arthur (fungus), Barber (beetles), 
Bartsch and Henderson (marine shells), Williams 
(moss), Maxon (fern), and Rose (cacti). 



.1 JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA 



79 



Harrington was oxpluring in Bolivia,, 
but he had spoken of us, and we were 
invited to the home at Haedo, a 
suburl) of Buenos Aires, whence 1 
came in daily on the " subterraneo " 
to do what business was necessary in 
the cit3^ This was our first experience 
of the extraordinarily kind treatment 
which we received everywhere we went 
in South America. 

It was a great pleasure to meet 
several of the prominent scientific men 
of Argentina, whose names had been 
familiar to me for many years. Dr. 
E. L. Holmberg, the veteran student of 
bees, was extremely cordial, and allowed 
me to examine his collection freely. 
He is a most versatile man, who has 
worked in literature as well as science. 
He presented to Mrs. Cockerell an 
autographed copy of a book of poetry, 
in which he narrated the legends of the 
country. He expects to publish more 
on Coelioxys, his favorite genus of bees, 
and on the wasp-genus Cerceris. His 
published work on bees has been 
accurately done and clearly set forth, 
forming an important contribution to 
the knowledge of the Argentine fauna. 

The Natural History Museum, 
directed by Dr. Doello-Jurado, is full 
of interesting things. Unfortunately, 
owing to crowding, it is divided into 
two sections, some distance apart. It is 
expected that a new and suitable 
building will be provided later. Dr. 
Doello-Jurado is a specialist in mol- 
lusca, and has developed an excellent 
collection of the species of the country. 
He showed me a small white Helix 
(in the broad sense) from Mendoza, 
which he wa.s about to publish as new. 
In the museum I also found the well- 
known entomologist Juan Brethes, 
whose writings on Hymenoptera I had 
been using for many years. We took 
time to see the botanical and zoological 



gardens. In the latter we were pleased 
to see living rheas, the "ostrich" of 
the country. These were the Argentine 
race, and were labelled Rhea americana 
rothschildi, a name given by Brabourne 
and Chubb in 1911. It happens, 
however, that in 1878 Lynch Arribal- 
zaga and Holmberg proposed a Rhea 
albescens, which was nothing more than 
albinistic specimens. Wetmore (1926) 
points out that this was certainly of the 
Argentine form, which accordingly be- 
comes Rhea americana albescens. In 
our subsequent journeys we saw no 
wild rheas, but they must be rather 
abundant, to judge from the great 
numbers of feather dusters, made of 
rhea feathers, offered for sale. The 
other species, Darwin's rhea, is now 
placed in a separate genus Pterocnemia, 
and the little-known name pennata of 
d'Orbigny replaces the familiar dar- 
winii of Gould, which was based on a 
proper description of the bird. AMien 
later I met Mr. D. 0. King at Mendoza, 
he told me of seeing rheas high up in 
the Andes in that region. He supposed 
them to be like those of the plains, but 
Doctor Wetmore tells me that they are 
really different, the Pterocnemia tarapa- 
censis garleppi of Chubb. The species 
P. tarapacensis is from Chile, and the 
original garleppi is from much farther 
north, in Bolivia. 

Taking the train, we went to the 
city of La Plata to see the famous 
museum, and especialty the eminent 
naturalists C. Spegazzini and C. Bruch. 
The former is a botanist who has 
described innmnerable fungi, many 
cacti, etc., and also has a good knowl- 
edge of zoology.^ The entomologist 
Bruch, specializing in Coleoptera and 
ants, has perhaps the most perfectly 
prepared and arranged collection I 



^Since we left we have had to lament the death of 
Doctor Spegazzini. 



80 



NATURAL HISTORY 



ever saw. iVt the time he was very 
keen about a large genus of Tenebrionid 
beetles, and had borrowed specimens 
from the British Museum to complete 
his monograph. He had prepared 
excellent photographs of all the species. 
He also had some very remarkable 
beetles obtained in ants' nests. The 
problem is, at present, how to publish 
all this admirable work. The museum, 
with statues of sabre-toothed tigers at 
the entrance, has been described by 
others. It was surprising, even after all 
we had heard, to see the many skeletons 
of extinct Argentine mammals, especi- 
ally ground-sloths.^ We were interested 
to note in La Plata a broad avenue 
named after the palaeontologist Ame- 
ghino, who described so many verte- 
brate fossils. 

After about a week at Buenos Aires, 
we took the train for San Pedro de 
Jujuy. far to the north, near the 
Bolivian border, and almost on the 
tropic. We had been advised that for 
facilities we should have to depend on 
the Leach Brothers at San Pedro, so I 
had called on the manager of the Leach 
firm in Buenos Aires. Shortly before 
we left, he produced a telegram, and 
said he could congratulate us on being 
invited to the Estancia. How much 
reason he had for his congratulations, 
we came to appreciate later, for the 
open-hearted hospitality exceeded any- 
thing we could have imagined or hoped 
for. 

The Leach firm has had a remark- 
able history. In the Province of 
Jujuy it was discovered long ago that 
sugar cane could be grown to advan- 
tage. In the effort to develop the 
industiy, machinery was imported 
from England, and a young engineer. 



iThe extinct ^ound-sloths of Argentina are being 
elaborately described by Lucas Kraglievich of Buenos 
Aires. Recently I received from him two papers record- 
ing important discoveries. 



Roger Leach, came out in an advisory 
capacity. He remained at San Pedro, 
and after a time it appeared that for 
various reasons the enterprise was not 
succeeding very well. Leach was con- 
vinced that success was possible, and 
so he and his brothers (four eventually 
came out) raised a loan and bought 
the business. They did so well that the 
money was repaid, with interest, in five 
years. It is now about forty-five years 
since the arrival of Roger Leach, and 
there has been built up a great series 
of estates or farms in the Province of 
Jujuy, raising not only vast quantities 
of cane, but also fruit, and even operat- 
ing an asphalt deposit, from which the 
town of Jujuy has been excellently 
paved. 

We were taken over the great sugar 
mill, and there I met Mr. Stephen 
Leach, and spoke of the wonderful work 
accomplished. He modestly disclaimed 
any particular merit, saying that he and 
his brothers had merely come to make 
money. Feehng that this was not the 
true explanation, I asked some who 
were in a position to know, and they 
told me that money appeared to mean 
little to the Leach brothers, who lived 
in the simplest manner, and devoted 
themselves to the welfare of the busi- 
ness and of the employees. What, 
then, is the underlying motive which 
has prompted and maintained such 
labors, extending over so many years? 
No doubt it is the same as that of the 
scientific man, the artist, or the states- 
man; the desire for seK-expression and 
the accomplishment of worth-while 
things. I emphasize this point, be- 
cause it illustrates the fact that public 
service, of one sort or another, is 
capable of satisfying human desires; 
and further, that an ostensibly private 
establishment like that of the Leach 
brothers operates as a public service, 



.1 JOURNEY J\ SOCr/J AMERICA 



81 



especially if concluctecl us it has boon. 
Just as we think of Harvard and Yale 
as great public institutions, though 
legally private corporations, so it 
comes about that big lousiness has 
aspects in which it differs little from 
publicly owned enterprises. On the 
other hand, democracy cannot con- 
duct its affairs without employing 
experts. If the Leach estates were 
turned over to the people of the vicinity 
tomorrow, their hi^story would resemble 
that of manj^ estates in Russia. Ber- 
nard Shaw humorously remarked that 
Scottish widows could lay an Atlantic 
cable, and did so, bj^ getting people to 
do it for them. Thus, and thus only, 
ma,y technical industries be maintamed 
and in any event the experts must be 
given powers as use-owners. Th^ sub- 
ject is a fascinating one, and I should 
like to write a book on the Leach 
estates; not at all in defence of capital- 
ism, but as a study of the means where- 
by great functions may be developed in 
societj^, and of the underlying motives 
and interplay of hmnan interests. 

Going up in the train, we had the 
great advantage of being accompanied 
by Mr. Eugene Stebinger of the Stand- 
ard Oil Company, who was on his way 
to Bolivia. Knowing the countrA^ he 
helped us in many ways, and we were 
indebted to him for the loan of a small 
water-proof tent, without which we 
could hardly have maintained a camp 
at Sunchal. Passing over the great 
pampas, I was pleased to see the 
pampas grass, familiar on English 
lawns from childhood days, growing 
wild. We had to change trains at a 
small town called Perico, and strolling 
down the street, I found a large colony 
of earwigs (Doru lineare Esch.) under 
the bark of a Eucalyptus tree. The 
species was originally described from 
Brazil, but is very widelj^ distributed, 



even entering southern Texa.s and 
Arizona. Arriving at San Pedro, we 
were met by Mr. Roy Gordon Ander- 
son, under whose hospital^le roof we 
were to stay. M r. Anderson is specially 
concerned with the stock interests of 
the estates, including the development 
of polo ponies. He and his wife keep 
open house for visitors of many kinds, 
who seem to be constantly coming and 
going. It was the time of the sugar 
harvest, and every one was busy. 
Thousands of Indians were cutting the 
cane. I was interested to learn what I 
could about the insect enemies of the 
cane in that region. They have a 
moth borer, and at times the migratory 
locusts do fearful damage. I could not 
find any mealy-bug; and various other 
pests common elswhere appeared to be 
absent. The region is quite isolated 
from all other sugar-cane districts, 
which is a decided advantage. Though 
it was nearly the middle of the southern 
winter, the Anderson garden con- 
tained flowers and fruits. There were 
some of the common introduced scale 
insects. The fungus Phragmidium dis- 
ciflorimi was found upon the roses. I 
noticed a flourishing group of tall Ian- 
tana bushes, and wondered whether 
there might be danger of their spread- 
ing and becoming a pest, as in the 
Hawaiian Islands. A search in the 
immediate vicinity revealed no seed- 
lings. It was in the Anderson garden 
that I caught the only bee of the Argen- 
tine journey, a small species which I 
have described as new, Halictus hiema- 
lis. In the warmer months there must 
be a rich bee-fauna, undoubtedly with 
many yet undescribed. 

At the nearby settlement called 
Esperanza, where the sugar mill is 
situated, the estates maintain a hos- 
pital, and here I met Dr. Wm. C. 
Paterson, who is making a stud}' of the 



82 



NATURAL [I I STORY 




Fossil beetle elytra from Sunchal, much enlarged. The larger one is 
Otiarhynchites aterrinus. Photograph by R. S. Bassler 



local mosquitoes. He showed me a fine 
species which he believed to be new. 
In the summer Anopheles abounds 
through all this region, and there is a 
good deal of malaria. 

We now had to proceed to Sunchal, 
in the Santa Barbara mountains, a 
considerable distance east of SaD Pedro. 
Mr. Harrington had sent me a sketch 
map of the route. Mr. Anderson picked 
out for us a most excellent man, 
Daniel Rios, who took charge of the 
mules and helped us in camp. We 
were taken in an automobile as far as 
there was a road, well beyond the village 
of Santa Clara, and found Rios with 
his brother waiting for us. We had 
come through a dry region of cacti and 
scrub, with here and there a small 
palm. The large blue-green Opuntia 
tuna-blanca of Spegazzini was very 
conspicuous. Peccaries live in this 
open forest; we passed a man by the 
roadside with two which he had shot. 
Leaving the car, we took to the mules, 
and were soon in a very hilly country, 
going up and down steep trails, on 
which it was none too easy to keep our 



seats. After some hours of this, we 
were not sorry to stop for lunch. All 
afternoon we rode with increasing 
weariness, but in the evening reached 
our destination. Sunchal is not a 
town, but merely the name of a locality 
on the map, where there is a single, 
very poor ranch house. We pitched our 
tent in the orchard, under a tree. The 
ranchman was away, but the women 
treated us kindly, though they must 
have wondered what brought us there. 
Perhaps they were not altogether un- 
familiar with wandering geologists, for 
the oil people go everywhere. It was 
striking to see the poverty and, as it 
seemed to us, wretched condition of the 
people, while their animals and poultry 
appeared most flourishing. The face 
of the older of the two women was 
horribly deformed from the Uta or 
Leishmania disease. Dr. Paterson 
thought it possible that the transmis- 
sion of this disease might be due to 
buffalo gnats, species of Simulium. He 
had observed that where it developed 
there always seemed to be a running 
stream, suitable for the larvae of 



A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA 



83 



Simulium. There was just .such a 
stream by the house at Sunchal, with 
water-cress growing in it. 

We did not quite understand Mr. 
Harrington's directions, and it was 
more by good luck than intelligence 
that we found the deposit on the first 
morning. When we stopped for lunch 
on the way over, between Santa Clara 
and Mortcras Pass, a little of the 
greenish rock was observed in the road- 
way, and in it we found an imperfect 
beetle eh^tron, resembling Anthonomus 
sunchaknsis, but with the apex more 
pointed. The Harrington locality is 
some distance up the gulch from Sun- 
chal, in a westerly direction. The trail 
branches at the bank of the little 
stream, and it is necessary to turn to 
the left, crossing the stream at this 
point. The exposure is on a hillside, 
right on the trail. Five minutes walk 
beyond, where a large tree has fallen 
over the trail, is another good exposure, 
rich in fossils. It was at this latter 
place that we found the little fish 
Corydoras revelatus, an armored cat- 
fish, the first member of the family 
Callichthyidse to be found fossil. It is, 
of course, a fresh-water form. The 
rock represents solidified mud, which 
comes out in small blocks, with a con- 
choidal fracture. The insect remains 
are numerous, but fully 95 per cent 
beetle elytra. It is very rare to find two 
elyira together, and we get the impres- 
sion that most of the specimens may 
come from the excrement of fishes. 
The fossils are preserved without 
compression. All the species so far 
discovered are small. Two of the 
elytra, belonging to the Cerambycidse 
or long-horn beetles, are beautifull}^ 
marked; one appears to belong to the 
existing Neotropical genus Haruspex. 
Aside fum beetles, we obtained the 
forceps of an earwig (Psalis), part of 



the wing of a male cricket, a small 
plant -bug (apparently Corizus), and 
two species of Fulgoroid Homoptera, 
one; referred to a new genus, the other 
to the existing genus Ormenis. There 
were also characteristic hind legs of a 
jumping Orthopterous insect. Un- 
doubtedly nuich more material will be 
collected later on, now that the locality 
is known. I left exact particulars both 
at the museum at Buenos Aires, and 
with Doctor Spegazzini. The green 
rock extends over a large area, and I 
understand that remains of insects 
have been found farther south. It is 
interbedded at intervals with layers of 
heavy limestone at the Harrington 
locahty. From the train I was able to 
see apparently the same kind of rock 
similarly interbedded, a short distance 
north of Perico. I also saw apparently 
the same deposit north of Tucuman, in 
many places weathering to make green- 
ish soil. 

This deposit appears to represent an 
ancient (Tertiary) lake, into which 
muddy rivers flowed. In its upper part 
it shows streaks of red, which increase 
until we come to an entirely red de- 
posit, this gives the name to the Rio 
Colorado, which flows near Sunchal. 
We assume that we have clear evidence 
of increasing aridity, culminating in 
what were wind-blown desert sands, 
apparently wholly unfossiliferous. 
Above this is a thick yellowish deposit, 
still more recent. The insect-bearing 
shale, which we may term the Sunchal 
Formation, must be considered Upper 
Tertiary, very possibl}^ not earlier 
than Miocene. As to the formations 
below it, I have no special opinion of 
ni}^ own. We followed up the gulch, 
and found older shales without distinct 
fossils. Still beyond, the rock is 
Devonian, and we were shown a very 
good trilobite picked up as "float" in 



84 



NATURAL HISTORY 



the same gulch. The folding and 
faulting in this region is excessive, so 
that it is very easy to make mistakes in 
geology. In a letter dated October 1925 
Mr. Harrington says: "Have you any 
idea as to the age of these (insect- 
bearing) beds? That really is the 
'question that agitates the public 
mind ,' and I have been puzzling my head 
for the last five years over the age of 
the beds above the micaceous, fissile, 
black Devonian slates, and hope that 
the results of your studies here may 
throw some light on it. You know the 
limestone some distance below the 
beetle beds or variegated shales con- 
tains some turritelloid forms that I 
have forgotten the name of, but it 
appears that that particular genus may 
range down ahiiost to the Triassic as 
well as up nearly to the top of the 
Cretaceous or thereabouts. Between 
that and the Devonian slates we have 
found no fossiliferous beds throughout 
the whole range of the territory from 
Jujuy to northern Bolivia east of the 
Andes." 

The turritelloid shells, not found near 
Sunchal, were figured and named by 
the Argentine palaeontologist Dr. Guido 
Bonarelli. He ascribed them to marine 
genera characteristic of the Triassic 
and Jurassic. From the figures I got 
the impression that they were fresh- 
water or non-marine forms such a? we 
get in North America in the Cretaceous 
and especially the Eocene. Dr. T. W. 
Stanton, on being consulted, said he 
would not venture a definite opinion, 
but his impression was similar to mine. 
The general outcome would be, that 
this part of South America has been a 
land area for a very long time. 

Bonarelli figured a "problematical 
fossil," which he did not venture to 
name, but which was suggestive of the 
Precambrian algse types (such as 



CoUenia) figured by Walcott in 1914. 
We found a characteristic block of this 
material, much too heavy to bring 
away, close to the fossil locality. It is 
supposed to be very much older, but I 
had the impression that it might have 
come out of the interbedding Tertiary 
limestone. 

Although we were nearly on the 
tropic, the weather was cold, and there 
were few insects about. During a good 
part of the time we were in a Scotch 
mist, and all night the moisture con- 
densed on the branches of the tree 
above our tent, producing a monotonous 
drip, drip, drip. The forests represent 
a dilute tropical biota, with magnificent 
trees, but no palms, nor were any 
monkeys seen. Great flocks of green 
parrots flew about, making a good deal 
of noise. At the ranch house they had 
one in captivity, and the notes I made 
on this enabled Doctor Wetmore to 
determine it as Amazona aestiva, 
originally described by Linngeus from 
southern Brazil. A fine looking jay, 
of large size, with a high pointed crest, 
and pale yellow under side, was Cijano- 
corax chrysops, probably (saj^s Doctor 
Wetmore) of the subspecies tucumanus. 
I also saw what I took for a large rusty- 
red woodpecker, but it was really a 
passerine bird vAih the habits and 
appearance of a woodpecker, pre- 
sumably Xiphocolaptes major. Doctor 
Wetmore, who corrected my erroneous 
impression, remarked that "the birds 
are wholly woodpecker-like in appear- 
ance and action," so they represent an 
astonishing case of "convergent evolu- 
tion." I had often read of the Dendro- 
colaptidae, and was particularly pleased 
to have seen one, and to have been 
appropriately deceived. 

Close to the tent a large shrubby 
groundsel, Senecio brasilieyisis, was in 
full flower. Its leaves were infested by 



A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AM lime A 



85 



a rust-fungus. Two si^ocic's of large 
columnar cacti {Trichocereus) were 
conspicuous inopen ground. A Solanivm 
(potato genus) with large broad lanceo- 
late leaves, white flowers and red 
berries, was the leading herbaceous 
plant on the forest floor in the gulch. 
The ferns were many and varied. The 
nettle Urtica danoimi recalls the voy- 
age of the "Beagle," though Darwin 
never visited this particular region. 
The common dandelion, of course in- 
troduced, was reminiscent of home. 
Two characteristic compositse were 
Onoseris hastata (described from 
Bolivia) and Tagetes tenuiflora 
(described from Ecuador). In general, 
the plants and animals appeared to 
range principally northward, though 
often south as far as the vicinity of 
Tucuman. There was hardly any 
resemblance to the flora later observed 
in the vicinity of Mendoza. 

The greatest disadvantage came 
from the abundance of ticks and those 
larval mites often called chiggers. We 
not only suffered severely at the time, 
but could still feel some of the effects 
after getting back to Colorado. 

When we came to make the return 
journey, we thought at first to take two 
days, and spend a night in the forest. 
But at the spot we had in mind there 
was no suitable forage for the mules, so 
we pushed on as far as the village of 
Santa Clara. Here night overtook us, 
and we were also thoroughly tired out. 
Asking permission to camp in the field 
in front of the best house we saw, we 
were recipients of the hospitality of 
Mr. and Mrs. Juan Tache, who did 
everything possible for us and would 
take nothing in return. The next 
morning an automobile came from Mr. 
Anderson's, and we were soon in San 
Pedro. Leaving San Pedro for the 
south, we took occasion to spend a 



night in .lujuy, 1 he capital of the Prov- 
in(;e, and make the acquaintance of a 
local naturalist, Mr. Carlos Schuel, 
who has charge of the "Museo Provin- 
cial." The next day, having to change 
at Tucuman, we looked up the traffic 
manager for advice, and found a very 
cordial Irishman, from County Clare. 
We spent only a few days in Buenos 
Aires this time, but were fortunate in 
making the acquaintance of Messrs. 
Carlos A. Lizer and Everard E. Blan- 
chard, specialists in scale insects and 
plant lice respectively. 

On July 29 we left Buenos Aires, 
going directly westward across the 
plains to Mendoza, in the vicinity of 
which is Wieland's Rhsetic locality, 
where he got two fossil insects. Arriv- 
ing at Mendoza, we hastened to look 
up Mr. D. 0. King, a member of the 
local railway administration, but also 
an extremely keen geologist, well ac- 
quainted with all the strata in the 
region. He is an Englishman, son of 
King of the Indian Geological Survej^, 
and grandson of the geologist who is 
now especially remembered in connec- 
tion with Homo neanderthalensis. Mr. 
King at once interested himself in our 
project, and through him we met Dr. 
Edwardo Carette, director of the public 
museum. Through the mediation of 
Doctor Carette, the Board of Education 
very kindly supplied an automobile 
with driver, to take us out to the Minas 
de Petroleo, the fossil insect locality. 
It was an all day trip, and the party 
included Doctor Carrette, Mr. and 
Mrs. King, Mr. Julio Macola, and 
ourselves. The precise spot was found, 
and very soon we were getting out 
extremely fine fossil plants, and also 
finding plenty of the mollusc-like 
crustacean, Estheriamangaliensis. But 
with all our labors, we failed to find 
anv remains of insects, and I very 



86 



NATURAL HISTORY 



recently heard from Mr. King, saying 
that he had searched since we left, 
without success. They appear to be 
extremely scarce, but undoubtedly 
more will eventually be found. 

Messrs. Carrette and Macola are 
skilled botanists, and were able to give 
me the names of the various plants 
growing in the locality. As is well 
known, this desert flora has many 
features which recall that of Arizona 
and Northern Mexico. About forty 
species were identified, six of them be- 
ing cacti. It was especially interesting 
to see two kinds of creosote bush, 
Covillea divaricata and C. nitida. Just 




Rhsetic plants from Minas de Petroleo, 
Argentina. (Photograph by Coulson.) 

as in Arizona, the olive green bushes 
form a conspicuous feature of the land- 
scape, extending up the valleys, and 
growing at intervals almost as if 
planted. In Arizona there is a very 
characteristic lac-insect (Tachardiella 
larreae Comstock) on the creosote bush, 
but at Mendoza the local lac (Tachar- 
diella lycii Leonardi) is on Lycium 
chilense. We found the Lycium, but 
not the lac. The indications are that 
Covillea originated in the south, and 
spread northward in one species. The 
closely related genera inhabit the 
southern Andean region, and it is there 



that the genus shows some diversifica- 
tion, C. nitida being very distinct and 
peculiar. The same sort of thing 
appears to be true of Prosopis, or 
mesquite. We have in our southwest a 
few forms coming up from Mexico, 
representing two very different types 
often separated generically. At Men- 
doza we observed three species, P. 
alpataco, P. striata and P. stromholifera, 
the latter being a screw-bean, like our 
southwestern P. pubescens. One of 
the Andean forms is so like the North 
American P. juliflora that it has re- 
cently been proposed to regard them as 
identical. Doctor Rose writes that he 
doubts this conclusion, and considers 
that further critical study must be 
given to a number of closely related 
species in South America. He also 
thinks our Covillea distinct from all 
those to be seen in Argentina, though C. 
divaricata resembles ours very closely 
indeed. When we consider that on the 
west coast of South America desert 
conditions prevail almost to the equa- 
tor, it is not so difficult to see how 
members of the Andean desert flora 
may have spread northward in earlier 
times. Whether the seeds may have 
been carried by migrating birds over 
part of the distance I do not know. 
There is a strong argument against 
actual continuity of desert at any 
time from Peru to Guatemala, not 
only in the nature of the countrj'', but 
also in the failure of many types, 
especially of insects, to spread from the 
one region into the other. This whole 
problem of the northern and southern 
desert biota is of the greatest interest, 
and would well repay a lifetime of 
study. 

The Mendoza country, in the first 
half of the nineteenth century, was the 
hunting ground of Gillies, who used to 
send plants to Hooker in England. 



.1 J()1'um<:y i\ somi amkuka 



87 



I 




Aconcagua, 23,050 feet, the highest point in the Western Hemisphere, as we saw it 
when crossing the Andes from Mendoza, Argentina, to Valparaiso, Chile. (Photograph 
by D. O. King.) 



Consequently, among the plants ob- 
served at Minas de Petroleo were 
Trichocereus candicans (Gill.), Verbena 
scoparia Gill, and Hook., Berheris 
grevilleana Gill, and Hook., and Col- 
linguaya integerrima Gill, and Hook.' 
However, Gillies did not succeed in 
recording all the plants; thus we ob- 
served the cactus Malacocarpus cata- 
marcensis, the specific name of which 
was given by our friend Spegazzini. 
On looking up the Mendoza plants in 
the Index Kewensis, I found that very 
many were said to come from Chile. 
This is misleading, and apparently due 
to the fact that when they were 
described Chile did not have its present 
boundaries, nor indeed were they dis- 
tinctly settled. It used to be easier to 
get to Mendoza across the Andes than 
over the plains, and thus the whole 
country was, in a manner, tributary to 
Chile. The flora of the two sides of the 
Andes in this latitude is very different. 



as we were able to observe when we 
went across. It is a singular thing that 
in the more southern part of the Andes, 
as about Mendoza, it is the east side 
which is arid, while the west is much 
moister; whereas northward, in north- 
ern Chile and the whole length of Peru, 
the west coast is extremely arid, while 
the eastern slope is moist tropical. 

Not to rely too much on impressions 
from the train, I took for comparison 
Jaffuel and Pirrion's list (1923) of the 
Flora of the Marga-Marga Valley, 
inland from Valparaiso. Of the forty 
species definitely noted at thcMinas de 
Petroleo, the following are in the 
Marga-Marga list: Lycium chilense, 
Proustia pungens (but represented on 
the Mendoza side by a distinct variety 
iliafolia), Baccharis rosmarinifolia, 
Schinus dependens, Marrubium vulgare 
and Xanthium spinosum. The last 
two, being common introduced weeds, 
are of little significance. In addition, 



NATURAL HISTORY 



the following observed genera were 
represented by different species in the 
Marga-Marga list; Berberis, Cossza, 
Gochnatia, Verbena, Lippia, Fabiana, 
Colling nay a and Tillandsia. The rows 
of lombardy poplai-s. much planted on 
both sides of the Andes, were observed 
to be much infested with mistletoe on 
the Chilean side. Perhaps the most 
striking point of difference is in the 
Cactacese, which abound in species and 
individuals in the region of Mendoza, 
but in the Marga-Marga Valley are 
represented only by Trichocereus chil- 
oensis (Colla), which is common, and 
an undetermined " Echinocactus." 

The journey across the Andes, on the 
Transandean Railroad, is a wonderful 
experience. The beauty of the snow- 
capped mountains and the rich colors of 
the rocky slopes can hardly be 
described. We were fortunate in 
getting a good view of Aconcagua, 
23,050 feet, the highest peak in the 
western hemisphere. Coming down on 
the other side, we found spring in 
Chile. We spent a night at Los Andes, 
in order to have a daylight ride across 
Chile to Valparaiso. In Valparaiso we 
found a most excellent hotel with 
extremely moderate charges, and had a 
short time to see something of the city. 
We climbed up on the heights back of 
the town, and finding a good many 
flowers, expected to see some of the 
native bees. In this we were dis- 
appointed, but we got some very 
beautiful flies. We sailed from Val- 
paraiso August 5, on the "Santa Ana," 
and on August 7 had a chance to go 
ashore at Antofagasta. This was the 
most barren place I had ever seen. 
When I started out with my net, one 
of the passengers, who had been there 
before, laughed at me for expecting to 
catch anything. "You may," he said, 
"possibly get some fleas in town!" 



I had never seen a desert where there 
was nothing to be had, so I walked 
boldly on to the rocky slopes back of 
the town, expecting to see some sort of 
desert flora. I could not find a blade of 
grass, or any green thing, except a small 
seedling Mesembryanthemum, with 
nine leaves. I caught two insects, 
a pallid Thysanuran and a small 
moth. Returning to the town, we ex- 
amined the small park, full of flowers, 
and the few gardens. These are 
watered, I understand, from tanks 
brought down on the railway. About 
the gardens were some common weeds, 
Malva rotundifoUa (mallow), Erodium 
cicutarium (alfilaria) and Sonclms (sow 
thistle). From under stones and dead 
leaves we got some interesting Tene- 
brionid beetles, and under dead birds 
on the shore carrion beetles, Dermestes 
vulpinus and a prettily colored Sapri- 
niis, the latter new to the U. S. National 
Museum. Certain flies found along the 
beach are reported by Doctor Aldrich 
to represent new genera of Ephydridse 
and Sarcophagidse. Before retm-ning 
to the ship, we collected marine shells 
at the water's edge. The most inter- 
esting, found in considerable nmnbers, 
was the little Rissoina helena Bartsch, 
described in 1915 from two specimens 
with no better locality than "Peru." 
It was thus an addition to the Chilean 
fauna. The other shells were ordinary 
enough. An excellent smnmarj'- of the 
marine shells of the Peruvian Prov- 
ince, including northern Chile, was 
given by Dall in Proceedings U. S. 
National Museum, 1909. 

We did not go ashore at Arica, but 
stood for a time close to General Per- 
shing's ship, near enough to be cheered 
by the sound of our national air, played 
by the band on board. 

Coming to Ilo, at the southern end of 
Peru, we were halted in the evening in 



A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA 



89 



order that disinfectants niigiit he 
pumped into the hold, an apparently 
futile proceeding. Many moths and 
some other insects came to the ship's 
lights, and I made quite an interesting 
collection. It was essentially a sand- 
hill fauna, with Deilephilia, Agrotis 
(sens, lat.) and other things reminding 
one very much of the sand-hill Lepi- 
doptera of Europe. On August 10 
we reached Mollendo, and there left 
the ship to proceed by rail to Arequipa. 
Before leaving Mollendo, I examined a 
heap of stones in a very arid spot, and 
found a spider and a Thysanuran. The 
Thysanura are primitively wingless 
insects, often appearing fond of hot 
places. One species, for instance, occurs 
in bakeries. Did the first terrestrial 
insects have such habits, and if so, 
does that in part explain why we do not 
find them fossil, as we might expect to 
do, in Devonian strata? 

The journey up to Arequipa was 
very interesting, and has been described 
in various books of travel. The train 
goes for some distance near the shore, 
enabling us to see a rather extensive 
sand hill flora. Then it turns inland, 
and crosses a perfect desert, which is 
here and there irrigated, and is then 
YQiy fertile. At Ensenada cotton is 
grown and at Tambo sugar-cane was 
brought to the train. Presently we 
began to ascend the steep foothills, 
which are covered with verdure at an 
altitude of about 1,000 to 1,500 feet. 
This is the result of the fogs coming in 
from the sea. There is a great dearth 
of woody plants, but some cacti, and 
brightly colored flowers. The flora is 
by no means the same as that about 
Arequipa. Leaving this region, we 
came to another desert, with the famous 
crescentic dunes of blown sand. It was 
evening by the time we reached Are- 
quipa, after a truly eventful journey. 



The extreme aridity of this coast is 
explained by the high mountains, which 
precipitate the moisture to the east, 
and the cold Humboldt current, which 
causes the rain from the Pacific to fall 
before reaching the coast. At rare 
intervals, this current is in some way 
deflected or changed, and warm water 
flows near the shore, resulting in torren- 
tial rains. This had happened a few 
months before we visited the country, 
and we could still see the effects at 
Arequipa and elsewhere. Such rains 
are destructive to buildings and .vege- 
tation, but were the current perma- 
nently altered in such fashion, the 
climate of the whole coast would be 
entirely changed. The character of the 
fauna and flora shows that such condi- 
tions as now obtain have remained 
essentially constant for a very long 
while. 

We spent a night in Arequipa, and 
then started for Cuzco, which ni}' wife 
was especially anxious to visit. The 
first day's journey is to JuHaca, 12,550 
feet altitude, not far from Lake Titi- 
caca. The ascent from the Arequipa 
Valley is rapid, and we pass through a 
region of desert vegetation, with 
many flowers, and eventuaUy come out 
on the roof of the world, the home of 
the llama, where the vegetation is 
mainty bunch grass. But unfor- 
tunately, these matters suddenly 
ceased to interest me, for at an alti- 
tude of about 13,500 feet I succumbed 
to the dread malady ''soroche," or 
mountain sickness. The S3anptomshave 
often been described, and I need only 
say that I was completeh' prostrated. 
Very rarely, a passenger dies under 
these circumstances; the majority 
experience more or less discomfort but 
many are immune. Fortunately, my 
wife was not affected, and other passen- 
gers in the car were as kind and helpful 



90 



NATURAL HISTORY 



as possible. I remember especially 
Mr. A. G. Maurique of Arequipa, who 
was indefatigable. We went over the 
highest pass, Crucero Alto, at 14,688 
feet, and in the evening arrived at 
Juliaca, where I could do nothing but 
go to the hotel. After a very wretched 
night, I was carried to the morning 
train, and prostrate on soft llama rugs, 
returned in disgrace to Arequipa. It 
was of course a very great disappoint- 
ment, in addition to the discomfort, for 
who knows what we might have seen 
and discovered in that high country? 
Even after reaching Arequipa (7,550 
ft.) I had to spend a couple of days in 
bed. On the third I cautiously walked 
around the plaza, and witnessed a 
very interesting religious procession. 
After that I felt recovered, and was 
able to go about as usual. We were 
established at the Hotel Wagner, 
where we were very well taken care of, 
and had most comfortable quarters. 

The Arequipa Valley is fertile under 
irrigation, much as the Salt R-iver 
Valley in Arizona. The surrounding 
country is much like the Arizona 
desert, with scattered vegetation of 
many species. The city is a fine one, 
and to me was more attractive than 
Lima. Although the people in general 
are poor, and often wretchedly clothed, 
they seem cheerful, and are orderly. I 
saw no one drunken or behaving in an 
objectionable manner. Everywhere 
we were treated courteously. As one 
walks round the plaza, the magnificent 
cone of the volcanic Mt. Misti comes 
into view above the cathedral. This 
particular view is certainly one of the 
finest in the world ; one is reminded at 
once of the pictures of Fujiyama in 
Japan. Misti is, however, 4,973 feet 
higher above sea level. We visited the 
Protestant Evangelical Mission at 414 
Calle Mercadores, and were much 



interested in the good work being done. 
United States "culture" reaches the 
Arequipans in the form of movies, and 
one of the first things noticed was a 
huge announcement that Carlitos 
Chaplin was to be seen upon the screen. 
We denied ourselves this pleasure, but 
later, one evening, went to the movie at 
a venture, not knowing what was 
offered . What we saw was ' ' The Ghost 
of Slumber Mountain," in which the 
dinosaurs come to life. We had seen 
the same film in Boulder several years 
before. 

NaturaHsts are scarce in Arequipa, 
and the surrounding country'' is full of 
undiscovered things. Happening to 
go to the railway station to return the 
unused tickets from Juliaca to Guzco, 
I found Miss Corry, who told me that 
her father, the chief engineer of the 
Southern Railways of Peru, was very 
much interested in botany. Unfor- 
tunately he was away at the time. Mr 
T. A. Corry was very helpful to Doctor 
Rose when he was investigating the 
cacti of the region, and we were much 
pleased to , find at Tingo the fine 
species with lemon-j^ellow flowers, now 
called Corryocactus brevistylus. We 
were especially fortunate in making the 
acquaintance of Dr. Edmundo Escomel, 
a leading physician of the city, who is 
enthusiastically devoted to natural 
history, and has made many dis- 
coveries. His house is a veritable mu- 
seum, and he has sent out specimens to 
speciahsts in various countries, so that 
his name often occurs in the literature. 
On the day we first met him, we had 
been to Tingo, and had captured the 
handsome black bee Anthophora es- 
comeli, while we had been bitten un- 
mercifully by the elegant little buffalo 
gnat Simulium escomeli. Several 
species of Hymenoptera, a neuropteron, 
a mosquito, a moss, and a large frog 



A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA 



91 



found in Lake Titicaca, have all been 
named after Doctor Escomel. He has 
had little time for taxonomic work, 
being overwhelmed by patients, espe- 
cially since in the goodness of his heart 
he treats the poor without charge. He 
has however specialized in the blister- 
beetle genus Pseudomeloe, which was 
used medicinally by the ancient people 
of the country/ He had recently re- 
vised the Peruvian species, six of which 
he had first described, while another, 
discovered by him, was named in his 
honor by Denier. Having seen these 
beetles in his collection, I was aston- 
ished to find at Tia Bay a another 
species, not there represented, abun- 
dant on the little boraginaceous plant 
Coldenia parviflora. I had, in fact, 
discovered a new species of Pseudo- 
meloe in Doctor Escomel's own dis- 
trict! He has since described it as P. 
cockerelli. Later, I found a single 
specimen of this new Pseudomeloe, on 
the same plant, at Yura. 

We made many trips to Tingo, a 
suburb reached on the street car. It 
was by far the best collecting ground 
we found. We got tw^enty-three species 
of bees, of which ten were new to sci- 
ence, including a very remarkable new 
genus, with Australian affinities, cap- 
tured by my wife. 

From Tingo an omnibus runs to Tia 
Baya, where we spent a good part of 
one da3^ Only one new bee was ob- 
tained, but we got the new beetle 
already mentioned, and some other 
interesting things. A remarkable little 
cactus turned out to be Arequipa 
leucotricha, the generic name given by 
Britton and Rose in reference to the 
city near which it occurred. Another 
excursion was out into the desert 
toward Mt. Misti. It was excessively 



'Called Ychuccaspa in the Quichua language; see 
Bull. Soc. Path. Exolique, XVI, (1923), p. 621. 



dry, but there were several flowers, 
including the handsome Bignoniaceous 
Tecomaria arequipe?isis (Sprague). A 
Grindelia or gum-weed looked very like 
our common Colorado species; Mr. 
Killip finds nothing like it in the U. S. 
National Herbarium, but suggests that 
it may be the Grindelia -peruviana which 
is mentioned in the literature, but 
seems not to have been described. The 
curious fungus Battarea digueti Pat. 
reminded me of veiy similar forms I 
used to find in the deserts of New 
Mexico. I was much surprised to find 
a moss {Anomohryum filijorme) and a 
fern {Notholaena arequipensis) gro^ang 
under excessively arid conditions. 
Williams had already recorded the 
same species of moss from a dry hillside 
at Santa Rosa, Peru. The fern was 
described a few years ago by Doctor 
Maxon. 

Just before leaving Arequipa, we 
took the train and went up to Yura, 
8,450 feet, a place famous for the hot 
medicinal baths. We got only one new 
bee not obtained elsewhere, but found 
the plants very interesting, many 
quite analogous to those of New 
Mexico and Arizona. The Encelia 
canescens showed two distinct forms, 
growing side bj^ side. In one the 
foliage was greenish white, in the other 
light green, in great contrast. Doubt- 
less they are INIendelian segregates, but 
the former would be expected to be 
adapted to more arid conditions. Near 
the warm stream was a great quantity 
of Mesembnjanthemum, and we found 
Mimulus in flower. There were two 
handsome species of the potato genus, 
Solanum phyllanthum and S. radicans. 
A dodder (Cuscuto) looked like those of 
the United States Senecio terct if alius 
was a groundsel allied to a species of 
our southwest. Although both the 
IMendoza and Yura floras reminded us 



92 



NATURAL HISTORY 



in many respects of the deserts of 
North America, they did not remind us 
of one another. Yura is very much 
poorer in woody species than the 
Mendoza district. A species of mistle- 
toe referred to Phrygilanthus cuneifolius 
was found in both regions, though the 
plants seemed to me to be appreciably 
different. At all events, the seeds of 
this genus are readily carried by birds, 
so we should expect a wide distribu- 
tion. 

On August 24 we were back at 
Mollendo, and took passage on the 
"Santa Elisa" for New York. The 
next day we had a short time at Pisco. 
As we walked down the long pier, we 
heard what seemed to be the grunting 
of innumerable pigs beneath us. Look- 
ing to find what kind of sea-pigs there 
might be, we observed that the noise 
came from black cormorants (Phalacro- 
corax vigua) . The immediate vicinity of 
the town was unfavorable for collecting. 

On August 26 we landed at Callao, 
and had time for an excursion to Lima, 
where we saw the Zoological Gardens, 
but did no collecting. The next day 
we stood off Salaverry, which is on a 
barren sand bank, though the hills back 
of town, at 1,000 feet or more, are green 
and shrouded in fog. The last stop in 
Peru was at Paita, quite at the north- 
ern end of the country. In about an 
hour we captured six species of bees, 
four of them new to science, and one of 
the others including an undescribed sex. 

Going up the coast of Peru, we passed 
the Guano islands, so well described in 
Murphy's Bird Islands of Peru fl925). 
The number of water birds was amaz- 
ing. Those especially noted about the 
ship were pelicans (Pelecanus ihagus), 



cormorants {Phalacrocorax bougain- 
villei), gulls (Larus dominicanus] and 
the so-called cape pigeon {Daption 
capense) . We also saw sea lions (Otaria 
hyroma). Mr. Chas. D. Fagan, the 
wireless operator on the "Santa Elisa," 
is a most enthusiastic ornithologist, and 
on his trips up and down the coast has 
obtained some rare and interesting 
birds, ^ including Hornby's petrel, long 
known only from a single specimen. 
The birds come on board the ship, 
attracted or bewildered by the lights. 

A day was spent going through the 
Panama Canal. During our passage a 
wasp (Polyhia occidentalis var. albo- 
picta) and some other insects came on 
board. We reached New York on 
Labor Day, and after a visit to the 
New York Botanical Garden left for 
Boulder. 

It was a long journey, packed with 
varied experiences, worth while equally 
for the scientific results, the knowledge 
of physical conditions, and the delight- 
ful contact with all sorts of interesting 
people. 

On the way down, I wrote the follow- 
ing poem, which was printed on the 
menu card of the "captain's dinner," 
the night before reaching Rio de 
Janeiro. The "fairies" referred to are 
the characteristic translucent-winged 
butterflies. 

Gone to Brazil! O mystic word! 

Visions of spice and of star-lit skies. 

Ocean blue where the tropic bird 

Shines in the sun as it flies. 

While over the land from the sea-washed 

strand 
To the forests of palm and vine, 
Strange fairies preside and silently glide 
Like the ghost of a being divine. 

iSee Wetmore, Condor, XXV (1923), p. 170. 



A Museum Pilgrimage 



By HERBERT P. Willi IJX'K 

Curator, Minerals and Gems, American Museum 

When that Aprille loith his showres swoul 
The drought of Marche hath pcrcdd to the root. 



Thennc longen folk to go on pilqrimogcx. 

The Cantkrbuky Tai.ics 



IT has been said that a museum 
curator should have, among other 

qualities, ''the acquisitiveness of a 
rag picker," which I take to mean not 
only the knack of gathering in good 
things for the collections of his museum, 
but the gift of appropriating from here, 
there, and everywhere the ideas that 
will render these collections more ob- 
vious and intelligible. The ideas may 
come from a well displayed shop 
window, but they are far more apt to be 
inspired by w^hat may be seen in some 
other Museum — any museum whether 
devoted to art, history or science, pro- 
vided it be a good one, where care and 
thought have guided the installation. 

So it was that having a longing, like 
Chaucer's goodly fellowship, to go on 
a pilgrimage, the middle of April found 
me on my way to France determined to 
see what I could of the museums of 
France, Spain, and Italy, and to glean 
from these many shrines of Art and 
Science those impressions and sugges- 
tions of arrangement and presentation 
which are no small part of the stock in 
trade of every museum worker. 

Paris, which was my first objective, 
is preeminently a city of fine museums; 
here the wealth of culture which has 
always characterized thio queen of 
cities finds expression in an assemblage 
of important collections of gi'eat variety. 
My chief interest being in science mu- 
seums, it was natural that my first visit 
should be to the Natural History ]\Iu- 



seuiii in the .Jaidiii dcs IMuiitcs. Here I 
found a nuiseuni with an atniospliere 
and tradition which plainly bespoke the 
classic age of Science. In these famous 
halls I felt almost prepared to meet tlie 
shade of the Abbe Haiiy, whose historic 
collection of minerals is presei'ved here; 
or that of Cuvier, whose house near by 
in the Rue Cuvier is still preserved 
with a care which seems as strange as 
it is beautiful to the eyes of a mere New 
Yorker. But the Jardin des Plantes 
can boast of other things besides the 
Haiiy Collection. There is a very- 
complete collection of minerals particu- 
larly rich in those from French localities 
and including a superb suite of the gem 
minerals from Madagascar. Also note- 
worthy is a series of cases devoted to 
the minerals occurring in certain rock 
types (such as the minerals of eruptive 
rocks). Supplementing this is a fine 
series of rock structures. 

In the section of anthropology my 
attention was drawn to a well displayed 
series of casts of the hands and feet of 
the races of men, a highly significant 
and original installation. As in most of 
the natural history musemiis that I 
visited, the collection of birds was large 
and fine and especial^ rich in tropical 
birds. 

Not far from the Jardin des Plantes, 
at the rear of the Jardin du Luxem- 
bourg is TEcole des Mines which 
houses a mineral collection said by 
some authorities to rival that of its 

93 



94 



NATURAL HISTORY 



neighbor the Natural History Museum. 
A wall case series displays the large 
and fine specimens of this collection 
after the manner of the wall case key 
exhibit in our Morgan Hall. There are 
also many exceptional pieces in the 
general collection exhibited in flat 
cases. On the whole this collection of 
minerals is a classic and historic one, 
rich in its associations with the men 
who have laid the foundations of 
mineralogical science. 

In treading this hallowed ground on 
the left bank of the Seine, as all good 
pilgrims should tread it, Paris taxicabs 
to the contrary notwithstanding, I spent 
several very profitable hours in the 
Musee de Cluny, examining a very 
famous collection illustrating old 
French culture. Here were displayed 
many objects illustrating the antique 
use of precious stones in Gallo-Roman 
and Merovingian art. By far the most 
important of these are the seven crowns 
of Visigoth kings, set with roughly 
shaped gem stones, and constituting 
perhaps the finest known examples of 
the use of precious stones in the jewelry 
of the seventh century. The handbook 
by Edmond Harancourt, curator of the 
Musee de Cluny, printed in English as 
well as in French, is not only an admir- 
able guide book to the collection, but 
a model which might well be studied 
with profit by any one engaged in the 
difficult task of preparing a museum 
handbook. 

The crowning glory of Parisian mu- 
seums is, of course, the Musee National 
du Louvre, and hither I next turned my 
steps to see the Salle des Bijoux 
Antique, a notable collection illustrat- 
ing the historic use of gem stones. 
Here I found a splendid assemblage of 
engraved gems and ring mounts dis- 
played on moire silk of the same shade 
as that used in our Morgan Collection. 



The Egyptian gold jewelry in this 
section of the Louvre well re- 
paj's a visit, containing, as it does, 
finer pieces than any others I have 
seen. Among the cases in the adjoining 
gallery I saw one in which small silver 
figurines were displayed on a stepped 
supporting diaphragm, the upright ele- 
ments of which consisted of mirrors 
which reflected the back portions of the 
specimens. Such an arrangement is 
very effective for the display of small 
objects which should be seen on all 
sides. 

From the Louvre it is only a .step to 
the Bibliotheque National in the Rue 
de Pticheheu. Here I found the best 
series illustrating the historic evolution 
of gem engra^'ing, within my knowl- 
edge. This begins with Babylonian 
and Assyrian cylinders and shows suc- 
cessively Asiatic, Greek, and Roman 
intaglios, ring mounts, the inscribed 
talismanic seals of Arabia, Turkey, and 
Armenia, Gnostic intaghos down 
through Christian engraved gems, and 
Medieval intaglios and cameos to mod- 
ern equivalents. It forms an almost 
unbroken exposition of the art of the 
gem engraver. Each example is accom- 
panied by a sharp impression in plaster 
and the group labels are lucid and well 
chosen. Nor does this collection lack 
notable specimens among its hundreds 
of examples, since here I found the 
splendid antique cameo, representing 
"The Glorification of Germanicus" one 
of the largest and finest cameos known. 
As one v/ould be led to expect of so good 
an installation, the handbook which 
describes it is well written and well 
illustrated. 

In the Musee Carna valet (Fig. 1), 
which is fairly close to the Louvre in the 
Rue Sevigne, I had my first view of a 
typical "musemn of culture" which is 
an extremely comimon type throughout 



A MUSEUM I'lLCUlMAUE 



95 




Fig. 1. — A garden court in the Musee Carnavalet. Enclosed gardens are fairly common 
among the museums of France and Italy. They are always well kept, and add much to the 
dignity and attractiveness of the building 



France, Italy, and Switzerland, and 
probably throughout the whole of 
Europe. In America we would call this 
.kind of a museum a "historical" 
museum ; in Italy where it flourishes it 
is called a "civic museum" (Museo 
Civico) . The Carnavalet Museum is in 
reality an old Paris residence turned 
into a home for objects illustrating the 
history of Paris, particularly the epoch 
of the Revolution, in much the same 
way that Jumel Mansion is maintained 
in New York or Washington's home at 
Mount Vernon. Some of the rooms 
have been reproduced in their original 
furnishings in a way analogous to the 
rooms of the American wing of the 
Metropolitan Museum, or sum'lar res- 
torations in the Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts. One of the charming features of 
the Carnavalet Museum I must men- 
tion because I found it repeated with 
variations so often in the course of my 
travels. The plan of this old house is 
such that the main edifice encloses four 
courts or gardens — not merely places 



where the public may eat lunch and 
scatter papers, as too often is the case 
when such things are attempted with 
American museums, but real gardens 
where one may saunter, and review 
what one has seen, may read and digest 
the guide book, and take awa^^ , as I did, 
something more than the mere impres- 
sion of beautiful costumes, Revolution- 
ary relics, and those clever Httle scale 
models of sections of old Paris. 

Among the very many things that 
Paris holds tucked away fi'om the eye 
of the casual tourist is a small but very 
interesting museum devoted to the 
religions of Japan, China, and India. 
This is the Musee Guimet in the Place 
dT^na. Here I saw a collection rich in 
interest and exceptionally well lighted 
and displayed. A feature which im- 
pressed me as most imusual was the 
number of pieces that were mounted 
without case protection. I found, later, 
that this practice was bj- no means 
confined to this museum, but was used 
in man}' of the Italian civic museums 



96 



NATURAL HISTORY 



with a freedom which seems very sur- 
prising to one familiar with the Ameri- 
can pubhc. In one of the long galleries, 
lighted from the side, is installed a 
number of busts on square pedestals 
of the usual type. What is unusual, 
however, is the use that has been made 
of the side Hght. The pedestals are 
sHghtly turned so that the heads dis- 
played catch the light in three-quarter 
aspect instead of the usual half aspect. 
Figure 2 explains this innovation which 
is far more effective than it sounds. 




\)> -^ 



USUAL POSITIOIH P0S\T10N U5e:o trt 

nUSEE GUWET 

Figure 2 

Five minutes' walk from the Place 
d'lena takes one to the Palais du Troc- 
adero, which contains two museums 
that are well worth a visit of several 
hours apiece, although, like the Musec 
Guimet, they are not generally featured 
in a tourist's itinerary. The most 
impressive of these is the Museum of 
Comparative Sculpture, where casts of 
practically all that are important among 
French architectural monuments are 
arranged by periods. 

For lighting and interest of arrange- 
ment this museum is by far the best 
which I had the privilege of studying. 
The overhead lighting is admirably 
suited to bring out the detail of the 



architectural reproductions exhibited, 
many of which are twenty feet in height. 
Great skill has been displaj^ed in the 
arrangement of reproductions of portals 
and fagades which are employed to 
divide the long curved hall (220 yards 
in length) into smaller elements, one 
opening into the other. This installa- 
tion presents a most interesting and 
impressive solution of the problem of 
treating a long and relatively narrow 
exhibition space. Nothing is under 
glass. 

The Ethnological Museum, also in 
the Trocadero, deals with the peoples of 
the world, with a strong emphasis on 
the people of France. A striking feature 
of this installation is the exhibit of 
costumes, shown on Kfe-size figures 
distributed throughout the collections. 
In dealing with the peoples of America, 
single figures are used to illustrate the 
aborigines of North, South, and Central 
America. The peasantry of France are 
shown in a series of attractive groups 
under glass, exceptionally well mounted 
and labeled. I was dehghted to find in 
this series a group showing the peasant 
lapidaries of the Jura Mountains pohsh- 
ing semiprecious stones. In this section 
also the collections of headdresses, foot 
gear, and other elements of costume 
and employments are well arranged 
and displaj^ed. 

I also visited the magnificent collec- 
tion of French armor in the Musee de 
I'Armee, a collection of great impor- 
tance and interest, but one which taught 
me nothing new in installation. 

At Bordeaux, where I broke mj^ 
journey en route for Spain, I found a 
small natural history museum, of 
which the outstanding feature of 
installation is the ethnological section. 
This contains a good collection of 
weapons and other elements of culture 
from French colonial possession,?, no- 



.1 MUSEUM PILGRIM ACE 



<)7 



tably from Soneonnibia ami New 
C 'aledonia. 

On reaching; Madrid 1 lost very little 
time in finding my way to the National 
Museum of Natural Sciences in the 
Palacio de la Industria. This is a 
modern museum in which modern 
methods of group mounting and dis- 
play have been followed to a certain 
extent. There are several good animal 
and bird groups. The large mammals 
are shown in wall cases six feet deep, 
and di^dded into panels five feet wide. 
Each panel contains a group of species 
(such as Felis) , and instead of a label, 
each specimen bears a number corre- 
sponding to a numbered list of the species 
in the group. This list is mounted against 
the glass front of the case. From an edu- 
cational point of view there ia quite an 
advantage in this method of labeling, 
for the visitor is continualh^ led to place 
a particular specimen among its related 
species. The collection of minerals is 
installed in cases of the desk type, in a 
room lighted from above. Ordinarity 
such an installation would be mar)-ed 
by very bad reflections from the glass 
of the cases. In this instance, however, 
the effect of the strong Spanish sunlight 
is minmiized by a dark curtain sus- 
pended in a horizontal position under 
the middle third of the ceiHng skylight, 
in the manner shown in Figure 3. 

Among the museums of ^Madrid I 
found one which was rather unique, — 
the Museo Naval, in the building 
devoted to the Minister of Marine 
and close to the Royal Palace. I had 
never before seen a naval museum, and 
was delighted to find here a really fine 
collection of ship models, beautifully 
constructed to scale, and illustrating 
Spanish vessels of war from the galleons 
of the fifteenth century to the most 
modern warship. The collection, which 
is admirably lighted and displayed. 



iiiiglit well be considcrcil a good stand- 
ard for this tj'^pe of museum. 

Coming out of Spain on the eastern 
side of the Pyrenees, I made a stop at 
Marseilk; in ordei' to see the natural 
history museum of llial vciy delight- 
ful port. It proved to be a good 
example of a local science museum, 
excellent in certain departments. 
There are, for instance, good local 
collections of fossils, including a fine 
series of fossil insects from the Eocene 
of Aix-en-Provence. The local birds are 
also well represented and there is a 
quite complete series of Mediterranean 
fishes. Some of the halls have been 
decorated with mural painting.- depict- 
ing restorations of extinct life, and some 
of the geology halls with examples of 
natural scenerj^ such as a glacier, a 
waterfall, a tropical forest. 




BLACK CURTWM 



t/' 



Figure 3 

At Genoa, my first stop in Italy, I 
happened upon another museum of the 
tj^pe of the Guimet in Paris, but much 
smaller and less pretentious. This was 
the Aluseo E. Chiossone in the Accade- 
mia della Belle Arti. In the display of 
the collections of Chinese and Japanese 
art objects, which constitute the exhib- 
its of the Chiossone, great taste has 
been exercised. I found noteworthy 
the use of background diaphragms 



98 



NATURAL HISTORY 



which is suggested in sketch diagram in 
Figure 4. In the example studied the 
material displayed consisted of Chinese 
masks; as an installation suggestion, 
however, the idea seems susceptible of 
a wider application. 




Figure 4 

It is a considerable jump from Genoa 
to Rome, my next halting place, but a 
jump necessary at one time or another, 
since Italy is long and narrow, and one 
must see it journeying either south or 
north. 

C There are in Rome many museums of 
art and archaeology, but few science 
museums; so, accommodating myself 
to conditions, I made the most of the 
archaeological museums, and brought 
away from the National Museum at 
Rome what I consider the most valu- 
able idea among my notes. 

This is another museum, which, Kke 
the Carnavalet, encloses a charming 
garden, which was at the height of its 
June splendor when I saw it. Although 
mainly devoted to sculpture, the Na- 
tional Museum contains a small but 



important collection of Roman jewelry 
and small objects in amber. It was 
while I was studying these that I 
found the very unique treatment of 
supporting glass shelves upon dia- 
phragms which I have sketched in 
Figure 5. The installation in this up- 
right wall case consisted of supporting a 
glass shelf on a background diaphragm 
of convenient height, say 12 inches; 
then another diaphragm and glass shelf, 
and so on to the top of the case. This 
constitutes what a patent lawyer would 
call a ''basic" idea. Its appUcation to 
any installation using glass shelves is 
practically limitless, and its use where 
Roman pottery was shown was highly 
effective. 

My way north from Rome took me 
first to Perugia, that fascinating hill 
town, beloved of all good tourists who 
know their Italy a bit more than super- 
ficially. Perugia supports a museum of 
Etruscan-Roman art which is rich in 
beautiful things. Among the Etruscan 
antique objects, I found a number of 
examples of the use of gem stones in 
Etruscan jewelry. It was extremely 
interesting to compare this series, and 
the one which I had just seen in Rome, 
with the Egyptian forms from the 
Louvre collection, and from what I 
remembered of the MetropoHtan Mu- 
seum's series. In every instance where 
emeralds were used as beads I noted that 
the stone had been left in its rough (hex- 
agonal crystal) form and merely pierced 
for stringing. This was in marked 
contrast to the practise used for other 
gems which were invariably shaped into 
some primitive bead form. 

There is also a tiny natural history 
museum in Perugia which, despite its 
small size, displayed a series of old 
crystal models illustrating the theories 
of Haiiy regarding crystal structure. 
As one who makes crystal models, I 



A MUSEUM PILGRIMAGE 



99 




Figure 5 



gazed with appreciation and reverence 
on these beautifulty constructed card- 
board sohds and speculated as to how 
long they had been there, and whose 
patient labor had produced them. 

One thinks of Florence as the Italian 
city par excellence of the art museum. 
I can, however, bear witness that there 
are also science museums, and good 
ones, to be found in Florence, if one 
will but seek them out. The Natural 
History Museum of Florence in the Via 
Romana, in reahty only houses the 
zoological and anatomical sections, — 
the sections of geology and mineralogy 
having been removed to separate build- 
ings. The collection of invertebrates is 
large and well lighted as is also a 
splendid collection of the birds of Italy. 
By far the best installation is that of a 
series of wax models of anatomical 
preparations and dissections, beauti- 
fully made and well arranged and dis- 
played. These fill several rooms, and 
constitute a good example of the im- 
portance laid upon anatomy in several 
of the science musemns which I visited. 



In the entry to the Natural History 
Museum I found a number of exhibi- 
tion cases filled with astronomical and 
physical apparatus preserved as relics 
of such famous scientists as Galileo and 
TorriceUi, — a veritable shrine for such a 
pilgrim as m^'self . 

The mineral collection of the Uni- 
versity of Florence, housed in a build- 
ing adjoining the Piazza San Marco, is 
a fairly large collection, well Hghted 
and displayed. A feature of this 
museum is the collection of minerals 
from Elba, which includes many 
species not to be found in most collec- 
tions from this highly interesting 
locahty. A similar collection of the 
minerals of Tuscany (largely from Bot- 
tino) is projected, and the material is 
at hand awaiting installation. 

In the Florentine National Museimi, 
which covers a field of cidture analo- 
gous to that of our art museums, I 
again found much to interest me. The 
collections, which are exceptionally well 
displayed, are rich in Medieval and 
Renaissance examples of the use of gems. 



100 



NATURAL HISTORY 



On the lower floor of the Pitti Palace, 
one entire room is devoted to objects in 
carved amber. This, as one would 




Figure 6 

suppose, is mostly the dark Sicilian 
amber which is becoming increasingly 
more difficult to obtain. There are also 
in the neighboring rooms on this floor 
several pieces of carved rock crystal 
(some by Cellini) which are very fine. 
At Bologna, the next museum city on 
my line of travel north through Italy, 
is to be found one of the oldest uni- 
versities in Europe. Here I visited a 
geological and a mineralogical museum, 
both parts of the University, and each 
in a separate building, although within 
a stone's throw of each other in the Via 
Lamboni. In the geological museum, 
dedicated to G. Capellini, a former 
director, is an effectively displayed col- 
lection rich in Itahan fossils and rocks. 



The section devoted to fossil plants is 
especially complete. There are also 
fine examples of Ichthyosaurus both in 
original and in casts, and many skulls 
and several complete skeletons of the 
cave bear. Room XI contains a fine 
cast of Diplodocus carnegici. A feature 
of this installation is the complete 
series of rocks and fossils from specific 
regions, many of the series being accom- 
panied by explanatory relief maps. I 
sketched an upright case, which was 
being employed to display rock speci- 
mens, because the arrangement of 
incHned shelves to present a group of 
surfaces normal to the line of sight 
seemed novel and certainly was very 
effective. Figure 6 shows this shelf 
arrangement, applicable to slabs of 
fairly uniform thickness. 

The Mineralogical Museum of the 
University of Bologna upholds the 
tradition of its neighbor the Capellini 
Museum of Geology in emphasizing 
local mineralogy. Here are to be found 
some exceptionally fine series of occur- 
rences from Italian localities arranged 
by provinces. Of these the sulphur and 
gypsum from Romagna, the series from 
the Island of Elba, the Sardinian phos- 
genites, cerussites and anglesites, and 




Figure 7 



A MUSEUM PILGRIMAGE 



lUi 



the Bottino and Ravino iniiicials are 
finer than any T liav(^ as yd socai. 
There is also a iiood i;iMKMnl sci'ic^s dis- 
played in stepjMMl cases with incliiu-d 
fronts. So effective is the niethotl ol' 
display in these cases, that I have added 
as Fisiure 7 a diagram of one of them 
tVom my notes. Most of the collection 
was brought together by Bombicci 
during the latter half of the last cen- 
tury, and is rich in his type material. 

Padua, another city of north Italy, 
made famous by its old and renowned 
University, was not to be passed b}^ in 
my wanderings. The old University of 
Padua turned out to be one of the most 
intei'esting things that I saw in Italy, 
rich as it is in rehcs and associations. 
Hei'e are preserved, among man}" 
historic links with the classical period 
of scientific growth, the first surgical or 
clinical theater ever constructed, and 
the actual wooden steps by which Gali- 
leo mounted the scaffold to make his 
famous renunciation, wdth its still more 
famous reservation. I found a good 
local collection of fossils arranged 
stratigraphically and also by provinces, 
with, in some instances, a rehef map of 
the region covered by the series placed 
at the end of the case to show- the strati- 
graphic relations. The cases contain- 
ing this collection were of sufficient 
interest to wai-rant a sketch, which I 
have reproduced as Figure 8. In the 
paloBontological section of this little 
museum is a fine series of fossil fishes 
from the Oligocene, and some un- 
described vertebrate material from the 
OHgocene of Venetia. In this section, 
also, is a splendid series of skulls of 
the cave bear. 

Traveling is mostly made up of a 
succession of contrasts, and certainty 
the contrast was strongly marked be- 
tween Padua, the old-world university 
city, and Milan the beautiful "Paris 



of North Italy," whicli was my ne.xt 
objective. Milan boasts of the finest 
and most modern science museum in 
Italy, the Civic Mu.seum of Natural 
History in the Public Clardens, Corso 
Venezia, Fig. 9. This is not only the 
largest and best in Italy, but it stands 
out from all others that I saw in the 
orderly arrangement and sequence of 
its collections. This sequence is so 
significent that I give it here in detail. 
The rooms numbered successively to 
the left of the entrance are designated 
as follows: 

Room I, Minerals (General) ; Room 
II, Regional Minerals and Rocks; 
Room III, General Palaeontology; 




Figure 8 

Room IV, Lombardy Rocks and Fossils; 
Room V, Lombardy Fossils; Room VI, 
Comparative Anatomy; Room VII, 
Comparative Anatomy; Room VIII, 
Mollusks and Brachiopods; Room IX, 
Insects and other Invertebrates; Room 
X, Mammals ; Room XI, ItaHan Mam- 
mals; Room XII, Regional :Minerals 
and Decorative Stones. 

The apparent lack of sequence with 
reference to Room XII disappears 
when we consider its situation at the 
right of the entrance, the round of the 
numbered rooms bringing us back to 



102 



NATURAL HISTORY 



the starting point; this brings it in 
near relation to Room I. 

I found in Room I a very well 
selected general collection of minerals 
comprising between 3000 and 4000 
specimens, well displayed in wall cases 
(on shelves) and inclined-front stepped 



Italian occurrences, and a series show- 
ing rock structure. Both of these are 
particularly well selected and contain 
many striking examples. 

In Room XII is a collection of about 
2000 minerals arranged by localities 
and representative of the important 




?,-*X'Atftesa8y"--'>^^i 



Fig. 9. — The Civic Museum of Natural History at Milan. Turning to the left on entering, 
one passes through a series of twelve rooms, returning to the entrance shown at the right 



cases. The cases of the latter type were 
freely used throughout the entire 
installation for small specimens, with or 
without a stepped interior equipment, 
and I found the type so generally effec- 
tive that I have sketched it in Figure 10 
in its application to the display of min- 
eral specimens. The only criticism of 
this variant of the inclined front case is 
that the deck has been built too high to 
accommodate children. Room I also 
contains some well arranged supple- 
mentary collections illustrating crystal- 
lography, physical properties of min- 
erals, and mineral structure and 
pseudomorphs. 

Room II contains a splendid series 
of rock types, mostly representative of 



deposits of Europe. This suite is valu- 
able for comparison and for study of 
special problems. Around the walls is 
a beautiful collection of Italian marbles. 
Visitors to Milan, after seeing the 
Cathedral, usually devote their next 
half day to the art and history collec- 
tions in the "Castello." This installa- 
tion gives a very successful solution of 
the problem involving the use of a 
historical building as a repository 
for art objects, without sacri- 
ficing either the impressiveness of 
the historical monument or the effec- 
tiveness of the art collection as a record 
of culture. What little glass casing is 
used is unobtrusive and well disposed, 
and there is no crowding, except pos- 



MdSEUM PILGRIMAGE 



103 



sibly in the instance oi' (he loom 
devoted to furniture. 

I also saw in ]\Iihin the lar};e and well 
equipped Ai-('ha>ol()f>;ical Museum (Via 




Figure 10 

de Brera) which is thoroughly modern 
in type. The Egyptian section in 
particular is deserving of high praise. 
It includes a tomb restoration similar 
to that in the Metropolitan Museum. 
Prehistoric archaeology is also treated 
effectively and in detail. 

A civic museum of local cultui-e, 
thoroughly characteristic of Italian 
museums of this type, is that of Turin, 
the next point of my itinerary. The 
collections are largely devoted to local 
Medieval and Renaissance culture. 
Much of the material is very attrac- 
tivety displaj^ed, as for instance, the 
collection of eighteenth century book 
bindings, displayed in upright cases. 
The diaphragms used in this installa- 
tion seem to me to be of such general 
application that I have reproduced my 
sketch of them as Figure 11. 



I'liiiii can also Ixjast of the most 
luodciii of all nmseunis, a World War 
Museum. 'I'liis is l()cat(>d in the War 
Monument known as the Mole Antonel- 
liana. As would be natural with such 
a recent installation, the material is 
comprehensive and complete in detail. 
There is much which should constitute 
a standard for similar installations, 
notably the elaborate relief models of 
the sections covered by the Italian- 
Austrian battle-fields. 




Figure 11 

Geneva, which I next visited, is a 
city which is rich in small museums of 
various types. The natural history 



104 



NATURAL HISTORY 



museum of the University, in the 
Promenade cles Bastions, contains col- 
lections of comparative anatomy which 
are notably complete and well dis- 
played. The section of mineralogrv- has 
several striking exhibits, especially the 
superb group of Swiss quartz crystals 
in the entrance hall. 

The museum, however, which would 
alone justify one's turning aside to 
visit Geneva is the splendid Museum of 
Art and History in Rue des Case- 
mates (Fig. 12). This musemn displays 
in a thoroughly up-to-date manner the 
complete history of Swiss culture. The 
halls devoted to the local Stone, Bronze, 
and Iron ages are well developed, and 
the material is displayed with great 
judgment. From this early culture the 
series is carried through Roman and 
Middle Age halls, to the most modern 
expressions of Smss art and industry. 
The collections are very comprehensive, 



and are without exception arranged 

with great taste and intelligence. 

In the Botanical Gardens is located 
the Musee de I'Ariana, a small but 
attractive building containing a some- 
what "Mid-Victorian" collection of art 
objects, which is, on the whole, dis- 
played T\dth care and effectiveness. 

The chief collection of the Ariana 
Museum is an especially fine series of 
ceramics w^hich I certainly found worth 
a visit. The halls are well hghted and 
the whole atmosphere of the place has a 
charm which in\dtes one to linger. And 
hnger I did for the whole of a glorious 
peaceful afternoon, for Geneva was the 
end of my pilgrimage, and when one 
has seen so much in so many places, 
the effect on the mind is somewhat 
similar to the effect on the bodj^, of one 
of those famous Spanish dinners. 
There is grave danger of "museum 
indigestion. " 




Fig. 12. — The ^^luseum of Art and History at Geneva. An impo-sing museum of a very- 
modern t\T3e. in which the historical development of Swiss culture is featured 




James Furman Kemp, professor of geology at Columbia University 
for thirty-five years, and one of the foremost geologists of the United 
States 

James Furman Kemp 
1859-1926 

By CHESTER A. REEDS 

Curator of Invertebrate P ate ontology, American Museum 



PROFESSOR KEMP was a re- 
markable man. Everyone who 
came in contact with him admired 
him, and instinctively felt that he was 
a personal friend. On the campus and 
in many gatherings he was known as 
"Uncle Jimmy," a sobriquet which 
had its origin in the great affection his 
students had for him. As a teacher he 
possessed a wide knowledge of geology 
and related subjects, exceptional facility 
in presentation, and a rare combination 
of kindliness and serious concern, 



coupled with a never failing buoyancy 
and humor. His inimitable manner, 
ready tact, and elegant form of expres- 
sion made him particularly desirable at 
important meetings. Organizations 
with which he was affiliated looked to 
hmi for counsel and conferred many 
honors upon him. He was actively en- 
gaged in his professional duties until 
the morning of November 17, 1926, 
when he was stricken as he was about 
to board the train at Great Neck, Long 
Island, for Columbia University. 

105 



106 



NATURAL HISTORY 



He was born in New York on August 
14, 1859, and came of a line of Scotch 
and English forbears. His parents 
were James Alexander and Caroline 
(Furman) Kemp. After graduating 
from Adelphi Academy in Brooklyn in 
1876, he went to Amherst, where he 
graduated with the degree of A.B. in 
1881, after which he came to the School 
of Mines, Columbia University, where 
he received the degree of Engineer of 
Mines, with the class of 1884. Then 
followed graduate study at Munich and 
Leipzig. Returning to America, he 
taught geology at Cornell University 
from 1886 to 1891, when he became 
assistant professor. Coming to Colum- 
bia as adjunct professor in 1891, he 
was appointed head of the department 
of geology on the death of J. S. New- 
berry the following year. 

His Ore Deposits of the United States 
and Canada, issued in 1893, passed 
through many editions. In 1895, his 
Handbook of Rocks appeared and went 
through many editions. In addition to 
his writings on economic geology, he 
also contributed much to the knowledge 
of pre-Cambrian rocks and to the appli- 
cation of geology to engineering prob- 
lems. He was consulting geologist on 
the new Croton Dam, and the Catskill 
Aqueduct for the Board of Water 
Supply of New York City. As a recog- 
nized authority on ore deposits he was 
often called as an expert in litigation 
over the ownership of ore-bodies by 
mining companies, and was repeatedly 
called into consultation by the Ana- 
conda Copper Company, and the 
Calumet and Hecla. 

He became a member of the Mining 
and Metallurgical Society of America 
in 1891. served as a member of the 
Board of Managers, 1896 to 1898, vice- 
president, 1903 to 1904, director, 1905 
to 1914, and president in 1912. He was 



an Original Fellow of the Geological 
Society of America, and its president 
in 1921, president of the New York 
Academy of Sciences, vice-president of 
the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences, the 
American Philosophical Society, the 
American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, the Century Association, the 
National Research Council, Washing- 
ton Academy, Washington Geological 
Society, American Geographical Soci- 
ety, School of Mines Alumni Associa- 
tion, American Association of Petro- 
leum Geologists, the Society of 
Economic Geologists, a corresponding 
member of the Academy of Sciences of 
Oslo, Norway, Geological Society of 
Belgium, and Geological Society of 
London. 

He was non-resident lecturer in ore 
deposits at Johns Hopkins, 1905-1906, 
in economic geology, Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, 1907-1908, and 
in geology, McGill University, 1910. 
For many years he was associate editor 
of Economic Geology, and the School 
of Mines Quarterly. In 1926, he was 
spokesman for the American delegation 
at the International Geological Con- 
gress held at Madrid, Spain. 

He was for years manager and scien- 
tific director of the New York Botanical 
Garden. He loved flowers. On No- 
vember 4, 1926, he wrote me: "I was 
sorry to miss the Section meeting of the 
New York Academy of Sciences Mon- 
day evening, but as I had no classes, I 
spent the day digging up my gladiolas 
and dahlias out at Great Neck, and I 
was too tired to go to the city in the 
evening. In fact my dahlia crop and 
banking roses kept me busy all day 
Tuesday as well." 

He was actively connected with 
athletic activities at Columbia, and was 



NEWS FROM THE FIELD 



107 



interested in all sort,' of outdoor sports, 
but especially golf and fishing. Mis 
clubs were Columbia University and 
Centur3\ 

In 1906, Amherst, his Alma Mater, 
conferred on him the degree of Sc.D. 
honoiis causa, and in 1913, McGill 
University awarded him the degree of 
LL.D. 

He married Kate Tajdor of Kingston^ 
Rhode Island, in 1889. He is survived 
by his widow and three children, 
James Taylor, now metallurgist with 
the American Brass Company at 



Waterbury, Connecticut; Philip Kit- 
teridgc, rector of an Episcopal Church 
at Glendale, California; and Katherine 
Furman (Mrs. Chase Donaldson). 

Professor Kemp will be missed deeply 
not only by his immediate family and 
relatives, but also by thousands of 
friends, many of whom gathered at the 
impressive funeral services in St. 
Paul's Chapel, Columbia University. 
He had an affectionate regard for all 
of his students, and was greatly be- 
loved in return. His place is among 
the great teachers. 



News from the Field 



AFRICA 

Mrs. Carl Akeley, from her camp on the 
slopes of Mt. Mikeno, at an elevation of 11,500 
feet, writes that she has been continuing the 
work begun by Mr. Akeley in securing 
material for the accessories and backgrounds 
for the groups to be used in the African HaU. 

Mr. Leigh, she says, has finished the gorilla 
background, and is completing the color notes 
for the wonderful varied vegetation of the 
region, of which Mr. Raddatz has made many 
fine molds. 

The work has been carried on under great 
difficulties, for at the elevation at which 
the camp is located, the temperature varies 
from 44° to 36° Fahrenheit, while, in addition, 
there is almost constant rain, and the wind is 
so strong that the tents are frequently loos- 
ened from their moorings. Any "indoor" 
work is carried on over httle charcoal fires, 
the workers wrapped in aU the clothes they 
possess. But when on rare occasions the sun 
does shine, the view over the forest is glorious. 

Mrs. Akelej- plans to \nsit another gorilla 
locahty and also Lake Hannington, and hopes 
to complete the work and sail from Mombasa 
by February 22. 

Mr. and Mrs Martin Johnson, who 
found in pneumonia a more dangerous foe than 
the elephants and lions they had been photo- 
graphing, were, at last accounts, recuperating 
at the foot of Mt. Kenya. 

Mr. Johnson also met with a serious acci- 
dent in the explosion of some flashlight car- 
tridges, but in spite of illness, accidents, and 
bad weather, reports that he has been far more 



successful than he had hoped, and "unfor- 
tunately" may return within the year. 
Among other subjects Mr. Johnson reports 
the best elephant and giraffe films he has ever 
made, as well as fihns and many single photo- 
graphs of rhinos, hartebeests, wart hogs, and 
zebras. 

Incidentally, Mr. Johnson mentions that 
Mr. Pomeroy has been wonderfully successful 
in obtaining material to complete the group 
of greater and lesser kudu. 

AMERICA 
To Panama for Birds. — Mr. Ludlow 
Griscom sailed February 3 on his second ex- 
pedition to Panama, in continuation of his 
study of the bird life of that country. Mr. 
Griscom is accompanied by Mrs. Griscom who 
wiU devote special attention to photography, 
and by Mr. Maunsell S. Crosby. Paul F. 
Covel, of the Museum's department of prep- 
aration, is taxidermist for the expedition. 

ASIA 
Word from the Morden-Clark Expedi- 
tion. — Great relief was felt by the American 
Museum and the many friends of Wm. J, 
Morden and James L. Clark when, on January 
5 a cablegram was received from Peking 
announcing that the ]Morden-Clark Expedi- 
tion party had come to the end of its successful 
journej'^ from Bombay to Peking on January 1. 
The object of the expedition, which was 
financed entirely by Mr. Morden, was to 
secure a series of Ovis poli for a Museum 
group, as weU as ibex, antelopes, and any other 
interesting mammals from that remote region. 



108 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Ponies and yaks, the only beasts of burden 
that can go thi-ough the very deep snow or 
chmb the rocky hills at such high altitudes, 
were the principal means of transportation 
from Gilgit to the 'poli country, where Mr. 
Morden and Mr. Clark were the first white 
visitors in twelve years, and probably the 
first Americans ever to have gone there. 

Many remarkable still and motion pictures 
were taken of the wild animals and the coun- 
try, which abounds in glaciers and sheer 
mountain peaks, some points rising to a 
height of 25,000 feet. 

At Aktsoi, the party saw a number of jtoli, 
but were able to secure only two fine big 
specimens out of a herd of twenty. While 
their camp was located in this section, they 
frequently hunted at elevations of from 
15,000 to 16,000 feet. 

Later, on the trip to Shabachi, a sufficient 
number of poli were captured for a Museum 
family group, and some individuals which will 
be presented to other institutions. The aver- 
age length of the horns ranged from 50 to 56 
inches in length, the longest obtained being 
57)4 inches. Besides the foli, the expedition 
collected marmots, bear, and wherever pos- 
sible, specimens of birds. 

It had been planned originally that the 
expedition should join forces with the Central 
Asiatic Expedition in order to insure greater 
safety in travel and larger collections of fauna 
and flora from this almost inaccessible country. 
Because of conditions in China, however, the 



Central A.siatic Expedition could not get 
through, and Morden and Clark had to pro- 
ceed alone. Despite their many difficulties, 
they accomplished all they set out to do, and 
their return to America late in February, is 
awaited with keen interest. 

Mr. Clifford Pope returned from China, 
late in November, thus completing his second 
period of work with the Third Asiatic Expedi- 
tion as collector of reptiles, amphibians, fishes, 
and mammals. About the middle of December 
his collections reached the Museum. 

Mr. Pope spent this last two-year period in 
Fukien Province where he found a rich and 
very interesting fauna. The collection of 
amphibians contains some 4000 specimens, 
in which about 30 species are represented, 
while in the 2500 reptiles there are nearly 75 
species. 

Devoting much of his time to hfe-history 
studies, he secured many series of develop- 
ing frog eggs which show important stages in 
the embryology of the species concerned. 

In spite of rumors to the contrary, this 
branch of the expedition's work was almost 
unaffected by the disturbances in China. 
The herpetological survey of the Min River 
Valley was completed, from sea level at 
Foochow to the heights of the Fukien-Kiangsi 
divide where the waters of the Min have 
their source. Mr. Pope plans to turn his 
attention to Yunnan and Kweichow provinces 
early in 1928. 



News from the Laboratory 



AJVJjP-HIBIANS AND REPTILES 
The Museum's Fund for Experimental 
Research. — Museums with their large col- 
lections have always been the chief source of 
information in regard to animals as they occur 
in nature. The first question in the study of 
an animal is, what is it? And the next is how, 
or why. The most precise way of finding out 
why animals do this or that, or have one 
structure or another, is to experiment with 
them both in nature and in the laboratory. 
In former years the experimental work has 
been left to the universities, but recently the 
method has been successfully employed in 
museums, as one of the articles in this issue of 
Natural History shows. 

Mr. WiUiam Douglas Burden, a Trustee of 
the American Museum, has reahzed the great 
importance of the experimental method in 



museum research and has kindly lent his 
motion picture, "The Dragon Lizards of 
Komodo," to the Museum for the purpose of 
inaugurating a fund for experimental work. 
Already several lectures have been given in 
New York in which this film has been used. A 
fund of ten thousand dollars is required to 
carry on the work. 

ASTRONOMY 

Through the generosity of Mr. S. B. Grim- 
son, a 5" Brashear telescope has been lent to 
the department of astronomy. This has 
enabled the department to observe objects in 
the sky, among them Jupiter and his satellites. 
Mars and our moon. 

On January 28 arrangements were made by 
Dr. Clyde Fisher, in charge of astronomy, and 
members of his department, for the observa- 



NEWS FROM THE LABORATORY 



109 



tion of the occultation of Saturn by the moon. 
Before sunrise the sky was quite clear and 
Saturn could easily he observed as the moon 
neared the planet. By the time of inniiersion, 
which occurred soon after 7:00 A.M. it was 
somewhat hazy, and after Saturn was hidden 
from view, the cloudiness increased, so that it 
was impossible to observe emersion. 

A practical proof of the sun's rotation is now 
being carried on, the telescope being used in 
projecting the sun's image upon a screen. A 
record is being kept of the position of the 
sun spots from day to day, their change of 
position demonstrating the rotation of the 
sun on its axis. 

EDUCATION 

Conference op Museum Educators. — A 
movement has recently been started for fre- 
quent conferences of museum educators in 
New York City and vicinity. The first 
meeting was held at the Metropolitan Mu- 
seum of Art in December, and the second one 
on January 25 in the new^ School Service 
Building of the American Museum of Natural 
History. About fifty educators attended 
each meeting. The latter meeting was opened 
at ten o'clock with an address of welcome by 
President Henry Fairfield O shorn. The first 
paper presented w^as by Mr. Henry W. Kent 
of the MetropoUtan Museum of Art on "The 
Development of the Educational Department 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art." After 
a short discussion, Dr. Arthur Harmount 
Graves of the Brooklj^n Botanic Garden 
spoke on "The Value of Real Objects in Nature 
Education." Dr. Clyde Fisher of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natiu-al History followed 
vfiih an address on "The Future of Motion 
Pictm-es in Education," illustrated by pictures 
of Dr. Fisher's children with their animal 
pets. 

The afternoon was devoted to a preUminary 
inspection of the School Service Building and 
to some of the exhibition halls in the Mu- 
seum, where the educational activities of the 
Museum were more fully explained. 

Exhibition of Current Biological Re- 
search. — The Section of Biology of the New 
York Academy of Sciences revived an old 
custom at its December meeting. A series of 
demonstrations of some results in current 
biological research were displaj^ed to the 
great satisfaction of the five hundred members 
and friends who attended the meeting. 
Twenty-two demonstrations ranging from the 



dissection of cells and the injection of Amoeljaj 
to the origin of the human dentition were 
shown in tlic new School Service Building of 
the Museum. Because of the large numbers 
attending the meeting and the undeniable 
enthusiasm of those who in a very short time 
were able to gain considerable insight into 
the research work being done in New York, 
it was decided to have a similar type of 
program at a later meeting. 

Many institutions contributed to the 
success of the occasion. Demonstrations 
were presented by members of the faculty of 
Columbia University, Cornell University 
Medical College, New York University, 
Bellevue Medical College, College of the City 
of New York, and the American Museum. 

At the last meeting of the Academy 
February 15, Dr. Alexis Carrel of the Rocke- 
feller Institute for Medical Research, sum- 
marized the field of tissue culture and ex- 
hibited a series of remarkable motion pictures 
showing the activities of Uving cells outside 
the body. 

The New York Association of Biology 
Teachers held its January and February 
meetings in the commodious auditorium of the 
new School Service Building. At the January 
meeting announcement was made of the several 
aids for biology teachers w^hich the Museum 
has prepared for free circulation among the 
city high schools. Included in the new^ material 
available for this purpose is a series of small 
insect habitat groups, made under the direc- 
tion of Dr. F. E. Lutz, Dr. E. V. McCollum, 
of the department of chemical hygiene. School 
of Hygiene and Pubhc Health, Johns Hopkins 
University, spoke on "Nutrition. and Health." 
The February meeting was addressed by Dr. 
W. K. Gregory on "The Palseomorphology of 
the Human Head." 

FISHES 
Mr. W. K. Vanderbilt has presented to the 
department of ichthj'ologj' one of two iden- 
tical small sharks to serve as type for a new 
species related to the black-mouthed dogfish, 
of Europe. These were taken incident to Mr. 
Vanderbilt's work with the "Ara," at some 
200 fathoms depth, on the continental slope 
off Florida. Like Zenopsis oceUatus (related 
to the European dory) and Catulus retifer 
(related to the European dogfish), this new 
species represents the European shore fish 
fauna on the continental slope of America in a 
transition belt between shore and deep-sea 



no 



NATURAL HISTORY 



fishes, and is not related to any American 
shore-fish. It thus touches on a problem of 
considerable theoretical interest in the distri- 
bution of life. 

INSECTS 
Dr. Frank E. Lutz and Mr. Herbert F. 
Schwarz of the department of insect life, 
attended the Christmas meetings of the 
national scientific societies in Philadelphia. 
Doctor Lutz was elected president of the 
Entomological Society of America and repre- 
sentative of the American Society of Zoologists 
on the council of the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science. 

MAMMALS 
Chinese M.^iniAxs. — The collection of 
mammals from the Third Asiatic Expedition 
has been enriched by a series of 682 well 
prepared specimens obtained by Mr. Clifford 
Pope in Fukien Province, China. These were 
secm-ed in tkree locaUties in the IVIin River 
Valley, ranging from sea-level to an altitude 
of more than 6000 feet. New to the Museum's 



collections are four skins of the golden cat, 
Felis temminekii dominicarurrum La Touche, 
occurring at an altitude of from 4000-6000 
feet in the bamboo and hardwood forests of 
southeastern China. 

MINERALS 
A New Use for Colors of Gem Stones. — 
To demonstrate the possibilities of using the 
colors of gem stones for commercial purposes, 
and especially for automobile bodies, a promi- 
nent firm of paint manufacturers arranged 
wath the department of minerals of the Ameri- 
can Museum, for a loan exhibit consisting of 
more than twenty examples of natural gem 
stones, to be displayed at the recent automobile 
show in New York City. Included in the 
group was a wide range of colors from the soft 
gray of flint to the deep rich red of jasper. In 
one slab of agate there were at least seven 
distinct colors so harmonized and blended that 
it would be quite possible to use any two or 
three in perfect!}' balanced combinations for 
automobile body and trim. 



