Skip to main content

Full text of "Natural History"

See other formats


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 
Natural History Magazine, Inc. 



http://www.archive.org/details/naturalhistory67newy 




January ,1958 • 50c 



al History 




SENSATIONAL OPTICAL BARGAINS 



See the Stors, Moon, Planets Close Up! 

3" Astronomical Reflecting Telescope 

Famous Mt. Palomar Type; 
60 & 120 Power — An Unusual Buy! 

AssemMci— He,..iy i., n ^ , 
Yrtull see the Rinss ^^i San.; 
the fascinaliiig planet M.-- 
huge craters on the Moon. S* 
flusters. Jloons of Jupiter 
.Iclail. GaUxies: Equator; 
mount with lock on both axev 
Aluniinized and overcoated 3" 
diameter hish-speed f /lO mir- 
nir. Telescope comes equipped 





60 X eycpie 



and 



essemial. 



iiunted Barlow Lens, 
u 60 and V>0 power An Opli 
lal Finder Telescope, always si 
Iso iniludeii. Siurd5'. hardwood, portable iri 
h .-cope; Valuable STAR CHAUT and ^Ti 



page "Hand Rooh of Heavens. 

Stock No. 85.050-E $29.50 f.o.b. 

(Shipplhs Ml 10 lbs.) Barrington. N. J. 

Order by Stock No.— Send Check or MO. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed 1 



ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE! 




MT. PALOMAR TYPE 



;;uaranieed to <zive theoretical 
limit of resolution. Kack and 
pinion focusing, removable mii 



, counterweight. Real 



A' 



6' Astronomical Reflecting Telescope 

Up to 576 Power 
Complete with Mount. 
Tripod and 7X Finder 



precision i'>-rex Parabolic i 
ror. You'll see all the won 
of the sky in great detail- 
get the following standard 
cjcpieces: ^oX. »6X. K' 
plus Barlow lens that 
double or triple the powe; 
the alxive eyepieces, civin;: 
powers up 




576X- \Mute 



led aluminum tube. Heavy duty equatorial mount and 
. 7-power liiMlcr telescope. Free Star Chart and Hand- 
Shipping wt- 7j lbs. 



Stock No. 85.024-E 
Order by Stock No. 

Send Check or M.O.- 



$245.00 ft 
Barrington. N. 
I Guaranteed! 



3" Astronomical Refractor Telescope 

up to 270 Power 



planets, stars, moon— the fas- 
cinating wonders of the 
heavens. Accessory Trism Erec- 
tor available for terrestrial use. 
3" exceptionally tine quality, 
coated atr-spaced achromati' 
objective. 2 standard size ey._ 
pieces and mounted Barlow h 
you 40X. 90X. '' ' 




::70X. Equatorial mount, 
and pinion focusing, white 
part! 



lc,i aliirniniim tiji'iv Other 

„ _ brass and chrome. 6X Finder included- 

rdy. hard-wood tripod. Free Star Chart and handbook. 

SI2S.00 f.o b. 



aluminu 
Stock No. 85.032-E 



iiPI'i 



■ !^,= 



Bai 



4" REFRACTOR TELESCOPE — Larger objectivt 
Heavier mount! Up to 500 Power 

Stock No. 85.038-E $247.00 f-( 

Order by Stock No. Barrington. N. 

Send Check or MO — Satisfaction Guaranteed: 



INFRARED SNIPERSCOPE TELESCOPE & PARTS 

See in the lUrk— without being observed. War surplus Sniperscope M-2. Gov't cost about 
.^1:200. I'sed for industrial plant securitj: research lab experiments: infrared photography: 
spcrtrosccpy. etc. Instrument complete, read)' to use. Includes Power Park, infrared light 
.source. Will operate from 6V auto battery. Baitcr>' or transformer available. 

Stock No. 85.053.E $150.00 f.o.b. 

(Shipping wt. approx. 12 ll)S.) Barrington, N. J. 

Save still more money! Build ycur onm Sniperscopc: We wilt furnish instnirtions 
— parts, including: Power Packs. IPi-'iA image lubes. lii;ht units, filters, etc. 
For details— request FUEE CATALOG "E ". 



Now — See The Satellites 

New, Low Price "SATELUTER" Telescope 

First Time— Only 59.95 Postpaid 



See thrilling sights with our amazin_ 
Salellilc Scope at unheard of low cost. 
Also view comets— use as a Rich-Held Scope for 
star clusters, j power-wide 12° field — slight distortion 
outer edges because of unusual wide field. Tse of hi. 
quality war surplus optics makes possible this hargui 
Full 2" achromatic objective — large 9mm exit pupil for 
night use. .<cope is 10" long, weighs less than one pound. 
Stock No. 70.130-E $9.95 Postpaid 

We are the Manufacturers of the Famous 

MOONWATCH SATELLITE TELESCOPE! 



STEREO 
MICROSCOPE 

n->!ade Instrumc 



Witle 3 Dimensional 
bling. dissecting. 2 




n 1 Combination! Pocket-Size 

50 POWER MICROSCOPE 

and 10 POWER TELESCOPE 

r-.fMl T^-if-M..].!. ami Mi.rosc.pe combined 
ii n,;r .inidzin-. precision instrument. Im- 
; <':■■: \ l.ii;;er than a fountain pen. 
1' I- '•' Power. Microscope magni- 

li - ."^harp focus at any range. 



. looking i 

. 30.059- E 



Order Stock N 

Send Check or M.O 
Satisfaction Guaranteed 



11 obje< 
$4.50 PDd. 




Helical rack and pinioi 
10-DAY TRIAL. 



Order Stock No. 85.056-E 

. . . $99.50 f.o.b. Barrington, N. J. 

I. jpprox. U lbs.). Send chetk or iLO. 



BUILD A SOLAR ENERGY FURNACE 



Uiiilcl your own Solar Furnace for 
•■vperimentatioii — many' practical uses. 
ir? easy^inespeiisi»e. I'se your scrap 
"'«>d. We furnish instruction sbecu 

This sun powered furnace nil! gener- 

.i:e terrific heat — 2000° to 3000*. 

Fii>es enamel to metal. Sets paper 
dflame in seconds. I'se nur Krcsntl I.« 
- . . M 14". 

Stock No. 70.130-E— pkg. of I 
Stock No. 70.I3I-E— pkg. of 2 
Slock No. 70.132-E— pkg. of 4 



NEW! STATIC 
ELECTRICITY GENERATOR 

See a thrilling spark display as you- 
set off a miniature bolt of lightnin;,'. 
.\bsoluteIj- safe and harmless. Sturd- 
ily made — stands M" high. Turn the 
handle and two f)" plastic discs ro- 
tate in opposite directions. Metal 
collector brushes pick up the static 
electricity, store it in the Leyden 
jar type condenser until (lischar::etl 
by the jumping spark. Countless 
tricks and experiments. 21 page in- 





L£2 



Order Stotk No 



50-150-300 POWER MICROSCOPE 

3 Acromatic Objective Lenses on 

Revolving Turret 

Inipnrtotr Tlic color - correcietl. renu ■ ■ 



far 



npes scllins ten 
north the ditTerem-e ; 



the I 



K«, 



Stock No. 70.008-E St4.93 Pstod 

MOUNTED 500 POWER OBJECTIVE 
Tlireadcd for easy attaclimeiit on aboic mii r.v 
smpe. Arhroiuatic lenseg' for fine viewing 
3 luru. focal length. 

Stock No. 30-197. E S5 OC 





Geophysical Year Scoop 

Real ISO Power Astronomical Telescope 

Achromatic Lens! 
Refroctor Type! 

Only 516.95 Postpaid 

l:.i'. :: : .: .. k- -I ■ ;.■, 

Iiarrier with a ire'ir ■ 

dous Scope of ex^elii 

(liiality and performaii. ' A 

at low, low price. Cleat B 

sTa^puStslcmersoi', •'^:'^'''^^ ''i ««* 
moon. etc. 32min achraniatic ol>jcclive lens' First surface 
mirror diagonal (ends "stoop" ciening). Remoraljle eye- 
-interchangeahle. Glare slops in lulie! Lens mounts 



and 16 pase Star Bitoklcl. 
Slock No. 80.000- E $16.95 Postpaid 

LARGER 42MM OBJECTIVE MODEL — 67. 100. 200 
power — same feit.i.- ... a)., .t-. uith 3S" tube leneth — 

(iiiiluded free. Haiull k of tile Heavens". Star Chart 

aii.l 16 pa::e .-^lat ll,,„klel|. 

Stock No. 80.061-E i $19.95 Postpaiil 

Check, Measure, 

Inspect with this 

6 POWER 

POCKET 

COMPARATOR 




HANDY! 
fast; ACCURATE! 

I se.l to elicek layouts, machining on to<ils. dies, gauges: 
l» elieek threads, chamfers, near on cutting ftols. etc. 
Stock No. 30.061-E— New Low Price SI9.50 Psipil. 

SWIVEL-CLAMP MAGNIFIER 

ge 4" diameter magnifier vUl 
sily clamp onto any regular or fluores- 
lighting fixture- With two ball and 
socket joints .vou can swivel it to aitr 
position. Large 4" gmund and polished 
lens is -(-5 dioptre. 8" focal. Tse both 
cyis — see an image with depth to it. 
Stock No. 30.249-E $4.00 Postpaiil 




To'J=FREECATALOG-E 



Huge sel 


eel 


onof Unses 


Drisms, V 


/or 


surplus op 


icol ins 
and occ 


ru 


nents, port 
ories. Tele 


copes, 
loculars 


tel 
In 


■scopes, bi- 
rared Snip- 


=rscopes 


& 


ports, reti- 
rs, Ronchi 


ulings, 
ither ho 


d 
rd- 


to-get op- 



OROfK ar STOCK NUMIfH . StND CNfCK OH MONtt OHDtH . SATISfACTION GUAKANTttDI 



I source of supply 
Photogrophcrs, Hobbyists, Tele- 
DC Mokers, etc. Ask (or cotolog E, 




EDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO.# barrington, new jersey 




Letters 



Eruption in Java 

Sirs: 

Following the account of the San Juan 
volcanic outburst of Oligocene times in 
your November issue, it may interest 
your readers to see an example of a 
peculiar phenomenon in contemporary 
vulcanism. 

Shortly after midnight on June 17, 
last year. Mount Merapi — in central 
Java — began emitting smoke after a few 
premonitory rumbles. Just at dawn, the 
following day. the face of the mountain 
was covered by a great, glowing cloud 
and observers heard a roar like that of 
an approaching express train, accom- 
panied by cracking reports. Avalanches 
of ash, great blocks and smaller rocks, 
and sand came rushing and thundering 
down the mountainside. 

During the next three weeks, dozens 
of such avalanche-and-cloud combina- 
tions (photograph) scoured the slopes 
of Mount Merapi— nine of them on a 
single day. (June 19)— before the giant 
returned to its slumber. 



Although simple ash avalanches have 
been observed before, notably at Vesu- 
vius in 1900. I believe that the combina- 
tion of avalanche with eruptive cloud, 
as at Merapi, deserves a different name 
—to distinguish it from the Vesuvian 
phenomenon, where the avalanches were 
set off by local tremors. I therefore pro- 
pose the expression, "ash whirlstorm." 

M. I. Adnawidjaja 

Observer 

Volcanological Survey 

Bandung. Indonesia 

IVew.s fritni Q"er«s 

Sins: 

With reference to tiie article concern- 
ing the Indians of Q'eros in your No- 
vember issue, you should be informed 
that— after a decade of complaints by 
these Indians against the proprietor of 
their territory — the Peruvian Govern- 
ment has now taken measures to expro- 
priate this hacienda and distribute its 
lands among the unfortunate residents. 



The owner of the Q'eros lands (and by 
the way, the correct term is hacendado, 
not haciendista, as in your article ) had, 
among other things, failed to observe 
the law that requires landowners to 
support a school in any isolated com- 
munity that contains forty or more 
children of school age. Early last No- 
vember, following the Government's 
action on their longstanding petition, a 
delegation of Q'eros men came to Lima 
and gave President Prado a poncho, a 
headdress, a mantle and a shirt-all of 
their own distinctive and excellent weav- 
ing—as an expression of gratitude. 
RicARDO Tello Devotto 

Huancayo. Peru 

Poison Boads? 

Sirs: 

A friend has received a very attrac- 
tive belt from Puerto Rico, made of 
seeds. She intends it as a gift to her 
daughter but has become alarmed be- 
cause of an article in your magazine 
(continued on page 50) 
I 



\ ol. LXV 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Magazine of the American Mn^euni of Naluial History 



No. 1 



Alexandkk M. White 
Pres^ident 



Ali;i;i;t E. Parr 
Director 



Walter F. MeisTf.r 
Deputy Director 



JOH^ PlliCEl.L 

Eait.ir 



Editorial Advisers 

Gerard Piel 
Fritz Goro 
John Kieran 
Charles Tudor 



Scientific Advisors 

Fra.nklyn Branley John Sai nders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Gordon Ekholm Richard Van Gelder 

Jack McCormick 



Editorial Staff 

Roi:krt Willi \mso\ 

Joan Duccan 

Margaret Matthews 



January. 1958 



Letters 



Reviews 



Man and the Heights 



Biology and the Fish Fancier 



The Nature of Symmetry 



Sky Schedule 



Legendary An(;kor 



Great W imik Heron 



Ricltard Evans Scliiihcs 4 



Marshall T. Nevviiian 9 



Mvron Gordon 20 



Brian H. Mason 26 



K. L. Franklin 32 



34 



\nilrew & Robert Mcverriccks 52 



Publication Office: 
American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West at 7yth St.. New York 24. N.Y. 

Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circulation Manager, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 

79lh Street, New York 24, N. Y. 



Von will find Natibal History M 

Natubal History is published ten limes a year, at New 

History. Central Park West at 79tli Street. Subscription 

in Canada, Newfoundland, and all foreifin countries is 

at the post office at New York, un.Irr I 

Natural History. Manuscripts and illusl 



indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodical L\ 

k 24, N. Y., by the American 
year, single copies fifty 



your library 
II of Natural 
Subscription 
S5.50. Entered as second class mailer March 9, 1936. 
of .August 24, 1912. Copyright 1957, by the American Museum of 
submitted to the editorial office will be handled with care, but 
loe responsibility for their safely. 




Stamiim. ill ir- iic-l among the black 
mangroves of Cotton Key. in Florida, this 
young Great White Heron. Ardea occiden- 
lalis, is the sole survivor of a trio of 
nestlings produced by a parental pair of 
different colors — a Great White and a 
Great Blue. Soon dubbed "Big W hitey" by 
the t«o young men who were observing 
his progress, the survivor flourished dur- 
ing his sixty-three-day nest life, which is 
documented in exceptional photographs- 
several in color— on page 52 ff. 

Told tliere, also, is the story that under- 
hiy tlie Meyerriecks brothers' study: the 
hundred-year-old question of the Great 
White Heron's true position in the Class 
Aves— a full species, or a color phase? 
The observations described in their ar- 
ticle have gone a long way toward giving 
at least an interim answer to this question. 



The American Museum is open to the Puhlic every day in the year without charge: 
\ our support of the Museuui makes this ])ossiI)le. 




Ever see a shovelful of furniture? Wood chips and 
sawdust blended with Monsanto bonding resins ore pressed 



to form sturdy, splinter-free hard board used extensively 
in manufacture of furniture and cabinets. 



Creative chemistry helps produce 
nev»7 furniture from waste saw^dust 



Not long ago, sawmills put the 
torch to mill waste. Today, proc- 
essors mix sawdust and shavings 
with Monsanto bonding resins 
to make tough, dimensionally 
stable boards! 
Manufacturers of furniture, pre- 



fab walls, truck bodies and trail- 
ers benefit from the "extra" 
carloadings of sturdy, low-cost, 
smooth-finished board. And, of 
course, we all benefit from the 
extra trees left standing in our 
forests each year. 



MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 
St. Louis 24, Missouri 



V( 



WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRY WORKS WONDERS FOR YOU 






i 

i 



' ■% 




Reviews 



Mu 



SHROOMS, RUSSIA 
AND HISTORY 

by V. P. & R. G. Wasson 

(Pantheon. 2 vols.. 1125) 

Revicuu'd by 
Richard E\ A^s Schultes 

THIS is a rare book. It is rare, first 
of all. in its manufacture, for the 
volumes were printed in Verona (on 
paper handmade in Pescia) and bound 
in Milan; the illustrations were executed 
in Paris and Florence— all this to pro- 
duce only 512 copies, of which no more 
than 350 are for sale at the price of $125. 
Harvard's late Professor Oakes Ames 
used to say: "The result of a scholar's 
research is a jewel worthy of a proper 
setting." Those lucky enough to own or 
have access to these volumes will vividly 
remember Ames's words, for they are 
truly jewels of research mounted in the 
best setting the printer's art can offer. 
Mushrooms, Russia and History is 
also rare in the aura it breathes. It is a 
work of amateurs, of dilettantes in the 
best and literal sense of those words- 
people who love their subject and have 
cultivated their knowledge with real 
pleasure, with an unhurried savoring. 
There is something about the leisurely 
pace that the reader feels in these vol- 
umes, the richness of their style and the 
course of their elaboration— the \^'assons 
have meandered through their subject 
for over thirty years— that seems to put 
(hem in a more reflective age than ours. 
Because of the extraordinary devotion 
and thoroughness with which the Wes- 
sons have pursued tiieir theme, it is not 
easy to give an even idea of the contents 
and method of the book. Its structure is 
extremely agile, the erudition mar- 
shalled with brilliance. The roads the 
authors travel are what were previously 
merely byways— when they were known 
at all. Still, these volumes are part of 
what has come to be a regular genre of 
erudite prose, and perhaps one can give 
an idea of it by saying that the Wes- 
sons' approach is much the same as 
that of Robert Graves (a friend of theirs 
to whom they are much indebted, both 



Divine mushroom, ling-chih. is objeit of 
sage's contemplation in seventeenth-cen- 
tury scroll, painted by Chen Hung-shou. 



V EPIC WORK IN ETHNOBOTANY 



for general comment and points of de- 
tail ) in The W kite Goddess. 

But the Wassons have given their book 
a uniquely personal quality. This, in 
general advantageous, has several times 
been unfortunate. The very title of the 
work is inadequate, even though chosen 
for sentimental reasons— Mrs. Wasson is 
Russian-born and has acquired from the 
traditions of her native land a love of 
mushrooms, which her husband, an 
Anglo-Saxon, learned only slowly to 
value in equal measure. Nor is a true 
idea of the book's scope given by the 
first three chapters: "Mushrooms and 
the Russians" ( they like them ) . "Mush- 
rooms and the English" (they loathe 
them ) and "Mushrooms and History"— 
a rather vague treatment of a scarcely 
perceptible link between mushrooms 
and times of war. But from these chap- 
ters emerges a fact of curious impor- 
tance; in the whole of Europe, the Slavs 
(especially the Russians I and the Cata- 
lans are really the only people to have 
loved the mushroom and taken it really 
to heart. The others, from the Frisians 
to the Greeks, have, without exception, 
abhorred it. This fact is important for 
the Wassons' final conclusions, and we 
shall return to it. 

With a chapter on "Mushrooms for 
Murderers." the Wassons begin to hit 
their stride. It is a brief chapter, the 
chief contribution of which is to tell us 
how the emperor Claudius. Nero's pre- 
decessor, was assassinated by his niece 
and third wife Agrippina. in a.d. 54. The 
Wassons. basing their arguments largely 
on the account which Tacitus has given 
of the murder, urge that Claudius was 
poisoned by the Amanita phalloides, the 
one deadly species of mushroom; and 
they have very cleverly found a passage 
in Seneca (who was privy to the crime) 
which supports their contention. In pass- 
ing, we are offered a rather plausible in- 
terpretation of the title of a subsequent 
work by the philosopher, written after 
he ceased to be Nero's tutor: a satire 
called the Apokolokuntosis—literaUy. 
"transformation into a gourd." For if 
the first attempt at assassination was 
botched, in the privacy of the weakened 
emperor's chambers, another, less subtle 
poison could be administered. The Was- 
sons, taking their cue from Seneca's title 
and a suggestion from Robert Graves, 
remind us of the colocynth, a poisonous 
gourd which, taken in small doses as a 
purgative, was held as a sort of "miracle 
drug" in Rome at that time. Their sug- 



gestion is no more than plausible, but it 
does give Seneca's title the point and 
wit that so bizarre an image seems to 
require, and it suggests also the range 
and acuteness of the Wassons' learning. 
But perhaps the most abundant dis- 
play of these qualities is to be found in 
the chapter entitled "The Riddle of the 
Toad and Other Secrets Mushroomic," 
a dazzling compendium of some three 
hundred pages of philology, ethnologv 
and lore, whose richness can only be sug- 
gested in the brief compass of a review. 
Here, in the authors' own words, is how 
they have proceeded: "Occasionally 
there are clusters of words that the phi- 
lologists ought to study together, and 
such is the fungal vocabulary of Europe, 
a semantic field pervaded by related fig- 
ures of speech and emotional responses. 
No philologist has pursued this method. 
Our basic fungal words of northern and 
southern Europe possess identical 
semantic attributes. They mean the same 
things. . . . They evoke identical turns of 
phrase, proverbs, epithetical use. In 
short, the words occupy the same seman- 
tic terrain, which would be unlikely if 
they descended from unrelated sources." 
Accordingly, the Wassons begin their 
exposition by asking why a mushroom 
is called a "toadstool." or in Danish a 
"toad's hat." in Irish a "frog's pouch." 
and so on. Now toads are always asso- 
ciated in folklore, they maintain, with 
poison, and in English as in Breton, the 
very word comes from the Latin toxicum, 
meaning poison, and may be related in 
some of its variants to the Latin taxus, 
yew— a tree known to antiquity as pois- 
onous. In short, the Wassons hold, even 
in languages where the words for "toad" 
are philologically unrelated to those for 
"mushroom.'" the idea of poison was 
uppermost in the popular mind. 

YET there are instances linking toads 
with fungi where poison is not in- 
volved. The authors are thus led still 
further back into the history of Indo- 
European languages, discovering marked 
similarities between the words for toads 
and mushrooms— venomous or otherwise 
—in certain Slavic regions (the Ukraine 
and Slovakia) and in the Basque coun- 
try. This, to the Wassons, suggests "a 
profound substratum of folk associations 
between fungi and toads in the Indo- 



WiTCHEs' COD, Robin Goodfellow. is tied 
with mushroom lore by nightjars and can- 
dle in this English Renaissance woodcut. 



European world, . . . that is today every- 
where silted over except for the three 
outcroppings on the map of Europe." 
Here, incidentally, is one of the great 
difficulties of the Wassons' method— for 
while the similarities between Basque 
and Ukrainian fungal vocabulary are 
unquestionable, they might be independ- 
ent parallels rather than derivatives 
from a common source. 

Now, in such a closely-knit study, 
where each step of the exposition 
follows directly from the preceding, all 
links in the chain must be equally strong. 
The Wassons' journey takes them from 
toads to mushrooms through venom; 
from both to the diabolical and scatolog- 
ical symbolism of fungi, to their erotic 
significance; and so on. If one step in 
their reasoning is weak or merely hypo- 
thetical, all the others may be in some 
measure suspect. This is not entirely 
true, however, for the effect of their se- 
mantic approach is to give their argu- 
mentation two levels and two directions: 
one. a direct, linear development of their 
theme, progressing from one linguistic 
root or metaphor to the next; and. at 
the same time, a more circuitous path, 
which turns back upon itself, branches 
off and rejoins the main trunk at an 
earlier point. So that even if one stage 
of the Wassons' argument should be un- 
proven. it is followed by a vast amount 
of circumstantial evidence which makes 
their previous suggestions much more 
likely, if not certain. The evidence is, 
however, still only circum.stantial, and 
(continued on page 46) 




Treasures from the Orient... 




Miniature Deity 
NH-72B 

This figure represents one wlio 
is destined to aciiieve Buddiia- 
hood. It is seated on a lotus 
pedestal which is considered a 
sacred flower of divine origin. 
Mounted on a black wood base, 
it stands about two inches high. 
24 carat gold finish. 

$5.3!y, postpaid. 




NH-72A 

This deity of northern Bud- 
dhism is associated with mercy 
and is supposed to have con- 
verted the souls in hell and 
delivered them to paradise. 
About two inches high on a 
black wood base, it is made of 
metal with a 24 carat gold 
finish. 

$5.35, postpaid. 




5k^-^%5»*' 



NH-72C 

In China this deity is wor- 
shipped as Kwan-yin; in Ja- 
pan as Kwan-non. The out- 
turned palm of the right hand 
is symbolic of charity. About 
two inches high on black wood 
base. 24 carat gold finish. 

$5.35, postpaid. 



... SO carefully and expertly reproduced 
can hardly distinguish them from the origi 



Reproductions of Museum piccei 
always been popular with our n 
Here are some of which we are esp 
proud. The gold plated originals 
the Museum's Tiljetan collect io 
were proljahly made in the 19th c( 
They will make beautiful, unusu 
orations for your home. In each 
descriptive card is included. 





Buddha IVH-70 

Here's an inipof-ing statuette representing 
"The Buddha of Infinite Light." It stands lOl- 
inches high and is made of Alvastone. In order 
to confiirm closely with the original, the 
antique gilt finish was applied by hand. A 
really beautiful piece. 

$27.30. e.xpress colled. 



NH-72D 

This is "The Goddess o 
dance." She holds her 
teristic symbol, a vase 
right hand, and a s 
grain in her left. Twt 
high on a black woi 
24 carat gold finish. 

$.3.35. p 




Buddha NH.71 

Like the larger figure above, this 
resents "The Buddha of Infinite 
It is about six inches high on a bla 
base. Made of Alvastone with a gi 
$10.00. express 



Here are three reproductions of exqui- 
site Chinese carvings. The originals are 
in the Drumniond collection of the Mu- 
seum. A descriptive card is enclosed with 
each piece. 




Liu Hai & Toad 

Liu Hai was a Minister of State sometime 
during the 10th century. He's carrying a three- 
legged toad, a symbol of money making. This 
reproduction is in light ivory colored Alva- 
stone and is mounted on a black wood base. 
7^2 inches high. 
Code Xo. .\H-.3.5 $12.30. express collect. 



Please use code nuniher when ordering. 
Members are entitled to a 10% discoimt. 
Please do not send cash. Send your check 
or nionev order to : 

THE 
MUSEUM SHOP 




Ornamental Disk 

This unusual piece makes an eye-catching wall decora- 
tion. The original was carved during the 18th or 19th 
century from jadeite. The design is in the form of a 
pi. the symbol of heaven. The reproduction is thirteen 
inches in diameter and is made of Alvastone. 
Code No. NH-34 $25.00, express collect. 




Dragon Vase 

Here's an unusually handsome piece from the Han 
Dynasty, probably carved as an altar piece for a 
wealthy home. The reproduction is in the pale green 
and warm brown tone? of the nephrite original. The 
carved design is a highly stylized representation of a 
dragon. Magnificent as an ornament by itself, or as a 
flower vase. Height including base: 6'^ inches. 
Code No. NH-33 $12.50, express collect. 



The American Museum of Natural History. New York 24, N. Y. 




Two 
Volumes 
$10.00 



Edited i 



, The nBraru of Science announces a new pry^cfrain 
i ^Joruoiuva pcopU Iniemsted m xfm wor(3 of science 



If ycur son or daughter— or some other young person you know — is one of 
those gifted students whose imaginations are fired by discoveries on the frontiers 
of science today, you will be interested in an unusual project that has grown 
out of the woric of The Library of Science with the nearly 40.000 scientists, 
educators and other professionals who are its members. Many of them, speaking 
as parents as well as scientists, have repeatedly suggested the organization of a program which would provide, 
on the level of the intelligent high school student, the same type of serious and mature reading association 
exemplified by The Library of Science itself. 

To help meet this need. The Library of Science has now founded 
the YOUNG .ADULTS' DIVISION-and invites you to sponsor 
for membership those high-school-age students of your acquaint- 
ance who can profit by an integrated scientific program which: 

1. Seeks out the finest scientific literature for young adults— 
not "popularizations." but books that stimulate thinking, 
excite imagination, advance knowledge (Harvard Case 
Histories in Experimental Science is an example of the 
calibre of literature that u;7/ regularly he available): 

2. Supplements this literature with working scientific equip- 
ment chosen to provide practical knowledge (a nen- Satel- 
lite Pathfinder, developed at the Hayden Planetarium, is 
the first scientific instrument scheduled for distribution); 

3. Offers the means for the sharing of scientific thinking and 
experiences in Science Perspectives, a new magazine pub- 
lished exclusively for the Yovng Adllts" Division. (The 
first issue will be devoted to the International Geophysical 
Year and how young people may participate in it.) 

.As members, the young people you sponsor will receive, 
along with the first Membership Selections of their choice, 
a copy of Harv.ard Case Histories as a Gift — without 
charge to you. They choose their first Selections from: 
The Modern Universe, by R. A. Lytlletoji (to members 
S3.25); Electrons, Waves & Mess.ages. by John R. Pierce 
(to members S3.95): Cells & Societies, by John T. 
Bonner (to members S3.95); and The .Art of Scientific 
1n\estigation. by W. L B. Beveridge (to members S3.25). 

As an adult sponsor, you need pay for as few as four book 
Selections to be chosen by your Young .Adults' member 
during the next 12 months. All volumes will be offered at 
Member's Prices ranging generally from S2.95 to S3. 95. 

Editorial Advisory Board 

HARRISON S. BROWN 

Professor of Geochemistry. California 
Institute of Technotogy 

ROBERT H. CARLETON 
Executive Secretary. 
Teachers Association 

GEORGE \V. CORNER 

Historian. The Rockefeller In 
Medical Research 
HENRY MARGENAU 

Professor of Physics, Yale L'r 




A /Tuiij/ii/iavit mcmba^iip ai^t ^r 
c^u:h \mina pci'soii xjcnt dcsicjiuitc 

HARVARD CASE HISTORIES IN EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE 



r Bryant Conant, Former President, Harvard University 



This extraordinat7 two-volume work— just published by Harvard Univer- 
sify Press at SIO.CW— will be sent as on Enrollment Gift to each young 
person you sponsor for membership in the YouNG ADULTS' Division of 
The Library of Science, along with the first Membership Selection of 
his choice. 

Based upon actual clossroom material tested during the past ten years 
at Horvard, the two volumes of the Cose Histories ore on encyclopedic 
guide to the decisive turns in scientific thinking from the Golden Age of 
Greece until the present, embracing physics, chemistry, biology, atomic 
theory and the philosophy of science. 




A STUDY OF RESPONSE TO ENVIRONMENTAL EXTREMES 



MAN AND 

THE 
HEIGHTS 

By Marshall T. Newman 







Mankind occupies almost all the earth, 
often adaj)ting his culture to live in 
hostile environments. This first, in a 
series of articles, examines another 
sort of adaptation: physical change 






Farmers of Vicos liarvest a crop 
of beans on a steep, aritl liill^idi', 
ten thousand feet aliove sea level. 

IN HIS RANGING over most of the 
earth's surface, man has encoun- 
tered the challenge of a tremendous 
variety of environments. This chal- 
lenge is most urgent in three extremes 
— the climatic opposites of heat and 
cold and the geographic extreme of 
high altitude. In each of these three, 
man faces — as his principal prob- 
lem — the maintenance of a proper 
operating balance of his body. 

At either extreme of temperature, 
man nmst preserve his thermal equilib- 




Hacienda Vicos fields lie amid 
streams tributary to tlie Marcara 
River in the Callejon de Huaylas, 

rium. As a warm-blooded animal, he 
cannot survive if his body becomes 
too chilled or too overheated. At the 
extreme of high altitude, man must 
at all times maintain his oxygen bal- 
ance. Otherwise, his bodv develops 
an oxygen debt, which, unless paid, 
will result in sickness and even death. 
The efforts of his body to keep in 
balance are immeasurably aided by 
man's technical know-how. Otherwise, 
he could not hope to maintain him- 
self in the frigid arctic, the searing 



a narrow mountain valley that runs 
between the Black and White Cor- 
dilleras, two hundred miles north 

heat of the desert and the bleak 
heights of the Andes or the Himalayas. 
The story of man's bodily adaptions 
or adjustments to such conditions 
of life, aided as they are by his 
culture, constitutes one of the most 
stirring chapters of human history. 

Perhaps the most dramatic of these 
stories of adaption is man's conquest 
of high altitude. Distinct from the 
quick upward dash of the mountain 
climber, this conquest entails the 
gaining of permanent livelihood at 



of Lima, Peru. The Indians who live 
here are accustomed to hard work 
at altitudes of two miles or more. 

two to three miles' elevation above 
sea level. At such heights, the air con- 
tains only two-thirds to one-half the 
oxygen at sea level, yet a proper 
supply of oxygen to the bodily tissues 
must be maintained at all times. An 
account is presented here of how this 
has been accomplished, through a 
series of interrelated bodily changes 
—principally in breathing and circu- 
lation of oxygen-bearing blood — 
among the Andean Indians. 

An observer amona; these Indians 





is first struck by the tremendous size 
of their chests, which overshadows tlie 
rest of their physical development. 
Some are actuallv barrel-chested, with 
a decided expansion of the lower part 
of the rib cage. Correspondingly, 
their lungs are large, and are allowed 
even more space by a lowered dia- 
phragm. But this is not all. Picture 
the lungs as a twin set of bellows, 
lined inside with many small pockets. 
When opened up or dilated by very 
deep inhaling, these pockets ( or al- 
veoli I provide extra lung surface. In 
Andean Indians, the alveoli are per- 
manently dilated to afford maxiTnum 
surface for oxygen absorption. Run- 
ning close by the alveoli of the lungs 
are networks of small blood vessels or 
capillaries. The expanded inner lining 
of the lungs in Andean Indians makes 
for a doubly-rich capillary bed, cap- 
able of picking up the maximum 
amount of the oxygen available in 
the thin mountain air. 

But our hish-altitude Indians have 



Mountain man's oversize chest 
and expansion of lower part of the 
rib cage evidence his large lungs. 



made other adaptations than in chest 
and lungs. One of these is having more 
blood — on the average, over two 
quarts more than their sea-level cous- 
ins. This forty-per-cent increase is 
due w holly to the mountaineers' great- 
er manufacture and maintenance of 
red cells. The red cells, in turn, con- 
tain the vital hemoglobin, which 
absorbs the oxygen in the lung capil- 
laries. As with the expanded capillary 
bed, there is an actual doubling by 
weight of hemoglobin in Indians liv- 
ing at three miles' altitude. Further- 
more, each individual red cell is 
larger in the high-altitude people. 
While each enlarged cell contains 
somewhat less hemoglobin than do 
the red cells of people at sea level, the 
larger size affords a maximum surface 
for oxygen absorption. 

Yet even with the complex adjust- 
ments already mentioned, the hemo- 
globin at altitude is less saturated 
with oxygen than at sea level, and a 
larger amount of hemoglobin carries 



Shocks of barley are carried 
on the Vicos Indians' backs from 
field to hacienda threshing floor. 




12 







Some Elements of Adaptation to High Altitude '^, 








LUNG SURFACE ... 

Among the Andean Indians, the lung 
pockets (alveoli) are permanently 
dilated, making for a doubly-rich 
capillary bed (magnified, ai left). 



EXTRA BLOOD 



Dwellers at sea level possess on aver- 
age of five quarts of blood: mountain 
men, righl, have seven quarts. This is 
on increase of some forty per cent. 






''''•t 



•----.i'».''r;&: 

Wm 



LARGER RED CELL 

Mountain men's larger cell, right, has 
less hemoglobin (shaded area) than 
does the lowlonders be/ow; it is also 
less saturated with oxygen (in red). 



MORE HEMOGLOBIN 

Although oxygen saturation of each 
cell is less, the Indians who live three 
miles up possess twice as much 
hemoglobin lleff) as do lowlonders. 




BIGGER HEART .... 

X rays show that a majority of the 

Indians living at the three-mile level 

hove hearts twenty per cent larger 

n hearts of their lowland cousins. 







STOCKY BUILD • . .. 

The Andean Indian's compact body- 
build, which reduces the distance 
■ that blood must circulate, further 
assists in their adaptation to altitude. 



13 



^^ jji- 7r,^i 




r. 







BlLLOCKS pull a primitive plow, 
as one of the hetter ^ icos fiflds 
is prepared for the corn planting;. 

no oxygen on its round trip through 
the mountaineers" circulatory system. 
This is due principally to the thinness 
of the air taken into the lung at high 
altitude, rather than to failures in 
pick-up hv the lung's capillary bed. 

THERE is still another adaptation to 
high altitude— demonstrable only 
in experimental animals, but probably 
applicable to man. Body tissues con- 
tain a companion substance to hemo- 
globin, known as myoglobin, that ap- 
parently serves as storage for oxygen 
and sustains a muscle from one con- 
traction to the next. In the muscle 
tissue of high-altitude dogs, this sub- 
stance exists in double concentration, 
with the greatest myoglobin concen- 
tration in the diaphragm. Now. it is 
a common observation among Andean 
Indians that their breathing — at 
rest, or during light exercise — is 
principally from the diaphragm. As 
one watches, their abdomens heave 
but their chests move little. The bel- 
lows action of the chest muscles is 
apparently reserved for more vigorous 
exercise. It is postulated that an ab- 
normally high concentration of myo- 
globin is involved. 




•-^ 



4 

>"<»«*<■ 



^^^^r 



.^•^ 



All such adaptations necessarily call 
for other ones, to maintain total body 
balance with minimum strain. For ex- 
ample, the amount of plasma — the 
clear part of the blood — is the same 
at high altitude as at sea level. Thus, 
the increase in red cells, mentioned 
earlier, makes for thicker, more vis- 
cous blood. In addition, a given 
amount of high-altitude blood carries 
less oxygen than does sea-level blood. 
The heart, consequently, has to pump 
more viscous blood and has less oxy- 
gen to pump it with. At least partial 
compensation for this is provided by 
the larger size of the heart among 
Andean Indians. This larger muscle is 
more competent to assume an over- 
load. Then. too. even under moderate 
e-xercise, the heartbeat at high alti- 
tude is typically slow. Blood pressures 
are also low: hypertension is a rarity 
in altitude peoples. Further relief for 
the heart is afforded by the typically 
stocky and compact body-build of 
Andean Indians, which reduces blood 
transport distances. 

.■^o far. we have noted five princi- 
pal adaptations of fully-acclimated 
.\ndean Indians to high altitudes: 
super-ventilation by larger lung sur- 



faces: more efficient oxygen pick-up 
in the lungs' capillary beds: an aug- 
mented blood supply as a vehicle for 
oxvgen transport; possibly increased 
myoglobin storage facilities for oxy- 
gen: and a heart adapted as a heavy- 
dutv. low-speed pumping system. 

THE development of such altitude 
adaptations lies in part in the 
biological heritage of these Andean 
liulians. This means that, to an inde- 
terminable extent, their ability to cope 
successfully with an oxygen-deficient 
environment is inherited. The re- 
mainder of their ability is developed 
during each individual s life span, 
particularly in his formative years. 
Inheritance, and subsequent further 
adaptation, would appear to be the 
unbeatable combination reserved for 
high-altitude residents of high-altitude 
ancestry. Yet we have no real gauge of 
just how much of this adjustment is 
inherited, other than two points of 
common observation. First, some 
coastal- born -and- raised Peruvians, 
partly or wholly of Andean ancestry, 
have unusually large chests. Second, 
outlanders reared in the high Andes 
rarely seem to be physically equipped 



H 



mm 





^/. 




Potatoes are the Vicos mainstay: 
left, the seed potatoes are placed 
earefully in the hillside furrows. 



Harvest scene is indicative of In- 
dians' capacity for heavy lahor, as 
they carry off hagged potatoes 



tu coiiipele uilh native Andeans in 
ppiformance of hard work. From 
Spanish colonial times to this day. the 
labor forces of the high-altitude An- 
dean mines have been largely, if not 
wholly, native Indian in ancestry. At- 
tempts to replace this indigenous labor 
force with other workers, imported 
from zones of lower altitude, have 
been consistently disastrous. 

South America's military history 
provides other instances where the 
drastically limiting effects of high al- 
titude may be observed. During the 
wars of liberation from Spain, low- 
land troops were victorious only on 
their own ground. In battles with high- 
land forces at elevations over 10,000 
feet, the lowlanders were invariably 
defeated, and often the defeat was a 
veritable rout. The Great Liberator, 
Jose de San Martin, was very careful 
to keep his troops out of the high 
country, just as was the doughty Con- 
quistador, Francisco Pizarro, almost 
three hundred years before him. 

INDEED. Pizarro's rapid conquest of 
the powerful highland-based Inca 
empire is attributed largely to his 
ruthless and adroit political machina- 



tions, and the superiority of his mili- 
tary equipment ( including horses) . He 
was also fortunate in that, at the time 
he attempted the conquest, the Inca 
Empire was torn between two lerders. 
A year later, a united front might 
have pushed Pizarro into the sea. 

Yet how did Pizarro defeat the 
Inca, on their own high-altitude 
ground? The answer to our question 
may be found by closely following 
Pizarro's timetable and route of con- 
quest. When his forces left Peru's 
coast for Cajamarca (at 10,000 feet), 
to meet the Inca Atahuallpa, Pizarro's 
127 men and 67 horses took seven 
days to cover some 112 miles. This 
average of sixteen miles a day suggests 
a cautious advance and a careful hus- 
banding of energies. The day after 
arrival at Cajamarca, Pizarro scored 
a surprise victory — a half-hour mas- 
sacre — over Atahuallpa's unarmed 
forces. With Atahuallpa their hostage, 
the Conquistadores rested easily at 
Cajamarca for ten months — accli- 
mating themselves to altitude. Then, 
when they pressed south for the Inca 
capital of Cuzco. they traversed the 
eastern slopes of the Andes at com- 
pa;ratively low altitudes. Pizarro 



studiously avoided the high passes 
through the Cordillera until years 
later. By this time, his troops and 
horses had achieved enough acclimati- 
zation to operate at high altitude. 

In contrast, the would-be Conquis- 
tador, Pedro de Alvarado, lost one- 
quarter of his 500 men and many of 
their 230 horses in a march to Quito, 
Ecuador, through a high snow-strewn 
pass, that was militarily unopposed. 
These losses are attributable to alti- 
tude, cold and starvation: Alvarado 
apparently did not realize that the 
effects of altitude would slow his for- 
ward progress, thus lengthening the 
time his forces were exposed to cold 
and simultaneously exhausting their 
food supply. 

IT IS doubtful if Pizarro's Conquis- 
tadores ever attained altitudinal 
adaptations approaching those of the 
highland Inca. Militarily they did not 
have to, as history shows. After the 
conquest, the Spanish took over the 
lower and more fertile intermontane 
valleys, leaving the higher and less 
productive lands for those Indians 
they did not enslave as hacienda and 
mine labor. The remaining free In- 

15 



dians either fled to the eastern jungles 
or retreated to higher aUitudes. 

IN modern times, the world's high- 
est permanent settlement is re- 
ported to be at 17.400 feet — in the 
Andes. It is likely that, being pushed 
to higher altitudes or seeking employ- 
ment in the mines there, further en- 
hanced the pre-Columbian adaptation 
of Andean Indians to oxygen deficien- 
cies. While the part Spanish, part In- 
dian townsfolk of the Andes can per- 
form heavy work at high altitude, 
their capabilities in this regard are 
difficult to compare with those of pure 
Indians. If anything, the Indians' per- 
formance is superior, since thev are 
more accustomed to harder work. The 



most arduous and menial labor has 
been theirs ever since the conquest. 
The storv of bodily adaptations to 
Andean heights w ould not be complete 
without mention of the extreme cold 
and intense sunlight that go with high 
altitude. The average yearly tempera- 
ture, at 10.000-foot Huancayo, is 
55 °F., with mean readings of 14° F. 
minimum and 88° F. maximum. At 
15.000 feet, the yearly average drops 
to 43 °F. It is always warm out in the 
sun. Indoors, it is always cold, es- 
pecially at night. In a region where 
wood is too scarce to burn for heat, 
both warm clothing and systemic ad- 
justments, producing more bodv heat, 
are necessarv. No research has been 
done on bodilv reactions to cold in 



the Andes, but there are a few indirect 
indications. Before sunrise, in the in- 
tense cold under a cloudless skv. it has 
been recently observed that the un- 
shod feet of Andean Indians feel 
warm. These Indians even act sur- 
prised when asked if their feet get 
cold. Yet, unacclimated whites at the 
same temperature may wish they had 
on three pairs of socks instead of two. 

FATHER CoBO. writing in the mid- 
seventeenth century, speaks of this 
same adaptation when he says: 

"Along with being phlegmatic the 
Indians are red blooded to an extreme 
degree, from whence thev derive tiieir 
excessive heat, as borne out by the 
fact that if in the time of greatest cold 





i« 



A 




and ice one touches their hand, one 
will always find heat in it, amazingly; 
and it is also seen in the few clothing 
they wear, just enough to cover their 
bodies. When they are on a journey, 
they sleep, even though it be on very 
cold high plateaus, wherever night 
overtakes them under the open sky; 
and if a span's depth [nine inches] 
of snow falls on them, they go on sleep- 
ing under it as restfully as if they 
■were in soft and downy beds." 

These observations suggest an extra 
blood supply to the extremities to 
preserve their warmth. This is pre- 
cisely what the high-altitude circula- 
tory adaptations provide. 

Adaptation to intense sunlight seems 
less complete among the Andean In- 



dians than to altitude and cold. In 
contrast to many American Indians, 
those in the Andes are quite light- 
skinned. But they possess a high po- 
tential for tanning. This is most neces- 
sary, since the ultraviolet rays from 
the sun are decidedly more concen- 
trated than at sea level. At high alti- 
tude, the skin of even well-tanned 
whites cannot tolerate continued ex- 
posure to the sun. For the most part, 
Andean Indians shield themselves with 
clothing and heavy felt hats with 
brims. Partly due to the intense light, 
and partly to atmospheric aridity dur- 
ing the dry season, Andean Indians 
seem to have more than their share 
of skin, lip, and eye troubles. Dryness 
and a low-fat diet may combine to 



cause painful cracking of the calloused 
soles of the feet. This is a common 
Indian complaint that can be relieved 
by such lubricants as vaseline. 

FALLING from integral membership 
in the once proud Inca Empire to 
the bottom of the modern socio-eco- 
nomic hierarchy has been the unenvi- 
able lot of the Andean Indians. Before 
the conquest, the Indians' standard of 
living was higher than it is today. This 
is attributable to the organizing genius 

ViCOS MEN AND WOMEN stand by 
the flat threshing-ground near the 
hacienda clim-ch, as the horses are 
driven in a circle over the heaped 
barley straw, treading-out grain. 










Lumber is a rarity at these 
altitudes. Such eucalyptus lops 
as this one are used sparingly 
for roof heains and doorframes. 



Adobe is the hasic Imilding 
inaterial. The mason, right, is 
E product of training: under the 
Carnegie-aided Vicos Project. 



Grinding the corn is women's 
work. Joint project of Cornell 
University and Peruvian Gov- 
ernment at Vicos improved diet. 





of the Inca's ruling classes, who 
plowed back the taxes and other levies 
into public works and social security 
calculated for the good of the people. 
Inca exploitation of the Andean up- 
lands was tremendously efficient, but 
this extraordinary cultural adaptation 
had begun many centuries before. 

Information on these accomplish- 
ments is preserved today largely in 
archives, museum specimens and the 
spectacular Inca ruins visited by tour- 
ists. Ihe glory of the Empire lies in 
the past, because the Conquistadores 
quickly lopped off the Inca's organiza- 
tional top. The colonial Spanish ruth- 
lessly stamped out all but the utili- 
tarian arts, and organized the Indians 
into nothing more than a labor force 
and a source of tribute. At the same 
time, the careful adjustment of the 
Indians to the agricultural and herd- 
ing potentials of their homelands was 
largely destroyed by Spanish usurp- 
ing of the best Indian lands. 

UKBANIZATION in the Andes today 
lias been largely shunned by the 
Indians, although they do congregate 
in mining towns for purposes of em- 
ployment. The more usual settlement 
pattern of the Indians is the small up- 
land \ illage. with most dwellings scat- 
tered through the surrounding arable 
land. There are a few Indian towns in 
the Andes, but these centers are 
normallv inhabited bv the Spanish- 
liiflian people who participate more 
wiiolly in modern Peruvian culture. 

In recent times, treatment of the 
Indians has softened, partly because 
the ranks of most modern Andean 
armies are filled by Indians, and Army 
sentiment is a powerful political weap- 
on. Then, too, this may be a matter 
of the same enlightened self-interest, 
held by the Inca rulers more than 
four centuries ago, that views a vvell- 
cared-for people as more productive 
and easier to govern. Whatever the 
cause, the result may be that these 
higb-altitude people— uniquely adapted 
to a harsh but, at the same time, 
bountiful environment— will once 
again be permitted to capitalize on 
their remarkable heritage. 



I)u. NEW^IA^. Associate (liiiator of 
Physical Anthropology at the Sniitli- 
sonian Institution, learned the ef- 
fects of high ahitiide al first hand 
during a study of the A icos Indians' 
blood pressure. Much of the data he 
presents here is the worli of the In- 
stitute of Andean Biology, at Lima. 





Farmer and wife work at winnow- 
ing the threshed <irain. The Vicos 
Project, originated by the Cornell 



anthropologist, Allan Holniherg, 
included studies of physique as well 
as material culture. Chief student 



of altitude adaptation is Carlos 
Monge, whose Institute of Andean 
Biology has pioneered this field. 

19 




By 

Myron Gordon 



Graceful pair of discus parents 
hover near a plant in the aquarium 
of Gene Wolfsheinicr, the Califor- 

20 



nian fisli fancier, whose study of 
the hrecdinp hehavior of discus is 
recounted in Dr. Gordon's article. 



BIOLOG 



ADVANCES in science are not the 
^ exclusive accomplishment of tlie 
professional scientist: there are man\ 
occasions on which the observations 
of the amateur have provided missing 
information and given answers to 
baffling questions. The week-end 
naturalist may make such contribu- 
tions, and so may the stay-at-home. 
In my own field, I know of more than 
one case in which the amateur fish 
fancier has made observations that 
proved of considerable value to the 
professional biologist. 

A recent case in point is the work 
done by amateurs regarding the life 
cycle of the Amazonian fish, Symphy- 
sodon discus — a handsome giant 
among the aquarium cichlids. In the 
quarter century since discus was first 
imported to the United States, from 
Brazil, many aquarists have tried to 
determine its breeding habits. 

The first pair of discus bred in this 
country were in the care of an ama- 
teur — the Philadelphia fish fancier, 
Gustav Armbruster. This pair's first 
breeding, in 1934, resulted in infertile 
eggs; their second, in May, 1935, was 
more successful. The aquarium was 
maintained at a warm 85°F., the eggs 
were fertilized, and the embryos 
hatched after three days. Although 
Armbruster learned to feed the fry on 
tiny aquatic organisms, and a few of 
them were actually reared to adult 
size, he was unable to close many of 
the gaps in our knowledge of the dis- 
cus's life cycle. 

About this time, another amateur 
aquarist, Dwight Winter, of Pitts- 
burgh, obtained a pair of discus and 
was fortunate enough to have them 
spawn several times in his well- 
planted, hundred-gallon tank. The 
eggs of the first three spawnings 
proved infertile, but Winter's observa- 
tion that the parents ate these in- 
fertile eggs helped to establish the 
fact that discus — in common with 
many other fish— goes to some lengths 



The Amazonian beauty, Symphysodon discus^ 
kept its family secrets well hidden until 
amateur aquarists undertook close watch 



ND THE FISH FANCIER 



to clear its spawning site of foreign 
objects which might infect the eggs 
that are about to arrive. 

Winters pair spawned successfully 
the fourth time round, but the paren- 
tal couple transferred the hatched fry 
to the aquarium's water filter tube, 
from which the young kept falling to 
the bottom. Eventually, all the fry 
from the fourth spawning perished. 
On their fifth try, the parents moved 
the fry to a more favorable location — 
the roots of some water lettuce plants 

— and several fry survived to the free- 
swimming stage. At this stage, how- 
ever, the parents deserted their young 
in order to spawn again. Winter res- 
cued a few of the free-swimmers, but 
was unable to rear them. As will be 
seen, this interruption probably pre- 
vented Winter from observing a cru- 
cial stage in the life cycle of discus. 

The first hint that such a crucial 
stage did exist came from still a third 
amateur fancier of tropical fish. Mrs. 
W. T. Dodd, of Portland. Oregon. 
Watching a pair of discus spawn suc- 
cessfully in her sixty-gallon aquarium, 
she reported to the Oregon Aquarium 
Society in 1949 that: ". . . the babies 
hung against the sides of the parents, 
receiving free rides — using the [par- 
ents] as landing-fields." 

Her report, appearing in the So- 
ciety's monthly mimeographed report, 
came to the attention of William T. 
Innes, editor of a fish-fanciers' peri- 
odical, The Aquarium. Innes was 
therefore on the lookout when, in 
1955, he received a report on discus 

— together with a remarkable series 
of photographs — from still another 
fancier. Gene Wolfsheimer, of Sher- 
man Oaks, California. The pictures 
that appear here are some of these. 

Wolfsheimer reported that his dis- 
cus, when ready to spawn, worked 
over the selected spot like sheep in a 
meadow, nibbling the algal growth 
from stones, or clearing the undersur- 
face of a likely leaf. When the site 



Dr. Gordon, who directs genetics re- 
search for the New \ ork Zoological 
Society, makes use of fish as experi- 
mental animals, and has a warm place 
in his heart for the amateur aquarist. 



was prepared, the female discus ex- 
tended her ovipositor, which, pre- 
viously hidden, had by then become 
quite conspicuous. Rubbing it against 
the selected area, she emitted a contin- 
uous stream of clear, translucent eggs, 
which became instantaneously attach- 
ed to the spawning site. The male im- 
mediately followed, spraying a cloud 
of milt over the eggs. 

Thereafter, the parents hovered at 
the spawning site, creating a constant 
flow of fresh water over the eggs with 
fanning beats of their fins. They also 
frequently mouthed the developing 
eggs, keeping them clean of injurious 



bacteria that, despite the fanning, 
might settle on them (see "Mouth- 
breeders" Puzzle," Natural History, 
October, 1957 1 . The parents took 
their duties turn and turn about — 
(ine fanning and mouthing, while the 
other fish guarded. 

After three days, the eggs hatched 
and Wolfsheimer noted that the fry 
remained attached to their spawning 
site, each tethered by an organic 
thread. Four days later, with the last 
of their yolk absorbed, the fry broke 
free of their tethers and — swimming 
freely for the first time — headed 
toward the nearest parent. 

Wolfsheimer was astonished to see 
the fry dig their heads into the soft 
skin of the parental body, and jerk 
their tiny jaws back and forth, as if 
tearing loose particles of food. After 
a time of "nibbling" at one parent, 




Trio of young discus swims by 
in formation, the days of parental 
attachment at an end. Discus young 



were first reared successfully in 
the U.S. in 1949. more than twenty 
years after initial import of fish. 

21 




At start of cycle, the parental pair, 
above, swim in the vicinity of the tile 
rod that has heen put into their tank to 
provide a spawninji site. Adults are five 
to six inches long. ]Next, beloiv. female 



moves along tile, emitting a long stream 
of translucent eggs that instantly stick, 
to spawning site. Finally, opposite, the 
male approaches the site, to spray its 
cloud of fertilizing milt over tlie eggs. 





When tethers broke, the discus 
fry headed at once for the parent 
fish, and ching to its hroad side. 



the fry would swim away to the other 
one to repeat the process. 

This literal attachment to one or 
another of the parents continued for 
a week before some youngsters would 
depart, momentarily, to seize a tiny 
rotifer or a hovering shrimp nauplius. 
During this week, the fry grew rapidly 
until, at last, they abandoned their 
parental refuge and set out on their 
own. The cvcle. itself, was complete. 

THERE is little question but that 
earlier failures to raise discus fry 
to maturity were in some measure due 
to the absence of this week's parental 
nurture, reported for the first time in 
full detail by Mr. Wolfsheimer. But, 
as often happens when we learn a new 
fact, a number of new questions pose 
themselves. 

Do the discus fry merely ride with 
their parents, or do they also acquire 
nourishment of some sort from the 
parental bodies? If the latter, what 

After a time aboard one parent, 
the young fish would suddenly take 
off, transfer attentions to other. 



is it they are actually nibbling? The 
parents show no evidence of skin ab- 
rasion at the end of the week. Is the 
hypothetical food substance some 
microscopic organism, that lives on 
the parents' skin? Wolfsheimer be- 
lieves the frv are eating the protective 
surface slime, which all fish secrete. 
Ordinarily, such slime is niildlv toxic. 
Is this true of discus? 

Again, what accounts for that first 
rush to the parental body, when the 
frys tether to its nest is broken? Dur- 
ing their tethered existence, do the 
fry become conditioned to the ever- 
waving fins of the guarding parents, so 
that — when at last free — the adult's 
fanning is a "come-on" signal? 

These are questions that aquarists 
might keep in mind. Who can sav 
when a new fact — such as the an- 
swer to these and other questions — 
will be found by the amateur who 
considers his home aquarium as a 
miniature laboratory? 

Wolfsheimer noted that the fry 
dug into the parents" skin. What, 
if anything, was eaten is unknown. 




24 



of stihiiile have been 
magnified thrce-antl- 
a-half times. Twistin<r, 
top, shows the plastic 
nature of this mineral. 





By 
Brian H. Mason 











Hexagonal shape of vanadinite crystals, shown at eight magnifications, above, is obscured by their sheer number. 

HATURE OF SYMMETRY 

' The world around us abounds in examples. Most elegant are the crystals, 
f deriving their varied shapes from the inner arrangement of their atoms. 



■ T FIRST GLANCE, the world around us seems to 
j_ ^ present an infinite variety of forms. But when one 
studies the forms themselves, rather than their broad 
arrangements, a general sort of order is apparent. There 
is, for example, a repetition of parts whigh produces sym- 
metry. It may he the fivefold repetition of the arms of a 
starfish,' the eightfold repetition of the tentacles of an 
octopus, or the bilateral symmetry of most animals, from 
the reptiles upward (including ourselves).- 

It might be thought that such symmetry, itself, is infi- 
nitely variable. Actually the elements of symmetry are 
quite few, and can be described in terms of repetition 
around a point, or a line, or plane. However, these elements, 
can exist together in many ways to give a wide variety 
of forms. Probably the most elegant illustration of such 
variable symmetry is provided by the shapes of crystals. 
In 1830, early in the history of crystallography, a far- 
sighted researcher predicted that, with the elements of 
symmetry found in crystals, thirty-two different symmetry 
groups were possible. Since, at that time, only some eight 
such groups were known, this prediction was venturesome 



indeed. The forecast has since been confirmed by the dis- 
covery of crystals belonging to each of these thirty-two 
groups, ar^d to no others. ,. 

The symmetry of crystals reflects the underlying sym- 
metry of arrangement of their atoms. One might say that 
atoms prefer to arrange themselves in an orderly, repeti- 
tive lattice: in the language of physics, such an arrange- 
ment is one of minimum free energy. Given this basic 
lattice, however, the external forms of crystals will vary. 
But the symmetry of such variable forms will be the same 
in all crystals of the same substance. 

The science of crystallography began with the study of 
minerals, since minerals provide us with a variety of ready- 
made crystals. What may be called the initial discovery 
of scientific crystallography came in 1669. A Dane with 
an inquiring mind, Nils Stensen (or Nicolaus Steno, the 
Latinized version of his name, and by which he is best 
known) that year examined a number of quartz crystals 
of different shapes and sizes. Not content with merely ad- 
miring the variety of form, he looked at them more closely, 
and noticed that the crystals were always six-sided. His 




Penninite crystal, risinjr from white matrix, looks like mountain Tiny crystal of anatase. ma<inifietl fourtcni n 

stage-set. Smooth truncations show the minerals perfect cleavage. here, is chemically identical to two otln r ii 

Clinochlore crystals, cliemically and structurally similar to Cubic CRYSIALS of fluoride are inter^iioM 

penninite, ofcove, grow in a jumhle of flat hexagonal plates instead. this specimen, seen at nine niagnificalion-. 1 





A different crystal structure, however, 
it assume this distinctive pyramidal shape. 

ent curves are caused by the gro\vth of some 
se crystals out of parallel with neighbors. 



Striated columns, magnified six times, are crv^stals of deep 
green epidote, in a groundmass of translucent calcite crystals. 

Petal-like crystal aggregates of the mineral pyrrliotite, made 
up of thin hexagonal plates, are called "roses" bv mineralogists. 





\^ IKELIKE TENDRILS of native silver support a cluster 
of rhonibohedral ealcite crystals. Compare these 
sliapes with ealcite o;rou^lllllla^^ rliown on jiage 27. 




"Twigs and branches" are interf!:ro^\ii crystals of 
native copper, their octahedral shapes elongated 
into treelike structures, with siniile crvstal "Inids.'* 



Dr. Mason. Curator of Mineralogy at the American 
Mlseuji. selected these photographs by Stevan Cele- 
BONOVic from The Liiins Rocks, the first volume in an 
Art and Nature Serie>. published here by The Philosoph- 
ical Lilir:ir\. and in Enaland bv Phoenix House. Limited. 



curiosit\ then suggested measuring the angles between 
adjacent faces. No matter what the shape or size of these 
six-sided crvstals. the angles were always 120" ! Nicolaus 
Steno had stumbled on the first law of crystallography— 
that in crvstals of the same substance, the angles between 
corresponding faces are alwavs the same. 

The next great advance in crystallography came at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century and was largely the 
work of a French priest, the Abbe Haiiy. With better 
apparatus, he was able to measure the angles on crystals, 
large and small, of many different minerals. He thought 
more deeplv than his predecessors about what gave crystals 
of a specific substance their specific form. The time was 
also ripe for advances in understanding: chemistry as a 
science was developing rapidlv. and the concept of atoms 
and molecules was taking shape. It is said that, one day. 
Haiiv dropped a prized crvstal of ealcite on a stone floor 
and. with mortification, saw it shatter into fragments. 
About to throw the debris away, he noticed however that 
each fragment was the same shape— all rhombohedrons. 
He began to break up the pieces: each, when broken again, 
produced smaller rhombohedrons. Haiiy reasoned that this 
process of breaking could conceivably be continued until 
the ultimate "molecule of ealcite would be obtained, 
which would itself have a rhonibohedral form. He argued 
from this that the external forzn of crvstals must be a 
reflection of the packing together of regularly-shaped units 
nf molecular dimensions. 

A CENTURY was to pass before the proof of Haiiy"s rea- 
soning was to be forthcoming. In 1912. a German 
ph\sicist. Max von Laue. was studying X rays. X rays had 
onh been known a few years, and their true nature was still 
a matter of dispute— some scientists believed thev were 
streams of minute particles, others that thev were waves 
of radiation, w ith a very small wave length. Laue belonged 
to the latter school, and was searching for a grating with 
which to diffract X rays, as a ruled grating diffracts light. 
But. if X ravs had a wave length a thousand times shorter 
than light, where was he to find such a grating, whose 
divisions must be of the order of a hundred-millionth of an 
inch? Laue recalled Haiiv s concept of a crvstal as built up 
b\ the packing together of small regular units of molecular 
dimensions. If Haiiy "s concept was correct, perhaps this 
packing of the units would provide the diffraction grating 
he needed. It was a simple experiment to direct a beam 
of X ravs through a copper sulphate crvstal and record the 
beam on a photographic plate. The photograph showed a 
regular pattern of spots, proving that the crystal had 
indeed acted as a diffraction grating, producing a series 
of beams from the primarv X-rav beam. In one stroke, 
Laue established the true nature of X ravs. and proved the 
truth of Haiiv"s brilliant intuition a century earlier. 

Our essav on svmmetrv and form in nature has taken 
us from minerals and their crystals to molecules, atoms, 
and X ravs. On these pages are photographs of some of 
the manv cr\stal forms, themselves, that have served to 
lead man s curiositv along the path to such knowledge. 



30 



5\t 



1-^ 




:^l 



I, f 
4., . ■ -'^ ^■ 

















Black "frost flowers" of pyrolusite give the a lunestone mass and Pr<^"I"\«*''^* |' "^•. ^, i ^^J^f 

appearance of a counterfeit fossil plant. The mineral. photographs on these pages are from T ,e Lunn^ Kocks 

lution, has filtered along the joint surface of the first of a new series illustrated I.y Celehonovic. 

31 



ippe 
in so 



SKY 



By K. I-. Franklin 



r v/ 



SOITH PART OF THK MCiHT SKY 

is shown Iiere. as it will look, to 
an observer in the U.S. durin;; the 



first six months of 1958. at ajioiit 
9:00 P.M. The straight line is the 
celestial equator (an iniai;inar\ 



projection of the eartli's equator) 
and the curved rihiion is the zone 
of the Zodiac I witii its constel- 



A selective calendar of 



JANUARY 

Januarys. About 9 A.M. I EST I, 
the earth is at perihelion, its 
closest point to the sun this vear, 
only some 91. .5 million miles away. 

January 16. Just before sunrise 
is a good time to look for Mercury, 
like a bright star in the dawn skv, 
very low in the Southeast. 



FEBRUARY 

February 1.5. Jupiter, this date, 
stops its apparent eastward motion 
among the stars, and begins its 
westward— or leti ogi ad e—moUon. 
This turnabout is because the earth, 
moving faster than Jupiter in the 
planets" race around the sim. is 
catching-up with— and getting ready to 
pass— the fifth planet. 



MARCH 

March >i. Mercury is now at 
superior conjunction, on the 
opposite side of the sun. passing 
from morning to evening sky. 

March 16. \ enus and the moon, 
the planet close to the waning 
crescent in the dawn sk\. will be 
a spectacle seen best in the West. 



January 2!!. Venus is at injerior 
conjunction, passing between the 
earth and the sun, on its way 
out of the evening skv to become 
our morning star. It is now about 
25 million miles from the earth. 

32 



Dr. Franklin, an A>>ori:ite A>lion- 
oiner of The American Mi seim- 
Hayden Planetarii m. «ill offer 
a selective list of event^ during the 
rest of 1958. in our June-Julv issue. 



March 20. At 10:06 p.m. (EST I, the 
sun crosses the equator, from the 
southern to the northern hemisphere, 
marking the start of Spring. Those 
west of New Guinea at high noon 
will see the sun directly overhead. 




lations named, above). The names 
of the months, reading from right 
to left, stand below that part of 



the sky that lies to the south at 
mid-month. Also from right to left, 
the brighter stars shown are Alde- 



baran, Rigel, Betelgense, - Sirius, 
Procyon, Pollux, Regiilus, Spica, 
and, at the far left, Arcturus. 



celestial events for the first half of ISSS 



APRIL 

April 17. Jupiter, now due south 
at midnight (in Virgo I , has reached 
a point, some 413.5 million miles 
away, exactly opposite to the 
direction toward the sun from the 
earth. It is, thus, in opposition. 

April 18. The moon, this day, 
passes before the sun and casts 
its shadow on the earth. Invisible - 
in the U.S., this annular eclipse 
may be seen in Thailand and Formosa. 

April 26. Daylight Savings Time 
begins in many areas. Remember to 
set your clocks one hour ahead. 



MAY 

May 3. The moon may be seen 
in partial eclipse from western 
North America. At 3:00 a.m. (PDT), 
the southwest part of the moon will 
enter the earth's dense shadow, and 
leave it twenty-six-minutes later. 
This is the only lunar eclipse 
that will occur during 1958. 

May 14. Mercury has again reached 
its most western position from the 
sun, rising in the East a little 
before sunrise [see January 16). 



JUNE 

June 13. Saturn, some 841 million 
miles from the earth, is now in 
opposition— due south at midnight, 
shining brightly in the Milky Way. 

June 19. Jupiter has now been 
passed by the earth. After tonight, 
it will resume its usual, direct 
motion, eastward among the stars. 

June 21. At 3:57 P.M. (EDT), 
the sun reaches its most northerly 
position over the earth for 1958. 
At this instant, the sun will be 
directly overhead at a point some 
500 miles northeast of the Hawaiian 
Islands. The first day of Summer. 



33 



ft^^L^'^/Jy^^^Ji^,^- 











LEGENDARY 
ANGKOR 

The Khmer civilization, dead for five 
centuries, lives on in its monuments 



CAMBODIA is a vast plain circled by mountains, creased 
by rivers and dotted by hills— five hundred million acres 
of the richest country in southeast Asia, a great expanse of 
alluvial deposit brought down from the mountains by the slug- 
gish Mekong and washed by the monsoons that overtake the 
land each June. It is a region where life depends on rice fields, 
and these, on an immense irrigation network which nourishes 
the plain, channels the floods during the monsoons and catches 
enough water for the dry months ahead. In the ancient Khmer 
society, the king was high priest of this land, ensuring by 
appropriate rites the fertility of the soil and supervising the 
hydraulics on which agriculture depended. He also bore the 
title "King of the Mountain," for mountains, according to 
Hindu belief— which the plain's geography reasserted— were the 
abodes of the gods. Of this universe, the temple was a replica: 
shrine of the king, in its towers and pyramidal ascension like 
the home of the gods, in its moats and canals like the plain 
itself. And of these temples, the greatest were those at Angkor, 
from the Sanskrit nagara: "city," but "The City" par excel- 
lence, such as Rome was to the ancient and medieval West. 
Angkor, rescued fifty years ago from the invading jungle by 
French archeologists, can now be admired in a magnificent vol- 
ume—by B.-P. Groslier, with photographs by Jacques Arthaud, 
published by Praeger— from which this presentation is taken. 





THE KINGS 

AND THEIR MYTH! 



FOR THE Khmers. as we know from their inscri 
tions. the sovereign alone could offer such sacrific 
as "bind the gods forever." The royal cult was the vei 
basis of the realm, and even the form of Angkor Thor 
the center of the Angkor region, built around a.d. 1200 
confirms its necessity. For. according to Hindu legen 
the gods and demons encircled their Holy Mountain wi 
the serpent Vasuki, god of the waters; and. by pulling tl 
snake's body back and forth, they made of the mountai 
a gigantic churn that produced— from the Sea of Mi 
which was the primal void— ambrosia to make the g( 
immortal. Angkor Thom was built as a miniature of th 
cosmos— the whole city enclosed by moats and can;; 
with the circular tower of the royal shrine at its cente 
This shrine is the Holy Mountain: the gods at the soutl 
gate's causew ay ( see p. 34 I grasp one end of the snak 
the demons on the north, the other. Svmbolicallv. tlie 
turn the central temple, which churns the canals encirclin 
it and the rice fields they nourish. Thus did the royal cu 
"call down a shower of riches" on the land of the Khmer: 



^▼^'1 



^i^> 





Bas relief version of Chinning 

of the Sea of Milk was done at 

Angkor Wat fifty years befoie 

monument \ersion at Angkor Thoni 

The god Vishnu, above, symbol of 

king, presides on Holy Mountain 

with godi5 by serpent's tail, 

demons at head Top, nymphs 

born of the sea foam; bottom, sea 

creaturcb convulsed by churning 



sod Krishna, left, is caned 

torious possession of 

It Maniparvata, which 

th his army has wrested 

the demon Naraka 

god lb another sjmbol of 

e basib of Khmer monarchy. 



Wealth the gods ga\e Cambodia 

Wds not without responsibilities. 

according to Khmer thinking 

Detail, right, of the hell reserved 

for all who. "being in the 

enjoyment of plenty, have still 

committed sinful acts," shows 

damned flung down to be tortured 

by demons. Scene recalls art 

of medieval western cathedrals. 




37 



HISTORIC WARS BECAME 
HEROIC LEGENDS 



PERFECTLY BALANCED in its plan and symmetry, Angkor is 
the image of Khmer ideals; yet Khmer history itself is a 
chronicle of turbulence. In A.D. 944. after a century and a half 
of dynastic quarrels, Angkor became the nation's capital; the 
following year, the interminable Champa wars began. From that 
time on, one finds inscribed how the Khmer monarchs "de- 
lighted in battle," how "the dust of their armies did blot out 
the sun." But, as strife grew, the art of Angkor became increas- 
ingly serene. The Baphuon, first of the great Angkor temples, 
was built during the first Siamese campaign. Suryavarman II 
(a.D. 1113-1150), who built the exquisite Angkor Wat a cen- 
tury later, was a mere usurper, and his foreign wars, begun in 
brilliance, were marked by defeat at the close. Jayavarman VII. 
builder of Angkor Thom, erected a vast cosmology in stone 
that seems, by its massiveness, a protest against the insecurity 
of his time. A usurper had preceded him; the Siamese inva- 
sions which followed his death, in about A.D. 1218, broke the 
greatness of Angkor. Yet so strong was the Khmer kings' con- 
cept of their divine role that even their wars and intrigues were 
depicted under the guise of epic legends, as fitting adjuncts to 
the annals of the gods and the gallant deeds of godlike heroes. 



Swordsmen and spearmen fight hand-to-hand 
in detail from 150-foot relief illustrating contiuests 
of Suryavarman II. twelftli-centuiy ruler who 
usurped the throne and built Angkor Wat to his glory. 






Relief, seen in larger section above, represents 

king's wars in guise of legendary episodes from Indian 

epic, the Mahabharata. Semi-divine heroes are used 

to express idea of gods' guidance of Khmer monarchy. 




40 







Suryavannan II's army on parade is (leiiuifd m secti.in ot a 

300-foot-long panel. The perfectly disciplined Khmer troops are 

preceded by Siamese "barbarians'' in outlandish garb and inarching 

out of step— whimsical proof of the Khmer artisan's ability 

to infuse even vast historical pageants with life. Siamese, subdued 

a century earlier, were used by Suryavarman II in campaign to the East 

against Chams and Annamites. Vassal states gained 

freedom a century later, ultimately shared spoils of Khmer realm. 



41 



^mm 



THE LIGHTER SIDE 
OF LIFE 



' \ ; ■■ > ^' I 



KHMER SOCIETY was stratified, and if ultimately this 
fact contributed much to the kingdom's fall, for some 
time it lent luster to its wealth. The sovereign assured in 
fact as well as in theory the well-being of the land through 
the network of waterways he ordained with his shrines: 
while the elite of princes and brahmins was at first in 
balanced rapport with the farmers composing the mass of 
the Khniers. At its height. Angkor combined all the color 
of an Asiatic populace with the supreme refinements of 
the court. The palace chambers, today of stone, were once 
adorned with ceilings of car\ed wood: there were outer 
walls of red laterite. tiles of green and gold on the roofs. 

gold tridents and bronze braziers, silk veils "The legion 

of banners streaming in the breeze, the strains of music 
mounting to the sky. the grace of dancing-girls— all made 
the shrines an image of paradise." runs a Khmer poem. 






^^l^; 






a^^p 











Twin (lei:iirati\«" pamTs Irdin the Hapliuon, 

great shrine of Angkor Thorn, show how deftly Khmer 

chisel caught the playful grace of everyday life. 




Fluid gestures of a sea nymph, jewelled 

splendor of dancing-girl are fused in this svelte form, 

here restored to original luster. 





Cm kl)-lil -. . ne from Angkor Wat finds carefree 

Khmer nobles afloat on poop of junk, shaded by parasols 

as oarsmen ply one of Angkor's many lakes. 

43 




Face-towers in the Bayon-gigantic temple wliich forms 
nucleus of Angkor Tliom-are the creation 
of Jayavarman VII in late twelfth century. Each side of 
temple's fifty-four towers is fronted with a head. 



Huge lake borders Banteai Kdei. edifice built earlier 

in reign by Jayavarman VII. Lions and serpents 

looking out over vast vistas characterize 

monarch's style, more architecture than sculpture. 



ANGKOR THOM: 
CITYAMID THE WATER 

KHMER CIVILIZ.\TI0N remained rooted in the soil fj 
which it drew its wealth. Since life depended on 
and its cultivation, the function of religion was to ins 
the fertility of the soil, and art was in the service 
religion. To build a town or erect a temjjle was to dig i 
canals, create reservoirs, open up fresh land for cult 
tion. The very site of Angkor reflects this function, 
the city sits on the northern shore of the Great La 
where the deltaic marshes merge into the dryer upla] 
and the Mekong River splits in two. In the spring, w 
the northern snows melt and the first rains fall on 
river's upper basin, these two branches cannot con 
the mass of water that swirls downstream. The flood bi 
up; the Great Lakes increase to thrice their size: C 
bodia is then a land of ocherous skies and drowned fon 
But water is unevenly distributed by the seasons, fal 
in torrents and overflowing the plains— only to fail. ; 
sequently. for months on end. So that, beyond such nat 
lakes as existed, the Khmers drew their water from 




44 




Anonymous portrait, probably of Jayayarman VII, wears 

liratified expression, mirroring eternal life king hoped 

I) win from his shrine. Face suggests bodhisattva, "future 

Buddha," who protects mankind as king did during reign. 



nse artificial reservoirs called haray, which at Angkor 
iched the enormous size of six by twenty-four miles in 
ne cases, linked to the streams by canals, which caught 

t' of the raging seasonal floods. This vast water system 
;tained the enormous population — for the region of 
gkor literally swarmed with people, probably more 
m a million— which formed the economic and political 
56 of the nation. A strong administration, animated by 
uprenie monarch, carried out this undertaking— a major 
ort in hydraulic engineering which, far from exhausting 

kingdom, created its wealth. 

"^HE BUILDING of Angkor Thom, by Jayavarman VII, 
was the culmination of the complex water-way system, 
meeting all the canals previously constructed in a mag- 
icent synthesis of stone and water. He, above all others, 
IS the king who, as an inscription puts it, "by raising a 
ly barrage has made water to flow where before there 
IS little or none, a reservoir beautiful as the moon." 





prucilccii 
CSf neat . . . 



These are some of the adjectives used to descril)e the 
Natural History Biuder. Its maroon leatherette cover with 
gold lettering will draw admiring glances from your friends. 
Each hinder holds ten issues. 

$2.50 postpaid (This iiiclufles member's discount) 

Orders to Canada 50^ extra. Central & South America $1.50 extra. 
No European orders accepted. 

THE MUSEUM SHOP 

The American IMuseuni of INatin-al History, New York 24, N. Y. 



CARIBBEAN 
WILDLIFE TOURS 

Endorsed hy Broward Audiihon Sociely, 
Fi. Laiuli'rdciU', Fia. 
A Unique Travel Adventure — NO Night 
Clubs, Bars, or the Usual Tourist Attractions. 
Off the Beaten Path. See These Countries as 
they Really Are -No Staging -No Come-ons. 
Specializing in Natural History (birds, ani- 
mals, vegetation). Native Peoples, Archeol- 
ogy, Nature Photography, and other Natural 
Phenomena. 
CUBA-JAMAICA 6 days $295.00 

By plane and station wagon — all inclusive 
YUCATAN-CUBA 6 days $295.00 

By plane and station wagon — all inclusive 
SURINAM-CURACAO-BONAIRE 
-TRINIDAD -JAMAICA 

14 days $795.00 
By plane, station wagon, and river steamer — 

all inclusive 
Parties limited from 5 to 7 persons for per- 
sonalized service. Any of the above countries 
may be omitted or added if agreeable to the 
entire group. Schedules and prices subject to 
change without notice. 

Write Box 534, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla. 

AUTHORS WANTED 
BY N. Y. PUBLISHER 

New York, N. V. - One of the 
nation's largest book publishers is 
seeking manuscripts of all types — 
fiction, non-fiction, poetry. Special at- 
tention to new writers. If your work 
is ready for publication, send for 
booklet NH— //'.t jree. Vantage Press, 
120 W. 3 1st St., New York 1. Mid- 
wesl Office: 220 So. Michig.in Are., 
Chicj^o. III. 



A Special Note 
to Members: 

The traditional season for exchanging gifts 
has just past. However, anytime is the right 
time to say "Thank you" to those who give 
you so much pleasure and comfort through- 
out the year. 

A wonderful way to do this is by giving 
them a subscription to NATURAL HISTORY 
magazine. It costs only $5.00 a year and 
includes Associate Membership in the 
Museum at no extra cost. 



Send your check or money orde 
their names and addresses to; 



Diong with 



Circu/ation Manager, 

The American Museum of Natural History, 

New York 24, N. Y. 



sure to include your own no 



and addr 




YonrBookPahlkhd 

Our famous plan has launched 700 
authors We edit, publish, advertise 
distribute. Send manuscript for fri 
report 01 write for Brochure NH 



PAGEANT PRESS, 101 FIFTH AVENUE, N. Y. 3 



BOOK MANUSCRIPTS 

CONSIDERED 

by cooperative publisher who offers author early 
publication, higher royally, notional distribu- 
tion, and beautifully designed books. All subjects 
welcomed. Write, or send your MS directly. 

GREENWICH BOOK PUBLISHERS, INC. 

Atfen. Mr, Edison 489 Fifth Ave, 

New York 17, N. Y. 



Reviews (continued from page 5) 



III. Genus cfculentDrumFi 



J,.ng ,fr„Ul. 
Sicnt Gyc- 
v.rgigam- 
bsia. 





di.qua: inter binas lances repolit 
per prunas coquuntur: auc cum I 
Germani JJTtlffraum appellant. 



it rests no longer on the bedrock of 
philology or provable fact but on the 
much looser— if more fertile— soil of folk- 
lore and metaphoric associations drawn 
from people of all regions and in all ages. 

AT ,\\Y R.\TF.. we shall follow the au- 
- thors a little farther in their re- 
searches, having established the very 
close connection between toads and 
mushrooms. They now take up the curi- 
ous Old French word hot, meaning 
"toad." a word now unused except in 
the expression pied hot (club foot). 
What links the nimble toad with club 
feet, as the authors go on to show, is that 
both are associated with the Devil, who 
was represented in medieval iconog- 
raphy as a cripple. Beliefs of this sort 
are tenacious, and the Wassons are able 
to produce an English caricature of 
Napoleon and the unscrupulous Talley- 
rand, in which Talleyrand— who was 
culled /(' diable hoiteux, "the lame 



46 



G B N V s I r. 

T R A Balatoncm lacum Vngan'ar, in 
rvainfulacuinofne/.tȣ!f,Sirnidicn- 
itafu.Aprilicciam meolenafciinrel- 
1 Fungi genus delicatifllmi faporis, 
amen indicare nemo poterat: led illi 
(Tefercbatur.qui inter perniciofosSc 
; Decimum fexcum genus eft , &ab 
; Kygto gombd , a Gcrmanis Olattct 
leiTdicitur: pyramidali tamen do- 
iqiapice 6iangufto huncfungucflc. 

G E N V S III. 

R T I I generis, quod Vngari^K-^/ 
v/r^i gamk-iia , Gcrmani SamCStiys 
itiiappellanr, quiaciicadicD. Geor- 
um(qui in vicefimum tercium'Apri- 
it) invcnicur, unicamobfervabam 
1. 

1 autem ilia eft, duarumunciaruam- 
icm vix sequans , orbiculari fere for- 
pernequidem aliquantulum extubc- 
:quodamodopulvinata;inferncvcr6 
lerata.&quibuldam vcluti vcnisdif- 
)cdiculocrafro,brevi6j,coloriscxal- 
i Bavi quidpiam adminum fit. 
cit in ficcioribus atque pafcuis pratis: 
fle is erit fungus , quern Horatius fa- 
arta lib. 1 1. Sermonum, optimum 
iciat his verbis, 

fratenfibuf optima fungU 

'in eU : alifS male credit ur. 
eroTcrtium hoc genus.aliorum fun- 
modo prarparandus.qui rcpurgati.uc 
limclixarifolent, &infruftacond- 
rum velbutyro, H. pipere addito , fii- 
um ex latflis ctetnorc paratum, quod 



Earliest description of mushroom spe- 
cies triclonia gambosuni was published by 
French naturalist Carolus Clusius in 1601. 



devil"— is graphically represented in 
this malformed fashion. 

Now the word bot came to be applied 
not to Satan himself but to the 
creatures into which he was thought to 
transform himself: the nightjar, known 
in parts of France as Ze bot volant (the 
flying Devil)— or le crapaud volant (the 
flying toad) ; hence, incidentally, the 
introduction into English of the word 
bat, for that most evil of creatures. And, 
not long after this word came into our 
language, there was published a poem 
called The Mad Pranks and Merry Jests 
of Robin Good fellow— the horned, cloven- 
hoofed deity depicted in a woodcut, illus- 
trating the text, as flanked by two night- 
jars and holding a witch's broom, for 
the celebrants of the nocturnal rite of 
the witches' coven wore this costume in 
imitation of their horned god. 