Recent Important Exploration Lectures 



ANTARCTIC 

The interesting features of exploration in 
the great Antarctic continent were presented 
to the members of the Museum by Sir Douglas 
Mawson on January 14. Sir Douglas' material 
includes superb photographic records of Ant- 
arctic animal hfe, including penguins and 
several species of seals. More than 1000 mem- 
bers had to be turned away because of lack of 
room. 

AFRICA 

Prince Wilhelm of Sweden dehvered his first 
lecture on African exploration to a New York 
audience on the night of January 22, at 
Carnegie Hall. Those fortunate enough to be 
present enjoyed a vivid record, both m still 
and motion pictures, of Africa's big game 
animals, of its tiny pigmy peoples, of the 
dances and ceremonies of its natives, and their 
methods of smelting iron and making pottery. 
A fine "close-up" of a weaver bird building 
its nest was especially interesting. Prince 
Wilhelm is to be congratulated on the valu- 
able scientific data collected during his trip, 
which was inspired, he said, by Theodore 
Roosevelt. 

MT. EVEREST 

The members of the Museum enjoyed a rare 

treat in listening to the account of Captain 

John Noel of the Mt. Everest Expedition of 

1924. Captain Noel gave his lecture first on 



November 7, but so many members had to 
be turned away because of lack of seating 
capacity that Captain Noel kindly repeated 
his lectm-e on December 23. By means of still 
and motion pictm-es, he showed the heroic 
efforts that were made to ascend Mt. Everest. 
The climbers had to abandon the attempt 
when they reached 2<8,000 feet, 1000 feet from 
the summit. Captain Noel's pictures are 
superb, and give a wonderful description of 
the country and the Tibetan people. 

GREENLAND 
On the evening of January 13, Air. George 
Pahner Putnam, leader of the American Mu- 
seum Greenland Expedition, gave to members 
an illustrated account of the results of the 
season's field work. This expedition secured a 
fine series of narwhal, walrus, and other 
mammals, and birds, needed for the Mu- 
seum's new HaU of Ocean Life. Mr. Put- 
nam's lecture attracted such attention that he 
gave it twice in order to accommodate the 
members desiring to obtain admission. 

EAST INDIES 
The first showing of the pictures of the 
dragon Uzards of Komodo, secm-ed by the 
Douglas Burden East Indian Expedition, 
was given at the annual meeting of the New 
York Academy of Sciences December 21. 
Mr. Burden secured a complete series of 
these giant lizards. 



New Members 



Since the last issue of Natuhm. History, 
the following persons have been elected 
members of the American Museum, making 
the total membership 9340. 

Benefactor 
Mr. Percy R. Pyne. 

Associate Founder 
Mr. Geo. F, Baker, Jr. 

Associate Benefactor 
Mr. Walter Douglas. 

Honorary Fellow 
Baron de Cartier de Marchienne. 

Patrons 
Mesdames: Charles J. Liebman, Elizabeth 
C. Makmon, Dorothy Binney Putnam. 
Doctors: Frank S. Mathews, Frank Over- 
ton, Alexander Hamilton Rice. 
Messrs: George T. Bowdoin, James L. 
Clark, O. G. Jennings, Charles J. Lieb- 
man, J. Horace McFarland, J. S. Morgan, 
Jr., Kenyon V. Painter, David Binney 
Putnam, Irving K. Taylor. 

Fellows 

Mrs. W. B. DiCKERMAN. 

Messrs: Joseph Boyer, John J. Riker. 

Honorary Life Members 
Major L. B. Roberts. 
Mr. D. Stewart. 

TAfe Members 
Mesdames: Clarence M. Hyde, H. S. 
Morgan, John T. Pratt, Wharton Sinkler, 
Ludwig Stross. 
Doctor: L. D. Rickbtts. 
Messrs: Ilsley Boone, Percy Bullard, G. 
Lister Carlisle, Jr., Robert E. Caerick, 
Richard Eugene Fuller, Sajviuel Heilner, 
LmNGSTON E. Jones, John J. Raskob, 
Stuegis G. Redfield, Jr., J. C. Thaw, 

GUSTAVE R. TUSKA. 

Sustaining Members 
Mesdames: James Fenimore Cooper, 
George W. Porter. 

Messrs:. Harold D. Bentley, Walter 
Bockstahler, Geo. H. Church, Clayton 
Mark, C. B. Warren. 

Annual Members 
Mesdames: Marie L. Cakscallen, A. E. 
Clegg, Chester L. Colton, A. 0. Corbin, 
Clinton H. Crane, James B. A. Fosburgh, 
Edward Schafer, Harold W. Stimpson, 
Robert J. Turnbull. 



Misses: Lillian Lefferts Bartlett, 
Juliette de Coppet, Mildred Kamsler, 
Constance Kinney, Helen L. Latting, 
Louise Boyd Lichtenstein, Helen Miller 
NoYEs, Christine Sforza, Janet Thornton, 
Elizabeth Ward, Sophie Wolkwitz. 
Doctors: I. J. Balun, Joseph Brettauer, A. 
H. Kbeling, Julius Goldberg, John D. 

IVERNAN, Wm. PfEIFFER, SuMNER ShAILLER, 

Edward Wheelock. 
Colonel: James Brady Mitchell. 
Messrs: George W. Adams, Ernest H, 
Anthes, John W. Auchincloss, Louis 
Bachmann, John Hopkinson Baker, C. W. 
Barlow, John A. Beeler, Lawrence Ben- 
nett, Chas. E. Birge, George Blagden, 
Louis M. Bloomingdale, Francis Blossom, 
Arthur F. Broderick, Albert Buchman, J. 
0. BuLKLEY, J. Campbell Burton, L. H. 
Paul Chapin, Harry H. Clark, James P. 
Cleaver. 

Messrs: A. 0. Corbin, Jarvis Cromwell, 
S. A. Crone, William Davey, Horace A. 
Davis, Dwight H. Day, John S. Dodge, 
Evan C. Dresser, Chas. P. Drus'g, John H. 
Foster, Otto Froelicher, Arthur D. 
Greenfield, Arthur C. Gwynne, W. S. 
Hammesfahr, Charles F. Harris, Randall 
G. Hay, Edwin M. Herr, Lloyd W. John- 
son, Ernest L. Jones, Arshag Karag- 
HEUsiAN, Fred'k, W. Kelsey, George N. 
Lenci, T. C. Leonard, Samuel Lichtenberg, 
George MacDonald, H. E. Man\"ille, Jr., 
William C. Metcalfe, Morton Morris, 

F. A. Newbury, A. L. Newman, Fr.ank S. 
Parker, John Polachek, Russell Preck- 
ett, Philip J. Roosevelt, J. Rosenfeld, 
James C. Saylor, Hugh Charles Sicard, 
Samuel D. Stein, Henry C. Steneck, 
Robert P. Stephenson, Charles H. Stoll, 
Frank J. Tappen, Allen 0. Whipple, Jr. 
Master: Louis Neilson, Jr. 

Associate Members 
Doctors: Ellinor H. Behre, Jeanette 
Allen Behre. 
Mesdames: Bertha Bowlby Bohn, Robert 

G. Callison, Jennie D. Harms, Helen K. 
Hodson, Marjorie D. Hollingworth, 
M. C. Kemp, Levi Packard, Edith F. 
Shahan, James R. Whiting, Henrietta N. 
Young. 

Misses: Emma Anderson, Sar.\h R. Atsatt, 
Jessie Auringer, Agnes Reea^es Butler, 
M. E. Creaser, Frieda M. Hantel, Ger- 
trude A. Hughes, Catherine Kendig, 
Gertrude Lear, Clara Wheeler. 

m 



112 



NATURAL HISTORY 



The Reverend: C. W. Freelaxd. 
Professors: Augusto Boxazzt, S. J. Case, 
A. H. Clark, Francis Daniels, Arthur S. 
Dewing, John C. Donaldson, Willard M. 

PORTERFIELD, Jr., LuTHER C. ScOTT, 

Charles D. Test, 

Doctors: William Ray Allen, Harvey P. 
Barrett, Clarence W. Bassett, E. J. G. 
Beardsley, Frank X. Blanchard, D. 
JuLi.AN- Block, A. J. Boucek, J. Mackenzie 
Brown, Thomas C. Brown, C. H. Bunting, 
Alex-\nder T. Bunts, Ralph W. Chaney, 
Percy W. Cobb, Barn"ett Cohen, L. J. Cole, 
N. S. Davis, 3rd., John D. Detwiler, Ernest 
C. Dickson, W. R. Dunton, Jr., E. Mel- 
ville Du Porte, Frederick Ehrenfeld, 
Hugo Ehrenfest, Frederick Etherington, 
George W. Goler, Hugh M. Kingery, 
Charles C. McCoy, A. W. ]Moore, John J. 
Peters, Philip E. Robinson, Lewis Ru:m- 
FORD, Albert E. Taussig. 
The Honorable: Jaiies R. Macfarlane. 
Messrs: C. N. Abernethy, Carl B. Adams, 
Helmer Pareli von Wold Kjerschow 
Agersborg, Frederic F. Allen, Richard 
W. Angle, Jay A. Auringer, B. C. Batchel- 
ler, Judson S. Battelle, Ward Leon.ard 
Berry, W. W. Bo.ardman, Jr., A. W. Bor- 
CHERS, Robert H. Brown, Edwin H. Bryan, 
Jr., E. J. Bryan, Wm. H. Buettner, Ray- 
mond Buss, Irving Cannon, Erlon R. 
Chadbourn. Hentiy B. Chase, Jr., Nelson 
S. Chen, R. P. Conki.ing, A. Beresford 



CoNNELL, Fredk. W. Cook, P. W. Creaser, 
H. A. Crossland, D. S. Davidson, Garrett 
Davis, Tolbert J. Davis, C. S. Day, 
Edward DeGaris, W. T. Dempster, John 
Smith Dexter, John X. Dighton, Charles 

F. DoucETTE, William S. DuVai-, Leland H. 
Dykes, Theodore H. Eaton, Jr., R. L. 
Emerson, Harry M. Eltdowe, J. W. Fecker, 
J. A. Flemer, F. W. Free.\l\n, Henry V. D. 
Gibson, Raymond M. Gilmore, George C. 
Hayes, Edward He.aley, Walter P. 
Henderson, Donald Hooker, D. Ralph 
Hostettek. Arthur Iddings, Bror Eric 
Johnson, Edward Hall Knobel, E. Gorton 
LiNSLEY, William S. Lord, William P. 
McEvoY, J. S. McLees, Xeil C. McMath, 
Chas. H. AIerriam, Louis McL. Merryman, 
Nathan T. Milliken, Edward E. Mlvor, 
Frank P. Morrison, Xathaniel C. Xash, 
Jr., Walter Xordhoff, J. Arthur Pan- 
coast, Silas R. Penrod, Thomas Lock- 
wood Perry, Jr., J. Louis Pertsch, E. E. G. 
Roberts, Robert W. Robinson, C. W. Sea- 
bury, Clarence Simpson, Dick Spurway, 
Frederick A. Stebbins, Sol. A. Stephan, 

G. F. Stork, Malcolm Taylor, Jr., E. H. 
Urban, 0. A. Van Denburgh, Jr., M. S. 
Verner, Frank Hawley Ward, Charles G. 
Watkins, Edw.ard H. Watson, Carl V. 
Weller, Geo. B. Wells, Herbert Fra2er 
Welsh, Edward Wenzel, C. W. Whitney, 
Ralph Woodward. 

Master: Jack Quistgaard Petersen. 



THE AKELEY MEMORIAL NUMBER 

MARCH-APRIL 

The March-April number of Xatural History will be largely a memorial number, 
devoted to an appreciation of Mr. Akeley and the varied lines of work in which he was 
interested: it will include some of the addresses made at the Memorial Meeting, among them 
that of Baron de Cartier de Marchienne, who spoke of Akeley as a conservationist, and 
especially of the Gorilla Sanctuary he was instrumental in obtaining, and where he now rests. 

Some of the many inventions of Akeley are discussed by F. Trubee Davison, and F, A. 
Lucas teUs something of the career of Akeley as a taxidermist, in which he did so much not 
only to place taxidermy among the arts, but what was even more important, to make its 
results permanent. 

Mrs. Mary Hastings Bradley, who was in Africa with Carl Akelej', gives some interest- 
ing reminiscences of the expedition to the Kivu region to obtain gorillas for the group in the 
American ^Museum of Xatural History. 

Mr. Edgar R. Waite, of the AustraUan Museum, tells how the native Australian uses 
the boomerang, a weapon well known by name, though generalh^ associated with poUtics 
but whose use and principle are little understood. 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED IN 1869 



Board of Trustees 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, President 

C!kouge F. Baker, First Vice-President Oliver G. JeiVnings 

J. P. Morgan, Second Vice-President Archer M. Huntington 

J.uies H. Perkins, Treasurer Walter B. James 

Percy R. Pyne, Secretary Roswell Miller 

George F. Baker, Jr. Ogden Mills 

George T. Bowdoin Junius Spencer Morgan, Jr. 

Frederick F. Brewster A. Perry Osborn 

Douglas Burden Daniel E. Pomeroy 

Frederick Trubee Davison George D. Pratt 

Cleveland Earl Dodge A. Hamilton Rice 

Guilds Frick Kermit Roosevelt 

Madison Grant Leonard C. Sanford 

Chauncey J. Hamlin William K. Vanderbilt 

Clarence L. Hay Felix M. Warburg 

James J. Walker, Mayor of the City of New York 

Charles W. Berry, Comptroller of the City op New York 

Francis D. Gallatin, Commissioner of the Department of Parks 



MEMBERSHIP MORE THAN NINE THOUSAND 

For the enrichment of its collections, for the support of its explorations and scientific research, 
and for the maintenance of its pubhcations, the American Museum of Natural History is de- 
pendent wholly upon membership fees and the generosity of friends. More than 9000 members 
are now enrolled who are thus supporting the work of the Museum. The various classes of 
membership are: 

Associate Member (nonresident)* annually $3 

Annual Member annually $10 

Sustaining Member annually $25 

Life Member $200 

Fellow $500 

Patron $1,000 

Associate Benefactor $10,000 

Associate Founder $25,000 

Benefactor $50,000 

Endowment Member $100,000 

*Person3 residing fifty miles or more from New York City 

Subscriptions by check and inquiries regarding membership should be addressed: James H. 
Perkins, Treasurer, American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

FREE TO MEMBERS 

NATURAL HISTORY: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

Natural History, published bimonthly by the Museum, is sent to all classes of members 
as one of their privileges. Through Natural History they are kept in touch with the activi- 
ties of the Museum and with the marvels of nature as they are revealed by study and explora- 
tion in various regions of the globe. 

AUTUMN AND SPRING COURSES OF POPULAR LECTURES 
Series of illustrated lectures, held in the Auditorium of the Museum on alternate Thm-sday 

evenings in the fall and spring of the year, are open only to members and to those holding tickets 

given them by members. 

Illustrated stories for the cluldi-en of members are presented on alternate Saturday mornings 

in the fall and in the spring. 

MEMBERS' CLUB ROOM AND GUIDE SERVICE 
A room on the third floor of the Museum, equipped with every convenience for rest, reading, 
and correspondence, is set apart dui'ing Museiun hours for the exclusive use of members. WTien 
visiting the Museum, members are also privileged to avail themselves of the services of an 
instructor for guidance. 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY has a record of fifty-seven years 
of public service during which its activities have grown and broadened, until today it occupies 
a position of recognized importance not only in the commuBity it immediately serves but in 
the educational life of the nation and in the progress of civilization throughout the world. 

Every year brings evidence — in the growth of the Museum memVjership, in the ever-larger 
number of individuals visiting its exhibits for study and recreation, in the rapidly expanding 
activities of its school service, in the wealth of scientific information gathered by its world-wide 
expeditions and disseminated through its publications — of the increasing influence exercised by 
the institution. In 1926 no fewer than 2,070,265 individuals visited the Museum as com- 
pared with 1,775,890 in 1925 and 1,633,843 in 1924. All of these people had access to the 
exhibition halls without the payment of any admission fee whatsoever. 

The EXPEDITIONS of the Museum for 1926, 33 in number, have resulted in splendid 
collections from all parts of the world. Among the notable achievements in Asia are the 
Morden-Clark series of Ovis poli, ibexes, antelopes, etc. from the remote regions of Russian and 
Chinese Turkestan, the herpetological survey of the Central Asiatic Expedition by Mr. 
Clifford Pope in the Min River Valley from sea level at Foochow to the heights of the Fukien- 
Kiangsi divide, and in India the Vernay-Faunthrop collection of mammals in, Africa the con- 
tinuation of Mr. and Mrs. Martin Johnson's photographic records of African wild life, and the 
incomparable work of Carl E. Akeley on the Eastman-Pomeroy Expedition in Kenya and 
Tanganyika; in Polynesia, the continuation of the survey of bird life by the Whitney South Sea 
Expedition; in the Dutch East Indies, Douglas Burden's collection of giant dragon lizards; 
in North America, the valuable collection of narwhal and other sea life secured by the American 
Museum Greenland Expedition; in the Bahamas, Dr. Roy Miner's expedition for Corals and 
rare fishes for the new Hall of Ocean Life; in the vicinity of New York City, Dr. Chester Reed's 
field observations on tha glacial clays of the Hudson and Hackensack valleys; in Arizona, 
continuation of the archaeological explorations at two important sites; in Hudson Bay, birds 
collected by the Rockefeller Expedition; and in South America, collections of mammals from 
Peru, Argentina, and Bohvia by Mr. G. H. H. Tate. 

The SCHOOL SERVICE of the Museum reaches annually about 6,000,000 boys and girls 
through the opportunities it affords classes of students to visit the Museum; through lectures 
on natm-al history especially designed for pupils and deUvered both in the Museum and in 
many school centers; through its loan collections, or "traveling museums," which during the 
past year circulated among 443 schools, and were studied by 765,790 pupils. During the 
same period 808,789 lantern slides were lent by the Museum for use in the schools, the total 
number of children reached being 4,358,423. a total of 2,057 reels of motion pictures were lent 
oaned to 91 pubhc schools and other educational institutions in Greater New York, 
reaching 530,955 children. 

The LECTURE COURSES, some exclusively for members and their children, others for the 
schools, colleges, and the general public, are delivered both in the Museum and at outside 
educational institutions. 

The LIBRARY, comprising 100,000 volumes, is at the service of scientific workers and 
others interested in natural history, and an attractive reading room is provided for their 
accommodation. 

The POPULAR PUBLICATIONS of the Museum, in addition to Natural History, 
include Handbooks, which deal with the subjects illustrated by the collections, and Guide 
Leaflets, which describe some exhibit or series of exhibits of special interest or importance, or 
the contents of some hall or some branch of Museum activity. 

The SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS of the Museum, based upon its explorations and the 
study of its collections, comprise the Memoirs, of quarto size, devoted to monographs requiring 
large or fine illustrations and exhaustive treatment; the Bulletin, issued since 1881, in octavo 
form, deaUng with the scientific activities of the departments, aside from anthropology; the 
Anthropological Papers, recording the work of the staff of the department of anthropology; 
and Novitates, devoted to the pubhcation of prehminary scientific announcements, descriptions 
of new forms, and similar matters. 

For a detailed Kst of popular and scientific publications with prices apply to: 

The Librarian, American Museum of Natural History 

New York City 



Vol. XXVII 



MARCH-APRl 



No. 2 



SSaS^S5a?t?^5B5 



INATURALI 
iHISTORYl 



i 

i 



Akeley 
memorial 



NUMBER 



>. ■^'- 




» ^/?iafLgw ^^ i^J/^wuJwy^>^^ ' »;a7>^:y^^& ^ 



5 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN g 
Q MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY g 

f\ EXPLORATIONRESEARCHEDUCATION fl 



ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION $3.00 SINGLE COPIES 50 CENTS 

FREE TO MEMBERS AND ASSOCIATE MEMBERS OF THE MUSEUM 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Scientific Staff for 1927 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., President 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Director and E^tecutive Secretary 

Frederic A. Lcc.vs, Sc.D., Honorary Director 

\V.\YNE M. Fatnce, Sc.B., A.=si8tant to the Director and Assistant Secretary 

James L. Clark, Assistant Director, Preparation 



I. DIVISION OF MINERALOGY, GEOLOGY, 
GEOGRAPHY, AND ASTRONOMY 
William Diller Matthew, Ph.D., F.R.S., Curator-in- 
Chief 

Astrono7ny 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., In Charge 

Minerals and Gems 
Herbert P. Whitlock, C.E., Curator 
George F. Kunz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Gems 
Lea AIcIlvaine Luqcer, Ph.D., Research Associate in 
Optical Mineralogy 

History of the Earth 
W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., F.R.S., Curator-in-Chief 

Fossil Vertebrates 

W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., Curator of Geology and Palse- 

ontology 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, Honorary 

Curator 
Walter Granger, Curator of Fossil Mammals 
Barnum Brown, A.B., Curator of Fossil Reptiles 
Charles C. Mook, Ph.D., Associate in Palseqntology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Research Associate in Pale- 
ontology 
Childs Frick, B.S., Research Associate in Palaeontology 

Fossil Invertebrates 

Chester A. Reeds, Ph.D., Curator 

II. DIVISION OF ZOOLOGY, AND ZOO- 
GEOGRAPHY 
Frank Michler Chapman, Sc.D., N.A.S., Curator-in- 
Chief 

Marine Ldfe 
Roy "Waldo Miner, Ph.D., Curator 
WiLLARD G. Van Name, Ph.D., Associate Curator 
Frajsik J. Myers, B.A., Research Associate in Rotifera 
Horace W. Stunkard, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Parasitology 
A. L. Treadwell, Ph.D., Research Associate in Annulata 

Insect Life 

Fraj^k E. Lutz, Ph.D., Curator 
A. J. MuTCHLER, Associate Curator of Coleoptera 
Frank E. Watson, B.S., Assistant in Lepidoptera 
William M. Wheeler, Ph.D., Research Associate in Social 

Insects 
Charles W. Leng, B.S., Research Associate in Coleoptera 
Herbert F. Schwarz, A.M., Research Associate in 

Hymenoptera 

Fishes 

William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 

B.ASHFORD De.an, Ph.D., Honorary Curator 

John T. Nichols, A.B., Associate Curator of Recent 

Fishes 
E. W^. Gudger, Ph. D., Bibliographer and Associate 
Charles H. Townsexd, Sc.D., Research Associate 
C. M. Breder, Jr., Research Associate 
Van Campen Heilner, F.R.G.S., Field Representative 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
G. Kingsley Noble, Ph. D., Curator 
Clifford H. Pope, B.A., Assistant (Central Asiatic 

Expeditions] 
Bertram G. S.mith, Ph.D., Research Associate 
A. B. Dawson, Ph.D., Research Associate 

Birds 
Frank M. Chapman, Sc.D., Curator-in-Chief 
Robert Cushman Murphy, D.Sc, Curator of Oceanic 

Birds 
W. DeW. Miller, Associate Curator 
J.AMES P. Ch.apin, Ph.D., Associate Curator of Birds of the 

Eastern Hemisphere 



Birds (continued) 

Ludlow Griscom, A.M., Assistant Curator 

Jonathan Dwight, M.D., Research Associate in North 

American Ornithology 
Elsie M. B. Naumberg, Research Associate 

Mammals of the World 
H. E. Anthony, M.A., Curator 
George G. Goodwin, Assistant 
Frederic A.. Lucas, Sc.D., Research Associate 

Comparative and Human Anatomy 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 
S. H. Chubb, Associate Curator 
H. C. Raven, Associate Curator 
J. Howard McGregor, Ph.D., Research .Associate in 

Hiiman Anatomy 
Dudley J. Morton, M.D., Research Associate 

III. DIVISION OF ANTHROPOLOGY 
Clark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 

Science of Man 

Cl-\rk Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 

Pliny E. Goddard, Ph.D., Curator of Ethnology 

N. C. Nelson, ^LL., Associate Curator of 'Vrchaology 

Charles W. Me.ad, Honorary Curator of Peruvian 

Archseology 
Haery L. Shapiro, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Physical 

Anthropology 
Margaket Mead, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Ethnology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Associate in Physical 

Anthropology 
Cl.arence L. Hay', A.m., Research Associate in Mexican 

and Central American Archaology 
MiLO Hellman, D.D.S., Research Associate in Physical 

Anthropology 

IV. DIVISION OF ASIATIC EXPLORATION 
AND RESEARCH 

Roy C. Andrews, D.Sc, Curator-in-Chief 

Walter Granger, Curator in Palseontology 

Chahles p. Berkey, Ph.D. [Columbia University], Re- 
search Associate in Geology 

Frederick K. Morris, A.M. [Central Asiatic Expeditions], 
Associate in Geologj' and Geography 

Amadeus W. Gr.abau, S.D. [Geological Survey of China], 
Research Associate 

V. DIVISION OF EDUCATION AND 
PUBLICATION 
George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 

Library and Publications 
Ida Richardson Hood, A.B., Acting Curator 
Hazel Gay, Assistant Librarian 

Jannette May Lucas, B.S., Assistant Librarian— Osborn 
Library 

Education and Public Health 
George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., Curator of Visual In- 
struction 
Gr.ace Fisher R.amsei:, Associate Curator 
WiLLi.A.M H. Carr, Assistant Curator 
N.ANCY True, A.B., Assistant 
P.AUL B. Mann, A.M., Associate in Education 
Fr.ank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Outdoor 
Education 

Chakles-Edward Amory Winslow, D.P.H., Honorary 

Curator of Public Health 
Mary Greig, A.B., Assistant Curator of Public Health 

Public Information 
George N. Pindar, Chairman 
George H. Sherwood, A.M. 
W'lLLiAM K. Gregory, Ph.D. 
Wayne M. Faunce, Sc.B. 
Cl.ark Wissler, Ph.D. 



Natural History Magazine and Advisory Committee 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Chairman 

Departmental Editors 

A. Ivatherine Berger, Assistant Editor 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D. Fr.ank ^L Chapman, Sc.D. 

W. D. Matthew, Ph.D. Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D. 

George N. Pindar 



NATURAL 



H 



1 





RY 



THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 



DEVOTED TO NATURAL HISTORY. 
EXPLORATION. AND THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 
THROUGH THE MUSEUM 




AKELEY MEMORIAL NUMBER 

FREDERIC A. LUCAS. EDITOR 



MARCH- APRIL, 1927 



[Published May. 1927] 



Volume XXVII, Number 2 

Copyright, 1927 by the American Museum of Natural History. New York. N. Y. 



ATURAL HISTORY 



Volume XXVII CONTENTS FOR MARCH-APRIL Number 2 

Cover: "Thinking about the Gorilla." 

Taken in 1925, shortly after Mr. Akeley's return from the Gorilla Expedition. 



"To a Traveler" 



Frontispiece: Carl Akeley facing 115 

From his last photograph, .Januarv', 1926 

Akeley, the Conservationist Barox de Cartier de Marchiexxe 115 

With maps of the Gorilla Sanctuary 

Akeley, the Explorer Kermit Roosevelt 118 

With photograph of old cow elephant seciired for Akeley's group 

Akeley, the Sculptor James Earle Eraser 120 

With reproductions of groups illustrating lion spearing 

Akeley, the Inventor T. Trubee Davisox 124 

Illustrated with photographs of the Akeley cameras and the Akeley cement gun 

Akeley, the Man George H. Sherwood 130 

With studio portrait of Akeley 

Carl Akeley's Early Work William :M. Wheeler 133 

Portrait showing Akeley shortly after he went to the Field Museum 

Akeley as a Taxidermist Frederic A. Lucas 142 

A chapter in the history of Museum methods 
Illustrated 

Groups in the Field Museum and Elsewhere 153 

Examples of Akeley's methods of taxidermy 

In Africa with Akeley Mary Hastixgs Bradley 161 

Reminiscences of the Belgian Congo .^eley Expedition. 1921-1922 
Illustrated 

Scenes from Akeley's Africa facing 172 

Photographs taken by Martin Johnson during the present Martin .Johnson African Expedition 

Epilogue Henry Fairfield Osborx 173 

Notes l'^5 



Published bimonthly, by the American Museiim of Natural History, New York, N. Y. Subscription price $3.00 

* ^^Subscriptions should be addressed to .James H. Perkins, Treasurer, American Museum of Natural History. 
77th St. and Central Park West, New York City. ^ . ,. , ,1. ■ ; t u ^■ 

N ^.TUE^L HiSTORT I'-s senl to all members of the American Museum as one of the priviteges of membership. 

Entered as second-class matter April 3, 1919, at the Post OflSce at New York, New York, under the Act of 

^^ccep'tance for maihng at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized 
on July 15, 1918. 



To a Traveler' 



The mountains and the lonely death at last, 
Upon the lonely mountains: O strong Friend! 
The wandering over, and the labor passed, 
Thou art indeed at rest : 
Earth gave thee of her best, 
That labor and this end. 

Earth was thy mother, and her true son thou : 
Earth called thee to a knowledge of her ways, 
Upon the great hills, up the great streams; now 
Upon earth's kindly breast 
Thou art indeed at rest : 
Thou, and thine arduous days. 

Fare thee well, O strong heart! the tranquil night 
Looks calmly on thee: the sun pours down 
His gloiy over thee, O heart of might ! 
Earth gives thee perfect rest : 
Earth, whom thy swift feet pressed: 
Earth, whom the vast stars crown. 



♦Lines by Lionel Johnson, quoted by Kermit Roosevelt at the Akeiey Memorial Meeting, Decmber 23, 1926. 




Photograph by Julius Kirnrhner 
OARL AKELEY 
From his last photograph, January, 1926 
"He had breadth of vision and depth of vision, but most of all he had simplicity, and 
this it seems is the mark of true greatness."— H. J. Spinden 



NATURAL HISTORY 



VoLUMK XXVII 



MAllCH-ArKll., IU_'7 



NUMBKK 2 




The Goi-illa Sanctuarj', Pare National Albert and adjoining territory. The three volcanoes 
at the right are included in the boundaries of the preserve 

Akeley, the Conservationist' 

By baron DE CARTIER DE MARCHIENNE 



FOR many years Carl Akeley has 
been one of the leading conser- 
vationists in America. He was 
one of the charter members and also a 
member of the Board of Directors of 
the John Burroughs Memorial Asso- 
ciation which has done so much for the 
conservation of bird life. He took a 
prominent part in forestry conserva- 
tion, notably in the conservation of the 
great Redwood trees. He was a very 
active member of the National Parks 



Association and an influential promoter 
of their ideals, namely, to preserve 
nature and win all America to its 
appreciation and study; to promote the 
use of national parks for popular edu- 
cation and scientific investigation; to 
protect wild birds, animals, and plants, 
and to conserve typical areas under 
primitive conditions. 

As an indication of his varied activi- 
ties for conservation I may mention 
that he was an active member of the 



iThis and the following four articles are from addresses made at the .\keley Memorial Meeting held on De- 
rember 21, 1926, at the American Museum. 

115 



116 



NATURAL HISTORY 



New York State Forestry Association, 
the American Scenic and Historic 
Preservation Society, the National 
Audubon Society, the Roosevelt Me- 
morial Association, and other similar 
associations. In all of these societies, 
Akeley was more than a member, he 




The location of the Gorilla Sanctuary; Pare 
National Albert 

was a leading spirit, and in his lectures, 
in his books, and in his numerous 
articles, he earnestly and effectively 
pleaded- the need of conservation. 

The movement for conservation in 
America, in which Akeley has played so 
great a part, has found a hearty echo 
in Europe and especially in those 
countries which have tropical colonies, 
where animal life still exists in its 
natural environment. In this connec- 
tion I may mention the work now 
carried on by the Belgian Cercle 
Zoologique Congolais, under the presi- 
dency of Doctor Derscheid of Brussels, 
who is at the present moment in 
Africa, where he saw Akeley a short 
time before his tragic death. I should 
also mention the activities of the 
Nederlandsche Commissie voor Inter- 
nationale Naturbescherming which, 



under the very competent guidance of 
Mr. P. G. van Tiehoven, of Amster- 
dam, has inaugurated an international 
movement for conservation. 

During the last years of Akeley's 
life it was my great privilege not only 
to have the pleasure of his personal 
friendship, but also to be associated 
rather closely with him in our efforts to 
preserve the fauna and flora of the 
Belgian Congo. 

Akeley, like Saint Francis of Assisi, 
had a great and kind heart, full of 
sympathetic understanding for "God's 
humbler creatures." Although he was 
counted "a mighty hunter," he never 
killed for the sake of killing. He could 
kill wild beasts for protection, for food, 
or for the legitimate purposes of 
science; but his soul revolted against 
the wanton destruction of innocent 
animals or rare species whose conser- 
vation is necessary for scientific study. 

As he told me, Akeley, during his 
trips to Central Africa, became espe- 
cially impressed by the brutal slaughter 
of the gorillas by so-called "sportsmen" 
who destroyed these inoffensive ani- 
mals for no other purpose than to 
boast of a bigger bag than rival hunt- 
ers. Akeley had discovered in his 
rambles that a few hundred gorillas 
had taken refuge in the Kivu District, 
and when King Albert decided that a 
sanctuary for the fauna and flora of 
those regions should be created there, 
no one greeted this idea more enthusias- 
tically than our friend. 

No doubt King Albert, when plan- 
ning this sanctuary which is called 
Pare National Albert, was influenced 
by his past experiences when he traveled 
far and wide in this country. The main 
idea of His Majesty is that the flora 
and fauna be maintained in their 
natural surroundings so that they may 
be studied under the most favorable 



AKELEY, Till': CO.\'SI<:iiV.\TI()\'lsr 



n\ 



conditions 1)\' the i-cpu table sciiMil isis of 
the pres(Mit day and of future^ genera- 
tions. The Pare National Albert, in 
which Akeley was so interested, now 
embraces the three volcanoes, Visoke, 
Karissinibi, and Mount Mikeno. In 
the creation of the Pare National 
Albert we have had the constant ad- 
vantage of Akeley's experience, as well 
as the most valuable collaboration of 
Doctor Merriam, Doctor Osborn, Doc- 
tor Hornaday, and others. 

Before sailing on his last fateful 
journey to the Congo which he loved 
so well, Akeley was received in Brussels 
b}' King Albert, who explained to him 
at length his views on the organization 
of the national park named after His 
Majest}^ Alas, death has prevented 
Akeley from accomplishing his design 
to follow the river Congo to the sea, 
as did that other illustrious American, 
Henry Stanley, nearly fifty years ago. 
He would have seen with his own eyes 
the wonderful development achieved 
since that time and often against 
ahnost insuperable obstacles through 
Belgian efforts in Central Africa. This 
sanctuary of fauna and flora so dear to 
Akeley's heart will be one of the re- 
splendent gems of the Colonial Crown 
which Belgium owes to her great and 
far-sighted sovereign, Leopold II. 

Immediately upon receiving the sad 
news of Akeley's death, I cabled to my 
Government requesting that through 
telegraphic instructions to our agents 
in Africa, every aid and comfort be 
extended to Mrs. Akeley and that all 
possible facilities be accorded her for 
her return to America, or to enable her, 
if she should so desire, to continue the 
supervision of the work in which her 
husband was engaged. In response I 
have received a cable assuring me that 
the proper instructions have been 
despatched to x\frica and that every- 



(liiim; will be done to carry out Mrs. 
Ak(>lev's wishes in whatever she may 
wish to do. I know our officials in 
Belgium and in Africa will do every- 
thing in their power to aid Mrs. Akeley 
and to show their appreciation of the 
great work Akeley had achieved for the 
Belgian Congo and in which he had 
the devoted assistance of his wife, her- 
self a distinguished explorer. 

Akeley died on the slopes of Mount 
Mikeno in the Belgian Congo in the 
midst of the "Sanctuary" which he 
had planned and which was the realiza- 
tion of one of his fondest dreams. His 
death was that of a happy wai-rior who 
dies on the field of duty in the struggle 
for the betterment of the world. Al- 
though he was not spared to see the full 
realization of all his ideals, he knew that 
the victory was won. As he himself 
once said : ''The slowest and most labo- 
rious stages of preparation are now past ; 
the future will show concrete results." 

He laid down his life in a great work, 
not only for his fellow men but for all 
his fellow creatures. When he closed 
his eyes on Mount Mikeno, he must 
have had the supreme satisfaction of 
knowing that he had achieved success 
for his cherished ideals, and that the 
work he had accomplished would be an 
enduring benefit to the whole world. 

What Akeley has done will leave a 
lasting mark on the activities with 
which he was associated. His achieve- 
ments in the realm of science and in the 
domain of art, his work for the conser- 
vation of animal life, will live after him, 
and will be to him a monument more 
enduring than any that could be raised 
by the hand of man. His memory will 
ever be in our hearts and will be an 
inspiration to those who come after him 
to carry on the work to which he devoted 
his courageous life and to fulfill the 
high ideals which he has set befoi'e us. 



Akeley, the Explorer 



Hv KEllMIT H()()Si;\ lOl/r 



CAIU. AKKLF.Y lies at rest on 
Mount Mikeno; we sorrow at 
his loss but almost everyone of 
us will say, ''When the time comes, 
what titter enil? What explorer could 
ask for better?" 

Akeley's was a well-rounded life, 
and one of great and varied achieve- 
ments. Tt has left his name in varied 
branches of effort ; some of them are in 
fields where there is no limit to what 
may be yet achieved. In art and inven- 
tion this is so, but in exploring as we 
now know it, there is a very definite 
limit, and it is fast being reached. The 
great waste spaces in the world become 
yearly more easy of access. The blank 
places on the map, across which were 
written that mysterious and enticing 
word "unexplored," each year grow 
less, and until we find access to new 
worlds, these blank spaces cannot be 
replaced. Today there remain un- 
known but a few stretches in South 
America and in Asia, as well as areas 
in the arctic and subarctic regions, 
which are yielding to the type of 
effort put forth by Byrd and Amundsen 
and Ellsworth. 

When Carl Akeley was born, Africa 
was still the "Dark Continent." Vast 
tracts of it were totally unknown, and 
much of what was known was still a 
frontier country. The call was irresist- 
ible and Akeley followed. Many years 
of his life he spent in Africa. It seems a 
long time ago, — as a matter of fact it 
is now eighteen years,— since my 
father and Akeley collected for this 
Museum the group of elephants which 
stands in the entrance to the great 
African Hall. 



I i'ememl)er that (l;i\' on ihc l';isin 
(Jishu well, — a fair, ficsii moiiiing on 
the African highlands. We soon struck 
the trail of a heixl of elephants which 
Father and I had seen the previous 
day. For ten miles we tracked them, 
up hill and down, through ])amboo 
forests and mimosa jungles, and when 
we caught up with the massive beasts, 
and the shooting began, we nearly 
came in for a first-rate charge at 
twenty-five yards. 

Akeley in New York looked as if he 
belonged in the jungle; and in the 
jungle he was an integral part of his 
surroundings. Li ghtlj' built, but power- 
ful and sinewy; the shght stoop only 
increased the hint of latent force; 
keen and straightforward of feature; 
alert and intelHgent; and endowed 
with a ready humor. Akeley was 
the beau ideal of the naturalist 
explorer. 

His interest in the conservation of 
wild life eventually centered itself 
upon the preservation of the gorilla; 
an animal that would soon fall before 
the advance of man into his habitat; 
and one cannot but feel how fitting it 
is that Akeley should have his last 
resting place in the sanctuary which he 
was so instrumental in estabhshing. 

In paying this small and inadequate 
tribute to Carl Akeley dead,' I would 
not wish to close without a word to 
Mrs. Akeley living. Bravely she has 
gone on to complete the task which he 
had so nearly finished. What her 
devotion to his ideals must cost her, 
we can but inadequately estimate, but 
our feeling of s^'inpathetic admiration 
could not be more deep and sincere. 

119 



Akeley, the Sculptor 



Bv JAMES EARLE ERASER 



AKELEY was a recojiiiized sculp- 
tor and a member of the 
National Sculpture Society. 
Naturally with his many other achieve- 
ments he had not the time to devote 
to this work that he wishcnl, and it is 
amazinsi" that he should have l)een able 
in that limited time to arrive at such a 
mastery of so difficult an art. Many 
of you know of his various pieces of 
sculpture, most of them devoted to 
animal subjects. One of them which is 
outstandins; in m}^ mind is the wounded 
elephant protected and helped out of 
danger by his companions, entitled 
"The Wounded Comrade." This group 
is massed and designed so beautifully 
and is so perfect in its feeling that it 
would be a worthy group for a Fremit 
or a Bay re. Rarely did either of these 
great artists convey more of the note 
of wildness than is in Akeley's work. 
His animals are alert, fearful, and 
disturbing. 

Many other groups are as interest- 
ingi}^ modeled and felt; for instance: 
"At Bay"; "Stung"; "The Lion 
and the Buffalo"; "The Charging 
Herd." 

" The Chant of African Natives Over 
a Slain Lion," is most impressive and 
dramatic. His group of life-size lions 
is a powerful piece of action and none 
but an artist and one who had sculp- 



tui'al instinct could pose and group the 
animal sul)jects of his taxidermy which 
are shown in this Museum and in the 
Field Museum of Chicago. To have 
done this work not onl}' must he have 
been a sculptor but one who had studied 
animals in the wild state rather than 
those caged or confined in parks. 
These groups are invaluable from this 
standpoint and different from any 
other museum groups I have seen. 

Mr. Akeley's study of the animal in 
its natural surroundings made him 
eminently fitted as an animal sculptor, 
but he also had a monumental feeling 
toward the art. I had hoped some da}' 
his colossal monument to Roosevelt 
would be accomplished and placed in a 
proper setting. It would have been 
profoundly impressive. It was not the 
ordinary conception and it covered 
much of the life of the man it was to 
honor. Its scale was enormous, the 
Hon which was the central figure being 
forty feet long with surrounding archi- 
tecture of great proportions. It is 
unfortunate that America has not this 
unusual monument to her great Presi- 
dent. Perhaps it may yet be reafized. 
Had this monument been carried to 
completion it is likely that Carl Akeley 
would have been admittedly' greater in 
sculpture than in anj^ other field of his 
achievements. 



121 




P 

H 



Akeley, the Inventor 

By F. TRUBEE DAVISON 



GENIUS is very rare, and because 
of its nature, there is no absolute 
or even relative standard by 
which it can be determined. But fre- 
quently we find it generously bestowed 
by contemporaries only to find that it 
is repudiated by posterity. Because of 
this fact, it seems to me that when we 
undertake to ascribe genius to any- 
body, we should do so with hesitation 
and with conservatism. I think that all 
who knew Akeley intimately, who knew 
of his work, would unite in baying that 
he certainly had a touch of genius. 

History describes a goodly number 
of individuals who stood out above 
their fellow men for one reason or an- 
other, and the gifts which have brought 
this distinction have generally been 
confined to a comparatively limited 
though important field of human activ- 
ity. It is very seldom that an unusual 
capacity in diverse ways is to be found 
in one man. 

Akeley certainly filled a unique place 
in modern American life. His point of 
view, his method of attack, were strictly 
scientific; his practical mechanical 
resourcefulness was almost uncanny. 
These quahties he possessed to a rare 
degree, but further than that, he united 
with them the conception and the 
execution of the artist. With these 
natural qualities, stimulated by a 
superb character, is it any wonder 
that his works are so important and so 
unique? 

It is also difficult to attempt to 
analyze the characteristics of a friend, 
and it certainly would be futile to do so 
in this case. I do think that when we 
are reflecting upon Akeley's work as an 
inventor, it would be impossible to 

124 



appreciate it to the full without recal- 
ling one characteristic that was to 
me his outstanding one, and that was 
the unequivocal desire to ascertain the 
truth, and to pass it on to his fellow 
men. 

Those who knew him intimately and 
worked with him and loved him, could 
not fail to be conscious, and fully 
conscious, of that characteristic. I 
remember very well sitting with him 
one day at the Club after luncheon. 
We were discussing the African Hall. 
He was telling me of the projected 
expedition to Africa to obtain the 
groups which were to fill that great 
hall. I asked him about the specimens 
that were already available, but that 
had not yet. been mounted. He told 
me about a compromise that had been 
suggested in order to overcome the 
shortage of a bull member of an ante- 
lope group, by placing together the 
skins of two females, and in that 
way make the whole into a possible 
resemblance of the male, the falseness 
of which, it was suggested, none but an 
expert might detect. I have never 
heard any human being flayed as was 
the individual who made that sugges- 
tion. Akeley would far rather have 
quit his profession than to have 
adopted what was to him a dishonorable 
subterfuge. 

He was, of course, primarily a 
naturalist, and his interest lay chiefly, 
as we all know, in the mammal life of 
Africa. His love for it, his complete 
belief in its beauty, his desire to have it 
known as it is and not as the sensa- 
tionalist would like to have it, his 
anxiety to record the existing wild 
life before it became a story of the 



AKELEY, THE INVENTOR 



125 



past, all goinbiiUHl together to make 
his chief aim that of telling his fellow 
country num the truth about that 
continent. And it was toward this 
goal that he was always plodding, 
often under real discouragements, ^ut 
always hopeful for the future. 

Certainly during the past year and 
one-half, this great ambition seemed to 
be more nearly within his grasp. We 
know' that on this final trip his faith 
was not unjustified, and it seems to me 
that it remains for us to see to it that 
it is reahzed. 

In carrying out his purposes, his 
extraordinary bent as an inventor put 
him in a position to devise new ways 
and means of overcoming difficulties. 
This life work, together with the tem- 
porary needs of his country during the 
war, was primarily responsible for the 
mechanical developments that must 
be attributed to him. The national 
emergency offered a new but temporary 
field for his inventive genius and it 
proved to be a very fruitful one. 

His inventions fall roughly into four 
different groups; the development of 
the cement gun, the war inventions, 
the motion-picture camera, and his 
extraordinary method of taxidermy 
which has completely revolutionized 
that art. 

The circumstances surrounding the 
invention of the cement gun are rather 
curious, and while they have no direct 
bearing on his work at the Field Mu- 
seum at Chicago, still it might never 
have been produced had he not been 
there. 

"WTien he returned from Africa to the 
Museum, in 1905, it was located in the 
old Columbian Exposition Building 
which was made of stucco. The out- 
side of the building was constantly 
peeling off. This gave it a very dis- 
reputable appearance. Akeley, of 



course, was loyal to that institution and 
wanted to do everything within his 
power to preserve its dignity. When 
this condition was brought to his atten- 
tion, he put his resourceful mind to 
work to seek a remedy. To use his 
own words: "I got to thinking about 
it, and in the many experiments of one 
kind and another that I had tried in 
working out methods of manikin- 
making, I had among other things used 
a compressed air spray, so I thought it 
would be possible to make an apparatus 
that would spray a liquid concrete on 
the side of a building, and it worked." 
The result was that some friends 
financed the manufacture of the air- 
spray, and today it has a very large 
and important commercial use. 

Furthermore, it was one of the 
hundreds of inventions that were used 
by the government during the war, for 
the gun proved invaluable in the 
building of concrete ships. 

When the call to arms came in 1917, 
Akeley, of course, was too old to be an 
active soldier in the field, but with his 
special training and unusual abilities, 
he found many ways of doing his bit. 
The Akeley camera, about w^hich I 
shall speak more in detail, proved to 
be the one that would fill the need of 
the army, and the output of the 
factory was contracted for by the 
Government. Akeley was also made a 
Consulting Engineer, Division of In- 
vestigation and Research Development 
of the Engineers Department in the 
Army, and in addition to that, a Special 
Assistant to the Chief of the Concrete 
Ship Division in the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation. 

His activities were not centered in 
Washington; and as you can imagine, 
he did all he could to stay away from 
there. His time was spent in the 
laboratory and in the shop. We can 




The first model of the Akeley Camera, which was patented in 1916 



126 



AKFJ.l'lY. Tllh: /W/'JXroh' 



127 



\\v\\ iiuaidiir tli;il his iiscruliics in sought cvrvy indlioil conccivahle 

these \-;ii'i()Us cnpacit ics was N'ahiahlc, to traiishitc accural dy lo thcin what 

and the i-(M'()1'(1s show thai he was re- he saw wit h his t raiiiccl eye, and in 1 his 

nKirkal)ly hclj)!'!!! in dcNclopinji', for mechanical aL';c lie was quick to ^rasp 

instance, searchlights and s(>ar('hliti;ht the possibilities of the motion-picture 

niii'rors (>f rolai'\' conli'ol, enahlinii the camera. 





Mr. Akeley's two cameras, — a, standard '"Akeley" and the "Gorilla" camera — also an 
Akeley — especially fitted with a telephoto lens 



operator to direct the rays of li^ht 
toward any object in the sky and follow 
up its movements. The records further 
show that several other devices were 
patented by the Government under his 
name during the war period. This 
ends the very inadequate story of his 
very full wartime activities in so far 
as the activities themselves are con- 
cerned. The seeds that he sowed then 
are still bearing fi'uit and will con- 
tinue to do so. 

There are all kinds of scientists, but 
Akeley was not one of those who was 
simply interested in the philosophy of 
his subject. He was not content to 
enjoy its fascinations and let it go at 
that. He had a larger vision, and 
wanted to make those things which 
were wonderful and inspiring to him 
equally so to his fellow men. He 



One of his expeditions, as many of 
you will recall, was in 1909. He went 
to Africa then primarily to obtain 
moving pictures of the Nandi spearing 
lions. He found that the motion- 
picture camera of that day had made 
great progress, but that there was none 
in existence which would enable the 
man in the field, as contrasted with the 
operator in the studio, to record speedily 
and accurately fast moving events 
which were taking place in unexpected 
quarters. The ordinary moving pic- 
ture director has control over his sub- 
jects, but the man who is taking pic- 
tures of wild life in the fields finds it a 
ver}' difficult problem; his subjects are 
not interested in his problem, and in 
fact, as anyone who has tried will know, 
they seem to do everything possible to 
conspire against it. 



128 



NATURAL HISTORY 



That Akeley learned, and learned 
well, during the trip of 1909. He 
determined to do what he could to 
devise and to build a camera which 
would overcome those obstacles. The 
result was the camera which is now 
known the world over as the Akeley 
Camera It required years of study 
and work, and today it stands a 
living monument to its inventor, one 
who produced it with his own mind and 
with his own hands, not for profit, but 
to enable him and others to tell the 
truth more accurately to those millions 
of people who did not have the same 
opportunities that he had. It is today 
unquestionably one of the greatest 
instruments of its kind in existence, and 
for the particular purpose for which it 
was designed it has no equal. It is 
found in the studio, in the home, on the 
athletic field, and in the most remote 
corners of the earth, the peaks 
of the Himalayas, the South Seas, 
the Arctic circles. It has provided a 
fascinating textbook for count- 
less numbers of men, women, and 
children, and very particularly the 
children. Furthermore, as I mentioned, 
the Government of the United States 
found it important for its use in war 
and is continuing to do so in peace. 

Akeley was generally considered as 
being chiefly associated with museum 
work. That was his principal life, of 
course, and in it he saw the medium by 
which he could realize his ambitions. 
He was born in the rural sections of New 
York State, and while he was still very 
much of a youngster, he came under 
the influence of an Englishman named 
Bruce, whose hobby was taxidermy. 
Soon afterward, as Akeley himself said, 
"I announced to the whole world that I 
was a taxidermist." The hope that he 
might become associated with Wards 
Natural Science Establishment, so- 



called, in Rochester, led him to travel 
to that city in search of employment. 
That was forthcoming and the founda- 
tion was laid for a very distinguished 
career in that profession. 

It didn't take long, however, for his 
overpowering instinct for the truth to 
assert itself, and certainly the methods 
of taxidermy of that day fell far short of 
the ideal. They consisted, as Akeley 
described them, "of first treating the 
skin, then wiring and wrapping the 
bones, which were inserted in the legs 
of the animal while the body was hung 
upside down and stuffed with straw 
until it would hold no more." 

The problem was not so much the 
erudeness of the method of the proce- 
dure that rankled in Akeley's mind, as 
the fact that the finished product was 
absolutely unreal and could not be 
expected to give a real impression of 
the mammal it was designed to repre- 
sent. So Akeley set his inventive mind 
to work, with the result that he revolu- 
tionized the technique of that profes- 
sion, and brought in accuracy, beauty, 
and realism, which carry with them the 
mystery and romance of wild life. 

This development was worked out 
over a period of four years while Akeley 
was working at the Field Museum in 
Chicago, although the preliminaries 
were accomplished prior to that time 
while in Milwaukee. His first big 
groups (and many of us have had the 
privilege of seeing them) are the four 
seasons; the groups of American deer 
which are now located in the Field 
Museum. They are among the most 
beautiful and significant groups in that 
institution today, and stand as a 
lasting tribute to Akeley's earlj^ genius 
and work. 

They are but the first of a long series, 
and their creation marks a fundamental 
milepost in improved facilities for 



AKELEW Till': IS YEN TOR. 



129 



bringing nature to the millions who iire 
not fortunate enough to be able to 
penetrate the wilds. 

This new method has become the 
standard by which taxidermy is meas- 
ured today. There is no stuffing, and 
no hanging together with wires; the 
sculptor rather is given an oppor- 
tunity to reproduce his model down to 
the very last muscle, and the animal 
when completed is lifelike, light, dur- 
able, and will last for an indefinite time 
in a setting which is an exact reproduc- 
tion of its habitat. 

The African Hall was the great goal 
toward which he was working; all else 



was preparatory. Therein he vizualized 
some forty groups of African mammals, 
realistic and picturesque, the back- 
grounds painted by a competent artist 
on the scene itself, with bushes, trees, 
and other natural flora scientifically 
made or else preserved to give a com- 
plete and detailed story. The work is 
begun, and begun in a manner that only 
Akeley could have conceived. It 
must be completed, and it must be 
completed in the Akeley way. His was 
a great soul, a great character; his 
was a great vision, and his inventive 
genius has provided the tools to make 
that vision a reality. 




Akeley cement guns in action 




< < 

^ J: 

2; ^^ 



Akeley, the Man 

Bv (lEORGE H. SH1:h\\( )( )1 ) 



CARL AKELEY was a self-made 
man in the fullest ineanino; of 
the woril, and attained his emi- 
nent position in the world through his 
own efforts by dint of h a rtl, painstaking- 
work and an unshakalile faith in his 
ideals. His entire career was one 
continuous struggle in the face of man}^ 
obstacles, insurmountable except for 
his indomitable will. 

He was l^orn sixty-two years ago on 
a little farm in western New York. 
Because of poverty his schooling was 
limited to two j^ears in the State 
Normal School. In his autobiography 
he saj's that by all the rules of the game 
he should have been a farmer, but that 
for some reason he was more interested 
in the birds and chipmunks than in 
crops and cattle. "\Mien about thirteen 
years of age, he obtained a book on 
taxidermy, which he eagerl}^ studied. 
His imagination was fired with a burn- 
ing desire to give a true representation 
of the birds and other animals around 
him, and taxidermy became his ambi- 
tion. He even took some lessons in 
painting in order that he might paint 
realistic backgrounds for his stuffed 
birds — probably the first experiments 
with painted backgrounds for taxi- 
dermic groups. This was the beginning 
of modern taxidermy, which he more 
than anyone else has raised from a mere 
trade to a real art. 

At the age of nineteen, desiring a 
wider field foi* his ambition, Akele}' quit 
the farm and obtained employment in 
Wards Natural Science Establishment 
at Rochester. Here he learned what 
might be called the "upholstery" 
method of taxidermy. He wanted to 
try out his original ideas for mounting 



animals, Init liis efforts were frowned 
upon because of costs. 

Fi-om Rochester Akeley went to the 
Milwaukee Museum. Here he found 
an oppoitunity to put some of his ideas 
into effect in spite of the opposition of 
the authorities, and he mounted his 
first group — a Laplander Driving his 
Reindeer over the Snow. This led to 
his proposing other groups, but his 
plans were tolerated rather than en- 
couraged, until his friend William 
]\Iorton Wheeler became director of 
the Museum. This marked the begin- 
ning of the Akeley method of taxi- 
dernw, which has revolutionized the 
art and stands as Akeley's greatest 
contribution to museum development. 

In 1895 Akeley was called to the 
Field Musemii in Chicago, where he 
remained fourteen years. This period 
witnessed the establishment and per- 
fection of his method of taxidermy, 
which resulted in the splendid series of 
groups now in that museum. His first 
trip to Africa in 1896 with Daniel G. 
Elliot gave birth to that love of 
Africa which dominated his life to the 
end. 

In 1909 Akeley joined the staff of 
the American Museum of Natural 
History and continued in its service 
until his death. It was while he was 
collecting his superb elephant group for 
the Museum that he first conceived the 
project of a great African Hall, which 
should stand as a permanent record 
of the fast disappearing wild life of 
Africa. For twelve years he labored 
toward this goal, with manj' discourage- 
ments, until the last African expedi- 
tion was made possible through the 
generosity of Messrs. George Eastman, 

131 



132 



XATCRAL HISTORY 



Daniel Pomeroy, and Colonel Wentz. 

It was in this hard school of experi- 
ence that Carl Akeley was trained and 
developed into the many-sided genius 
to whom today we pay our tribute of 
honor, admiration, and affection. 
Great, however, as are his achieve- 
ments as nature lover, explorer, con- 
servationist, sculptor, and inventor, 
it is the loss of Akeley the man that 
overwhelms us. 

His was a rugged, virile personalit}' , 
tempered by a deep sentiment and a 
whimsical humor which endeared him 
to his friends. He was a clean, hard- 
hitting fighter, who won our admiration 
for his fearlessness in defense of his 
convictions, whether we agreed with 
him or not. At times there was a 
steely glint in his eyes, but this denoted 
determination — not venom, for he 
always was a generous adversary. He 
possessed a tenderness of heart and a 
hatred of cruelty which made him an 
outspoken champion of all wild life 
but free from any maudlin sentimen- 
tality. He had a depth of character 
which held him to his ideals and would 
brook no compromise with expediency. 
His devotion to these standards often 
meant great personal self-sacrifice, from 
which he never shrank. 

Those fine traits of character which 
guided Akeley in his untiring efforts to 
attain perfection in his own work made 
him a loyal and dependable friend. It 
was indeed a real privilege to know him 
intimately. Among my most cherished 
memories will live those moments 
which witnessed a new creation from 
his fertile brain. "UTien his hero and 
idol, Colonel Roosevelt, died, Akeley, 
was broken-hearted and was quite 
incapable of working. A few days 
after the funeral he summoned me to 
1 is studio. As I entered I saw in 



rough clay a sketch of the world, sur- 
mounted by a majestic lion, in which 
were expressed dignity strength, 
courage, fearlessness. This was his 
first conception of the Roosevelt Lion 
and, as he with deep emotion explained 
to me its purpose, never shall I forget 
the joy that beamed from his face be- 
cause he had found a means of express- 
ing his love for his dear friend. 

The great charm of Akeley's per- 
sonalitj' was a sweetness and gentle- 
ness of nature, accompanied by a 
sympathetic understanding which led 
both old and young to seek his advice 
and counsel. Never was he too occu- 
pied with his own affairs to be in- 
terested in yours. There was a subtle 
indefinable something in Akeley which 
enabled him unconsciously to impart 
to those around him something of his 
enthusiasm, something of his idealism 
and something of his detemii nation to 
achieve, which inspired them with new 
courage, new hope, and greater effort! 
A few days ago I received a letter from' 
a successful business friend in the west. 
He wrote, "^^llatever there is in me of 
decency and worth-whileness I owe to 
Akeley more than to any other man in 
the world." 

I believe that the greatest invisible 
monument to his memory is the grati- 
tude in the hearts of a host of friends 
who have thus profited by their contact 
with him. 

His love for his fellow man, his keen 
appreciation of the works of nature, his 
joy in expressing his creative impulses 
gave to him perpetual youth of thought. 
Over his desk hangs this appropriate 
motto: ""\Miom the gods love die 
young does not mean that they die 
when the}' are 3'oung, but that they are 
young when they die." So it was with 
Akeley, the Man. x\ll honor to him. 



Carl Akeleys Early Work and Environment 

Hv W ILLIAM MORTON WHEELER 



THE mat lire constructive activi- 
ties of an unusual man whoso 
fame becomes established durinj^ 
his lifetime are apt to be so widely 
known that they can be readily re- 
ported and appraised, but it is more 
difficult to evaluate the Ions; years of 
struggle and preparation that neces- 
sarily precede the successful climax of 
such a career. This ib eminently true 
of Carl Akeley, whose greatest achieve- 
ment lay in his revolution of taxidermy, 
an art of obscure origin and long and 
gradual development in esoteric mu- 
seum laboratories to which, for obvious 
reasons, the general public is not wel- 
comed. The critical period in Akeley's 
life extended from the beginning of 
1884 to the end of 1890, and as I was 
privileged to be his bosom friend and 
almost constant companion during that 
period, I gladly comply with Doctor 
Lucas' request to contribute to this 
memorial number of Natural His- 
tory. And since, moreover, I 
happened to have kept a voluminous 
diary covering those years, I can pre- 
cisely date most of my statements. If, 
in what follows, my own personality 
obtrudes too conspicuously, I beg the 
reader's indulgence for two reasons: 
first, because we were so intimate that 
I was necessarily an active, daily 
element in Akeley's biological and 
social environment, and second, be- 
cause as I peruse my diaries for the 
first time since they were composed 
with all the effusive detail of youth, my 
present contracted ego seems to belong 
to quite a different person. 

I was born in 1865 in Milwaukee and 
lived there till I was nearlv nineteen. 



The ccrevisiacal fame which that city 
enjoyed in those preprohil)ition days 
unfortunately t|uite eclipsed the fame 
of its temperate and highly intellect- 
ual German population and excellent 
school system. 

Owing to my persistently bad be- 
havior soon after I entered the public 
school my father transferred me to a 
German academy founded by Peter 
Engelmann, an able pedagogue who 
had immigrated to the Middle West in 
1848. The school had a deserved repu- 
tation for extreme severity of discii^line. 
To have annoyed one of the burly 
Ph.D.'s, who acted as my instructors, 
as I had annoyed the demure little 
schoolmarms in the ward school, would 
probably have meant maiming for life 
at his hands or flaying alive b\' the huge 
Jewish director. Dr. Isidore Keller, 
"curled and oiled like an Assyrian bull." 

After completing the courses in the 
academy, I attended a German normal 
school which somehow had come to be 
appended to the institution. A few 
weeks before my father's death in 
January, 1884, an incident occurred 
which was to influence ni}^ whole 
subsequent life and indirectly Carl 
Akeley's. Prof. H. A. Ward, pro- 
prietor of Ward's Natural Science Es- 
tablishment in Rochester, New York, 
which was not so much a museum 
as a museum factor3% learned that 
there was to be an exposition in 
Milwaukee in the fall of 1883 and that 
the local German academy, which I 
had attended, possessed a small mu- 
seum. He decided, therefore, to bring 
a collection of stuffed and skeletonized 
mammals, birds, and reptiles, and an 




CARL AKELEY 
From a photograph taken in 1S88,. shortly after Akelcy went to the 
Milwaukee Museum 



CARL AKELEY'S ilAliLY WORK AM) ENVIRONMEXT 



185 



attractive series of inai'iiic iii\oito- 
bratos to the exposition, and to poi- 
suaile tlu> city fathcis to purchase! the 
lot, conihinc it with the acachMiiy's 
collection, and tiius lay the foundation 
for a free municipal nuiseuni of natural 
history. I had haunted the old acad- 
emy museum since childhood and 
knew every specimen in it. Indeed, 
Dr. H. Dorner, my instructor in natural 
science, had often permitted me to act 
as his assistant. Of course, I was on 
hand when Professor Ward's boxes 
arrived, and I still remember the de- 
lightful thrill with which I gazed on the 
entrancing specimens that seemed to 
have come from some other planet. I 
at once volunteered to spend my nights 
in helping Professor Ward unpack and 
install the specimens, and I worked as 
only an enthusiastic youth can w^ork. 
He seems to have been dull}^ impressed 
by my industry^ because he offered me 
a job in his establishment. T was quite 
carried away with the prospect of pass- 
ing my days among the wonderful 
beasts in Rochester. Not the least of 
Professor Ward's attainments were his 
uncanny insight into human nature 
and his grim business and scientific 
acumen. He offered me the princely 
salary of nine dollars a w^eek, six of 
which were to be deducted for board 
and lodging in his own house 

I entered Ward's Establishment 
February 7, 1884. My duties consisted 
in identifying, with the aid of a fair 
library, and listing birds and mammals. 
Later I was made a foreman and de- 
voted most of my time to identifying 
and arranging the collections of shells, 
echinoderms, and sponges, and prepar- 
ing catalogues and price lists of them 
for pubhcation. Such is the present 
state of conchology that my shell- 
catalogue is still used by collectors. At 
this time Akelej' entered the establish- 



iiiciit as a budding taxidenuist., and 
[uv (iiicc Professor Wai'd's estimate of 
human natuic seems to have been at 
lauh, for as Akeley informs us in In 
Brightest Africa, he was given a salary 
of .|3.50 a week, without boai'd and 
lodging. He attached himself to 
\\'illiam Critchley, a young and en- 
thusiastic artisan, with the voice and 
physique of an Italian opera tenor, who 
had attained the highest proficiency- in 
the taxidermic methods of the time, hut 
did not seem to give promise of ad- 
vancing the art. In the course of a year 
Akeley had more than mastered all that 
Critchley could teach him, and was 
longing for wider opportunities than 
could be offered by an establishment, 
which, after all, was neither an art 
school nor a scientific laboratory, but a 
business venture. But even so, there is 
reason to believe that its standards of 
workmanship were higher than in any 
of the museums that had growm up in 
various parts of the country. ^ 

The relations between Akeley and 
myself soon ripened into a warm friend- 
ship. We were nearly of the same 
physical age, but I was the younger 
and more unsettled mentally, for he 
had been reared by sturdy parents on a 
quiet farm and I had been iDrought up 
in a bustUng city wdth a superheated 
atmosphere of German Kultur. He 
was very strong and healthy, had an 
inexhaustible capacity for work, a 
great fund of quiet humor, and a 
thoroughly manly disposition. He 
seemed to have been born with unusual 
taste and discrimination and an intui- 
tion W'hich could dispense with mere 
book-learning. Of all the men I have 
known — and my profession has brought 
me into contact with a great many — 
he seems to me to have had the greatest 
range of innate ability. Although he 

iSave in the United States National Museum. 



136 



NATURAL HISTORY 



later became an unusual sculptor, in- 
ventor, and explorer, he would probably 
have Ijeen equally successful in any 
other career. 

In the course of time our relations 
settled into those of affectionate older 
and 3^ounger brothers. I cannot recall 
that we were ever even on the verge of 
a quarrel, and this must have been due 
to Akeley's self-restraint and sym- 
pathetic tolerance, because I was often 
irritable and unwell in those days. 
Owing to the fact that we did not work 
in the same building, our companion- 
ship was largely liixdted to evenings and 
Sundays. As I read the diaries of 1884 
and 1885 I marvel at the multiplicity 
of our youthful interests and occupa- 
tions . I cite a few passages to illustrate 
how we spent some of our spare hours. 

"Monday, Jan. 6, 1885. Worked on 
the glossary for the shell-catalogue all 
day. In the evening went with Carl to 
hear Bob Ingersoll in his lecture "Which 
Way?" We were much pleased with 
him and his wit. The lecture cleared 
from my mind a host of prejudices 
against this man who is after all a 
real he man. Weather cold." 

"Sunday, Feh). 15, 1885. Rose late. 
Took a walk with Carl and then went 
to church (Unitarian) with him to hear 
Doctor Mann give a magnificent ser- 
mon on the text "Out of Egypt will I 
call my son." Worked on algebra and 
read Virgil after dinner. Then walked 
down West Ave. with Fritz Mueller [a 
former schoolmate whom I was coach- 
ing in Latin for entrance to Johns 
Hopkins. He was the living image of 
the famous physiologist Johannes 
Mueller and probabh' belonged to the 
same family]. Tired on my return. 
Fritz read to me Jean Paul Friedrich 
Richter's 'Kampaner Thai.'" 

"Thursday, Feb. 26, 1885. AVorked 
on the shell-catalogue more diligently 



than on prcn'ious days, but am still 
low-spirited. In the evening read the 
conclusion of the iEneid and some of 
Zeller's "Deutches Reich" with Louis 
Akeley [Carl's brother who was attend- 
ing the University of Rochester and 
whom I was coaching in German]. 
To bed at a quarter of twelve." 

"Monday, March 23, 1885. Worked 
all day on the foetal Marsupials: 
kangeroos, koalas, opossums, etc. 
Labelled all the foetuses and pouches. 
In the evening walked with Fritz and 
on returning read with him about 100 
lines of the third book of the ^Eneid. 
The evening ended with an acrimonious 
dispute and I went to bed in high 
dudgeon." 

"Thursday, March 24, 1885. Worked 
all day in Prevotel's shop, changing and 
labelling the alcoholic fishes. In the 
evening attended the meeting of the 
Geological Section of the Rochester 
Academy of Sciences. Mr. Preston 
read to us about a quarter of Geikie's 
" Primer of Geology." After the meet-* 
ing walked with Mr. Shelley Crump 
[an amateur conchologist and prosper- 
ous grocer of Pittsford, New York, to 
whom I had become greatly attached]. 
To bed at eleven." 

And this is an account of a week-end 
with Mr. Crump: 

"Sunday, May 23, 1885. From 10 to 
12 worked with Professor Ward in the 
shell -house, labelling Echini — the last 
time I saw him [for many years]. In 
the afternoon Mr. Crump and his 
friend Doctor Dunning called on me. 
I walked with them to Brighton and 
thence took the train to Pittsford. We 
read together some recent papers on 
Pasteur by Tyndall and others and 
then walked along the Erie Canal bank 
where I collected two species of Val vata. ' ' 

"Monday, May 4, 1885. Rose late. 
Read some of Burrough's 'Wake 



CARL AKELEY'S EARLY WORK AND ENVIRONMENT 



137 



Robin' hoforo hroakfast. ' Thou con- 
versed with Dr. Duiininfi; on Shakes- 
peare's 'Sonnets' [Dr. D. was hUnd 
and with the aid of his wife was ])i(>])ai- 
ins; a vohnne on the sonnets]. At 0:20 
took the train lor llochester and went 
to work in the shell-house, finishinji; 
the family Nassidne and ]iart of the 
Vohitidse." 

"TrESDAY, June 23, 1885. In the 
morning; read Bluntschli with Louis 
Akeley. In the afternoon went with 
Carl, Will Critchley, and Mr. Crump 
to see the tobacconist Kimball's beau- 
tiful collection of orchids. Succeeded 
in making a Catasetum discharge its 
pollinia ! In the evening read Bluntchli 
again after having seen Mr. Crump off 
on the West Shore train. Returned 
much fatigued. My eyes begin to pain 
me." 

Of active, industrious young men 
there seem to be two types. One of 
them accepts a given environment and 
is not only satisfied with its routme and 
constantly recurring human contacts 
but prefers it to any change. These 
young men are apt to marry early and 
to become the conservative and con- 
tented fond of our society. Those of 
the other type, probably endowed with 
a more unstable if not more vivid im- 
agination and with a peculiar defence 
reaction, or subconscious dread of being 
owned by people and things, soon 
exhaust the possibiHties of their me- 
dium, like fungi that burn out their 
substratum, and become dissatisfied 
and restless tiU they can implant them- 
selves in fresh conditions of growth. 
Akele}' and I were of this latter type, 
and by the spring of 1885 had decided 
to leave the establishment at the 
earliest opportunity. I departed June 
29 and returned to Milwaukee, but 
Akeley remained, apparently because 
the death of the elephant Jumbo, which 



was to be mounted for Tuft's College, 
recently founded l)\' Bai'nuni, had 
just pi'esented an oppoii unity foi- a 
new kind of taxiderinic exploit. He 
and Critchley were put on the job, but 
Akeley naturally became the dominant 
member of the partnership and was 
soon absorbed in the ])roblenis of laige 
mammal taxidermy which were to 
occupy him for so man}' years. His 
superb neuromuscular organization 
seemed to have been specially designed 
to give plastic expression to the refrac- 
tory hide of the huge quadiaipetl, and 
the successful accomplishment of the 
task furnished the inspiration for his 
later work in Africa, the Field Aluseum, 
and the American Museum. 

Soon after my return to Milwaukee 
my old friend, Dr. George W. Peck- 
ham, who had long been making im- 
portant contributions to arachnology 
and was beginning his well-known 
studies on the behavior of the solitary' 
and social wasps, persuaded me to take 
a position as teacher of German and 
physiology in the high school of which 
he was principal. Peckham was a very 
learned and charming man, deeply 
steeped in the evolutionary literature of 
the time and keenly alive to the pos- 
sibilities of the new morphology that 
had been inaugurated b}' Huxley in 
England and a host of remarkable in- 
vestigators in the laboratories of the 
German universities. Everj^ year he 
most conscientiously read, as a devout 
priest might read his breviary, Darwin's 
Origin and Animals and Plants under 
Domestication. We became very inti- 
mate, and I find from my diaries that 
for some years I regularly spent my 
Sunday mornings in his house drawing 
the palpi and epigyna of spiders to 
illustrate the papers which he wrote in 
collaboration with his equally gifted 
and charming wife. I was privileged to 



138 



NATURAL HISTORY 



collaborate with them in one paper (on 
the Lyssomanse) and to help them dur- 
ing the summers in their field work on 
the wasps at Pine Lake, "Wisconsin. 
Under Peckham's management the 
biological work of the Milwaukee high 
school was carried far beyond that of 
any similar institution in the country. 
There were classes in embryology, with 
Foster as a text. We possessed a Jung 
microtome and the paraphernalia for 
staining sections and demonstrating the 
development of the chick, and, of 
course, the classes in phj-siology were 
required to master Huxley and Martin. 
While at Ward's I had purchased 
Carnoy's Biologie Cellulaire and had 
imbibed from it an intense but rather 
ineffectual interst in cytology. Then 
most fortunately, Mr. E. P. Allis 
established his ''Lake Laboratory" in 
his residence near the high school and 
appointed Prof. C. 0. Whitman as its 
director and Dr. William Patten, Dr. 
Howard Aja-es, and Mr. A. C. Eycle- 
shjaner as assistants. These gentlemen 
W'Cre, of course, actively spreading the 
gospel of the new morphology. Doctor 
Patten, only four years my senior and 
fresh from Leuckart's laboratory in 
Leipzig, taught me the latest embryo- 
logical technique and suggested that I 
take up the embryology of Blatta and 
other insects. I find that I devoted 
nearly all my spare time to this work 
till 1890. 

In the meantime the Milwaukee 
Public Museum had been established 
according to the plan suggested by 
Professor Ward, and I saw an opening 
for Akeley as its taxidermist. I per- 
suaded him to come to Milwaukee and 
live with me. He arrived November 8, 
1886, and although he was not officially 
appointed to the institution till 
November 20, 1888, he was given a 
certain amount of its work. We con- 



verted a barn on my mother's place into 
a shop and here he worked at least 
during the evenings for several years. 
I was made custodian of the museum 
September 19, 1887, and held the posi- 
tion till August 29, 1890. By that 
time mj^ association with Peckham, 
Whitman, and Patten had converted 
me into a hard-boiled morphologist, 
and I was induced by Whitman to 
accept a fellowship at Clark University, 
where he had become professor of 
zoologj^ a year earlier. Till October 1, 
1890, when I left Milwaukee for good, 
Akeley and I had spent so many happy 
hours together that the parting was 
painful. After leaving the high school 
I had fitted up a laboratory in the house 
and when my eyes grew" weary with the 
microscope I repaired to his shop and 
read to him while he worked or more 
rarely he read to me. My diary men- 
tions the volumes we read and I wonder 
at Akeley's patience and apparent 
pleasure in listening to Biyce's Ameri- 
can Commonwealth, translations of 
^schylus, Max Nordau, and similar 
high-brow stuff. I patiently read a 
whole small library for at that time I 
had serious conscientious objections 
to beginning a book without reading 
its everjMvord. Perhaps Akeley really 
heard only occasional important frag- 
ments and had found that he could carry 
on his own trains of inventive thought 
better when we were together and I was 
making a continual but not too disturb- 
ing noise. 

After we separated in the fall of 1890 
I was to see Akeley onh' at long inter- 
vals. I had hoped to be able to provide 
him at the museum with every oppor- 
tunity for his work, but the city's 
appropriations were small, and we were 
unable to undertake the mounting of 
the elaborate groups which he was con- 
stantly building in his artistic imagina- 




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CARL AKELEY'S EARLY WORK AM) ENVIRONMENT 



139 



tion. H(^ was able to develop his tech- 
nitiue on a small scale, however, so 
that when the opportunity came some 
years later at the Field Museum, he had 
no difficulty in creating his fine groups 
representing the four seasons of the 
Virginia deer, and was fully equipped 
to undertake his African groups as 
soon as he could secure the necessary 
specimens and data on their habits and 
habitats. I feel certain, therefore, 
that the eight years he spent in the 
quiet and sympathetic Milwaukee 
environment where he led a secluded, 
abstemious life, and worked twelve to 
fourteen hours a day, were the most 
important period of his development 
both as a taxidermist and as a sculptor. 

It appears that I was also the cause 
of his leaving Milwaukee. While on 
my waj" in 1893 to work in Boveri's 
laboratory in Wlirzburg, I visited the 
British Museum of Natural History, 
and was conducted through it by its 
director, Sir William Flower. After 
viewing some of the taxidermic atroci- 
ties exhibited in that Elysium of glass 
cases, I remarked that we had in 
America the most accomplished young 
taxidermist in existence. Most English- 
men would have dismissed this as a 
mere piece of Yankee boasting^ but 
there must have been something in my 
voice or manner that arrested Sir 
William's attention, since he asked for 
Akeley's name and address and, as T 
later learned, requested him to come to 
London. But while he was passing 
through Chicago on his way to the 
British Museum, Akeley visited the 
Field Museum and was intercepted and 
engaged by its curator of zoology, Dr. 
D. G. Elliot. 

In 1894, soon after returning to the 
University of Chicago where I was then 
instructor in embryology with Professor 
Whitman, I learned that Akeley was at 



the Field Museum. 1 naturally looked 
forward to a renewal of our old intimacy 
but was informed that this was im- 
possible. It seems that Professor 
Elliot, whom I had never met, dis- 
liked the zoological department of the 
university, probably because of its 
strong morphological bias and the out- 
spoken contempt of a few of its mem- 
bers for taxonomy, and I was naturally 
included as a persona ingrata. More- 
over, he realized that he had captured a 
prize in Carl Akeley and was afraid 
that the secrets of his technique might 
leak out and be appropriated by some 
other museum. He therefore forbade 
any visits and kept Akeley closely 
confined, and as he worked every day 
and far into every night, I was able to 
see him only once or twice during all 
the years I was otill to leuiain in 
Chicago. Professor Elliot's procedure 
was not devoid of humor, because I 
was, of course, perfectly familiar with 
Akeley's methods and could have made 
no use of them even had I wished to do 
so. Many years later fate brought an 
ironical atonement when the National 
Academy of Sciences conferred on me a 
medal which had been established by 
this same Professor Elliot ! 

To appreciate fully the educational 
and aesthetic significance of Akeley's 
work would require a serious review of 
the history of taxidermy, and this un- 
fortunately has never been made the 
subject of careful investigation. As a 
means of preserving domestic pets and 
the trophies of the chase the art may 
be ancient, but could have had little 
importance till extensive natural history 
cabinets were established in Europe 
during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. Of the first work on taxi- 
dermy, written by Reaumur' no cop}' 

'Memoires sur la preparation des objets d'histoire 
naturelle, 1745. 



140 



NATURAL HISTORY 



has been found, but it may exist wholly 
or in part in English translation as an 
article in the Philosophical Transactions 
of the Royal Society} I have foiuid in 
the library of the American Museum a 
publication containing a number of 
Reaumur's letters,^ in some of which, 
addressed to J. F. Seguier, one of his 
correspondents in Italy, he gives direc- 
tions for treating birds, etc., for ship- 
ment to him and describes his method 
of preparing them for the cabinet. The 
dead birds were sent packed in kegs 
with much salt, alum, or wine vinegar 
as preservatives, and his method 
of mounting them consisted in giving 
them a natural posture and then baking 
them in an oven till they were quite 
hard and dry. Another naturalist of 
the time, a German botanist, simply 
bisected his birds along the sagittal 
plane, spread out the two halves and 
pressed them like plants in his port- 
folios! Of course the Dermestes must 
have been delighted with collections 
made according to these wonderful 
methods, which were really processes 
of mummification and not taxidermy. 
Probably mammals, since their skins 
could be removed more easily than 
those of birds, were actually stuffed at 
that time. 

The museum curators and their 
assistants throughout the greater part 
of the nineteenth century in France, 
Germany, England and the United 
States somehow managed to develop 
taxidermy to the stage in which it was 
vegetating when Akeley began his 
work. The duty of the poorly paid 
curator had always been to amass, 
hoard, name, describe, and label as 
many different defunct animals as 

'Divers Means of Preserving from Corruption Dead 
Birds, Quadrupeds, Reptiles, Fishes and Insects, Phil. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. 45, 1748 (1750) pp. 304-320. 

^Edited by G. Musset in the Ann. Soc. Sc. Nat. Acad. 
La Rochelle 21, 1884, pp. 177-258, and 22, 1885, pp. 89- 
191; reprinted as a volume of 183 pages in 1886. 



possible, and the duty of his famulus 
the even more poorly paid taxidermist, 
was to impregnate them with lethal 
chemicals in sufficient quantity to dis- 
courage the museum pests and to try 
to give them a semblance of life. The 
result was pathetic when it was not 
ludicrous, because the taxidermist, at 
least in museums open to the pubhc, 
was confronted with the stupendous 
problem of making dead hides thrilling 
to the common run of humanity, and 
the curator, if he was a scientist, neces- 
sarily pursued the method of all 
science, namely, that of abstraction, 
which has never been attractive to the 
great majority of our species. He was 
mainly interested in animals in isolation 
from their natural environment and 
behavior and reduced to so much fur, 
feathers, horns, hoofs, bones, etc., which 
he could measure and describe in an 
esoteric ' argon intelligible only to other 
curators in other museums. Akeley, of 
course, hugely enjoyed the taxidermic 
exhibits of those days. I remember 
walking with him through a certain 
museum and coming upon a stuffed 
lynx. The creature had been uphol- 
stered to about four times its volume in 
life, its fur had long been a happy 
hunting ground for Dermestes, and one 
of its glass eyes had become dislocated, 
so that it was wall-eyed. Just then a 
sunbeam stole through the dusty pane 
of the case and fell on that unfortunate 
orb. The pathetic but fiery glance 
which it emitted and which seemed to 
concentrate within itself the whole 
tragedy of contemporary taxidermy, 
threw us both into convulsions of 
laughter. 

From the beginning, Akele}^ clearly 
realized that any animal mounted for 
public exhibition can have neither 
educational nor aesthetic value merely 
as a stuffed hide, furnished with a pair 



CARL AKELEY'S EARLY WORK AND ENVIRONMENT 14] 



of jilass eyes, attached to a turned 
woodcMi pedicel, and provided with a 
label giving its Latin and vernacular 
names and the name of the locality 
in which it was slain. He was 
thoroughly convinced that an animal 
is meaningless, except to a hard-shelled 
zoologist, unless it is presented in such 
a manner as to convey something of its 
real character, or ethos, which is mani- 
fested by its specific motor behavior 
in a specific natural environment. The 
development of the taxidermic "group" 
follows naturally from such a convic- 
tion. At the present time, owing largely 
to Akeley's intensive study of mam- 
malian habits and musculature and his 
achievements in animal sculpture and 
the construction of groups, no curator, 
in the United States at least, would 
dream of tolerating those indecent, not 
to say immoral, stuffed beasts which 
were lined up in the museums of the 
Victorian age. Furthermore, Akeley's 
conception was, in a sense, prophetic of 
a change which through the influence of 
the ethologists, behaviorists, physiolo- 
gists and psychologists, has now per- 



vaded the whole field of the biological 
sciences, so that we have come to see 
that an organism cannot be isolated, 
even conceptually, from the peculiar 
environment to which it has become 
adapted during aeons of geologic time, 
without a serious misundoi'standing of 
its true nature. 

In conclusion I feel that I must again 
apologize for the large amount of auto- 
biographical material in this article. 
Probably my old comrade would have 
pardoned this as he condoned so many 
of my faults. The last time I saw him, 
before he left for Africa, never to re- 
turn, he said, "Will, I want you to go 
to Africa with me so that we may end 
our careers, as we began them, 
together." This remark, I believe, was 
neither a premonition nor an utter- 
ance of what has been called the sub- 
conscious will to death, but the 
expression of a desire that we might 
journey together to some delightful 
spot in the land he so ardently loved 
and be reunited in our old age, as we 
had been united in youth, by oui com- 
mon interest in animal life. 





"The Challenge. "^Awarded first prize by Theodore Roosevelt at the 
first Sportsman's Show, New York, 1895. Owned by Dr. H. M. Beck. By 
courtesy of Doctor Beck 

Akeley as a Taxidermist 

A CHAPTER IN THE HISTORY OF MUSEUM METHODS 
By FREDERIC A. LUCAS 

Honorary Director, American Museum 



IT has fallen to me to write of Akeley 
as a taxidermist, and while the re- 
sult is by no means satisfactory to 
me, I have at least recorded some of the 
more important contributions he made 
to methods of museum display: I 
can only plead that I have written as 
Providence endowed me and not as I 
should have liked to have done. 

While Akeley was successful as a 
hunter, an inventor, and a sculptor, 
yet it is as a taxidermist that he will be 



best known and remembered. Taxi- 
dermy was Akeley's chosen field ; from 
first to last, from the beginning of his 
career to its end, he devoted himself to 
improving taxidermy in every branch, 
artistic, mechanical, scientific; above 
all he strove to make its results perma- 
nent. If, as we have been told, genius 
is an infinite capacity for taking pains, 
Akeley was most emphatically a genius 
in his taxidermy : every step from field 
to museum; skinning, shipping, tan- 



AKELEY AS A TAX /DERM 1ST 



143 



nino, inodelinp;, construct ini); (he innni- 
kin, and clo(hiii,<>; it with skin, inakiu<>; 
I lie foliatic, l)uiklinj>; (he case's, provid- 
iu^ thcin \vi(h n<i;ht and vontikition, 
each and all hear the impress of the 
mind and hand of Akeley. 

To repeat the words of Mr. Ward, he 
did more for taxitlermy than any other 
one man, and but for him, nuiseum ex- 
hibits would not be what they are 
today. 

£■3 S'2 S'3 S'2 &3 S'3 

In spite of the thousands of words, 
many of them obsolete and many prac- 
tically useless, recorded in our ponder- 
ous dictionaries, there are some that 
seem still to be needed, among them 
one to define the modern taxidermist 
and another for what for want of a 
better word we call a manikin, though 
here, perhaps, the need is for a more 
gracious term for the graceful girls and 
stately dames who condescend to show 
us how garments of various descrip- 
tions should be worn. But, as I have 
written elsewhere, if he who delves 
among books in dead and living langu- 
ages to decide which of the numerous, 
many-sjdlabled names some small crea- 
ture is rightly entitled to bear, does not 
object to being called a taxonomist, he 
who toils over the skins of creatures 
great and small to make them live 
again, should not object to the rightful 
name of taxidermist. Some have 
styled themselves animal sculptors, but 
this does not distinguish the taxidermist 
from the artist whose work is translated 
into lasting stone or enduring bronze. 
Animator might be suggested for one 
who puts life into such a hopeless look- 
ing object as the skin of a rhinoceros, 
but for the present we will stick to 
taxidermist. 

So we have only the word taxi- 
dermist to cover all grades of prepara- 
tors including those who have been 



apdy styled perpetrators, whose work 
can only be considered as art because it 
cei'tainly is no( iiat ure. 

As for manikins, these range fi'om 
inanimate forms of wood and plaster, 
covered with the skins of wild heasts 
to those of flesh and blood, draped or 
undraped in silks and satins on whom 
are displayed the triumphs of the dress- 
maker's art. There have been forms 
carved in wood, or on a large scale, 
laboriously built after the manner of a 
small house; thei-e have been shapes of 
iron and excelsior and tow, covered with 
clay in which were impressed details of 
anatomy; there have been casts of 
dead animals of paper or plaster, hollow 
or solid, and there have been some 
excellent forms consisting of a skeleton 
of wood clad in wire cloth on which the 
muscles were modeled in papier mache, 
but it remained for Akeley to combine 
their excellencies and omit their defects 
in the Akeley manikin. 

S-? £.3 &3 ff.p S3 R3 

klM itjbi »Hm *Hx mm xfte 

Akeley has told in his reminiscences 
how he became a taxidermist, but he 
has not told us that in my early days I, 
too, had ambitions in that line, though 
circumstances decided otherwise; as 
for Akeley, he shaped circumstances 
instead of being shaped by them. We 
both drew our inspiration from the 
same source, though Akeley did not 
know it. We do not always realize 
how the threads of our lives are inter- 
woven with those of others, oft-times 
with those of people of whoni we have 
never heard, and that Akeley and I 
should meet after many years was due 
to Prof. J. W. P. Jenks, whose name 
even was unknown to Akeley; for 
Professor Jenks imparted to my uncle 
his simple methods of taxidermy and 
my uncle taught me ; also he published 
the little book on taxidermy, "price 
one dollar," to which Akeley refers and 



144 



NA T URA L HIS TOR Y 



from which he learned taxidermy up to 
a point where he felt justified in having 
business cards printed stating that he 
"did artistic taxidermy in all its 
branches." 

In one little pai'ticular Akeley errs 
in his memoirs, in thinking that the 




JoHX Wallace. — One of the earlier well- 
known commercial taxidermists of New York. 
Courtesy of U. S. National Museum 

painted background he introduced in a 
group of birds, almost at the outset of 
his career, was the first of its kind : like 
other "inventions" this has been "dis- 
covered" several times, and even when 
he was painting the background, the 
Booth collection — begun in 1858 — was 
well advanced. 

As Booth wrote, "the chief object 
has been to endeavor to represent the 
birds in situations somewhat similar to 
those in which they were obtained, 
many of the cases, indeed, being copied 
from sketches taken on the actual spots 
where the birds themselves were shot." 
And half a century earlier that uni- 



versal genius, Charles Willson Peale, 
him.self a taxidermist, wrote, ". . .it 
is not only pleasing to see a sketch of a 
landscape, but by .showing the nest, a 
hollow cave, or a particular view of the 
country from which they came, some 
instances of the habits may be given." 
Had Peale lived a hundred years later 
he would have been a leader in museum 
methods. 

§2 §2 t3 S'S &3 §3 
Like Akeley I, too, went to "Wards," 
preceding him b}^ fifteen years, "grad- 
uating" five years before he came; 
and it was many years before we ever 
met, for it was not until 1912 that our 
paths came together and we became 
associated in the American Museum of 
Natural Histoiy. 

How Akeley came to "Wards," as 
Ward's Natural Science Establishment 
was briefly styled, he has recorded in 
In Brightest Africa and elsewhere, and 
here he worked from 1883 to 1887, not 
a very long time, but long enough to 
convince him that it was no place for 
him to develop his ideas of what taxi- 
dermy might be. 

Even that time was shortened by a 
few months which he passed in the 
workshop — by no stretch of the imag- 
ination could it be called a studio — of 
John Wallace, a New York taxidermist 
who probably stuffed, most literally, 
more animals than any other one man. 
Naturally, a commercial establish- 
ment, and particularly one that dealt 
mainly with the preparation of single 
specimens for museums, offered little 
opportunity for artistic, or naturalistic, 
— call it what j'ou will, — taxidermy. For 
that was the era of the single specimen, 
the time when Coues wrote, "'Spread 
eagle' styles of mounting, artificial 
rocks and flowers, etc., are entirely 
out of place in a collection of any scien- 
tific pretensions, or designed for popu- 



AKELEY AS .1 TAXIDERMIST 




Carl Akeley and J. William Critchley. — Taken in 1885, the year in 
which they mounted Jumbo 



lar instruction. . . . Birds look best, 
on the whole, in uniform rows, assorted 
according to size, as far as a natural 
classification allows." 

The severely simple was considered 
the proper style for museums, and one 
curator, whose name stands high in the 
list of zoologists, objected to the intro- 
duction of a bone as an excuse for a 



little action on the part of a coyote. 

Truly tempora mutantur, and there 
are times when I feel that now-a-days 
too little attention is being paid to 
single specimens and that their impor- 
tance is not recognized, nor their value 
to a large proportion of visitors suffi- 
ciently appreciated. 

A physician once told me that one of 



146 



NATURAL HISTORY 



a doctor's most important duties was 
to tell his patients what not to do — so if 
Akeley did not gain much positive 
knowledge at Wards he saw many 
things that might be improved, and he 
did have an opportunity to study the 
problem of mounting large mammals, 
even if he did not have an opportunity 
to put the results of his observations 
into practice. 

It was probably during his stay 
at Wards that Akeley reached the 
conclusion that the taxidermist had 
evolved from the upholsterer (as a 
matter of fact I have been asked "Who 
upholstered that specimen?") and that 
the process of evolution had not gone 
very far. At any rate, he soon recog- 
nized that it was not possible to get 
good results from the methods then in 
vogue, which consisted mainly in 
turning an animal upside down and 
most literally "stuffing" it full of 
straw. Having recognized this fact, he 
set for himself what was to prove his 
life's task — the devising of processes 
by which the then existing order of 
things might be remedied. 

It was at Wards that he first took 
part in mounting an elephant, the once 
famous Jumbo, whose name has been 
embodied in literature and handed 
down to posterity in dictionaries as a 
synonym for something big: And yet 
the majority of the present generation 
never heard of Jumbo. Had Rip Van 
Winkle lived in the present rapid age 
he might well have uttered his plaint — 
"Are we so soon forgot?" 

In mounting Jumbo, Akele}^ was 
under the direction of his senior. J. 
William Critchley, and the elephant 
was mounted much after the fashion 
of the specimen in the Museum of 
Natural History. Paris, put up more 
than a century ago. Critchley was a 
versatile and skilled taxidermist, ac- 



cording to the standards of his day, 
who had few ecjuals in mounting birds, 
and few superiors with the average 
mammal; he was selected on the 
advice of Doctor Hornaday as chief 
taxidermist for the growing Brooklyn 
Museum in 1903. He died in 1910. 

However, before Jumbo was finished, 
it was Akeley who was supplying the 
ideas, but it was not until 1913, many 
years later, that he devised the method 
now employed for such large animals as 
rhino and elephants. 

It was a tenet of the old-time taxi- 
dermy that skins must be tanned in a 
salt and alum bath both to "set" the 
epidermis and to dry hard so that they 
would retain their shape when dry. 
This method was not conducive to the 
longevity of specimens, and especially 
of our larger quadrupeds, which, if 
exposed to the changing atmosphere of 
our museum halls, soon went to pieces. 

My doubts as to the permanency of 
museum specimens was aroused by an 
English report on bookbindings which 
reached the conclusion that nothing 
save Sumach Tanned Morocco leather 
was durable: and to tan a rhino — 
much less an elephant — with sumach 
seemed a somewhat difficult proposition. 

When the big hippo Caliph, for 
twenty odd years a resident of the 
Central Park Zoo, was being mounted 
at the American Museum of Natural 
Histor}' (this was before my time), I 
remarked, as Cassandra might have, 
that it seemed a pity to cover such 
admirable modeling with skin that was 
pretty sure to go to pieces — as it did 
not many years later. For Caliph, 
prepared with great skill after methods 
long followed, slowly disintegrated 
under the stress of our dry-heated 
halls and within a decade was stripped 
of his skin, though still exhibitable on 
account of his excellent modeling. 



148 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Small wonder that, having so often 
seen specimens go to pieces, I had 
serious doubts on the subject of museum 
exhibits and was inclined to feel that 
it was a waste of time and money to 
mount animals doomed so soon to 
come to an untimely end; of what 
avail to make an animal live again if its 
second lifetime was to be no longer 
than the first, possibly even shorter. 

Here again is where Akeley contrib- 
uted to the improvement of museum 
methods, and after a little experiment- 
ing found that there was on the 
market a vegetable tan that fulfilled 
all the desired conditions and was just 
what he needed for such huge creatures 
as rhinos and elephants, a matter of 
great importance, since Akeley's latest 
methods of mounting large mammals, 
in which the skin was modeled directly 
upon the clay, depended largeh" on the 
successful tanning of the hide which 
must remain soft and flexible for many 
clays and yet not even suffer the loss of 
any epidermis. 

The final test is yet to come, for so 
far it has not been tried on a hippo, 
though there is no reason to believe 
that it will fail here, provided Akeley's 
careful procedure is followed. 

It was while at Wards that Akeley, 
or rather the Aluseum World, had a 
narrow escape, for his friend. Professor 
Webster, advised him to study for 
entrance to the Sheffield Scientific 
School with the intent of following a 
professional caret^r. His failure to do 
this was due to a breakdown in health 
which prevented him from taking the 
examination, and while later, at Mil- 
waukee, he was encouraged by Profes- 
sor Wheeler to try again, fortunately 
the plan fell through ; I say fortunately 
advisedly, for while there are multi- 
tudes of professors there are or have 
been few really good museum men, and 



only one Akeley. Still, it is doubtful 
if he would have remained a mere 
student, for owing to his mechanical 
bent he liked to do things with his 
own hands, to carry out his own ideas 
rather than follow those of others. 

After four years Akeley "graduated " 
from Wards, not because of what he 
had learned but because it offered no 
scope for his ever growing ideas, and in 
1888 he followed his friend, Professor 
Wheeler, to Milw^aukee. 

In the Milwaukee ^Museum he had a 
little more scope for his talents, though 
at first hampered by museum tradi- 
tions, and here he installed his first 
habitat group — of muskrats, — in the 
making of which he tells us he was 
tolerated, rather than encouraged. 
Later, when Professor AAlieeler became 
director of the ]\Iuseum, Akeley was 
given the freedom he desired, though 
not until he went to Chicago did he 
have full scope for his talents. 

Xow, I am somewhat hazj^ as to just 
when Akeley began to be recognized as 
a leader in taxiderni}' and to whom 
belongs the credit for that recognition, 
but certainly in 1892 :\Ir. W. H. 
Holmes, then on the staff of the Field 
]\Iuseum, selected him to mount a 
horse — and no animal is more difficult 
to mount — for one of the exhibits in 
the U. S. National ^Museum at Chicago 
in 1893. "VMiat may be called Akeley's 
first public recognition came in 1895, 
at the first Sportsman's Show held in 
New York, where he obtained the first 
prize for the head of a Virginia deer 
entitled "The Challenge," the most 
admired game piece in the exposition. 
Here again was a crossing of life's 
threads, for Theodore Roosevelt, who 
fourteen years later was to take part in 
an elephant hunt with Akeley, was the 
judge who awarded him the prize. 

From ^Milwaukee, in 1895, Akeley 




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AKELEY AS A TAXIDERMIST 



151 



went to what was then the l'"ioI(l 
Columbian Museum where he had a 
chance to put into practice ideas and 
methods that had been awaitinjj; an 
opportunity', and after his first African 
expedition, in which he showed his skill 
as a collector, year after year he in- 
stalled the groups that were figured in 
the reports of the rapidly growing 
institution. Here, as an incident, he 
invented the cement gun, one of the 
few inventions that brought him any 
financial retm-ns, and here his fertile 
brain devised many improvements in 
musemns and museum methods, some 
of which are still untried. 

It was at the Field Musemn, in 1902, 
that Akeley installed his "Four Sea- 
sons," four groups of the Virginia deer 
amid their appropriate surroundings in 
spring, smnmer, autumn, and winter. 
These, begun during his stay in Mil- 
waukee, had long been in course of 
preparation, and when they were 
secured by the Museum, Akeley, as is 
often the case with inventors, found 
that while he "had come out even on 
expenditures for labor and material, for 
his own time and for profit there was 
nothing." That he met with similar 
experiences later in his career was due 
to the fact that he placed excellence 
first and profit last, and if, in the course 
of a piece of work, he saw a way in 
which it could be improved, he never 
failed to use it, though at the loss of 
time and profit to himself. This was 
probably the principal reason why the 
taxidermy establishment carried on by 
Akeley In Milwaukee was not success- 
ful, although it had the support of the 
Museum; reall}^ good work is so ex- 
pensive that it cannot be canied on 
commercially at a profit. 

The "Four Seasons" were originally 
mounted to be seen by daylight, for at 
the time of their construction electric 



lighting was still young and only 
gradually finding its way into nm- 
seums, and then in very simple forms. 

A point to be borne in mind is that 
our pi-cdecessors in museum work were 
sadly handicapped by the question of 
lighting antl a goodly share of the credit 
for the beauty of modern museum 
groups is really due to the development 
of electric lighting; here, as in other 
branches of museum methods, Akeley 
was quick to recognize its possibilities, 
and had in mind many devices for the 
projected African Hall. 

It was while engaged upon'the " Four 
Seasons," whose surrounding foliage 
called for many thousand leaves, that 
Akeley devised the simple, rapid, and 
economical methods of making leaves 
now so universally employed in Ameri- 
can museums, and introduced the use 
of metal molds to replace those of 
plaster that so soon deteriorated. 

The Mintorn brothers, and their 
sister, Mrs. Mogridge, had developed a 
method of reproducing foliage and 
flowers, employed by them in the 
British Museum bird groups, and later 
brought by them to the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, where it was 
used in the small bird groups that in 
their day stood for high-water mark in 
groups. The results obtained b}'- the 
Mintorns were very beautiful but, as 
time showed, they would not stand the 
test of our varjdng museum atmosphere, 
with its summer's moisture and winter's 
drj^ness, but curled up, so in the 
American Museum of Natural History 
thej' have in most instances been 
replaced; moreover the process was 
somewhat complicated and involved 
the use of a mysterious "fabric," which 
later proved to be mousselaine de soie, 
and it has given way to the simpler, 
more durable method of Akeley. 

Akelej' patented his process for re- 



152 



NA T LIRA L HIS TOR Y 



producing leaves, but never, to my 
knowledge, asked any royalty for its 
use; in fact, I do not think that he 
ever received any money from those 
who employed his methods or accepted 
any fee for imparting them to others. 
Not only this, but at the Chicago meet- 
ing of the American Association of 
Museums, in May, 1908, he explained 
in detail the making of the manikin, 
an explanation which led Mr. H. L. 
Ward, then director of the Milwaukee 
Museum to remark, ''this address of 
Mr. Akeley . . . seems to be epoch 
making . . . the man of whom I can 
say without fear of accusation of 
flattery that he has done more for 
taxidermy in America than any other 
one person, gives to us, friends, 
acquaintances, and strangers, a full 
and detailed exposition of his method 
of mammalian taxidermy." 

The lure of Africa and the oppor- 
tunity to secure and install a full group 
of elephants drew Akeley to the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History in 
1909, and when, in 1912, he returned 
from a three years' collecting trip, he 
and I were together for the first time. 
And here I saw him develop his last, 
and most revolutionary process for 
mounting great mammals, a process 
that was not perfected until the work 
of mounting the first elephant was 
actually in hand, when Akeley dis- 
carded the frame already made for the 
manikin, abandoned his original plan, 



and proceeded to carry out the method 
then and since used for big quadrupeds. 
The group intended for the center of 
the African Hall bears testimony to the 
success of the method, and the Asiatic 
elephants and other large mammals 
mounted for the Asiatic Hall, show how 
well it has been followed by his asso- 
ciates. 

It was while engaged on this group 
of elephants that he perfected his plans 
for the African Hall, which had long 
been uppermost in his thoughts, which 
he looked forward to as the culmina- 
tion of his life's work, but which, it 
was decreed, must be left for others to 
carrv into execution. 



Like many another genius, he did not 
live to see the realization of his fondest 
hopes, to see his vision of a great 
African Hall taking tangible form: he 
was cut down at the very moment 
when success seemed near and his 
dream about to come true. The mind 
that planned and the hand that exe- 
cuted are stilled in death, the mortal 
part of Akeley reposes on the distant 
slopes of Mount Mikeno, but his spirit 
lives, and the work to which he devoted 
so many years and so much of his best 
thought will be carried on by those to 
whom he imparted his ideas and im- 
bued with his enthusiasm. And on 
them devolves the task of executing a 
fitting monument to his memorv. 



Groups in the Field Museum and Elsewhere 

Whili" a laiffc' .sharr of Akrley's time duriiiji; his coiuicctioii willi tlu- Field Aliiseiuii was 
spent in the preparation of {groups of animals ol)tained during the ex])edition (o Afriea in 
1S95-1S96, yet other desirable pieces were added as opportunity offered. Due larf^eiy lo 
existing conditions these were "open groups," intended to be seen from four sides. A special 
expedition was made to secure a notable pair of African elephants 




POLAR BEARS 

Mounted by Carl Akeley in 1900 

Courtesy of the Field Museum of Natural History 



153 




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ASIATIC ELEPHANT 
Obtained by the 1923 Faunthorpe-Vemay Expedition for the Asiatic Hall of the American 
Museum. Mounted by Louis Jonas. Photograph taken to show the fine modehng of the 
head: such results can be obtained only by Akeley's method in which the skin i.s modeled 
directly upon the clay 




Proposed background for the gorilla group. In the foregi'ound is the spot where the 
"Old Man of the Mountains/' largest gorilla, was captured. Chaninagongo looms smoulder- 
ing in the distance 



In Africa with Akeley 

By MARY HASTINGS BRADLEY 



ALL through Carl Akeley 's' 
letters to us during 1920 and 
1921 there ran an ever increas- 
ing longing to return to Africa. He 
wondered that he had been so long 
away. The dream of the great African 
Hall was always in his mind, and he 
wrote of plan after plan for groups and 
bronzes; then the gorilla took posses- 
sion of his imagination. 

Not one gorilla in any musemii in 
the world was mounted by a man who 
had ever seen a wild gorilla, and not a 
specimen of the central or mountain 
gorilla was in an}' museum in America. 
Akeley began to dream of a group of 
the great apes that would dominate the 



African Hall; his letters were full of 
plans shaping to realization, and at 
last his urgent, "Will you come?" 
made us sweep away those obstacles 
that interpose between every-day liv- 
ing and the opening of the door to 
adventure. 

There were six of us who set out in 
June, 1921; Mr. Akeley, Miss JNIartha 
Miller, his secretary at the Museum 
and our very good friend, my husband 
and myself, and our five-year-old Alice, 
with Miss Priscilla Hall of Chicago as 
Alice's guardian. 

Akeley had a whimsical humor in 
including a child in the party of gorilla 
seekers. His belief in Africa made 

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IN AFRICA WITH AKELFY 



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liiiii wish to fake \\vv. and our hclicf in 
liiiii irlicd upon his ju(l«>;uu'n( . He 
wiotc, " \'ou sec, oiu> of the points of 
our (>\p(HUtion is that wo aro going to 
tako the hiooin off the Ium'oos who have 
gone Ix't'ore, because w(> tackle what, 
in the puhUe mind, is the most hazard- 
ous, the most (htfieult thing that the 
African jungle has to offer. We cannot 
])osisbly come out of it as heroes, 
taking women and a baby, but we can 
pull the other h(>roes off their pedestals 
— which is quite as much fun." 

We sailed from New York to London 
where om- nioimtain of equipment was 
waiting, then from Southampton, 
August 12, on the '' Kenilworth Castle" 
for Capetown. The voyage was 
memorable for our shipboaixl acquaint- 
ance with General Smuts; he was 
much interested in the gorilla expedi- 
tion and in Akeley ; they were men who 
knew how to value each other's 
strength, integrity of purpose, and re- 
sourceful energy. 

From Capetown we took the train 
north. The veldt, barren of its old wild 
life, was depressing to Akeley; he felt 
that the real Africa was gone. The 
first wild animals we saw or heard were 
the baboons near the grave of Cecil 
Rhodes. 

Victoria Falls was of absorbing in- 
terest to Akeley photographically, for 
with the Akeley camera he could photo- 
graph the whole story of the waters — 
following the rush of them over the 
brink to the chasm below, then up in 
air to the ever-changing cloud of mist 
that fell again. Only the Akeley 
camera could do that. This motion- 
picture venture, which my husband 
shared, was to be the record of what 
Akeley called the "high spots" of our 
trip — and literal high spots they proved. 

We entered the Congo by rail, at 
Sakania, more rail brought us to 



i'llizabcthville and — ullimately -to tin; 
upper Congo, called the Lualaba River. 
The steamer on which \v(; had expected 
to travel was hung up on some sand 
bar, and we wen^ lucky to get stowed in 
and on a stec^l barge, towed by a small 
river boat, foi' our river journey. 

The Lualaba was very beautiful, and 
the most beautiful things to Akeley were 
the tall borassus palms, the loveliest 
trees in Africa. For houi's we glided 
between high ranks of them rising like 
wraiths from the river mist ; then they 
gave way to lesser palm, acacias, and 
swamps of feathery papyrus. 

The bird life was marvelous. There 
were clouds of black ibis that settled 
dramatically upon the bare-branched, 
yellow-flowered trees, and rayed out 
like a storm before the on-coming 
steamer; there were egrets, golden- 
crested crane, heron, goose, eagle, 
plantain eaters, shoebill stork, — an 
infinite variety. 

From Kabalo, a river post, after a 
five-day wait, a last bit of train took 
us to Albertville on Lake Tanganyika; 
then, after more days of waitings 
quite a feature of African travel 
Akeley used to say — the steamer 
''Baron Dhanis" took us to Usumbura, 
at the northern end of the lake. 

Our real safari began here. With 
two hundred goatskin-clad porters, our 
equipment on their heads, and our 
ragged camp boys, we six whites 
started the march north over the Rusisi 
mountains into the Kivu. .On this 
safari we had to deal with a very differ- 
ent situation from that in British 
East, where expeditions are the order 
of the day, and trained gun boys, tent 
boys, cooks, and porters are for hire. 
This was the Congo and the interior; 
no one came here but the official or 
missionary with few personal servants. 
There were no trained bovs to be had, 







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IN AFRICA WITH AKFLEY 



105 



and porters would t^o hut short ti'ips 
from their villages. 

The Belgian officials gax'e cvciy 
assistance, but they could not coiijun^ 
trained field servants out of the middle 
of Africa, and our cauii) life was a 
succession of emergencies, so different 
from the organized performance of 
British East to which Akeley was 
accustomed that he was baffled and 
exasperated. He was so eager to show 
us Africa at its brightest that our make- 
shifts with service grated horril)ly 
upon his standards. We had four cooks 
in as quick succession as we could 
achieve, and after some peculiarl}^ 
joyless version of dinner, Akeley's 
reminiscences of his old chefs would 
have sm'prised them with his fervor, 
and his old boys shone with brighter 
and brighter luster. He missed Bill, 
his old English-speaking boy, gun boy 
and interpreter, very genuinely. 

We were marching during the Rains 
and the narrow paths were heavy with 
sticky, red mud. 

"I hate a bird," said Akeley sudden- 
ly. His gaze followed a bird soaring 
ahead. "Just spread their wings and 
go — never get in the mud at all. 
Damn bii'ds!" 

We had brought bicycles, for Akeley 
had used them in British East; they 
were of real use to us later, but now 
were carried. We had no transport but 
our feet, for Akeley refused to use the 
chairs in which whites usually traveled 
in the interior; he scorned being 
carried. 

I think that he accepted wheels be- 
cause there was effort in propelling 
them; he had a hatred of anything 
eas}^ and self-indulgent. His feeling 
that one had to work for a thing made 
him feel that one must work, b}^ walk- 
ing, to have a right to Africa. His 
physical strength was great and he 



was eagei' to prove it undimished. Day 
after day his determination poured out 
that strength in the sheer mechanics of 
walking; fever began to rise and often 
he got to bed as soon as we made 
camp. 

It was part of Akeley, that unsparing 
determination; he had arrived })y it, 
and I know that it had its wa}^ with 
him to the end. 

On the eighth day we saw Kivu, 
loveliest of African waters, and the 
lake realized even his dreams. The air 
was crystalline during the Rains and 
the color was sheer magic. We jour- 
neyed north in a launch arranged for 
by the Belgian government, and from 
Lake Kivu Akeley had his first glimpse 
of the triangle of old volcanoes that 
were his objective — Mikeno, Karissimbi, 
Visoke — -rising from the clouds of the 
storm beating upon us. On those 
heights he hoped to find his gorillas. 

He was worried until he could be on 
his way to them, and he was pressed 
for time by lecture engagements made 
for his return. Every day counted. 
And the chances were incalculable. 

We camped at Kissenyies, the Bel- 
gian post of four whites, and as soon as 
thirty porters came in, Akeley went 
ahead three days to the mission of 
White Fathers at the base of INIikeno, 
then with guides from the sultan 
Burunga, he started up the mountain. 

We sent on relays of beans to feed his 
men up there; we made a trip around 
the mountain to meet T. Alexander 
Barns coming down with three gorilla 
specimens for the British Museimi; 
then, as soon as we had porters, we 
followed to the mission, where we left 
Alice and Miss Hall, and went up 
Mikeno to Akeley. 

Runners had already brought the 
good word that he was finding his 
gorillas, but the news he wrote of his ill 




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168 



NATURAL HISTORY 



health made us do a two-day cliiuh in a 
day of nine hours to join him. 

Those days on the gorilla mountains 
had a quality bej'ond anything that 
any of us had known. The beauty of 
the heights was an enchantment. We 
were in an upper forest, al)ove the dim 
twilight of the bamboo, a forest unlike 
anything else in Africa. Fantastic 
trees with heavy crotches and long, 
outreaching arms iDurdened with heavy 
moss ... a netted jungle of under- 
growth sometimes ]:)reaking into waves 
of delicate bloom . . . chasms, whose 
cUfflike sides would have been arid in 
other climates, Akeley pointed out, 
but here were clothed in wild luxuriance. 

It was a forest out of an old fairy 
tale, Akeley felt, and the gorillas were 
its giants. He gave his sentiment free 
rein; the place appealed to all the 
fancifulness of his beauty-loving na- 
ture. I have never known him more 
content than with those days, exhaust- 
ing as they were. 

The tangled greenery through which 
we made our way, day after clay, 
seeking traces of gorilla, was burning 
with nettles and sodden with rain; 
we were from 10,000 to 12,000 feet 
up, and the nights were piercingly 
cold in the chill damp; the days were 
June when the sun shone, raw Novem- 
ber in the fog. There was scarcely 
enough dry firewood for the cooking. 
The guides deserted but were sent 
back by their sultan, the porters were 
threatening to run away. There was 
never a moment to be lost, either in the 
^hunting or the photographing, or in 
the preparation of the skins, the drying 
of the skeletons, the embahning of the 
young gorilla which Akeley had under- 
taken. 

Akeley always worked like ten. Few 
men could have done what he did on 
those mountains. He was profoundly 



satisfied with his experiences; there 
were five gorillas for the group, a male 
and two females that he had shot, the 
male of Karissimbi that my husband 
shot, and the young gorilla that the 
natives speared — and everything in the 
behavior of the gorillas hunted or 
observed (and we saw them singly and 
in bands) confirmed his belief in the 
Credo that he had written on his way 
to them. 

" I beUeve that the gorilla is normally 
a perfectly amiable and decent creature. 
I believe that if he attacks man it is 
because he is being attacked or thinks 
that he is being attacked. I believe 
that he will fight in self defense and 
probably in defense of his family; that 
he will keep away from a fight until he 
is frightened or driven into it. I be- 
lieve that, although the old male ad- 
vances when a hunter is approaching a 
family of gorillas, he will not close in, 
if the man involved has the courage to 
stand firm. In other words this ad- 
vance will turn out to be what is 
usually called a bluff. 

"I believe, however, that the white 
man who will allow a gorilla to get 
within ten feet of him without shooting 
is a plain darn fool." 

Another cause for Akeley's satis- 
faction was that he took the first 
pictures ever made of wild gorilla. This 
he accomplished w^ith the "Gorilla," a 
motion-picture camera he had prepared 
expressly for the forest conditions of 
light. 

The rarest day of the experience was 
the day that my husband killed the big 
gorilla — the lone male of Karissimbi. 
Carl Akeley, Herbert Bradley, Martha 
Miller, and I were all in that hunt, and 
the mountain-side on which it took 
place, where the gorilla fell, was the 
spot that Akeley pronounced the most 
beautiful in the world. 



IN AFRICA WITff AKl'JLKY 



1()9 




Castle peak of Mount Mikeno. Part of the gorilla sanctuary 



We were high on the slopes of Karis- 
simbi, space around us Hke a sea. 
Mikeno rose on our right, its rocky 
summit vivid against a sky of burning 
blue. Below us stretched a world of 
mysterious forest, shimmering lakes 
and distant mountain ranges, and 
before us the cloud and fire of the vol- 
cano Namlagira flamed like a funeral 
pyre between the branches of the dead 
tree at whose base lay the gorilla. 

It was a dramatic thing, that dead 
gorilla in that place of unearthly beauty, 
and Akeley said, "I envj' that chap his 
fxmeral pyre." He always said that 
when his time came he wanted "to 
lay his bones in Africa," and the onh^ 
comfort now to his friends is that if the 
end had to come, it came w^here he 



would have wished, and he lives in 
Africa's eternal keeping. 

In a letter to us in 1923 Akeley wrote, 
"That morning on the slopes of Karis- 
simbi was the high spot of my African 
experiences." 

We were camping in the saddle 
between Karissimbi and Mikeno — the 
camp that was to be Akeley's last 
camp — and on several mornings the 
marsh before the tents, from which we 
got our water, was skimmed with ice 
and Karissimbi's peak was powdered 
with snow. With the shooting of the big 
male Akeley felt the work for the group 
was accomplished; the collection of 
background he left until he could return 
with a painter. Although with license 
for ten gorillas, he took but j&ve. 



IN AFRICA WITIf AKKIJ'JY 



171 



Already there was forining in his iniiid 
that droam of a sanctuary for j^orilla 
which King; Albert made true. 

For months we had watched the tire 
from Nanilaj2;ira reddening the sky, 
antl Akeley had noted that the wind 
came always from one direction blowing 
the fumes south. The expedition of the 
Duke of Mecklenburg had been up to 
the crater in 1907, but since the later 
eruption of fire no one had explored it, 
and the natives' declaration that it was 
impossible to cross the lava plain which 
separated Namlagira from the base 
of the gorilla moimtains strengthened 
Akeley's determination to do it. 

From the White Fathers we obtained 
guides and set out. That lava plain, 
emanating from small cones and sub- 
sidiary fissures, was a chaotic drift of 
ragged and broken rock, slippery with 
lichen, and overgrown with sparse grass 
that concealed only too well its treach- 
erous crevasses. The guides took us 
across, but had no intention in the world 
of leading us up to that crater of fire; 
it was only by Akeley's driving the 
unruly headman out of earshot while 
the rest of us violentl^y shepherded the 
reluctant porters up the heights, that 
we made the ascent. 

We made camp above timber line, 
in lava rock and alpine growth, then 
we four whites ascended for an un- 
forgettal^le first look into that crater. 
We were on the brink of the mountain 
top, looking down into a chasm about 
six miles in circumference, a colossal 
chasm blown out by at least three 
distinct eruptions into three abysses, 
separated by bastion-like walls of rock, 
stratified and colored, variegated by 
cinder slopes and table-lands of yellow 
sulphur beds, spouting steam, and 
billowing clouds. 

In the center rose a citadel rock, the 
Castle, as we called it, amber in the 



hght. Through the Portal, a break in 
the iimer walls, we saw the fire that 
came from tin; only active crater. The 
abyss was filled with boiling lava, from 
which came a booming loar like a heavy 
surf, as constant explosions bi-oke 
through the swiftly fonning crust. 

The next day w(> gained admission to 
the crater by a little dip in the rim, 
through which we clambered down on 
ledges and terraces, out across sulplnii' 
beds. At first we used commendable 
prudence, roping ourselves together 
and testing every step — more than 
once a foot went through the biittle 
crust — but after the first hours we took 
our separate chances. We spent three 
days within the crater, one night on 
the rim, in the shelter of a ])()wldei-, 
directly above the boiling pot, and 
another night in the crater itself, on a 
little ledge clinging to the rocky wall, 
facing the opening in the rocks through 
which glowed the fire. 

Mr. Akeley set the camera down on a 
cinder slope on the edge of nothing at 
all, and we photographed the crater, 
both with motion pictures and stills, 
in its own light. We were looking down 
into the crater of boiling lava, a great 
mass crusted with cooling, darker lava, 
patterned with gleaming cracks of piu-e 
gold, that darted and shifted as the 
stuff seethed and boiled and broke 
into fountains of fire, or rolled into 
molten rivers of hissing flame. 

As night came on, the cloud above 
that cauldron became a glow of rose, 
vivid, unearthh' — a rose of hell, Akeley 
called it — that made an infcino of those 
rocky walls, throwing into relief every 
jutting ledge and rock, filling with 
mysterious shadow the deep recesses 
and dark distance. High above the 
crater that rose-red cloud streamed out 
against a sky its fire made black. . . . 
We sat on that ledge half the night, 



172 



NATURAL HISTORY 



the glory of that spectacle in our eyes, 
the thunder in our ears. 

Mikeno and Nanilagira were the 
high spots; what followed were the 
usual hvniting experiences. We went 
out to the Ruindi plains south of Lake 
Edward after hon, buffalo, and ele- 
phant. From the Ruindi we saw the 
wall of mountains west of Edward 
sheltering that wild country that was 
the goal of our second trip into Africa. 
We marched out from the Congo 
from Ruchuru across the mountains 
into Uganda, by Kabale and Lake 
Bunyoni, that vivid blue lake framed in 
black euphorbia trees that was second 
only to Kivu in Akeley's appreciation. 
It was the onlj- place in the world, he 
said, where lotus, papyrus, and bamboo 



met. Motor cars met us at Mbarara, 
and after that came the boats and trains 
of the British territory. 

Near Victoria Nyanza, Akeley 
showed us a grove of trees where he 
had rested once on a march, with "J. 
T." in his arms and wild monkeys had 
chattered down at them from trees. 
Now a noisy Httle train was puffing 
there and a fat Indian babu in his 
yellow turban was lording it over the 
blacks. So fast had Africa gone. 

That was the spur that goaded him on 
in his preparations for the African Hall 
that was to be a memorial to Africa, 
a memorial now to Carl Akeley, who 
more than any other man gave a true 
vision of the African wilderness to the 
world. 




Photograph by Martha Miller Bliven 

An African flat-topped Acacia tree 



Epilog 



ue 



By henry FAIRFIELD OSBORN 

President, American Museum of Xaturul History 



WK wish that Carl Akeley could 
have lived to see the present 
number of Natural His- 
tory with the glowing tributes of nine 
of his admirers, colleagues, and friends. 
To very few is it given to attain an 
international standing and to be known 
and admired on two great continents. 
Akeley's love of Africa and African 
life grew upon him year by year from 
his first great journey with Daniel 
Giraud Elliot, which resulted in the 
superb groups in the Field Museum. 

Much as he loved his own country, 
Africa became his paradise, not only of 
great mammals but of nature in her 
grander forms and moods, and of the 
natives in the courageous aspects of 
their lives. As Herbert Ward, in the 
superb bronzes depicting the nobler 
expressions of the African native, has 
put into enduring bronze his tribute of 
admiration, so Carl Akeley in the three 
scenes of the African hunt has por- 
trayed the unflinching courage of the 
Masai native, as well as the final 
heroic charge of the lion and lioness 
upon their intrepid foe. Often have I 
heard him speak of his admiration for 
these Masai hunters. 

Akeley's first love was perhaps for the 
elephant, but in his closing years he 
conceived a great admiration for the 
lion, and his final work on the lion 
group is perhaps overtouched with 
sentiment. Often did he dwell upon 
the nobility of the elephant, its courage 
in the charge, its sympathj^ in remov- 
ing the wounded comrade. Little 
wonder, with sentiments like these, that 
he entitled the chief literary work of his 
life In Brightest Africa. Little wonder 



that, in the confines of the great city 
of New York, he longed for the sweep 
of the African plains and savannahs, for 
the unspoiled beauty of the African 
orests, for the majestic march and 
trumpeting of the elephant, and for the 
dauntless charge of the lion. 



It was Akley's wont to concentrate 
his imagination and creative power, as 
well as his energy, upon one great 
object at a time. Soon after he joined 
the naturalists of the American Mu- 
seum, he began to plan the African 
Hall, and worked upon this da}- and 
night until the faultless plan was 
achieved. This was immediately pub- 
lished so that the thought of a cen- 
trally darkened space with outlooks 
into vividly lighted and wholty natural- 
istic scenes of African life at once 
became the motive for similar designs 
in other museums. 

Then he sought to surpass himself 
and his own great animal designs by 
discovering a new method which would 
enable him to give the last li\ing 
touches to his models, after the man- 
ner of the sculptor in claJ^ He him- 
self told me that the clay method 
flashed into his mind while he was 
starting on a theater party with a 
group of friends, who laughed when 
he suddenly exclaimed, "I have dis- 
covered a new and far superior method 
of modeling and mounting animals." 
This is the now commanding Akeley 
method, which he imparted to several 
of his pupils in mounting the African 
elephant group, and through which for 
the first time these pachyderms give 

173 



174 



NATURAL //I STORY 



the entire semblance of life to luounted 
animals, especially in the delicate dis- 
play of the muscles of the face, of the 
eyes, and of the nostrils. 

There followed a two-year period of 
trial and (n-ror, of dauntless experi- 
mentation, inventing the now world- 
famous Akeley camera — the peer of 
cameras of the field. During the war, 
this same fiery intensity was given 
to the great Akeley reflector which was 
to be his principal contribution to 
the cause of the Allies. 

Immediately following the death of 
Theodore Roosevelt, he turned the 
entire force of his genius into the 
designing and setting of the giant 
leonine statue which he believed best to 
envisage the commanding spirit of his 
beloved friend. Certainly the greatest 
disappointment of his life was the re- 
port that the Theodore Roosevelt 
Memorial advisers had decided that 
this great design could not be accepted 
after his two years of unparalleled labor. 
At the very close of this memorial 
effort, he produced what he believed 
to be the most commanding figure of a 
lion, a copy of which shall be placed 
in or near the Roosevelt Memorial 
Hall. 

Finally, it is delightful to record 
that, only a brief twelve months before 
his death, there came the long cherished 
opportunity actually to begin the 
execution of his African Hall plans 
after years of baffling discouragement 
which would have crushed all the am- 
bition of the less courageous and less 
persistent personality. 

gg g.g g.g g.g g.g B/i 

Our first thoughts on hearing of 
Akeley's passing on the slopes of Mount 
Mikeno were that it was given to him 
to pass away near the scene of his 
greatest achievements and to be buried 



where he most wished to lie. The 
lines of Stevenson's "Requiem" come 
to our minds; 

Under a wide and starry sky 
Dig the grave and let me lie. 
Glad did I live and gladly die 
And I lay me down with a will. 

This l)e the verse you grave for me: 
"Here he lies, where he longed to be; 
Home is the sailor, home from the sea, 
And the hunter home from the hill." 

It is fitting, too, that Carl Akeley 
lies within the area which through his 
idealism and through the idealism 
of Baron de Cartier de Marchienne has 
become for all time the sanctuary of the 
mountain gorilla. Had it not been for 
Akeley, these monarchs o^ the ape 
world would doubtless all have perished 
as trophies of the hunter and spoils of 
the various museums of the world. 
Akeley not only redeemed the anthro- 
poid tribe, but he redeemed the repu- 
tation of the gorilla from the misrepre- 
sentations and exaggerations which 
from the time of Du Chaillu had made 
these inoffensive animals the personifi- 
cation of brutality and of satyrism, as 
portrayed in the sculpture of Fremiet. 
For this undeserved reputation Akeley 
substituted a benignity of domestic 
life, portrayed in his masterpiece 
the Gorilla Group, disturbed only at 
the approach of a foe which threatens 
the family. 



In closing this series of tributes to 
Carl Akeley — the Conservation^'st, the 
Explorer, the Sculptor, the Inventor, 
the Patriotic Citizen, the Idealist, the 
Typical Self-made American Man, I 
wish to express once more the ever- 
lasting debt which all the museums in 
America owe to the life work of this 
remarkable man. We ma}^ only esti- 



EPILOGUE 



175 



mate the full measure of our deht In- 
considering what ih(> slandards, nut 
only of this Museum hut of all museums 
of America, would have been without 
the sweep of his great achievements, 
which gave us a wholly new concep- 
tion of the mannnalian kingdom and 
of the close portra.val of nature ui 
animal habitat groups. 

May we not consider that the most 
appropriate dedication of the African 
Hall shall be to the memory of the man 
who conceived it and practically gave 
his life for it— Carl Akeley. The 



cliniMX' of Akeley 's life ideals is em- 
bodi(;d in his ])Ians for the African Hall. 
The peak (jf his life ambition was 
i-eached when he started out with two 
of his greatest benefactors and two 
artists to give entirely unrestricted 
rein to the beginning of this central 
and crowning effort of his life — the 
African Hall. Like the great leader of 
the Hebrews, he passed away after 
many years of undaunted courage and 
effort at the very moment when the 
promised land was in sight,— in fact, 
within his very grasp. 



NOTES 



CARL AKELEY 

Colleagues, comrades, and friends of the 
late Carl Akeley gathered together at the 
American Museum on the afternoon of 
December 21, 1926, to pay a series of tributes 
of admiration for his character, and of devo- 
tion to his memory. President Henry Fairfield 
Osborn presided. The speakers presented the 
versatile genius of the man whose name they 
had come to honor, and Carl Akeley as ex- 
plorer, sculptor, inventor, and conservationist, 
was memorialized. These addresses appear 
as a series of articles in this issue of Natural 
History. 

Numerous tributes came from various parts 
of the United States and from abroad, by 
telegram and by letter, and were read by 
Director Sherwood at the beginning of the 
meeting. They are as follows: 

From Mr. Akeley's co-worker and friend, 
Martin Johnson, in a cable from British East 
Africa : 

Akeley's death a terrific blow, a great tragedy, and a 
personal loss that I shall always feel. I am thankful 
he found a. last resting place in the spot he loved. 

. From Stanley Field, president of the Field 
Museum in Chicago : 

We sympathize with the American Museum of 
Natural History and the scientific world in the loss of 
Carl Akeley. 

From .James Gustavus Whiteley, Consul of 
Belgium. 

It is gratifying to think that, although he was not 
spared to complete his work with his own hand, he 



must have had the satisfaction of knowing that his 
cherished ideal was well started and cannot fail to be 
realized. 

From Mr. S. M. Hunter of Chicago: 

Mr. Akeley, in a letter of March, 1910, from L'ganda, 
writing us of Roosevelt used these words: 'Lord, but 
he is a man.' In an association of thirty years I can say 
the same of Akeley. 

From Mr. and Mrs. H. E. Bradley of 
Chicago : 

Akeley's works live after him, but Akeley is gone and 
we mourn the friend. 

From Dr. Herbert .J. Spinden, Peabody 
Museum at Cambridge: 

He had breadth of vision and depth of vision, but 
most of all he had simplicity, and this, it seems, is the 
mark of true greatness. 

From Mr. Joseph N. Teal of Portland, 
Oregon: 

I loved and admired him both as a man and as an 
artist. His untimely death is an irreparable loss to his 
family, his friends, and the world. 

From Roy Chapman Andrews: 

His warm and loyal heart made him a dear friend, his 
brilliant mind an inspiring colleague, arid his genius a 
notable figure in the life of the nation as well as the 
Museum. Akeley never can be replaced. 

The following telegram received from His 
Majesty, Iving Albert of Belgium, was read 
by Baron de Cartier de Marchienne: 

On the occasion of the Memorial Service held in honor 
of Dr. Carl E. .\keley, please convey to President 
Osborn and the authorities of the American Museum of 
Natural History the expression of my sincere sympathy. 
The death of this eminent naturalist and explorer is a 
great loss for the entire scientific world. Pray extend 
to Mrs. Akeley my heartfelt condolences. 

(Signed) Albert. 



170 



NATURAL HISTORY 



The following resolutions, passed by the 
Holland Society Trustees were read by the 
President of the Holland Society, Dr. Fenton 
B. Turck: 



At a meeting of the Trustees of The Holland Society 
of New York, held on the ninth day of December, 1926, 
the following Resolutions were unanimously adopted 
in reference to the death of Carl Ethan Akeley re- 
cipient in 1922 of The Holland Society's medal for 
distinguished service in the science of exploration: 

ResolverJ, That the eminent achievements in Natural 
History of Carl Ethan Akeley have been glorified 
by the modesty, the persistency, the disregard 
of self and, above all, the undaunted courage 
with which his heroic and notable ser\-ice in the cause 
of science invariably has been rendered. The splendor 
of his accomplishment is emphasized by his tragic 
death while still ardently engaged in the prosecution 
of his lofty aims. But, as in the case of all great 
spirits, in death he remains victorious — since already 
he had rescued from oblivion so large a part of the 
Natural Historj- of the wilds of Africa and presen-ed 
it for use in future scientific study and investigation 
throughout the world. 

Resolved, That this expression on behalf of The 
Holland Society of its deep sorrow in Mr. Akeley's 
untimely death, in the midst of his great undertaking, 
be extended to his colleagues in the American Museum 
of Natural History and to his wife and family and 
devoted friends. 

Reaohed, That a copy of these Resolutions, suit- 
ably engrossed, shall be presented to the American 
Museum of Natural History for permanent record in 
its African Hall. 

At the request of Mr. James B. Ford, the 
president of the Explorers Club, Mr. Kermit 
Roosevelt read a short memorial which had 
been prepared by the Club : 

The members of the E.xplorers Club record with deep 
sorrow the death of their colleague and former president 
Carl Ethan Akeley. 

In Mr. Akeley were combined the imagination of the 
artist with the discriminating hunger for simple truth 
which is the ideal of science. He carried high purpose 
into the field of exploration in his beloved Africa, 
inspired by a passion that his fellow men might hence- 
forth be enabled to catch glimpses of the peerless wild 
life of that great continent as if through his own for- 
tunate eyes. 

A man of raultifold genius — naturalist, sculptor, 
engineer, inventor, father of indispensable methods in 
modern museum exhibition — Mr. Akeley lived to see 
the success of many aspirations, expressed not only 
through the labor of his own brain and hand, but also 
through his influence upon able disciples. His lectures 
and writings rallied enthusiastic followers to the causes 
for which he gave his life. 

Blessed with a genial and harmonious spirit, he was 
never too absorbed in his own trials, or in the \'ision of 
his aims, to counsel, encourage, and befriend those who 
sought assistance. He died as he himself might have 
wished, in the beautiful sanctuary to which his zeal 
had given birth, and in the comradeship of those near- 
est his heart: but we, his friends, lament his passing 
and the loss to the world of his gifted and productive 
mind. 

THE AFRICAN HALL EXPEDITION 

Mrs. Akeley, who before her marriage to 
Carl Akeley in 1924 was Miss Mary L. Jobe, 
continued her husband's work for four 
months in the field, from November to 
February. Although this was her first trip 
to Africa, she worked side by side wdth Mr. 
Akeley throughout the entire e.xpedition. 
She had led numerous exploring expeditions 



in Northern British Columbia, and in 1925 
the Canadian government named one of the 
highest peaks in the Canadian Rockies Mt. 
Jobe, in her honor. She has given the fol- 
lowing brief report of the African Hall Ex- 
pedition. Her complete report will follow 
in a later issue of Natur.\l Hi.story. 



May 12, 1927 

It was in January, 1926, that Mr. Akeley 
and I left New York en route for Africa to 
begin the work of his expedition for the 
African Hall of the American Museum of 
Natural Historj-. As he so often expressed 
it, he had never before been so happy as, 
after .so many years of effort, he was at last 
experiencing the complete fulfillment of his 
1 if e-dreams. 

The expedition was made possible through 
the generositj' of ^Ir. George Ea.stman of 
Roche.ster, Mr. Daniel E. Pomeroy of New 
York, and the latQ Colonel Daniel Wentz of 
Philadelphia. ^Mien we left New York it 
was planned that these three gentlemen and 
Dr. Audley Stewart, Mr. Eastman's physi- 
cian, should join us early in May, 1926; and 
also that in March, yir. Akeley's staff of 
two taxidermists, (Messrs. R. H. Rockwell 
and R. C. Raddatzj should arrive to assist 
in collecting specimens and accessories for 
six groups of animals, and that two land- 
scape artists, Messrs. William R. Leigh and 
A. A. Janssen, should come for the prepara- 
tion of studies of African landscapes for the 
backgrounds of these groups in African Hall. 
These plans were carried out except in the 
case of Colonel Wentz who, in February, 
when on the eve of departing for Africa, 
was called to the Great Beyond. Our re- 
union in Africa was greatly saddened bj'^ 
his loss. 

During the months of May, June, and 
July, the sportsman's part}' of Mes.srs. East- 
man, Pomeroy, and Stewart, and our col- 
lecting party were either working in close 
proximity, or were meeting at frequent in- 
tervals. The sportsmen were getting their 
o\^•n bag and contributing certain specimens 
to the Museum's groups, while our party 
was collecting man}- specimens, and acces- 
sories and making studies for the painted 
backgrounds for five animal groups. 

At this time in Kenya, and on the northern 
frontier, Mr. Akeley often worked far into 
the night in order to preserve the specimens. 
In August Mr. Akeley and I, with ^Ir. Rad- 
datz, joined the Eastman-Pomeroy party, 
also the Martin Johnsons in the great game 
fields of western Tanganyika. 

It was in this district that Martin Johnson 
obtained his great lion pictures, assisted by 
Mr. Akeley, who con.sidered it most important 
to give his personal help in securing these 
records of wild animal life which he beheved 
to be invaluable to natural science, and which, 
owing to the rapid extermination of the game, 



Scenes from Akeley's Africa 

RErRODL'CEl) FROM I'HOTOCIRAI'lIS TAKEN m MARTIN JOHNSON DIRING 
THE TRESJ'INT MARTIN JOHNSON AFRICAN EXPEDITION 





Cipiin.jhh.l In, fh, A,„,r. M'lv. >'/ i\al. Hist. 

MRS. MARTIN JOHNSON— "OSA" 




Copyrighted by the Amer. Mus. of Nat. Hist. 

Above — A spotted hyaena taking his own picture as he stops above the bait 
Below — A jackal stepping on a disc switch as he contemplates the bait overhead 



NOTES 



177 



woulil all too soon In' iniiiossililc to Mcviuirc 
In the interim of photojjraphy, he colleeted 
specimens for a group of i)lains animals, a 
double group, and one lucky day \vh(>n he 
and I were out alone, he secured a compl(>te 
band of nine wild dogs. In all thos(> activi- 
ties he worked incessantly and with the 
greatest enthusiasm. Then he suddenly 
became ill with fever. I nui'sed him for a 
week in our very hot camp, until his fever 
had subsided, and then took him in his bed 
in a motor lorry to Nairobi for medical 
attention. He had no recurrence of fever. 
One of the best i)hysicians in Kenya pro- 
nounced his condition one of fatigue and 
no* of infections illness. After three weeks in 
the Kenya Nursing Home, I took him to our 
home in Nairobi, and there, as he was ^ireatly 
improved, we prepared for our trip to the Bel- 
gian Congo, which from the very begimiing he 
had l^een most eager to undertake. 

Accompanied by Messrs. Leigh and Rad- 
datz and Dr. J. M. Derscheid, a Belgian 
biologist, we made the trip from Nairobi, 
SOO miles to Kabale, Uganda, in motor lor- 
ries and in one light car. For tliis trip Mr. 
Akeley packed his own lorry and one other 
and worked with untiring energy in repairing 
bridges, where occasionally our heavily laden 
motor lorries broke through. 

.\fter lea^dng our motors at Kaljale, we 
all went on foot with porter safari a distance 
of about one hundred rmles into the Gorilla 
Mountains of the Pare National Albert. 
It was very strenuous. However, on one 
day only ' Mr. Akelej' became so exhausted 
he had to be carried. Later at Rutshuru he 
spent one whole day making motion pictures 
for the White Fathers on the occasion of the 
opening of their new chm'ch, and two days 
later he spent an afternoon repairing a 
motor cycle for one of the White Fathers at 
Lulonga Mission. He never spared himself 
in the slightest degree. 

After we reached our camp at an elevation 
of 9500 feet, he was exhausted and spent 
one day in bed, but he remarked more than 
once how happy he was at being again in 
the Ivi\'u, surrounded by appreciative com- 
panions and ready for the completion of his 
gorilla work. He walked into his last camp 
on the saddle between Mounts Mikeno 
and Karassimbi. He said that at last he 
was "on his old trail," and "in the beautiful 
forest of the gnomes and fau'ies." While 
on this climb we heard the bark of a gorilla 
close to the trail. Often he called mj' atten- 
tion to the lovely moss-hung trees, "the 
oldest forest in the world." 

The day of our arrival at our high camp, 
at an elevation of 12,500 feet on the slope of 
Mount ]Mikeno, he told us of his 1921 ex- 
periences and apparently enjoyed being in 
his old camp. That night he had a chill 
followed by a fever, which quickly subsided. 
The next two days, which were very cold 
with heaAy storms of hail, he remained in 
bed, saying that he felt tired and wanted to 
rest, but that he had no pain whatever. 
On the morning of the 17th of November, 



after a very (luic', restful night, an intestinal 
hemorihage occurred, he became greatly 
weakened, and at noon the end came. 

Three or four times while in Africa he 
had told me that he w&nted "to go in the 
harness," and "to be buried in Africa." His 
wishes were fulfilled. In the eight months 
in the field, to use his own words, he "accom- 
plished more than in any two years preiious 
in Ihc Jield," and his mortal bodj^ rests in his 
last camp, in the Pare National Albert, 
which place of conservation of animal and 
plant life his mind first conceived, and 
which he considered "the most beautiful 
spot in all the world." 

The remaining members of the expechtion, 
Messrs. Leigh, Raddatz and Dr. Derscheid, 
and I worked on in the Kivu for six w'eeks, 
completing as best we could Mr. Akeley's 
plans for background, accessories, photo- 
graphs for the gorilla group, with the survey 
and scientific observations of the animal life 
of the Pare National Albert. 

After finishing the work in the Belgian 
Congo, Messrs. Leigh, Raddatz, and I went 
to Lake Hannington, in the Great Rift 
Valley, Kenya, completed the background, 
collected the accessories, and made the 
photographs for the group of Greater Koo- 
doo. Mr. Pomeroy had previously obtained 
excellent greater koodoo specimens. For- 
tunately I secured photographs of the 
great flock of pink flamingos which Mr. 
Akeley had so greatly desired, and which 
necessitated journeying 110 miles on foot 
over volcanic slag. The mercury from 
8 A. M. until 4 p. M. was 115° in the shade — 
a great contrast after working for six weeks 
in a temperature of 34° to 44° on the slope 
of Mount Mikeno in the Belgian Congo. 

— Mary L. Jobe Akeley. 



While ox their way to Africa in February', 
1926, Mr. and Mrs. Akeley were received by 
King Albert of Belgium and by Prince Leo- 
pold, both of w^hom, since the creation of the 
Pare National Albert, have showTi the 
greatest interest in the work of this party. 

When Mrs. Akeley reached Europe in late 
March of this year, she w^as informed by Mr. 
William Phillips, then American Ambas- 
sador to Belgium, that King Albert of the 
Belgians wished her to come to Brussels. 
On April 8 Mrs. Akeley had an audience at 
the Palace with his Majesty on the occasion 
of his birthday. At this time, in the execu- 
tion of one of the last wishes of her husband, 
she presented to the King a painting of the 
Pare National Albert, Belgian Congo, and 
at his request gave him a verbal report of the 
expedition. The painting shows the "Pare" 
itself and the active volcano Namlogira, 
which Prince Leopold climbed in 1925. The 
picture was painted by Mr. Wilham R. 



178 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Leigh, one ot the artists of the Akeley-East- 
man African Expedition. 

On the occasion of this visit, Mrs. Akeley 
was decorated with the Cross of the Knight 
of the Order of the Crown, by M. Jaspar, 
Premier and Minister of the Colonies, repre- 
senting the King of Belgium. This honor, 
the King's own decoration, is rarely pre- 
sented, and only in a few cases before has 
it been given to a woman. The honor was 
bestowed in commemoration of the work of 
Mr. Akeley in the Kivu, and as a recognition 
of Mrs. Akeley's work in continuing for 
seven weeks on the high slopes of Mount 
Mikeno and bringing to completion Carl 
Akeley's plans. 

The aim of their mission to the Belgian 
Congo was to explore in detail the large re- 
serve of fauna and flora called the Pare 
National Albert, comprising the volcanoes 
of Karissimbi, Mikeno, and Vissoke. and 
to secure accessories and background for 
the Gorilla Group. This territory was es- 
tabUshed as a Gorilla Sanctuary largely 
through Mr. Akeley's efforts. 

President Opborx presented to the Board 
of Trustees at their recent meeting the follow- 
ing letter from the Belgian Government, in- 
viting the American Museum to particpate 
in the plans for the scientific development 
and research of the Kivu region: 

April 27, 1927. 
Dear Doctor Osborn. 

The Albert National Park (Pare National 
Albert!) established in the Belgian Congo for 
the protection and scientific study of the 
native flora and fauna has made good prog- 
ress since its organization by the Royal 
Decree of March 2, 1925. 

The results of the Mission headed by Mr. 
Carl Akeley, whose premature death was such 
a sad loss to the development of scientific ex- 
ploration, will soon be brought to Brussels 
by Doctor Derscheid who helped Mrs. Akeley 
to continue the task initiated by her late hus- 
band to collect data on the topography, the 
fauna, and the flora of the Pare National 
Albert. 

I understand that Doctor Derscheid will 
return to Brussels at the end of May, Ixring- 
ing with him considerable information, not 
onlv on the climate, the fauna and the topog- 
raphy of the Pare National Albert, but also 
on the secondary game preserves and the 
great game reserve of the Ruindi. I under- 
stand that Doctor Derscheid made a special 
studv of the conditions in which scientific 
missions might, in the future, work in the Pare 
National Albert, in spite of the very rigorous 
climate; and he has located good camping 
grounds and also collected precise information 
concerning the habitat of the gorillas. He has 
climbed all the volcanoes which form an 



essential part of the Pare National Albert. 
Doctor Derscheid intends returning to Kivu 
in a few months and hopes to get in touch, in 
Brussels, with your representatives, so as to 
eventually settle the organization of the 
.\merican scientific cooperation in the Belgian 
Congo through the farsighted statesmanship 
of his Majesty King Albert. 

I would feel very much obliged if you would 
let me know, at your leisure, what your views 
are on this subject. 

I have the honor to be, 

Your obedient, humble servant, 
Baron de Cartier. 

In response, the Trustees unanimously 
adopted the following resolution: 

ResoherJ, That the Trustees desire to express their 
appreciation of the action of his Majesty King Albert 
of Belgium in establishing the Pare National Albert in 
the Belgian Congo, for the protection and scientific 
study of the native flora and fauna, and the American 
Museum of Natural History will be glad to cooperate 
in carrying out the plans for the scientific develop- 
ment and research in this area. 

The American Museum is keenly interested 
in this great movement for the conservation of 
the native fiora and fauna of the Pare National 
Albert, a project which was so dear to the heart 
of Mr. Akeley, and all true nature lovers will 
forever be indebted to his Majesty King 
Albert for his broad-mindedness and wisdom 
in establishing this sanctuary. 

Paintings Made for the African Hall 
Are Exhibited at Nairobi. — AU the paint- 
ings made on the Carl Akeley 1926 Expedition 
for the African Hall were exhibited at the 
Kenya Arts and Crafts Society, Nairobi, 
February 17, in accordance with a promise 
made by Mr. .Akeley. The exhibition won 
enthusiastic admiration from the people of 
Kenya, to many of whom the exquisite beauty 
of the surrounding country was a revelation, 
for few travelers penetrate into the remote 
regions shown in the paintings. The artists 
who had been specially chosen by Mr. Akeley 
to make these studies are Mr. A. A. Janssen 
and Mr. WilKam R. Leigh. 

Carl Akeley experienced to the last all the 
joj's Africa could offer him, as is evidenced by 
the following abstract from a letter written 
by Martin Johnson, November 17, 1926, to 
Mrs. Robert Gordon McKay: 

Akeley and I had some wonderful ex- 
periences among the lions in Tanganyika a 
few weeks ago. We had such luck that we can 
scarceh' beheve it true and I think Carl will 
always class these lion experiences along with 
his gorilla discoveries. 

^^"e were camped together for nearly three 
months with George Eastm,an and Dan 
Pomeroy and Doctor Stewart. Carl was busy 
securing the specimens forthe Muesum groups, 
Osa and T were getting movies and the rest 



NOTES 



179 







Carl Akeley, Martin Johnson, Pat Ayers, and Phil Percival, at the lion camp in Tanganyika. Photo- 
graph by courtesy of Mrs. Robert Gordon McKay 



were shooting, then Carl's boy "Bill" led us 
to a most wonderful valley where we found 
lions galore and, thej- never having been 
molested, we had no trouble photographing 
them. You know this life is meat and drink 
to Carl and me and here was a situation that 
we had dreamed of but never expected to have 
come true. I think both of us went a little 
off our heads when we photographed them 
playing, sham fighting, feeding off zebra, 
roUing in the grass, yawning, and even roar- 
ing; one charged and made a great picture. 
In fact, we got them doing everything lions 
do. Daj' after day we went back to this valley 
and never drew a blank. 

There was only one fly in the ointment, 
none of the lions had very good manes and 
they were mostly in places where the light 
was poor, but I have just finished developing 
the films and I am perfectly satisfied. 

Through the Courtesy op William 
Phillips, Ambassador to Belgium, we are 
able to give the following extract from the 
diary of Doctor Derscheid, who was with 
Akeley at the last. 

Thursday, November 18 — Kabara Camp. 
The unforeseen end of this friend of us all 
has completely overwhelmed us. 

Back in 1912, Carl Akeley had been crushed 
by a charging elephant, and it is a question as 
to whether he had ever entirely recovered his 
strength. His mind, on the other hand, had 
remained young and enthusiastic, his ideal 
ever lofty, and, the disproportion between his 
physical resistance and the task imposed upon 
him by his conception of a work to be reahzed 
and his iron will, became more and more 
accentuated. In his own words, all of his 
recent excursions into East .Ifrica were mere 
child's play compared with the present expedi- 



tion, fraught with difficulties due to the special 
nature of the country. His death was really 
caused by over-exhaustion, from which his 
body, already tired, was unable to recuperate. 
He saw in the present expedition the culmina- 
tion of his African work. His strength sup- 
ported him until he had reached these vol- 
canoes, which he considered as the most 
splendid part of Africa, this ' 'Pare National 
Albert," which had been created upon his 
initiative and, in large part, according to his 
advice. He held out on the steep declivities of 
the bamboo forest, and in the mud of the 
marshes, across the thickest of the jungles, 
until he reached his old camp in the pass 
separating the two majestic volcanoes, Karas- 
simbi and Mikeno. There on the site of his 
old camp his mortal remains repose. His 
anxious impatience to reach this old camp as 
quickly as possible, his insistent desire, in 
spite of all obstacles, to push on from the 
Rueru camp to the Mikeno camp, show the 
powerful attraction which this locahty held 
for him. He had brought the best painter he 
was able to find, in order to record on canvas 
this incomparable site. This was the goal 
he was determined to reach, from which he 
would permit nothing throughout the course 
of the whole long route to hold him back, and 
this is where we shall leave him to sleep. 



THIRD ASIATIC EXPEDITION 
A cable received from Dr. Roy Chapman 
Andrews announced that he, Walter Granger, 
and Mr. Nelson w^ere safe in Peking. Doctor 
Andrews added that Macknezie Young had 
suffered the loss of the ends of three of his 
fingers through frostbite incurred while in 
MongoUa. Mr. Granger wrote March 24, 



180 



NATURAL HISTORY 



from Hongkong, that the colk'ctions made by 
himself and Mr. Nelson were being forwarded 
to the American Museum. These collections, 
from Yunnan Province, include stone imple- 
ments, pottery, fossils, bird and mammal 
skins, fishes, and reptiles. 

IN MEMORIAM 

In the death of Dr. Walter B. J.'UMES, the 
American Museum of Natural History has 
lost one of its most beloved Patrons and 
Trustees. Doctor James's interest as a 
Trustee of the Museum was intensified by an 
inherent love for all branches of natural 
history, centering naturally, however, about 
biology and public health. As a member of 
the Executive Committee, the Committee of 
Building and Plans, the Pension Board, and 
the African Hall collections, he rendered very 
conspicuous service. 

The members of the Board of Trustees, at 
their last meeting. May 2, 1927, paid the fol- 
lowing tribute to Doctor James: 

The Trustees desire to record their deep sense of loss 
through the death of their co-Trustee and friend. 

DOCTOE W.\LTER B. J.A.MES 

who passed away on April 6, 1927. Doctor James was 
elected to the Board in February, 1911, and served as 
a member of the Executive Committee from 1911 to 
1913. He was also a member of the Committee on 
Buildings and Plans from 1912 to 1927; of the Nominat- 
ing Committee from 1920 to 1927; and of the Pension 
Board from 1916 to 1927. Throughout his Trustee- 
ship, he was intensely interested in all of the activities 
of the Museum and was always earnest and painstaking 
in his duties as a member of the various committees. 

His advice and hearty cooperation were always val- 
uable, especially where the welfare of our employees was 
concerned. 

The same qualities which distinguished him as a 
Trustee of the Museum made him a valuable and in- 
fluential citizen in the community. 

His colleagues on the Board greatly miss his genial 
presence and valuable counsel. 

Charles Spragxje Sargent, dendrologist, 
died on March 22 after a two weeks' illness, 
at his Brookline estate. Holm Lea. Had he 
lived until April 24, he would have been 
eighty-six years of age. He had been director 
of the Arnold Aboretum since 1872, and pro- 
fessor of arbori-culture at Harvard since 1879. 
The books by which he is best known are his 
Manual of Trees of North America, and his 
elaborate Silva of North America. He was 
generally recognized as the foremost authority 
on trees, and the American Museum of Natural 
History was fortunate in having him plan the 
Jesup collection of North American woods. 
He was aided in this work by his wife, who 
made the colored drawings of the fohage, flow- 
ers, and fruits. Mrs. Sargent died eight years 
ago. An excellent bronze bust of Professor 
Sargent, by C. S. Pietro, stands at the entrance 
to the Forestrv Hall of the American Museum. 



ASTRONOMY 

Astronomical Society Formed at the 
American Museu.m. — The need for an 
amateur astronomical society in New York 
City was overwhelmingly demonstrated by 
the attendance of more than 500 people at 
the initial meeting called for the purpose of 
organization. The meeting was held in the 
American Museum of Natural History on the 
evening of May 10, and was presided over by 
Dr. Clyde Fisher. Professor Henry Fairfield 
Osborn, president of the American Museum 
of Natural History, made the welcoming 
address. He stated that the greatest gift a 
philanthropist could bestow for the intel- 
lectual uplift of the comjnunity would be 
money for the construction of an astronomical 
hall for the Museum, where the public could 
study the marvels of the sky. Other speakers 
were Dr. Oswald Schlockow, district super- 
intendent of public schools of New Y'ork 
City; Mr. John A. Kinsbury, secretary of 
the Milbank Memorial Fund; and Mr. 
George H. Sherwood, director of the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History. 

Of the audience present, 340 signed apphca- 
tions for membership. President Osborn 
asked to be enrolled as the first life member, 
and his request was followed by a dozen others. 
Additional appUcations are steadily coming in 
every mail with suggestions and good wishes 
from every source. 

Doctor Fisher was elected temporarj^ presi- 
dent. 

The next meeting will be held at the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History on Thursday 
evening, May 26, at 8:15 o'clock. 

A Series of Paintings in oil illustrating the 
magnificent prominences of the chromosphere 
of the sun has just been placed on exhibition 
in the Pro-Astronomic Hall. They are the 
work of Mr. Howard Russel Butler, N.A., who 
painted the three solar ecUpses as well as the 
Lunar Landscape and the Aurora Borealis. 

The chromosphere of the sun is composed 
of the light gases, hydrogen and helium, w^hich 
float above the photosphere. These gases, 
being incandescent, have a wonderful rose 
color and are frequently, by explosive action, 
thrown high above the limb of the sun, some- 
times as much as several hundred thousand 
miles. These eruptions are known as hydro- 
gen prominences. They are constantly 
occurring and take on extraordinary forms. 

They were first seen during total solar 



NOTES 



181 



eclipses, when the moon obscured the photo- 
sphere and made visible tlu' i)roniinences and 
the corona. Now lli('\ can be seen in the 
spectrohehoscoi)e, an invention of Dr. George 
E. Hale, who has erected an observatory in 
Pasadena for the use of his instrument. 

Mr. Butler had the good fortune to see the 
hydrogen prominences of the eclipse of June 
S, 1918, at the United States Naval Observa- 
tory Station at Baker, Oregon. He then made 
careful notes of the color as seen by the naked 
eye and through a powerful field glass. He 
has also had the opportunity of studying these 
phenomena through Doctor Hale's spectro- 
helioscope. He conceived the idea of a frieze 
of hydrogen prominences to be placed ulti- 
mately in the proposed Astronomic Hall. 
The extraordinary forms and the vivid color- 
ing {)roduce a most decorative effect, and by 
varying the scales in the pictures, a uniform 
arrangement is obtained. 

On the east wall of the Pro-Astronomic 
Hall are shown the great prominences ob- 
served during the eclipse of 1918, commonly 
known as the " Heliosaurus " and the "Eagle." 
The former was about 400,000 miles long and 
reached a height of 47,000 miles. The scale of 
this picture is one inch to 1700 miles and the 
lunar diameter used in the picture is forty- 
three feet. 

On the west wall is a series of five paintings, 
the central one representing the great explo- 
sion of hydrogen that took place April 25, 
1895, as recorded at Kenwood Observatory, 
and which attained a height of 281,000 miles. 
The scale of this picture is one inch to 5600 
miles. Other pictures of this series represent 
the eruptions of September 23, 1919, as 
recorded at Yerkes Observatory. The scale 
is one inch to 1700 miles. July 9, 1917, based 
on a photograph taken at Mount Wilson, the 
scale being one inch to 2500 miles. October 
8, 1920, at Yerkes Observatory, one inch to 
2400 miles. July 15, 1919, Yerkes Observa- 
tory, one inch to 5300 miles. 

In each case Mr. Butler has placed a disk 
representing the relative size of the earth, 
which runs from the size of a silver dollar to a 
disk 4/4 inches in diameter, showing that the 
earth in ever}' case is insignificantly small in 
comparison to these gigantic tongues of 
incandescent hydrogen. A system of lighting 
has been used which makes the prominences 
glow like fire. 

These two gorgeous friezes make a most 
attractive exhibit and alreadv many \'isitors 



are enjoying th<>m. Eventually, the\' will be 
installed in our propo.sed Hall of Astronomy. 

Anciknt Mkthodsof Mkasuking Time. — 
A unicpie collection of ancient and modern 
sundials, hour glasses, and astrolabes has 
been placed on exhibit in a s])ecial case in the 
Pro-Astronomic Hall. Unusual material for 
study is provided in the variety of instruments 
and the wide range of time covered in their 
manufacture. Silver pocket dials with com- 
pass, delicately engraved, a French astrolabe 
by Reinold, dated 1581, for observing the 
altitudes of planets and stars, an instrument 
used by mariners called "gnostique" which 
was designed by Messin in 1615, Chinese 
sundials and ancient Japanese pocket dials 
and compasses are shown , as well as examples 
of ivory book dials, and two universal ring 
dials, one by Chapoto, Paris, dated about 
1600, the other English, dated 1620. 

BIRDS 

The Chapin-Sage Expedition. — In a letter 
recently received from Dr. James P. Chapin he 
writes that in company with DeWitt L. Sage 
they secured, on the mountains of Ruwenzori, 
most of the montave species of birds known to 
occur on the explored eastern side. In describ- 
ing the progress of his work Doctor Chapin 
writes that he found,while descending from 
the heights of Ruwenzori, anything but uni- 
form conditions. In making the ascent of the 
slopes one traverses "hfe zones." CircUng 
about the base one passes from one "faunal 
area" to another and then on to a third which 
may belong in a distinct subregion of the con- 
tinent, for Ruwenzori is virtually a wall rising 
between east and west Africa. On the return 
trip the expedition traversed the band of 
lowland forest (a long day's march in width 
at its narrowest place) which extends from the 
SemHki River up the western slope of 
Ruwenzori till it merges wath the montave 
forest. North and south of this band are 
areas of almost impenetrable elephant grass, 
with many west African birds. 

Still farther south, along the base of the 
range, the grass grows finer and the savannas 
become covered with large acacia trees. This 
is the most pleasing country of the whole 
region, and it begins to exhibit east African 
birds. Rounding the south end of the range 
and approaching Kative, the plains become 
still more open, with only large clumps of 
tree-euphorbias. If this district were in 
more direct communication with the arid 



182 



NATURAL HISTORY 



areas east of Lake Victoria, it would doubtless 
have zebras and ostriches. This type of 
country invades the Congo just along the 
northern shore of Lake Edward, bringing with 
it many east African birds. 

In all about one hundred days were spent 
in the whole region of Ruwenzori. Of that 
time nearly one half was spent in arduous 
travel. On forty days of the trip a fair day's 
march was made without counting excursions 
from camp in search of birds. On some days 
the party climbed as many as 4400 feet, and 
once climbed 3500 feet and then do^nn again 
the same distance. 

Doctor Chapin and Mr. Sage have not 
suffered from any tropical ailment, or indeed 
from any other. 

The following excerpts from Doctor 
Chapin's letters describe vividly some of the 
experiences of the expedition. 

Mt. Iterere, 14,300 ft., 
West Ruwenzori, Nov. 26, 1926 
My dear President Osborn: 

You gave me my first taste of mountain- 
climbing when you sent me with George 
Bowdoin to the Canadian Rockies in 1915. 
And now my old longing to see Ruwenzori 
has been fulfilled. Of course the birds are the 
special reason for my being here, but who 
would not be thrilled by snowcaps and glaciers 
in such profusion as here? 

We have pitched a little tent on a mountain- 
top; it is evening now and I am keeping warm 
by a little oil stove. But from this point, 
when the continual fogs permit, one sees 
mounts Stanley and Baher gloriously dis- 
played at about six miles distance up a deep 
valley. 

Today, by climbing a mountain 15,000 feet 
high, directly between here and Mt. Stanley, 
I had as splendid a view as one could desire, 
peaks weighted down with tremendous caps 
of snow, glaciers hanging in valleys so steep 
that one wonders why they don't fall, sheer 
black cliffs, rock slides, and below us, glacial 
lakes. The highest lakes on Keniaand Ruwen- 
zori are not robin's-egg blue as are the lakes 
in Europe and America, but olive-green, for 
some curious reason. Just below this camp is 
another lake, nearly black. 

Sage and I first came up here together, and 
deposited a bottle where other travelers (in- 
cluding my friends Bequaert and Heller) have 
done in the past. This is the end of the trail, 
and not much of a path at that, five days for 
carriers from the base of the mountain at 4000 
feet. Then Sage come up to spend a night, 
because the best chances of seeing the peaks 
are at dawn and sunset. Now I have had my 
turn here, and have been favored exceptionally 
by the weather. 

Here we are in the Senecis zone, which cor- 
responds to the Paramo of the Andes. From 
13,200 feet down to 9500 feet is the zone of 
tree heaths and wet moss, truly a terrible jilace 



now, wet and cold, almost devoid of birds. 
Sage is in our camp at 12,300 feet waiting for 
me. I pity him. There is not a level spot for 
a tent; like all that zone of vegetation it is a 
mess of old dead heath trunks, buried in wet 
moss, with holes everywhere. Getting from 
our tent to the fly that serves as kitchen and 
dining room, I have twice fallen through to my 
waist. Today is the first day since we have 
been on the mountain (nearly two weeks) that 
I have been dry all day. 

Below the heath zone are the bamboos and 
ordinary mountain forest, where birds are 
abundant. But below the mountain forest and 
extending up to 6500 feet in most places, is the 
elephant-grass, another disagreeable tangle. 

So the mountain has its glories, and its dis- 
comforts. I should not use mountain in the 
singular, Ruzwenzori is a whole range, 50 
miles long, with almost innumerable moxm- 
tains. It is great to be here. 



Kalongi, 7000 ft.. West Ruwen- 
zori (highest village in Butagu 
Valley) 

December 22, 1926. 
Dear Mr. Sherwood: 

Just a month after the sad event, I received 
a letter from an old friend, Mr. Boyton, then 
at Rutchurn, telling us of the death of AJceley 
on Mt. Mikeno. I know no details, save that 
Boyton said it was from the effects of dysen- 
tery. But having seen so much of Akeley in 
East Africa, we felt a great shock at the sud- 
denness of this bad news. We were not even 
sure that he was back in the Kivu. . . . 

After many delays, w^e actually began to 
climb the mountains here on November 14. 
It was still raining hard. At Kalongi we 
camped in a cascade of mud, in fact it was so 
uncomfortable that we had our porters build 
us a house of bamboos and grass while we 
were waiting for a guide and a few mountain 
porters to take us higher up. At 9000 feet we 
had a fairly comfortable night's camp, but up 
in the tree-heath zone, at 12,000 feet, it was 
miserable. Cold and wet, not a level spot for a 
tent, fallen trunks with holes between them 
buried in moss. 

At 13,800 feet, the end of the trail, we had 
brief ghmpses of the peaks through clouds. 
This was on November 23. We went down to 
the tree-heaths again, and were miserable. 
Again Sage went up on the 25th. There came 
a sudden change in the weather. The peaks 
stood out in all their glory. On the 26th it 
was drv and warm, and I climbed to 15,000 
feet. 

Lack of food for the men forced us to come 
down to this camp. The dry season is now 
securely established. We have busied our- 
selves collecting, and have secured many fine 
birds (including Francolijius nobilis, Mala- 
conotusi lagdeni, Caprimvlgus ruwenzorii, and 
Micro-pus aequatorialis) a number of rodents 
and so on. 

We hope to get enough men and food 
together to make another quick trip up to 
15,000 feet, if not to the snow line. Then we 



NOTES 



183 



shall bo ready to roturn to the Semliki Valley 
and Beni, to continue on towards the Kivu. 
There is now a road to the west of Lake Ed- 
ward, anil no one travels by way of the lake 
any more. 

15,000 ft., West Ruwenzori 
Jan. 4, 1927. 
Dear President Osborn: 

I believe I wrote you from Mt. Iterere on 
November 26 last, and told of climbing to 
15,000 feet. Now I am camped on that 
mountain and have just returned from a 
days' trip across the deep valley northeast 
of us, to the glaciers of Mt. Stanley. 

One very large glacier descends to about 
14,800 feet, not more than a mile from here. 
I was able to climb up alongside it to 15,500 
feet when I found myself between two large 
glaciers, for another one flows down to the 
northward. 

Above me towered the snow-covered Alex- 
andra Peak, and no mountain scenery has 
ever seemed wilder to me. Overhead two 
ravens circled and cawed, justifying a bird- 
lover's presence amid these remote rivers of 
ice. 

DeWitt Sage is waiting for me down the 
mountain. We could not secure enough 
porters for both of us to come up this time 
together. Our work on Ruw'enzori has been 
brought to a successful conclusion, and we 
shall go back at once to the Semliki Valley. 

Kalongi, 7000 ft., 
West Ruwenzori, 
January 7, 1927 
Dear Doctor Chapman : 

. We now move toward the Kivu, 
but you have no idea how difficult travel can 
be — and how^ slow — in this part of Africa. No 
beasts of burden save negroes. No roads 
worthy of the name, and long delays in every 
post. It usuall}^ takes twelve to fourteen days 
to get the porters we need, and they have to 
be changed about every seven days. 

From the heights of Ruwenzori I once made 
out two of the Kivu volcanoes across Lake 
Edward, but the daj' after Akeley's sad death, 
a friend in the Ivivu wrote me of it, and the 
letter took just one month to reach me on the 
slopes of Ruwenzori. 

I think it is easier to work in the Ivivu 
volcanoes than on Ruwenzori, distances are 
shorter, natives more plentiful, as well as 
food. But it is almost impossible to say how 
long our work will take there. 

. The Belgians have done every- 
thing possible for us, even to giving us free 
hunting hcense (Permis de Chasse Admin - 
istratif). 

This trip has been the realization of some of 
mj' finest dreams, and 1 cannot tell you how 
grateful I am to Mr. Sage and also to Doctor 
Sanford for arranging it. 

The Library Acquires a Rare Bird 
Book. — Through the generositj' of Mr. Ogden 
Mills the Librarj- has acquired the excessively 



rare first edition of William Turner's Avium 
Prsecipuarum, Quarum apud Plinium et 
Aristotelem mentio est, breuis & succinda 
historia — Coloniae, 1544. Turner has been 
styled the father of British ornithology and 
this is the first book on birds which treats the 
subject in anything like a modern scientific 
spirit. His object in writing the book was to 
determine the principal kinds of birds named 
by Aristotle and PUny. He has added 
copious notes, the great value of which con- 
sists in the fact that he is always careful to 
tell whether he observed the birds he describes 
in England or elsewhere. For this reason his 
comments are of great historic importance to 
the student of ornithology. 

FISHES 
A Motion-picture Film of the Whale 
Shark Rhineodon typus. — In the summer of 
1926 Mr. Mack Sennett, motion-picture 
producer of Los Angeles, CaUfornia, led into 
the Gulf of CaUfornia an expedition equipped 
with a newly invented submarine motion - 
picture camera. With this he made the most 
remarkable fihn of fishes in their aqueous 
abode that has ever yet been produced. 
Through Mr. Wilham Beebe's influence this 
film was shown before the Museum staff. 
Some fifty feet of it portrays a whale shark 
majestically swimming along. Doctor Gudger 
got in touch with Mr. Sennett and he has 
kindly presented to the Museum through 
Doctor Gudger that part of the film pictur- 
ing this great shark. The film has been studied 
at slow speed and found to give the details of 
practically all the structures of Rhineodon 
except those of the tail. Data for this are at 
hand and Doctor Gudger thinks that we are 
now ready to go forward with the completion 
of our model of this great shark. 

MAMMALS 
The Irving K. Taylor Expedition. — A 
cable from the Taylor Expedition' stated that 
the party had reached its destination on the 
White Nile and had then turned back. On the 
way they had to fight their passsage through 
the sudd, that dense mass of vegetation swept 
down by the \^Tiite Nile, which at times com- 
pletely chokes the river and has been known 
practicallj' to fill the river bed for miles. The 
obstruction has been removed several times 
with great labor and at great expense in order 




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NOTES 



185 



to permit steamers to ascend the river. Mr. 
Taylor re])orts that, because ot it, for three 
days they could do nothing but sit on the 
pilot-house and look for animals they could 
not go after. 

The expedition has been successful in ob- 
taining the specimens that they originally 
planned for, including about 200 mammals, 
more than 400 birds, and some fishes and 
reptiles, and only one kob is needed to com- 
plete the series of antelopes. Mr. Anthony is 
busy making cases to hold the numerous skins, 
skulls, and skeletons that have been collected 
and are drying on board. Three skinners are 
employed, as everything must have immediate 
attention after being killed to keep it from 
spoiUng. The expedition has secured 2100 
feet of motion pictures and more than 100 
stills, but they were disappointed that at this 
season the waters of the Nile were so high that 
the whole region about it had grass from 6 to 
15 feet tall so that even whole herds of ele- 
phants could be hidden from view in it. 

Mr. Anthony writes that the expedition 
left for Port Sudan on April 4 for a month's 
hunting in the Red Sea Provinces. They will 
take reservations for England on May 17, 
and expect to reach New York early in June. 

Progress of the Faunthorpe-Vernay 
Collection. — Colonel Faunthorpe writes to 
President Obsorn from Bombay on December 
3, 1926, regarding his recent additions to the 
Faunthorpe-Vernay Collection: 

I am glad to be able to report that I have 
just completed the wild boar group witha very 
fine boar. You already have a sow and young 
one. The four horned antelope buck I hope to 
get. We have doe and fawn. These small 
animals are much more difficult to get, when 
you want them, than the big ones. For instance 
it took a lot of work to get a good parah (hog 
deer) stag last winter. 

I have a special expedition planned for 
mid dogs in February; it is very difficult to 
get shots at these brutes. I have an idea for 
a group of red dogs (vide Kiphng) pulling 
down a sambur or attacking a leopard which 
would be a great attraction I think. The dogs 
chase and kill leopards I know. The jungle 
tribes say they also chase and kill tigers but 
there is no authenticated instance of this on 
record. I spent a week last mnter hunting 
them without result. 

Mr. S. H. Chubb, of the department of com- 
parative anatomy, is now engaged in mounting 
the skeleton of a large Russian wolf hound in 
a running position, which is to be placed near 
the skeleton of the running horse. 



EXTINCT ANIMALS 

Thk H.\ll of Dinosaurs. — The opening 
of the Hall of Dinosaurs on March 9 was the 
occasion of a nationwide celebration through 
the press and locally through crowds of visitors 
of all ages, numbering nearly 19,000 people on 
Sunday, March 13. The opening ceremony in- 
cluded a brief address by the President, who 
told of the thirty years of labor involved in 
making this great collection, and paid a very 
high tribute to Curator Barnum Brown, to 
whom the greater part of the collection is due. 
In the summer of 1897, the half skeleton of Di'p- 
lodocu ■ was found in the Como Bluffs and a year 
later the famous Bone Cabin Quarry was dis- 
covered and worked for many years. This is 
the largest single deposit of dinosaur bones, with 
the exception of the great quarry at Vernal, 
Utah, which has yielded so many fine skeletons. 
The first great achievement of the department 
was the mounting of the skeleton of Bronto- 
saurus, at the time considered a great event, 
which made known the existence of dinosaurs 
to the entire people of the city of New York 
and, in fact, throughout the country. At the 
time, probably not nine people in this city 
knew what a dinosaur was, while now ' ' dino- 
saur" has become a household word. The 
arrangement of the Hall of Dinosaurs has 
been in progress during the past year and 
the south end of the hall is in its final 
arrangement. The north end of the haU, 
however, is only temporarily arranged at 
present, since this section will in time be 
devoted to the Jurassic dinosaurs exclusively. 
The impression that has been created, as 
sho\\Ti in the accompan3ang photograph, is 
certainly a majestic one. 

In connection with this celebration, it is 
interesting to recall the verj^ modest begin- 
nings of the department of vertebrate palae- 
ontology^ in the small attic room of the old 
section of the building. Here, at the top of an 
elevator shaft. Curator Osborn and Assistant 
Curator Wortman worked for two winters 
cleaning up and preparing the first collections 
made hv Curator Wortman in the Wasatch 
Beds of Wyoming. From this small begin- 
ing and this simple collection, the depart- 
ment has expanded during the last thirty- 
six years until now it is planned to fill six 
great exhibition halls, surrounding the south- 
east court of the Museum. The collections 
already amassed will more than fill these 
great halls. The building activity of the 
City can hardly keep pace with the world- 



186 



NATURAL HISTORY 




The modest attic room of the American Museum, in which the department of vertebrate palaeontology 
was founded in the year 1891 



wide collections made yearly by the depart- 
ment of vertebrate palaeontology. 

MEETINGS OF SOCIETIES 
American Philosophical Society. — Pres- 
ident Henry Fairfield Osborn represented the 
American Museum, the Cambridge Philo- 
sophical Society, and the New York Academy 
of Sciences at the two hundredth anniversary 
of the founding of the American Philosophical 
Society, held at Philadelphia April 17-30. 
He received the appointment of vice-president 
of the society. At this meeting Dr. Roy Chap- 
man Andrews was elected to membership. 