All of this may seem rather remote 
from mushrooms. But the Wassons re- 



'FICKER FIRST' ITEMS CERTAIN TO 



TICKLE YOUR FANCY 



BIRD SONGS 
of DOORYARD, FIELD & FOREST 

. . . recorded rn the held trom Maine to Cali- 
fornia by the StiUwells. Vol. HI, presented for 
the first time, features 220 songs and calls of 
68 different Wislein species. Joins Vol. I (135 
songs and calls of 49 Eastern species) and Vol. 
If (140 songs and calls of 58 Eastern species). 
35Vi rpm 12" records. Each runs 44 minutes. 

EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I & II 
each vol. $7,95 ppd. 

WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol, III 

$7,95 ppd. 





SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . painstakingly 'played' by using actual bird 
ongs (trom the famous Stillwell collectioa) 
t various speeds, just as a composer selects 

iritius instruments to play certain symphonic 
Mss.iiics. Composed and arranged by Jim Fas- 
Musical Director of CBS Radio. Side B, 



.) A\:</. 



3ndsong Pattern, anothe 
ig piece of 'musical' wizardry on the 
Long Playing (33'A rpm) 12" record. 



only $5.95 ppd- 



HEROES, HEROINES & MISHAPS 

. . . historic American folk ballads and songs 
from Colonial days to the Titanic sinking! Yes. 
you're bound to chuckle . . . you're apt to cry 
. . . you're sure to rave about the trials and 
tribulations of young America on the move in 
HEROES. HEROINES & MISHAPS ! All this 
made possible through the dynamic voice and 
personality of John Allison, famous folk song 
balladeer. Solemn, satirical and comic-H, H & 
R represents much in the kaleidoscopic pattern 
of American history. You will gather this by 
listening to delightful Revolutionary antiques 
like Major John Andre's "Cow Chase", and 
to early 20th Century urban braggadocio in 
■■The Bowery Grenadiers". Long playing (331/3 
rpm) 12" record. Enchanting to children! 

only $4.98 ppd. 




r--^' — ■' — -— 




ALEC TEMPLETON 

and his MUSIC BOXES 



■rd, the cha 



img 



incomparable music of Alec Templeton's famed 
collection of rare music boxes ! 4^ different, 
delightful tunes including popular folk songs, 
cherished operatic selections and minuets. 
Highest fidelity, a masterpiece of reproduction. 
Long playing. 33^/3 rpm. Also available on 45 
rpm, same price ! 



i_„ 



just $5.95 ppd. 



Bronze 
MORTAR CANNON 



An authentic test- fired replica of an ISth Cen- 
tury Spanish mortar. Weighs 21/2 lbs, and is 
I^ actual size. Although strictly for ornamental 
purposes, this scale model has test-fired a steel 
ball 800 ft. Makes an ideal desk or mantle 
piece. Certain to stir conversation ! 



-AU 



only $9.95 ppd- 



FICKER RECORDS 

218 ARCADIA ROAD • OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 

Money-bach Guarantee • Immediate Delivery! 

47 




® 



duncraft's 

new improved 1958 

mfUGHJ 

lures beautiful wild birds to your window 

• jor vcnr 'round ptrasure! 
NOW COMPLETE WITH BIRD BATH POOL 

rlip FligM Derk to yoi.r «iiKlow ami thrill to the 
sheer joy ot atlnicting wild birJs. Lile luiomes inore 
interesting everv day when ycAi disrover tlie exiite- 
ment or reeding them, photographing them, anil 
watehing them troUr just Inches away— without go- 
ing outdoors. Eyeryone enjoys the close-up actlyity 
and Cham or wild hirds and hecomes an armchair 
bird watcher— shut-ins. camera rans. youngsters! 
Xew Flight Deck Is a large ITH" '. !/■'*': eusl""" 
folded or all weather dnralon. r.reen with white trim 
it has hardwood perch rails and reeling stick. 4 seed 
wells, drinking and bird hath pool .Mtaeh or detach 
instantly witboul tools nih packaged w^th car.l; all 
orders acknowledged We pav postage both (Iri your 
order and Flight ne.k girts sei.l to rriends. Money 
back guarantee. Order twlay! 

prrOMMENDED & APPROVED 



duncraft 




h LINGUAPHONE 

The world's Siandard Conversational Method 

SPANISH L*L;7;ra,)- FRENCH • GERMAN 
JAPANESE • ITALIAN • RUSSIAN 
MODERN GREEK • ICELANDIC 

— any of 34 languages available AT HOME 






lire. 



YOU CAN LEARN IN 20 MINUTES A DAY 
By listening ii> Lin^uaphniie s life like, conversational 
recordings AT HOME ror only 20 raiiuites a day you 
learn another language the same. easy, natural way you 
learned w speak English ions lierore you went to sihool. 

NO TEXTBOOK CAN TEACH YOU TO SPEAK 
Only LINGUAPHONE brings S to 12 of the world's best 



hear both 
in their 
SPK.Mv correctly 



naliii. ; .:...i.L Yi'L understand- 
as they dii. Its like living in another country. 
Linguaphone is used 'round the world by educfators. gov- 
ernments, business firms. Over a million home-study 
students or all ages have learned another language this 
ideal, conversational way. 

Send today for the FREE Booklet describing ■The OItt 
of Language": also details on how you may obtain a 

" ' ~T-63-01S Radio 




D Details of FREE Trial 

No ohligailon. of i-uurse. 

.My language interest is 



Method ror Over Hair a Century 



BUTTERFLY MOUNTING 
AND COLLECTING KIT 




Special 

$4.95 



A full $5.95 value for only $4.95 

Everybody from 6 to 80 can have fun with this 
professionally designed butterfly mounting kit. 
Recommended by the Butterfly World Museum 
and leading educators this kit contains the 
Finest equipment and everything necessary to 
mount and collect butterflies. 



Th! 



60 



Is kit contains: 

5 colorful Indo-Australia Ironical butterflies 
4x12 lOOOo balsa wood spreading board 

lored-glass headed pins; 100 steel insect pins 

1 chemically treated relaxing jar (for softening 
dried spetimens) 

2 glass strips, cardboard mounti 
I glass-top Riker display mount 
I pair steel broad-point forceps 

professional triangle envelopes 
nylon butterfly net 



ng strips 



16-page 



tore booklet with 
to mount butlerflii 
ling butterfly infoi 



FREE PRICE LIST on Request 

12" nylon net. 24" handle packed in plastic bag 

plus 16-pase colorful booklet $2. postpaid 

Assorted Formosan Butterflies 25 for $2. 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTION! Exuuisite bracelets, 
earrings, necklaces and other jewelry made from 
beautiful irridescent Blue Morpha butterfly wings 
olfered for the first time direct to the public. Foil 
color catalog only .15. Full price refunded with 



BUTTERFLY ART JEWELRY, INC. 

America's (orgesf dealer, est. 1925 

291 East 98th Street, Dept. M-15 
Brooklyn 12, N. Y. 



CATCH THEM ALIVE 
AND UNHURT! 




Trap Can't harm Childi 



Amazing HAVAHART trap captures raiding rats, 
rabbits, squirrels, skunks, weasels, etc. Takes 
minks, coons without injuring them. Straying pets 
and poultry are released unhurt. Easy to set — 
open ends give animal confidence. Fully guaran- 
teed. No jaws or springs to break. Rostiiruof. Sizes 
for all needs. Send coupon for valuable FREE 
36-page booklet on trapping secrets. 



HAVAHART. 158-J Water Street. Ossinlng. N. 



mind us that Robin's sire was Oberon, 
whose name comes from the French 
auburon, the large, fleshy, white mush- 
room known as Lactarius piprratiis. 
Further, the woodcut depicts Robin 
holding, in one hand, a liglited candle, 
and the Wassons brilliantly develop tiie 
connection between this phallic syniliol 
and another, the mushroom. They cmi- 
clude by recalling that hot has given to 
current French dialects many words for 
the mushroom: bo. botet. boiitarrl. boii- 
lareiiu. and so on— and that in Gascim. 
one word for a kind of mushroom is 
craquenmudit. literally, "cursed toad." 

THIS SUMMARY, Unfortunately, does 
absolutely no justice to the Wassons' 
general theme and presentation— or even 
to the brief section, "The Cripple, the 
Toad and the Devil." whicii goes on to 
explain in detail both the toad symbol- 
ism in a sixteenth-century tapestry of 
the Conversion of King Clovis and the 
mushrooms in Bosch's great painting. 
The Hay If'ain. We can only assure the 
reader that, by the time the Wassons 
have finished, they have covered an im- 
mense area of cultural history, and that 
what they have to say hangs together in 
an almost uncanny coherence— through 
sacs and pouches, puffballs and sponges, 
punk, gourds and truffles (these sec- 
tions setting forth the erotic symbolism 
of the mushroom), and so on down the 
annals of an ancient lore, until finally 
we— and the Wassons— are rewarded 
with a final revelation. A revelation in 
the strict sense of the word, too, for in 
Mexico, at Huautla de Jimenez, Mazat- 
lan de los Mijes and San Agustin 
Loxicha. in rites still practiced in these 
remote areas, the autliors first heard of 
and later partook of certain hallucino- 
genic mushrooms that opened to them, or 
so it seemed, the very gates of Heaven. 
This part of their exposition is rather 
well known, having been described in 
Life on May 13. 1957. There is. there- 



Halllcinocenic mushrooms .ilong border 
hint at meaning of rite depicted in Teo- 
tihuacan fresco from pre-Columbian era. 




48 



fore, no need to summarize it here. Wliat 
the Wassons found by studying tlie 
traces of sacred lore in Mexico gave 
them the key to the puzzles they liad 
encountered, the questions they had 
asked without being able to answer. For 
the divine mushroom, called by the 
Nahua "God's flesh," "holds the key to 
a mystical union with God"' that the 
Wassons had skirted in the Greek mys- 
teries and the medieval witches" cult. 
and "the odd phenomenon of mycophilia 
vs. mycophobia" itself appears as "a 
latter-day echo of man's shattering ex- 
perience when he discovered the potent 
mushroom, a response, positive and 
negative, divine and diabolic, to these 
holy miracle-workers." The widespread 
and ancient taboo on mushrooms seems 
ultimately to be a religious one, expres- 
sive of the awe that was felt in the pres- 
ence of an agent of the divine and of the 
need to conceal from the profane what 
was the original core of religious life. 

As THE AUTHORS sum Up. "In Europe 
ix. the secret of the mushrooms was lost 
long ago, but it lingers on, fossilized and 
misunderstood, in our vocabulary, as 
when the Greek spoke of mushrooms as 
the 'gods' food,' the Flemings of 'devil's 
bread.' the demonic crapaudin of France, 
the demonic 'toad's stool" of the English. 
. . . Our legacy of mycophobia. what is it 
but a simple taboo, the aftermath of the 
emotional hold of those [divine] mush- 
rooms on our own ancestors?" 

Mushrooms, Russia and History is 
indeed an epic, whose detailed investi- 
gations open up the broadest vistas. It 
must be read to be understood. It must 
be studied at leisure to be appreciated. 
One can only hope that the vast range 
of knowledge and interests that has gone 
into its analyses will be duly noted, ad- 
mired and. best of all. emulated b\ 
future scholars in this and related 
realms. Work in the field of ethnobotany 
has seldom, if ever, risen so high. 



Dr. Schultes, curator of the Anie.-^ 
Herbarium at Harvard, is a specialist 
in the ethnobotany of Latin America. 




Stvidy a.t Honae 
■witH, tHe 




of CmC-A-GO 

FOR THE MATURE ADULT , . . interested in refreshing, 
enlarging your frame of reference at the college or 
graduate level . . . here is a unique program designed 
tc provide creative recreation for the active, inquir- 
ing mind. 

NO DEGREE REQU IREMENTS . . . 150 courses for 
adults . . . MaihematJcs to Creative Writing . . . Great 
Books to Astronomy ... Art to Investments . . . 
Psychology to World Affairs. Whether you're self- 
educated or hold a degree . . . select only the 
subjects of greatest personal interest to you . . . 
study at your own pace in the comfort of your own 
home . . . earn academic credit. 

UNIQUE - INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION . . . Enjoy 3 
conversation-by-mail v^iih your personal University 
tutor, in a provocative free flow of ideas ... in 
courses like GEOGRAPHY AND WORLD AFFAIRS . . . 
HOW TO LOOK AT THE IVIQVIES . . . COMMON SENSE 
FOR THE INVESTOR. 

Over 100,000 Interested and Interesting People 
have enjoyed the University Home-Study Program 
during the past 65 years . . . you are invited to . . . 



The Home-Stutly Department 
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 



Box NH18, Chicago 37, 




Need a Bodyguard? 

Take First National City Bank 
Travelers Checks 



Best protection any traveler can have 
against theft or loss of funds. Famous 
for over 50 years— accepted lil^e cash 
everywhere. Promptly refunded if lost 
orstolen. Cost oniySl per$100. Good 
until used. Buy them at your BANK. 



FIRST NATIONAL CITY BANK 
TRAVELERS CHUKS 

Backed by The First National City Bank of New York 




NEW and 
completely revised! 

GEOGRAPHY in the 
20th CENTURY 

edited by Griffith Taylor 

14 Plates — Folding Map 

56 Text Illustrations 

Over 690 Pages 

Twenty-two worlrl famous specialists 
have participated to make this volume 
a classic. Editor Taylor has contributed 
6 chapters and a glossary. 

Partial List of Contents 

GEOGRAPHY IN THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY 

(;. lalliaiii 

THE FRENCH SCHOOL OF GEOGRAPHY 

li. .1. IIarrJs.,11 Church 

THE GERMAN SCHOOL OF GEOGRAPHY 

S. lan Valkonburs 

THE WEST SLAV GEOGRAPHERS 

.1. Krai aixl .1. k.Midrarki 

THE PROGRESS OF GEOMORPHOLOGY 

S. \\ . W ool.lri.lf;.- 

GEOGRAPHICAL ASPECTS OF 
METEOROLOGY 

F. K. liar.. 

SOILS AND THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL 
SIGNIFICANCE 

I). V. Puliiaiii 

GEOGRAPHY AND ARCTIC LANDS 

A. L. ^^ ashliurn 

GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALISM 

K. \\. (;i)l..rl 

THE SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF 
GEOGRAPHY 

J. W. W al,„n 

GEOGRAPHY AND AVIATION 

Ellhworlli lluiiliii-,l.,n 

GEOGRAPHY IN PRACTICE IN THE 

FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 

WASHINGTON 

lohn K. Hose 

THE RELATIONS OF GEOGRAPHY 
AND HISTORY 

H. C. Darl.y 



no 



Order today fr< 



PHILOSOPHICAL LIBRARY 

Publishers 
15 Eost 40 Street, Dept. A-51, New York 16, N. Y. 

Expedite Shipment by Prepayment 



49 



'^ ^ ^^«^^< 'V i^«Vi ^g^ ^^^ V^ ^^ ^» ^V*'»'V^= *''V ^^^^^*^»^ 



FINEST BINOCULARS 
AND TELESCOPES 



N 




I Museum Cu 
iced field or 



active. 



Postpaid by 

experienced field ornithologist. 

ALL TYPES and PRICES 
LIBERAL TRADES • FREE TRIALJ 



J^artlett Mmiirkks 

Binocular Headquarters 

PITTSFIELD 50-Y, MASS. 
Phone 9748 



J 




THE PRAIP.Il TREK 



EXPEDITION FOR BOYS 

TO AMERICAN SOUTHWEST 

Exploring and collecting in mountains and 



b.v 



naturalists, journalists, 
Staff known in school, 
circles. 30th summer. 



Expedition for girls. 



and photojrrapht 

camp, and 

.M=o Turquoise Ti 

Prospectus avai!iiblt_. 

HILLIS L. HOWIE 

The Community School 
900 Lay Road, St. Louis 24, Miss 



SEA SHELLS 

For Collectors. Thousands of species from 
over fort>- countries of the world. A grand 
hobby and educational too. Send your name 
today for FREE illustrated lists. 

HERMAN W. HOLDNGSWORTH, SefTner, Flo. 



FREE 


NATURE 


CATALOG 


ir6 


Describe 


s nature panies. 


nature books, bo 


okleti. 


charts. 


maps. collect 


n^ eqiiipnipni. 


Koda- 


chromes 


plastic mounts 


and other nature 


itrin^. 


Special : 


in full and f 


i^rioiis color: Cin 


iiahar. 


.\ Game 


of Rocks and 


liiirraU. SI. 3.1 po 


ipaui. 


NATUREGRAPH • 


San Martin, 


Cal. 



P.41>T .4>D BE H.\PI»Y 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by Mail 

Exciting Home-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

SI. 00 brings irial Lesson, specify wtiicti Course 

~ Landscape □ Still-Life □ Portraiture 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limits. 

ROLAND PIERSON PRICKETT 

Foreslw:nd Studios, Monterey, Massachusetts 



j_,(^'^'^gl'g (continued from page 1) 
("Beads frnm Seeds." Marcli. 19551 
which stales that a similar seed, called 
tiie black-eyed-Siisan seed, contains a 
deadly poison in its meat. 

The seeds shown in that article i^anie 
frimi the Hawaiian Islands. Does the 
same plant also grow in Puerto Rico." 
They appear to be exactly like the seeds 
that are in my friend's bell. Can you tell 
me what danger, if any. tiiere may be? 
Louise .\rtman 

Sumner. Iowa 






^ 



Red body, black tip are di>tinctive 
marks of toxic "black-eved-Susan seed." 



Vegetation Studies replies: 

The so-called "black-eyed-Susan 
seed," also known as the rosary pea. 
crab's-eye or jequirity. is Abrus preca- 
torius. A native of Eurasia, it is now 
widespread throughout the tropics, oc- 
curring in the Xew World in lower 
Florida. Mexico. Central and South 
.\merica. and the West Indies. The scar- 
let seeds, black at one end as though 
dipped in paint, are highly valued for 
beadwork and rosaries. 

These seeds contain a toxic protein, 
known medically as abrin and used in 
the treatment of trachoma, which can 
be a lethal poison if taken internally. 
Because the seed's outer coat is hard 
and impervious, it would be necessary 
to chew the seed thoroughly to obtain 
this toxic effect. However, the amount 
of abrin in a single seed is sufficient to 
kill a human. 



EXPLORE 




nmERicn 


A 9-week caravan camping trip to NationjI 
Parks and wilderness areas in the West. 
A program especially designed for the 
high -school -age boy or girl who has oul- 
grown children's camps. An educational 
adventure that is different and rhalleng- 
ing, exciting and fun, yet SAFE. Op- 


tional programs. 
• Guided mounlainee 
Colorado Rockies, a sa 
Islands. Natural scien 
scenic photography. G 
7lh yr. Experienced a 


ring and pack trip in 
iling cruise in San Jujn 
ces. trdut fishing, an.] 
ood food. Small group. 
dull staff. 


EXPLORERS' CARAVAN, INC. | 


Dr. Richard N. 
965 Lancaster Ave 


Stultz, Director 1 
, Syracuse 10, N. Y. 1 



Bullhorns in Brooklyn 

Sirs: 

Readers of your November article 
concerning the symbiotic acacia, who 
reside in the New \ork area, may be 
interested to know that, in our grein- 
houses at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. 
we have two Acacia sphaerocephaln — 
flourishing, although antless. They are 
welcome to come see these plants. 

Our acacias-without-ants go on pro- 
ducing these ant-edible Beltian bodies 
at tiie ends of their leaflets, and ant- 
potable juices from the raised gland at 
the base of the leaf-stalk, although they 
have never housed ants in their '"bull- 
horns" (modified stipules, by the way. 
and not bracts) and we don't promise 
them any. In fact, they don"t really need 
the ants, because we never attack our 
acacias, being a rather peaceable group. 
At their bases, our plants do not have 
a straight-growing stem, but— instead- 
tied themselves into extremely long com- 
pound knots before growing upward. 
The cau.^e of this frustration is as yet 
unknown and I am not prepared to 
attribute it to their antlessness. Perhaps 
we need more plant psychiatrists. 

George Kalmbacher 

Taxonomist 

Brooklyn Botanic Garden 

Brooklvn 




Knotted stem of hullliorn acacia plant 
arowinj: at lite BripoklMi Bntaiiii- (larden. 



This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 



COVER-Andrew 
Meyerrlecks. 
1— M. I. Adnawid- 
jaja. 

4-5— Wasson 
collection, courtesy 
Pantheon Books. 
9-12-John Collier, 
from Gamma. 
13-diagram by 
Kenneth Gosner. 
14-19-John Collier, 
from Gamma. 
20-25-S Gene 
Wolfsheimer. 



26-31- C Stevan 
Celebonovic, from 
Phoenix House, Ltd. 



34-45- '? Jacques 
Arthaud, courtesy 
Frederick A. Praeger; 
map by Duggan, AMNH. 



50-George Kalm. 
bacher: AMNH photo. 
52 thru third cover- 
' Robert Meyerriecks. 



;o 



Passenger- Carrying FREIGHTERS 
Are The Secret of Low Cost Travel 

Yes, for no more than you'd spend at a resort you can take a never-to-bu- 
forgotten cruise to Rio and Buenos Aires. Or through the Canal to either 
New York or California. Or to the West Indies or along the St. Lawrence 
River to French Canada. In fact, trips to almost ever\'vvhere are within 
your means. 

And what accommodations you get: large rooms with beds (not bunks). 

probai>ly a private bath, lots of good food and plenty of relaxation as 

you speed from port to port. 

Depending upon how fast you want to go, a round the world cruise can 
be yours for as little as S250-3300 a month. And there are shorter trips. 
Fast, uncrowded voyages to England, France, or South America; two or 
three week vacations up and down the Pacific Coast or elsewhere. Name 
the port and the chances are you can find it listed in "Travel Routes 
Around the World." Tliis is the book that names the lines, tells you when- 
they go, how much they charge, briefly describes accommodations. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of travelers all over the world swear by it. Travel editors 
and travel writers say "To learn how to travel for as little as you'd spend 
at a resort get 'Travel Routes Around the World.' " 

It's \ours for just §1, and the big 128-page 1958 edition includes prac- 
tically every passenger carrying service starting from or going to New York, 
Canada, New Orleans, the Pacific Coast, Mexico, South America, England. 
France, Africa, the Indies, Australia, the South Seas, Japan, Hawaii, etc. 
There's a whole section called How to See the World at Low Cost plus 
pages and pages of maps. 

A big SI worth, especially as it can open the way to more tra\el than 
you ever thought possible. For your copy, simply fill out coupon. 

Will Your Next Vacation 
Really Be Something to Remember? 

to learn the hundreds of things you fan do and the places you can visit 
on the money you want to spend. 

Norman Ford, founder of the world known Globe Trotters Club, lells 
vou that in his book W here to Vacation on a Shoestring. This is the man 
who has spent a lifetime searching for the wavs to get more for your 



and 



far-uff i.siaiKis. 



In his big book, you learn 

— about low-cost suiiinier paradises, farm vacations, vaci 

boats drifting down lazy streams while you fish. 
— about vacations at world-famous beaches, under palm and eucalyptus trees, in 
government-sul>sidized vacation resorts, in Indian countrj", along rugged coastlines, 
on ships and by rail. 
— about dude ranches you can afford: what to see. do. and how to save at national 

parks and in the cities most Americans want to visit. 
— about low-cost sailing ship cruises, houseboat vacations in the North AVoods, 
fantastically low-cost mountain vacations, the unknown vacation wonderlands almost 
at your front door. 
Of course, Norman Ford knows where to get real vacation bargains in all 
America, from Maine to California, and in Canada, Mexico, etc. At no 
time does he ask you to spend a lot of money to enjoy yourself, no matter 
how really different and exciting is the vacation you choose through his 
experienced advice. Always, he tells you the many things you can do within 
yoiu: budget and how to get more for your money ( if you travel by car, 
he shows how most auto parties can save §6 or $7 a day). 

You can't help but learn something that is just meant for you. Yet, 
Where to Vacation on a Shoestring costs only 5i. To make sure your next 
vacation will be something to talk about, get the facts now. Use the coupon 
to order. 

MAKING MONEY FROM 

FLORIDA REAL ESTATE 

. . . the newcomer's guide to buying a home or income produc- 
ing property that's worth the money and more. 

Almost town b\ tuwn, dc\elopmerit b\ dc\elopnient- the editors of Harian 
Publications pinpoint the areas in all this big state where you can get good 
values even today and experts think propert>' values will increase. Hundreds 
of government officials, real estate men, etc. were consulted to get the facts 
even old time residents wish they had and newcomers certainly need to 
make a sound purchase. 
Here arc the amazing answers to these important questions and hundreds 

• Where is there cheap land in Florida? Which of this low priced land is 
worth buying? 

• How can you— like thousands of others— live rent free in Florida? 

• What's the best way to cut the price of the real estate you want to buy? 

• How can you tell how much a vacant lot is really worth? That you're not 
being overcharged? 

• Want to run a motel? Which is the wrong way to get yours: build it or 
buy an alreadv operating motel? Which of two similarly -priced motels 
could earn $3000 a year a unit, while another one that looks the same 
can be empty night after night? 

• Why are orange groves a real gold mine for the absentee owner? 

• Some kinds of income property have been reported to pay 40% a year. 
Where could you find such property? Is this the low-cost way to retire 
to Florida? 

Making Money from Florida Real Estate— the book which 300 appraisers, 
builders, brokers, economists, and other experts helped the editors of Harian 
Publications to prepare— takes you on an insider's tour of Florida cities and 
towns: Miami, the Gold Coast, the Keys, St. Petersburg, the West Coast, 
and all the other four-star regions in Florida. Here's the current real estate 
picture in each of them— the way to get a good buy in your Florida home, 
where to get property for the long pull, whether and where to buy income 
property, and dozens of other important topics. 

Your home or other real estate investment is going to cost you thousands. 
Make sure your money doesn't go down the drain— that you buy property- 
that is valuable today and will be worth even more tomorrow. Only S2.50— 
only a fraction of what you're going to spend just to reach Florida— for this 
detailed guide to making your money do a man-sized job in Florida. 



Where Will You Go in Florida? 

If You Want a Vacation You Can AfFord 

Florida needn't be expensive— not if you know just where to go 
for whatever you seek in Florida. And if there's any man who 
can give you the facts you want it's Norman Ford, founder of 
the world-famous Globe Trotters Club. Yes, Florida is his home 
whenever he isn't traveling! 

His big book, Norman Ford's Florida, tells you, first of all, 
road by road, mile by mile, everything you'll find in Florida, 
whether yon're on vacation, or looking over job, business, real 
estate or retirement prospects. 

Always, he names the hotels, motels, and restaurants where 
you can stop for the best accommodations and meals at the price 
you want to pay. For that longer vacation, if you let Norman 
Ford guide you, you'll find a real "paradise," just the spot which 
has everything you want. 

Of course, there's much more to this big book. 

If vou want a job or a home in Florida, Norman Ford tells 
you just where to head. If you want to retire on a small in- 
come, Norman Ford tells you where life in Florida is pleas- 
antest on a small income. 

Yes, no matter what you seek in Florida— whether you want 
to retire, vacation, get a job, buy a home, or start a business, 
Norman Ford's Florida gives you the facts you need to find 
exactly what you want. Yet this big book with plenty of maps 
and well o\-er 100,000 words sells for only $2— only a fraction of 
the money you'd spend needlessly if you went to Florida blind. 

For your copy, fill out coupon now. 

What Do You Want in 
CALIFORNIA 

A job or a business of your own? 

A vacation to Hollywood., San Francisco, Yoseniite, elsewhere 
in California— at a price you can afford? 

A place to retire on a small income? 

A home in the sun, with year-round spring-like days? 

No matter what you seek in California, William Redgrave's big book 
California— the State That Has Everything shows you city by city, town b\ 
town, road by road, everything you'll find in this big state. 

If you are vacationing, his clear and detailed facts just about guarantee 
you won't miss anything worth seeing. And you will welcome his long lists 
of recommended restaurants, motels, and hotels where you can stop at the 
price you want to pay. 

If you're looking for a job or a business of your own, California— th*- 
Slate That Has Everything gives you the facts you want. With \^'i!li;un 
Redgrave's help you'll find the California that appeals to you— whole region.s 
with just the degree of wannth and sunshine you want with houses and 
rentals priced witliin your means. If you're single you'll iind the best places 
to live for the fun and entertainment you want. If you're a family man, 
you'll find the best places to raise a family. If you want to retire you'll find 
the pleasant places in all California to live on a small income. 

There's so much more to this book— the facts you need if you're thinking 
of li\'ing in a trailer, the best places to fish and hunt, where to go for a 
college education, what \ou'll pa\- in taxes, how best to find >our own re- 
tirement or \acation paradise, etc., etc. There's so much information, in 
fact, that you probably wouldn't learn so much about California in months, 
even years, of traveling around this big state as you can learn from this one 
big book. Yet it costs only $2. Mail coupon today for your copy. 



Mail 10 HARIAN PUBLICATIONS, 99 Prince St. 
GREENLAWN (Long Island), New York 

I have enclosed $ (cash, check, or money order). Send 

me tlie books checked below. YOU WILL REFUND MY 

MONEY IF I AM NOT SATISFIED. 

n Making Money from Florida Real Estate. $2..50. 

□ Norman Ford's Florida. S2. 

□ Special offer #1: Both books above for $4. 

□ Where to Vacation on a Shoestring. $1. 

□ Travel Routes Around the World. $1. 

□ California— The State That Has Everything. $2. 

□ Special offer #2: All 5 booh- above for $7.50. 

Print name 



Address 

City t~ State 



Zone #. 



Great White Heron 

A true species or a color phase? Although the birds have been studied 
for a hundred years, this question still has not been settled finally 

By Andrew & Robert Meyerriecks 



OF THE multitude of fascinating 
problems facing bird biologists 
at present, probably one of the knotti- 
est is the task of sorting the birds into 
their correct positions on the phylo- 
genetic "tree." The major divisions 
— the twenty-eight or so orders — 
of the class Aves — are reasonably 
well agreed on. Below this, there are 
many conflicting opinions, and. at the 
tips of the '"tree's" branches, the ques- 
tion of assignment to species — and. 
indeed, agreement on a common con- 
cept of what makes a species — re- 
mains very much an open matter. 

One widely-accepted concept states 
that species are groups of actually or 
potentially interbreeding populations, 
which are "reproductively isolated" 
from other such groups. This is to say 
that such groups interbreed freely only 
among themselves. 

Such a definition of species is. of 
course, substantially more sophisti- 
cated than that used by the early field 
naturalists who. as often as not. de- 
pended on superficial structural dif- 
ferences to characterize species. Let 
us look at a few examples, from among 
:he bitterns, egrets and herons — 
Df the family Ardeidae. With these 
Dirds. many individual species con- 
ain distinct color phases. 

The Reddish Egret of North Ameri- 
;a, Dichromanassa rufescens, has both 
1 normal, dark phase and a white 
abase. The Reef Heron of the western 
Pacific area, Demiegretta sacra, oc- 
;urs in gray, mottled, and white 
abases. At least one species, the Little 
31ue Heron. Florida caerulea, shows 
striking color phases at different ages, 
rhe Least Bittern of North and South 
\merica, I xobrychus exilis, occurs in 
wo phases — a normal one and a 
rery dark one. The latter, almost black 

Veck BE^'T in preening, a young 
jreat White Heron, left, stands in 
ts nest at Florida's Cotton Kev. 



phase — once considered a separate 
species, known as "Cory's Least Bit- 
tern — is extremely rare. Another 
example of such confusion in the 
past relates to the white bird once 
known as a separate species — 
"Peak's Egret" — but now recognized 
as a white phase of the Reddish Egret. 
Field observation dispelled this tax- 
onomic error: naturalists discovered 
numerous mixed matings of Reddish 
and Peale's Egrets, together with 
many mixed broods. If the white- 
phase birds had constituted a sep- 
arate species, we would have found 
them reproductively isolated from the 
dark-phase birds, the whites mating 
only with other white birds, and the 
dark with other dark ones. This, 
then, is today's rule-of -thumb : if an 
apparent color phase represents a 



true species, field observation will 
show that the two phases do not inter- 
breed freely with each other. 

With the stage thus set, let us 
examine the hundred-year-old prob- 
lem surrounding the Great White 
Heron. The first Great White Heron 
ever collected was taken by Audubon 
in the Florida Keys in 1832. Three 
years later, he described it as a spe- 
cies new to science, naming it Ardea 
occidentalism in contrast to the Great 
Blue Heron, Ardea herodias. In 1858, 
the American ornithologist, Spencer 
Fullerton Baird. received a heron 
specimen — pale blue in color — from 
Gustavus Wiirdemann, who was col- 
lecting in Florida. This specimen 
appeared to be intermediate between 
the Great White and the Great Blue, 
and Baird gave it full species rank. 




LoAG HOURS of young bird's day 
are broken into times of activity 
and times of rest, above, when the 



heron squats awkwardly in shadiest 
part of its nest. This heron was 
known as "Big Whitey" to authors. 

53 







Pattern of nestlinj;"? activity in- "Threat" posture, with feathers 
•■hides mucli preeniii!!. Above, tlie erect and beak poised, is assumed 
hird works on long primary featl\er. in res{)onse to authors" approach. 







Andrevs ^IE^F.RRIE(KS ie a PliD tan- 
liidale at Harvard, ^petializinj: in 
behavioral .-UIdie^. and his brother. 
Robert, i^ a gifted newcomer to 
the rank? of wildlife photographer?. 



naming it Ardea tcurdemantiii. At 
the same time, however, he suggested 
that niirdemannii might onlv he a 
hxlirid (if the \^ liite and Blue. . 

B bird's famous protege. Roliert 
Ridgway. tackled the heron pii.li- 
lem a number of times from lo7o to 
lo96. At one time. Ridgwav felt thai 
all three forms were distinct species. 
Later, he concluded that Vi iirdemann's 
heron «as a hybrid of the utiier two. 
.At last, he suggested that all three 
forms were mereh color phases of 
single species. I ntil 1956. the I 
word on the subject had been thai 
of another -American ornithologist, 
Ernest Holt. .After both iimseum and 
field studies. Holt came to Ridgwa\'s 
median view: the Great \^ liite and 
the Great Blue were distinct species, 
with \^ iirdemann s heron a hvbrid of 
the two. There the situation remained, 
until 19.56. when Ernst Mavr. 
Harvard, published a paper on thii 
heron problem. j 

Professor Mayr. who believed that! 
the Great White was onlv a locally 
distributed color phase of the Great 
Blue, realized that a final solution to 
the question could come onlv from 
field observations, and not from 
further studv of museum specimens. 
Accordingly, he outlined -the problems 
to be solved in the field. First, mated 
pairs of herons should be observed, 
in order to determine whether the 
mating between the two colors was at 
random or not. Did blues prefer to 
mate with blues, and whites with 
other whites, or did blues and whites 
choose mates of the other color equally 
as often? Breeding of color with like 
color only would be strong evidence 
of reproductive isolation. Second, 
when mated pairs of like color are 
found, do blue pairs and white pairs 
observe the same breeding season, or 
does one color pair breed earlier than 
the other? H such a time difference 
was observed, it would he further 
e\idence that the two color phases 
were reproductivelv isolated and. by 
modern definition, true species. 

Mayr posed a third question for the 
field observer: in nests where b ith 
parents are the same color, are aiw 
of the offspring the other color? I '' - 
tailed observations on this last p. mt 




SETCHING of wing and leg on 
lie side is one of the nestling's 
ms of exercise. As the hird ma- 



tures, more and more time is given 
to preflight activities, such as flap- 
ping of wings and jumping from 



nest to nearby Inanches. Skill in 
these jump-flights soon increases, 
and heron is ready to ahandon nest. 



:>i 



Decline of ~^ 
Bluey and :3r; 
Ascendancy of ^;S 



-^••\ .; /-f 



^ 

^i>^ 



Big Whitey, eldest of the three 
nestlings observed at Cotton Key, 
is seen at left, above. His nestmate. 



Bluey, was second to hatch. The 
third to hatch, Little Whitey, 
had died before picture was made. 



would be fuiidaiiiental to doteniiina- 
tion of the mode of inheritance of 
the cohir phases, if— indeed— the color 
difference was a matter of phase, 
rather than species. From December, 
1955, to May. 1956, my brother and 
1 were in the Florida Keys, observing 
and photographing the herons of this 
wonderful area. Thus, we were in a 
fine position to assist in the effort to 
unravel this taxonomic knot. At the 
suggestion of Robert P. Allen, Re- 
search Director of the National Audu- 
bon Society, we moved onto Cotton 
Key to start our search. 

COTTON Key— a tiny island in Flor- 
ida Bay— is about two miles north 
of the town of Islamorada. A fringe of 
red mangroves surrounds Cotton Key. 
and its interior is a tangled mass of 
black mangroves and saltw ort. On our 
first reconnaissance, we were greeted 
with hoarse croaks from the startled 
parents, and metallic "tick-ticks" from 
the hungry nestlings of no less than 
eleven pair of herons. 

All eleven nests were quite acces- 
sible, but no two nests contained birds 
at the exact same stage in the breed- 
ing c)cle. Hence, we selected a nest 
with three newly-hatched young, so 
that we might observe and photograph 
as much of the nest life as possible. 
Of the young, two were white and 
one blue: one of the parents was 
white, the other was blue. 

Now, among herons, the hatching 
of eggs is said to be asynchronous. 
Hence, the three young in the nest we 
selected already differed greatly in 
size. This is because the eggs are laid 
at intervals of one to two days, but 

S6 



incubation begins with the first egg. 

One of the three young, which we 
soon dubbed "Big Whitey," had been 
the first to hatch, so it was the largest. 
The blue bird, "Bluey," had been 
second to hatch: the last to hatch 
was the second white bird. "Little 
Whitey." In most cases, the last young 
heron in a brood cannot compete for 
food with his older, larger and more 
vigorous nestmates. In this case. 
"Little Whitey" soon succumbed and. 
not long afterwards. "Bluey" also lost 
in the race for survival, leaving "Big 
Whitey" alone in the huge nest. We 
watched and photographed "Big 
Whitev" throughout most of his sixty- 
three-day nest life, climaxed by his 
first successful flight to the shore of 
Cotton Key. This flight— only a matter 
of a hundred \ ards to us— represented 
a major achievement for a brand new 
Great White Heron ! 

Our observations, in relation to 
Mayr's questions, showed parentage 
of mixed color both in the case of 
"Big Whitey" and at two other of the 
eleven nests on Cotton Key. Thus, we 
knew that the two color phases did 
mate, nest, and rear young together. 
Seven of the eight other nests on 
Cotton Key had at least one white 
parent, although the color of the other 
parent was established in only one 
case. All the young of these seven 
broods were white. We found no pairs 
of blues nesting, so that no firm 
answer can be given to the second of 
Mayr's questions. The two young in 
the eighth nest were white and blue, 
but— strongly as we suspected both 
parents to be white— the wariness of 
the adults kept us from establishing 



this suspicion as hard fact. "Almosts"' 
do not count in science, so we are also 
unable to answer Mavr's question con- 
cerning color-phase inheritance. 

Although "Big Whitey" was the sole 
survivor in his nest, it should not be ' 
deduced that being white insures 
survival: blue birds were sole sur- 
vivors in two other nests. Indeed, at 
only one nest on Cotton Key did the 
parents succeed in rearing three 
young to the flight stage, and only 
four pair of adults managed to rear 
two young successfully. 

BKCALSE the Great White Heron is 
found not only in Florida, but 
also in the West Indies and along the 
coast of Yucatan— where no detailed 
studies of these problems have been 
made— we are reluctant to attempt any 
present conclusion that the Great White 
Heron is not a species but, instead, a 
white color phase of the Great Blue. 
We do feel that the evidence from Cot- 
ton Key has tipped the scales heavily 
in favor of that view, but the framing 
of a final conclusion will require fur- 
ther fleldwork. Allen, of the Audubon 
Society, is keenlv interested in such 
problems: he is continuing his counts 
of the frequency of the white and blue 
phases throughout the Florida Bay 
region. Such censuses are most im- 
portant: they could reveal striking 
differences in the ratio of the two 
phases at different localities. Further 
nest observation is also necessary. 

Our interim conclusion, therefore, 
is that, while we lean heavily toward 
the color phase hypothesis, the final 
word regarding the Great White 
Heron problem has yet to be recorded. 



- ■ »— - « - ~r 




/ ■•■ -;". ■ V 


-^ii 


^ 




^^^^^'' -^i 


M 











HOUGH only a day or two older 

his nestmate, Big Whitey clearly 

shadows him after three weeks. 







f.ytVwr 



ITING parents' return. Big Whitey 
s" his nestmate. Billing action 
ulates the parent to disgorge food. 



Nesting days nearly over, Big Whitey rises to stretch his untried wings. 



^;;.3f*9S^;^^)^;T;?^. 







> i 


■ i ^v 'S? S' 


|:'' 


/ -iJ, 




.."■'^^;' 




Hn^ - t^H 


■^ -^ . ^ 


y^j: 


f-'^ 


■*f 


M^r 




/T 



.AST DATS, Bluey KM^raScM^ Sole survivor of initial trio, Big Blue parent takes a turn at chore of 
Whitey's height, even standing on Whitey now receives undivided atten- feeding Big Whitey, who is now half 
ih. Shortly after this, Bluey died. tion. Here, the white parent disgorges, way through sixty-three-day nest life. 



vOl^ 1^/^^ Criterion's Complete, Superior 
jV£lV MO^"' ' Telescope For Serious Astronomers 

The 4 Inch DYNASCOPE Reflector 



Reg U S Pol. Olf 



At an unbelievably low price / 
© O 




FEATURES: 



o 

e 
o 

e 



4-inch Parabolic Mirror 
Aluminized plus Zircon 
Ouariz layer 

3 Eyepieces— (1) 65X Huygens 
(2) I30X - 167X Achromallc 
Ramsdem 

Rack & Pinion Focusing 



4'Pawer Achromatic 
Finder Scope 

New Improved Combi- 
nation Equatorial and 
Altazimuth Mount 
With Free-Moving 
Polar Axis. 



Bakelite 
Tube m 



^V 4-poinf Tube Suspension 

o 



With New Combination Mount And Free-Moving Polar Axis 
• A Parabolic Mirror! • 4-Power Finder! • Folding Tripod! 

• 3 Achromatic Eyepieces, 65X - 1 SOX - 167X 

• You will be truly amazed at the scientific accuracy and technical 
ering built into this complete reflecting telescope. If you were to purchase 

the ports and ossemble them yourself, you would spend much more than 

unheard of low price of this precision instrument. And in building your 

telescope you could never hope to attain the accuracy ond co-ordination 

of ports which hove been engineered into the Dynascope. 

• The high resolving power of the parabolic mirror produces exquisite 

definition which clearly separates such celestial phenomena as double 

stars. The 4-inch mirror gathers Yj more light than o 3y2-inch 

mirror. The Dynascope parabolic mirror is oluminized and then 

coated with a layer of zircon quartz for moximum protection and 

lasting use. A porabollc mirror of such quality has previously been 

obtainable only in high-priced instruments. 



• The Dynascope assembly 
absolutely nothing else to buy. T^ 



iclude 



for 



xtro eyepiect 



everything-there is 
no added charges 
s-or a view finder. 



Tripod ' 
rdwo 



'iih 

)d Folding Legs 



F. O. B. Hartford, Conn. 



Shipping Weighf 14 lbs. 
Express charges collect 



• The tripod with hardwood folding legs is fitted with position 

\ locks for absolute stability. Study the list of features and you 

^^will agree that this unprecedented offer is the most generous 

and all-inclusive you have ever seen anywhere. The usual 

/^ Criterion money-bock guarantee applies and, in fact, 

v"* if you can duplicate this instrument for less than twice 

our unheard of low price, your money will be 

refunded at once. With o precision instrument like 

the Dynascope Reflector, production is necessarily 

limited but we can moke immediate shipment 

at this time. Send check or money order now 

with full guorontee of satisfaction. 



I 



• NOW YOU CAN HAVE A REFLECTING TELESCOPE 
OF EXCELLENT CALIBER FOR ACCURATE 
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION! 



• THE ONLY TELESCOPE AVAILABLE FOR UNDER 
$75. WITH A PARABOLIC MIRROR, RACK & 
PINION FOCUS, AND 3 ACHROMATIC EYEPIECES! 



Manufacturers and Distributors of Optical Instruments 

THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

331 Church Street • Hartford 1, Connecticut, Dept. NHD-27 

Telephone: CHapel 7-1696 • Cable Add.ess: CRICO 



February 1958 • 50^ 



Natural History 





f7\ 




NOW-NEW DELUXE 4 DYNASCOPE Reflector 
with ADVANCED Precision Features Offers 



A Truly Professional Telescope COMPLETE 

FOR$ 
ONLY 




79 



95 



f.O.B. Horlfofd.Conn. 
Shipping Wl. 21 lbs. 
Express charges 



Compare these advanced features with 
any telescope at double the price! 

A 4-inch Parabolic mlrror-pyrex, finished to exacting specifications and guaran- 
teed to perform to the limit of resolution! Aluminized and zircon quartz overlaid 
to insure maximum protection and lasting use! (The 4-inch mirror gothers \z 
more light than any comparable 2V2 inch mirror.) 

1^4 NEW improved cost iron, true Equatorial and Alt-Azimuth mount with free 
moving Polor Axis Rod complete with friction adjustments for any latitude, 
declination, and ascension. Rugged, weighs approximately 12 pounds, both 
axes ^8 inch steel supported on 4 bearing surfaces and guaranteed for vibra- 
tion free action and necessary smoothness- 

Q NEW 1'4 inch eyepiece mount with exc/usive double draw focus and rack 
and pinion. Adjustable for 3 inches of travel to accommodate any eyepiece 
negative or positive! Built in diagonal mirror accurate to !a wove tolerance. 

Q3 eyepieces— 18MM Huygens, 9MM achromatic Ramsden, 7MM achromatic 
Ramsden for 65X, 130X and 167X. 

^Sy 4-power achromatic finder-scope with crosshairs. Extra large field of view. 

@ NEW covers for eyepiece tube ond open end! 

Q NEW bokelite tube beautifully finished in grey wrinlsle enamel! 

Q NEW improved hardwood folding tripod legs in natural finish. Sturdy, 
balanced, perfect portability! 

THE ULTIMATE IN 4-INCH TELESCOPES Prove it yourse/f at NO RfS/C/ 



Inquire 
venient 



for details of con- 
Time-Payment Plan. 



Here at last is the scientific instrument that serious astronomers have been 
waiting for— with a full warranty of highest accuracy at lowest cost! 

Now you needn't spend $150 and up to be sure of high-precision observa- 
tion. Nor do you need go to the time and trouble of building your own 
telescope to get the most volue for your money. For the dollar-and-cents 
facts about the new Deluxe 4-inch Dynascope are these: The advanced 
precision features ore those you would want to se/ect for yourself. But buying 
them singly, as an individual, you could never beat our low price. Nor 
could you hope to surpass the technical coordination and stability that 
have been engineered into this superb instrument to meet the most exacting 
standards of optical and mechanical superiority! 

Fully achromatic, tested and proven by scientists in leading planetaria, 
the new Deluxe Dynascope comes to you complete with every port and fea- 
ture exoctly OS described and illustroted here. Each instrument is carefully 
triple-tested before shipment and is accompanied by the Inspector's per- 



formance report. Specially packed, it is ready to be set up for observation 
within a few seconds. Shipment is F.O.B. Hartford, Conn., express charges 
collect (weight 21 pounds). There is nothing else to buy, no added charges, 
no extras of any kind. 

YOU WILL BE DELIGHTED-OR MONEY BACK! 

Prove to yourself — without risk — how good the new Deluxe Dynascope 
really is. Order it now. Try it at your own pleasure. Compare its performance 
with that of any other professional telescope at double the cost or more. 
It will delight you and exceed your ewery expectation— or simply return it 
within 30 days for a full refund. But don't delay. As you know, quality 
engineering of precision instruments does not permit mass production. 
Consequently the Supply is limited. To ossure yourself of immediate delivery, 
send your check or money order todoy! 



THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Manufacfurers of QualHy Opiical Insirumenh 
DEPT. NHD-28, 331 CHURCH ST., HARTFORD 1, CONN. TEL. CHAPEL 7-1696 -CABLE ADDRESS: CRICO 



Letters 



City Winter 

[RS: 

The enclosed photographs of a va- 
ety of ice-crystal patterns may be of 
)me interest to your readers. Still 
?tter. they might stimulate a more cap- 
jle photographer to collect more 
iried— and much clearer— representa- 
ons of Nature's urban artistry. 

None of these pictures is exaggerated 
- retouched in any way. I used a por- 
ait lens for the close-ups of window- 
me frost. The picture that I call 
Black Plumes" is a record of what 
ippens when lightly frosted areas 
elt. leaving behind a whitened back- 
round of heavier frost. 

One of the street scenes (I call it 
silver Dollars") shows a number of 
?enly spaced air bubbles, trapped 
nder a thin coating of transparent ice 
ri a black-topped pavement. A hail 
orm had been followed by melting 
lat turned some of the stones to slush. 
he temperature then turned to freez- 
ig before all the air had escaped from 
etween the hailstones. 

WoLCOTT Cutler 

t. John's Rectory 
harlestown, Massachusetts 

Bear Behavior 

iRS: 

Recently, I have had the opportunity 
) study at first hand several captive 
pecimens of the Himalayan black bear, 
i'ith great curiosity, I have observed 

rather strange form of behavior. Sev- 
ral times during the course of the day, 
;ie bears would place their forefeet 
jgether, like a beggar requesting alms, 
nd proceed to suck their pads alter- 
ately. The sucking was accompanied 
y a vibrating noise, coming from deep 
1 the throat. This sucking action would 
ontinue for several minutes, during 
'hich time the pads were covered with 

white, creamy paste. 

On discussing this phenomenon with 
sveral experienced woodsmen, I found 
lat opinions varied considerably. The 
ative people called the action ''bear 
ever." but the animals I saw were 
therwise quite normal, with none of 
le symptoms that suggest a fever. 

A second opinion was that the bear 
erived some nourishment in this way, 
nd thus was able to sustain itself dur- 

ig periods of hibernation. But I fail 

) see why it should be necessary for 

le bear to extract nourishment from 

s body in this fashion. Stored-up food 
laterial is surely assimilated internally 
1 the process of hibernation. 

A third view held that the bears pos- 
(continued on page 110) 




The urban artistry of nature: "Black Plumes," above, and "Silver Dollars," below. 




S7 



Vol. L\V 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Magazine of the American Museum of Aatuial Histoiy 



No. 2 



Alexander M. \^'iiite 
President 



Albert E. Parr 
Director 



\^'alter F. Meister 
Deputy Director 



John Pircell 
Editor 



Editorial Advisers 
Gerard Piel 
Fritz Goro 
John Kieran 
Charles Tidor 



Scientific Advisors 
Franklvn Branley John Saunders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Gordon Ekholm Richard Van Gelder 

Jack McCok.mick 



Editorial Staff 

Robert Williamson 

Joan Diccan 

Margaret Matthews 



Letters 



Peviews 



February, 1958 



Ori(;in of the Dog 



The Last of the Reindeer Lapps 



Insect Acrobat 



C. He 



(1 Cur 



57 



60 



Edwin H. Collicrt 65 



Ernst :\[anker 70 




Symbiosis. Part II: 

The Remarkable Lichens 



I. ^lackenzic Lamb 86 



Child and Nature Photoiiraphs l)y Ailine Strong 94 

Grand Canyon of the Colorado Joseph \^ oo«] Knitch 98 

Dry Valley 'VS alter Sullivan 112 



Publication Office: 
American Museum of Natural History. Central Park ^^'est at 79th St.. Ne 



York 24. N.Y. 



Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circulation Manager. The American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West 

at 79th Street. New York 24, N. Y. 



You will find Natcral Histort -\Uc 
Xatural Histort is published tea lir 



inde 



Reader's Guide 
«• York 24, N. Y 



Periodical Literaturi 



libn 



- -, by The American Museum of Natural 
ilory. Central Park West at 7Qth Street. Subscription is S5.0O a year, single copies 6ftv cents. Subscription 
Canada. Newfoundland, and all foreign countries is S5.50. Entered as second class mailer March 9. 1936, 
•^ " "" "• ■• • under the acl of .\ugust 24. 1912. Copyright 1958, by The 

nd illustrations submitted to the editorial office will be handled 
we cannot assume responsibility for their safety. 



Manusc 



i HE LONG BLUE shadows of a winter sun- 
set serve to exaggerate the forms of boat 
and beast alike, as this party of Lapp rein, 
deer-herding nomads travels across the 
bleak Scandinavian landscape. The rein- 
deer and their harness are the same 
from time immemorial, but the Lapp 
leader is wearing modern skiis and the 
sledges that carry boat and baggage are 
also in the modern style. Less than a gen-' 
eration ago. there might not even h^ 
been such a boat, but— instead— one of the 
traditional boat-shaped Lapp sledges, use- 
ful equally on snow, bare ground, marsh 
or stream in this roadless terrain. 

Today, although the reindeer herds ai 
more populous than ever before, the num- 
ber of nomadic Lapps has dwindled. To 
see something of the life of these unique 
and ancient people, turn to page 711. 



The American Museum is open to the Puhlic every day in the year without charge; 
Your support of the Museum makes this possible. 




Light, inexpensive plastic tubing of tough Monsanto vinyl actually 
bends to fit the field, afFords complete control of water. Outlets 



adapt to standard row spacings, send water straight to crop root 
zones, reduce loss of water due to evaporation, weeds and seepage. 



Creative chemistry permits ne^v 
^vater- saving irrigation method 



Newest twist in irrigation is plastic pipe 
made with Monsanto vinyl that puts 
water precisely where the farmer needs 
it . . . with virtually no water loss! It 
makes flood irrigation possible for many 
farmers unable to use this method be- 
fore. Growers report plastic pipe saves 
up to $5 an acre over sprinkler flooding 
and increases valuable crop yields. 



Plastic pipe comes in 100-ft. sections 
easily carried by two men. It resists 
abrasion, won't rot, rust or corrode, 
withstands water pressure up to 25 lbs. 
a square inch, rolls like a fire hose and 
stores easily. 

Vinyl plastic pipeis just onemore example 
of Monsanto Chemistry helping to make 
available water go further, last longer. 



MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 
St. Louis 24, Missouri 




WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRY WORKS WONDERS FOR YOU 



ir • \ Frm^A 




Revie\^ 




The Last Cannibals, by Jens Bjerre, 
(Morrow, S4.50). Reti KN TO the Is- 
lands, by Sir Arthur Grinible. (Morrow, 

$4.50). YULENCOR-NOMADS OF ArNHEM 

Land, by Wilbur S. Chaseling, (Essen- 
tial Books, $3.80). 

IN ITS EARLIEST STAGES, the 
science of anthropology owed much 
of its raw material to the observations 
of far-wandering men whose interests 
were primarily far from scientific. To- 
day, the debt has been more than re- 
paid: these three books are evidence of 
the profound effect that anthropology, 
in its turn, has had upon three very 
different types of professional rover- 
the globe-trotter, the missionary, and 
that nearly extinct species, the British 
colonial civil servant. 

On its surface. The Last Cannibals 
is another in the endless series of en- 
tertainments that begins at a port 
where cruise boats do not yet stop and 
ends on the lecture platform. With 
movie cameras, tape recorders and a 
modest smile, Mr. Bjerre. like how 

60 



many before, went on the road to pros- 
pect for marketable adventures. What 
sets his book ajiart from most of its 
kind is that the primitives, rather than 
the visitor, occupy stage center. 

The first stop on Mr. Bjerre's junket, 
was in an aboriginal reserve in the cen- 
tral desert of Australia, and for a few- 
weeks he pitched his tent among the 
tentless nomads he found there: long 
enough to see the Stone Age at first 
hand and take some interesting photo- 
graphs. Like others who better know 
the aborigines, he was struck both by 
the extraordinary efficiency with which 
they extract a living from an arid and 
hostile wilderness and by the baroque 
complexity of their family relation- 
ships. He was also obviously a little 
disappointed. Having journeyed all the 
way from Denmark to empathize with 
cannibals, he found none. 

He was somewhat luckier in New 
Guinea. Of the three tribes he visited 
there, the Kukukuku's of the eastern 
highlands were occasional man-eaters 
and chronic murderers. Again no an- 



thropophagy, but Bjerre helped arrest 
a murderer and ol)-erved the grisly 
smoking process by which the tribe 
mummifies its dead. And from what he 
learned, at first and second hand, he 
came to the view that in a jungle, where 
game is scanty, cannibalism "derives 
mainly from a shortage of meat, a de- 
ficiency of proteins." Elsewhere, with 
the Morombo's of New Guinea's central 
highlands, and on a trip up the Sepik 
River, he observed feasts and initiatinn- 
and collected myths and songs whii-h 
add to the interest of his book. His ad- 
ventures — and he had some — are the 
more exciting for being subordinated. 

At Kambot. far up the Sepik. Mr. 
Bjerre heard firsthand accounts of tlie 
Cargo Cult, that extraordinary demon- 
stration of dynamic mythology which 
has swept many widely-separated Pa- 
cific islands, particularly after the sec- 
ond World War. This cult, as he 
encountered it. held that the ship- 
loads and planeloads of manufactured 
goods arriving on the islands had been 
sent by the spirits in heaven to tlie 



CIFIC PRIMITIVES 



Reviewed by 
Christopher Gerould 




islanders themselves, but had been 
wrongly intercepted and used by the 
whites - whom the New Guinea natives, 
it least, regarded as the pallid rein- 
;arnated ghosts of their own ancestors. 
Convinced that they were being de- 
[rauded. the tribes used every available 
[orm of traditional magic to insure that 
:he' cargoes be delivered to them, and 
lot to the whites. 

In many places, this postwar belief 
crystallized into the more traditional 
Cargo Cult prophecy — a ship was on 
ts heaven-sent way, bearing all kinds 
jf heaven-sent trade goods. In antici- 
pation of its arrival, all work was neg- 
lected, while banquet tables and ware- 
house huts were set up to celebrate 
:he arrival of the cargo and to store it. 
Some villages went so far as to destroy 
;he crops, and slaughter the pigs in 
anticipation of the heavenly cargo. 

The Vailila madness, as the cult was 
called locally in New Guinea, led its 
believers into actual frenzy and into 
attacks of hysterical cramps which 
seized whole villages. After Mr. Bjerre's 
account of this and other religious cults 
arising from attempts to reconcile alien 
religious teaching with traditional be- 
liefs, it is encouraging to read that 
anthropology is required study for civil 
servants going to New Guinea, and that 
anthropologists and psychologists are 
employed by the government to study 
and analyze such cults. Perhaps this 
should have been done earlier. 

SUCH IS precisely the conclusion 
reached by a longrtime British 
colonial civil servant of the pre-anthro- 
pology days, Sir Arthur Grimble, look- 
ing back over his early career as an 
administrator in the Gilbert Islands. He 
points out with some force that colonial 
executives of his own generation - he 
went to the Gilberts first in 1914 -knew 
nothing whatever of the people they 
were to govern, and succeeded, when 
they did succeed, only through the 



politeness and forbearance of those 
governed. "We did not stop to think 
then," Sir Arthur states, "how much 
more the maintenance of Pax Britan- 
nica owed to their marvelous patience 
and courtesy with us than to the inher- 
ent virtue of ourselves or our system." 
Return to the Islands, however, 
makes perfectly clear that not all the 
patience and courtesy were on the side 
of the villagers who were Sir Arthur's 
subjects and his teachers. Whether he 
was learning island etiquette from a 
little girl, trying to administer legal 
monogamy to a group of convinced and 
ribald polygamists, or preventing a 
group of Chinese laborers from im- 



molating themselves by attacking a 
group of Gilbertese, he obviously went 
armed with the British empire-builder's 
most notable weapons: an earthy sense 
of humor and, especially, an inbred 
ability to take seriously any rigmarole 
of protocol or ritual, including his own. 
Written not long before Sir Arthur's 
death. Return to the Islands is epi- 
sodic, nostalgic, but above all, likeable, 
as was its author. 

THE AUTHOR of Yulengor has lived 
a highly-specialized life and turned 
out a highly-specialized book. Wilbur 
Chaseling is a Methodist missionary 
who has spent most of his working 




A.- 




IT'S ALWAYS FUN TO 

SHOP 
FICKER FIRST 




"The Recorded 

Ejicyclopedia of Ameriain Bird Songs" 

BIRD SONGS 

of DOORYARD, FIELD & FOREST 

. . . rccorJcd in the held from Maine t.. (ah- 
fornia by the StiUwells. Vol. III. presented tor 
the first time, features 210 songs and calls of 
68 ditlerent Western species. Joins Vol. I (15'' 
songs and calls of 49 Eatlerii species) and Vol. 
II (140 songs and calls of ■iS Eastern species I . 
33', 1 rpm 12" records. Each runs 44 minutes. 
EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I & II 
each vol. $7.95 ppd. 
WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol. Ill 

$7.95 ppd. 




SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . . painstakingly 'played' by using actual bird 
songs (from the famous Stillwell collection) 
at various speeds, just as a composer selects 
various instruments to play certain symphonic 
passages. Composed and arranged by Jim Fas- 
sett, Musical Director of CBS Radio. Side B. 
A Revelation in Birdsong Pattern, another as- 
tonishing piece of 'musical' wizardry on the 
wing.' Long Playing (33'/^ rpm) 12" record. 

only $5.95 -pdd 



Pill:i*.J.M^I=,f.]y 




ALEC TEMPLETON 
and his MUSIC BOXES 

... on a jfngle record, the charming and 
incomparable music of Alec Templeton's famed 
collection of rare music boxes! 4^ different, 
delightful tunes including popular fo!k songs, 
cherished operatic selections and minuets. 
Highest fidelity, a masterpiece of reproduction. 
Long playing. 33'/* rpm. Also available on 4*^ 
rpm, same price ! 

just $5.95 ppd. 

FICKER RECORDS 

219 ARCADIA ROAD 
OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 

Money-back Guaranlee . . . hiim.-.hul,- /).■/,, .vv .' 



years in Arnlieni Land, the monsoon- 
swept wilderness tiiat lies to the west 
of the Gulf of Carpentaria in northern 
.\ustralia. Since 1933. he has shared 
34.000 square miles of aboriginal re- 
serve with a few white men and a few 
dozen "hordes." or small nomadic com- 
munities, of aborigines. 

Mr. Chaseling has chosen not to talk 
about himself but to give with insight 
and affection a very complete account 
(if aboriginal life as he has observed it. 
His book covers all their activities sim- 
ply and directly, reaching what can only 
be described as a high pitch of matter- 
of-factness in his report on cannibalism. 

"I saw hordes behind Boucaut Bay 
practicing a form of cannibalism and 
eating their dead. A wealth of tradition 
lies behind this custom, which origin- 
ated with the eating of their tribal 
,\ncestress. . . . All hair is scraped off 
and burnt, intestines are removed and 
buried, and the head is severed from 
the trunk. Meanwhile, relatives prepare 
an oven by digging a trench, lining it 
with stones, and lighting a fire on top. 
When the tempo of singing and danc- 
ing has increased to fever-pitch, the 
skull is pierced and the brain removed, 
wrapped in bark, and given to the 
mother to guard. The skull is cooked, 
separately cleaned, painted, and 
imarded. Removing the bones is a 
lengthy process and must be done care- 
fully so as not to sever the limbs. .411 
bones are exposed in a tree to bleach 
. . . and be hoarded till it is convenient 
to pack them in a burial post. 



All the drawings 
are from Return 
to the Islands. 



"When the stones in the trench are 
hot. the coals are scraped away, and 
a relative grasps the hands of the now 
boneless and headless body, drapes it 
over his shoulders, .ind dances among 
the chanting, wailing horde. It is low- 
ered into the trench-oven, covered with 
bark and sand and allowed to cook to 
the accompaniment of singing and 
dancing. Most chants relate to the de- 
parting spirit, and. in them, the 
strength of the dead man is urged to 
enter the bodies of those who have con- 
sumed his flesh." 

This could hardly be bettered for 
sharp observation, terseness and tem- 
perateness. Mr. Chaseling's emotions 
are reserved for his very real admira- 
tion of these people - who live naked 
in the wilderness far more by choice 
than by lack of initiative or intelli- 
gence, and whose lack of material pos- 
sessions is balanced by a subtle social 
structure and a moving mythology. 

.\mong their other accomplishments, 
the Yulengor are excellent linguists in 
their own multiple dialects, in sign lan- 
guage and even in English. Mr. Chase- 
ling tells of a naval officer who tried to 
question an aboriginal youth in his 
best pidgin English. The boy looked 
puzzled, then asked: "Excuse me. sir, 
are you a 'New .Australian'?" 



Mr. Geroilo. a reporter of >('ience 
for many years, regularly contribute? 
book reviews to N.4TUR.\l History. 



-cvi^_ 



IN BRIEF 



Bv John Hay 




Zoolc 



Vertebrates of the United St.\tes 
by Blair. Blair. Brodkorb. Cagle. and 
Moore (McGraic-Hill, $12.00; 819 
pp.. illus.) 



'HIS compact, well-illustrated ^ 
unie covers every known species 



of 



vertebrate within the continental limits 



62 



of the United States, plus birds and 
mammals of adjacent waters. The au- 
thors point out that some errors may be 
inevitable in as extensive and detailed a 
work as this, and some arguments may 
be raised over their classifications. .\11 
the same, the material is very well pre- 
sented, and the book should prove to be 
(continued on page 108) 



SENSATIONAL OPTICAL BARGAINS 



See the Stars, Moon, Planets Close Up! 

" Astronomical Reflecting Telescope 

(Famous Mt. Palomar Type) 
60 & 120 Power — An Unusual Buy! 




A<;s 


embled — R 


eady to use ' 


Vol 


'U see the Ri 


i£s of Saturn. 


rhp 


fascinating 


planet Mars. 




e craters on the iMoon. Star 




of Jupiter m 


rifif 


ail. Galaxi 


s ! Equatorial 




nt with lock 


on both axes. 




minizprl :in,1 


overcoated 3" 






.ed f/JO mir- 


1 I- 


T. If.. ]..■ 1 


riios equipped 




■ith 



^ and l:iii power. An Opti- 
cal Finder Telescope, always s( 
liidcd. Sturdy, hardwood, portable tri- 
Valuable STAK CHART and 272- 



jge --Hand Book of He 

lock No. 85.050-E S29.50 f.o.b. 

3hiDDins wt. 10 lbs.) Barrington. N. J. 

Oriler by Stock No.— Send Check or M.O. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed ! 

4'/4" ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE! 

MT. PAIOMAR TYPE 



J^- 


^uiiranu'cd to sive theoretical 


J^^ 


Uiuit of rosoUilLon. Rack and 


JS0L 


pinion focusing, removable mir- 


j^^is 


ror iiiount. counterweight. Real 


jOt ^ 




^r /i\ * 


adjustment follows stars! Alu- 


^/l\\ 


minum tube. G Power Finder 


Tck'scope. -1 standard size Eye- 






Lens sive you powers of 40X. 


X, 120X, 270X. Mirror 




an 14 wavelength. Stock 


No. 85.006-E S74.50 f.o.b. 


rder by Stock No. 


Barrington, N. J. 


Send Check or M.O 


—Satisfaction Guaranteed! 



6" Astronomical Reflecting Telescope 

Up to 576 Power 



INFRARED SNIPERSCOPE TELESCOPE & PARTS 

See in the dark — without beiri}; observed. War surpUis Sniperscope M-2. Gov't cost about 
$1200. L'sed for industrial plant security: research lab e.xperiments : infrared photography; 
spectroscopy, etc. Instrument complete, ready to use. Includes Power Pack, infrared lisht 
source. Will operate from 6V auto battery. Battery or transformer available. 

Stock No. 85.053- E $150.00 f.o.b. 

(Shipplns "t. appros. 12 lbs.) Barrington. N. J. 

Save still more money! Build ycur own Sniperscope! We will furnish instructions 
—pans, including: Power Packs. lP2gA image tubes, light units, filters, etc. 
For details— request FREE CATALOG '-E'. 



Now — See The Satellites 

New, Low Price "SATELLITER" Telescope 

First Time-Only $9.95 Postpaid 

Get ready for a terrific sky show as 
more Satellites are vaulted into space 
See thrilling sights with our amazing 
Satellite Scope at unheard of low t 
" Iso view comets — use as a Ric 
ar clusters. 5 power-wide 12° 
outer edses because of unusual wide field Use of hir.1' 
quality war surplus optics makes possible this bargain 
Full 2" achromatic objective — large Dnim e\it pupil for 
nisht use. Scope is 10" long, weigiis less than one puund 
Stock No. 7U,I50-E $9 95 Postpaid 

We are the Manufacturers of the Famous 

MOONWATCH SATELLITE TELESCOPE! 



STEREO 
MICROSCOPE 



Tripod and 7X Find 

n e.\traordinan bu 
ost popular of amatei 
ner telescopes Bin 
;ecision Pyre\ Paraljol 
ir. You'll see all the v 
■ the sky in great detail 



l-epieces; 40X I6\ 
lus Barlow lens that 
ouble or triple the pow 





j76\ White 



iiameled aluminum tube Heavy duty equatorial 
■ipod. 7-power finder telescope Tr 
(ink. Shipplns wt 7d lbs 

$245 00 f b 



, Chart and H«nd 



lock No. 85.024 E 
rder by Stock No Barrinston N 

Send Check or IV1.0.— Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

3 " Astronomical Refractor Telescope 



Up to 270 Power 

see in sharp d 



1 of ob]ecti\es on rotating 

ret «tindard pair of «Ide 

J in\ Kellner Eyepieces M\ e 

p \Mr in i 40 power 



Order Stock No. 85.056-E 
full price . . . $99.50 f.o.b. Barrington. N. J. 

(Shipplns wt. approx. 11 Ibs.l. Send check or M.O. 

BUILD A SOLAR ENERGY FURNACE 

Wonderful Geophysical Year 
School Project 
Build your own Solar Furnace for 
e.\perimentation — many practical uses. 
It's easy — inexpensive. Use your scrap 
wood. We furnish instruction sheet. 
This sun powered furnace will sener- 
ate terrific heat — '2000" to 3000°. 
Fuses enamel to metal. Sets paper 
aflame in seconds. Use our Fresnel Li 
. . . f.l 14". 
Stock No. 70,130-E— nkg. of I 





icces and mounted Bailow lens 

ive you 40X, 90X 120X 

70X. Equatorial mount rack 

nd pinion focusing, white enameled aluminum tube Other 

larts aluminum, brass and chrome 6X Finder included. 

Uurdy. hard-wood tripod Free Star Chart and handbook. 

itock No. 85.032.E SI25.00 f.o b. 

>hippins weight 27 lbs. Barrington, N. J. 

4" REFRACTOR TELESCOPE — Larger objective: 

Heavier mount! Up to 500 Power 

Stock No. 85.038- E S247. 00 f.o.b. 

)rder by Stock No. Barrington. N. J. 

Send Check or M.O. —Satisfaction Guaranteedl 



AMERICA NEEDS SCIENTISTS! 



this GEOPHYSICAL YEAR! 



NEW! STATIC 
ELECTRICITY GENERATOR 



Absolutely safe and harmless. Sturd- 
ily made — stands 14" high. Turn the 
handle and two 9" plastic discs ro- 
tate in opposite directions. Metal 
collector bruslies pick up the static 
electricity, store it in the Leyden 
]ar type condenser until discharged 
— bj the jumping spark. Countless 
~ tucks and experiments. 24 page in- 
struction booklet included. 
Stock No. 70.070-E SI0.95 Postpaid 



50-150-300 POWER MICROSCOPE 

3 Acromatic Objective Lenses on 
Rivolving Turret 
Imported' 1 1 i ' I i i 



far supern i 
in the miti 



Stock No. 30-197-E $5.00 Pstnd. 




n J Combination.' Pocket-Size 

50 POWER MICROSCOPE 

and 10 POWER TELESCOPE 

Useful Telescope and Microscope combii 



Te 



. looking at small objects. 

Stock No. 30,059-E $4.50 BPd. 

Send Check or M.O. 
Satisfaction Guaranteed! 



Real 150 Power Astronomical Telescope 

Achromatic Lens! 
Refractor Type! 

Only $16 95 Postpaid 

Edmund cracks llu |.iim 
b inter with i m uui 
dous Scope of t\(tiKiii 
quilitj and perl inn iii i 
at low low prui. I II ii 
r izor sharp vuwiii^ nt 



objc( 



scoop Mcwiiie) Remotable cje- 
Glaie stops in tube' Lens mounts 
in' 50 75 and 150 power' Tube 
M„ncd attachment clamp for solid 
M 'I \ back guirintee Included 
t ihL Heavens Star Chirt— 

$16 95 Postpaid 



LARGER 42MM OBJECTIVE MODEL- 
powei— same features as above, with 3S" 
(included free: "Handbook of the Heaven 



..$19.95 Postpaid 



DIRECT MEASURING POCKET MICROSCOPE 

- 50 POWER 




..liss etched leticle calibrated fi i i '"" 

b\ 001 divisions Estimates tn i. i Ir 

I hlome lefltctoi at base of iii n mi m i n - liln on 

iibjcU e\imincd oi measuied Stuidv cunscuictiun. 

Stock No. 30.225-E $7.95 Postpaid 



SWIVEL-CLAMP MAGNIFIER 




stock No. 30.24CI-E 



To'J^FREECATALOG-E 


Hugesel 


ctionof Unses, 


r7~TBlB^-7;^ ^ 




or surplus op- 


\ ~"f -lOrfi' ! '^ "^''' 1 


tical ins 


ruments, ports 


1. '</K9BI r ' '^\ 


and ace 


essories. Tele- 


1 . '...ffipF ■, -•■ 




microscopes, 


I S ' ^^r ' 


salellile 


elescopes, bi- 


f]\^"-'y^'\ 


noccilars. 


InfraredSnlp- 


erscopes 


& ports, reti- 


?p^^| 


cles, mi 




rulings. 


do.ens of 




■d-to-get op- , 




tical Iten 


IS. America's *" 


^ itf 


No. 1 sou 


rce of supply 


■■■ 


for Pho 
scope M 


ographers, He 
jkers, etc. Ask 


bbyists, Tele- 
for catalog E. 



PRDfR BY STOCK NUMBf II . SfND CHICK OK MONfY OMDH . SAJISt ACTION GUAKANTttDI 

EDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO.# barrington/ new jersey 



^(n t<^iftann^MJ^ ^cc€^tt<4t,.. 



Ikr (JfHf »* 




J^; 





Knowledge today is preparation for tomor- 
roM . With the increasing emphasis on science 
may Me suggest a fine instrument or book for 
those with this special interest. 

Science Guide Set 

• Preparation of Rough Skeletons — 20 pages 

• Preparation of Small Mammals for Study — 54 pages 

• Preparation of Birds for Study — 4o pages 

Complete Set $1,40, postpaid 



Microscope and Dissecting Kit 

• lllOx. 2O0x. 3U0x. turret microscope 

• 6 prepared slides 

• wooden carrying case 

• instruction booklet 

• 6 piece dissecting kit consists of: spatula, scalpel, 

scissors, tweezers, 3 mounting pins, magni- 
fying glass and plastic case. 

Dissecting kit only — 83.00. postpaid 
Complete set — SI 0.50. postpaid 




Slide Preparation Kit 

• 12 blank glass slides 

• 12 cover glasses 

• 1 tube mounting cement 

• red leatherette slide case 
$1.10, postpaid 




Hunting Y«ith the Microscope 

136 page paper covered book 
45 explanatory line drawings 
13 photo micrographs 

Learn how to prepare cultures, identify blood- 
stains, detect forgeries, collect and observe speci- 
mens, and take photo micrographs. 

SI. 15, postpaid 



Members are entitled to a lO'r discount. Please do 
not send cash. Send vour chock or monev order to: 

THE MUSEUM SHOP 

The American Museum of \atural History, New York 24, N. Y. 




ORIGIN 

OF 

THE 

DOG 



By Edwin H. Colbert 



THIS MONTH, for the eiglity- 
secuiid time since its inception 
in 1877, the Westminster Kennel Club 
will hold its annual show in New 
York City. Some twenty-five hundred 
dogs, representing over a hundred 
different breeds, will be put into com- 
petition for the highest honor in 
U. S. kennel circles— "best in show" 
at the Westminster. Each will already 
have won recognition at one or more 
of a thousand dog shows in the U. S. 
or Canada, and each will represent 
a special effort at selective breeding. 
Among the countless millions of 
dogs in this countrv, only a handful 
will be represented at the Westmin- 
ster show— indeed, the fanciers of 
pure-bred dogs are a minority in the 
ranks of the nation's dog-owners. 
But selective breeder and ordinary 
owner, alike, are harboring, in their 
canine companions, a mammalian 
lineage substantially more ancient 
than man himself. 

The spaniel on the warm hearth 
rug twitches his feet and utters shoi't, 
sharp whines as he sleeps. Perhaps, 
we think, at this moment he remem- 
bers neither rug nor the comfort of 
the fireside: he dreams of the fields. 

65 



Domestic creatures today, dogs have a long history. 
Lack of anatomical specialization lias allowed their 
development from far-ranging jiredator to fireside pet 



running in hot eagerness after a 
bounding fluff of white cottontail, 
across the tall grass and the rough 
bushes that mark the forest's edge. 
Suddenly, the spell is broken— our 
spaniel wakes with a start and looks 
around him. Perhaps a bit astonished, 
we think, to find himself not in the 
cold fields but. rather, here by the 
fires warmth, shut in from the out- 
doors by house walls. 

Why should our spaniel— or a 
hundred other breeds of dog— be 
here, living the comfortable life of 
vassal to his master, rather than 
ranging the fields and woods as a 
free predator with his fellows? Why 
should he accept, with obvious de- 
light, dinner from a can. rather than 
closing-in on wild prev with a final 
burst of savage speed? Why should 
our spaniel carry long, floppv 
leathers— thai get into the feed.ng 
d'sh- rather than short ears, erect 
and alert for the sounds of the wild? 
Wliy should his coat be silken and 
curly, rather than of the short, rough 
hair that would protect him from 
thorns and branches and the biting 
winds of night? 

THE ANSWER, we know, is that he is 
here, partly, because his ancestors 
were hunters and. partly, bc-a'ise his 
kind and his master's kind ha\e 
grown up together, in mutual affec- 
tion and understanding, for unknown 
millennia— before the time of Roman 
and Greek, before the earliest Egyp- 
tians, back to the days before pol- 
ished stone, when all men. too. were 
hunters. For both human and canine 
discovered, those thousands of years 
ago, that by joining forces in the chase 
they could help one another. 

But. even beyond those remote 
events, the dog owes his presence to 
a vastly more ancient evolutionary 
history— one that must be measured 
in millions of years, rather than 
thousands— going back to davs when 
the world «as a much different place. 

66 



In those distant davs of earth his- 
tory— some sixty million years ago, 
after the disappearance of the dino- 
saurs, but before the evolution of 
the mammals we know today— the 
continents were inhabited by hosts of 
animals that would seem strange and 
wonderful to our modern eves. Ge- 
ologists call this the Eocene epoch: 
the continents were blanketed with 
tropical and subtropical forests, ex- 
tending far into northern latitudes, 
and among these great expanses of 
jungle were low", lush savannas. 
There were no upland prairies, as 
we know them today, no towering 
mountain ranges to intercept the 
movements of warm air masses, no 
caps of ice covering the poles. In 
short, this was a rather uniform 
world and in this world lived the 
primitive mammals that inherited the 
earth after the dinosaurs extinction. 

Some of these earlv mammals were 
ancestors of our modern ones: many.' 
ho^^'eyer. were early "experiments'" in 
mammalian evolution, destined for 
extinction. Among these early mam- 
mals, as we trace the origin of the 
dog. we note a sroun of small car- 
nivores, called "miacids"' (after 
Miacis. the characteristic genusK 

Miacis. in general annearance. was 
small, long-bodied, long-tailed and 
rather short-legged — probably very 
similar in general appearance to 
some of the Old \^ orld civets of 
today. Indeed, certain jungle-dwell- 
ing civets of the Orient today ap- 
parently have changed very little 
since the days of their miacid an- 
cestors. Among the inhabitants of the 
late Eocene forests. Miacis and his 
cousins were inconspicuous animals 
that occupied no very prominent 
place. Yet. of all the great arrav of 
carnivores that hunted their prev 



Dr. Colbert, after a brief period of 
teaching, came to the American Mu- 
seum in 1930. He i- no« the Curator 
of Fo-il Reptile- ami Amphibians. 



across the continents of those times, 
they were— to the modern student nf 
evolution— the most significant. For 
the miacids were the direct ancestors 
of all modern carnivores: the wolves 
and foxes and their relatives, the 
bears, raccoons, pandas, weasels, 
skunks, minks, otters, badgers and 
the like, the Old World civets, 
hyenas and cats, and even the sea 
lions, seals and walruses. 

WHY should miacid progeny have 
multiplied so successfully, even- 
tually to displace the larger carnivores 
that had preceded them as the hunters 
of plant-eating animals? What did the 
miacids ha\e that made their descen- 
dants so much more efficient? The 
answer probably is to be found 
above all. in brain size. The miacids 
had comparati\elv large brains: it 
may follow that they were intelli 
gent to a degree that gave them some 
distinct advantages over their prinii 
tive conteiiT'oraries. In the evolution 
of the meat-eating mammals, we be- 
lieve, this intelligence has prevailed. 
At least, it is certain that the primi- 
tive and smaller-brained carnivores 
that preceded and lived with the mia- 
cids were, in time, crowded off the 
face of the earth. 

In addition to their larger brains, 
the miacids had another physical ad- 
vantage. Two teeth on each side of 
the jaw— the last uppei premnlar and 
the first lower molar— were special- 
ized as shearing blades. This forward 
position of special cutting-teeth, 
called carnassials. also appears to 
have given the miacids an edge over 
their contemporaries, whose carnassial 
teeth were farther back in the jaw. 

It is to this combination— a rela- 
tively large brain and forward car- 
nassial teeth— that we attribute the 
evolutionary success of Miacis. and 
his descendants, for more than fifty 
million years of the earths history. 

During the Oligocene epoch, the 
geologic period that followed the 




Evolutionary "Tree," in simplified form, shows rise of selec- 
ted modern carnivores from the civet-like Miacis of the late 
Eocene, with its comparatively larger brain and forward 
carnassial teeth, bottom. Above is Hesperocyon, ancestor 
to all of the canids, and to the raccoons as well. At left. 



above this, is the "bear-dog," Hem/cyon-astride the divid- 
ing line between Miocene and Pliocene— ancestor to all the 
bears. Right, above Tomorctus, is the "experimental failure," 
Borophagus. And finally, in the Pleistocene, stands the 
genetically plastic Corns, ancestor of modern dog and wolf. 

67 



Eocene, carnivores that can be rec- 
ognized as canids (the "dogs"— using 
this word in a very broad sense— 
and their relatives 1 first appeared. 
There were two important types of 
Oligocene canids. One was a small, 
slender carnivore— obviously not very 
far removed from its miacid ances- 
tors of the Eocene. The other was 
a large, heavy, long-tailed type. The 
first. Hesperocyon I formerly called 
Cynodictis or Pseudocynodictis) , was 
the ultimate common ancestor not 
oidv of the dog family but also of 
the raccoons. The second, Daphaenus, 
was ancestral to the bears. 

As thev evolved, the latter group- 
large doglike carnivores that derived 
from Daphaenus— became ever laiger 
and heavier. During the next geo- 
logic epoch, the Miocene, this trend 
led to a genus known as Hemicyoii, 
a "bear-dog" almost as large as a 
modern bear. Indeed. Hemicyon was 
the direct ancestor of the early bears, 
which made their first appearance in 
the following Pliocene epoch. While 
the bear-dogs were thus growing 
into bears ( from a base exemplified 
by Dapliaentis\ . the dogs and the 
raccoons, meanwhile, were evolving 
from a base exemplified by Hesper- 
ocyon. The trends in these two 
groups \vere quite divergent. 

THE RACCOONS (some of which 
eventuallv gave rise to the Orien- 
tal pandas of today I became versatile 
carnivores, good at scrambling o\ er 
rocks, and wading or swimming in 
rivers and lakes: fond of eating al- 
most everything— crayfish, small ani- 
mals, and even berries and fruits. 
The dogs, following a different trend, 
became fast and tireless running 
predators, in all probability working 
together to pursue and bring down 
their prev. The perfection of their 
anatomy for fast running— especially 
the development of long, strong legs. 
compact paws and powerful hack 
muscles— together with our postulated 
evolution of co-operative behavior, 
made the canids what they are today. 
A gradual development, it involved 
several different lines. 

One such line leads straight from 
Hesperocyon to today's wild hunting 
dogs of India and Africa. The main 
evolutionary line, however, goes first 



Leonardo da Vinci drawing .shows close 
study this great master gave to dogs. 



to a Miocene canid. known as Tom- 
arcliis. and thence on to the wolves 
and foxes of our modern world. 
From Tomarctus also arose an in- 
teresting side line of canid evolution 
— one that parallels the development 
from Daphaenus to the bear-dogs. 
This branch is characterized by a 
Pliocene genus. Borophagus. a laige 
heavv canid of the New World, with 
a massive skull and powerful jaws. 
But Borophagus and its relatives had 
no place to go, for the bear-dogs 
had preceded them and had grown 
into bears. Large and impressive as 
were canids like Borophagus. thev ap- 
parently could not compete with bears 



(which were larger) or with other 
dogs (which were certaiid) fasten. 

So IT WAS that the central line of 
canid evolution became dominant. 
Through the Pliocene epoch and on 
into Pleistocene times, when the 
great glaciers advanced and retreated 
to the north, the wild dogs of tlie 
world developed, step by step, into 
their modern types: the wolves, coy- 
otes and jackals, the foxes and fin- 
necs and. as a separate and paralK 1 
line of canid evolution alreadv noted. 
the hunting dogs of India and Afri( ,i. 
The Eurasiatic and North Ainei i- 
can wolves hold an ugly place in llie 







68 




Florentine painter. Andrea del Sarto 
(1486-1531), did this intimate sketch. 



folklore of our culture. To our not 
so very distant ancestors, wolves were 
the dread enemies of winter nights- 
powerful, cunning adversaries that 
would pursue an unfortunate late 
traveler through forests and across 
fields, to pull him down at the very 
gates of a town. The howl of the 
wolf pack and the gleam of eves in 
the starlight have been a terror to 
men for thousands of years. 

YET these very traits of cunning and 
ferocity, of co-operation in the 
hunt, of tireless pursuit, are what 
have led to the long history of fellow- 
ship and interdependence between 
man and dog. Wolves have been 
sociable and intelligent hunters at 
least since the beginning of the Ice 
Age. and so have men. All evidence 
points to the derivation of modern 
dogs directly from the wolf of the 
Northern Hemisphere. Modern dogs 
show the same behavior patterns 
characteristic of wolves and, more- 
over, crossbreed readily with wolves 
—a sure sign of close genetic rela- 
tionship. We may hypotheticate a 
captured wolf cub as the start of this 
chain, but speculation is idle until 
the archeologists give us many more 
reports on early associations between 
dogs and men. In any case, both the 
association and the original stock 
constitute known facts. 



Perhaps best animal artist of Italian 
Renaissance was Pisanello (1397— 1455) . 



If our spaniel by the fire— and the 
millions of other dogs in homes and 
farms and camps round the world — 
are, in this sense, tractable wolves, 
■svhy are most of them so different 
from wolves in appearance? We have 
seen that the central line of canid 
evolution has been characterized by 
quite limited anatomical specializa- 
tions—for example, the developments 
associated with fast running. Indeed, 
canid evolution, extending through 
the millions of years from late Eocene 
to modern days, has produced a 
generalized, rather than a special- 
ized organism. This, we hold, has left 
the later canids genetically plastic. 

It may be useful to emphasize this 
point bv comparing dogs with cats. 
During Oligocene times, when the 
canids had hardly begun their long 
history of development and Hespero- 
cyon stood a long way removed from 
today's wolves and foxes, the cats 
had already become full-fledged cats. 
Since the Oligocene, cats have con- 
tinued through millions of years with 
very little structural change. Nor are 
today's cats subject to much genetic 
variation, in spite of man's efforts 
to breed varieties. Our house cats 
may come in different colors and 
hair styles, but anatomically they 
are all very much alike. 

There has been no such anatomic 
rigidity among the canids. As long 
as man remained a hunter, his dogs 
fulfilled their primary function as 
hunting companions. And they ap- 
parently remained pretty much of 
one tvpe— very likely, a sort of gen- 
eralized "yellow dog" not much dif- 
ferent from the modern Dingo of 
Australia. But when man achieved 
leisure as an agriculturist, he had time 



to experiment with dog breeds, and 
the dogs were no longer limited to the 
function of the chase. Some could 
be used as watchers of herds and 
flocks: others could be bred purely 
as companions in the home. With 
leisure, it ^\as not difficult— nor un- 
desirable—for man to seize upon sud- 
den mutations among his dogs, and 
breed for the characters that so for- 
tuitously appeared. This appears to 
be the means whereby the dooryards 
of men are now populated by big 
dogs and little ones, short-legged and 
long-legged, by dogs with pug noses 
and dogs with long faces, by dogs 
with long hair, short hair, and even 
with almost no hair at all. 

Actually, few of the hundred or 
£\_ more distinct breeds of dogs that 
grace our mid-twentieth century can 
be traced back more than a few hun- 
dred years. Today's business of pro- 
ducing and preserving a myriad dif- 
ferent sort of dogs is largely an as- 
pect of today's culture — in which 
many dogs are more ornamental than 
utilitarian and few, if any, are 
hunters in the aboriginal fashion. 

So we return to our spaniel by the 
hearth. Certainly there is little re- 
semblance between this small, long- 
haired, droopy-eared pet and the 
great gaunt wolves that harried the 
reindeer across Europe when France 
^^ as a region of polar snows. Yet, 
basically, our spaniel is the sport 
of some tractable wolf that aban- 
doned a wild and independent life 
to become the willing servant and 
companion of man. This rewarding 
association for both man and dog bids 
fair to continue so long as there are 
men and dogs in the world. 




69 



THE LAST OF 

THE REINDEER 

LAPPS 

Among the Samer, these herding nomads 
are on the verge of extinction today 

By Ernst Manker 



EXACTLY WHEN it was that the 
Lapps— those distinctive boreal 
nomads who lived by hunting and 
fishing— first came to the Finno-Scan- 
dian region is not known. In all prob- 
ability, the event occurred while 
glacial ice still covered the central 
parts of the Scandinavian Peninsula. 
North of the present Baltic basin, 
where the gigantic glacier calved its 
icebergs into the Yoldia Sea, there 



existed from early times an ice-free 
corridor stretching westward along 
the coast of the Arctic Ocean. Remains 
dating from Paleolithic times — the 
so-called "Konisa" findings — quite 
probably stemmed from these first in- 
habitants of the area, the ancestors of 
our present-day Lapps. 

Large herds of wild reindeer fol- 
lowed the line of the ice and. in their 
wake, followed the early hunters. On 




In LATf, String, the lehuleei leave the 
lowlands and head for summer pasture- 
in the high mountains— a torrent of 



antlers and flanks pouring over the 
land. Iflt. The nomad family follows, 
with its baggage on carrier reindeer. 

71 




Lapp territory, some two thousand 
years ago. extended south and west of 
their present range, tone. Now. tiny 



inlialjit only the Kola Peninsula and 
northern Finland. Sweden and Norway. 
btirs. with winter extensions in south. 



land, thev pursued the reindeer and 
other animals: on the sea. the\ fished 
or hunted the seal and the polar bear, 
ihev were people from the East, who 
had wended their way from the region 
of the L rals o\er the Karelian Penin- 
sula and across what is Finland today. 

A A RACE, the Lapps of today can 
claim to be unique. Neither Mon- 
goloid nor Indo-European, they seem 
to be the remains of a paleoarctic race 
of their own. sprung up somewhere 
between the w hite and the yellow vari- 
eties of mankind. Their main physical 
characteristics include short stature 
I about fi\ e feet to five feet, two inches 
for men and four feet, nine inches to 
four feet, eleven inches for women i : 
low skulls, triangular-shaped faces; 
fair, almost sunburnt skins; dark hair 
and brown e\es. Linguisticallv. they 
speak an old form of Finno-l gric. 
For thousands of years, the Lapps 




known to the \\Titers of old as the 
■eiiiii (Finns I, and to themselves as 
)fl?;ier— lived only as hunters. Then, 
he da} dawned when those Lapps who 
hvelt in the central regions of the 
country realized that it was better 
!Conomy in every way to follow and 
end a given herd of reindeer, rather 
han to squander the animals and 
righten many of them aivay by the 
nassacre of thousands in pits and 
gullies. And so, the ancient Lapps 
tarted to herd the reindeer— on a 
)rimitive scale at first, but. as time 
jassed. in much the same ivay as do 
he Lapps of today. 

Of the reindeer, there are two vari- 
eties: mountain and woodland. The 
nountain reindeer migrate in the sum- 
nertime— to the highlands or out to 
he Atlantic coast. The woodland rein- 
leer remain in the forests all year 
•ound— although, in summer, they 
end to move up to the low mountains. 
(continued on page 11 ) 








Day's march over, the pack-deer are breaking them for baggage animals is 
unloaded and camp made. The carrier often a struggle. Each herder's tent 
reindeer are more wild than tame, and fits on its portable framework, helow. 




Tent raised, the women's work is be- 
gun: unpacking household goods and 
rations, below. Most of the reindeer- 



herding Lapps, today, dwell in Sweden. 
They number some three thousand, but 
very few of these are still fully nomadic. 




t2i. L t 



\.>V' 



73 




Staple of Lapps, reindeer are used for >^ 
ever>' purpose. Above, meat from rein- 
deer is hung up to drj' on wooden rack. 



Hide boots, one of many reindeer pro- 
ducts, are stuffed with a thick lining 
of grass, below, used instead of socks. 



Onl blKl' ill liie ciiiiiij; 111 hides is 
shown, above, as a Lapp woman spreads 
skins out for softening in an icy stream. 



Intkn 1 L\iM' HKRDER. right, whittles 
harness pin to be used with new gear in 
foreground, also made of reindeer hide. 




74 



M 

M^^^^ 

^¥- 



^Ktmm 



< -/4- 





Fear and boldness are mingled in the 
expression of this Lapp youngjter. who. 
tnie til the traditions of his people, will 



76 



spend much of his time, from his ear- 
liest childhood on, amidst the reindeer 
of his family's herd. Even today, when 



reindeer herding is becoming increas- 
ingly industrialized, some entire Lapp 
families still journey with their herds. 



(continued jrom page 73) 
In winter, both varieties seek protec- 
tion and grazing in the woods which 
border the Gulf of Bothnia. 

The Lapps who chose to tend the 
woodland reindeer became only semi- 
nomadic, living in permanent wooden 
shacks during the summer and need- 
ing to travel with the herds only in the 
wintertime. The Lapps who, instead, 
chose to follow the mountain reindeer 
became completely nomadic. Carrying 
their tents with them, they moved with 
the migrating herds, both summer and 
winter, up from the Baltic coast to 
the highlands or across to the Atlantic 
coast— in all. covering a migratory 
range of 250 to 300 miles. 

By nature, the migrating reindeer 
herds follow customary routes, gener- 
ally limited by the main waterways, 
and the Lapps follow the same trail. 
A team of herders, a sita, consisting 
of one or more families, thus arrives 
in much the same area at each turn of 
season— summer, autumn, winter and 
spring. This annual movement follows 
a definite cycle, even though not de- 
termined by clock or calendar. The 
Lapps divide their year into eight 
periods: "winter-spring," "spring," 
"spring-summer," "summer," "sum- 
mer-autumn," "autumn." "autumn- 
winter" and "winter"— the latter fol- 
lowed again by "winter-spring." By 
and large, "winter-spring," "spring- 
summer," "summer-autumn" and 
"autumn-winter" are the migratory 
periods: during the remaining four 
seasons, more permanent camps are 
set up. This is especially so in autumn, 
the best time for the annual slaughter, 
and the time of the reindeer rutting 
season. It is also true of spring, when 
the calves are born. 

ALTHOUGH the Lapps are popularly 
^ known in the outside world as. 
primarily, nomads and herders of rein- 
deer, only a minority of them ever 
became truly nomadic. By far the ma- 
jority of Lapps lived on as hunters and 
fishers along the Atlantic and Arctic 
shores. Eventually settling by lakes 
and rivers, they turned to fishing and 
primitive farming for a livelihood. 
The eastern Lapps— those living in 
Petsamo and on the Kola Peninsula — 
also followed the custom of their kins- 
folk in northern Finland and Scan- 
dinavia in that they, too. lived off the 
reindeer. But they remained in a stage 
midway between herding and hunting. 
An eastern Lapp sita had a common 
winter abode, from which they ven- 




Lasso practice is a necessary part of 
the early education of Lapp youths 
brought up in the old style. In these pic- 



tures, young Lapp learns how from big 
brother, top. himself tries, center, vic- 
toriously draws the rope tight, bottom. 




When crown up. Lapp youngster will 
seldom use his lasso in open country, 
but rather within the enclosed corral 



where, twice a year, the "rarkning." or 
separation of reindeer, both for identifica- 
tion and breeding purposes, takes place. 





Versatile Lapp herders are also ex- as trading. Aborc the skin of a glutton, 
pert at hunting and fishing, use other small animal akin to marten or saljle, 
animals for food and clothing, as well is stretched on a simple frame to dry. 




Domestic crafts are shared between men do carving in wood or bone. Patterns 
men and women among Lapps, with embroidered on Lapp fabrics originate 
women sewing and weaving, crfeoi'e, while in designs of Scandinavian bronze age. 



tured radially in the summer toward 
fishing waters and hunting groiuids, 
while some of the more tame reindeer 
grazed within the group area. 

THE LIFE of the truly nomadic Lapp, 
made known to the world by the 
writings of the seventeenth-century au- 
thor. Johannes Schefferus, is thus the 
culture of only one group of Lapps— 
those of the Scandinavian interior. 
This culture reflects a remarkable 
adaption to natural conditions and 
available assets. Much Lapp equip- 
ment is ingenious. The design of the 
ambulatory tent, the kata, is unique 
among dwelling forms conceived by 
man. The boatlike sledge, the akja, 
glides smoothly over snow, through 
reeds and brush, and over bumps and 
stones. The harness and reins for draft 
and pack-reindeer are simple but ef- 
fective. So are the lasso and the tech- 
niques employed when slaughtering, 
gelding and taming reindeer. 

A further example of adaption is the 
social organization o{ the sita. which 
evidences a happy combination of pri- 
vate and communal ownership. The 
individual notches cut intt) the rein- 
deers ears are clear evidence of the 
strength of the private-ownership con- 
cept. To see his herd increase gives 
each owner the will to work ever 
harder. Yet, the practice of communal- 
herding guards all the animals 
against such hazards as bad weather, 
dangerous terrain and wild predators. 

I.N A SIMILAR WAY. one may see ele- 
ments in the old Lapp religion de- 
ri\ ed from contact w ith the hard forces 
of nature. The sun. the thunder and 
the wind were reckoned divine forces 
and everv district over w hich the Lapps 
wandered was governed by its ruling 
spirit. The Lapps sought to appease 
these deities to ensure the growth of 
their herds, the successful crossing of 
difficult mountain passes, and the gen- 
eral life and health of the people. For 
a people living in such close contact 
with nature, it was not unusual that 
thev should credit natural phenomena 
w ith spiritual powers. The Lapps were 
aniniists and their religion involved a 
shamanist worship of nature. The 
main instrument of the naid. the Lapp 
shamr.n. was the drum, and the Lapp 
drum was perhaps the most uni([ue of 
all shamans' drums. The naid was 
capable of using his drum to reach a 
state of ecstasy in which he cast of! 
his earthly shackles and came into 



78 



10> 






Pensive young couple seated beside 
the fire breathe a wordless prayer in 
their tent before their evening meal. 



Tents, or "cots." their earthen floors 
covered by a layer of brushwood, are 
sometimes the only home these nomadic 







people know. The "cots" are made from 
thin canvas, not hides, stretched upon 
either curved- or forked-pole frames. 

79 



contact with the Lapp gDcls aiitl spii its. 
He adorned liis drum with nustic and 
s\niholic figures— applied with his 
blood-red saliva, a result of chewing 
alder bark— and could use the drum as 
a soothsa\ er uses his crystal, interpret- 
ing these drawings as the answers of 
the spirits, to foresee the future. 

The old Lapp religion died some 
two hundred years ago. when Chris- 
tian missionaries made concerted ef- 
forts to convert the people. Today, the 
time is not far distant when all of the 
old Lapp culture \vill similarh belong 



Dr. Manker hii> ,-incc \n'l |,,.,>ii Su- 
perintendent of 111,- Nordi-Uj Mnseet. 
in .Slockliohn. and I )ii ,-, ti,, „f im 1,;,,,,, 
Sci-lion. He i> al.n llic .'iljii,r „( the 
Mn>enmV perindiial. t,l„ l.„i,iH>nirii 



to the past. Of the approximately 
3.5. OOO La|jps now sjjrcad <i\er north- 
ern Scandinaxia. northern Finland 
and the Kola Peninsula, not more 
than one-fifth still herd reindeer. In 
Suedcn. where most reindeer-herding 
is still carried on. only about 3.000 of 
the 10.000 Lapps derive their liveli- 
hood from reindeer. Reindeer-herding 
today, like the Lapp"s traditional wax 
of life, has developed along new lines. 
During the past few decades, the 
Lapps have been quickly absorbed 
into modern ways. Herding has be- 
come increasingly industrialized, with 
its main object the |)roduetion of 
meat. Herders" families have become 
more and more urbanized, with only 
the men— equipped uith the latest ac- 
cessories-going out to lend the beasts. 



Rather than the custom of former 
days, when the pack-reindeer were 
loaded and whole groups of families 
moved with the herds, today, one fam- 
d>. at the most, or a few members of 
one family, will move up to the sum- 
mer land for a period of a few weeks— 
just like city dwellers spending their 
summer's week or two in the country. 

BDTti the herders and their families 
now use modern means of com- 
nmnications: motorboats, cars, buses 
and even airplanes. In the remote 
Sarek district, where there are neither 
roads nor canals, the airplane is now 
competing with and ousting the pack- 
reindeer. Today, instead of tents or 
turf huts, the Lapps are building mod- 
ern dv\ellings— in some places, fully 



iiitf liiiT liiinSi 




modern houses with hot and cold 
water, toilets, electricity, and stainless 
steel kitchen units. This is proving a 
boon to the men: at the close of the 
tent epoch, it was very difficult for a 
bachelor herder to persuade the girl 
of his choice to set up house in no 
better home than a tent. 

However, even now, a few families 
in the Yokkmokk and Karesuando 
regions still pursue the old nomadic 
Hfe. The katas are no longer carried 
when the family moves up to the 
mountains — the last one passed 
through Sarek in the summer of 1954 
—but these people still spend certain 

Slaughter. OF reindeer takes place in 
autumn, when superfluous bulls, below, 
are herded and slain before rutting time. 



times of the year in permanent katas. 
The reindeer are still used as pack 
animals or to draw the Lapp sledges. 
This may continue for a few more 
years— and then these habits wiU have 
given way to new ones. 

But, even when all this has passed 
away, the reindeer will still be there. 
The present census of reindeer in the 
Swedish Lapp territories is 300,000, 
the largest figure ever. Nor are these 
unique people dying out. As they 
gradually forsake the old nomadic 
way of life, the reindeer-herding 
Lapps are slowly becoming a part of 
modern Scandinavian society. 

Winter fair is held in one of the larger 
church villages, above. Lapps offer 
mainly skins and handicrafts for sale. 








Naturalist's Notebook 




^''W^ , 




INSECT ACROBAT: 

FEATS OF 

THE HOUSEFLY 

How the common-but agile-housefly 
can make its upside-down landings and 
manages to escape sudden danger 
through its instantaneous take-offs 



How DOES the common fly man- 
age to land so neatly upside 
down — on the ceiling of a room or 
the underside of a leaf? The answer 
to this question has eluded investiga- 
tors for years, while the question it- 
self has been posed, with increasing 
frequency, since man, himself, has 
become a creature of flight. 

His own experiences with flying 
have led man to investigate the aero- 
dynamics of insects and birds. Para- 
doxically, despite all that has been 
learned from these studies, modern 
aircraft have almost nothing, aero- 
dynamically, in common with animal 
methods of flight. Nonetheless, these 
researches have resuUed in many val- 
uable additions to knowledge and a 
number of practical applications. 

In the field of insect flight, in par- 
ticular, it was not until the develop- 
ment of high-speed photography that 
many questions could be investigated. 
Photographic studies of the drone 
fly ("How Flies Fly," Natural His- 
tory, February, 1948), for example, 
clarified many points — among them 
the actual motion of insect wings, the 
method of steering and the way sud- 
den turns are made by "feathering" 
one wing. Another discovery — use- 

Fly's underbelly is exposed to camera 
through glass ceiling of box in which 
experiments were conducted. Light spot 



By C. Howard Curran 



Dr. Curran is a Canadian by birth, 
who has passed most of his scientific 
career at The American Museum of 
Natural History, vshere, since 1947, 
he has been a curator of Entomology. 



ful to gyroscope research — is the 
role played by the rapidly vibrating 
halteres of the drone fly. This pair of 
knoblike organs, located behind and 
below the wings of every fly, vibrate 
as rapidly as the insect's wings and 
serve as gyroscopic stabilizers during 
its times of flight. 

This research, however, confined it- 
self to principals of flight and no at- 
tempt was made to study techniques 
of take-off or landing. 

Recently, a professional photogra- 
pher — Don Ollis, of Santa Barbara, 
California — solved the major prob- 
lem in studying insect landings: the 
task of making the specimens perform. 
He noticed that a fly, placed in a dark- 
ened box, was attracted to a not-too- 
bright spot of light. This behavior 
permitted OUis to preset his camera at 
a fixed point and then attract the in- 
sect into perfect focus. Thereafter, it 
was a relatively simple matter to in- 
duce flies to land on an illuminated 
spot on the ceiling of a darkened box. 



on ceiling of the darkened box was 
used to attract fly toward top. Note 
large suction pads on the insect's feet. 



83 



siM^^M&^i:>:.-^' 




\ 





' * 



In the first stage of landing, fly is 
anciiored to ceiling by front legs, held 
over its head since early in flight, left. 

and photograph the insects in action. 



MAXV 
anic 



Y amateur theorists — chief 
jiiiong tliem, fliers — have sug- 
gested the half-roll as the flv's means 
of upside-down landing. What OUis' 
pictures show, instead, is that a fly. en 
route to an overhead landing, ap- 
proaches the ceiling at a rather sharp 
angle, stretching its front legs upward 
on either side of its head. When the 
fly's sharp claws and pulvilli (the 
pads at the end of the feet) make con- 
tact, the insect is thrown into a half- 
somersault, coming to rest directly op- 
posite to its motion in flight. If one 






Somersault is key to landing. Flight 
momentum and kicking legs flip insect 
onto belly, front legs acting as pivot. 

front leg catches before the other, 
there is a slight yaw and the insect 
lands at a lesser angle of opposition 
to its flight direction. 

In taking off. the fly throws its 
front end violently into the air at the 
same instant that its wings begin to 
move. The direction of flight varies 
according to the cause of take-off. If 
a fly is frightened by a disturbance 
from the front, it will throw itself up- 
ward until its body is vertical and de- 
part on the opposite heading as soon 
as airborne. If the disturbance is 
from behind, the fly will take off grace- 
fully on a forward heading, climbing 



Landing is completed as fly sets other 
legs on ceiling. It now faces exactly 
opposite to the direction of its ascent. 

at an angle of thirty to forty-five de- 
grees. If the disturbance is to one 
side, the fly will also take off forward, 
but immediately change course to fly 
away from the disturbance. 

THERE has been much discussion 
concerning the function of the 
pulvilli, which are more or less well- 
developed in all flies and which some 
observers believe exude an adhesive 
substance. While there is no doubt 
that the pulvilli facilitate a fly's grasp 
on vertical and inverted surfaces, very 
many insects, that do not even possess 
pulvilli, can perform the same upside- 



Fly rests on ceiling, firmly attached 
by pulvilli (foot pads), which grip sur- 
face by suction, not sticky secretion. 



down feats. The contention that the 
pulvilli are sticky is almost certainly 
mistaken. What is certain is that the 
pads act as suction cups, serving to 
anchor the fly firmly. 

This feature, combined with the in- 
nate advantage of six-leggedness, is 
clearly an asset. At each forward mo- 
tion of the legs, three of the fly's feet 
remain in contact with the surface, 
so that the walking fly is supported 
by a tripod. And, as is well known to 
anyone who has done his share of 
summer swatter drill, a fly — on six 
legs or three — is always prepared 
for instantaneous take-off. 




^. 




Jump take-off is caused by sudden dis- 
turbance as fly throws its front end 
violently into the air and at the same 



moment begins to move its wings. 
Direction of fly"s take-off varies ac- 
cording to source of the disturbance. 

85 




SYMBIOSIS: 

Pari II 



Collecting lichens, the author has 
traveled from Finland and Norway to 
Newfoundland in the north, and to the 

86 



Argentine Alps and Antarctica in the 
south. Above, he inspects an alpine 
variety, high on Vulcan Peak, Oregon. 



AT THE PRESENT TIME, when 
£\_ travel into outer space seems 
increasingly possible, interest is rising 
over the question of life on the other 
planets of our solar system. '"Scien- 
tist Finds New- Evidence of Life on 
Mars," ran a recent headline. Accord- 
ing to this account. Dr. William Sin- 
ton, of the Lowell Observatory at 
Flagstaff, Arizona, has been making 
spectroscopic studies of the red and 
green fourth planet. He has found that 
the wave lengths absorbed on its sur- 
face agree with the spectrum obtained 
from some forms of terrestrial plant 
life, notably the lichens. 

Although Dr. Sinton is careful to 
point out that the spectroscopic find- 
ings do not necessarily imply the ex- 
istence of actual lichens on Mars, 
many who have given attention to the 
])roblem hold the opinion that the 
lichens— more so than most other ter- 
restrial plants— approximate the type 
of plant life most probably to be 
found in the Martian environment. 

True, most of these expressions of 
opinion have come from astronomers 
rather than from botanists. But what 
is it about the lichens that qualifies 
these plants uniquely in the minds of 
space scientists, professional and am- 
ateur alike, for a foothold on the 
reddish Martian plains? 

Most people who have noticed 
lichens at all have been impressed by 
the fact that many species grow on 
absolutely bare rock surfaces, often 
in such extremely exposed positions 
as mountain summits. These are. in- 
deed, the hardiest plants in existence: 
the lichens not only ascend to the 
highest altitudes, where rock surfaces 
project from the cover of eternal 
snow and ice; but also range closer 
to the earth's poles than any other 
form of plant life. On Admiral Byrd's 
second Antarctic Expedition, in 1934, 
Dr. Paul Siple found lichens as near 
as 237 miles to the South Pole. 

In view of the frigid and inhospi- 
table conditions known to exist on the 
surface of Mars, what then is more 
natural than to consider the lichens as 



By I. Mackenzie Lamb 



The Remarkable Lichens 



I 111' class of plant organism most emi- 
iiiMitly qualified to grow there? Those 
Ixitanists who have made a special 
study of the lichens would, on general 
|ir inciples, be in some measure of 
iiiireement with this assessment of their 
aliility to survive the rigors of such a 
harsh environment. Of all the types of 
plant life which occur on our planet, 
w ith the possible exception of the bac- 
Icria and the blue-green algae, the 
lichens seem to be the best-fitted to 
inpe with the combined conditions of 
ai idity and low temperature known to 
l)c characteristic of the Martian cli- 
mate. A terrestrial lichen, from alpine 
111 polar habitat, might stand cjuite a 
good chance of survival if it were 
transplanted to Mars. 

But, for the botanist, the question 
of whether lichens could ever have in- 
dependently originated on Mars is 
quite another matter. In fact, a con- 
sideration of the nature and evolu- 
tionary origin of lichens makes the 
possibility of such an independent ori- 
gin seem quite remote. For the lichen 
is not a single organism: instead, it 
represents the highest expression of 
symbiosis to be found among plants; 
and perhaps among all organisms. 

Every lichen is part fungus: a plant 
without chlorophyll, and hence in- 
capable of manufacturing its own 
foodstuffs by photosynthesis. This 
fungus, we find on examination, has 
evolved the ability to make use of the 
photosynthetic activity of another, 
quite unrelated, chlorophyll-bearing 
plant — one of the green or blue-green 
algae. And this partnership results in 
a compound organism — a nutritional 
unit — which behaves in a totally un- 
fungus-like manner. 

Among the lichens in existence to- 
day, we can find various stages of per- 
fection in this fungus-alga union. 
These stages give us a picture, at least 
in approximate terms, of the various 
steps in the evolutionary development 
of this symbiotic life-form. 

In the most primitive lichens, the 
assimilative body, or thallus, is a thin 
layer, spreading like a crust over a 



substratum — of rock, bark, wood or 
soil. This thin layer consists of fungal 
tissue, interspersed with the green al- 
gal symbionts. The latter may lie in a 
definite layer of their own, just below 
the fungal surface, or may be scattered 
uniformly throughout the thallus. The 
fungal hypliae embrace the associated 
algal cells tightly, by means of modi- 
fied branches called "haustoria." In 
some species, these branches actually 
penetrate the alga cell wall, and so 
come into direct contact with its in- 
ternal protoplasm. Wlien growing on 
hard, unyielding substrata such as 
rock, lichens of this type frequently 
develop cracks that divide them into 
small island-like portions, not unlike 
the network of cracks that form on a 
dried-out mud surface. When the 
thallus is moistened, these "islands" 
swell up and come into contact. 

In its most primitive form, such a 
crustose lichen thallus is merely a thin, 
scurfy coating over the substratum, 
the undifferentiated fungal hyphae in- 
terspersed with symbiotic algae. This 
condition probably approximates 



closely to the structure of the earliest 
lichens. We can envision an evolu- 
tionary past, in which such an associ- 
ation of certain cup fungi with 
terrestrial algae — at first no doubt a 
fortuitous parasitic relationship — 
began to stabilize and become increas- 
ingly symbiotic in nature. 

When and exactly how this symbi- 
otic association of certain fungi with 
algae first took place, and the first 
lichens were formed, we do not know 
with certainty. Lichens do not fossil- 
ize readily, and although some fossils 
considered to be lichens have been 
recorded from Mesozoic sediments, 
the only ancient lichens of which we 
are sure come from relatively recent 
Cenozoic deposits, such as amber 
beds, and from Pleistocene peat for- 
mations in which some have been pre- 
served in a subfossilized condition. 

Our conclusions on lichen evolution 
must therefore be based on inductive 
speculation. One thing, at least, is 
clear: before the lichens evolved as a 
biological group, both the component 
organisms — fungus and alsa — must 







®. -, © 



•: 



J. 



<^' 



^\ 






<^ 



A^ 



yx-; 



j> "V r 



.:! 



V^ 



I'HliVllLlVE LICHE.N, in cross section, 
shows purely fungal nature of the cup- 
shaped fruiting structure, top, with its 



&lMire-sacs. Only the llul ihallirs. bulloin, 
contains the algal symbionts that carry 
on the vital work of photosynthesis. 



87 



Ur. Lamb «as educated at Edinhurgli 
University and --pent nearly a decade 
with the British Museum I Natural His- 
tory). He is now Director of the Far- 
low Herbarium and Library at Harvard. 



have already been in existence inde- 
pendently for some time. 

Let us look at the varieties of avail- 
able fungi. With a few exceptions, all 
of those that enter into the formation 
of lichens belong to the group known 
as Sac or Cup Fungi ( Ascomycetes] . 
In these, the reproductive process 
gives rise to spores, usually eight in 
number, enclosed in sacs called asci. 
In a typical Ascomycete, these sacs are 
grouped together in large numbers, in 
the form of a flat disk or plate, sur- 
rounded by a raised rim of sterile, 
protective tissue. The whole, saucer- 
shaped fruiting structure is termed 
the apothecium. And, in other Asco- 
mycetes the sacs, instead, are borne 
inside closed, flask-shaped structures, 
the perithecia, that open to the out- 
side by a narrow orifice. 

Now. from the point of view of such 
fruit-body construction, the more 
primitive families of lichens have 
apothecia or perithecia of purely 
fungal composition, with the thallus 
alone containing the symbiotic algae. 
But, as the degree of interrelationship 
between the two organisms increases, 
we find in more highly evolved fami- 
lies, that the fruit bodies also have 
become equipped with algae — con- 
verted thereby into assimilative, as 
well as purely reproductive, organs. 
Such fruit bodies, clothed on their 
outer margin with a layer of alga- 
bearing thalline tissue, represent an 
evolutionary trend toward increas- 
ingly complete integration of the 
fungal and algal cohabitants. 

Originally, the relationship of fun- 
gus to alga was probably that of para- 
site to host. Rapid destruction of the 
algal host, of course, would be tanta- 
mount to killing the goose that laid 
the golden egg. Natural selection 
must have operated in the direction 
to encourage a less virulent relation- 
ship, in which the fungus, although 
living off the earnings of its photosyn- 
thetic protege, at least refrained from 
outrageously non-social behavior. 

In a state of symbiosis, properly 
speaking, each organism offers the 
other certain compensatory advan- 
tages. What is the quid pro quo for 
the alga's life of unending captivity 




Fungus members of lichen partnership 
are usually of Ascomycete group, with 
reproductive systems like those shown. 
above, in top view and cross section. At 



left is the flask-shaped variety of spore- 
sac container, with a narrow mouth. At 
center, is the typical primitive cup, 
totally fungal. Right, a more advanced 







O © O o 



form, in which algae are included in the 
:apothecium. The photographs, below, 
the work of Roman Visliniac. show, 
first, tlie CLip-sliaped fruiting bodies in 



an early stage of development, their 
thick, toothed thalline margins in prom- 
inence. Next, in cross section. Ijoth algae 
and spore-sacs are readily distinguish- 



able in the apothecium. Finally, spore- 
sacs are seen under high magnification. 
When spores land, they must acquire new 
algae |)artners to resume the symbiosis. 










J j^ -j^ iVi^ijiM _ 



89 




Structural varieties include the 
criistose lichens, such as Rhizocaipon 



gt'ogrciphiciim. dhore. so named for its 
■'island'"-like divisions when it is dry. 



(' 









i 






> 



•^P*^, 




Other forms: the foliose. "leafy"' 
lichens, such as the edible Rock Trijie, 



Urn bilicariii. above ; and f ruticose 
"shrubs." like "reindeer moss," below. 




witliin the fung;al thalKis? Among the 
advantages are, first, protectinn 
against desiccation and harmful isnla- 
tion. Secondly, the alga benefits frmn 
a more efficient extraction of mineial 
nutrients from the siibstratuir, the 
\vork of the fungal hyphae. 

SOME lichenologists regard liclini 
svmbiosis. perfect though it is. as 
essentially nothing more than a cnn- 
trolled parasitism and speak of tlie 
alga, not in terms of synibiont. but as 
the algal host. Although this view may 
\veil be the correct one, in most lichens 
the host-parasite relationship — if such 
it truly is — has become so gentle- 
manly an affair that we are fully jus- 
tified in applying the kindlier term, 
symbiosis. The alga remains in good 
health and multiplies normally within 
the thallus. even though it does so onl\ 
by asexual means. 

With very few exceptions, the algae 
do not. however, become intimately 
associated with the lichen's spores. 
This means that reproduction by asco- 
spores transmits only the fungal ele- 
ment in the association. Thus, after 
landing and germinating, the further 
development of a new lichen from a 
s|)ore is dependent on chance en- 
counter with suitable algae, that can 
be accepted to form a new lichen 
thallus. Fortunately for the lichens, 
Ticbouxia. the unicellular green alga 
which forms the symbiont of most 
lichen species, occurs in a number of 
different strains, not only within 
lichen thalli but also free-living — on 
bark, rocks and soil. 

Propagation by spores, therefore, 
involves some elements of uncer- 
tainty, depending on encounter u ith 
suitable algal cells and re-establish- i 
ment of the symbiotic association. It j 
is therefore not surprising that many 
lichens, in addition to ascospore for- 
mation or sometimes as substitute for 
it. have evolved other, more sure-fire 
methods of dissemination — purely 
vegetative in nature and analogous to 
multiplication by bulbs and tubers in 
the higiier plants — which have the 
substantial advantage of propagating 
the dual organism as a single unit. 

On the thallus of certain lichens, 
for example, minute, cylindrical or 
club-shaped branchlets are produced 
in large numbers. Each contains a 
layer of algae covered by a rind, or 
cortex of fungal tissue. These tiny 
outgrowths are very easily detached 
by abrasion or wind action and each 



90 



is. ill fact, a miniature, prefabricated 
lliallus — which can start its growth 
Ifrora the moment that it arrives in a 
[suitable environment. 

I'.\en more effective from the point 
(if \iew of dispersal is a second type. 
These are powdery masses of tiny 
particles, each consisting of a few al- 
gal cells loosely enmeshed in fungal 
hyphae. Because of their small size, 
lluse particles are very readily trans- 
I in lied by wind, and probably repre- 
.-;ciil the most effective type of dispersal 
fmiiul in the lichens. 

Nevertheless, the fact that very 
main species of lichens possess neither 
III lliese accessory means of propaga- 
tion, and yet are of widespread occur- 
K'lice. proves that spore dissemination 
— despite its handicaps — must be 
(|iiil(' effective. 

When a fungus has become photo- 
sMitlietic by proxv, so to speak, as in 
the case of the lichenized Ascomycetes, 
it is subjected to the same influences 
of natural selection as operate on na- 
turally green, chlorophyll-containing 
plants. It can no longer grow in dark- 
ness or dense shade, but requires the 
wide open spaces, or at least the more 
open parts of woodland habitats. 

But this is not all: natural selection 
also comes to favor the genetic fixa- 
tion of structural modifications that 
promote the efficiency of photusvn- 
thesis. An increase in the area of as- 
similative surface exposed to light and 
air is brought about by elongation of 
the thallus into extended, branching 
forms, and often also by the formation 
of special assimilative branchlets or 
scales — analogous to leafv structures 
in the higher green plants. The Rein- 
deer Lichen (Cladonia rangijerina and 
related species ) , which covers count- 
less square miles of the tundras of the 
north, and forms the staple diet of the 
caribou, is a good example of this 
elongated, shrubby form. 

OTHER LICHENS, presumably by the 
action of the same selective fac- 
tors, have evolved flattened, leaflike 
forms, with the greatest possible area 
of assimilative, alga-bearing tissue 
exposed to the rays of the sun. 

In highly differentiated lichens of 
these types, we find the algae now 
relegated to a special position — in a 
thin layer immediately below the outer 
surface of the thallus. covered only bv 
a relatively thin protective layer of 
fungal tissue — where they can func- 
tion with maximum efficiency. 




Crustose lichen, Rinodina oreina, 
grows on rock, above. This specimen 



is near the summit of Mt. Monadnock. 
The "island"-like divisions are apparent. 




FOLIOSE LICHEN, Pelligeia, above, grows 
on mossy tree-trunk. Transition to 



the fruticose form is exemplified jjy the 
Matchstick Lichen, Pilophorus, below. 




Equal in importance to these struc- 
tural effects of symbiosis are the physi- 
ological results of the co-ordinated 
existence of the two dissimilar organ- 
isms. Now, a fungus — by itself — must 
exist either as a parasite, growing on 
another plant from which it extracts 
the foodstuffs produced h\ the latter's 
metabolism, or as a saprobe. living on 
decaying organic matter which sup- 
plies it with the necessary substances 
for its nutrition. In both cases, it is 
closely bound to certain specific types 
of habitat. Once lichenized, however, 
a fungus carries its photosynthetic 
food source within its own tissues, 
and becomes a self-contained nutri- 
tional unit. So far as metabolism is 
concerned, its needs are now satisfied 
by the minimal requirements of light, 
air, and a few inorganic salts. No 
longer restricted to larger host plants, 
or to accunnilations of deca\ing de- 
bris, the lichenized fungus is in a po- 
sition to colonize such inhospitable 
substrata as bare rock surfaces. This 
gives it an open field for exploitation, 
with a minimum amount of competi- 
tion from other forms of plant life. 

BRIICK MENTION appears suitable, in 
this connection, of certain species 
of lichen in which not one. but two, 
types of algae are found in association. 
The second is alwa\s one nf the lihie- 



green type, Myxophyceae, occurring 
in localized tumor-like outgrowtlis on 
the thallus, called cephalodia. A num- 
ber of blue-green algae have been 
proved capable of fixing atmospheric 
nitrogen: if this capability is exer- 
cized on behalf of the lichens that 
possess cephalodia, it could be as 
useful as are the nitrogen-fixing root 
nodules of the various legumes in the 
case of higher plants. 

As an additional advantage in these 
bleak habitats, or perhaps as an adap- 
tation to them, the lichens have evolved 
a remarkable degree of resistance to 
drciught and desiccation. They can go 
into long periods of suspended growth 
in a completelv dry condition, and can 
imbibe the little moisture which they 
need from saturated air and dew. as 
well as from direct rainfall. 

Consideiable tolerance to low tem- 
perature is also shown by many polar 
and alpine lichens. When in Antarc- 
tica. 1 saw lichens— apparently healthy 
and abundantly fruiting— which passed 
their existence under a cover of snow 
and ice several feet thick for nearly 
len months each year. Other lichens, 
perhaps even more resistant to cold, 
grow on the wind-blasted faces of 
completely exposed rocky nunataks, 
high up on the continental plateau. 
Here, a sunnner's day on which the 
Icmperature rises more than a degree 



or two above freezing is the exception 
rather than the rule; the temperatines 
which these lichens tolerate, without 
benefit of snow coxer, throughout tlie 
long winter, are even more extreme. 

To RETURN, then, to our opening 
speculations: what more suitable 
organisms than the lichens, in all our 
terrestrial plant world, for the Mar- 
tian climate? Self-contained and self- 
supporting; highly resistant to dr\ness 
and to cold; capable, whenever condi- 
tions become frankly impossible, of 
almost complete suspension of growth 
and activity over considerable periods, 
they seem ideally suited. 

But no matter how attracti\e such 
speculations may be, we must face tlie 
fact that the lichens are not prime\al 
plants, but. instead, represent a suc- 
cessful union of (geologicallv s|3eak- 
ingl comparatively recent date, long 
after the independent evolution of 
specialized, modern types of both al- 
gae and fungi. The crux of the matter 
is that, of the two organisms formiiii; 
the biological association we know as 
the lichen, the fungi at least must ha\c 
known millions of vears of life in a 
temperate, moist climate, with abun- 
dant organic matter from other vege- 
tation for their nutrition, before the\. 
at last, became lichenized and 
branclied off as a separate group. 



Robust lichens can survive extreme 
aridity and cold. Below, the fruiting 
bodies of Lobaria are seen, during a dry 



spell and after rainfall. At right is the 
most notable of the shrublike lichens, 
Cladonia rangijciinn, better known as 



"reindeer moss. " Staple diet for the cari- 
])(>u. tills hardy variety covers countless 
square miles of the suiiarctic tundra. 




92 



\' 



&^ 





^ 




Too YorNC TO I EAU HOMANS. tlie bsby skunk, nhovp. allows 
itself to be fondled by an eleven-year-old playmate. Although 
brought up in the city, girl now knows common animals as 

94 



intimately as most country childr-n. lias favorites she often 
returns lo visit, and has come lo recognize their special 
feel -like the soft fur and prickly claws of this skunk. 




Baby possum rares teeth to one young visitor, evidently 
displeased by having its tail stroked and not a bit disposed 
to "play possum." By trial, error and perhaps a few nipped 



fingertips, children learn the animals' reactions. They also 
meet animal families they otherwise might not know at such 
close range: opossum is North America's only marsupial. 



CHILD AND NATURE 

Nothing quite takes the place of personal contact: 
the reader is here invited to share the experience 

Photographs by Arline Strong 



TO GROW FAMILIAR with the world around us. in our 
hurried lives today, we necessarily place primary reli- 
ance on the written word— from the textbooks at school to 
the flood of newspapers, magazines and books that are 
part of adult life. Learning, in this secondary fashion- 
where we accept the observations of others— has tremen- 
dous advantages: ease, speed and a wide variety of expe- 
rience that no one person could hope to equal. Yet. when 
this secondary learning is our sole reliance, we are robbed 
of a great deal: in particular, the enrichment that comes 
from personal observation, and its accompaniment of tan- 
gible experience, against which we may judge for ourselves 
the reported experiences of others. 

This use of our own senses is of value in any field of 



inquir\". but it mav be that it is no\vhere of greater value 
than in the study of nature or more vividly demonstrated 
than with young students. Take a child— or a group of 
children— for a walk outdoors— in a city park or to the edge 
of country woods, along the shore of a pond or the ocean's 
sandy fringe. Go slowly, and stop frequently— ntt only to 
look, but to listen, to touch, to smell and taste. The contents 
of your pockets, on return, may seem to be a mixed and 
worthless accumulation of leaves, sticks, stones, shells and 
even living things, such as insects, but in the child s view 
these are an assortment of rare treasures! 

Excerpted here, under the headings of the different 
senses, are some children's comments following such direct 
observation. In some cases, the children had been in out- 

95 




door groups: in others, their experiences came from con- 
tact with plants and animals at The Amkrican Museum's 
Peter Van Gerbig Natural Science Center for Young 
I'eople where the acompanving photographs were made. 
The remaiks. themselves, were recorded bv Mrs. Martin 
Gniduasser. of the Natural Science Center. 

SKKi.NC: "the shiny wet backs of water turtles, swim- 
ming: slow movements of large land turtles, lumbering 
along. A toad's jeweled ejes. The whipping movement of 
a frog's tongue— too fast to see— and a snake's forked 
tongue, darting in and out. A tiger salamander, leaping 
for his dinner. Herring gulls, soaring against the blue: 
mallaids sailing beside their own reflections." 

Hi: USING: "the screech owl— buzzing a low. clattering 
buzz. The splash of turtles, diving from their logs. 
Swisbes of snakes, rustling through deep grass: so quickly, 
tbev"ie beard and then gone into the quiet. Croaks of 
hungry fregs. like the noise of the brook that was theirs. 
And the fir.-it sounds of Spring, remendjer? The shrill noise 
in the marshes when the spring peepers mate? The fiddler 
crabs, shuffling across loose sand: the seaweed that pops 



Stroking a bird, the girl above also listens to a record 
of its song over a speaker. The silken feathers and >iprightly 
song help to recreate tiu- livin;; unity of the woodland world. 



A TINY NATURALIST inspects a wood turtle, below, as a staff 
member lends helping hand. The ""turtle-sandwich." as chil- 
dren call tintlc with head witlulrawn. is a perennial fa\(irite. 




96 



in Miur fingers, where the green crabs hide. The trill of 
I irkets on a hot afternoon." 

TOUCHING: "the soft, silky fur of the skunk: the stiff, 
coarse hairs of the woodchuck. Slimv skins of frogs and 
i\ai l\ skins of toads. Hard bodies of wet turtles, thrashing 
calhery legs between their sandwich shells. The smooth 
skin of a black snake, tightening its coils about my arm." 

Smelling: "musk . . . you can always tell a gartersnake 
from a DeKav's. Stale, musty odors from the owl: it 
\\a~ good we released him— he was cooped-up too much. 
Fi?li\ smells along the shore and seaweed in the sun. Wood 
iuu'lls in the rain . . . moss and earth, and rotting logs." 

Tvsting: "the disappointing flatness of the maple sap, 
but the sweet syrup \vhen we boiled it down. The 
lenKinv taste of 'Indian chewing gum': remember the resin 
:)()zmg from the hemlocks in Bronx Park? Wintergreen 
flaxnr in the birch, too. And (What's the mitten tree? The 
-a,~>alras! ) the sassafras leaves under the George Wash- 
in_:;liin Bridge. Yum! And the tang of the wild onion there. 
Vnil water! No taste, but so cool." 

V iMi.oT BLACK SNAKE has aroused the timid curiosity of 
ihi-- buy, below, who finds, to his surprise, tliat its dry 
-kin is smooth, not slimy, and quite pleasant to the touch. 



ANIMAL SOUNDS 




Natural Science Center of New York's American Museum 
has two sound systems, public address (opposite page) and 
earphones, above, to bring the world of nature to city children. 











^ I-' 




GRAND CANYON 
OF THE COLORADO 



98 



By Joseph Wood Krutch 
Photographs by Josef Muench 




First discovered by a Spaniard 
who sought the seven cities of 
Cibola, this classic example of 
erosion and weathering is now 
our best-known National Park 



THIS IS the scene which, in 1540, burst upon the 
startled eyes of Cardenas, the first white man ever 
to see the Grand Canyon. He was searching for the 
mythical seven golden cities of Cibola, and neither ad- 
mired the view nor asked how it came there. Instead, 
he merely turned aside to pursue elsewhere his fruitless 
quest. Nearly three centuries were to pass before the sight 
«as seen again by men disinterested enough for either 
aesthetic appreciation or scientific curiosity. 

Most visitors today experience at least a modicum 
of both. For this is also the vista which many tourists 
first see— at Yavapai Point, on the South Rim. Most are 
stunned into silence, and many simply go away, carry- 
ing with them an unforgettable picture. Some may ex- 
claim—as the startled cowboy is said to have done— 
"Something happened here!" Or they may demand, in 
the idiom of the moment, "What done it?" To this ques- 
tion, the simplest answer is "The Colorado River." For 
this mighty stream flows through the Canyon, nearly 
a mile below the rim, and so deep within its narrow, 
black, inner gorge that it cannot be seen at all from 
most points along the Canyon's edge. 

Some Indian tribes have a different story of the Can- 
yon's origin. It was, they say, opened by the gods to 
furnish a passage from this w orld to the next. The guesses 
of today's visitors are often equally unrealistic: one fav- 
orite is that the Canyon is a crack, formed when the 
earth cooled. But the fossil record of the successive layers 
of the Canyon's walls proves clearly enough that the 
earth was not hot when these rocks were laid down. 
Only the mighty river, given aeons of time, could have 
sliced so neatly through this vast layer cake— itself com- 
posed of rocks laid down by water and wind during a 
stretch of time that makes the aeons required for the 
cutting seem only a moment. 

Did. then, the river once run up on top, where the 
visitor now stands? Certainly not. From every direction, 
he must climb a high, domed plateau to the rim. The 
river could never have been where the rim is now. unless 
its waters had run uphill. Only one explanation is pos- 
sible. The Colorado once meandered over a flat plain, 
its bed at just about the same height above sea level 
that it is today. Slowly, the land rose under it. even more 
slowly than the silt-and-sand-laden river cut downward. 
Had the land risen faster, the waters would have been 
dumped the shortest way down its sides. Instead, the 
waters kept their bed. so that the Canyon still follows 
the ancient meanderings of the once sluggish stream. 
When did the cutting begin? A few million years ago. 
the geologists say. How old are the rocks of the inner 
gorge, through which the Colorado River now flows? 
These rocks were new, so the same geologists tell us, 
more than a billion years ago. 



Ur. Krltch. a student and teacher of English literature 
and the drama in New York for many years, has resided in 
Arizona since 1952. He published The Voice of the Desert 
in 1955: a bookonthe Grand Canyo:i isnou in preparation. 



99 



THIS IS the livt-r that did the work, the Colorado pushing 
tiiwaril its uhimate rendezvous with the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. Its swirling, silt-laden waters are now locked within 
the high banks of the Inner Gorge, a world of granite from 
which the high rims of the Canyon, itself, are seldom vis- 
ible. Of the thousands who visit the Grand Canyon each 
year, few ever leave the rim to venture this far— in distance, 
a descent of a mile, and in time, a day's journey. Yet these 
few are richly rewarded for their effort, as will be seen here. 






THE WIDTH of the Canyon, on an average, is about eight 
miles. We look from Bright Angel Point on the North 
Rim. On the horizon, beyond the knifelike edge of the South 
Rim. rise the volcanic San Francisco peaks, more than 
twelve thousand feet above sea level. The Canyon's size in- 
creases, day by day, as water and ice detach bits and 



boulders, which tumble, sometimes with a crash, into the 
depths below. The result: this intricately sculptured world 
of buttes. "towers" and "temples." The geologist's prosaic 
term for the process is "differential weathering.'' What he 
means is that, because each successive layer of stone differs 
in texture and hardness, each wears away at a different rate. 

lOI 




SHALL WE CROSS the Canyon? It is only ten miles as the 
raven flies, but no other ten miles is so long. By car, 
the only possible route will take you two hundred miles 
around the east end of the Canyon, and then back to a point 
ten miles from where you started— and tliat wide detour is 
the quickest way. On mule-back, down one side, across the 
only foot bridge over the Colorado River, and up tlie other 



side is a strenuous two-day journey, during which a billion 
years or more of the earth's history is exposed. At the rim, 
the surface is Kaibab limestone, laid down under a shallow 
sea something like two hundred million years ago, aborc. 
At the bridge, near the bottom of the inner gorge, right, 
the Colorado River is now cutting into some of the most 
ancient rocks exposed anywhere on the face of the eartli. 



1 02 




^ 



^t^- 




^:,.JiM/^-' 




ONcr. A( itoss the river, tlie weary may hatlie in tiiis ikhiI. 
Ifji. filled by Bright Angel Creek, and look back to the 
rim from which they have descended, where the npper layer 
(of Kaibab limestone) is plainly separate from the under- 
lying Coconino sandstone. And. once within the Grand 
Canyon's gorges, other sights are available to the traveler. 
Closed snugly in by the walls of a branch canyon, for 
example, is an astonishing oasis, inhabited by what is prob- 
ably the most isolated group of aborigines in the United 
States— the Havasupai. A Franciscan missionary. Father 
Garces. was the first to find them there— in a year generally 
remembered for other reasons. 1776. They are still there 
today, below, living much the same life they lived then— 
although Government agents have taught them certain im- 
provements in their methods of agriculture. Their village 
is composed of only simie thirty-four families— and this 
number has changed little since Father Garces' time. Their 
fields and orchards are watered abundantly by Havasu 
Creek— one of a number of streams that enter the Grand 
Canyon to pour their clear waters into the turbid Cohirado. 
A few miles below the ancestral fields of the Havasupai. 
the Creek drops over travertine ledges to fall one hundred 
and ten feet into the jew'eled. blue-green pool below, right. 




104 




I OS 




Shadow And Sun 

Create A New Vista 

At Every Hour 




3b 



ASCENDING AGAIN, those who elect to visit the North Rim 
the hard way must climb a trail that follows the side 
canyon cut by the waters of Bright Angel Creek, where 
yesterday they bathed. It is not easy going, but the trail 
leads through such spectacular scenes as "The Devil's Back- 
yard," upper left. Once at the North Rim. the visitors dis- 
cover a startlingly different world, for-ahhough the strata 
of the Grand Canyon are perfectly matched on the two 
sides-this rim is a thousand feet higher. The North Rim 
is cooler in summer, much colder (and snow- blocked) in 
winter, and-chiefly because of the more abundant precipha- 
tion— bears a dense forest of yellow pine and fir, in contrast 



to the sparse piiion pine of the South Rim, lower left. Here, 
the Canyon, itself, even "looks" different, largely because 
the Colorado River lies farther away, while the various 
buttes, "towers" and "temples"— which erosion has detached 
from the rim— are close at hand. 

The rocks of Grand Canyon have been at least a billion 
years in the making, and the Canyon itself several million: 
it has changed little since the white man first saw it. But 
it is equally true to say that it changes from moment to 
moment. Every hour seems to reshape each plateau, butte 
and side canyon as the shadows change the relief of its 
sculpturings; at twilight, below, it takes on new mystery. 




SV' 





"Give me a chance . . . won't you?" 

That's the question little barefoot 
Johnnie asks you. He didn't step out of 
some old album stowed away in the 
attic fifty years ago. His picture comes 
from a classroom in the Southern 
Mountain regions of today . . . where 
hundreds of barefoot boys and girls go 
to school — or try to go to school — in 
little one-room shacks. Many have no 
running water, no electricity. Rain 
comes through the roof, the wind 
blows through rickety walls, the 
ancient desks are huddled around an 
old pot-bellied stove. Incredible in our 
time — but that's school for Johnnie, 
and that's why he needs your help. 

How you ton be Johnnie's friend 

Save the Children Federation has set up a 
program of School Sponsorships by which 
people like yourself . . . your club, your 
class, your office group . . . may aid these 
underprivileged schools — and the children 
in them — for only $8 a month — $96 a year. 

A trained SCF Representative brings the 
parents of a community together to decide 
how to administer your sponsored funds. 
The result: a better community, healthier, 
happier children who are given a chance. 
Won't you fill in the coupon now? 

SCF National Sponsors include: Mrs. 
Dwight D. Eisenhower, Herbert Hoover, 
Henry R. Luce, Rabbi Edgar F. Magnin, 
Norman Rockwell, Dr. R. W, Sockman. 



SAVE THE CHILDREN 

FEDERATION 

345 E. 46th Street. New YorklV, N. Y. 

Please send picture and loloimallon ol my spnnsnied school. 

Enclosed please find $96 for my sponsorship for 
I yeor ... $24 for Ihe H(Sl quorler ... $8 for the 
1st month. I cannot be o sponsor but enclosed 
gill of $ 






NH 2-! 



IN BRIEF (ronlinncd Iron, page 62) 

an invaluable text and reference work 
for some time to come. 

Guide to the Fishes of New 
Mexico by William J. Koster (Uni- 
versity of New Mexico Press, $1.00; 
116 pp., illus.) 

PUBLISHED in co-operation with 
the New Mexico Department of 
Game and Fish, this is a guide to the 
eighty-five species of fish found in that 
state. There are drawings to aid iden- 
tification and the descriptions of the 
principle species are thorough, and 
clearly written. A reliable guide for 
sportsmen and naturalists alike and, 
incidentally, some good preliminary 
comments on fish requirements and 
conservation problems. 

Fishes of the World by Etlouard 
Le Danois (Countryman Press, 
$12.50; 190 pp., illus.) 

AN extremely handsome book, which 
L-anyone should be proud to own. 
The accompanying text, while factual 
and learned enough, evidently suffers 
in translation from the French and 
often seems vague and awkwardly 
written. But the photographs, from 
numerous sources and most areas of 
the world, are superb, especially the 
color reproductions. 

Strange Wonders of the Sea 
translated and adapted from J. For- 
est's Beautes du joud des mers by H. 



Gwynne Vevers (Hanover House 
$4.95; 96 pp., illus.) 

SOME interesting black and whitf 
photographs, some beautiful ones ii 
color of sea anenomes and corals. Fo 
unknown reasons, one has to turn t( 
the appendix for captions to the colo 
plates. The captions too often seem in 
adequate as descriptions of the animal 
in the pictures, and the book is perhap: 
not as imaginatively assembled as iti 
companion volume. Exotic Plants of thi 
World (see below), l)ut it would be 
nice one to own. 

Paleontology 

An Illustrated Guide to Fossii 
Collecting by Richard Casanova 
(Naturegraph Co., $1.50; 7H pp.)] 

A USEFUL little pamphlet for the ; 
amateur fossil collector, telling I 
where to look and how to classify i 
There is a brief history of fossil collec ' 
tors, and sections on classification, or' 
the geologic time scale, and on preparai • 
tion and display. Collecting localities 
also are listed, state by state, hut only 
in a very general fashion. It isj 
conveniently illustrated. 

BoUtny 

Exotic Plants of the World 
translated and adapted from Marcel 
Belvianes' Beautes de la Flore Exot- 
ique by Anthony J. Huxley. (Han- 



EXHIBITIONS 
OF INTEREST 

Cincinnati Public Library (through Feb- 
ruary 8) : 100 photographs of Scandi- 
navian Bronze Age rock carvings. 

Hunter Gallery, Chattanooga (through 
February 16) : "The Anatomy of Nature," 
photographs by Andreas Feininger. 

New York State Museum, Albany 
(through February) : "Wild Animal Pho- 
tographs," the work of Charles Olt, 
McKinley Park, Alaska. 

Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. (per- 
manent) : a new exhibit of Middle Ameri- 
can archeology, including pottery, gold, 
jade and sculpture (see photograph). 

Illinois State Museum, Springfield (permanent) : the second of three casts of Latimeria 
chalumnae, the Coni.oro coelaianth. made available to LI.S. museums by the Paris Natural 
History Museum (Natural History, September, 1957). 

U.S. National Museum, Washington (permanent) : a new North American Indian Hall, 
opened in December, 1957: also, the third cast of Latimeria. 




io8 




Exploring by Satellite 
<ver House, $4.95; 93 pp., illiis.) 

rHE choice of photographs in this 
hook is aesthetically motivated, and 
be descriptive material is held down to 
aptions. plus a brief introduction to 
ach group shown— the orchids, some 
acti and other succulents, marvels of 
jrm. plants at high altitude, and 
;aves. The photographs, on the whole, 
re striking and well reproduced. Some 
f the flowers of Africa seem not only 
xotic but downright animal-like to eyes 
ccustomed to the Temperate Zone of 
forth America. 

)rchids for Everybody by Lee 
^ickham. (McBride Co., $5.00; 63 
•p.. illus.) 

rHE author of this book had the 
chance to give us some solid infor- 
lation about orchids, but on the whole 
le muffed it: "muffled it" may be a 
letter phrase. "The Secret of Hidden 
'aradise Unfolded."' as the last chapter 
3 titled, contains some practical talk 
in orchid culture. Otherwise the book 
3 lost under a steamy blanket of senti- 
nental and fake-religious verbiage, 
lere is one such sentence: "All of the 
irchids, wherever they live and by 
whatever ways, are loyal to the royal 
fithin them." The photographs, all at 
he end are poor, and badly reproduced. 

5e Your Own Nurseryman by 
lobert Scharff. (M. Barroivs & Co., 
\3.50; 223 pp., illus.) 

A PRACTICAL book, with many 
t\. useful directions on how to grow 
lew shrubs from old, how to plant in 
lie right place, how to transplant and 
;raft, and how to maintain your own 
lursery economically. 



Astronomy 

Arizona's Meteorite Crater by H. 
H. Nininger. (American Meteorite 
Museum, $3.75; 232 pp., illus.) 

THE author, director of the Ameri- 
can Meteorite Museum Staff in Se- 
dona. Arizona, has packed this book 
with information of value both to the 
student of meteorites in general and to 
students of the celebrated Arizona 
crater, itself. Some laymen may find it 
hard going ; well worth the effort, though, 
for those interested in the subject. 

Exploring by Satellite by Frank- 
lyn M. Branley, with illustrations by 
Helmut K. Wimmer. (Croivell Com- 
pany, $3.00; 41 pp.) 

THIS very timely book was evidently 
not written in haste but in its own 
good time, with care and clarity, by an 
associate astronomer of The American 
Museum— Hayden Planetarium. Expert 
illustrations, and an account of satel- 
lite construction (Project Vanguard is 
the inevitable prototype ) , the theory of 
satellite flight, and its potentialities. 

Constructing an Astronomical 
Telescope by G. Matthewson. 
(Philosophical Library, $3.00 ; 97 pp.) 

A STRICTLY practical, tersely 
written little book for those inter- 
ested in making telescopes "without in- 
volving a large capital outlay." Useful 
drawings, chapters on grinding, polish- 
ing, testing, figuring, parabolizing and 
silvering, plus a brief discussion of 
prism and eyepiece, and how to build 
and mount your telescope. 

Anthropology 

Anthropology and Human Nature 
by M. F. Ashley Montagu (Porter 
Sargent, $6.00; 390 pp.) 

THE expressed purpose of Professor 
Montagu's book is to show how 
physical and cultural anthropology in- 
creasingly extend the body of human 
knowledge and understanding. The 
papers which comprise the book have 
a great deal of material in them: a kind 
of pot-pourri, sometimes repetitious and 
not always unified, but usually pro- 
vocative. The author's basic premise is 
that what divides mankind is not so 
constant as wliat unites it. and that the 
behavioral sciences will lead to a better 
understanding of that constancy. 

Mr. Hay, president of the Cape Cod 
Junior Museum, is a Harvard alumnus, 
active in natural history education. 




FINEST BINOCULARS 
AND TELESCOPES 

Postpaid by a Museum Curator, an active, 
experienced field ornithologist. 

ALL TYPES and PRICES 
LIBERAL TRADES • FREE TRIAL 

Bartlett Mendricks 

Binocular Headquarters 

PITTSFIEID 50-Y, MASS. 

Phone 9748 ] i 



Members may order any of the books mentioned 
from the Museum Shop and receive a 10% discount 



BUTTERFLY MOUNTING 
AND COLLECTING KIT 




Special 

, . V $4.95 

A full $5.95 value for only $4.95 

Everybody from 6 fo 80 can have fun with this 
professionally designed butterfly mounting kit. 
Recommended by the Butterfly World Museum 
and leading educators this kit contains the 
finest equipment and everything necessary to 
mount and collect butterflies. 

This kit contains: 

• 15 colorful Indo-Australia tropical butterflies 

• 4x12 I00«/o balsa wood spreading board 

• 60 colored-glass beaded pins; 100 steel insect pins 
illy treated relaxing jar {for softening 






:ing sirii 



• 2 glass strips, cardboa 

• I glass-top Riker display mount 

• I pair steel broad-point forceps 

• professional triangle envelopes 

• nylon butterfly net 

• 16-page picture booklet with simple step-by-step 
instructions to mount butterflies, make killing jar. 
and interesting butterfly information. 

FREE PRICE LIST on Requesf 

12" nylon net, 24" handle packed in plastic bag 

plus le-page colorful booklet $2. postpaid 

Assorted Forniosan Butterflies 25 for $2. 

SPECIAL INTRODUCTION! Exquisite bracelets, 
ciirriiiys, necklaces and other jewelry made from 
beautiful irridescent Blue Morpha butterfly wings 
oltercd for the first time direct to the public. Full 
color CiitaloE only .15. Full price refunded with 
lirsi order. 



BUTTERFLY ART JEWELRY, INC. 

America's largest dealer, est. 1925 

291 East 98th Street, Dept. M-16 
Brooklyn 12, N. Y. 



109 




duncraft' 



new improved 1958 

wfUGHr 

mcK 



lures beautiful wild birds to your window 

• for year ''round pleasure! 

NOW COMPLETE WITH BIRD BATH POOL 



ii,,, , , .. \er the excite- 

, ■ I . ■ ii' !■ ■ r.ipliJiig them, and 

^\l,,^. i.r ■;, 1 , [ iiii-iH's iHMi.v — without go- 

i,)., I . T I nvs the close-up activity 

i,,7j II ■ I ; ' IT ! inil hecomes an armchair 
hir.i -i.iMhM -I..,. II.- . :iu.Ta fans, younesters! 
N>w Fliclil iKik IS a iart;e 17U" X IS^^". custtmi 
moldeii of all weallifcr duralon. Green with white trim, 
it has hardwood perch rails and feeding stick. 4 seed 
wells, drinking and bird bath pool. Attach or detach 
instantly without tools. Gift packaged with card; all 
orders acknowledged. We pay postage, hntli yn your 
order and Flight Deck gifts sent to friends. Money 
back guarantee. Order today! 



duncraft 



PAI^T ATSn Bi: IIAl'I'V 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by iVlail 

Exciting Home-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

$1.00 brings irial Lesson, specify which Course 

n landscape D Still-life Q Portraiture 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limtts. 

ROLAND PIERSON PRICKETT 

Forestwind Studios, Monterey, Massachusetts 



drHillLU/TM-J.i 




g costs. MAIL COUPON TODA 

' ~ H ." 1 ." H ARRlV & ~C6 . 
4140 Transit BIdg., Boston 17, Mass. H 

1 Rush my United .Slates st;imps and otner ^ 
' offers. lenclose lOcformailinKexpenses. ^B 

I Name ---H 

9 

1 Address -- ^^ 

I City & WM 

L^'^'l;.-i-^-.^-.i-_-:.-^---------------^---iHI 

no 



explore 

the west 

by studying 

its 

paleontology 

geology 

archaeology 



boys 14-18- 






Here is an u 


nusu 


□ 1 opportunity for boys 


to experienc 


e a s 


erious introduction into 


the sciences 


thro 


ugh the wilderness en- 


vironment o 


We 


stern Wyoming. Camp- 


ing, explore 
food are con 


tion, swimming and good 1 
nbined into a sjmmer month | 


of adventure 


. W 


ite for folder. 




Flying U Caravan Camp 

David Gebfiard 

Roswell Museum 

Roswell, New Mexico 



BUILD YOUR OWN 
ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE 

Send for SKYVIEW'S complete instructions for 
making a mirror for a reflecting telescope like 
those in leading observatories. These simple, 
step-by-step instructions hove been used by 
youngsters end adults alike to produce o pow- 
erful and versatile telescope that will bring 
Mors, Jupiter, Saturn, the moon, stor clusters 
and nebula to you in exquisite detail and 
breathtaking brilliance. No special tools are 
required and only those ordinary skills and 
abilities possessed by all of us will produce an 
instrument, valuable out of all proportion to 
the labor involved. Mailed immediately, post- 
paid. Send 50<- to WARING CLEVELAND, 
21564 Lorain Road, Cleveland 26, Ohio. 



AUTHORS WANTED 
BY N. Y. PUBLISHER 

New York, N. V. - One of the 
nation's largest book publishers is 
seeking manuscripts of all types — 
fiction, non-fiction, poetry. Special at- 
tention to new writers. If your work 
is ready for publication, send for 
booklet NH— «'j jree. Vantage Press, 
120 W. 31st St., New York 1. Mid- 
trtst Office: 220 So. M'uhiciin Ave., 
Cbicag.0. III. 



^3rd year. Famous boys' cimp ne.ir 
Old Forge, N. Y. Two lakes, navi- 
gable trout stream on private forest 
preserve. 5 separate and inter-related 
age divisions. Mature councilors. 3 
nurses, excellent food. Most all nat- 
ural sciences. Noted for course in 
forestry. Horsemanship. Riflery. In- 
nd Nature study. Adiron- 



dack 



nd Ca 



Inps 



nded and directed by graduate 
forester. Booklet: 

WILLIAM H. ABBOTT 
Box 2382 • Fayetteville, N. Y. 



Letters (continued from page 57) 

sessed special glands in the pads o 
the forefeet, which exude a siibstanc 
used by the animals to aid digestior 
I must, however, add both that I ca 
find no record of such glands existin 
and that the bears which I observe 
sucked their feet as often before meal 
—when the stomach was empty— a 
they did afterwards. 

A final suggestion, more amusin 
than probable, was that the bear 
"talked" to each other in this way 
Although I have noticed that all th 
animals— and I have kept five of ther 
together — started sucking simultant 
ously, the animals, when alone, won 
also suck their paws regularly, and i 
can be assumed that such a bear wa 
not "talking" to itself. 

As 1 have not kept any other spirir 
of bear, I do not know whether |i;n\ 
■sucking is a general habit of all In ai 
or a peculiarity confined to the Iliriu 
layan black bear. 

1 shall be very grateful if you i a 
enlighten me on this point. 

S.\Mir! .Si; 
Darjeeling, India 

The Department of Mammals rei>lir- 

Paw-sucking among bears has lice 
observed on various occasions, in 
number of modified forms, but it i^ 
practice apparently indulged in by \n 
few individual bears. Many men \\h 
have been associated with captive In ai 
for vears have never witnessed the a( 



BOOK MANUSCRIPTS 

CONSIDERED 

by cooperative publisher who offers author early 



GREENWICH BOOK PUBLISHERS, INC. 

Atten. Mr. Edison 489 Fifth Ave. 

New York 17, N. Y. 



CATCH THEM ALIVE 
AND UNHURT! 




Am;iziri^' HAVAHART trap captures raiding in?. 
ral'iiils, sniiiircls. skunks, weasels, etc. T.ili-^ 
minks, coons without injuring them. Straying im is 
:inj poultry are released unhurt. Easy to sii — 
tjueri ends give animal confidence. Fully t;ii;ii:tii- 
teed. No jaws or springs to break. Rustproof. Si/is 
for all needs. Send coupon for vaUiiiltle FREE 
:i6-page booklet on trapping secrets. 



HAVAHART. 158-F Water Street. Ossining. N. Y. 




Although otiier species have been men- 
tiond as paw-suckers, the Asiatic black 
bear (Selenarctos thibetanus thibe- 
tanus), cited by Mr. Sen, appears to be 
the species for which this behavior is 
most often reported. 

American black bears have been dis- 
covered in hibernation, holding one of 
their forepaws in their mouths. Indeed, 
such discoveries have frequently led to 
the erroneous belief that in this way the 
bears obtain nutriment from their paws 
to help sustain them during their long 
winter sleep. 

As to the "talking" noted by Mr. 
Sen, this has been observed in other 
species. In his Lives of Game Animals, 
Ernest Thompson Seton observes: "... 
I have several times seen a caged black 
bear sprawling out in some attitude 
indicative of ease, with one paw in his 
mouth, uttering a prolonged whimper- 
ing, murmuring sound that certainly 
was an expression of contentment. . . ." 

Except when hibernating, free wild 
bears are not known to indulge in this 
paw-sucking practice. It is possible that 
captive bears suck their paws for no 
more complex reason than as an outlet 
for some of their pent-up energies. 
Bears do well in captivity, but such a 
life is necessarily monotonous. 

This list details the photograiiher, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 
COVER-Sven Hbrnei: 
57-Wolcott Cutler. 
60-62— Rosemary 
Grimble, courtesy 
William Morrow. 
65-The New York Times. 
67-Lois Darling. 
68-9-courtesy Metro- 
politan Museum of Art. 
70-73-Anna Riwl<in- 
Brick; map by Joan 
Duggan, AMNH. 
74-Anna Riwkin-Brick 
(top, left); Tim Gidal. 
76-Anna Riwkin-Brick. 
77-Tim Gidal. 
78-9-Anna Riwkin- 
Brick. 

80-81-Anna Riwkin- 
Brick (top); Sven 



82-5-Don OIlis, 
from Black Star. 
86-7-Mackenzle 
Lamb; drawings by 
Eleanora Korzeniowska. 
88-9-Roman Vishniak; 
drawings by Eleanora 
Korzeniowska. 
90-91-Mackenzie Lamb. 
92-3-Roman Vishniak. 
94-7-Arline Strong. 
89-107-Josef Muench. 
108-Uni«ersity News 
Office. Harvard. 
109-Helmut Wimmer, 
courtesy Crowell. 
111-Samir Sen. 
112-Scott Polar 
Institute. 

Third cover-Walter 
Sullivan. 



EXPLORE 


nmERicn 


A y-week caravan camping trip to National 
Parks and wilderness areas in the West. 
A program especially designed for the 
high-school-age boy or girl who has out- 
grown children's camps. An educational 
adventure that is different and challeng- 
ing, exciting and fun, yet SAFE. Op- 
tional programs. 
• Guided mountaineering and pack trip in 
Colorado Rockies, a sailing cruise in San Juan 
Islands. Natural sciences, trout fishing, and 
si.-enic photography. Good food. Small group. 


EXPLORERS' CARAVAN, INC. 

Dr. Richard N. Stultz, Director 
965 Lancaster Ave., Syracuse 10, N. Y. 



VERDE VALLEY SCHOOL 
SUMMER CAMP 

Camp-and-Travel in AMAZING ARIZONA 



for boys and girls, 
ages 10-15, on 165 wooded acres near 
Arizona's natural wonders. Camping to 
Grand Canyon, Painted Desert, Petrified 
Forest. Navaho and Hopi Indian villages 
(famous Kachina and Snake dances). 
Riding, swimming, tennis, archery. Use 
of modern living and sports facilities, in- 
firmary of Verde Valley School. Careful 
supervision. Tutoring available in English 
and math. 6 weeks. 

Write Box 115, Sedona, Arizona 



TELEPHOTO TO TELESCOPE 

liven your Iclepliolo lens iiilo a powerliil, high 
alily telescope for astronomy, spottiiifi and general 
servation. The Skyview TEL-A-TACH fits your 6- 
rh-or-longer camera lens {without alteration) and 

es unparalleled performance at 6x to 200x or even 
ire. It is instantly removed, without tools, so that 
ur lens may be used on the camera. Write, giving 
IS and camera information for prices and full 



riptu 



Road 



AUTHORS: 

TALENT 
GOING 

TO 
WASTE? 



f you are the talented author 
)( on unpublished manuscript, 
et us help gain the recognition 
'ou deserve. We will publish 
■our BOOK-we will edit, design, 
jrini, promote, advertise and 
e/l iti Good royalties. 

Write lor FREE copy ol 

How To Publhh Your Book 

COMET PRESS BOOKS, Depl,NH2 

ZOO Vorick SI., N. Y. 14 



SEA SHELLS 

For Collectors. Thousands of species from 
over forty countries of the world. A grand 
hobby and educational too. Send your name 
today for FREE illustrated lists. 

HERMAN W. HOILINGSWORTH, Seffner, Fla. 




OUT OF THE PAST — 



Best Book 
Contest<»8 



40% royalty. 
All Types of 



AM TgLAD 

My folks carry 

First National City Bank 

Travelers Checks 

It's always a carefree vacation for 
our family. Never any lost funds to 
ruin ourtrips — it's First National City 
Banl< Travelers Checks for us! They 
are spendable everywhere like cash, 
but if they are lost or stolen, you get 
a prompt refund. Cost only $1 per 
each $100 purchased. Good until 
used. Buy them at your bank. 




lus publishing plan, write for Brochure NH. 
PAGEANT PRESS, 101 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 3 



This valuable 38-page book 



is yours for the asking! 



With 



ilike 



jrtificial satellites already launched and spa 
travel almost o reality, astronomy has become toda' 
fastest growing hobby. Exploring the skies with a tel 
scope is a relaxing diversion for father and soi 
UNITRON's handbook contains full-page ilk 
articles on astronomy, observing, telescopes and 
sories. It is of interest to both beginners and ad 

Contents include — 

• Observing the sun. 
moon, planets and 
wonders ol the sky 

• Constellation map 

• Hmts for observers 

• Glossary ol telescope terms 

• How to choose a telescope 

• Amateur clubs and research 
programs 



INSTRUMENT DIVISION of UNITED SCIENTIFIC CO. 
204-206 MILK STREET • BOSTON 9, MASS. 



Please rush to me, tree ol charge, UNITRON's i 
Guide and Telescope Calalcs. 

Name 

Street 

City Slate 








I'mnoLUArii siU)Us ai'iiauance of "Dry Valley" at time oi uiscoMaa ijy Scott expedition. Center is Lake Bonney. 

"DRY VALLEY" 

This Antarctic bare spot has remained the same for a half century 

By Walter Sullivan 



ANTARCTICA is a continent blanketed beneath the 
_C\. greatest ice sheet on our planet. Exploration in recent 
years has indicated that, in places, the ice is several miles 
thick. Any appreciable melting of this white crust would 
raise the earth's oceans enough to flood many continental 
shore lines, cities and agricultural lands. 

Hence, one of the goals of exploration during the Inter- 
national Geophysical Year is to establish a basis for future 
determination of growth or shrinkage of Antarctica's ice 
sheet. It is interesting to note that earlier exploration of 
the Antarctic has furnished at least one place where 
immediate comparison is possible. 

This is the "Dry Valley"— discovered by the British ex- 
plorer, Robert Falcon Scott, as he descended from the ice 
sheet plateau in 1903. This expedition was prelude to his 
ill-fated race to the South Pole in 1911-12. In a world of 
blizzards, he found this valley nearly free of ice and snow. 

Evidence that the then-empty valley had once been filled 
with ice was etched on the valley walls, up to 3.000 feet 
above Scott and his two companions. "Hanging glaciers" 
crept down them, like waterfalls frozen in mid-air, but the 



force of ice behind them was no longer enough to push 
the glaciers out over the valley floor— dramatic proof that 
the ice sheet had shrunken from a former maximum. 

To see if there was any evidence of change since Scott's 
day. the author, in 1957, visited "Dry Valley" in a heli- 
copter of Operation Deep Freeze, the Navy's I.G.Y. expe- 
dition to Antarctica. As shown by comparison of the 1957 
photograph (taken from the helicopter) with that taken 
some fifty years ago by the Scott expedition, there seems 
to have been little or no change in "Dry Valley." Even the 
smallest patches of snow and ice seem to be of the same 
size as a half-century earlier. At the head of the valley, 
the snout of Taylor Glacier ends at the edge of Lake 
Bonney, just as it did when Scott descended the glacier 
from the hinterland ice plateau. But this is a single case. 
Only the I.G.Y.'s subsequent studies can tell us if the stag- 
nant condition of "Dry Valley" is typical of all Antarctica. 

Mr. Sullivan, of The New York Times, went to Aniarctifa 
with the U.S. Navy's 1956-57 LG.Y. expedition, and was 
responsihle for the visit to "Dry Valley" here lepmled. 




Aerial view (1957) shows Valley essentially unchanged, with its "haiNgiisg cLAcii.iib 



.M.ITIIEK I.AIU.LH iN( 



Taylor Glacier now terminates at the head of "Dry 
Valley," which it formerly filled. Under its flank, 
below, a melt-water stream has carved a channel. The 
lofty ice-cliff, right, is the glacier's "snout," and 
the horizontal hands show where debris— probably ash 
fioni volcanic eruptions— covered its onetime surface. 





Melrose— one of the beaiitijiil ante-helliini lioiiies you can visit in Natchez. Miss. 

Visit the storybook mansions of the old South 

In the old days, Spring was "party-ing time" down South. And old times 
there are not forgotten. During the Natchez Pilgrimage in March, sons and 
daughters of old families bid welcome to thousands of visitors as 
thirty historic mansions hold "open house." 

You will walk through gardens bright with azalea and through halls touched 
by the finger of history. You will stand beneath great chandeliers whose 
glittering beauty still seems to reflect the pride and happiness of a hundred 
dancing couples. You can see America's past, too, in nearby Vicksburg . . . 
on the levees that tame the Mississippi ... on the steamboat wharves which 
helped make cotton King in a land where romance was Queen. 

Visitors will always be gratefitl to the ladies of the Natchez Garden Clubs, 
who have remembered and restored the splendor of a golden age in our nation's 
history. They have made it a living part of the heritage of all Americans. 

• • • 



SINCLAIR SALUTES THE U. S. JUNIOR 
CHAMBER OF COMMERCE . . . 

for community improvement and 
conservation, youth welfare and 
leadership training programs so ac- 
tively promoted by their more than 
200,000 young men 21 to 35 years 
of age, in 3,500 American com- 
munities. Typical is their anti-litter 
campaign which has helped to make 
Natchez the lovely city that it is. 



FREE TOUR INFORMATION If you would like to visit Natchez, Miss., or drive anywhere in 
the U.S.A., let us help plan your trip. Write: Tour Bureau, Sinclair Oil Corporation, 600 
Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y.-also ask for our colorful National Parks map. 

ANOTHER IN SINCLAIR'S AMERICAN CONSERVATION SERIES 



SINCUVIR I 

y4 Great Name in Oil 




March 1958 - 50^ 






// - 



m-^. 



i'-i:"-* 



\ 



lo ooo^nooo 
CI inmocHintnp 





" 


tf) 


_o ^ 


o 


u 








?, E 


s 


o. 


5 .2 
at T3 


" 


;fio 


^ 


5 


■^. oc 



D C 



° I 



w o o 

I I I 



f~ ^ Ts. O* 00 



I I I 

X I g 



-0) »-4) ho »-•- cc ci; 



I I I I 



^ ^ Z 



; O O O O O 



OO O O OojO o 



t5 
is 



s < 

<< 
I o 



s J I p: 



o J. J. J. 

u — — — 



o 

z 



o o o 9 i^: 



; J; ^ < 
: Q.*fl- j: 
i o S ? 



E ^ S D 



> o o o < 



„S S E 

ii i if 



I I 



I I 



i if- if- -J 5 
- o o S — 

SS O 

I I I 



I eo Tt m o 



CD a 

m 

I- o* 




Letters 



IViioe Ardente 

iRS: 

Mr. M. I. Adnawidjaja's letter (Na- 
QRAL History, January, 1958) men- 
ons the "ash whirlstorms" which have 
ame from Mount Merapi in Java in the 
ist year. I would like to point out that 
ich "ash whirlstorms" have been ob- 
;rved in many volcanic outbursts. The 
rst detailed description dates to 1902 
nd refers to the terrific nuee ardente 
■hich was produced on May 8 of that 
ear by the Mount Pelee eruption in 
lartinique. In textbooks on geology, 
ruptions of this kind are therefore 
ailed "pelean" or "glowing avalanches." 

In Java they have been observed many 
mes, in particular with eruptions of 
lount Merapi. and also with that of the 
:iut in 1919. Before 1932. in fact, they 
ad been studied in detail by Dr. G. L. 
,. Kemmerling. staff geologist of the 
'olcanological Service of the former 
Government Geological Survey. During 

visit to the Netherlands. Dr. Kemmer- 
ng came to see me at the time I was 
rofessor of aero- and hydrodynamics 
t the Technical University of Delft, 
nd we had occasion to discuss the 
eculiar features of this phenomenon. 