The Friday evening session was devoted to 
an address by President Osborn on "Recent 
Discoveries Relating to the Origin and 
Antiquity of Man." During other scientific 
sessions papers were read by Dr. Cark Wissler 
on "Age Changes in Anthropometrical Char- 
acters during Childhood and Adult Life," 
and by Dr. W. K. Gregory on "The Origin of 
Man from the Anthropoid Stem — When and 
Where?" 

National Academy of Sciences. — At the 
annual meeting of theNational Academy of 
Sciences, held in Washington the last week of 



April, Prof. Wilham K. Gregory was elected 
to membership. 

Pan-Pacific Conference. — Mr. Chaimcey 
J. Hamhn, a Trustee of the American Mu- 
seum, represented the Museum at the Pan- 
Pacific Conference on Education, RehabiUta- 
tion, Reclamation, and Recreation, held in 
Honolulu, during the week of. April 11-16. 
This conference was called by the President 
of the United States in conformity with a 
joint resolution of Congress for the following 
purposes: (1) to establish a basis of coopera- 
tion for the promotion of peaceful arts and 
pursuits among the countries participating; 

(2) to provide a medium for exchange of 
knowledge on the subjects under discussion; 

(3) to afford a wider field of service for certain 
technical activities; (4) to be of assistance to 
the territories of the several participating 
countries. 

John Burroughs Memorial Meeting. — 
John Burroughs' ninetieth birthday anniver- 
sary was observed on April 2, at the annual 
meeting of the John Burroughs Memorial 
Association in the auditorium of the American 
Museum of Natural History. Dr. Clyde 
Fisher, president of the association, presided. 



NOTES 



187 



A feature was the presentation of the medal 
of the association to Ernest 'l^hompson Seton 
for his four-voUnne work I'he Lives of Game 
Animals. This medal is awarded each year 
to the author who has produced what is con- 
sidered the best piece of nature literature. 

At a business meeting which followed the 
program, the officers and six members of the 
Board of Directors were reelected. Professor 
William Lyon Phel])s of Yale University was 
chosen director. 

PROFESSOR OSBORN'S RESEARCH CLUB 
The Research Club of the American Mu- 
seum has continued its weekly meetings 
throughout the past season. The purpose of 
these gatherings is to give the staff members 
opportunity to discuss informally reports of 
current biological investigation in this and 
other institutions. 

papers presented during 1926-1927 
The Present Status of the Origin of Man. 
— In describing the present status of the origin 
of man, Dr.W. K. Gregory discussed the three 
theories concerning man's origin: (1) the 
aboreal, (2) the independent terrestrial, (3) 
the polygenetic. He stressed the anatomical 
evidence, especialh' that to be derived from 
the brain, the hand, and the foot. He dis- 
cussed the dentition of Dryopithecus, and con- 
cluded that man's ancestors were undoubtedly 
arboreal and probably closely allied to that 
genus. 

Investigations in East Anglia. — Prof. 
Henry Fairfield Osborn discussed the rostro- 
carinate flints foimd by Mr. J. Reid Moir 
at the base of the Red Crag formation in 
England. They were very probably fashioned 
by human beings who lived before the end of 
the Phocene. Professor Osborn has made a 
very thorough field study of Pliocene man in 
England. 

Epitome of Recent Research with Re- 
gard TO the Antiquity of Man. — Prof. 
Henry Fairfield Osborn declared that man 
is ten times more ancient than we formerly 
imagined. As a result of the discoveries 
of tools and ornaments in Nebraska, he is led 
to beUeve in the great antiquity' of man as a 
tool maker. Man may now be carried back 
in this country to the Middle or Lower 
Pliocene. The ape family very earlj- branched 
off from the anthropoid common stock, the 
apes becoming more aboreal and the human 



stock more terrestrial. Until more evidence 
conies to light, Dryopithecus should be placed 
on the ape side of the fork. 

Evolution of Man by Foetalization. — 
In Dr. L. Bolk's recent book, man's evolu- 
tion is described as essentially a process of 
foetalization or retarded development. Dr. 
Harry L. Shapiro strongly disapproved of this 
point of view. The Chihuahua hairless dog 
has its skin devoid of hair, but who would 
describe the beast as representing the foetus 
of another variety? Many of man's structures 
are less specialized than those of the apes, but 
many others, such as his nose and brain, are 
more advanced. Mongoloid idiots and cre- 
tinous individuals may be foetalized, but not 
our friends and colleagues. 

Evolution of Mammalian Molar Teeth. 
— Two papers on this well known and much 
debated subject were discussed by Dr. H. E. 
Wood, 2d. The first, by Dr. W. K. Gregory 
and G. G. Simpson, on sonie Cretaceous mam- 
mal skulls from Mongoha, is of the greatest 
interest, for it describes the first good Meso- 
zoic mammal skulls ever found. The authors 
are to be congratulated on their paper. The 
second paper presented was a review of the 
premolar analogy theory. It was written by 
Doctor Gregory and described ten structural 
stages in the origin of man's dentition. 

The Siwalik Beds.— Dr. W. D. Matthew 
gave a report of his recent investigations of 
the fossil fauna from the Siwalik beds of 
northern India, including a list of correlations 
between this fauna and other faunas. 

Orthogenesis. — Prof. Henry Fairfield 
Osborn reported a remarkable case of direc- 
tional evolution as illustrated by the skull 
of a Mastodon recently found in Nebraska. 
This skull, which was more than six feet in 
length, has an extraordinarily elongated lower 
jaw with shovel-shaped incisors. The speci- 
men represented an extreme development of 
the Palseomastodon phylum of Proboscidea. 

Evolution by Law. — Prof. Leo 0. Berg 
has published a book on "Nomogenesis," or 
"evolution by law." It did not appear to Dr. 
E. W. Gudger, who reviewed the book, that 
Berg has discovered what this law, or laws, 
might be. To state that evolution is the result 
of certain inherent processes acting according 
to laws is merely restating the problem in 
other terms. To rule out chance and natural 
selection in evolution is absurd. 



188 



NATURAL HISTORY 



The Mechanics of Vertebrate Devel- 
opment. — Dr. G. Kingsley Noble reviewed the 
epoch-making work of Spemann and his associ- 
ates on the "organizers" of development. 

Mutation of Species. — Dr. Willard G. 
Van Name discussed the classical studies 
of W. Schmankewitsch on the transformation 
of the little crustacean, Branchineda, into 
Artemia, by increasing the salinity of the 
water. He pointed out that more recent 
investigations had showed that this was 
actually not the transformation of one genus 
into another, but merely the modification of 
Branchinecta by severe treatment. 

Field Studies of South China Amphibia.— 
Mr. Clifford H. Pope described the breeding 
habits of the frogs and toads of southeastern 
China. He stressed the habitat preferences of 
the forms considered and indicated the im- 
portance of these preferences in evolution. 

The Migration of Birds and Fishes. — 
Dr. R. C. Murphy and Mr. J. T. Nichols led 
a discussion on the modes and causes of animal 
migration. Doctor Murphy reviewed some of 
the recent papers of Wetmore, Rowan, Wachs , 
and Thomson. He pointed out that, while the 
maturing of the gonads might be considered 
the releasing mechanism of migration, the 
nature of the stimulus inducing and directing 
the periodic movements of animals was un- 
known. Mr. Nichols compared bird and fish 
migrations. The temperature factor is of 
great importance in the movements of fishes . 
Further, fishes often migrate to feed and not 
necessarily to spawn. Prof. SeUg Hecht com- 
pared the migration of new-bom turtles into 
the sea with other types of migration, espe- 
cially with regard to the directing factors 
concerned. 

Classification of North American 
Birds. — Mr. De W. Miller reviewed the work 
which he and Doctor Wetmore have been 
pursuing on the classification of birds. Gadow's 
classical studies serve as a basis for their final 
scheme, but recent discoveries have aided in 
making this system a more natural one. 

Distribution of Central American 
Birds. — Mr. Ludlow Griscom reported on his 
recent field work in Panama and discussed the 
problem of life zones in Central America. The 
Caribbean and Pacific bird faunas are unlike . 
This finds its basis chiefly in the different 
vegetation zones. Mr. Griscom is mapping the 



life zones of the region and has made con- 
siderable progress in this work. 

The Fauna of Angola. — ^Mr. Rudyerd 
Boulton reported on his recent field work in 
Angola. He discussed the distribution of the 
bird and fish faunas of this country. Field 
observations on the nests of palm swifts and 
upon the mimicry of the drango by a 
flycatcher were of great interest. 

Field Study on Birds in Panama. — 
Dr. Frank N. Chapman gave an inspiring 
address on research possibilities at the Barro 
Colorado Station. During the last season he 
made a detailed study of the habits of a 
colony of oriole-like birds, Zarhynchus. He 
emphasized the great importance of bringing 
back ideas to the Museum, as well as speci- 
mens. The former are frequently more 
important by far in advancing biological 
knowledge. Doctor Chapman also availed 
himself of the opportunity of making observa- 
tions on mammals and ants. His report was 
illustrated by a series of impressive photo- 
graphs. 

NEW BOOKS 

Fishing from the Earliest Times [to 500 a.d.], 
by William Radcliffe. — So great was the 
demand for the first edition of this remark- 
able and invaluable work (which I reviewed in 
this journal in 1923) that a reprinting became 
necessary. Fortunately author and publishers 
(Murray in London, and Dutton in New 
York) took advantage of the opportunity to 
make this a new edition and thereby have 
made the fishing fraternity and all who are 
interested in the early history of angUng 
their everlasting debtors. In this second 
edition the few errors of the earlier issue have 
been corrected, additional data brought to 
light by later researches have been incor- 
porated, and best of all, a bibliography has 
been added including works published as late 
as 1926. 

In my review of the first edition, I referred 
to it as a source book of the greatest value and 
expressed regrets that the author had not 
given a bibliography in definite form, instead 
of putting his references as footnotes. This 
Mr. Radcliffe has done in the new issue, and 
the fifteen closely printed pages of references 
to 430 authors are of the greatest value to the 
student who wishes to consult the original 
sources. Incidentally, it gives one a clear idea 
of the enormous amount of reading and re- 



NOTES 



189 



search which the aulhur hius done to f^ct the 
materials for his book, and hence is an index 
of its thoroughness and value. Unfortunately 
the author has not chosen to accept the other 
criticism made by myself and others — to add 
to his title page the date bracketed at the 
beginning of this review, and thus clearly 
to delimit the extent of his researches. 

One camuit piil too high an estimate on this 
unusual hook. That others agree is shown 
liy till' tact that in ten days after issue, 1250 
copies of the new edition were sold. It is now , 
and for many long years will continue to be, 
the standard work dealing with the archse- 
olog.y of angling. And since the work ends 
with the year 500 a.d., I join with many 
others in wisliing that Mr. Radcliffe might 
give us a second volume bringing the subject 
down to the present time. 

No angler interested in the history of his 
art can afford to have this work absent from 
his bookshelves. Also to it must go students 
interested in ichthyolatry and ichthyophagy 
among the ancients, in the latest data con- 
cerning the Christian and other ancient fish 
symbols, in the curious mediaeval figures of 
Jonah and the whale, in the efforts of the 
Roman emperors to fix the price of fish, in the 
fish taboo in Egypt, in the earliest recorded 
contract of fishing, and in the charming stories 
of the dolphin and the school boy. These and 
many other equally interesting subjects are 
all to be found in Mr. Radcliffe's book. 

— E. W. GXJDGER. 

Fresh-water Fishes of Hainan is the subject 
of a paper by John T. Nichols and 
CUfford H. Pope, now on press. Thirty new 
forms are described, all of which were col- 
lected by Mr. Pope on his trip to Hainan in 
1922. All the fish known from Hainan are 
included, and each description is accompanied 
by a line drawing. These sketches add greatly 
to the value of the paper, and it is hoped the 
publication will encourage further investiga- 
tion of this interesting fauna by Chinese 
students in South China. This paper com- 
pletes the report on new material brought to 
light by preliminary study of all fish collec- 
tions of the Third Asiatic Expeditions, except- 
ing those obtained by Mr. Pope in Fukicn 
Province, 1925-26, which reached the Mu- 
seum only last December. 

A New Handbook on the home aquarium 
has just been pubhshed, Fishes in the Home, by 
Miss Ida M. Mellen of the New York Aqua- 



limii (Dodd, Mead, & Co.). Whereas there 
arc a iiunild r of authoritative books on this 
subject, tlie present small volume of 178 
l)ages should fill a distinct need and have wide 
circulation. It is attractively printed and 
illustrated, very readable, and contains much 
practical information. Anj'one who keeps 
fishes in an aquarium will enjoy reading and 
later have occasion to refer to it in detail, in 
such matters as stocking, care, and feeding, or 
treatment of sick fishes. In view of the varied 
subject matter therein contained, it is much 
to be regretted that the book is without an 
index. Though lacking the compass for an 
exhaustive treatment of aquarium fishes, a 
very fair survey is presented of those species 
from various parts of the world appropriate 
for aquarium culture. The home aquarium 
offers an opportunity such as is obtainable by 
no other means to have close at hand a bit of 
wild nature, for instance, a fragment of scintil- 
lating aquatic hfe from the tropics of one or 
the other of the three major continents, Asia, 
Africa, America. 

A salt-water aquarium offers so many diffi- 
culties compared to the fresh-water, that it 
should be undertaken only by persons in a 
position to give the matter some time and 
study. These will also be interested in 
A Handbook to the Marine Aquarii , a 
pamphlet of 69 pages just issued by the, 
Horniman Museum and Library, Forest Hills, 
S. E., London. It is possible, though not an 
easy task to keep in an aquarium various 
forms of marine invertebrates as well as 
fishes for study, creatures of rare beauty, as 
well as interest. This handbook further 
contains contributions to the life-history or 
habits of several forms of British marine hfe. 
—J. T. Nichols. 

Hoiv to Hunt with the Camera.^ — To the 
devotee of the camera any new book on the 
subject of photography holds an irresistible 
appeal; to the individual who knows little or 
nothing about the instrument, yet who loves 
nature in all its forms, photographs of 
living animals, birds, insects, and flowers 
shown in their haunts, give a thrill of pleasure 
and perhaps of wistfulness to know some- 
thing of the art whereby such scenes are 
caught and imprisoned in a photographic 
negative. To both of these, Hoic to Hunt 
with the Camera has been addressed by WiUiam 

^How to Hunt with the Camera. — A complete guide to 
all forms of outdoor photography. Bv William Nes- 
bit. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York, 1926. 



190 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Nesbit. And not to these alone, but also to 
the sportsman and the hunter who, exchanging 
his gun for a camera, finds a keener joy in 
the satisfaction of his hunting impulse through 
the skill and patience demanded by this 
method of winning his trophies of the chase. 

Mr. Nesbit has gathered together valuable 
information based on actual experience, and 
covering virtually all forms of outdoor photog- 
raphy. The illustrations include many fine 
pictures by Radclyffe Dugmore, Geo. Shiras, 
3d, Martin Johnson, Carl Akeley, Frank 
Chapman, Raymond Ditmars, WilUam T. 
Hornaday, Hobart Roberts, and other success- 
ful photographers of wild life. 

Technical points are illustrated by carefully 
worked out diagrams, sketches, and photo- 
graphs, and every effort is made to coach the 
picture huntsman for work under trying and 
difficult conditions. The chapters on cameras 
and lenses are especially practical. 

A partial "Who's Who" includes short 
biographies of those, principally in the 
United States, who have been active in the 
field of nature photography. 

— A. K. Berger. 

SCIENCE OF MAN 
Mr. Reginald Pelham Bolton, who has 
long been distinguished for his archseological 
and historical studies of Manhattan Island 
and its vicinity, and to whom the Museum is 
indebted for a large part of its archEeological 
collections from Manhattan, has presented an 
interesting series of archaeological specimens 
from the Cumberland Mountains in Virginia. 

Mr. George C. Vaillant who has been 
appointed assistant curator of Mexican archse- 
ology, expects to leave soon for North Africa 
and plans to retm-n in time to take up his 
duties at the Museum about July first. 

Dr. Waldemar Jochelson, who has been 
the guest of the Museum during his visit to 
America, is now preparing to return to Russia, 
where he has accepted a position as division 
curator of the Museum of Anthropology and 
Ethnography of the Academy of Sciences, 
Leningrad, and as lecturer on Ethnology at the 
Leningrad University. 

Mr. Erich F. Schmidt, assistant in 
archaeology, department of anthropology, 
has joined the field party of the Oriental Re- 
search Institute of the University of Chicago, 
to assist in an archaeological reconnaissance of 
Asia Minor. 



Dr. T. Wingate Todd of Western Reserve 
L'niversity, Cleveland, recently visited the 
department of anthropology, spending .some 
time in making age determinations for a large 
part of our prehistoric skeletal collections 
from Southwestern United States. About 500 
skeletons were examined and it is expected 
that Doctor Todd will return some time in the 
future to complete his examination of the 
material. 

SCHOOL SERVICE 

Formal Opening of the School Nature 
Room. — The opening of the School Nature 
League Room on May 3 in the new School 
Service Building of the American Museum 
was the fulfillment of a dream begun many 
years ago by the founders of the League. 

As early as 1892 the seed of the School 
Nature League was planted by Mrs. John I. 
Northrop when she organized the Natural 
Science Committee of Hunter College Alumnae. 
Under Mrs. Northrop's leadership the idea 
grew, and in 1917 the School Nature League 
was organized "to increase a knowledge and 
appreciation of nature in the children of our 
public schools." Headquarters were estab- 
lished in P. S. 75, Manhattan, and a number of 
nature rooms were started in many schools 
throughout the city. In 1920 Mrs. Northrop 
wrote, ' ' What we have done is j ust a beginning ; 
there should be a nature room in every school." 
More than thirty nature rooms have now been 
estabUshed in New York City schools, and 
the seventy-third flower show of the League, 
May 3-5, marked the establishment of a 
permanent nature exhibition room, set aside 
by the American Museum especially for this 
purpose. A detailed account of the begin- 
ning of the Nature League was published in 
Natural History, Vol. XX, pp. 264-276. 

Through the efforts of directors and friends 
of the League, a wealth of blossoms and plants 
were contributed for the flower show. Daffo- 
dils, jonquils, pansies, roses, snap-dragons, 
cacti and other interesting plants from Cali- 
fornia, Calceolarias, Magnolia, and Schizan- 
thus were among the striking cultivated 
flowers; and wild violets, hepatica, trilUum, 
jack-in-the-pulpits gave a delightful touch 
of the real out-of-doors. A prize was offered 
by the League for the best exhibit prepared 
by a public school, and this was won by P. S. 
93, Amsterdam Avenue and 93d Street. The 
winning exhibit, entitled "Lincoln Camp," 
represented a woodland scene: a log cabin 



NOTES 



191 



surrouiulcil by trees in which uiitKiturc 
birds perched, rocks with a bro\\^l bear climbing 
over them, bushes which half-concealed a 
small deer, ferns in which a rabbit played, 
a mossy pond in whose waters wild ducks were 
swimininj;'. 

At the formal opening of the Nature Room 
Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn, Honorary 
President of the League, paid tribute to the 
work of that organization and to its founder, 
Mrs. Alice Rich Northrop, and introduced its 
president Mrs. William C. Popper. After a 
brief address by Mrs. Popper, the children 
of P. S. No. 15, of which Miss Margaret Knox 
is principal, presented a si)ring pageant which 
was thoroughly enjoyed by an enthusiastic 
audience, and which reflected much credit to 
the children and to their teachers. 

Interested friends are cordially invited to 
visit the School Nature League Room on the 
second floor of the School Service Building, 
to learn what is actually being done to develop 
knowledge and love of nature among the 
school children of New York City. 

Natural History is hoping to publish in a 
later issue a more extensive article about the 
work of the League. 

The Canadian Government Motion 
Picture Bureau and the Natural Re- 
sources Intelligence Service Depart- 
ment have made the American Museum of 
Natural History the depository for ten 
reels of motion pictures and several lecture 
sets of lantern slides. These cover the 
industries, agriculture, and scenic beauties of 
the Dominion and will be circulated without 
charge among the public schools of New York 
City as are the other motion pictures and slides 
in the Museum's Visual Instruction Librarj-. 
The fLhns and shdes now available are: 

Motion Picture Films 

Apples of Annapolis 1 Reel 

City of Loyalists 1 Reel 

Digging up the Past 1 Reel 

Harvest of the Sugar Maple Tree 1 Reel 

jNIoney-making Industry 1 Reel 

Mountaineering Memories 1 Reel 

Salmon Fishing on Restigouche River 1 Reel 

Story of a Can of Salmon 1 Reel 

Through the Norway of America. . . 1 Reel 
Where Beauty Dwells 1 Reel 

Slides 

Set 63 — Xewer Commercial Canada 
Set 64 — Canada — Coast to Coast 
Set 65 — Manufacture of Pulp and Paper 
Set 66 — The Canoe in Canada 

Teachers desiring the use of these new 
materials in visuaUzing to their classes the 
natural and industrial resources of Canada or 
the geographical features of the Dominion 



can ()l)taui tliem upon a|)plication to Mr. 
George H. Sherwood, curator-in-chief, de- 
partment of pubUc education, .\incrican Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 

APPEAL FOR BACK NUMBERS 
"OF NATURAL HISTORY" 
The Library of the American Museum 
receives frequent requests for complete files 
of NATURAf. History which it is no longer 
able to furnish. Should any subscriber care 
to donate copies of earlier issues, the gift will 
be very much appreciated, and postage will 
be refunded to the donor. Address the 
Librarian, American Museum of Natural 
History. 

NEW MEMBERS 
Since the last issue of Natural History, 
the following persons have been elected 
members of the American Museum, making 
the total membership 9505. 

Associate Founder 
Mr. William J. Morden. 

Associate Benefactor 
Mr. Julius F. Stone. 

Felloios 
Mrs. James B. Clemens. 
Mr. Walter P. Chrysler. 

Life Members 
Mrs. Sarah C. W. Hoppin. 
Miss Cynthia Church. 
Mr. J. Ernest Williamson. 

Sustaining Members 
Mesdames: S. Durlacher, F. W. Sexff. 
Messrs. William V. Creighton, Roland L. 
DeHaan, Charles M. Fair, Arnold Gott- 
lieb, F. E. Hagemeyer. 

Annual Members 
Mothers: Mary Elizabeth and M. Theodore. 
Doctor: Carrie Weaver Smith. 

Mesdames: James I. Barr, H. F. Bray, 
Bhima Burton, William E. Carlin, Robert 
D. Coombs, Leo S. DePinna, Franklin 
Edson, Maximalian Elser, Jr., Henry 
Evans, Roy K. Ferguson, A. L. Green, 
George Morton Grinnell, Charles A. 
Hengerer, Lena Hessberg, I. F. Landay, 
IsiDOR Lazarus, Frederick G. LeRoy, Ann 
Lincoln, John C. Minor, Marcus Rotten- 
berg, Paul Sheldon, Elizabeth E. Sim- 
mons, E. M. Treman, John Winkin. 



192 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Misses: Louise Auchinx'Loss, Hester Bax- 
CROFT, Grace C. Bower, Minerva Dicker- 
man, Madeleine I. Dinsmore, Elizabeth 
Fulton, Sarah D. Gardiner, Edith M. 
Hadley, Laura Jacobsen, Harriette 
Melissa Mills, Alice L. Seixas, Deli\ A. 
Stebbins, Rosalind Wood. 

Doctors: V. M. Cady, Edward L. Dill.man, 
W. W. Morrison, Thomas W. Salmon, 
Henry James Spencer, Walter F. Stillger, 
Kenneth B. Turner, Solomon Wiener. 
Messrs: J. Chas. Andrews, B. J. Barry, Ar- 
thur D. Berliss, Wm. H. Brevoort, Jr., Wm. 
G. Brooks, Gilbert G. Browne, Charles 
M. Cannon, Irvin S. Cobb, Sigmund Cohn, 
Dudley M. Cooper, William W. Coriell, 
Peter Donchian, Charles J. Dunlap 
Walter G. Dyer, P. J. Eder, Harry Eising, 
Bennett Ellison, Irving M. Engel, Samuel 
F. Engs, Wm. W. Evans, Marco Fleish- 
man, Walter Frank, George A. Fuller. 
J. L. Goldsmith, Jerome D. Greene, Louis 
Guenther, Robert T. Hatt, Sidney P. 
Hessel, John W. Hession, Paul B. Hoeber, 
Frederick Hoff, John Young Hunter, 
R. C. KJERR, Albert M. Lee, Duncan MacD 
Little, C. Lobo, Lorens Logan, John S. 
McBride, W. Frank McCourt, Edward 
Ree\^ Merritt, Edward A. Norman, 
Henry Osthoff, Jr., Jesse Perrow, Robert 
W. Prosser, F. M. Rosenfeld, Victor H. 
Stempf, Sereno Stetson, Henry E. Stub- 
ing, Frank M. T.a.ylor, W.\lter W. Taylor, 
Myer L. Victorius. 

Associate Members 
Doctor: Louise Fillman 

Mesdames: Francis Alger, Sr., John Car- 
rol Blackman, Eileen S. Grubb, Cora 
E. Kranebell, Oscar F. Long, L.\urel 



Peters, Ed Sewell, Eva A. Southwick. 

Misses: Dorothy Amann, Grace C. Arm- 
strong, Frances L. Bell, Catherine 
Compton, Ruth E. Conklin, Dorothy 
Gundelach, Gr.^ce Ware Holbrook, 
Caroline I. Jameson, Wilhelmina P. 
Stephan, Joan Trevelyan. 

Professors: Floyd C. F.\irb.\nks, P. W. 
Fattig, M. C. Findlay, G.aetano Rovereto. 

Doctors: Donald C. Barton, Raymond 
Voorhees Brokaw, C.\rl H. Bryant, 
Amos W. Butler, George R. Cowgill, E. 
Davenport, Nelson C. Davis, George S. 
Duncan, Charles A. Elliott, Charles 
Russell Ely, E. G. Feusse, F. C. Howard, 
Theophilus S. Painter, V. A. Reed, C. J. 
van der Horst. 

Colonel: .John R. Fordyce. 
Captain: L. W. Curtis, U. S. N. 

Messrs: Richard A. Addison, Hugh E. 
Allen, Leo Balzereit, Jr., John L. Beal, 
Edw. L. Cau^i, John S. Charleson, Will 
L. Clark, James Culbertson, Peter de 
Fremery, Ira Edwards, M. H. Eisenhart, 
Frank Haberl, Sr., Nels Hanson, T. 
PiERREPONT Hazard, Geo. H. Himes, 
George W. Hunter, John F. Johnson, 
Clifton Kamnetz, H.arold Kohler, G. 
Douglas ICrumbhaar, Henry J. Lalley, 
Ike Lanier, William A. Linn, J.ameS 
McCoRMicK, Jr., John E. Meals, J. N. 
Onial, Charles W. Parmelee, Oscar E. 
RoESELER, R. T. Ro.mine, J. Br.adley 
Scott, R. Eliot Stauffer, Frederic H. 
Taber, G. M. W. Teyen, Robert P. Turner, 
Albert Erasmus, Lambrechts vanWyk, 
Monroe B. Wetmore. 

Master: Donald Pechman. 



THE SOUTHWEST NUMBER 

MAY-JUNE 

The Maj'-June Number of Natural History will be devoted principally to the 

archseolog}' of the southwestern United States. It will include a paper by Clark Wissler on 
the Aztec Ruin National Monument, and one by A. V. Kidder on the Caiion del Muerto 
e.xcavations. 

There will be a discussion by A. M. Tozzer on American arch* ology, with special reference 
to the chronological aspects of archaeology in the Southwest and Middle-America. 

Discoveries shedding new light on the antiquity of man in America are dealt with in articles 
b}' J. D. Figgins and Harold Cook, and Earl Morris writes about an aboriginal salt mine at 
Camp Verde, Arizona. 

"North to 88 and the First Crossing of the Polar Sea" is contributed by Lincoln Ellsworth. 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED IN 1869 



George F. Bakeu, First Vice-Presidont 

J. P. Morgan, Second Vice-President 

James H. Perkins, Treasurer 

Percy R. Pyne, Secretary 

George F. Baker, Jr. 

George T. Bowdoin 

Frederick F. Brewster 

Douglas Burden 

Frederick Trubee Davison 

Cleveland Earl Dodge 

Childs Frick 

Madison Grant 

Chauncey J. Hamlin 



Board of Trustees 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, President 



Clarence L. Hay 
Oliver G. Jennings 
Archer M. Huntington 
RoswELL Miller 
Ogden Mills 

Junius Spencer Morgan, Jr. 
A. Perry Osborn 
Danlel E. Pomeroy 
George D. Pratt 
A. Hamilton Rice 
Kermit Roosevelt 
Leonard C. Sanford 
William K. Vanderbilt 



Felix M. Warburg 

James J. Walker, Mayor of the City of New York 

Charles W. Berry, Comptroller of the City of New York 

Walter R. Herrick, Commissioner of the Department of Parks 



MEMBERSHIP MORE THAN NINE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED 

For the enrichment of its collections, for the support of its explorations and scientific research, 
and for the maintenance of its pubhcations, the American Museum of Natural History is de- 
pendent wholly upon membership fees and the generosity of friends. More than 9000 members 
are now enrolled who are thus supporting the work of the Museum. The various classes of 
membership are: 

Associate Member (nonresident) * annually $3 

Annual Member annually $10 

Sustaining Member annually $25 

Life Member $200 

Fellow ' $500 

Patron $1,000 

Associate Benefactor $10,000 

Associate Founder $25,000 

Benefactor $50,000 

Endo-mnent Member $100,000 

♦Persons residing fifty miles or more from New York City 

Subscriptions by check and inquiries regarding membership should be addressed: James H. 
Perkins, Treasurer, American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 



FREE TO MEMBERS 

NATURAL HISTORY: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

Natural History, published bimonthly by the Museum, is sent to all classes of members 
as one of their privileges. Through Natural History they are kept in touch with the activi- 
ties of the Museum and with the marvels of nature as they are revealed by study and explora- 
tion in various regions of the globe. 

AUTUMN AND SPRING COURSES OF POPULAR LECTURES 
Series of illustrated lectures, held in the Auditorium of the Museum on alternate Thursday 

evenings in the fall and spring of the year, are open only to members and to those holding tickets 

given them by members. 

Illustrated stories for the children of members are presented on alternate Saturday mornings 

in the fall and in the spring. 

MEMBERS' CLUB ROOM AND GUIDE SERVICE 
A room on the third floor of the Museum, equipped with every convenience for rest, reading, 
and correspondence, is set apart during Museum hours for the exclusive use of members. When 
visiting the Museum, members are also privileged to avail themselves of the services of an 
instructor for guidance. 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY has a record of fifty-seven years 
of public service during which its activities have grown and broadened, until today it occupies 
a position of recognized importance not only in the community it immediately serves but in 
the educational Ufe of the nation and in the progress of civilization throughout the world. 

Every year brings e\'idence — in the growth of the Museum membership, in the ever-larger 
number of individuals visiting its exhibits for study and recreation, in the rapidly expanding 
activities of its school service, in the wealth of scientific information gathered by its world-wide 
expeditions and disseminated through its publications — of the increasing influence exercised by 
the institution. In 1926 no fewer than 2,070,265 individuals visited the Museum as com- 
pared with 1,775,890 in 1925 and 1,633,843 in 1924. All of these people had access to the 
exhibition halls without the payment of any admission fee whatsoever. 

The EXPEDITIONS of thelMuseum for 1926, 33 in number, have resulted in splendid 
collections from all parts of the world. Among the notable achievements in Asia are the 
Morden-Clark series of Oiis poli, ibexes, antelopes, etc. from the remote regions of Russian and 
Chinese Tui-kestan, the herpetological survey of the Central Asiatic Expedition by Mr. 
Clifford Pope in the Min River Valley from sea level at Foochow to the heights of the Fukien- 
Kiangsi divide, and in India the Verna3^-Faunthrop collection of mammals, in Africa the con- 
tinuation of "Sir. and Mrs. Martin Johnson's photographic records of African wild life, and the 
incomparable work of Carl E. Akeley on the Eastman-Pomeroy Expedition in Kenya and 
Tanganyika; in Polynesia, the'continuation of the survey of bird Hfe by the Whitney South Sea 
Expedition; in the Dutch East Indies, Douglas Burden's collection of giant dragon lizards; 
in North America, the valuable collection of narwhal and other sea life secured by the American 
M\aseiim Greenland Expedition; in the Bahamas, Dr. Roy Miner's expedition for corals and 
rare fishes for the new Hall of Ocean Life; in the vicinity of New York City, Dr. Chester Reed's 
field observations on the glacial clays of the Hudson and Hackensack valleys; in Arizona, 
continuation of the archaeological explorations at two important sites; in Hudson Bay, birds 
collected by the Rockefeller Expedition; and in South America, collections of mammals from 
Peru, Argentina, and BoHvia by Mr. G. H. H. Tate. 

The SCHOOL SERVICE of the JSIuseum reaches annually about 6,000,000 boys and girls 
through the opportunities it affords classes of students to visit the Museum; through lectures 
on natural history especially designed for pupils and deUvered both in the ^Museum and in 
many school centers; through its loan collections, or "traveling museums," which during the 
past year circulated among 443 schools, and were studied by 765,790 pupils. During the 
same period 808,789 lantern slides were lent by the Museum for use in the schools, the total 
number of children reached being 4,358,423. a total of 2,057 reels of motion pictures were lent 
oaned to 91 public schools and other educational institutions in Greater New York, 
reaching 530,955 children. 

The LECTURE COURSES, some exclusively for member? and their children, others for the 
schools, colleges, and the general pulilic, are delivered both in the Museum and at outside 
educational institutions. 

The LIBRARY, comprising 100,000 volumes, is at the service of scientific workers and 
others interested in natural historj^, and an attractive reading room is provided for their 
accommodation. 

The POPULAR PUBLICATIONS of the Museum, in addition to Natural Hlstory, 
include Handbooks, which deal with the subjects illustrated by the collections, and Guide 
Leaflets, which describe some exhibit or series of exhibits of special interest or importance, or 
the contents of some hall or some branch of Museum activity. 

The SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS of the Museum, based upon its explorations and the 
study of its collections, comprise the Memoirs, of quarto size, devoted to monographs requiring 
large or fine illustrations and exhaustive treatment; the BuUetin, issued since 1881, in octavo 
form, dealing with the scientific activities of the departments, a.side from anthropology; the 
Anthropological Papers, recording the w^ork of the staff of the department of anthropology; 
and Novitates, devoted to the publication of preliminary scientific announcements, descriptions 
of new forms, and similar matters. 

For a detailed list of popular and scientific publications with prices apply to: 

The Librarian, American Museum of Natural History 

New York City 



Vol. XXVII 



MAY-J U N E, 1927 




*«»»iT5lit^|| 



I MUSEUM D 

i EXPLORATION 



■•1^ 



ISIURy I 



TIG? 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



Scientific Staff for 1927 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., Preaitlent 

George II. Sherwood, A.M., Director and Executive Secretary 

Frederic A. Lucas, Sc.D., Honorary Director 

Wayne M. Faunce, Sc.H., A.isistaiit to the Director and Assistant Secretary 

James L. Clark, Assistant Director, Preparation 



I. DIVISION OF MINERALOGY, GEOLOGY, 
GEOGRAPHY, AND ASTRONOMY 
\ViLLi\M DiLLEU Mattuew, Ph.D., F.R.S., Curator-in- 
Chief 

Aslronomy 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., In Charge 

Minerals and Gems 

Herbert P. Whitlock, C.E., Curator 
George F. Kunz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Gems 
Lea McIlvaine Luquer, Ph.D., Research Associate in 
Optical Mineralogy 

History of the Earth 
W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., F.R.S., Curator-in-Chief 

Fossil Vertel)rates 

W. D. Matthew, Ph.D., Curator of Geology and Pate- 
ontology 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, Honorary 

Curator 
Walter Granger, Curator of Fossil Mammals 
Barndm Brown, A.B., Curator of Fossil Reptiles 
Chables C. Mock, Ph.D., Associate in Palaeontology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Research Associate in Palse- 

ontology 
Childs Frick, B.S., Research Associate in Palaeontology 

Fossil Invertebrates 
Chester A. Reeds, Ph.D., Curator 



II. 



DIVISION OF ZOOLOGY, AND ZOO- 
GEOGRAPHY 



Frank Michler Chapman, Sc.D., N.A.S., Curator-in- 
Chief 

Marine Life 
Rot Waldo Miner, Ph.D., Sc.D., Curator 
Willabd G. Van Name, Ph.D., Associate Curator 
Frank J. Myers, B.A., Research Associate in Rotifera 
HoBACE W. Stunkabd, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Parasitology 
.A. L. Treadwell, Ph.D., Research Associate in Annulata 

Insect Ldfe 

Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Curator 
A. J. Mutchler, Associate Curator of Coleoptera 
Frank E. Watson, B.S., Assistant in Lepidoptera 
William M. Wheeler, Ph.D., Research Associate in Social 

Insects 
Charles W. Lenq, B.S., Research Associate in Coleoptera 
Herbert F. Schwarz, A.M., Research Associate in 

Hymenoptera 

Fishes 

William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 

Bashford Dean, Ph.D., Honorary Curator 

John T. Nichols, A.B., Associate Curator of Recent 

Fishes 
E. W. GuDGEB, Ph. D., Bibliographer and Associate 
Charles H. Townsend, Sc.D., Research Associate 
C. M. Breder, Jr., Research Associate 
Van Campbn Heilner, F.R.G.S., Field Representative 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
G. KiNGSLEY Noble, Ph. D., Curator 
Clifford H. Pope, B.A., Assistant [Central Asiatic 

Expeditions] 
Bertram G. Smith, Ph.D., Research Associate 
A. B. Dawson, Ph.D., Research Associate 

Birds 
Frank M. Chapman, Sc.D., Curator-in-Chief 
Robert Cushman Murphy, D.Sc, Curator of Oceanic 

Birds 
W. DeW. Miller, Associate Curator 
James P. Chapin, Ph.D., Associate Curator of Birds of the 

Eastern Hemisphere 



Birds (continued) 
Ludlow Grisco.m, A.M., Assistant Curator 
Jonathan Dwight, M.D., Research Associate in North 

American Ornithology 
Elsie M. B. Naumberg, Research Associate 

Mammals of the World 
H. E. Anthony, M.A., Curator 
George G. Goodwin, Assistant 
Frederic A. Lucas, Sc.D., Research Associate 

Comparative and Human Anatomy 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 
S. H. Chubb, Associate Curator 
H. C. Raven, Associate Curator 
J. Howard McGreuok, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Human .\natomy 
Dudley J. Morton, M.D„ Research Associate 

III. DIVISION OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 

Science of Man 
Cl,\rk Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 
Pliny E. Goddard, Ph.D., Curator of Ethnology 
N. C. Nelson, M.L., Associate Curator of Archaeology 
Charles W. Mead, Honorary Curator of Peruvian 

Archaeology 
Harry L. Shapiro, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Physical 

Anthropology 
Margaret Mead, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Ethnology 
George C, Vaill.\nt, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Mex- 
ican Archffiology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Associate in Physical 

Anthropology 
Clarence L. Hay, A.M., Research Associate in Mexican 

and Central American Archaeology 
MiLO Hellman, D.D.S., Research Associate in Physical 
Anthropology 

IV. DIVISION OF ASIATIC EXPLORATION 
AND RESEARCH 

Roy C. Andrews, D.Sc, Curator-in-Chief 

Walter Granger, Curator in Palaeontology 

Charles P. Berkby, Ph.D. [Columbia University], Re- 
search Associate in Geology 

Frederick K. Morris, A.M. [Central Asiatic Expeditions], 
Associate in Geology and Geography 

Amadeus W. Grabau, S.D. [Geological Survey of China], 
Research Associate 

V. DIVISION OF EDUCATION AND 
PUBLICATION 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 

Library and Publications 
Ida Richardson Hood, A.B., Acting Curator 
Hazel Gay, Assistant Librarian 

Jannette May Lucas, B.S., Assistant Librarian — Osborn 
Library 

Education and Public Health 
George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., Curator of Visual In- 
struction 
Grace Fisher Ramsey, Associate Curator 
William H. Carr, Assistant Curator 
Nancy True, A.B., Assistant 
Paul B. Mann, A.M., Associate in Education 
Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Outdoor 
Education 

Charles-Edward Amory Winslow, D.P.H., Honorary 

Curator of Public Health 
Mary Greig, A.B., Assistant Curator of Public Health 

Public Information 
George N. Pindar, Chairman 
George H. Sherwood, A.M. 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D. 
Wayne M. Faunce, Sc.B. 
Clark Wissler, Ph.D. 



Natural History Magazine and Advisory Committee 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Chairman 

Departmental Editors 

A. Katherine Berger, Assistant Editor 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D. Frank M. Chapman, Sc.D. 

W. D. Matthew, Ph.D. Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D. 

George N. Pindar 



NATURAL 
I 






D 



THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 



DEVOTED TO NATURAL HISTORY 
EXPLORATION. AND THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 
THROUGH THE MUSEUM 




SOUTHWEST NUMBER 

CLARENCE L. HAY. EDITOR 



MAY-JUNE, 1927 

[Published July, 1927] 

Volume XXVII, Number 3 

Copyright, 1927 by the American Museum of Natural History. New York, N. Y 



ATURAL HIST 

Volume XXVI I CONTENTS FOR MAY- JUNE Number 3 



Cover: "White House." Canon de Chelly, ^^rizona 

From a photosrapli taken during the Ogden Mills Areha'ological Survey of the Southwest 

Frontispiece: Mountains of the Sun, Zion Canon facing 195 

Painted by Howard Russell Butler, N.A., at the invitation of the Union Pacific Railroad 

The Aztec Ruin National Monument Cla.rk Wissler 195 

The exploration and preservation of this monument was made possible through the generosity of 
Mr. Archer M. Huntington 

The Museum's Expeditions to Canon de Chelly and Canon del Muerto. 

Arizona A. V. Kidder 202 

Reading the silent record of the most interesting of native American cultures from 1000 B.C. to 
the present day 

Time and American Archaeology A. M. Tozzer 210 

Chronological aspects of archaeology in the Southwest and Middle America, with examples of 
Me.xican and Maya art 

An Anthropologist among the Navaho Beatrice Blackwood 222 

Experiences of an English scientist studying the physique of Navaho women 

The Antiquity of Man in America J. D. Figgins 229 

Describing and illustrating objects of human manufacture recently found associated with Pleisto- 
cene fauna in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico 

New Geological and Palseontological Evidence Bearing on the Antiquity 

of Mankind in America Harold Cook 240 

A general outline of the discoveries described in the preceding article, and the geological and 
palseontological evidence supporting them 

The Fifth Bernheimer Expedition to the Southwest 

Charles L. Bernheimer 248 

Describing the discovery of Hawkseye Bridge in Southern Utah 

Indian Music from the Southwest Helen H. Roberts 257 

Seven songs from a little-known field 

Primitive Surgery H. L. Shapiro 266 

First evidence of trephining in the Southwest 

Hydras as Enemies of Young Fishes E. W. Gudger 270 

An exposition of the complicated mechanism with which the hydra traps, "electrocutes," and 
engulfs his prey 

North to 88 and the First Crossing of the Polar Sea . . Lincoln Ellsworth 275 

The famous flight of the " Norge" from Spitzbergen across the Pole to Alaska 

Charles Sprague Sargent (1841-1927) Frederic A. Lucas 290 

Commemorating the First Crossing of the Polar Sea 292 

Presentation of medals to Captain Roald Amundsen and Lincoln Ellsworth by the American 
Scenic and Historic Preservation Society and the American Museum of Natural History 

Notes 293 



Published bimonthly, by the American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y. Subscription price S3.00 
a year. 

Subscriptions should be addressed to James H. Perkins, Treasurer, American Museum of Natural History, 
77th Street and Central Park West, New York City. 

Natur.^l History is sent to all members of the American Museum as one of the privileges of membership. 

Entered as second-class matter April 3, 1919, at the Post Office at New York, New York, under the Act of 
August 24, 1912. 

Acceptance for mailing at special rate of postage provided for in Section 1 103, Act of October 3, 1917, authorized 
on July 15, 1918. 




o 
< 

o 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Volume XXVII 



MAY-JUNE, 1927 



Number 3 



The Aztec Ruin National Monument 



BY CLARK WlSSLEll 

Cunitoi-iii-Cliief, Departtuont of Anthropology, Aiueiicaii Museutn 



WHEN iiuiseunis were young 
and our country still had a 
frontier, the archaeologist 
roamed at will. When he went collect- 
ing, he dug up graves, leveled down 
mounds, and toppled over ruins, bring- 
ing away whatever interested him. 
Unfortunately, he thereby destroyed 
these relics of the past, so that no one 
could study them again. But, in the 
course of years, the collector himself 
began to be appalled at the trail of 
destruction his digging left behind. 
So it is not strange that a new con- 
science was created and that today an 
archaeologist must be a conservationist 
as well as an explorer ; as far as possible 
he must leave things as he found them, 
bringing away with him only such ob- 
jects as may not safely be left behind. 
In our great Southwest, where are 
many hundred prehistoric ruins, it is 
now expected that the explorer not 
only leave the walls standing as he 
found them, but prop or otherwise re- 
inforce such as are in danger of falling. 
Some years ago, the Government 
declared a policy of exempting from 
settlement all tracts bearing interesting 
ruins and designating them as National 
Monuments, that these precious relics 
of a past age be preserved for the en- 
jojanent of the traveler and student. 

In 1909 Mr. Archer M. Huntington 
proposed that the Museum undertake 
an archaeological survey of the South- 
west. Accordingly, the writer de- 
veloped a plan for the work, secured an 



adequate field staff, and inaugurated 
the explorations which proceeded with- 
out interruption until 1921. In the 
course of these explorations, Mr. 
Earl H. Morris, well known to readers 
of Natural History through his in- 
teresting articles upon the ruins of our 
Southwest, joined our field staff and 
was attached first to Curator Nelson's 
party. Together Nelson and Morris 
examined a large ruin near the little 
town of Aztec, in the far away north- 
west corner of New Mexico, and at the 
end of the season, upon the return of 
the party to the Museum, Nelson 
strongly recommended the systematic 
excavation of this ruin. It is interesting 
to note that Morris grew up in the 
Southwest, among its deserts and be- 
side its ruins. While yet a mere boy 
he began to explore these relics of the 
ancients and soon he looked upon an 
archaeological career as his life objec- 
tive. Living near this great ruin at 
Aztec, he dreamed of some day excavat- 
ing it. However, at that time the farm 
lands surrounding this ruin were owned 
by John R. Koontz, a man of unusual 
vision, who permitted no one to tres- 
pass upon the ruin. In his declining 
years he sold these lands to H. D. 
Abrams, who even more than his prede- 
cessor reahzed the scenic and scien- 
tific value of the ruin. When, following 
Nelson's suggestion, the writer ap- 
proached Mr. Abrams for permission to 
excavate the ruin, Mr. Abrams made it 
clear that unless the Museum would 

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200 



NATURAL HISTORY 



guarantee to cap the standing walls 
with cement and otherwise leave the 
ruin as a permanent exhibit, he would 
not grant the request. And he went 



Mr. Abrams that the future of the ruin 
devolved upon its passing into the 
hands of the Museum or some other 
suitable agency, and in 1920 Mr. 



The Aztec Ruin National Monument and the Proposed Addition 
The Museum's field station occupies the 
plot on the left of the National Monument. 
The large plot on the right has been purchased 

by the Museum and tendered to the United (T^^ ' "^ / ^-^ O 

States of America as an addition to the 
National Monument. On the plot, .\ to F are 
unexplored ruins; G, the Aztec Ruin, form- 
erly owned and excavated by the Museum; 
H, the Museum's field headquarters 










further, for he stipulated that a part of 
the collection resulting from the excava- 
tions was to remain for deposit in a 
future museum at the ruin. 

This high-minded attitude on the 
part of Mr. Abrams appealed to Mr. 
Huntington and plans were developed 
to carry out our explorations in full 
accord with the owner's ideal. Work 
began in 1916 with Earl. H. Morris in 
charge and continued through to 1922. 
As our explorations progressed, it 
became clear to Mr. Huntington and to 



Huntington, purchased, in the name of 
the Museum, the plot of land upon 
which the ruin stands. During our 
operations at the ruin Morris Uved in a 
small house erected as our field head- 
quarters, which was now replaced by a 
small stone structure adjacent to the 
ruin, but on the Museum's property. 
Later, for the better protection of the 
ruin, Mr. Huntington presented it to 
the United States Government and 
President Warren G. Harding pro- 
claimed it a National Monument in 



THE AZTEC RUIN NATIONAL MONUMENT 



201 



January, 1923. However, that portion 
of the property bearing our field head- 
quarters was retained by the Museum 
and here Morris still resides, keeping 
close watch over this great archaeologi- 
cal treasure. 

Now we come to the final chapter in 
this story. The Aztec Ruin is but one 
of a group, no doubt once a prehistoric 
city, since close by are six other ruins, 
not to mention others scattered about 
at slightly greater distances. As time 
went on, the desirability of adding 
these six closely associated ruins to the 
National Monument became clear, and 
accordingly^ negotiations were entered 
into with Mr.Abrams for their pur- 
chase. Unfortunately, Mr. Abrams 
died before these negotiations were 
completed, but from his heirs the Mu- 
seum purchased this additional plot 
and will eventually present it to the 
United States Government as an en- 
largement of the Aztec Ruin National 
Monument.^ 

Thus, by this act of conservation the 



preservation of this unique group of 
ruins is assured, and Mr. Huntington's 
great contribution to archaeology 
brought to full completion. It is 
expected that, in the near future, ex- 
cavations will be made among the six 
ruins in this new addition, several of 
which promise well: for example, (see 
D on plan, p. 200) the circular structure 
with a central room, surrounded by 
three successive bands of rooms ; nothing 
just like this has been found in all the 
Southwest before. The previous exca- 
vations of Earl H. Morris in the main 
ruin brought to light much new evidence 
as to how these ancients lived ; also they 
enriched the Museum by many unique 
objects, the most important of which are 
now on exhibit in our hall for the South- 
west But the best exhibit is the un- 
covered ruin itself, for everyone who 
takes an automobile trip to the West 
can now visit it, walk through its 
vacant rooms, descend into the myste- 
rious kivas, and thus acquire an insight 
into the prehistory of our country. 



'On June 8, 1927, the Trustees of the American Museum of Natural History adopted a resolution transferring 
the ruins at Aztec, New Mexico, to form part of the Aztec Ruin National Monument previously presented 
through the generosity of Mr. Archer M. Huntington. 






ft 

Wit 




.^:^^-lS****-xv^ - 



s^sBmam^t^l^em^Mim^rma 



,,^.,1^ 



THE MONUMENTS 
Two natural rock pillars on the sides of Canon de Chelly, on the waj- to the site where the 
excavations of last season were carried on. Canons de Chelly and Del Aluerto rise in the 
Chuska mountain range near the Arizona line and converge on the Arizona side, so that their 
mouths are about side bv side 



202 



The Museum's Expeditions to Caifion de Chelly 
and Canon del Muerto, Arizona' 

By a. V. KIDDER 

Cliaiiiiiiiii of Division of Anthropology and PsycholoKy, National Research Council, Wa.shinxton, 
and Director of Southwestern Research, Phillips Academy, Andover 

Note. — The unique collections and scientific results announced in this article pertain 
to the Ogden Mills Art^hteological Survey of the Southwest. After the discovery in 1923 of 
rich materials in Mummy Cave, as described in the text, a survey of the whole locality was 
requested by Mr. Mills. The Museum's archaeologist, Earl H. Morris, directed the excava- 
tions from the beginning, and though in 1924 he resigned from the Museum staff to join the 
Carnegie Institution in Washington, he still finds time to supervise the Museum's work on 
this project. 



EVERYONE realizes nowadays 
that the story of mankind 
stretches back over a period 
much longer than was reckoned by the 
scholars of a former generation; but 
few people, I think, fully appreciate 
either the vastness of man's antiquity, 
or the shortness and the pitiful in- 
completeness of the written record. 
These facts, however, are brought home 
to the archaeologist with insistent force, 
because upon his shoulders rests the 
task of piecing together the history of 
man through a stretch of time so long 
that the period covered by the oldest 
books seems but an eye wink. And the 
materials with which he has to work 
are so rare, so fragmentary, and so 
difficult to interpret, that, when in some 
favored region he comes upon remains 
which are not only abundant and well 
preserved, but best of all, are histori- 
cally significant, it is but natural that 
he should feel repaid for long years of 
seemingly barren effort. 

Such a happy hunting ground for the 
archaeologist is to be found in the north- 
eastern part of Arizona, particularly in 
the twin gorges Canon de Chelly and 
Canon del Muerto. In these canons 
men lived for uncounted centuries, — 
lived there first as almost savage 



nomads, developed there the germ of a 
sedentary farming culture; added to 
that culture materials and inventions 
which brought them to a high state of 
comfort and well-being, — brought them, 
indeed, to the very threshold of what we 
term civilization. And finally they dis- 
appeared, driven from their age-old 
strongholds by some savage enemy, per- 
haps the ancestors of the very Navahos 
who occupy the country today. 

During the two thousand years or 
more that the ancient people lived in de 
Chelly and del Muerto, they clung to 
the caves, — first, no doubt, for shelter 
against the elements, and later for 
protection against marauding enemies. 
Hence the relics of generation after 
generation: ruined houses, refuse- 
middens, graves, guarded from rain by 
the overhanging cliffs, and kept from 
decay by the dry air of Arizona, lie 
piled upon each other in the caverns, 
the earliest at the bottom, the later 
above, in such a way that the student, 
digging downward, can read backward 
the silent record, and reconstruct stage 
by stage the slow growth of perhaps the 
most interesting of native American 
cultures. 

Aside from their archaeological in- 
terest, de Chelly and del Muerto are 



'Photographs taken by A. V, Kidder and Earl H. Morris, during the Ogden Mills Archseological Survey of the 
Southwest. 

203 



204 



NATURAL HISTORY 



scenically outstanding in a country of 
extraordinary canons. Heading in the 
Chuska mountain range, they cleave 
their tortuous way through a formation 
of red and yellow and gray sandstones, 
their cliffs rising sheer from narrow, 
sandy beds, to vertical heights of six 
and seven hundred feet; and, where 
side gulches break in, erosion has run 
riot in dome and pinnacle and high- 
perched natural bridge. 

Today the canons are occupied by 
Navaho families who tend little peach 
orchards, and cultivate patches of corn 
in the sheltered bays of the chffs. 
Still semi-nomadic, the Navaho of a 
half century ago were almost profes- 
sional marauders, who periodically 
raided the peaceful Pueblo towns, and 
the little Mexican settlements to the 
south. It was a reprisal for one of these 
raids that gave del Muerto, the Canon 
of the Dead, its sinister name, and, 
incidentally, provides us our earliest 
actual date in the history of the canons. 
In the winter of 1804 or 1805, so Mr. 
Morris was told by the Indians, a 



Mexican punitive expedition massacred 
a hundred or more Navaho women, 
children, and old people who had taken 
refuge in a cave while their fighting 
men were away on a raid. Nearly 
fifty years later comes our next glimpse 
of the region, again due to the turbu- 
lence of the Navaho. The Americans, 
having taken over New Mexico in 1846, 
became responsible for the protection of 
the Pueblos and Mexicans, and because 
of a series of harryings by the Navaho, 
an expedition under Colonel Washing- 
ton of the regular army marched from 
Santa Fe across the northwestern 
desert and made treaty with the raiders 
at the mouth of Canon de Chelly. 
Simpson's account, published in 1850, 
gives us our first written record of the 
gorge, and of its finest cliff-dwelling, 
the famous White House. 

The final pacification of the Navaho 
came in the sixties as a result of Kit 
Carson's expedition, memories of which 
and of the temporary captivity of the 
people at Bosque Redondo in the Pecos, 
still linger among the older tribesmen. 




Contents of a burial cave in the walls of Canon del Muerto. The mouth of the cave is 
immediately behind the ledge against which the collections are grouped. Both pottery and 
baskets were found here. Mr. Morris is at the left; Mr. Owens, field assistant, at the right 



CANON DE CHELLY AND CANON DEL MUERTO, ARIZONA 205 




^mrh^:^- 




Upper picture, the White House ruin, Canon de Chelly, as seen from the canon floor. 
Lower picture, a near view of one wing of the White House ruin 

Archaeologists visited de Chelly however, and it remained for the Day 

sporadically from the mid-seventies on, brothers, sons of an Indian trader of 

and in 1897 appeared Mindeleff's Chin Lee, to discover the riches of the 

classic description of its ruins, and those caves, 

of del Muerto. No digging was done. The Day brothers worked for j^ears, 



206 



NATURAL HISTORY 



and amassed a very fine collection of 
mummies, textiles, pottery, and bas- 
ketry, which was purchased by the 
Brooklyn Institute Museum. Then 
came the Antiquities Act of 1906, for- 
bidding unauthorized excavation in 
ruins on Government land, and for near- 
ly twenty years there were no further 
investigations. Everyone thought that 
the Days had thoroughly ransacked the 
sites, and attention was at that time 
chiefly devoted to the great pueblo 
ruins to the east and the newly-dis- 
covered cliff-house country in the 
Navaho mountain district to the north. 

In 1923, however, Charles L. Bern- 
heimer and Earl H Morris visited del 
Muerto while on theMuseum's Third 
Bernheimer Expedition to the South- 
west. In the rubbish-strewn slope be- 
low the great Mummy Cave chff-house, 
they found evidence of extensive 
remains, untouched by looters, and in 
excellent preservation. As a result of 
this discovery, Mr. Morris returned to 
the Canon in the following autumn and 
inaugurated a series of yearly expedi- 
tions which have resulted in acquiring 
for the Museum the finest collection 
of early Southwestern remains in 
existence, and better still, have suc- 
ceeded in throwing a flood of light 
upon several of the least known periods 
of Southwestern history. 

To understand the importance of 
Mr. Morris' finds, it is necessary to 
review, very briefly, the story of human 
development in the Southwest. 

The barren uplands of the San Juan 
country, poor in natural sources of 
vegetable foods and with little game, 
could never have supported a large 
population without the assistance of 
agriculture. Hence, we must suppose 
that for uncounted centuries the region 
was occupied, if indeed people lived 
there at all, by a scattering of roving 



bands living a hand-to-mouth existence. 
No certainh^ identified remains of these 
postulated "first families" have yet 
been found, and our earliest glimpse of 
the tribes of the region is of a people 
who were just emerging from nomad- 
ism. They built, so far as we know, 
nothing in the way of permanent 
houses, but they had learned to grow 
corn, presumably, in a haphazard sort 
of way. They had no pottery, no 
cotton. They did not use the bow and 
arrow, but hunted and fought with 
light stone-tipped lances hurled with 
short wooden spear-throwers. Life, 
apparently, was mostly in the open, but 
they resorted to the caves to store such 
grain as they harvested; and, of most 
interest from the archaeologist's point 
of view, they also buried their dead in 
the caves, accompanied by the finely 
woven baskets which have led to the 
naming of these pioneer farmers the 
Basket Makers. 

How long ago the Basket Makers 
lived we can only guess, but it can 
hardly have been later than 1000 
years before Christ, because their re- 
mains are found covered by the relics 
of four or five succeeding cultures, aU 
of which had passed away long before 
the first white man came to the South- 
west nearly 400 years ago. 

The Basket Makers were a medium- 
sized, long-headed folk, and the next 
culture stage was inaugurated and 
carried on by a people so similar in 
physical type that there is little doubt 
that they were their direct descendants. 
Pottery and crude houses of stone slabs 
were introduced or invented by the 
post-Basket Makers, and these two 
innovations, plus the corn already cul- 
tivated by their predecessors, formed 
the foundation, so to speak, upon which 
the later structure of Pueblo culture 
was built. The post-Basket Maker, 



CANoX DE C/IIiLLY AND CA^JN DEL MUERTO, ARIZONA 207 




Two burials showing pottery and baskets, Canon de Cheliy. In each case the objects 
shown were deposited with the body, presumably as mortuary offerings 

therefore, is perhaps the most interest- people seem to have entered the conn- 
ing and important period in all South- try, a round-headed race presumably, 
western history. although the skulls that are found in 
At this point there comes a serious their graves are so strongly deformed 
thinning out in our knowledge. A new by cradle-board flattening that their 



208 



NATURAL HISTORY 



normal shape is difficult to determine. 
They took over the old culture complete 
and added to it cotton; perhaps they 
were also the first users of the bow and 
arrow. They improved the making of 
pottery and they clustered together to 



during the first millenium of our era, 
and merged gradually into what has 
been called the Great Period, when 
there were erected such enormous 
structures as the Aztec Pueblo and 
Pueblo Bonito, Cliff Palace, and Beta- 




Stencilled figures of hands on the wall of Canon de Chelly near Sliding Rock ruin 



form the earliest pueblo-like settle- 
ments. Horizontally laid stone mason- 
ry for wall-building began to come into 
use and the dwellings gradually 
changed from the older type of pit- 
house to the above-ground structure of 
later times. This was the pre-Pueblo 
Period. 

As population increased the villages 
grew in size, primitive wealth in 
pottery, in beads, and in hoarded corn 
was accumulated, and there arose the 
necessity for defense of that wealth 
against more impecunious neighbors. 
Houses were strengthened and were 
built on mesas, or ledges, and in caves, 
situations not readily subject to sur- 
prise attack. This was the Early 
Pueblo Period; it began, apparently, 



takin. These once flourishing com- 
munities ran their course and were 
abandoned, probably shortly after 
the year 1000; there ensued a time of 
tribulation, a wandering of the peoples, 
and a redistribution which resulted in 
the final settlement of the Pueblo In- 
dians in the towns discovered by 
Coronado in 1540. 

Throughout the thousands of years 
of the history here so scantily sketched, 
Canon del Muerto and Canon de Chelly 
were occupied, and their caves have 
yielded to the shovels of Mr. Morris' 
expeditions facts of inestimable value 
for the reconstruction of that history. 

In 1923 the Museum party started 
work in Mummy Cave, a colossally 
sculptured cavern some ten or twelve 




CENTRAL RUIN TN MUMMY CAVE, CANON DEL MUERTO 
The slide of rubbish to the right, extending down toward the canon floor, yielded the first 
great collection. Here were found woven sandals, baskets, pottery, and other examples of the 
arts and crafts of the earlv canon dwellers in the time of the Post-Basket Makers 




LOOKING UP CANOX DEL MUERTO FROM MUMMY CAVE 
Other ruins and caves were discovered in these canon walls, all of which have added to 
our knowledge of the successive culture periods of our prehistoric Southwest. It was while 
passing through this part of the Canon that Charles L. Bernheimer and Earl H. Morris, return- 
ing from the expedition of 1923, discovered the rich deposits at Mummy Cave 




LOOKING UP CANON DE CHELLY FROM THE RUIN BELOW THE WHITE HOUSE 
The embankment in the foreground and the similar one above were constructed last 
season by the Museum's field party, to prevent the seasonal floods from completing the de- 
struction of the ruin and its valuable rubbish heap. Each year the rising waters have cut 
into the lower ruin, and it is hoped that this dike will so direct the current as to save what 
remains 




»^BiSRSS»«giE;_-_^ 







A WATERFALL IN f'ANON DE CHELLY 
The walls are so high that little more than spray reaches the ground below. The country 
round about is semi-arid because the rain falls only during one brief season, but at such times 
this fall becomes more pretentious, and over the relatively drj^ bed of the canon rushes a 
formidable river 



CANOX DE CIIELLY and CAi^ON del MUERTO, ARIZONA 209 



miles above the mouth of del Aliierto, 
and just below the cave where the 
Navahos wei-c killed by I he Mexicans. 
As is shown in the insei't the back of the 
cave is occupied by cliff-house struc- 
tures. These date from the middle 
and later parts of the Great Period. 
The steep slope below the houses 
was covered with a fanlike talus of 
refuse, the surface layers of which were 
naturall}^ the product of the last years 
of occupancy. 

The excavations in this heap were 
exceedingly prolific. It proved to 
contain many early burials, as well as 
the remains of the crude, slab-walled 
dwellings of the post-Basket Makers. 
The digging was as difficult as such 
work can possibly be. The high- 
arching roof of the cave had kept all 
moisture from the deposits, and dust 
rose so chokingly and so blindingly at 
every touch of the shovel that respira- 
tors and goggles had constantly to be 
worn. Moreover, the whole mass lay 
on a smooth rock declivity at an angle 
of 45° or more, so that it was con- 
stantly slipping and sliding, and the 
danger of serious avalanches was a very 
real one. 

In spite of the discomforts of such 
work, no digging, in the Southwest at 
least, can compare with it in interest. 
For among the trash of straw and twigs 
and corn-husks that make up the body 
of the deposit are literally thousands of 
specimens of perishable nature, never 
found in ancient sites that have been 
exposed to the weather. Sandals, 
featherwork, textiles, basketry, wooden 
implements, forgotten caches of corn, 
worn-out cradles, broken toys; all 
preserved so perfectly, and all carrying 
so vivid a human interest that one 
develops a feeling of intimacy with the 
old people which is not only sentimen- 
tally fascinating, but is archaeologically 
extremely valuable. 



Munnny (,!ave yielded most import- 
ant data as to the Basket Makers, the 
post-Basket Makers, and the pre- 
Pueblos. The greatest finds, however, 
w(>re made late in the first season and 
during the second season at Se-ha-tso, 
the Cave of the Winds, a few miles 
down-canon. 

Se-ha-tso is a long, shallow shelter 
overhung by a tremendous arch of 
cliff and guarded by a thin, winglike 
projection of the canon wall. It 
proved to contain literally hundreds of 
post-Basket Maker houses and storage 
cists and numbers of burials. Of the 
latter Mr. Morris must be allowed to tell . 
It would be wrong for anyone but their 
discoverer to describe the grave of the 
old priest chief, the hoard of brilliant 
medicine feathers, the inexplicable 
burial of the jewelled arms, the mummy 
of the sacred eagle with its shrivelled 
food-offerings. 

Of these things and man}^ more Mr. 
Morris must tell. It will be fascinat- 
ing reading. He must also tell of the 
third year's work at Mummy Cave and 
at Se-ha-tso; and of last autumn's 
excavations at White House, the larg- 
est and finest of the de Chelly cliff- 
dwellings, and of how the wing-dam 
was built to turn away the summer 
floods that had so nearly destroyed the 
lower pueblo. All of this is for him to 
tell. I can only point out, as Mr. 
Morris in his excessive modest}^ will 
certainl}^ not do, that the work was 
admirably conceived and most admir- 
ably executed; that its results, when 
published, will go far toward making 
clear the now very nebulous but his- 
torically exceedingly important post- 
Basket Maker and pre-Pueblo periods; 
and these excavations will materially 
stiffen that chronological backbone 
which Doctor Tozzer in his article 
rightly states to be so necessary to the 
body of American prehistory. 



Time and American Archaeology' 

BY A. M. TOZZER 

Professor of Anthropology, Harvard University 



a metal before the advent of the white 
and the smelting of copper was 



FOR many decades the study of 
American archaeology was in a 
very nebulous state characterized, 
in many cases, by inaccurate observa- 
tion, bold assumptions, and a general 
ignorance of the more scientific ap- 
proach to the subject. These defects 
have, in great part, been remedied by a 
wider vision, a more careful training of 
investigators, more accurate observa- 
tion, and a gradual tendency to place 
archaeology among the more exact 
sciences. 

American archaeology has also suf- 
fered a certain stigma for its failure to 
produce a literature as its handmaiden 
with an accompanying chronology to 
give a certain vigor to its findings. It 
must be admitted that archaeological 
data have an inert quahty, a certain 
spinelessness when unaccompanied by 
a more or less definite chronological 
background. The psychologists may 
be able to tell us why we must have 
dates accompanying objects of antiq- 
uity to make them seem interesting 
and of value, whether these objects 
consist of furniture, a piece of pewter, 
or specimens coming from the graves of 
our early inhabitants. This paper is an 
attempt to give American archaeology 
an internal skeleton and thus to raise 
it to the status of a vertebrate. 

It should be pointed out at once that 
the classification and nomenclature 
applied to European archaeology can- 
not be used for the New World. This 
is not due to the scarcity of the data 
but to the fact that there are no metal 
ages in America. Iron was unknown as 

iThis paper, without illustrations and in a modified form was published in the Proceedings of the Massachu- 
setts Historical Society, Vol. LIX, pp. 283-292. Boston, 1926. 



man- 
not practised except in certain regions 
on the western coast of South America, 
Central America, and parts of Mexico. 
Bronze, the resultant of a deliberate 
attempt at mixing copper and tin, 
was even less widely distributed. 

There are two aspects of chronology 
the first of which is a relative one, self- 
contained, and dissociated with any 
larger aspect of time-relation. In 
northern New England and the mari- 
time provinces of Canada as well as in 
other parts of the eastern United 
States, there are well-defined evidences 
of an earlier and a later pre-Columbian 
occupation, but there are at present no 
means of bringing these different 
cultures into the general background of 
history. 

The second variety of chronology 
and the one that has far more interest 
for us here has to do with definite 
epochs correlated with our own time- 
system, prehistoric passing over to 
the historic. 

In the study of archaeology as a whole 
there are four elements of control; 
geology, palaeontology, stratigraphy, 
and the development of types from 
cruder to more developed forms. 
Geology and palaeontology may be 
disregarded here as the question of 
primitive man in America, in the real 
sense of "first," does not concern us. 
No attempt will be made to prove or 
disprove the much-discussed question 



2The Eskimo and the "Mound 
made some use of meteoric iron. 



Builders" of Ohio 



210 



TIME AND AMERICAN ARL'ILEOLOGY 



211 



of the presence of man in the New 
World in geologically ancient times. 

Stratification is of the utmost im- 
portance as showing successive occupa- 
tion of the same site, each stratum 
indicating a more or less distinct culture 
allied with a time-element. In the 
Southwest, Doctor Kidder and Mr. 
Guernsey of the Peabody Museum 
have found four different levels of 
culture.^ On the original floor of 
caves has been found the evidence of a 
people called "The Basket Makers" 
who were without pottery but were 
expert in the making of woven objects, 
textiles, baskets, and sandals. They 
were at the ver}^ horizon of agriculture 
with only one variety of corn. Above 
this there are data indicating two 
cultures differing slightly from each 
other with a first knowledge of pottery- 
making, this art developing rapidly. 
There are also included several varieties 
of corn indicating a more varied agri- 
cultural life. Finally there comes the 
top-most stratum, commonly called 
"Pueblo," with pottery and several of 
the other arts finely developed together 
with an abundant agriculture, devel- 
oped under very adverse conditions. 
Until a few years ago, the Cliff-dwellers 
and other Pueblo peoples belonging to 
the last epoch, were the only early in- 
habitants recognized in this region. 
More intensive research has thus 
added three new elements in the archae- 
ology of the Southwest. 

Stratification has also come to our 
assistance in Mexico. ^ Four and five 

'Guernsey, S. J. and Kidder, A. V., Basket-maker 
Caves in Northeastern Arizona, Papers of the Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, VIII. No. 2, 1921, and Kidder 
and Guernsey, Archaeological Explorations in North- 
eastern Arizona, Bulletin, 65, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Washington, 1919. 

-Tozzer, A. M., The Domain of the Aztecs and 
Their Relation to the Prehistoric Cultures of Mexico: 
Holmes Annv^ersary T^o/«me, Washington, 1916. Spin- 
den, H. .]., Ancient Civilizations of Mexico and Central 
America: Handbook Series No. 3, American r\luseum (2d. 
ed.), New York, 1922. See also Summary of the work 
of the International School of American Archaeology 
and Ethnology: American Anthropologist, N.S., Vol, 17, 
384-39.5, 1915. 



meters below the present floor of the 
Valley of Mexico and in some cases 
under many feet of volcanic depo.sits 
there has come to light the so-called 
Archaic culture, characterized by clay 
figurines and several types of pottery. 
Most botanists interested in the ques- 
tion of the beginning of agriculture in 
America are now agreed that a grass, 
called Teocentli, found wild on the 
highlands of Mexico, is probably the 
progenitor of cultivated maize which 
the first American colonists found, on 
their advent, over the greater part of 
the New World. It is probable that the 
Archaic peoples were responsible for 
the artificial cultivation of this grass, 
the invention of agriculture, and also 
for the dissemination of this new 
industry over the arid portions of 
Mexico and Central America.^ 

The "Archaic" people are probably 
by no means the primitive or first 
inhabitants of this part of the New 
World. The ceramics and more espe- 
cially the clay figurines made by them 
show much skill as well as evidences of 
weaving in the bands and fillets in 
which the heads of the figures are 
swathed. Their culture is far ahead 
of that of the Basket Maker of New 
Mexico who had not reached a potteiy 
horizon. It is impossible to ascertain 
the language spoken by the "Archaic" 
peoples but there is little evidence that 
it was the same as that spoken by the 
Toltecs and Aztecs. Figurines char- 
acteristic of the Archaic culture are 
found in Honduras and Salvador and 
modified tj'pes as far south as Nicaragua 
and Costa Rica with a possible exten- 
sion into South America. 

Returning to the Valley of Mexico, 
above the Archaic horizon is found the 
Toltec culture, the greatest of all Mexi- 

'Spinden, H. J., The Origin and Spread of .Agricul- 
ture in America: Proceedinqs of the 10th. International 
Congress of Americanists, Washington, 1917. 



212 



NATURAL HISTORY 



can civilizations, and over this and only 
for a few inches on the surface appear 
the evidences of the Aztecs. As will be 
shown latei', the Aztec and Toltec 
periods can be definitely dated. Strati- 
fication also gives definite results on 
the succession of cultures in Peru, 
showing that of the Inca as a very 
late product. 

The second chronological approach 
to the study of archaeology is the in- 
vestigation of the development of 
stylistic methods of decoration, mainly 
on pottery, of architecture, and of other 
products of man's activities. By an 
intensive study of the different ceramic 
wares of the Pueblo culture and after 
taking into account the various data 
available, a definite sequence of pottery 
types and of decoration has been estab- 
lished from pre-Columbian down to 
modern times. ^ 

When successive forms of the artistic 
impulse are found in connection with 
definite strata there is abundant proof 
of a time sequence as the basis of this 
development. When, as in the Maya 
area, various changes in architecture 
and in design go hand in hand with 
datable monuments, there is a solid 
foundation for history. 

Another approach to this chronologi- 
cal study is the migration of objects far 
from their original place of manu- 
facture, trade pieces, foreign to their 
present habitat but easily recognized 
as coming from afar. Red coral, for 
example, from the Mediterranean is 
ound in graves of the early Iron Age in 
England. Dated Egyptian scarabs, 
found in Crete, were a great factor in 
establishing the entire chronology of 
the Mge&n culture. The close associa- 
tion of objects in the same deposit prove 
that they are, in a sense, contemporane- 

'Kidder, A. V., An Introduction to the Study of 
Southwestern Archaeology with a Preliminary Account 
of the Excavations at Pecos: New Haven, 1924. 



ous. This does not necessarily mean 
that they were made at the same time 
but that they were deposited at the 
same time. Heirloom pieces of carved 
jade, dating back several centuries, 
have been dredged from a great natural 
well in Yucatan. These are not later 
than the objects with which they are 
associated but, as a matter of fact, 
they are very much earlier than most 
of the associated remains. If sherds of 
a jar with a very special type of plaster 
cloisonne decoration are found in 
Pueblo Bonito in northern New Mexico 
and the home of this type of technique 
is in the Zacatecas region of Mexico, 
and, furthermore, if this same pottery 
is found in a late period of a site in 
northern Yucatan, there is every 
reason to suppose that a contemporane- 
ous feature can be assumed here. 
Movement in the other direction 
from the Maya region to the north- 
ward is shown by one of the finest of 
Maya jade ornaments found at San 
Juan Teotihuacan. This probably 
originated in the southern part of the 
Maya area as it is carved in the best 
Old Empire style, traveling from 
Guatemala to northern Yucatan and 
thence to Mexico during the Toltec 
period of Yucatan. Gold figurines, 
definitely made in Colombia, Costa 
Rica, and Nicaragua, and found in 
late Maya deposits, again help in the 
elucidation of a relative chronology. 
No metal objects of any kind have 
ever been found in the early Maya 
sites so that it seems quite clear 
that the knowledge of metallurgy 
came from the south at a compai'a- 
tively late period. 

These stray pieces also show the 
great importance of trade relations in 
early times, stretching in this case from 
Colombia in the south to northern New 
Mexico in the north, a distance of about 




Archaic head, Valley of Mexico. — Front and profile, slightly larger than actual specimen. This type represents 
the earliest known examples of clay modeling in Middle America 



Examples of Middle American Art 

PHOTOGRAPHS BY DR. CLARENCE KENNEDY FROM ORIGINALS 
IN PEABODY MUSEUM, CAMBRIDGE 




Archaic head f oimd by Mrs. ZeliaNuttall under lava Archaic head fouad by C. L. Hay near Atzcapot- 

flow at Coyoacin. Valley of Mexico zalco, Valley of Mexico 



rV'fr-A 




¥ 





'J 



LIMESTONE HEAD, COPAN, HONDURAS 
Head of youthful Maize god, part of a fagade decoration, dated about 515 a.d. Magnificent 
example of First Empire stone-carving. Height 18 inches 




STONE HEAD OF GARGOYLE-LIKE SERPENT, COPAN, HONDURAS 
Probably a corner ornament from Temple 21, dated about 525 a.d. Typical work of the 
First Empire of the Mayas. Height 19 inches 







CLAY FICrRINE FROM CAMPECHE, MEXICO 
Figure representing a Mava woman when the Maya civiUzatlon was at its height. The 
fine modehng and strong characterization have a portrait quality. Height atx)ut 8 inches 



TIME AND AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



213 



thirty degrees ol" latiludc oi- about 
three thousand miles. 

The factors of stratification, styhstic 
development, and the association of 
objects from widely separated areas are 
all useful in establishing- a relative 
chronology of a site or a series of sites, 
but it is only by means of dated monu- 
ments correlated with Christian chron- 
ology that we arrive on satisfactory^ 
historical ground. The Maya area in 
southern Mexico and northern Central 
America presents evidence of an elabo- 
rate calendar as shown in the hiero- 
glj^'phic inscriptions, the most remark- 
able achievement of the intellect in 
the New World. It is in these inscrip- 
tions that a literature is provided 
American archaeology. 

The material for the study of the 
hieroglyphic writing includes stone 
inscriptions carved on stelae and altars 
set up in front of the various temples, 
on the door-lintels of buildings, a 
few painted inscriptions, three codices 
dating back to pre-Columbian times, 
and the so-called Books of Chilam 
Balam, manuscripts written in the 
Maya language but with Spanish 
characters. These are in many cases 
copies of original documents reduced 
to writing after the advent of the 
Spaniards.^ 

There were two steps necessary in 
the elucidation of the Maya calendar 
as shown in the hieroglyphic inscrip- 
tions, the first of which was the 
determination of the calendar giving a 
relative chronology, the position of the 
different monuments in an inclusive 
series within the Maya area. This 
succession is definitely correlated with 
the stylistic development of stone carv- 
ing and of architecture. We are thus 

'Tozzer, A. M., The Chilam Balam Books and the 
Possibility of Their Translation: Proceedings of the 
19th International Congress of Americanists, Washing- 
ton, 1915. Also, Tozzer, Mava Grammar: Papers o*' 
the Peabody Museum, Cambridge, IX, 1S2-192, 1921. 



certain of the historical development 
of the Maya civilization. - 

The second step was a correlation 
b(^tvveen the Maya and the (,'hristian 
chl•onolog3^ In both these fields the 
late Charles P. Bowditch, played a very 
large part. From his pioneer work, so 
admirable and so necessary, advances 
have been made in this study by several 
others, among them being S. G. Morley 
of the Carnegie Institution, and H. J. 
Spinden of the Peabody Museum . The 
latter has shown conclusively that the 
Maya calendar began to function in 
613 B.c.^ The earliest dated inscrip- 
tion is on a small jade statuette of 96 
B.C. The oldest Maya remains are 
found in the district of Peten in north- 
ern Guatemala. 

The First or Great Empire of the 
Mayas (Fig. 1) began about the first 
century before Christ and continued 
until about 650 a.d. All the great 
cities of the south flourished within 
this period and an extension of the First 
Empire to the northward began about 
300 A.D., following the eastern coast of 
the peninsula of Yucatan. Sites with 
definite dates have been found at 
Chetumal, Tuluum, Coba, and at 
Chichen Itza.'' Jaina on the north- 
west coast was also probably a First 
Empire site. It is important to note 
that the stone stelae and lintels in 
northern Yucatan on which the dates 
are recorded, all seem to be re-used 
stones. No buildings contemporaneous 
with this first occupation of this part 

^Spinden, H. J., A Study of Maya Art: Memoirs oj 
the Peabody Museum, VI. Cambridge, 1913. 

^Bowditch, C. P., The Numeration, Calendar Sys- 
tems and Astronomical Knowledge of the Mayas, Cam- 
bridge, 1910. .41so by same author. On the Age of the 
Maya Rjins: Americaji Antliropologist, (N.S.), III. G97- 
700. Morley, S. G., The Inscriptions at Copan: Car- 
negie Institution of Washington, Washington, 1920, 
especially .\ppendix II. See also Morley's Bibliography 
in this volume. Spinden, H. J., The Reduction of 
Mayan Dates: Papers of the Penhody Museum, VI, No. 
4, Cambridge, 1924, and other writings. 

^The site of Coba was re-discovered in 1926 by the 
Carnegie Institution Expedition and the dated inscrip- 
tions, read by Morley, are from 363 to 412 .\.D. The 
Chetumal date (333 A.D.) was reported bv Thomas 
Gann in Man, V. 26, No. 37. London, 1926. 




Fig. 1. — The First Empire of the Mayas shown by dated monuments and a suggestion of 
the Maya influence on the early Toltecs 




Fig. 2. — The Transitional Period of the Mayas showing the abandonment of many of the 
First Empire sites with movements northward and southward 




SECOND EMPIRE OF THE MAYAS (960-1200 A D.) 



FI6.3 
T022ER 



Fig. 3. — The Second Empire of the Mayas'with the first appearance of Toltec influences 
which later were to play a large part in Maya history 




Fig. 4. — The Toltec Period of the Mayas shovang the submergence of the Maya by Mexican 
influences and the extent of the greatest expansion of the Toltecs based somewhat on the dis- 
tribution of Ball-courts and Chac Mool figures 



215 



216 



NATURAL HISTORY 



of the country, ovon at ChicluMi Itza, Chilam Balain Books state that the 

have yet been found. inhabitants of northern Yucatan also 

In the first half of ihe seventh cen- left their homes about 630 and moved 

tury the southern cities seem to have southward, not to return until 960. 

been abandoned as no late dates occur This has been called the Transitional 

there. The uiiciciit chronicles in the Period (Fig. 2) and tiie sites at Chom- 









Fig. 5.— Tikal, Guatemala: Temple II. Total height about 140 feet. Type common to 
First Empire, 100 B.C.-630 a.d. Restoration by F. F. Horter under direction of Dr. H. J. 
Spinden in the American Museum of Natural History 



TIME AM) AMi:h'/<A.\ AlU'lLKOLOCY 



217 




Fig. 6. — Rio Bee, Quint ana Roo, southern Yucatan. Temple typical of Transitional 
Period, 630-960 a.d. Photograph by R. E. Merwin and C. L. Hay, Peabody Museum Expedi- 
tion, 1911-12 



poton,Tabasqueno,Hochob, and others 
in that vicinity, together with Rio Bee 
and others discovered in that region by 
Doctor Merwin and Mr. C. L. Hay, 
are probably to be placed in this epoch. 
It is also fairly certain that some of the 
wandering Maj^a peoples went south- 
ward along the Gulf of Mexico, while 
still others moved southward to the 
Guatemalan highlands and eastward 
into the Uloa Valley and Salvador. 

The Second Empire of the Mayas 
960-1200, (Fig. 3) found its home in 
northern Yucatan at which time the 
most famous of the cities there, with 
the exception of Chichen Itza, were 
founded. The Toltec influence had 
arrived in Yucatan before the fall of 
Chichen Itza in 1191. It was probably 
about this time that some of the Itzas 
migrated southward to Lake Peten in 
northern Guatemala where they were 
found by Cortes in his remarkable 
march to Honduras and where they 



remained unconquered by the Spaniards 
until 1697. 

The Toltec Period, 1200-1450, (Fig. 
4) in northern Yucatan really began 
with the trimuph of Quetzalcoatl- 
Kulkulcan over the Itzas. This figure 
was for a long time considered to have 
been purely mythological, diml}^ re- 
lated to certain historical events, but, 
as is common with all culture-heroes, 
a vague and nebulous individual. 
Doctor Spinden has lately shown^ that 
Quetzalcoatl, far from being a myth, 
was a very real person — "one of the 
great characters of history, acompound 
of warrior, priest, administrator, and 
scientist." He served as leader of a 
force of Mexicans who put down a re- 
bellion of the Mayas in 1191, subduing 
Chichen Itza and making it a Toltec 
city. It was he who created much of 
the pomp and ceremony later used by 

'In Encyclopoedia Britannica (1.3th ed.) under Archae- 
ology, XVII, Mexico and Central America. 




Fig. 7. — Chichen Itza, Yucatan — Ball Court group. The Ball Court is typical of the Toltec 
period, 1200-1450 a.d. See distribution of ball courts in Fig. 4. Restoration by M. A. Fer- 
nandez, courtesy of the Government of Mexico 



Fig. 8. — Chichen Itza, Chac Mool figure. Typical of Toltec 
Period. See distribution of this type in Fig. 4 




218 



TIME AND AMERICAN ARCILEOLOGY 



219 




Fig. 9. — San Juan Teotihuacan, Highlands of Mexico. Temple of Quetzalcoatl. Restora- 
tion bj^ Manuel Gamio. Courtesy of Department of Public Education, Mexico 



the Aztec rulers and described with 
such vividness by the Spaniards. 

The Toltecs brought with them a 
new rehgion and new art forms, and the 
period from 1191 to 1450, when Maya- 
pan fell and the Maya civilization 
practically ceased to exist, was marked, 
especially at Chichen Itza, by a very 
strong Mexican influence. It has been 
possible to identify in the frescoes and 
bas-reliefs at this site the battles of the 
Toltecs over the Mayas and the sub- 
sequent making of peace. The por- 
trayal of the Maya and Mexican types 
is distinctive in all the carvings. 
Chichen Itza has the longest recorded 
history of any city in the New World, 
ancient or modern, of over eight hun- 
dred years. The Toltecs in Mexico 
proper had ceased long since to be a 
leading nation on account of civil wars. 

The arrival of the Mexicans in 
Yucatan w4th definite dates on the 
Maya side enables us to supply them 
with an historical background for the 



latter part of their history, thus sup- 
planting to some extent their* mytho- 
logical dates of origins and of migra- 
tions. The early Toltecs had been 
strongly influenced by offshoots of the 
early Maya culture, perhaps at the 
breaking up of the First Empire (Fig. 
1), which reached them from the south 
and west as shown by Maya details 
occurring at Monte Alban and Xochi- 
calco. There was also a migration of 
Maya features northward along the 
coast of the Gulf of Mexico through 
Alvarado, the Totonacan area, and 
Papantla. 

The calendar of the Toltecs and later 
of the Aztecs undoubtedly was derived 
from that of the Mayas. The con- 
stantly increasing sphere of influence 
of this people (Figs. 2, 3) was centered 
in the important site of San Juan 
Teotihuacan which had its greatest 
period from about 1000 to 1200 a.d. 
The most extensive expansion of the 
Toltec power came after 1200 (Fig. 4) 



220 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Fig. 10. — Chichen Itza. Parade of the Temple of the Warriors. Building typical of late 
Toltec period of the Mayas. Courtesy of the Carnegie Institution of Washington 



and included practically all of the non- 
]Maya-speaking peoples of central and 
southern Mexico, Guatemala, and as 
far south as Honduras and Salvador in 
addition to the successful conquest of 
Chichen Itza and all the other Maya 
sites on the east coast of Yucatan. 
Thus the Toltecs, receiving the seeds of 
culture and the calendar from the early 
and southern Mayas, later played a 
large part in shaping the destinies of 
the northern Alayas in the last period 
of their history. 

The Aztecs who receive most of the 
credit in the popular mind for the 
achievements in cultural lines in Mexico 
were very late arrivals on the scene. 
They did not reach the shores of the 
lake, on an island of which they were 
later to build their capital, until 1325. 
Thej^ came as a wild hunting tribe from 
the north, remaining undisturbed until 
1351 when they suffered defeat and 
enslavement at the hands of the 
Toltecs. Their period of expansion and 
preeminence did not begin until 1376, 



and even in 1519 under Montezuma, 
they held only a fraction of the territory 
that was included in the Toltec empire 
in 1200. Every feature of their life 
was borrowed from the Toltecs and 
several of the Toltec cities in the Valley 
of Mexico never were completely sub- 
jugated by the Aztecs. 

There are several dark spots in the 
picture I have tried to draw. We do 
not know what led the Mayas to aban- 
don their great cities in the south and 
move northward. The exhaustion of 
cultivatable land may have been one of 
the reasons. We are also ignorant as 
to the events which led up to the fall 
of this civilization about 1450. Civil 
war, the injurious effects of the presence 
of foreigners, and, in all probability, 
epidemics of j^ellow fever were all 
possibly contributory. 

The darkest spot, however, is our 
ignorance of the beginnings of the 
Maya peoples. It is certain that those 
responsible for this civilization were 
American natives, and that their de- 



TIME AND AMERICAN ARC IDEOLOGY 



221 



volopmont is not duo to any influence 
outside the New World. The impos- 
sibility that such a culture could grow 
up in situ, as it were, is always brought 
forward by those who think they see 
superficial similarities between the 
Mayas and certain Mongolian peoples. 
The calendar alone, which no one has 
tried to prove originated outside of 
America, shows the mental equipment 
of the Mayas, the presence of genius 
in their midst. A few naturally gifted 
individuals, a knowledge of agriculture, 
and a good environment are probably 
alone responsible for the beginnings of 
the Maya civilization. 

It will be remembered that the 
Archaic peoples were probably at the 
horizon of agriculture and our next step 
must be to find a connection between 
them and the Mayas. Dr. S. K. 
Lothrop of the Heye Museum has 
lately found in Central Salvador an 
early Archaic horizon from twenty to 
forty feet below a deposit containing a 
mixture of pottery forms of the First 
Maya Empire, late Archaic, and other 
types. It is probable that similar 
conditions are to be found in the Uloa 
Valley, although here a redistribution 
by water seems to have taken place. 
Further research in this general area 
ought to yield most important results.^ 

There must, necessarily, have been 
long centuries of slow beginnings and 
small achievements by the early Maya 
before they burst upon the world a 
century before the beginning of the 
Christian Era with a highly developed 
civilization, characterized by great 
cities, an elaborate art and architecture, 
a highly organized theocracy, a remark- 
able astronomical knowledge, and a 
calendar system which was in actual 
operation for more than 1900 years un- 

ilndian Notes and Monographs, V. 6 No. 5, Mu- 
seum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New 
York. 



til it was destroyed by the Spaniards. 
Marginal corrections were applied to 
take care of the variation on the Maya 
year and of the true solar year, a means 
more accurate than our method of 
interpolating days. It should be 
pointed out that it was not until 1582 
that the Julian day was invented, 
which corresponded to the Maya day 
count, 2000 years after the same 
principle had been adopted by the 
Mayas. 

With the definite chronology thus 
established and its day-for-day correla- 
tion with the Mexican cultures, there 
is every reason to hope that, with the 
study of the migrations of objects and 
stylistic contacts, there will come a 
time when the sequences of cultures 
in our own Southwest and also those of 
the great civilizations of South America 
will be attached to the historical fabric. 

Finally, as the result of modern re- 
search, a certain readjustment of 
values comes out clearly: the small 
contribution made by the Aztecs to 
the ancient cultures of Mexico, the 
large part played by the Toltecs with 
their far-reaching empire, and the far 
greater primarj' impetus and develop- 
ment of a great civilization with 
astronomical knowledge and a calendar 
by the Mayas, who handed all this on 
to the other peoples of Middle America. 

If there are included in our history 
the present inhabitants of Yucatan 
and the Lacandones of Guatemala, also 
a Maya people, who still carry out 
msLTiy of the pre-Columbian religious 
practices,^ a definite historical back- 
ground has been suppHed to American 
archaeology, starting in the sixth cen- 
tury before Chri;.^t and extending in an 
unbroken series for more than 2500 
vears. 



^Tozzer, A. M., A Comparative Study of the Mayas and 
the Lacandones, New York, 1907. 




WOMAN AND CHILDREN AT GANADO, VISITING THE TRADER'S STORE 
The costumes and the cradle-board are of the old style, now disappearing. Mother and 
children are well equipped with beads and silver work. The silver ornaments are made by 
pueblo men, from silver obtained from coins, usually Mexican 



An Anthropologist among the Navaho 



BY BEATRICE BLACKWOOD 

Of Oxford llniversity 



IN the Southwest, the process of 
absorbiufj; the Indian in the white 
popidation is as 3'ct onlj- beginning. 
Particularly is this true among the 
Navaho. Numbering at least 25,000, 
the}' are at the present time, contrary 
to the general view, increasing by 
multiplication and not by addition 
from without. They have a lien on a 
stretch of country almost twice the size 
of Massachusetts, part of which is 
about two hundred miles from a 
railroad, and though their clothing and 
diet have been somewhat modified by 
the presence of traders' stores, they 
still to a great extent live their own 
lives in their own way, resentful of 
attempts to bring them into line with 
the Twentieth Century. 

Last summer it was my privilege, 
as the holder of a Laura Spelman 
Rockefeller Memorial Fellowship, to 
spend some weeks on the Navaho 
Reservation. My immediate object 
was to obtain a series of physical 
measurements of Indian women, who, 
like the women of other races, have in 
the past been largely neglected by 
anthropologists. ''Set a woman to 
catch women" is my maxim, and it 
seems to succeed. As the measure- 
ments have not yet been tabulated, no 
statistical results can be given at 
present, but possibly a sketch of the 
conditions under which the work was 
done may be of interest. 

The Navaho are suspicious of strang- 
ers, and, except for members of the 
younger generation who have been to 
school, most of them are ignorant of 
any language but their own. Con- 
ditions are therefore more complicated 



than in the pueblo villages, where the 
people are more or less accustomed to 
visitors, and frequently speak either 
English or Spanish, or both so that it is 
generally possible to get along without 
an interpreter. With the Navaho, on 
the contrary, the first essential is to 
choose the introducer carefully. If 
you have with you someone whom they 
know and like, you will succeed in 
persuading them to be measured, unless 
one of them suddenly turns shy and 
refuses, in which case no one else in 
that group will come forward, and you 
must pass on to the next. But as the 
hogans are widely scattered, you get a 
fair choice with each family. The isola- 
tion, however, works against you in 
another respect, in that a great deal 
of time is consumed in traveling 
from one hogan to another, even if j^ou 
are accompanied by someone who 
knows where to look for them. 

The Navaho are always curious, of 
course, as to why their measurements 
are wanted, but the explanation that 
one is trying to find out which 
tribes are the tallest, or the best- 
looking, will usually suffice. It is 
wise, however, to use a technique which 
is simple and can be carried out quickly, 
or one's subject ma}' get up and walk 
off like the hedgehog croquet-balls in 
Alice in Wonderland. On the whole, 
the Navaho women regarded my pro- 
cedure with amusement. L^'nexpected 
difficulties occasionally presented 
themselves, as when the home provided 
positively nothing for the subject to 
sit upon, not even an upturned bucket. 
Sometimes the most violent objections 
came from the smaller children, who 

223 





Ab()\ K. Mother and child, full face and jM'ofile. The method of hairdressing somewhat 
hides the head flattening 

Below. — At the left, old style, woman with child on cradle-board; at the right, new style, 
leaving the hospital at Fort Defiance with a baby a week old 



224 



AN ANTHROPOLOGIST AMONd TJIl'J NAVAHO 



225 



soomod to think their mother was being 
luirt. :uul t'lvquently set up a howl 
which could only be quieted by can'dy. 

Foi- takinp: their skin-color, I used 
the Milton-Bradley Color Top, which 
was described in a recent number of 
Natural History. This was a great 
attraction, and did nuich to win the 
good will of the Indian. Much of the 
darkness of an Indian skin is due to 
tanning, and when the color is tested 
on the inner side of the upper arm, 
which is protected by the long sleeves 
they always wear, the difference is 
startling. Much astonishment was 
expressed when the top, arranged to 
match the unexposed skin, was spun 
against the back of a well-tanned wrist. 

The Navaho are very far from being 
uniform in physical type, even within 
their own tribe. Though they do not 
mix much with either whites or 
Mexicans, there is probably the blood 
of several Indian tribes in their veins, 
owing to their raiding propensities. 
In stature they are, in general, taller 
than many of the other Indians of the 
Southwest, and there does not seem to 
be so marked a difference between the 
height of the men and the height of the 
women as is noticed by the observer 
among the Zuni, for example. Leading 
a restless, and not too well-fed exist- 
ence, they remain, as a rule, slender, 
and frequently have the appearance 
sometimes described as "raw-boned." 
Though they may be extremely hand- 
some in their youth, they do not often 
retain their good looks into middle life. 

Body measurements, other than 
stature and sitting-height were out of 
the question in most cases, owing to the 
voluminous clothing the women wear 
even during the summer. They are 
more conservative in this matter than 
are the men, who have in general 




Women's work. — (Above) Shucking corn 
and grinding it on a metate. Chin Lee. 
(Middle) Digging a well with a gourd spoon. 
Canon de Chelly. This is not such an 
undertaking as it seems for the well need 
not be more than 18 inches deep. (Below) 
Weaving. Chin Lee 



22(3 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Desbah comes to school 

adopted white man's dress except for 
special occasions, while their wives still 
affect the velvet shirt or jacket which 
was formerly the usual garb of both 
sexes, and an enormously wide pleated 
skirt which sweeps the ground. The 
little girls are almost exact replicas of 
their mothers. 

For the first year or so of their lives, 
the babies pass their time strapped to a 
"cradle-board" so tightly that no 
movement of the limbs is possible. 
The effect of the pressure on the baby's 
soft skull is to produce a permanent 
flattening at the back, sometimes so 
marked in the adult that the greatest 
length of a head, when measured by 
the callipers, is hardly more than its 
greatest breadth. Most of the older 
Navaho show more or less clearly the 
results of this practice. The younger 
generation is beginning to learn modern 
ways of treating a baby, so the number 
of abnormally flattened heads is prob- 
ably on the decrease. They are also 



learning by slow degrees to make use of 
hospitals, nurses, and hygienic methods. 
It would be impossible to provide a 
hospital for every Navaho, but medical 
help is available at all the agencies and 
most of the schools, and there are a 
number of field nurses. Even where 
there are facilities, it is still verj^ 
difficult to persuade the sick to enter 
the hospital, though their reluctance 
is less than it used to be. The mother 
and twins shown in the photograph had 
a hard fight for their lives in the hogan 
seen in the background, and were 
saved through the efforts of the nurse 
from the school at Chin Lee. 

The Navaho Reservation includes 
some of the most uninteresting, some 
of the wildest, and some of the most 
wonderful country in the southwest. 
•Much of it is flat desert, covered with 
scrub grass, sage brush, and sand, with 
a mesa or two in the distance. With 
such a background, it is easy to pass 
close to a Navaho home without seeing 




Bah and her twins. Chin Lee 




•J^" -«?" 






VIEWS ON THE RESERVATION 
The uppermost picture shows the well at White Cone. The two lower pictures 
show types of Navaho hogans near Canon de Chelly. The hogan in the middle to the 
right/ is similar to that in the large Museum group in the Navaho exhibit 



227 



228 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Hogans in Caiion de Chelly. The peach trees seen in the background are from seed 
introduced by the first Spanish priests who undertook missionary work in our Southwest 
some three hundred years ago. Farther up the canon are the ruins mentioned in the text 



it unless one knows how to look for it. 
The wildest country is in the north- 
west corner, reached from Kayenta. 
It is so rocky and waterless that not 
even the Indians can live in it, though 
there is evidence that it was inhabited 
in prehistoric times. The most fas- 
cinating part of the Reservation is the 
famous Canon de Chelly, with the 
adjoining Canon del Muerto. Here is 
not only marvelous and colorful 
scenery, not only the fascination of 
prehistoric cliff-dwellings, but also the 
interest of present-day Indian life. 
Quite a number of Navaho make their 
homes in the Canon, feeding their flocks 



and harvesting their corn wherever the 
width of its floor permits, and adding 
their quota to the millions of picto- 
graphs on its walls, as their ancestors 
did before them. 

It is generally recognized by those 
who know them, that the Navaho are 
among the finest of the Indians of the 
present day, putting up a good fight in 
the struggle for existence, and making 
the best of the resources they have at 
their command. My experience with 
them, brief as it was, certainly left me 
with that impression, and I look 
forward to the day when I may be able 
to return. 



The Antiquity of Man in America' 

By J. D. FIGGINS 

Director, Colorado Museum of Niitural History 



WHEN we analyze the technical 
opposition to the belief that 
man has inhabited America 
over an enormous period of time, we 
find it is not only restricted to an 
individual minority, but it also appears 
to be traceable to the results of a too 
circumscribed viewpoint, — a failure to 
appreciate properly all the evidence, 
and a seeming unwillingness to accept 
the conclusions of authorities engaged 
in related branches of investigation. 
It is a fact, of course, that the nature 
of the material evidence upon which 
opinions are based is an important 
factor, and when such evidence is not 
abundant, it is obvious that students 
cannot successfully restrict their studies 
if they would avoid the dangers that 
arise through a lack of continuity in 
one or more threads of evidence. 

This appears to be very well illus- 
trated by individuals learned in 
physical anthropology, comparative 
craniology and racial relationships. 
The chief denials of man's antiquity in 
America appear to have their origin in 
those sources of investigation. Such 
criticism would doubtless have weight 
and value were skeletal evidence 
abundant. But such evidence, repre- 
sentative of the periods antedating 
that which is regarded as "modern," or 
since Pleistocene times, is exceedingly 
meager. Indeed, it is far too scant to 
make possible intelligent comparisons 
and safely arrive at definite conclu- 
sions. Therefore, to be of value, it is 
essential that it be supplemented by 
those branches of the sciences that are 
capable of fixing geologic time periods 
— the sole means of bridging the weak- 



nesses that occur in the thread of evi- 
dence represented by skeletal remains. 
Without this aid, opinions are not 
only venturesome, but distinctly mis- 
leading, if given publicity. 

Readers of the discussions relative to 
the antiquity of man in America must 
frequently wonder because of the 
antipathy for the acceptance of evi- 
dence of that character, and often they 
may have inquired "Why should we 
not expect to find such evidence, since 
there are neither conditions nor facts 
that interfere in the slightest with 
such an expectation?" Obviously then, 
denials of the antiquity of man in 
America, without convincing proof 
that we could not expect to find such 
evidence, are purely supposititious. 

However, the purpose of the present 
paper is not a discussion of the rela- 
tive merits of arguments previously 
advanced, but a presentation of new 
evidence of man's antiquity in Ameri- 
ca. As the writer has not made a 
special study of this subject, his 
opinions regarding the importance of 
the evidence would be valueless, and 
for that reason he expresses none. He 
merely views it in the light of sub- 
stantiating earlier finds of a like and 
similar nature, and as pointing the 
way to other and more important dis- 
coveries. His task is the recording of 
the facts as he knows them. • 

In 1923 Mr. Nelson J. Vaughan, a 
resident of Colorado, Mitchell County, 
Texas, in a letter to the writer, 
described a deposit of bones in the 
bank of Lone Wolf Creek, near his 
home. Upon request, Mr. Vaughan 
forwarded examples to the Colorado 



V 



•Photographs by the author. 



229 



230 



NATURAL HISTORY 



Museum of Natural History for de- 
termination. These proved to be 
fossilized parts of an extinct bison, 
and the following season, 1924, Mr. H. 
D. Boyes was sent to the locality for 
the purpose of making excavations. 



was firmly fixed in the latter, under- 
cutting took place. Then, with the 
use of tackle, the blocks were released 
from their bed and turned on edge for 
the purpose of removing the excess 
matrix, and planking over the bottoms 





No. 1 No. 2 

Fig. 1. ARTIFACT8 ASSOCIATED WITH FOSSIL BISON ON LONE WOLF 
CREEK, MITCHELL COUNTY, TEXA.S. ALL NATURAL SIZE 

No. 1— Found beneath cervical vertebrae. No. 2 — Found beneath left femur 



After the removal of the overlying 
formation (studied and elsewhere de- 
scribed by Mr. Harold J. Cook, 
honorary curator of palaeontology, 
Colorado Museum of Natural History) 
and the finding of portions of the 
skeletal remains associated, it was 
deemed most expedient to remove them 
in sections. This was accomplished by 
working down until the fossils were 
exposed, cutting channels through the 
deposit at intervals, thus forming 
"blocks" of considerable size, these, 
in turn, being encased in burlap and 
plaster of Paris. A heavy crate was 
then introduced, and when a block 



of the crates. During these operations, 
the nearly complete skeleton of an 
adult bison was uncovered, quite 
articulated and lying on its left side. 
This was divided into sections and 
taken up as described above. 

When the excess matrix was being 
removed from the under side of the 
first block, (the one containing the 
cervicals, a few dorsals, their attached 
ribs, and the forelimbs), a complete 
arrowhead^ was discovered (illustrated 
in Fig. 1, No. 1) lying between the 
fifth and sixth cervicals and nearly in 



'The term arrowhead is used in a broad sense, since 
the artifact may have been a spearhead. 



THE AXTIQUITY OF MAN IN AMERICA 



231 



contact with the hittiM-. As the matrix 
was very hard, being coiuposed of 
cemented sands, gravels and clays, 
and necessitating the constant use of 
hammer and chisel, the arrowluMid was 
detached and hi'oken into two main 
fragments and numerous small slivers 
before it was discovered. Most of 
these parts were recovered and have 
since been assembled without other 
restoration. In removing the section 
containing the dorsal vertebrae and 
ribs, a second arrowhead was uncovered 
and likewise was detached before its 
presence was noted, but this example 
later disappeared and cannot be figured 
here. Accounts, however, suggest that 
the position which it occupied was 
possibly in the thorax, but it is not so 
recorded. The removal of the last 
block resulted in the finding of a 
portion of a third arrowhead (Fig. 
1, No. 2), immediately beneath the 
left femur, in circumstances identical 
with the first; that is, in removing 
the matrix from the under side of 
the block. 

Independent of the lost arrowhead, 
which is described as very similar to 
the first, two artifacts were taken 
from beneath an articulated and fossil- 
ized skeleton of an extinct bison. That 
Mr. Boyes seems not to have recog- 
nized the full importance and signifi- 
cance of these finds is suggested in his 
permitting the loss of the second ex- 
ample — whether through theft or 
otherwise — and the fact that he did not 
make an immediate report of them. 
The first intimation the writer had of 
their discovery came through a visitor 
to the Museum, who had been present 
when the first arrowhead was uncov- 
ered. Replies to inquiries and later 
verbal details by Mr. Boyes verified 
and enlarged upon this account in all 
particulars. 



Deeming it of greatest importance 
that the age of this deposit be deter- 
.mined, the writer requested Mr. 
Harold J. Cook to make a detailed 
investigation, particularly in relation 
to the geology and association of other 
fossil species. Mr. Cook's report 
appears in this issue of Natural His- 

T.TRY. 

As critical studies of the artifacts 
found associated with the bison re- 
mains near Colorado, Texas, must be 
left to the archaeologist, but brief 
detailed mention of them will be made 
here. There are two or three private 
collections of arrowheads that were 
picked up on the surface in the vicinity 
of Lone Wolf Creek, all of which have 
been examined by Mr. Cook and Mr. 
Boyes. None contained examples ap- 
proaching in similarity, either in form 
or workmanship, those found with the 
bison skeleton. The latter are of gray- 
ish flint, quite thin, as shown in Fig. 
1, and are devoid of evidence of notch- 
ing, which is distinctly opposed to the 
forms found on the surface in that 
locality. Equally distinctive is their 
superiority of workmanship which, I 
am told, also applied to the example 
that was lost. While there seems to be 
no doubt that these artifacts represent 
a cultural stage quite distinct, as 
compared with that revealed in the 
arrowheads found on the surface, it is 
not the writer's intention to discuss 
such questions, and he will refer to the 
similarity of this find to that made by 
Mr. H. T. Martin at Russell Springs, 
Logan County, Kansas. 

Readers who have been interested in 
the subject of man's antiquity in 
America, are, no doubt, familiar with 
this discovery, which was made b}' Mr. 
Martin in 1895, and while the writer 
has not examined this artifact, Mr. 
Martin kindly sent a photograph for 



232 



NATURAL HISTORY 



reproduction here; this for compara- 
tive purposes. (Fig. 2.) Dr. F. A. 
Lucas applied the specific name occi- 
denialis to the race of bison with 
which this artifact was associated. 

During the summer of 1925, [Messrs. 
Fred J. Howarth and Carl Schwach- 




Fig. 2. — Artifact associated ^-ith fossil 
bison. Collected bj- Mr. H. T. Martin, at 
Russell Springs, Logan Countj% Kansas. 
Natural size 

heim of Raton, New Mexico, informed 
the writer of a quantity of bones ex- 
posed in the bank of the Cimarron 
River, near the town of Folsom, Union 
Count}^, New Mexico. Later, tho.se 
gentlemen forwarded examples for 
examination, which proved them to 
be parts of an extinct bison and a large 
deerlike member of the Cerndse. 
Accompanied bj' Messrs. Howarth 
and Schwachheim, ]Mr. Cook and the 
writer visited the locality in April, 
1926, and after a study of the deposit, 
made arrangements with Mr. Schwach- 
heim for the removal of the overlj'ing 
formation, consisting of some six to 



eight feet of very tough, hard claj^s. 
In June the writer sent Mr. Frank 
M. Figgins to supervise the removal of 
the bones, in which work he was aided 
by Mr. Schwachheim. 

Not the least of the writer's interest 
in this deposit was the possibility that 
additional evidence of man's antiquity 
in America might be uncovered, and 
with that prospect in view, he gave 
explicit instruction that constant 
attention be paid to such discoveries — 
not with as much expectation of success, 
as in the behef that opportunities of 
that nature should not be neglected. 
It was therefore, something in the 
nature of an anticipated surprise when 
such a find was made. In this case, it 
was of the greater portion of an arrow- 
head, similar in its general form to 
those found at Colorado, Texas, but 
decidedly more tapering at the point, 
and of quite superior workmanship. 
Unfortunately, this artifact had also 
been dislodged from the matrix before 
it was discovered — something the 
writer was anxious to avoid. However, 
it was directly associated with the re- 
mains of an extinct bison, and greater 
caution was urged in the work of 
excavating. Not until nearly the close 
of the season was additional evidence 
uncovered, this proving to be a second 
arrowhead almost identical with th 
first in form, and like the first, having 
the proximal end missing. The material 
from which it was fashioned is distinc- 
tive, being a very pale gray ground, 
through which run narrow, diagonal 
streaks of red. This artifact, too, had 
been dislodged before its presence was 
suspected, but at the spot from which 
it came, the tool struck a hard sub- 
stance, which, upon being exposed, 
proved to be a wedge-shaped fragment 
of flint, approximately one-quarter of 
an inch in width by three-quarters of 





Fig. 3. -ARrrFACTS found associated with extinct bison, near folsom, union county, 

NEW MEXICO. NATURAL SIZE 




Fig. 4. — portions of artifacts associated with extinct bison, natural size 
No. 1. — Larger portion of artifact in contact No. 2. — Larger portion of artifact slightly 
with fragment in situ separated from fragment in situ 



233 



234 



NATURAL HISTORY 



an inch in length, lying in a fixed posi- 
tion, adjacent to a bison rib. This 
was removed without being disturbed, 
in the form of a small block, and in 
addition to the flint and rib in close 
contact, there are also in the block two 
toe bones and an atlas. Upon its 
arrival at the laboratory, immediate 
attention was given to cleaning the 
fragment of flint, which proved to be 
of the same material as that of the 
larger portion of arrowhead, and sug- 
gested that it might be part of the 
missing proximal end. When a test 
was made, a perfect contact resulted. 
(See Fig. 4). The perfection of this 
contact, together with the peculiar 
markings and color of the material 
from which the artifact was fashioned, 
prohibits any conclusion other than 
that they are parts of one and the 
same artifact. Fig. 3 illustrates the 
Folsom artifacts. No. 1 is a very thin 
flint of a dark reddish-brown color, and 
representing a quality of workmanship 
the writer has rarely seen equalled. 
No. 2 is also very thin and while it is 
not quite equal in fineness of chipping, 
as displayed in No. 1, this may be, 
and probably is, due to a difference in 
the material from which they are 
fashioned. 

Compared with the artifacts from 
Colorado, Texas, the Folsom examples 
are distinctly more pointed, but 
whether this difference in form 
and superiority in workmanship is 
traceable to individual preference and 
skill; the writer does not venture an 
opinion. He does, however, make 
comparisons with flints found on the 
surface, in the region about Folsom 
and Raton, New Mexico, and in this 
connection it is of interest to note that 
the latter are unlike such surface arti- 
facts from the vicinity of Colorado, 
Texas, — being usually very small and 



evidencing far greater skill in their 
manufacture. The writer has examined 
a large part of the Carl Schwachheim 
collection of flints, from northern New 
Mexico, and Mr. Schwachheim veri- 
fies his conclusions that it contains 
nothing resembling the flints found 
associated with the bison remains near 
Folsom. 

Until the studies now in progress are 
completed, the geological age of the 
Folsom bison will not be known. '^ That 
it is of an extinct race there is no 
question. 

We have, then, in the Folsom arrow- 
heads, the third instance of a very 
similar type of artifact being found 
immediately associated with extinct 
bison, in circumstances which lead 
geologists and palaeontologists to con- 
clude that they belong to the Pleisto- 
cene age. 

Having read an article dealing with 
the question of man's antiquity in 
America by Mr. Harold J. Cook, which 
appeared in the November, 1926, 
number of the Scientific American, Dr. 
F. G. Priestly of Frederick, Tillman 
County, Oklahoma, wrote Mr. A. G. 
Ingalls, editor of that publication, 
briefly describing the finding of arti- 
facts associated with fossil mammal re- 
mains in that vicinity. After some 
correspondence, and with Doctor 
Priestly's consent, Mr. Ingalls for- 
warded this letter to Mr. Cook. Doc- 
tor Priestly's account of these discov- 
eries was of such a convincing nature 
that it could not be doubted that the 
Oklahoma material was of great im- 
portance. With the view of making 
studies of both the material and the 
physical character of the deposits from 
which it was taken, Mr. Cook and 



'Dr. O. P. Hay has kindly consented to study all of 
the bison material that was obtained in Texas and New 
Mexico, and expresses the belief that it contains three 
undescribed races. 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN IN AMERICA 



235 



the present writer joined Doctor 
Priestly at Frederick in January. 

It was at once apparent that while 
Doctor Priestly recognized and under- 
stood the importance of the finds he 
described in his letter to Mr. In- 
galls, it was equally obvious he had 
followed a very conservative course 
and the writer was not prepared for 
the discovery that in addition to the 
artifact mentioned, several others had 
been unearthed and no less than five 
of them preserved. 

In his account of these finds, Doctor 
Priestly stated all had been personally 
made by Mr. A. H. Holloman, who 
owns and operates a sand and gravel 
pit about one mile north of the city of 
Frederick. To Mr. Holloman, there- 
fore, the writer is indebted for a history 
of the discoveries, their stratigraphic 
position, and other items having a bear- 
ing on them. 

As Mr. Cook's account will cover the 
geological history of these deposits, 
and the immediate vicinity, here it is 
necessary merely to say the sand and 
gravel pit consists of an open cut on 
the east face of a ridge approximately 
half a mile in width and running for 
some miles in a generally north and 
south direction. Sand and gravel from 
an area of about two acres have been 
worked out near the crest of this ridge, 
which, with the overlying stratum of 
clay, silt, etc., varied from ten feet to 
twenty-five feet in thickness. At the 
time of our visit, a nearly vertical cut 
of not less than 150 yards in length and 
varying from fifteen feet to twenty- 
four feet in height was exposed, in 
which every phase of the several 
strata was clearly defined. 

Independent of the opportunities 
thus offered for studies of the exposed 
formations, it also made it easily pos- 
sible for Mr. Holloman to point out the 



horizons at which artifacts and the 
several varieties of fossils had been 
found. 

That a great deal of fossil material 
has been uncovered since the opening 
of the pit, there can be no doubt, but 
not until during the past year was an 
effort made to preserve any part of it. 
Accounts are unanimous in showing 
that quantities of such material have 
gone into the refuse heap, now com- 
prising thousands of tons; into the 
surfacing of roads; the cement mixer, 
etc. Seven known artifacts are buried 
somewhere in this refuse pile or carried 
away: a metate and six pestles or 
manos, but these cannot be considered 
here.^ 

Although fossils are found through- 
out the entire stratum of sand and 
gravel deposits, a superficial study of 
all the evidence suggests the possibiHty 
that two faunal and cultural stages are 
represented. This, however, is for 
others to determine, and the writer 
will confine himself to the circum- 
stances connected with the finding of 
the artifacts and to brief references to 
the deposits from which they were 
taken. 

Figure 5 illustrates a typical section 
of the deposit, and is drawn to the scale 
of 34 inch to 1 foot for the average 
thickness of the several strata. It also 
indicates the horizons at which the 
several artifacts were exposed. 

The base member, composed of clean 
river gravels, pebbles, and occasional 
bowlders up to five inches in diameter, 
is sohdly cemented with semi-trans- 
lucent lime, and lies uncomformably 
upon red beds of Permian age. This 
stratum contains numerous fossils of 
several varieties, such as Mylodon cf. 



^The Colorado Museum of Natural History has 
arranged to keep a representative constantly on the 
ground to search for and preserve all artifacts and fossils 
hereafter uncovered. 










DARK, CHOCOLATE-RED CLAYS WITH VERTICAL 
COLUMNAR CLEAVAGE TOWARD BASE. 



BRICK-COLORED CLAY AND SANDS, WITH LENSES 
OF GRAVEL AND PEBBLES. UPPER HALF OF 
STRATUM HEAVILY CHARGED WITH CALCAREOUS 
MATTER. 









;^.'<i- 



.•"^ 



'j:S:f^_ 



'^i O 







CROSS- BEDDED SANDS, GRAVELS, AND PEBBLES, 
LARGELY UNCEMENTED. COARSE MATERIAL— 
UP TO 2 INCHES IN DIAMETER — CONFINED TO 
LOWER HALF OF STRATUM. 



EXTENSIVE AREAS OF CROSS-BEDDED SANDSTONE. 



HARD CONGLOMERATE OF CLEAN PEBBLES, 
GRAVEL, AND BOWLDERS. UP TO 5 INCHES IN 
DIAMETER. 



RED BEDS OF PERMIAN AGE. 



Fig. 5. Holloman Gravel Pit, Frederick, Oklahoma. Scale, Ya inch to 1 foot 



236 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN IN AMERICA 



237 



harlani, throe species of Equu.s, Triloph- 
odon, sp., and a primitive Elrphas, etc. 
Associated with tliein and at the ponit 
marked "A," the artifact ilhistrated in 
Fio;. 6, No. 1, was found by Mr. 
Hollonian. It is a Hp;ht-gray flint, and 
while the flaking exhibits considerabk^ 
skill, perhaps, as a whole, the work- 
manship is poor, with the chipping 
confined to the reverse sides of the 
edges (see cross-section, Fig. 6, No. 2). 
Whether or not other flints have been 
uncovered at this level, there is no 
means of determining, this single ex- 
ample having been picked up by Mr. 
Holloman as it was broken out of the 
hard matrix by workmen. Two stones 
taken at the same level and described 
by Mr. Holloman, can scarcely be 
regarded as other than pestles or 
grinding instruments, but subsequent- 
ly these disappeared and cannot be 
otherwise recorded here. 

Lying immediately on this hard 
conglomerate is a partially cross- 
bedded layer of coarse, lenticular sand- 
stone, one and one-half to two feet in 
thickness. This appears to be, prin- 
cipally, at least, nonf ossiliferous ; but 
the following member, consisting of 
heavily cross-bedded and but partially 
cemented coarse sands, gravels, and 
pebbles, contains numerous fossils 
throughout its varying thickness of 
from nine feet to fifteen feet. (See Fig. 
5.) Seven feet below its upper margin, 
or at the point marked "B," the 
arrowhead illustrated in Fig. 6, No. 3 
was found in position by Mr. Hollo- 
man. It is a pale grayish and reddish 
flint, mottled and slightly streaked, and 
of good workmanship. With the excep- 
tion of an appearance of slight damage 
at the point, due, perhaps, to its having 
come in contact with some hard sub- 
stance, it is quite complete. 

On a general average level of a foot 



Fig. 6. — artifacts found associatkd with 

FOSSIL mammal remains NEAR FREDERICK, 

TILLMAN COUNTY, OKLAHOMA. ALL 

NATURAL SIZE 




w 



No. 1. — From basal stratum, 
diagram, Fig. 5. 



See "A" in 



No. 2. — Cross- section of artifact No. 1. 




No. 3. — From horizon marked "B" in dia- 
gram, Fig. 5. 



238 



NATURAL HISTORY 



.^iB^c^ML^t ..V'^4 .^us„ . : •!«^9IMIfBrJm TOifl 



■^■. 








Fig. 7. — Cross-bedded sandstone resting upon basal conglomerate from which artifact 
No. 1, Fig. 6, was taken. (See "A" in diagram, Fig. 5), Holloman Gravel Pit, Frederick, 
Oklahoma 



or two above the horizon at which this 
arrovv^head was found, not less than 
five unquestionable metates have been 
uncovered in Mr. Holloman's presence 
— three of these being illustrated here- 
with. They are composed of a hard, 
close-grained, limy and silicious sand- 
stone, the ovate depression in the largest 
example having a maximum depth of 
three-quarters of an inch. The edges of 
these artifacts are distinctly rounded 
and smooth, as is the reverse side. As it 
cannot be doubted that these stones 
show evidence of human workmanship, 
that they are identical in general form 
to metates found in other localities, 
and owing to the fact that no other 
stones of a similar nature have been 
found in the thousands of cubic yards 
of material that have been removed, 
there can be no question about their 
original purpose and use. 



When first exposed, two of these 
artifacts stood in an upright position, 
which suggested to Mr. Holloman that 
they might be grave markers. Careful 
search, however, failed to reveal the 
slightest evidence of human remains. 
Their position in river sands, gravels, 
and pebbles, would seem to strengthen 
the evidence of their antiquity, with- 
out a history of the subsequent events 
that buried them from nine to twelve 
feet below the present surface and 
lowered the adjacent valleys one hun- 
dred feet below the present ridge in 
which they were found. 

Perhaps no very great importance 
would be necessarily attached to these 
artifacts were it not for the fact that 
they were imbedded in ancient river 
channel material and that Mammoth 
remains, including numerous teeth, are 
found at various levels, to a point eight 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MAN IN AMERICA 



239 



foot above them. Further, no remains 
of this type of Mammoth^ columbi, 
have been found at, or below, the hori- 
zon at whieii tlie nu^tates were exposed. 

Referenee has been nuide to pestles, 
or t>;rinding stones. Five stones were 
found by Mr. Holloman at various 
hn'ols from the base of the deposit to 
the horizon of the metates, but un- 
fortunately these have been lost and 
are not of record here. 

In connection with these finds, the 
writer desires especially to express his 



appreciation of the ji;enerosity extended 
by Doctor Priestly and Mr. Holloman, 
foi- not only did t hoy Icndevery possible 
assistance, but donated to the Colorado 
Museum of Natural History all of the 
artifacts and fossils they had preserved. 
In addition to this, they aided in locat- 
ing fossils in the possession of others. 
Mr. Holloman has also volunteered 
every facility for the Museum to 
engage actively in work in the fjuarr3\ 
Science owes Doctor Priestly and Mr. 
Holloman its appreciation. 






Fig. 8.— Metates from Holloman Gravel Pit, Frederick, Oklahoma. See "C" in 
diagram Fig. 5 



New Geological and Palaeontological Evidence 

Bearing on the Antiquity of Mankind 

in America 

By HAROLD J. COOK 

Honorary Curator of Paleontology, Colorado Museum of Natural History 



THE Colorado Museum of Natural 
History, at Denver, Colorado, 
through its staff and friends, has 
been unusually fortunate during the 
past two years in bringing to light new 
and striking evidence that primitive 
men have lived in America vastly 
longer than has been generally con- 
ceded or believed by most investigators. 

Three distinct and separate dis- 
coveries have been made during this 
period, all of which are of great im- 
portance, and only one of which has 
been published and reported to date. 
Each of these offers special evidences of 
its own; and, fortunately, each repre- 
sents a somewhat different period of 
past time, so the three appear to illus- 
trate a fair cross-section of most of the 
Pleistocene. The latest of these dis- 
coveries, just investigated the last of 
January, 1927, near Frederick, Till- 
man Co., Oklahoma, is the oldest. 
Next comes the already reported finds 
from Colorado, Mitchell Co., Texas. 
The youngest of these is a discovery 
made last summer, near Folsom, Union 
Co., New Mexico. Each will be con- 
sidered in the order of its discovery. 

As Director J. D. Figgins is simul- 
taneously writing of the human arti- 
facts found in these localities, no de- 
tailed mention of them will be made 
herein; but after going over the situa- 
tions and localities and the specimens, 
with the men who found them, the 
writer is convinced of their authen- 
ticity. 

A brief general outline of these dis- 



coveries, and the geological and palae- 
ontological evidence with them, as far 
as worked out to date, follows. The 
writer is aware that a great deal of 
important and valuable evidence is 
still to be worked out, and is confident 
that when this has been done, much 
confirmatory evidence of a highly sig- 
nificant nature will be available. 

Complying with a request of the 
director of the Colorado Museum of 
Natural History, the writer went to 
Colorado, Texas, early in May, 1925, 
to study the geology of the region for 
the purpose of determining the age of 
the deposits in which artifacts had 
been found associated with the fossil 
remains of an extinct species of bison. 

Heavy rains, immediately prior to 
my arrival, had cleared out many old 
exposures, enlarged others, and made 
new ones along the stream beds and 
arroyos. These proved to be extremely 
useful in identifying the surface forma- 
tions, and brought to light additional 
fossil material. 

From the town of Colorado investi- 
gations were extended north and west 
for distances in excess of one hundred 
miles ; smaller areas were studied to the 
east and south. Special attention was 
paid to the numerous exposures of 
streams and their dry tributaries along 
the southern margin of the "Staked 
Plains." 

The results of this reconnaissance 
are; — (1) the Fredericksburg group 
of the Cretaceous has been deposited 
unconformably on the Docum beds of 



THE ANTIQIITY OF MANKIM) IN AMERICA 



241 



the Tiiassic in this area; (2) erosion 
subse(iiient to the Crc^taceous has 
deeply eroded the reo;i<)n in |)art, coiii- 
pietely r(Mnovin<>; the Ci-etaceous IkmIs, 
and euttin<); into the Triassic; (.3) wide- 
spread, general, l)ut rather shallow 



Pleistocene beds consist of ctjnsolidated 
coarse sands and gravels, mostly of 
Cretaceous origin — with lenticular and 
in-egiilar oceui'i'ence of clays. The 
cementing material is principally cal- 
cium carb(jnate. Pleistocene fossils 




L1a\ 



->a\\\\\\\\\\\\Vx\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\a\\\^ 



Diagrammatic cross-section of the valley of Lone Wolf Creek, near Colorado, Texas, 
showing the relations of the geologic formations, and the situation under which the evidence 
was found. (By permission of Scientific American) 



deposition took place during part of 
the Pleistocene, partially refilling most, 
if not all, of the then existing valleys ; 
(4) post-Pleistocene erosion has recut 
many of these valleys, exposing in part 
old valley floors and sides, in part 
leaving small areas of varying magni- 
tude of the Pleistocene in position. 

On Lone Wolf Creek, near the town 
of Colorado, at the spot where the Bison 
Quarry and artifacts were found, a 
considerable remnant of the Pleistocene 
is still preserved, and the present tiny 
stream has cut clear through them and 
into the Triassic floor, from which all 
Cretaceous had been removed before 
the Pleistocene deposition. In this 
locality, the Pleistocene varies greatly 
in thickness, due to subsequent erosive 
phases, but in general, it may be said 
to be from six to twelve feet thick, 
overlaid by secondary depositions of 
varying character, from clay to gravel, 
unconsolidated. As a whole, the 



were found in position at numerous 
points, but in nearly all cases they 
were scattered and fragmentary, as is 
to be expected in stream deposits of 
sufficient force to transport such coarse 
material. 

When visited by the writer, recent 
flood-waters had exposed additional 
bison remains in situ, at the spot where 
the articulated bison skeleton and 
arrow (or spear) points were found 
associated, and in the lower laj^ers of 
the undisturbed calcareously cemented 
Pleistocene. Examination of the fresh 
exposures resulted in the finding of 
teeth of two species of Equus, of Ele- 
phas, and of a large camel, probably 
Camelops. Fragmentary evidence of 
other types are present, but too in- 
complete for accurate identification. 

The fossils and artifacts were re- 
moved from near the base of the de- 
posits, as illustrated in the accompany- 
ing diagram. That they were con- 



242 



NATURAL HISTORY 




.*■ ^\c- ■"*?,»■ r 




General view at the Bison Quarry, near Folsom, New Mexico. The Bison Quarry is in 
the Uttle arroyo just over the top of the automobile. In the background is a group of 
extinct volcanic cones, including Capuhn, a national monument. Photograph by H. J. Cook 




Near view of the deep little arroyo which 
cut down through a deposit of ancient ex- 
tinct bipon bones, near Folsom, New Mexico. 
The X marks ths layer in which the bones 
and arrowpoints were found. Photograph by 
H. J. Cook 

temporaneous in deposition cannot be 
questioned. Identical conditions of 
deposition were traced more than a 
mile up Lone Wolf Creek valley, from 



the Bison Quarry where the artifacts 
occurred. 

Other creek valleys, or arroyos, dry 
most of the year, are less denuded, 
and there the Pleistocene is more exten- 
sive. As a whole, the deposits seldom 
exceed twenty feet in thickness, and 
vary from that to nothing, depending 
on the local situation and its relations 
to original bedding and subsequent 
erosive influences. 

The writer collected numerous fossils 
both in the Pleistocene and in the older 
formations. The Triassic vertebrate 
remains were checked by Dr. C. W. 
Gilmore, and the invertebrates by Dr. 
J. B. Reeside. Dr. T. W. Stanton made 
identifications of the Cretaceous cri- 
teria, and personally visited the locality 
to investigate the stratigraphy and 
fossils. 

The Pleistocene vertebrate fossils 
have been but partially studied and 
must await final identifications from 
studies now in progress. It may be said 
at this point, however, that the evi- 
dence is too conclusive to admit of 
doubt or question. The artifacts were 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MANKIND IN AMERICA 



243 




Part of Bison Quarry, near Folsom, New Mexico showing bone bed in the left fore- 
ground, with blocks containing the fossils bones partly worked out. Mr. Carl Schwachheim, 
who with Fred J. Howarth, discovered this deposit, is standing on the floor at the base of 
the bone layer. Photograph by Frank M. Figgins 



found beneath a nearly complete and 
articulated skeleton of a Pleistocene 
bison. The associated fauna is typical, 
and the geologic evidence clear. The 
bison is unique among types found in 
America, with characters strongly 
suggestive of Asiatic relatives, and 
indicative of Asiatic origin. 

The second discovery, near Folsom, 
New Mexico, was made by Messrs. 
Fred Howarth and Carl Schwachheim, 
of Raton, New Mexico, who reported 
the matter to Director Figgins. Subse- 
quent investigation indicated an im- 
portant discovery, and in April, 1926, 
Director Figgins and the writer went 
to Raton, and were taken to the new 
location and shown every possible 
courtesy by Mr. Howarth. A pre- 
liminary examination of the deposit re- 
vealed important possibilities and 
arrangements were made with Mr. 
Schwachheim to start work in the field. 
The writer visited the quarry twice in 
the early summer, and helped make the 




The arroyo at the Folsom Bison Quarry, 
after the work of excavating and stripping 
was under way, showing extent of operations 
undertaken. Photograph by Frank M. Figgins 

preliminary excavations and collec- 
tions. Later, Mr. Frank Figgins, from 
the Colorado Museum of Natural 
History, joined the camp and had 
charge until the close of the season. 

The situation is a rather unusual one 
in which to find fossil bones. Situated 



244 



NATURAL HISTORY 



at an altitude of about 7000 feet, the 
location is essentially a mountain 
valley, cut deeply into Cretaceous rocks, 
and the higher levels are capped by lava. 
This valley had been partially eroded, 
when a later lava flow filled in and 
apparently cut off part of the upper end 
of the valley. Later, the valley cut 
through the lava dam, and again began 
cutting deeper upstream. The exact 
relations here have not yet been 
worked out for lack of time, but it is 
apparent that swampy, marshy con- 
ditions existed for some time in a con- 
siderable area in the valley bottom 
above the latest lava flow, and muds 
and silts were deposited to at least 
eighteen feet in depth. Later, the 
next cycle of erosion started recut- 
ting, and a narrow arroyo or gully 
worked its way back up the valley, 
and in places down to the original 
valley floor. It is near the head of this 
arroyo, and down at a depth of from 
about eight to twelve feet that the 
fossil bison skeletons were discovered, 
in both banks of the gully. 

The bison is closely related to B. 
occidentalis, and is considerably larger 
than our modern form. A number of 
individuals are represented, and fine, 
practically complete skeletons have 
been secured. Associated with this 
were found, during the course of ex- 
cavating, the two beautifully worked 
arrow points or spear points described 
by Director Figgins. 

The matrix is a dense, exceedingly 
tough clay silt, and small, irregular 
areas in it are distinctly cemented by 
lime. Shells of characteristic fresh- 
water invertebrates occur, but have 
not been studied. The bones in many 
cases show plainly the evidence of 
having been trampled on by other 
animals, while lying buried in the mud. 
One scapula, uncovered by the writer. 



had a plain footmark stamped out of 
it and driven down into the matrix 
below, where another bison had stepped 
on it while it lay in the mud. 

Fragments of other animals have 
been uncovered herein, but are too 
scrappy, as far as found to date, for 
accurate determination. It is planned 
to continue excavations the coming 
season, and it is quite probable that 
other important evidence will be 
brought to light. 

Observations and studies made to 
date plainly indicate considerable anti- 
quity, certainly thousands of years, for 
this deposit. The fact that an extinct 
race of bison is represented is further 
contributory evidence. While it is 
premature to express an opinion as to 
the exact age of these beds on present 
evidence, in the hght of observed 
data the writer is of the opinion that 
this will prove to be a late Pleistocene 
deposit. Again, the association of 
artifacts with extinct bison, — as at 
Colorado, Texas, — is certain. The 
writer hopes to complete certain 
studies on the geology of the area this 
year, which should throw more definite 
light on its age. 

In December, 1926, the writer re- 
ceived a letter from Mr. Albert G. 
Ingalls, associate editor of the Scientific 
American, enclosing a letter written to 
him by Dr. F. G. Priestly, of Frederick, 
Oklahoma, telling of the finding of 
Mammoth and other fossil bones asso- 
ciated with an arrow point, deep in a 
gravel pit, and under a bed of solid 
stone. The writer got in touch with 
Doctor Priestly, and also took the 
matter up immediately with Director 
Figgins, who instantly appreciated its 
probable importance and significance. 
Arrangements were completed, and 
late in January, 1927, the writer 
and Mr. Figgins drove to Frederick, 



THE ANTIQUITY OF MANKIND IN AMERICA 



245 



Oklahoma, to examine the 
evidence at first hand. 

We were received with 
the greatest cordiahty by- 
Doctor Priestly, who did 
all in his power to aid us 
in every way, as did also 
Mr. A. H. Holloman, 
owner of the pits where the 
fossils were found. These 
sand and gravel pits are 
operated on an extensive 
scale commercially by Mr. 
Holloman, and he has 
most courteously offered 
every aid and facility. 
Also, both of these gentle- 
men have generously 
donated to the Colorado 
Museum of Natural His- 
tory all of the important 
fossils and artifacts which 
they had saved during the 
operations conducted to 
date. Not only this, they 
put us in touch with others 
who had fossils from these 
pits, and through this con- 
nection, we received two 
fossil Equus jaws from 
Doctor Ball, dentist of 
Frederick, and from Doc- 
tor Hartwick of the same 
town we secured the loan 
of an interesting Mylodon 
caudal vertebra. 

The sand and gravel pits 
in question are situated on 
the top of the highest hill 
in that locality, about one 
mile north of Frederick. 
This hill is more properly 
part of a long- ridge, run- 
ning nearly north from 
Frederick toward the 
Wichita Mountains, some 
twenty-five or thirty miles 







Diagrammatic cross-section of the ridge at the Frederick 
sand and gravel pits, showing the position of the ancient 
stream channel, and illustrating how the old valley became 
inverted into a hill, through erosion. The present valleys 
adjoining are about 100 feet lower than the old river floor 




A section of the west face of pit at Frederick, Oklahoma, 
where fossils and artifacts were found. A. H. Holloman 
(left), owner of the pit, and Harold J. Cook. Mr. Hollo- 
man is standing on top of the lower sandstone and con- 
glomerate member of Bed A. (See diagram) 




Detail of a part of Bed A, Holloman tfand and Gravel 
Pits, near Frederick, showing typical cross-bedding which 
characterizes this deposit. Photographs by J. D. Figgins 



246 



NATURAL HISTORY 



away. The sand and gravel wliicli 
forms its top are old stream bed de- 
posits, laid down when this ancient 
Red River tributary ran at that alti- 
tude. The top of this hill is about 100 
feet above the immediateh' adjoining 
valleys, and about 280 feet above the 









IQ 


Elephas columbi- 
Metates 


c 

B 




Cn 


■ 


03 


2 
'(. 






Arrow 




c 


CD 




A \ 





B 




c 


1 


.-^ 




3 


- 




Elephas 

Arrow,Eqi:us >. 
MylodoriJrilophiKioni 


z:^ 








RED BEDS 





Diagrammatic section of the exposed de- 
posits in the Frederick gravel pits, illustrating 
the relations of beds and the occurrence of 
fossils and artifacts 

present water level of Red River, a few 
miles away in the same drainage basin. 
The general surface of the whole 
region is composed of Red Beds of 
Permian age into which the Pleistocene 
river valley was cut. In this ancient 
valley, coarse granitic sands and gravels 
were washed, apparently from the 
Wichita Mountains, and were carried 
down and bedded in the valley bottom. 
The accumulated sands and gravels of 
this nature make up the lower beds, or 



Bed A, of the accompanying diagram- 
matic section. As sand and gravel are 
far more resistant to erosion than the 
relatively soft clays of the Red Beds, 
gradual general erosion on both sides of 
the valley wore the general surface 
levels down, while the valley floor 
held its own. Finally the stream found 
access to lower levels. At this time, 
when the old channel was first aban- 
doned, a flood-plain period in the valley 
was instituted. The beds laid down 
during this stage are Bed B of the 
diagram. As denudation continued 
and the drainage followed lower levels, 
the flood plain deposits ceased, and the 
overlying clay-silt beds (Bed C of the 
diagram) with their columnar structure 
strongly suggest a period of aeolian 
deposition. 

As erosion proceeded and the en- 
croaching new valleys undermined the 
sides of the old and higher valley floor, 
residual gravels from the old beds 
formed protecting mantels along the 
sides of the former Pleistocene channel, 
retarding erosion. Thus, by main- 
taining its position through resistance 
to erosion, the valley essentially be- 
came inverted. 

Other channel remnants are left in 
the region besides the one under special 
study; and it is planned to examine 
these critically for additional geological 
and other evidence immediately. 

The floor of the Pleistocene valley 
was at least half a mile wide at the 
point where the sand and gravel pits 
are now located. The middle and lower 
part of the channel was somewhat west 
of the present cut, and so the beds there 
are thicker than in the section given 
herewith. This is shown by the fact 
that the Red Bed floor of the stream 
dips west clear across the open cut in 
the quarries. Drag-line holes have been 
cut still farther west for about a 



77/ A' A.xTfQrrry of maxkixd i\ amfrica 



247 



(luartrr of a mile, down throii{2;h the 
chaniu'l beds to tlic Rotl Bods, sampling 
the depth and quality of the sands and 
gi-avel. I'^roin lliese it is possible to 
get a very got)d cross-section of tlu^ 
channel, as far as the holes were cut, 
and nearly to the west side of the 
ridge. 

The face of the present quarry, on 
its west side, is at least one hundred 
and fifty yards long, and has over a 
twenty-foot face. 

A typical vertical section of the 
beds is given herewith; but, of course, 
in any stream beds of this character, 
the actual thickness will always show 
variation for every location measured. 

In general, three main phases of 
deposition are noted, as mentioned 
above. The lower beds, to a depth of 
nine to eighteen feet at the quarry 
face, are characteristically cross- 
bedded, undisturbed river channel 
sands and gravels, with local lenses of 
reworked Red Bed materials, brought 
down from some point upstream at the 
time of the original deposition. The 
lower member of this bed, A, is coarse, 
generally cemented gravel, and carries 
some water. It is in this bed that 
fossils are most abundant, and in it one 
flint spear point was found imbedded. 
Above this is cross-bedded gravel and 
sands, and in some areas a well con- 
solidated sandstone member is present, 
about three feet above the Red Bed 
floor. Under this, the primitive Mam- 
moth jaws were discovered. Fossils 
occur all the way up through Bed A, 
Mr. Holloman informs us, but not 
abundantly. The more advanced tj^ pe 
of Mammoth, Elephas columbi, is 
found repeatedly in the lower part of 
Bed B. The finding of Trilophodon 



and priiiiilive Mammoth in the lower 
beds, and a more advanced type of 
Mammoth above, suggests that quite a 
long period of time had elapsed between 
the two deposits. More work and 
further observations will undoubtedly 
throw added light on this. 

Three Edentates are present, the 
two big ground sloths Megatherium and 
Mylodon, and Glyptodon. Besides the 
three elephants previously named, we 
also have at least three species of horse 
present, all of the genus Equus; also, a 
small and a medium-sized species of 
camel, of genera undetermined; also 
turtles and fragmentary bones of 
other families too broken for accurate 
identification. As little attention has 
been paid until just now to the saving 
of smaller and fragile fossils in those 
quarries, undoubtedly much important 
evidence has been lost. However, with 
the array of species present, and those 
almost certain to be recovered, it should 
be possible to place these beds quite 
accurately as to their proper position in 
the Pleistocene. Present studies indi- 
cate they are of early Pleistocene age, 
and the writer is convinced of their 
contemporaneous association, surpris- 
ing as such a culture at that time may 
seem. 

While other instances have been re- 
ported of the finding of evidence of 
mankind associated with extinct ani- 
mals in America, nowhere has the 
evidence of antiquity been so clear-cut 
and conclusive as this. As compared 
with the find in Colorado, Texas,^ 
the present occurrence appears to be 
distinctly older. 



'Cook, Harold J. "The Antiquity of Man in Ameri- 
ca," Scientific American, Nov., 1926. "Definite Ev- 
dence of Human Artifacts in Ameriean Pleistocene," 
Science, N.S., Vol. LXII, Xo. 1612. Nov. 20. 1925 



The Fifth Bernheimer Expedition to the 
Southwest 



By CHARLES L. BERNHEIMER 

Foreword. — The writer of this article is the author of an interesting book, Rainbow 
Bridge, in which he vividly portrays some of his adventures while exi)loring for the American 
Museum in the rough, rockj% inaccessible countrj^ north of the Navaho Indian Reservation in 
Arizona. Mr. Bernheimer here gives us an additional note on his 1926 trip and his di,scovery 
of a new natural bridge in southern Utah. 

Mr. Bernheimer has made five annual expeditions for the Museum, their object being to 
seek traces of prehistoric inhabitants by traversing the most difficult sections of the region, 
following courses probably not previously traveled by white men. It was on one of these ex- 
peditions that the wonderful archaeological riches of Canon del Muerto were discovered, an 
account of which appears in the article by Doctor Kidder on pages 202-209. The Museum is 
happy to announce that Mr. Bernheimer is now on his sixth expedition. 



OUR expedition, carried on during 
the eariy summer of 1926, 
through country as rough and 
rugged as any we had ever traversed in 
our earher explorations, brought to 
light a new and interesting geologic 
phenomenon, a hugh monolith hereto- 
fore unknown to white man. 

We had traveled long and hard 
northeast of Navaho Mountain and 
when about five miles west of Piute 
Canon, due east of Desha Canon, 
suddenly in the distance we beheld this 
strange structure. It appeared to be a 
tremendous and piercing hawkseye 
perched there to hold inviolate all that 
came within its protecting aegis. "How 
like the eye of a hawk " was the thought 
that ran through each and every mind, 
and promptly we named it "hawkseye." 
On coming closer, we found that its 
strange and fantastic appearance was 
due not only to its own formation, but 
also because immediately behind it and 
concentric with the bridge was a deep 
cave. The bridge and cave are sepa- 
rated by a slit in the rock of about fifty 
feet. A careful examination of the 
cave disclosed that the rotundity of 
the bridge is repeated in its recess by 



an arch which suggests a new bridge in 
embryo, and still farther on in the very 
bowels of the cave is to be found an 
oval depression completing the perfect 
concavity of this striking phenomenon. 
We estimated the height of the bridge 
to be about 170 feet and its span from 
abutment to abutment about the same, 
while the vertical thickness of the rock 
at the top of the arch is about 20 feet. 

The cave and bridge originally were 
one. Through the action of the 
elements, a version of which will be 
found further on, about 50 feet of the 
opening arch of the cave became 
separated from its rear part by a break 
in the roof parallel with the mouth of 
the cave, thus creating the bridge. 

The roof of the bridge and of the 
cave are on a level with the top of a 
small ridge. There is no water on this 
ridge or indeed anywhere within miles. 
The cave is equally dry, not even water 
seepage could be found there, nor was 
there vegetation of any kind in the cave 
as is the case when there is but the 
slightest presence of water. 

Looking at this striking giant, we 
all felt that too little credit has hereto- 
fore been given to the great force which 

249 



250 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Columbine caves 



has contributed so much to the special 
impress of these desert wastes, making 
them look different from lands any- 




An old medicine man whom we encountered 
at the bottom of Piute Canon at the foot of 
the lower crossing 



where else — namely the mechanical 
forces of wind. 

Leaving the Hawksej^e Bridge we 
traveled northeast and finally came 
across some caves which we called 
Columbine Caves because of the profu- 
sion of flowers we found growing in 
their depths. These caves also are 
located in a spot where it is absolutely 
impossible for water action to have had 
any but the most insignificant influence 
in their formation. They represent 
another monument to this great force. 

From Columbine Caves our path led 
on through a rock-strewn country. 
Between Piute and Xokai canons, on a 
plateau isolated from all else, we came 
upon a hugh domelike rock. In the 
flank of this rock mass is a miniature 
cave still in the formative stage, 
filled with sand and pebbles, the tools 
with which the master workman, the 
wind, does his grinding and chiseling. 

In Purple Sage Canon, a tributary of 
Desha Canon, the ground was literally 



FIFTH BERNHEIMER liXfEblTlON TO THE SUVrilW EST 251 




^ 





Isolated, hugh, domelike rock with miniature cave in its flank 



covered with purple sage — an effect 
beautiful and weird in this immense 
waste. We did some scouting and 
found ourselves on top of a rock island 
about a mile square, another strange 
example of the wind's handicraft, for 
this rock island was dotted with in- 
numerable deep cylindrical cavities. 



The island is not mesa shaped. Its 
sides are slanting and it is detached 
from any other high point. Indeed, 
there are no high points within a radius 
of several miles. It is not in a position 
to receive water, other than rain or 
snow. We named it Pot Hole Ridge. 
Many of these pot holes were from 30 



252 



NATURAL HISTORY 





Pot Hole Ridge, picturing a section of one of the so-called "pot holes" 



to 40 feet deep, and dry. Others con- 
tained water about 25 to 30 feet down, 
undoubtedly the remnants of rain and 
snow. A number of them were filled 
to the top with sand and earth and 
provided sustenance for many types of 
desert herbs, flowers and bushes. In 



some, cedars were growing, which, 
judging by their size, could not be less 
than four hundred years of age. In- 
deed, many of these pot holes reminded 
us of exquisite jardinieres. Their 
mouths sloped but merged very 
promptly with their perpendicular 



FIFTH BERNHEIMER EXPEDITION TO THE SOUTHWEST 253 




Wild Rose Cave.— Behind the man's head at the right is seen the top of the ladder de- 
scribed in the text,"and at the leftfis the black jar of the corrugated tj^e 



sides, forming perfect cylinders.} Be- 
cause of the danger of sliding into their 
depths, from which there is no way of 
escape unless one is fortified with a 
rope, — and we were not, — we were 
unable to secure good photographs. 



though we did succeed in getting a view 
of the general landscape. The enigma 
of the birth of these pot holes is pos- 
sibly explained by a tiny one which we 
chanced to pass. It was not larger 
than a tea cup. In its bottom lay 



254 



NATURAL JIISTOltV 









At the bottom of Nasja Canon 




:^ 



sand ready to revolve, bevel, and polish 
with the next wind blast, and thus do 
its share towards contributing to the 
dramatic and weird setting of this 
precious desert land of ours. 

From here we went on to Nokai 



Canon, traveling at great length in its 
bed for we were determined to find 
whence it came. We discovered that 
three small canons came together, as 
it were, in one, and formed the hugh 
Nokai. The most westerly one of these 



FIFTH BERNHEIMER EXPEDITION TO THE SOUTHWEST 255 



three parent canons we named Wild 
Hose Canon because of the tan»ie of 
wikl ros(> hushes we eneountei'cd. 'This 
canon headed into a Iaiu;e ea\'e which 
we named Wild Rose Cave. 

This cave affords invitino- ^lound 
for scientific examination. Among 
numerous other ruins it contains a 
perfectly preserved house which, how- 
ever, has no door. The only opening in 
its walls is a small space about 12 inches 
square, undoubtedly intended for ven- 
tilation. The cedar poles of a ladder 
protrude through its roof. This ladder, 
which we believe has not been used in 
five hundred 3^ears or more, is still in 
perfect condition. It is a beautiful 
specimen of the handwork of the 
aborigines. Narrow at the top and 
wide at the bottom, its five rungs are 
slipped through two courses of willow 
twigs lying parallel with and on the 
upper part of the cedar poles, and 
cross-tied with smaller willow twigs. 
It is my belief that no such perfect 
specimen is to be found in any museum 
today. In the vicinity of this cave, 
partly exposed, we saw a black jar, 
almost perfect, of the corrugated type, 
about fifteen inches in diameter. We 
removed nothing from this cave, be- 
lieving that things should be left undis- 
turbed for a more careful and system- 
atic examination. The potsherds here 
were all of the Betatakin type. 

This year we decided once more to 
attempt to go through Nasja Caiion. 
In 1922 we failed to travel from Surprise 
Valley down Nasja Canon, and as we 
were still anxious to know into what 
it emptied, whether the San Juan or 
Colorado River, we thought the time 
opportune to make another endeavor. 
As in our previous expedition we were 
again prevented by the same narrowing 
down of the canon. We also found 
that the hugh rock masses which in 



1922 had given us much difficulty, 
some of lliciii being twenty feet liigh 
and as iiiiich in diameter, liad been 
ci'ushed by the flood waters — not a 
tiace of them was to bo found. Tlie 




A typical resident of the Navaho regioii 
standing before his hogan in Sagi Canon 

contour of the caiion's bottom had 
changed materially. To attain our 
object it was necessary for us to climb 
the wall of the canon. This climb was 
possibly seven hundred feet or more 
and was of the most trying sort, but 
on reaching the top we were fully 
rewarded for our efforts for we saw 
that Nasja Creek, which flows through 
the Nasja Caiion, empties into the San 
Juan River near a spot on the north 
shore of the stream which was known 
to one of my guides as Sunshine Pasture. 
It is regrettable that the many 
tracks of prehistoric animals, probably 
one hundred or more, and no doubt of 
various sized dinosaurs, which we came 
across in Sagi Canon photographed so 
poorl}'. We reached them late in the 



256 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Dinosaur tracks in Xeskla-Nizadi Canon, taken in 1924 



afternoon. They are located near the 
head of the main easterly branch of 
Sagi Canon called Doguo-tshe-boco. 
We are planning to visit this locahty 
again during the coming summer, and 
hope that this next visit will result in 



satisfactory photographs. The tracks, 
though smaller, are not unhke those 
which we discovered in our trip of 
1924. This photograph represents a 
spot in Neskla-Nizadi Canon, a con- 
fluent of Navaho Canon. 



I 



Indian Music from the Southwest 

By HKLKX llOBEKTS 

Research Assistant in AntliropoloKy, Institute of Psyciiology, Yule University 

FouKWOUD. — The study of primitive music is now an important part of field work, and 
most anthropological expeditions go out equipped with a recording i)honograph. After the 
record is made, the student of music must carefully record thesong text in the original language, 
and then by listening to the i)h(»n()grai)h, transcribe the tune in musical notation. 'Ilie depart- 
ment of anthropology in this Museum has a large collection of such i)h<)ii<)grapli records 
from Various Indian tribes. 

Miss Helen H. Rol)erts, the author of this pajier, who is an anthropologist and also' a 
specialist in music in the Institute of Psychology, Yale University, has made field trips to the 
West Indies, to Hawaii, and elsewhere, and is well know^n through her publications on Hawaiian, 
Eskimo, Indian, and Negro music. In this article she gives a few examjiles of music of the 
Indians of our Southwest, transcribed by her and not previously published. 



THE serious stud}' of Indian music 
in the Southwest began shortly 
after Theodore Baker pubhshed 
in German in 1882 his doctor's thesis 
on the music of the North American 
wilds, based on a survey of some 
eastern tribes. As earty as 1636, how- 
ever, various books of travel casually 
mention Indian songs, and now and 
then, as in Sagard-Theodat's His- 
toire du Canada, notations of two or 
three tunes of eastern Indians appeared. 
Several other studies of Eastern and 
Plains Indian music followed Baker's 
before Dr. Jesse Walter Fewkes in- 
itiated the study of Pueblo music under 
the auspices of the Hemenway South- 
western Expedition. Yet it was Doctor 
Fewkes who first realized the working 
possibilities of the phonograph in 
securing records of the songs. He first 
put it to the test in Maine in 1889, and 
in 1890 in recording songs at the pueblo 
of Zuni, New ]Mexico. The instrument 
used was worked by a treadle and fitted 
with a fly wheel to regulate the speed. 
Benjamin Ives Oilman collaborated 
with Doctor Fewkes in transcribing 
and thoroughly studying these records^ 



iZuni Melodies. Jour, of American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Vol. 1, pp. 6.5-91, 1S91. 



and later wrote a large treatise- on 
Hopi melodies based upon records 
which Doctor Fewkes also obtained 
with the aid of a phonograph at the 
Hopi village of Walpi in 1891. The 
Hopi were much impressed by this 
new talking machine and in one of 
their celebrations the Hopi clowns 
later ''took off" Doctor Fewkes and 
his outfit veiy cleverl}^, much to his 
amusement and that of the entire 
Indian audience^. 

About 1897 Washington ]^Iatthews 
collected phonograph records of some 
Navaho songs'* which were transcribed 
by John Comfort Fillmore, but of all 



-Hopi Songs. Jour, of American Archaeology and 
Ethnology, Vol. .5. 

^Fewkes, J. Walter, "The Butterfly in Hopi Myth 
and Ritual" 591-592, (American Anthropologist, N. S., 
Vol. 12, pp. 576-594, 1910). 

Doctor Fewkes writes about this as follows: — 

"... In 1891 the author was engaged in pioneer 
work with the phonograph in the preservation of Hopi 
melodies. The use of this instrument naturally made a 
strong impression on the Hopi, who were at first much 
astonished but later this feeling gave way to amuse- 
ment when a graphophone was introduced by the late 
T. V. Keam. 

"The value of this instrument for amusement did not 
escape the clowns, who in one of their performances 
impro\'ised a phonograph out of an old Sibley stove 
funnel. Their representation of it is shown in a photo- 
graph made by Major Williams in 1892. The bearded 
person represents the author while the man at the right 
is one of the clowns. Another clown, hidden under a 
blanket, responded in a quaking voice to a second per- 
former who from time to time spoke or sang into the 
funnel, the record being taken down by the bearded 
Hopi dressed as a white man. The fun thus produced 
was highly appreciated by the people on the house 
tops." 

'Naraho Legends. Houghton, Mifflin and Co., N. Y., 
1897. 



258 



NATURAL HISTORY 



the chants for which Matthews at one 
time or another secured texts and 
voluminous descriptive material, only 
eleven songs appeared in notation. 
The Navaho chants are said to be 
extremely beautiful and it is a pity that 
more have not yet been recorded and 
transcribed in musical notation. In 



1907 Natalie Curtis published The 
Indians' Boo¥ which, in addition to 
many songs of other than southwestern 
tribes, contains a number of Apache 
melodies including Pima, Mohave, 
Yuma and Navaho, and songs from 
the pueblos of Zuni, San Juan, Acoma, 

'Harper, New York. 



mf 



s 



TewaLove Song 
Collecttci by J. P. Harrington 

'Reproduced byh-is permlssloa. 

3 



ff i, rfrff i ;pf. i ;ffte . 



'i 3/a he.: t yalu^'t ya he >€i 'I yafie 'i ya 



^ 




^ 



hem a 'i ya Keyahna 'i ya luHeyong 



m 



FfFr i .ffffrff,i1| ^ 



(i)mn;-wi'aa''ayan(a)n-Ki tcan Wkwin^ka:' 
ITe a maloCeti pleases Lake-le^f 






't'arCnarL-xariwaea 
she she Is catted 



narvho'Cd) V-pi'ye' '6-wzzn^Mid) 
I arid awexy am ^otng 



i ?^i-Tri^°Tif^^^i^^ ^i^jfWrl 



he-ra he-ra he: yo TS^kwin^'ka:'!" an'natt-wiweeri 
-^v . ^TN A Lake -leaf she she is , catted. 

::n i ffffffr ir ii] ^ ' ' 



^ 




I 



4 Tempo 



m 



m 



'o' 'an' kb'V he>l"C *aa(na)ro-nxuua' ^t-he-ra 
When dreamlri6 tkatmaideal bevjhetd. 



s*^-^ 



p 



ai 1 t 



'aag '0' p'o:k'e'ge"?o:kwm§V: to- 

Yonder by the Lake -leaf T Spoke to 
tiver's bank 



m 



INDIAN MUSIC FROM THE SOUTHWEST 



259 



rmrrrrT 




'm.<^ 'C Ke'H'nan.':ro-tsCkarinyLngmrLVi kw{(m)'urrtmu\a' 
It was then I asked Ker my wife j,^lttJthoube 



;h 



? 



KiyaKe: yo Ke-ra hlyofii yo 'i'wi'mboV 

»,w ^A^ ^^ Beroaly 



^ 



tfffr'rfff?'f, | rpg¥#g^ 



mA^ro-da'a' Ke-rahe: yo he-m Ke yano 

I love. ^ 




Ke-ra Ke yo Ke mngha t ya ke 



Laguna, and Walpi. Miss Curtis did 
not attempt a critical study of the 
songs, merely aiming to give them 
exactly as heard, but their structure is 
easily revealed by her method of draft- 
ing them, while her careful and con- 
scientious work indicates the trust- 
worthiness of her notations. She 
probably collected many more songs 
than appeared in The Indians^ Book 
but, except for scattered examples, I 
am not aware that she published them. 

In 1914 Albert B. Reagan reproduced 
thirty-nine tunes from the Pueblos^ 
in a volume not devoted to the study 
of their music, and therefore not so 
well known from this standpoint. 

Dr. P. E. Goddard, of the Museum, 
recorded songs by phonograph from 
the San Carlos, White Mountain, and 
Mescalero Apache, in connection with 
his studies of language and ceremonials. 
They are not general samplings of 
songs, but whole ceremonial series 
such as those pertaining to girls' 
adolescence ceremonies and offer ex- 



iDon Diego; or. The Pueblo Uprising of 1860. The 
Alice Harriman Co. New York. (cop. 1914.), 352 pp., 8 pi. 



cellent comparative material for the 
tribes mentioned, since they belong to 
comparable categories. They were 
transcribed by the writer but so far 
remain unpublished. 

J. P. Harrington, of the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, is another col- 
lector. A number of myth songs taken 
by him in the village of Picuris and 
transcribed by the writer, are now in 
press. In connection with her ethno- 
logical studies. Dr. Elsie Clews 
Parsons secured a number of records 
from Zuni and Laguna and from the 
Navaho. Reid Stacey presented five 
tunes in "Some Zuni Ceremonies and 
Melodies,"2andin 1913 E. G. Stricklen 
published eight tunes of the Papago^ 
while here and there such men as 
Farwell, Lieurance, Burton, Loomis, 
Troyer, have published many Indian 
melodies from the Southwest, most of 
which have been harmonized and 
worked over for concert purposes. 



=Soine Zuiii Ceremonies and Melodies. The Music- 
lovers calendar. Urbana, III. 190", Vol. 2, pp. 54-61. 

^Notes on Eight Papago Songs. University of Cali- 
fornio. Publications in .\merican .Archaeology and 
Ethnolog>'. Berkeley, Cal., 1923. V. 20; Phoebe 
Apperson Hearst Memoiial Volume ,pp. 361-366. 



A GlrWAioUscenceCefemoriyoong 
San Carlos ApacKe 

Coltect&abyP.E.Goddard. 
"Record E-4. Amencaallusetm' 

Jrioi;A 



Tomtom • r r r y 



^^ 





A' 




p'fP'i^rrrr^r ^ 



Pl nr f n: 




A GlrW AcLoUsceace Ceremony Song 
San Carlos ApacKe 

Collected by P. E.&oddard. 
I^ficord Es. Amef LC2»n.Nu.seum . A 



J=i2t 



•^- 



g 



# 



I 



To,n-W|^Q.Q,f^ crc/crcr 



260 



i 9'i-frr"frrir^ 





fit 



p-|*pir^p^p 




rrr ' ^Trr 




' ^""^!?rrrr ' '^ 



p^pf i frfffrirrrr 




^p 





?'iT^j^-Jrr 



1 On. the second repetltloa of tKe second stort d(tnparentK£.ses)tssabsttta'te.d for 
tke sixteentknotfc b,wKUe mtKe"fou.ftK.scoref*ts replaced by the dotted 
etoK-tKavad sixteentk notes, +*e)nda. 



261 



J-.% 



Soa^ of tKe Elf ia tke Tirt 
ad Griaat Nytk 

Tic-arisTuebto 
Collected })y J.V. Hairtn^toa. 



we-se-lo we-se-lo se - Lo se - Lo se-to we -a 




me ' e yee Ke ye Ke e e ke a'a aa a - 

i 2 




- a 'e ae lo we we 'o wit'a i m 




fe'e p N^witua nata sa ta ki aa no 

i'ReprocLuced by permUstoa of tKe3u-reatc of Am^i-ican Eiknolo^. 

Love Sono of iKe Elf 
Kacpie-TalL-BoynytK 




ya 'e fie'a' e mi Kyo '^ ^t to ya 'e Ke'a'e rai 




^^ 



Kyo e ro ya' e ke' a' e ra i kyoe ro ya' 




tKe a' e ra-c Kyo'erb e miya'eKyo'aikyo 




262 



wirov/ ht e yo 

I'Reprodu.cecL by permissloa of tKe 3ureaa of Americarv EtKnotogy. 



INDIAN MUSIC FROM THE SO ['Til WE ST 



263 



However, except for the studies acter of Zuni and Hopi imisic. Since 

made by Doctor Fewkes and Doctor songs composed for similar purposes, 

Oilman and tlie collections by Doctor such as steps in (•ciciiionial ritual, are 

Goddard, no systematic attempts apt to show siniilnrilics, specimens 

have been made to study the sonf2;s from different ty|)cs of ceremonies 

of the Southwest. Doctor Fewkes's would give a good general idea of the 

collections aim at revealing the char- state of music of a particular tribe, 



Lalls(by 
Zufii pueblo 




'A we 



a v/e 



a we- t a 



we - e 






a we 'a we 'a^ v^- e 'a we- 



^ 



iS'Wl 



:^ 




eayamaiito a nt 



^^^^^- 



Tvt a - a^ {^^ — 



a - gal 



^^^^^^^ 



a ne c e mi gi ya at ya 



'U^y^l^Jj^M 



ai 



maiiio a at TO'a- 




'a we 'a we ^a w^-T e 

i l^eprodLtcedb)/ permission of EUtcCtcwsTarsons. 



Zurit Nans urindlng Song 
Collected by Elsie Clews Tarsons^ 



J =10? _ ^ ^. 

\ 9f\rr\r\:Tr \ 




ka ta ne cki-mi pa - ski a-wl-tfe-ti-netst-ria-u 




ne la-nl tsVa-m - pa U la pe. - li- nje. Ka 



i 2 




Ka ka na a ka a ba ka ne 



ntwaiaa 




Ki na ne de ya do ba ckt-mi 



pa- 




ski a-wl-te-ll-ne fei-na-a (ne la-nl tsh-a-xa- pa tala 

(pe la U pe ■ H- ne ha 




ka ka na ke t ke ke 




nuke nuke nu kje ke nuke nub 



u 




ke a ke u ke u ke a ke u ke 



u 



I'Uffi H i 



lie u 



L "Rcpro du-ced ty Vief -p e rnxlssto a . 



264 



INDIAN MUSIC FROM THE SOUTHWEST 



265 



while those belonging to any given 
ceremony would reveal stylistic 
similarities. 

Doctor Gilnuin decided that Ziiiii 
music' was subject to no restrictions of 
scale but that the songs were "the 
musical growths out of which scales 
are elaborated, and not compositions 
undertaken in conformity to norms of 
interval order already fixed in the 
consciousness of the singers. In this 
archaic stage of the art, scales are not 
formed, but forming." While Gilman 
critically analyzed the examples of 
Zuni music from a structural as well as 
a melodic point of view, he seemed 
primarily interested in the scale pos- 
sibilities, and did not go beyond indi- 
cating the divisions of the melodies. 
In Volume IV of the Journal, page 10, 
Fewkes, discussing theHopi songs, says 



^Journal of American Archseology and Ethnology 
Vol. 2, pt. II, p. 89. 



that many resemblances between 
Hopi and Zuni music would be ex- 
pected from the close relationships 
of the religious ceremonials of the two 
peoples. 

Judging from the Apache ceremonial 
songs, the music of these people is 
exceedingly circumscribed, archaic, and 
generally monotonous, but such is apt 
to be the case with chant songs, and 
probably not all Apache music is so 
uninteresting. Certainly many pueblo 
melodies are strikingly beautiful des- 
pite their simple character. It is pos- 
sible to give here only a few speci- 
mens of songs from our Southwest 
Indians, but these should make clear 
the desirability of collecting more of 
them before they are forgotten by the 
Indians themselves, for as Doctor 
Parsons says, this is one of the most 
important and neglected fields for the 
study of Indian music today. 




Hopi Indians burlesquing Doctor Fewkes's work w-ith the phonograph. The 
bearded individual is supposed to represent Doctor Fewkes. From The American 
Anthropologist, N . S. Vol. XII 



Primitive Surgery 

FIRST EVIDENCE OF TREPHINING IN THE SOUTHWEST 
By H. L. SHAPIRO 

Assistant Curator of Physical Anthropology. American Museum 



ONE of the oldest of surgical 
operations is trephining or 
trepanning. Although Hippoc- 
rates, in the fourth century B.C., 
mentioned that trephining was of 
ancient origin, it was with considerable 
hesitation that scientists received the 
announcement by Prunieres in 1872 
of the discovery of Neolithic skulls 
with clear evidence of trephining. 
Shortly afterward Broca read a classic 
paper on "Prehistoric Trephining in 
Europe" which, by a master^ array of 
evidence, convinced anthropologists 
that Neolithic man, even with his crude, 
stone instruments, was already quite 
accustomed to trepan the skull. From 
then on an increasing amount of 
material was brought to light which 
conclusively showed that this practice 
was fairly common throughout all 
Europe during that remote time. Most 
of the cases, however, were confined to 
the Neolithic, and it seemed strange 
that this operation was rare during the 
succeeding epoch, the Bronze Age, 
when finer instruments were available. 
Pittard, however, has reported a skull 
from Sallanches dating from the Bronze 
Age, which has a healed opening made 
by trephining. Nevertheless, the num- 
ber of Bronze Age trephined crania is 
still relatively few. This decline of 
Neolithic trephining may be signifi- 
cant in determining the motives in- 
volved during the Neolithic period. 

In modern practice, trephining is 
performed in cases of trauma or injury 
to the bone. Great care must be ex- 
ercised to prevent injury to the 

266 



membranes surrounding the brain or to 
the brain itself. Even with the rela- 
tively skilled and aseptic procedure 
employed in the latter half of the 
nineteenth century, Bluhm reported 
a mortality rate of 50 per cent for 1000 
cases of trephining. Where the opera- 
tion was performed for epilepsy with- 
out antecedent traumatic conditions, 
the mortality was reduced to 20 per 
cent. From a study of trephining 
among the pre-historic Peruvians, 
Muniz and McGee were able to 
establish an approximate mortality 
of 50 per cent, which compares favor- 
ably with the high mortality found by 
Bluhm. 

The modern technique consists in 
removing, with the aid of a circular saw 
called a trephine, a section from the 
skull. Various ingenious attempts have 
been made to determine the exact 
procedure used by the early Neolithic 
surgeons. From a careful study of the 
Neolithic trephinings themselves and 
the methods used by modern primitive 
people, it seems clear that there were 
three precedures employed. After 
folding back the skin and laying bare 
the skull, the desired section was 
marked out and removed by deep inter- 
secting incisions. Another method, 
which appears to have been common in 
the Neolithic period, is by a process of 
scraping, which was a very much more 
laborious technique but one that may 
have been less liable to prove fatal as 
the result of too deep an incision. The 
operator, by scraping, would have 
constantly in view the exact stage of 



PHI MIT I VE S URGER Y 



207 



the operation. Finally, a third method, 
which seems to have some confirmation 
in the procedure used by the Kabyles 
of northern Africa, is one which consists 
of encircling the site to be removed 
with a series of drill holes which are 
joined together to free the circum- 
scribed area from the surrounding 
tissue. In these methods the operation 
has been estimated to last approxi- 
mately an hour. Frequently, the sub- 
ject fainted from pain and loss of blood. 
The New Hebrideans are said to 
recover completely within two or three 
weeks after the operation. 

In America the first case of pre- 
historic trephining was described in 
1872 by Broca. The skull was dis- 
covered by Squier in a site not far 
from Cuzco in Peru. No sign of heal- 
ing was evident and the marks of the 
instrument were very clear. Since 
then an innumerable amount of tre- 
phining has been reported from Peru, 
but only a few cases in the rest of 
America. In 1897 Hrdhcka published 
a paper on two trephined crania from 
Chihuahua, Mexico. Few unequivocal 
cases of trephining had been found, 
however, in America north of Mexico. 
Skulls from Michigan and Illinois have 
been reported with openings in the 
skull, but these have not exhibited the 
characteristic marks of trephining. 
In Ohio, Indian graves revealed trophj^ 
skulls with similar openings which were 
used for suspension. Smith, in 1924, 
reported two trephined skulls from the 
northwest coast. 

As far as I am aware, the onh^ evi- 
dence for prehistoric trephining in the 
Southwest of the United States is the 
two skulls described below. In 1923 
two skulls of pre-Columbian age were 
discovered in New Mexico, on a Mu- 
seum expedition, one by Earl H. Morris 
at Mitten Rock and the other by Louis 



R. Sullivan at Lamy. The Mitten 
Rock skull is shown in Fig. 1. The 
cranium shows extensive pathological 
lesions of long standing. Nodules and 
depressions cover the entire vault. 
The opening is roughly circular and 
includes most of the lower part of the 
right half of the frontal bone. The 
lower left-hand border of the opening 
has invaded the frontal sinus. 
Roughly, the opening is 50 mm. wide 
and about 40 mm. long, which is an 
unusually large one. There are no 
signs of repair and, considering the 
diseased nature of the skull, it seems 
plausible that the operation was per- 
formed to relieve a long established 
pathological condition. The right 
external angular process of the frontal 
bone shows what appear to be the 
marks of a former depression by its 
marked declination toward the tre- 
phining, indicating perhaps some pre- 
existing abnormal condition which may 
well have been one of the causes for 
the operation. There are no marks of 
the instrument beyond the sharply 
defined edges of the opening itself. 
The bone appears to have been cut 
quite easily due to its diseased state. 
In an archaeological site which is 
notable for the frequency of artificial 
flattening, it is of interest that this skull 
shows no indication of any deformation. 
This may possibly have arisen from the 
fact that special attention was given 
this individual whose pathological 
status appears to have been of very 
early origin. The site of operation is a 
dangerous one, and the invasion of the 
sinus indicates either inexperience or 
necessity, due to some condition 
situated in that area. 

The second skull, Fig. 2, discovered 
by Sullivan at Lamy in New Mexico, 
is of great interest because of a number 
of factors. The skull itself is quite 




2-^ 

O G 



So , 

o'x S 

■■ S S-3 



o 




ST > 

<Ic«5 p 
I. 05 » 






CD 

a 
o 



H 

o 

iJ 

K 

O 
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g ^^ 

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I'HLMITIVK SlUilEUY 



209 



(listiiu't fi-om any of the olhors un- 
cai-lhccl at this site. Its uiideluriiicd 
(lolic'hoccphaly is in pronounced con- 
t rast to tlu> artificially deformod bracliy- 
ccphaly which chai-actcrizcs this 
ruin, San Cristobal. The cranium 
was discovered at th(^ bottom of the 
refuse heap in which most of the crania 
were found, and may point to an earlier 
inhabitant of this tj^pical pueblo site. 
At any rate its general character is 
quite unlike the other San Cristobal 
crania. In this case the trephining is 
in the right parietal bone about 1cm. 
from the middle of the sagittal suture. 
The opening, roughly diamond-shaped, 
the long axis being directed posteriorly, 
is about 20 mm. The regularity of the 
opening and the beveled edges exhibit 
clearly the character of trephining. The 
borders of the opening show cicatriza- 
tion, the cancellous tissue being en- 
tirely covered over by the growth of new 
and compact bor i, and the inner table 
reveals under the glass several fine 
spicules of new bone growing into the 
opening. The seat of the opening is in 
the most frequently chosen site for 
primitive trephinings. No traces of a 
pathological condition were observable. 
Altogether this case is a clear document 
for pre-historic trephining in the South- 
west with a recovery from the operation 
evidenced by the repair shown in the 
wound. 

There have been many hypotheses 
proposed to account for the occurrence 
of this form of pre-historic surgery. 
Broca believed that the operation was 
performed to relieve epileptics from an 
evil genius or spirit, who escaped 
through the opening made in the skull. 
He attributed most of the trephinings 



to this superstition and dismi.ssed 
fracture as a primary cause, since in 
most cases the trephining was per- 
formed on (he parietal and not the 
frontal bone where most of the frac- 
tures would l)c likely to occur. In a 
monogiaph by Muniz and McClee the 
hypothesis is advanced that tiephining 
had a thaumaturgic orgin and was not 
oi'iginally curative in function. At 
first the operation was post nujrtem to 
obtain amulets of superstitious value. 
Later the operation was performed for 
the same reason on living captives. Its 
curative powers, the authors assume, 
were observed by primitive surgeons 
who adopted the curative function as 
an additional reason for trephining. 