The material flowing down the moun- 
lin is a mixture of volcanic ashes and 
ipilli with hot gases, in a state of high 
irbulence. The presence of these gases 
ives a degree of fluidity which permits 
ae material to flow down the slope of 
■le mountain under the influence of its 
jecific gravity, which, of course, is 
iiuch higher than that of the surround- 
ig air. Steam constantly escapes from 
le material and causes the cloud above 

. In consequence of the relatively high 
ensity of the material and its high 



speed, the avalanche's kinetic energy is 
so great that the flow is only slightly 
deviated from its course by accidental 
features of the terrain: it moves on, 
almost irrespective of ridges and valleys. 

J. M. Burgers 
Institute for Fluid Dynamics and 

Applied Mathematics 
University of Maryland 

Big' Bone 

Sirs: 

I enclose a photograph {below) of 
what I assume to be the humerus, prob- 
ably of a Brachiosaurus, discovered by 
friends of mine in the famous Morrison 
formation (Upper Jurassic), west of 
Delta. Colorado. 

My friends, Mr. and Mrs. Eddie Jones, 
of Delta, came upon this specimen com- 
pletely buried and in perfect condition 
within its original bed of clay. They are 
part-time prospectors, not fossil hunters, 
and were led to their find by Geiger 
counter: much of the bone contains 
uranium ore. Not realizing that a bone 
that is an inch over seven feet in length, 
and two feet, two inches wide at its 
broadest end, was particularly remark- 
able, the Joneses pried it up with a 
crowbar and carried the biggest pieces 
home with them as ore. 

I have heard (but cannot vouch for) 
tales of uranium prospectors finding 
even bigger bones than this one. In the 
case of this particular find, I am happy 
to report, the U. S. National Museum 
will be the ultimate custodian. But who 
can say how many similar accidental 
discoveries have never been reported? 

Meanwhile, the Joneses and I, and 
quite a few local people would like to 
know whether Eddie has the biggest 
dinosaur leg bone ever found and, if 
not, where is there a larger one? 

Cresson Kearny 
Montrose, Colorado 



The Department of Geology and 
Paleontology replies: 

Give Mr. and Mrs. Jones a solid "A-f" 
for having found one of the largest (if 
not the largest) dinosaur leg bones to 
be reported. 

From the photograph it is quite evi- 
dent that the bone is a left humerus 
(the upper arm bone) of Brachiosaunis, 
the greatest of the gigantic, swamp- 
dwelling dinosaurs. Bracbiosaurus was 
not as long an animal as some of the 
other giant swamp-dwellers but it was 
a very bulky one. 

In almost all of the dinosaurs, the 
hind limbs were larger and longer than 
the front limbs— a reflection of the fact 
that the reptilian ancestors of the dino- 
saurs were active, bipedal animals that 
ran round on rather birdlike hind legs. 
But in Brachiosaurus, just to make 
things confusing, the front limbs are 
larger than the hind limbs. Thus, this 
dinosaur had an elevated shoulder re- 
gion, and the back sloped, giraffe- 
fashion, to a hip region that was lower 
than the shoulders. 

The only Brachiosaurus skeleton on 
exhibition is one in the Berlin Museum, 
this specimen having been found in East 
Africa shortly before World War I. It 
is impressively large and, as mounted, 
the skull looks down upon the footsore 
museum visitor from a height of about 
forty feet. 

From the literature, it appears that 
the Berlin specimen has a humerus 
slightly less than two meters— say about 
six-and-a-half feet— in length. A Bra- 
chiosaurus humerus, excavated in Colo- 
rado by the Chicago Natural History 
Museum a half-century ago, is 2.04 
meters in length— a little over six feet, 
eight inches. So it is quite possible that 
the Joneses' seven-foot-plus humerus is, 
indeed, a record breaker. 




Vol. LXV 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Magazine of the American Museum of iNatural History 



Alexander M. White 
President 



Albert E. Parr 
Director 



Walter F. Meister 
Deputy Director 



John Pirceli 
Editoi 



Editorial Advisers 
Gerard Piel 
Fritz Goro 
John Kieran 
Charles Tudor 



Scientific Advisors 

Franklyn Branley John Saunders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Gordon Ekholm Richard Van Gelder 

Jack McCormick 



Editorial Stafl 

Robert \^iLLiAMS0i\ 

Jo\N DuccA^ 

Margaret .Matthews 

Jerrold Lanes 



March, 1958 



Letters 

Reviews 

Ayt ALiNG Archeologt 

A Collection of 
Pre-Coll:\ibian Fine Art 

The Indonesian Giant 

Omoriori: Smeller of \^'itches 

The Need to Classify 

A Tidal Zone Resident 



113 



George Ga\ lord Simpson 116 

Stephaii F. (leBorhegyi 120 

Photographs by 

JSickolas Muray 126 

A. Hoogerwerf 136 

Robert LeVine 142 

Roger L. Batten 148 

\^ ill i a 111 ?v. Tavoliia 156 



Publication Office: 
American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th St., New York 24, N.Y. 

Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circulation Manager, The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West 

at 79lh Street, New York 24, N. Y. 



rill 6nd Natufl 



Hi! 



Magazine indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literalurt 



Naturai. HisiOBY is published Icn limes a year, at New York 24, N. Y.. by The American Museum of Natural 
History, Central Park West at 79th Street. Subscription is S5.00 a year, single copies fifty cents. Subscription 
in Canada. Newfoundland, and all foreign countries is S5.50. Entered as second class matter March 9, 1936. 
at the Post Office at New York, under the act of August 24, I9I2. Copyright 1958, by The American Museum of 
Natural History. Manuscripts and illustrations submitted to the editorial office will be handled with care, but 
we cannot assume responsibility for their safety. 




Ihe seashells, above, specially pliolo 
graphed for Natural History by I ei 
Boltin. are the hard parts of five aniiiuil- 
that belong to two separate Classes of tin 
Phylum MoUusca. The cap-shaped ?hell- 
are *'true" limpets, of the Class Ga>Irii 
poda: the elongated ones are chiton-, ul 
the Class Polyplacophora, 

"Like things belong together*': on llii- 
principle. the ancients began to cla--if> 
into groups the great variety of li\int 
things in the world around them. I lu 
ordering of life-forms into such griiii|i 
and classes continues to occupy man> 
kinds of scientists today, as they seek ne\» 
clues to the tangled record of five-hundred 
million years of evolution. For the hi^t'irv 
of one such search, that has recciitl) 
brought about a new arrangement of I In 
Ph\Ium Mollusca. turn to page 148, 



The Ameriean Museum is open to the Puhlic every day in the year without charge: 
Your support of the Museum makes this possihle. 




j*» > 



» PiDNT ' " PLANT •' MPMammmT^ MICROBIOLOGIST j 

AGRONOMIST >^ BIOCHEMIST ^ENTOMOLOGIST Ip^^Pf-^YJ^I^^- NUTRITIONIST ?i PATHOLOGIST '^5 NEMATOLOGIM * 






Modern agricultural research teams, like the men shown here, develop and test new chemicals that 
help protect farm investment and feed the nation. 




Farm families benefit from increased yield of land and livestock with aid of Monsanto chemicals. 



Creative chemistry combines many sciences, 
runs over 2500 tests a year to hike farm yields 



In labs, on farms, Monsanto scientists. Brand Fertilizer; cattle gain up to 2}-^ 

technical specialists in every field of agri- lbs. a day on feed additives; weed killers 

culture, using latest modern equipment, increase actual crop yields 10-30%. 

search for new ways to increase farm And the search goes on. Tomorrow, 

yields and profits through chemistry. perhaps, fruits and vegetables will stay 

Some practical results of this constant mold free indefinitely . . . and insect 

search are displayed above: corn crop crop destroyers will not rob 10% of 

returns 6 times investment in Lion farfn production. 

MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 
St. Louis 24, Missouri 




WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRY WORKS WONDERS FOR YOU 




Reviews 

HOW THE ANIMALS 
GOT TO WHERE 

WE NOW FIND THEM 



Ri-i'icivi'd by 

George Gaylokd Simpsoin 



ZOOGEOGRAPHY. The Geogruphical 
Distribution of Animals, by Philip J. 
Darlington. John Wiley, New York; 
$15.00: xi + 675 pages; 80 text figs. 



Wnv.y Charles Darwin— a young 
naturalist on H.M.S. "Beagle"- 
visited tiie Falkland Islands en route to 
the Pacific, he noted the presence there 
of a special kind of fox. Although ob- 
viously similar, in some way related, to 
the foxes of tiie adjacent Patagonian 
mainland, the Falkland fox was a dis- 
tinct and peculiar species. Later in the 
voyage. Darwin spent some time on the 
Galapagos Islands, 600 miles into tiic 
Pacific from the coast of Ecuador. Here, 
among other animals, were numerous 
finches, again possessing some affinities 
witii mainland birds, but again— and 
even more decisively— distinct species. 
Not only that, but, within the small ar- 
chipelago, the generally similar faunas 
of all the islands were in part differen- 
tiated into related, but peculiar, groups 
confined to each separate island. 

After long study of these facts of geo- 
graphic distribution, Darwin could find 
only one reasonable and sufficient ex- 
planation. The ancestors of the Falkland 
fox and of the Galapagos finches must 
have cdinc from the mainland. Then. 
after their isolation on those islands, the 
animals must have developed into new 
species, still with signs of true, blood 
relationships among themselves and 
with the mainland species. In short, they 
must have evolved. Thus, Darwin, who 
started the voyage with little doubt of 
the divine creation of species, forever 
separate and unchanging, was led to 
examine the alternative hypothesis: evo- 
lution. ,\fter years of gathering and test- 



ing all available evidence, he concluded 
that ev(dution nuist be a fact; his work 
eventually convinced the scientific world. 

Darwin's first clues to the fact of evo- 
lution were rooted in geography. The 
Origin of Specie^- published in 1859, 
nearly a hundred yoars ago— laid a firm 
basis for modern zoogeography — the 
rather clumsy compound word tiiat 
means I lie study of the distribution of 
animals over the face of the globe. Al- 
though we have now added immeasur- 
ably to the extent and precision of the 
data, the broadly essential facts of zoo- 
geography were already well known in 
Darwin's time. 

It was clear, even tiien. that major 
land-areas iiave faunas generally similar 
throughout a definable region and mark- 
edly different in different regions. Africa 
has widespread giraffes and zebras, but 
those animals occur on no other conti- 
nent. The mammals of the whole of 
Australia (and of certain adjacent is- 
lands) are mostly marsupials, but no 
other region on earth has a predomi- 
nantly marsupial fauna. The overall pat- 
tern of the distribution of land animals 
(based on birds, but also applicable to 
most other groups) was well described 
by P. L. Sclater, the English ornitholo- 
gist, in a study that— coincidentally— was 
made public in the same year (1858) 
and in the same place (the Linnaean 
.Society of London) as Darwin's first 
announcement of his theory. 

Sclater attempted to explain the exist- 
ence of these regional faunas— and the 
differences among them— as representing 
multiple separate centers of divine cre- 
ation. Such an explanation was obsolete 
by the time it was published, but 
Sclater's observational data were, in the 
main, correct and his regional pattern- 



ing of major recent land faunas is slill 
accepted with com|)aratively uninipor 
tant modifications. 

The facts being pretty well in hand 
what Darwin's synthesis provided— ami 
Sclater's did not— was an adequate then 
ry with which to explain this assend)l\ 
of zoogeographic facts. 

The subject has been a lively one cmi 
since, and the technical literature I'l 
zoogeography is considerably more i\ 
tensive (and also considerably mhih 
complex) than that of, say. niirliai 
physics. General examinations of tin 
subject, however, have been rather le» 
—the fingers of both hands would iini 
suffice to count them, but fingers am 
toes together would. In turn, the ninii 
her of distinctly original contribulioii- 
at the level of world-wide zoogeograiihii 
patterning and of basic zoogeogra|)liii 
theory has inevitably been still less— tlu 
count would not go much, if any. beyoiK 
the fingers of a single hand. 

Selection of works worthy of this di- 
ignation, of course, involves persona 
opinion, but I would say that the fir>t- 
after Darwin— was a two-volume wml- 
(1876) by A. R. Wallace (co-discoven i 
with Darwin, of the principles of natura 
selection) and the most recent— uiili 
now— was a short, hut extremely ])illiv 
monograph, published in 1915, by ih' 
American Museum's notable paleontoln 
gist, the late W. D. Matthew. 

It is thus to be considered an onl 
standing scientific event that Philip .1 
Darlington, Jr., Curator of Insects a 
Harvard's Museum of Comparative Zoul 
ogy, now adds a substantial volume l< 
the short list of truly basic contribution- 
to the literature of zoogeography. 

Despite Darlington's subtitle, "Tin 
Geographical Distribution of Animals"- 



ii6 



this work is not a general zoogeography. 
The author, a professional entomologist, 
completely omits the zoogeography of 
insects, for example. The limitation of 
scope is justified both by precedent- 
most work on zoogeography is under- 
stood to be confined to non-marine verte- 
brates—and by the fact that here, alone, 
the data are adequate for reasonably full 
and conclusive study. (There is no good 
summation of the zoogeography of land 
and fresh-water invertebrates: a fairly 
useful book on marine zoogeography- 
published by S. Ekman in 1935 and 
already out of date— suffers from inade- 
quacy of data and, in part, even of prin- 
ciples.! An accurately descriptive title 
for Darlington's work would be: The 
Geographic Distribution of the Living 
and of a feiv Extinct Vertebrate Animals 
on Land and in Fresh Water. The pub- 
lisher can be excused for not using such. 
As to the plan of the work, after an 
introduction on background and work- 
ing principles, the primary data on dis- 
tribution are summarized and discussed 
in five chapters, and more fully pre- 
sented as reference material in five chap- 
ter supplements— the latter totaling 135 
pages in small tyjie. Heavy going at 
times, this part of the book provides an 
essential basis for the broader material 
that follows in the last five chapters: on 
continents and their faunal regions; on 
islands; on the evolution of zoogeo- 
graphical patterns; on geological his- 
tory as related to zoogeography; and on 
general principles and the geographical 
history of man. Supporting all this are 
good lists of references, an adequate 
index and eighty diagrams and maps— 
the latter being orthographic projections 
devised by the author, who feels this to 
be the best solution to the problem of 
showing our spheroid on a flat page. 

Darlington's straightforward, clear ex- 
position, with its occasional personal 
touches that take the reader into the 
author's confidence in a pleasant way, is 
best shown in examples. 

In his preface, Darlington states: 
"When I was a young man, more given 
to argument than I am now, I was told 
that an author has the right to define 
words in his own way and that readers 
are to blame if they do not take the 
trouble to understand. But I do not want 
to be misunderstood, not even if it is 
the readers' fault. I have therefore tried 
to use ordinary words in ordinary ways, 
as well as to write simply and clearly. 
'As demonstrated almost conclusively,' 
'according to the best scientific opinion,' 
'in my carefully considered judgment,' 
etc., are favorite phrases with scientific 
writers, but they usually mean no more 
than 'probably,' and that is the word I 
shall usually use here. I shall also say 
'I think' and 'I guess' without circum- 
locution. . . . 

'"Zoogeography," Darlington says 



later, "if it is to tell things about the 
past, should be consulted with fore- 
thought, common sense, an open mind, 
and a remembrance of human falliljility. 
Some zoogeographers urge these things 
on their opponents, but that is not how 
I mean them here. I mean simply that I 
shall try to practice them myself." 

Again. ". . . the whole process [of 
mankind's geographic expansion] has 
been one of gaining and utilizing suc- 
cessive advantages more than escaping 
from disasters, although escapes have 
sometimes been necessary too. I do not 
mean this philosophically, but as a 
plain matter of fact." 

Now let us consider, with Darlington, 
a few of the more important issues 
and exciting problems of zoogeography. 
Tapirs, to cite one extreme example, 
occur in tropical America and in Malaya 
—nowhere else. Because the tapirs were 
not separately created in each of these 
places, their ancestors must somehow 
have spread between the two. On a lesser 
scale, the ancestors of the Galapagos 
finches must have come from somewhere 
else and by some means. South American 
fauna shows a tripartite division: partly 
unique, partly quite like that of North 
America, and partly of scattered appar- 
ent affinities with the animals of places 
as remote as Africa or Australia. Such 
facts as those, and the whole subject of 
animal dispersal and faunal resem- 
blances, raise a basic question: what 
have been the past relationships of the 
lands and, particularly, the continents V 
One school of thought has insisted 
that today's land masses were formerly 
united by a vastly intricate, shifting sys- 
tem of land bridges— or even of whole 
other continents— athwart our present 
seas. Even in Darwin's day. the building 



of these imaginary land bridges was 
such a popular sport that he waxed 
sarcastic on the subject. 

Others, more recently, have theorized 
that today's continents once formed a 
single mass (or, in another version, two 
masses) that split asunder and literally 
drifted to their present positions, like 
vast ice floes drifting in an arctic sea. 
Still a third school has maintained that 
the continents have had approximately 
their present relationships and positions 
at least since times so remote as to have 
no bearing on the distribution of life as 
we know it today. 

The answer to this problem really lies 
in the realm of geology, but the geolo- 
gists have not solved it. Very well, says 
Darlington in effect, let us then ignore 
the geologists and see whether we cannot 
solve the problem on purely zoogeogra- 
phic grounds. The three main alterna- 
tives should have recognizably different 
effects on the distribution of animals. 

If there was a land bridge, say from 
Australia to South America— one of the 
most popular of the bridges— it must 
have had a definite time and place and 
have served as a migration route for 
animals to which the time and place 
offered appropriate opportunities. 

If South America and Africa were 
once a single continent— the sine qua non 
of continental drift theory— they must 
then have had virtually identical faunas. 
If that connection was fairly recent, say 
within the last hundred million years, 
the former community of these faunas 
should still be evident. 

If, as the third alternative, continents 
and seas are highly stable, the spread of 
animals must (with certain otherwise 
readily explainable exceptions) have 
been between continents now connected 
or obviously connected in the past. In 




Six F.4UNAL RECIONS of the continents and their boundaries, proposed by Sclater, were 
established by Wallace in 1876. Hachures show the transition zones as plotted today. 

117 




NEW! 

.iving 
Resources 
of the Sea 



Opportunities for Res 

LIONEL A. WALFORD, 
U. S. fis/i and Wildlife Service 
This authoritative book provides 
the first s\ stematic appraisal of what 
is known about the sea and its in- 
habitants. Examines the possibility 
of increasing the use of the sea's 
living resources to feed the world's 
growing population. Covers the 
sea's lishe,s, reptiles, seaweeds, mam- 
mals; discusses plankton harvesting, 
farming brackish waters, etc. Spon- 
sored by The Conseriulion Foun- 
dation. 23 fill /-page maps in two 
colors, 13 tables; 305 pp. $6 

AMERICA'S NATURAL 
RESOURCES 

Bdited by o Committee Headed 
by CHARLES H. CALLISON, 
National Wildlife federation 

A clear, intelligible summary of 
America's resources and their con- 
servation. Gives basic information 
on soil, water, forests, all the major 
renewable resources. Each topic is 
covered by an expert who sketches 
the historical background, points 
out the importance of the resource 
to human life, shows the dangers 
threatening it, and explains sound 
methods for preserving and utiliz- 
ing the resource most profitably 
over the years. Edited for the 
Satin a/ Resources Council of Amer- 
ic.,.2U pp. S.^.75 

CONSERVATION LAW 
and ADMINISTRATION 

WILLIAM F. SCHULZ, JR. 
Univenily of Pittsburgh School of Law 

The first comprehensive analysis of 
a state's conservation laws and the 
administration of its renewable nat- 
ural resources. Presents a Model 
Conservation Administration Act, 
adaptable anywhere, to improve 
administration and substantive law 
in conservation practice. Sponsored 
by The Conservation Foundation, 
llliis., 607 pp. SIO 

Please send books checked below 

- _ USE COUPON TO ORDER _ 

of tfl 



a Living Re 
n America's Notur 
n Conservation Lo' 
Schuli, Jr. 
C Bill me 



Wo/ford S6.00 
Resources, Col/ison 3.75 
nd Administration, 

10.00 
n Check herewith 



We pay postage if check accompanies order 



Name 

Address.. 



THE RONALD PRESS COMPANY 
15 East 26th St., New York 10 



'FICKER FIRST' ITEMS CERTAIN TO 

TICKLE 
YOUR FANCY! 




'■Tlje Reconle.l 

Encyilol>edia ol Amtrhan Biy,! Sniig^ ' 

BIRD SONGS 
of DOORYARD, FIELD & FOREST 

. . . recorded in tlie held from Maine to Cali- 
fornia by the Stillwells. Vol. III. presented for 
tlie first time, features 220 songs and calls of 
68 different Wiilern species. Joins Vol. 1 (13^ 
songs ,ind calls of .19 Eastern species) and Vol. 
11 (140 songs and calls of 58 Eastern species 1 . 
33!) rpm 12" iccords. Each runs 44 minutes. 

EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I & II 

each vol. $7.95 ppd. 

WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol. Ill 

$7.95 ppd. 




SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . . painstakingly 'played" by using actual bird 
songs (from the famous Stillwell collection! 
at various speeds, just as a composer selects 
various instruments to play certain symphonic 
passages. Composed and arranged by Jim Fas- 
sett, Musical Director of CBS Radio. Side B, 
A Revelation in Birdsong Pattern, another as- 
tonishing piece of "musical" wizardry on the 
unigi Long Playing (331/3 rpm) 12" record. 



only $5.95 -pdcl 




ALEC TEMPLETON 
and his MUSIC BOXES 



de 



,J. th. 



cha 



incomparable music of Alec Templeton's lamed 
collection of rare music boxes! 45 different, 
delightful tunes including popular folk songs, 
cherished operatic selections and minuets. 
Highest fidelity, a masterpiece of reproduction. 
Long playing, 33 '/i rpm. Also available on 45 
rpm, same price ! 

just $5.95 pp(J. 

FICKER RECORDS 

220 ARCADIA ROAD 
OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 



Il8 



fact, there is only one such obvious pa;-! 
—and not present— intercontinental con- 
nection: that between Siberia and 
Alaska, now drowned by waters so shal- 
low that slight changes in relative Sfa 
level could make it (and. beyond the 
slightest doubt, repeatedly in the pa>l 
have made it) dry land. 

The correct choice among these alter- 
natives was pointed out by Matthew 
more than forty years ago in the moiiu- 
graph previously mentioned. Yet ac- 
i|uiescence in Matthew's solution lias 
been far from universal. Some of hi- 
data were inevitably shaky, and the tolul 
evidence was not sufficient to convim r 
all (itiier students. In a similar fashimi. 
several naturalists in the eighteenth ami 
early nineteenth centuries reached e-- 
sentially correct theoretical conclusiuii- 
about evolution, but the world of scieiin 
remained unconvinced until Darwin e- 
tablished the theory on an unsiiakaiiir 
mountain of evidence. 

Darlington is Matthew's Darwin. In 
the light of the great mass of evidence 
now brought together, the first two alter- 
natives are simply impossible. There can 
no longer be any reasonable doubt tliat 
Matthew was rigiit in maintaining thai 
the continents have been stable for the 
last hundred million years or so. Their 
condition before that was probahlv 
stable, too, but in any case would ha\e 
no bearing on present zoogeography. 

TiiF.RE is a second, related series of 
jiroblems also correctly solved hv 
-Matthew, also debated thereafter, ami 
also placed on a virtually irrefutable 
basis by Darlington's work. I do mil 
mean that these questions will never lie 
argued again, but only that they shoulil 
not be. Sad to say. not all students are 
thoroughly informed and. even saddei. 
not all are really good at evaluating the 
evidence they do have. 

This second area of debate concern- 
the faunas of various islands and how 
ihey got there. There are many islaniU 
that raise no questions: parts of con 
tinents cut off only recently, geologicalh 
-peaking, by arms of the sea. Their 
launas plainly show this history: the\ 
are essentially the same as the fauna- 
of the adjacent continents, only not -n 
large because there is less room on the 
islands. Japan, Sumatra, and the Briti-h 
Isles fall in this category. 

The real problem involves islands tliat 
have a good many land animals, hut 
mostly of species quite distinct from 
those on the continents, and of oddly 
limited or erratically assorted stocks. 
.\mong the classical examples are Maria 
gascar. off the east coast of .Africa: tin- 
West Indies in and around the Carib- 
bean Sea; and (old friends of ours ami 
of Darwin's) the Galapagos, off the 
coast of Ecuador. 

Among its now-living mammals. Mada- 
(continued on page 166) 



ttlO 



di 



Once again we have obtained some 
handsome ebony figures from Africa. The 
native couple shown here is carved from 
a solid jjlock of ebony and polished to a 
sleek black gloss. Hand carved by native 
craftsmen in Tanganyika, this figure 
represents two dancers. 

Since each piece conveys the individu- 
ality of the craftsmen, you will find some 
variance in style details and perhaps some 
slight difference in proportion. This, of 
course, adds to their appeal and all are 
as beautifully carved as the one illus- 
trated. It will make a perfect decoration 
for your mantelpiece, table, desk or 
bookshelf, and will be admired by all who 
see it. Each carving weighs approximately 
two pounds and is about 8 inches high. 

Order yours today. If you don't agree 
that this exquisite carving makes a strik- 
ing addition to your home decorative 
scheme, please feel free to return it for a 
prompt refund. 

Ebony Dancers $10.00 postpaid 

Members are entitled to a 
10% discount. Please do 
not send cash. Send your 
check or money order to: 




THE MUSEUM SHOP 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 



^ >t 




AQUALUNG 
ARCHEOLOGY 

In Lake Amatitlan, Guatemalan divers 
have found a wealth of Maya remains 

By Stephen F. deBorhegyi 




One of seven Guatemalan skin divers 
who turned amateur archeologist. Jorge 
Samayoa surfaces with incense burner. 



THE PERFECTION of free-diving 
apparatus has given the archeol- 
igist a new field for search— one that 
nakes digging in the earth almost 
srosaic by comparison. The sea has 
ong been a storehouse of treasures, 
3ut scientific exploration under water 
IS no older than the beginning of the 
;wentieth century. 

In the Old World, the Mediter- 
ranean—that highway of the ancient 
world— has received the most exten- 
sive investigation. But. since the days 
of 1905—8. when a Harvard group 
iredged the great limestone sinkhole 
at the Maya ruins of Chichen Itza, 
little underwater archeology has been 



done in the Aew World. The "Sacri- 
ficial Cenote" at Chichen yielded 
objects of finely-wrought gold and 
copper, jade jewelry and sacrificial 
knives, and a number of human skele- 
tons, both male and female. Except 
for these finds, however— and the 
chance discovery of an Inca ruin in 
Lake Titicaca — underwater research 
has not been of much concern to 
American archeologists. 

I spent the summer of 1957 in 
Guatemala with a group of students, 
working at the large Mayan site of 
Kaminaljuyu on the outskirts of 
Guatemala City. In July, I was invited 
to see some archeological specimens 




Hl:ma.n head and skull are paired in 
lecorative detail on this offering ves- 
sel, left, one among hundreds recovered. 



Scene of discovery. Lake Amatitlan is 
set in volcanic landscape, covers some 
twenty-five square miles in highlands. 



brought up from beneath the waters 
of nearby Lake Amatitlan. 

What had been described to me as 
a "small" collection turned out to 
consist of literally hundreds of offer- 
ing bowls, incense burners and covers, 
ranging in size from a few inches to 
four-and-a-half feet in height. Many 
bore unusual designs: cacao trees and 
beans, quetzal birds, jaguar heads, 
bats and even human skulls— motifs 
hitherto rare or unknown in this 
"highland" Maya area. My students 
and I decided to finish our dig quickly 
and spend the remainder of our stay 
at Lake Amatitlan. 

This beautiful lake— a popular re- 
sort area, seventeen miles south of 
Guatemala City— is over seven miles 
long and three wide, and has a maxi- 
mum depth of 131 feet. At its western 
end are a number of weekend cottages 
and hot baths and the quiet little town 
of San Juan Amatitlan is located 
about a mile away. 

In 1954. a group of young Guate- 
malan aqualung enthusiasts began 
exploring the lake for good fishing 
grounds. In April, 1955, one of them, 
Manfred Topke, was diving in the 
southwest corner of the lake when he 
discovered the first archeological 
specimen to be found. Thereafter, an 
enthusiastic amateur group— Topke, 
Jorge Samayoa. Raul Minondo, Ro- 
dolfo Robles. Luis Canella, Enrique 
Salazar and Carlos Springmiihl— con- 
tinued a systematic search of the bot- 
tom. By 1957. they had brought up 
over five hundred pottery vessels, in- 
cense burners and stone sculptures. 

The first task of our archeology 

121 




Gaping jaws of an unidentified animal 
frame the human head that has been 
modeled on the side of this fragment of a 
clay incense burner. Head is decorated 

122 



with ear and nose plugs, in Maya style. 
Emergence of the head from animal jaws 
is also a common Maya art motif. To the 
left, vegetable shape represents fruits 



of the cacao plant (the source of choco- 
late I . from which a sacred drink of the 
Maya was prepared. This burner forms a 
part of the Samayoa-Delgado collection. 




Qletzal feather headdress tops this 
fine-featured Maya face, molded to the 
body of another incense burner from 
the lake. Note different style of ear plugs. 




Almost intact, this tubular incense 
burner bears the serene likeness of the 
Maya rain god. Chac. Mustache may link 
with the deity's other feline features. 



1 




i 



Low RELIEF FIGURE On upper portion of 
this burner fragment appears to hold sac- 
rificial knife in hand. Bloody elements, 
such as this, echo traditions at Chichen. 



group was to make an accurate map 
of the lake. Once this was ready, we 
attempted to locate on it the exact 
sites of all underwater discoveries 
made by our skin-diving friends. \^'e 
photographed nearly four hundred 
specimens in various private collec- 
tions and catalogued each piece ac- 
cording to its original location on the 
lake bottom. We mapped all the 
archeological sites on or near the lake 
shore and then correlated these with 
the underivater sites. The oldest of the 



shore sites dated to the Maya "For- 
mative"' period I approximately 1000 
B.C.I : the latest site had still been 
occupied at the start of the "Historic"' 
period (marked by the Spanish Con- 
quest in A.D. 1524). Thus, the area 
had been continuously inhabited for 
over twenty-five hundred years. 

OUR NEXT QUESTIONS were why and 
how these amazing specimens 
happened to be at the bottom of the 
lake. There seem to be two possible 



answers. Many of the bowls were 
found on the slopes of the lake floor- 
in piles of six or seven— fitted neatly 
one into the other. Some of the in- 
cense burners were also found in 
groups of four or five— standing erect 
and occasionally embedded in lava. 
This clearlv suggests that many of the 
objects had been placed along the 
shore ^vhen the lake's water level w as 
lower than at present. 

Other artifacts were found at so 
great a depth and so haphazardly 




Nearby land-site of Kaminaljuyu is the 
source of this burner— with a grotesque, 
red and black face. Lake pieces, stained 
black by water, have lost their colors. 



Full view of burner, seen in detail 
on p. 120. shows the repeated skull-and- 
head motif. Although work at Amatitlan 
has not yet turned up human remains, it 



is such evidence as this that suggests 
possibility of human sacrifice at lake 
in early times, paralleling practice at 
the sacrificial cenote of Chichen Itza. 



123 




Jaclar EFFIGY", aboie. was the handle 
for an incense burner's cover. Head is 
about six-and-a-iialf inches in height. 



Human effigy, below, ten inches high, 
was also once a cover handle. The open 

mouth and closed eyes may denote death. 




Leamni, hi^- native Hungary in 194!1. 
Dr. deBorhegvi taught in Guatemala 
and worked there on re>earrh grants. 
Sinie 1954. he has directed the Sto- 
vail Mu-cuni. rniver-it\ of Oklahoma. 



strewn o\er the lake flonr. however, 
that tlie\ must have been thrown de- 
liberateK into the lake. There seems 
little doubt that these— like the objects 
recovered at Chichen Itza— had been 
offerings to the gods. 

LiKK AMATITLAN could easily have 
I possessed some ancient religious 
significance. On its south shore, gev- 
sers appear and disappear periodi- 
calh . Both on the shore and in the lake 
itself, sulfurous water bubbles up at 
such a temperature that an egg can 
be hard-boiled in a few minutes. The 
volcano. Paca\a. whose four-]jeaked 
cone overlooks the lake, has erupted 
a number of times during the last fi\ 
hundred years. 

-\ow. the predominance of jaguar 
features on the incense burners ( p. 
123. top center, and p. 124. iop\ sug- 
gests that the Mayas powerful rain 
and water gods— commonK associated 
with this much-feared beast— were the 
recipients of the Amatitlan offerings. 
Although no skeletons have vet been 
found, both the depiction of skulls on 
some (if the vessels and the sacrificial 
knife noted in the hands of one figure 
(p. 123. top right \ suggests that, as 
at fihichen. human or animal sacri- 
fices mav have taken place. 

Today. Lake Amatitlan still occu- 
pies a place in native religious beliefs. 
Each \ear on May 3. the dav of the 
Festival of the Cross, the Santo Nino 
de Atocha—a charming wooden figure 
with a miraculous historv— is taken 
from the church in a magnificent pro- 
cession across the lake to a spot where 
legend sa\s it made its first appear- 
ance. Hundreds of gaily-painted boats 
follow the statue on its journey, and 
flowers and fruits are thrown into the 
lake by the pilgrims. Can this color- 
ful Christian festivity contain within 
it a sur\ ival of ancient pagan rituals? 

ML CH MORE inaterial probably re- 
mains to be discovered in the 
Americas by aqualung archeologists 
and further discoveries would add to 
the wealth of study material that af- 
fords us almost our only insight into 
the lives and beliefs of our New World 
predecessors. For examples from one 
rich collection, see the follow ing pages. 




Tripod forms, as represented by these 
two vessels, are the ones most commonly 
found in and around Lake Amatitlan. The 
spiked decoration of vessel, above, may 
represent the bark of an immature ceiba, 
deemed by the Maya to be a sacred tree. 



Basket shape of vessel, above, is un- 
common. Note happy and sad faces at the 
base of handle. The shoe-shaped vessel, 
belotv, is characteristic of the earliest 
period at Lake Amatitlan. Both pieces 
are in the collection of Manfred Topke. 




125 



This onyx head i? of rlassic 

Veiarruz origin unii is 

probably a representation of 

a victim of human sacrifice. 

as shown by the knobs 

of his ceremonial haircut. 




Pottery figi 

warrior and a woman a 

work. Both wea 

between the eyes a 

designed to ma 

fur tliem to look c 



A COLLECTION OF 
PRE-COLUMBIAN FINE ART 

The result of thirty years' acquisition is on display in Washington 

Photograplis by Nickolas Muray 



IN 1912. a young American career diplomat was taken by 
a friend to visit a small art gallery on the Boulevard 
Raspail in Paris. He saw there a small group of art objects 
which had originated in Peru before the coming of the 
Spaniards. They were of a style totally unfamiliar to him, 
although he had spent several tours of duty in South 
America and was quite familiar with the silver work of 
Spanish colonial days— the only "antiquities'" then known 
and admired in South America. 

Shortly thereafter, the diplomat. Robert Woods Bliss, 
bought a green jadeite figure that had been fashioned in 
Mexico perhaps a thousand years before Christ and thus 
began a collection that has since become world-famous. 

The Bliss collection has been on public view since 1947 
as a loan to the National Gallery of Art in Washington. 
Now this remarkable assemblage is available to an even 
wider public through the publication of a complete and 
sumptuous catalogue (Pre-Columbian Art: Phaidon Pub- 
lishers. Ltd. : distributed in the U.S. by Garden City Books) . 

126 



The catalogue is a collaborative labor of love— first for 
the collection itself, second for the extraordinary photo- 
graphs of every piece in the collection, and lastly for the 
masterly work of the engravers and printers, which has 
brought each photograph to the printed page with a clarity 
and freshness rarely equaled. 

The illustrations on this and the following pages have 
been taken from this book. All are the work of Nickolas 
Muray, whose love of the material is self-evident. 

It is only within this century that pre-Columbian art- 
and "'primitive art' in general— has been recognized as art 
at all. It took the tumultuous upheavals of "modern art" 
to show us the virtue of these artifacts, which are so far 
from modern. In general, people see what they are taught 
to see. which is both the strength and weakness of great 
artistic traditions, such as that of Western Europe. 

Most of the revolutions and counter-revolutions of 
"modern art" have been aimed not so much toward the 
destruction of the Western tradition as toward opening 




w 






Basalt ceremonial axe. or hacha. shows face 
of a dead warrior wearing an eagle mask. 
Object dates from late Veracruz culture. 



This limestone Teotihuacan mask, from 

Vaile> of MeM,-o. |)rol)dhly adorned 

a building. Eyes and teeth have been loi 



tradition-blinkered eyes to other actual and possible worlds 
of tradition and feeling. Whatever we feel about their own 
works, we owe the modernists an eternal debt for showing 
us that there are other classics and other traditions at 
least as valuable as our own. 

AMONG these traditions, none is richer than that of the 
^ loosely related cultures that flourished from Mexico 
to Peru before the coming of Columbus. Cortes and 
Pizarro, products of a well-developed Western culture, 
burst into the dazzling courts of Montezuma and Manco 
Capac not very differently than Alaric and his Goths burst 
into Rome. They took the soldier's view of the native 
masterpieces they seized, dividing them into negotiable 
loot and souvenirs. 

Spain's Royal Historian, in recording the first shiploads 
(jf Mexican treasure to arrive in Europe, remarked in pass- 
ing. "I do not marvel at gold and precious stones. But am 

128 



in a manner astonished to see the workmanship excel the 
substance." But his was only a passing observation: the 
greatest part of the New World's workmanship disappeared 
into the melting furnace. Only a few objects that the 
Mexican treasure fleets brought to Europe are still in exist- 
ence; while not a single object from Central or South 
America remains. 

For the bulk of the Bliss collection— and other public 
and private collections which are gradually increasing in 
number— we are indebted to the spades of archeologists and 
their free-enterprising competitors, the grave-robbers. 

In looking at pre-Columbian art objects, such as these, 
today's viewer has some important advantages: most es|)e- 
cially. he is not burdened with preconceptions about what 
is beautiful and what is "good art." In this field, at least, 
he can look with the innocence so en\icd by art critics. 

He can, for example, apply to these objects two of the 
most severe tests of value in art— directness and craftsman- 




Another dead. nia>ked warriur in jiottery 
from Veracruz. Agonized, but oddly peaceful, 
face seems to echo maker's acceptance of death. 



ship. The hand of the great artist is sure and he moves 
from his idea to his finished work on a calculated course, 
without detours or accidents. 

EVEN the most superficial look at these objects shows that 
their unknown makers knew exactly where they were 
going and how to get there. Their sculpture and carving 
is simplified down to basic forms: it has enormous solidity 
even in low-relief work. Their decorative surface patterns 
are equally positive and stripped to essentials. And the 
craftsmanship of the work is obvious even in photographs. 
Their carvings in hard stone are smooth and sure; the 
details of their metal-smithing are precise and workman- 
like; the fineness of their textiles, woven on the most 
primitive of looms, is beyond the skill of most modern 
hand- weavers (some Peruvian textiles have wefts of 400 
threads to the inch I . 

These values are obvious ones, but further study leads 



to extraordinary new perspectives. As a single example, 
consider the attitude toward death shown in three of the 
objects pictured here— the human sacrifice in the carving 
on p. 136 and the dead warriors pictured in bas-relief and 
in the pottery mask I left and right, above I . 

In terms of our own culture, the art of ancient Mexico, 
in particular, is heavy with images of death that echo 
savage warfare and human sacrifices. Yet these dead faces 
show no trace of brutality or morbidity. They are the 
expressions of people who felt the dignitv and fitness of 
death as "the right true end of life." These faces, and the 
people who made them, took pride in the fact of dying. 

The attitude is alien and perhaps repugnant to us but, at 
the same time, the directness and fervor of its expression 
in this art is proof beyond prejudice that it was not, for 
these artists, a "morbid" attitude. It was, rather, an expres- 
sion of a different mode of human experience and of a phil- 
osophy—now lost to us— that sprang from that experience. 



129 



.iSW^*^ 



This silver figure from Peru is 
drastically simplified in form, 
but delicately wrought from 
individual sheets of hammered nielal 
that have been soldered together 
to make the finished statue. 

130 





Mummy mask from Huarmey. Peru, was tied 

by cords to outside of the wrapped mummy bundle. 

It is made of intricately joined gold sheets. 




Portion of a tapestry-woven 
poncho from coastal Peru shows 
fine work in red. yellow and black 
wool and cotton. Decorative 
elements include stylized 
figures of birds and animals. 



This iNIaya pottery figurine was 

originally painted blue. 

a sacred color. Both its face 

and posture are strongly 

reminiscent of serene sculpture 

found in China and India. 



131 





Grotesque Olmec figure, 
from Mexico, is carved from 
ser])entine stone. Sculptors of 
pre-Columbian New World wurll 
in hard stone with the simplest 
of tools, but snioothlv and surel\ 



Graceful stone clubhead 

Peru, is also a iitiliri 

weapon. The symmetrica o 

may have been siigge-J 

a cactus, but very similar i< 

were made of metal in E o 



Tlazolteotl. the Aztec goddess 
of childbirtii. carved from 
aplite. was also goddess of 
carnal sin — the "Eater of Refuse 
who consumed sins of penitents 
who confessed to her priests. 




133 




The potters of the Peruvian seacoast 
cultures were often humorists. 
This jar, representing a skull, could 
almost as well be a cartoon 
of a cat. Peruvian artists delighted 
in stressing resemblances such as this. 




Humor of gulls quarreling 
over a fish struck this 
Mochican potter, more than 
a thousand years ago. exactly 
in the terms it might strike 
a cartoonist of today. 



This pensive little pi 

god represents one of As 

four hundred fori 

drunkenness — all shown as ral 

Belt is ornamented 

the head of a fallen wai 








■t 



THE INDONESIA? 



Largest of lizards, 
the Komodo monitor 
is among the world's 
least - known animals 



By A. HOOGERWERF 



THERE ARE STORIES of twenty- 
foot-long "dragons" dwelling in 
the islands of Indonesia. These fic- 
titious accounts have been inspired 
by a creature quite astonishing 
enough without exaggeration — the 
giant, or Komodo, monitor (Varaiius 
komodoensis Ouwens ) . Considering 
that this is the largest of all living 
lizards, the paucity of information 
concerning the Komodo monitor is 
surprising. This monitor, we know, 



is restricted in range to the islands 
of Komodo, Padar and Rincha, situ- 
ated between Sunibawa and Flores in 
the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, and 
to the west coast of Flores, itself. 
Measurements made by Dutch biolo- 
gists have also informed us that, or- 
dinarily, the male may reach a length 
of ten feet, and females, six feet. \ct. 
in the rare accounts of the Komodo 
monitors, more of the fantastic than 
the scientific is to be found. One 



136 



■■^ 



Naturalist's Notebook 



Grass-covered hills of Komodo Island, one of the four areas where 
giant monitors may be found, are savanna-like in the dry season, left. 
Author found these monitor tracks, below, on the beach at Padar Island. 





;iANT 



such account was published in 1930, 
in De Nieuwe Gazet of Antwerp: 
"Don't think that this is a meek little 
lizard," stated this article. "It is a 
plump animal, very much like a 
dinosaur. ... It only finishes its meal 
when everything is eaten, regardless 
how big the prey is. ... A peculiarity 
is that, if aroused, the beast spreads 
a horrible vapour." 

In my former capacity as Chief of 
the Game and Nature Protection Di- 



.• .f» 






%. 



vision of the Indonesian Govern- 
ment. I was leader of an expedition 
in 1953, especially organized for the 
study of these lizards. This article 
summarizes some of the findings of 
our expedition. 

The Komodo monitor's habitat is 
one of the driest ,3ortions of the In- 
donesian Archipelago. The islands 
are all hilly, and creeks are only filled 
with water during the rainy season. 
Large sections are covered with tall 
grasses and. during the drv season. 
the countryside resembles an African 
savanna landscape. Here and there, 
the hills are entirely covered by 
monsoon forest, where the trees are 
generallv tall but small-trunked. 

Despite the great dryness of the 
environment, there is a reasonable 
amount f)f game. On all the islands 
where the monitors occur, one finds 
deer and wild pigs. Monkevs are 
also to be found on Flores and Rin- 
cha. wild horses on the latter and 
wild water buffalo on Komodo. 



T 



HE Komodo Lizard resembles 

either monitors, although— in large 



specimens— the head and, especially, 
the neck make a more powerful im- 
pression. The voung have a dark 
body, which is closely covered by 
red circles, and their necks have well- 
marked vertical bands of yellowish 
green and black. Very little remains 
of these striking marks in the adult 
except the reddish-brown circles 
which are still visible. 

LIKE other lizards, the Komodo 
J monitors are acti\e during the 
warmer part of the day. Thev gen- 
erally appear not earlier than 8:30 
A.M. The night is apparently spent in 
holes between stone heaps or tree roots. 
In foraging for food, which con- 
sists primarily of carrion, the moni- 
tors depend mainlv on their sense 
of smell. They can locate a decom- 
posing corpse at a considerable dis- 
tance. It is possible that their tongues 
aid in locating the carrion. At least. 
I obser\ed several times that a liz- 
ard, in approaching its prey, con- 
tinually sticks out its tongue. When 
they approach close enough to a cad- 
aver, the monitors are also finallv 



guided to the spot by their vision. 

During our expedition, we set out 
several carcasses in order to study 
the monitor's habits. I noted that 
mutual relationships were generally 
poor. Large lizards dominated the 
smaller ones, and also fought anioiig 
each other round the bait. The 
smaller lizards usually ran off when 
the larger ones arrixed. but tiicv 
would come back to the vicinit\ of 
the bait, staving at a respectful dis- 
tance from their larger cousins. (Oc- 
casionally, a big lizard would come 
close to a smaller one and then hit 
it with a sideways sweep of its tail— 
a powerful weapon. 

When one of the lizards reached 
the bait, it would touch the cada\ei 
with its tongue. I noticed on two oc- 
casions that the bait animal was first 
opened by a bite on the bark, al- 
though this is a place where it is 
difficult to take off skin and flesh. 

Komodo monitors can eat lari;p 
quantities of food in one single meal. 
Subsequently, thev may sleep for 
days. De Jong, the Dutch biologist 
who has written several papers about 








the Komodo lizard, observed an 
eight-foot zoo specimen eat the larg- 
est portion of a deer. It then re- 
mained motionless in its cage for a 
full week, to allow its digestive juices 
to do a proper job! 

Several aspects of the life of these 
interesting reptiles are not well 
known. These include the details of 
reproduction. According to de Jong's 
observations, mating takes place in 
July- eggs are laid in August, and 
hatching is supposed to occur the fol- 
lowing April. Observation of the 
monitors in a zoo indicates a growth 
of only forty inches in a five-year 
period. It may take this long before 
breeding takes place. 

ALTHOUGH the range inhabited by 
Komodo monitors is rather re- 
stricted, there seems to be no serious 
threats to their survival. Game popu- 
lations on the islands are adequate, 
while the human population is rather 
scanty and human take of game does 
not appear to be excessive. Both the 
southern half of Rincha and Padar 
islands have been set aside as special 



A note on the Varanidae 



NATURALISTS have suggested that monitor lizards, the Varanidae. 
may well have served as the prototype of the dragon so often seen 
in oriental art. Indeed, the Komodo monitor is often called the "dragon 
lizard"'— for it is the giant of its own family, as well as of all the other 
lizards, often reaching a length of ten feet. At the opposite end of the 
scale is the short-tailed monitor of Western Australia, only about eight 
inches in length. First described by the Dutch zoologist Ouwens in 1912. 
the Komodo "dragon" has not been intensively studied in his natural 
environment. Even in Western zoos, the total number of Komodo monitors 
probably does not exceed a dozen. 

The twenty-three species that compose the family Varanidae are 
essentially tropical in habitat, and are carnivores. While their size limits 
most monitors' diet to insects, eggs or even chickens, the Komodo is able 
to tackle bigger prey. It is noteworthy that monitors— unlike other 
lizards— do not chew their food, but usually tear the flesh with teeth and 
claws and swallow it in large chunks. In this latter characteristic, they 
resemble snakes. Indeed, their anatomy includes a feature rare among 
the lizards: in order to protect the brain case from the pressure caused 
by the ingestion of large food objects, the monitors have developed a 
bony sheath about the brain— another point of similarity with snakes. 




Carrion-eaters, the monitors quickly located bait. U;jt, which the author set out 
to attract beasts for study. Facing pair, below, give appearance of sociability, 
but author found that the larger Komodo monitors actually dominated smaller ones. 





139 



Dr. Hoocerwerf. a Netherlands zoo- 
logist, served for some years as the 
Chief of the Game and Nature Protec- 
tion Division of the Indonesian Gov- 
ernment. He now resides in Holland. 



refuges for the lizards, and their ex- 
port to zoos during the past twenty 
years has been restricted by issuance 
of very few permits. 

Although monitors apparently sub- 
sist mainly on carrion, they will kill 
living animals. De Jong describes 
how he once heard a deer cry out 
and, on arriving at the scene saw a 
monitor bending over a young deer, 
about three feet in length. The ani- 
mal was still warm and had a large 
bite wound on the left side of the 
neck. The lizard had started to open 
the deer's abdomen to feed. It may 
be assumed that the deer had been 
surprised by the hiding monitor. 

To ME. one of the most interesting 
findings of our expedition was 
that the lizards are also capable of 
surprising and killing monkeys. While 
on the island of Rincha. we heard the 
screaming of a group of gray maca- 
ques (Macaca irus) . Heading for the 
spot whence the noise came, we saw 
a large monkey on the ground, 
screaming excitedly. The monkey dis- 
appeared when approached more 
closely. We checked in the jungle 
near the spot, and found some blood 
on the vegetation. 

Soon. I came upon a monitor, of 
average size, holding in its mouth a 
monkey which was bleeding front a 
wound on one of its legs. The still- 
living monkey was held by its head 
in such a position that the whole face 
was free, enabling it to look around. 
Oddly enough, the behavior of the 
monkey indicated neither fear of 
death nor panic. The macaque could 
easily have scratched out the moni- 
tor's eyes, but nothing of the sort 
happened. When the lizard moved 
off. the monkey did not resist being 
dragged a\vay. but moved its legs as 
though to walk along! Apparenth 
the macaque was in some sort of 
shock condition that suppressed any 
efforts toward escape. When three- 
quarters of the monkey's body had 
disappeared into the lizard's mouth, 
breathing was still to be noted. Fin- 
ally, the hind legs and tail disap- 
peared: the process of ingestion had 
lasted only about twenty minutes. 

140 




Live prey, as well as carrion, forms a part of monitors' diet. On tlie island of 
Rincha. author surprised a lizard that had seized a macaque, and obtained this 
remarkable sequence of photographs. At onset, above, monkey's head is gripped. 




In shock after seizure, macaque makes no effort to escape, alllidiigh it could i 
easily have scratched out lizard's eyes, as position of arm shows. Author notes 
that the monkey's behavior indicated a lack of either panic or fear of death. 




Last stage of ingestion' is quickly reached, with only 
hind legs and tail remaining outside monitor's maw. The time 
from start to finish, author notes, was some twenty minutes. 



Capture of living prey has also been reported by the Dutch 
biologist dejong, who discovered a monitor that had killed 
a deer three feet in length. Carrion, however, is main diet. 

141 




Head shavkn. the widow Kerubo leads the mourning by her 
husband's empty bed. above. The "witch smeller," Mochama, 
followed by aide, below, works up his frenzy by wild run. 



OMORIORI: 

SMELLER OF 

WITCHES 

A field anthropologist presents 
an eye-witness report on Black 
African witchcraft in practice 

Bv Robert A. LeVine 



^m^ ^^^m^ 







THE BELIEF that witchcraft can 
cause death, disease and misfor- 
tune is still VN'idespread in Africa, 
south of the Sahara. Although such 
beliefs take many different forms 
among the inhabitants of different 
regions, almost invariably there is a 
common faith in some practitioner 
who claims to be able either to coun- 
teract or to prevent the evil effects of 
witchcraft. When serious trouble 
strikes, many African families turn 
to one of these "witch doctors" for 
the prevention of future disaster. 

Witchcraft and its supposed effects 
are sources of major concern to the 
Gusii tribe, in southwestern Kenya, 
\vith whom I worked for some eight- 
een months in 1956-57. The Gusii live 
in a cool, fertile, highland region, 
about twenty miles east of Lake Vic- 
toria. Untouched by the recent Mau 
Mau disturbances, the Gusii are pro- 
gressive agriculturalists who have 
added coffee— a profitable cash crop 
—to their customary maize and millet 
cultivation. Overpopulation and the 



shortage of land, which have long 
been major social problems in other 
parts of Kenya, are only beginning 
to be felt in Gusiiland. Despite their 
peace and relative prosperity, how- 
ever, the Gusii have their share of 
anxieties, and witchcraft is a major 
focus of anxiety for them. 

According to Gusii belief, witches 
(abarogi) are usually women who 
run naked at night and conspire to 
kill their neighbors and relatives. 
Such witches secretly plant "poison- 
ous" substances in the roofs and 
floors of their victims' houses, and 
these substances eventually cause 
their victims' death. A person may 
discover that he is being bewitched, 
by finding a dog's tail or a dead rat 
on a path near his home. Even with- 
out such evidence, should a succes- 
sion of misfortunes befall a man and 
his family, he well may suspect that 
he has become the target of witch- 
craft. Someone so troubled will visit 
a female diviner— whose oracles usu- 
ally confirm his suspicions. The vic- 



tim then faces a triple choice: either 
to hire a sorcerer (omonyamosiia) 
to use black magic against the 
witches; to make a formal accusation 
to his Chief and the local Elders 
against the person he most suspects 
of the witchcraft; or to hire the ser- 
vices of a "witch smeller" {omoriori) , 
who will detect and remove the 
poisonous substances the witch has 
planted. This last choice is considered 
highly effective, and is often used. 

While the Gusii tribal group— some 
300,000 in number— contains many 
professional sorcerers and diviners, 
only one man among them today is a 
full-time witch smeller. Named Mo- 
chama Mororomba, he is a one-eyed 
man, whose high-pitched voice and 
comic manner would detract from his 
prestige were he not generally re- 
garded as a trustworthy practitioner. 



Mr. Le\ INK. now engaged in gr;idu- 
ale study at Harvard, did his East 
African field work with the help of 
a giant from the Ford Foundation. 



'"*> V 





•'^ 



One-eyed Mochama. beloir. U clad in 
till" borrowed clothing he wears to show- 
that he hides "nothing up his sleeves." 




-^^ 

^ 




Goat's islood. rubbed on his hands, is 
sniffed by the "witch smeller." above, in 
[)relude to frenzied run through village. 

Mighty leap brings Mochama onto roof 
of hut. rijiht. where he snatches armful 
of thatch to be inspected for "poison." 



^ 



Mochania's services are constantly 
demanded, nut unh In his own 
tribesmen but In the adjacent Kip- 
sigis tribe, and even l)\ white farmers 
with African employees. He is ac- 
corded great respect bv the Gusii, 
and practices with the ofTicial bless- 
ing of the local Chiefs. 

WHAT is the secret of Mochama's 
success? Although he claims to 
have inherited his skill from his father 
and grandfather, there are others 
whose fathers practiced okoriora and 
none of them is a successful practi- 
tioner. I believe that Mochp'.ma's repu- 
tation comes from the fact that no one 
has been able to catch him at sleight- 
of-hand. When, at the end of a search, 
Mochama produces the sought-for 
witchcraft substances, he does so with 



"nothing up his sleeves," while up- 
start witch smellers have often been 
caught planting the objects in ad- 
vance, or producing them by legerde- 
main. Indeed, before Mochama 
starts his hunt, he ostentatiousK 
changes clothes with some bystandci 
to "prove" that he is concealing 
nothing. Ahhough the Gusii are skep- 
tical and suspicious, they are con- 
vinced that Mochama finds only what 
is realh already there— in the roof, 
floor or walls of a house. 

I saw Mochama operate on several 
occasions, but was never able to de- 
tect signs of trickery. When I sug- 
gested to my interpreter and othri> 
that the witch smeller had sent assist- 
ants in advance to plant the "dis- 
covered" evidence, they insisted that 
the objects Mochama turned u|) all 
















looked quite old enough to have been 
planted by witches long ago, and 
furthermore that there were no marks 
of disturbance on the thatched roofs 
or mud walls or floors where the ob- 
jects were found. Personal!)', I was 
unable to find out how Mochama 
managed his performances. 

The Gusii are thus willing to credit 
Mochama with wide supernatural 
powers. They believe he has the abil- 
ity to predict the future accurately, 
and that he can tell if a person is 
committing witchcraft simply by 
looking and sniffing at the suspect. 
Consequently, Mochama is shown 
great deference. Crowds gather 
wherever he goes, and people who 
have never met him greet him avidlv. 
When he sends his bag of medicines 
ahead to a village, with the order 



that no one may eat on the day of his 
coming, people wait all day without 
eating. And, if he does not appear, 
they eat that night and repeat their 
fast the following day. 

MOCHAMA capitalizes on his power. 
His fees are very high, and he 
usually demands additional payment 
above the price agreed upon. In the 
case illustrated here, Mochama was 
paid a cow (worth about S42) , a goat 
kid (worth about $5), a considerable 
amount of goat meat, and S5 in cash. 
He refused the first two cows offered 
to him because of their poor quality, 
and personally selected the best one 
in his clients herd. Thus, his fee for 
one morning's work amounted to 
more than $50. 

In the case illustrated here, a vil- 




FoRElGN BODY is triumphantly plucked 
out of thatch, exhibited to audience. A 
search of other suspect areas follows. 



145 



lager named Ogise attributed his ail- 
ment to the black magic of a neigh- 
bor. Having stopped taking food, 
Ogise wasted away and finally died, 
one year to the week after his eldest 
son had died of an undiagnosed 
disease. An infant grandchild had also 
died a few days before Ogise's death 
and, when the body was examined, 
signs of witchcraft were found. 

At this point, Ogises elder widow, 
Kerubo. began making accusations of 
sorcery against several neighbors, 
and eventually brought charges 
against one of them to the local 
Elders. The subsequent trial brought 
many old family conflicts to the sur- 
face, for the accused was a cousin of 
Ogise. Friendly relations among a 
number of nearby families were 
broken off and suspicion and hostil- 
ity ran high. The accused was con- 
victed of sorcery, but not penalized, 
and Kerubo planned two more law 



suits against him. Then, her only 
grandchild fell ill with fever, and 
Kerubo, convinced that her family 
was still being bewitched, began 
again making violent accusations. 

Her deceased husband's brother, 
Sabani, finally decided to call Mo- 
chama and have a witch-smelling. 

THE grandchild's fever had gone 
even before Mochama arrived. 
After Mochama discovered and re- 
moved "poisonous" objects from the 
bewitched houses, he made several 
cuts on the two widows' bodies with a 
razor. He rubbed a caustic powder 
into the wounds, to protect the 
widows from future witchcraft and 
sorcery. Then he announced that sus- 
picion and accusations were to be at 
an end. The combination of the re- 
moval of the "poisonous" objects 
and the protective medication made 
Kerubo feel that she and her 







family had nothing further to fear. 
Mochama should not be dismissed 
as a mere self-seeking profiteer. Ac- 
tually, he performs an important role ! 
in alleviating community conflict and 
tension. The many professional sor- 
cerers who operate among the Gusii , 
sell black magic ( omosira ) to the I 
people, and also try to identify and 
kill witches. The sorcerers thereby 
augment the suspicion, hostility and 
violence within Gusii families and 
communities. Mochama, in contrast, 
abjures all sorcery and black magic, 
and rarely attempts to identifv 
witches. Instead, he shifts Gusii at- 
tention from the supposed human 
agents of misfortune to the "poison- 
ous" objects which are allegedlv the 
immediate cause of trouble. Then, by 
removing the objects. Mochama gives 
the afflicted family a sense of security 
without having accused anyone or 
increased conflicts in the process. 




^^r, Vh- kM' '>! , 'jJh* ■'* ' . 



Cli\m\ oi \( 1 iinobfs the dissection 
and neutralization of tlie "poisonous" 
objects. /(■// and aborc. followed by 
casting of lots, right, wliieli '"prove 
that family is no longer threatened 
by witchcraft. Moc!iania"s final step 
was a sort of vaccination against the 
danger of future attacks. Tiie author 
concludes that such "witrii-snielling' 
helps quell divisive community fears. 



lifter a search, when the crowd has 
l;athered round him, Mochama will 
' ggressivelv question individuals on 
heir use of black magic, and warn 
jhem against any such practice, 
i In the case illustrated here, Moch- 
j ma's witch-smelling may not have 
mproved anyone's health, but it did 
esult in quelling divisive tensions in 
' small community. 
I Where witchcraft and sorcery are 
onsidered real dangers in life, there 
iiust be ways of averting or combat- 
ng them. It is only natural that en- 
erprising individuals will take ad- 
antage of this situation by taking 
■avment for alleged cures. The Gusii 
egard themselves as lucky in having 
n Mochama a witch doctor whom 
hey trust and who, for all his 
varice, often brings about a peace- 
ul resolution of their problems, 
ather than inciting them to further 
ostility and fear. 




^■:i^ 


m 


^\ 


n 


r 4 


19 


f : _. , 




■''"-' ,.:''• 


- '«^ 



Case closed, Mochama, third from right, puts 



rliil 



poses amid retinue. 




147 



THE NEED 

TO 
CLASSIFY 



On the basis that like things 
belong together, science works 
to unravel life's tangled record 



By Roger L. Batten 



ONE OF mankind's earliest intellectual endeavors 
was the attempt to gather together the seemingly 
overwhelming variety presented by nature into an orderly 
pattern. The desire to classify— to impose order on chaos 
and then to form patterns out of this order on which to 
base ideas and conclusions— remains one of our strongest 
urges. This same desire is the basic stuff of Science. 

The scientific classifying of living forms is a complex 
endeavor. It is also a constantly changing one. Even to this 
day. as new organisms are discovered, we are often faced 
with the need to revise past systems of classification— and 
we are never quite satisfied with the latest system. 

How do these classifications of life serve us? One of 
their most exciting uses is in unraveling the extremely 
tangled record of life's evolution during the 500 million 
years for which we have records of organisms. 

In biology, the descriptions of newly discovered organ- 
isms is not so common today as it was fifty years ago. In 
paleontology— the study of the fossils of formerly living 
organisms— however, the job is far from complete. This is 
because it is not nearly so easy to obtain fossils as it is to 
collect living specimens: even after fossils are found in 
rock, it requires much painstaking preparation just to see 
the characters by which they can be classified. Almost 



Dr. Batten, who took his Ph.D. in geology at Columbia 
after World War 11. studied under Dr. J. B. Knight, of the 
Smithsonian, a leading authority on the older fossil gastro- 
pods. He no^v teaches invertebrate paleontology to under- 
graduates and graduates at the L niversity of Wisconsin. 




Rocky skashore provides a natural setting fur this group 
of marine mollusks. foreground. The five cap-shaped aiollusks^ 
are patellids. rock-clinging "true'" limpets, members of the 

daily in the field of paleontology, newly-discovered fossil 
forms are being analyzed, and described. 

IT IS EASY to see that such discoveries require almost con- 
tinuous change in our svstems of classification. For it 
follows that, as more information accumulates, the ''new 
forms must be incorporated in the classification and our 
concepts of the relative positions and interrelations be- 
tween various groups of organisms must also change. For 
formal classification is. in essence, a rather artificial struc- 
ture—a tool used to express the scientist's current ideas 
regarding the relationship of organisms one with another. 
From the first, mankind classified the things he ob- 
served by a method which declared that "'like things belong, 
together." This method was implicit in the first scientific 
classification of living things and remains the chief method 
of classifying today. But it is a method that must be 
used with discretion for— as we shall see— one can very 
easily classify objects on the basis of their superficial 
resemblances, while overlooking a number of important 



148 



I 




Class Gastropoda. Below, the long, narrow mollusk is one of 
the chitons, of the Class Polyplacophora. Early classifiers 
believed that all cap-shaped gastropods belonged in one group. 

basic cliaracteristics which may be somewhat less obvious. 
As an example, ^ve might say, "I will construct a cate- 
gory for animals that fly." Such a single category would 
include many fl> ing animals that were more or less related. 
But birds and bats would occupy the same category, be- 
cause both possess flying appendages. Upon closer exam- 
ination, however, we would note that the wings of a bird 
and a bat are actually quite different. Further examination 
of the other organs of birds and bats would show that, 
while these two animals are superficially alike, in detail they 
are not at all closely related. If we were sensible, we would 
change our classification to recognize these differences. 

REFINEMENTS of a classification— although considerably 
more subtle than in this example— are a daily and im- 
portant part of scientific work today that aims at achieving 
a framework which reflects the relative degree of relation- 
snip both between contemporary organisms and between 
the animal forms of the evolutionary past. 

Let me now relate a case that demonstrates how our 




Living limpet, Acmaea. is shown attached to a rock, its 
shell somewhat raised above its fleshy foot— the normal po- 
sition when undisturbed. Limpet's front faces to the right. 



149 





Bilateral symmetry of chiton, left, with mouth and anus 
at opposite ends, contrasts with curled, one-sided patellid 
and snail, right, where same organs lie in close proximity. 



Early classifiers put all cap-shaped mollusks. including 
the fossil nionoplacophoran, bottom, in a single line of lim- 
pets extending to early times. Chitons, lejt, were separate. 



knowledge has increased over the years and show some of 
the effects that this increased knowledge has had on classi- 
fication. We will take the phylum MnUusca. and. within 
tliis phyUini. chiefly the snails (which in classification are 
called the Class Gastropoda). In addition to the snails, 
three other classes belong to this same phylum, as follows: 

Phylum Mollusca 

Class Polyplacophora (chitons) 

Class Pelec\ poda ( clams I 

Class Cephalopoda ( octopus— chambered nautilus) 

We know^ that, among all the myriad of snails that make 
up the Class Gastropoda I some 50.000 species are known 
to exist I . there are several groups, collectively known as 
the "limpets." which are peculiarly adapted to a rocky 
environment where swift currents or surf present rather 
rigorous conditions for life. These limpets have cap-shaped 
shells, and possess powerful muscles that enable them to 
adhere to the rocks, even under the stress of pounding surf. 

As we know today, there are several families of gastro- 
pods having representatives adapted to life in such rough 
and rocky environments. All of them possess shells that 
are superficially quite similar, since they share a common 
habitat. Early zoological classifiers, looking at these cap- 
shaped shells, assumed that these different gastropods were 
members of the same group. The paleontologists, too, 
when they began to turn up such shells in the fossil record, 
classified all the cap-shaped shells as members of the 
limpet group. The classiflcdtion, as formed by them, 
showed one group of "limpets" from very early geologic 




Chitons 






ORDER 
POLYPLACOPHORA 



Other 
Gastropods 



C3 



CLASS GASTROPODA 




tiiiii" to recent times. Such a classification would look like 
ihc illustration shown on the opposite page, beloiv. 

Meanwhile, the biologists— who were studying living 
limpets— soon recognized that, in addition to the "true" 
ones (which they called patellids), there actually were 
several other more- or less-distantly related families of 
gastropods, members of which resembled true limpets. 

This discovery was possible because the biologists 
studied the living tissue and organs. Unfortunately, the 
paleontologists had only the shells available, and were un- 
able to studv the differences in the organs between the 
various cap-shaped forms. For many years, in consequence, 
little change occurred in classification of the extinct forms. 

Before we go further, we must learn something more 
about the gastropods. Most organisms, we know, possess 
some sort of symmetry in their bodily arrangement. The 
commonest type of symmetry is a bilateral arrangement— 
in which one side of the organism is a mirror image of 
the other, and the organism's head and tail lie at opposite 
ends of the body. Now most gastropods are asymmetrical, 
having lost one "side ' sometime in the course of their 
evolution. When we look at a snail, we see that the soft 
parts of its body are contained in a shell which, although 
often coiled, is a long, narrow cone, open at one end. 




AN EXAMINATION of our rock-clinging patellids— the true 
limpets— shows that, while they have cap-shaped 
rather than long, narrow shells, here. too. only one "side" 
of the organism is present and anus and mouth are in close 
proximity. In other words, all of the limpets are typical, 
coiled asymmetrical gastropods. 



Growth of rock-clincer — from early whorl to final, cap- 
shaped form — is seen here with Fissurella, the keyhole lim- 
pet. First three growth stages are shown greatly magnified. 



Only "true" limpet among these rock-clinging gastropods 
is the patellid at bottom, left. The others, quite similar 
in form, are — clockwise — Crucibulum, Haliotis and Diodora. 




Other 

Limpet-like 

Gastropods 






Other 
Gastropods 



o 




CLASS 
POLYPLACOPHORA 



Revised cl\*»ih(:\tion incorporates both tie biologists" 
analysis of differences between "true" limpets and the rest 
of the rock-clingers and the paleontologists" discovery of 



CLASS GASTROPODA 



bilateral syn\niflr\ in arrangenieni of fo^^il monoplacopiioran 
muscle scars. New arrangement envisions latter as ancestral 
stock not only for all gastropods but also for the chitons. 



We have already been introduced to another class in the 
order of mollusks— the polvplacophorans. or chitons. Now. 
these chitons share a rock-clinging environment with the 
limpets, but they are a much more primitive form of mol- 
lusk. Anus and mouth are at opposite ends of the chiton s 
body and the body, itself, is bilaterally symmetrical. The 
chitons" shells are different from those of the patellids. also. 
Chitons have eight separate plates instead of a single shell. 
It was thus obvious— even to the earlv classifiers— that, 
while these two organisms shared a similar environment, 
they were vastlv different from each other. What was not 
so apparent, however, was that some of the gastropods that 
possessed cap-shaped shells were very different from other 
gastropods that also possessed cap-shaped shells. 

A FEW YEARS AGO. paleontologists attempted to reclassify 
some cap-shaped, fossil shells that dated back to v ery 
ancient geologic times. With no soft parts to examine 
directly, they carefully studied these shells for character- 
istics that could be related to the absent tissue. In the 
study of living patellids. it had been noted that a continu- 
ous "muscle scar'" ran round the inside of their shells, 
marking the attachment area for the limpets" powerful 
muscles. The paleontologists found that many of the ancient 
shells exhibited such a continuous "'muscle scar."' There- 
fore, thev felt safe in assuming that the missing soft parts 
had been similar to those found in living patellids. 

However, the paleontologists also discovered that other 



cap-shaped shells possessed, instead, two to eight pairs of 
distinct "'muscle scars." Two things were curious about 
these ancient muscle scars: first, thev were mostlv eight in 
number and. second, they were arranged round the shell 
in bilateral svmmetrv. The paleontologists could only 
speculate that these shells were, in fact, so primitive that 
the organisms had not yet lost one of their "sides."' They 
concluded that these primitive forms, unlike most gas- 
tropods, had possessed bilaterallv svmmetrical soft parts. 

If this conclusion was true, then the paleontologists had 
discovered tile probable ancestral group from which later 
gastropods were derived. Indeed, it seemed possible that 
not only were these forms I which we will call the nK)no- 
placophorans I the basal stock for the gastropods, but for 
the eight-plated chitons as v\ell. Here then, was some 
evidence with which to construct a new classification— one 
that for the first time brought together two groups that 
had previously been widely separated: the Class Poly- 
placophora. and the Class Gastropoda. Such a classification 
«ould look like the illustration, above. This new inter- 
pretation made it possible, for the first time, to relate two 
diverse groups as well as to understand something of 
the evolution of these groups. 

Now. the never-ending labor of classification, whether 
it is the work of the biologists or the paleontologists or 
others, receives contributions from all. Shortly after the 
paleontologists' announcement of this particular revised 
classification, a serologist— studying blood types in the 



152 



C3 
O 



;|^ Other 

Limpet-like 
Gastropods 



Other 
Gastropods 



C3 




CLASS POLYPLACOPHORA 



CLASS GASTROPODA 



MoLLUSK BLOOD-TYPE STUDY, however. proved that chitons 
and gastropods could not be so closely related as the classi- 
fication, opposite, had proposed. Thus, a further revision 



of the classification was made, above. This put the fossil 
monoplacophorans in with the chitons, and the gastropods off 
as a branch of tlie chiton stock. This view stood until 1957. 



mollusks— proved that the gastropods and chitons could 
not be so closely related as the revised classification pro- 
posed. It was necessary, therefore, to revise the classifi- 
cation further, so that the monoplacophorans were placed 
in with the chitons, while the gastropods were viewed as 
a branching-off from this revised chiton stock. 

Again, a major change in classification had been made, 
in order to fit newly-discovered facts (illustration, above) . 

Thus, up to 1956, stood the classification of the primitive 
forms of gastropods— a far cry from the first classification, 
that had viewed all the limpets as members of one family. 

Now. looking at the fossil record, we can make another 
observation. The primitive monoplacophorans were 
not a successful group of animals: they apparently became 
extinct about 280 million years ago— probably giving way 
to the more advanced limpets, which could successfully 
adapt to the environment of that time. But about six years 
ago, during the expedition of the Danish vessel, "Galathea." 
several tiny cap-shaped shells were brought to the surface 
by the deep-sea dredging operations. The natural first im- 
pression was that they were limpets, because no other 
group of cap-shaped shells were known to be extant. Upon 
careful examination in the laboratory, however, some 
sharp differences were noted between these forms and the 
usual gastropods adapted for rock-clinging environment. 
j This new form, duly described and named Neopilina 
1 galathaea was presented to the astounded scientific world 



Top view of chiton shows eight se])arate plates of its shell. 







MiLTiri-K Ml SiLE SCARS of fossil monoplacoplioran. at Icjt. 
are contrasled here with the continuous, ring-like muscle 
scar of a fossil patellid. With this clue to bilateral syni- 

early in 1957. For here was a living monoplacophoran, 
previously thought to be extinct for 280 million years! 
Neopilina, with its eight distinct muscles and bilateral 
symmetry— mouth and anus at opposite ends of its body- 
is the very organism hypothetically constructed by the 
paleontologists five years before. 



nietry. the paleontologists reconstructed a hypotlietiLal set of 
symmetrical body organs for the monoplacophorans. above. 
in which anus and mouth lie at opposite ends of tlie animal. 

Many of the characters of Neopilina predicted by the 
paleontologists were found : several other characters that 
could not have been predicted were also present. These ad- 
ditional characteristics are bringing even further changes 
in classification. One major discovery is the presence in 
Neopilina of what appears to be body-cavity segmentation, 



Other 

Limpet-like 

Gastropods 



Other 
Gastropods 




CLASS 
POLYPLACOPHORA 



CLASS 
MONOPLAC^HORA 



Latest classification, which incorporates the first major 
revision of the mollusks since 1876, establishes a new cate- 
gory, the Class Monoplacophora, center. This revision stems 



CLASS GASTROPODA 



primarily from Neopilina discovery, but author points out 
that new version — like the earlier ones, subject to change 
in light of new facts — combines findings of many sciences. 



154 




The astonishing recovery of a living monoplacophoran by the 
Galathea Expedition in 1951 (bottom view, above) gave con- 
firmation to the paleontologists' hypothetical reconstruction. 

and a separate gill for each of the paired muscles. Now, 
segmentation of the bodv cavity is considered by zoolo- 
gists to be a primitive characteristic. Such segmentation 
is shared by several very different phyla, including the 
worms and the arthropods (that great group which in- 
cludes such diverse forms as lobsters, spiders and insects) . 



One suspects that there will be a strong temptation to 
revise classification in a manner which will relate some of 
these diverse forms more closely than is the case at present. 

In our own task of unraveling the complex relation- 
ships between various primitive mollusks, the discovery of 
Neopilina has sent the paleontologists back to further 
study of their collections. Perhaps some minor feature, 
overlooked before, will now have great significance. Al- 
ready, some of the rather vague muscle scars of fossils 
that had been placed in other gastropod families indicate 
that these belong, instead, among the monoplacophorans. 

The search is far from completed; it will take several 
years for all of us to understand and revaluate our data. 
So far, we know much more about how the gastropods and 
other mollusks came to be and. yes, we have made still 
another change in the classification! We know now that 
the monoplacophorans are not gastropods and— even more 
important— are not chitons, either. How are we to represent 
this in our classification? We will erect a brand new class, 
the Class Monoplacophora, the first new class to be erected 
since 1876, when the chitons were separated from the 
gastropods. The new classification will then look like the 
illustration shown on the opposite page, below. 

Thus, the work of a variety of scientists— a discovery off 
the coast of Costa Rica, the study of blood types, and the 
examination of obscure fossils— have wrought major 
changes in the classification and by so doing, have moved 
man toward a better understanding of the great stream of life. 



Living monoplacophoran. found by Danes off Costa Rica in 
1951. was christened Neopilina galatheae: that is. a "new"" 
Pilina. discovered by the Galathea Expedition. Top and bot- 



tom views, here, come from the expedition's leader, Anton 
Bruun. Detailed study of new mollusk, whose fossil cousins 
have been extinct for 280 million years, appeared in 1957. 




155 




A Tidal Zone 
Resident 



Although much is knowu about the goby's life, 
each year uiillions of fry vanish out to sea 

By William N. Tavolga 



CLOSE TO SHORE, in the warm 
tropical seas, lives a small fish, 
known as Bathygobius soporator and 
conmionly called a "goby." This par- 
ticular goby is only one of the several 
hundred species of the large family of 
Gobiidae, separated from all other 
fishes by the characteristic fusion of 
their two ventral fins into a sucker-like 
disk on the underside of the body. 
Members of the soporator tribe— two 
to three inches in length as adults- 
can be found almost anywhere along 
the Florida coastline, southward 
throughout the Caribbean and on to 
the Brazilian coast. The same, or a 
closely-related species, lives among 
the western and southern islands of the 
Pacific, along the coasts of Indonesia 
and India, and on into the Red Sea. 



Throughout this range, soporator 
has chosen to live in the tidal zone— 
a rigorous and demanding environ- 
ment, where the shallow water is often 
restricted to small pools at the ebb. 
Both temperature and salinity in these 
goby-inhabited pools will vary 
greatly. The tropical sun can raise the 
water temperature to 100° F., and the 
concomitant evaporation will double 
the usual salt concentration. The daily 
return of high tide brings a new infu- 
sion of comparatively cool sea water 
to these pools, while nightfall and a 
rainstorm can tumble the temperature 
to 60° F. and considerably dilute the 
salt water. The gobies resist the pull of 
tides and waves both by living in the 
shelter of shells or crevices and by use 
of their sucker-like disks. 



One of soporator's most remarkable 
characteristics is the chameleon-like 
character of its pigmentation. In gen- 
eral, these fish are predominanth 
brown in color, with either crossbands 
or spots of a darker shade. However, 
the goby can change his entire color 
pattern within a few seconds. The va- 
riety of these changes is astonishing: 
the number, width and darkness of the 
bands will vary, as will the size and 
contrast of the spots. At one end of the 
scale, gobies can turn a solid black; 
at the other, a light, patternless tan : 
and such a range can be covered 
within less than twenty seconds. 

In studying these fish, one of my 
first problems was to catch them. Or- 
dinary seines and nets do not work 
well in small tide pools. In some cases, 




'^ .^r>Y •*-rr¥ skEti;'' ^"C . 



Half-buried conch shell has been selected as shelter by 
this male goby, who starts housekeeping with sweep of tail. 

156 



Bits of coqiiina shell, which remain after sweeping, are j 
picked up by tiie mouthful and carried outside the shelter. 




Distinguishing mark of the Gobiidae is this sucker-like 
appendage, formed by the fusion of a pair of ventral fins. 



Separate in larval stage, fins have fused by the time goby 
returns from sea to turbulent tidal zone of its adult life. 





n^^ 



Goby spits out fragments at threshold as housecleaning 
continues. All photographs of gobies were made in aquarium. 



A PIECE OF COCKLESHELL, too large for either sweeping or 
spitting, is grasped in mouth, lifted out of conch's interior. 



1 57 



After doing graduate «ork ;it N^l, 
Ur. Tavoi.ca joined the Biology De- 
partment of CCNY as A^^i^tant Pro- 
fessor. He also does research in animal 
hehavior at The American Mieslm. 



the gobies' habit of living in loose 
shells made collecting easy. All I had 
to do was to lift a likeK -looking shell 
quickly from a pool and shake it over 
a net. In the open, however. I found 
that the gobies were extremeh diffi- 
cult to see and their movements hard 
to follow. Thev swim in quick darts 
along the bottom. When they come to 
an abrupt stop, ones eye tends to con- 
tinue along the expected track and. 
by the time one looks back, the fish 
has either gone off in some other di- 
rection, hidden itself under a rock, or 
"frozen." causing its coloration to 
fade into the bottom pattern. 

Although a gobv mav use an\ crev- 
ice or shell as a dwelling place. empt\ 
snail or oyster shells, with smooth in- 
ner surfaces, are most frequentlv 
chosen. Male gobies are more selec- 
tive about their shelters than females, 
and such selection is more than a 
matter of merely entering and staving 
inside. A male will systematically 
sweep out any loose sand and shell 
fragments from his chosen spot. Much 
of this sweeping is done bv vigorous 
fanning of tail and fins, but the male 
will also pick up large mouthfuls of 
sand and gravel, swim outside his shel- 
ter, and spew them out. On occasion. 
I have seen a male pick up a piece of 
shell almost as big as himself and. with 
quick lunges, push it out of his home. 

THE anthropomorphic observer 
would consider these gobies anti- 
social. Males, in particular, will stake 
out a territory— that is. an area in the 
vicinity of their shelters— and fight 
any goby intruder who ventures into 
it. although they will be indifferent to 
other sorts of fish. Female intruders, 
and small males, are usually just 
nipped-at and quickly chased awav bv 
the territory-holding male; but. if the 
intruder happens to be another male 
of about the same size, a violent en- 
counter may follow. The two males 
turn a very dark color and begin to 
circle each other. Each will gape 
widely and puff his throat, as a spas- 
modic tremor shakes his entire body. 
Lsually. after a number of snapping 
feints, the intruder darts away, but 
biting can occur as a last resort, for. 
small as they are. these little fish pos- 








]i\M( I iji.ipii \ I iii\ MKiii\M-M 111 liiithyiiobins sopora/ui iii\nl\r> \aiialiun tii Ijnily 
Inie til match iliffeient envininmenl^. This malf. a liiiht tan. hiends into background. 















Intri 
siiake 



DER AND DEFENDKR quickly reccli high pitch of excitement. Siiasmodic tremors 
each male's entire body, the fins are stiffly erected, and the nipping that 



158 







Strongly territorial goby makes a sudden switch from tan to velvety black as 
another male, also turned dark, enters forbidden zone. Opponents circle and bump. 




follows bumping in earlier stages of encounter may turn into serious biting if the 
intruder does not withdraw from the defender's territory. Severe damage can result. 



sess sharp and numerous teeth. In 
close quarters, such as a blocked-ofE 
pool area or an aquarium, severe dam- 
age can easily be done. 

THE female soporator is usually 
smaller in size than the male, and 
has slightly shorter fins, but females 
are otherwise not very distinguishable 
from males. However, a gravid female, 
whose ovaries are swollen with mature 
eggs, secretes a substance into the 
water which the male detects with his 
olfactory organs. The nature of this 
secretion is not yet known, but it acts 
on the male as all the most seductive 
French perfumes rolled into one. 

With the first sniff, the male turns 
pale, only his chin and throat remain 
their normal dark color. The effect is 
striking. He lunges from his shelter, 
his body trembling violently. He al- 
ternately circles around the female 
and dashes back into the shelter. 
When she turns to follow, his court- 
ship becomes even more vigorous as 
he leads her into the shelter. After the 
female has made several hesitant en- 
tries, both fish finally remain inside 
—where, eventually, she will spawn. 

During this active phase of court- 
shi|). the male is often observed snap- 
ping his head sharply downward. By 
use of an underwater microphone, we 
have learned that the goby's head- 
snaps are synchronized with low 
thumps, or grunts. Exactly how the 
male produces these grunts is not yet 
known, but such sounds can be de- 
tected only from males and only dur- 
ing courtship. The effect of these 
sounds on the female is to increase 
her activity and, we suspect, her 
responsiveness. Under experimental 
conditions, females will not respond 
to the sound unless they also see 
another goby. Apparently, although 
females can hear the sound, they re- 
quire this additional visual stimulus 
in order to become oriented toward 
the courting male. But these sounds 
have another effect, as well. Because 
they can also be heard by other 
gobies, neighboring males are often 
attracted to the source of the racket, 
whereupon they compete for the 
gravid female. Usually, under these 
circumstances, it is the largest male 
that goes off attended by the female, 
and the winning suitor is not always 
the one who started the courtship. 