Among modern people trephining has 
been reported among the Kabyles of 
northern Africa and in the South Seas. 
The Kabyles are said to be very adept 
at this operation, which they perform 
for traumatic lesions, vertigo, head- 
aches, and other disorders. Crump 
found that in New Britain trephining 
was practised mainly as the result of 
injuries to the skull sustained during 
combats. In New Ireland he reported 
the operation to cure epilepsy and to 
relieve certain forms of insanity due 
to pressure on the brain. Ruffner says 
that trephining is also practised among 
the contemporary hill tribes of Daghes- 
tan, and among the Tahitians and 
Montenegrins. 

The two skulls from the Southwest, 
referred to above, establish the fact 
that trephining was also- known and 
practised in the United States during 
pre-historic times, thus increasing the 
distribution of this remarkable form of 
surgery. 



Hydras as Enemies of Young Fishes 



By E. W. GUDGER 

Bibliographer and Associate in Ir-hthyology, American Museum 



IN August, 1902, a sudden epidemic 
occurred among the black-spotted 
trout fry in the hatchery of the 
United States Fish Commission at 
Leadville, Colorado. Examination 
showed that the hatching troughs were 




Fig. 1. — -An enlarged figure showing a young 
fish caught in the tentacles of a hydra. 

Figure drawn to illustrate the phenomenon 
described by Beardsley and Trembley 

divided into three compartments, and 
that the greatest mortality occurred in 
that division into which the water 
entered. It was somewhat less in the 
middle division, and practically neg- 
ligible in the last. The water supply 
was seemingly pure, almost entirely 
devoid of sediment, and entirely nor- 
mal in temperature. For some weeks 
the matter was quite a mystery. 

270 



Then Prof. A. E. Beardsley of the de- 
partment of biology of the Colorado 
State Normal School was called in to 
investigate the trouble. 

The interior of the hatchery was 
dimly lighted, but Beardsley, acting on 
a hint from one of the men who had 
seen something in a trough when a 
ray of sunlight fell on it, arranged a 
set of mirrors, with which he directed 
a beam of sunlight into one of the 
troughs. There he discovered the cul- 
prits — great numbers of very white and 
very transparent hydras were found 
covering the walls of the trough, hy- 
dras so colorless that in the somewhat 
twilighted interior of the hatchery 
they were entirely invisible. A care- 
ful count was made )f various square 
inches of Division One of several troughs. 
This gave an average of 131 hydras per 
square inch, or 20 plus per square 
centimeter. 

When I was a student assistant in 
the general biology course at Johns 
Hopkins University a good many 
years ago, there was a favorite pond in 
Druid Hill Park wherein I collected 
hydras. Here, on the wooden partitions 
which subdivided the pond into sec- 
tions, they were found in great abun- 
dance, more thickly than anyone in the 
laboratory had ever seen them before 
— perhaps 6 or 8 to the square inch — 
but in nothing like the high concentra- 
tion which Professor Beardsley found. 

The Colorado hydras were 10 to 20 
mm. in length, and 0.15 to 0.30 mm. in 
diameter — slender white organisms, 
fastened by the basal end to the walls 
or bottom of the trough, and having at 
the free end a mouthlike opening sur- 



HYDRAS AS ENEMIES OF YOUNG FISHES 



271 



rounded by 5 or () lon^- very sk'ndcr, 
tlireaiUike tentacles. 

The whole body of a hydra is thickly 
set with peculiar stinging or poison 
cells called neniatocysts (thread cells), 
and on the tentacles these are concen- 




2b 2c 

Fig. 2a. — A much magnified part of the 
tentacle of a hj^dra showing the poison cells 
arranged in groups of "batteries." Modified 
from Parker's Biology. 

Fig. 2b. — The greatly enlarged poison cap- 
sule of a hydra. From Parker and Haswell, 
after Schneider. 

Fig. 2c. — A much magnified poison capsule 
which has been thrown into action. From 
Parker and Haswell, after Schneider. 

trated into regular batteries ready to be 
"touched off" by the first passing 
object which comes in contact with and 
irritates these cells. Figure 2a shows 
in enlarged form a part of a tentacle 
with some of these ''batteries," the 
projecting hairs being the partly dis- 
charged neniatocysts. 



I'^ig. 21 ) shows a poison cell as it appears 
when iioiinally at rest in the ectoderm 
or skin layer of cells in the body of the 
hydra. The thread cell or 
nematocyst consists of a 
hollow bag with a finger- 
like inpushing having spines 
at the base and tej-minating 
in an inverted, long, hol- 
low, whiplash-like tube. 
The bag, the finger-like inpush- 
ing, and the hollow whiplash 
are filled with a virulent poison. 
The nematocyst or thread cell is 
embedded in a modified ectoderm or 
skin cell, wliich forms its "carriage," 
and this has projecting on the sur- 
face a hair or "trigger." The en- 
closing cell is called a cnidoblast 
(nettle bladder) and the "trigger" 
a cniclocil (nettle hair). 

This somewhat complicated but 
highly efficient apparatus works as 
follows: The baby trout comes 
wriggling along and touches one or 
a half dozen of the trigger hairs. 
This calls into play the inherent 
irritability and contractility of the 
protoplasm of the cnidoblast and it 
instantly contracts sharply, putting 
pressure on the contained nematocyst. 
This practically explodes, the finger 
and whiplash part of the nematocyst 
turn inside out, and the tip of the 
lash penetrates the tender body of 
the troutlet and discharges the poison 
with w^hich it is filled. Such an evert- 
ed thread cell is portrayed in Fig. 
2c. Moreover, not only- do those 
cnidoblasts whose triggers are touched, 
contract, "go off " as it were, throwing 
out the thread cells, but the stimula- 
tion is communicated through the 
very rudimentary nervous system of 
the hydra to the neighboring cnido- 
blasts, and whole batteries explode at 
once, covering the baby fish with thread 



272 



NATURAL HISTORY 



cells and paralyzing it completely. 
Figure 1 of this article shows such a 
baby fish paralyzed by the thread cells, 
grasped by the twining tentacles, and 
on its way to the mouth of the hydra. 

To make absolutely sure that the 
hydras were the only cause of the high 
mortality of the baby fishes, Beardsley 
filled a number of glasses with water 
from the hatchery pipes. Into some he 
put troutlets by themselves, in others 
fishes and large numbers of hydras 
from the troughs. In the first glasses 
there was only the normal mortality 
usual in hatching fish, but in the others 
there was a heavy death rate due to 
the activities of the hydras. In fact 
Beardsley found that 25 per cent of the 
baby trouts were killed by the hydras 
in less than 30 minutes, 60 per cent in 
45 minutes, 80 per cent in 60 minutes, 
and 100 per cent in 75 minutes. Ex- 
amination with a lens showed hydras 
attached by their mouths to the surface 
of the fishes — in some cases as many 
as a dozen were so attached. Low 
mortality was shown among the fishes 
in the glasses filled with water from 
the trough without hydras, and the 
remaining fry in the clean hatching 
trough were in good health at the 
end of twenty-four hours. 

No other cause for this wholesale 
mortality being discovered, Beardsley 
correctly concluded that the hydras 
were the culprits. Search was then 
made for the origin of these hydras in 
all the sources of water supply. All 
were found free of hydras save one 
small pond along whose shallow borders 
aquatic vegetation was thickly clus- 
tered. Innumerable hydras were at- 
tached to the submerged parts of these 
stems and leaves, as well as to the sticks 
and stones lying on the bottom of 
the pond. 

Thinking that he had discovered a 



phenomenon notmerely interesting but 
absolutely new, Beardsley wrote and 
published an article, "The Destruction 
of Trout Fry by Hydra," in the Bulletin 
of the United States Fish Commission 
for 1902, Washington, 1904, Vol. 22, 
pp. 157-160. That his discovery was 
extremely interesting is undoubted, 
but that it was not new will be seen 
later in this article. 

In 1905, there appeared in All- 
gemeine Fischerei Zeitung a notice of 
Beardsley'b article signed "Dr. PI." 
This was seen by one A. Schuberg\ who 
seems to have been a German trout 
grower. In a later issue of the same 
journal for 1905, Schuberg refers to 
Beardsley's article and recounts his 
own experiences which antedated 
Beardsley's studies. In a little pond 
well stocked with duckweed (Lemna), 
he was growing young trout 30 or 40 
mm. long. A progressive destruction 
of these fish went on. He examined 
both fresh and preserved fish and found 
on their bodies, but especially on their 
fins, very many of the nematocysts or 
nettle threads described and figured 
above. Examination of the duckweed 
in the pond showed great niimbers of 
the brown hydra (Hydra fusca) . These 
were judged to be the authors of the 
mischief, and an attempt was made to 
clear the pond of both Lemna and 
hydras. 

Just here an interesting bit of corrob- 
oratory evidence may be introduced 
from the neighboring and closely re- 
lated class of animals, the Amphibia — 
the tadpoles of which are the fish stage 
of their evolutionary life history. In 
1911 there appeared from the pen of 
William West a note, entitled "Hydra 
vulgaris and the tadpoles of Rana 
temporaria" (Naturalist, London, No. 

iSchuberg, A. Siisswasserpolypen als Forellenfeinde. 
Allgemeine Fischerei Zeitung 1905, Vol. 30, pp. 31-32, 
201-203. 



flYDRAS AS ENEMIES OF YOVNd FISHES 



273 



655, p. 301), ill wliieli lio \vi-itcs as 
follows : 

In our biological laboratory it is a common 
thing to watch Hydra catch species of Daph- 
nia, Cypris and Cyclops. I have even seen 
them gorged with the large rod larva of Chiro- 
nomus plumosu!^, the Hydra, when distended, 
only having room for half of it! (T have a 
Scyllium canicida with the hinder part of a 
fish in its stomach and gullet, and the other 
half projecting from its mouth). This Spring 
I had a fine lot of Hydra vxdgrvris in several 
large aquaria, and as I had previously had 
some batches of frog's eggs developing, I 
placed some of them, when about a fortnight 
old, in the various aquaria, some being three 
or more weeks old in later experiments. On 
looking a few hours later, I was astonished to 
see several of the tadpoles held fast to the 
sides of the aquarium, they kept now and then 
struggling to escape, and if any succeeded in 
doing so, which was seldom the case, they 
invariabl}^ succumbed eventually. These ex- 
periments were eagerly repeated by a number 
of students. . . . The tadpoles were paralyzed, 
they were too large to be engulphed, and they 
finally sank to the bottom, and did not re- 
appear. In all the other aquaria where 
Hydra was absent, the tadpoles lived. 

However, long before either Schu- 
berg or Beardsley, 160 years in fact, 
Abraham Trembley, the Father of 
"Hj^draology" (the study of hydras), 
had in 1744 described their method of 
catching little fishes. He left Kttle 
for us to learn about the behavior of 
hydras. His account, entombed in 
his great monograph on the hydras,^ 
seems not to be known. It is well worthy 
of reproduction herein literatim et ver- 
batim. He says: 

Having taken in the month of June, 1743, a 
considerable number of httle fishes about four 
Unes long [about four twelfths of an inch or 
eight millimeters long], the first use that I 
made of them was to see if the polyps would 
eat them. 



'Trembley, Abraham. Memoires pour Servir k 
rnistoire d'un Genre de Polypes d'Eau Douce a Bras 
en Forme de Cornes. Leide, 1744. pp. 213-217, pi. 
VII, fig. 3. An English version (not seen and 
thought to be abbreviated) by George Adams was 
issued in London, 1746: a German translation by 
J. A. E. Goerze was published at Quedlinburg, 
1775 and 1791. 



I placed several of them in vessels where 
I had some polyps. The experiment very 
soon apprised me of what I had surmised, 
that is that the vivacity and energy of these 
little fishes gave them ])ow(!r to offer a sharp 
resistance, but I ventured to flatter myself 
that the polyps would soon put an end to this 
by catching them. The Gardons [young 
roaches] (this is the species of fish to which I 
refer), the Gardons, in swimming about, 
soon encountered the tentacles of the polyps, 
and this then was the beginning of the com- 
bats which indeed were not all finished in the 
same fashion. 

When the fish would encounter only one arm 
of the polyp, it ordinarily happened that it 
disengaged itself by a lively jerk; and it would 
sometimes even break off the tentacle which 
endeavored to hold it captive and would carry 
this part off with it. However, the combat 
would end less happily for the httle fish when 
it would be caught bj^ several arms at once. 
The efforts which it would then make to set 
itself free would for the most part be useless, 
and would often bring it about that it would 
become even more closely entangled in the 
tentacles of its enemy. It could be easUy 
seen that the polyp was making great efforts to 
hold fast to the fish. The arms which en- 
veloped it on all sides would become very 
much swollen [and shorter], but they came to 
the fish a few at a time and only when it 
made great efforts. Then they were vigorous- 
ly wrapped around the fish — in a word that 
which Ovid says of the marine polyp [i.e., 
pouipe, Octopus?] would perfectly apply to 
the fresh water polyps under study here. One 
would think that it is the latter of which the 
poet speaks when he says, "And thus under 
the water the polyp with its tentacles out- 
throwTi from all sides holds its submerged 
prey." 

When I saw a polyp which had arrested a 
fish and had brought it to its mouth, 1 wond- 
ered whether it would be entirely possible for 
it to swallow the fish which was four lines long 
and proportionally thick and which would 
not bend itself to fit itself comfortably in the 
body of the polyp. The polyp, which had 
undertaken to do the swallowing, having been 
obliged to contract itself because of the shocks 
which the fish had given it in its struggles, 
was now not longer than 2 or 3 lines. In spite 
of all this the greater number of polyps which 
had caught Gardons had put an end to the 
swallowing. When a long- armed polyp had 



274 



NATURAL IlISTOh'V 



swallowed a lisli, that narrow part of its 
stomach which forms the tail end would be 
compelled to expand and receive a part of the 
prey. A polyp which had swallowed a fish 
was difficult to recognize. Let us suppose, 
for example, that it had swallowed it tail 
first, one would then see the contracted 
tentacles around the head of the fish. This 
is that which would appear the better. The 
skin of the polyp would be stretched so tightly 
and appUed so closely to that of the Gardon 
that one could distinctly see the fish through 
it, so that if one had not known it 
to be there one would have thought 
that he only saw a fish which had 
at the anterior extremity barbels 
some Unep in length. 

This little fish would then occupy 
the entire length of the body [cavity] 
of the polyp whose skin was then 
very thin, wherein in the mean- 
time it was undergoing digestion. 
It did not remain alive more than 
a quarter of an hour. After it had 
been subjected to the action of 
the digestive juice and had been 
returned by way of the mouth of 
the polyp, it was actually recogniz 
able but nevertheless very 
much disfigured. This is 
what I have seen a consid- 
erable number of times. 

Plate VII, Fig. 5, in 
Trembley's book is 
supposed to show this, 
but the figure is so small 



and so dark that I iiavc not hceji 

al)le to iuak(! anytiiing out of it — 

even with the use of a magnifying 

glass. The same is true of the 

figure ill the (Jci'maii version (1791) 

which I have examined. However, 

the accompanying excellent figures 

b}^ Mr. William E. Belanske have 

been made under the present writer's 

supervision to show, in Fig. 1, how 

the fishlet is caught, and 

in Fig. 3 how it has been 

swallowed tail first and is 

undergoing digestion. The 

purpose of the figures is to 

portray visibly what Trem- 

bley described 183 years ago. 

Furthermore, an effort has 

been made to keep the relative 

sizes of fish and hydra within 

the limits set by Beardsley and 

Trembley, though of course 

these and the other figures are 

T-v- i-^^i a u u much enlarged. 

The httle fish has '^ 

From the above ac- 
counts, particularly 
Trembley's, one may 
quote the author of Ec- 
clesiastes that there is 
nothing new under the 
sun. 




Tx 



Fig. 3 
been swallowed tail first l^y 
the hydra. The body of the 
hydra has shortened greatly 
in order to expand sufficiently 
in width to engulf the small 
fish. Note how the tenta- 
cles have also shortened and 
thickened. Drawn (greatly 
magnified) from Trembley's 
description 




From the original painting by Ts. Holmboe, from which the 1925 Norwegian Govern- 
ment stamp issue was made to raise funds for the Expedition 

North to 88 and the First Crossing of the 

Polar Sea' 

By LINCOLN ELLSWORTH 

"When one goes forth a-voy aging 
He has a tale to tell." 



HOW often one hears the remark 
"Now you can rest on your 
honors." But what a fallacy! 
For honors are and ever should be but 
an urge to greater effort. Perhaps it is 
better that we should never be con- 
tent, for happiness, says an old lesson, 
lies rather in achievement than in 
possession or satiation. Without effort 
there can be no achievement, and 
without achievement life would not be 
worth while. Action is life, and what is 
life but a groping toward knowledge 
and consciousness and "more light?" 
Our struggles and our sufferings, our 
ambitions and our defeats, our yearn- 
ings to be better and stronger than we 
are, are but the voice of that vital urge 
from within which makes us grow, and 



which transforms this wandering planet 
on which we live into a theater of 
unending achievement. 

In its desire to honor us I feel quite 
certain that the American Museum of 
Natural History is unaware of just how 
deeply I feel its debtor for what I 
myself have done, for here, in this very 
Museum, came my first urge to go into 
the Arctic. The vividly colored alle- 
gorical paintings in the Museum halls 
— scenes of life taken from those far- 
away people living on the shores of the 
Polar Sea — stirred my imagination. A 
gaunt land. A waste of cold, of storm, 
of drought. What was the attraction, 
wherein the fascination? Just wh}^ or 
how would be difficult to explain. One 
cannot always analyze a taste or a 



'From an address made at a meeting held at the American Museum on January 2, 1927, commemorating 
the first crossing of the Polar Sea. 

275 



27G 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Into the unknown, — just before landing at Latitude 88°, 120 miles from the North Pole 



pas&ion, but I know these filled me 
with dreams that would not let me be. 
There, too, were the sledges that had 
reached the North and the South poles. 
How it thrilled me to trace their 
journeys on the relief maps on the walls 
above them, stage by stage until the 
goal was reached — a goal that had acted 
as the motive-force for some of the 
most wonderful journeys in the face 
of terrible conditions, in the history 
of our race, and which, I thought, had 
cast more men in heroic mold than 
ever the glitter of the crown or the 
flash of the sword. The world needs 
heroes. They are the salt of youth. 
And out of the salt of youth comes the 
iron of mature manhood that tempers 
the will for the conquest of difficulties. 
But a boy's will is the wind's will, and 
the thoughts of youth are long, long 
thoughts. Beyond the "last frontier" 
— beyond even the outermost edge of 
discovery, toward that huge tract in 
the Polar Sea marked "Unexplored," 
lay my dreams! But how should I 
follow to that land of far horizons? 



It is strange how often big ambitions 
of life find realization from very small 
happenings. A chance acquaintance, 
an item in a newspaper, may prove to 
have been turning-points in life if you 
take the trouble to trace things back to 
their beginnings. Take my own case. 
I am certain I never should have gone 
to the Arctic had I not seen a small 
news-item buried inside one of our 
daiUes, telling of Captain Amundsen's 
arrival in America on a lecture tour. 
This was in October, 1924. I was all 
packed ready to start for south 
America, in fact, I had my ticket 
bought — but the result of a chance 
meeting changed my plans and instead 
of South America I went to the North 
Pole. How much I owe to Roald 
Amundsen! Through him the oppor- 
tunity came to me, and the two years 
of our association and companionship 
together have been the happiest of my 
life. 

It had always been Amundsen's wish 
to fly to the North Pole, and there if 
possible, abandon one plane in order to 



r 




..^^ 






-J 



Top.— A forced landing 120 miles from the North Pole, where we lived 25 days. 
Left center.— Semaphoring during the first five days of enforced separation of the 

two planes 

Right center.— Our onlv implements,— 3 wooden shovels, sheath knives tied to sku 
sticks, and a two-pound belt ax. From left to right, Ellsworth, Amundsen, Riise.- 
Larson, and Feucht 

Bottom.— "Where faith abides though hope be put to flight." 

277 



278 



NATURAL III STORY 



refuel the other from her, and with the 
remaining; phxne ^o on to Point Barrow, 
Alaska. Because the interest of us both 
lay, not in the attainment of the Pole — 
Peary having already been there — but 
the exploration of that great million 




Amundsen-Ellsworth 1925 Polar flight 

square miles of unknown Polar Basin 
beyond, we took this into consideration 
in planning our 1925 flight from Spitz- 
bergen with two aeroplanes. 

The story of the flight over the Polar 
Sea to within 120 nautical miles of the 
Pole has already been told. After a 
journey lasting eight hours, the time 
estimated to bring us to the Pole, we 
came down into the first open "lead" 
big enough for our planes to land in to 
take an observation as to our exact 
whereabouts, for we had been heavily 
drifted to the westward by a strong 
northeast wind, and our fuel was just 
half consumed. We found ourselves in 
latitude 87.44 N. and longitude 10.20 
W. Thus, while we had flown 600 
miles — the exact distance of the Pole 
from Spitzbergen — our drift of 50 



miles off our course^ was responsible for 
our loss in latitude and the fuel neces- 
sary to carry us to the Pole. 

Before we could get out the lead closed 
up, and it required twenty-five days 
of hard labor to free one of our im- 
prisoned planes. The mournful sound 
of the wind blowing through its rigging 
made us quick to seek shelter in its 
interior after our long day's labor of 
clearing. Although our four-walled 
compartment was of metal and heavily 
coated with hoarfrost, it shut out the 
damp, fog-bound waste in which we 
were but mites, a colorless waste that 
seemed to reach into infinity. The 
scanty heat from the "Primus" to- 
gether with that given out by our 
bodies, was sufficient to raise the 
temperature above freezing. The hoar- 
frost, melting, dripped down our necks 
and spattered into our mugs of choco- 
late, but nothing could dampen our 
spirits, not even the fact that Riiser- 
Larsen's stock of black chewing 
tobacco, which we were now smoking, 
was fast diminishing, for was not the 
thought of the warm sleeping-bag and 
the ration of malted-milk tablets to 
munch contentedly as we dozed off to 
sleep and forgetfulness, that of Heaven 
itself? I never knew the real feelings 
of my companions, for whatever con- 
versation there was as we sat over our 
chocolate, was mostly in Norwegian^ 
but 1 learned to accept with abiding 
faith what each d&y offered. Spits- 
bergen was but eight hours away; 
maybe tomorrow we would be on the 
way! Thus passed twenty-four daj-s, 
but on the twenty-fifth, — the day we 
had actually set two weeks previously, 
to start on foot for the Greenland 
coast, 400 miles away, but which we 
knew we couldn't reach, — our efforts 
were rewarded, and one plane, with six 
men in it, rose, and left that hell forever. 




Returning to meet the King at Oslo, July 5, 1925 




Return of Expedition to King's Bay, June 19, 1925, 1:30 a. m. Left to right— Riiser- 
Larsen, Undal, Dietrichsen, Amundsen, Ellsworth, Feucht 



279 



280 



NATURAL HISTORY 




If • •^t) 3i 




Saying good-bye May 11, 1926, 8:55 a. m. 




The Norge rising out of her hangar at 8:55 a. m.. May 11, 1926 

This, in short, is the history of the square miles of hitherto unknown 

fiight itself. The scientific results, from region and the taking of two soundings 

an expedition that cost $150,000, which showed the depth of the Polar 

consisted in the exploration of 120,000 Basin at that latitude to be 12,000 



FIRST CROSSING OF THE POLAR SEA 



281 




The Norge on her way. Photograph taken from Byrd's plane by Russell D. Owen 



feet, thus precluding the hkehhood of 
any land on the European side of the 
North Pole. But we had had our com- 
pensations; we had blazed a trail; 
for the flight had shown that the 
meteorological conditions prevailing 
over the Polar Basin offered no 
hindrance to its successful exploration 
by means of the proper kind of air- 
craft. Thus, while the pioneer may not 
share in the world's wealth, to him 
comes a joy but dimly perceived by 
those who merely profit thereby. 

One would naturally think after 
such an experience that we had had 
enough. But no, our work was not 
yet finished. Beyond — to the north- 
ward — still stretched the unknown. 
Between the Pole and Alaska lay what? 
Mystery — a mystery as luminous, and 
yet as impenetrable as its own mirage, 
enveloped an area twice that of Alaska. 

After our experience with airplanes 
we decided to buy an airship, and we 
went to Italy because Mussolini had 
one that appeared to fit both our needs 
and the size of our purse. 



The N.l, built to the designs of Col. 
Umberto Nobile in the Italian State 
Airship Factory, and christened by us 
the "Norge," was of semi-rigid con- 
struction, 349 feet long and of 20 
tons displacement. Her fuel capacity 
of 7 tons, with which to run her three 
250 horse-power Myback motors, gave 
her a range of 3500 miles, or about 70 
hours, at a speed of 50 miles per hour. 
Her gas capacity of 660,000 cubic feet 
was about % that of R.33. 

The "Norge" was equipped with a 
Marconi wireless direction finder, the 
tuning-circuit for which was designed 
to cover a wide band of wave lengths; 
those used ranged from 900 to 1400 
meters. The energy for the specially 
constructed valve transmitter was 
delivered from a windmill-driven gen- 
erator supplying 3000 volts. 

There was a delay of several days 
after the long flight from Italy to 
Spitzbergen, before the "Norge" was 
able to proceed on her journey across 
the Polar Sea. Favorable weather 
conditions were essential. We needed 



282 



NATURAL HISTORY 



a cleai- sky with <2;()()(1 visibility, and n 
favorable wind; alsu a liigli barometric 
pressure and a low temperature. These 
last two elements influenced jircnitly the 
lifting capacity of the (hi'ij>;il)le. For 
each degree Fahi-enheit that the temp- 



% / 




\^/ 



^ 




erature went down, the aii'ship gained 
80 pountls in lifting capacity, which 
was increased by 140 i)ounds for each 
tenth of an inch added to the barometric 
pi'essure. 

The keel of the "Norge" looked like 
a flying store-house when all was ready 
for the start at 8.55 o'clock on the 
morning of May 11, 1926. The equip- 
ment included tents, sleeping-bags, 
skiis, snow-shoes for those who couldn't 
ski, rifles, shot-guns, ammunition, a 
hand-sledge — the finest piece of work- 
manship I ever saw— made by Oskar 
Wisting on the "Maud," and a b 
canvas boat. Two men among the 
personnel, Amundsen and Wisting, had 
the distinction of having been at the 
South Pole, and now both were en 
route for the North Pole. 

Provisions consisted of pemmican, 
chocolate, oat biscuits, and dry milk, 
sufficient to last 16 men two months, 
with a daily ration of 500 grams for 
each man. 

On the walls of the cabin hung the 
. pictures of Norway's King and Queen, 




Mystery, silence, desolation 



A'/A'.sr CROSSING OF Till': I'OLAR SEA 



283 



presented to the "Fr:uii"<)n the expedi- 
tion to the South Pole in 1910; an 
imajic <»l I he Madonna which I he 
Italians had l)i-oii}i!;ht with them; and a 
four-leaf elov(>r <>;iven to the ship by 
Major Scott, who jiilotcd the British 
airship R. 34 across the Atlantic. In 
the keel hung the flags of Norw^ay, the 
United States, and Italy, to he dropped 
on the North Pole. 

To those who made the first crossing 
of the Polar Sea it will ever l>e "life's 
great adventure," for in all human 
experience never before has man 
traveled so fast and so far into the 
realm of the unknown. There is an 
indefinable something about such an 
experience, where illusion and reality 
are so hauntingly intermingled, that 
ever after it may well color one's whole 
sentiment of existence. 

Two hours after leaving King's Bay 
we found ourselves over the "pack- 
ice." What weather! The sun shone 
brilliantly out of a sky of pure tur- 
quoise, and the whalelike shadow that 
our airship cast beneath us trailed 
monotonously across a glittering snow- 
field, unbroken, save where wind and 
tide had rift the icy surface into cracks 
and leads of open water. Three white 
whales darted under the protecting 
shelf of an ice-floe, and polar bear, 
frightened at the sight and noise of the 
weird monster that took to the air 
instead of the sea, dived into the shelter- 
ing leads, sending up columns of spray 
that reflected the bright sunshine. 

As we approached latitude 83K the 
snow-crowned peaks of Spitzbergen 
merged into the deepening blue of the 
southern sky, losing their identity, and 
all signs of life vanished. Intermittent 
fogs rolling beneath us like a great 
woolen ocean, hid the ice from our view. 
Approaching 88 we had to rise from 
1800 feet to more than 3000 in order 



to get ov(M- it. Latitude 87.44, — what 
memories! The niotoi's wei'e slowed 
down in (•oninicniorat ion of oiu' sojourn 
thei'e the year pi'cvious, altlnjugh we 
were passing the exact spot 50 miles to 
the (vistwai'd. In this latitude, duiing 
the summer months, it is ditlicult to 
separate days and nights, for the sun 
swings around the horizon at practi- 
cally the same altitude during the 
entire twenty-four hours But our 
Greenwich chronometer told us we 
had been out 16K hours, so the time 
was really 1.30 a.m. May 12. The fog 
had completely cleared away and 
there was no wind. The navigator 
who had been on his knees at one of the 
starboard windows since 1.10 with his 
sextant set on the height and declina- 
tion the sun should have at the Pole, 
corresponding to the given date, 
suddenly announced, "Here we are!" 
as the sun's image started to cover his 
sextant bubble. We were over the 
North Pole! With motors throttled 
and heads uncovered we descended to 
within 300 feet of the ice and dropped 
three flags. 

At 12.30 A.M., forty nautical miles 
before reaching the Pole — a radiogram 
was handed me, which read "Passing 
into your 46th birthday and another 
hemisphere, we send you our heartiest 
congratulations." It was signed " Your 
friends of Spitzbergen." My health 
was drunk in cold tea for which I used 
Amundsen's South Pole mug marked 
"Fram 11-12-1911." But as the time 
goes back one day in passing from one 
hemisphere to another, "it looked," as 
I remarked in my diary, "as though I 
might get another celebration to- 
morrow." 

"There is no more evanescent quality 
in an accomplished fact," says Conrad, 
"than its wonderfulness." Solicited 
incessantly by the considerations affect- 



284 



NATURAL HISTORY 



FIRST MESSAGE EVER RECEIVED FR OM THE NORTH POLE 

By FREDRIK RAMM. 

New York Times Correspondent Aboard the Norgc. 

CopjTiehl, 1926, by The New York Times Company .nd The St. Ix>uli Globe DemocrBU 
By Wirelejs to The New york Timei. 



(on Board the Dirigible Airship 
today, and lowered flags for 



NORTH POLE, Wednesday, May 12, 1 A. M, 
Norge)--We reached the North Pole at 1 A. M. 
Amundsen, Ellsworth, and Nobile. „ .,, • a • ^^a t«.,i 

LATER 3 30A.M.--Loweringthethree flags, Norwegian, American and Ital- 
ian, when the Norge was over the North Pole, was the greatest of all events of 
this flight Riiser-Larsen's observations showed that we were over the Pole. 1 he 
Norge descended and speed was reduced, when the flags were lowered over the 
wastes whose edges gleamed like gold in the pale sunhght, breaking through 
the fog which surrounded us. , 

Roald Amundsen first lowered the Norwegian flag. Then EUsworth the 
Stars and Stripes; finally Nobil e the Italian fla g. 

The airship's 1 A. M. time (Norwegian time), was 8 o'clock on Tuesday night, New York day- 
light time. 




PROGRESS OF THE NORGE AND HER PROJECTED ROUTE ONWARD TO ALASKA 



REPRODUCED poOM THE NEW YORK TIMES OF WEDNESDAY, MAY 12, 1926. 



ing its fears and desires, the human 
mind turns naturally away from the 
marvelous side of events. And it was 
in the most natural way possible that, 
after crossing the Pole, we filled our 
mugs with meat-balls immersed in a 
liquid of hot grease, from a large ther- 
mos cask, and, squatting down any- 
where out of the way of trampling feet, 
devoured the first and only hot meal of 
our entire voyage from Spitzbergen 
to Alaska. 

With full speed ahead we settled 
down to the monotony of routine again, 



heading southward instead of north, 
with the sun-compass settled for Point 
Barrow, Alaska, 1500 miles away. 
Ahead lay the world's biggest unex- 
plored area. What would it reveal, a 
lost continent, islands, or what? Would 
we cross safely to tell the world what 
we had seen? Although we were with- 
out sleep, these questions animated 
every man aboard to a state of con- 
stant watchfulness and expectancy. 
Hour after hour passed, but only the 
same glittering surface rift by wind and 
tide into cracks and leads of open water, 



FIRST CROSSING OF THE POLAR SEA 



285 



was h(M"e as before erossiiifj; our route, 
in a west-east direction. We reached 
the "Ice-Poh'" at 7 a.m., five and one- 
half hours hilei-. This "Ice-Pole," 
so called because it is the center of the 
Arctic ice-mass and tiu>refore the most 
nearly inaccessil)le si)ot in the Arctic 
regions, lies in latitude 86 N. and 
longitude 157 W. But its inacces- 
sibility was now conc}U(n'ed, and the 
sixteen men looking down upon the 
chaos of l)i()k(Mi ice-fields and pressure 
ridges of U])turned ice-blocks that 
appeared as though giants had waged 
war with the Polar-ice, agreed as to its 
accessibility by means of air craft only. 
We had covered one half the distance 
between King's Bay and Point Barrow. 
Of the seven tons of fuel the ship 
carried, only about two tons had been 
consumed. Here, strange to say, we 
picked up the first sign of life since 
leaving 83/2 (almost 700 miles) one 
lone Polar bear track. What a chal- 
lenge ! What a mockery to our egotism ! 
Yet there it was, plainly crossing a 
large ice-floe. Only a Polar bear, but 
something alive and like ourselves 
seeking — but what, away out here? 




A typical view from the Norge- 
saw for 72 hours 



-what we 



Anyway, it was something tangible 
again. The sense of utter solitude — 
the illusion of disembodiment — that 
had taken possession of me, as I seemed 




The North Pole! 



286 



NATURAL HISTORY 




The Fascniation of the Unknown. Upper left— fringe of the "Polar Pack." Middle— 
the only big lead" seen on the voyage. Lower left— vicinity of the North Pole 

to float through the void Hke a lost Just ahead, so it seemed, lay Alaska, 

soul, beyond the confines of a three- the goal of our dreams. "A Httle 

dimensional world, vanished, and in more, yet how far it was; a Httle less, 

Its place sprang eternal hope and the but what worlds awav." But as we 

desire to achieve. approached its coast,^ fears assailed 



FIRST C ROSSI N(; OF TIIK FOLAR SEA 



287 



us; for wo ran into the only storm 
(hiring our (Mitirc v()v:i2;o — l'o<2;, wind, 
and sUni and lor thirty-one houis we 
hattlcMh In tiyinj;-, as in hi'o, it is not 
what we see, but wliat we cannot see, 
tliat we l\>ar. I'/ich nioiiicnt lield not 
only something; new, but something; 
unforeseealile. Tee coated the aerial 
wire and froze the windmill drivei' of 
our i>;en(M'ator, which sup]ilie(l the elec- 
trical energy to oix'rate the transmitter 
and chai-ge the storaj2;e batteries, and 
all efforts to establish conmiunication 
with Alaska were of no avail. The last 
re]H)rt from Alaska, before the wireless 
ceased to Avork, showed a cyclone that 
seemed to be stationary over Bering 
Sea. 

Ice-crust formed on the bow of the 
ship. This was alarming, not only 
because it loaded her down, but also 
because it spoiled her trimming. We 
tried to counteract the effect by 
moving the fuel from the bow tanks and 
sending the crew aft. Needless to say, 
our greatest danger lay in the ice that 
was torn loose from the sides of the 
ship by the whirling propellers and 
thrown against the gas bags. An ice- 
block of the most fantastic shape 
settled on the sim compass, stopping 
the clockwork and putting it out of 
action for the rest of the flight. It was 
a surprise, therefore, to find b,y obser- 
vation at 4 A.M. on May 13, that we 
were in a nearly north-south position 
on a line sti'ildng the Alaskan coast 
and passing onlv twenty-one nautical 
miles west of Point Barrow, because it 
had been nearly twelve hours since the 
last longitude observation. At 6.45 
A.M. land was sighted ahead on the port 
bow, and at 7.25 after a voyage lasting 
48 hours, we reached the coast. Flat 
and snow-covered, it was the most 
desolate looking coast line imaginable, 
but it was land and that was enough. 




In the rigging of the Norge. Showing flags 
and emergency rations 





'' M^B^- is^^M 






wKl*' i'\L.^M. 




Rv A 


viSP 


fs^ 


Uyf'^ft 


^^^Ei ' 


1 


■K^^H 


^^^^w^Miki 


* ■ij J^H 


Hum 




jjm 



Taking observations for atmospheric elec- 
tricity 

As we passed over the coast line the 
fog became denser and denser, obliging 
us to go lower and lower in order to be 



288 



NATURAL HISTORY 




First land after 2000 miles — the coast of Alaska 



able to see far enough ahead so that we 
would not run against obstacles. At 
last, abreast of Cape Beaufort, it be- 
came impossible to see any longer, and 
we rose through fog and cloud into 
bright sunshine. Heavy layers of fog 



drifted beneath us, and only now and 
then through openings in it could we 
glimpse the barren peaks of the Endi- 
cott range, over which we were passing 
— far too httle to enable us to make out 
our whereabouts. 




Her work finished — the Xorge deflated at Teller 



FIRST CROSSING OF THE POLAR SEA 



289 



When wo l)(>liovod ourselves as far 
south as we coukl ^;o, we tried to {jet 
down underneath the fog and do oui- 
best to fiiid thf^ way. We liad to nose 
down to an clcx'ation of only three 
hundred feet before we eould see what 
hiy beneath. We were over drift-ice 
again. Where were we? Unreal as it 
may seem, our wireless picked up a 
strong signal at this moment, which w^e 
thought might be Nome but we could 
not tell for certain, because it was a 
communication with another station 
and we couldn't get the signature. 
But it gave us a position north of 
Diomede Island and enabled us to set 
a course for Cape Prince of Wales. 

Very soon we were over open water 
which aroused our suspicions, for we 
might just as well be on the outside of 
Bering Strait and, with our course, 
heading straight for the Aleutian 
Islands. Getting into sunshine again 
we were obliged to take our observation 
from the top of the ship, as the sun at 
this latitude was so high that it was 
hidden by the envelope in whichever 
direction the ship pointed. The ob- 
servation gave our latitude as 67.30. 
We then went down through the clouds 
and found ourselves over land, having 



passed over the whole (jf Jvotzebue Bay, 
driven l)y a northerly gale of nioi'e than 
70 miles per lioiii-. Heading wc^st to 
get to the sea again, we heard the 
Nome wireless, which togethei- with 
the identification of the coast line, 
gave us our exact position. At 3.30 
on the morning of May 14, we rounded 
Cape Prince of Wales, and, tired but 
happy, brought our airship, coated 
with a ton of ice, safely to rest at the 
little trading post of Teller, 91 miles 
northwest of Nome, after a journey of 
3393 miles, lasting seventy-two hours, 
across the Polar Sea from Eui'ope to 
America. 

I have told the story of the flight 
itself, but there are no words with 
which to describe the lure of that far- 
flung, strangely beautiful world of 
glittering white, lying beyond the rim 
of the Polar Sea, over which we flew; 
that can reveal its mystery, its melan- 
choly, and its charm. And so. the 
first Transpolar Flight passes into 
history, but the trail it blazed, approxi- 
mating 120,000 square miles in area, 
through the world's largest unexplored 
region, wdll ever be remembei-ed as a 
romantic epic of advancing knowledge 
in man's conquest of the "Unknowm." 




The answer to the mythical "continent" theory, — after four generations of Arctic exploration 




CHARLES SPRAGUE SARGENT 
From a photograph taken about 1890 when he was 49 years of age. 
H. Wilson, Arnold Arboretum 



Courtesy of Prof. Ernest 



290 



Charles Sprague Sargent 

BORN AI'KIL 21, ISII; DlKl) MAUCII L>2, l',»27 



j^Y FRr:i)i<:iiic a. lucas 

ilonorary Director, American MiiBeum 



THE rocoiit death of Charles S])rasue 
Sargent l)rinf>;s to a eUise a loii<>; and 
active careiM-, a career marked l)y 
many notable achievements. His 
activities l)Cf!;an in 1S61 when, shortly after 
graduating from Harvard, he joined the U. S. 
Army, in which he served during the Civil 
War, rising to the rank of brevet-major. 

After devoting some years to study and 
travel, he was, in 1S73, appointed director of 
the newly established Arnold Arboretum, a 
position he held until his death. He was also 
director of the Harvard Botanic Garden from 
1872 to 1S79, and from 1879 professor of 
arboriculture at Harvard. The Arnold 
Arboretum was made possible by the bequest 
of Mr. James Arnold, of New Bedford, who 
died in 186S, leaving the sum of $100,000 
to be devoted to the advancement of agricul- 
ture or horticulture. Acting upon the advice 
of Mr. George B. Emerson, one of the trustees 
of the fund, this sum was turned over to the 
President and Fellows of Harvard University, 
who on their part set aside 120 acres of the 
land given by Benjamin Bussey on which to 
develop and maintain an arboretum. Subse- 
quent additions doubled the size of the original 
tract and on the 240 acres have been gathered 
a large proportion of trees and shrubs, both 
native and foreign, that have been found 
able to support the climate of eastern Massa- 
chusetts. 

In 1879 he was appointed Special Agent of 
the Tenth Census, to gather statistics in re- 
gard to our forest resources, and the results of 
his studies were published in 1884 as Vol. IX 
of the Tenth Census Publications, Report on 
the Forestn of North America. It was in con- 
nection with his work on the Tenth Census 
that he brought together the Jesup Collection 
of Trees of North America, which is not only a 
monument to Mr. Jesup, but a testimonial 
of the energy and thoroughness of Sargent 



As visitors know, this consists of sections of 
trees, the lower part being left in its natural 
state, with the bark and upper so cut as to 
show the grain of the wood. Many of them 
are of an age and size that could not now be 
duplicated. The sections of trees were 
supplemented by many water-color drawings 
of the leaves, flowers, and fruit of the respec- 
tive kinds. These drawings were made by his 
wife. Mis. Mary Robeson Sargent, who was 
an accomplished artist. Of late years the 
improvement in methods of reproducing 
flowers and foliage has made possible the 
introduction of many beautiful copies of 
flowering sprays and leaves. 

Sargent's greatest literary work is the 
monumental Silva of North America, in which 
are described and figured practically all the 
then known trees north of Mexico. The first 
of the fourteen imperial quarto volumes 
appeared in 1891,— the last in 1902. That the 
work was completed in this time reflects great 
credit upon both author and publishers. 
Better known, because more generally used, is 
his Manual of the Trees of North America, in 
which are described 717 species, besides 
numerous varieties. He was also the author 
of many shorter papers, from 1888 to 1897 
was editor of Garden and Forest, and, besides 
his work on American forests, was the author 
of Forest Flora of Japan. 

In his will Sargent left to the Arnold 
Aboretum his fine library of botanical 
works, with provision for its continuance 
and increase. He also bequeathed to the 
President and Fellows of Harvard College 
$10,000 to which the interest should be 
added annually for a hundred years, the 
sum thus formed to be added to the endow- 
ment fund of the Arboretum. Thus he made 
provision that the work in which he stood 
preeminent and to which he devoted a life- 
time should live after him. 



291 



Commemorating the First Crossing of the 
Polar Sea 




CAPTAIN ROALD 
AMUNDSEN and 
LINCOLN ELLS- 
WORTH were the 
guests of honor at the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural His- 
tory on the night of January 
21, 1927, when the American 
Scenic and Historic Preser- 
vation Society and the Amer- 
ican Museum commemorated 
the First Trans-Polar Fight of May 11-13, 
1926, by presenting medals to these two dis- 
tinguished explorers. Dr. George Frederick 
Kunz, president of the American Scenic and 
Historic Preservation Society, was in charge of 
the presentation ceremonies. After formally 
opening the meeting, he said: 

"The greatest problems for many centuries 
and the goals of all great explorers have been 
the North Pole, the South Pole, and the North- 
west Passage. Peary discovered the North 
Pole, Byrd visited the North Pole, but no one 
except Roald Amimdsen and Lincoln Ells- 
worth completed the crossing and investiga- 
tion of the great unknown Polar Basin lying 
between the Pole and Alaska, after so many 
generations of effort to learn its secrets. 

Only one man can make claim to three such 
great achievements as the Northwest Passage, 
the South Pole, and the North Pole and the 
crossing of the Polar Sea, and him we honor 
tonight. These were no dashes. To my 
knowledge it has taken bum thirty-five years 
of the most careful research and study to 
accompMsh these, and the achievement was 
worthy of the blood that impelled Lief Eric- 
son to discover the American continent, and 
the many Norsemen who knew and loved the 
sea. The only element that Amundsen ever 




lacked was fear — he had no 
fear. If there were difficulties, 
he overcame them. 

Pear\' reached the North 
Pole on foot, but he always 
advocated the air as the only 
means for the successful ex- 
ploration of the Polar Basin; 
which brings to my mind that 
as early as 1885 Commander 
Cheyne of the British Navy 
interested me so that plans for a trip were 
almost completed by which we were to take 
two dirigibles to the Pole, storing one with gas 
and returning with the other. Lack of finan- 
cial support prevented the fulfillment of his 
ambitions and my youthful hopes." 

Turning to Captain Amundsen and address- 
ing him as "one of the three hving members 
of the 'Polar Legion' — Amundsen, Byrd, and 
Ellsworth," Doctor Kunz presented the medal 
and said: 

"Captain Amundsen, the American Scenic 
and Historic Preservation Society and the 
American Museum of Natural Historj^ take 
great pleasure in honoring you tonight with 
their gold medal, for the golden qualities that 
j"ou possess made this medal possible." 
Doctor Kunz then continued: 
"As a friend of many years I know that 
Lincoln Ellsworth possesses high personal 
qualities, and that he and his co-leader 
Amundsen have made the most careful study 
of Polar matters. Ellsworth has made a most 
important geological survey across the Andes 
of South America, and has spent years as a 
civil engineer on railroad surveys in our 
western mountains. His ambition had always 
been the exploration of the unknown Arctic. 
Finally he and the great genius Amundsen 



292 



77//'; /'7//.ST CROSSING OF Tlll<: POLAR SEA 



293 



joined in the two historic flights which they 
canicd out together in 1925 and 1920; the 
I92r) flight will always be remembered as the 
first suecesst'ul i)enetration of the Arctic via 
the air, — falling short of the North Pole by a 
distance not much greater than the length of 
Long Island; and in 1926 they carried out 
their ambition to cross the Polar Sea. In 
honor of Mr. Ellsworth's sterhng qualities 
and in recognition of his invaluable coojiera- 
tion in polar exjiloration, the American Scenic 
and Historic Preservation Society and the 
American Museum of Natural History take 
pleasure in presenting him with this medal." 

As Doctor Kunz handed the medals to the 
ex]5lorers there was enthusiastic applause. 

The medals, which were alike, were of solid 
gold, three inches in diameter. On the ob- 
verse was engraved a representation of the 



dirigible " Norgc" and the seals of the .Society 
and the Museum, surrounded by the inscrip- 
tion "First Crossing of the Polar Sea Under 
Leadership of Iloald Amundsen and Lincoln 
Ellsworth." On the reverse was a ma|) of the 
northern hemisphere on which was traced the 
route of the Norge, surrounded by the follow- 
ing inscription: "Kings Bay, North Pole, 
Point Barrow, Teller. 11-13 May, 1926, 
3393 Miles, 72 hours." 

A third medal similar in design, and tjear- 
ing the inscription 

The American Museum of Natural History 

From whom the inspiration came' 

Lincoln Ellsworth 

was later presented to the American Museum 
by the American Scenic and Historic Pre- 
servation Society. 



NOTES 



CENTRAL ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS 
The uncertain political conditions in China 
make it impossible for the Central Asiatic 
Expeditions to continue work in the field this 
summer. Consequently all the staff except 
Dr. Roy Chapman Andrews and McKenzie 
Young, in charge of motor transportation, 
and also Capt. W. P. T. Hill, topographer, 
have returned to America,, and will devote 
themselves to the preparation of the scientific 
report of the expedition. Doctor Andrews 
and Mr. Young plan to remain in Peking 
where Doctor Andrews wQl be occupied with 
the preparation of the story of the expedition. 
Walter Granger, palaeontologist of the expedi- 
tion, returned to the Museum on June 19 
and Mr. N. C. Nelson on June 28. 

Messrs. Granger and Nelson spent the 
winter in the province of Yunnan on recon- 
noissance work. Much of the east province 
was explored from the Red River in the south 
to the Yangtze River in the north. While 
most of the area proved barren of fossil verte- 
brates and evidences of early man, an im- 
portant deposit of early Pleistocene mammals 
and two sites of early pre-Chinese culture were 
discovered near the southernmost bend of the 
Yangtze. This site yielded stone implements 
of types similar to those found by Mr. Nelson 
last winter in the gorge region many hundreds 
of miles farther down the Yangtze. In addition 
to fossils and artifacts, collections were made 
of mammals, birds, reptiles, and fishes. Mr. 



Nelson excavated a small shellheap on the 
border of the great lake (Kunyang) adjoining 
Yunnanfu, in which he discovered both 
Chinese and pre-Chinese potterj' but no traces 
of stone implements. He also obtained for 
his own department samples of clothing, 
implements, etc., of both the Chinese and 
tribes-people of Yunnan at the present time. 

While field work is temporarily suspended, 
excellent progress is being made in the publi- 
cation of the results already accomphshed. 

A handsome quarto volume entitled "The 
Geology of Mongolia" by Prof. Charles P. 
Berkey, chief geologist of the Central Asiatic 
Expedition, and Mr. Frederick K. Morris of 
the American Museum of Natural History, 
will appear shortly from the Knicker- 
bocker Press of G. P. Putnam's Sons, New 
York. It is based on five thousand miles 
of reconnaissance exploration made by the 
authors in 1922 and 1923 as members of 
the Museum's Central Asiatic Expeditions, 
Dr. Roy Chapman Andrews, leader. The 
route traversed extends from Kalgan to Urga, 
to Tsetsenwan, to Sain Noin, to Gorida, to 
Uskuk, to Tsagan Nor, to the Baga Bogdo 
and Gurbun Saikan mountains, and back 
through Djadokhta, Sair Usu, Ardyn Obo 
and Shara Murun to Kalgan. Throughout 
the entire extent of this traverse, geologic 
cross-section profiles were constructed en 
route; detailed topographic and geologic 
maps were made where the motor party 



294 



XATi'RAL in STORY 



camped a woi'k or more. The volume will con- 
tain nearly 600 printed pages of text matter, 
including 44 plates, 161 text figures, and 6 
colored geologic maps in a pocket at the end. 
The present work will constitute Volume II of 
a final series of de luxe volumes, entitled The 
Natural Historu of Central Asia. Volume II is 
the first of the series to appear. It has been 
edited by Dr. Chester A. Reeds of the Mu- 
seum's scientific staff, and as soon as the 
printing has been completed, an edition of 
1.500 copies will be placed on sale by G. P. 
Putnam's Sons. 

Volume III, "Geology of Mongolia" (con- 
tinued» by C. P. Berkey and F. K. Morris, 
and the "Geographical Surveys" by Major L. 
B. Roberts along the Kobdo-Kalgan trail 
will follow in due course of time. 

Volume IV, "The Permian of Mongolia," 
by Dr. A. W. Grabau will deal with the 
invertebrate fossils collected by the Central 
Asiatic Expeditions in Mongolia. 

Volumes V-XII (in preparation) will be 
devoted to Botany, Ichthyology'. Archspology, 
Reptilia, Mammalogy. Geology and Palae- 
ontology. 

Vol. I, by Dr. R. C. Andrews will present 
the narrative account of the Expedition. 

ASTRONOMY 
Collections for the proposed Astronomic 
Hall are increasing and the Museum is deeply 
gratified over a recent gift b}' Mr. and Mrs. 
Charles J. Liebman of several of Howard 
Russell Butler's paintings of the hydrogen 
prominences accompanying the eclipse of the 
sun. Mr. Butler also presented one of his 
paintings — "The Approaching Shadow of the 
Moon." 

Amateur Astronomical Association 
Adopts Con.stitlt ion. — The fourth meeting 
of the new astronomical society was held in 
the Museum auditorium on Thursday evening, 
June 23. A constitution and by-laws were 
adofjted, and the following officers were 
elected; President, Clyde Fisher; First Vice- 
president, Stansbury Hagar; Second Vice- 
president, George A. Galliver; Third Vice- 
president, Fairfax Naulty; Fourth Vice- 
president, Oswald Schlockow; Secretary', 
M. Louise Rieker; Treasurer, Harry Lawton. 

The evening's program included a talk on 
the Pons-Winnecke Comet t^y Harry Lawton, 
who was the first member of the Societ j' to see 
this close celestial caller. An excellent lantern 
slide of the comet from a photograph made 



by Mr. William Henry was thrown on the 
.screen. The new Zeiss Projection Plane- 
tarhim was described by Clyde Fisher. 

At this meeting 107 additional applications 
for membership were signed, bringing the 
total number of members to more than 600 

There will be no regular meetings during 
July and August, the fall reunion being sched- 
uled for Thursday evening, September 15. 

BIRDS 

The Chapix-Sage Expedition. — A report 
dated April 1, from Dr. James P. Chapin, 
who was then at Rutshuru, Kivu District, 
has just reached the Museum. After leaving 
Ruwenzori the Chapin-Sage Expedition was 
considerably delayed because of the difficulty 
in securing porters. 

On March 14 the party met Messrs. Coolidge 
and Whitman of the Harvard Medical Expedi- 
tion and stopped a day with them. They 
then moved on to Luofu. Doctor Chapin 
says: "Despite the delay in getting through 
the highlands west of Lake Edward, the time 
was not alt ogether lost , for it is a most interest- 
ing region where only one bird collector, 
Rudolf Grouer, an Austrian, had pre\aoiisly 
worked. The road climbs up and down 
between 6500 and 8000 feet, traversing patches 
of mountain forest and bamboos, where I was 
able to see a great many mountain birds and 
to collect as many as I could take care of 
each evening. We now have 2080 birds."' 

Central American Expedition. — Mr. 
and Mrs. Ludlow Griscom have returned 
from an exploring expedition to eastern 
Panama, whither they sailed on February 3 
last, accompanied by Mr. Maunsell S. Crosby, 
one of the foremost amateur ornithologists in 
the United States. The e.xpedition was 
financed jointly by Mr. Griscom and Mr. 
Crosby. After a brief \'isit to the famous 
Barro Colorado Lsland Research Station in 
the Canal Zone, the party chartered a yacht 
and proceeded to the Pearl Islands in the Bay 
of Panama, where special studies of the enor- 
mous sea-bird rookeries were made, and all the 
land birds peculiar to the archipelago were 
collected for the American Mu.seum of Nat- 
ural History. Mrs. Griscom took hundreds 
of photographs of the sea-bird colonies, and 
1700 feet of motion-picture film. Undisturbed 
by man, the tameness of the birds was extra- 
ordinary, and as many as 100,000 pairs of 
birds were found in a single rookery. A new- 
hummingbird was discovered here. Proceed- 



NOTES 



295 



ing to the mainland of oastcrn Panama, the 
expedition visited the jungles on the upper 
n>aehes of the Saml)u River, aiul spent some 
time at Cape Garaehine, exploring the bird 
life in the gigantic "cuipo" forests. Here 
several birds new to science were discovered 
and a number of other rarities were added to 
the eolleetions of the American Museum. 
The main purpose of the expedition, however, 
was to study the ecology of the i)rimeval 
forests of eastern Panama to V)e compared with 
siniilar studies made by Mr. Griscom in 
jM-evious y(>ars in Yucatan, Nicaragua, and 
western Panama. 

The Whitney South Sea Expedition. — 
For several months little has been heard from 
the members of the Whitney South Sea 
Exjiedition who make their peregrinating 
home on the schooner "France." It is 
believed, however, that since completing 
work among the New Hebrides, the party, 
under Mr. Rollo H. Beck, has undertaken 
collecting at a number of the more remote 
of the Solomon Islands, beginning with Santa 
Ana. From San Cristoval Island, of that 
group. Dr. Frederick P. Drowne wrote on 
March 20, 1927, that birds were comparatively 
easy to obtain, that most of the species proved 
to be new to the Whitney Expedition collec- 
tions, and that, owing to the excellent anchor- 
age, the visit would be prolonged until daih^ 
collecting showed evidence of having covered 
the whole range of the fauna. Much less 
favorable anchorages, he added, were to be 
expected at some of the other islands. 

The Solomons are a rich field never before 
thoroughly worked by ornithologists. Neither 
is a good representation of their avifauna to 
be found in any American museum. The 
expected shipments will, it is hoped, endow 
this Museum with a collection rivalling the 
one recently received from the New Hebrides 
Islands. The next sphere of operations will 
pi'obably be the New Caledonia group, the 
main island of which is larger than any yet 
visited, excepting New Zealand. 

Whitnej' Expedition material continues to 
yield data of romantic as well as scientific 
interest. The rediscovery of long lost forms 
of bird life, for example, is often more exciting 
than the finding of species new to science. 
Discoveries of both these types are recorded 
in a current paper in the American Mu.seum 
Novitates on certain small shearwaters related 
to Puffinus assirmlis. During the second voj'- 



age of circumnavigation of Ca|)t. James Cook, 
Sir Joseph Hanks ol)tained in Lat. 48° 27' S., 
Long. !)li' W., a sea bird which he called Pro- 
ccllaria tHumla. HisfciUownaturaiists, Solander 
and Parkinson, made, respectively, a Latin 
description and a pencil drawing of the bird, 
after whi<'h the specimen was presumably 
thrown away. The date of the incident was 
Fel). 1,5, 1769. From that day until the time 
of the Whitney Expedition, Procellaria munda 
was never seen again, and the very name had 
long since acquired a somewhat cryptic 
status. But on Feb. 16, 1926, or 157 years 
later, almost to a day, Mr. Beck collected six 
specimens of this bird on the same parallel of 
south latitude, but at a point approximately 
815 nautical miles farther west. It has been 
described in the paper referred to above, and 
according to the modern reviewer, should 
bear the name Puffinus assimilis munda. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jose G. Correia, who spent 
four productive years with the Whitnej' South 
Sea Expedition, have how transferred their 
activities to islands in the eastern Atlantic 
Ocean. Their places in the South Pacific are 
to be taken by Messrs. Guy Richards and 
Hannibal Hamlin, who will sail for Sydney, 
Australia, shortly after their graduation from 
Yale University this spring. 

Rollo Beck Rediscovers Curlew-snipe. 
It is satisfactory to record that Dr. P. R. 
Lowe's exhaustive paper' on the characters 
of the curlew-snipe {.Echmorhynchus cancella- 
tus) was based on specimens collected by the 
Whitney South Sea Expedition, under the 
command of Rollo H. Beck. Doctor Lowe 
\^Tites that before the receipt of specimens 
from the American Museum the species was 
not represented in the British Museum, and 
states that prior to its rediscover\ by Beck 
it had long been regarded as extinct. With an 
appropriate touch of humor he adds that its 
extinction, like Mark Twain's death, had 
evident!}' been exaggerated! 

Barro Colorado Island. — Dr. Frank 
M. Chapman returned in April from a winter 
on Barro Colorado Island, in the Canal Zone, 
where his time was devoted chiefly to a study 
of the nesting habits of the colonial oriole or 
Oropendola {Zarhynchua wa^leri). Hereto- 
fore Doctor Chapman's field work in the 
tropics has been faunal rather than biographi- 
ical in character; but it is believed that as 
o\ir growing collections adequately repre- 

'76js, 1927, pp. 114-132. 



296 



NATURAL HISTORY 



sent a bird's structure, variations, and 
distribution, we should supplement this 
knowledge by an intensive study of its habits. 
With this more rounded picture we shall be 
better equipped to attack the problems of its 
origin and its place in nature. 

Birds of the A.mazon. — Thorough collec- 
tions of birds made by the Olallas on opposite 
banks of the upper Amazon reveal the surpris- 
ing influence exerted by this river on the 
distribution of life. Species after species range 
from the Guianas to the north bank of the 
Amazon without change, but on the south 
bank of the river, these are replaced by an 
obviously representative but quite different 
form which ranges, without further change, to 
Bolivia. 

When continued intensive collecting 
supplies the data that will permit both the 
longitudinal and latitudinal ranges of these 
birds being plotted, it is believed that signifi- 
cant facts will be revealed concerning their 
geographic origin and more recent evolution, 
and that the factors which determine the 
boundaries of the minor faunal areas of the 
Tropical Zone will be more clearly understood. 

Notable Additions to the Collection of 
Btrds are single specimens of the remarkable 
new wren from CuVja (Ferminia cerverai Bar- 
bour) and the rare Xarcondam I.sland hornbill 
(Rhytidoceros narcondami), both received 
from the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 

Needed — A Statue of Audubon. — The 
removal of the exhibits of the department of 
public health from the west corridor of the 
Museum, and the rearrangement and exten- 
sion of the Audubon Gallery have left a space 
at the head of the stairway, overlooking the 
exhibits, that would be an admirable place for 
a statue of Audubon. While there is a bust of 
heroic size among the Pioneers of American 
Science, a life-size statue is greatly needed in 
connection with the Audubon Gallerv-, and 
offers a fine opportunity for some admirer of 
Audubon and his work to add to its attrac- 
tions and interest. 

LOWER IXVERTEBRATES 
Dr. Roy W. Mixer is spending Juh- and 
part of August at the Mt. Desert Island Bio- 
logical Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine, where, 
in cooperation with research associate Frank 
J. Meyers, he expects to complete the feld 
operations necessan,- for the Rotifer Group 
now- being installed in the Darwin Hall, and 
also expects to rnake a series of comparative 



studies of marine worms with special reference 
to adaptation of the structures of the head and 
paropodia. From these it is intended to con- 
struct additional models for the annulate 
alcove in the Darwin Hall. Doctor Miner will 
be assisted by Dr. George H. Childs as artist. 

CONSERVATION' 

Cook Forest a State Park. — In Natural 
History for January, 1925, pages 90-93, 
is an account of the Cook Forest in western 
Pennsylvania and of the efforts of the Cook 
Forest A.ssociation. (3.31 Fourth Avenue, 
Pittsburgh, Pa.) to bring about its preserva- 
tion as a state park. Through the appropria- 
tion of 8450,000 by the state legislature, this 
hope seems about to be realized, although it 
will be necessary to raise .S200,000 additional 
by private subscription before the tract can 
be purchased. 

Of all the vast forests that once covered 
much of the northeastern United States, Cook 
Forest contains the last tract of primeval 
white pine forest of any considerable extent 
and its preservation is of aesthetic, scientific, 
and historical interest, not onlj' to the citizens 
of Pennsylvania but of all the eastern states. 

The proposed park will provide ample areas 
for buildings, camp grounds, parking space, 
picnic and recreation grounds outside the 
forest itself, so that there is no reason why 
the latter cannot be kept permanently in 
its present beautiful natural condition. 

EDUCATION 
Mr. George D. Pratt, a Trustee of the 
Museum and chairman of its Committee on 
Education, is planning to visit Norway and 
Sweden during the summer to secure stiU and 
motion pictures to be used in the school 
service work of the Museum. 

Dr. G. Clyde Fisher left New York June 
30 to join Ernest Thompson-Seton at Bis- 
marck, South Dakota, and will devote the 
summer months to visiting different Indian 
reservations to .secure still and motion pictures 
of Indian dancing and feasts. They wiU also 
visit the Grand Canon and the Petrified 
Forest. H. A. Sievers of the department of 
public education accompanies the expedition. 

Philip Pratt, a teacher of art in Pratt 
Institute, who for some years past, has utilized 
his summer vacations to secure still and mo- 
tion pictures of the peoples of foreign lands, 
particularly France, for use in the educational 
work of the American Museum of Natural 
History, sailed June 25, on the "Corson," for 




HEMLOCKS AND PINES ALONG THE SENECA POINT TRAIL, COOK FOREST, PENNSYL- 
VANIA, WHICH WILL BE MADE A STATE PARK IF THE NECESSARY SUM CAN BE RAISED 




SPRING FOLIAGE IN THE COOK FOREST. THE WOODS ARE NEVER SO BEAUTIFUL 
AS IN MAY WHEN THE YOUNG LEAVES OF THE HARDWOODS AND UNDERGROWTH 
ARE UNFOLDING 




VALLEY OF THE CLARION RIVER, PENNSYLVANIA, SEEN THROUGH THE TREE TOPS 
OF THE COOK FOREST 




PRIMEVAL WHITE PINES IN THE COOK FOREST. THESE TREEtJ, WHICH ARE 
FROM 200 TO 300 YEARS OLD AND IN MANY CASES MORE THAN 160 FEET TALL, 
ARE ALMOST THE LAST OF THEIR KIND 



NOTES 



297 



Meditcrnincaii ports. Ho is ac(iiini);uiic(| l)y 
John F()l('> . 

In Hcldition to their work in \\\f principal 
Mediterranean ports, the party will visit the 
interior of Syria, Palestine, Germany, Ilvin- 
gary, Greece, Turkey, Roumania and Egypt. 

Th's expedition, owing to the limitation of 
field funds at the iMuseuni, has been made 
possii)le through the generous cooperation of 
the .\nieri('an Export Steamship Corporation, 
which is extending to Mr. Pratt every possible 
assistance for the execution of his work. 

Outdoor Education. — The Trail-Side Mu- 
seum and Nature Trails at Bear Mountain 
are under the direction of the resident natural- 
ist, Mr. William R. Carr, while Dr. F. E. Lutz 
is continuing the Insect Station at Tuxedo. 

HISTORY OF THE EARTH 
Frick Pal^ntological Expeditions. — 
Through the generosity of Mr. Childs Frick, 
several expeditions have been planned to 
collect palaeontological material in the west. 
Albert Thomson is again in search of Pliocene 
fossils in Western Nebraska; Carl Sorensen 
is working on the Miocene deposits of Western 
Nebraska in cooperation with the Colorado 
Museum. Barnum Brown is conducting a 
Cretaceous and Jurassic reconnaissance in 
Colorado, Wyoming and Montana. Joseph 
Rak in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and John C. 
Blick in Keams Calyon, Arizona, are work- 
ing on the Pliocene material of those states. 

The Samos and Siwalik Collections of 
Fossil Mammals and Reptiles.— The Mu- 
seum has received from Mrs. Henry Clay 
Frick a most generous and welcome gift of 
the entire collections made in the Siwalik 
Hills of India and Burma in the years 1921- 
23, and in the Island of Samos in the year 1924, 
by Curator Barnum Brown. The Siwalik 
Collection of 644 catalogued specimens con- 
stitutes a priceless addition to the great series 
of vertebrate fossils already in the Museum. 
This enumeration gives little idea of the ex- 
tension of knowledge of the extinct fauna of 
the Miocene to Pleistocene times on the Great 
Plains of India, which is revealed in the many 
perfect specimens of the Frick-Brown Collec- 
tion, including skulls of the great Proboscid- 
eans — Mastodon, Stegodon, Archidiskodon, 
and a superb example of the giant tortoise 
Colossochelys. 

The Samos Collection contained in 56 large 
cases is even richer in individual specimens 
than the Indian Collection. It comprises a 



great variety of antelopes, gazelles, horses, 
cattle, Sdjuotheres, Proboscido^a, and carnivores 
giving a i)riceless addition to our knowledge of 
animal life surrounding the Mediterranean in 
Plioci-ne time. Of this collection 343 specimens 
have already been prepared and determined. 
Mrs. Frick has added to her previous gifts 
the amount necessary to defray the entire 
cost of preparation. The Siwalik Collection 
will be entirely cleaned up this year, to be 
followed by the complete cleaning up of the 
Samos Collection. The Proboscidea in these 
two collections are being descriljcd in Curator 
Osborn's monograph on the Madodonls and 
Elephants. The other quadrupeds and rep- 
tiles are being described under the direction of 
Curator Brown, with the cooperation of Dr. 
Guy E. Pilgrim on the antelopes of the 
Siwaliks.— H. F. O. 

A Lost Nevada Meteorite. — One evening 
at twilight in the fall of the year, about 1882- 
83, a large meteor was observed by one of our 
correspondents to pass over Tuscarora, a 
silver mining camp in the northern part of the 
state of Nevada. The same observer estimates 
that the meteorite fell fourteen to sixteen 
miles from Tuscarora, and states that some 
parties, who claim to have dug down beside it, 
reported it to have fallen in a creek bottom, 
where the bed-rock formation was not very 
near the surface, and that the meteor went 
into the earth thirty-four feet and still re- 
mained raised above the surrounding land- 
scape. 

A second correspondent, a mining engineer 
who was in Tuscarora at the time, states: "I 
remember distinctly seeing what I presumed 
to be the cloud left by the passing of the 
meteor. I was in the open and looked up and 
saw what seemed to me a coil of smoke of a 
peculiar color, much like the fluorescent color 
of Willemite under the ultra violet ray, or the 
color of molten gold. It was not in a straight 
line, but seemed to have convolutions. I was 
very much astonished at the sight, and for a 
moment was unable to comprehend it or to 
assign any cause to the phenomenon. I did 
not see the meteor itself, nor did I see the 
place where it landed. I believe the cattlemen 
reported it to have fallen in the country west 
of Mt. Blitzen. It was seen by quite a number 
of people at the time, talked of, and forgotten." 

Another correspondent reported recently 
that the meteorite fell on soft ground; that it 
penetrated the earth to an unknown depth; 
that a hole some six feet in diameter with 
raised rim was observed following the im- 



298 



NATURAL HISTORY 



pact; that the groasewuud and ^iiy^r. Ijrush 
round about the hole was burned off for a 
distance of two hundred yards following the 
descent of the meteor, and that the soft 
ground about the hole was l)akcd l)y the "fire 
ball" so that it resembled a porous coke, light 
in weight. As the location was definiteh' re- 
ported to he in a haystack yard in the upper 
end of the Jackson Valley, Jackson INIountains, 
Nevada, and as there was a strong possibiUty 
that the meteorite could be located, through 
the generosity of Mr. J. P. Morgan the Mu- 
seum sent Dr. C. A. Reeds, curator of geol- 
ogy, to investigate. Doctor Reeds found 
that the location did not afford any of the 
features mentioned above, but instead these 
was an ancient flood plain deposit consisting 
primarily of water-worn pebbles and rounded 
bowlders set in a moderate amount of alluvial 
earth. 

The distance between Tuscarora, where the 
meteor was observed in the sky, and the 
Jackson Mountains is one hundred and twenty 
miles. There are many desert valleys between 
these two points any one of which may harbor 
the final resting place of this large meteorite. 

Physical Conceptions of Life and of 
THE Age of the Earth. — While in Cambridge 
last summer, Professor Osborn discussed with 
Sir Ernest Rutherford, the distinguished presi- 
dent of the Roj^al Society, the much mooted 
question of the age of the earth. Sir Ernest 
is thoroughly convinced of the superiority 
of the measurement of geological time 
through calculation of the radium content 
in the older and j^ounger rocks. On being 
pressed for his own estimate of the age of the 
earth beyond the recognized sedimentary 
estimates, he would extend the time over 
a period of one thousand milUon or one 
biUion years. He dismisses other methods 
of time-measurement such as the sedimen- 
tary records employed by Walcott or the 
sodium content of the sea as used by Joly 
as much less reliable than the radium content 
on which he bases his estimate. This is 
provisionally ten times as great as that 
attained by Walcott or Joly. Professor Joly 
himself discusses with great fairness this very 
question of the life and age of the earth in his 
recent delightful volume The Surface History 
of the Earth. 

MAMMALS 
The Taylor Sudan Expedition which 
left New York last December returned to the 



Museum on June 11. Mr. Irving K. Taylor, 
who financed the expedition, and Mr. H. E. 
Anthony, who went asMuseumrepresentative, 
reported a very successful trip. 

The expedition entered the Sudan by way of 
Egypt, landing at Alexandria and traveling by 
railroad and steamer to Khartoum, which 
became the center of operations. On January 
15 the party left in two small native sailing 
boats or "nuggers" to collect along the White 
Nile for about 300 miles south of Khartoum. 
After a month of this work they returned to 
Khartoum to take up their charter on one of 
the Government shooting boats. With this 
large craft they ascended the White Nile as 
far as Lake No and worked up several of the 
tributaries, such as the Bahr el Ghazal, 
Bahr el Jebel, and Bahr el Zeraf . At a point 
south of Mongalla the steamer was headed 
north and the expedition returned to Khar- 
toum. The work on the Nile was completed 
by the end of March. 

The main energies of the expedition during 
this time were devoted to making collections 
of both the river birds and those found along 
the banks; to collecting large game mammals 
and the smaller species; to securing a repre- 
sentation of the many forms of fresh-water fish 
found in the Nile and its tributaries; and to 
collecting such reptiles and amjjhibians as 
could be found. 

At the conclusion of the work on the river 
Mr. Taylor and Mr. Anthony left by train for 
Port Sudan on the Red Sea, and from that 
point made a safari bj- camel into the Red Sea 
Hills after ibex and gazelle. This section of 
the Sudan is very dry and arid and the con- 
ditions encountered there are very different 
from those which prevail along the Nile. 
About a month was spent in this district, and 
the collectors secured good series of the ani- 
mals they set out to take. This trip brought 
them into contact with the Hadendoa, the 
native tribe which is knowoi today, after 
Kipling, as the Fuzzy Wuzzy. The Fuzzy 
Wuzzy is a very unusual type and the expedi- 
tion secured his services as guide and beater 
for the illusive ibex. The field work was 
l;rought to a close in the harbor of Port Sudan 
where a large collection of Red Sea fishes was 
secured for the Museum. 

The collections brought back by the Taylor 
Sudan Expedition include more than 225 
mammals, more than 500 birds, and many 
hundreds of fishes and of reptiles. The most 
imporant part of the mammal collection is 



NOTES 



299 



the Vdvgv s(>ri('s ot" hiji; 'jjainr, aiiioii^ w hicli 
may be mentioned buffalo, Nile leohwe, 
white-eared kob, waterliuok, tiang, harte- 
beeste, ibex, Dorcas gazelle, Soemmerring's 
gazelle, bushbuck, recdbuck, warthog, etc. 
Not only wci'o skins and skulls taken but 
many skeletons were preserved as well. 

The party took about three thousand feet of 
motion j^ictures and several hundred still 
photographs, but found opportunities for 
photography greatly limited because of the 
unusual growth of high grass and river vegeta- 
tion. In normal years this vegetation is 
burned when the river falls and the banks 
become dry, but 1927 was a season of high 
Nile and vegetation was too green to burn. 
This meant that game could be very abundant 
but so well hidden that the hunter had great 
difficulty in shooting animals, much less in 
photographing them. 

It is expected that the photographs and 
notes of this expedition will serve as the basis 
for later, more extended accounts in Natural 
History. 

Lee Garnett Day Expedition. — Geo. 
H. H. Tate and T. Donald Carter, through 
funds provided by I^ee Garnett Day, will 
leave in the early part of July for an expedi- 
tion to the Roraima district of South America 
to secure a representative series of the mam- 
mals and birds of that region. This will be 
kno\vn as the Lee Garnett Day Expedition 
and will be in the field about six months. 

The Putnam Baffin Island Expedition 
sailed June 12 under the leadership of George 
Palmer Putnam and hopes to secure speci- 
mens of the bow-head whale for the Museum. 

The Greenland Narwhal. — Mr. H. C. 
Raven, associate curator of the department 
of comparative anatomy, who was the zoolo- 
gist of the Museum's expedition to Greenland, 
has been making a study of the foetal and 
adult narwhal specimens secured bj^ the 
expedition. Mr. Raven is especially interested 
in the skeleton and digestive apparatus of 
these animals. Scientists from other institu- 
tions are also interested in this very valuable 
material. Prof. Ernst Huber, of Johns Hop- 
kins University Medical School, is making a 
very careful stud}' of the facial muscles of the 
narw^hal. Mr. A. Brazier Howell, of the 
United States National Museum will study 
the musculature as a whole. Dr. George B. 
Wislocki, of the department of embryology at 
Johns Hopkins L^niversit}', has investigated 



the placeulutiuu and foetal uiumbranes of the 
narwhal, and doctors Tilney and Riley, of 
Columbia University, College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, are studying the In-ain of the 
narwhal. 

Mr. Raven hoi)es that the results of these 
investigations may all be published together. 

MINERALS 

The Morgan Gem Collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History has 
recently been enriched by the gift of a 
number of valuable pieces through the gen- 
erosity of Mr. J. P. Morgan, who has already 
given largely to this collection founded by his 
father. 

The gift includes three cut gems remarkable 
in size and beauty. There is a blue zircon 
from Chantabun, Siam, weighing 30 carats; 
a spinel from Ceylon, of a rich purple color 
and weighing 46)4 carats; and a magnificent 
deep-colored amethyst from Madagascar, 
which weighs 48/2 carats. 

The most unique and valuaVjle object of the 
series is a chain and pendant carved from a 
single piece of light-green Burmese jade with 
spots of darker green. The 65 links which 
make up the 30 inches of length of the chain 
together with the pendant are carved wdthout 
a break. 

A large flat dish, roughly oval in shape, 
and measuring 1 1 by 6 inches, is carved from a 
seam of amethyst bordered by chalcedony in 
such a manner that the banded chalcedony 
forms the rim of the dish. Another dish of 
great beauty is an irregularly circular bowl 
carved from translucent pale-gray chalcedony. 
The material, which is cut very thin, shows 
circular radiations, caused by the stalactitic 
character of the chalcedony, which transmit 
the light with fine effect. This piece measures 
Sji by 6 inches. 

There are also four smaller dishes carved 
from Enghsh fluorite, aventurine from India, 
rich red-banded jasper, also from India, 
and Silesian chrysoprase. The last named is 
made from material mined more than a hun- 
dred years ago and no longer to be obtained 
in such large pieces. 

A mass of Baltic amber weighing nearly 
53 ounces completes the series. 

These objects are at present displayed 
in the accession case in the Morgan Hall, 
and will be subsequently distributed in 
appropriate cases of the Tiffany- Morgan 
Gem Collection. 



300 



NATURAL HISTORY 



HONORS 
OsBORN Chair of Biology Established. 
— A gift of $200,000 has been announced by 
Princeton University fort he estabhshment of 
a Chair of Biology to be known as the Henry 
Fairfield Osborn Research Professorship 
of Biology, in honor of President Osborn who 
was a graduate of the class of 1877. 

Henry Fairfield Osborn received the 
degree of Doctor of Science from New York 
University, in June. 

The Honorary Degree of Doctor of 
Science was bestowed, June 20, upon Dr. 
Roy Waldo Miner by Williams College, of 
which Doctor Miner is a graduate. 

New Dahlia Named after G. Clyde 
Fisher. — At the annual meeting of the New 
York Bird and Tree Club held at the home of 
Mrs. John Lewis Childs, Floral Park, Long 
Island, a new dahUa just developed by the 
John Lewis Childs Nurseries was formally 
named the Dr. Clyde Fisher Dahha in honor 
of the president of the Club. 

RESEARCH IN TROPICAL AMERICA 
The American Museum has been repre- 
sented on the Board of Trustees of the In- 
stitute for Research in Tropical America 
since its organization, and during the first 
year of the existence of the Institute's labora- 
tory on Barro Colorado Island in the Canal 
Zone, it was a contributor to the laboratory 
fund. This annual contribution has now been 
renewed. 

RECENT MUSEUM LITERATURE 
The latest additions to periodical Museum 
literature are the Bulletin of the Carnegie 
Institute and the Natural History Magazine 
of the British Museum of Natural History. 
The former is to appear monthly, except 
during July and August, and deals with the 
activities of that complex, the Carnegie 
Institute comprising the Art Gallery, 
Museum of Natural History, Music Hall and 
Library School, and also of the Library and 
Institute of Technology . The Natural History 
Magazine of the British Museum, two num- 
bers of which have appeared, like the periodi- 
cal published by the Bloomsbury Branch, 
is a quarterly, of a popular nature and 
devoted entirely to the work of the 
Natural History Museum. The first number 
contains a brief introduction by Sir Sidney 
Harmer, who has recently retired from the 
directorship, and an account of the Museum 



Building by Assistant Secretary G. F. Herbert 
Smith. The other articles, many of them 
illustrated, are all by members of the staff, 
and cover a wide range of subjects from an 
account of "Rafflesia, the Largest Known 
Flower," to "Important Additions to the 
Collection of Beetles" which describes two 
species one-eighth of an inch long. The 
longest article is devoted to an account of the 
progress of the British Museum East African 
Expedition to Tendagurn for dinosaur remains. 
The locality had been worked by German 
expeditions for six j^ears prior to the war, but 
the deposit of dinosaur bones covers so large 
an area that it may be profitaVjly worked for 
many years to come. 

Novitates. — Through the medium of 
Novitates, the American Museum gives to the 
world first reports of new discoveries of 
scientific value. The Bulletin, also published 
by the Museum, contains more extensive 
accounts of scientific studies. These papers 
are placed on sale by the Museum. Novitates 
may be secured for fifteen cents a copy, and 
the price of the Bulletin articles varies with 
the number of pages and size of plates. The 
following papers have been published during 
the period January 26-July 2, 1927. 

Novitates 

No. 244. — New Light on the Giant Fossil 
May-Flies of Mongolia. By 
T. D. A. CockereU. 4 pp. Two 
text figures. January 26, 1927. 

No. 245. New Neotropical and Oriental 
Diptera in The American 
Museum of Natural History. 
By C. H. Curran. 9 pp. One 
text figure. January 27, 1927. 

No. 246. New Diptera from the Belgian 
Congo. By C. H. Curran. 18 
pp. January 29, 1927. 

No. 247. Synopsis of Males of the Genus 
Platycheiru^ St. Fargeau and 
Serville with Descriptions of 
New Syrphin.e (Diptera). By 
C. H. Curran. 13 pp. January 
31, 1927. 

No. 248. Undescribed Tachinid^ and 
Calliphorid^ from the Bel- 
gian Congo. By C. H. Curran. 
7 pp. February 1, 1927. 

No. 249. The Plethodontid Salamanders; 
Some Aspects of Their Evolu- 
tion. By G. K. Noble. 26 pp. 



NOTES 



301 



IVn text Hsures. Fcl)ruary 2, 
1927. 

No. 250. Descriptions of New Birds from 
Northwestern Peru and 
Western Colombi.\. By Frank 
M. Chapman. 7 pp. February 
19. 1927. 

No. 251. Descriptions of New Bacteria 
Found in Insects. By F . 
M.\RTiN Brown. 11pp. Febru- 
ary 21, 1927. 

No. 252. North American Bees of the 
Genus Anthidium. By Her- 
bert F. Schwarz. 22 pp. 
February 28, 1927. 

No. 253. Additional North American 
Bees of the Genus Anthidium. 
By Herbert F. Schwarz. 17 pp . 
March 1, 1927. 

No. 254. A New and Remarkable Fly- 
catcher from Guatemala. Bj' 
Jonathan Dwight and Ludlow 
Griscom. 2 pp. March 8, 1927 . 

No. 255. Chinese Ants Collected by 
Professor S. F. Light and 
Professor N. Gist Gee. Bj^ 
William Morton Wheeler. 12 
pp. March 12, 1927. 

No. 256. A New Shark from the Con- 
tinental Slope off Florida . 
By J. T. Nichols. 2 pp. One 
text figure. March 12, 1927. 

No. 257. A RE^^sION of the Geographical 
Races of the Blue Grosbeak 
(Guiraca cxrulea) . By Jonathan 
Dwight and Ludlow Griscom. 
5 pp. March 14, 1927. 

No. 258. New African Tachinid^. By 
C. H. Curran. 20 pp. March 
17, 1927. 

No. 259. A Few Ants from China and 
Formosa. By WiUiam Morton 
\\Tieeler. 4 pp. March 18, 1927. 

No. 260. New West Indian Tachinid^. 
By C. H. Curran. 15 pp. Five 
text figures. March 19, 1927. 

No. 261. The V.^hiations and Distribu- 
tion OF Saltator auraniiirostris . 
By Frank M. Chapman. 19 pp. 
Eight text figures. March 28, 
1927. 

No. 262. New Dolichopodid^ from the 
West Indies. By M. C. Van 
Duzee. 10 pp. March 29, 1927 . 

No. 263. A New Blind Catfish from 
Brazil. By N. A. Borodin. 5 



pp. One text figure. March 31, 
1927. 

No. 264. Three New Minnows of the 
Genus Barbus, and a New 
Characin fro.m the Vernay 
Angola Expedition. By J. T. 
Nichols and Rudyerd Boulton. 
8 pp. Four text figures, .\pril 
5, 1927. 

No. 265. Puntius streeteri. a New Cypri- 
NOiD Fish from Borneo, and 
Cobitophis, a New Genus op 
Bornean Cobitid^. By G. S. 
Meyers. 4 pp. One text figure. 
April 20, 1927. 

No. 266. Some New Catfishes from 
Brazil. By N. A. Borodin. 7 
pp. Four text figures. April 
20, 1927. 

No. 267. M.\mmalian Fauna of the Hell 
Creek Formation of Montana. 
By George Gaj'lord Simpson. 7 
pp. Six text figures. April 30, 
1927. 

No. 268. Mammalian Fauna and Correla- 
tion OF THE PaSKAPOO FORMA- 
TION of Alberta. By Gteorge 
Gaylord Simpson. 10 pp. Seven 
text figures. April 30, 1927. 

No. 269. A Fossil Porpoise from Cali- 
fornia. By Wm. K Gregory 
and Remington Kellogg. 7 pp. 
Three text figures. May 20, 
1927. 

No. 270. Murid Rodents from the Asi- 
atic Expeditions. By Glover 
M. Allen. 12 pp. May 31, 
1927. 

No. 271 . Pimelodus platicirris, New Species, 

AND OTHER NOTES ON BRAZILIAN 

Catfishes. By N. A. Borodin. 
4 pp. June 30, 1927. 
No. 272. Undescribed Asilid^ from the 
Belgian Congo. Bj' C. H. 
Curran. 18 pp. Six text 
figures. July 2, 1927. 

Bulletin 
BuUetin Llll, Art. II. "The Aquatic Mol- 
lusks of the Belgian Congo, With a Geo- 
graphical and Ecological Account of Congo 
Malacology." By Henry A. Pilsbry and J. 
Bequaert . (With Field Notes by the Collec- 
tors, H. Lang and J. P. Chapin). 602 pp. 
Plates X to Lxxvii, 15 maps, and 93 text 
figures. 







Q -2 

o ^ 

^ -a 

H ^ 

K -=- 



O "qj 

Q -S 

h- CD 

cc St: 

q; 

>- =*- 

J o 

"^ i 



NOTES 



303 



HKPTILES AND AMPHIHIANS 

TiiK Nkw Hall ok Him'tiijos and Amphi- 
bians. — "The yt)ulli of (he city who are 
learning to look at all lit'i' and living things 
with intolligcMit appreciation, will find the 
new Hall of Reptiles and Amphibians (in the 
new southeast wing of the Museum) full of 
fascinating surprises," President Osborn re- 
marked at the opening recej)tion (June 14, 
1927), "while their to^achers will find it a rich 
source of clear illustrations of biological 
principles." The corridor of habitat groups 
shows a fine series of Nature's "animated 
gargoyles," all apparently busily engaged in 
the game of life, in the midst of many strange 
and beautiful scenes, — prickly-backed lizards 
in the splendor of sunset in an Arizona desert, 
giant tree frogs in the moonlight on a moun- 
tain-side in the West Indies, l:)lack sea-going 
lizards on the black volcanic rocks of a long 
white beach at noonday in the Galapagos 
Islands, etc. 

In d series of cases running the length of the 
hall are exhibits illustrating biological 
principles, — "adaptation," "elimination of 
the unfit," "variation," "concealing colora- 
tion," "warning coloration," "mimicry," and 
the like. On the opposite side of the hall the 
exhibits illustrate how amphibians and rep- 
tiles breed, how they care for their young, how 
they secure their food and devour it, and so on. 

Not the least interesting alcoves are those 
devoted to "snake stories" and to the eco- 
nomic importance of reptiles. 

The colleagues and friends of Curator G. K. 
Noble are congratulating him and the mem- 
bers of his department as well as the depart- 
ment of preparation upon the completion of 
one of the most interesting halls in the whole 
Museum, — a hall of stimulating ideas as well 
as of strange and beautiful objects. Finally, 
all unite in grateful memories of the late Miss 
Mary Cynthia Dickerson, the first curator of 
the department, who laid the foundations for 
its present high standing in educational and 
scientific work. — W. K. G. 

SCIENCE OF MAN 
Valuable Indian Collection Acquired. 
The department of anthropology has re- 
ceived a particularly valuable collection from 
the Northern Cheyenne Indians of Montana. 
This collection was made about 1900 by Dr. 
George Bird Grinnell during his visits to that 
tribe. Not onlj' are objects such as these now 
rare and unobtainable, but the information 



concerning each specimen adds very greatly 
to their value. Doctor Grinnell has a very 
intimate knowledge of the Blackfoot and 
Cheyenne, acquired during many years of 
close acquaintance with them. The results of 
these years of study have been published in 
several volumes of which Blackfoot Lodge 
Tales, New York, 1893, The Fighting Cheyenne, 
New York, 1915, and The Cheyenne Indians 
(in two volumes). New Haven, 1923, are the 
most important. 

The collection just given has been in the 
Museum on loan since 1904, and several of the 
more interesting specimens have been on 
exhibition in the Plains Indians Hall. One 
of the choicest specimens is a Cheyenne shield. 
There is some evidence that the shield was 
made in 1780 and is therefore 147 years old. 

Dr. Leslie Spier, formerly an assistant in 
the department of anthropology, but for 
several years professor of anthropology in the 
University of Washington, Seattle, has been 
appointed professor of anthropology in the 
University of Oklahoma. While connected 
with the American Museum, Doctor Spier 
carried on excavations at Trenton and after- 
ward took part in the archaeological survey of 
New Jersey. Later, he carried on archaeo- 
logical explorations in Arizona and finally 
made a special ethnographic study of the 
Havasupai Indians. 

Textiles from Cliff Dwellings. — Finely 
woven cloth was found b}^ Earl H. Morris in 
some of the dry recesses of chff dwellings in 
ca ons del Muerto and de Chelly (Ogden 
Mills Expedition). These unusual textiles 
are now the object of investigation in the 
laboratories of the department of anthro- 
polog}^ Though httle more than fragments 
were secured, many of these are large enough 
to show not only the weave, but the design. 
For the most part the materials are cotton. 
After cleaning, manj' of the fragments prove 
to be well-preserved and often retain their 
colors in relative values. Mr. .S. Ichikawa, 
assistant in the department, has the work in 
hand, and is now engaged in analyzing the 
weaves used in these textiles. So far, almost 
every known variet^^ of w^eaving technique has 
been observed, ranging from the simple lace 
coil, still found among the Indians of Cali- 
fornia, to tapestry weaves \xith. oblique con- 
trast Unes, similar to prehistoric cloths in our 
Peruvian collection. Among the unique 
techniques is a weave in which certain weft 



304 



NATURAL HISTORY 



threads are so manipulated as to produce open 
meshes, either square, or oblong, according to 
the movement of the weft. This form has been 
reported from the southern part of Arizona, 
so it had a wide distribution. Many speci- 
mens are still to be analyzed, some obviously 
presenting compUcated processes, all of which 
go to show that long ago, well back in pre- 
Columbian time, the spinning of thread from 
cotton and the weaving of cloth reached a 
high level of excellence among the otherwise 
primitive chff dwellers of our Southwest. 

Among recent Visitors in the department 
of anthropology has been Dr. Fay Cooper Cole, 
senior professor of anthropology in the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, who is conducting a field 
archaeological station in Illinois for the train- 
ing of students in archaeological technique. 

Dr. Robert H. Lowie, formerly associate 
curator in the department of anthropology, 
and now professor of anthropology in the 
University of Caifornia, will conduct courses 
in anthropology in the Columbia University 
summer school. 

Leidy on the Central Asiatic Origin 
OF Man. — In a recent article by Professor 
Osborn entitled "Why Central Asia," various 
theories as to the homeland of man were set 
forth and credit given to the various writers. 
It now appears that the veteran palaeontol- 
ogist, Joseph Leidy, was overlooked, because 
Dr. Joseph Leidy, Jr., calls attention to the 
following passage published in the year 1857 
in a work now httle known, Indigenous Races 
of the Earth, by Nott and Ghddon. In this 
quotation, Leidy remarks: 

It is not at all improbable that man 
(strictly the genus Homo) may have first 
originated in Central Asia. . . Various 
races of man, in different geographical 
positions, may have acquired their peculiar 
characteristics (their specific origin) at 
successive periods long distant from each 
other. 

Invesiigations in Physical Anthropol- 
ogy in America. — One of the most significant 
investigations in physical anthropology in 
America within recent years is Old Americans, 
by Dr. Ales Hrdlicka, curator in the U. S. 
National Museum and one of America's most 
distinguished anthropologists. Doctor HrdUcka 
carried on extensive studies on a repre- 
sentative population of Old Americans whose 
ancestry on all branches showed a contin- 
uous residence in the United States for at least 
three generations. In many cases the antiquity 
of the family Une in this country was consider- 



ably longer. This population was found to be 
dominantly of British origin and while still 
preserving their racial affiliations with the 
parent stock have nevertheless produced a 
sub-type which is distinct from the ancestral 
one in several respects. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
Acknowledgment is due to Juhan P. Scott, 
who made the photograph of Carl Akeley en- 
titled "Thinking about the Gorilla" which 
appeared on the cover of the Akeley Memorial 
Number of Natural History, and again on 
page 130 of the same issue. Mr. Scott also 
made the photograph of Ralph Winfred Tower 
that was pubhshed on page 214 of Natural 
History, Vol. XXVI. The negatives are the 
property of Science Service, Washington, D. C. 

NATURAL HISTORY 
APPEAL FOR BACK NUMBERS 

The Library of the American Museum re- 
ceives frequent requests for complete files of 
Natural History which it is no longer 
able to furnish. Should any subscriber care 
to donate copies of earher issue;s, particularly 
Vols. I-XIV, the gift will be very much appre- 
ciated, and postage will be refunded to the 
donor. Address the Librarian, American 
Museum of Natural History. 

NEW MEMBERS 
At a meeting of the Board of Trustees of 
the American Museum of Natural History 
held May 2, Mr. Lincoln Ellsworth was 
proposed by the nominating committee to 
fill a vacancy in the Board, of the class of 
1927. This nomination was approved, and 
Mr. Ellsworth was unanimously elected a 
Trustee of the Museum. 

Since the last issue of Natural History 
the following persons have been elected mem- 
bers of the American Museum, making the 
total membership 9653. 

Associate Benefactor 
Mr Irving K. Taylor. 

Corresponding Members 
Prof. Max Weber. 

Messrs. Jean Delacour, Charles Tate 
Regan. 

Life Members 
Mrs. Constance R. Cutting. 
Dr. Reginald Burbank. 

Messrs. Hunt T. Dickinson, Alfred L. 
LooMis, Irwin R. Kirkwood, William R 

TiMKEN. 



NOTES 



305 



Sustaining Members 
Mesdames: E. V. Gabriel, Gf.oiu;!', H. Hop- 
kins, L. D. RiCKETTS. 

Messrs. Chaiiles F. Fuller, Edward C. 
Lord, Frank Melville, Jr., Benjamin 
Mordecai, John Caldwell Myers. 

Annual Members 
Mesdames: William J. Demorest, Dudley 

D. Doernberg, S. W. Fairchild, Charles 

F. Fuller, Langdon Geer, George A. 
Graham, Robert Hoe, Jr., Ramsey Hoguet, 
Arthur C. Holden, B. H. Homan, Henry 
Homes, Richard F. Hoyt, Walter Jen- 
nings, Benj. H. Kaufman, Paul M. Mazur, 
John R. McGinley, Coleman B. McGovern, 
Cord Meyer, Jr., Victor Morawetz, 
Henry Necarsulmer. Harold E. B. Par- 
dee, Clara L. Poillon, Robert H. Pretz- 
FELD, R. Bartow Read, W. S. Rodie, J. G. 
Schurman, Jr., Frank R. Smith, Walker 

E. Swift, Eugene Untermyer, Randolph 
S. Warner, W. A. W^hite. 

Misses: M. Winifred Hall, Edna K. 
Phillips. 

Rev. Henry Darlington, D.D. 

Doctors: 'William C. Geer, M. Chas* 
Gottschaldt, Hans E. Kudlich, Perry J- 
Manheims, a. V. Moschcowitz. 

Hon. George de Ghika. 

Major William Kennelly. 

Messrs. Geo. A. Bates, G. Albert Bau- 
MANN, Bruno Benziger, Joseph G. Butler, 
3d., H. Towner Deane, Murray W. 
Dodge, Henry G. Eilshemius, Louis 
M. Eilshemius, John Farr, Jr., L. J. 
Fischer, J. Goebel, Jr., William T. Grant, 
Alfred Gregory, John L. Handy, James M. 
Hartshorne, Arthur M. Hess, Stephen 

G. Hess, Carl T. Heye, Charles R. Hickox, 
Irving B. Hirshfeld, Ernest P. Hoes, 
J. W. HoRNOR, Benjamin A. Javits, 
Frank B. Jewett, Frank H. Keen, 
Walter S. Klee, Charles A. Kollstede, 
Leon H. Kronthal, James B. Lackey, 
Richard M. Lederer, William C. Lester, 
Leo Le\t, Robert E. Liebmann, Benj. W. 
LoEB, Andrew W. Loebl, Frederick W. 
Longfellow, Homer L. Loomis, J. S. Lover- 
ing, Ranald H. MacDonald, Wm. P. 
Malburn, Lee McCanliss, W. G. McCul- 
LOUGH, George A. McIlroy, George Merz- 
bach, Arthur G. Meyer, John H. Miller, 



George Murname, Sol Mutterperl, Julian 
S. Myrick, Alfred H. Newburger, Charles 
D. NicoLL, L. J. Nolan, Winthrop G. Noyes, 
Joseph J. O'Donohue, Jr., Lee E. Olwell, 
Edward C. Patterson, Paul G. Pennoyer, 
Lawrence Phillips, Wray Physioc, Roy 
Pier, Andrew J. Post, S. C. Powell, E. 
Allan Reinhardt, Fleming H. Revell, 
Alfred Rheinstein, Herman Robson, 
Otto Roethlisberger, A. B. Roosevelt, 
Reuben J. Ross, William H. Scheel, C. 
Alison Scully, Nathaniel Stevens Seeley, 
Jacob Seibert, Jr., Wm. P. Shannon, 
Mesier R. Snyder, Morton F. Stern, 
Walther Albert Stiefel, Lawrence 
C. Stix, Ralph Stoddard, Leon E. 
Stropp, Rutherford Towner, Wolcott 

TUCKERMAN, KeNNETH H. TuRNBULL, 

Samuel Ungerleider, Ernest Urchs, 
Edgar Wachenheim, Frank L. Weil, 
Louis M. Weiller, William Y. Wemple, 
Samuel L. Whitestone, George L. Wrenn, 
Roy T. Yates. 

Master Hustace H. Poor. 

Associate Members 
Prof. Ellen Hayes. 

Doctor Caroline A. Osborne . 

Mesdames: John Wendell Brooks, Lucy 
Stock Chapin, Albert S. Clark, Mag- 
dalena R. Dexter, W. H. Edwards, W. H. 
Etz, Isaac W. Jeanes, Sophie H. Marshall, 
Frank V. Miller, Charles Scheuber, 
Florence Stocker Stimson, Mabel Loomis 
Todd. 

Misses: Pearl M. Andrews, Elizabeth 
Brewster, Elizabeth F. Genung, Winifred 
Goldring, Mary J. Guthrie, Genivera E. 
Loft, Christine Miller, Delia S. Ovitz, 
Mary Louise Stark. 

Rev. Dr. Henry B. Hemmeter, and 
Dr. D. Marsh 

Albert O'Brien, Theodore C. Petersen, 
Luis Rodez. 

Prof. Dr. W. H. Hoffmann. 

Professors: C. L. Baker, Teiso Esaki, R. D. 
George, E. Duncan Grizzell, T. L. Haeck- 
ER, Alfonzo L. Herrera, Maynard M. 
Metcalf, Walter R. Miles, Harry Justin 
Roddy, Henry Norris Russell, Peter 
Sandiford. 



306 



NATURAL fllSTORY 



Doctors: W. H. Bergtold, Harold C. Bing- 
ham, Severance Burrage, A. B. Cannon, 
Frank A. Delabarre, Howard E. Enders, 
Robert D. Fletcher, James M. Flynn, H. 
M. FooDER, Jonathan Forman, W. D. Funk- 
HOUSER, Henry Watson Furniss, John Y. 
Graham, Charles R. Grandy, Caswell 
Grave, William Avery Groat, Vernon R. 
Haber, Frank Wilson Hachtel, Henry 
Rudolf Henze, Frank Hinman, G. A. 
Hinnen, Henry B. Hitz, A. J. Hodgson, 
Frank F. Hoffmann, Davenport Hooker, 
James W. Hunter, Jr., George Ives, Victor 
C. Jacobsen, Albert Ernest Jenks, W. R. 
JiLLsoN, Edward W. Jones, Carl F. Klaus, 
Harry H. Knight, Heinrich Krause, 
Harvey D. Lamb, T. I. Lerche, A. Lilien- 
CRANTz, S. E. Longwell, Wm. H. Luedde, 
George W. Mackenzie, Edward F. Malone, 
James W. Mavor, W. R. McNair, Hugh 
C. McPhee, C. F. Menninger, R. E. 
Mercer, Wm. H. Mercur, Austin R. 
MiDDLETON, George Richards Minot, E. 
Leigh Mudge, J. X. Newman, Frank Par- 
sons NoRBURY, S. T. Orton, a. L. Peckham, 
Alfred O. Peterson, Chas. S. Potts, John 
B. Reeside, Jr., Frederick Hollister 
Safford, a. G. Sandblad, Ara Nathaniel 
Sargent, Harry B. Schmidt, Walter 
Merritt Seward, Milton G. Sturgis, 
Chas. R Sumner, Elihu Thomson. 

Judge Ambrose Feely. 

Messrs: Lyle Abbott, H. B. Allen, Ben- 
jamin Baker, E. J. Baker, Jr., Jno. W. 
Baker, Gershom Bradford, Jos. H. Bush, 



F. D. Chase, Wallace W. Coleman, Roy P. 
Curtis, Gilbert W. L. Darwin, James P. B. 
Duffy, Edwin G. Foster, Bertram L 
Gerry, Walter M. Giffard, J. D. Grant, 
Frank C. Greene, T. W. Gregory, Theo 
Grieff, Herman A. Gudcer, D. Marshall 
Haas, Robert Hall, Gustavus Harkness, 
C. Holland Harper, Alfred Hart, E. N. 
Hart, W. O. Hellwig, Jean Heysel, Chas. 
C. Hill, Frank H. Hill, Wm. O. Howell, 
Southgote Y. Hoyt, H. A. Huebotter, 
Charles F. Hutchison, Judson Dunbar 
Ives, Joseph Jessop, R. L. Jones, William 
E. Keily, E. T. Keim, Harry D. Kirkover, 
Leopold H. Korecki, Daniel E. Kosh- 

LAND, WeNCEL J. KOSTIR, JoHN A. LeBlOND, 

J. Artemus Lewis, John A. Manning, 
KiRTLEY F. Mather, Dean B. McLaughlin, 
Charles E. Mead, C. E. Kenneth Mees, 
James Mills, Roger P. Minahan, E. B. 
Morris, Francis J. A. Morris, Fremont 
Morse, James H. Moyle, John Murphy, 
John T. Myers, C. R. Neiswander, C. H. 
OcuMPAUGH, Tinius Olsen, Bernhard Palm, 
Ernest J. Palmer, David N. Panabaker, 
J. E. Pearce, C. B. Pollock, Ed. Prather, 
Louis Quarles, George S. Raymer, John 
T. Reid, Edwin S. Reider, S. Lynn Rhorer, 
James Henry Rice, Jr., Louis Roark, H. B. 

RUMRILL, J. C. SCANLON, G. A. ShOOK, LeWIS 

H. Thornton, James Madison Todd, L. M. 
Todd, Edwin V. Van Amringe, Augustus L. 
Wallon, Edward I. Weiss, F. A. Whiting, 
Frederick M. Whitney, J. B. Winstanley, 
Percy W. Witherell, C. C. Yang, 
Laurence D. Yont. 



THE EDUCATION NUMBER 

JULY-AUGUST 

The July-August Number of Natural History will be devoted to the service which the 
Museum renders to the schools and to education in general, and will be edited by Clyde Fisher, 
Curator of Visual Instruction, and In Charge of Astronomy. 

Professor Henry Fairfield Osborn will contribute an article on "Creative Education." 
Other articles will be included as follows: "The Story of the Museum's Service to the 
Schools," by George H. Sherwood, curator-inchief of the department of education and health 
and director of the American Museum of Natural History. "Nature on the Lower East 
Side" by Margaret Knox, principal of Public School 15, Manhattan "The Museum as an 
Educational Interpreter" by Paul B. Mann, head of the department of biology in Evander 
Childs High School, New York City, and associate in education in the American Museum of 
Natural History. "The New Projection Planetarium" by Dr. W. J. Luyten, of the Harvard 
College Observatory. "The Still-open Road" by Dr. Frank E. Lutz, curator of insect Ufe and 
research associate in outdoor education in the American Museum of Natural History. 
"Heredity, Environment and Response" by James E. Peabody, head of the department of 
biology, Morris High School, New York City. "Organic Education or the Fairhope Idea" by 
Marietta Johnson, director of the School of Organic Education, Fairhope, Alabama. "The 
Museum in the Life of the Child" by Rita Berman, author of "A Mother's Letters to a 
Schoolmaster." 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

FOUNDED IN 1869 



Board of Trustees 

Henry Fairfield Osborn, President 

George F. Baker, First Vice-Prosidont Clarence L. Hay 

J. P. Morgan, Second Vioe-Prcsidont Oliver G. Jennings 

James H. Perkins, Treasurer Archer M. Huntington 

Percy R. Pyne, Secretary Roswell Miller 

George F. Baker, Jr. Ogden Mills 

George T. Bowdoin Junius Spencer Morgan, Jr. 

Frederick F. Brewster A. Perry Osborn 

Douglas Burden Daniel E. Pomeroy 

Frederick Trubee Davison George D. Pratt 

Cleveland Earl Dodge A. Hamilton Rice 

Lincoln Ellsworth Kermit Roosevelt 

Childs Frick Leonard C. Sanford 

Madison Grant William K. Vanderbilt 

Chauncey J. Hamlin Felix M. Warburg 

James J. Walker, Mayor of the City of New York 

Charles W. Berry, Comptroller of the City of New York 

Walter R. Herrick, Commissioner of the Department op Parks 



MEMBERSHIP MORE THAN NINE THOUSAND FIVE HUNDRED 
For the enrichment of its collections, for the support of its explorations and scientific research, 
and for the maintenance of its publications, the American Museum of Natural History is de- 
pendent wholly upon membership fees and the generosity of friends. More than 9500 members 
are now enrolled who are thus supporting the work of the Museum. The various classes of 
membership are: 

Associate Member (nonresident)* annually $3 

Annual Member .annually $10 

Sustaining Member annually $25 

Life Member $200 

FeUow $500 

Patron $1,000 

Associate Benefactor . . $10,000 

Associate Founder $25,000 

Benefactor $50,000 

Endowment Member $100,000 

*Person3 residing fifty miles or more from New York City 

Subscriptions by check and inquiries regarding membership should be addressed: James H. 
Perkins, Treasurer, American Museum of Natural History, New York City. 

FREE TO MEMBERS 

NATURAL HISTORY: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 
Natural History, published bimonthly by the Museum, is sent to all classes of members 
as one of their privileges. Through Natural History they are kept in touch with the activi- 
ties of the Museum and with the marvels of nature as they are revealed by study and explora- 
tion in various regions of the globe. 

AUTUMN AND SPRING COURSES OF POPULAR LECTURES 
Series of illustrated lectures, held in the Auditorium of the Museum on alternate Thursday 

evenings in the fall and spring of the year, are open only to members and to those holding tickets 

given them by members. 

Illustrated stories for the children of members are presented on alternate Saturday mornings 

in the fall and in the spring. 

MEMBERS' CLUB ROOM AND GUIDE SERVICE 
A room on the third floor of the Museum, equipped with every convenience for rest, reading, 
and correspondence, is set apart during Museum hours for the exclusive use of members. When 
visiting the Museum, members are also privileged to avail themselves of the services of an 
instructor for guidance. 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY has a record of fifty-seven years 
of public service during which its activities have grown and broadened, until today it occupies 
a position of recognized importance not only in the community it immediately serves but in 
the educational life of the nation and in the progress of civilization throughout the world. 

Every j^ear brings evidence — in the growth of the Museum membership, in the ever-larger 
number of individuals visiting its exhibits for study and recreation, in the rapidly expanding 
activities of its school service, in the wealth of scientific information gathered by its world-wide 
expeditions and disseminated through its publications — of the increasing influence exercised by 
the institution. In 1926 no fewer than 2,070,265 individuals visited the Museum as com- 
pared with 1,775,890 in 1925 and 1,633,843 in 1924. All of these people had access to the 
exhibition halls without the payment of any admission fee whatsoever. 

The EXPEDITIONS of the Museum for 1926, 33 in number, have resulted in splendid 
collections from all parts of the world. Among the notable achievements in Asia are the 
Morden-Clark series of Outs poll, ibexes, antelopes, etc. from the remote regions of Russian and 
Chinese Turkestan, the herpetological survey of the Central Asiatic Expedition by Mr. 
Clifford Pope in the Min River Valley from sea level at Foochow to the heights of the Fukien- 
Kiangsi divide, and in India the Vernay-Faunthrop collection of mammals, in Africa the con- 
tinuation of Mr. and Mrs. Martin Johnson's photographic records of African wild life, and the 
incomparable work of Carl E. Akeley on the Eastman-Pomeroy Expedition in Kenya and 
Tanganyika; in Polynesia, the continuation of the sui'vey of bird life by the Whitney South Sea 
Expedition; in the Dutch East Indies, Douglas Burden's collection of giant dragon lizards; 
in North America, the valuable collection of narwhal and other sea life secured by the American 
Museum Greenland Expedition; in the Bahamas, Dr. Roy Miner's expedition for corals and 
rare fishes for the new Hall of Ocean Life; in the vicinity of New York City, Dr. Chester Reed's 
field observations on the glacial clays of the Hudson and Hackensack valleys; in Arizona, 
continuation of the archasological explorations at two important sites; in Hudson Bay, birds 
collected by the Rockefeller Expedition; and in South America, collections of mammals from 
Peru, Argentina, and Bohvia by Mr. G. H. H. Tate. 

The SCHOOL SERVICE of the Museum reaches annually about 6,000,000 boys and girls 
through the opportunities it affords classes of students to visit the Museum; through lectures 
on natural history especially designed for pupils and delivered both in the Museum and in 
many school centers; through its loan collections, or "traveling museums," which during the 
past year circulated among 443 schools, and were studied by 765,790 pupils. During the 
same period 808,789 lantern slides were lent by the Museum for use in the schools, the total 
number of children reached being 4,358,423. a total of 2,057 reels of motion pictures were lent 
oaned to 91 public schools and other educational institutions in Greater New York, 
reaching 530,955 children. 

The LECTURE COURSES, some exclusively for members and their cliildren, others for the 
schools, colleges, and the general public, are delivered both in the Museum and at outside 
educational institutions. 

The LIBRARY, comprising 100,000 volumes, is at the service of scientific workers and 
others interested in natural history, and an attractive reading room is provided for their 
accommodation. 

The POPULAR PUBLICATIONS of the Museum, in addition to Natural History, 
include Handbooks, which deal with the subjects illustrated by the collections, and Guide 
Leaflets, which describe some exhibit or series of exhibits of special interest or importance, or 
the contents of some hall or some branch of Museum activity. 

The SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS of the Museum, based upon its explorations and the 
study of its collections, comprise the Memoirs, of quarto size, devoted to monographs requiring 
large or fine illustrations and exhaustive treatment; the Bulletin, issued since 1881, in octavo 
form, deaUng with the scientific activities of the departments, aside from anthropology; the 
Anthropological Papers, recording the work of the staff of the department of anthropology; 
and Novitates, devoted to the publication of preliminary scientific announcements, descriptions 
of new forms, and similar matters. 

For a detailed list of popular and scientific publications with prices apply to: 

The Librarian, American Museum of Natural History 

New York City 



JULY-AUGUST, 1927 




HISTORY 




5 JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN g 
MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 



'L 



EXPLORATION RESEARCH-EDUCATION 



EDUCATION NUMBER 



THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

Scientific Staff for 1927 

Henry F\irkield Osborn, LL.D., President 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Director and Executive Secretary 

Frederic A. Ldc.'^s, Sc.D., Honorary Director 

Wayne M. F.^unce, Sc.B., Assistant to the Director and Assistant Secretary 

James L. Clark, Assistant Director, Preparation 



I. DIVISION OF MINERALOGY, GEOLOGY, 
GEOGRAPHY, AND ASTRONOMY 

Curator-in-Chief, vacant 

Astronojny 
G. Clyde Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., In Charge 

Minerals and Gems 
Herbert P. Whitlock, C.E., Curator 
George F. Krxz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Gems 
Lea McIlv.vixe Luquer, Ph.D., Research Associate m 
Optical Mineralogy 

History of the Earth 

Curator-in-Chief, vacant 

Fossil Vertebrates 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, LL.D., D.Sc, Honorary 

Curator 
W.alter Granger, Curator of Fossil Mammals 
Barnum Brown, A.B., Curator of Fossil Reptiles 
Charles C. Mook, Ph.D., Associate in Palaeontology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Research Associate in Palffi- 

Childs Frick, B.S., Research Associate in Paleontology 

Fossil Invertebrates 

Chester A. Reeds, Ph.D., Curator 



II. 



DIVISION OF ZOOLOGY, AND ZOO- 
GEOGRAPHY 



Frank Michler Chapman, Sc.D., N.A.S., Curator-in- 
Chief 

Marine Life 
Roy Waldo Miner, Ph.D., Sc.D., Curator 
Will\rd G. Van Name, Ph.D., Associate Curator 
Frank J. Myers, B.A., Research Associate in Rotifera 
Horace W. Stunkard, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Parasitology . . 

.A.. L. Trisadwell, Ph.D., Research Associate in Annulata 

Insect Life 
Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D., Curator 
A J. Mutchler, Associate Curator of Coleoptera 
Frank E. Watson, B.S., Assistant in Lepidoptera 
William M. Wheeler, Ph.D., Research Associate in Social 

Charles W. Leng, B.S., Research Associate in Coleoptera 
Herbert F. Schwarz, A.M., Research Associate m 
Hymenoptera 

Fishes 

William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 

Bashfobd Dean, Ph.D., Honorary Curator 

John T. Nichols, A.B., Associate Curator of Recent 

Fishes 
E W. Gudger, Ph. D., Bibliographer and Associate 
Charles H. Townsend, Sc.D., Research Associate 
C M Breder, Jr., Research Associate 
Van Campen Heilner, F.R.G.S., Field Representative 

Amphibians and Reptiles 
G Kingsley Noble, Ph. D., Curator 
Clifford H. Pope, B.A., Assistant [Central Asiatic 

Expeditions] 
Bertr.am G. Smith, Ph.D., Research Associate 
A. B. D.\wson, Ph.D., Research Associate 

Birds 
Frank M. Chapman, Sc.D., Curator-in-Chief 
Robert Cushman Murphy, D.Sc, Curator of Oceanic 

Birds ^ 

W DeW. Miller, Associate Curator 
jAiiES P. Ch.apin, Ph.D., Associate Curator of Birds of the 

Eastern Hemisphere 



Birds (continued) 

Ludlow Grisco.m, A.M., Assistant Curator 

Jonath.an Dwight, M.D., Research Associate in North 

American Ornithology 
Elsie M. B. Naumberg, Research Associate 

Mammals of the World 
H. E. Anthony, M.A., Curator 
George G. Goodwin, Assistant 
Frederic A. Lucas, Sc.D., Research Associate 

Comparative and Human Anatomy 
Willi.am K. Gregory, Ph.D., Curator 
S. H. Chubb, Associate Curator 
H. C. R.^VEN, Associate Curator 
J. Howard McGregor, Ph.D., Research Associate in 

Human Anatomy 
Dudley J. Morton, M.D., Research Associate 

III. DIVISION OF ANTHROPOLOGY 

Clark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 

Science of Man 

Cl-ark Wissler, Ph.D., Curator-in-Chief 

Pliny E. Goddard, Ph.D., Curator of Ethnology 

N. C. Nelson, M.L., Associate Curator of Archisology 

Charles W. Mead, Honorary Curator of Peruvian 

Archseology 
H.ARRY L. Shapiro, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Physical 

Anthropology 
Mahg.yket Me.ad, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Ethnology 
George C. Vaill.\nt, Ph.D., Assistant Curator of Mex- 
ican Archeology 
William K. Gregory, Ph.D., Associate in Physical 

Anthropology 
Clarence L. Hay, A.M., Research Associate in Mexican 

and Central American Archaeology 
MiLO Hellman, D.D.S., Research Associate in Physical 
Anthropology 



IV. 



DIVISION OF ASIATIC EXPLORATION 
AND RESEARCH 



Roy C. ANDREW'S, D.Sc, Curator-in-Chief 

W^ alter Granger, Curator in Palseontology 

Ch.^jrles p. Berkey, Ph.D. [Columbia University], Re- 
search Associate in Geology 

Frederick K. Morris, A.M. [Central Asiatic Expeditions], 
Associate in Geology and Geography 

Amadeus W. Gr-abau, S.D. [Geological Survey of China], 
Research Associate 

V. DIVISION OF EDUCATION AND 
PUBLICATION 
George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 

Ldbrary and Publications 
Ida Richardson Hood, A.B., Acting Curator 
H-AZEL Gay, Assistant Librarian 

Jannette May- Lucas, B.S., Assistant Librarian — Osborn 
Library 

Education and Public Health 
George H. Sherwood, A.M., Curator-in-Chief 
G. Cly'de Fisher, Ph.D., LL.D., Curator of Visual In- 
struction 
Grace Fisher Ramsey, Associate Curator 
W^iLLiA-M H. Carr, .Assistant Curator 
N.ANCY True, A.B., Assistant 
Paul B. M.vnn, A.M., Associate in Education 
Fr.vnk E. Lutz, Ph.D., Research Associate in Outdoor 
Education 

Charles-Edward .\mory Winslow, D.P.H., Honorary 

Curator of Public Health 
M.ARY Greig, A.B., Assistant Curator of Public Health 

Public Information 

George N. Pindar, Chairman 
George H. Sherwood, A.M. 
W^iLLiAM K. Gregory-, Ph.D. 
Wayne M. Faunce, Sc.B. 
Clark Wissler, Ph.D. 



Natural History Magazine and Advisory Committee 

George H. Sherwood, A.M., Chairman 
Departmental Editors 

A. Katherine Berger, Assistant Editor 
Clark Wissler. Ph.D. Fr.ank M. Chapm.vn, Sc.D. 

George N. Pindab Frank E. Lutz, Ph.D. 




ATURAL 
HISTORY 

THE JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 



DEVOTED TO NATURAL HISTORY 
EXPLORATION. AND THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF PUBLIC EDUCATION 
THROUGH THE MUSEUM 




EDUCATION NUMBER 

CLYDE FISHER, EDITOR 



JULY- AUGUST, 1927 

[Published October, 1927] 

Volume XXVII, Number 4 

Copyright. 1927, by the American Museum of Natural History. New York. N. Y. 



ATURAL HISTORY 

Volume XXVII CONTENTS FOR JULY-AUGUST Number 4 



Cover: A Youthful Follower of Linnaeus 

From a pliotograph by Clyde Fisher 

Frontispiece: "Original Observation Is a Force in Creative Educa- 
tion" facing 309 

"Creative Education" Henry Fairfield Osborn 309 

The highest function of the mind is to create. Real education must develop this power 

The Story of the Museum's Service to the Schools . . George H. Sherwood 315 

The American Museum was pioneer in most phases of educational work with the schools 

The Museum's Part in Nature Education 339 

The faithful portrayal of nature in the exhibits exi'lains the interest of the Museum 
With reproductions in duotone of photographs taken in the American Museum 

The Museum as an Educational Interpreter Paul B. Mann 351 

How the Museum attains its ideal as an educational institution 

The Child Discovers His World Rita Scherman 355 

The author of A Mother's Letters to a Schoolmaster discusses the education of the child 

Education as Natural Development Marietta Johnson 360 

Creative education under unusual conditions 

Nature Study on the Lower East Side Margaret Knox 367 

Results attained by inspired teachers under difficult surroundings 

The Still-open Road Frank E. Lutz 373 

The movement toward the outdoor museum 

The New Projection Planetarium W. J. Luyten 383 

An epoch-making invention for popular astronomical education 

An Opportunity Clyde Fisher 390 

An astronomical museum as an inspirational and cultural force 

Notes 391 



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NATURAL HlSTOPvY 



NOi.iMi; XWII 



JULY-AUGUST, 1927 



Number 4 



**Creative Education" 



By henry FAIRFIELD OSBORN 

President of tlie American Museum of Natural History 



FIFTY 3^ears as a teacher have 
afforded an original retrospect 
and prospect of the art of educa- 
tion, an art which has an unchanging 
element in the quality of the human 
mind and an ever-changing element in 
the vicissitudes of our environment 
which we call civilization. Throughout 
this long half-century period I have 
been consistent with my oft-repeated 
advice to my students, namely, to think 
a subject out for oneself and then to 
read what others have thought about 
it. I have myself given an immense 
amount of personal thought to the 
methods of intellectual education, and 
I am free to 'confess that I have de- 
pended very little on reading even of 
the works of the great masters and 
innovators to whom I refer from time 
to time in this volume. My rule with 
myself and with my students has been, 
first, to try to master a subject or to 
thoroughly understand it; second, to 
try to add something of my own to 
this subject — that is, to produce or 
create something new. I have fol- 
lowed this productive principle suc- 
cessively in psychology, in neurology, 
in comparative anatomy, in palae- 
ontology, in biology, and, finally, in the 
philosophy of life. In each of these 
great subjects I have undertaken orig- 
inal research and publication and 
have attempted to impress upon myself 
and upon the talented students who 



sought my advice the spirit of thorough- 
ness and then of creation or production. 

REAL BASIS OF CREATIVE EDUCATION 

Beginning in the autumn of 1881 as a 
very young and inexperienced assistant 
professor of comparative anatomy in 
the College of New Jersey (the larger 
title of Princeton University was not 
assumed until 1896), I opened my 
courses very much along the lines I had 
myself followed two years before in the 
laboratories of Francis Maitland Bal- 
four at Cambridge and of Thomas 
Henry Huxley in London. While the 
technique and outline of the courses 
followed the general method introduced 
by Huxley into biological teaching, m}^ 
attitude toward the students was 
rather that of Balfour in his splendid 
course in comparative anatomy, 
namely, a personal and more or less 
intimate attitude which is possible in 
classes of fifteen to twenty-five but 
impossible with the very large classes 
of the present college and university 
period. With my college students, I 
depended from the outset neither upon 
discipline nor upon the marking sys- 
tem, but upon the inherent interest of 
the subject. Once captivated by the 
interest of the subject, a student needs 
to be held back rather than pushed 
forward! I felt instinctively that origi- 
nal observation and original thinking 
by the students were far more im- 



'Natural History is privileged to publish advance excerpts from Henry Fairfield Osbora's book, Creative 
Education. (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.) 

309 



310 



NATURAL HISTORY 



portant than any instruction or body 
of learning I could give them, and I 
began to practise creative methods of 
education long before I had formulated 
any theory or principle of education. 

One of the most brain-stirring periods 
of my life was in my study in the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural Histor}- when 
Baca-Flor, the Peruvian portrait paint- 
er, narrated to me his search for the 
lost art of the ancients, as he termed 
the masters of painting of the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries. For fifteen 
years he had read all that was written 
and had listened to all the lectures 
offered in Paris, but no one told him the 
secret of the ancients. Finally he 
concluded that their art was lost and 
must be rediscovered. Similarly, and 
on my own account, in 1903' I came to 
the conclusion that something had 
been lost in the art of education. I 
looked into some of the pedagogic 
literature of the day; it left me entirely 
unsatisfied ; I felt that some principle 
must be rediscovered. Then I began 
to delve into my own experience and 
to wonder how I got my own education. 
I tried to get down to the very bottom 
of things and settle upon sohd bases, 
cutting out of vision all the temporal 
and contemporary supports. One essay 
which may have helped me was Rus- 
kin's "Seven Lamps of Architecture," 
but it was a mere coincidence that I 
came to the conclusion that the solid 
bases of education lay not at all in 
what modern pedagogues, such as 
President McCosh of Princeton and 
President EUot of Harvard, were 
debating, that their controversy was 
matter which had temporarily assumed 
the aspect of sohdity and of real 
importance, and that the real basis 
of education was the balanced or 



'Osborn : The Mediseval and the True Modern Spirit 
in Education. 



reasonable or well-adjusted working of 
seven principles, or factors, or forces, or 
influences as intimately related as seven 
harmonious and beautiful sisters, so that 
none could be complete without the 
others; that every well-educated man 
from the very beginning had uncon- 
sciously worked out these seven prin- 
ciples in his own self-education and that 
the measure of his success and influence 
was the measure in which he employed 
them all or worked toward all, some 
flowing into him and some flowing out 
of him.^ 

What are these principles or factors 
which are essential to the creative and 
productive mind, and what educational 
theory is most apt to develop them? 

So far as intellectual progress is 
concerned — and I am not now discus- 
sing religious, moral, or physical 
progress — the first and most funda- 
mental of these forces are in the nature 
of canons, or standards : they He in the 
distinction of truth from error, in the 
appreciation of beauty and fitness, 
and in the apph cation of these stand- 
ards to thought. Together with our 
standards come our sources of knowl- 
edge, and there arises, as the first, 
that of LEARNING from the stores of 
tradition, from books, and the experi- 
ence of man in our own and previous 
generations; there follows close, as the 
distinctively nineteenth-century source 
of knowledge, that of direct observa- 
tion of men and of nature. Then, 
for the testing of our knowledge, 
there is the triumphant crucible of 
human reason. Next, our standards, 
our knowledge, and our reason seek 
expression in spoken and written 
language. Finally, as the supreme 
human, most closely approaching the 

^This seemed far more fundamental than the elect- 
ive vs. reguired system, than modernva. rfassj'c languages, 
than literary vs. scientific subjects of training — questions 
which have been debated ad nauseam since McCosh 
and Eliot crossed their sword in the 'SOs. 



"CREATIVE EDUCATION" 



311 



super-human, power, the six preceding 
forces lead to the production of new 
ideas and to all the forms of original 
activity. This is the epitome at once 
of the 'universal/ both in intellect and 
in education. 

Truth, beauty, learning, obser- 
vation, REASON, expression, and pro- 
duction, in their most comprehensive 
forms, are the seven forces of progress, 
and the factors of education are the 
processes of storage of these forces by 
cooperation of teacher and student, the 
former with his constantly diminishing, 
the latter with his constantly increas- 
ing, responsibility. The batteries be- 
come ready to discharge, the potential 
intellectual energies ready to be hber- 
ated ; and the cunning business or art 
of the teacher consists in patience and 
alertness in ways, means, and methods, 
in repairing or supplying deficiencies, 
and in discovering powers which are 
never actually to be idle. 

This centrifugal versus centripetal 
idea, however, was a mere working 
hj^pothesis, tested perhaps, or sought to 
be tested, in my own long search, how 
about other men? Looking then into 
the lives of others, of scientists, of 
artists, of men of letters, I found cor- 
roboration. The principle of the seven 
cardinal elements of education is my 
own; if it were not I should be false 
to my profession of origination. It is 
the product of fifty years of experiment 
and observation as a teacher, not of 
reading what other people have written 
about education. In working it out I 
had undoubtedly observed and profited 
by the merits and failures of the work 
of McCosh, Guyot, Brackett, Balfour, 
Huxley, and others of my great teach- 
ers, but it was not until after I had 
worked it out that I began to scan 
Spencer, Rousseau, Froebel, Pestalozzi, 



Montcssori,etc. If I had reversed this 
order and started by reading what 
others had to say about education, I 
fear it would have atrophied my crea- 
tive powers, such as they are. 

creative education of the child 
The intellectual development of the 
child, as well as of the school boy and 
girl, fascinated me in the American 
Museum, where I discovered that the 
most surprising intellectual predisposi- 
tions and tastes may manifest them- 
selves at a very youthful age. 

I recently listened to a discussion of 
this subject by J. Howard Whitehouse, 
warden of Bembridge School, Isle of 
Wight, and WiUiam Wyamar Vaughan, 
headmaster of Rugby, in which the 
positive and negative sides were taken, 
and the advantages and disadvantages, 
the gains and losses were briefly sum- 
marized. Warden Whitehouse, who 
has recently made a representative 
collection of actual creative school work 
in England as a gift to the department 
of education of New York University, 
took the side which I am supporting 
in the present volume, and to show his 
point of view I may quote from one of 
his recent works :^ 

All creative interests which come into the 
lives of boys are good and may prove of trans- 
cendent importance. It is not that we want a 
boy to cut woodblocks in order to get his 
living when a man as a wood-engraver, any 
more than we desire a boy who loves flowers 
and creates a beautiful garden to become a 
professional gardener. Such boys in following 
these and other creative activities are un- 
consciously forging keys unlocking for them- 
selves the entrance to courts of beauty and of 
joy — the beauty of all true work, the joy of 
service and self-realisation expressed in all 
true work, and to these courts they come with 
standards of taste and judgement achieved 
through personal effort ^and experience, not 
docilely received from others. 

'J. Howard Whitehouse: Woodcuts, page xi. 



312 



NATURAL HISTORY 



So far as I observed in the English 
school work exhibition at Oxford, the 
creative movement in certain schools in 
England has advanced nnich further 
than in America; the actual work of 
the students themselves, in wood- 
engraving, for example, attains a very 
much higher level than any of our 
schools show. On the other hand, in 
the Lincoln School of New York Citj^ 
the creative school work in literature 
has already produced a surprising 
variety of composition in prose and 
verse. 

CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE 

The one great force of life is its re- 
newing and creating power, which 
throughout all Nature marks the im- 
passable line between the life- world and 
the matter-world. True education 
takes its keynote from the life-world; 
it must instill in young and old its re- 
newing and creating power. 

Education is such a vastly compre- 
hensive term that it includes every 
power and function of man as a whole 
and of every cell of which man's body 
is composed. You cannot detach the 
education of the cells of the frontal 
lobes which distinguish the high order 
of human brain from the education of 
the cells of the liver which supply the 
frontal lobes with chemical reactions 
necessary to pure rather than to atra- 
bilious thought. We need all the 
physical and all the psychical powers, 
and not the least the moral ; we need to 
develop the will, the determination, the 
energy, no less than the imagination, 
the individuality. 

It is part of my creed that spiritual, 
moral, and physical forces are absolutely 
essential as the environment of the 
intellectual forces, but in this volume I 
am writing only of the intellectual 
aspects of creative work. The genius 



of creative talent relies on the brother 
geniuses of hard work, of self-control, 
and of persistent determination. The 
art of the teacher, whether in school, 
college, university, or museum, is to 
discover this creative talent in his 
students and to encourage it by giving 
it proper nurture and environment. 
The creative mind is born, not made; 
it is an intellectual urge which may 
manifest itself in one of many thou- 
sand lines of activity of the human 
mind. Whether in industry, science, 
art, or literature, the impelling motive 
of creative talent is to add something 
new or true or beautiful to our civiliza- 
tion. The creative mind may be born 
quite alone or as one of a group of kin- 
dred and productive predispositions, as 
in a rare genius like Leonardo da Vinci. 
The bearing of these reflections on 
the modern practice of education is 
obvious. Originative and creative 
power in the germ is the very oldest of 
the distinctively human faculties, and 
the cultivation and development of 
this power should be the chief end of 
education, to which all other forces 
should contribute. Man differs more, 
perhaps, with respect to this originative 
faculty than any other animal; there 
is a pretty sharp division between the 
sulphidic or productive and original 
mind and the bromidic or parrot mind. 
But in educating youth we should 
always proceed upon the theory that 
there is some sulphide if we can only 
discover it; if it is not there we 
should seek to engender it. With some 
exceptions our general tendency in 
education is to encourage the bromidic 
habit of mind; at least, our systems of 
premiums and awards and honors and 
standing are largely designed for ex- 
ceptional memory rather than for 
exceptional originality and creative 
power. 



"CREATIVE EDUCATION'' 



813 



THE JOY OF CREATIVE WORK 

Since my regretful retirement in 
1908 from active teaching as head of 
the Department of ZoiJlogy of Coknn- 
bia,' I have solaced myself as an 
educator by endeavoring to adapt 
education to the new problems of 
civilization and the prospects of the 
future. From the standpoint of the 
lofty creative aim of education, the 
present prospects in America are far 
from bright, because the imitative 
element in our civilization is so domi- 
nant. More or less servile imitation of 
the creative achievements of the past 
lead on to fame and fortune and to other 
rewards of modern life. Imitation in 
speech, in manner, in dress, is becom- 
ing world-wide, especially through the 
press and its methods of photographic 
reproduction. In almost every country 
beauty and originality of design are 
gi\'ing way to uniform and tiresome 
mediocrity. Even more lethal or 
deadly is the mediocre and stereotyped 
environment of our thought. 

Let us, therefore, stoop to simple and 
primitive methods in order to conquer; 
let us show our youth that creative 
work is far more attractive than sport, 
than any of the modern forms of amuse- 
ment, than newspaper or magazine 
reading, than any form of social dissipa- 
tion, and, above all, that it has far 
higher rewards than any form of imita- 
tive work, however lofty the motive. 
Let us conclude this prospect with the 
inimitable apostrophe of Bergson.- 

Philosophers who have speculated on the 



'On the presentation of a complete plan for biolog- 
ical teaching in Columbia University, the author was 
elected DaCosta Professor of Biology (Zoology) in 1S90. 
On retiring from the active chair to become President 
of the American Museum of Natural History in 1908, 
the author was given the title of Research Professor of 
Zoologj' in Columbia, in reference to his future dedication 
to research and writing. 

-Henry Bergson, Huxley Lecture. Delivered at 
University of Birmingham, May 29, 1911: reprinted as 
"Life and Consciousness'" in the Hibbert Journal, Vol. 
X. Xo. 1, October, 1911, pp. 24-44. 



significance of life and the destiny of man have 
not sufficiently remarked that Nature has 
taken pains to give us notice every time this 
destiny is accomplished; she has set up a sign 
which a[)prises us every time our activity is in 
full expansion; this .sign is joy. I say joy; 
I do not say i)leasure. Pleasure, in point of 
fact, is no more than an instrument contrived 
by Nature to obtain from the individual the 
preservation and the propagation of life; it 
gives us no information concerning the direc- 
tion in which life is flung forward. True joy, 
on the contrary, is always an emphatic signal 
of the triumph of life. Now, if we follow this 
new Une of facts, we find that wherever joy 
is, creation has been, and the richer the crea- 
tion the deeper the joy. The mother looking 
upon her child is joyous because she has the 
consciousness of having created it, physically 
and moralh'. A man who succeeds in his 
enterprise — for example, a captain of industry 
whose business is prospering — is he joyous 
solely on account of the money he is winning 
and the notoriety he has acquired? Doubtless 
these elements count for much in the satis- 
faction he feels; but they bring him pleasures 
rather than joy, and whatever true joy he 
tastes belongs essentially to the consciousness 
he has of having established an enterprise 
which marches on, of having created some- 
thing that goes ahead. Consider e.xceptional 
joj's like those of the great artist who has 
produced a masterpiece, of the scientific man 
who has made a discovery or invention. We 
sometimes sa\' they have worked for glory and 
derive their greatest satisfaction from the 
applause of mankind. Profound mistake! We 
care for praise in the exact measure in which 
we feel not sure of having succeeded; it is 
because we want to be reassured as to our own 
value and as to the value of what we have done 
that we seek praise and prize glory. But he 
who is certain, absolutely certain, that he has 
brought a living work to the birth, cares no 
more for praise and feels himself beyond glory, 
because there is no greater joy than that of 
feeUng oneseK a creator. If, then, in every 
province, the triumph of life is expressed by 
creation, ought we not to think that the ulti- 
mate reason of human hfe is a creation which, 
in distinction from that of the artist or man of 
science, can be pursued at every moment and 
by all men alike; I mean the creation of self by 
self, the continual enrichment of personaUty 
by elements which it does not draw from out- 
side, but causes to spring forth from itself? 



314 



NATURAL HISTORY 



THE GOAL OF CREATIVE EDUCATION 

There is little doubt in my mind that 
potential abilities, for the most part, 
remain undiscovered, for it is often 
only a happy accident which brings an 
inspiring object or inspiring idea within 
the range of the intellectual taste or 
predisposition. Sometimes this con- 
currence of predisposition and inspiring 
object comes early in life, but quite 
often it happens late in life and after a 
long career in some pursuit to which one 
is not fitted by natural endowment. I 
have in mind two marked cases of this 
kind of late entrance into a highly 
successful and productive career; for 
personal reasons only one may be 
cited : James Terry, a man of business, 
while visiting the country house of a 
friend, was descending a stairway in the 
dark and groping his way by passing his 
hand along the wall. Suddenly his 
hand shpped into an alcove or recess, 
at the bottom of which he touched a 
large stone axe or 'celt.' Grasping the 
celt and hastening to the library, he 
inquired of his friend where it had been 
found and if others might be found in 
the same locality. On the following day 
he visited the locahty, secured other 
celts and stone implements, and there- 
upon became infatuated with the 
subject of American archaeology. He 



abandoned business and devoted the 
remainder of his life to archaeological 
exploration and collection, thus accu- 
mulating the extensive James Terry 
Collection of the American Museum of ' 
Natural History, one of the finest of its 
kind. 

A closely similar experience was that 
of a merchant of Ipswich, England, J, 
Rcid Moir, who entered upon a career 
in prehistoric archaeology through the 
casual handling of a single flint imple- 
ment. 

The unhappy people of the world 
include two classes: those who have 
no creative talents, and those who 
possess talents and never discover 
them. Our goal of creative education, 
therefore, is to discover the potential 
abiUties in science, art, and literature 
which undoubtedly exist in the minds 
and spirits of the youth drawn from 
the many races which in the past two 
thousand years have created the science, 
art, and hterature of Europe. Such 
abilities are often like beautiful, tender, 
and sensitive plants which soon perish 
in an unkindly, unsympathetic environ- 
ment, but which, if fostered and en- 
couraged, will blossom and bear fruit 
in our material and mechanical civiliza- 
tion, which is inwardly yearning for 
the True, the Beautiful, and the Good. 



The Story of the Museum's Service to the Schools 



METHODS AND EXPERIENCES OF THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF 
NATURAL IITS'I^OHA' 

By GEORGE 11. SI1I':RW()()I) 

Director of tlic AiULTican Museum iiiul Curator-in-Cliief of its Department of Public J'^ducation 



A DUSTY, musty place where 
curious and unfamiliar animals 
are stored and seldom seen, is 
the average person's idea of a museum 
of natural history. This popular con- 
ception is perhaps well expressed by 
the little boy who, after spending an 
afternoon at a museum with his teach- 
er, rushed home and breathlessly ex- 
claimed to his mother, "Oh, Mamma, 
I have had a wonderful time this after- 
noon!" 

"Where have you been?" asked his 
mother, and the boy replied : 

"Oh, teacher took me to the dead 
circus!" 

The modern up-to-date museum 
is far from being a "dead circus." 
If it is performing its proper function, 
it is very much alive. It becomes a part 
of the life of the people. It is not 
enough for it to be a safe-deposit for 
valuable records, for strange and beau- 
tiful specimens, and to accumulate a 
vast store of information. It must be 
prepared to make that information 
available for the people. Museums 
stand as the great exponents of objec- 
tive teaching and the modern museum 
has become an aggressive force in 
education. This is particularly true of 
natural history museums. 

Through improvements in the tech- 
nique of preparation, through attract- 
ive and readable labels, through the 
development of the habitat group — 
which shows the inter-relation and inter- 
dependence of life, the exhibition halls 
of the up-to-date natural history mu- 
seums have become veritable magnets 



which draw both young and old. The 
attractiveness of the exhibit ion hall pre- 
sentations reflects the arduous efforts 
of the explorers and field workers, who 
have penetrated to remote corners of 
the earth to assemble facts; and the 
careful and painstaking study of the 
curator who has coordinated these facts 
and drawn from them the proper de- 
ductions. It is, however, through 
direct contact with the school system 
that museums have become entitled to 
consideration as important factors in 
education. 

The American Museum of Natural 
History claims to belong to the modern 
museum group and the purpose of this 
article is to set forth the various phases 
of the service which it is rendering to 
schools, colleges, and universities. 

The group of pubUc-spirited citizens 
who organized and founded the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History in 
1869 realized the possibility of service 
to the schools on the part of the Mu- 
seum. The general educational value 
of its collections and exhibits was widely 
accepted, but as the institution grew, 
it became more and more evident that 
if the Museum was to fulfill its func- 
tion it must estal^lish closer relations 
with the public schools and the educa- 
tional system. The desirability of 
museum extension was thus early 
recognized and the first stejDS in accom- 
plishing this were taken in 1880, when 
the Trustees authorized Albert S. 
Bickmore — the superintendent of the 
Museum — to prepare for the public 
school teachers a special course of 




ALBERT SMITH BICKMORE 
1839-1914 
Professor Bickmore originated the plan of the American Museum in 1868, and from 1880 
to''l904 was the first curator of its department of public education 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCIKJOLS 



317 



lootures on natural history to be ^ivon 
at the Museum and to be ilhistrated 
with Museum collections. Thus be- 
gan the system ot" vis\ial instruction so 
closely identified with Professor liick- 
more's name. Professor Bickmore was 
a pioneer in education by the visual 
method. When he took hold of the 
work, the technique of making lantern 
slides was in its infancy and simple 
projection machines had not been 
developed. He applied himself to this 
new field in education with the same 
enthusiasm and persistence which had 
enabled him to create the American 
Museum of Natural History; for it 
was he, more than anyone else, who 
brought together the Founders of the 
Museum and fostered it in its early 
days. 

Professor Bickmore ransacked the 
corners of the earth for the best 
materials. There was not a traveler 
of note who came to New York, whom 
he did not seek out and ask for nega- 
tives. He journeyed to remote lands 
himself to obtain first-hand informa- 
tion, and in later years often sent out 
special photographers in order to 
obtain the best results possible. One 
of the greatest contributions which the 
American Museum has made to educa- 
tion is this work of Professor Bick- 
more, Even today, notwithstanding 
the great advance in photography, the 
excellence of a "Bickmore shde" is 
seldom, if ever, surpassed. Professor 
Bickmore directed this educational 
work until 1904, when ill health com- 
pelled him to retire from active service. 

The kej^note of this first period of 
the Museum's educational activities 
(1869 to 1904) was instruction for 
teachers. That of the second period 
(1904 to 1927) is instruction for 
pupils. During the first period, the 
scope of the work included the schools 



of the entire state. In the second, 
attention was focussed primarily on 
the schools of New York ('ity, because 
aft(M- 1904, the State withdrew its 
financial support, while the City gradu- 
ally increased its appropriations for 
maintenance. It was proper therefore, 
that the Museum should give its atten- 
tion, first to the needs of the City 
schools, rather than to those of the State. 
Moreover, the introduction of nature 
study into the curriculum, the develop- 
ment of modern pedagogical methods, 
the growth of libraries, the perfecting of 
projection apparatus — which made ma- 
terial for illustrated lectures more prac- 
ticable — and the continued increase in 
the wealth of the Museum's educational 
materials naturally all contributed to 
direct the workinto new fields. The 
means of instruction which have been 
developed by the American Museum 
during the last twenty-three years, 
are designed to meet the conditions of 
the New York City school system. 
They are, however, based on such fun- 
damental pedagogical principles that 
they may easily be modified to apply 
to any school system. 

The Museum's program of school 
service has the hearty endorsement 
of the Board of Education, superin- 
tendents, and other school officials, 
but the conduct of the work is left 
entirely to the department of public 
education of the Museum, which is 
responsible for the relation with the 
schools. This action on the part of the 
school authorities has been an im- 
portant factor in the success of the 
work, because it has simplified service 
and because it brings the Museum's 
staff into direct contact with the prin- 
cipals and teachers, thus leading to a 
better understanding of their needs. 

The members of the Board of Esti- 
mate and Apportionment too, have 




For school delivery service. — Throughout the school year this fleet of cars is kept busy 
distributing and collecting motion-picture films, lantern sUdes, and natural history specimens 
lent by the Museum to the pubUc schools 




Large groups of children often are conveyed to the Musuem in buses which are arranged 
for by interested and enthusiastic teachers. Each child contributes his own fare, which is 
purely nominal 



318 




Phoiugraph by Fowler 
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN, LL.D., D.SC. 
President of the American Museum of Natural History 

Educator, author, administrator,— always a student with his students,— 
Professor Osborn early in his career independently formulated the theory of 
creative education and appUed it throughout his fifty years as a teacher. During his 
administration as president of the American Museum there has been a notable ad- 
vance in the teaching value of the Museum exhibits through attractive grouping 
and posmg, and his presentation of the collections has become a standard for other 
institutions. His work in pubhc education was acknowledged in 1923 by the 
Roosevelt Memorial Association in the award of the Roosevelt Medal of Honor 



310 




Phot^.'irnnh bf/ J. H. McKirdey 

GEOEGE H. SHERWOOD, A.M. 

Director of the American Museum of Natural History and Curator-in-Chief of 

its Department of Public Education 

Mr. Sherwood came to the American Museum from Brown University, and 
for twenty-three years has been head of the Museum's department of education. 
It is under his supervision that the present methods of the Museum's extensive 
cooperation with the schools of New York City have been developed. Mr. Sher- 
wood is a practical teacher who believes that the training of children is the most 
important vocation in the world 



320 




I'Jiidiiiiraptt III) I' 11,1, nroiul X- Underwood 
CLYDE FISHER, PH.D., LL.D. 
Curator of Visual Instruction, American Museum of Natural History 
Doctor Fisher's practical experience in the schools of Ohio and Florida, his 
training at Johns Hopkins University where he received his doctorate in botany, 
together with his enthusiasm as a teacher, have developed to a high degree his 
natural rare talent of stimulating interest, and imparting knowledge to young 
people. He has been a member of the education department for fourteen years, 
and has rendered exceptional service in promoting the growth of the Museum s 
methods of visual instruction 



321 




Photograph hy Julius Kirschner 
GRACE FISHER RAMSEY 
Associate Curator, Department of Education, American Museum 
of Natural History 

Through her training in the Buffalo State Normal School, of which she is a grad- 
uate, and her twelve years' experience as a teacher of science in the high schools 
of New York State, and as director of Nature Study and School Gardening, Mrs. 
Ramsey has gained a clear conception of the needs and requirements of teachers. 
During the eight years she has been connected with the department of education 
in the American Museum, she has had the responsibility of developing its exten- 
sive lantern slide service, and has recently been placed in charge of the motion- 
picture loans to the schools of the city 



322 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



823 



expressed their belief in the value of the 
Museuiu's service to the schools by 
proviclini>; for tlie construction and 
equipment of a special building — the 
School Service Building — to house these 
activities. This spleiulid new equip- 
ment will enable the Museum to in- 
crease its usefulness to teachers. The 
School Service Building will be 
described later in this article. The 
Museum service is not local, for the 
Museum messengers penetrate all 
boroughs of the city and deliver oin- 
visual instruction material free to any 
school anywhere in the Greater CitJ^ 

While the department of public 
education is the agent of the Museum 
in its contact wnth the schools, the 
department is in large* measure de- 
pendent upon the other scientific 
departments for the wealth of nature 
material which it can offer to the 
schools. The Museum explorations 
bring together rare and valuable col- 
lections; the researches based on this 
material and the published results 
represent the work of the respective 
scientific departments. It is the func- 
tion of the department of public 
education to digest this material and to 
present such portions of it as will be 
useful to teachers and pupils. 

The various branches of the Museum 
educational work fall under two main 
headings, namely: (a) Extra-mural 
activities — Museum service in the 
schools, and (b) Intra-mural activities 
— School service at the Museum. 
Under the first group are the circulat- 
ing nature study collections, the distri- 
bution of lantern slides and motion 
picture films, lectures in the schools 
and in special lecture centers, and 
the circulating collections loaned to 
the branch libraries. The intra-mural 
activities include lecture courses at 
the Museum — instruction for the blind 



and sight conservation classes; exhi- 
tion-hall instruction and guidance for 
\isitiiig classes; cooperation with the 
training schools for teachers, the high 
schools, and colleges, and coopera- 
tion with nature organizations such as 
Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, and similar 
groups. 

The extent of this service is indicated 
by the following statistics showing the 
scope of the work in 1926: 

Pupils using nature study collections 765,790 
Pupils and teachers attending lec- 
tures 171,769 

Attendance at library loan exhibits. . 32,592 
Pupils viewing motion picture films. 530,955 

Pupils viewing lantern slides 4,358,423 

Total number of school children 

reached by educational activities. .5,859,529 

The oldest feature of the Museum's 
School Service is the distributing of 
nature study collections. This work 
was begun in 1904, at about the time 
when nature study was introduced as a 
subject in the curriculum of the New 
York Public Schools. Its purpose was 
to place in the hands of the teacher, 
so far as practicable, the actual 
specimens required in her work. The 
collections are of small size, each being 
contained in a wooden carr^dng case 
about the size of a large suit case. 
The material comprises representative 
specimens of mammals, birds, insects, 
lower invertebrates, minerals, woods, 
and public health charts and exhibits. 

Recently we have added to our cir- 
culating collections a series of the 
habitat group type which is intended 
to give more of the environment of a 
species than is possible with a hand 
specimen. For example : the set labeled 
"Birds That Are Our Friends" has a 
painted background showing rolling 
fields with trees in the distance, while 
perched on a tree in the foreground is a 
screech-owl with a mouse in his beak; 



324 



NATURAL HISTORY 



on the ground a pair of quail or bob- 
white are eating seeds; a cuckoo (an 
insect eater) is resting on a trunk, and 
near by is a goldfinch. These birds are 
useful to man in saving his crops from 
insects, weeds, or vermin. 

One of the most important factors in 
the growth and development of the 
circulating nature study collections is 
the fact that these are loans and not 
gifts to the schools. A former teacher 
once said " If you wish a friend really to 
read a book, lend it, do not give it to 
him." Following this principle has 
maintained a personal contact between 
the staff members of the Museum's 
educational department and the teach- 
ers, which has vitalized the work. 

Realizing that a teacher's time is 
fully occupied, the method of obtain- 
ing these collections has been 



desired. Delivery is then made by the 
Museum messengers, who call again at 
the end of the loan period — that is, in 
three or four weeks — and replace the 
first exhibit with another. 

To the question, "Is this method of 
visual instruction worth while?" the 
following statistics are in themselves a 
sufficient answer. In 1926, from a 
total of 600 schools 44.3 were- regularly 
supplied, and 970 collections were in 
circulation, while the total number of 
pupils studying the collections was 
765,790. Certainly, if these nature- 
study collections were not practical, 
we would not have so many busy 
teachers beseeching us for this material. 
We learn from the teachers that not 
only have the collections proved their 
value in teaching facts about nature, 
but that they have been parti- 




The blue jay set. 
by the pupils 



-These specimens may be easily removed from the case and handled 



made as simple as possible. The Mu- 
seum furnishes blanks upon which the 
principals make application for the 
collections, and indicate the sequence 



cularly useful in language work, espe- 
cially with foreign-born children. 

Perhaps their greater service, how- 
ever, is giving these city children 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



325 



a glimpse of the great out-of-doors. 
The country dweller has very little 
conception of the limited horizon of 
thousands of these children in the 
congested parts of the city. Many of 
them never get more than a few blocks 



who have done efficient woik in the 
nature rooms of the School Nature 
League; are taken for two weeks to a 
farm in the Berkshires. The first 
morning after arrival one little girl 
from the low(u- part of the city saw a 




Birds that are our friends. — One of the small habitat-group cases of birds with exp- 
planatory labels, circulated among the city schools 



from the place where they were born. 
The school building is the limit of their 
travels. The dog, the cat, and perhaps 
the horse are the only animals they 
have ever seen. The vegetable market 
window and the push-cart represent 
their knowledge of flowers. No wonder, 
then, that the little nature-study ex- 
liibits from the Museum stimulate their 
imagination and broaden their outlook ! 

The following observation gives some 
idea of this restricted environment. A 
teacher brought her class to the Mu- 
seum to hear one of the illustrated 
lectures. Many of these pupils had 
never been on an elevated train before, 
although they had seen the trains go 
thundering by daily. Several of the 
girls were car-sick. 

Through the AHce R. Northrup 
Memorial, pupils of the city schools 



horse grazing in the yard. She burst 
into sudden laughter and exclaimed: 
"What a funny way for it to eat ! " 
"How should it eat? " she was asked, 
and she replied in digusted tones, 
" Out of a nosebag, of course." 
The phase of our school service 
which has had the most remarkable 
development and which probably serves 
the greatest number of teachers, is the 
lantern slide circulation. The Museum 
has unrivaled opportunities to secure 
material for the making of slides for 
school use. A photographic outfit forms 
part of the equipment of every expedi- 
tion sent into the field. As our expedi- 
tions reach all parts of the earth, the 
photographic results have enriched our 
library of photographs until we now 
have more than 125,000 negatives 
upon which we can draw for illustra- 



326 



NATURAL HISTORY 



tions. Our library of lantern slides, of 
which Professor Bickmore's superb 
collection of slides formed the nucleus, 
number more than 70,000 and cover 



In 1914 the Museum offered to 
make these slides available to the 
teachers of the city on a loan system 
by which the slides would be delivered 




Above. — Lantern slide room in the School Service Building. — From here more than 
800,000 lantern sUdes were circulated without charge to New York City schools in 1926 

Below. — The shipping room in the School Service Building. — Here are some of the 
orders of lantern shdes packed for the day 's dehvery to pubUc schools 



not only natural history topics but also 
geography, history, industries, and in 
fact, nearly every phase of human en- 
deavor — past and present. 



to any school in the city by Museum 
messengers — as is done in the case of 
the nature study collections. The 
Board of Education approved this 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



327 



proposition and until the present year 
made a small appropriation, which in 
1926 amounted to $3750, for its 
support. This appropriation, however, 
covered only a fraction of the actual 
cost which in 1926 totaled approxi- 
mately $22,000. At the present time 
the entire cost of the slide distribution, 
as well as of the other branches of our 
educational activities is borne by 
the Trustees either from their own 
funds or from appropriations for main- 
tenance by the City. 

The growth of the slide service has 
been phenomenal and its extent can 
be seen at a glance from the following 
statistics : 



can then make their selection of 
material according to classroom needs. 
The great desideratum of the slide 
service is duplicate slides. Unfor- 
tunately the great majority of our 
slides are not duplicated and this is 
true of many of the prepared lecture 
sets. The demand for this material 
is so great that some of the lecture sets 
are reserved eighteen months in ad- 
vance. A fund of from $10,000 to 
$15,000 or any part of it would assist 
in relieving the situation. Here is a 
concrete instance where a friend of the 
Museum could confer a great boon on 
teachers and enrich the lives of thou- 
sands of children by providing the 





1917 


1920 


1923 


1926 


Number of P. S. borrowing 


84 


154 


240 


320 


Total number loans 


1,131 


2,435 


9,677 


18,470 


Total SUdes 


63,111 


138,133 


440,315 


808,789 



The value of this visual instruction 
material to teachers is obvious. The 
slides cover a wide range of subjects 
which are taught in the classroom. 
The use of the slide in classroom and 
assembly simplifies the teacher's task 
and enables the pupil to absorb in- 
formation more quickly and perma- 
nently. 

Teachers may make their own selec- 
tion of slides from our library. Realiz- 
ing, however, the many demands upon 
a teacher's time, we have anticipated 
their needs by preparing a series of 
lectures illustrated with from thirty to 
eighty slides and accompanied by a 
suitable manuscript which enables the 
teacher to give a lecture with a mini- 
mum of effort. There are now some 
seventy of these sets in service. The 
slide librarian has also selected about 
200 small groups of slides illustrating 
topics of grade work, without manu- 
scripts. Catalogues of the lecture sets 
and groups, as well as of the general 
slide collection, are sent to teachers who 



means for duplicating slides — the value 
of which has been proved. 

Experience has shown that both the 
lantern slide and the motion picture are 
important aids in visual instruction, 
and one supplements the other. To 
supplement its slide distribution the 
Museum has also established a film 
service which is growing rapidly. The 
Museum messengers deliver the films 
to any school in Greater New York 
that desires them and there is no 
charge. In 1926, 91 schools were 
supplied and more than 2000 reels 
were loaned, while the number of 
children that saw them was more than 
500,000. 

In building up our film library we 
have had two objects in view, first, the 
preservation of important natural his- 
tory records, and second the acquisi- 
tion of material for service to the 
public schools, and the Museum has 
been most fortunate in securing such 
an excellent series of motion pictures. 
Our pictures have been secured bj^ 



328 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Indians of the Eastern Woodlands. — One of the many special exhibits lent to public 
libraries of the city 



gifts from friends of the Museum, by 
members of the Museum staff on ex- 
peditions, and by purchase. Our 
Hbrary includes "How Life Begins," 
by George E. Stone; "Nanook of the 
North," by Robert J. Flaherty; 
"Merin the Nomad," and other Mon- 
golian pictures, by Roy Chapman 
Andrews and James B. Shackleford; 
"Trailing Wild Animals in Africa," 
by Martin Johnson; "The True 
North" by Captain Jack Robertson; 
three sets of the Yale Chronicles of 
America Photo Plays; "Everyday 
Life of the People in France," by Mr. 
and Mrs. Philip H. Pratt; "Adven- 
tures of a Gray Squirrel," and others 
pictures of mammals, birds, and wild 
flowers, by Clyde Fisher; and in 
addition, many reels presented by Mr. 
George D. Pratt and other friends. 

Recently the United States Bureau 
of Mines has selected the American 
Museum of Natural History as a 



depository and distributing center for 
its films. These are mainly on in- 
dustrial subjects. Already 69 reels 
have been added to our loan series. 

Twelve reels of Canadian subjects 
have been deposited with the Museum 
from the Canadian Government Mo- 
tion Pictures Bureau, Department of 
Trade and Commerce, and 4 reels by 
the Consolidated Gas Company of 
New York. 

The Museum's film library is also 
augmented by the renting of suitable 
films from non-theatrical or theatrical 
distributors. Many of the school 
lectures by members of the Museum 
staff are illustrated with such films. 

It is not enough that the Museum 
supply specimens, lantern slides, and 
films to the schools. There is an ever- 
growing call for lectures in the schools. 
These requests have been met so far 
as our limited staff could be made 
available. As a branch of its lecture 



THE MUSEUiM'S SEh'VlCE TO THE SCHOOLS 



;^29 



service, the Aluseuni has been j>;ivin<i a 
series of illustrated talks lor children 
in certain centrally located schools, 
with the object of giving the jiuiiils the 
benefit of our lectures without the 
expenditure of carfare to the Museum 
— a very serious matter in ni:in>- 
families. 

For several years the lending of 
nature-study material for schoolroom 
use has been well supplemented bj- the 
special exhibits lent to public libraries 
of the city. In the Musemn's study 
collections are clothing, pottery, bas- 
kets, industrial models, dolls, imple- 
ments of war, birds, animals, and many 
other types of specimens that can be 
used with success to illustrate books on 
travel, geography, nature-study, his- 
tory, art, and current events. From 



these through the cooperation of the 
tlepartment curators, circulating loan 
exhibits are selected. By arrange- 
ment with the librarians such exhibits 
ai-e installed for varying periods in the 
children's rooms in the Hbraries. 

The primary purpose of these ex- 
liibits is to stimulate the children 
to read good books. More often the 
collections form the basis of definite 
cooperation between the schools and 
the libraries. Children who are study- 
ing Mexico in the classroom are taken 
by their teachers to the library, where 
they examine the Mexican material 
loaned by the Museum and read books 
describing that country; children who 
are studying "The Song of Hiawatha" 
visit the library to see Indian collec- 
tions, and boys and girls who are learn- 




Art students copying Indian designs, 
modern patterns 



Ancient Peruvian fabrics give inspiration for 



330 



NATURAL HISTORY 



ing the principles of design go with their 
notebooks to copy the decorations on 
Indian baskets and pottery. 

This cooperation with the hbraries 
takes the Museum to the neighborhood. 
Oftentimes, moreover, these exhibits 



As in the case of the circulating 
nature study collections, the underlying 
purpose of all these lectures is to 
supplement the classroom work of the 
teacher — not to replace it. 

The subjects are chosen with special 




A public school lecture in the Museum auditorium. — Annually more than 170,000 
school children attend these lectures 



awaken the spirit of research, bring 
both the child and his parents to see 
the extensive collections at the Mu- 
seum, and then send them back to the 
library for further reading. 

Important as are the museum aids in 
the classroom, of equal or even greater 
value is the assistance which the Mu- 
seum can give when teacher and pupils 
come to the Museum. First among 
these intra-mural activities are the 
lecture courses, if numbers are taken 
as the criterion. Annually more than 
170,000 school children attend these 
lectures. 



reference to the prescribed courses of 
study, and deal particularly with topics 
in geography, history, and natural 
science. All are illustrated with 
colored lantern slides and also, for some 
years past, with motion pictures. 

Whenever practicable, the subject 
matter of the lectures is correlated with 
the exhibits in the Museum. For in- 
stance, if the lecture is on the "Early 
History of New York City," reference 
is made to the Indians of the Eastern 
Woodlands Hall, where the life of the 
Indians of Manhattan is depicted; if 
the subject is "Physiography of the 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



331 



United States," reference is niatle to 
the halls of geology and to tlie halls 
of the great vertebrate fossils, where 
earh' earth history has been visualized. 
A lecture on "Hiawatha's People" will 
be correlated with the mammal and 
bird exhibits, as well as with the In- 
dian halls. 

Most of these lectures are adapted to 
the needs of elementary classes. Re- 
centlj' in evaluating our work wdth the 
schools, we questioned the value of 
certain motion pictures shown in 
these courses, particularly "'Treasure 
Island," "Robin Hood," and "Huckle- 
berry Finn," thinking that after the 
children had seen the picture they 
would not think it worth while to read 
the book on which the film was based. 
Our doubts were removed when we 
learned from a teacher that not only 
did the showing of these films stimu- 
late the children to read these classics, 
but led the parents, especially the 
foreign-born, to come to the school to 
find out where they could buy these 
books. The children talk about the 
picture until parents become interested 
and want to know more about the storj^ 

Recently one teacher asked for our 
unused lecture program announce- 
ments. These she gave to her pupils, 
who took them home. One mother 
came to the school to express her 
gratitude to the teacher for taking her 
children to the Museum, and said that 
while formerl}' her husband spent a 
great deal of time away from home, 
now the}' all gathered around the table 
at home to read the story books based 
on the Museum lectures. Thus, our 
lectures may indirectly aid in bringing 
the family groups closer together and 
in establishing better standards in the 
minds of children and parents. 

In addition to these regular courses 
of lectures for school children, members 



of the Museum staff lecture at the 
training schools for teachers, with 
the purpose of presenting to the pupil- 
teachers certain background topics on 
which they are especially well qualified 
to speak. The result of this relation 
to the training schools is far-reaching. 

Many special lectures are given to 
visiting classes, especially from the 
high schools. Twice a year during 
Regents' Week, the examination period, 
the biology classes from several of the 
high schools are brought to the Mu- 
seum, given a lecture on some biological 
topic in the auditorium, and then sent 
into the exhibition halls with a ques- 
tionnaire for further study. Thus for 
these classes, as well as for groups of 
Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Woodcrafters, 
etc., the Museum exhibition halls 
serve for great indoor field trips. 

A specialized branch of the Mu- 
seum's educational work is the in- 
struction for the blind which has been 
developed through a special endow- 
ment, the Jonathan Thorne Memorial 
Fund. The bhnd children in New York 
City are taught in the same public 
schools as normal children. They are 
grouped in sight conservation classes 
and taught by trained teachers under 
the guidance of a special supervisor. 
In the Museum's program of visual 
education special provision is made for 
these children. In consultation with 
the Supervisor for the Bhnd, informal 
talks which can be illustrated with 
actual specimens or with apparatus are 
prepared by the Museum staff under 
such titles as "Birds of Our Parks," 
"Indians of the Plains," " Animals That 
Give Us Clothing," "Sea People and 
Their Castles," "The Change of 
Seasons." 

The results from this work are grati- 
fying. Often they are read in the chil- 
dren's happy faces. Again, they are 



NATURAL HISTORY 




Why seasons change. — The use of the Uranisphere in a Museum classroom makes it 
easy for children to visualize the causes of the change of seasons 



seen in the direct expression of these 
boys and gills in essays based on the 
lesson. 

Another important branch of our 
intra-mural activities is the exhibition 
hall instruction and guidance. The 
well-labeled exhibition hall, with its 
habitat groups, its carefully selected 
specimens, and its well thought out 
arrangement, stands as the great silent 
teacher, a true exponent of visual 
education. What a vast store of in- 
formation is contained in these halls, 
and what an aid they are to teachers in 
giving to their pupils accurate know- 
ledge of nature! 

Experience has shown, however, 
that a well-labeled hall is not sufficient, 
and in order that a group of children 
may obtain greater profit from their 
visit to the Museum it is necessary to 
have specially trained instructors who 
understand the child's point of view 
and can interpret the exhibits for the 
children. The inadequacy of even a 



good label, because of lack of knowledge 
or carelessness of the teacher, is illu- 
strated by the following incident, 
which occurred in one of the halls 
recently. 

A teacher with a class of a dozen 
children stopped before the case 
containing an African lion, part of an 
exhibit intended to show the difference 
between past and present methods of 
taxidermy. The label on the case reads 

TAXIDERMY 

PAST AND PRESENT 

AFRICAN LION, MOUNTED AT THE MAISON 

VERREAUX, PARIS, ABOUT 1867 

The following conversation was over- 
heard : 

"Now, children, look at this animal! 
See how ferocious he is! See his 
bushy mane! This, children, is a 
taxidermy. Now, children, what 
kind of an animal have we here?" 

And the twelve little voices piped 
up proudly, "This is a taxidermy." 

The exhibition hall instruction by 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



333 



our staff inembcrs has not boon 
systematized and fully developed b(^- 
cause, until the School Service Build- 
ing was erected, we did not have suit- 
able facilities for correlating this 
instruction with classroom work. For 
years the teachers have been bringing 
groups for study and examination of 
the principal exhibits, and the depart- 
ment of education has been supplying 
instructors for them, so far as prac- 
ticable. This instruction has been 
adapted especially to children. The 
exhibits of the halls are so comprehen- 
sive and so accurately executed that 
these tours of the Museum are equi- 
valent to field trips, and there is great 
opportunity to enliven the classroom 
work in geography and history by 
correlation with such trips. How much 
more significant to the pupils is the 
history of Manhattan Island if they 
have had an opportunity to visit the 
Hall of the Indians of the Woodlands 
and see for themselves what the Man- 
hattan Indians were really like, what 
kind of houses they built, how they 
were dressed, how they obtained their 
food, and how they played. Similarly, 
a class which is taking up physical 
geography can better understand valley 
formation and mountain erosion by a 
visit to the Hall of Geology than by 
man}^ days spent on text books. 

During the current year a definite 
plan was initiated to have classes from 
the neighboring schools visit the Mu- 
seum for definite instruction by the 
Museum docents. The pupils were 
assembled in one of the sample class 
rooms, where specimens had been 
placed which could be handled by the 
children. Under the guidance of the 
Museum instructor, they were made 
familiar with the objects and learned 
their significance. After a half hour in 
the classroom, the groups were taken 



into the exhibition hall, where the 
larger collections were seen. The de- 
velopment of this phase of the Mu- 
seum work is one of the most im- 
portant features of our future growth. 
The instructor, or guide, plays an 
important role in interpreting the 
exhibits to the school children and to 
the public. The keenness of the 
children, their enthusiasm, and their 
desire to know the why and wherefore 
of things, make this work most inter- 
esting. The personal observations of 
the children and of adults, while at 
times amusing, give food for thought. 
Three small colored boys, all eyes, 
were standing in front of the snake-bird 
group, looking at a mother bird feeding 
her young by regurgitation. In this 
process the young pushes his beak far 
down the mother's throat for the food. 

One of the little chaps announced 
with pride, "My mother told me she 
was feeding them." 

The other two chorused violent pro- 
testations. 

A heated argument followed, and 
with finality one said, "Aw, say, can't 
you see? She's eating them." 

The discussion was finally closed by 
the boys' appealing to a Museum in- 
structor, who chanced to be passing 
through the hall, and the first boy's 
pride was restored when the instructor 
told them that the mother bird was 
feeding the young and explained the 
process. 

In the Habitat Bird Group Hall is 
shown a group of man-o-war birds, in 
which the male birds have a large, 
inflated, red air-sack on their throats 
during the breeding season. Two little 
Italian boys, about ten and eleven 
years of age, were standing wide-eyed 
before this group. 

"Oh see!" said the ten-year-old to 
his companion, pointing to the air-sack 



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THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



335 



of the iiialf l)ir(l "Sec that bird's 
Adam's apple!" 

As a further step in making the ex- 
hibits more significant to the children, 
trails are being laid out in sevei-al of 
the halls, so that children may follow 
them and in this way gain a greater 
knowledge of the subjects. Question- 
naires ha^•e been prepared, more 
particularly for the use of classes from 
the high schools and colleges. Nature 
games have been introduced and are 
greatly enjoyed by the children to their 
profit. This phase of the Museum work 
is only in its infancy, but is now to be 
developed since adequate facilities are 
available. 

Our educational department has also 
participated in the maintenance of the 
Nature Trails originated by Dr. Frank 
E. Lutz at the station for the study of 
insects near Tuxedo, New York. This 
pioneer w^ork of Doctor Lutz has given 
great emphasis to the outdoor nature 
movement and has been adopted in 
man}^ of the camps for boj^s and girls. 
On the invitation of the Interstate 
Palisades Park Commissioner, the 
Museum has undertaken the operation 
of the Nature Trails and Trailside 
Museum at Bear Mountain which was 
initiated and provided for by the 
American Association of Museums. 
This is frankly an experiment, but the 
numbers who are daily visiting the 
trails indicate their practical useful- 
ness. 

The most important recent event in 
the Museum's educational program is 
the construction and equipment of the 
School Service Building by the city of 
New York. This, for the first time, 
gives the Museum adequate facihties 
for caring for the teachers and classes 
coming to the Museum, and better 
facilities for those activities where the 
Museum goes out to the schools. The 



Board of Estimate provided for the 
l)uilding in 1922, and the construction 
was completed in 1926. The equip- 
ment is nearly installed, and it is 
planned to open the building formally 
in the fall. The School Service build- 
ing is a basement and four-story struc- 
ture, 160 feet long by 90 feet wide on 
the first floor, and 55 feet wide on the 
upper floors. It is thoroughly fire- 
proof in its construction, and has been 
most carefully planned to take care 
of the Museum's needs in its School 
Service work. 

The four floors are assigned as 
follows : 

First floor: Education Hall, re- 
served for temporary exhibits. 

Second floor: Reception floor to 
provide for classes visiting the Museum. 
Third floor: Administrative offices, 
study rooms, hbrary, and activities 
connected with the extra-mural work 
of the Museum. 

Fourth floor: the production floor, 
where photographs and negatives are 
cared for and the photographic studios 
are located. 

Education Hall, on the first floor, will 
be entered through the Bickmore 
corridor, designed as a memorial to the 
late Prof. Albert S. Bickmore, the 
originator of the American Aluseum of 
Natural History. Here wall be placed 
Professor Bickmore's bust, and a 
marble tablet commemorating the great 
educators of history from Socrates to 
Agassiz. There will also be a tablet to 
the benefactors of the Museum's 
educational work, and the memorial 
tablet to Jonathan Thorne, in whose 
memory was given the endowment for 
the education of the blind. Education 
Hall, itself, is a beautiful room, 160 
X90 feet, and is one of the finest 
exhibition halls in the Museum. At 
the westerly end of the hall is placed a 



336 



NATURAL HISTORY 



statue of William H. Maxwell, first 
Superintendent of Schools of New York 
City, presented to the Museum by the 
Maxwell Memorial Association. On 
the north side of the hall will be 
installed permanent exhibits on public 
health, presenting such 
aspects as nutrition and 



duplex assembly room which has a 
maximum seating capacity of approxi- 
mately 400. A rolling partition quickly 
converts this into two assembly 
rooms. Each of these is thoroughly 
equipped with modern slide and 
motion-picture projection apparatus. 
Here, also, is the model school nature 
room, maintained by the School Nature 
League. 

On the Administrative 
Floor (floor III) will be found 
the administrative offices, 




Transverse Section of the School Ser^nce Bmlding 



public sanitation. It is intended also 
that this hall shall serve as a reserve 
auditorium. Consequently, a platform 
is being erected at the westerly end of 
the hall, and seating provision may be 
made for approximately 1000 people. 
It is equipped with both stereopticon 
and motion-picture projection appara- 
tus. The primary purpose of this hall, 
however, is to reserve it for temporary 
exhibitions of current interest. For in- 
stance, if it is desired to show the people 
of New York City what is being accom- 
phshed by the vocational schools, here 
is the place for it. In fact, it would be 
available for a demonstration of any 
school activities that the Board of 
Education might wish to take up. 

The principal feature of the Recep- 
tion Floor (floor II) is the classrooms 
of various sizes to accommodate small 
and large groups of pupils or teachers. 
Special provision is made for the in- 
struction of the sight conservation 
classes on this floor, and there is a 



comprising a suite of three rooms, the 
library of lantern slides with offices, 
shipping room, and laboratory. A 
unique feature of this division is the 
teachers' consulting room, which is 
equipped with illuminated tables for the 
easy examination and study of slides. 
Teachers may examine slides in this 
room, arrange their lectures, and prac- 
tise them in a sample projection room 
adjoining. On this floor is also a college 
classroom, equipped with tablet arm- 
chairs, the teachers' reference library, 
which will be supplied with the best 
nature books and with current period- 
icals pertaining to their work. Here, 
also, is the office and laboratory of the 
division of public health. 

The Production Floor (floor IV) 
comprises the library of photographs 
and negatives, four dark rooms for the 
production of photographs and slides, 
the slide colorist's room, the film- 
cutting room for the editing and care of 
the motion-picture films, and a sample 



THE MUSEUM'S SERVICE TO THE SCHOOLS 



337 




Last year's fall flower show in Education Hall 




Duplex assembly room in the Sohool Service Building 



projection room for examination of 
slides and films. 

With this splendid structure avail- 
able and its practical equipment, the 
Museum is in a position not only to 
extend its service to the schools, but 
to render it more effective. 