We have now traced a part of the 

life-cycle of soporator — from adult 

stage up to the point of spawning. 

(continued on page 162) 



""^m 














«i 



4 



Another coby color changk is induced by presence in water of the faintest trace Climax ok vigorous coirtship sees 
of gravid female's ovarian secretion. Male turns pale, his throat and chin darken. female, left, inside the male's shelter. 




Some ten thousand eggs now emerge 
in short bursts from female's papilla and 
instantly adhere to surface of shelter. 
Female is then ousted from nest by male. 

i6o 




For the next five days, male guards 
developing embryos, ventilating them by 
steady fanning. Goby embryos seen here 
in elongated egg sacs are five days old. 



Drop in water temperature stirs male 
to violent brushing, whereupon egg sacs 
dissolve. Male follovfs clouds of larvae 
out of shelter, scattering them widely. 

i6i 



1 MiN. 



10 MiN. 



Goby grows from egg to fry 
in ninety-six hours. Crucial 
moment occurs second day. as 
embryo turns over in egg sac. 
faces away from attached end. 




15 Hrs. 



24 Hrs. 



36 Hrs. 



72 Hrs. 



(continued jroni page 139) 
Because these are hardy fish, that 
do well in the research aquarium, we 
also know the spawning part of the 
cycle in great detail. But. as will be 
seen, we are approaching a portion 
of our goby's life which, in his nat- 
ural habitat, is as yet a complete mys- 
tery. For no one has ever found the 
free-floating larvae of the goby in 
the field— only maturing and adult 
specimens are to be found, and these 
onlv in the tidal zone. Newly-hatched 
frv are known only from aquarium 
studies. Let us trace what we know 
from these studies. 

Once inside the shelter, the goby's 
courtship changes to a different phase. 
The male turns dark, stops grunting, 
and systematicallx brushes the inside 
surfaces of the shelter with his uro- 
genital papilla, a small, conical organ. 
situated just back of the anus. After 
a time, the female begins to lay her 
eggs. This procedure may take her a 
few hours, since she carries some 
ten thousand. Each egg is a tiny, 
bright-yellow ellipsoid, less than a mil- 
limeter in length. One end is sticky 
and adheres to any surface at a touch. 
The female looses her eggs from 
her uro-genital papilla like bullets 
from a machine gun, constantly ma- 
neuvering her body to cover small 
patches of the shelter's surface with 
her sticky eggs. She clambers up and 
down inside the shelter, using her 
fused ventral fins as a vacuum cup. 
Gradually, bare spots are filled in as 
she literally feels her way along with 

162 



her sensitive papilla. The male, mean- 
while, darts about within the shelter, 
releasing great quantities of sperm. 
As the female begins to exhaust her 
egg supply, the male nudges and nips 
her until she either completes her 
depositing or leaves the nest. Once 
outside, the female does not return, 
nor does she ever see her offspring. 

THE male remains with the eggs 
until they hatch. During this peri- 
od—four to five days in length— he 
rarely leaves the nest and almost con- 
tinuously brushes and ventilates the 
eggs bv rhvthmically fanning with 
body and tail. Within the first ten min- 
utes after fertilization, a remarkable 
change takes ])lace in the eggs. The 
transparent shell begins to grow until 
it becomes tubular and more than 
twice its original length, finally taking 
on a shape reminiscent of a wrapped 
mummy. The egg proper is round, 
and lies midway in its long casing. 
By the twenty-four hour stage, pri- 
mordial eye-buds are visible in the 
egg proper, and muscles have devel- 
oped to the point where the embryo 
twitches its tail slowly. The embryo's 
head always grows toward the at- 
tached end of the egg sac. with the 
tail pointing to the free end. In the 
course of these slow twitches, the 
embryo reverses its position so that 
the head then points toward the un- 
attached end of the casing. This re- 
versal is most essential, since, later on, 
the larval fish must hatch out through 



this free end. If the embryo does not 
reverse its position now, it will soon 
grow too large to do so and will be 
trapped in a tightly-fitting prison 

By the end of its second day of 
life, the embryo is more than half 
the length of its sac and. by the end 
of the third day. its large eyes take 
on an iridescent appearance. On the 
fourth or fifth day. it is ready to 
hatch and fits snugly inside its sac. 
The hatching will take place throui^li 
the unattached end. as we have noicil 
With the help of a few convul,-i\i 
wriggles, the larvae darts out into tln' 
freedom of his new environment. 

What ruptures the sac? In the 
course of collecting soporator. 1 ha\e 
often come upon males who wire 
guarding a batch of eggs. In smli 
cases. I would take the male and his 
nest back to the laboratory in a 
bucket. In every instance where tlu' 
larvae were at a stage close to hatdi- 
ing, I noticed that the hatching took 
place in the bucket, and all ten tliou- 
sand or more larvae would be swim- 
ming about freely by the time I 
reached the laboratory a half-houi 
later. This happened so consistent!) 
that I wondered whether the male had 
somehow stimulated the larvae to 
hatch, and whether my rough 
handling had caused him to do so. 

I began to experiment with labora 
tory spawnings, disturbing incubat- 
ing males in various wavs. None o^ 
these experiments had the same resul 
as did the bucket transfer. Thinkin 



ET READY FOR THE SPACE ERA! SEE THE SATELLITES ... THE MOON ROCKETS 



AND OTHER OPTICAL BARGAINS 



See the Stars, Moon, Planets Close Up! 

3" ASTRONOMICAL 
REFLECTING TELESCOPE 

(Famous Mt. Palomar Type, 

,"-'i> ^ 60 & 

" y^" 1 20 Power 



An 

Unusual 

BUY! 



iembled— Readj- to use: You 11 see the Rings of Saturn. 
■ fascinating planet Mars, iluge craters on the 3Ioon. Star 
Moons of Jupiter in detail. Galaxies; Equatorial 



I lae -Hand Boot of He; 

lock No. 85,050-E S29.50 f.o.b. 

Shipping nt. 10 lljs. I Barrington. N. J. 

Omcr by Stock No.— Send Check or M.O. 

Satisfaction Guaranteeti; 

6" Astronomical Reflecting Telescope 




Up to 576 Power 

Complete with Mount. 
TriDod and 7X Finder 

extraordinary buy in ih 
St popular of amateur astrmi 
er telescopes. Dis 6" f 



the sky in i^reat detail. Vnu 
!t the foUowiri;; staiulanl i'v/x 
-epieces: 40X. ;>6X. VXl^ . 



Barlow lei 

ble or tripl- 

above eyepit 

up 




tlX. \M 




eled aluniimmi lubf. lk-a\y duty equatorial muutit and 
Spoil. 7-pmver tinder lflu--.i-iii)L-, Fret.- ^uir Chart, and Hand- 
nt.k. Sliippins "t. 75 lbs. 

lock No. 85.024-E S245.00 f.o.b. 

rder by Stock No. Barrington. N. J. 

Send Check or M.O.— Satisfaction Guaranteed! 



3 " Astronomical Refractor Telescope 

Up to 270 Power j^ 

. detail 
the fa.- 

Accessory Prism Erii - .7^ "~''~^jfe^^ 

iable for terrestrial us 

chromatic ^ 

ijective. 2 standard size eye- 
eces and mounted Barlow lens 
ive you 40X, 90X. I'iOX. 
"OX. Equatorial mount, rack 

id pinion focusing, white enameled aluminum tube. Other 
arts aluminum, brass and chrome. 6X Finder included, 
turdj'. hard-wood tripod. Free Star Chart and handbook. 

tock No. 85.032.E $125.00 f.o b. 

hipping weight 27 lbs. Barrington, N. J. 

4" REFRACTOR TELESCOPE — Larger objective: 

Heavier mount! Up to 500 Power 

tock No. 85.038-E S247.00 f.o.b. 

rder by Stock No. Barrington, N. J. 

Send Check or M.O. —Satisfaction Guaranteed: 

UILD A SOLAR ENERGY FURNACE 

Wonderful Geophysical Year 
School Project 
iuild your own Solar Furnace 
sperimentalion — maiij" practical i 
fs easy — inexpensive. Vse your scrap 
ood. We furnish instruction booklet, 
'his sun powered furnace will gener- 
ic terrific heat — 2000° to 3000°. 
''uses enamel to metal- Sets paper 




tock No. 70.I30.E— pkg. of I 



ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE! 



J' 



MT. PALOMAR TYPE 



craters on the iloon. the rings 
of Saturn, double stars. Mirror 
guaranteed to give theoretical 
limit of resolution. Hack and 
pinion focusing, removable mir- 
ror mount, counterweight. Real 
equatorial mounting — only one 



f/11. Jiirror corrected to better 
S74.50 f.o.b. 

Order by Stock No. Barrington, N. J. 

Send Check or M.O.— Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

Now — See The Satellites 

New, Low Price "SATELLITER" Telescope 

First Time-Only $9.95 Postpaid 
Get ready for a terrific skj- show as 
more Satellites are vaulted into space. 
See thrilling sights with our amazing 
Satellite Scope at unheard of low cost. 

Also view comets — use as a Rich-field Scope for viewing 
.^tar clusters. 5 power-^ride 12° field — slight distortion at 
outer edges because of unusual wide tieUl. I'se of hi;.;li 
quality war surplus optics makes possible this bargain. 
Full 2" achromatic objective — large 9mm exit pupil for 
niyhi use. Scope is in" long, weighs less than -me p^miul. 
Stock No. 7U.I50-E ^ S9.95 Postpaid 

We are the Manufacturers of the Famous 

MOONWATCH SATELLITE TELESCOPE! 




STEREO 
MICROSCOPE 

iciinOIadt' Iristriiuit 
Ip 



50n 



; — E 



"Work 

Image — Wide 3 Dimens: 
Field. I'sed fur inspections 
examinations, counting, check 
ing. assembling, dissecting. 
sets of objectives on rotatin; 
Standard pa 



Order Stock No. 85.056- E 
S99.50 f.o.b. Barrington. N. J. 

rux. 11 lbs.). Send check ur M.O- 

NEW! STATIC 
ELECTRICITY GENERATOR 

See a thrilling spark display 



de — stands 14" high. Turn the 
handle and two 9" plastic discs ro- 
tate in opposite directions, iletal 
collector brushes pick up the static 
electricity, store it in the Leyden 
jar type condenser until discharged 
by the jumping spark. Countless 
tricks and experiments. 24 paj 



Order Stock No. 70.070-E.. 



50-150-300 POWER MICROSCOPE 

3 Acromatic Objective Lenses on 

Revolving Turret 

Imported! The color - corrected, cemented 



in the microscopes selling for 59.95! Results 
are worth the ditTerence! Fine rack and 

Stock No. 70.008-E SI4.95 Pstpd. 

MOUNTED 500 POWER OBJECTIVE 

Threaded for easy aitachn 



Stock No. 30-197-E 




AMERICA NEEDS SCIENTISTS! 

Stimulate boys' interest— request our FREE 
CATALCM3-E featuring hundreds of scientific 
□nd astronomical items. No better time than 
in this International GEOPHYSICAL YEAR! 




SI50.00 f.o.b. 

rrington. N. J. 

Sniperscope! 



INFRARED SNIPERSCOPE 
TELESCOPE 
& PARTS 



See in the dark— without be 

Sniperscope M-2. Gov 
about S1200. T"sed for indu; 
trial plant security: resean 
lab experiments: Infrared pho 
tograplw: spectroscopy, etc 
Instrument complete, reac 
use. Includes Power Pack, in^ 
frared light source. Will oper- 
ate from 6V auto battery. Batler\ 

Stock No. 85.053-E 

(Shipping wi. approx. 12 lbs.) 



Save still more money! Build yoi 
will furnish instructions — parts. 
lP2aA image lubes, light nuis. 1 
request FREE CATALOG "E". 



2 In 7 Comfaination.' Pocket-Size 
SO POWER MICROSCOPE 
and 10 POWER TELESCOPE 



ported! No larger than a fountain 
Telescope is 10 Power. ]\Iicroscope ma 
ties 50 Times. Sharp focus at any ra 



Order Stock No. 30.059-E $4 

Send Check or M.O. 
Satisfaction Guaranteed! 



STAR AND SATELLITE PATHFINDER 

■Road Map- of the heavens! A rotat- 
ing chart — shows well over 500 stars 
in relationsliip to each other at any 
selected day and hour. Table on re- 
verse side supplies valuable informa- 
tion on constellations, planets, meteor 
showers, etc. included free with order 
— STAR PATHS Instruction Booklet 
. . . shows how to use "Star and 
SatelUte Pathfinder" — contains sim- 
plified drawings of celestial sphere. 





DIRECT MEASURING [ C^S 
POCKET MICROSCOPE 
— 50 POWER 




For direct reading measurements for checking small parts 
and dimensions under powerful magnitication Precision 
glass etched reticle calibrated for measurements up to 1/10" 
by .001" divisions. Estimates to .0005" can easily be made- 
Chrome reflector at base of instrument reflects light on 
ot>ject examined or measured. Sturdy construction. 

Stock No. 30.225- E..„ S7.95 Postpaid 



SWIVEL-CLAMP MAGNIFIER 




; A" ground and polished 
lens is -(-5 dioptre. S" focal. I'se both 
eyes — see an image with depth to it. 
Stock No. 30.249-E S4.I5 Postpaid 



To'r^^FREECATALOG-E 




RDfR n STOCK NUMBilt . SfND CNfCX OR MONtf OHOIR . SATISfACTION GUAHMNTUDI 



'ppiy 
for Photographers, Hobbyhls, Tele- 
scope Makers, etc. Ask for catalog E. 



IDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO./ barrington, new jersey 



back on exactly what I had done to 
the freshly-caught males, I recalled 
that I had always collected at low 
tide and that, during the course of 
the half-hour trip back to the labora- 
tory, I had always replenished the 
water in the bucket— to keep it from 
overheating in the Florida sun. 

Could it be this replenishment that 
was causing the mass hatching? Es- 
sentially, what 1 had done was to 
change the temperature in the bucket 
very abruptly— from the warm 80° or 
90° of the tide pool to a cooler 65° 
or 70°. I tried this temperature re- 
duction in the laboratory, using a 
male who was gently fanning a batch 
of eggs almost ready to hatch. When 
the temperature in his aquarium had 
dropped about 5° in a minute or so 
(this was done by slowly pouring 
refrigerated sea water into the tank I, 
he began to brush the eggs violently. 
He continued to do so for about five 
minutes and then reverted to his usual 
gentle fanning. 

I was disappointed — not a single 
larva had hatched. I kept watching, 
however. About twenty minutes later, 
when I was ready to give up, the larvae 
began to escape from their egg sacs 
by the hundreds. As they swirled 
about, the male began to fan harder, 
thereby sweeping them out of the nest. 
Within another ten minutes, almost 
all the larvae were hatched and float- 
ing in clouds through the aquarium. 

Further repetition of this experi- 
ment confirmed the following 
interpretation: a rapidly-lowered 
temperature stimulates the male to 
brush his eggs strongly; if the em- 
bryos are advanced enough, this 
brushing stimulates the larvae to lit- 



erally digest their way through the 
free ends of their egg sacs. Brushing 
llie goby eggs with a soft camel's-hair 
brush duplicated the effect of the 
males violent fanning. The time re- 
quired for secretion and action of 
this enzyme is about twenty minutes; 
thereafter, the presence of the free- 
swimming larvae stimulates the male 
to further fanning activity which 
sweeps them out of the nest. The 
existence of such a hatching enzyme 
has been demonstrated in a number 
of other species of fishes. 

WHAT is the significance of this 
correlation between temperature 
change and hatching? Since hatching 
tends to take place as a result of the 
temperature drop associated with an 
incoming tide, it is my belief that the 
survi\al of the larvae and their dis- 
persal is enhanced, for the rising tide 
would help t(j disperse the goby larvae, 
which are quite different from the 
adult goby. As in most marine fishes, 
the goby larvae are specialized for a 
free-floating, pelagic life. They join 
the billions of other tiny, living crea- 
tures of the open sea. collectively 
known as "plankton." Goby larvae are 
about two and a half millimeters in 
length, quite transparent, except for 
a few star-like pigment cells and their 
big shining eyes. They cannot swim 
very well: except for occasional short 
darts, they are helplessly wafted about 
by currents. Many thousands are 
probably eaten by larger animals in 
the sea. but many manage to survive, 
and find a tidal zone in which to 
settle down, and reach maturity. 

The immense numbers of potential 
gobies that are spawned can only be 



guessed. During the spawning seasoi 
—from May to September in the trop 
ics— the female spawns every seven t( 
ten days and can produce at least twi 
hundred thousand eggs in a year. 

What happens to these gobies, free 
floating, planktonic larvae, whicl 
have never been collected in thei 
pelagic state? How long does it tak 
them to mature and return to th 
tidal zone like their parents? In ai 
attempt to study the second of thes 
questions, we tried to maintain gob 
larvae under laboratory conditions 
Invariably they lived for four or fiv 
da\s after hatching and then all diet 
We made efforts to provide the larva 
with various kinds of food— finely sus 
pended egg yolk, protozoa, variou 
planktonic micro-organisms. The re 
suits were monotonously consisten 
After four or five days, all the larva 
died. If the water teniperatine wa 
kept a bit lower than the usual uO F 
they lived a day or so more. Ii 
nothing we could do would mak 
them survive longer. 

This difficulty in raising larva 
through their pelagic stages is 
unique to the goby. It is seldom 
any marine fish larvae can be raise 
to maturity under artificial cuiul 
tions. My own trials, both with larv; 
gobies and other marine fishes, liav 
been both tantalizing and frustrati 
Yet the gobies, and a myriad othe 
marine fishes whose larvae contiil 
ute their millions to the plankton 
our seas, all attain maturity and i 
peat their life cycle, generation afle 
generation. It is evident that detaiie 
studies of the plankton are require 
to fill the gaps in our knowledge c 
this endless vital process. 




At end of pelagic exile, maturing goby is some ten mill 
meters long and still transparent on return to tidal zon 




Ani ARIUM WATER IS ALIVE with hundreds oLJree-floating 
auby larvae, each about two and a half millimeters long. In 



their natural environment, they rise to become part of the 
vast aggregation of surface life at sea, known as "plankton.' 

165 




FINEST BINOCULARS 
AND TELESCOPES 

Postpaid by a Museum Curator, an active, 
experienced field ornithologist. 

ALL TYPES and PRICES 
LIBERAL TRADES • FREE TRIAL 

J^artlett Mcitdricks 

Binocular Headquarters 

PITTSFIEID 50-Y, MASS. 
Phone 9748 



CONTROL 

ENGLISH SPARROWS 




FOOLPROOF NEW TRAP 

Now you con control English Sparrows around 
your premises when ihey are too numerous — 
with guaranteed "elevator-type" Havohort Trap. 
Factory built. No resetting, bait lasts for weeks. 
Humane. Songbirds released unhurt. Low price. 
MONEY BACK TRIAL OFFER. Write TODAY- 
(or FREE illustrated literature. 

HAVAHART,158-R water St., Ossining, N. Y. 



BUTTERFLIES 
MOTHS-BEETLES 


S Diff. Siam Hawk Moths 
Rhinoceros Beetle, Siom. .. 
Giant Cicada, Siartl, 6" w 
Brilliant Greer Celonid B 
20 Diff. Formosa Buiterfli 
20 Diff. Formosa Beetles 
Professional Butterfly Ne 

Handle, IS" Hoop 
Junior Net 

Send for FREE PRICE 
and thousands of 

ROBERT G. 

702 Ocean View Aver 


ng spread 

elle 


S1.00 
,50 
1.50 
.25 
1.00 
1.00 

3 00 
1 95 

ment 

:o. 

Calif. 


, Nylon Bag, 3' 

LIST of equip 
tropical insscts 

WIND C 

ue, fAonterey, 



P.41!^T AND BE HAPPY 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by Mail 

Exciting Home-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

$1.00 brings "irial Lesson, specify wtiich Course 

n Landscape U Still-Life n Portraiture 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limits. 

ROLAND PIERSON PRICKETT 

Foreslwind Studios, Monterey, Massachusetts 



explore 

the west 

by siudying 

its 

paleontology 

geology 

archaeology 



boys 


14-18- 








Here 


is on u 




pportunity 


for boys 


to experience 


a serio 


us introdu 


:tion into 


the 


sciences 


through 


the wilde 


rness en- 


viron 


ment of 


Wester 


n Wyomin 


3. Camp- 


ing, 
fooc 


explora 


bined ir 


imming a 


nd good 
er month 


of a 


dventure 


Write 


or folder. 








Flying 

Ro 


U Carav 

David 

Roswell 

well. Nev 


an Camp 
Gebhard 
Museum 

/ Mexico 



HACKMATACK 

CAMP FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 
IMERESTED IN NATURE STUDY 



A wonderful spot for youngsters 
7-12 years of age! Here in the 
beautiful Berkshires our special 
facilities and expert staff is ready 
to help those interested in natural 
history subjects. 

Geology, botany, birds, conserva- 
tion, the sky. and all that lives in 
the earth, the air and water. 

Swimming, riding, shop, crafts, 
daily farm activities. Eight week 
season only. 

• Write about your child to • 

GEORGE F. DILLMAN 



VERDE VALLEY SCHOOL 
SUMMER CAMP 



nd-Tr 



AMAZING ARIZONA 

and girls, ages 



Summer adventure for bov 
10-15, on 165 wooded acr 
natural wonders. Camping to Grand Canyon, 
Painted Desert, Petrified Forest, Novoho ond 
Hopi Indian villages (famous Kachina ond 
Snake dancesl. Riding, 

Use of modern living ond 
sports facilities, infirmary 
of Verde Valley School. 
Careful supervision. Tutor- 
ing available in English 
and moth. 6 weeks. 
Write BoK lis, Sedona, Ariiono 




33rd ye,ir. F.tmous boys' camp near 
Old Forge. N. Y. Two lakes, navi- 
g.lble trout stream on private forest 
preserve. "J separate and inter-related 
age divisions. Mature councilors. 3 
nurses, excellent (nod. Most all nat- 
ural sciences. Noted tor course in 
Ic.restiy. Horsemanship. Riflcry. In- 
dun-lore, and Nature study. Adiron- 
dack and Canadian canoe trips. 
Founded and directed by graduate 
forester. B.,.,klct; 

WILLIAM H. ABBOTT 
Box 2382 • Fayetleville, N. Y. 



Reviews ' continuetl from page 118 

gascar has peculiar insectivores. 
swarm of pre-monkeys ( lemuroids), 
few rats, carnivorous allies of the civets 
many bats, and that is all. Except fo 
some of the bats (and they are no mys 
tery. because they flew there 1 . all ar 
decidedly unlike the mainland animals 
.'\nd the commonest African mammals- 
innumerable rodents, true monkeys 
antelopes, big and small cats and all th 
rest, are completely absent. 

The West Indies also have, or ha 
until recently, a few mammals quite dis 
liuvl from luainland forms, and also lac 
the vast majority of the groups tha 
-warm on the mainland, .\side from bats 
the Gala|)agos have only one nativ 




M.\MM.\Ls' RADi-iVTloN eailv in Tertinry 
pl.icentals in black; marsupial.*- \\' 

mamiual. a small rat; but they have toi 
toises. several lizards, .some snakes. Dar 
win's hnches (which do not fly far I . ant 
a few other birds. 

How did these animals get there';' Th 
late Thomas Barbour (to whom Darling 
ton's iiook is dedicated I was one of thos 
who. in Darwin's words, made lant 
jjridges "as easily as a cook makes pan 
cakes. " He made one to the West Indie 
and carried on a bitter feud in print will 
Matthew, who tore the bridge down (of 
paper, ihey were good friends I. Matthe'v 
insisted that you cannot get such oddl 
selected faunas as those of Madagascar 
the West Indies, or the Galapagos ove 
bridges. The ancestral forms, instead 
must have crossed the water barriers- 
more or less accidentally and at lonj 
intervals. Some .swam or floated; som 
drifted on logs or natural rafts; som 
were blown there by high winds. (Evei 
such creatures as mice or frogs can b 
blown tremendous distances, as Darling 
ton has shown. I Darlington not on! 
agrees with Matthew, hut also puts thi 
finishing touches on ihr- proof. 

IN a third main held of zoogeograpliii 
theory. Darlinglon violently <iis 
agrees with Matthew, and he is huinai 
enough to stress this disagreement mon 
than the debt implicit in the agreeun n 
on other points. Because this is the mo~ 
original part of Darlinglonis book, il i- 
liy that very fact, the most controver>ial 



1 66 



\\ itiiin the vast, kaleidoscopic shift- 
iii;~ (if animals, their comings and go- 
n^-. spreadings and contractings, fan- 
liii^— out and crisscrossings. Darlington 
Ifli'cls one central and, in his opinion. 
isiial pattern. For him the Old World 
ropics are a zoogeographical "heart- 
land." There, he holds, most groups of 
animals (among the vertebrates, at 
least) arose. From time to time, some of 
diem became especially potent or. as 
Darlington puts it, dominant: they 
spread out into the rest of the world, 
into the Temperate Zone, over to North 
America, and down the two continental 
axes to South Africa and to South Amer- 
ica. With the usual exceptions and con- 
tradictory details, nothing of much im- 
portance is supposed to have originated 
outside these tropics, and most definitely 
not in the ( present ) Temperate Zones. 
Matthew, on the contrary, held that the 
North Temperate Zone was the central 
theater of evolution, that most progres- 
sive animals evolved there, and that 
arlier groups tended to be pushed out 
from there into the tropics and finally to 
the southern ends of the earth. This part 
of Matthew's theory further supposed 
that the spread of animals southward 
was influenced by climatic changes, es- 
pecially during the Age of Mammals 
and the subsequent Ice Age. 

It is clear that, sixty or seventy mil- 
lion years ago, climatic zones were far 
less sharp than they are now and that 
northern regions, although not literally 
tropical, were then far warmer. Since 
then, there has been a fluctuating but 
progressive sharpening of the zones and 
a movement toward the equator of cli- 




HuNDRED MILLION YEARS of dispersal 
is diagrammed for three frog families. 



mates with cold winters. Although Dar- 
lington recognizes these facts, I feel that 
he has underrated their importance and. 
indeed, may underrate the whole histor- 
ical approach to zoogeography. For in- 
stance, he regularly assumes that the 
region noiv richest in species of a given 
group is the center of evolution for that 
group. There are well-established his- 
torical examples to the contrary. 

The part of Matthew's theory that 
concerns centers of dispersal was based 
primarily on data regarding mammals. 



Island in Time 




Ten miles from the mainland's 
clocks, schedules, appoinbnents and 
deadlines lies Monhegan, an Island 
in Time, where tlie days are meas- 
ured by sun and tide. The Inn 
welcomes guests who enjoy tidal 
pools, land and sea birds, unusually 
\aried flora— guests who appreciate 
tile inner peace of quiet forests, 
shores compassd by tlie voiceful 
sea, the stars for streetlights. Ad- 
vance reservations necessary. June 
20-September 8. Illustrated booklet. 
The Farrells, The Island Inn, 
Monhegan Island, Maine. 



REACH OUT . . . 

and thrill to the beauties of Nature 
that your unaided eyes cannot see. 




W-l-D-E ANGLE BINOCULARS 

7 power, 35mm objective lenses. Enjoy 
an enormous, panoramic field at 1,000 
yords of 

5 69 FEET! 

Compare! This huge field of view en- 
ables you to quickly locate objects and 
to follow action easily with a minimum 
movement of the instrument. Hard 
coated, achromatic optics. Fast, center 
focus. 30 oz. A fine, precision-manufac- 
tured, imported binocular, complete with 
leather cose, shoulder and neck straps, 
for only $52.89 postpaid, including 
10% Fed. Tax. SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED. Order today, from: 

ARLO PRODUCTS, Dept H 

66 West Merrick Road 
Valley Stream, New York 



The happy herpetologist 
has a copy of 




4:"^"^^ 



by Carl Kauffeld 

The curator of one of the world's 
largest reptile collections writes with 
interest and excitement about his 
charges and takes the reader along on 
his many thrilling trips in search of 
them— from the swamps of Florida to 
the barren Arizona desert to the tame- 
sounding but surprisingly wild woods 
of Dutchess County in New York. 

al book is rcc'oinmcndcd to 



«lio 



adv 



iced wi 


li nat 

-N 


iral history, 
y. Times B 


Kok t 


ctual a_ 
ortl. Ar 


well 


as faseinati 

n snakes." 

-.f 


ng St 
hn 1 


lllustrc 
3.95 at 


ted w 
all b 


1th photogrophs 


DOUBLEDAY & CO., 


Inc. 


G 


arden 


Cily, N. Y. 





$4.95 at your bookstor 

i^^^^BB DuttOn BHBBB 



"The foremost iiavigatoi' of his 
time"* . . . the author of The Raft 
Book (standard equipment on all 
U.S.A.F. life rafts) tells - 

How to Find Your Way 
on Land and Sea by 
Observing Nature 

Like no other book ever written about 
the outdoors, this immense fund of 
knowledge in the realm of pathfinding 
has no parallel in its field. You learn 
how to find your way in the wilder- 
ness, the desert, in snow and even in a 
strange city . . . how to estimate dis- 
tances, avoid walking in circles, tell 
time and tide by natural means . . . use 
sounds, odors, winds, plants and 
animal life to guide you. A book no 
nature lover can alTord to be without. 

by HAROLD GATTY 

NATURE IS 
YOUR GUIDE 

Foreword by Lieutenant General 
t. H. DOOLITTLB 

• Illustrated in color and black and white 

• Diagrams o Maps • Simplified Sun 
Tables (available nowhere else) 

• Index • Bibliography 



167 



AUTHORS WANTED 
BY N. Y. PUBLISHER 

i\\ «■ York. X. Y. - One of the 
nation's largest book publishers is 
seeking manuscripts of all types — 
fiction, non-fiction, poetry'. Special at- 
tention to new writers. If your work 
is ready for publication, send for 
booklet NH— ;■/'/ iree. Vantage Press, 
120 W. 31st St., New York 1. Mid- 
uest Office: 220 So. Michigan Ave., 
Chicigo. HI. 



BUTTERFLIES 

for COLLECTORS 

FULL DATA INCLUDED 
with Each Specimen 

35 ASSORTED Formosa: . $2.00 

20 PAPILIOS iSwallowtoils) . S2.00 

25 BOLIVIAN BUTTERFLIES . S2.00 
COLLECTING 

& MOUNTING KIT . . $5.00 

THE BUTTERFLY EQUIPMENT CO. 

246 North High Street 
Mount Vernon, N. Y. 



PLEASE HELP 

Do your part to preserve the art of flint 
chipping OS practiced by the American 
Indian. Kits now available v/ith tools, 
materials and complete instructions with 
photos to show how. Place these kits with 
those who con help perpetuate this "lost" 
but easily mastered art. Complete kit with 
instructions S2.00 

lOBO, Box 144, Carlsbad, New Mexico 



BUTTERFLIES 

(.omplete line of entomological equip- 
ment and hundred? of unu?ual speci- 
men? available at Macj's Hobby Dept. 
147. Herald Square store only. 



SEA SHELLS 

For Collectors. Thousands of species from 
over forty countries of the world. A grand 
hobby and educational too. Send your name 
today for FREE illustrated lists. 

HERMAN W. HOUINGSWORTH, Seffner, Flo. 



BOOK MANUSCRIPTS 

CONSIDERED 

by cooperative publisher who offers outhor early 
publicotlon, higher royalty, nalionol distribu- 
tion, and beautifully designed books. All subjects 
welcomed. Write, or send your MS directly. 

GREENWICH BOOK PUBLISHERS, INC. 

Atten. Mr. Edison 489 Fifth Ave. 

New York 17, N. Y. 




/our Book PubllsW 

Our famous plan has launched 700 
authors We edit, publish, advertise 
distribute. Send manuscript for free' 
report or write for Brochure NH 



PAGEANT PRESS, 101 FIFTH AVENUE. N. V. 3 

If you ore the talented author 
of an unpublished manuscript, 
let us help gain the recognition 
you deserve. We will publish 
your BOOK-we will edit, design, 
print, promote, advertise and 
sell it! Good royalties. 

W/ife for fR£E copy of 
Ho» To Publish your Boot 
COMEI PRESS BOOKS. Deol. E-HN 
200 Variik SI.. N. Y. 14 



FREE! 

Inside 

Story 

on 

Publishing 

Your Book 



Matthew, undoubtedly, overgeneralized 
—even as regards mammals— and his ex- 
tension of the theory to other animals 
was sketchy and involved some errors. 
Darlington bases his opposing theory 
(first published in a technical journal 
in 1948 1 on cold-bhtoded vertebrates, 
especially the fresh-water fishes. 

For those animals. Darlington's theory 
is quite convincing, if one is willing to 
subordinate a great many details. Dar- 
lington does not ignore these details, but 
he has an Olympian way of brushing 
them aside— as is. indeed, necessary if 
one is to find fundamental underlying 
principles. But now. in extending his 
theory to the warm-blooded vertebrates 
(birds and mammals), Darlington over- 
generalizes, just as Matthew did in the 
opposite direction, and— as did Matthew 
—subscribes to some very doubtful state- 
ments, if not positive misstatements. 

Yet it cannot be doubted that Darling- 
ton's work will stimulate and aid sound 
reconsideration of the whole dispersal- 
center problem. I, for one. do not antici- 
pate a single main pattern for all verte- 
brates as the outcome. I venture to pre- 
dict that a version of Matthew's theory 
—modernized and certainly profoundly 
modified— will prove to apply to the 
warm-blooded vertebrates, while the 
essentials of Darlington's theory wiU 
hold good for those of cold blood. 

Indeed, the exact identification of the 
place of origin or main dispersal center 
of a group of animals is rarely possible. 
While it has interest, it is less important, 
fundamentally, than principles about 
which, as adumbrated by Matthew and 
now fully developed by Darlington, there 
should no longer be much disagreement. 
All inhabited land areas have been 
centers of dispersal on a smaller or 
larger scale. Dispersal on the largest 
scale has occurred in and from the larg- 
est land mass, the Old World "heart- 
land" (not exclusively tropical). Dis- 
persal has involved expansion and con- 
traction of animal populations on a 
world with essentially the geography of 
today. East— west (and west— east I dis- 
persal on the widest scale has been 
across the northern and central parts of 
the Eurasian— North American blocks. 
North— south (and south— north ) dis- 
persal has occurred more or less inde- 
pendently on several axes: between 
Europe (plus southwestern Asia) and 
South Africa; between northern (and 
central) Asia and the tip of India- 
down to Ceylon, recently a geographic 
part of India: between Asia, through the 
East Indies without a continuous land 
connection, and Australia (to Tas- 
mania) ; between northern (and central ) 
America and the tip of South America 
I to Cape Horn I . In each main area 
along those routes, fauna have re-radi- 
ated. Toward the end of each route, 
fauna become attenuated. Away from 



the main routes— especially out into the 
islands of the seas— faunas are still more 
attenuated and peculiarly assorted. Those 
are the main principles of zoogeography 
which illuminate and underlie literally 
millions of detailed observations. 

A GOOD book makes one want to dis- 
cuss things with the author, even to 
argue with him. Darlington's book is 
superlatively good in this, as in many 
other respects. A summing-up. trite, but, 
in this instance, true, is tiiat this book is 
a "must" for any serious naturalist. 

The expression "serious naturalist" 
suggests a final point: this country- does 
not have enough of them. The serious 
naturalist, professional or amateur, is 
one who is interested in the essentials of 
the subject as a science. ^ e have an old 
and fine tradition of nature writing that 
is basically literary rather than scien- 
tific. Its best products are the armchair 
equivalent of an afternoon's stroll in the 
woods with a companion of high culture, 
humanistically speaking. There is noth- 
ing wrong with that; quite the contrary. 
But it is not science; it is even, in some 
examples, antiscientific. 

This book is not a popularization. It is 
a technical study, requiring some prior 
knowledge and some effort from the 
reader. Nevertheless, it can be read by 
anyone with a respectable amateur in- 
terest in zoology. Technical and truly 
scientific works on natural history are 
seldom reviewed for and recommended 
to a non-professional audience, as I have 
done here. It seems to be assumed that 
no one will tackle a work of some little 
difficulty unless he must for professional 
reasons. Perhaps that is true, but I hope 
not. No one expects to read James Joyce 
(to choose no harder an example") wth- 
out some difficulty, but everyone serious- 
ly interested in literature assumes that 
the effort brings an adequate reward. 
Why should the same not be true for 
those interested in natural historj'? Not 
all scientific works on natural history 
can be recommended on that basis, but 
Darlington's can and. herebv. is. 1 



Dr. Si.mpson. of The .American 
Mlsel.vi. was a successor to W. 1). 
Matlbew as Curator of Fossil Mam- 
mals in the 1920'r; and is a leadiii:; 
aiitliorilv in the fiflil ,.f ovolutinii. 



This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page, 

COVER-Lee Boltin. 125-Joya Hairs (r): 

U3-CressonH. Stephan de Borhegyi. 

Kearny. 126-35-Nickolas 

116-17-courtesy Muray. 

John Wiley & Sons. 136-41-A. Hoogerwerf. 

120-Raul Gonzales. 142-47-Robert LeVine. 

121-Joya Hairs (top): 148-54-Kenneth Gosner. 

Stephan de Borhegyi. 155-Kenneth Gosner: 

122-Joya Hairs. ^nton Bruun (photos). 

123-Joya Hairs (top): 156-65-William N. 

Stephan de Borhegyi; Tavolga. 

Raul Gonzales. 157-8-courtesy 

123-Joya Hairs. John Wiley & Sons. 



1 68 



fJO^ lV/7^^ Criterion's Complete, Superior 
ffSW t^^^ ' Telescope For Serious Astronomers 

The 4 Inch DYNASCOPE Reflector 



Reg. U. S. Pat. Off. 



At an unbelievably low price! 
© O 




With New Combination Mount And Free-Moving Polar Axis 
• A Parabolic Mirror! • 4-Power Finder! • Folding Tripod! 
• 3 Achromatic Eyepieces, 65X - 1 SOX - 167X 

ed at the scientific accuracy and technical 
reflecting telescope. If you were to purchase 
1 yourself, you would spend much more than 
precision instrument. And in building your 
telescope you could never hope to attain the accuracy and co-ordination 
of parts which have been engineered into the Dynascope. 

• The high resolving power of the parabolic mirror produces exquisite 

definition which clearly separates such celestiol phenomena as double 

stars. The 4-inch mirror gathers Yj more light than a S'/j-inch 

mirror. The Dynascope parabolic mirror is oluminized and then 

coated with a layer of zircon quartz for maximum protection and 

1. lasting use. A parabolic mirror of such quality has previously been 

obtainable only in high-priced instruments. 

• The Dynascope assembly includes everything— there is 
absolutely nothing else to buy. There ore no added charges 



for extra eyepii 



finde 



Tripod with 

Hardwood Folding Legs 



F. O. B. Hartford, Conn. 

Shipping Weight 74 lbs. 
Express charges collect 



• The tripod with hardwood folding legs is fitted with position 
locks for absolute stability. Study the list of features and you 
\ will agree that this unprecedented offer Is the most generous 
\ and all-inciusive you hove ever seen anywhere. The usual 
^V Criterion money-bock guarantee applies and, in fact, 
\* if you can duplicate this instrument for less than twice 
our unheard of low price, your money will be 
refunded at once. With a precision instrument like 
the Dynascope Reflector, production is necessarily 
limited but we con make immediate shipment 
at this time. Send check or money order now 
with full guarantee of satisfaction. 



• NOW YOU CAN HAVE A REFLECTING TELESCOPE 
OF EXCELLENT CALIBER FOR ACCURATE 
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION! 



• THE ONLY TELESCOPE AVAILABLE FOR UNDER 
$75. WITH A PARABOLIC MIRROR, RACK & 
PINION FOCUS, AND 3 ACHROMATIC EYEPIECES! 



Manufacfurers and Disfnbufors of Optical Instruments 

THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

331 Church Street • Hartford 1, Connecticut, Dept. NHD-29 

Telephone: CHapel 7-1696 • Cable Address: CRICO 




Wichilii Muuniuins iVildlife Refuge, Okla.. where you It see real Longhorns, once almost extinct in the Li.S. 

Come a ti-yi-yippee to the old wild west! 

Come and see it — the wild and woolly west we dreamed about as kids. Here 
are the dusty trails, the cowpokes and the bawling dogies ... the rimrock 
mountains where the posse headed 'em off at the pass . . . where the 
Sheriff and the Outlaw walked toward each other slow and careful-like, 
with the .44 loose in the holster. 

It's all here in the Wichita Mountains and it's all real, just as it was. 
Texas Longhorns— last survivors of the old-time breed that was herded up the 
Chisholm Trail. Open ranges— alive with the buffalo and elk, turkey and prairie 
dogs that made this a Cheyenne hunting ground. Every year, vacationers 
come here to re-live the old west-camping, swimming, hiking, studying nature 
in a 59,020-acre living museum that has no equal anywhere in the world. 

Bring the kids when you come. They'll love it. And. like you, they'll 
appreciate the drama, the drive and the dream that made our country grow— 
out where the West begins, and where the love of freedom never ends. 

• • • 
FREE TOUR INFORMATION If you would like to visit Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. 
Okla., or drive anywhere in the U.S.A., let us help plan your trip. Write: Tour Bureau, 
Sinclair Oil Corporation, 600 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y.-Also ask for our color- 
ful National Parks map. 

ANOTHER IN SINCLAIR'S AMERICAN CONSERVATION SERIES 



SINCLAIR SALUTES THE FISH AND 
WILDLIFE SERVICE . . . 

of the U.S. Department of the 
Interior for the conservation of 
17 million acres of woods, waters 
and grasslands that offer refuge 
for our national heritage of fish 
and wildlife. Owing to the wise 
management of the Service, eight 
million Americans every year 
find a variety of outdoor sport 
and enjo\ment in our 2 64 
National Wildlife Refuges. 




AprQ 1958 • 50(^ 

Natural History 




A/Ol/I/ ^^^^ Criterion's Complete, Superior 
1^0 0^^*' Telescope For Serious Astronomers 

The 4 Inch DYNASCOPE Reflector 



Reg, U. S, Pal. Olf. 



Af an unbelievably low price ! 
© O 



@ 




Quartz layer 

A 3 Eyepieces-d) 65X Huygens 
^ (2) I30X - J67X Achromalic 
Ramsdens 

Kv Rack & Pinion Focusing 

KB 4-Power Achromatic 
Finder Scope 

Q New Improved Combi- 
nation Equatorial and 
Altazimuth Mount 
With Free-Moving 
Polar Axis. 

©Bakelite 
Tube 

^y 4-poini Tube Suspension 

Q Tripod with 

^^ Hardwood Folding Legs 



With New Combination Mount And Free-Moving Polar Axis 
• A Parabolic Mirror! • 4-Power Finder! • Folding Tripod! 

• 3 Achromatic Eyepieces, 65X - 130X - 167X 

• You will be truly omazed at the scientific accuracy and technical 
eering built into this complete reflecting telescope. If you were to purchase 

the ports and assemble them yourself, you would spend much more than 

e unheard of low price of this precision instrument. And in building your 

n telescope you could never hope to attain the accuracy and co-ordination 

of ports which hove been engineered into the Dynoscope. 

• The high resolving power of the poroboltc mirror produces exquisite 

definition which clearly separates such celestial phenomena as double 

stars. The 4-inch mirror gathers '/) more light than a S'/j-inch 

mirror. The Dynoscope parabolic mirror is oluminized and then 

coated with a layer of zircon quartz for maximum protection and 

lasting use. A parabolic mirror of such quality has previously been 

obtainable only in high-priced instruments. 

ything — there is 
added charges 
r view finder. 



• The Dynoscope assembly includ 

absolutely nothing else to buy. There c 

for extra eyepii 



F. O. B. Hartford, Conn. 

Shipping Weight 14 lbs. 
Express charges collect 



• NOW YOU CAN HAVE A REFLECTING TELESCOPE 
OF EXCELLENT CALIBER FOR ACCURATE 
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION! 



• The tripod with hordwood folding legs is fitted with position 

locks for absolute stobility. Study the list of features and you 

\ will ogree that this unprecedented offer is the most generous 

and all-inclusive you have ever seen anywhere. The usual 

Criterion money-back guarantee applies and, in fact, 

^ if you con duplicate this instrument for less than twice 

our unheard of low price, your money will be 

refunded at once. With o precision instrument like 

the Dynoscope Reflector, production is necessarily 

limited but we con make immediate shipment 

at this time. Send check or money order now 

with full guarantee of satisfaction. 



• THE ONLY TELESCOPE AVAILABLE FOR UNDER 
$75. WITH A PARABOLIC MIRROR, RACK & 
PINION FOCUS, AND 3 ACHROMATIC EYEPIECES! 




Manufacturers and Disfributors of Optical Instruments 

THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

331 Church Street • Hartford 1, Connecticut, Dept. NHD-30 

Telephone: CHapel 7-1696 • Cable Address: CRICO 



Letters 

dialing- Flight 

Sirs: 

Your September, 1957, article, 
"Listen, Nature is Speaking to You!" 
brings to mind an observation in which 
I have found sound, rather than sight, 
most helpful. 

It first happened when, in a nearby 
orchard at dusk, I chanced upon a wood- 
cock in mating fliglit. Approaching witli 
care, timing my advances with the male's 
upward climb, I came to within a few 
feet of the chosen arena. The start of 
eacli display found the cock on the 
ground, turning in various directions 
and, at intervals, sounding a nasal "bzzt" 
(not unlike the nighthawk's cry) that 
carried surprisingly far. After a number 
of such cries, the cock would take off 
and, as evening grew deeper, I found I 
was following its skyward spiraling 
more by the sound of its trilling than 
by sight of the climbing bird. 

At the height of this flight, there came 
what is to me one of the most thrilling 
sounds in nature: an ethereal, Panpipe 
chirping that floats down from the dark 
sky. It was too dark to see the bird's 
movements, but the ebb and flow of song 
spoke of tumbling swoops and turns 
and somersaults. Then, with a sudden 
rush of wings nearby, the cock plum- 
meted to the ground, to resume the 
whole cycle. 

My first experience with the wood- 
cock's mating flight was over five years 
ago. Since then, although I have been 
told that few have witnessed this event, 
not a year has passed when, between 
April and June, I have been unable to 
catch at least one such display. For 
those who will use their ears, as well 
as their eyes, here is a most rewarding 
experience. 

Joseph W. Valentine 
Sherborn, Massachusetts 



Sirs: 



Unidentified Egg's 



Last October, we planted a small tree 
in our yard, temporarily protecting it 
with some bricks around the base. Later, 





\V.», 






[r^^^M^, 



iflrs; 



when the bricks were removed, we found 
a nest of clear eggs on the cold, wet 
ground (photo). The temperature dur- 
ing the period had ranged from 27° F. 
at night, going to 60° F. in the daytime. 
Could these be the eggs of the slugs 
or snails that leave slimy trails on our 
walks? Occasionally, in our yard, we 
find a very small black snake, with a 
pink collar. Could such a snake be the 
source of these eggs? 

Laura M. Clark 
Tulsa, Oklahoma 

The Department of Fishes and 
Aquatic Biology replies: 

While it is impossible to state so with 
certainty, the Clarks' eggs appear to be 
those of the slug, Lirnax. There are sev- 
eral European species of these large 
slugs, three of which have been inad- 
vertently introduced to the U.S. Largest 
of the three is Limax maximus, a com- 
mon dweller in city and suburban 
garden plots, whose nocturnal forays 
are marked by the glistening trail it 
leaves behind on hard surfaces. 

Limax maximus was first observed in 
the U.S. in 1867 in Philadelphia and 
was reported as far west as Texas by 
1886. Neither maximus nor the other two 
species, ftavus and marginatus have been 
specifically reported from Oklahoma 
but this may be due to a simple failure 
to record the presence of this humble, 
if voracious, gastropod rather than proof 
of its absence from the state. 

More Sucicing Beliavior 

Sirs: 

The letter by Mr. SamirSen (Natural 
History, February, 1958), regarding 



the phenomenon of paw-sucking by 
bears, prompts the following comments: 

I once owned a kitten which acquired 
a habit of sucking the tip of its tail. It 
had been taken from its mother when 
quite young and I always supposed had 
simply substituted its tail tip for its 
mother's teat. Psychologists tell us that 
an infant feels secure and contented 
while sucking and this is often why a 
child sucks his thumb. I have seen sev- 
eral mature cats suck on some object, 
such as a piece of woolen goods, which 
could represent their mother's body. 

I have raised several calves, all of 
which were taken from their mother 
several months before they would nat- 
urally be weaned. In all cases, after 
gulping down their dinner, they would 
frantically suck at the empty pail— 
often for many minutes. In some cases, 
when the pail was promptly removed, 
for a time the calf would suck any con- 
venient projection, or even at the edge 
of its stall. I once had a cow that carried 
this infantile habit into her mature life, 
sucking at length on her feed pail after 
eating. Usually she produced a quantity 
of foam, suggestive of the creamy sub- 
stance which Mr. Sen reported having 
seen on the paws of his captive bear after 
a period of paw-sucking. 

Since sucking by all mammal infants 
must have become associated with a 
sense of comfort and security, isn't it 
probable that in all such cases, includ- 
ing Mr. Sen's bear, it is an attempt on 
the part of these older animals to re- 
establish this behavior? 



Henry F. Dunbar 



Kingston, New York 



169 



Vol. LXMI 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Masraziiie of The American Museum of Natural History 



No. 



Alex\M)kii M. VmiTE 
President 



Albert E. Parr 
Director 



Walter F. Meister 
Deputy Director 



John Pircel 
Edito 



Editorial Advisers 
Gkrakd Pikl 

FkITZ (ioKO 

John Kieran 
Charles Tudor 



Scientific Advisei-s 

Franklyn Branley John Savnders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Gordon Ekholm Richard \an Gelder 

Jack McCormick 



Editorial Sta; 

Robert X^'illiamso 

Joan Dugga 

Margaret Matthew 

Jerrold Lane 



April 1958 



Letters 



Reviews 



Easter and the Calendar 



The First Voices of Spring 



On Estimating Ages 



Hunters of Africa 



Les Iles Marquises 



jVew Fossil Find 



169 

John Hay 172 

ThoHia? D. Nicholson 176 

Charles M. Bogert 182 

Lorus and Margery Milne 190 

Peter INIolloy 198 

Harry L. Shapiro 208 

Photographs hy Hal Roth 223 



Publication Office: 
American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West at 79tli St.. New York 24, N. Y. 

Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circulation Manager, The American Museum of Natural History, Cenlral Park West 

at 79th Street, New York 24, N. Y. 



Histor>-. Cenlral Park West at 79lh Stn 
in Canada, ISewfouncUand, and all for( 
at the Post Office at New York, under t 
Natural History. Manuscripts and illust 



ej 


ed in 


Reader's G 


aide to 


Periodu 


al 


Litera 


ture 


n your 


library. 


r. 


at Nc 


1 York 24, 


N. Y., 


by The 


An 


ericat 


Mus 


eum of 


Natural 


b 


criptio 


n is S5.00 


a year. 


single c 


npi 


es fift 


' cen 


s. Sub 


scription 


untries i 


s S5.50. E 


tered a 


s seconi 


c 


ass m 


alter 


March 


9. 1936, 


o 


Au£U 


1 24, 1<)12. 


Copyright 1958, 


by 


The 


\nier 


can Mu 


seum of 


s 


ubmitted to the editorial 


office w 


ill 


be ha 


ndled 


with c 


are. but 


ur 


ne resj 


onsibihy fr 


r Iher 


afety. 














The implements above — a srulplurec 
club, a palm-leaf fan. a fishhook and ; 
pounder for the making of poi— were pho 
tograpbed for Natural History by Lei 
BoLTiN. They suggest a cross section ol 
the life of the Marquesas — its wars, iti 
domestic arts and its principal ways ol 
obtaining food. 

A group of six inhabited islands— plus f 
few rocky outliers— within the vast Poly 
nesian archipelago, the Marquesas wert 
first discovered in 1595 by the Spaniarc 
Mendaiia. on a voyage from Peru to th< 
Philippines. Other explorers subsequenth 
called, but on the whole the Marquesas 
remained little visited— remote even from 
the other islands with Polynesian popu 
lations— until the nineteenth century. Foi 
the tragic history of their contact will: 
the West, turn to page 203. 



The American Museum is open to the Puhlic every day in the vear without charge: 
Your support of the Museum makes this possible. 




Ilustrations 

List Price 

$6.75 









SIX WINGS 

by George Sarlon 
The founders of mod 
ern science come aiivc 
in this colorful 
biographical study 
LIST Price §6.75 

rHE INTERPRE- 
fATION OF DREAMS 

ly Sigmiind Freud. 
rhe great work which is 
he foundation of all 
nodern psychoanalytic 
icience. List Price i? 50 

A TREASURY OF 
SCIENCE Ed. by 
Harlow Shapley and 
others. 724-page 
panorama of scientific 
development by 75 
leading scientists 
LIST PRICE S5.95 

THE DARWIN READER 

Erf. by Bates & Hiimphr,\ 
"Most important and 
interesting portions uf 
Darwin's enormous output 
in comprehensive form." 
—Julian Huxley. 
LIST PRICE 56.75 



ATOM AND COSMOS 

by Hans Reichenbach. 
Relativity, the Inner 
Structure of the Atom, 
the Process of Radioactive 
Disintegration, and other basj 
concepts of atomic physics. 
List PRICE S5.00 

MATHEMATICS IN 
WESTERN CULTURE 

by Morris Kline. 
"A genuine contribution 
to our understanding of 
the nature of mathe- 
matics."— i't/Vw/z/ic 
American. 
List Price S7.50 




ACCEPT THIS REMARKABLE WCRK ' 

AS ONE OF TWO GIFT BOOKS ON 
JOINING THE SCIENCE BOOK CLUB 

The launching of satellites into outer space has hurtled mankind into the 

^ cosmic age most people thought they would never live to see. Now, as the wonders of 

science are transforming the world which we and our children will inhabit, more and more 

thinking people find it important to learn about the swiftly changing scientific scene. 

^ In ROCKETS MISSILES & SPACE TRAVEL, Willy Ley-pioneer in rocket research 

iP*^*^ since 1924 and one of the world's leading authorities on space travel-presents what 

^ *-^"l^ -* ^^^ S,j,„iifi, Monthly calls "the defimtive book about the subject": the basic theories 

and techniques of rocketry; the authoritative presentation (with some danng 

predictions) of the twin challenge confronting today's most advanced researchers 

-the manned station in outer space and the secret of interplanetary travel. 

Accept this remarkable book and any one of the 7 other volumes shown 

alongside as your tivo gifts on joining; choose any third volume as your 

first Selection. For these 3 works of your choice-total list value up to $21.75 

-you are billed only S3.89. Thereafter, as a member, you need take as few as 

3 more Selections at reduced Member's Prices during the next 12 months. 

Mail this Coupon for Your Two Free Books on Joining 

(j _ ,., „ .1 . . XT V„..I, Q NT V O 




ELECTRONS, WAVES 
AND MESSAGES 

by John R. Pierce. 
The art and science of 
modern electronics and 
electronic communication. 
List PRICE .55.00 



Science iBooli Clvito, 



Inc. 63 Fourth Avenue, New 'i'oik 3, N. Y. 



Please enroll 
and send me 
I have checked 
Books on joinir 
my first Select 
ductory M 
(plus postage) 



iber": 



le as a member 
; three volumes 
two as my Gift 
and the third as 
all at the Intro- 
ice of S.^.8? 
lember. 



G Rockets, Missiles & Space Travel 
n Matltematics in Western Culture 

□ Electrons, Waves & Messages 

□ The Interpretation of Dreams 



□ A Treasury of Science 
QSix Wings 

□ The Darwin Reader 

□ Atom and Cosmos 



As 



need talce a? few as 3 more Selec- 
tions during the next 12 months, 
always at reduced Member's Prices; 
and each time 1 start a new series 
of four Selections I will receive a 
Free Bonus Book 



NAME- 



ADDRESS 
CIT\ 



_ZONE- 



W Free Bonus Book. >-"' 45,, g 

g&COCCC&C&OCCOCCGC&0&OOOCCQ&&&OOOOOOOCOO&OOOCOOOOOOOCGO& 



Reviews 



THREE STUDIES IN ECOLOGY 



Reiieiied hv John Ha^ 



World Beneath the Waves, by Dr. 
Gilbert Doukan. John deGraff. $6.00; 
356 pp.. illus. The North American 
Deserts, by Edmund C. Jaeger. Stan- 
jord Lmiersity. $S.95: 308 pp.. illus. Of 
Men and Marshes, by Paul L. Erring- 
ton. Macmillan, $4.50: 150 pp.. illus. 

HERE .\RE tbree books of very differ- 
ent character and unequal value. 
Each is a study of the ecology of its 
chosen area— of the interrelatedness of 
different forms of life within a par- 
ticular biological community: yet only 
one author. Errington. has taken his ap- 
proach seiiously enough for it to yield 
important conclusions and impart a cer- 
tain significance to his subject, .\nother. 
Jaeger, has contented himself with giv- 
ing us a great deal of information about 
his subject, and his book will be most 
welcome on that account alone. As for 
Dr. Doukan. he is by i.o means lacking 
in experience rnd enthusiasm, but his 
book about the ur.derwater world is both 
talky and fragmentary— it leaves us pad- 
dling on the surface, with only an inkling 
of what a plunge to the depths may hold. 
The greater portion of the book, it 
should be said at the outset, has the mer- 
it of usefulness. Dr. Doukan. a doctor of 
medicine who has been directly asso- 
ciated with the advances of underwater 



diving in Europe— he already has a pre- 
vious book on the subject to his credit — 
knows the practical aspects of diving as 
well as any man. There is a great deal 
of information about skin diving, diving 
suits, benthoscopes and bathyscaphes, 
and about the dangers to the human 
anatomy of underwater breathing. 

Regrettably, however, the reader who. 
armed with the information Dr. Doukan 
has proffered, decides to plunge to the 
depths, will not know what to look for 
once he gets there. This is admittedly a 
vast domain: ichthyology, oceanography, 
botany, even physics enter into it. It is 
true. also, that the study of much of the 
submarine world is in its infancy: the 
behavior of most submarine organisms, 
the nervous structure of even the higher 
ones, have only quite recently become 
objects of serious study, while the first 
general text on submarine geology ap- 
peared only in 1948. 

There is. nonetheless, a considerable 
amount of work available in these areas, 
which have been enjoying a certain 
vogue in the scientific world of late. Here 
would have been a perfect chance to 
assemble the data and translate it for a 
wider public. Dr. Doukan has muffed the 
chance. \^ e are told something of subma- 
rine archeology and of underwater hunt- 
ing—the subject of the author's previous 




MusKRAT ON BIRCH LOG is among the marsh dwellers discussed by Professor Errinsiton. 
172 



book— but the vast domain of tlie unde 
water biologic community in all it- 
complexity and interrelatedness is 
mentioned only cursorily. 

There can, in a sense, be no great ob 
jection to this— one writes about what 
one knows. But the author might well be 
taken to task for presenting his book as 
a contribution to submarine knowledge, 
when it is this knowledge of which lit 
imparts so little. Perhaps the book': 
principal value lies precisely in this in- 
completeness, in the suggestion of wliat 
remains to be done. Certainly a thought- 
ful reader will find unanswered tpies 
tions everywhere, avenues traced out but 
left. alas, unexplored. 

Edmund C. Jaeger, former head of 
the zoology department, and now pro- 
fessor emeritus, at Riverside College, 
California— by way of contrast— has been 
able to study his subject in scholarly 
detail. This discipline has given both 
point and color to his firsthand knowl- 
edge of the desert. 

Jaeger has not attempted a vast syn- 
thesis, nor has he tried to reach any new 
conclusions about the communities of 
animals and plants peculiarly adapted to 
desert life. His is a descriptive ap- 
proach, for. before one can draw con- 
clusions, one must first have the facts on 
which to base them. A perusal of The 
A orf/i American Deserts will siiow liow 
few of these facts were generally known. 
Jaeger, as much for the tourist and 
exploring vacationist as for the serious 
student, takes up each of the five North 
American deserts individually, for there 
are five of them— the Chihuahuan. So- 
noran. Navahoan. Mohavean. and the 
Great Basin— and their flora and fauna 
are astonishingly varied. So is their 
climate; they know temperate sea 
breezes from the Gulf of California, dust 
storms in the Mohave and Colorado, 
snowfalls on the Navahoan uplands. 

Jaeger devotes the greater part of his 
attention to the flora of these regions— 
for. of all desert organisms, the |)lants 
must achieve perhaps the most difficult 
adaptations if they are to survive. The 
soil at White Sands. New Mexico, for 
example, consists of 94 per cent gran- 
ular gypsum. 3 per cent table salt, plus 
1 per cent silicates. The adaptations of 








Waterfowl of summer marsh include Western Grebe, foreground, terns and ducks, alojt. 



North American desert plants are dis- 
:ussed in some detail— from the annuals, 
which survive the seasons of heat and 
drought as seeds, and tlius "escape the 
drought rather than withstand it." to 
:he perennials, with their inflated stems 
[or water storage, their very deep root 
systems and wax-coated leaves of such 
diminutive size as to reduce the extent 
)f evaporation from them. 

Desert animals are not neglected, 
lowever; their adaptive specializations 
ire scarcely less interesting, or less 
lecessary. It is suggestive, incidentally, 
;o remark that while, in certain areas, 
he desert's big game— antelope and 
jighorn sheep— is in danger of extinc- 
ion, most of the animals of these regions 
ire on the whole holding their own. It 
vould appear that to men, the desert 
s forbidding enough for them to leave 



it to the indigenous animals. The desert 
still keeps its sanctity. 

The same cannot, unfortunately, be 
said for the marshlands of this nation, 
discussed in Paul L. Errington's volume 
Of Men and Marshes. These marshes 
and their abundant wildlife have been 
gravely threatened in recent years by 
the pressures of population and tech- 
nology. Vast areas have been drained 
and reclaimed for farm land. Many of 
the marshes, left by the Pleistocene ice 
sheets, have also been filled in by dust 
and silt as a result of soil erosion. The 
conservationists are putting up a stout, 
and in some degree successful, fight for 
their preservation or restoration, but 
millions of acres of marshland are gone 
for good— that is, until after the next 
glaciation has done its work. 

It is against this background that 



Errington's forceful book takes on its 
value. Errington. now professor of popu- 
lation dynamics at Iowa State College, 
grew up on a farm in South Dakota— his 
familiarity with the great marshes of 
the northern midwest, therefore, began 
early. He has hunted, trapped and trav- 
eled in the marshlands of the Dakotas, 
Iowa. Minnesota and southern Canada 
for years. He knows their weatlier, their 
character— with all its amenities and 
dangers— and the habits of the animals 
that live there. 

Drawing on this great fund of faniiliar- 
ness, Errington has gone about writing 
his book very simply. His procedure is 
merely to describe the life of these 
marshes in casual, discursive fashion, 
with no further structure than what the 
rhythm of the season imparts. If this 
procedure is simple, it is nonetheless 



ISembers may order any of the books mentioned from the Museum Shop and receive a 10% discount 



173 



9^it;... SHARE THE ADVENTURE 
WITH YOUR CHILDREN 
OR YOUNG FRIENDS 

MANY OF THE Maseum'? Members have 
3sked howthey could best introduce 
their children or young friends to the won- 
derful world of nature on a level that they 
can enjoy. 

To meet this healthy interest, the 
Museum has formed a new membership 
group especially for children 8 to 14 years 
of age— the important years when minds 
in the formative stage acquire knowledge 
and interests that will enrich their entire 
life. It is called: 



The American Museum 

EXPLORERS 



Why not enroll your children or young 
friends now. Each new Explorer will 



12 issues a year of JUNIOR NATURAL 
HISTORY magazine. Published by the 
Museum, each issue is filled with absorbing 
pictures and stories about Nature: the 
earth, the skies, the seven seas, animals, 
birds, quizzes, puzzles and other fascinating 
features to stimulate the young and inquir- 
ing mind. 



3 An attractive Membership button for thei 
• coat lapel. It's a big, colorful button tha 



devoted to news about Members, experi- 
ences and articles sent in by young mem- 
bers describing their own nature experiences. 

What a wonderful feeling of pride and 
accomplishment for a child to be asso- 
ciated with one of the world's great 
scientific institutions. The entire cost of 
Membership in the American Museum 
Explorers is only S2.50 a year — a tiny 
investment compared with the rich re- 
wards for the fortunate youngsters you 
sponsor. Fill in their names below now 
and return it today — you couldn't thrill 
them more. 



The An 



of Natural History 



I Central Park West at 79th Street 

I New York 24, N. Y. JM-4 

Enroll the following children in the Amer- 
I ican Museum Explorers at $2.50 each per 
I year, to receive all Membership benefits 
I described above. I enclose my remittance 
, $ . (Please send check or money 



order. Do not send cash by mail. ) 



Address— 
City 



AddresS- 
Cily 



I 

I 

I Your Name— 

I Address 

I City 



PI-. 



xtra sheet for addit 




"The best popular account 
of migration in modern terms 
I have read." 
—DONALD CULROSS PEATTIE 

PATHS 

ACROSS 
THE EARTH 

By LORUS and 
MARGERY MILNE 

Authors of The World of Night 

How do animals find their way 
home (pigeons, dogs, honey- 
bees)? What causes many 
forms of life to travel and 
why do they pursue such dif- 
ferent courses? 

PATHS ACROSS THE EARTH is a 

unitiue study of the plant and 
animal world as a whole, sep- 
arating its turmoil of move- 
ment into distinctive patterns. 
Animals that wander at ran- 
dom like human nomads, 
others that shuttle north and 
south following the seasons, 
sea creatures that struggle to 
a specific spot to propagate 
the species, others that travel 
haphazardly and some whose 
movements are determined by 
the time of day or week— here 
they are traced methodically 
to create an exciting picture 
of the interlocking relation- 
ships between the living pop- 
ulations of the world. 

"The Milnes have done a 
splendid job . . . not only have 
they summarized very ably 
what we know about the 
movements of animals; they 
convey a grasp of the mystery 
that still surrounds many as- 
pects of animal behavior, a 
feeling of how much we have 
still to learn."- MARSTON 
BATES. •>'« black and vihite 
drawings by Henry H. Kane. 

At all biKihstori's $.3.75 
HARPER & BROTHERS 



extraordinary: it enables him to encom 
pass the entire life of the marshlands 
and to present that lift; with more oi 
less the pace and ricliness of its occur 
rence in nature, in the most tangible 
sort of way. There are very few books 
which can even approach it in abilitj 
to re-create the fiber of a living com 
nninity in all its density and detail. 

HF.RE is some of what Errington has 
to say about marsh life in winter 

"With the continued sinking of tht 
fro^t line, the seeming isolation o 
atpiatic animals from winter's problemi 
may be transformed into a series o 
patent emergencies. Crises may be o 
gradual onset or abrupt; their sequences 
are complex or of direct cause-and-effec 
relationships. The clear water of marshj 
shallows naturally freezes before tht 
deeper clear water of the centers, bu 
the mud about cattail rootstocks anc 
some other plant growths may long re 
main unfrozen. Snowdrifts over emerg 
ent vegetation not only impede the 
freezinj;. but ice that formed before th< 
drifting may also melt away under the 
lirotectiiin of the drifts. At the samt 
time, snow over the ice. by cutting of 
the sunlight retiiiired by siibnierget 
plants for photosynthesis, introduces iti 
own complications . . . oxygen depletior 
and the accumulation of toxic gases. 

'"In the course of a killing frecze-outJ 








Marsh in wintkr i.- .scene of predator) 
activity, with the mink— seen here oiU 



174 



he last places on a marsh where fishes 
:eep alive include the plunge holes and 
:hannel5 of muskrat burrows and lodges, 
rhe water there may be packed with 
jullheads : almost all other marsh fishes 
lie before this stage. The bullheads gulp 
lir. trying to live, whether the oxygen is 
ill gone from the water or not. whether 
he water reeks with hydrogen sulfide 
)r nut. A few die, or many may. and 
;he living wriggle among masses of 
loating dead. . . . 

"The muskrats, not being as depend- 
ent upon the water as the fishes, have 
nore leeway in meeting freeze-out crises, 
but they can winter-kill. As a rule, those 
living in food-rich environment having 
little water get along better than those 
in food-poor environment having more 
water. In the shallows that are grown to 
cattails and bulrushes, the muskrats can 
still dig out nutritious underparts, even 
though considerable freezing of the 
bottom muck occurs. 

'If the muskrats are forced to come 
out on the surface to feed in cold 
weather, some of them may still find 
something edible in the exposed plant 
crowns and rootstocks. They gnaw the 
favored parts right down into the ice 
and may almost stand on their heads, 
hind-quarters braced above, as they tug 
and twist. They eat the river bulrush 
rootstocks sticking here and there from 
the outside of a lodge. The gnawed 
(continued on page 216) 





side a muskrat lodge— playing a leading 
role, and the muskrats frequent victims 



Authentic Recordings of 
Nature's Amazing Voices 

Frotyi Cornell Universily's Library of Natural Sounds 

Produced by P. P. Kellogg and A. h. Allen, Laboratory of Ornithology, 
Cornell University 

SONGBIRDS OF AMERICA: in color, sound, and story. In this Bookalbum, high-fidelity 
recordings of the songs of 24 species of familiar birds taken in the wild are comple- 
mented by full color photographs and useful information on their habits. 
lO-inch, vinylite record, 33'/i rpm, text, full color photographs, spiral-bound. $4.95 

MUSIC AND BIRD SONGS: sounds from nature, with commentary and analysis. The 
unique feature of this recording of the voices of ten birds and six frogs is the slowing 
down of some of the bird songs to as much as one-eighth speed. James H. Fassctt 
comments on the resulting drop in pitch of three octaves and the strange beauty of 
the melodies. 10-inch, vinylite record, 33 'A rpm. $5.00 

VOICES OF THE NIGHT. Expertly recorded in this unusual album are the distinctive trills, 
croaks, calls, and songs of 34 species of frogs, toads, and tree frogs. Of the 1948 
version of this record, Howard Taubman of the New York Times wrote, "Music to 
remember!" 12-inch, vinylite record, 33'/} rpm. $6.75 

WESTERN BIRD SONGS. The stars of this record are ten songbirds familiar to bird lovers 
in the western part of America. Each song heard is typical of the species and each 
recording was also chosen for its technical excellence and freedom from background 
noises. 10-inch, vinylite record, 78 rpm. $2.50 

FLORIDA BIRD SONGS. Five of the songs recorded here are those of familiar birds that 
every school child should be able to identify; the other five are the voices of rare or 
strange birds for which the state is famous. 10-inch, vinylite record, 78 rpm. $2.50 

AMERICAN BIRD SONGS, Volume One. Here are the bird songs that have brought pleasure 
to thousands, in a beautiful second issue, now on a single SS'/j-rpm disk. The Biolo- 
gist said of the earlier album: "The first great collection of our American bird 
songs. . . ." 12-inch, vinylite record, 33'/3 rpm. $7.75 

AMERICAN BIRD SONGS, Volume Two. The beauty and fidelity of the 51 bird voices heard 
on this record are a tribute to the knowledge, patience, and skill of Drs. Kellogg and 
Allen. This 331i-rpm record duplicates in every respect the famous earlier 78-rpm 
album of the same title. 12-inch, vinylite record, 33'h rpm. ^7.75 

THE MOCKINGBIRD SINGS. Two talented Mockingbirds are featured on this record. One 
sings his natural song; the other gives a glorious medley of imitations of over 30 
other species. 10-inch, vinylite record, 78 rpm. $2.50 

THE SONGS OF INSECTS. The calls of forty varieties of insects — common crickets, grass- 
hoppers, and cicadas of the eastern United States — are expertly recorded to provide 
a new listening experience. 12-inch, vinylite record, 33 '/i rpm. $7.75 

MEXICAN BIRD SONGS. Featured as performers on this record arc 74 species of typical 
Mexican birds, chosen to represent as many families as possible. The range of songs 
is a wide and fascinating one. 12-inch, vinylite record, 33'h rpm. %1 .lb 

For descriptive circular, write to: 

Cornell University Records 

A division of C^ornell University Press 
124 Roberts Place, Ithaca, New York 

»»»»»♦»♦♦♦♦♦»♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 

Kodachrome Slides to Match Records 

The Laboratory of Ornithology at Cornell University is now offering Kodachrome 
slides of the species whose voices appear on the Cornell records. Slides from the 
famous collection of Dr. A. A. Allen are available for these albums: American Bird 
Songs, Vol. 1, 78 rpm, $40.00; Vol. 1, 33'.i rpm, $35.00; Vol. II, 33!'; rpm, $28.00. 
Florida Bird Songs, $5.50. Western Bird Songs, $5.50. Music and Bird Songs, $9.00. 
Voices of the Night, 78 rpm, $15.00; 33'/; rpm, $16.00. Songbirds of America, 
$15.00. Order directly from: 

Laboratorq of Ornithologij 

Cornell University 

33 Sapsucker Woods Road, Ithaca, New York 

175 







176 




The year's holiest day 
may fall on any one of 
thirty-four different 
dates in spring. The 
reason leads us back 
to the calendar's past 

By 

Thomas D. Nicholson 



EASTER SUNDAY falls on April 6 
this year. Yet, the wide varia- 
lioii in the date of Easter Sunday, 
from year to year, is such that few 
could easily calculate that next Easter 
will fall on March 29. And this, de- 
spite the fact that the date of Easter 
stands as one of the most important 
in the spring calendar. A host of 
schedules and events must be adjusted 
to it: religious observances, indus- 
trial and commercial schedules, school 
recesses and the like. Each year, these 
and a hundred other activities must 
be timed to a date that can come as 
early as March 22 or as late as April 
25. How did this come about? 

Initially, Easter was very closely 
associated with Passover; indeed, the 
adjective "paschal" (often used re- 
garding the Easter season ) is derived 
from the Hebrew word Pesach, or 
Passover. The Resurrection occurred 
on the third day (counting inclu- 
sively) after the Last Supper, as re- 
lated in the New Testament, and the 
Last Supper was the Passover supper. 
Among early Christians, there was 
some dispute over what specific day 
should be celebrated as Easter. Chris- 
lians of the Eastern world preferred 



Full moon of spring, which sets date 
of Easter, brightens a schematic view of 
heavens shortly after the vernal equinox. 
West of the moon. Leo— one spring con- 
stellation in the zone of the zodiac— is 
marked by bright Regulus, lower right. 

177 



A Chief Officer aboard iiiercliaiitmen 
by age 20. Mr. IVicholson joined 
The American Misei m — Hayden 
Planetariim after instructing at 
the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy. 



to celebrate Easter and Passover to- 
gether, considering that the Resurrec- 
tion (symbolic of Christian rebirth) 
added a new significance to Passover 
(symbolic of the rebirth of the Hebrew 
people after their Eg\ ptian exile I . 
But Passover is a variable calendrical 
event. It comes each spring on the 
fourteenth day of the moon in the 
month called Nisan— the first month 
of the Hebrew year, which begins 
with the new moon occurring on or 
about the vernal equinox. The four- 
teenth day of Nisan. on the eve of 
which the Passover supper is held, 
always came after the vernal equinox. 
Among the Eastern Christians, then, 
Easter and Passover were celebrated as 
one, regardless of the day of the week 



or the month on which they occurred. 

Western converts to Christianitv, 
however, pointed out that the Resur- 
rection had taken place on a Sunday. 
Thev preferred to observe Easter on 
that same day each year, regardless 
of its date during the month. For the 
first few centuries of Christianitv. in 
consequence, different da\s were ob- 
served by different groups each year. 

The controvers\ over the date of 
Easter was finalh resolved at the 
Council of Niceae. in A.D. 325. The 
day of Easter was established as a 
Sunday, after the practice among 
Western Christians. The rules for 
determining the date of this Sunday 
in the month, however, were patterned 
after the method of dating Passover. 

Easter Sunday, the Council de- 
clared, would be the first Sunday 
following the first full moon on or 
after the vernal equinox. This ruling 
assured three things. Easter would 
always come on a Sunday early in 
the spring. The day could never co- 



incide with Passover supper, since 
Passover began on the eve of the full 
moon and Easter was the Sunday fol- 
lowing that. And. finally, this rule 
assured pilgrims, journeying in the 
Holy Lands at the Easter season, 
bright moonlight to guide them. One 
other regulation was added by the 
Council: for calendar purposes, the 
xernal equinox was fixed at March 
21 (the first day of spring at the time 
the rules were established). 

TllKSE Rl LES. Still in effect today 
for determining the date of Easter, 
practically insure that Easter Sunday 
must fluctuate through the spring cal- 
endar from year to \ear. Imagine try- 
ing to celebrate one's birthday accord- 
ing to a similar rule. Suppose you had 
been born on October 3. a Tuesday 
marked bv a full moon. According to 
current usage, your birthday would be 
October 3 each year, regardless of the 
day of the week or phase of the moon. 
But, if you followed the system used 







eQypiiAN yeAR 

Twelve months— each of thirty days— plus extra five 
days at end gave 365-day year. Calculation was short. 



178 




ROMAN yeAn 

Institution of "leap years" added average quarter-day 
to the length of each year. This was an overcorrection. 



i for Easter, you would have to select 
a Tuesday, each year, and the Tues- 
day you selected would have to be 
one that followed a full moon. Now 
the full moon need not come early 
in October each year: it might come 
later or at the end of the month. And, 
because there could be thirteen, rather 
than twelve full moons during a year, 
you would have to choose a full moon 
that would keep your birthday early 
in the autumn, when you were actu- 
ally born. With all these variables, 
you might well establish a rule for 
yourself, declaring that your birthday 
would be the first Tuesday that came 
after the first full moon on or after 
the autumnal equinox (September 
23). This would at least give many 



people a good excuse for not being 
able to remember your birthday. 

THE FLUCTUATING DATE of Easter 
and the rules which govern it 
illustrate one of the basic problems 
that faces the builders of calendars: 
the task of fitting together several 
periods of time which are actually 
independent of one another. Let us 
review these periods. First, there is 
the "year" of the seasons— the period 
of the earth's revolution as measured 
by the changing position of the sun. 
Secondly, there is the solar "day"— 
the period of the earth's rotation as 
measured by the sun. Third, we have 
the "week"— established from antiq- 
uity as a period of seven days. Finally, 



there is the lunar "month"— the pe- 
riod required for the moon to go 
through a complete cycle of phases 
as it revolves around the earth. Con- 
tinuing to use Easter as an example, 
we see that all four of these different 
periods must be considered in setting 
the date. As to the earth's revolution, 
Easter must come when the sun is in 
the spring position for the Northern 
Hemisphere. Each of the possible 
days on which Easter may fall, in 
turn, is a unit of the measure of the 
earth's rotation. But the day selected 
must be the same one out of an arbi- 
trary measure of seven in the week. 
And, finally, this day must always 
follow a fixed point in the lunar cycle. 
But none of these works out evenly. 

179 



There are 365.242199 solar "days" 
(and this number could be carried 
out further I in one "year" of the 
seasons. There are 29.530588 solar 
"days" (this number, too, goes on I 
in one lunar month. Although, by 
definition, there are exactly seven 
solar "days" in a "week," the year of 
the seasons contains fifty-two weeks, 
plus one or two extra days, while the 
lunar month contains four weeks plus 
a day and a fraction, and there are 
between twelve and thirteen lunar 
months in one year. Thus, no exact 
number of solar days and weeks, 
lunar months, or solar years will 
equate precisely with one another. 

From the beginning, men have been 
trving to build a calendar which will 
keep track of the seasons, count the 
years successively, and maintain anni- 
versaries or festivals in the season in 
which they originated. But they have 
been trying to do so by counting lunar 
months or solar days as the units of 
measurement for a year which is 
essentially solar. Among the earliest 
calendars, the year was equal to 
twelve lunar months, counting these 
months, alternately, as twenty-nine 
ind thirty davs long. Such a year was 
inlv 354 days long, and its users kept 
losing on the seasons by slightly more 
than eleven days per year. To catch 
up again, an extra month was inter- 
polated at intervals, generallv about 
once each three vears. One such calen- 



da.— still in use for Hebrew religious 
purposes— adds an extra month on the 
third, sixth, eighth, eleventh, four- 
teenth, seventeenth and nineteenth 
year of a nineteen-year cycle. 

Thousands of years before the time 
of Christ, the Egyptians realized the 
folly of a calendar that measured the 
solar year by a lunar month. They de- 
veloped a calendar containing twelve 
months, each thirty days long, and 
added five extra days at its close for 
a year of 365 days (as close as they 
could calculate the true length of the 
solar year I . But even this was nearly 
a quarter-day short of the true length 
of the year of the seasons and, in a 
little over 700 years, winter events 
were taking place during the cal- 
endars "summer " months. 

JLLius Caesar, in 46 b.c, instituted 
a calendar change that finally be- 
gan to take into account the impossi- 
bilitv of measuring the year of the 
seasons by an exact number of solar 
da\s. He introduced a leap year, by 
adding an extra day to the year at 
regular intervals. The Julian calendar 
added this extra day once each four 
years, making the average length of 
the year 365.25 days. But .25 isn't 
.242199, and the Julian year was too 
long by .007801 of a day (or by 
about eleven minutes and fourteen 
seconds). This amounts to a full day 
once everv hundred twentv-eight vears. 



As we have seen, at the time of the 
Council of Niceae, the vernal equinox 
fell on March 21 by the Julian calen- 
dar. By the sixteenth century, the 
Julian calendar had gained ten days 
and the vernal equinox was actually 
falling on March 11. 

In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII de- 
creed a change in the Julian calendar 
which restored Easter to its proper 
position in the vear of the seasons and 
corrected the error that had caused 
the slippage. The Gregorian change 
dropped ten days from October. 1582: 
the day following October 5 became 
October 15, thus restoring the true 
vernal equinox in 1583 to March 21. 
Next, the leap year rule was changed. 
Each of the century years were now 
to be ordinary years, except that cen- 
tury years divisible by 400 would 
continue to be leap years. The aver- 
age length of a Gregorian year, there- 
fore, came to 365.2425 days, some 
twenty-six seconds a year too long. 

Such a difference amounts to one 
day after the passage of 3.323 years, 
so that our descendents of A.D. 4906 
will again have a dislocation to grap- 
ple with. It has been proposed to 
correct even this slight error by de- 
claring all century years divisible by 
4.000 to be ordinary years. By drop- 
ping leap year's extra day once every 
4,000 years, the calendar could follow 
the seasons without as much as a 
da\'s error for some 200 centuries. 




HOURS, 49 
UTES LOST 
PER YEAR 




11 MIMTES. 14 
SKCONDS GAINED 
PER VEAR 



Egyptian miscalculation, shown in hourglass analogy, 
above, meant the loss of a full day every four years. 



Nearly a quarter-hour of extra time per year put the 
new Julian calendar a full day ahead every 128 years. 




QReQORlAN yeAR 

Papal change brought Easter back to spring season and 
cut annual accumulation to a mere twenty-six seconds. 




26 SEC0^'DS 

f ' h I ■' GAINED 



Ret)ucx:ioN 

Gregorian reform, in sixteenth century, sliced Julian 
surplus so that day is gained only every 3.323 years. 




> 4y2 SECONDS 
GAINED 
PER YEAR 



RepiNeMeNT 

Presently proposed elimination of some leap years is 
aimed at reducing gain to one day every 20,000 years. 



THE FIRST 

VOICES 
OF SPRING 



Frogs* calls are known to serve 
a mating purpose. Is that all? 

By Charles M. Bogert 




TT IS PROBABLE that the first voice in the earth's history 
was that of a frog. The Salieiitia ha\e been in existence 
for nearly two hundred million \ears. a clean lead of more 
than a hundred million years over that "mob of irrespon- 
sible and shiftv-e\ed little shrews." to borrow Archie 
Carr s phrase, that "swarmed down out of the trees to chip 
at stones, and fidget around fires, and build atom bombs." 

To judge from what is now being learned about the 
sounds produced b\ fishes, the ancestral amphibian stock 
—that turned fins into limbs and ventured onto the land 
those many millions of years ago— may have been able to 
make noises. At least, some of the earlier amphibians— of 
Carboniferous times— apparently had a tvmpanum. or ear- 
drum: hence they probably also had ears and could hear. 
Whether any of these fossil amphibians had voices, how- 
ever, we shall never know for certain. 

It seems probable that the use of voice— as an adjunct 
to mating activities— evolved somewhat later, largely as 
an attribute of the tailless amphibians. Voice, for example, 
plays no part in the courtship of salamanders and. indeed, 
salamanders were long believed to be deaf. In 1939. how- 
ever, Ferhat-Akat demonstrated that they not only could 
hear, but were able to distinguish frequencies as narrow 



in pitch-difference as a fourth or fifth musical interval 
In contrast to the salamanders, it had generally beer 
assumed that frogs could hear, principally because the 
earliest field observation showed that, when one frog 
started to call, it was often joined bv others. Not unti 
Yerkes carried out a series of experiments in 190.5. how 
ever, was this point actually proved. There is still no proof 
however, that frogs can discriminate between one pitcl: 
and another. Indeed, field observations, thus far. do nc 
more than suggest that frogs can discriminate the mating 
calls of their own species. 

Not all early naturalists realized that most frog calls 
accompanied breeding activities, nor did anvone make « 
very serious effort to find out why frogs called until aftei 
Yerkes" demonstration. To set the general, but unsup 
ported, belief that voice plays an important role in attract 
ing frogs to their breeding site, we ran a series of experi 
ments in 19.54. at the Archbold Biological Station ir 
Florida. Southern Toads I Bitfo terrestris I were markeq 
for future identification and liberated in a paved plazai 
A loudspeaker, shifted from one end of the plaza to tht 
other in successive experiments, was employed to broad 
cast a taped recording of a chorus of the species. The toadi 




Afloat in a pond, this male Leopard Frog, Rana pipiens, 
is distending his paired vocal sacs to utter "mating call." 



had been gathered at random, but most of them were not 
engaged in breeding activities when captured. 

Liberated in the plaza, when the loudspeaker was silent, 
the toads of both sexes showed no tendency to move in 
any one direction in preference to any other. When the 
taped chorus was broadcast, however, we observed a nega- 
tive response from a number of male toads liberated over 
a hundred feet away from it. In every test, more male 
toads went away from the speaker than went toward it. 

FEMALE toads behaved somewhat differently from the 
males. Well over half of them headed toivard the sound 
source. Unfortunately, from our viewpoint, several of 
these females— which had been captured in breeding cho- 
ruses—had laid their eggs in the laboratory before they 
could be tested with our taped chorus. It seems doubtful 
whether such spent females would respond to the call of 
the male. We were thus inclined to attribute our limited 
success with the females to our inability to prevent all of 
them from depositing their eggs prior to being exposed 
to our broadcast of the taped chorus. 

We ran these experiments again in the summer of 1957. 
Results essentially similar to those of 1954 were obtained, 




Skull structure of fossil amphibian, top, indicates ear- 
drum in position similar to that of a modern toad, bottom. 

183 



although a somewhat larger percentage of females went 
Idward the sound, and a larger percentage of males went 
ihe other wav. Judging bv these results, it seemed ex- 
tremely doubtful to us whether there was any positive 
response of one male to the call of another. 

Then, late in August, while we were at Cape Haze, a 
storm brought some five-and-a-half inches of rain. Some- 
time after midnight, we encountered a Southern Toad 
breeding-aggregation of moderate size. We recorded this 
chorus around 3:00 A.M.. and then caught all the toads that 
we could find— thirtv-nine males and fourteen females. 

These were taken to the Station the following night. 
Despite their isolation from males, we found that— as 
usual— most of the females had deposited their eggs before 
we reached the Archbold Station. We released the toads, 
both males and females, in a light rain at 9:00 P.M. that 
evening, while the chorus was being broadcast at the north 
end of the plaza. 130 feet away. After half an hour we 
ceased the broadcast, and retrieved all the toads we could 
find. This time, twenty-four out of the thirty-nine males 
had gone toward the source of sound: a majority of the 
twenty-four were lined up in a semicircle, facing in the 
direction of the loudspeaker, some ten or fifteen feet away. 

The outstanding difference between this experiment and 
those that preceded it. we believe, lies in the fact that all 
the toads employed had been actively engaged in mating 
activities when captured the previous morning. Presum- 
ably the majority of them were in suitable physiological 
condition to engage in breeding activities. It seems prob- 
able, therefore, that toads ( at least those of the species 
employed I respond to mating calls only when they are in 
breeding condition. 

In Florida, many, but not all, toads are apparently in 



suitable condition to breed throughout the summer. Pre- 
cisely how the advent of heavy rains provides the stimulus 
for these toads to migrate to breeding sites remains 
obscure. There would seem to be an interaction of phvsio- 
logical and environmental factors, with some sort of 
mechanism to trigger sexual activity only under suitable 
weather conditions. j 

When two or more species of frogs live in the same 
region, the likelihood of interbreeding between different 
species is inhibited or prevented by various means. Each 
species may breed at a different time, or in a different 
sort of place— for example, some frogs prefer quiet pools: 
others, running streams. Or mating mav be mechanically 
impossible— our adult male Southern Toad is unable to 
clasp a female of the much smaller Oak Toad species ( Bujo 
quercicus) and. hence, could not remain with her to ferti- 
lize her eggs. Or. to return to our vocal theme, there may 
be a specificity of response to mating calls, with the 
females particularly attracted to males of their own species. 

NEVERTHELESS, the occurrence in nature of hybrids be- 
tween species shows plainly that frogs may err in their 
choice of mates. For example, we found ( and recorded 
the call of I a hybrid resulting from the cross between the 
Barking Treefrog (Hyla gratiosa] and the Green Treefrog 
iHyla cincrea) in chorus with a group of Barking Tree- 
frogs. The hvbrid was intermediate in size between the 
parental frogs, but in pattern and color it was much like 
the Green Treefrog. It is notevvorthv that, in addition, 
this hybrid's voice was intermediate to both parents" in 
dominant frequency but. as the comparative sonograms 
(p. 1871 demonstrate, the higher-pitched harmonics of 
both parental species were lacking. 




Common assumption that frogs could hear was put to test 
by Yerkes in 1905. Above, point on rod taps tethered frog's 
back: frog responds with slight reflex movement of its leg. 

184 



In second instance, bell riii^is ju,-.t liefore tactile stim- 
ulus: frog's reflex action is greatly increased. Reflex was 
noted for a sound range from 50 to 10,000 cycles per second. 



Now. animals, like human beings, are not evenly distri- 
buted over the lands they occupy. In the case of frogs, 
some are restricted to low elevations, others to mountains; 
other species, largely restricted to wooded areas, may shun 
the open plains. When the range of a species is wide, 
several local populations in one part of the range— usually 
where there are environmental differences— often are alike 
in characters that distinguish them from other members of 
the same species elsewhere. Such local populations, when 
they inhabit more or less extensive regions, have often 
received recognition as subspecies. 

For example, one of the common amphibians in the east- 
ern part of the United States is Fowler's Toad (Bujo ivood- 
housei jojvleri) . It differs in minor respects from toads of 
the same species in the western, more arid, portion of c ur 
country, most notably in size. As to voice, the larger west- 
ern subspecies, B. w. australis, of the desert regions, ap- 
pears to have a lower-pitched call. Again, the population 
of Red-spotted Toads. ( Biifo punctatus) at Austin. Texas. 
consists of individuals that tend to be grayish in color (and 
smaller) than those in the population at Cave Creek, in 
Arizona's Chiricahua Mountains, where they tend to be 
reddish. Perhaps correlated with the difference in size, 
there is also a difference in voice pitch. For those at Austin. 



Southern toa' s scatter at random, top. when no sound is 
broadcast. Hearing chorus, bottom, more females approach 
sound than go away: more males go away than approach sound. 




Same experiment was repeated with toads captured during 
mating. Twenty four out of thirty-nine males were attracted 
by broadcast of own chorus: many lined up near the speaker. 




Variety of Voices 



Cross-breeding among different species may be discouraged by distinctive mating calls 





ilimitilimiiliib 




>VESTERN SPADEFOOT 

Sraphiopiis hainniundi \> olti-ii to he foiiiul Ijieediiig at the 
same time and in the i^ame [mol-; with tiie twii (ither species 
of spadefoot toads shown here. The sonogram, above, shows 
that its call is second long trill, witii dominant frequency 
at 1.500 cycles. It sounds like a houncing Ping-pong ball. 





-•mr-TI ■ >.ii-| I. -^1. 



PLAINS SPADEFOOT 

Sraphiopus bombijrons. in contrast, utters quick series of 
hrief bleats, each one-fifth of a second in duration. Dominant 
frequency is around 1.800 cycles, with a harmonic at 6.000 
cycles. Such sharp contrasts mean that voice characteristics 
are of little or no use in the definition of generic groups. 





COUCH'S SPADEFOOT 

Sraphiopus coiichi is also a bleater, but its call is a long, 
drawn-out one. lasting close to a full second. Again, the 
dominant fret[uency is low— about 1,500 cycles. Different 
(|ualities of voice among tiiese three species may discourage 
accidental cross-mating at time when all breed in same pond. 



1 86 



A Hybrid 

Voice of the offspring is intermediate 



BARKING TREEFROG 

Hyla gratiosa (shown below with ac- 
cidental mate, Hyla cinerea, the Green 
Treefrog) produced first sonogram at 
right. Last sonogram is from other 
parent. Between the two is voice of 
offspring, with a dominant frequency 
intermediate to that of the parents. 



8.000 

6,000 






/^^ 


4,000 


r^ 




,-'%*- 




#v^ 


2,000 






Ft 





I"'"* 






HYBRID OFFSPRING 

Hybrid treefrog's voice has dominant 
frequency of some 900 cycles, in con- 
trast to 600 for gratiosa and 1.200 
for cinerea. Hybrid was recorded as 
it joined a gratiosa mating chorus. 




187 



Chairman and Ciiialor of the Department of Amphibian^ 
and Reptiles at The Aimerican Mdselm. Mr. Bogert «as 
born in Colorado and educated at UCLA, where he later 
taught. He has been at The Amerk an Miseim since 1936. 



the frequency varies from 2.510 to 2,700 cycles per second, 
whereas those at Cave Creek vary in frequency from ap- 
proximately 2.000 to 2.300 cycles per second. 

YET, the Red-spotted Toad populations in these two lo- 
cales are not even deemed subspecies, while the mating 
trills of local populations of each subspecies of Bufo tvood- 
housei are so variable that the nature of the differences 
remains to be worked out. Indeed, the recordings obtained 
thus far suggest that voice differences between subspecies 
usually are not great. Ordinarily, anyone well acquainted 
with the mating call of one subspecies would readily recog- 
nize others of the same species. 

In contrast to this, and despite some exceptions, where 
various species inhabit the same area, conspicuous differ- 
ences between mating calls seem to be the rule. Therefore, 
data so far available offer little hope that voice character- 
istics will be of much value in defining generic groups. 

For example, three species of Spadefoots ( Scaphiopus) 
that occupy separate but adjoining regions— holbrooki, 
hurteri and co«c/ir— have quite similar voices. Other Spade- 
foot species, which overlap the habitat of the larger Spade- 
foot, couclii. are sharply differentiated in voice character. 
This is particularly notable in the case of hammondi and 
bombifions. both of which mav breed in the same pool 
with coiirhi. These three also have different calling habits: 
hammondi usually calls from the middle of a pool; bombi- 
jroiis and coitchi from shallow water near the pool's edge. 
Nevertheless, the two smaller species sometimes interbreed, 
and I have heard hybrids— with the body markings of 
bombijrons. but with voices that appeared to be inter- 
mediate—calling from the middle of a pond, together with 
a chorus of hammondi. 

Although conspicuous differences in voice are indicative 
of the specific distinctness of populations, similarities in 
voice reflect relationships only to a limited extent. Many 
listeners could scarcely distinguish the call of the Pine 




Babrikr to INTICRBREEDING In nature is disparity in size 
of many species. Large Southern Toad. Biijo terreslris, seen 
here, could scarcely grasp the tiny Oak Toad, Biijo quercicus. 

i88 



Barrens Treefrog. (Hyla atidersoni) from that of the Green 
Treefrog (Hyla ciiierea). even though the frogs are so dif- 
ferent in appearance that no one would question their 
assignment to separate species. 

Thus far, we have taken note of frog voices in associa- 
tion with breeding activities, and as a possible species- 
isolating mechanism. But frogs produce other sounds that 
are not associated with reproduction. One of the more 
interesting of these appears to involve territoriality. Frogs, 
particularly those of the genus /lona— which spend much 
of their time feeding in shallow water or round the edges 
of streams and pools— sporadically give vent to grunts, 
or similar sounds. These grunts are commotdy to be heard 
round ponds or streams inhabited by the Green Frog 
(Rana clamitansj, the Pig Frog (Rana gijlio) and the 
Leopard Frcg (Rana pipiens). 

To the casual observer, these occasional grunts appear 
to have little if any biological significance. Studies of the 
Green Frog by Maitof. published in 1953. suggest, how- 
ever, that such calls are associated with a sort of territorial- 
ity. In the areas where Green Frogs were breeding near 
Ann Arbor. Michigan, he found that males were spaced 
at astonishingly uniform distances of some six to nine feet. 
Moreover, when tlie whole aggregation shifted, several in- 
dividual frogs made approximately the same movements 
at the same time. Certain frogs tended to remain together, 
with some sort of orientation that permitted them to main- 
tain the same general spatial relationships to one another. 
Frogs in any cluster tended to remain in it for periods of 
about two months. Martof suggests that this orderly spac- 
ing may have been accomplished by means of either audi- 
tory or visual cues. 

However, in my opinion. Martof's studies are strong 
evidence that the observed spacing is primarily connected 
with vocalization. As to the value of the mechanism, main- 
tenance of such territories would be advantageous during 
the breeding season in permitting males to detect the pres- 
ence of females, while, after breeding, when frogs seek 
out anv moving prey that comes in sight, individual spac- 
ing would ensure efficient coverage of the available prey. 

FROGS, like other widely distributed animals, are repre- 
sented by a vast number of species— around 2,000— 
each of which is adapted for some particular combination 
of environmental conditions. The habits of each species 
have evolved, along with the structural characteristics that 
fit them for some more or less specialized mode of exist- 
ence. Natural selection tends to retain those characteristics 
advantageous to the species, and to weed out those that— 
either alone or in combination— inhibit survival. But a 
species is made up of individual animals and. since these 
evolve as integrated machines, so to speak, natural selec- 
tion produces effects on the creature as a whole, rather 
than on individual parts. Thus, differences in voice may 
reflect the evolution of structural differences that have 
arisen in isolated groups of animals, for such groups are 
slowly but continuously changing to meet the changes in 
their respective environments. 

The frogs' mating calls, often the first voices of spring, 
mav thus have evolved as parts of a complex of isolation 
mechanisms. What is irreducibly significant is that, or- 
dinarily, no tuo species of frogs inhabiting the same area 
have mating calls that are not easily distinguishable— at 
least to human ears, and quite possibly to the Salientia, of 
ancient and honorable lineage, that produce them. 




Variety of calling stations is shown, clockwise, from 
upper right: Pinewoods Treefrog on low bush; Squirrel Tree- 
frog near pond's edge; Green Treefrog out on limb; Oak Toad 



in grass; Narrow-mouthed Toad in shallows; Cricket Frog at 
rim; Southern Toad in shallows; Leopard Frog afloat : Barking 
Treefrog on high perch. Diversity discourages interbreeding. 



189 




Naturalist's Notebook 



ON ESTIMATIN( 



190 




lGES 



In which a hoary legend is spiked 
and a number of nature's real and 
supposed clues to age are examined 



IN THE TONGA ISLANDS of the 
Pacific, there is a giant tortoise 
that has, for years, enjoyed the repu- 
tation of being the world's oldest 
living animal. According to sturdy 
legend, the tortoise was brought to 
Tonga from the Galapagos in 1777 
by the famous English explorer and 
navigator, Captain James Cook. As 
recently as July, 1957, this tortoise- 
known as Tui ("King of") Malila 
(an ancient name for Tonga)— was to 
be seen in and around the palace 
grounds. While it was still believed 
that Tui Malila had come with Cook 
from the Galapagos, a bit of finger- 
counting gave it the venerable mini- 
mum age of 180 years — plus the 
unknown years preceding its capture. 
But it has recently been established 
by Dr. James Oliver, Curator of Rep- 
tiles at the New York Zoological Soci- 
ety, that Tui Malila is one of the 
Radiated Tortoises, from Madagascar 
(Testudo radiata) and not a Galapa- 
gos specimen (Testudo elephantopus). 



Thus the legend dies, and all that is 
certain is that someone brought the 
animal to Tonga and that its true 
age, while probably great, remains 
both unknown and unknowable. 

There is a lesson in all this. In 
seeking to determine the age of any 
animal or plant, what is to be done? 
Unless the very moment of birth is 
witnessed, or hatching, or germina- 
tion, it is necessary to depend on a 
variety of indirect clues. Often, inter- 
pretation of these clues brings a reali- ^ 
zation that the organism under study 
is far younger than was suspected, 
or, very much older. 

The largest known animal that has 
ever lived is today's great blue, or 
"sulfur-bottom" whale. Its 150 tons' 
weight is treble the estimate for the 
biggest of the extinct dinosaurs. How 
old is a 100-foot blue whale? 

In 1940. scientists in both Norway 
and the U.S.S.R. independently dis- 
covered a clue to age in the bone plates 
of the blue whale's mouth, which serve 



At royal meeting with Queen Salote of Tonga in 1953. Elizabeth and Philip had 
opportunity to view the \fTirTnlilc. ernr phelled Tui Maliln. «rrn clcisn up. hrloiv. 



By 

LoRus and Margery Milne 




191 







Amni!\l crowth oi- nAi.Fi;\. in mouths of the various whales 
that possess these feathery-edged, bony plates as strainers 

192 




for their food, proved an indifferent clue to animars age. 
In Antarctic whaling scene, above, baleen is being cut away. 



Man and wife, the Drs. Milne are 
Professor of Zoology and a research 
associate, respectively, at the t) Di- 
versity of New Hampshire. Their lat- 
est book is Paths Across the Earth. 



to Strain out the krill on which it 
feeds. These plates grow larger annu- 
ally, at a rate which varies with the 
seasons. In consequence, lines are 
discernible which give some measure 
of the whale's age. The only difficulty 
is that the plates wear down continu- 
ally along their feathery edges, thus 
eliminating the record of early years 
in an older whale. 

IN 1955. a new clue to whales' age 
was developed by Dr. P. E. Purves, 
the English biologist, and his associ- 
ates. These scientists knew that the 
external ear tube of all baleen whales 
(among which is the sulfur-bottom) 
is filled completely by a waxlike plug. 
They reasoned that the plug must 
grow to keep up with growth of the 
skull and, if whales grow at non- 
uniform rates as the lines on the 
baleen plates indicated, the ear plugs 
might also show distinct growth 
zones. Investigation proved that they 
did. An extensive collection of such 
ear plugs has now been made. From 
them, it may be possible to learn a 
good deal about the ages of many 
kinds of whales. 

Great care is necessary in choosing 
such indirect clues to age. The telltale 
mark of a rattlesnake, for example, 
consists of interlocked pieces, each 




Number of points on antlers (above, a 
caribou) does not indicate years of age. 



the dry remains of a previously molted 
skin. If the snake molted once each 
year and never lost the "button" at 
the end of its rattle, the number of 
pieces would correspond to the rep- 
tile's age. But end-pieces frequently 
break off, and snakes may molt 
several times in a single season. 
Consequently the number of a rattler"s 
buttons cannot be taken as an accu- 
rate count of its years. 

The growth and welfare of clams, 
scallops and oysters are economically 
important to many people. Are new 
shellfish attaining marketable size as 
rapidly as the crop is being harvested? 
To continue as a valuable food re- 
source, the average age of the popula- 
tion must not be allowed to drop too 
far. The biologist can read something 
about age in the rings of each shell, 
but care is essential to his reading. 
All of these shells are enlarged as the 
soft animal grows within. At first, 
each shell is small, but eccentric addi- 
tions are made to the inner surface 
and edge. Most of the new lime is laid 
down along the edge opposite the 
hinge, and least in the region of the 
hinge itself. So long as the animal is 
undisturbed and well nourished, new 
shell is formed smoothly. During 
winter, however, the growth rate is 
greatly reduced and this reduction 
shows as a groove in the shell. 

Recently, it was discovered that bad 
weather could produce "false" annual 
rings. Normally, the shellfish live 
where the water is reasonably clear, 
and feed by filtering out microscopic 
bits of plant and animal life. But if a 
series of storms churns up the water 
and muddies it with inedible debris, 
each shellfish suspends both feeding 
and growth. This interruption may 
result in a "storm ring" in the shell 
that is indistinguishable from a winter 
ring. For this reason, the biologist 
must be well inforined regarding the 
local storm records before he can 
read the growth rings in his shell as a 
reliable record of its age. 

Fisheries men can place far more 
reliance on the growth rings which 
mark the scales of brook trout, and 
other fish with overlapping armor. 
This covering develops at a very early 
age and, although the total growth 
during the first year is comparatively 
small, a well-fed fish enlarges both its 
body and each scale at a far faster 
rate thereafter. Most of this growth 
occurs during the spring and summer. 
Fall and winter rarely provide as 
much to eat, and the oxygen available 




Number of rhiges on horns, like these 
above, indicates age with fair accuracy. 



to the fish may be enough less to make 
them remain relatively inactive. These 
differences are recorded in eccentric 
growth lines in each scale. Rings close 
together mark months of poor feed- 
ing. Those spaced farther apart show 
more favorable living conditions. 
With a little practice, the total age of 
a fish can be read by examining a 
single scale from its body. That the 
method is accurate has been proved 
both by the study of fish added to new 
lakes, and by periodic examination of 
fish bearing identification tags. 

For fish with scales that do not 
overlap, such as the sturgeon and gar. 
the scientist must turn to other hard 
parts in his search for clues to age. 
We know that the sturgeon adds an- 
nually a new outer layer to its fin 
bones. Hence, the age of the fish can 
be learned by examining a cross sec- 
tion of such a bone. Growth zones 
also show in the vertebrae of catfish, 
and additional evidence may be found 
in the part of a fish that corresponds 
to our inner ear— where hard bits of 
lime, called "earstones," often form 
and grow at rates which correspond 
to changes in nutrition. These stones 
can be cut across to expose the con- 
secutive inner layers for counting. 

WOODSMEN judge the age of deer 
by their antlers and compare 
notes on the patriarchs of the forest. A 
twelve-point buck, in many instances, 
is deemed an oldster approaching the 
trophy class. But the twelve-pointer 
may be no more than eight years of 
age. Antlers are a mark of the inale 
among deer, elk and moose, and are 
worn by both sexes of caribou. They 
develop in the young animal, only to 
be shed at the end of the mating sea- 
son. As the individual grows older, 
the rack of antlers is larger each year. 



193 



'^ .> U ' 




%■ I- • *^ ^^ Y^ /!^ X 




Another measure of annual growl li 
may be used for fish that lack scales, such 
as this Columbia River sturgeon, above. 



Slow winter growth, alternating with 
faster growth of summer months, causes 
the contrasting narrow bands on scallop 



shell, above. Each pair of bands would 
thus record a year's growth, except that 
storms can produce "false" winter bands. 




Seasonal variation is also evidenced 
in broad and narrow growth rings on the 
scales of fish, like this trout, above. 

194 



Better supply of food during spring and 
summer months, together with reductiim 
in oxygen during winter, makes contrast. 



Remarkably, too, the successive sets 
of antlers grow in length and weight 
faster than the animal itself. Astonish- 
ing amounts of lime must be obtained 
in the diet every year merely to pro- 
duce these temporary outgrowths from 
the head. But no law of nature neatly 
adds a point each year. 

The bighorn sheep, the mountain 
goat, and the bison are more like do- 
mestic cattle in retaining their horns 
from year to year, enlarging them 
only gradually. In bighorn sheep, the 
rate of growth resembles that of buck 
deer and moose in being faster than 
increases in body weight or length. 
And from the ridges on their massive 
horns, the ages of big rams can be 
estimated with fair accuracy. 

PLANTS, too, show juvenile charac- 
teristics. The first pair of leaves 
spread by a bean seedling are thick 
and oval, filled with food. Within a 
day or two the next pair open— thin, 
brighter green, and borne on short 
stalks. The leaves on a young oak sap- 
ling usually are far larger than those 
produced when the same tree is older. 
Each perennial plant poses a still 
greater puzzle for the student of age. 
An oak may be two hundred years 
old at the base, but this great age 
does not extend throughout the tree. 
A human finger is as old as the indi- 
vidual, but the current year's growth 
on a tree is almost as young as a new 




Here, sturgeon are being butchered for 
the commercial market, but pectoral fin 
bones will be saved for analysis, right. 



seedling. Indeed, if a branch tip is 
removed and induced to root, a new 
tree is created, that shows no sign of 
its former connections. 



This anterior ray from a sturgeon's 
pectoral fin has been prepared in cross 
section by Ivan J. Donaldson. Each year. 



a new outer layer is added to the bone, 
and a count of the layers in this speci- 
men sho^ved that tlie fish was eiglity-two. 



DURING the winter, the tip of each 
twig bears a terminal bud. As 
spring arrives, the overlapping, water- 
proof scales covering the tip open and 
break off, leaving a little ring of scars. 
Inner parts of the bud can now extend 
themselves, producing broad leaves 
and more stem. At the end of this new 
stem is the terminal bud ^vhich ^vill 
produce still another year's growth. 

Thus, bv counting back from the 
tip of a twig, the extent of one season's 
development is found at the first ring 
of bud-scale scars. Between this and 
the second ring of scars is the pre- 
vious year's gro^rth. One after another, 
the growing seasons can be accounted 
for, until increasing thickness of the 
bark conceals the scars. 

In the current year of growth, the 
twig wood is soft— a single cylinder, 
surrounding the central pith. In the 
next zone— the region behind the first 
ring of scars which bore last year's 
leaves— a new layer of wood has been 
added as a sheath around the original 
cylinder. In cross section, here, the 
stem shows two "yearly rings." And 
this "ring" system extends backwards, 
twig to branch to trunk, permitting 
the measurements, known todav as 
"dendrochronology." 




Waxlike plug from external ear tube 
of a baleen whale, above, is one of the 
many collected by the English biologist, 



P. E. Purves. Since plug grows to match 
whale's skull, growth zones should pro- 
vide analyzable record of whale's age. 

I9S 




First step in tree-ring study of live 
specimens is to take core from the tree 
with a slim, stainless steel tool, above. 




HoLsi, ULAM froni puehlo ruin yicldcJ 
this core. Its rings, matched with many 
other such cores, show a.d. 1000 date. 




Core matches are made at Arizona Uni- 
versity's Tree Ring Research Laboratory 
by the curator, Bryant Bannister, above. 

196 



Counting the rings in a stump has 
been the way of learning the age of 
a cut tree for untold generations. 
Modern foresters obtain the same in- 
formation from living trees without 
doing significant harm. With a special 
boring tool, they remove a pencil- 
thick core of wood extending all the 
way from the bark to the tree's center. 
By counting the bands on the core 
they learn the age of the tree for the 
height at which the sample was taken. 

For many years, the evidence from 
such cores has supported the belief 
that the "Big Trees" of California— 
the giant redwoods— are both the most 
massive and the most ancient of living 
organisms. Largest of the redwoods 
is the General Sherman Tree, in Se- 
quoia National Park. It has a circum- 
ference of 101 feet at its base and a 
height of over 272 feet. These are the 



measures of a solid wooden pyramid, 
weighing about 2,150 tons. The Gen- 
eral Sherman Tree is somewhat more 
than 3,000 years old. 

AT the University of Arizona's fa- 
mous laboratory of Tree Ring 
Research, a seventeen-year researcli 
program has been in progress, devel- 
oping better dendrochronology. Sam- 
ples have been removed from a great 
variety of trees. In 1956, this study- 
extended to the dwarfed timber that 
grows slowly at high elevations— led 
to a startling discovery. 

As part of routine study, the late 
Dr. Edmund Schulman and his assist- 
ant C. W. Ferguson, Jr., removed 
cores from stunted trees between ten 
and eleven thousand feet elevation, in 
the White Mountains of California. 
Whole slopes, there, are sparsely set 



Sparse slopes of California's White 
Mountains provided surprise for dendro- 
chronnlogists: stunted Bri^tlerone Pine. 



Gnarled trunks of Bristlecones gave 
cores showing over four thousand years 
(if "rottth— hinuer tiian (Want Redw U. 




with grotesque growths of the Santa 
Lucia Fir, Pinus aristata. known lo- 
cally as the "Bristlecone Pine." When 
the core samples of P. aristata were 
counted, several of these trees were 
found to antedate the oldest "Big 
Tree" by nearly ten centuries, with 
ages in excess of four thousand years. 

Thus, the crown for antiquity has 
now passed from the giants to a col- 
lection of gnarled and twisted dwarfs. 

Four thousand years is a long time. 
Yet many of the trees of this age are 
still alive, their life span not yet 
probed to the limit. Four generations 
of such a life span would take us back 
to the end of the Pleistocene. Ten of 
them would bring us to the time when 
mankind, as we know it today, had 
made little mark upon the world, let 
alone found time to puzzle over the 
ages of other kinds of life. 




)1 




lur iIr- kill. Uy law. tla- iiual-.stur\fd tribc-nifii may >|]far aiuuial (lui)ta of elephant!.. 



HUNTERS 
OF AFRICA 

Game Warden of the Southern Sudan 
writes in defense of native hunting 

By Peter Molloy 
198 



THE GAME LAWS of the Sudan 
are designed primarily to con- 
serve the country's game for the bene- 
fit of the indigenous population, with 
due regard to international undertak- 
ings in the protection of particular 
species. Natives are thus encouraged 
to hunt by certain traditional methods 
—i.e.. spear, bow and arrow, and. in 
limited areas and at certain times, nets. 
Except among a few of the more 
sophisticated Southern tribes, hunting, 
in fact, required no "encouragement." 
since the lack of meat in the nati\es" 
diet, and the consequent craving for 
it. drives every able-bodied villager 
into the bush on hunting expeditions 
during the four months of the drv 
season. There are usually about twenty 
in a hunting party, and thev will tra\ el 







xi 







anything up to a week's march into 
the uninhabited wastes of the bush to 
a selected hunting area, generally 
around an isolated water-hole. There 
they will remain until they have ac- 
cumulated as much dried meat as the 
party can carry. If closer to home, a 
shuttle service of carriers, usually 
women, will bring in the meat until the 
area is worked out. 

After the introduction of cattle and 
other im.ported items of diet, when 
game meat is no longer such a vital 
necessity to the tribe, native hunting 
may degenerate into a haphazard busi- 
ness with the sole object of killing as 
many head of game as possible. But 
this is by no means always the case, 
and where there is a strong tribal 
hunting tradition and game meat is 



limited, communal hunting is usually 
a strictly controlled affair under an 
appointed leader, or hunting chief. 
The more primitive tribal native has 
a shrewd idea what game can be 
cropped from an area in the year with- 
out depleting the basic stock, and he 
strongly resents any intruder on his 
preserves. This accounts for such 
tribes' obstructive attitude to outsiders 
hunting over their land with rifles, 
even if they, the natives, benefit from 
the meat: they are worried about 
depletion of the stock. 

Control by a hunting chief breaks 
down in the next stage ^vhen rifles 
come into native hands and individual 
hunting by this modern method is 
shown to be more productive than the 
communal hunting of old; then the 



race to exterminate the game is on. 
Many African territories have forbid- 
den native hunting; we in the Sudan 
have forbidden or drastically re- 
stricted the primary evil— the firearm 
in native hands— and so far can afford 
to let the cropping of game continue 
by traditional native means. 

There are, of course, many tradi- 
tional methods which are forbidden 
on grounds of cruelty and wasteful- 
ness—such as ring-firing : a herd, pref- 
erably of elephant, is ringed with fire; 
many of the terrified beasts perish in 
the fire, while those that stagger out, 
blinded and choking, are speared. 

Pit-trapping is another illegal meth- 
od which was in widespread use in 
some areas until recent years, particu- 
larly in the dense rain-forest near the 

199 




During dry season, men of the Southern 
Sudan tribes spend as much time as they 
can hunting, leaving agricultural work 



of the villages in women's hands. These 
empty-handed hunters, nftore. are Lotuka 
men. returning to their village. Logurun. 





(.loi.oNEi, Moi.i.o\. who served with 
the King's African Rill.- in Vi Drld 
War II, resigned from ihe Army in 
1948 to become Game \S arden for tlie 
Southern Sudan. His story, and many 
of his (and his wife's) remarkable 
photographs appear in The Crv of 
the Fish Ennle (Michael Joseph Ltd., 
I.onilonl. whence tlii> extract comes. 



Nile— Congo Divide. Again the fa\ or- 
ite quarry was elephant, since it |)ro- 
\ ided the greatest quantity of meat, 
u itli the ivory as a monetary bonus, 
but rhino and hippo were also victims 
much sought after. A pit some ten feet 
deep with smooth vertical sides was 
dug on a frequented game trail, ni a 
ring of such pits made around a water 
hole, salt lick or feeding groinid. 
These were covered over with a mal- 
ting of light branches, dusted with 
earth and grass so as to be perfec tl\ 
camouflaged. All the hunter hail to do 
was to visit his pits, finish off his \ ir- 
tinis H ith a spear, and collect the jiicat. 
It is particularly hard to eradii al( 
the general use in some areas of poi- 
soned arrows, which is the basic hunt- 
ing tradition of the local tribes. Tin 
poison is carried rapidly in the IiIihkI- 
stream to the heart and ma\ causi 
death within minutes, even to tin 
|iach}derms. The bctws and arrows an 
so flimsy that without the poison the\ 
are ineffectual against all but pig aiul 
the smaller antelope. To eliminate lh( 
use of poison, therefore, the tribes 
affected must improve their bo\vs anil 
arrows or develop a new system ol 
spear-hunting or else forfeit a vita 
item in the tribal economv. 



Food-gathering, as well as -growing, is 
women's occupation. Dinka girls, above. 
are collecting water lily bulbs from the 



mud of Lake Nyubor. Lotuka girl, below, 
is threshing millet, a staple of tribes' 
protein-poor diet and a source of beer. 




IN PRACTICK. a nati\ e hunting nietho( 
niav be deplored if it is indis 
criminate, wasteful or cruel, and ii 
these respects a poisoned arrow com 
pares favorably with other native 
weapons and even with modern fire 
arms, since it kills no less swiftly an( 
surelv. But besides being banned bj 
international convention, its letha 
certainty makes it probably more 
destructive than any other native 
method, so that in the end all game ii 
the tribal area may be eradicated. 

The leg noose in various forms i! 
another illegal method still too oftei 
used bv some tribes. In principle, thii 
is a hole in the ground large enougl 
to take the foot of the quarry with 
noose of fiber or rawhide rope laie 
around the mouth and attached to 
heavy log buried several feet distant 




This young Mandari dri mmer is warming up at the start 
of a three-lrour dance, one of the gay notes in tribal hfe of 
the Sudan. Among the Mandari, beer-drinking at such festive 



times is the prerogative of elders, while the young men and 
women do their dancing without refreshment. Reason: warrior 
cannot eat or drink in company of a girl he may later marry. 



201 




The most ingenious means of caus- 
ing the noose to tighten round the vic- 
tim's leg is the "bow-trap." a wooden 
bow with a short stick twisted into 
tiie double bowstring to a high ten- 
sion. One end of the stick is placed 
under the edge of the noose with a 
trigger arrangement which releases it 
when the animal treads on a round 
wooden platter covering the mouth of 
the hole. The freed stick flips the noose 
up the animal's leg and the victim 
j)romptly draws it tight. 

But these illegal practices are com- 
]iaratively rare, ai.d most native hunt- 
ing is carried out under conditions 
\shich, beside being legal, call for the 
highest hunting skill, patience, endur- 
ance, bravery and often self-sacrifice. 

Since time immemorial the elephant 
has been the terror and the most 
prized hunting quarry of the Southern 



tribesman. Elephants in fact still dom- 
inate the lives of thousands of people, 
with their power of obliterating a 
season s crops in an hour, of crushing 
out a man's life like a beetle under- 
foot, or providing an orgy of feasting 
for two hundred meat-crazv people 
and a chance of long-coveted wealth 
from the sale of their ivory. The war- 
fare between the elephant and the 
native is traditional, and until recent 
times was fairly even. But when fire- 
arms came to the South, the hunter 
gained an overwhelming advantage, 
and instead of the elephant being 
hunted primarily for his meat, he was 
now persecuted for his ivorv by Arab, 
Abvssinian and European adventurers 
and the natives in their employ. The 
slaughter of elephants in the Lado 
Enclave during the first ten years of 
this century is now fabulous, and 



Typical bead corset of Mandari warriors, above, is made of 
many strands, attached to wires laid along spine. Adornment 
is built on, and must be renewed when threads start to rot. 



Thk cattlelkss Mi^RLE. who depend on game fur protein, will 
gather a hundred men in a vast ring, surround grazing zebras 
and then close in. Below, hunters skin out their single kill. 



^*^*i 





the Abyssinian poachers were wreak- 
ing terrible destruction up to and even 
west of the Nile as late as the 1920"s. 

As THE British administration 
_t\_ gained a hold over this vast area, 
this indiscriminate slaughter was 
quickly halted, and the chief enemy of 
all game, the firearm in irresponsible 
native hands, was gradually with- 
drawn. Thousands of ancient weapons, 
mostly muzzle-loaders, have been col- 
lected during the last fifty years, and 
those remaining in native hands are 
now so strictly controlled that their 
illegal use cannot go long undetected. 
Even though depleted, however, the 
elephant population was still very con- 
siderable, and its numbers had to be 
controlled to make room for the rap- 
idly expanding human population. 
Huntins was an essential of tribal life 



Sudan's rivers and lakes constitute another majdi -uukc 
of food for protein-hungry tribesmen. Quartet of men. aboir. 
fishing with bow and arrow, have piled catch on bank behind. 




In the shallow \\ \ i i.i; lA 1 apai i pools, these young Mandari 
girls, below, collect fish by dropping open-bottomed basket 
traps over them. Fish are also speared, netted and hooked. 







203 



and game meat often tlie only source 
of protein. Spearing of elephant was 
therefore allowed to continue, and 
finally, just before the last war. chief- 
ships were allotted an annual quota 
based on their average unrestricted 
killings over the previous ten years. 
This system permits the spearing of 
some four hundred and fifty elephant 
a year. The Chief pays a royalty of 
£E.5 per elephant killed and may then 
sell the ivory, the proceeds being 
divided according to tribal custom 
between him and the hunters. In fact, 
as the hunting tradition dies out and 
game control becomes increasingly 
efficient, the present average of legiti- 
mately speared elephant has fallen to 
two hundred and thirty a year, and a 
gradual decrease can be expected for 
the future if the present standard of 
control is maintained. 

The safest and most commonly 
practiced method of killing elephant 
is spearing from trees. The spear used 
has a blade some twelve inches long 



and three inches wide, and a strong 
shaft three or four feet long weighted 
with iron or clay bound on with strips 
of cloth. Armed with this weapon, the 
hunter waits in a tree overlooking an 
elephant trail or water hole and 
l)lunges the spear, assisted by gravity, 
into the back of the passing beast, aim- 
ing for the space between the shoulder 
blades. A well-placed spear will drop 
an elephant within a hundred yards, 
but admittedly the spear is often 
placed very inaccuratelv. owing to the 
weapons unwieldiness and various 
elements of chance, so that the ele- 
phant has to be followed up. some- 
times for davs. until it succumbs. 

A few virile tribes, whose country 
is not favored by suitable trees for the 
weighted spear, practice the far more 
dangerous method of surrounding and 
spearing the elephant on the open 
plain. This requires thirty to fifty 
men. each armed with two or three 
throw ing-spears. Having chosen a 
lone bull or cut one out from a herd, 



one man dances in front to attract the 
elephant's attention while others Hing 
spears from either flank. Screaming 
in fury, the elephant charges in one 
direction after another, alwavs to be 
diverted by more spears in his flanks. 
Soon he becomes tired and bewildered 
while fresh spearmen constantly ap- 
pear to keep him wheeling and turn- 
ing. Finally, weakened h\ exhaustion 
and loss of blood from his many 
wounds, he sinks to his knees, where- 
upon a bold hunter will run in and 
thrust a spear into his heart. 

SUCH practices are sometimes con- 
demned todav on humanitarian 
jjrinciples which do not take into ac- 
count the local conditions. These 
tribesmen are magnificent specimens 
of humanity, as yet only lightly af- 
fected by the progress of civilization 
around them. Most of them have so 
far no available outlet for self-expres- 
sion except within the traditional 
framew ork of tribal life, so that danc- 



On'E of the FORBlDUf;N FORMS (if game-taking in the Sudan is 
tiie leg noose, shown here entrapping a giraffe that author 



came upon during patrol. Heavy log at other end of the rnjie 
arts as a drag that slows animal, leaves hunters easv trail. 





-ii^ 



204 



ng and hunting are as essential to 
lieni at this stage as eating and sleep- 
iig. The importance of these two for- 
tier activities will gradually decrease 
s education supplies other outlets 
ind ambitions; but administrative 
ttenipts to force the pace of such a 
latural transition process by one- 
ided prohibitions would throw the 
vhole order of the tribesmen's life 
nto unbalance and confusion. 

In the meantime, we who venture 
nto the bush preceded by trackers, 
irmed with the finest of modern fire- 
irms and followed by porters with the 
!ssentials for our survival, can only 
alute in admiration the naked native 
varrior, glistening with oil and sweat 
md decorated with wood ash and 
jchre, as he faces an infuriated ele- 
Dhant, yelling defiance, with but two 
limsy spears in his hand. 

Of the larger game, giraffe and 
hino are rigorously protected by in- 
ernational agreement, but buffalo 
ibound and are fearlessly hunted with 



the spear by some tribes, mainly the 
Latuko of the Nile's east bank. When 
charged by a buffalo, these brave hun- 
ters will fling themselves on their 
backs, still facing the buffalo and thus 
able to roll out of the way of the mur- 
derous hooves. Though a buffalo can 
bash a man in this position with the 
broad flat boss of its horns, it cannot 
hook and toss him, and before much 
damage is done the mtn's companions 
will have flung spears into the buf- 
falo s flanks and drawn him off. Casu- 
alties, sometimes fatal, occur in almost 
every hunt, but are regarded with 
pride or indifference by the wounded 
and their companions alike. 

Lion are fairly scarce in the South 
and do not often clash with human 
interest since most areas have plenty 
of antelope. They remain a constant 
threat to cattle, however, and some- 
times take a lone native in the bush. 
In such cases a Game Scout or the 
nearest policeman may be sent for, 
but bv the time he arrives the villasers 



have usually tracked down and dis- 
patched the culprit with spears, as a 
matter of tribal honor. 

During our wanderings in the bush 
we have found and confiscated count- 
less traps and snares and seen many 
pitiful remnants of the victims, but we 
have only once been able to rescue a 
trapped animal. It was near Atet, be- 
tween Yirol and Rumbek, on a morn- 
ing when we were making a wide 
circuit through the sandy open bush 
in our Land Rover, hoping to surprise 
a party of poachers known to be op- 
erating there. Suddenly Amtai and 
Game Scout Kira called out together: 
"zeraf! zeraj!" (giraffe! ) . 

Well, giraffe are common in this 
area so that there was nothing unusual 
about their presence here, so I did not 
even turn my head till Kira called 
urgently: "It's caught by the leg!" 

Then I swung the Land Rover off 
the game trail I was following and, 
rounding a clump of bushes, we came 
in view of a female giraffe with a 



Cautiously moving forward, as other members of author's 
larty hold down log drag. Game Scout Kira prepares to sever 



the rawhide rope and release the exhausted giraffe. Nooses, 
pit traps and poisoned arrows are all outlawed in the Sudan. 





205 




Pet cahacal. pliolutiiaiiliril l)> aiillidi's 
wife, shows ear tip tassels from wliich its 
name, "black ears" (in Turkish) comes. 



heavy six-foot log attached to her right 
forefoot by a tw isted thong of rawhide 
—giraffe hide. too. incidentally. She 
innnediatelv broke into a slow-motion 
labored canter, dragging the log be- 
hind her, but after twenty yards she 
had to pause to rest with heaving 
flanks. "Out you get everyone, and 
surround her!" I shouted. 

"You left the cine behind," cried 
my wife in anguish. 

"Hell!" I said. "Ne\er mind, do 
your best with the Leica. but there are 
only six photos left on the spool." 

Our fleet-footed Mandari friend. 
Tali, had by this time sprinted round 
ahead of the giraffe and held her up, 
while the rest of us closed in from 
sides and rear. Once surrounded she 
made no further attempt to escape but 
stood passively awaiting her fate. 

"Grab the log!" I called to one of 
the men nearest on that side, ffe ran 
and seized it, and the giraffe lurched 




Paddocks at Juba, the Molloys' home, young white rhinos, below, learned to 
held variety of animals— many of them eat gruel ration from their own bowls, 
waifs brought in by native hunters. The side by side, like duo of amiable pigs. 



r I » 



forward, but two more men joineil 
him and the victim was held anchorcil, 
"Move slowly," I caulioruMl. "and if 
she comes for you. \u\\ for it. Now. 
Kira. take jour machete and <ut the 
thong against the log." 

A giraffe has a formidable kick and 
will protect its young against lion or 
leopard by striking out with its fore- 
feet as well as kicking with its rear 
legs. But this one showed absoluteh 
no alarm or concern as we attrai ted 
her attention in front while Kira lut 
her free from the log with a few well- 
placed strokes. 

We moved back on one side, expect- 
ing her to make a dash for freedom. 
But she simply stood there at ten yards 
range for a full minute, gazing from 
one to another of us with her great 
soft brown eyes under long black curl- 
ing lashes. She moved one foreleg and 
then the other, apparently still unable 
to believe she was free. She moved 

Wild landscape of Boma Plateau, 





again and walked a few yards, turned 
and stared steadily at us, turned away, 
broke into a loping canter and 
vanished into the bush. 

TIMES are changing and the hunt- 
ing tradition is dying out with the 
rapid sjuead of education, though the 
hunger for meat and greed for ivory 
continue. The most deserving chiefs 
and Government servants are per- 
mitted to possess modern rifles and 
to shoot elephant on license when duly 
qualified, but the number of elephant 
shot on license is still only a third of 
that speared, and of other game maybe 
a tenth or less, since no record is kept 
of the fruits of native hunting. 

It has been clearly shown that by 
legitimate, native hunting methods the 
Southern Sudanese tribesmen can ob- 
tain an adequate supply of meat ( if 
not as much as they would like I . can 
protect their cultivation ( aided by the 



Game Department) with reasonable 
success, can find outlet for virility and 
daring in youth and cunning and en- 
durance in mature years, can obtain a 
cash bonus from ivory for extra hunt- 
ing skill— and still m.ake no appreci- 
able inroads on the stock of legally 
huntable game in their tribal areas. 

As I have said before, the greatest 
enemy to game in Africa is the firearm 
in irresponsible native hands. De- 
mands for the benefits of civilization 
are a natural and laudable result of 
education, but education alone may 
not instill a sense of responsibility in 
the African mind towards his coun- 
try's natural resources. Hunting for 
sport, as the European knows it, is 
totally foreign to him. He has been 
used to hunting with a spear, which 
will bring barely enough for his own 
family's needs, and now, through a 
firearm, he can supply meat for the 
whole village. Small wonder that. 



dizzy with popularity, he will many 
times overshoot his license (if any) 
and. when tired, will lend out his rifle 
to one of many eager volunteers. 

The Southern Sudan's magnificent 
fauna are at present still plentiful, 
but will they survive the next twenty 
years? The answer does not depend 
primarily on the native hunter using 
traditional methods, nor on the con- 
trol exercised by the Game Depart- 
ment, but on the Government's policy 
over the possession of firearms; every 
territory in Africa shows lessons along 
the same lines. With his own weapons 
the native hunter deserves our respect 
and admiration, even when he does 
not fully adhere to our restrictions, 
which he cannot understand and sees 
no point in. But the same man with a 
gun in his hands may well become a 
hero to his village and an unprincipled, 
murderous menace to the limited and 
irreplaceable wildlife of his country. 



NEAR Ethiopian frontier is viewed by Murle huntsman. This area first came under Sudan administration in 1934. 




'^i^^m^y:- 





LES ILES 
MARQUISES 

Part I 

The History of Contact 



By Harry L. Shapiro 



THE SIX INHABITED Pacific 
islands (plus a few uninhabited, 
islets and rocky outliers ) that make 
up the archipelago now known as the 
Marquesas had no collective name un- 
til the Spanish discovered and briefly I 
\ isited them in 1595. The Polynesians 
li\ ing there at the end of the sixteenth 
I enturv were divided into a number 
of independent tribes, with so little 
sense of unity they even lacked a term j 
in their own language for the geo- 1 
graphic unitv that the Europeans | 
bestowed upon them. ( 

In reality, Mendaiia. commander of ■ 
the galleons that chanced upon these i 
waters on one of the fabulous Spanish i 
voyages from Peru to the Philii)pines, r 
discovered only the southern islands • 
of the group and named them Las Mar- 
quesas de Meudoza in honor of the I 
Marquis of Caiiete. Anglicized as the i 
"Marquesan Islands —a term that was 
extended to embrace the entire group ' 
—their official name is the French one, 



208 



These Marquesan canoes at Resolution Bay. Tahuata. caught the eye of 
William Hodges, artist aboard "Resolution" on Cook's second voyage (1774). 



Tattooed Nukdhivan warrior was sketched by Orloffsky. nobleman-artist 
who accdnipaiiied tlie Russian cai)lain. Krusenstcrn. to Alaiciuesas in 1804. 




Les lies Marquises— {or they belong to 
that vast, but territorially and econom- 
ically insignificant part of the French 
empire grandiloquently known as Les 
Etablissements Franqais de VOceanie. 
In the literature of travel, it is cus- 
tomary to describe the little-visited 
spots of the earth as "remote." 
Although this overworked adjective 
often reflects the egocentric position 
of the traveler more accurately than 
it does the place or the people he is 
visiting, it is apt for the Marquesas. 
Well off the track of Pacific shipping 
lanes, eight hundred miles or so from 
the nearest airline connection, these 
islands are also the last eastward in- 
sular outposts of the Polynesian world 
in the latitude of Tahiti. From here, 
until the shores of South America 
loom up some thousands of miles be- 
yond, the Pacific Ocean lies unfur- 
nished with any visible land. During 
the last war, because of its position 
on the eastern edge of the Pacific 




island world, the archipelago entered 
into the strategy of the allied cam- 
paign as a last line of defense. In 
World War I, the Marquesas' isola- 
tion served the Germans well as a 
temporary hide-out for Admiral von 
Spec and his cruisers, the Scharnhorst 
and the Gneisenau. 

EVEN in pre-European days, when 
all the Pacific islands were iso- 
lated, the Marquesas were one of the 
more detached archipelagoes in the 
notably widely-spaced Polynesian 
world. Although the islands were 
vaguely known to other Polynesians, 
and the Marquesans themselves were 
aware that thev were not entirely alone 
in the world, these people in effect 
existed in a separate little universe, 
virtually out of touch with any other 
Polynesians. Within the archipelago, 
itself, a constant belligerency— setting 
one clan against another and one 
valley against its neighbor— tended to 
create a highly parochial attitude. One 
has only to see, or, better still, to 



explore on foot, the steep knifelike 
ridges that separate the valleys of the 
main islands to appreciate the effect 
such terrain must have had in encour- 
aging a way of life organized accord- 
ing to such narrow physical units. 

Unlike many other high volcanic 
islands in these latitudes, the Mar- 
quesas lack the picturesque fringing 
reefs that give Tahiti, for example, its 
romantic lagoons— with quiet waters 
and shelving beaches, their shallow 
bottoms studded with entrancing 
mounds and caverns of pastel corals, 
and the whole framed by a shoreline 
of nodding palms. This South Sea 
stereotype, beloved by photographers 
and travel agencies, does not fit the 
Marquesas. They rise abruptly from 
the sea; their coasts, except when 
broken by the mouth of a valley with 
its shelving beach, form perpendicular 
bastions of naked rock, variegated in 
color by the bands and streaks of 
ancient lava flows. 

These sharplv-cut coasts suggest 
that the islands have undergone up- 



lift—an impression that is reinforced 
by headlands and beaches, once slop- 
ing into the sea, now lifted high and 
dry above it. All of the islands have 
high central cores— rising several thou- 
sand feet in most of them— and the 
impression of great height is intensi- 
fied by the fact that the slope is steep 
and the islands small. From these cen- 
tral massifs, erosion of the soft vol- 
canic rock and earth has produced 
a radiating series of ridges and val- 
leys, like a half-opened umbrella. The 
ridges, extending to the periphery of 
the islands, make a series of fjord- 
like bays and separate the valleys one 
from another by steep and hazardous 
slopes. On the "wet" side of each 
island the deep valleys contain limpid 
streams that carry off the frequent 
rains. In the past, the occupants of 
one isolated valley were in constant 
guerrilla warfare with their neigh- 
bors in the next. It was this tradition 
of sniping and raiding that set the 
"Typees" against the '"Happars" and 
gave Melville a perfect situation to 




dramatize in the account of his "four 
months' residence" in the 1840 s. 

As LATE AS the days of Melville's visit, 
f\_ the islanders were still the mag- 
nificent specimens that aroused the 
admiration of the early visitors. Cap- 
tain Cook described them as the hand- 
somest of all the Polynesians. Char- 
acteristically tall, the men were 
powerful and well-muscled, the wom- 
en graceful and beautiful in propor- 
tion. The prevailing skin color was 
light brown, although some of the 
women were scarcely darker than 
southern Europeans. Their black hair, 
straight or slightly waved, was kept 
lustrous by the liberal application of 
coconut oil. Both men and women 
were tattooed, but the art was carried 
to its greatest heights of elaboration in 
the men, whose faces and bodies were 
sometimes completely covered with a 
blue-black design of lacelike intri- 
cacy. Although tattooing had been 
abandoned long before my first visit 
to the Marquesas, in 1929, I was for- 







The high cliffs bordering this land- 
locked bay at Nukuhiva were recorded'by 



another member of the Krusenstern ex- 
pedition—the Danish naturalist Tilesius. 





Massive stone foundations were used for 
Marquesan mat-and-thatch houses. The 



Krusenstern patty did lliesc sketches ut 
a niarae, left, and palm-climbing, above. 




Marquesan artifacts — a war club, a 
shell-decorated, feather headdress and a 
fan — were sketched by Cook's artist. 



lunate then in meeting one old man 
who had been decorated in the mid- 
nineteenth century when the art was 
still active. The effect, as I was able 
to see it on a living body, was star- 
tling and, in its wav. beautiful. From 
a little distance, the legs seemed en- 
cased in long, patterned stockings and 
the arms and torso in an openwork 
leotard. All this gave an impression 
of elegant attire on what was actually 
a naked body. To my unaccustomed 
eye. however, the face ^vas a shock. 
It was covered with wide, solid hori- 
zontal bands of bluish-black pigment, 
which must have been excruciatingly 
painful in application, since the tender 
membranes of lips and eyelids were 
not spared in carrying out the design. 
These graceful people lived in a 
manner that both enchanted and re- 
volted their early visitors. Their neat 
thatched houses, clean and airy, were 
set on paepae's, raised platforms of 
nicely fitted, rounded, black basaltic 
stones, and thus kept free of moisture 



and mud during the rains. Food was 
apparently abundant, although not 
very varied. Pigs and breadfruit were 
staple, supplemented by fruits and 
other vegetables. Work, either of 
household or of field, was light. The 
most laborious task for the women 
was making tapa cloth from the bark 
of the paper mulberry tree: this bark 
had to be stripped, soaked and beaten 
with four-sided clubs that had longi- 
tudinal grooves on their faces. But 
the work of beating was lightened by 
its performance in groups that were 
usually the occasion for social ex- 
change. The finished product pro- 
vided bed linen and garments that 
required no tailoring or sewing and 
little laundering. 

Since the gathering of food never 
required long-sustained effort, the men 
spent much of their time in various 
leisurely occupations. Fishing was as 
much sport as labor, for example, and 
hunting the wild pigs could be excit- 
ing and exhilarating. Gardening was 
never very demanding, for the bread- 
fruit grew on trees that required no 
special care and many fruits grew 
wild for the picking. 

With the necessities of life so easily 
available, it was understandable that 
the young were able to lead a care- 
free existence, spending much of their 
time in pursuits of their own. And 
the settled householders could devote 
themselves to conversation, protracted 
siestas and the exercise of esthetic 
skills in the decoration and carving 
of their food-bowls, weapons and 
articles of personal ornamentation. 

IT WAS perhaps this very freedom 
that encouraged the sporting char- 
acter of Marquesan warfare, which in- 
fused a touch of danger and hazard 
in the even tenor of the day. And, in 
another direction, this freedom pro- 
vided the means for the elaborate 
religious festivals and rituals that 
flourished in the valleys. Evidence of 
the important part such ceremonies 
pla\ed in past Marquesan life is still 
to be found in the vast stone plat- 
forms and overgrown enclosures, deep 
in the forests, bounded by massive 
stone walls. Some of the individual 
stones in these extensive structures 
are enormous. One I saw myself was 
well over eight feet high and wide, 
its depth lost in the body of the wall 
of which it was a part. A staggering 
amount of brute strength must have 
been required to move it and set it 
into place. When one multiplies this 



example bv the countless monoliths 
in hundreds on hundreds of feet of 
wall and platform, the measure of the 
labor involved is stupendous — the 
more so because the number of men 
in any one valley could ne\er have 
been very large. Doubtless, what made 
such work possible was the abund- 
ant free time the Marquesans could 
devote to such community enterprises. 
Much time, too, must have gone 
into the carving of the heroic-sized 
deities in stone and wood that dec- 
orated the rnarae's, or temples. The 
few stone figures that have survived 
the depredations of collectors bear 
mute testimony to the energy of the 
earlier Marquesans. Although not so 
large as the more famous statues of 
Easter Island, they share with them a 
generic style that can be recognized 
despite the differences. 

FOR all the charm of the Marquesans 
and the attraction of their appar- 
ently carefree and innocent lives.l 
most early visitors were repelled andl 
even terrified by another aspect of 
the islanders' way of life— their un- 
concealed relish for human flesh. Can- 
nibalism was once a widespread 
practice in the Pacific and it has been 
discouraged among its devotees only 
with difficulty. In Polynesia, as in 
Melanesia, the custom had an uneven 
distribution. The Maoris of New Zea- 
land were in the habit of eating those 
defeated in war. for example, giving 
the act a somewhat ritualistic aspect 
bv ascribing to it the function of 
acquiring the virtue of a brave enemy. 
But nowhere in Polynesia was can- 
nibalism as deeply rooted as in the 
Marquesas. Melville's fears that he 
was destined for the cook pot were 
not without justification: the avidity 
of the islanders' appetite was common 
knowledge to the whalers of the mid- 
nineteenth century. The practice was 
slow to disappear. Even after nearly 
a century of European contact, dur- 
ing the latter part of which the French 
had actuallv assumed control of the 
islands, clandestine resort to canni- 
balism was known to have occurred. 
At this late date it is difficult, if 
not impossible, to determine the mo- 
tives for this repugnant custom. By 
the time scientists— interested in dis- 
covering the truth back of the ad- 
justed statements the Marquesans gave 
to shocked mariners and missionaries 
—had visited the islands, the local 
culture had been shattered. Reliable 
informants, free of an implanted 



212 



ense of guilt, are no longer avail- 
ible. Some early visitors say the na- 
ives quite frankly declared a liking 
or the taste of human flesh: that may 
lave been all there was to it. In any 
;vent, in so old a custom, a more com- 
)licated original purpose could well 
lave been lost, or overlain by later 
levelopments of taste and predilection. 
Early in the nineteenth century, the 
J. S. Navy's Captain Porter who had 
sased the raider Essex in the Mar- 
|uesas and preyed on British whalers 
ind shipping during the War of 1812, 
'stimated the archipelago's popula- 
ion at 100,000. If this estimate seems 
ligh at first glance, it is not unreason- 
ible when we apportion this total 
UTiong the six main islands. We then 
;et some seventeen thousand inhabi- 
ants for each. But since two of the 
slands — Nukuhiva and Hiva Oa — are 
arger than the other four and have 
leeper, more spacious valleys, it is 
ikely that these two islands might 
)etween them have had fifty thousand 



inhabitants, with the remainder living 
on the four smaller islands. 

Such a distribution would have 
meant that major valleys — such as 
Taipivai and Taiohae on Nukuhiva — 
accommodated as many as five to ten 
thousand inhabitants. Such a concen- 
tration seems plausible in light of the 
many deserted house platforms now 
to be found buried in deep jungle, 
miles from the mouths of these major 
valleys. Further, it is supported by 
the recollection of an aged German 
sailor I met in one of Nukuhiva's 
more remote valleys when I first 
visited the Marquesas, in 1929. The 
sailor was living alone in the valley. 
He had not spoken German for twenty 
or thirty years— not since he had met 
Karl von den Steinen, the German an- 
thropologist, who had passed through 
his valley on a collecting trip. 

The two of us carried on a lame 
conversation in his mother tongue: 
he handicapped by a loss of words 
through many years of disuse, and I 



by a very imperfect recollection of 
college German. But I had enough 
understanding to grasp his story. He 
had jumped ship around 1880 and, 
having married one of the native 
girls, had settled in her valley — the 
same one in which I found him. 
Although, even in the 1880's, the 
valley had already suffered serious 
depopulation as a result of the white 
man's coming, it still contained some 
400 people. The year before our 1929 
meeting, he and his wife alone re- 
mained, and now she, too, was dead. 

IN ALL the annals of western man's 
expansion, there are few examples 
of a more tragic and devastating effect 
of European contact on an isolated 
people than the case of the Marque- 
sans. In little over a century, this 
community of some 100,000 souls 
was reduced to a mere handful (1,600 
in 1930). The story is a common 
one in Polynesia. For centuries, per- 
haps millennia, the natives had been 







Tattooing details include design for 
arms and thighs, top, and study of the 
work done on hand of a Marquesan queen. 



Nukuhiva man, left, was sketched by 
Krusenstern party, holding a long club, 
its handle decorated with enemy's hair. 



213 



Ur. Shapiro first visited the M;u-- 
qiiesas in 1929. He returned in 1956 
to pursue archeological research. He 
is Chairman of The AMERirAN Mu- 
seum's Department iif Anlhropoloiiy. 



out of touch with the rest of the 
world. They were unfamiliar with al- 
cohol. They had no immunity to such 
diseases as measles— which, among us, 
has become reduced to a rarely fatal 
disease of childhood. They were easy 
victims of tuberculosis, an affliction 
they had previously been spared. And, 
jierhaps worst of all. the introduction 
of hitherto unknown venereal diseases 
had a devastating effect. 

Such accompaniments of European 
contact are threat enough to the wel- 
fare of anv people unprepared by 
selection and experience to deal with 
them. The Marquesans. moreover, 
w'ere especiallv vulnerable. Their sex 
customs — which, by Western stand- 
ards, might be described as unin- 
hibited—served to spread the venereal 
diseases brought bv the Europeans 
throughout the whole community. 

WHILE the attitude of the Mar- 
quesans toward sex was far 
more liberal than is found in most 
societies, actuallv it was not so uncon- 
trolled as is commonly believed. What 
misled the early visitors was the fact 
that, in Marquesan society, the youth 
of both sexes enjoved a limited period 
of sexual freedom. Young girls ( from 
approximately sixteen to eighteen 
years old I and young men ( of a 
slightly older group I formed a kind 
of social class (known in Tahiti as a 
taurearea I that was rather like a club. 
Within this group, sexual experimen- 
tation was permitted, and even en- 
couraged, in the expectation that the 
couples would eventually pair off in 
permanent union. 

In a small community, where unex- 
pected offspring were warmlv wel- 
comed as candidates for adoption, re- 
gardless of their legitimacv. such a 
system functioned quite well. Old 
maids and confirmed bachelors were 
virtually non-existent, and most mar- 
riages worked out happily— although 
Marquesan men, it must be reported, 
often did not object to their wives 
taking complementarv husbands. 
Lnder these circumstances, it is not 



surprising that the young Marquesan 
girls received foreign visitors with 
the same ease they were accustomed to 
exhibit towards their customary m ili 
companions. Nor did the island- 
many visitors spurn such attention-. 
The spread of \enereal disease cut tin 
birth rate, and this— combined with 
an increased death rate from the 
measles, tuberculosis and other newly- 
introduced diseases — brought about 
a steadv and calamitous decline in 
the islands' population. 

IT IS only w ithin the last two genera- 
tions—as a result of the work of 
resident French physicians and the 
use of antibiotics— that the downward 
trend has halted. Between my first 
visit to the Marquesans ( 1929-30 1 
and my latest I in the summer of 
19561, the population has doubled it- 
self. It now stands somewhere around 
3.500. After such an interval, the most 
striking change for me was the sight 
of swarms of happy children in the 
various valleys. In appearance, they 
ranged from brown-skinned and 
black-haired to blue-eyed and tow- 
headed: all, regardless of racial heri- 
tage, shy with strangers at first, but 
laughing and merry when set at ease. 
This wide variety of physical types 
among the Marquesans of today is 
another consequence of their recent 
history. In the heyday of whaling, 
the islands were frequently visited by 
American and English ships. The 
various racial strains represented in 
those whaling crews came to be rather 
thoroughlv tnixed throughout the na- 
tive population. Since then, French 
colons, as well as beachcombers and 
casual visitors of various ancestries, 
have added their bit to the melange, 
and these genetic contributions be- 
came the more apparent as the native 
population, itself, dw indled. In the last 
half-century or so. Chinese traders 
have enriched the mixture. Thus, it is 
little wonder that old Stanislaus— one 
of the scions of an ancient chiefly 
family— told me rather wistfully, in 
1956, that he could not name over 
half a dozen "pure" Marquesans. Yet, 
however mixed in origin, the island- 
ers of today are sole heirs to an an- 
cient tradition: the only descendants 
of an isolated Polynesian people 
whose origins and prehistory are 
still far from being understood. 




Part II of "Les lies Marquises" will appear in tlie May issue 
of Natural History. Subject: The Prehistory of Polynesia. 



214 




NuKUHivA MATRON foiidlcs a child wliile being tattooed by 
specialist, part of whose payment - in pork flesh — is being 
brought in by attendant. A palm-leaf mat covers stone floor. 



The Perfect Gift For Graduation ...For Birthdays . . . 
A New World of Adventure and Learning! 




Give them Associate Membership in 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 

with all privileges including NATURAL HISTORY magazine 

THROUGHOUT THE YEAR, many Museum Members mark special 
occasions by giving their friends the treasured gift of a year s 
Memljersiiip in tlie American Museum of Natural History. Through 
this thoughtful gift your friends not only enjoy an appreciation of 
Nature's manifold beauties, but also have a Passport to Adventure, 
enabling them— through the pages of Natural History Magazine— to 
join the Museum .scientists in exploring Nature's exciting panorama. 
Those whom you remember in this way will receive an attractive card 
announcing your gift. 

In addition to NATURAL HISTORY, each of your friends will 
receive a Membership Card. Membership Certificate inscribed with liis 
name, and otiier privileges— including a special 10% discount on all 
purchases from the Museum Shop. 

There is no more truly distinguished and rewarding gift for tlie 
person with an alert, inquisitive mind. In giving Associate Membershi]). 
you give your friends, young and old, a source of lifelong pleasure and 
pride that stems from association with this great instilulion. 



YOURS 
FREE 



This Lavishly-Illustrated Guide to the Museum and 

the World 0( Nature, when you enter two Gift Mem- 
berships (or one Gift plus your own renewal), you as 
donor will receive — entirely free - this extraordinary 
240-page book which brings the Museum into your home. 
Illustroted with 172 superb photographs and charts, this 
volume not only describes the Museum's many exhibits 
and services, but also depicts Nature's vast panorama in 
all it fascinating diversity. 




Gift 

Membership 

Order 

> 



American Museum of Natural History 

Central Park West 

at 79th St., 

New York 24, N. Y, 



I wish to give Asso- 
ciate Memberships for 
the coming year to the 
persons listed below. 
Send each recipient a 
Gift Announcement 
Card inscribed with my 



ceive, free, the Gene 
Guide to the Musei 
described above. 



Q Please renew my As- 
sociate Meinbersliip 
for another ye,ir at 
$5.00. 

n Enclosed find $ YOUR NAME.. 

ADDRESS 
CITY 



\i,mc 


4ddreii 


Ciiy 


Hit Card: from 


Zone... 










Address. 

City 

inscribe 








lift Card: from 


Zo:h:.. 










Address 






City 

niseribc 


Cjt Card: from 


Zone.. 











Memberships at tlie 
annual fee of $5.00 



Reviews (continued from page 1 7.™ 

pieces of roolstocks show their tootjl 
grooves wherever the feeders reachej, 
up from the surface of the ice or climbe|i 
up on a lodge. But the muskrats are m 
the very best of climbers, and a hungr 
one that overextends itself on a stee 
surface may slip or tumble down. 

"When the entire food supply of th 
muskrats becomes encased in ice— as i 
often true where nothing but coonta 
and other submerged water plants occi 
in a foot or two of water, and all of th 
freezes to the bottom— their situation b( 
comes one of deadly crisis almost in 
matter of hours. They cut out throng 
the sides of lodges to travel over the ict 
going from one frozen lodge to anothe 
gnawing at the fish frozen in the pluno 
boles or upon the vegetation making u 
the lodges. They fight with and eat upo 
the bodies of their fellow muskrats 




Bi FFi.EiiKAl) is one spring visitoi 

lea\e the marsh to wander over th 
countryside— tails, eyes, and feet freez 
ing. always vulnerable to whateve 
predators prey upon muskrats that ar 
trying to live at a hopeless disadvantage 

"Here is a beaten group trying t 
weather a cold snap. They huddle, . 
half-dozen of them, in the eaten-out am 
reworked shell of a small lodge. Soni 
openings to the outside are plugged witi 
mud. fragments of waterlily rootstock> 
and miscellaneous debris, even will 
frozen bodies of bullheads. Other open 
ings are partly plugged; others are no 
plugged at all. and inside the muskrat 
sit with upper parts frosting and lowe 
parts wet. The inside ice-glaze has bull 
head bodies in it but tile muskrats ar 
no longer eating bullheads. They ar 
no longer doing anything except sittin, 
or rearranging themselves. A wet tail ti 
sticks out of an opening and freezes t 
the ice outside. I have stroked the back 
of such animals with a hatchet bandit 
and they just turned to look at me. will 
out otherwise moving. 

"Next morning, the whole top of th 
lodge shell is open, empty of muskrats 
and powdered by a trace of snow, j 
mink-killed muskrat lies smeared wit 
blood on the ice, and a drag trail reprt 



2l6 




The sample pages shown here in miniature 
only begin to hint at the wealth of facts 
and figures included in UNITRON's color- 
ful, 38-page Catalog and Observer's Guide. 
The full-page illustrated articles on astron- 
omy ore crammed with helpful information 
— not readily available elsewhere — on 
observing the heavens, telescopes and their 
mountings, accessories, amateur clubs, as- 
trophotography, and the like. There is even 
a glossary of telescope and observing 
terms. Whether you ore a beginner or an 
advanced amateur you will certainly wont 
a copy of this remarkable publication for 
your bookshelf. Use the handy coupon, a 
postcard, or letter to request your free 
copy of this valuable guide. 



Those who are considering the purchase of 
a telescope will find it especially worth 
while to learn more about the distinguished 
line of UNITRON Refractors and Acces- 
sories which play so important a role in 
astronomy today. For only by a careful 
comparison of the features, quality, and 
performoiice of different instruments can 
the prospective buyer insure that his tele- 
scope will be worthy of his investment and 
of the time he will devote to observing. 
It's truly easy to own a UNITRON. A down 
payment of only 10°/o puts you at the con- 
trols and you hove 12 months to pay the 
balance. Full information is included in the 
UNITRON Catalog. Send today for your 
free copy. 








rfS 



UN/T/^OH 



204-206 MILK ST • BOSTON 9, M ASSACHUSETT 



Please rush to me at no cost or obligation a copy of the 
I nev/ UNITRON Catalog of Astronomical Telescopes 
I including the Observers Guide. 



Street.. 



csLJeilccite creatures oP tk 

p 



e Seu . . . 



reserved tor uour pleasure 




The Shell Book 

hy Julia Rogers 

This is the book for everyone who is interested 
in the wonder of shells. It contains over 500 
pages in which thousands of shells are de- 
scribed. There are 412 black and white photo- 
graphs and 67 shells depicted in full color. An 
index of popular, scientific and new names is 
also included. This is one of the most complete 
books on shells of the world available. 

S«.2.5 i)osii>fii(I 



Sealife letter opener 
& paperweight 

Beautiful sea creatures suspended in 
space form the motif for this striking 
letter opener and paperweight. The letter 
opener measures 9 inches from the tip of 
its chromium plated blade to the base of 
its crystal clear plastic handle. Both of 
these gemlike objects were designed to 
last a lifetime and will surely lie a hand- 
some addition to any desk or writing 
table. 

heller opener S5.0() postpaid 
P(ipencei}ilit S4.()(l poslpiiid 




Members are entitled to a lO/r discount. Please 
not send cash. Send your check or money order 



do 
to: 



THE MUSEUM SHOP 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York 24, N. Y. 



sents another victim. A third muskrat 
lies on the ice without a wound on it but 
with lungs congested from pneumonia. 
The trail of a live muskrat can barely 
be distinguished; after tracking around 
the wreckage of the lodge, the animal 
headed for shore, where it worked the 
rushy and weedy fringes before crawling 
under a boat. The muskrat tail tip is 
still frozen to the ice beside the lodge, 
but the rest of the animal is gone. Fox 
tracks center about this spot, and they 
lead off in a straight line toward shore. 
A crow alights by the mink-killed musk- 
rat; after a little pecking, it walks over 
to feed on a big bullhead that somehow 
got on the ice away from the lodge. 
The mink returns to its remaining victim 
of the night, but the blood-saturated un- 
derfur is now frozen too solidly to the 
ice for the mink to wrench it free. The 
mink finally drags away the muskrat 
with the pneumonic lungs, following the 
same drag trail it had made earlier." 

After relating the detailed life of the 
seasons Errington makes his plea con- 
cerning "marshes and man and har- 
monious use." His point of view em- 
braces a very wide range, yet loses none 
of its detail. In a discussion of drainage, 
for example, he regrets its "saddening" 
overall effect— for "the little potholes 
and sloughs and outlying marshes have 
an importance to the waterfowl breeding 
grounds . . . that is far out of proportion 
to their acreages and to the volumes of 
water impounded in them." It seems 
difficult to dispute the points this con- 
servationist makes, based as they are 
on so much knowledge and compassion 
—for man, as well as for beast. Their 
justification is the entire gamut of life 
and death in the natural marshes, the 
process of nature itself. 




This marsh scene and others, all by H. Albert Hochbaum, are from 0/ Men and Marshes. 



Errington"s final chapter concerns 
precisely this process. The author points 
out that, because of man's "dominance 
and his faculties for upsetting so much 
of the rest of life," there is a tendency 
to exclude him from "what we think of 
as 'natural' relationships of living 
things." Errington would like to see re- 
stored a more just sense of man's place 
within these relationships, through a 
heightened awareness of the rest of 
nature. Those who read this book will 
be grateful to him for having recalled 
some primal truths. 



IN BRIEF 

Zoology 

Infancy in Animals, by Maurice Bur- 
ton. Roy, $6.00; 224 pp., illus. 

DR. Burton notes that the number of 
books written about animal infancy 
is small. The readers will be grateful, 
therefore, for this excellent contribu- 
tion to the subject, which discusses be- 
havior and its sources in both mothers 
and young. Space has made selection 
necessary— the entire animal kingdom 



EXPLORING TIME as well as SPACE 

Man stands today in the dawn of a new Age of Discovery, expectant and somewhat fearful 

of what the future will bring. But Discovery belongs to time as well as to space. 

Within the shadows of the post which has shaped man's present lies guidance and hope for 

the future. The whole enthralling record of triumph and failure, striving and achievement 
over countless millennia is revealed in the pages of 

ARCHAEOLOGY 

a beautifully illustrated quarterly magazine written by 
world-famous authorities especially for the layman. 

Subscription $5.00 a year, $9.00 for 2 years or for two subscriptions. 
No extra charge for foreign subscriptions. 

ARCHAEOLOGY, Dept. N3, 5 Washington Square North, New York 3, N. Y. 
Please send ARCHAEOLOGY for one{two) years to the following address. 

I enclose check /money order for $ 



Published by the Archaeological Institute of Ai 




219 



Island in Time 




Ten miles from the mainland's 
clocks, schedules, appointments and 
deadlines lies Monhegan, an Island 
in Time, where tlie days are meas- 
ured by sun and tide. The Inn 
welcomes guests who enjoy tidal 
pools, land and sea birds, unusually 
varied flora— guests who appreciate 
die inner peace of quiet forests, 
shores compass'd by the voiceful 
sea, the stars for streetlights. Ad- 
vance reservations necessary. June 
2-Septeniber 8. Illustrated booklet. 
The Farrells, The Island Inn, 
Monhegan Island, Maine. 



New "Mechanical Educator" to 

IMPROVE MEMORY 

Inability to recall names, places, facts ([uickly 
is a common, often costly, shortcoming that can 
now be easily overcome with the aid of a new 
device for self-instruction, memory and concen- 
tration training. This versatile new educational 
tool can also be used effectively in languape 
learning, speech correction and improvement, 

tering tables, formulae— anything to be 

zed— faster than 



DORMIPHONE 

Memory Trainer 

• Speeds up learning ^Jl^^ 
processes 

• Aids Concentration 



Using a new recording 
principle. tl>e Memory 
Trainer records, in- 
sLantI.v plays back, and 



reels of tape to wind 
and rewind. Completely 
portable. Ideal fof home. 







al safety 
Pte. 



al. it 



children licnefi 
helpriil and pract 
is used by educators, 
psychologists, people of 
all ages and professions. 



CONTAINED 

RECORDING CARTRIDGE 
from 30 second* 
to 50 minutes 

Easily removed. 

antiy 



Write TODAY for P^REE 
folder with complete in- 
formation. 

Modernop£:one, Inc. 
297-048 Radio City 
New York 20, N. Y. 



MODERNOPHONE, INC. Circle 7-0830 

297-048 Radio City. New York 20. N. Y. 
tliMillt'iiien: I'lease sund me your FREE liooklet. I 
am iiiteresied in learning more about tiie IJormi- 
l)lu»ne Memory Trainer and what it can do for me. 
No obligation — no salesman will call. 



Address 
City 



Zone State 

erest in the Memory Traiiu' 
Learning G Speech Imi 



D Langu; „ . 

n Sleep Inducement 

D Memorizat' 



HACKMATACK 

CAMP FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 
INTERESTED IN NATURE STUDY 



A wonderful spot for youngsters 
7-12 years of age! Here in the 
beautiful Berkshires our special 
facilities and expert staff is ready 
to help those interested in natural 
history subjects. 

Geology, botany, birds, conserva- 
tion, the sky, and all that lives in 
the earth, the air and water. 

Swimming, riding, shop, crafts, 
daily farm activities. Eight week 
season only. 

• Write obouf your child to • 

GEORGE F. DILLMAN 

OTIS, MASS. 



BUTTERFLY MOUNTING & COLLECTING KIT 

Finest and most complete kit. Contains 15 tropi- 
cal butterflies, 4x12 spreading board, 60 glass 
tieaded pins, 100 insect pins, 1 ctiemicolly 
treated relaxing jar for softening butterflies, 
2 gloss strips, paper strips, 1 gloss top riker 
display mount, 1 pair brood point forceps, 
triangular collecting envelopes, a 16 page 
picture booklet with step by step instructions 
for mounting, dispotching, preserving butterfly 
col.ections plus other interesting information 
with nylon butterfly net for $4.95 post paid. 
Nylon net $1.95 post paid with instruction book. 
Free price list upon request. Many butterfly 

America's largest Dealer. 

BUTTERFLY ART JEWELRY, INC. 

291 East 98th Street, Brooklyn 12, N. Y. 



AUTHORS WANTED 
BY N. Y. PUBLISHER 

New York, N. Y. — One of the 
nation's largest book publishers is 
seeking manuscripts of all types — 
fiction, non-fiction, poetry. Special at- 
tention to new writers. If your work 
is ready for publication, send for 
booklet NH— //'j free. Vantage Press, 
120 W. 31st St., New York 1. Mjd- 
tresl Office: 220 So. Mich'!.e.,vi Ave.. 
Chicago. III. 

outho 



FREE 

Booklet 



Publishing 
Your 
Book 



If you are the talented 
of an unpublished manuscript, 
let us help gain the recognition 
you deserve. We will publish 
your BOOK-we will edit, design, 
print, promote, advertise ond 
se/1 it I Good royalties. 

Wr.le (or fR££ copy of 
Ho* To Publish Vour Book 

COMET PRESS BOOKS, Dept. NH4 
200 Vorick St., N. Y. 14 



BOOK MANUSCRIPTS 

CONSIDERED 

by cooperative publisher who offers author early 
publication, higher royalty, national distribu- 
tion, and beautifully designed books. All subiects 
welcomed. Write, or send your MS directly. 

GREENWICH BOOK PUBLISHERS, INC. 

Atten. Mr. Edison 489 Fifth Ave. 

New York 17, N. Y. 



President of the Cape Cod Junior Mii- 
MMiiii. Mr. Hay will publish next fall a 
book on the life cvde of the alewife. 



cannot fit into two hundred and twenly- 
odd pages, and Dr. Burton has had lo 
choose. But he elaborates each of his 
choices with considerable detail, and in 
such a way that much is learned about 
this fascinating field as a whole. 

Tiiii Warblers of North America, ed- 
ited by Ludlow Griscom and Alexander 
Sprunt. Jr., illustrated by John Henry 
Dick. Devin Adair, $15.00; 356 pp. 

A SPLENDID contribution to ornitholog- 
ical literature. These bright and 
beautiful little birds at last receive, 
from the expert illustrator and the dis- 
tinguished ornithologists who collabo- 
rated on the text, the study they deserve. 
The entire warbler family of North 
America is included, from its northern 
ranges. Alaska and Newfoundland, to 
the southern limits in Argentina and 
the West Indies. Description and inter- 
pretation are thorough, and will, inci- 
dentally, help to make warblers (a puz- 
zling and complex group for most 
watchers) a little easier to identify. 

A Paddling of Ducks, by Dillon Ripley, 
and illustrated by Francis Lee Jaques. 
Harrourt, Brace & Co., $6.00; 256 pp. 

THERE is a splendid variety of ducks 
and geese to read about in this book, 
together with evocations of the many 
parts of the world from which they 
come, although the center of interest is 
the pond in Connecticut near which the 
author, a Yale zoologist, lives. This in- 
trepid man has been collecting and ob- 
serving these waterfowl for many 
years; his book is written with poise 
and authority; and the pleasure he has 
found in his hobby is infectious. 

Botany 

Trees, by William M. Harlow. Dover 
Publications, $1.35; 288 pp., iliiis. 

This paperback edition makes a 
handy field guide to the trees of the 
eastern and central United States and 
Canada. Compiled by the well-known 
dendrologist. William Harlow, it in- 
cludes a detailed descriptive text for 
each tree, illustrations, and a number 
of remarks about the uses or character 
of the principal species. 

Meteorology 

KlOl QiiESTioNs Answered about the 
Weather, by Frank Forrester. Dodd, 
Mead, $6.00; 419 pp., illiis. 

Here we have the weather from soup 
to nuts. You can find out. in this 
encyclopedic work, why your nose runs 
in cold weather, and how weather nearly 
ruined Alexander the Great, as well as 
what a parhelia circle is and where to 
go and what to do if you want to be a 



meteorologist. There are very few com- 
mon questions which are not answered 
bere. reliahly and succinctly. It is only 
regrettable that the question and answer 
format of this series did not allow a 
more serious treatment. 

Anthropology 

Man: His First Million Years, by 
Ashley Montague. IF^orld Publishing 
Co., S3.75; 249 pp., illus. 

THERE are times v/hen Dr. Montague's 
ability to inform and explain seems 
altogether too easy for him— many as- 
pects of man's cultural history are 
treated here with more adroitness than 
substance. Otherwise, this is an interest- 
ing book and. for the "plain reader," a 
readable introduction to what the science 
of anthropology has so far discovered. 

The Living Past, by Ivar Lissner. Put- 
nam, $5.95; 444 pp.. illus. 