The department of public educa- 
tion does not limit its works to schools 
only. It has encouraged all movements 
designed to stimulate public interest 
in outdoor nature education, and has 
actively participated in several of 
tiiem. For years the Museum has been 



338 



NATURAL HISTORY 




These especially designed illuminated tables in the teachers' consultation room prove 
most valuable to teachers in the preparation of lantem-slide talks 



cooperating with the School Nature 
League which is doing such splendid 
work in taking nature into the schools. 
The League slogan is "A Nature Room 
in Every School," and the value of 
these rooms in the life of the child can 
hardly be overestimated. Recently an 
even closer cooperation with the League 
has been instituted by gi\ing the 
League headquarters in the new School 
Service Building where a model nature 
room is being maintained. 

The Boy Scouts, Girls Scouts, Wood- 
craft League. Campfire Girls and 
similar organizations are making exten- 
sive use of the Museum collections and 
exhibits, and in some instances the 
tests for merit badges are given bj- our 
staff members. 



In the foregoing article we have 
presented the principal features of the 
methods of \asual education employed 
by the American Aluseum of Natural 
Histor^^ We make no claim that they 
are new to education. They have 
been modified to meet the conditions 
in New York City. The Museum's 
wealth of material in its exhibition 
and study collections, its miniature 
collections which are sent to the 
schools, and its extensive series of 
negatives and sUdes freely available 
for school use, give the New York 
child a rare opportunity to visualize 
his geography and history lessons — 
which, in a measure,, is some compen- 
sation for his lack of contact •nith 
the outdoor world. 



The Museum's Part in Nature Education 

FROM PHOTOGRAPHS OF THE EXHIBITS IN THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 




ON FAMILIAR TERMS WITH THE ''KING OF THE NORTH" 

A polar bear in his appropriate setting of snow and ice is rather beyond the range of experience of most children. 
But these youngsters from the New York City schools don't have to "just imagme a polar bear. They know trom close 
association with this one in the American Museum of Natural History just how big he is and how his white coat hidea 
him in the Arctic landscape 

339 




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WHERE FLY/NG WINGS ARREST THE GAZE 

The first glimpse of this dome in the Hall of Birds of the World is almost certain to draw forth an involuntary gasp 
of wonder. Nor is the first impression duUefi upon closer acquaintance. Prolonged and contemplative observation 
reveals with what scientific accuracy even obscure details have been portrayed. Like many another corner of the 
Museum, it suggests further study to all who realize that no one has yet lived long enough to complete his education 



350 



The Museum as an Educational Interpreter 



By PAUL B. MANN 

Hpiid of Department of Biology, Evander Childs High School, New York City, and 
Associate in Education in American Museum of Natural History 



JUST off the lower Bowery is a 
triangular block comprising the 
heart of "Chinatown." Whatever 
the weather, there are always visitors, 
young and old, drawn by the lure of the 
exotic. 

So much here is completely different : 
the baskets piled high with bamboo 
sprouts and tiny seedlings ; the bottle- 
necked gourds and strange roots 
vying for room in the little shops with 
curious strings of dried foods, — fishes, 
mussels, squids, mushrooms, dark- 
brown ducks and geese, and occasion- 
ally a whole pig, also smoked and dried. 
If you buy an ancient blue jar (for its 
artistic qualit}^ of course, rather than 
for the ginger you know it contains), 
and insist upon a receipt, you will see 
the almond-eyed proprietor use a little 
brush, held vertically, to produce the 
column of black, cabalistic figures, 
though he may bring you back to 
earth by reaching for a modern rubber 
stamp and a red stamp pad, as a more 
practical way of identifying his place of 
business. Each doorway and corner 
has its knot of jacketed orientals, 
eagerly discussing something vital to 
themselves, while black-haired and 
black-eyed children play the American 
games of ball and of marbles in the nar- 
row streets. The flanking buildings so 
elbow these alleys that you feel more 
cramped than in some of Boston's 
or Nantucket's ancient lanes. The 
reddish signs, the Chinese bulletin 
boards, the yawning cellar openings 
and divergent stairways, all contribute 
to a realization that one is actually in 
foreign parts. The only drawback 
might be lack of a guide who could 



answer questions. 

Just what is this spell of Chinatown? 
If you will analyze it, you will find 
that the attraction lies in the oppor- 
tunity of actually seeing objects and 
people about whom you have read or 
heard. Curiosity and interest are two 
driving forces. When they can be 
linked up with constructive ideas and a 
program of education, you have gone 
far toward real achievement. 

The museum idea is almost as old as 
civilization. Aristotle, according to 
Pliny, at one time had a thousand men 
collecting zoological and botanical 
specimens from Greece and Asia for 
his Lyceum, which was the first great 
zoological garden and museum the 
world had ever known. Would that 
modern patrons were as generous to 
museums as Alexander was to Aristotle, 
to whom he gave the present equivalent 
of $4,000,000 for physical and biological 
equipment and research! Ptolemy 
evidently was the first to use the word 
"museum," and this was in connec- 
tion with the institution he founded at 
Alexandria. 

Museums in general seem to have 
had their genesis in collections made 
by the rich for their own personal 
gratification and exhibitions. As 
science gradually developed, scholars 
and students began to bring together 
specimens and materials to aid their 
studies. Such private collections even- 
tually grew into the public museums 
we know today. 

The idea of educating the public, 
especially through close cooperation of 
museums with the public schools of 
their localities, is a comparatively 

351 



352 



NATURAL HISTORY 



recent development and has great 
possibilities. Not only are practical 
aids thus made possible for the teacher 
who has the difficult problem of mak- 
ing teaching objective in a huge 
metropoHs like New York City, but a 
sjonpathetic and appreciative attitude 
toward the museum is early developed 
in the j'outh of the schools. 

How best to link up a great institu- 
tion like the American Museum of 
Natural History with the tremendous 
quantitative needs of a million school 
children and their families, together 
with the vast floating population, is a 
complex problem calling for much more 
than mere exhibition ! 

If Chinatown can interest the adoles- 
cent and his parents, a similar impul- 
sion must be possible from the varied 
departments of a great museum. The 
panorama here is crystallized and 
static; no cross-section of real life 
is going to parade in front of a 
case. For many, a visit to Chinatown 
may not be possible. At best its attrac- 
tions are peculiarly local in interest. 
In the case of this Museum, whose 
expeditions reach every land, there is 
an almost unending display of treasures 
from all quarters of the world. These 
treasures are bound to create interest. 
But is this interest motivated in the 
fullest sense? Is it always linked 
up with constructive ideas? Having 
procured representative specimens and 
arranged them significantly in well- 
lighted cases with attendants in charge, 
has the Museum accomplishpd its 
mission? 

Let us see. Who is coming to see 
these exhibits? Is it possible that the 
kind of visitors might determine the 
Museum's procedure, even to the point 
of devising ways and means of educating 
its guests to appreciate the types and 
kinds of displays? Is it possible to 



think that a museum might even 
modify its general aims because of its 
daily visitors? The average visitors 
are not scientists. School children, at 
least those studjdng biological science, 
are likely to know more than the lay- 
man about some of the extensive ani- 
mal exhibits, but their knowledge at 
best is meager. Naturally, exhibits 
labeled by scientists will meet the 
needs of other scientists. But more 
and more the museum must meet the 
educational needs of its average visitor 
and fall in line with the new movement 
for adult education. Labels couched 
mostly in scientific terms can have no 
appeal to any but the trained scientist. 
The layman or schoolboy will see the 
animal or exhibit but he will not see 
relationships, sequences, economic im- 
portance, zoological cause and effect. 
He will do little or no real thinking, nor, 
for that matter, make any real observa- 
tion. Mere looking is like mere hear- 
ing, which is far from listening. Every 
curator of every department of every 
public museum is on the defensive 
when it comes to the interpretation of 
his exhibits, so that the public shall 
get all they are entitled to. 

As an example of what I mean, let 
me refer to an incident, which occurred 
recently. AMiile working in Darwin 
Hall, I overheard a trio of \4sitors as 
they were making the rounds of that 
room. They saw all the specimens in 
the synoptic groups of animals, but 
their conversation showed that Amoeba 
proteus and Taenia solium were not, 
for them, names to conjure with, nor 
good pegs, alone, on which to hang 
interesting ideas. Here were speci- 
mens typical of each division of the 
entire animal kingdom, but apparently- 
these visitors got nothing much out of 
*hese exhibits. When they came to 
the glass mosquitoes and exhibits 



THE MUSEUM AS AX EDUCATIOXAL INTEHI'UETEIi 



353 



showing strugolo for existence, and 
even Mendel's Law worked out in 
plant and animal illustrations, they 
looked and looked, and discussed them 
eagerh'. Would scientists lose any of 
the values which the synoptic series 
hold if more humanized labels were 
used to interpret these groups to the 
lay public? For instance, would not 
the public get a new appreciation of the 
federal efforts to safeguard meat 
through rigid inspection, if more 
phases of the life history of the tape- 
worm (Taenia solium) and trichina 
were exhibited and interpreted? 

The next steps then are to evaluate 
thoroughly the impressions of the 
visitors; to study the curricular needs 
of the schools, and see to what extent 
the museum is supplying the right 
materials and help; to re-arrange 
exhibits wherever needed in order to 
show sequential, structural, and other 
relationships; to develop a new kind 
of guide or questionnaire which is 
informative and inspirational, and 
contains stimulating queries; to organ- 
ize docentry service so that time may 
not be wasted and that pertinent 
knowledge may be acquired; in short 
to take the schools and the public 
into partnership. 

It is only fair to the far-seeing 
director and other active officers of the 
American Museum to state that all the 
preceding program is being considered. 
Far from being an institution of mere 
exhibitions, the Museum is itself seek- 
ing to satisfy the growing needs of the 
schools as well as of a public becoming 
constantly more discerning. 

Among the most recent aids for high 
schools are new lectures accompanied 
by lantern slides, which have been 
produced for the use of the teachers ; a 
library of microscopic slides for elemen- 
tarj^ and advanced biology, assembled 



foi- distribution like lantern slides; 
li\c' fruit -flies {Drosophila) , furnished 
for breeding and Mendelian experi- 
ments; new insect habitat groups 
developed with elaborate keys and 
descriptive labels; bird guides and 
keys, rewritten and issued in the con- 
venient nature study size ; a traveling 
collection of fossils, built up to illustrate 
types of prehistoric animals and evolu- 
tionary development; mounted pic- 
tures of scientists and scientific 
institutions; and framed pictures, 
loaned for limited periods to schools 
for hanging in classrooms. In addition, 
the entire traveling collection of loan 
specimens, charts, and objects has been 
re-organized. As the result of sugges- 
tions from teachers, many special 
lantern slides have been made and 
added to stock. The last two items 
affect private institutions as well as 
public schools, both elementary and 
high, as does also the inspirational 
radiation from the new School Nature 
League room in the School Service 
Building at the Museum . No more than 
mention need be made here of the 
invaluable film library which is also 
free to the schools, and to which con- 
stant additions are being received. 
Teachers' organizations, such as the 
New York Association of Biology 
Teachers, have begun to utilize the 
superb facilities of the new rooms for 
evening meetings. With the opening 
of the new library, there will be addi- 
tional reasons for enjoying the Mu- 
seum. 

The staff of the Museum's depart- 
ment of public education has been 
enlarged, particularly to meet the 
growing needs of teachers and pupils 
of New York City and vicinity. More 
expansion is already indicated. 

One other new plan is of vital im- 
portance. A limited number of teach- 



354 



NATURAL HISTORY 



ers from the Training Schools of the 
city are to have a period of instruction 
in museum technique and methodology 
either at the American Museum or at 
the Children's Museum of Brooklyn. 
This training course for teachers was 
put into operation in a tentative way 
last spring, with excellent results. 
Such a program is bound to increase 
in value to teachers with continued 
experience and experiment. 

Field expeditions have been for many 



years a prominent aim of the adminis- 
trators of the American Museum. 
New lustre has thus been added to sci- 
entific research and the Museum itself 
enormously enriched. Many patrons 
have been interested in sponsoring 
these activities. The worth and pro- 
ductive value of such Museum expedi- 
tions have been fully demonstrated, and 
the Museum now asks for strong sup- 
port and heartiest endorsement of its 
pioneer work as educational interpreter. 




The Monarch Butterfly Group. — One of a series of small habitat groups showing the life 
history of different insects, for circulation in the pubhc schools of New York City. These 
groups have been found especially useful in teaching biology 



The Child Discovers His World 



By RITA SCHERMAN 

(Mrs. U. M. Herman) 
Author of A Mother's Letters to a Schuolmaster 



CHILDHOOD is a period of dis- 
covery. The young child's whole 
being, "like a large eye," is open 
to the impressions of the world about 
him and "wholly given up to them."' 

Knowledge of things and doings — 
news of his surroundings^s being 
garnered by this discoverer, rapidly, 
constantly: forms, sounds, colors, 
identities, processes, activities, mean- 
ings, relationships of space, time, 
number, bulk, kind, relationships of 
people, with all the words which desig- 
nate and represent all these things. 
The whole of Nature and of Art and 
Artifice await his discovery: Nature, 
the power, law, process, and substance 
of all being; Art and Artifice the ever- 
developing superstructure we know as 
civilization. What an immensity to 
take hold of and make his own! 

As discoverer in this great world of 
unlearned happenings, a universe of 
innumerable visible actions and in- 
visible relationships, the child needs a 
compass, and it is the attitudes and 
values of the grown persons about him 
that he takes as compass. These atti- 
tudes and values are reflected in 
schools, museums, curricula — institu- 
tions and systems that grown persons 
provide to educate the child, to lead 
him forth into life and knowledge. 

How logically do these present life 
to the child and free him for ever larger 
discovery? Are the academic cate- 
gories of knowledge, laid down cen- 
turies ago by scholasticism, fit path- 
ways of education for the children of 
this era of world democracy? Can the 
discoverers find reliable guides to life in 

iFriedrich Froebel, Education of Man, p. 24 



the catalogued subjects of school cur- 
ricula and the stereotyped classifica- 
tions of formal museum exhibits? Is 
there needed a more viable arrange- 
ment of the facts of human knowledge 
so that the discoverer, as he learns of 
the ways of nature and of human kind, 
may find his way intelligently and un- 
confused amongst all the concepts he 
garners? Does he not himself indicate 
through his own natural interests what 
the pathways of that new classification 
should be? 

It is along the byways of aroused 
curiosity that the interests of childhood 
lie, along the little roadways of needs, 
in his day-by-day contacts with life, 
that the interests of the discoverer 
play. A child's inquisitiveness about 
the world lies primarily along the paths 
of the activities he observes about him, 
whether in the realm of human doings 
or in the mechanisms of objects he sees 
or handles; whether in the ways of 
beasts, birds, and insects, plants, sun, 
stars, and the weather, or in the in- 
tangible forces which do man's bidding 
in the wonders of modern invention. 
What things are for, what things are 
made of, what makes things go, and 
WHY — these are the pivots around 
which the learning of children naturally 
takes place. 

To examine the discoverer's store of 
concepts gleaned in the first free years 
before "shades of the prison house" 
begin to close about the growing boy 
and girl, is to find that they cluster 
around the essential activities and 
experiences of life — Shelter or Home- 
Making, Food-Getting, Clothing and 
Adornment, Communication, Trans- 

355 



356 



NATURAL HISTORY 



portation, Barter, Government or the 
Rules of Living, Play and the great 
Arts that have sprung therefrom. 
These arc what make up living, no less 
for us than for our children. Around 
these is built up the pattern of all 
human activity. To maintain these — 
the elements of our human economy — 
we utilize the visible resources and the 
unseen forces of nature. These, 
throughout the ages, have been the 
natural needs which instinct has guided 
to development. They were the same 
when man's first concepts of his world 
and first articulations began to build 
up the body of primitive knowledge, 
and the complex knowledges of today's 
civilization are still woven inevitably 
around them. 

Would it not appear needful, then, 
at this stage of progress in human de- 
velopment, and in the interests of a 
scientific and logical approach to 
learning, that education make a re- 
statement of knowledge in terms of 
needs, in terms of the basic activities 
and everyday experiences of human- 
kind? It is obvious that man's com- 
prehension of his environment and of 
the interrelationships of life-processes 
will proceed more readily when the 
approaches to learning are made thus 
logical and scientific — brought into 
accord with the psychology of learning 
itself. The academic subjects which 
have served for generations to intro- 
duce man to knowledge are doors which 
do not lead forth — this being the true 
sense of the word education — but 
which lead away from natural interest, 
from the identification of the self, "in 
desire, effort and thought," with "ob- 
jective subject-matter."' 

Knowledge, whether in schools or 
museums, should be presented to the 
child in a dynamic unfoldment, as news 

'John Dewey, IntereH and Effort in Education, p. 90 



growing out of the thing his thought is 
engaged with at the moment, as a 
pageant of development which he may 
follow back or trace forward, from the 
tool he holds in his hand, the engine he 
fascinatedly watches, the coin he 
carries in his pocket, to the dawn of 
pre-history, if he will, or to the far 
reaches of the unseen and infinite 
where often, if we let them be, the 
thoughts of little children steal back 
from whence they come, "not in 
entire forge tfulness, . . . but traihng 
clouds of glory . . . from God which 
is their home." 

The ideal school, the ideal museum, 
the ideal curriculum will present to the 
child means by which he may orientate 
himself in the complex civilization of 
which he is inheritor. That which we 
present to him should be an exposition 
of knowledge and achievement, a 
survey of experience, an index to his 
world, and this cannot be done in 
terms of the school subjects, but needs 
elucidation in terms of familiar every- 
day doings made fascinating by the 
drama of growth. Each activity be- 
comes thus a pageant marching down 
the ages, — the pageant of Home- 
Making; of Clothing and Adornment; 
of Sustenance or the drama of Food- 
Getting ; of Transportation— the evolu- 
tion of Means of Travel ; of Communi- 
cation — how men exchange their 
thoughts and record their experiences; 
of Barter — how men exchange the 
products of their skill; of Government 
— how men agree to live and behave in 
orderly fashion. And so on. 

A concept of education as indi- 
vidual discovery offers, in all avenues 
of activity and information for the 
child — in schools, museums, motion- 
pictures, and books — fascinating pos- 
sibilities for illuminating the pathway 
of the discoverer. Within the past 



THE CHILD DISCOVERS HIS WORLD 



357 



decade, in many parts of the world, 
schools have sprung into being which 
have challenged the lockstep in educa- 
tion, and their demands will doubtless 
eventuate in the appearance of books, 
motion-pictures, maps, and charts 
which will more and more humanize 
knowledge, take it out of the pigeon 
holes of the formal subjects and re- 
distribute it along lines that hew closer 
to the realities of everyday life. 

Museums must meet this challenge 
too, and they are beginning to do so. 
In many places developmental exhibits 
have been installed, the interest in 
which, amongst adults as well as 
children, indicates the value of a much 
more extended re-arrangement of speci- 
mens", reUcs, and models. The great 
need is a correlation of exhibits such as 
will not alone make clear the relation 
of the past experience and products of 
the race to familiar aspects of present- 
day life, but will also demonstrate the 
interdependence of plant-, insect-, bird- 
and human life. 

What man finds on the earth, and 
ivhat man does with what he fiinds — 
these two Hnes of inquiry present a 
basis for the correlation of museum 
exhibits in terms of familiar needs. 
Illuminating facts from amongst all 
the pigeon holes, particularly those 
labeled natural history, anthropology 
and sociology, should be called upon to 
build up these exhibits. The child, 
discoverer of today's world, finds the 
bulk of what man, the discoverer of a 
half million years ago, found then. 
Wonder of day and night, sun and 
moon, stars and seasons, fruit and 
flowers, — things whose appearance is 
directed by powers unseen; ways of 
beast, bird, fish, insect, man, all 
manifesting common pecuHarities ; 
power of communication, each with 
its kind; kindred needs of food and 



shelter; definite forms of group or 
social organization, more or less marked 
until they reach the degree of co- 
operative activity of the bird-family, 
the bee, the ant, the human being. 

The fundamental life-experiences of 
mankind are plainly paralleled, as has 
been suggested here and there on the ac- 
companying chart, in the life-histories 
of beast, bird, fish, and insect, and if we 
go back far enough into the history of 
human life we see how closely they 
were alHed in method in the beginning. 
There is, however, this great dramatic 
contrast: ways of living amongst the 
lesser creatures have been unchanged, 
we suppose, from the beginning of 
time, but waj^s of living amongst men 
have varied and changed from primitive 
times and still continue to change. 
Man's ever-increasing command of 
earth's resources has given his achieve- 
ments an evolutionary character. 

The discovery of what man finds on 
the earth acquaints the child with the 
essential nature of things, and gradu- 
ally^, sooner or later, leads him to an 
apprehension of the Science of being. 
How soon or how late, depends upon 
the clarity with which his discoveries 
are interpreted to him. The discovery 
of ivhat man can do and does do with 
what he finds, leads him into the realm 
of Art and Artifice, in which imagina- 
tion and intellectual activit}' bring 
him creative joy. 

The facts of Science, Art, and Arti- 
fice, seen in this perspective, indeed 
belittle the traditional subjects either 
as starting points of learning in the 
schools, or as bases of classification of 
museum relics and models. Grown-ups 
who see thus, and ponder what they see, 
know that they can let go of formal sub- 
jects, formal periods of instruction and 
formal exhibits, and follow the needs of 
the child as his interests reveal them. 




Copyright by Rita Berman 



A CHART OF CIVILIZATION 
(abridged) 

An Index to and Survey of Human Experience upon which to base a reclassification of knowledge, a rational 
curriculum for public education, as well as a library of educational motion pictures, a children's encyclopedia, and 
a children's museum (static or traveling). 

The scale indicates the duration of time represented by the radiating lines on the chart. Of the 50,000 years 
of man's experience indicated, the innermost circle represents 45,000 years and more. The white circle represents 
about 5,000 and the shaded outermost circle represents the last 100 years. 

The earliest rough stone implements discovered are estimated to be 500,000 years old. Tt would take a scale 
extended many feet to the left of the one shown here, to illustrate the remoteness of that period. 

Note the amazing rate of man's material progress in the last 100 years, which span so small a portion of this 
time-Une that they can be represented only by a mere stroke at the right-hand end. 

This chart is reproduced from the one used by the author in her book A Mother's Letters to a Schoolmaster. 



358 



THE CHILD DISCOVERS HIS WORLD 



359 



Long before tlie formal school age 
does the child begin to map out his own 
curriculum as he reaches out to the 
grown-ups about him for aids in his 
investigations of life and things. 
"Where to do the moon go"? asks my 
little boy. "Is the moon the daddy 
star"? And your little girl says: "Is 
it far to the end of the sky"? or 
"Why do not things fall up.^ . . . 
Where does the wind go? . . . Will 
the days that have gone come back 
again? . . . What is the last number 
there is? Where do colors come from " ? 
Always thus something lifts itself up 
to the vision of the discoverer out of 
contemplative moods. A grown-up 
who is a reliable compass encourages 
the discoverer to ponder and investi- 
gate what lifts itself up, and to give 
each new concept a place in the order 
of wonders already revealed. 

The degree to which this encourage- 
ment is given in the very early years of 
childhood determines to a large extent 
the receptivity and eagerness and free- 
dom with which the older child acquires 
knowledge. Habits of contemplative 
thinking, and investigative and organ- 
izing tendencies can be encouraged or 
inhibited just as positively as habits of 
bodily skill or desirable behavior. 
Homes, schools, museums, the theater, 
and every avenue through which the 
child gains direction in his living, should 
organize the elements of that direction 
in ways to stimulate and encourage 
reflective thought. Such ways will 
lead far afield from the docketed knowl- 
edges that have up to now mapped out 
the pathway of learning for children 
young and old. 

And besides revealing his world to 
the discoverer as a place of ever-re- 
curring wonder, a place of constant 
growing and marvelous organization. 



a place of beautifully interrelated life- 
processes, schools and museums should 
show it to be a place of sharing, with 
development and survival dependent, 
indeed, on the very principle of sharing. 
Just as amongst the lower creatures 
survival and multiplication of such 
sharing beasts and fowl as the cow, 
sheep, and hen are undeniably assured, 
so the artifices of men survive and 
develop in proportion to their sharing 
qualities. The implements and devices 
of utility discovered or invented by 
primitive man have evolved to forms 
suited to modern needs, whilst instru- 
ments of torture and cruelty have 
disappeared and will continue to dis- 
appear until they are as extinct as the 
predacious animals which have van- 
ished from the face of the earth. 

From the point of view of the accom- 
panying Chart of Civilization which 
pictures these ideas. Nature appears 
not as one isolated subject in the curri- 
culum, not as a separate compartment 
of study, but practically as the curri- 
culum. It is synonymous with Life, 
the wholeness of experience, and the 
ways and doings of human beings are 
part of that experience. Nature and 
natural history become thus names for 
the expression of an infinitely varied 
activity of intelligence, and the proud 
achievements of men — the vitaphone 
or Wool worth Building, for instance, 
— are seen as reflecting not a different 
intelligence from that which fashions 
the bird's nest or the beavers' dam, but 
as inevitable responses to more com- 
plex needs. As educative agencies 
become more and more conscious of 
that unfolding intelligence, they will 
confidently open pathways along 
which children may move forward to 
discover, let us hope, a fairer, freer, 
kindlier, and more peaceful world. 




Photograph by Clyde Fisher 



CAN HE SHOOT HIS QUILLS? 




I'h ,l,nini,,l, 1,1/ Cli/tli Fi.sl,,_r 
WHAT CAN TAKK THE PLACE OF NATUKE IN EDUCATION? 

Education as Natural Development 

By marietta JOHNSON 

Dirnctor of the School of Organic Education, Fairhopc, Alabama 



TODAY, at Fail-hope, Alabama, 
the School of Organic Educa- 
tion occupies nine school build- 
ings and a campus of ten acres. The 
pupils vary from kindergarten to 
college age. Twenty years ago this 
school had its inception in a little 
cottage where six children were en- 
rolled. During these years of growth 
and progress, it has succeeded in its 
original purpose of providing a school 
program which would minister to the 
health of the spirit, mind, and body of 
the growing child. Throughout these 
years it has been supported mainly by 
volunteer contributions largely solicited 
by the director. That the school 
might be of value for public education, 
no tuition is charged the children of the 
town. A boarding department has 
been developed through which the 
school may become partly self- 
supporting. 

Believing that education is life and 
growth, the school concerns itself 
primarily with the child's spiritual or 
emotional life. The stimulus for 
growth is interest. There are aims and 
purposes in life itself. Persevering, 
enduring, and concentrating for ob- 
jectives in which he has absorbing 
interest, are the finest disciplinarj^ 



experiences for a child. Submerging 
the personal desire or caprice to condi- 
tions inherent in the situation is the 
highest form of discipline, and this is 
attained in all creative work. In order 
to furnish the best environment for the 
development of sincerity, joyousness, 
and un-self-consciousness, all formal 
work is postponed until children are 
eight, nine, or ten years of age, and 
creative hand-work is used in its stead. 
There are no desks to interfere with the 
freedom of movement; there are no 
intellectual tasks or assignments; no 
external goal to be reached, and all 
marks and grades are omitted. Music 
and dancing are provided in full 
measure; the story hour is made en- 
joyable. 

As the children grow older, they 
begin to make use of books and figures. 
Still there is no assignment of tasks. 
The freshness of intellectual attack is 
preserved for the time when the child's 
mind is really awakened. It is insulting 
to ask the child a question to see if he 
can answer. He should never be ques- 
tioned except to help him understand. 
In working out projects the child 
learns to wait for data before making 
decisions. He forms the habit of 
taking truth for authority instead of 

361 



362 



NATURAL HISTORY 



truth on authority. This is funda- 
mental to intellectual integrity. 

The children are grouped according 
to their chronological age, and the 
teacher provides each group with the 
things necessary for health and study. 
Special individual attention is given 
where it is needed, and cases of trifling 
or indifference become special problems 
for the teacher. The intellectual 
development of the child should be as 
un-self-conscious and un-striven-for as 
spiritual or physical growth. The 
prolonging of childhood is the hope of 
the race. No child should be accele- 
rated. The gifted or precocious child 
simply should be given more work to do 
rather than be placed with older child- 
ren. Placing twelve-and thirteen-year- 
old children with those of more mature 
years often results in real tragedy, for 
sex and social consciousness is forced 
when this is done. For true health and 
normal growth, co-education is ab- 
solutely necessary. A balanced attrac- 
tion during the growing years is 
imperative. 

Afteir the children have learned to 
read, write, and use figures, they take 
up history, literature, geography, and 
arithmetic. The creative hand-work, 
music, and dancing continue. 

At fourteen years of age the pupils 
enter the high schools, not because of 
any special preparation, but because 
they are now youth and require a 
different process. Here four years 
are spent on earnest, serious work in 
science, literature, history, mathe- 
matics, and language. More advanced 



creative hand-work in the shop and 
gardens, and cooking, sewing, music, 
and dancing supplement these studies. 
Even in the high school there are no 
tests or examinations. No child 
should know failure. No child should 
develop an inferiority complex. The 
growing edge must be kept keen 
through interest, and the order of the 
development of the nervous system 
must be respected. After four years of 
high school work, the pupil automa- 
tically graduates. Our graduates have 
entered many institutions of higher 
learning and have done well. 

Society owes to the young, through- 
out the growing years, guidance, con- 
trol, instruction, association, and in- 
spiration. The fundamental condition 
of growth for the adolescent is social. 
Some day there will be a college in 
which the required studies will be 
music, dancing, dramatics, and arts 
and crafts. When an investigation is 
made of the extra curricula activities 
in our colleges, I venture to say that 
these will be found to have more educa- 
tional value than much of the work of 
the classrooms. The fundamental, all- 
inclusive art is the art of human 
relations. Every opportunity and 
assistance should be given the young 
to grow in it. 

The question all along the way is 
"What is needed to produce a sound, 
accomplished, beautiful body, an in- 
telligent, sympathetic mind, and a 
sweet, sincere spirit"? In the measure 
that the school provides conditons 
which produce these, is it educational. 




HAPPY JACK'S FAVORITE FOOD 



Photograph hy Clyde Fisher 



363 




Photograph by Clyde Fisher 



ooh! isn't he warm? 
(A Florida gopher) 



364 




WHO'S AFRAID OF A 'POSSUM? 



J-'huluurapIt by ('h/'ir Fisher 



365 




h 



CATCHING SAND FLEAS ON THE BEACH 
How they can hop! 



jA b. rlwP Fish- 



366 




Step into tlu> little lianlcn.s and you will find 
children learning about soils and seeds and slips 



usy groups of 



Nature Study on the Lower East Side 



By MARGARET KNOX 

Principal of Public School 15, Manhattan 



NOT long ago there were gathered 
in the dining room of one of 
New York's big hotels nearly 
800 men and women, most of whom 
were teachers in our city schools. 
They had come in this social way to 
dine together and to talk about 
Nature Study and the School Gardens 
of our Public Schools. 

This gathering was under the au- 
spices of the School Garden Associa- 
tion of New York City which has for 
its motto, ''A Garden for Every 
Child," and in the program prepared 
for that day there were items interest- 
ing enough to set the whole world a- 
thinking. 

One page of the program is devoted 
to the activities of the School Garden 
Association which has a membership 
of about 8,000 men and women. Here 
are some of its activities itemized: A 
Nature Garden Center which exhibits a 
nature library, a class museum, and 
window garden demonstration for 
teachers; publication of the Nature 



Garden Guide, a small four-page 
leaflet issued for the instruction of 
members of the School Garden Asso- 
ciation in all matters relating to 
nature work iji the schoolroom, or in 
the school and home gardens; exhibi- 
tions in public schools of bulb raising, 
seed planting and growing, flower 
shows, and nature teaching. 

Then we come to a page in this 
nature program headed "Some Na- 
ture-Garden High Spots" and we read 
such interesting items as these : 

Classroom gardens in schools 16,256 

Bulbs purchased in pubUc schools 

in 1926 230,270 

Narcissus shows in schools, December, 

1926 270 

Nature rooms in schools 81 

Classroom nature projects carried on 99 

Pupil? voting for a school tree 333,205 

These are a few of the statistics that 
make us stop, look, and listen for the 
signal that is to direct us along the 
right road in our educational journey 
with our children. 

307 



368 



NATURAL HISTORY 



The fifiui(*s ill themselves are cold. 
They tell nothing- of the warm, pulsat- 
ing love of nature that was throbbing in 
the hearts of hundreds of teachers and 
thousands of children while these 
figures were piling up. They cannot 
take you into the dark old school build- 
ings where these projects have been 
worked out by an enthusiastic teacher 
who loves to lead her class out from 
the harsh, unattractive materialism 
of the environment in which the 
children live, to bask in the warmth 
and sunshine of Nature and God's 
out-of-doors. 

Will you come with me on a Nature 
Trail more fascinating than any you 
may have taken in solitude or with one 
or two friends as you opened up and 
marked out your way through quiet 
beautiful woods, over hill and dale, and 
by the banks of rushing streams? 

Down on the lower East Side of our 
great city of New York, surrounded by 
tall, dingy tenement houses, bounded 
by streets swarming with pushcarts 
and vendors of all kinds of things from 
second-hand kitchen utensils to fur 
coats, from vegetables and fruit to 
live fish and chickens, stands an old 
gray building. Public School 15, Man- 
hattan. It has stood there for 
nearly one hundred years, ever since 
this East Side Ghetto was one of the 
fine residential sections of Old New 
York. When I say that most of the 
2200 boys and girls now attending this 
school live within a radius of two 
square blocks, and that of their 4400 
parents fewer than 100 were born in 
America, you can easily judge of 
the congested condition down here 
and of the great foreign population 
that is to be welded into America's 
strength. 

We enter the playground of the 
schoolhouse. Bright pictures adorn the 



walls. Ferns are on the window sills. 
The door at the rear is opened and a 
flash of color meets the eye. Draw 
nearer. In a little garden, not much 
bigger than a handkerchief, banked by 
a five-story tenement on one side and 
our own dingy school on the other, are 
blooming daffodils, hyacinths, cro- 
cuses, tulips. They are carefully 
guarded by monitors from the industrial 
classes. These are the children who do 
not succeed in getting high ratings in 
academic lessons but who are ever 
ready to dig and plant and water the 
garden. Here stands a foreign mother, 
tears streaming down her cheeks, 
looking lovingly and longingly at the 
flowers. She has come in to meet her 
little girl just entered into the kinder- 
garten. Thoughts of her little country 
home in Hungary flood her mind, and 
she feels a pang of homesickness as 
she points out to her child the flowers 
that she knew in the old country. 

Let me describe "Bulb Day" in this 
school. On a bright day in October in 
a corner of this little garden you will 
flnd a beehive of busy children working. 
They have put up a table on trestles, 
and on it they have baskets of 
bulbs, of soil and sand, of fertilizer 
and of pebbles. The children of the 
industrial classes have prepared this 
garden spot so that they may sell to 
hundreds of children bulbs and proper 
soil to set them in. It has been fun 
to do all this preparatory work of 
mixing and sifting and selecting the 
proper ingredients for bulb raising, 
under the direction of their teacher, 
and when the sale begins these boys 
and girls act like veteran gardeners 
giving advice to their young patrons. 

From all parts of this dingy old 
building come the classes in orderly 
lines, each child bringing with him his 
flower pot, or old bowl, or pipkin 



NATURE STUDY ON THE LOWER EAST SIDE 



369 



thrown out by mother boeauso it was 
cracked, ])iit just the ri^ht thing for 
the plant iuii; of a healthy bulb, and 
in his tiny hand a few pennies to pay 
for bulb and soil. The line of children 
passes in front of the table, and behind 
the table the trowels are busy filling 
the receptacles with soil and dispensing 
the bulbs. 

Then back to the classroom go forty 
children all intent on planting each his 
own bulb, and placing it in the dark- 
ness of the coat closet, there to stay 
until teacher decides that they are to be 
brought out into the light. 

And so these lessons in nature, real 
live nature, go on from day to day, 
until at length the climax, — in Jan- 
uary when our great day comes, 
Graduation Day, and there in our 
assembly hall are placed dozens of 
lovely blooms of the narcissus bulbs. 
These, raised by the children them- 
selves, are the most beautiful of all our 
decorations that happy day. 

In the spring season the hearts of 
the children are made glad by the 
procession of early spring flowers 
raised from bulbs of their own plant- 
ing: snowdrops, crocuses, daffodils, 
jonquils, hyacinths, and tulips follow 
one another in rapid succession, filling 
the air with their spring fragrance and 
delighting the eye with their beauty. 

What a difference this sort of nature 
study makes in the lives of these little 
ones who, when asked some years ago 
by the teacher, ''What are the signs of 
spring?" answered without a moment's 
hesitation, "Putting the swing doors on 
the beer saloons," or, "The cat lies 
out on the back fence trying to get the 
sun to shine on her." 

Here are some of the answers given 
in a nature English composition lesson, 
when the subject assigned was "The 
Signs of Spring." 



Spring is here! Spring is here! 
Let us give a great big ohcjer! 
Daffodils dancing on the window-sills, 

In the ycsllow sun! 
Mother Nature greets us here. 

Spring is here! Spring is here! 
Come, come, let us sing. 
Let us tell the birds it's spring! 

And this one by a little 6B girl : 

Awake! Awake! the voice of Spring 
Says to the birds, "Awake and sing," 
And all the flowers beneath the earth 
Are full of mirth! Are full of mirth! 
See! how the flowers peep up from 

their beds, 
Up from the earth come their 

tiny heads, 
Throughout the world the voices ring, 
The voice of Spring! The voice 

of Spring! 

The School Garden Association and 
the School Nature League founded by 
teachers who loved nature themselves 
and who wanted all children, even 
those condemned to live away from 
woods and fields and gardens, to get a 
chance to know the flowers, the trees, 
and the birds, have been pioneers in 
teaching us how to teach our course of 
study in nature, and in making real to 
the children this whole beautiful 
subject. These organizations mean 
bringing to thousands of children who 
have no opportunity to go out into the 
woods and fields and along the open 
road, by the side of streams and ponds, 
a knowledge of God's nature children: 
the birds and butterflies, the flowers 
and trees. They mean awakening in 
the minds and hearts of thousands of 
children a love of nature and a great 
interest in the study of nature things. 

Look into the school buildings all 
over the city today. You will find 
window gardens in all the rooms, with 
eager children watching and nurturing 
the bulbs or seedlings that they them- 
selves have planted. Step into the 
little gardens and you will find busy 







2 ^ 

1-3 ''^ 

C o 

O 9 

CO 

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I—' , 



K o 

p 3 
2: - 



NATURE STUDY OX THE LOWER EAST SIDE 



371 



groups of children learning about soils 
anil seeds and slips. By and by you 
will see the window gardens blossoming, 
not only in the school but in the homes 
too, as the narcissus, the hyacinth, the 
crocus, and daffodil blossoms poke 
their heads above the soil and speak to 
the children with their fragrance and 
beauty. And you must not forget to 
visit one of the most interesting places 
in this big school of mine. It is the 
Nature Room. This is the place where 
the child gets an opportunity to ask 
the questions that will lead him out 
into the open. Every school should 
have a fully equipped Nature Room 
where children can browse awhile 
ever}^ day and get near to nature's 
heart. It is just as necessary for the 
complete instruction of our children as 
is the Geography Room with its maps 
and globes and atlases, or the Sewing 
Room with its machines and needles 
and thimbles, or the Shop with its 
benches and tools. 

Let me quote here a composition 
written by a seventh year child: 

Our Nature Room 
My! It certainly does seem as if Mother 
Nature loves Public School 15, for she has 
come to stay and is Uving in our Nature 
Room. It would take a year and a day to 
explain everything in it, but I shall try in the 
best way. We have two rooms, a larger one 
and a smaller one, which open into each other. 
The larger one contains nests of birds, a hve 
canary, a guinea pig, a rabbit, aUigator, gold- 
fish. There are also the stuffed owl, who looks 
very wise indeed, a porcupine, a wild-cat, a 
fox, a squirrel, and stuffed birds. The smaller 
room contains specimens of lichen, weeds, 
shells, minerals, skins of alUgators, pictures of 
birds, animals, minerals, and a cotton field. 
To make a long story short, I think Public 
School 15's Nature Room is one of the most 
interesting rooms in the district, and as I have 
said before, I certainly do think Mother 
Nature loves our school, don't you? 

Nature study needs objective illus- 
tration more than any other subject 



in our curriculum. Without it, reading 
and literature become dull and meaning- 
less. The Nature Room should make 
real (). W. Holmes's "Chambered 
Nautilus," Maltbie Babcock's "Sur- 
prise," Swinburne's "White Butter- 
flies," Frances Hodgson Burnett's 
"Secret Garden," Wordsworth's " Daf- 
fodils," Bryant's "Fringed Gentian," 
Grahame's "Wind in the Willows." 

Making connections with rural 
schools that have enthusiastic, inter- 
ested teachers, is another very impor- 
tant part of the nature work in our 
schools. 

Some years ago our school got into 
communication with a country school 
in Dutchess County quite out of the 
way in a small village. We asked them 
to send us flowers and twigs and 
branches and nests — anything in the 
line of nature material that city 
children living in a crowded tenement 
district would not be likely to see, and 
in a short time boxes and barrels began 
to come cityward filled with all sorts of 
nature treasures: birds' nests, hornets' 
nests, wasps' nests, evergreen branches, 
— spruce and hemlock — pine cones, 
and all the flowers in their season. 

The excitement of our children at the 
opening of these nature boxes was quite 
thrilling, and the knowledge that both 
teachers and children gained from the 
study of their contents was surprising. 

Then came the next important step in 
this interesting correspondence. The 
city children were kept busy sending 
letters of thanks to the country children 
— a fine way to teach letter writing. 
They wrote compositions descriptive 
of the material they had received or 
they asked questions about the differ- 
ent things, all of which exercises gave 
them experience in writing upon inter- 
esting topics and gaining definite 
knowledge of nature facts. 



372 



NATURAL HISTORY 



In the drawing department the 
teachers made use of the nature speci- 
mens for lessons in drawing, painting, 
and designing, with very good results. 

Samples of all the work of the city 
children were sent to the rural school 
and very soon the teacher of the country 
school sent us word of the fine effect 
this had upon the work of the country 
children. They became very much 
interested in all the work of the city 
children and tried to excel in all the 
branches. 

Let me quote one of the composi- 
tions written by a third year boy, nine 
years old : 

There is a caterpillar in the woods. It will 
soon become a butterfly on account of the 
magic change period. God is the magician. 
He always changes ugly things into something 
lovely. So he will change the Uttle brown 
caterpillar into a marvelous butterfly. The 
butterfly will have two handsome brownish 
red wings to spread in the summer air. It will 
flit around and sip every flower's honey. It 
will be happy all summer until winter comes 
and then it dies. Wasn't that a wonderful 
change? 



I have taken you along a Nature 
Trail blazed for the children of the 
crowded neighborhoods of a great city, 
and I have tried to show you that we 
place the study of nature very high in 
the curriculum. We want to train our 
children today to love the sciences that 
lead them out into the open places of 
this great, beautiful, wonderful world, 
and that influence each child to seek 
his life far from the "busy haunts of 
men." 

We need farmers, foresters, garden- 
ers, horticulturists, ornithologists, and 
astronomers. Why not find them 
among the children who have spent 
their early days far from the woods 
and fields, and lakes and streams? 

Nature study in the schoolroom 
leads the child in spirit into the open, to 
live in the fields under the stars, in the 
woods, and by the sea, and to read the 
mysteries of Creation in God's great 
book of nature. 

We need this sort of training for all 
the children of America. 




School garden, Pubhc School 15, Manhattan. The hearts of the children are made 
glad by the procession of early spring flowers raised from bulbs of their own planting 



The Still-open Road 

By frank E. LUTZ 

t'linitiir of IiLscct l.ifc unci Resoiirch Associate in Outdoor Education, American Museum of Natural History 



IN a recent nuinber of Harper^s 
Charles Merz sang "a song of the 
once-open road" and its "one 
hundred and ninety thousand cars, 
forever flitting from one filling station 
to another, with half a million people 
on their backs." 

I, too, have been in that ''vast 
company of motors" and have had 
''impressions of a never-ending road, a 
thousand farms, no-parking signs, suc- 
cessive towns passed through at twenty 
miles an hour, back-axles of no end of 
cars." But, the road is "closed" only 
in the minds of those whose eyes see 
nothing but their speedometers, and 
because our various governmental 
bodies have not yet fully caught a 
vision of the real usefulness of public 
parks. 

"TwiHght in September," Mr. Merz 
truly sketches a part of the picture. 
"Over the hills winds the caravan: 
lunches gone, lights twinkling, ton- 
neaus full of goldenrod. America 
revisited." 

Let me give you a different picture. 

Twilight in September. A car 
parked beside the winding caravan or 
left in a garage; on a hill stands a 
motorist "afoot and light-hearted"; 
lunch forgotten; twinkling flash-light 
playing on a goldenrod where a long- 
horned grasshopper fiddles a merry 
tune with its wings; mind and soul full 
of the joy of out-of-doors. America 
not onlj^ visited but made his own. 

Like so many good things, the auto- 
mobile is a curse or a blessing depend- 
ing on the way we use it. Fate having 
been kind to me, I had occasionally 
gone by train to our West. How often 



did 1 wish that I could stop the train 
so that I might for even a few minutes 
listen to a bird which I had glimpsed 
through the car-window, or smell the 
fragrance of a clump of flowers, or take 
a short stroll along the brook-side! 
Then Fate was still more kind, for I 
motored to Colorado and those joys 
were mine. All summer that auto- 
mobile of plebeian make was my home 
and my helper, not my master. A 
canon twenty miles away, — in an 
hour I was there, and at the end of a 
perfect day my house was by the side 
of the road or, if I pleased, it was my 
helper to take me elsewhere for the 
night. No. The road is still open. 

But not in the East, do you say? If 
not, that is the East's fault. Would 
that the East had more automobile 
tourist camps so that it would not be 
necessary "to hurry half the day for 
the apparent purpose of arriving at a 
point far enough away to make it 
necessary to turn at once and hurry 
home" because near that point there 
is no place in which a nature-lover can 
spend the night out of doors as he 
would like to do ! It is not far from 
true that, quoting Merz again, "a 
family of six will drive two hundred 
miles to bring home three balls of glass 
with imitation butterflies inside," but 
it should be on the conscience of some 
of us that no one of this family appre- 
ciates the beauty of a live butterfly 
flitting from flower to flower. 

It is highly desirable and is rapidly 
becoming essential that there be near 
every city of at least moderate size a 
tract of pubhc land that is kept in as 
nearly natural condition as possible. 



iThe accompanying photographs of Yellowstone National Park's very swccessful Nature Trail were taken by 
Mr. Ansell Hall of the IJ. S. National Park Service. 

373 




EXTRAXCE TO OLD FAITHFUL NATURE TRAIL, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 

The sign at the left gives an introduction to the Nature Trail similar to Doctor Lutz's "The Spirit of the 
Nature TraU." On the back of this sign, where it can be seen by persons leaving the Nature Trail, is infor- 
mation telling visitors of the other two important trails in this region. In the enclosure just beyond the 
log bridge is a very rare moon- wort fern (Botrychium) 



374 




EIGHT KINDS OF LICHENS ARE FOUND ON THIS SHADED ROCK ON OLD 
FAITHFUL NATURE TRAIL, YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 




i 



SMALL RUSTIC SIGNS ASKING VISITORS TO HELP PROTECT THE FLOWERS 
ARE HUNG OVER YELLOWSTONE TRAILS 
We find it is much more effective to enlist the cooperation of visitors than to attempt to prohibit the picking 
of flowers 



376 



77/ ys STILL-OPEN HO AD 



377 



Large National Parks arc fine but we 
need more State Parks and we need, 
badly need, County Parks — not merely 
country clubs for the public where 
those who wish may play golf or tennis 
or may swim or may eat a picnic lunch, 
although each of these things is or may 
be good, but real samples of God's 
out-of-doors that you and I and our 
butcher and baker may learn to appre- 
ciate and love and, because we do 
appreciate and love them, to protect. 

There is one of the difficulties, not 
insurmountable but real. Who is to 
teach and how is it to be done? 

Recently I was one of those attend- 
ing the President's National Confer- 
ence on Out-door Recreation who were 
amused by the wit of a representative 
of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor. He expressed approval of 
refuges for blue jays but pleaded for 
parks where "blue jeans" might rest. 
The point is well taken but we should 
do more. The finest radio set in the 
world would be no more than a parlor 
ornament if we did not know how to 
use it; and, to those who know, an 
open space is not merely a chance to 
breathe fresh air and to stretch out on 
the grass. It is Nature, even though 
it be but a vacant lot ; it is much more 
of Nature if it be a bit of natural woods 
and fields ; and Nature becomes a part 
of and fills out our lives if some friend 
introduces us to her and we become 
really acquainted. 

A few years ago the slogan of our 
National Parks was "Our National 
Playgrounds" and that was good, for 
play is important. Now the policy of 
our National Parks has become in part 
educational, with Yosemite and Yellow- 
stone apparently taking the lead, and 
that is fine. No grander, no more 
inspiring, no more instructive exhibits 
can be imagined than those in the 



great out-door nmseums, our National 
Parks. The exhibits merely need 
labels telling about them in language 
that everyone can understand. 

But, if National Parks, why not 
State Parks; and, so that all of us, 
even the "blue jeans," may go at any 
time, why not County Parks? The hills 
in a County Park may not be moun- 
tains but, still, they were fashioned by 
the same forces; the trees may not be 
so large and so numerous but their 
stories are just as fascinating; the 
birds are just as beautiful and sing as 
sweetly; and, once you learn to know 
him, a chipmunk is as interesting as an 
elk and much more approachable. 

Whitman sang of "the open road" 
because he knew something of these 
things; Merz gave us "a song of the 
once-open road" because many of the 
people on it do not know, but it is not 
their fault. It is not their fault partly 
because there are so few places where 
they can come into real contact with 
nature without violating trespass laws 
and partly because it is not easy for 
those who catch but glimpses of 
nature in their busy lives to learn the 
really interesting features of the great, 
complex out-of-doors. 

Teachers about nature have a great 
responsibility and, if plenty of the 
right kind of public parks are provided, 
these teachers will have great oppor- 
tunities. There will be places for both 
"blue jays" and "blue jeans" and 
the two will enjoy themselves and each 
other. Conservation will not need so 
much preaching, because more will 
practise it, knowing what it is all about. 
Far from being destroyers of nature or 
even ignorers, automobilists as a class 
will be protectors of nature because 
they are not ignorant. After all, they 
are human beings even though they 
do not ride in our car; and, if thej^ are 




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380 



NATURAL HISTORY 



ignorant of nature and of how to treat 
it, that is because no one has taught 
them and there are few chances for 
them to teach themselves. 

We can still sing the song of the 
open road if our eyes are open and if 
there are places where we can use our 
eyes; but trespass notices, however 
inconvenient, should be respected. 
Let us, the public, have many con- 
veniently located bits of nature that 
belong to us. Let us, nature-lovers, 
see to it that there is an abundance of 
out-door museums in which the ex- 
hibits are natural because they are 
nature and in which these exhibits are 
so labeled that the public, of which we 
are really a part, may understand and 
be interested. 

The American Museum's Station for 
the Study of Insects tried an experi- 
ment along this line three summers ago 
and the success of the experiment far 
exceeded even our expectations. We 
told people about nature when these 
people were out-of-doors where they 
could see living specimens in natural 
environments. I do not mean per- 
sonally conducted field trips. On 
them, one who knows can benefit, at 
most, only fifteen or twenty people 
at one time. We label our museum 
exhibition halls so that visitors do not 
need a guide. Why not follow the 
same method where Nature provides 
the exhibits? The newspapers described 
our "Nature Trails" in the Harri- 
man State Park, near Tuxedo, New 
York, as an "insect zoo" and that was 
a rather fitting name for one section 
of the trails. On the other hand, it told 
only a part of the truth, for we believe 
that, to understand and thoroughly 
appreciate the lives that insects live, 
you must not only see live insects but 
you must know about their environ- 
ment, about the plants upon which they 



feed, and about the animals that feed 
upon them; you must sense the light, 
the shade, the moisture, and the 
temperature that go to make up the 
habitat of the insect. So, at the Sta- 
tion for the Study of Insects, where we 
made our first Nature Trails, we told 
our visitors about the plants, for ex- 
ample, and, if the visitor was interested 
in plants, we had something for him 
even though he was not interested in 
insects. 

We told about these things partly by 
word-of-mouth but largely by labels, 
and we tried to make these labels as 
human as every-day conversation. 

There were two Nature Trails, each 
about half a mile long and roughly 
circular. One was called the "Train- 
ing Trail" and the other the "Testing 
Trail." Information was given on the 
Training Trail, but on the Testing 
Trail there were fifty numbered ques- 
tions about the plants and the insects 
along its sides. If a visitor wished to 
"test" himself he could write his 
answers to these questions, bring them 
to us, and we would tell him his score, 
or he could score himself by use of the 
list of answers posted at the end of the 
"Testing Trail." Also, we had com- 
petitions both between individuals and 
between teams. 

Instead of risking confusion by 
attempting to tell something about 
everything that grew along the Train- 
ing Trail (and, for the most part, we 
included only those things that natur- 
ally grew there) we picked out just a 
few of the easy and most interesting 
things, especially things concerning 
which there is popular misinformation. 
Also, we largel}^ avoided technicalities. 
For example, it is a technical matter to 
distinguish the various oaks of the 
black-oak group and even the special- 
ists do not agree. So we merely said 



THE STILL-OPEN ROAD 



381 



that incmbcrs of the Ijlack-oak }>;r()Ui) 
can be recognized as belonj^ing to that 
group by their having a tiny bristle at 
the end of each principal lobe of a leaf, 
while members of the white-oak group 
have no such bristles. We told that 
the acorns of the black-oak group are 
not palatable, while those of the white- 
oak group are more or less so; that 
man}" insects recognize the difference 
between these groups and feed onlj^ on 
the leaves of one or the other ; and so on. 

"We tried to teach some underlying 
principles of conservation by showing 
that, if a flower is picked, the plant's 
children (its seeds) are killed; that, 
given a chance, a small tree would 
grow to become a large one; and that 
plants, the chestnut for example, suffer 
from diseases just as we do. (Ameri- 
can chestnuts have been killed by a 
fungous disease and not by insects.) 
We asked people to benefit themselves 
and others by not needlessly stepping 
on or breaking a living plant. This 
they did in a mighty fine way and, as a 
result, although thousands tramped 
our Training Trail, it is at no place 
where it really was a trail (and not a 
road) more than eighteen inches wide. 
Only a few not-yet-knowing people — 
possibly hopelessly ignorant or selfish — 
picked the flowers that others wished 
to see or dropped paper where it would 
mar the beauty of God's out-of-doors, 
which it is our right to enjoy unspoiled. 

The underlying idea of our labels, 
the "spirit of the Training Trail," was 
that "a friend is taking a walk with 
3'ou and pointing out interesting 
things." This friend, the label we put 
there, when showing the winding tunnel 
inside a leaf where a tiny caterpillar 
spent its life feeding and growing, 
quoted Lowell: 

There's never a blade nor leaf too mean 
To be some happy creature's palace. 



and, as the visitor walked by the side 
of the Ijabbling Wild Cat Brook, one 
of these friendly labels reminded of 

Stevenson's 

There's no music Uke a little river's. It 
plays the same tune (and that's the favourite) 
over and over again, and yet docs not weary 
of it like men fiddlers. It takes the mind out 
of doors; and, though we should be grateful 
for good houses, there is, after all, no house 
like God's out-of-doors. And lastly, sir, it 
q uiets a man dowTi Uke saying his prayers. 

We put these Trails where we did 
so that they might be convenient of 
access to the automobiling public, 
but especially that they would be 
relativeh^ near the many organization 
(scouting, charity, and industrial) 
camps in the Interstate Park. Do you 
realize that thousands of children from 
cities and towns are camped there, 
each for a week or more, everj^ summer? 
It is not enough to lecture about nature 
to these children during the winter 
when they are seated as though in 
school and with nothing to look at but 
pictures. A fine city museum, no 
matter how realisticaUy its exhibits 
imitate nature, does not fully meet 
their needs. We cannot help them 
much by writing magazine articles and 
books. The children are in the Park 
every summer with nature all about 
them. It is the time and the place to 
tell them what they are keen to know. 

The better of these camps have 
"nature councillors" and exceedingly 
useful camp museums, the latter pre- 
ferably made hy the children them- 
selves. The Nature Trail' is an addi- 
tional help. Some have called it an 
"outdoor museum" but it is not that, 
for a museum is a place to which speci- 
mens are brought and in which they 
are stored. The nature-trail idea is to ' 
leave things where they are but to label 
them with interesting facts. If inter- 
esting facts are given first, less interest- 



382 



NATURAL HISTORY 



ing ones will then ho more readily 
grasped. , Is that not true in your own 
case? After you have learned that a 
toad catches insects for food, that its 
young are tadpoles living in water, and 
that, though warty itself, it tloes not 
give warts to people who touch it, you 
will probably care to know that the 
scientific name of toads is Bufo, that 
the species j-ou are looking at is Bufo 
americana and that it differs from 
another native toad, Bufo Jouieri, 
in such and such characters. At any 
rate, on our Training Trail the labeling 
was not a catalogue of species but a 
personal conversation. 

If there is but one Xature Trail in a 
large region, something is gained, since 
it is possible for people to come from a 
distance to see it; but that is not 
"taking nature lore to the public"; 
it is asking people to come to nature 
lore. So, it was extremely gratifying 
to see with what enthusiasm various 
camps took up the idea and made 
Nature Trails of their own. The 
children, in doing this work, learned 
more than they could possibly do b}^ 
merely studying a trail that some one 
else had made. Fmthermore, they 
had a sense of proprietorship; that 
trail was theirs ; they had become part 



owners of nature and their fathers and 
mothers and all theii- relatives and all 
their other fiiends were welcome to 
come and share in the joy of knowing 
ai)out out-of-doors. Thus our half- 
mile of Training Trail grew in a season 
to more than ten miles and this fact, 
even more than the kind verbal com- 
ments of our visitors, made us think 
that our work was worth while. Xow 
there are hundreds of such Trails and 
on three continents. 

Why not? ^Yhy should there not be 
written or printed ''friends" in ever}' 
city, county, state, and national park 
telling people something concerning 
the things there — not just the names 
of them but something that appeals? 
AATiy should not the camping grounds 
of automobile tourists be made more 
than mere overnight stopping places? 
If a commercial concern thinks it is 
worth while to put its slogan where 3-0U 
cannot help but see it while you eat 
your wa^'side lunch, why is it not the 
duty of those who know about nature 
to meet you there and by neat, chatty 
labels tell j'Ou something worth while? 
That would be taking nature lore 
to you and to others of that vast 
company of people we call "the public," 
and it would be well worth while. 



The New Projection Planetarium 



By W. J. LUYTEN 

of the Harvard College Observatory 



WITH its plans for installin<>; 
Olio of the Zeiss projection 
planotariums in its proposed 
Astronomical Hall, the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History has again 
taken the lead in bringing before the 
American public one of the most 
amazing triumphs of science and en- 
gineering, and in offering them some- 
thing of great educational value. This 
" Miracle of Jena," as Professor Strom- 
gren, director of the Copenhagen 
Observatory, aptly called the plane- 
tarium, at once a school, a theater, and 
a moving picture, presents to the 
interested public not only the whole 
great field of astronomy, but the whole 
conception of the universe as revealed 
by many centuries of painstaking 
labor and study of the astronomers, and 
it does this in simple, comprehensive 
form, in the silent language of the stars 
themselves. 

A planetarium is, by its name, an 
instrument which shows the motion of 
the planets and their satellites around 
the sun, and portrays the mechanism 
of the solar system . Ever since the time 
of Copernicus, or rather, since the 
acquiescence of the authority of the 
Church (which first burned Giordano 
Bruno at the stake and made Galileo 
recant his heresy) planetariums have 
been constructed to show how the 
planets revolve around the sun, and 
the moons around their respective 
planets, thus explaining the phases of 
the moon, and of Venus and Mercur3^ 
Hu3"gens, in Holland, was known to 
have made one of the first relatively 
accurate machines. Charles Boyle, 



nephew of the famous physicist, the 
fourth Earl of Orrery, had a very com- 
plicated planetarium constructed for 
him, which has since been named for 
him, thus giving rise to the word 
"orrery," now often used to describe a 
planetarium. One of the most cele- 
brated planetariums of recent times is 
that of Eyse Eyzinga, in Franeker, 
Holland. But undoubtedly the most 
elaborate and most successful of them 
all is the great Zeiss planetarium at 
Munich, which is in a room with black 
walls in which are many very small 
holes, indicating the stars. Although 
this instrument was the best in 
existence, it was universally agreed 
that it was not satisfactor}^, because it 
portrayed the solar system as an ob- 
server on the outside would see it. So 
the Carl Zeiss Corporation set to work 
to design an apparatus which would 
show the universe as we really see it, 
from the inside, avoiding the difficulty 
of having to imagine ourselves on the 
outside of the universe. And this was 
no easy task, as you can well imagine. 
It took Dr. Ing. W. Bauersfeld, the 
inventor of the present planetarium, 
twelve years of calculation and experi- 
mentation, and five years of construc- 
tion before he could produce the first 
projection planetarium. 

Let us consider what such an instru- 
ment must do: It must show the sky 
in exactly the same flattened form as 
we actually see it; it must give this 
sky the same dark-blue color, and above 
all it must convej' to us the impression 
that it is infinitely far off. The several 
thousand stars which the human eye 



383 



384 



NATURAL HISTORY 




The 2feiss Planetarium in Prinzessinnen CJarten in the old university town of Jena 



can see must be depicted with truthful 
accuracy: they must be shown to rise 
and set in the same manner as we 
observe them to do. The sun, moon, 
and planets must be shown moving 
along the celestial sphere in their 
appointed places; they must show the 
same phases and the same changes in 
brightness as they do in the sky. But 
when the new instrument was ready 
for action, it did fulfill all these require- 
ments, in fact, it far surpassed expecta- 
tions, even those of the inventor, — its 
success was immediate and great. The 
original instrument, made for the Na- 
tional Museum in Munich had a hemi- 
spherical dome about thirty feet in 
diameter, but subsequent domes were 
quickly increased in size, until at 
present they are built seventy-five feet 
or more in diameter. The one in Diissel- 
dorf has a diameter of ninety feet. 

In the center of this enormous dome 
stands the projection apparatus, con- 
taining in embrj^o the whole visible 



universe. It consists of a large glass 
cylinder carrying a large knob at each 
end. These knobs contain a replica of 
the actual sky, the stars, planets, 
Milky Way and other objects of 
interest. The glass cylinder repre- 
sents the power behind the throne, it is 
the brain of the universe, it directs the 
destiny of the firmament, and decides 
whether we shall see the sky as it is 
now or as it was in the remote past or 
as it will be in the distant future. 
Each of these knobs has several lenses 
on its surface, 39 in all; behind these 
are lantern slides carrsdng the stars on 
them. By lighting a powerful electric 
lamp in the center of each spherical 
arrangement of projectors, behind 
these lantern .slides, the stars, tiny 
little holes in the black film of the 
lantern slides, seem to emit Ught, and 
by means of the lenses images of them 
are projected on the dome. The new 
projection apparatus contains about 
5400 such stars, and the greatest care 



THE NEW PUOJECTION PLANETARIUM 



385 



has been taken that no sH<;ht det'eets 
in the lantern shcles should f>;ive rise to 
"new" stars, — spurious objects which 
do not actually exist in the sky. The 
size of the star images on the original 



all across tht; sky. Thirty-two other 
projectors can, if so desired, be lit, in 
order to show the names of the con- 
stellations. In the glass cylinders 
between the knobs are housed the 




The Zeiss Projection Planetarium, the great invention which is installed in the center of 
the dome at Jena 



slides is such that the artificial sky 
shows the stars in the exact proportion 
of their brightness. For this reason 
Sirius, the Dog Star, has been given a 
special projector, in order that it may, 
as in reality, appear as the brightest 
star in the firmament. In addition to 
the projectors for the stars there are 
seventeen lenses which are made to 
show the well-known star clusters and 
nebulae, such as the Pleiades, the 
Beehive cluster, and the great nebula 
in Orion. Two projectors, one on each 
knob produce the Milky Way in the 
sky, giving an almost exact replica of 
this faint, hazy, band which extends 



projection apparatus which produce 
the sun, the moon with all its phases. 
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and 
Saturn, while at various places, not used 
otherwise, minor refinements are 
located. 

Such are the complicated technical 
details of the Zeiss projection plane- 
tarium; but when the machine is in 
operation these details become lost, 
and the spectators see only the realistic 
and thrilling spectacle of the infinite 
and eternally moving universe. ^Vhen 
first the visitors to the planetarium 
enter the dome and take their seats as 
near the center as possible, thej^ see 



THE XEW PROJECTION PLANETARIUM 



387 



notliiiiii l)ut a l)i-i.!;lit ly illiimiiialcd 
\vhit(' surfarc, the inside of the (Ionic 
(iraclually the lif>;lits are dininied, and, 
as the eyes become more and more 
aceustomed to (hirkness, the now jxm- 
fectly dark sky seems to take on that 
peculiar dark-blue hue which our eyes 
see in the real night sky. Then 
suddenly, the artificial sky is lit, and 
the whole audience whether trained 
astronomers who know what to expect, 
or school chikh-en eagerly awaiting the 
unexpected, cannot suppress an in- 
voluntary exclamation of delight, and 
for a few moments they sit spellbound, 
fascinated by the twinkling multitudes 
of stars. They feel as though they had 
been transplanted to a high mountain- 
top, and, gazing at the lucid beauty of 
a clear night unspoiled by disturbing 
moonlight, suddenly realize their in- 
significance in the infinity of sur- 
rounding space. Then the machinery 
is set in motion, and the firmament 
begins to turn, stars rise and set, and 
the spectators cannot help but feel the 
silent music of the spheres. The Milky 
Way appears in all its splendor, and 
some sensitive eyes already see some of 
the larger spiral nebulae, and other far 
distant objects. Again the picture 
changes at a command of the operator 
of the projection apparatus, who, 
for the time being has become the 
Directing Power of the Universe. The 
sun, moon, and planets appear, the 
rotation of the earth carries them 
across the sky, — and a day passes in 
four and a half minutes. By a change 
of gear even this can be speeded up, 
and a da^^ be made to pass in less than 
one minute, a j'ear in five minutes, a 
century in a few hours. But again the 
universe is tampered with, — the clock 
is put back several thousand years, and 
the sky is shown as it was seen by the 
earh' Chinese observers, by Ptolemy, 



1)\' ( "opcrnicus, and by Galileo. It is 
cxcii possible to produce the conjunc- 
tion of l)right planets which formed the 
star of Bethlehem, and it is shown how, 
in the course of 26,000 years, the North 
Pole of the heavens changes place 
among the stars, deserting our pres- 
ent Pole Star, approaching Vega in 
12,000 years, and returning again 
to its point of departure in a "great 
year," 26,000 ordinary years. By 
means of special devices, a comet may 
be made to appear, and eclipses of the 
sun and moon be made to occur. 

In short, so great is the spell which 
a demonstration of the planetarium 
casts over the spectator, that he can- 
not help feeling the lure of astronomy, 
he cannot help realizing that he has for 
a moment, at least, peered into the 
mysteries of the infinite. It is this lure 
of astronomy, inherent in all human 
beings, which has made possible the 
erection through private endowment of 
so many first-class observatories in this 
country, and which in turn is satisfied 
by opening the principal observatories 
to the public as often as work permits. 
But, as all astronomers know, only too 
often do interested people have to be 
turned way, simply because the sky 
will not oblige. With a cloudy sky, an 
observatory can do nothing. The 
planetarium does not mind such a little 
thing as a cloudy sky. It can be 
operated at any time, under any 
weather conditions and it will never 
disappoint its visitors. Furthermore 
it will never be necessary to resort to 
such desperate means as cutting an 
image of Saturn with its rings out of 
cardboard, affixing it to a distant wall, 
and turning the telescope on it in order 
that a royal visitor may not be dis- 
appointed by cloudy weather, as once 
happened in an English observatory. 

For educational purposes, as well, a 




In Diisseldorf , — the largest planetarium dome yet constructed 




In the capital city, — Berlin 



VARIOUS TYPES OF DOMES 
FOR THE ZEISS 



388 




In the great railroad center, — Leipzig 




In the art center, — Dresden 



IN USE IN GERMANY 
PLANETARIUM 



389 



390 



NATURAL HISTORY 



projection planetarium is invaluable. 
In a few hours more can be shown with 
it and more attained in the way of 
explaining difficulties, than could be 
done b}" several months of lecturing. 
It is not surprising, therefore, to hear 
that more than a score of cities in 
Europe have already obtained one or 
ordered one. Munich, in Bavaria, was 
the first, but Jena, Dlisseldorf, Berlin, 
Hamburg, Dresden, and many other 
cities in Germany soon followed. And 
the great success may be measured by 
the fact that, in less than two years, the 
planetarium in Munich attracted more 
than 80,000 \'isitors. 

In this country the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History took the lead 
very early when Dr. Clyde Fisher, 
director of the astronomical depart- 
ment of the Museum, went to Germany 
to study the construction of the plane- 
tarium with the express \dew of having 
it adopted by the American Museum. 
Doctor Fisher, in announcing the cam- 
paign for financing the new astronomy 



building, said that he expected the new 
planetarium would probably attract 
more people to the Museum than all 
other features combined. The new 
Astronomical Hall which has been 
planned for the Museum, and which is 
to cost 83,000,000, will be a five-story 
building with the dome for the plane- 
tarium as the crown of the building. 
The plans have been fully drawn, but 
construction has been postponed pend- 
ing the completion of the endowment 
drive. 

Other American cities seem to have 
been more successful in their plans for 
the erection of a planetarium. In 
Chicago the project has definitely been 
started with the offer of Julius Rosen- 
wald to finance it, in Seattle Louis C. 
Frye, millionaire packer, has already 
opened negotiations with the Zeiss 
company. And of course the rivals of 
the Pacific Coast — San Francisco and 
Los Angeles — are both looking for- 
ward to a speedy erection of a plane- 
tarium. 



An Opportunity 



THE interest in astronomy is 
surely increasing, and a hopeful 
sign it is. A generation or two 
ago the subject was included in the 
curriculum of many secondary^ schools 
as well as of colleges and universities, 
but it was gradually dropped, without 
much doubt, on account of the feeling 
that even an elementary knowledge of 
the subject involved too much difficult 
mathematics. In the last few years, 
however, either in spite of the mathe- 
matical bugbear or because some of the 
technical part has been eliminated from 
astronomy as a cultural subject, the 
pendulum seems to be swinging the 
other way. One of the outstanding bits 



of evidence that there is a genuine and 
widespread interest in the subject is 
shown in the organization this spring 
of a popular astronomical society in 
New York City. Several of the leading 
newspapers gave favorable editorial 
notice of the organization meeting, 
and the movement was encouraged 
and helped by the scientific magazines. 
As a result Prof. Henry Fairfield 
Osborn welcomed 500 people to the 
first meeting which was held at the 
American Museum, and within six 
weeks the new society could boast of 
more than 600 members, — probably 
already the largest astronomical so- 
ciety in the world. Its official name is 



NOTES 



391 



"The Amateur Astronomers Associa- 
tion," and the American Museum of 
Natural History is its heacl(]uarteis. 

The members of this new society, as 
well as thousands of people throughout 
the country, are intensely interested in 
the plans of the American Museum of 
Natural History to build an astronomi- 
cal hall, — this structure to be the 
central part of the series of buildings 
of that institution as outlined in the 
Astronomical Number (July-August, 
1926) of Natural History. It is most 
fitting and proper that the astronomical 
department, which shall set forth the 
most ancient, the fundamental science, 
should occupy the hub of this great 
natural history museum. 

A Museum of Astronomy equipped 
with exhibits, with interesting and 
lucid labels, and with apparatus that 
will work before the visitors' eyes, the 
climax of the latter being a Zeiss 
Projection Planetarium, will have an 
irresistible appeal to the public. Every 



one loves the beauty of and is interested 
in the movements of the heavenly 
bodies, and desires to know about the 
origin of our planet and of our solar 
system. 

What field of science offers so great 
an opportunity to enjo}^ majestic 
beauty? What subject helps us more 
in our natural struggle to comprehend 
the infinite? What science does most 
to lift one out of the petty things of 
everyday life, thus allowing the soul to 
expand? 

Consequently, what greater educa- 
tional project can be conceived than 
building and installing the proposed 
astronomical hall at the American 
Museum of Natural History? At 
present, the greatest thing of the kind 
is in Munich. What an opportunity 
for some great philanthropist to estab- 
lish in our metropolis an institution 
whose educational and inspirational 
effect upon the people of America 
would be immeasurable ! 

— Clyde Fisher. 



NOTES 



SCHOOL SERVICE 

Educational Films from Lapland. — Mr. 
George D. Pratt, a Trustee of the American 
Museum and chairman of its committee on 
education, \asited Sweden and Norway this 
summer where he took both still and motion 
pictures of the countrj'- and its people These 
are to be used in the Museum's work with 
pubUc schools. Mr. Pratt also procured from 
the Swedish Film Industry a copy of the film 
"In the Country of the Mountain People." 
This film, which teUs the story of summer 
and winter hfe in Lapland, was especially 
taken for the schools of Sweden. 

Copper Mining in Motion Pictures. — 
Through the interest of Mr. George D. Pratt, 
the motion picture hbrary of the school service 
department has been enriched by the gift 
from the Kennecott Copper Corporation, 120 
Broadway, New York City, of ten reels of 
motion pictures on "The Story of Copper.'' 
This film shows different methods of mining 



copper in the United States and Alaska, as 
well as the processes of milling, smelting, and 
refining. These pictures are for the use of the 
public schools of New York City, and will be 
shown in the Museum auditorium. 

The Consolidated Gas Company op 
New York has deposited at the American 
Museum four reels of motion-picture film 
showing the history and manufacture of 
illuminating gas and the uses of gas in modern 
industry and in the home. These films are for 
free distribution to the public schools of New 
York City. 

The Department of Plant and Struc- 
tures has also deposited with the Museum 
a three-reel film which shows the work of 
various city departments from the Board of 
Alderman in session to street cleaning. These 
films are especially adaptable for civics classes 
and wiU be lent free of charge to any public 
schools in New York City. 

Mr. Ernest Thompson Seton' conducted 



392 



NATURAL HISTORY 



an expedition through several of the western 
states for the purpose of studying sign- 
language, dances, and other customs among 
the Indians. Other members of the party were 
Dr. and Mrs. Clyde Fisher and Mr. Herman A 
Sievers of the American Museum; Mr. 
George M. Will, archgeologist, and Mr. Clell 
Gannon, artist, of Bismarck; Mr. Russell 
Reid. naturalist of the North Dakota State 
Museum; Mr. Carol Stryker, curator of the 
Staten Island Museum; Mrs. Julia M. But- 
tree, secretary of the expedition; and Miss 
Helen E. Saunders, biologist, Girl's Commer- 
cial High School, BrookhTi, New York. 

Doctor Fisher, with his Akeley camera, 
secured some excellent motion pictures of 
sign-talking, with translation, among the 
Sioux on the Standing Rock Reservation at 
Fort Yates, North Dakota, and of a number 
of dances at Taos, Santa Clara, Tesuque, and 
other pueblos in New Mexico. He also made 
several hundred still photographs of various 
places of interest in the west, including some 
of the Petrified Forests, the Painted Desert, 
and the Grand Ca^on in Arizona. 

Can'ad.'V in Motion Picture.s. — Following 
a visit to the Candian Government Motion 
Picture Bureau, Mrs. Grace Fisher Piamsey 
secured twelve films portraying the industries 
and scenic features of Canada. These are for 
distribution to schools, churches, or civic 
organizations in New York City and vicinity. 

MoTiox Fii-MS OF Life in Mediterranean 
PoRT.s. — Mr. Philip Pratt, who with Mr. 
John Foley visited Mediterranean ports this 
summer to obtain motion pictures for the 
Museum, has recently returned. He reports 
that as a result of three montLs' study of the 
countries bordering the eastern end of the 
Mediterranean Sea, he was able to secure a 
series of pictures in Syria, Palestine, and the 
delta of the NUe. These three new films 
of scenes from the every-day activities of the 
people add new interest to the growing collec- 
tion of travel pictures at the American Mu- 
seum. 

In Egypt Mr. Pratt concentrated on the 
delta countrj^ and included many scenes of 
rural and town life, as well as the hfe of Cairo 
and the port of Alexandria. In Palestine the 
towns of JafTa, Haifa, Jerusalem, Bethlehem, 
Nablis, and Nazareth, as weU as others less 
known, were visited, and a pictorial record of 
the mode of life in that country was made. 
Another phase of eastern hfe was studied in 
Damascus and Beyrouth, and other Syrian 



towns. Special attention was given to child- 
life in these countries, and msLny of the pic- 
tures show them at work and play. In addi- 
tion to the motion pictures, Mr. Pratt took 
several thousand still photographs. 

Mr. Pratt received every possible assistance 
for the execution of his work through the gen- 
erous cooperation of the American Export 
Steamship Company. 

A FEW NOTABLE BOOK.S OX NATURE 
EDUCATION AND THE MUSEUM 

Through Field and Woodland. By Alice Rich 
Northrop. Edited by Oliver Perry Medsger. 
G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1925. As indicated 
by the title, this book is a companion for 
nature students, and it covers nearly all 
phases of natural history-. Written by the 
founder of the School Nature League, it 
was left unfinished at her untimely death. 
To finish the work, and to arrange the 
material, no better person could have been 
engaged than Mr. Medsger, the thorough- 
going and dependable aU-round naturaUst 
and teacher of experience. The editor is 
head of the natural science department in 
Lincoln High School, Jersey City, N. J. 
Containing more than 500 pages and 200 
illustrations, a goodly number of the latter 
being plates in color, the book is all it pur- 
ports to be, — a veritable vade mecum for 
students of nature. 

First Lessons in Nature Study. By Edith M. 
Patch. MacmiUan, 1926. Not many 
technical scientists preserve the point of 
view of childhood and youth, but the author 
of this book is an outstanding exception for 
whom w^e are grateful. Miss Patch is the 
only woman who holds the position of 
State Entomologist in America, and she is 
also a member of the teaching staff of the 
University of Maine. Her earher books, 
Dame Bug and Her Babies, Hexapod Stories, 
and others have shown that she can write 
interesting untechnical stories that are accu- 
rate as natural historv'. This work is dedi- 
cated to the dean of nature study teachers in 
America, Anna Botsford Comstock, and 
is worthy of such inscription. It is a book 
of nearly 300 pages, divided into 15 
chapters, and will be found most helpful 
to both pupils and teachers. 

Nature Guiding. By WiUiam Gould Vinal. 
Comstock Publishing Co., 1926. Doctor 
Vinal was formerly professor of nature 
study in the Rhode Island College of Educa- 



NOTES 



393 



tion; he is now a member of the staff of 
New York State College of Forestry. This 
book of about 700 pages was prepared for 
that great American institution, the Camp. 
The author is finely equii)i)ecl both by ex- 
perience and training for the undertaking, 
and he has brought together a wealth of 
material of great value to the camper and 
to the nature counsellor. 

Nature-Study, Part 1. By Charles Lincoln 
Edwards. Hesperian Press, Los Angeles, 
1924. Doctor Edwards has been director 
of nature-study of the Los Angeles City 
Schools for more than a dozen years. Previ- 
ous to his present work, he was a university 
professor for twenty j'ears. He believes 
that any one who desires knowledge of 
nature should have all that the university 
offers, but stripped of the technical terms 
which so often conceal, rather than reveal, 
the truth. Here is a book of more than 
200 pages, containing chapters on "Spirit 
of Nature-Study," "Sense Education," 
"Plants and Animals of the Home Neigh- 
borhood," "Mammals of the Circus," 
"Seaside Life," etc., which is especially 
adapted to the Pacific coast and our 
western country. 

Manual for Small Museums. By Laurence 
Vail Coleman. G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1927. 
This book was written for those who con- 
template founding a museum, or for those 
who wish to stimulate the growth of small 
museums already in existence. The author 
says that he was prompted to write it by 
his "observation of the rapid growth of 
interest in museum-making and the 
hindrance or defeat of many efforts through 
lack of information." 

Much of the material was gathered by the 
author in the course of travels over 15,000 
miles from the northern to the southern 
border of the country and from coast to 
coast, since he has been Executive Secretary 
of the American Association of Museums. 
Without doubt Mr. Coleman has visited 
more American museums than any one 
before. That he has really investigated them 
and interpreted their work is abundantly 
shown by the content of the chapters. 

The book contains 400 pages and is illus- 
trated with 32 plate-s. Every phase of mu- 
seum acti\aty and every branch of museum 
administration are treated. In the introduc- 
tion the museum field and the purpose of 
museimas are discussed. The first part of the 



main book is devoted to organization, the 
second to administration, the third to cura- 
torial work, the fourth to educational work, 
the fifth to research, the sixth to building, and 
the conclusion to the outlook, and then follow 
a number of important appendices. 

No one is so well equipped to write a book 
of this nature, and we believe it will be 
found indispensable to those for whom it 
was prepared. — C. F. 

ASTRONOMY 

The unusual group of lakge sunspots 
visible most plainly September 15 to 17 was 
the principal subject of discussion before the 
large audience that convened at the American 
Museum of Natural History on the occasion 
of the first autumn meeting of the Amateur 
Astronomers Association. Mr. Harry Law- 
ton, one of the members, showed a lantern 
slide of a superb photograph, made on the 
day of the meeting, by Mr.WiUiam Henry, of a 
tremendous group of spots, the three largest of 
which averaged 28,000 miles in diameter. 
The whole group covered an area of about 
160,000 miles long by 85,000 miles wide. Mr. 
Lawton discussed the correlation of sunspots 
with auroral displays and their possible rela- 
tion with the meteorology of the earth. 

Dr. Clyde Fisher, president, invited the 
members to visit the Museum on Friday, 
September 16, and Saturday, September 17, 
to view these spots through the Brashear 
telescope. Many persons responded to the 
invitation. The sky was free of clouds on 
both days, and the spots showed with startling 
clearness. 

Astronomy for Girl Scout Leaders. — 
Dr. Clyde Fisher gave an astronomy lecture 
in the Girl Scouts National Training course for 
leaders at Camp Macy, near BriarcUff Manor, 
New York, on September 22. Two hundred 
and sixty-four Girl Scout leaders from all parts 
of the United States were present. Doctor 
Fisher's lecture was on the subject of the 
evening sky, and was prefaced by a descrip- 
tion of the Zeiss Projection Planetarium and 
the Astronomical plans of the American Mu- 
seimi. 

TESTIMONIAL OF ESTEEM TO 
HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN 

In celebration of the seventieth birthday of 
Henry Fairfield Osborn, August 8, 1927, his 
many friends and coworkers from all parts of 
the world united in a testimonial of affection 
and esteem by pi-esenting to him a unique and 




QUEEN ANNE SILVER-GILT CUP AND COVER 
Made by Thomas Folkenham in 1711 
This cup was presented to Prof. Henry Fairfield Osborn by his friends as a token of 
affection and esteem, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, August 8, 1927. The cup is 
mounted on an ebony plinth with silver-gilt inscription plate by Freeman of London 



394 



NOTES 



395 



beautiful cup and a set of engrossed resolu- 
tions. The cup, of Queen Anne silver, was 
made by Thomas Folkenham in 1711. The 
resolutions bore more than 500 signatures 
inscribed on individual cards of vellum, which 
were assembled and mounted with the greet 
ing in an illuminated gift book, designed and 
executed by WiUiam E. Belanske. 

Because of Professor Osborn's proposed 
trip to the west and absence from the city on 
August 8, the presentation was made at his 
home in Garrison on July 28 by a subcommit- 
tee. At the same time Professor and Mrs. 
Osborn were invited to be the guests of honor 
at a reception to be held September 29, when 
the surplus of the funds raised by Professor 
Osborn's friends — amounting to more than 
$7,000 — will be presented to Professor Osborn 
for his research work. All arrangements for 
this celebration are in the hands of a commit- 
tee of which Dr. Frank M. Chapman is chair- 
man and Dr. William K. Gregory is secretary. 

The birthday resolution follows: 

TO HENRY FAIRFIELD OSBORN 
August 8, 1927 

On your seventieth birthday your colleagues 
and friends join to salute you, to congratulate 
you and to express their delight in finding you 
radiant in health and spirit, joyously carrying 
on your life work. 

We desire to thank you most heartily for 
your leadership' in many fields. Drawing 
around you in the American Museum of 
Natural History a staff of explorers and co- 
workers who are animated by your spirit and 
who gladly enroll under your banner, you have 
penetrated to the uttermost parts of the earth 
and have brought its natural history treasures 
to the Museum. To your unceasing labors, as 
Curator of Pateontologj^ and as President, we 
owe the series of unique exhibition halls at the 
Museum, where countless visitors pass before 
an impressive panorama of extinct life. 
Thanks to your sympathetic understanding, 
the school-children of New York and their 
teachers enjoy all the educational and emanci- 
pative opportunities of the Museum's School 
Service. And in the near future the Museum 
will also display still other imposing evidences 
of your constructive genius when the Roosevelt 
Memorial Hall and the Akeley African Hall 
take their places in the assemblage of build- 
ings devoted to science and education. 

We desire also to express our admiration of 
the creative, tireless spirit which, during a 



life crowded with administrative work, has 
I)roduced a series of publications, covering 
many hundreds of titles and ranging from 
tjrief articles in Natural History to the 
great monographs on the titanotheres and the 
proboscideans, now in press. 

We congratulate you upon the many distin- 
guished honors that the highest scientific 
tribunals of the world have awarded to you in 
recognition of your services to science. We 
join the great company of your readers in 
acknowledging our indebtedness for such 
classic works as "From the Greeks to Dar- 
win," "The Origin and Evolution of Life," 
"The Age of Mammals," and "Men of the 
Old Stone Age." 

Princeton University will not forget your 
services when in 1877 as co-leader with your 
life-long friend Professor W. B. Scott, you 
led the first Princeton expedition to the fossil 
fields of Wyoming; or when, after your return 
from your graduate studies at Cambridge 
University, you brought the Huxleyan gospel 
of comparative anatomy to your pupils. 

Columbia University has reason to remem- 
ber the great part you played in planning and 
guiding the Department of Zoology in its 
formative period; nor will your old students, 
either of Princeton or of Columbia, ever forget 
what new worlds you opened to them and 
showed them how to enter. 

The New York Zoological Society owes to 
you thirty-one years of brilhant service as 
Chairman of the Executive Committee and 
later as its President. 

From many parts of the world therefore 
your friends unite to testify their appreciation 
of your services as a leader in biological 
science, in education, and in the highest ideals 
of citizenship. 

We congratulate you again upon this unique 
record of service. We delight in the admirable 
spirit of fairness, generosity, friendliness, and 
comradeship which you have shown, not only 
to your colleagues but to the least of your 
assistants. And we rejoice with j-our devoted 
wife and your sons, daughters and many 
grandchildren, that this seventieth birthdaj' 
finds you with forces unimpaired, still plan- 
ning, still building, under the inspiration of a 
dauntless optimism. 

CENTRAL ASIATIC EXPEDITIONS 
At the second "Asia Lecture" of the Roj-al 
Geographical Society, November 8, 1926, Dr. 
Roy Chapman Andrews presented a most 



396 



NATURAL HISTORY 



comprehensive story of the five years' work 
done in Mongolia by the Central Asiatic 
Expeditions. He spoke upon the organization, 
methods of work, and the most important 
results achieved in the several branches of 
science represented. His lecture was illus- 
trated with an excellent series of colored 
photographs which were secured on these 
expeditions. After summing up the work of 
the expedition. Doctor Andrews said, 

The three season's field work already completed 
have been confined to Outer Mongolia, north of the 
Altai Mountains. We feel that for the purposes of the 
expedition, this region is now sufficiently well known to 
warrant directing our attention elsewhere. A surveyed 
line more than 1000 miles long has been run north-west 
through the heart of the desert, thus giving accurate 
.star