THE author of this volume— which is 
very popular in Europe— does not 
think much of our own age, and endeav- 
ors to console himself— and us— by un- 
covering the excitements of the past. We 
are hopped, skipped and jumped through 
numerous civilizations, often described 
somewhat patly and inconclusively. Dr. 
Lissner is at his best when reconstruct- 
ing tiie colorful aspects of his subject— 
the sights and sounds of the city of 
Rome, the tragic story of Hannibal, or 
the enchanted and enchanting story of 
the great Chinese poet, Li Po. 

A Manual for Neanderthals, by H. 
Mewhinney. University of Texas Press, 
$3.50: 122 pp., illus. 

. mewhinney, a many-sided col- 
umnist for the Houston Post, has 
written an articulate and intriguing ac- 
count of a craft that, today, seems remote 
indeed. But he succeeds not only in ex- 
plaining the nearly-lost art of making 
Sint artifacts, but in making such work 
sound like a very interesting thing to 
try one's hand at in a.d. 1958. 

This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 



M" 



COVER-Lee Boltin. 

169-Torrey Jackson 
from National Audubon 
(top): Laura M. Clark. 
172-5-H. Albert 
Hochbaum, courtesy 
Mjcmillan. 



182-5^Kenneth 
Gosner. 

186-7-Kenneth 
Gosner: Charles M. 
Bogert (sonograms). 
188-9-Kenneth 
Gosner. 

190-91-Rob Wright. 
192-Richard Statile, 
from Birnback. 
193-AMNH. 
194-Smithsonian 
Institution (top); 



courtesy Pacific 
Salmon Investigations 
U.S. Fish & Wildlife 
Service. 
194-5-lvan J. 
Donaldson. 
195-lvan J. 
Donaldson (top): 
P. E. Purves, 
courtesy British 
Museum (Nat. Hist.). 
196— courtesy Univ. 
of Arizona (top & 
bottom): L. J. & M. 
Milne. 

196-7-Hal Roth. 
198-207-;f'. Peter 
& Yvonne Molloy. 
2n8-15-AMNH 
Library. 

216-9-H. Albert 
Hochbaum, courtesy 
Macmlllan. 




I FINEST BINOCULARS; 
I AND TELESCOPES t 

^Postpaid by a Museum Curator, an active,:: 
f experienced Field ornithologist. ; 

i ALL TYPES and PRICES j 

Liberal trades • free trial ^ 

I Martlctt McHdricks \ 

s B/nocu/ar Headquarters i 

i PITTSFIELD 50-Y, MASS. 5 

i Phone 9748 J 



BUTTERFLIES 
MOTHS-BEETLES 



5 Diff. Siam Hawk Moths SI .00 

Rhinoceros Beetle, Siam 50 

Giant Cicada, Siom, 6" wing spread 1.50 

Brilliant Green Cetonid Beetle 25 

20 Diff. Formosa BulterHies 1.00 

20 Diff. Formosa Beetles 1.00 

Professional Bullerfly Net, Nylon Bag, 3' 

Hondle, IS" Hoop 3,00 

Jonior Nel 1.95 

Send for FREE PRICE LIST of equipment 
and thousands of tropical insects. 

ROBERT G. WIND CO. 

702 Ocean View Avenue, Monterey, Calif. 



Best Book 
Contestr 

derails of fa- 
mous publishing plan, write for Brochure NH. 

PAGEANT PRESS, 101 Fifth Ave., N. Y. 3 



SI 600 Cash 
Awards plus 
40% royalry. 
All Types of 
ripts " 




OUT OF THE PAST- 



PAIM' AX» BE HAPPY 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by IVIail 

Exciting Home-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

$1.00 brings Trial Lesson, specify which Course 

□ Landscape D Still-Life D Portraiture 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limits. 



LET FICKER TREAT YOU TO 

A DELIGHTFUL 
SPIN 




"The Recorded 

Eiicyiloltedici of Anniu.ii: Bud Sn,,^..,- 

BIRD SONGS 
of dooryard, field & forest 

. . . recorded in the field horn Maine to Cali- 
fornia by the Stillwells. Vol. Ill, presented for 
tlie first time, features 220 songs and calls of 
68 different Weileni species. Joins Vol. I (135 
Mings and calls of 49 Eastern species) and Vol. 
II (140 songs and calls of 58 Eastern species). 
^^V, rpm 12" records. Each runs 44 minutes. 

EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I & II 
each vcjI. $7.95 ppd. 
WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol. Ill 

$7.95 ppd. 




SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . . pa[nst,ikingly 'played' by usmg actual bird 
Mjngs (Inim the famous StiUwell collection) 
at various speeds, just as a composer selects 
various instruments to play certain syrnphonic 
passages. Composed and arranged by Jim Fas- 
sett, Musical Director of CBS Radio. Side B, 
,-) Revelation in Birdsang Pattern, another as- 
tonishing piece of "musical' wiEardry on the 
irtng! Long Playing (33'/} rpm) 12" record. 



$5.95 ppd. 




WINDY CINDY 

Weathervane and Lawn Ornament 

. . . authentic model of a giant Tiger Swallow- 
tail with natural coloring. 16 inch wingspread I 
Points into the wind and moves its wjngs like 
a real butterfly. Mounts easily on garage, 
fence, garden stake or lawn. Responds to gentle 
zephyr or flies out a hurricane. Aluminum, 
brass and steel fittings throughout all moving 
parts. Absolutely rustproof. Supplied with post 
for lawn and strap for side mounting. 

only $9.95 ppd. 



FICKER RECORDS 

221 ARCADIA ROAD 
OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 

Mu„fyl„nli r.u„r,u,i,;. . . . Imm.-diate DdiiiTy! 



GET READY FOR THE SPACE ERA! SEE THE SATELLITES ... THE MOON ROCKETS 



MKi] 



AND OTHER OPTICAL BARGAINS 



See the Stars, Moon, Planets Close Up! 

3" ASTRONOMICAL 
REFLECTING TELESCOPE 

(Famous Mt. Palomar Type) 




Stock No. 85.05O-E 



6" Astronomical Reflecting Telescope 



Up to 576 Power 

CoiiMilete Willi Mount. 
Triiiod and 7X Finder 




Iripii 

li.u.li. Sliippliil! \vl. 7.') lbs. 
Slock No. 85.024.E $245.00 f.o.b. 

Order by Slock No. Barringlon. N. J. 

Send Check or M.O.— Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

3" Astronomical Refractor Telescope 

Up to 270 Power j^ 

Vuii'll set ill sluirp Jetail 
nliiliLls, stars, moon — the fas- 




Stock No, Ii0.1l32-E $125,110 1.0 b. 

.Shim. inn uoitlil 27 llis, Barringlon. N. J. 

4" REFRACTOR TELESCOPE — Larger obiective: 

Heavier mount! Up to 500 Power 

Stock No. 85.038-E $247.00 f.o.b. 

Order by Stock No. Barringlon. N. J. 

Send Check or M.O. — Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

BUILD A SOLAR ENERGY FURNACE 

Wonderful Geophysical Year 




to 30110° 
?els liane 
Frosncl Lens— H»i" illanietir 

esnel Lens $ 6.00 Postnaid 



4'/4" ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE! 

MT. PALOMAR TYPE 



INFRARED SNIPERSCOPE 




Now — See The Satellites 

New, Low Price "SATELLITER" Telescope 

First Tiinp-Only $9.95 Postpaid 




Ill- "..I - Ml' ■ iiMl.i'. |i.' -il.k. lliis liarsain. 

Full J" iHlirninalio nlijci-live — larse. Illiini exit pupil for 
iii;;lil use. Srnpe is 10" long, weighs less than one pound. 
Slock No. 7U.I50-E $9.95 Postpaid 

We are the Manufacturers of the Famous 

MOONWATCH SATELLITE TELESCOPE! 



STEREO 
MICROSCOPE 




Order Stock No. 85.056- E 
$99.50 f.o.b. Barringlon. N. J. 
pros. 11 lbs.). Semi dieik or Jl I), 



■^ NEW! STATIC 

ELECTRICITY GENERATOR 




Order Stock No. 70.070-E 



50-150-300 POWER MICROSCOPE 

3 Acromatic Objective Lei 
Revolving Turret 
Imported ! The color - 



lenses in 
[or results to the single lens 
[Toscopes selling for $0.05! 



!S fnuru] 
lUsiills 



liie difference! 
luidnri focusing. 

Stock No. 70.008. E $14.95 Pstnd. 

MOUNTED 500 POWER OBJECTIVE 
Threaded f.ir eas.v allaihnuilt on above niicro- 
sn.po. .\(hronialio lenses for One viewing. 
:i mm. toc-al lenslh. 

Stock No. 30-197-E $5.00 



AMERICA NEEDS SCIENTISTS! 

Stimulate boys' interest-request our FREE 
CATALOG-E featuring hundreds of scientific 
ond astronomical items. No better time than 
in this International GEOPHYSICAL YEAR! 



lonev' Ituild your own Snipcrspopo 

nil, .11-:- -parts, including: Power 1 

I III nuts, niters, etc. For delails- 



New! 2 in 1 Combinalii 




50 POWER MICROSCOPE 
and 10 POWER TELESCOPE 



.'3 



Satisfaction Guaranteed! 



STAR AND SATELLITE PATHFINDER 




DIRECT MEASURING 

POCKET MICROSCOPE 

— 50 POWER 



iihiecl examined or measured. Ijturdy construction. 
Stock No. 30.225-E $795 Postpa 

SWIVEL-CLAMP MAGNIFIER 



To'J^ FREE CATALOG-E 



Hugesel 


=clion of lenses. 


prisms, w 
tical ins 
and ace 


or surplus op- 
ruments, ports 
essories. Tele- 


scopes, 
satellile 
noculars 


telescopes, bi- 
InfroredSnip- 


erscopes 


& ports, reti- 
rrors, Ronchi 


rulings, 
other ha 
tical iten 
No. 1 sou 


dozens of 1 
rd-to-get op- 

rce of supply 




ORDfR BY STOCK NUMIfR . SfNO CHICK OK MONfY OROfK . SATISrACTfON GUARANTtlDI 



._. Photographers, Hobbyists, Tele- 
scope Makers, etc. Ask for cotolog I. 



EDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO.# barrington, new jersey 



New 

Fossil 

Find 



riiese insects have 
)een preserved in 
VIexican amber for 
hirty million years 



Photographs by Hal Roth 





Encased in amber thirty million years ago. stingless bee has been perfectly preserved. 
Fossil insects are being studied by entomologist Hurd, left, and his colleagues. 



THE INSECTS, formally known as 
the Class Insecta, one of the six 
surviving classes of the Phylum Ar- 
thropoda, are divided into two sub- 
classes: the wingless insects (called 
Aptervgota ) and the winged ones 
( Ptervgota I . The latter includes about 
ninety-eight per cent of all living 
species of insects. 

Unfortunately, our knowledge of 
the evolutionary progress of this vast 
host of creatures is limited, for few 
fossils are known. The reconstruction 



of insect evolution, therefore, is in 
great part hypothetical. Even so, it 
has been possible to learn a good deal 
from what we have. For example, the 
earliest fossil insects known are some 
wingless types from Middle Devonian 
rocks ( dating back about three hun- 
dred million years I . The fossil record 
also includes a dragonfly from the 
Pennsylvanian epoch, two hundred 
and twenty million years ago, with a 
wingspread of two and a half feet. 
We know, by contrast, cockroaches 

223 




Amber chunks, cm and polislied. are im- 
mersed in heavy oil (or microscope study. 




Microscope field shows how stingless 
bees look within their amber encasement. 



have changed hardly at all in the two 
hundred and twenty million years that 
iiave ela|ised since the deposition of 
the Pennsylvania strata in which their 
fossils are found. Then, as now. cock- 
roaches seem to have been fond of 
the accumulations of plant debris— 
from the decay of which the coal of 
these deposits was formed. Ancestors 
of the flies have also been found, 
whose four wings of equal size, while 
\ eined in a way similar to that of the 
two-winged flv of today, nevertheless 
relate them closely to butterflies and 
moths. These four-winged flies ante- 
date the oldest true flies, which begin 
to be found in Upper Triassic strata 
( a hundred and seventy million years 
old I . bv about forty million years. 

In view of an insect's fragility, it 
is remarkable that so manv Paleozoic 
insects have been found. The most 
abundant insect remains, however, do 
not date back to Paleozoic times, but 
only to the geologically recent Ceno- 
zoic— and. within that era. for the 
most part from the Oligocene and 
Miocene epochs, a mere fifteen to 
tliirtv million years ago. Geologically, 
then, these insects are recent: yet they 
are among the most beautiful of all 
fossils, for thev have been preserved 
in fragments of amber. 

THE best known of the amber-rich 
areas of the world is the Baltic, 
and principally the Samland peninsula 
in East Prussia— where the amber, as 
it formed from the sap of ancient coni- 
fers, encased manv insects. There are 
other amber-rich areas, however, of 
\vhich one. recentlv studied, lies in the 
state of Chiapas, far in the south of 
Mexico, along the Guatemalan border. 
The Chiapas deposits have been 
known to man since pre-Mavan times, 
but onlv recently have entomologists 
and paleontologists been able to study 
the fossil insects thev contained. Al- 
though mentioned in a technical pub- 
lication in 1905. the amber remained 
largely unexamined until 1952. when 
the Associates in Tropical Biogeogra- 
))hy of the Lniversity of California 
sent their first expedition to the south 
of Mexico. Since that time, three 
workers from the University of Cali- 
fornia's Berkeley campus— J. Wvatt 
Durham. Paul D. Hurd. Jr.. and Rav 
F. Smith— have studied the continuing 
finds from these rich deposits. 

The fossil insects of Chiapas origin- 
ated, of course, in the same way as 
those from the Baltic. They were 



trapped by droplets of tree gi 
which, falling to the ground, we 
e\entually washed to the sea. a 
there gradually covered by sedinn 
tarv deposits. Geologic upheavals ha 
subsequently exposed these strata. 
The fossil resin has been used 
the Indians as jewelry. For the palec 
tologist. who wants to study the a 
bers content, the problem is mc 
complex. Tlie amber, often ve 
brittle, must first be freed from 
matrix of shell and rock. Then. p< 
of the amber is cut awav and th 
posed face polished. The specimen 
then immersed in heavy oil I of ab( 
the same refractive index as the a 
ber ) . Optically, the amber then seei 
to disappear, and the entombed ins( 
ajipears free, its original colors i 
dimmed. Each specimen is studi 
under low magnification. 

OF COURSE, study would be i 
mensely simplified if the ami 
could be merely dissolved. But. wh 
the insect was first trapped in gu 
there was nothing to stop the decav 
its internal organs— onlv the exteri 
was preserved, although this remai 
e\en to the most minute hairs. If t 
amber is dissolved — or accidcnta 
broken — the insect crumbles away 

The Chiapas finds are still bei 
studied, but already they have sh 
some light on the recent evolution 
insects. It has been found, for 
ample, that a stingless bee. trapp 
in amber in the Oligocene thirty ni 
lion years ago. resembles its prese 
day descendants in all but the small 
details. Stingless worker bees, then 
now. had pollen baskets on their h 
legs— suggesting that the caste syst< 
was already established in Oligoce 
times and that thirty million years a 
these insects were grouped together 
societies much like those of today. 

As another example, one sort 
long-legged fly (of the family Do 
chopodidae I has been found in t 
Chiapas amber. Today, this insect 
longer lives in Central America b 
is found in the United States. It i 
pears possible, therefore, that tl 
flys present range is similar in dim; 
to that of Central America of thii 
million years ago. 

The work of recovery is continui 
in Chiapas and analysis is in progn 
in Berkeley. The photographs on the 
pages, however, constitute a sort 
preliminary report, and also sug 
the interest and beauty of these fin( 



224 




Fungus gnat is a member of Order Diptera, as are flies. Im- 
mature stages develop in fungi or decaying vegetable matter. 



Long-legged fly is now no longer found in Central America 
but in the U.S., suggesting climatic change of former home. 




Delicate membranes of the book louse's wings shimmer as if 
in sunlight, belying this insect's unpleasant name. Actually, 



only the wingless types (Family Liposcelidae) are found in 
books— winged Psocidae, like specimen above, occur outdoors. 




s\tf 



Ever see a shovelful of furniture? Wood chips and 
sawdust blended v/ifh Monsanto bonding resins ore pressed 



to foim sturdy, splinler-free hard board used exte 
In manufacture of furniture and cabinets. 



Creative chemistry helps produce 
new furniture from wraste sawdust 



Not long ago, sawmills put the 
torch to mill waste. Today, proc- 
essors mix sawdust and shavings 
with Monsanto bonding resins 
to make tough, dimensionally 
stable boards! 

Manufacturers of furniture, pre- 



fab walls, truck bodies and trail- 
ers benefit from the "extra" 
carloadings of sturdy, low-cost, 
smooth-finished board. And, of 
course, we all benefit from the 
extra trees left standing in our 
forests each year. 



MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 
ST. LOUIS 24, MISSOURI 



onsanto 



VT 



WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRY WORKS WONDERS FOR YOU 



May 1958 




-^A^3 




%„\ 




A/OlV ^^^^ Criterion's Complete, Superior 
j^£lV M^^ ' Telescope For Serious Astronomers 

The 4 Inch DYNASCOPE Reflector 



Reg U. S, Par, Olf. 



At an unbelievably low price ! 





O 



FEATURES: 

4-inch Parabolic Mirror 
Aluminized plus Zircon 
Quartz layer 

3 Eyepieces — (1) 65X Huygens 
(2) 130X - 167X Achromatic 
Ramsdei^s 



Kfl Rack & Pin/on Focusing 

o 





4-Power Achromatic 
Finder Scope 

New Improved Combi- 
nation Equatorial and 
Altazimuth Mount 
With Free-Moving 
Polar Axis. 

Bakelife 
Tube 



^y 4-poinf Tuhe Suspension 

Q Tripod with 

Hardwood Folding Legs 



• You will be truly oma 

■ring built into this complete 

the ports ond assemble the 

unheard of low price of thi 



F. O. B. Hartford, Conn. 

Shipping Weight 14 lbs. 
Express charges collect 



With New Combination Mount And Free-Moving Polar Axis 
• A Parabolic Mirror! • 4-Power Finder! • Folding Tripod! 
• 3 Achromatic Eyepieces, 65X - 130X - 167X 

;d at the scientific accuracy and technical 
eflecting telescope. If you were to purchase 
yourself, you would spend much more than 
precision instrument. And in building your 
telescope you could never hope to ottoin the accuracy and co-ordination 
of ports which hove been engineered into the Dynascope. 

• The high resolving power of the parabolic mirror produces exquisite 

definition which clearly separates such celestial phenomena as double 

stars. The 4-rnch mirror gathers Vs more light than a 3y2-inch 

mirror. The Dynascope parabolic mirror is aluminized and then 

coated with a layer of zircon quartz for maximum protection and 

lasting use. A parabolic mirror of such quality has previously been 

obtainoble only in high-priced instruments. 

\ • The Dynascope assembly includes everything — there is 

absolutely nothing else to buy. There ore no added charges 

\ for extra eyepieces— or a view finder. 

• The tripod with hardwood folding legs is fitted with position 

«, locks for absolute stability. Study the list of features and you 

' will agree that this unprecedented offer is the most generous 

and all-inclusive you hove ever seen anywhere. The usual 

Criterion money-bock guarantee applies and, in fact, 

if you can duplicate this instrument for less than twice 

our unheard of low price, your money will be 

refunded at once. With a precision instrument like 

the Dynascope Reflector, production is necessarily 

limited but we can make immediate shipment 

at this time. Send check or money order now 

with full guarantee of satisfaction. 




NOW YOU CAN HAVE A REFLECTING TELESCOPE 
OF EXCELLENT CALIBER FOR ACCURATE 
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION! 



THE ONLY TELESCOPE AVAILABLE FOR UNDER 
$75. WITH A PARABOLIC MIRROR, RACK & 
PINION FOCUS, AND 3 ACHROMATIC EYEPIECES! 



Manufacturers and Distributors of Optical Instruments 

THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

331 Church Street . Hartford 1, Connecticut, Dept. NHD-31 

Telephone: CHapel 7-1696 • Cable Address: CRICO 




Open Wider Windows 

On The Living World 



WITH THIS TIMELY OFFER FROM 



The Natural History Book Club 



ANY 



TWO 
FREE 



OF THESE BOOKS 

With Your First 
Membership Selection. 



r^ROM THE MOMENT THE SPUTNIKS AND EXPLORER 
^ sent out the space signals heard 'round the world, member- 
ship in the Natural History Book Club has risen at an extraor- 
dinary rate. A knowledge of Geophysics and the other Natural 
Sciences must — from now on — be the property of every 
informed American man and woman. 

That is exactly what membership in the Natural History Book 
Club gives you. Month by month, you will receive informative 
books of gripping interest, intensely readable and highly knowl- 
edgeable. Each such book is the work of an authority in his 
chosen subject, and every book will open a wider window on 
the universe around you. 

THROUGH MEiMBERSHIP, you may project yourself into 
Space with Willy Ley — acknowledged as America's foremost ex- 
pert on the subject. Orbit about the Earth in his authoritative 
and definitive book. Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel. Or. in 
To Hidden Depths, live with Captain Philippe Tailliez amid the 
wonders of the underwater sea, equipped only with fins and 
aqualungs while you share this twilight zone with sharks, whales, 
giant morays and octopi. Delve into the mysteries of the 
'Abominable Snowman" as described by Dr. Maurice Burton, a 
phenomenon so intriguing that right now two expeditions — 
one Russian and one American — are seeking this rumored 
man-like monster in the mountains of Afghanistan and the 
wildest Himalayas. We sincerely believe that this Club makes a 
genuine contribution to a more informed Society. And — most 
especially — we offer it to those families who believe their 
children should be exposed to richer fare than comic strip 
learning. 




ROCKETS, MISSILES 
AND SPACE TRAVEL 

by Willy Ley 
Ne\\ li' revised and 
enlarged edition 
brought thoroughly 
. up to date.The defini- 
tive source book in 
its field, by America's 
foremost authority. 
Retail Price— S6.75 



THE ATLANTIC: 
History of an Ocean 

*v 
Leonard Oulhwaile 
Combining history, 
geography and ocean- 
ography, here is a 
continuously interest- 
ing book spanning 
the Atlantic story 
from earliest times 
to the present. 
Retail Price — S6.50 





EXPLORING 
AMERICAN CAVES 
by Franklin Folsoni 
The history, geology, 
lore and location of 
the last "unexplored 
frontiers". An excit- 
ing account of the 
men and women who 
light their way be- 
neath the earth's 
crust. 
Retail Price— S5.00 




THE ANATOMY 
OF NATURE 

by Andreas Feininger 
Strikingly beautiful 
and revealing photo- 
graphs illuminate a 
brilliant text unveil- 
ing the facts of life 
within Nature's cycle. 
Retail Price — S5.95 



TO HIDDEN DEPTHS 

by Capt. 

Philippe Tailliez 
Fascinating, intimate 
account of under- 
water exploration, 
with 12 amazingly 
beautiful photo- 
graphs in full color, 
and almost 50 in 
monochrome. 

Retail Price— S5.00 




THE WILD HUNTERS 




Ca 



nd su 



penseful account of 
the wild predators of 
America, their intel- 
ligence and social or- 
ganization, with true 
narratives of almost 
unbelievable exploits. 
Retail Price— 53.75 




THE PURSUIT OF 

SCIENCE IN 

REVOLUTIONARY 

AMERICA 

by Brooke Hindlc 
The little-known 
story of the first dar- 



mg 



.vho 



duced the knowledge 
of the sciences to tlie 
colonies. 
Retail Price— S7. 50 



INI 






MAN AND ENERGY 

by A. R. Ubbelohde 
A profound studv. bv 
a world -renowned 
scientist, of the use 
of energy through the 
ages, and the funda- 
mental changes 
brought to modern 
life by new methods 
for its release. 
Retail Price— 55, on 



THE WONDER 
OF SNOW 

by Corydon Bell 
This fascinating boo! 
penetrates the m\ s 
teries of nature s 
most spectacular 
phenomenon — and 
its influence on ] 
kind throughout the j 
world. 

Retail Price— 55 



ANIMAL LEGENDS 

by Maurice Biirlon 
Amazing facts and 
some fancies about 
tnc acts of animals, 
extraordinary inci- 
dents based on evi- 
dence A revealing 
and informative 
treasury of Nature 
lore. 
Retail Price— 54.95 




FREE!:.. ANY 2 BOOKS IF YOU JOIN NOW 



As your introduction to the 
benefits of the Natural History 
Book Club, we urge you to se- 
lect any two of the excellent 
hooks on this page — FREE — 
along with a third as your first 
Club selection. You pay only 
the special Membership price of 
$3.89 plus postage. And the 
total retail worth of the THREE 
BOOKS can be over S20.00. 

Membership entitles you to 
The Natural History Book Club 
News FREE. Each month, this 
publication describes the new 
selection, as well as other fine 
books which are available. If 
you do not desire the selection. 



you simply notify us on a form 
which is always provided. Your 
only obligation is to accept as 
few as four selections in the first 
year. After that, with the pur- 
chase of each additional four 
selections, at special Member- 
ship discounts — you will receive 
a valuable bonus book FREE. 
Selections are limited. We ask 
that you make your choice early. 
Check the TWO FREE books 
you desire, and make your first 
Membership Selection now. 
Send no money. We will bill you 
S3. 89 for ALL THREE after 
vou have received the books. 



THE NATURAL HISTORY BOOK CLUB, Dept. 9015 
11 East 36th Street, New York 16, N. Y. 

PlejiC enroll me as a □ Rockets, Mi 



THREE BOOKS 1 have 
checked. Two are mv 
FREE GIFT for joining 
and my ihird is my first 
Membership selection. I 
«ill pay you S3. 89 plus 
poslaye. i can accept as 
few as four selections in 
the first year — all at 



fou 



addil 



and Spa( 

Travel— 306 
D The Anatomy of 

Nature— 1152 
DTo Hidden 

Depths— 1201 
QThe Atlantic: 

Ocean— 1241 
□ Exploring 

Caves— 1133 



of 



n Animal 

Legends— 1237 
DThe Wondct 

Snow— 1184 
n Man and 

Energy— 1077 
n The Pursuit of 

Revolutionary 
America— 1085 



PLEASE NOTE: A 

reckoning Bonus B( 

MY NAME 

ADDRESS 

CITY 



■Double Selection" — or a set of books offered I 
al combined price — is counted as a single book i 
ok credit, and in fulfilling the membership obligatioi 



The Natural History Book Club is not ofRliated with The 



of Natural History 



Vol. LXV 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Magazine of The American Museum of Natural History 



Alexander M. White 
President 



Albert E. P\rr 
Director 



X^ALTER F. MeI-TER 

Deputy Director 



John Plrcell 
Editor 



Editorial Advisers 
Gerard Piel 
Fritz Goro 
John Kieran 
Charles Tldor 



Siientific Advisers 
Frankly-N Branlev John Sainders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Cordon Ekholm Richard Van Gelder 

Jack McCormick 



Editorial Staff 

Robert Williamson 

Joan Duccan 

Margaret Matthews 

Jerrold Lanes 



May 1958 



REyiEws 



Coming of the Alewhes 



Tyto alba Part I 



South Across the Sahara 



Nocturnal Cricket's Shelter 



Les Iles Marquises Part II 



White Dragon Lizard 



228 

Joliii Hay 232 

E. Thomas Gilliard 238 

Carleton S. Coon 246 
Photoiiraphs by Peter HaelierUn 

Ross E. Hutch ins 258 

Harry L. Sliapiro 262 



F.J. Mitchell and 2'; 
H. A. Lindsay 



Publication Office: 
American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West at 79tli St.. New \ ork 21. N. Y. 

Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circulation Manager, The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West 

at 79th Street, New York 24, N. Y. 



You will Gnd Na 






Natural History is pulilishcd leu 

History. Central Park Wesi at 79th Street. Subscriptit 
in Canada. Newfoundland, and all foreign countries 
at the Post Office at New York, under the act of Au?u 
Natural Histor>-. Manuscripts and illustrations submiti 



indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature in your library. 
York 24, N. Y.. by The .American Museum of Natural 



single copies fifty 
$3.30. Entered as second class matter March 9. 1936. 
2*. 1912. Copyright 19S8, by The American Museum of 
I to the editorial office will be handled with care, but 




AKKA^EI) ABOVE, in thi- |ihntn<;raph made 
for Natural History by Lee Boltin, 
are two study skin? of Tyto alba, known 
commonly as the Barn Owl. The lower of 
the two is a nestling, still wearing its 
downy plumage : the upper is an adult bird. 
Above these, from left to right, are por- 
tions of a study skeleton of the same species 
—a skull I comparison with the adult head, 
below, shows the extent to which the Barn 
Owl's plumage is respon.-ible for the shape 
of its head I ; the two bony, sclerotic rings 
of the eyes (the rigid fixing of which forces 
an owl to turn its whole head in shifting 
viewpoinll ; and. finally, a lower limb, 
with its four keen, raptorial talons (by 
means of which Tyto alba seizes and kills 
its prey I. For a translation of these vari- 
ous anatomical endowments into action, 
turn to llie article i>:i i). 238. 



The American Museum is open to the Puhlic eyery day in the year without charge: 
Your support of the Museum makes this possihle. 



■or Problem-Solving... Experimentation... Teaching... or Just Fun 



BUILD YOUR OWN ELECTRIC 
BRAIN MACHINE 



IN JUST A 
FEW HOURS! 



Remarkable 400-Component Construction Kit Enables You To Create 
Any of 125 Brain Machines! Build LOGIC MACHINES That Compare, 
Reason, Test Intelligence; ARITHMETICAL MACHINES (Binary & Decimal); 
GAME-PLAYING MACHINES (Tic-Tac-Toe, Nim, etc.) 



Teachers and Scientists: Design Your Own Moch/nesi 



GENIAC' 



is the only kit and text 

combination that pre- 

ents the basic ideas of cybernetics, 
oolean algebra, symbolic logic and com- 
uter circuitry for all levels of knowledge 
nd intelligence. Sold to all customers 
n a one- week return guarantee; actually 
se it during that time, return it if you 
ecide not to keep it. 

TT ITH GENIAC^^ you build any of 125 electric brain 
V machines in a few hours by following the clear-cut, 
A'p-by-step directions in the basic text provided. Ad- 
anced students and scientists can design machines for 
'jecial problems. No soldering required, and little wir- 
,ig. Change design of your machines in minutes! Build 
inary Adding Machine • Secret Coder & Decoder • 
Machine for Arithmetical Carrying • Comparing Ma- 
line • Reasoning Machine • General Combination 
locks • Games Requiring Logic • Machine for a 
[pace Ship's Airlock • Intelligence Tester • Burglar 
larm • Puzzle Solvers and many others. 

OVER 400 COMPONENTS AND PARTS 

Circuits operate on one flashlight battery, and use 
geniously designed parts. 1958 GENIAC Kit has been 
instructed by the original inventor to provide all the 
Ivantages of pi'evious electrical brain construction kits 
us what we have learned in answering the questions 
id examining the new designs created by hundreds of 
;ers. 

SELF-CONTAINED COURSE IN COMPUTER DESIGN 

Each GENIAC comes as a self-contained course in 
imputer design. All instructions are so simple that 
e have records of intelligent twelve-year-olds design- 
ig factoring machines and puzzle-solving circuity— 
hile hundreds of schools and industrial training pro- 
■ams have incorporated our kits in their curricula. 

YOUR COST FOR GENIAC KIT: ONLY $19.95 POSTPAID 

The coupon will bring your GENIAC Electric Brain 
instruction Kit and Manuals for only .$19.95 postpaid. 

jou may return the Kit within 7 days if you are not 
impletely satisfied. For schools we offer bulk rates on 
:tra texts and parts; for teachers, we offer lOOr deduc- 

bn on GENIAC if ordered for use in institutions. 

I and for your Kit today! 

SCIENCE KITS, De;ot. NH 53 
Oliver Garfield Co., Inc., 108 E. 16th St., New York 3, N. Y. 




1958 GENIAC KIT CONTAINS (1) a complet! 
Machines"— a basic introcjuction to computers, 
trical Brains at Home"-a fully illustrated text 
theory and circuits with specific instructions for 1 
Diagram IVlanual. A special booklet with full 
Manual— fifteen extra experiments to teach the 
cuits. (5) Over 400 components and parts. 



100-page text, "Minds ar 
(2) "How to Construct Ele 
ook on basic computer desic 
jilding 125 circuits. (3) Wirir 
cole diagrams. (4) Beginner 
basic symbols of electric ci 



SOME INSTITUTIONS AND FIRMS 


NOW 


USING GENIAC 


Allis-Chalmers 


Lafayette Radio 




Jefferson Union High 


Remington-Rand 


Rohr Aircraft Co. 




School 


International Business 
Machines 


Southwest Missouri 
state College 




Oklahoma A i M 


Wheeldex Mfg. Co. 


Albert Einstein 




Kansas State University 










College 


Naval Research 






Walter V. Clarke 


Laboratories 




Coral Gables Senior 








High School 


Barnard College 






Westinghouse Electric 


Marshfield Public 




Courtland Jr. High 
School 


Ptiillips Laboratories 


Schools 




General Insurance Co. 








of America 


Schools 




Laboratories 



ORDER 
GENIAC 
ON OUR 
MONEY 

BACK 
Guarantee! 



SCIENCE KIT, Dept. NH 58 

Oliver Garfield Co., Inc., 108 E. 16th St., N. Y. 3, N. Y. 

Please send me: 

1 GENIAC Eleetric Brain Construction Kit and Manuals. 

S19.95 (East of Mississippi) 

S20.95 (Elsewhere in Vnited States) 

S2I.95 (Outside the Vnited States) 

Returnable in seven days for full refund if 
§ in full payment. 



itisfied. I enclose C 



Addr! 
City 



Reviews 



THE LOVE OF NATURE • HISTORY OF 
ASTRONOMY • PLANTS IN THE HOUSE 




\ ri<.\r IK of the romantics, Alexandrr WHmiii hibove. 180')) still kept his pouder dry. 
228 



NATURE AND THE AMERICAN, b 
Hans Huth. Uniiersily of Cnliforni 
Press, $7.50; 250 pp., illus. 

MAN'S LOVE OF NATURE is no> 
taken for granted." Mr. Huth' 
book opens with this sentence, and at 
tetnpts to show how our country ha 
arrived at this amiable attitude. A care 
ful scholar and an ardent conservation 
ist, the author has set out to write noth 
ing less than a social and philosophica 
history of conservation in the Unite( 
States. Unfortunately, the confusion 
implicit in his first sentence dog hin 
thioughout his entire book. 

A more exact statement would seen 
to be that man's love of nature, far fron 
being natural, is an acquired taste, a 
sophisticated in its way as a taste fo 
truffles or Palestrina's music. The aver 
age small child views nature with wha 
can only be called destructive self-inter 
est, until he learns better. Just so hii 
forefathers, until they learned better 
regarded nature with an attitude tha 
combined resentment, superstitious fea; 
and opportunism in about equal parts 

The story that JMr. Huth has to tel 
could i)ri)bably be paralleled in an) 
newly-settled country of the world, bu 
nowhere else is it so neat and complete 
Within the span of 400 years, our seg 
ment of the North American continen 
has been changed from virgin wilderness 
to an area of high economic developmen 
in agriculture, industry and other forms 
of humanized land use. As in other 
newly-settled countries, nature has done 
considerably better by man than man has 
done by nature: but here, thanks in great 
part to the efforts of devoted conserva 
tionists like Mr. Huth, the balance is 
slowly and painfully being restored. 

Almost to a man. our northern settlers 
faced nature as an enemy and saw no 
virtue in her. In all its aspects, the wil 
derness was a formidable adversary to 
the would-be farmer, armed only with 
ax. firebrand, plow and musket. So a 
seventeenth-century traveler could de- 
scribe the Connecticut Valley as "daunt- 
ing and terrible." and Father Hennepin; 
reporting the first view of Niagara wrote: 
"The Waters which fall from tliis vast 
height, do foam and boyl after the nio^t 
hideous manner imaginable, making an 
outrageous Noise, more terrible than thai 
of Thunder . . . dismal roaring may 1" 
heard above Fifteen Leagues off." To In 
sure, a farseeing planner like William 
Penn could demand that settlers lea\r 
an acre of trees for each five acres put 
to the ax; but. in the main, the colonisis 
saw only a howling wilderness to be ex- 
ploited and subdued. 

This attitude was as much of the age 
as of the country. Even in Europe, most 
men lived close enough to the soil In 
prefer the snug farm and the well-tilled 
field to any undomesticated landscape. ,, 



The next hundred years, however, in- 
-odiiced three movements that wrought 
profound change. One was the rise of 
■iriice. The systematic study of nature 
rcaine a passion with men of inquisitive 
Uellect both in Europe and America, 
he second was the rationalist philos- 
phy. which saw the magnificence of 
ature as exemplification and proof of 
le magnificence of God. The third was 
le growing romantic movement, which 
jgarded nature as an ordered simplicity 
1 contrast with the strife of civilization. 
All of these movements had their ad- 
erents and echoes in America, and in 
lis country all three flowed together to 
.1111 the unique and influential doctrine 
I lianscendentalism. Transcendental- 
111. with its mystical base in nature and 
> ciiiijhasis on social reform, laid the 
Kiiindwork for the conservation move- 
;iiil. which has been gathering slow 
iiomentum over the last century. Now, 
1,'ery schoolchild, farmer and hunter has 
leeii exposed to its basic principles. 
This, in skeleton form, is the burden 
Mr. Huth's book. As a social history 
idiiservation it does not succeed: 
iillv. perhaps, because it is too early 
; write such a history; partly, certainly, 
jicause the author is far too interested 
! evoking in words and pictures Ameri- 
ir. attitudes toward nature in the days 
■Inic conservation was even a word. 
j And it is precisely here that Nature 
lid the American succeeds brilliantly. 
Is Curator of Research of the Chicago 
li Institute, Mr. Huth is excellently 
mated to collect out-of-the-way pictures 
\i\ half-forgotten facts and to display 
rill with an antiquarian's relish. 
' ills plates are a nostalgic gallery of 
Ineteenth-century American landscapes 
hich tell fully as much about American 
titudes toward nature as the rest of 
u hiiok put together— as, for example, 
jiien W. H. Jackson's straightforward 

Ioneer photographs of the Rockies con- 
ast with the Golden West phoniness of 
Ibert Bierstadt's expensive painting of 
ake Tahoe. Here are the travelers, the 
iiationers and the buffalo hunters in 
ihvay cars. Here is Emerson on his 
lilosophers' camping trip in the Adi- 
mdacks— without Longfellow, who re- 
ised to come when he heard that the 
ige of Concord planned to carry a rifle, 
ere is a whole panorama of an un- 
owded, unmotorized America. 
Mr. Huth's clippings and quotations 
e almost as evocative. He brings back 

life the memorable day in 1821 when 
!0 Misses Austin from Boston became 
e first ladies to climb Mt. Washington 
id, perhaps, to feel, with another 
aveler, ". . . the sensations which affect 
e corporeal faculties, as one views 
ese stupendous creations of Omnipo- 
nce . . . too sublime to be described." 

Here, too, is the story of the first press 




By mid-centurv, holiday communing wiili natuie had become a vogue. 



junket in history, an "Artists' Excur- 
sion" run by the Baltimore & Ohio Rail- 
road—on a special train with sofas, a bar 
and a darkroom. 

But this reviewers' favorite vignette is 
of the inaugural train of the Erie Rail- 
road, steaming majestically west with 
Daniel Webster throned in a rocking 
chair mounted on a flatcar so he ''might 
better enjoy the scenery." 

Reviemed by: 
Christopher Gerould, 
New York City, N. Y. 

THE DISCOVERY OF THE UNI- 
VERSE, by Gerard de Vaucouleurs. 
Macmillan, $6.00; 328 pp., illus. 

IN a burgeoning scientific field, such 
as modern astronomy, much skill is 
required to write a history that covers 
the past as well as the most recent oper- 
ations, and also knocks on the door of 
the future. Gerard de Vaucouleurs has 
pretty well accomplished such a feat in 
this enlargement and translation of his 
1951 French history of astronomy. The 
book, with its selected analytic bibliog- 
raphy, should serve well for a college 
course in the history of astronomy— still 
better, perhaps, as a reference book in 
the history of science and for the general 
reader of matters scientific. 



A reader concerned with the history of 
personalities will be disappointed if he 
turns to this volume for small talk about 
astronomers. Deliberately, the author 
has written about astronomy— not astron- 
omers. Even so, it is a bit disturbing to 
find Aristarchus, Ptolemy, Copernicus, 
Galileo. Kepler, Tycho and Newton dis- 
posed of in about two pages each. The 
fact is, however, that in major discov- 
eries and in basic processes, the astron- 
omy of the twentieth century looms large 
compared with that of all time before, 
and DeVaucouleurs has therefore given 
fullest attention to the past half-century. 
To the original French edition he has 
added accounts of the new work on the 
scale of the universe and on the marvels 
of postwar radioastronomy. Fortunately, 
he has been cautious in presenting these 
latest discoveries and deductions. 

The reviewer is not much annoyed by 
the author's intimation that he first pro- 
posed the "supergalaxy" hypothesis in 
1953, when, in the galaxy maps at Har- 
vard in 1932 and in the early studies of 
galaxy distribution at Harvard and in 
Sweden, the preliminary evidence on 
supergalaxies had already been pre- 
sented—is not annoyed because none of 
the evidence is convincing: the super- 
galaxy is probably non-existent. 

(continued on page 272) 

229 




Lighl, HicApciiiivc plastic tubing of tough Monsanto vinyl actually 
bends to fit the field, affords complete control of water. Outlets 



adopt to standard row spocings, send water straight to crop roc 
zones, reduce loss of water due to evaporation, weeds and seepage 



Creative chemistry permits new 
"water- saving irrigation method 



Newest twist in irrin;:ition is plastic pipe 
made with Monsanto vinyl that puts 
water precisely where the farmer needs 
it . . . inth virtually no water loss! It 
makes flood irrigation possible for many 
farmers unable to use this method be- 
fore. Growers report plastic pipe saves 
up to $5 an acre over sprinkler flooding 
and increases valuable crop yields. 



Plastic pipe comes in 100-ft. sections 
easily carried by two men. It resists 
abrasion, won't rot, rust or corrode, 
withstands water pressure up to 25 lbs. 
a square inch, rolls like a fire hose and 
stores easily. 

Vinyl plastic pipe is justonemore example 
of Monsanto Chemistry helping to make 
available water go further, last longer. 



MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 

St. Louis 24, Missouri 




WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRY WORKS WONDERS FOR YC 



GET READY FOR THE SPACE ERA! SEE THE SATELLITES ... THE MOON ROCKETS 



AND OTHER OPTICAL BARGAINS 




See the Stars, Moon, Planets Close Up! 

3" ASTRONOMICAL 
REFLECTING TELESCOPE 

(Famous Mt. Palomar Type 

-'%' 60 to 

/'^ 160 Power 

/ Unusual 

BUY ! 



^_, ,, 1,1, .]__];, ,,.;v ■■ u--e: You'll see the 'Rinu.s >( Saturn. 
lilt' laiLinutin;; planet Mars, huge craters on the Moon. Star 
riusters. Moons of Jupiter in detail. Galaxies! Equatorial 
imniru with lock on both axes. Aluminized and overcoated 
3" diameter high-speed f/10 mirror. Telescope comes 
tijuipped with a 60X eyepiece and a mounted Barlow Lens, 
giving you 60 to 160 power. An Optical Finder Telescope, 
always so essential, is also included. Sturdy, hardwood, 
portable tripod. Free with scope: Valuable STAB CHABT 
and 272-pat:e "Hand Book of Heavens." 

Stock No. 85.050-E S29.50 f.o-b. 

<Shippins wt. 10 lbs.) Barrington. N. J. 

Order by Stock No.— Send Check or M.O. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

!^^*'''^ttfeg"'"--"^Tw^ Take Telephoto Shots 

m)^m^^^&^ Thru 

'^i^^n^HH^ ^ ^ ^^ MONOCULAR 

is fine quality, American 

allj hz of r.S. Govt', 
ral observation both day 

an I 111 III I I .. telephoto shots with your 

( III! Id ] I ii 1 I'ue to Japanese competitiun 

uf 1 t Oit L L .. _ .. ^ I lite Directions and mouni- 
1 hints in. ludt I 

Stock No 50 003 E , $15.00 Pstpd. 

Send Check or M.O. —Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

INSTRUCTION BOOKLETS 

r -y to follow — accurate Sh-z x 11 page size — many illustra- 
:l^. Do-it-yourself — Save! and have fun: 

Stock No. Price Pstpd. 

How lu Build Projectors 9GI4-E 30c 

HHmct>uilt Telescopes 9006-E 40c 

Humebuilt Biflescopes 9018-E 40c 

All About Telephoto Lenses 9036-E 60c 

Hi.)w to Condense and Project Light 

with Lenses 9044-E 75c 

3" Astronomical Refractor Telescope 

up to 270 Power ^ 

. detail 
the fas- 

Accessory Prism Erec- ,X' 

lable for terrestrial use, 
cntionally fine quality. 

-spaced achromatic ^ 

,. _re. '1 standard size eye- 
i>j' - L- and mounted Barlow lens 
;.i t you 40X. OOX. 120X. 
:::iiX. Equatorial mount, rack 

,111 1 pinion focusing, white enameled aluminum tube. Other 
ii;i!s aluminum, brass and chrome. 6X Finder included. 
.■^'iirdy, hard-wood tripod. Free Star Chart and handbook. 

Stock No. 85,032-E SI25.00 f.o b. 

Si.ii.iiing weight 27 lbs. Barrington, N. J. 

4" REFRACTOR TELESCOPE — Larger objective: 

Heavier mount! Up to 500 Power 

Stock No. 85.038-E S247.00 f.o.b. 

Order by Stock No. Barrington, N. J. 

Send Check or M.O. —Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

BUILD A SOLAR ENERGY FURNACE 

Wonderful Geophysical Y 

School Project '^\^ \ 

Build your own Solar Furnace for 
experimentation — many practical uses. 
It's easy — inexpensive. Use your scrap 
wood. We furnish instruction booklet. 
This sun powered furnace will gener- 
ate terrific heat — 2000° to 3000°. 
Fuses enamel to metal. Sets paper 
aflame in seconds. Use our Fresnel Lens — 14?i" diame 
. . . f.l 14". 
Stock No. 70,130-E . . . Fresnel Lens S 6.00 Postp; 




ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE! 

MT. PALOMAR TYPE 

With this scope you can see the 
the Moon, the rings 
of Saturn, double stars. Mirror 
guaranteed lo give theoretical 
limit of resolution. Back and 
pinion focusing, removable mir- 




follows stars: Alu- 

tube. 6 Power Finder 

■. 1 standard size Eye- 

nd Mounted Barlow 

you powers of 40X. 

-.-- r corrected to better 

than Yi. wavelength. Stock No. 85.006-E..., S74.50 f.o.b. 

Order by Stock No. Barrington. N. J. 

Send Check or M.O.— Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

Novr — See The Satellites 

New, Low Price ''SATELLITER" Telescope 

First Time-Only S9.95 Postpaid 

Get readj" for a terrific sky show as 

more Satellites are vaulted into space. 

See thrilling sights with our amazing 

Satellite Scope at unheard of low cost. 

Also view comets— use as a Bich-field Scope l\-r vit\wi.g 

star clusters. 5 power-wide 12° field — slight distortion at 

outer ediifcs because of unusual wide field- Use of high 

quality war surplus optics makes possible this bargain. 

Full 2" achromatic objective — large 9mm exit pupil for 



INFRARED SNIPERSCOPE 



TELESCOPE 



We are the Manufacturers of the Famous 

MOONWATCH SATELLITE TELESCOPE! 




STEREO 
MICROSCOPE 

Americ;:n-Made Instrument at 
Over 50 Tf Saving. Up lo Z" 
Working Distance — Erect 
Image — Wide 3 Dimensional 
Field, Used for inspections. 



money back. 

Order Stock No. S3.056-E 
. . S99.50 f.o.b. Barrington. N. J. 
approx. 11 lbs,). Send check or M.O. 



NEW! STATIC 
ELECTRICITY GENERATOR 

>:ee a thrilling spark display as you 
=et off a miniature bolt of lightning. 
.Absolutely safe and harmless. Sturd- 
ily made — stands 14" high. Turn the 
handle and two 9" plastic discs ro- 
tate in opposite directions. Metal 
loUector brushes pick up the static 
electricity, store it in the Leyden 
jar type condenser until discharged 
by the jumping spark. Countless 



Order Stock No. 70.070-E S10.95 Postpaid 

50-150-300 POWER MICROSCOPE 

3 Acromatic Objective Lenses on . ^ 

Revolving Turret \ , 

Imported! The color - corrected, cemented ^i [ 




Stock No. 70.008-E SI4,95 Pstpd. 

MOUNTED 500 POWER OBJECTIVE 
Threaded for easy attachment on above micro- 
scope. Achromatic lenses for fine viewing, 
focal length. 

Stock No. 30-197-E So. 00 



fe 



AMERICA NEEDS SCIENTISTS! 

Stimulate boys' interest-request our FREE 
CATALOG-E featuring hundreds of scientific 
and astronomical items. No better time than 
in this International GEOPHYSICAL YEAR! 



& PARTS 



Sniperscope M-2. Gov't cost 
about $1200. Used for indus- 
trial plant security; research 



Instrument complete, 
use. Includes Power Pack, in- 
frared light source. Will oper- "- 
ate from 6V auto battery. Battery 

Stock No. 85.053-E S150.00 f.o.b. 

(.Shipping wt. approx. 12 lbs.) 
Save ; 




Barrington, N. J. 



-ill 
1P25A 



lish 



-E". 



filters, etc. For details — 



n 7 Comfainotion/ Pocket-Size 

50 POWER MICROSCOPE 

and 10 POWER TELESCOPE 




^ B 



I'seful Telestupe and ilicroscope Lombined 
in one amazing, precision instrument- Im- 
ported: No larger than a fountain pen. 
Telescope is 10 Power. Microscope magni- 
fies 50 Times. Sharp focus at any range. 
Handy for sports, looking at small objects, 
just plain snooping. 

Order Stock No. 30.059-E . S4,50 ppd. 
Send Check or M.O. 



STAR AND SATELLITE PATHFINDER 

oad Map" of the heavens: A rotat- 
' chart— shows well over 500 stars 
relationship to each other at any 
ecied day and hour. Table on re- 
■se side supplies valuable informa- 
n on constellations, planets, meteor 
=howers. etc. Included free with order 
—STAB PATHS Instruction Booklet 
. . shows how to use "Star and 
Satellite Pathfinder" — contains sim- 
plified drawings of celestial sphere, 
key points of meridian, time correc- 
iiuable data. 
Stock No. 9227-E 50^ Postpaid 




DIRECT MEASURING 

POCKET MICROSCOPE 

- 50 POWER 



For direct rea.iing i.icii.ut..ii.v-..i^: i.r u.c.ku..^ ..iHall parts 
and dimensions under powerl'ul magnification. J reci^ion 
glass etched reticle calibrated for measurements up to 1/10 
by .001" divisions. Estimates to .0005" can easily be made. 
Chrome reflector at base of instrument reflects light on 
object e.xamined or measured. Sturdy construction. 
Stock No. 30.225-E $7-95 Postpaid 



SWIVEL-CLAMP MAGNIFIER 

This large 4" diameter magnifier will 
easily clamp onto any regular or fluores- 
cent lighting fixture. With two ball and 
socket joints you can swivel it to any 
' position- Large \" ground and polished 



^ 



lens is 4-5 dioptre. 
Stock No. 30,249-E 



focal. Use both 
itb depth to it. 
S4.15 Postpaid 



To'J^ FREE CATALOG-E 



Hugesel 


ction of lenses. 


prisms, V. 


or surplus op- 


tical ins 


ruments, parts 


ond ace 


Bssories. Tele- 


scopes. 


microscopes, 


satellite 


elescopes, bi- 


noculars. 


Infrared Snip- 


erscopes 


& parts, reli- 


cles, mi 


rrors, Ronchi 


rulings. 


dozens of 


other ha 


rd-to-get op- 



ORDtR ar STOCK NUMBIH . StNO CHfCK OR MONIY OKDIH . SATISfACriON GVAMANTltBI 



1 source of supply 
Photographers, Hobbyists, Tele- 
De Makers, etc. Ask for catalog E. 




EDMUND SCIENTIFIC CO*/ barrington, new jersey 




Coming of 

Each year, many streams of the Atlantic Coast 
are turned silver by the spring "lierrin' " run 

By John Hay 




Ascending alewives shimmer in water 
of Stony Brook at start of April run. 



the Alewives 



THE HERRING are running ! " That 
cry has few remaining echoes on 
ciur Atlantic coast, but there was a time 
when it brought out men, women and 
children in the growing springtime to 
?ee a new flood of life crowding in- 
land rivers and streams. This abun- 
dance of migrant fish meant food and 
revenue returning once more to the 
New Englander's backyard. 

"Herrin' " is what the Cape Codders 
call them, though they have their ale- 
wives committees like other parts of 
New England; and alewife was the 
original name of this fish, stemming, 
in all probability, from English dia- 
lect. In any case it should be differ- 
entiated from its cousin the sea her- 
ring, which spawns only in salt water. 

The alewife has also been called 
'"sawbelly," "wall-eyed herring," 
"big-eyed herring" and "spring her- 
ring." In Canada it is the "gaspereau" 
or "kyak." The scientific name is 
Pomolobiis psetidoharengus. 

Early colonial fishing laws give evi- 
dence of their major importance in 



the seafaring economies. The alewives, 
trapped or netted during their spawn- 
ing migration from salt water to in- 
land lakes and ponds, were smoked 
and salted, to be eaten locally or sent 
out as ship's provender on many voy- 
ages. A considerable trade also devel- 
oped with the West Indies. Innumer- 
able barrels of alewives, pickled in 
brine, were shipped to the Caribbean : 
some still are. from at least one area 
in Maine. And the alewife frv, hatched 
in the ponds and returning to the sea 
during the summer and fall, wei-e as 
important as the incoming adults of 
spring, so far as local prosperity was 
concerned. The outbound fingerlings 
attracted numbers of striped bass, 
pollack and bluefish to offshore waters. 

IT IS quite likely that the alewives 
were in prodigal abundance in the 
years before men began to catch up 
with them. Here is what A History of 
Barnstable Comity, published in 1890, 
has to say: "Early in the last century 
the supply of herring so far exceeded 




Trio of ponds, above, provide spawn- 
ing ground near Brewster, Cape Cod. 



the demand for fish food that the sur- 
plus was used to fertilize the field . . . 
the growing custom of using them in 
each hill of planted corn was checked 
in 1718. the town fathers (of Bourne) 
ordering that none should be taken in 
future to 'fish' corn." 

Apparently the alewives have great- 
ly declined in numbers since then— as 




Gulls wheel above the stream, where 
it meanders across tidal flats to bay. 



233 




Near old mill on Stony Brook, above, 
is the seining pool from which ronces- 
sionaire nets alewives during spring 
season, below, for use as lobster bait. 



a result, among other things, of the 
drying up of streams, the pollution of 
rivers, and the over-fishing of local 
runs. But thev still come in heavily 
along our coasts, all the way from 
Nova Scotia to Florida, and it is hard 
to tell in some areas whether they are 
much less in numbers, or we and our 
demands are much more. 

Where there are good-sized runs. 
New England towns still appoint ale- 
wives committees, whose members are 
re-elected annually at Town Meeting. 
It is their job to keep the runs free 
from obstruction— so that the fish can 
jjroceed to their spawning grounds, 
and also into the nets of the conces- 
sionaire. In Brewster, the Cape Cod 
town where I live, rights are sold an- 
nually to the highest bidder for the 
privilege of fishing the stream in sea- 
son, five days a week. On the other 
two days, the fish are allowed to go 
ahead and propagate their kind. 

"The herring are running!" would 
sound no less exciting now than it did 
a hundred years ago. although it 
would attract considerably less atten- 
tion, provided anyone were eccentric 




enough to get out in the street and 
\ell it. Today's spring, too, is no less 
full of kaleidoscopic discoveries, as 
the air clears and warms and the 
wheels of the world seem to turn more 
lirightly. What a live, high morning 
it is, still, when vou wake to a gab- 
bling of gulls in the distance and know 
that the fish have finally arrived! 
Ihere are cool sweeps of breeze, broad 
runs of blue in sky and sea. past the 
gray and white houses of the Cape, 
when these silver hordes start to crowd 
the inland veins in their bold, annual 
reminder of perpetuity. 

11' vou go to the Herring Run in mv 
town, perhaps toward the middle of 
April or later, you can watch the net- 
ting operation. On Stony Brook Road, 
a truck full of barrels is drawn up be- 
side the seining pool, where the fish 
are cut off from further progress up- 
stream by a small wire gate. The fish- 
ing crew is hauling in a purse net. 
with the aid of a winch mounted on 
the bank. The net is loaded with fish- 
enough to fill four or fi\e barrels. The 
x'ictims are flipping and flashing vio- 
lently, making a loud, high sound in 
the morning air. a beautiful irides- 
cence in their white-silver sides. The 
\vhole dripping net is heavy and alive 
with their shivering, thrashing and 
dying, many heads butting through 
the meshes in a frantic, vibrating de- 
spair. And to what end? These ale- 
wives will be— let us face it— lobster 
bait, worth six dollars a barrel. 

This seining pool in Stonv Brook is 
|)art of a little migrator\ route by 
which the alewives of Brewster travel 
inland, up from Cape Cod Bav to the 
Ircsh-water jjonds where they spawn- 
provided they run the gauntlet success- 
fully. At the Herring Run. the waters 
of Stony Brook pour down from an 
outlet north of these ponds. There are 
three of them, all interconnected: 
Walker's. Upper Mill and Lower Mill. 
The flow of Stony Brook then descends 
over a one-and-a-half mile stretch, 
fust through the fishwav la series of 
concrete ladders and resting pools. 
Iiuilt through rocks and high land), 
llien through a vallev of abandoned 
cranberry bogs, bounded by low hills: 
finally. Stony Brook elbows through 
tidal marshes to Paine's Creek, its 
mouth on Cape Cod Bay. 

TilKKK are a number of mysteries 
about the alewives— their direc- 
tional ability; where they go as they 



are growing up in the sea; why the 
fry leave the ponds when they do. But 
one of my first interests, when I started 
to explore their migration, was to see 
them in the act of spawning. I asked 
the local alewife warden about this. 
An old Cape Codder. he usually, on 
his good days, could be counted on to 
give me some colorful information. 

"What about the school I saw yes- 
terday, running along the shore of 
Upper Mill Pond?" 

"Well, they were kind of getting ac- 
(juainted, you know. Just cuddling to- 
gether! You know how it is. ' 

He described the act of spawning 
for me: "...a kind of swish dance — 
giving a hula-hula motion with his 
hands. The alewives would idle up to 
ihe shallow edges of the ponds, he 
said, rocking as you would rock a 
liaby, and then the females shoot out 
ihe spawn, their fins lifting up with the 
t'lfort. The pond suckers, he told me, 
w ould swim up to grab the eggs almost 
as they left the alewives' bellies. 

One afternoon in May. I started out 
from the Herring Run to walk to the 
ponds above and try to see this decora- 
live performance for myself. The con- 
I essionaire was still at work with his 
truck, barrels and net. but he was go- 
ing to quit soon and deal in some red 
fish at Gloucester. The red fish, he 
said, made tougher, better bait for 
lobsters anyway. While he had been in 
Brewster, he had netted forty barrels 
a day on the average, sometimes as 
many as eighty, but he had not yet 
reached the four hundred mark. One 
barrel, by the way, might contain 
four hundred fish— so that anywhere 
from 160.000 to 200.000 alewives 
might be pulled out of Stony Brook 
in a season. The necessary minimum 
of fish that are allowed to go through 
the gate and up to the ponds during 
the weekend have a heavy job of it to 
assure the return of their race! 

It was a warm day, bringing a new 
lassitude on the air and the sweet 
smell of lilacs. The gulls were gone 
that had flocked in, quarreling and 
screaming when the run was heaviest 
—hovering and rising over the waters 
and their hordes of fish, bold enough 
sometimes to perch on the bridge over 
the run, looking very large, with their 
pale yellow eyes glaring as naked as 
stone. In place of the gulls, there were 
a few dove-gray, black and white night 
herons— "Quawks." or "Quoks," a 
name true to the sound they make. 
These were perched on the outer 




branches of overhanging trees, like 
heavy sculptured ornaments, or stand- 
ing in the water with their spearhead 
bills ready-poised. 

I have heard it said, incidentally, 
that the herons keep the gulls away, 
but I have never witnessed any aggres- 
sive action between the two races. On 
the whole, they seem to respect each 
other's territory and keep their dis- 
tance from each other. Yet, I have 
seen quawks and gulls together wait- 
ing for alewife fry on the tidal flats 
beyond Paine's Creek. 

IN Stony Brook, there were still 
some fish ascending; but many 
others, perhaps more, were going 
back. It is a little hard to tell the dif- 
ference at first, since both face up 
against the current, but the returning 
alewives gradually drop back down- 
stream and many have on them the 
characteristic white marks of fresh- 
water infection. The strain of spawn- 
ing and using up their store of fat 
makes them thin, slow and weary. 
They have lost a good deal of their 



Alewives' enemies include the night 
herons, or "Quoks." above, and gulls. 
Hungriest of latter would sit on rail 
of bridge, below, watching for a fish. 





Start of final run to spawning grounds in inland ponds 
is frequently preceded by a period of swimming in circles 
in pool at foot of fish ladders. Groups of alewives form 



up during circling and. when leading fish make a dash up 
ladders, others follow. I-"emales' eggs are still unripe at 
this time, but quickly become ready in ponds' warm water. 



fight, although not to the extent of 
preventing the return journey. 

Although this was a "'spring fever" 
day, it did not mean that the greatness 
of events was over— only the first, vast 
toppling of a wave, only the initial, 
violent forwardness, with its illimita- 
ble sounds and changes. There was a 
steadier greenness on the trees, and 
blossoms on the high lilacs. The Run's 
waters went on with a constant "wail"' 
and "vvah," if without the turbulence 
of a few weeks earlier. I left the Run 
and walked up into the warm pine 
woods to try and find the culminative 
point of the migration. 

Alight wind was running straight 
down the long surfaces of Upper 
Mill Pond when I reached it. and little 
waves scudded ahead. I walked on the 
north side, where sandy banks de- 
scended to the shore, shaded bv pitch 
pines and covered with viburnum 
bushes and bearberry. a pink-blos- 
somed ground cover locally known as 
"hog cranberry." There were stretches 
of amber sand, small stones, or gravel, 

236 



along the pond's edge. A fat sucker 
jumped for a fly and crashed heavily 
back into the water. 

As I walked and watched along the 
Pond's shore, I saw one group of ale- 
wives, and then another, running by, 
looking light-colored and bright in 
the sunnv water. These groups seemed 
to be made up of a female escorted by 
several males. (The female alewife is 
larger than the male. ) When running 
upstream, the female's eggs are un- 
ripe, but they ripen soon after she 
reaches the ponds, providing the 
water is warm enough— between 55° 
and 60° F. As to the act of spawning, 
the female, depending on her size, 
deposits anywhere between 60,000 and 
100.000 eggs— each some 0.05 inches 
in diameter— in shallow places. Be- 
cause the eggs are sticky, they adhere 
to gravel, sticks, stones, or whatever 
they settle on. The males, who have 
been closely following the female, im- 
mediately cover the eggs with milt, 
thrashing and scattering it with their 
tails. The eggs, in turn, will hatch out 
after about six davs' time at 60° F. 



To clothe these cold facts with mo- 
tion, what I saw was this: I saw the ale- 
wives run and circle, chase and weave 
offshore, sometimes slowing up in 
deeper holes along the bottom, or be- 
hind rock-protected water, and then 
come in close, with a quick impulse. 
One group raced to the pond s gravel- 
ly, shallow edge, not much more than 
ankle deep in water, with a sinewy, 
rippling motion together. Then— in the 
shadows under an o\erhanging shrub 
—there was a flipping, whirling and 
thrashing, a breaking of water. One 
fish, perhaps a female, slapped up 
against the side of a rock with a ris- 
ing, shuddering motion of its body, as 
though shaking everything out of it. 
while the others simultaneously 
writhed, coiled and shimmered 
through. Then it seemed to me there 
were a few seconds in which the fish 
slowly reassembled their senses to go 
elsewhere. The word "deposit ' is 
scarcely active enough. 

Now it may seem incongruous to 
apply our word "love" to the actions 
of cold-blooded fish. A few species of 



These and other ohservations of the 
alewife, by John Hay, «ill appear 
in book form this fall — illustrated, 
as is the extract here, by David 
Grose, a Cape Cod artist-neighbor. 



fish may show varying degrees of at- 
tachment between mates; others are 
more or less protective toward their 
young. The alewives, of course, leave 
their young to shift for themselves. 
But love— or perhaps I should say lov- 
ing—does not, in our human sense, 
seem quite appropriate. All the same, 
this culminative act of the alewives 
has its universal connections. Theirs 
is certainly an imperative dance; a 
great rhythm, with grace in its prepa- 
ration and power in its fulfillment. Is 
it "blind," or has it all the light? The 
alewives' life risk ends and starts 
again in a beauty of motion, a coming 
together of body and energy. Love? 
Yes. why not use the word — even 
iliiiugh we have to oinit the valentines. 

SOMETIMES, that spring, it was the 
war cry of herring gulls, in small 
flocks, settling on the shore waters or 
rising up. that told me where the ale- 
v\ ives were, but most of the time I 
fdund them in accustomed places such 
;is this stretch of shore on Upper Mill 
P(ind. Sometimes I could hear them 
splashing before I saw them. They 
seemed to be more inclined to spawn 
when the water was not too rough. On 
the other hand, I found them spawn- 
ing when the ponds were so choppy 
that the small waves pushed them a- 
bout as the fish coiled and thrashed at 
the shallow edge. 

Once, on the south side of Upper 
Mill, I noticed the pond suckers before 
1 saw the alewives. There were twenty 
or more suckers, lined up as if they 
were waiting for chow, with their 
large, fleshy mouths giving the bottom 
a slow going over. When groups of 
alewives ran in and characteristic- 
ally heaved, flipped and writhed at the 
edge, the big suckers would move up 
closer. They were so oblivious to any- 
thing but their guttonv that I could 
tap them on the head with a stick. 

An overabundance of suckers in 
any one place seemed to discourage 
the alewives a little and make them 
move on to another place. But. on the 
whole, the alewives were so intent on 
their dance that they hardly noticed 
anything else. They had to force 
and fulfill themselves: then, stunned, 
go on. Their eggs were expendable. 




Fish ladders, above, have been built 
in Stony Brook to aid alewives in run. 



Despite help, not all 
destination. Some, belo 



the fish reach 
w, die on way. 





Part I 



Tyto alba 

I 

Foremost among nocturnal hunters, the Barn Oi 
can be found in almost every part of the worl 





lb. 





UMBER ONE haunter of houses, 
the Barn Owl, Tyto alba, is an 
eighteen-inch, pale yellow buff bird, 
with white underparts, a heart-shaped 
face and small, bulging black eyes. A 
nocturnal hunter and devotee of dark 
places (hollow trees, caves, old wells, 
dovecots, barns, belfries and— particu- 
larly— the Upper stories and attics of 
abandoned houses), the Barn Owl— 



By E. Thomas Gilliard 

with its young--produces almost every 
haunting sound known to the litera- 
ture of the supernatural. As if its 
repertory of hisses, rattles, growls, 
coughs, raucous chuckles, cries and 
screams were not sufficient, Tyto alba, 
in silent flight, can also provide the 
superstitious with that pallid appari- 
tion which, in occult fiction, suddenly 
swoops through the gloom of a dark 



T. capensis shares its range 
in southern Africa with alba 
Chachured area of map. Iielow ). 



garret, waving its veils as soundlessly 
as a wisp of smoke. 

But TyIo alba is much more than an 
avian impersonator of ghosts. It is tiie 
widest-ranging of all nocturnal birds. 
Of the nine species of Tyto that com- 
prise the bulk of the Barn Owl faniiK 
—the Tvtonidae— a//'a alone has man- 
aged to reach and populate most of 
the world's major land areas t see 
maps I . Among all the land birds, only 
the Duck Hawk. Falco peregrinus— 
also a carnivore, with special feeding 
habits— enjoys so wide a range. But 
the hawk is diurnal: T. alba has 
achieved its globe-circling position 
while living as a nocturnal hunter. 



THE Barn Owl has prohabK been 
greatlv aided in it* wide diffusion 
b\ the possession of a hunting mech- 
anism unknown in any other carni- 
vorous bird. This is an ability to 




T. soumagnei is confined to 
Madagascar. Owls" size is in 
proportion to extent of range. 



240 



T. alba and its cousins: the distribution of 
nine of the Family Tytonidae 



Distribution of T. alba, the 
most widespread of the faniih. 
is shown as solid tone, below. 




locate its prey by hearing alone and 
to make accurate, flying attacks even 
in absolute darkness. Now, absolute 
darkness is uncommon in nature. At 
last year's convention of the American 
Ornithologists' Union, Roger Payne 
and William H. Drury, Jr., reported 
that they had achieved this unnatural 
darkness in a sealed room and that a 
Barn Owl, even under these exagger- 
ated conditions, was successful in 
catching living prey. Payne and Drury 
will relate the details of their experi- 
ment in the next part of this series 
(Natural History. June. 1958) . 
_ It seems probable that the success 
of the Barn Owl as a nocturnal hunter 



Illustrations by 
Guy Tudor 



is also aided in some measure by the 
silence of its flight— so silent that 
human ears, at least, can scarcely 
elect it. All of T. albas plumage is 
very soft, and its flight feathers have 
"furry" edges that virtually eliminate 
sound. This specialization of plumage, 
which the Barn Owl shares with most 
other owls, may well increase the 
element of surprise in its strikes. 

Almost everywhere throughout its 
vast range, T. alba is cohabitant with 
man, even in the midst of the largest 
cities. One pair once took up pro- 
longed residence in the Smithsonian 
Institution at Washington: many Barn 
Owls have been found in New York 
City. This association with mankind 
may well be connected with the owl's 
predilection for mice and rats as prey 
—animals which man almost inevit- 
ably includes in his entourage. 

WHEN the diurnal birds of prey 
retire from their hunting and 
tlie long shadows of twilight fall- over 
the city parks, farm meadows, fields 
and marshes and forests— 7". alba 
shuffles up to the entrance of its dwell- 
ing and takes wing, sounding a note 
like the chuckle of a squirrel. Fanning 
out low over the ground, alba hunts 



241 



the small mammals that search for 
food in the dusk. In a single night, 
one Barn Owl may capture as much 
small prey as would a dozen cats. 

Now, each Barn Owl nestling can 
eat its own weight in food in a night 
and remains a dependent for as long 
as eight weeks. Considering that there 
are usually three or four young— as 
well as unhatched eggs— in each Barn 
Owl nest, the size of the nightly adult 
haul becomes not so much remarkable 
as mandatory. One observer has seen 
a Barn Owl bring sixteen mice, three 
gophers, a rat and a squirrel to its 
ravenous nestlings during a single 
twenty-five minute period. 

Another biological mechanism, not 
too widely encountered among birds, 
may help the Barn Owl raise its 
nestlings. This is what is known as 
'"asynchronous hatching. " In its re- 
productive cycle, T. alba usually lavs 
five to seven eggs, at two-to-three-day 
intervals, but begins incubating soon 
after the first egg is laid. The alba 
young thus hatch at staggered inter- 
vals, so that robust owlets and un- 
hatched eggs are to be found in the 
same nest. Among the herons, as 
Natural History readers have seen 
(January, 19581. this asynchronous 
mechanism is no guarantee of survival. 
With T. alba, it at least minimizes the 
iidults" need to provide for a nestful 
of large youngsters simultaneously. 

OWLS regurgitate pellets that con- 
tain the indigestible parts of their 
pre\— skulls, fur and the like. As a 
hoy. I once collected nearly a bushel 
basket of such pellets from a tree house 
at the edge of a Maryland forest— rep- 
resenting the kills of one pair of Barn 
Owls for less than a year. L nfortu- 
nately, my basket of grimy treasure 
was mistaken for rubbish and de- 
stroyed before analysis could be made 
of the hundreds of small mammal 
skulls it contained. But such surveys 
have been accomplished the world 
over. Recently, a pellet analysis in 
Poland, involving 1.5.587 vertebrates, 
showed 95.5 per cent small mammals, 
4.2 per cent birds, and the remaining 
.3 per cent amphibians. In the New 
World, the Barn Owl's kill seems to 
be composed almost entirely of those 
species of rodents that, because of 
their nocturnal habits and abundance, 
are chiefly responsible for agricultural 
losses. But the Barn Owl is not reluc- 
tant to tackle larger prey, including 



the so-called Jackass Hare, known to 
the sourdoughs of the Old West as the 
"narrow-gauge mule." 

How HAS T. alba made almost all 
the world its range? Two factors 
seem primarily responsible. First, the 
Barn Owl occupies a feeding niche not 
equally available to any other bird 
and. probablv. not even to the other 
species of the Tytonidae. Seeking out 
and killing its prey, silently, in the 
deepest darkness, T. alba exploits a 
unique ability to use an otherwise 
untouched larder. This capacity, 
combined with o/tns mechanism of 
dispersal, described below, seems to 
have opened the world to Barn Owls. 
Recent European banding records, 
involving more than 1.400 Barn Owls, 
have shown that the offspring disperse 
at random in all directions, exhibiting 
no tendency either to linger near or 
to return to their birthplace. Instead, 
the Barn Owls of each new generation 
seem to settle in whatever area they 
happen to reach during their first 



Mr. (Jilliari) is A.-sociate tiura- 
lor of Birds at The American 
Museum and a regular con- 
tributor. Mr. Tudor, a gifted 
newcomer to ornithological art, 
here makes his first appear- 
ance within Natiral History. 



T. longiiiiembris is found in 
many areas of mainland Asia 
and the Pacific (tone on map ) . 



winter. Once paired, the adult Barn 
Owls thereafter keep close to their 
nesting and roosting territory. Pairs 
have been observed to stay together 
for years— peihaps they do so for life. 
Thus far. we have seen two factors 
that probably account, in large part, 
for T. alba's remarkable, world-wide 
range. Is there still a third factor? 
The records of the past are faulty, and 
may never be fully reconstructed; 
yet. it is within the range of specula- 
tion to imagine the ancient human 




dispersals— as old as the Neolithic- 
through which man. with his food- 
grains and his entourage of animal 
associates, domestic and wild, has 
moved outward to the far corners of 
the world. Along the way. man has 
repeatedly constructed environments- 
complete with abundant rodent life— 
which must represent something close 
to the optimum for T. alba. Perhaps 
this, too, has been a factor in estab- 
lishing the global range of the ghostly, 
nocturnal hunter, the Barn Owl. 



242 



Three Tytonidae (from left: 
inexspectata, rosenbergii and 
aurantia) dwell in islands. 




T. tenebricosa extends over 
all New Guinea, plus eastern 
Australia (vertical hachure). 



T. novaehollandiae overlaps 
extent of longimembris and 
tenebricosa (horizontal grid). 



243 



Barn OwFs 
Precocial Young 





EUROPEAN iNATURALlSTS. «hose work in bandiiif; 
the local Barn Owl populations, left, has estab- 
lished much information on the spread of newl\ - 
mated pairs, often document their work with ex- 
cellent photographs, such as these. Typical Barn 
OwTs nest, top, was found in the steeple of a 
Swiss church. One of the eight eggs has alread\ 
hatched. Beloiv, the voracity of nestlings' appe- 
tites may be measured by the number of mice which 
the parent birds ha\e brought to this nest. Fi- 
nally, right, this portrait of a trio of maturing 
owlets demonstrates the staggered time of hatching. 




V 









Foi R-PEAKED 

of the seven 



MOSQUE 

cities of 



TOW 

the 



ER dominates Ghardai'a. largest 
Mzab Oasis. Mzabites, who are 



Berbers, leave their home area in youth, to run shops ir 
Algerian cities, making occasional trips back to Oasis 



246 



SOUTH ACROSS 
THE SAHARA 

A new book, "Yallali,"is an epic record of 
one man's journeys through desert Africa 

By Carleton S. Coon 




Strong green tea, usually with mint 
and sugar, is a North African staple. 




B 



ICTWEEN 1949 and 
1953, a gifted 
Swiss photographer, 
Peter Haeberlin, 
made four trips 
through the Sahara. 
From north to south, 
his journeys took 
him from Algiers to Timbuktu. Being 
an artist and not a writer, Haeberlin 
—who died in 1953— has left only his 
pictures, which are superb. Twenty of 
them— taken from the book Yallah, 
published by McDowell-Obolensky— 
are reproduced on these pages. 



Yallah means, literally, "0 God!" 
but its common significance, the sense 
in which it is used as the theme of 
Peter Haeberlin's journey, is "Let's 
go!" Motion is essential for any group 
of organisms— like camels or men, 
whose bodies consist largely of water 
—when they are crossing the dry ex- 
panse of a desert. Haeberlin stopped 
for water— and pictures— among five 
principal groups of people: the 
Mzabites, the Shaamba, the Tuareg, 
the Hausa and the Fula, plus other 
tribes of the region of Lake Chad. 

The Sahara is the world's greatest 



and hottest desert. It contains flinty 
plains, granite mountains rising to 
10.000 feet, and patches of treacher- 
ous sand. At strategic points are oases 
with palm trees and water— and, be- 
tween the oases, dodging the sand, 
stretch the caravan routes. Probably 
these routes were first traced by don- 
keys and men and, later, by camels. 
Today, they are marked by tire-tracks, 
and more of these will soon be made— 
along pipelines leading from oil wells 
to the sea. For, like the Arabian des- 
ert, the Sahara has been found to 
contain petroleum-bearing formations. 






sSS^j-SteS? 




White-robed town elders gather at Ghardaia cemetery. 
Graveyard meetings, particularly at night, are standard 



procedure for Mzabites, who belong to puritanical Abadi 
sect of the Khawarij (or "outsiders") branch of Islam. 

247 




Mid-desert comminity of In Salah. composed of twelve 
oasis villages, is center of the Tidikelt region. Here, in 



the 1890"s. coastal residents came to trade for ivory, 
ostrich p!unies, rhino horns, gold dust, skins and slaves. 







OlTSlDE THE 

the Shaamba 



WALLS of El Golea. one of 
serving women winnows 



grain. Her masters, Arab nomads, live 
in the desert, come to town in summer. 



THE MzAlUTKS are Berbers, who 
inhabit the seven towns of the 
oasis of Ghardaia in the northern 
Sahara. In religion, they are Abadi 
Muslims— members of a superstrict 
sect of the branch of Islam known as 
the "Khawarij." or "Those who have 
gone outside." As the oasis scarcely 
can support its population, Mzabite 
men go to Algeria as youths, leaving 
their wives behind. In the cities of 
Algeria, most of the tobacco shops, 
corner groceries and newsstands are 
run bv Mzabites. After decades of 
frugal living, the Mzabite sells his 
shop to a kinsman and goes home. 

Bevond Mzab lies the extensive 
countrv of the Shaamba. a confedera- 
tion of tribes of nomadic Arabs, tent- 
dwellers who live on their flocks of 
camels and on the dates produced by 
their serfs in various oases. El Golea 
( The Castle I is considered their capi- 
tal, but thev come to it— and to other 
oases— only in the season of date- 
picking (August or September 1 and 
stav three or four months. The 
Shaamba are divided into nobles and 
commoners, and the nobles include 
both warriors and holy men. The sed- 
entary people who live under Shaamba 



248 



.«M,|«MW«M# IW***'*' 




It is still a favorite trading center for the Tuareg, who 
live farther inland. Miles of gently-sloping tunnels, fed 



by wells, bring water lo village gardens. "Dikes" of palm 
branches, foreground, guard against the drifting sands. 



suzerainty include a few Arab and 
Berber cultivators and a majority of 
Negroes, known as "Harratin." 

BEYOND the Shaamba country, 
Haeberlin entered the domain 
of the Tuareg, who own the moun- 
tains of Hoggar and Ai'r, as well as 
the empty stretches in between. Al- 
though similar to the Arab Shaamba 
in many ways— riding camels, living 
off pastoral products and the toil of 
agricultural serfs— the Tuareg could 
hardly be more different in social atti- 
tudes. They are Berbers, not Arabs. 
Their ancestors came down from the 
more fertile north a good two thou- 
sand years ago, after the camel had 
been introduced into Africa from 
Persia. While the Shaamba veil their 
women, it is the Tuareg men "svho go 
veiled, and the women barefaced. 
Unlike Arab women, the Tuareg ladies 
own much of the property, choose 
their own husbands and know how to 
read and write. Their writing is a 
primitive square-charactered script- 
derived from the ancient Libyan, 
which, in turn, came from the Phoeni- 
cian. It is used mostly in writing love 
poems, a favorite Tuareg pastime. 





^~ ^ J^' . 



Serving woman, at In Salah, spins 
thread for locally-famous wool robes. 




Most of the 
"Harratin") 



nomads' 

are Negr 



called 
south. 

249 




Near Hogcar mountains, this Tuareg is one of the mehari's. famous breed of 
tribesman pauses to smoke. His camel racing dromedary beloved by Tuareg. 




Unveiled women of Tuareg drink tea bleak landscape, right, seen from an 
amid mountain boulders.Two men, with outcropping of weathered granite, is 
veils, appear to be Negro slaves. The typical of Hoggar mountains' terrain. 



Well known a? an antlunpologi.-t. Dr. Coon has. as his 
first love, the indigenous cultures of northern Africa. 






^'^. 



250 



Jf,.^«> 



i. 



U.3 iif^^ - ■- 






■'■^^^Sf^'^i^ 





HAVING crossed 
the Sahara, 
Haeberlin reached 
the Sudan near Zin- 
der. and traveled 
east to the shores of 
Lake Chad. This 
body of water, 6.300 
square miles in area and less than 
twenty-four feet deep at its deepest 
point, has no outlet: it is the center 
of an enormous drainage area. Most 
of its ^vater comes from the forests 
and savannas to the south, but de- 
spite this exotic source of supply, the 
lake is gradually drying up. This is 
the southern limit of the desert. Not 
onlv is vegetation more abundant, but 
the rainfall cycle is different. In North 
Africa and the Sahara, variable 
amounts of rain fall, but in the winter. 
In the Sudan, the wet period is the 
summer. The moisture ameliorates the 
heat, and limits the seasonal variation. 
The heat equator lies farther north. 
Here the country is no longer 
empty. The grassy plain is dotted with 
flat-topped acacia trees, and an occa- 
sional thick-trunked baobab. Village 
after village is to be seen ; their people, 
nearly all black. Some are standard 
Negroes, thick-lipped and muscular: 
others are of the lean grasslands- and 
desert-build, with thinner faces and, 
often, aquiline noses. The variety of 
tribes is enormous, the cultural com- 
plexitv great. In religion, this is a 
meeting ground. Some of the people 
are pagan, others Muslim. One can 
see women who veil their faces and 
expose their breasts. In the midst of 
this ethnic medley, two peoples are 





Wo:man of Si'DAN, at eduthern edge of 
desert, models a cooking pot of clay, 
left; simultaneously tends infant son. 



Salt cakes are made by evaporation 
from brackish water of a well, above, 
in country at edge of the Ai'r plateau. 




Heavy anklets are a mark of women 
of the Fula, right, a pastoral group 
that conquered the Sudan in the 1800's. 



253 








BoRdRd iiMiiiFR. left, belongs to the 
Fula tribal group. He wears a Tuareg- 
style sword, sheath of Hausa leather. 

outstanding, the Hausa and the Fula 
( or Paul I . Both of them have ruled 
extensive empires, both are Muslim, 
and both live scattered throughout 
French and British territory. 

THE Hausa. numbering about eight 
million, are mostly Negroid in ap- 
pearajice. and speak a lai?guage of the 
family called "Chad." remotely re- 
lated to both Semitic and Berber. 
The\ are skillful farmers and stock- 
breeders and. in the towns, excellent 
artisans, specializing in leather wiork 
and the manufacture of cloth mats. In 
the Middle Ages, they attained political 
domination oyer the neighboring 
tribes and organized themselves into a 
confederation of seven separate states. 




Humped cattle of the Fula display long, graoel'ul horns. 
Related to the Watusi's sacred cattle in Ruanda-Urundi, 
and to Masai cattle, the breed may trace back to India. 



Hausa schoolmaster, beloiv, writes erasable text, work- 
ing with brush and ink on a wooden board. Both Hausa and 
Fula peoples are Muslim: text is probably from the Koran. 



In the early part of the nineteenth 
century, the Hausa were conquered 
by the Fula, who today number about 
six million persons. Coming from the 
Senegal country to the west, the Fula 
infiltrated the Chad Basin and Nigeria, 
beginning with the thirteenth century, 
and took over power from the Hausa 
by 1810, when their leader was de- 
clared Caliph at Sokoto. They re- 
mained in power in the Sudan until 
the beginning of British and French 
colonial government. Like the Hausa, 
the Fula now live scattered ainong 
other populations. Some of the Fula 
are still pastoral, herding great flocks 
of long-horned cattle : others are semi- 
pastoral, and still others have become 
fully sedentary and agricultural people. 





FitKKKl NMM. \N\ihli. ;iltt'r iKiinful iiiili> i>l desert, is 
weleome feature of Lake Chad neigliborhood. Here, a herd 



of Fill;) (Mtlli- some of them packed as baggage animals- 
crosses a ford near the lake, as herders splash happily. 



ALTHOUGH their 
language is one 
of the Niger-Congo 
family, the physical 
type of these pas- 
toralists is not Ne- 
groid. They are 
lean -bodied, brown 
rather than black in skin color, nar- 
row-faced and narrow-nosed, and 
often straight-haired. In the early 
days of colonial rule, the French army 
doctors rejected these warrior tribes- 
men for military service on the 




grounds that they weighed too little 
for their height. Instead, they re- 
cruited stockier Negroes, members of 
non-combattant agricultural tribes. 
However, the French soon corrected 
their mistake, and the Fula have made 
excellent soldiers ever since. The 
origin of these cattle people has long 
been a mystery, and one not likely to 
be solved in the immediate future. 
However, the Sahara has been grow- 
ing progressively drier since historic 
times, and extensive rock-carvings, 
some showing lonjr-horned cattle, have 



been discovered in what is now the 
middle of this barren desert. 

Africa is full of such mysteries- 
most of which will remain secret for- 
ever, with the encroachment of 
Western culture. So rare are first- 
class pieces of African sculpture to- 
day, for example, that an ivory mask 
from Benin recently sold for $56,000. 
That Peter Haeberlin was able to 
preserve some of this Africa in his 
pictures is, indeed, wonderful for. in 
the world of the not-too-distant future, 
this Africa will no longer be found. 




Chad's shallow waters constitute a highway for local 
trade. Cargo raft, above, is being poled across the lake 

256 



by its crew, who have a three- or four-day journey ahead 
of them. Today, Lake Chad is gradually shrinking in size. 




- Ww^ 

jA¥ 





Lakeside village, beloiv, a seeming jumble of mud walls 
and straw thatch, is actually prosperous Chad trade town. 



Scarification on cheek and temple of woman, above, is 
tribal custom among Negro, Arabic-speaking Shawa people. 




A NOCTURNAL CRICKET'S 
DAYTIME SHELTER 





258 



This insect's fascinating work 
is shown in unique photographs 

By Ross E. Hutchins 



Dr. Hutchins, widely known as an insect photogra- 
plier, teaches entomology at Mississippi State College. 




THE SMALL, WLNGLESS INSECT known as the leaf- 
rolling cricket is a retiring creature. By night it 
ranges the gardens and forests of the central and south- 
eastern Lnited States, in its quest for the tiny aphids that 
appear to constitute the bulk of its diet. But by day 
Camptonolus carolinensis— as it is scientifically named— 
is not to be seen, for it has taken shelter in a roUed-up 
leaf. It is scarcely surprising, then, that this pale and 
beautiful creature, so similar in appearance to a grass- 
hopper, has largely eluded the attention of naturalists. 

The existence of carolinensis was first recognized less 
than a hundred years ago, when Carl Gerstaecker first 
described it as a new species in a German journal. At that 
time, however, apparently nothing was known of the 
leaf-roller's remarkable behavior— it was merely a dried 
museum specimen from America, inounted on a pin. The 
little creature elicited soine further comment, but it re- 
mained for an entomologist at the U.S. National Museum, 
A. N. Caudell, to do justice to carolinensis in a study 
published some forty years later. Caudell described a 
grasshopper-like cricket he had found near Washington, 
D. C, when, on opening a rolled-up papaw leaf, he had 
the surprise of seeing the insect leap out. Subsequently, 
others have studied the leaf-roller, but as one of them 
remarked, they have had "but little to add to Mr. Caudell's 
excellent account.' and it is this we shall follow here. 

The way in which carolinensis goes about its early- 
morning tent-making varies. It may, for example, fold an 
entire leaf together about the midrib, or roll just the tip 
of the leaf in a sort of flap. Or, as shown on the following 
pages, it may cut only one side of the leaf in the process 
of constructing its shelter. But the technique is basically 
the saine, and the present photographs are probably the 
first ever taken of the entire, intricate process. 

The first step in the shelter's construction is the cutting 
of slits along the leaf's margins. The direction of these 
cuts is variable, depending, apparently, upon the shape of 
the leaf and the particular preference of the cricket. When 
the cuts have been made, carolinensis places itself length- 
wise on the leaf and. grasping the surface with its legs, 
slowly rolls the outer edge over. Then, when the two 
surfaces are quite close, the cricket begins to "sew" them 
together with strands of a silken fluid issuing from its 
mouth, weaving this thread from edge to edge of the 
rolled leaf. The damp strands contract as they dry, fasten- 
ing the shelter's sides tightly together. 

The cricket will usually assist this process by crawling 
out of its self-made shelter to press the edges closer until 
they meet. When the envelope is finally sealed, carolinensis 
re-enters the tent, weaves shut the open end. coils its long 
anteimae lengthwise about its body, and settles down to 
pass the day until, that evening, it emerges to seek aphids. 



259 




I.ONMRICTION OF LFAF ■'tfnt"" begins as cricket makes an 
incision in the leaf. Number and direction of cuts varies, 
according to shape of leaf and cricket's own prefereme. 



In second stage, insect grasps leaf in legs, rolls cut and 
outer edges together. Enlarged third legs, like sharp mouth 
parts, put leaf-roller in ?ame inject order as grasshopper. 





Cricket ""sews" leaf to complete shelter after edges ha\i 
been pressed sufficiently close together, weaving strands o 
silken fluid from edge to edge. Among other insects in thi 




Fluid contracts as it dries, drawing leaf-edges still closer 
together. Cricket usually crawls out of shelter and presses 
sides together with legs to help speed tightening process. 



Fully rolled, this hop hornbeam leaf will provide shelter 
for cricket during the day. Insect begins building shortly 
before ihiuii. >|iimi(1^ (Milii-i p. it I id' riifibl luiiiliiig apliids. 



order, only the genus CryV.acris A\n\M ability to secrete 
silk-making fluid, which issues from mouth in a single 
thread. Secreting gland is probably located beneath tongue. 




PartII 



LES ILES 
MARQUISES 

Prehistory of Polynesia 

By Harry L. Shapiro 



Aboard "Te Vega," the author, below, survey Marquesan coast. Steep seaward 
(shorts) and Mr. Crane (aloha shirt) slopes of Ua Pou, right, typify group. 





THE POLYNESIANS first became 
known to the Western World late 
in the sixteenth century, as a result 
of the Spanish trans-Pacific voyages 
that followed their conquests in Mex- 
ico and Peru. Ever since that time, but 
particularlv after the mid-eighteenth 
centurv discoxeries of Bougainville, 
Wallis and Cook, scholars have spec- 
ulated about these Pacific islanders. 

Their name was given to them by 
earlv European explorers who made 
a geographic distinction between 
Polvnesia ( Greek for "many islands" ) , 
Melanesia ("black islands") and 
Micronesia ("small islands"). 

The early scholars soon recognized 
that all the inhabitants of the Pacific 
islands h ing east of a line connecting 
New Zealand. Tonga. Samoa and 
Hawaii were, basically, one people. 
Although the distances— north to south 
between Hawaii and New Zealand, 
west to east between Samoa and 
Easter Island— run into thousands of 
miles, the basic language spoken in 
all peripheral points, and in the inter- 



\'0i, %,, 




mediate archipelagoes, is Polynesian. 
Dialectical diflferences. which some- 
times make for a little difficulty in 
communication, are minor ones from 
a linguistic viewpoint, thus suggest- 
ing that they cannot be the result of 
any very ancient isolation of the 
speakers from one another after their 
dispersal among the distant islands. 
Physically, also, these users of the 
Polynesian tongue impressed their 
discoverers by their distinct differ- 
ence in appearance from the darker, 
frizzy-haired Melanesians. who are 
their neighbors to the west, and by 
their general resemblance to each 
other. Nothing that modern research 
has established contradicts this early 
observation, although regional varia- 
tions of physique have been deter- 
mined among the Polvnesians 



In 1956, Dr. Shapiro led an Amer- 
ican Museum group that excavated 
in the Marquesas. Here, he relates 
this work to the general question 
of Polynesian origin and migration. 



themselves, and some evidence of 
possible contact with the Melanesians 
has been suggested. 

It was obvious— from their scat- 
tered geographical distribution in 
mid-ocean— that the Polynesians must 
have been emigrants from some orig- 
inal home on one of the Pacific's two 
bordering continental masses. The 
question was: from where? 

The first writers who addressed 
themselves seriously to this question 
of Polynesian origins had little to 
go on, and mostly their hypotheses 
were finespun, relying on native myth 
and tradition, bits of cultural custom 
and on linguistic arguinents. Where 
solid facts were scarce, imagination 
often enjoyed a free rein. As a 
result, the Polynesians have been 
"derived" from almost every great 
civilization of the eastern Mediter- 
ranean and the Middle East; vari- 
ously, as transplanted Egyptians, 
Greeks. Arabs, Sumerians or others. 
Even the Vikings were not too remote 
to serve as a hypothetical hive from 



which the Polynesian ancestors split 
off, crossing the Atlantic, and thence 
by diverse routes— one even through 
the jungles of South America— push- 
ing to the shores of the Pacific, 
where they built fleets to carry them 
on to Polynesia. 

Recently, Thor Heyerdahl has pro- 
posed an alternative hypothesis, 
which presents the American Indians 
as the ancestral Polynesians. Heyer- 
dahl envisages at least two points of 
dispersion : one from the northern 
continent's Northwest Coast, the other 
froin Peru. His hypothesis, however, 
rests on similarities that are either 
equivocal or accountable on other 
grounds, and the weight of modern 
scholarship remains very heavily in 
favor of an Asiatic origin for the 
Polynesians and their culture. 

Some of the evidence strongly sup- 
porting this view may be summarized 
in the following manner. The Poly- 
nesian language is linked by old roots 
with the Austronesian group of lan- 
guages of Southeastern Asia and, 

263 




Marqiesans of today lead peaceful 
lives, wilh copra as their major cash 



crop. Coconut meat is stored in open, 
thatched sheds like this one, nbove. 




Young islanders, alxne. exhihit a 
variety of racial strains. Breadfruit, 



laboriously pounded into thick paste, 
below, provides Marquesan staple, poi. 




iiidei'd. is (ine of the sub-divisimis of 
a class known as Malayo-Polvncsian. 
Polynesian culture— down to tin- de 
tailed everyday processes of lixiiig 
and the homely tools employed— has 
its counterparts to the west, going 
back to the Asiatic mainland. The 
same origins are suggested by the 
decorative motifs and the rich oral 
tradition of the Polynesians. But if, 
from all this, it seems clear that the 
"set" of migration was from the 
Asiatic side of the Pacific, the "first 
home" of the Polynesians and their 
precise migration route to the mid- 
Pacific still remain in dispute. 

No people have been discovered in 
Asia who are noiv either physi- 
cally or culturally sufficiently like the 
Polynesians to be claimed as close kin. 
We may never find such a popula- 
tion : much could have happened to 
any parental group in the long cen- 
turies since the ancestors of the 
present Pohnesians began their wan- 
derings, and comparable changes 
may have befallen the Polynesians, 
themselves. In either event, time 
would have blurred the relationship. 
Nonetheless, two areas in Asia have 
been established as the Polynesians" 
most likely hoineland. One of these 
areas is India, which a number of 
scholars have inferred— from the in- 
terpretation of traditions and linguis- 
tic expressions— to be the starting 
point of the long migration to the 
Pacific. Some years ago, Edward 
Handy drew some striking parallels 
between the religious ideas of the 
Polynesians and those of India. The 
other favored point is southeast Asia 
—an area which, in recent years, has 
had the strong advocacy of Heine- 
Geldern. as well as a number of 
others. The highly distinctive adze- 
forms characteristic of Polynesia find 
their closest parallels in this Asian 
region. Heine-Geldern also sees in 
the highly stylized abstract designs 
found in the Marquesas so close a 
parallel to art styles of Chinese origin! 
that, in his opinion, they could only 
have come from some region in Asia 
where such Chinese influences had 
been encountered and absorbed. 

But to achieve any solid reconstruc- 
tion of Polynesian history, some kind 
of reliable chronology is essential. 
The whole argument of Polynesian 
origins hinges, to a considerable de- 
gree, on the date of the Polynesians 
airi\al in their |)resent homes or, to 
put it the other way round, the date 



when they left their original home. 
This date determines whether the an- 
cestors of the Polynesians were ( or 
were not) in a position to receive 
the influences that hypothetically ap- 
pear to identify their geographical 
and cultural origin. Without such 
dating, for example, it remains a 
moot question whether the ancestral 
Polynesians left the Asiatic main- 
land before or after the age of metals 
began there. The historic Polyne- 
sians, themselves, did not use metals 
in producing their artifacts or orna- 
ments for a simple reason: none was 
available in either their coral atolls 
or their volcanic islands. At least, 
they, themselves, discovered no de- 
posits, although it is claimed they 
had a native word for iron. 

TECHNOLOGICALLY, the historic 
Polynesians possessed a neolithic 
culture, using polished stone or shell 
for their hoe and adze blades. But 
unlike riiost fully-developed neolithic 
people, they were apparently unfamil- 
iar with pottery and loom weaving: at 
least, this was true when they were 
discovered by European voyagers. It 
has often been said that the Polyne- 
sians, by then, had "lost" the once- 
known art of making pottery because 
of the lack of suitable clay on their 
islands. But I have myself found abun- 
dant clay in one of the Marquesan 
valleys, and have brought back a 
sample to America. This clay is being 
turned over to a ceramics expert, in 
order to determine its suitability for 
pottery-making. It still remains pos- 



sible, however, that the ancestors of 
the Marquesans— having already "lost" 
the ceramic art— would not have rec- 
ognized the value of clay when they 
encountered it in their new home. 

Let me explain further the reason 
\ve want hard dates for Polynesia. If 
the Polynesians had, in fact, never 
reached a technological stage bevond 
the neolithic (and therefore are not 
a people who, for reasons suggested. 
relapsed from a metal-using culture 
back into the neolithic), then they 
must have left the Asiatic mainland 
or its immediate outlying parts be- 
fore the use of metal had become 
common. But this hypothesis would 
carrv the departure of their ancestors 
much further back in time than some 
scholars are now willing to believe. 

The traditional date for this jour- 
ney is generally set at around .4.0. 
500— largely on the basis of compara- 
tive study of the remarkable, oral 
genealogies found throughout Poly- 
nesia. Because these family lineages 
played a decisive role in establishing 
social status— as well as various 
rights, including those of property— 
they were carefully committed to 
memory by successive generations. 
For this reason, scholars have given 
them more weight than such oral tra- 
dition is usualh awarded. 

But, by A.D. 500. both bronze and 
iron were well known on the Asiatic 
mainland and on the principal near- 
by islands. This, and other discrep- 
ancies, have made it seem more prob- 
able to other scholars that the date 
of the Polynesians' ancestral depar- 



ture will prove to be substantially 
earlier than A.D. 500. 

In view of these considerations, 
it is not surprising that students of 
Polynesia have long felt the need for 
more precise chronological evidence 
than the study of tradition, myth and 
linguistics can supply. 

THE MOST promising way of get- 
ting reliable dates for Polynesian 
prehistory lies in radiocarbon dating. 
Recently, a small series of such C14 
dates have been determined for the 
Hawaiian Islands, New Zealand, Easter 
Island, Rapa and the Marquesas. The 
oldest thus far come from Hawaii, 
New Zealand and Easter (about A.D. 
1000 for the first two and A.D. 850 
for Easter I . Since these islands are 
generally considered peripheral— set- 
tled after the more central ones were 
inhabited— still earlier dates may be 
expected from such islands as Tahiti, 
Samoa and Tonga. These sites, more- 
over, may not be the earliest in their 
respective islands. Until more are 
available, these dates can only be 
tentative. 

In the islands to the west of Poly- 
nesia, for example, much more an- 
cient C|4 dates have already been 
established. In Fiji, one site has been 
placed at the beginning of the Chris- 
tian era. In New Caledonia, human 
occupation goes back at least to 850 
B.C. and in the Marianas, still farther 
to the west, even to about 1500 B.C. 

Thus, archeological excavations— 
by recovering the actual relics of the 
past and by providing materials for 




Present-day canoes in Polynesia, although built from 
planks rather than hollowed logs, still show variations 



in means of attaching outrigger float. This striped one 
has "indirect" system: uprights between float and booms. 

265 




Floor of cave site, on west side of Nukuhiva, was laid 
out in squares, excavated level by level. Quantities of 

266 



charcoal, for C14 analysis, were recovered from hearths. 
Mass of fine, organic dust forced diggers to wear masks. 



dating— offer the best hope of recon- 
structing the prehistory of the Poly- 
nesians. Yet archeology has come 
only lately to Polynesia. Less than a 
generation ago, there was scarcely 
an example of a real "dig" anywhere 
in this vast region. Some few in- 
stances of fortuitous excavation were 
known, and a number of caves had 
been explored but not systematically 
excavated. Since then, active work 
has been started in New Zealand and 
Hawaii, with considerable success, 
but many other important archipela- 
goes are still untouched. Surface 
structures, such as those in the Mar- 
quesas, had been described and meas- 
ured but the abundant record of man's 
occupation, buried in the ground, had 
remained undisturbed. 

IT WAS in the hope of making some 
archeological contribution to a 
better knowledge of Polynesian pre- 
history that The American Museum 
of Natural History undertook an ex- 
pedition to the Marquesas in the sum- 
mer of 1956. I have already given a 
brief account (Natural History, 
April, 1958 1 of what is known, his- 
torically, about the isolated Poly- 
nesian population that inhabited— 
and, in some remnants, still inhabits 
—that remote archipelago. Until that 
summer, however, no one. to my 
knowledge, had attempted any inves- 
tigation of Marquesan prehistory. 

At that time, Cornelius Crane, a 
part-time resident of Tahiti, a sailor 
who loves the Pacific and has a pro- 
found interest in its history, arranged 
to charter a splendid two-masted 
schooner— "Te Vega"— the use of 
which provided the Museum party 
u'ith a freedom of movement other- 
wise impossible to achieve. Since our 
expedition was limited in time, my 
assistant, Robert Suggs, departed for 
the islands ahead of our main party, 
to make a preliminary reconnaissance 
and thus save all our expeditionary 
time for the actual work of excava- 
tion. He had five or six weeks to 
track do^vn whatever leads he could 
discover from the natives familiar 
\vith every corner of their islands. 
When the "Te Vega" arrived at Hiva 
Oa. the principal island of the south- 
ern Marquesas, Bob was waiting for 
us with enough information to de- 
termine our work for the next five 
weeks. After a quick look at some of 
the outstanding structures on Hiva 
Oa and a short visit to the neighbor- 
ing and now uninhabited Eiao, we 



proceeded for Bav Marquisienne— a 
depopulated area that lies on the west 
side of Nukuhiva. 

HERE, one cave, near the beach 
and easily accessible, yielded 
evidence of occupation. Two others, 
just as promising, lav farther up the 
valley, opening onto the margin of a 
mountain stream. The setting of this 
deserted valley is idyllic. The richly- 
clothed valley sides slope sharply 
down to a clean, cool stream that 
flattens and widens out as it ap- 
proaches the pebbly beach. The bay, 
itself, is flanked by headlands that 
jut out into the illimitable Pacific— 
now hazy in the distance, now spark- 
ling with light and touched here and 
there by white sea foam from tossing 
waves. Nothing could have seemed 
more peaceful and we settled in for 
a delightful week or so. 

Our first morning of work began 
shortly after daybreak and these first 
cool hours seemed to bear out our 
expectations fully. We had not reck- 
oned, however, with the nono fly— a 
minute, insidious bane that renders 
life almost unbearable. As soon as 
the warmth of the day had wakened 
the nond's to activity, their energy 
was incessant. Clouds of them hung 
about our faces, lodged under our 
collar bands, crawled up under 
tightly bound wrists and ankles to 
reach the tender skin. Relative to 
their size, the distances thev crawled 
must have equaled miles, but nothing 
stopped them. They even explored 
our mouths, whenever opened, and 
we found them in our noses and 
around our eyes. Their mere pres- 
ence would have been trouble enough 
—and so it was to some few lucky 
ones. But to the rest of us, not en- 
dowed with some natural immunitv, 
their little bites, not felt when made, 
brought an excruciating delayed re- 
action. By the time we had returned 
to the ship, sighing with relief for a 
respite, we found ourselves covered 
with a rash of red pinpoints, each a 
deposit of agony and a focus of itch- 
ing that called for violent scratching. 
Our caves, however, proved rich 
in artifacts and even the nond's and 
the fine, organic dust— accumulated 
during ages of decay and dryness— 
could not discourage our eagerness. 
We wound cloths round our necks, 
covered our faces with gauze masks 
and continued our excavations. 

The deposits were three feet at 
their deepest, largely of organic dust. 



The people who had lived here were 
mainly maritime in their culture. We 
found a rich assortment of fishhooks 
—most cut out of pearl shell, but some 
of bone. The hooks varied in size 
and in shape, no doubt for catching 
different sorts of fish. Crustacea of 
diverse kinds were also abundant, as 
well as fish skeletons, and the hollow, 
delicate bones of birds: all serving 
to indicate the variety of these pre- 
historic Marquesans' diet. A few stone 
tools, of the usual forms, were dis- 
covered but they were not as abun- 
dant as the fishhooks. Luckily, the 
hearths contained quantities of char- 
coal which was carefully collected for 
future radiocarbon analysis, to give 
us C]4 dates for our site. Although 
it was unlikely that we would have 
hit, on our first try, one of the earli- 
est occupied sites in the Marquesas, 
the dating will nonetheless provide 
something specific in an area where 
no precontact dates are now known 
with any degree of certainty. 

OUR next job took us farther 
along the west coast of Nuku- 
hiva, to a bay called Hatuatua. Here, 
Bob had discovered a site made to 
order— a sand dune, twenty to thirty 
feet high, that fringed the concave 
beach line. From the distance, as we 
first approached, this dune looked 
like countless others. On the sea side, 
however, the tidal wave of 1946 had 
sliced the dune down its entire length 
—as if with a gigantic knife— expos- 
ing a wall studded with bleached 
bones— human, fish and bird— shells 
and various other indications of 




Author iakks JLK^ screening exca- 
vated debris from one of cave squares. 



267 



r^- 



man's former presence on this coast. 
We planned our campaign mainly 
to test the extent of this site, to sam- 
ple its content and to gather more 
charcoal or carbon material for dat- 
ing purposes. Hatuatua is a small 
and relatively dry valley, compared 
to such large rainy valleys as Taiohae 
or Taipivae. and only two or three 
families are now resident there. Our 
survey showed the extent of the pre- 
historic community to be rather 
greater than the area's present occu- 
pancy would suggest. But the ancient 
community had obviouslv been a 
maritime one— dependent on the sea's 
bounty rather than the land— and this 
may well account for its size. 

OUR test digging, incomplete as it 
was. led us to conclude tliat virtu- 
allv the entire dune had been occupied, 
a stretch of a quarter- tu a half-mile. 
One end of the dune was covered by 
dwelling sites. The other end may 
also have been used for the same pur- 
pose but, in our limited time, we 
could not explore it thoroughly. In 
any event, much of this part had been 
carried way by the same tidal wave 
that had so conveniently exposed the 
dune as an archeological storehouse. 
The middle of the dune, we dis- 
covered, had been put to a macabre 
use. Here, we found charred and split 
human bones in considerable dis- 
array—evidence that the victims of 
cannibalism had been roasted and 
their fragments tossed to one side. 
Cannibalism, as alreadv noted, was 



practiced in the Marquesas at the 
time of contact, but it has never 
been clear whether the ancient prac- 
tice was sporadic or common. The 
abundance of the fragmented and 
charred bones we found speaks for 
an ancient habitual resort to the eat- 
ing of human flesh. That these feasts 
were held in a specific place and, 
moreover, as we shall see, associated 
with ceremonial burials, suggests that 
the custom may have had ritualistic, 
as well as gustatory, significance. 

For, in this same area, we dis- 
covered a number of burials. Some 
were what are knowii as secondary 
interments— bundles of long bones, 
the lashings of which had long since 
rotted away, but still neatly held to- 
gether bv the pressure of the sand 
in which thev were placed. This sec- 
ondarv burial implies an exposure of 
the bodv to the elements before the 
bones are clean and readv for final 
disposal. Such practices are well 
known in Polynesia, as well as in 
other parts of the w orld. 

Besides these, we also found ar- 
ticulated skeletons, which had obvi- 
ouslv been buried without anv pre- 
liminary exposure. And one of these 
was the skeleton of a mature woman 
who must have been of some distinc- 
tion. She had been placed to rest 
upon the huge scapula of a whale. 
This bone platform, in turn, was sup- 
ported by a circle of six skulls, sur- 
rounding a mass of bones. The hon- 
ored lady was decorated with shell 
ornaments and a bone ear plug. As 




wV^mm ^ 




H^^-* ^ 



At dune site, sliced open by tidal below— had been exposed. Local inhab- 
wave, many bones— including cranium, itants, right, watch diggers at work. 




*'"^.««% -: . "-4, ;'««%- 



r-v^r*- 



possible further evidence that this 
central area of the dune was hallowed 
ground, we found a small monolith 
still standing. In view of our skeletal 
finds, this could well have been the 
sort of stone that Polynesians fre- 
quently set up in their maroe's— the 
sacred places where rites and cere- 
monies were observed. 

One curiositv is that, based on 
field identifications not yet checked 
in the laboratory, all the skulls we 
found were female onlv. Although 
some of the long bones were obvi- 
ously male, no male skulls were 
found. If our first observations are 
borne out by closer study, this will 
demand explanation. I have noticed 
that most, if not all. of the skulls 
found in Marquesan tree burials 




still another form of disposing of 
le dead I are male. Perhaps these 
bservations will prove to link in a 
attern of some kind. 

Of particular interest was the dis- 
overy of both dog and pig skeletons, 
he dog is supposed not to have 
2ached the Marquesas until historic 
mes. And the finding of the pig 
nder datable circumstances may 
Lirnish us with information on the 
me of distribution of this widely- 
pread oceanic animal. 

The dwelling sites, in turn, pro- 
ided us a rich array of cultural de- 
ris, generally similar to what we had 
Iready obtained from the caves. Ob- 
iously. the living conditions were 
ne same for both beach and cave 
ommunities. Whether they were con- 



temporary will not be known until 
our charcoal samples have been pro- 
cessed. And, of course, much other 
analytical work will need to be done 
before all the archeological evidence 
accumulated in our summer's work 
can be properly evaluated and its 
meaning for Marquesan, and Poly- 
nesian, prehistory be inferred. 

WE had not been long at the Ha- 
tuatua dune when we discovered 
a series of pictographs carved into the 
bedrock at the washed-away end of 
the dune. Some of these were rep- 
resentations of animal forms we 
could not identifv with certainty: 
others were what we took to be 
whales. We would not have been 
especially excited by these picto- 



graphs— such are found all through 
the islands and are virtually impos- 
sible to date— except for one circum- 
stance. As we traced out some of the 
designs, we discovered that they dis- 
appeared under an indurated con- 
crete-like layer three or four inches 
thick. Breaking up this overlay, we 
found a continuation of the designs. 
Obviously, the pictographs were cut 
before the concreted layer was de- 
posited and, therefore, had to be 
older than the overlay's formation. 
Lnder some conditions, the process 
of concretion may be fairly rapid. 
But, even if the age of this example 
proves not very great, we will at 
least be in possession of a time esti- 
mate of some sort— something that is 
sadly lacking for most pictographs. 

269 




AFTER five K( 
^ digging, we 



» 



Great stone, eight feet in height 
and width, above, is part of ancient 



wall. Terrace of neatly-dressed stone, 
below, shows Marquesan masons' skill. 



veeks of concentrate 
ve had for our labo; 
thirteen crates of artifacts and relie 
in bone, shell and stone. To the unii 
itiated eye. all this would look l\V 
the sorriest collection of refuse i 
aginable. To us, these crates re 
resent a treasure trove of inform! 
tion. We will be busy for a 1 
time still— identifying, sorting, con 
paring and interpreting our find 
Moreover, our summer's haul i 
1956 was rich enough to warrant oi 
continuation of the work. Bob Sug, 
is back in the Marquesas now. folio' 
ing up that summer's leads and e> 
ploring still further the past of thei 
remote and fascinating islands. Whe 
this, and similar work elsewhere i 
the Pacific, is finally analyzed, w 
should be much closer to the stil 
missing answers regarding the ance: 
tral origins of the Polynesians. 




Square Cl foit m stone, bi'loic. at edge of an ai)andoned 
house platform, allowed insertion of a wooden upright to 
support roof. Mn>nns worked stone with stone tool- ntWy. 



MATCinNC QioiNS cut in these corner blocks of anoilici 
platform are a further evidence of early Ma^quesan^" >kil 
in working stone. Machete is to indicate size of lilm k> 





270 




iLOWERiNG TIKI, half hidden by jungle growth, is one 
if a few still remaining out of thousands that formerly 



embellished the marae's-or sacred places-of ancient 
Marquesans. Figures range from miniatures to life-size. 

271 



I 



IN THE FICKER MANNER 

MUSICAL WIZARDRY 

ON THE WING 




'■The Recorded 

Bmydoprdia of Amenai: B/i..' •-..<,:,■ 

BIRD SONGS 
of DOORYARD, FIELD & FOREST 

. . . recoraeJ in the field lr..m M.iinc to Cali- 
fornia by the StilUclls. Vol. III. presented lor 
the lirst time, leitures 220 songs and calls ol 
68 different Weslein species. Joins Vol. 1 (13^ 
songs and calls of 49 Eailtrn species) and Vol. 
II (140 songs and calls of ■>8 Easlern species i. 
33V5. rpm 12" records. Each nins 44 minute^. 

EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I i II 

each vol $7.95 ppd. 

WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol. Ill 

$7.95 ppd. 




SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . . painstakingly "played" by using actual bird 
songs (from the famous Still well collection i 
at various speeds, just as a ci)mposer selects 
various instruments to play certain symphonic 
passages. Composed and arranged by Jim Fas- 
sett. Musical Director of CBS Radio. Side B. 
A Revelation in B/rJiong Pattern, another as 
tonishing piece of 'musical" wizardry on the 
wing! Long Playing (33** rpm t 12" record. 




WINDY CINDY 

Weathervane end Lawn Ornoment 
. . . authentic model of a giant Tiger Swallow- 
tail with natural col.ir.rg. 16 inch wingspre.^d ! 
Points into the wind and moves its wings like 
a real butterfly. Mi>unts easily on garage, 
fence, garden stake or lawn. Re'^ponds to gcnlie 
zephyr or flies out a hurricane. Aluminum. 
brass and steel fittings throughout all moving 
parts. Absolutely rustproof. Supplied with post 
for lawn and strap for side mounting. 

only $9.95 ppd. 



FICKER RECORDS 

222 ARCADIA ROAD 
OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 

Money-back Cu.iraiUie . . . In.m.diale Dclitcry! 



Reviews (continued from page 229) 

However, the reviewer is annoyed by 
the authors unquestioning presentation 
of Zwicky's early deduction that there 
are hardly more than two supernovae 
per millenium in the average galaxy. 
Tliese explosive stars are very important 
in considerations of stellar evolution for. 
in exploding and suddenly attaining a 
brightness equaling a million ordinary- 
stars, they scatter into space dust and 
gas from which new stars may fnrni. 
They are not nearly so rare as Zwicky 
suggested. In the interval from x.o. 1054 
to .4.D. 1604. three were recorded in our 
own galaxy, and the record must be very 
incomplete. Cosmic smog may hide many 
such outbursts, and tiie sky watches, 
especially in the rich southern skies, are 
very sketchy. In each of at least three 
external galaxies, we have already found 
in our records (of a few brief decades I 
twci cir more of these great explosions. 
A better estimate of their frequency 
Would be that of at least one supernova 
every twenty-five years, on the average. 
The evidence for this revised and impor- 
tant estimate is published in standard 
journals, but nevertheless the old sur- 
mise keeps cropping up. 

De ^ aucouleurs presents the modern 
theories of stellar e\olution in a cautious 
but sufficiently detailed manner, and the 
same is true for modern cosmology, 
photometry and stellar spectroscopy. It 
is a good book. And although the field is 
now occupied by several recent histories 
of astronomy, the work under review 
sliould find a welcome— largely because 
it is up-to-date and has the enthusiasm 
characteristic of an author who is. him- 
self, making some of the history. 
Reineiced by: 
Dr. H.'iRLOw Sh.\plf.y. 
H.\Rv.\RD University. 

EXOTICA-Pictorial Cyclopedia of In- 
door Plants, by .Alfred Byrd Graf. 
Roehrs, Rutherford, .V. ]., $17.50; 644 
pp., illus. 

IN America today, the "window gar- 
deners"— a label applied to people 
who grow plants anywliere indoors, from 
attic to basement— are legion. \^ indows 
with good light-exposure are the easy 
and obvious places to select but. with 
artificial light, it is both possible and 
practical to carry on gardening success- 
fully in places with no sunlight at all. 
Magazines for the specialist, with na- 
tiimal circulation, indicate substantial 
indoor cultivation of .\frican violets, 
begonias, cacti and succulents— and some 
of this culture is on a commercial basis. 
Surrounding this hard core of expe- 
rienced and realistic indoor gardeners is 
a broad fringe of willing beginners— one- 
potters or two-potters— who have made a 
"go" of it with philodendron, an ivy or 



Wildlife stories 

for young 
readers '- ^ 





THE 
ACORN TREE 

Story and Pictures by f'alenti Angela 

Bluejay had never worked so hard in ii 
life a? he did on the d;iy he decided 1 
hide all the acorns on tlie big oak tree jii 
for his own use. But his efforts turned int 
such a huge joke that even he had to laugl 
Ages 5 to 8 



ELF OWL 

By :\IARY MARSH Bl F 
UlttstratPfl by Conrad Bu^ 

The >mnlle>l ..f ;ill 
watche* de?ert life from th 
top of a large saguaro tr 
The day-by-day drama ■ 
the desert seasons and th 
lives of its creatures i- t<il 
/in enchanting prose 
pictures full of light 
beauty. Ages 7 to Ul ^ 



CHIP^IUNK TERRACE 

By JOHN OLDRIN 
Illustrated by Kurt Jf'iese 

A little girl and a chip- 
munk make friend^ 
«ith each other in the 
Round Meadow roun- 
tr>. Interesting details 
of chipmunk habits, 
and the many adven- 
tures in their lives, 
make an absorbing 
story, vividly told by 
an appreciative natur- 
alist. .4ges 8 ro 22 $2.30 

A BEAVERS STORY 

By EMIL TIERS 
Illustrated by Ray Sherin 

The fascinating and 
often amusing story 
of the domestic life 
of two beavers— how 
they brought up their 
kits: how they lived, 
and built dams and 
lodges: bow t Ii e y 
adjusted to man and 
nature. Many deliglil- 
ful illustrations. 
Ages 9 to 13 S3.00 

Send for our free. 140-page, 
illustrated catalogue 



THE 
VIKING PRESJ 

625 Madison .Avenue 
New York 22, .N. Y. 






272 



iSTKOMOMICAl TEIISCO^ES 



"S — FREE — for the asking! 

The UNITRON Catalog of 
STRONOMICAL TELESCOPES 

including the 

OBSERVERS GUIDE 



UNITOOH ««a«™rf2i«*i. 





The sample pages shown here in miniature 
only begin to hint at the wealth of facts 
and figures included in UNITRON's color- 
ful, 38-page Catalog and Observer's Guide. 
The full-page illustrated articles on astron- 
omy are crammed with helpful information 
— not readily available elsewhere — on 
observing the heavens, telescopes and their 
mountings, accessories, amateur clubs, as- 
trophotography, and the like. There is even 
a glossary of telescope and observing 
terms. Whether you ore a beginner or an 
advanced amateur you will certainly want 
a copy of this remarkable publication for 
your bookshelf. Use the handy coupon, a 
postcard, or letter to request your free 
copy of this valuable guide. 




Those who are considering the purchase of 
a telescope will find it especially worth 
while to learn more about the distinguished 
line of UNITRON Refractors and Acces- 
sories which play so important a role in 
astronomy today. For only by a careful 
comparison of the features, quality, and 
performance of different instruments can 
the prospective buyer insure that his tele- 
scope will be worthy of his investment and 
of the time he will devote to observing, 
it's truly easy to own a UNITRON. A down 
payment of only 10% puts you at the con- 
trols and you have 12 months to pay the 
balance. Full information is included in the 
UNITRON Catalog. Send today for your 
free copy. 




HINT^ lur OBSERVERS 



'J ^ 



amTPioH 



204-206 MILK ST 



BOSTON 9, MASSACHUSET 



Please rush to me at no cost or obligation a copy of th 
new UNITRON Catalog of Astronomical Telescope 

I including the Observers Guide. ^^,, 

I Name 

I Street 

City State.,.., 



SfLiciy at lioixie 
■witn tl\e 




of CMICA.GO 

FOR THE MATURE ADULT . . . interested in refrestiing, 
enlarging your frame of reference at ttie college or 
graduate level . . . here is a unique program designed 
tc provide creative recreation for the active, inquir- 
ing mind. 

NO DEGREE PEGU IREMENTS ... 150 courses for 
•jdulls . . . Maihematics to Creative Writing . . . Great 
Books to Astronomy . . , Art to Investments . . . 
Psychology to World Affairs. Whether you're self- 
educated or hold a degree... select only the 
subjects of greatest personal interest to you . . . 
study at your own pace in the comfort of your own 
home . . . earn academic credit. 

UNIOUE - INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION . . . Enjoy a 
conversaiion-by-mail wiih your personal University 
tutor, in a provocative free flow of ideas ... in 
courses like GEOGRAPHY AND WORLD AFFAIRS... 
HOW TO LOOK AT THE MOVIES , . . COMMON SENSE 
FOR THE INVESTOR. 



1*^ 



Ove 



100,000 Intel 
enjoyed the U 
3 the past 65 



sled ond Interesfir 



'ile todoy for your copy of the 

ime-Study ANNOUNCEMENTS: 

no obligation, of course. 

The Home-Study Department 
THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO 

Box NH-58, Chicago 37, III. 

The complete 
illustrated story of the 
evolution of si^ht 

by S. SUTTON-VANE 

Illustrated by Anthony Ravielli 

Beginning with the first light-sensitive 
microscopic undersea creatures, and 
continuing through the ages to the highly 
complex human eye. this fascinating 
story unfolds. The author discusses cur- 
rent changes in man's eyes and specu- 
lates on possible future developments 
when man enters space. Beautifully de- 
tailed drawings. $3.50 




Till \ IKI\<. I'RE.SS NH 

623 .Madison .\>e.. New York 22, N. Y. 

Please send me your free brochure of Viking 
Junior Science Bunks. 



Name 
.\ddress 
City 
274 




I FINEST BINOCULARS^ 
I AND TELESCOPES I 

^Postpaid by a Museum Curator, an active,:: 
S experienced field ornithologist. ^ 

I ALL TYPES and PRICES i 
LIBERAL TRADES • FREE TRIALI 

I JSartlett }{ciidricks | 

^ Binocu/or Hea6qviax\ets 5 

\ PITTSFIEID 50-Y, AAA55. \ 

; Phone 9748 ; 



explore 

f/ie ^e%\ 

by sfudying 

ifs 

paleontology 

geology 

archaeology 



boys 


14-18- 






Here 
to e 
the 


xperienc 


through 


pportunity for boys 
us introcJuctlon into 
the wilderness en- 


viror 


ment of 


Western Wyoming. Camp- | 


ing, 
fooc 


explore 


bined in 


mming and good 
to a summer month 


of a 


cJventure 


Write 


or folder. 






Flying 
Ros 


U Caravan Camp 

David Gebhard 

Rcswell IVluseum 

well. New Mexico 



BUTTERFLIES 
MOTHS-BEETLES 

5 Diff. Siam Hawk Mollis Sl.OO 

Rhinoceros Beetle, Siom 50 

Giant Cicada, Siam, 6" wing spread 1.50 

Brilliant Green Celonid Beetle 25 

20 Diff. Formoso Butterflies 1.00 

5 Diff. Formosa Beetles 1.00 

5 Diff. Siam Beetles 1.00 

5 Diff. Formosa Sphinx Moths 1.00 

Brilliant Sunset Moth, Madogastot 1.00 

Professional Butterfly Net, Nylon Bog, 3' 

Hondle, IS" Hoop 3.00 

Junior Net 1.95 

Send for FI^EE PRICE LIST of equipment 
ond thousonds of tropical insects. 

ROBERT G. WIND CO. 

702 Ocean View Avenue, Monterey, Calif. 



SEA SHELLS 

For Collectors. Thousands of species from 
over forty countries of the world. A grand 
hobby and educational too. Send your name 
today for FREE illustrated lists. 



HERMAN W. HOILINGSWORTH, Seffnc 



Fla 



some Other common house plant, and are 
ready to broaden their activity. For tliis 
group. Alfred Grafs Exotica will open 
up a fascinating vista. 

Graf's subject matter conforms closely 
to his title: this is to say that the plants 
lie describes and illustrates are intro- 
ductions from foreign lands, a great 
many of them not hardy if grown out- 
doors in a temperate climate. In brief, 
they are window-garden and greenhouse 
plants in the United States. 

It has been this reviewer's good for- 
tune not only to have seen many of these 
exotic plants in their native environment, 
but to have collected living plant mate- 
rial on several expeditions, and to have 
grown, under glass, extensive series of 
cacti, succulents, begonias, foliage plants 
and orchids. In light of this experience, 
I believe that Grafs book should be in- 
valuable not only in identifying the 
plants a grower already has but in point- 
ing his way toward future accessions. 
The popular interest in indoor plants has 
brought with it a very considerable com- 
mercial trade. Nowadays, many retail 
stores (including those once labeled 
"Five-and-Ten"s"" I have plant counters 
that offer a wide field of exploration to 
the window gardener. Many unusual and 
intriguing house plants may be discov- 
ered on a tour of these outlets. And. after 
the grower has. as it were, wet his feet 
in these shallows of the pool of plant 
wealth, he is likely to strike out for the 
depths— the large nurseries that special- 
ize in house plants. Exotica will be a 
much-used Baedeker on the trips to the 
retail stores: it will assume the stature 
of a passport to the nurseries. 

Graf, himself a commercial nursery- 
man, has sought and found co-operation 
from recognized authorities in many 
botanical fields. His own experience, 
traveling round the world in search of 
plants, and his knowledge of the condi- 
tion* luiilfr wliich *iich plants grow. 



HACKMATACK 

CAMP FOR BOYS AND GIRLS 
INTERESTED IN NATURE STUDY 



A wonderful spot for youngsters 
7-12 years of age! Here in the 
beautiful Berkshires our special 
facilities and expei^ staff is ready 
to help those interested in natural 
history subjects. 

Geology, botany, birds, conserva- 
tion, the sky, and all that lives in 
the earth, the air and water. 

Swimming, riding, shop, crafts, 
daily farm activities. Eight week 
season only. 

• Write about your child to • 

GEORGE F. DILLMAN 



-lands unique. The major portion of his 
\\nrk (over 400 pages) is devoted to a 
urll-organized series of encyclopedic 
iihistrations. headed by a "Finding List 
iM Families and Groups" and an illus- 

I I a ted key to these categories. From page 
."jl through page 497 there appears a 
solid rank of photographs— each figure 
^\^hh its proper botanical name— an array 
I he like of which is to be found in no 

III her single publication. If a group justi- 
hes illustration other than with halftone, 
line or even color may be introduced (as 
with the striking Bromeliads ) . To cite 
a few examples of the coverage in this 
the greater part of Exotica, the philo- 
ilendron is a common house plant but 
I here are 225 separate photographs of 
ihe great variety of plants within this 
genus: 61 figures are given to the ivies; 
29 pages to begonias. 

Exotica is subtitled "A Pictorial Cy- 
' hipedia of Indoor Plants," but it covers 
iuore than pictorial presentation alone. 
There are sections on plants in the home, 
decorating with plants and plant ar- 
rangements, methods of propagation and 
insect enemies. A long list of the common 
names of house plants is not only helpful 
but whimsical and revealing: some com- 
mon names are obviously descriptive and 
fitting; others have no easily-associated 
feature and it is convenient to have such 
a list for reference. An index to genera 
lists the most prominent or well-known 
species and these are figured. A key to 
the care of indoor plants discusses tem- 
perature, location, light, humidity and 
soil. There are discussions of plant 
geography and regional floras. In all, 
this is a substantial, well-built volume, 
with lavish illustration, that should be- 
come one of the most useful and admired 
references in a plant lover's library. 

Reviewed by: 

Dr. Harold E. Anthony. 

The American Museum. 



This list details the 
or other source of i 

COVER-Lee Boltin. 

228-G. Cooke engravir 
after drawing by 
A. Wilson (courtesy 
U. California Press). 

229-woodcut, after 
T. Addison Richards' 
drawing. Harper's 
Monthly, XIX, 1859 
(courtesy University 
of California Press). 

232-7-David Grose. 

238-9-Eric Hoskinl. 

240-43-paintings~By 
Guy Tudor: maps by 



photogiapher. artist, 
llustrations. by page. 

Duggan, AMNH, from 
R. E. Harrison base. 

244-5-Werner HalTer, '• 
from Three Lions. - 

245-57-''' Peter 
Haeberlin: maps 
by Duggan, AMNH. 



277 thru third cover 
Dr. F. J. Mitchell, 
South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide. 



P.^^IXT AXIt BE H.*PPY 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by Mail 

Exciting Hom^e-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

$1.00 brings irial Lesson, specify which Course 

n Landscape D Still-Life D Portraiture 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limits. 

ROLAND PIERSON PRICKETT 

Forestwind Studios, Monterey, Massachusetts 



Island in Time 




Ten miles from the mainland's 
clocks, schedules, appointments and 
deadlines lies Monhegan, an Island 
in Time, where the days are meas- 
ured by sun and tide. The Inn 
welcomes guests who enjoy tidal 
pools, land and sea birds, unusually 
varied flora— guests who appreciate 
the inner peace of quiet forests, 
shores compass'd by the voiceful 
sea, the stars for streetlights. Ad- 
vance reservations necessary. June 
2-September 8. Illustrated booklet. 
The Farrells, The Island Inn, 
Monhegan Island, Maine. 



.>, 






>^.,.^''l 



MAKE YOUR OWN 
DECORATIVE GLASS PANELS 

A bit of nature preserved forever. Flowers, 
leaves. g:rasses and butterflies are permanently 
embedded betvi'een translucent fiberglass. Use 
them for room dividers and screens or make 
lamps, bowls, trays, place mats and other fine 
accessories from the same materials. For fun 
or for money, this is a fascinating craft, easy 
to do and surprisingly inexpensive. Mail 2.5C 
for illustrated directions to Dept. E-91. 



The Castolite Co.. 



Woodstock. Illinois 



BUTTERFLY MOUNTING & COllECTING KiT 

Finest and most complete kit. Contains 15 tropi- 
cal butterflies, 4x12 spreading board, 60 glass 
headed pins, 100 insect pins, 1 chemically 
treated relaxing jar for softening butterflies, 
2 glass strips, paper strips, 1 glass top riker 
display mount, 1 pair broad point forceps, 
triangular collecting envelopes, a 16 page 
picture booklet with step by step instructions 
for mounting, dispatching, preserving butterfly 
collections plus other interesting information 
with nylon butterfly net for $4.95 post paid. 
Nylon net $1.95 post paid with instruction book. 
Free price list upon request. Many butterfly 
bargains. 

America's largest Dealer. 

BUTTERFLY ART JEWELRY, IMC. 

291 East 98ih Street, Brooklyn 12, N. Y. 



Billy 

Eagle 

Wing's 

Last 

Stand 




Billy is one of America'' s forgotten chil- 
dren. He is an American Indian, an innocent 
victim of neglect and denial ifopportunitv. As 
a youth of rune, he (ilmulv faces problems 
other boys and girls dn mil know about. His 
clothes are tattered and patched — he has no 
ivarm coat, no sturdy shoes. His health is fair 
now. but bitter cold tveather finds him vul- 
nerable to disease. 

His father, a hard-working sheepherder, 
ekes out a meager living on the reservation 
for the family. Father and mother have high 
hopes for Billy's future, for a life with 
opportunity and usefulness. But they can 
do nothing for Billy to give him a chance. 

This is Billy's last stand against the 
poverty and misery that surround him and 
darken his future. As a native American and 
inheritor of a glorious tradition, he deserves 
a chance to live and become a useful citizen. 

HOW YOU CAN HELP 

YoLi . . . vour club . . . your cias.-; , . . your 
office group . . . can help Billv or another 
needy Indian child through the Child Spon- 
sorship Plan of SAVE THE CHILDREN 
FEDERATION. For just $8 a month, $96 a 
year, you will provide "your" child with 
funds to buy warm clothing, sturdy shoes 
and other needed items. 

You will receive a case history, like the 
story of Billy Eagle Wing, and a photograph. 
You mav correspond with "your" child, so 
that your generous material aid becomes 
part of a larger gift of understanding and 
friendship. 

SCF NATIONAL SPONSORS (a partial list) 
Faith Ttaldwin. Mrs. Dwif;ht D. Eisenhower, 
James A. Farlev. Herliert Hoover. 



SAVE THE CHILDRE!^ 
FEDERATiON 

345 East 46tll St., New York 17, N.Y. 
. I would like II. s|.,.iis„r an ,\„„T,.an Iri.lian .hild for 
one year. I will pay 896.00 for one year. Enclosed is 
payment for the full year n. -^24 for the first quar- 
ter D. S8 for ihe first monlh Q. Please send me the 
child's name, slory and picture. 
. I cannot sponsor a child, but I want to help by 

"'""? ^ NH5-S 

Name 

Address 

C.lv Zone Stale 

Conlcibulions ars d.-uclible tot mcome la» purposes. 

275 



Leaw^wuitug is /ifit... 




nvith ihost* f»iluv€tii€HMttt kiis 



< — Adventure with Insects Kit 

• Nylon butterfly net 

• Forceps 

• Pocket magnifying glass 

• 117 page paperhoiind book with 
chapters on collecting, mounting, 
classification and a pictiue guide to 
insects. $3.43 postjxiid 



Adventure with Leaves Kit — >■ 

• Pad of leaf printing paper 

• 2 — *4 paintbrushes 

• Forceps 

• 3 jars washable printing inks 

• 6 decorative leaf stencils 

• 92 page paperbound book with leaf 
printing instructions, leaf print 
album and identification guide. 

$3.43 postpaid 





< — Adventure with Birds Kit 

• Pre-cut bird feeder 

• Assembly instructions 

• Wild bird seed packet 

• 93 page paperbound book with chaji- 
ters on bird watching, first aid to 
birds, bird feeding and 48 full color 
bird pictures. $3.43 postpaid 



Members are entitled to a 10% discount. Please do not send cash. 
Send your check or money order to: 

^ne f v [udeum ^nop 

^ne .American tt'luSeiim of //atiiral ^J^istoru, f [eiv Ljorh 24; 'A ty. 




Sunken eyes and serrated lids of White Dragon Lizard 
are specialized adaptations which reduce desert glare and 



exclude sand. Below are two museum specimens: holotype 
male, right, and tlie allotype female, with smaller spots. 



AUSTRALIAN ENIGMA: 
WHITE DRAGON LIZARD 



By F. J. Mitchell and H. A. Lindsay 



THE LARGEST of a series of 
huge, salt-laden depressions in the 
arid central region of South Australia, 
Lake Eyre— with an area of about 
4,000 square miles and an estimated 
watershed of 450,000 scjuare miles— is 
the focal point of the Great Australian 
Inland drainage system. The so-called 
■'lake" is surrounded by desert country 
that receives an average annual rain- 
fall of less than five inches. 

In past pluvial periods, Lake Eyre 
really was a lake— fed by large river 
systems flowing south out of Queens- 
land and the Northern Territory, as 
well as from the east and north within 




South Australia. But the gradual desic- 
cation of the Australian inland in post- 
Tertiary times has dried up these 
rivers. In the modern period, occa- 
sional floodwater, coming down these 
former river beds, has nearly always 
evaporated or been lost by seepage 
before reaching the lake. Huge sand 
ridges have built up across the lake 
mouths of most of these former rivers 
and. until 1950, it was considered 
doubtful whether water would ever 
again reach the basin. 

The scientific study of Lake Eyre 
really began in 1929, when the late 
C. T. Madigan, of the University of 

277 




•*■*. 



i 






Scientists trudge across the sand and 
salt toward horizon of Lake Eyre basin. 



Australian Museum, found that the 
new lake was contracting rapidly 
under a fierce sun : the evaporation 
was at the rate of eighty inches per 
year, and the remaining water was too 
saline to support life. Salt crusts were 
re-forming on the mud deltas left by 
the receding water: the little black ants 
and their lizard predators had aheady 
begun to repopulate the drying surface 
of the rapidly shrinking lake. 

The ability of the Eyre lizard to 
readjust itself to changing living con- 
ditions may be judged by comparing 
the coloring of specimens formerly 
taken well out on the lake by Madigan 
with those collected along the shore- 
line by the recent expeditions. Shore- 
line specimens had changed from their 
usual pale gray to a speckled pattern, 
in keeping— one might say— with the 
mottled sand bordering the lake. 

Most soft-bodied lizards possess an 
ability to vary body coloring to some 
extent. It is interesting to note the 
efficiency with which fundamentally 
similar mechanisms have developed in 
unrelated groups of lizards— like the 
chameleons, or the anoles from the 
iguanid family— for this seeming pur- 
pose of bringing their color tone into 
sympathy with their surroundings. 

Actually, color-change mechanisms 
can vary considerably, but in this case 
it appears to be a simple migration of 
pigment cells toward or away from the 
surface of the skin ; this movement de- 
pending not on the color of the sur- 
roundings, but on the stimulus of light 
and heat as they are reflected by these 
surroundings. The epidermis of the 
Eyre lizard contains a number of 
darker pigment cells, but the majority 
of these cells are normally depressed 
out of sight by the high temperatures 
and intense glare characteristic of the 
lake's barren salt wastes. When forced 
ashore by the floodwaters, the Eyre 
lizard had some vegetation for cover 
on the gray shore sands and mudflats. 
The lower intensity of the reflected 
light in this altered environment al- 
lowed some of these darker cells to 
migrate nearer to the surface of the 
skin, thus bringing the over-all color 
tone nearer to that of Tympanocryptis' 
altered surroundings. 



w: 



HEN T. maculosa was first dis- 
covered, it was thought to be a 
variation of another species of the 
genus Tympanocryp:is — T. liiieata — 
although maculosa's very pale coloring 
and smooth scalation were duly noted. 
Subsequently, however, a series of six 



pores on either side of the thigh were 
noticed. It was these femoral pores 
which, in the senior author's opinion, 
gave maculosa the right to be classed 
as a separate species, since the average 
number of such pores on a given in- 
dividual may, in general, be taken as 
a reliable guide for the identification 
of lizards in the family Agamidae. 

MUCH REMAINS to be learned about 
the origin and true relationships 
of Australia's Dragon Lizards (Aga- 
midae ) , however. Their generic or 
group classification is founded on 
variable external characters which are 
usually difficult to define and often 
show strong convergent tendencies 
from one species group to the next. 
Thus some species may possess some 
of the characters of one genus and 
some of another, making them diffi- 
cult to classify with certainty. Before 
the generic classification can be stabil- 
ized, the internal anatomy— and the 
bone structure in particular— will have 
to be carefully examined for more 
clear-cut and stable differences— dif- 
ferences less subjected to the selective 
forces which are continually bringing 
about changes in the f(.nn of these liz- 
ards' outer integument. 

Such is the problem which we face 
in trying to decide the origin and true 
relationships of maculosa. The genus 
Tympanocryptis, with which maculosa 
is now associated, is supposedly sepa- 
rable from all allied genera by the 
concealment of the tympanic mem- 
brane and the presence of only two or, 
alternately, four preanal pores. As 
already mentioned, maculosa has no 
preanal pores, but possesses a series of 
femoral pores! Furthermore, recent 
work on an allied genus. Amphibolu- 
rus—hy the senior author— resulted in 
the discovery of an apparently unde- 
scribed species in which the juveniles 
have the naked eardrum covered by a 
thin translucent layer of skin which 
develops easily discernible scales as 
the lizard grows larger. Thus we have 
an intermediary stage in the develop- 
ment of the only other character which 
defines Tympaiiocryplis. It may be 
that maculosa will ultimately prove to 
have been derived from Amphiboluius 
stock and to have developed its hidden 
ear independently. But— whatever its 
derivation— ;wac!/Zo5a is a remarkable 
instance of an animal equipped with 
very precise specializations, adapting 
it to life under the most extreme condi- 
tions, yet flexible enough to adapt to 
sudden alterations in environment. 







■v'-i- ^^ 



Lizard forages beside an anthill, above, for formicine 
ants that comprise most of its diet in this barren region. 



Changed coloring of normally pale lizard is shown below: 
after rains, light gray has given way to a mottled pattern. 




r 



i ^^ 






I nil iH (I s iiiosi Jiainalic mountains — Grant! Teton National Park, Wyo. 



Give us men to match these mountains! 



Most big mountains start with little mountains at their feet. But Nature 
wasted no time building foothills here. She put all her energy into the 
Grand Tetons themselves and there they are, thrusting up from the plain and 
strutting off against the sky. Born of earthquake and ice, they are the most 
spectacular peaks in the chain that forms our continental backbone. 

You can read about the Tetons in books: how John Colter discovered 
them in 1807, how the mountain men rendezvoused at Jackson Hole to swap 
tall tales, how conservationists made them into a great National Park. 

Now, see for yourself. Tramp the miles of wilderness trails. Wet a hook 
in the snow-fed lakes that mirrored Indian campfires. Or, as the mountain men 
liked to do, lazy around a spell for your soul's quiet peace. 

A poet wrote of the West: "Bring me men to matcli my mountains!" 
America has always answered that call, for there's a challenge in this restless, 
adventurous nation that breeds great men . . . men who dare to stand up 
against the sky itself! 



SINCLAIR SALUTES JACKSON 
HOLE PRESERVE, INC., 
founded by John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 
to conserve areas of natural beauty 
throughout the U.S. for the enjoyment 
of the public. Through the uisttoni, 
patriotism and generosity of Mr. 
Rockefeller, 30,000 acres of Jackson 
Hole were restored to their primitive 
beauty and presented to Grand Teton 
National Park. The Preserve made 
possible Jackson Hole Wildlife Park 
with its laboratory, the restoration of 
historic buildings, and many improved 
facilities for visitors. 



FREE TOUR INFORMATION If you would like to visit Grand Teton National Park, or drive 
anywhere in the U.S.A., let us help plan your trip. Write: Tour Bureau, Sinclair Oil 
Corp., 600 Fifth Ave., New York 20, N. Y.— Also ask for our colorful National Parks Map. 

ANOTHER IN SINCLAIR'S AMERICAN CONSERVATION SERIES 




June- July 1958 • 50( 



toural History 



iiiip^iii^iiipjiiijpiiiii^ 





hiOW I^^^^ Criterion's Complete, Superior 
j^0 MO^^' ' Telescope For Serious Astronomers 

The 4 Inch DYNASCOPE Reflector 



Reg. U. S. Pal. Olf. 



At an unbelievably low price! 
© O 




• With New Combination Mount And Free-Moving Polar Axis 
© 'A Parabolic Mirror! • 4-Power Finder! • Folding Tripod! 
• 3 Achromatic Eyepieces, 65X - 1 SOX - 167X 



FEATURES: 



o 

@ 



4-inch Parabolic Mirror 
Aluminized plus Zircon 
Quartz layer 

3 Eyepieces— (1 ) 65X Huygens 
(2) 130X - 167X Achromatic 
Ramsdens 



^^ Rack & Pinion Focusing 

o 





4-Power Achromatic 
Finder Scope 

New Improved C 
nation Equatorial 
Altazimuth Mou 
With Free-Moving 
Polar Axis. 



Bakelife 
Tube 



o 

WM 4'poini Tube Suspension 

Q Tripod wj'fh 

Hardwood Folding Legs 




ONLY 

$/i095 



49 



F. O. B. Hartford, Conn. 

Shipping Weight 14 lbs. 
Express charges collect 



• You will be truly amazed at the scientific accuracy and technicat 

engineering built into this complete reflecting telescope. If you were to purchase 

the ports and assemble ttiem yourself, you would spend much more than 

the unheard of tow price of this precision instrument. And in building your 

own telescope you could never hope to attain the accuracy and co-ordination 

of parts which hove been engineered into the Dynoscope. 

high resolving power of the parabolic mirror produces exquisite 

lition which clearly separates such celestial phenomena as double 

stars. The 4-inch mirror gothe-'s 'A more light than a 3y2-inch 

mirror. The Dynoscope parabolic mirror is olumlnized and then 

coated with a layer of zircon quartz for maximum protection and 

lasting use. A parabolic mirror of such quality has previously been 

obtainable only in high-priced instruments. 

• The Dynoscope assembly includes everything— there is 

absolutely nothing else to buy. There are no added charges 

for extra eyepieces— or a view finder. 

• The tripod with hardwood folding legs is fitted with position 

locks for absolute stability. Study the list of features ond you 

\ will agree that this unprecedented offer is the most generous 

and all-inclusive you have ever seen anywhere. The usual 

Criterion money-bock guarantee applies and, in fact, 

\^ if you can duplicate this instrument for less than twice 

our unheard of low price, your money will be 

refunded at once. With a precision instrument like 

the Dynoscope Reflector, production is necessarily 

limited but we con moke immediate shipment 

ol this time. Send check or money order now 

with full guarantee of satisfaction. 



NOW YOU CAN HAVE A REFLECTING TELESCOPE 
OF EXCELLENT CALIBER FOR ACCURATE 
ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATION! 



• THE ONLY TELESCOPE AVAILABLE FOR UNDER 
$75. WITH A PARABOLIC MIRROR, RACK & 
PINION FOCUS, AND 3 ACHROMATIC EYEPIECES! 



Manufacfurers and Distributors of Optical instruments 

THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

331 Church Street . Hartford 1, Connecticut, Dept. NHD-32 

Telephone: CHapel 7-1696 • Cable Address: CRICO 




CONTOUR GLOBE 




This relUf Globe shous the entire earth in 
JiTee-dimeTisions without boundaries or physical 
list<>rtio7is. 

On the attractive pale blue surface you can 
Iraw or paint, o^itlining boundaries, coloring in 
climate zones, tracing sea and airlanes — then 
vash them off and put on neiv facts. 

Accurately formed in durable plastic this globe 
•.an be lifted off its base and handled freely. 

This twelve inch relief globe with a hand spun 
iluTninum base and a large (36" x 52") colorful 

nap of the world is only $12.95 

idd S0(* for postage and handling in the United 
tates. $1.50 for abroad. 



NEED AN EXTRA BRAIN? 

With this three di- , , 



odel of the 



the 



and get a clear 
of the pans 
vhich make it up. 

Can you locate the 
lifferenl cortices or 
he thalamus, or trace 
he pyramidal tracts, 
point the pitui- 



ary 



the medulla 



Would you like to 
; able to follow arti- 
experimental 




;il iHs- 



ur NEW 3-D model of the brain helps you 

o this. Special Price (postpaid) 55.98 

BULK RATES FOR SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 
or rXIA'ERSITY BOOK STORES. 




WRIST RADIO 



Weight: 2.5 Oz. 



>2995 



A liroaJcast i)aiiJ all- 
transistor radio has been 
designed with RF reflex 
circuit to provide good 



of i 



age 



from 6 inches to 3 feet. 
"he use of transistors makes it a rugged device not 
ubjected to tube breakage. Rugged high quality com- 
onents are used throughout. Normalb" the transistor will 
lOt have to be replaced for the life of the instrument, 
nomy of operation is obtained 
il circuitry requiring very low c 
rolonging the life of the mercury cells. The small size 
lakes it the ideal radio. It can be worn on the wrist 
here it easily fits under the sleeve of a jacket or worn 
1 a shirt pocket. 

$29.95 postpaid 



WATERPROOF STOP WATCHES 




These beautiful Ge 



addition 



oof. sho 
cted 



ith 



proof, and dust prote 
unbreakable mainsprings. Meas- 
uring time in tenths of a second 
they are ideal for research, ath- 
letic events, or production tim- 
ing. Extremely light weight they 
are accurate far beyond their cost 
giving the value of nauch more 
expensive instruments. 
V limited quantity available at $15.95 

postpaid 




GENIAC^^ in Assembly Rack 



HICH GROUP ARE YOU IN? 

□ ENGINEER OR RESEARCH WORKER who 

wants to learn more about the appli- 
cation of computers to his problems. 
I I TEACHER in high school or college who 
needs laboratory or demonstration ma- 
terial on computers. 

□ SCIENTIFIC AMATEUR who wonts to 

learn about computers but doesn't 
know how to begin. 
n INVETERATE GADGETEER 
I j STUDENT impatient for teachers to begin. 
LJ FAMILY MAN who wants some fun with 
his kids. 
THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE FROM THESE GROUPS HAVE BOUGHT AND ENJOYED GENIAC®, 
THE ELECTRIC BRAIN CONSTRUCTION KIT. 

THE MANUALS are o survey of the applications of symbolic logic in reducing various prob- 
lems to repetitive machine solution. We explain the theory and illustrate with complete 
wiring diagrams. 

THE 100 PAGE TEXT gives an overview of the whole computer field. 

THE KIT OF MATERIALS contains over 400 parts, switches, all wire and tools necessary for 
building and designing over 50 different computing game playing, problem solving circuits. 
YOU benefit from the experience of thousands of users incorporated in the latest revised 
manual. 

VI^E GUARANTEE ABSOLUTELY that unless you ore completely satisfied with your GENIAC*' 
kit, you may ship it back to us within 7 days and we will return your money. 

SEND NOW! ONLY $19,95 POSTPAID 




COSMOTRON 

• MINIATURE ATOM 

SMASHER 

• PRODUCES 75,000 

VOLTS 

• ABSOLUTELY 

SAFE 



In no sense of the word a toy or a gadget. The 
COSMOTRON is a scientific instrument capable of pro- 
ducing 75.000 volts — makes sparks up to 2" long — yet is 
absoluleb" safe because the current is infinitesimal. The 
science teacher — science lover — or hobbyist can perform 
experiments to astound students — friends— famib". Makes 
smoke disappear — defies gravity — turns propellers at a 
distance — transforms atomic energy into light — makes 
artificial lightning — smashes atoms — demonstrates ionic 
space ship drive — and many other experiments. Con- 
structed of the finest materials. Will do exactly— for 
instruction purposes — what generators that cost 3 to 10 
times more will do. The perfect device to teach the 
secrets of atomic phj'sics and electricity. Will hold an 
audience spellbound as it performs trick after amazing 
trick. Includes an experiment kit and illustrated experi- 
ment manual. Manual e.xplains the "how" and "why." 
You will invent many new experiments of your own. A 
fine research tool that will give years of beneficial 
service to the institution or individual who owns one. 
In kit furm or assembled. 

Kit form $14.95 

Assembled $19.95 

For either, add 80c for postage and 

handling in U. S.; $1.00 abroad. 

Use coupon below to order. 




A 66-inch Slide-rule 
for your pocket 




Slide 
You I 
are n 



ot 



The GENIAC® Calculator 
carries 66-incb spiral scales 
yet measures only ten inches 
fully extended and six inches 
when closed- Four to five fig- 
ure accuracy can be relied 
on. It is indispensable to the 
icientist, research worker and 
student. Administrative staff 
and business men vfill find it 
of tremendous value for n 
host of estimating and check- 
ing calculations. 

The GE.N'IAC® Slide Rule 
solves multiplication, division, 
percentage calculation and 
Open gives 5 place logarithms. 

use it for 30 days and if you 
tisfled repack and mail it back. 



What our users soy: 
"It does all you claim — four 
or five figure accuracy with- 
out eyestrain or magnifiers. 
Half an hour's study is am- 
ple for its use." A.E.B. . . . 
■'I use the GENIAC Cal- 
culator for all my slide rule 
^ork and need the extra digit 
which normal slide rules can- 
not give. I had to get one of 
my customers a GENIAC 
Slide Ttule last month, after 
using mineinhisoffice." E. & 
G.H. Textile Manufactun 



Slide Rule Closed 



Send lor yours now — Only $19.95 postpaid. 

Oliver Garfield Co., Inc., 

126 Lexington Ave., New York U, N. Y. 



OLIVER GARFIELD Co., Inc., Dept. NA-68-E, 108 E. 16th St., New York 3, 

Please send me; (N.Y.C. Residents odd 3% City Sol 

1 GENIAC Electric Brain Construction Kit and Manual 

$19.95 (East of Miss.) $20.95 (West of Miss.) $21.95 (Outside th 

1 GENIAC Slide Rule. $19.95 

1 WATERPROOF Stop Watch $15.95 1 3-Dimensional Brain $5.98 

1 ATOMOTRON Miniature Atom Smasher and Manual. 1 Wrist Radio $29.95. 

$19.95 (Completely assembled) $14.95 (in kit form) Relief Globe, 

(for G/ofae or Alomofron, add 80c for postage and handling in U.S.; SI. 00 abroad.) 

Nome 



N. Y. 

es Tox) 



Vol. LXVII 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Magazine of The American IMuseum of JNatural History 



No. 6 



Alexander M. White 
President 



Albert E. Parr 
Director 



Walter F. Meister 
Deputy Director 



John Plrcell 
Editor 



Editorial Advisers 
Gerard Piel 
Fritz Goro 
John- Kieran 
Charles Tudor 



Scientific Advisers 
Franklyn Branley John Saunders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Gordon Ekholm Richard Van Gelder 

Jack McCormick 



Editorial Staff 

Robert Williaiison 

Jerrold Lanes 

Margaret Matthews 

Henry Neely 



June— July 1958 



Letters 



Reviews 

Man as a Hunter Part I 

Sky Reporter 

A Summer Star Guide 

Tyto alba Part II 
Marksman of the Darkness 

A Misspent Youth 

Art of Aboriginal A:\ierica 

Trees' Tales 



338 

284 

John :\Iarshall 291 

K. L. Franklin 310 

Henry M. Neely 312 

Roger S. Payne and 
William H.Drury, Jr. 316 

Charles Darwin 324 

Photoiiraphs by Charles Uht 330 

From the Museum's 

new exhibit 341 



Publication Office: 
American Museum of Natural History. Central Park West at 79th St., New York 24, N. Y. 

Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circidation Manager, The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park \^ est 

at 79th Street, New York 24, N. Y. 



You will find Natuhal History Macazi: 
Natural History is published ten limes 
Hislory, Central Park West al 79lh Strc 
ID Canada, Newfoundland, and all fore 
at the Post Office at New York, under tl 
Natural History. Manuscripts and illusti 



indexed in Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature in your library, 
year, at New York 21, N. Y., by The American Museum of Natural 
Subscription is S5.00 a year, single copies fifty cents. Subscription 
. countries is $5.50. Entered as second class matter March 9, 1936, 



of .August 24, 1912. Copyright 1958, by The Amei 
s submitted to the editorial office will be handled 
ume responsibility for their safety. 



1 of 
but 




The two hunters, above, standing in 
still wary triumph over tlieir quarry, are 
practitioners of a dying craft that is as 
old as man's own history. The game they 
can kill— together with the berries, roots 
and nuts that they and their wives can 
gather— provides their only form of suste- 
nance in the barren desert of the Kalahari 
Basin. Thus, these hunters are not to be 
confused «ith today's sportsmen, nor 
should those who view the modern hunter 
as a sort of ogre extend their condem- 
nation to include the Bushmen, here, or 
the dwindling numbers of other hunting 
peoples who still survive. 

The unique story of the Bushmen- 
gathered in a .-eries of expeditions to the 
Kalahari by Harvard's Peabody Museum- 
will appear in serial form in Natural 
History. Part I begins on page 291. 



The American Museum is open to the Public every dav in the year without charge: 
Your support of the Museum makes this possible. 



'i 




ACCEPT THESE 2 REMARKABLE WORKS AS 
A FREE GIFT ON JOINING THE SCIENCE BOOK CLUB 



The launching of satellites into outer space has hurtled 
nankind into the cosmic age most people thought they would 
lever live to see. Now, as the wonders of science are trans- 
orming the world we inhabit, more and more thinking people 
and it important to learn about the swiftly changing scientific 
scene. 

In Rockets, Missiles & Space Travel, Willy Ley — 
')ioneer in rocket research since 1924 and one of the world's 
eading authorities on space travel— provides a dramatic and 



highly readable background on rocketry and interplanetary 
exploration (with some daring predictions) in what The Sci- 
entific Monthly calls "the definitive book about the subject." 
In The Conquest of Space, Mr. Ley has collaborated with 
Chesley Bonestell, astronomer and artist, to portray the uni- 
verse future generations will visit— with striking and astro- 
nomically accurate paintings of what they may expect to see 
on the ice-caps of Mars, the mountains of the moon, the 
molten continents of Mercury. . . . 



Accept these two remarkable works as your free gifts on joining, and choose 
a third book from the other fine volumes shown below as your first Selection. 
For these — or any other three works of your choice — total list value up to 
$21.75— you are billed only $3.89. Thereafter, as a member,you need take as 
few as 3 more selections at reduced Member's Prices during the next 12 months. 




MATHEMATICS IN 
VESTERN CULTURE 

iy Morris Kline. "A genuine 
ontribution to our under- 
tanding of the nature of 
nathematics." 

—Scientific American 
.1ST PRICE $7.50 
HE LAWS OF NATURE 
ty R. E. Peierls. "Remarkable 
isight into the logic and unity 
f physics ... A splendid 
ook." Scientific American. 
1ST PRICE $4.50 



ELECTRONS, WAVES 
AND MESSAGES 

By John R. Pierce. The art and 
science of modern electronics 
and electronic communication. 
LIST PRICE $5.00 

THE INTERPRETATION 
OF DREAMS 

By Sigmund Freud. The great 

work which is the foundation 

of all modern psychoanalytic 

science. 

LIST PRICE $7.50 



A TREASURY OF SCIENCE 

Ed. by Harlow Shapley and 
others. 724-page panorama of 
scientific development by 75 
leading scientists. 
LIST PRICE $5.95 

WHAT IS SCIENCE? 

Ed. by James R. Newman. The 
nature of science and the sci- 
entific outlook, by 12 outstand- 
ing thinkers. 
LIST PRICE $5.95 



ococoooooooooooooooooooooccoooo 

o o 

o o 

C Science JSook Clvib, Inc. q 

o o 

O 63 Fourth Avenue, New York 3, N. Y nh6S q 
O O 

O Please enroll me as a member and send me the O 
C three volumes I have checked — two as my Gift g 
Q Books on joining, and the third as my first Selec- q 
O tion, all at the Introductory Member's Price of O 
9 $3.89 (plus postage). As a member, I need take S 
O as few as 3 more Selections during the next 12 q 
O months, always at reduced Member's Prices; and O 
^ each time I start a new series of four Selections ^ 
O I will receive a Free Bonus Book. 



O Q Rockets, Missiles 

O & Space Travel 

o 

Q n The Conquest of Space 

^ G Mathematics in Western 
^ Culture 

O n The Laws of Nature 

O 

C 

o 



n Electrons, Waves & 
Messages 



n A Treasury of Science 
n What is Science? 



O Name C 

o o 

O Address 6 



Q 
O 

O 

O City Zone. 

C 
C 



Mail this Coupon for Your 2 ^''^e Books on Joining ooofcoooocoooooco©oocooooc&u:.( 



jOfX) 



\ 







Reviews 



A SELECTION OF SUMMER READING FOR YOUNG PEOPLE 



ryl 



IHE SEASON of summer vacation is 
J. upon the young people, and, with it, 
comes the prospect of long, leisure hours. 
As is the custom of Natural History, 
Senior, at this time, we turn to Junior 
Natural History for summer-reading 
suggestions for children. Herewith, then. 
Junior's list of books in the field of 
science that are deserving of chronicle 
on their own account and that may also, 
happily, lead the young ones away from 
the television corner into the light of day. 

GENERAL 

With so much activity at the top and 
bottom of our globe we found The Arctic 
Tundra, by Delia Goetz (Morrow), of 
particular interest. It tells of weather 
conditions, plant and animal life; of 
Eskimo, Lapp and other ethnic groups 
living there. $2.50, 64 pp., well illus- 
trated ; ages 9-14. 

For those interested in discoveries 
closer to home, Science in Your Own 
Backyard, by Elizabeth K. Cooper (Har- 
couRT, Brace), is the answer. Many 
simple yet fascinating experiments are 
suggested for easy doing. $3.00, 192 pp., 
indexed, line drawings: ages 8-14. 

The First Days of the World, by 
Gerald Ames and Rose Wyler (Harper) , 
is among the few children's books that 
try to convey solid scientific informa- 
tion — and succeed in the attempt. It 
describes the origin of the earth from 
elemental gases, the development of the 
first living cells in the earth's original 
atmosphere, and the evolution of higher 
organisms, animals and plants. $2.95, 
48 pp., excellently illustrated; ages 9-12. 

A companion book. The First People 
of The World, by the same authors and 
publishers, maintains the same level of 
interest. It recounts the descent of man 
and his cultural change from hunter to 
farmer, along with his increasing mas- 
tery of tool-making. It has the identical 
price, illustrator and number of pages 
as the previous book. 

ZOOLOGY: 
PAST AND PRESENT 

Coming from the past to the present, 
we meet some animals living today in All 
About Strange Beasts Of The Present, 




Eai;l\ iilmli;s, jar lujl, tpcar g.ime at 
water hole: Weisgard drawing from Ames 
and Wyler's First People in the World. 



Ckaiiimi A-ND cla.ms. uboic, are iM.Utini 
residents: illustration by Lubell. from 
Millicent Selsam's See Through the Lake. 



28s 



Islandin Time 




Ten miles from the mainland's 
clocks, schedules, appointments and 
deadhnes lies Monhegan, an Island 
in Time, where the days are meas- 
ured by sun and tide. The Inn 
welcomes guests who enjoy tidal 
pools, land and sea birds, unusually 
varied flora— guests who appreciate 
the inner peace of quiet forests, 
shores compassd by tlie voiceful 
sea, the stars for streetiights. Ad- 
vance reservations necessary. June 
2-September 8. Illustrated booklet. 
Tin- Farrells, The Island Inn, 
Monhegan Island, Maine. 




I'kck oRnER OF FOWL, shown in sequence 
f:i<liion iibove. is another illustration 
!)> \\ illiam Berry, from ^ inson Brown's 
\cilume. Hoic to I nderstnnd Animal Talk. 



Pair of sketches, below, show cycle of 
insect, from egg to adult, left, and a 
bean's growth, from seed to pod. right. 
From Science in Your Oun Back Yard. 






METAL AMMALS OF YESTERDAY - ROYAL BROXZE FIMSH 

A menagerie of 10, averaging 3 inches, $1.00 each. Larger size averaging 6 inches in length, $2.00 each. 
A small booklet is included with each prehistoric animal telling its story 

ROYAL BROi\%E 



Mail Order Only 



225 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK 10, N. Y. 

Dealers and Museums — Write for Wholesale Prices 



an adventure into the various levels of a 
lake and tells of its very special com- 
munity of living things. S2.50. pp. un- 
numbered, many illustrations, ages 8-11. 
Ponds are interesting also vfhen we 
read Pets From The Pond, by Margaret 
Waring Buck (Abinxdon). Information 
on how to house and care for such crea- 
tures as turtles, salamanders, water in- 
sects, snails and frogs found in a pond 
are clearly given, as is information on 
their life cycles. $3.00, 71 pp., indexed, 
ages 8 and up. 

BIRDS 

Rare is the word for a whooping crane, 
so it was with real interest that we read 
Old Bill. The Whooping Crane, by 
Joseph Wharton Lippincott (J. B. Lip- 
pincott). Here is an authentic and com- 
plete little book on these wonderful 
birds. $3.00, 176 pp., line drawings and 
photographs; ages 12 and up. 

Ostriches, by Herbert S. Zim (Mor- 
row), will answer many questions pro- 
voked by visits to a zoo that contains 
ostriches. $2.50. 64 pp.. illustrated with 
many line drawings; ages 8-12. 

BOTANY 

How Does A Garden Grow, by Ann 
Towson Brown (Dutton), is a guide to 
successful gardening for the beginner. 
The book begins with a planned garden 
on paper, goes from indoor planting to 
outdoors and the care needed. Graphic, 
step-by-step photographs accompany the 
text and make an excellent book; one to 
be added to every young reader's book- 
shelf. $2.50, 48 pp., ages 10-14. 



PAI!VT Ai\» BE ll.-VPPY 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by Mail 

Exciting Hon^e-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

$1.00 brings irial Lesson, specify which Course 

D Landscape D Still-Life n Portraiture 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limits. 

ROLAND PIERSON PRICKETT 

Forestwind Studios, Monterey, Massachusetts 



FAMILY FUN BEGINS WITH 



1^ ^"^ 




SI. 50. Order 

" VHEAD M ■ 

complete i 



rt'head. leath- 



E ARROW 
materials, c 
S2.00. Master 



FICKER FAVORITES! 



HEROES, HEROINES & MISHAPS 

. . . historic American folk ballads and songs 
from Colonial days to the Titanic sinking! Yes, 
you're bound to chuckle . . . you're apt to cry 
. . . you're sure to rave about the trials and 
tribulations of young Anierica on the move in 
HEROES, HEROINES & MISHAPS! All this 
made possible through the dynamic voice and 
personality of John Allison, famous folk song 
balladeer. Solemn, satirical and comic— H, H & 
M represents much in the kaleidoscopic pattern 
of American history. You will gather this by 
listening to delightful Revolutionary antiques 
like Major John Andre's "Cow Chase", and 
to early 20th Century urban braggadocio in 
"The Bowery Grenadiers". Long playing (33V5 
rpm) 12" record. 



on 



ly $4.98 ppd. 





SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . . painstakingly 'played' by using actual bird 
songs (from the famous Stillwell collection) 
at various speeds, just as a composer selects 
various instruments to play certairi symphc 
passages. Composed 
sett, 

A R - _ 

tonishing piece of 



,._. _,.,.p„o.„ -..« ....anged by Jim Fas- 
vtusical Director of CBS Radio. Side B, 
- ■" BirJsong Pattern, anotfier as- 
dry on the 



roniSning piece Oi uiUMcai vvi,;aiuiy u,i tijc 

wing! Long Playing (35% rpm) 12" record. 

only $5.95 ppd. 



BIRD SONGS 
of DOORYARD, FIELD & FOREST 

. . . recorded in the field from Maine to Cali- 
fornia by the Stillwells. Vol. Ill, presented for 
the first time, features 220 songs and calls of 
68 different Western species. Joins Vol. I (135 
songs and calls of 49 Eastern species) and Vol. 
II (140 songs and calls of 58 Eastern species). 
331/5 rpm 12" records. Each runs 44 minutes. 

EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I & II 

each vol. $7.95 ppd. 
WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol. Ill 

$7.95 ppd. 




"The Recorded 

Encyclopedia of American Bird Songs" 




ALEC TEMPLETON 
and his MUSIC BOXES 

... on a snigle record, the charming and 
incomparable music of Alec Templeton's famed 
collection of rare music boxes! 45 different, 
delightful tunes including popular folk songs, 
cherished operatic selections and minuets. 
Highest fidelity, a masterpiece of reproduction. 
Long playing. 33V3 rpm. Also available on 45 
rpm, same price! 



just $5.95 ppd. 






WINDY CINDY 



Weathe 

. . . authentic model of 
tail with natural col 



id La 



Ornament 

jiant Tiger Swallow- 
tail with natural coloring. 16 inch wingspread ! 
Points into the wind and moves its wings like 
a real butterfly. Mounts easily on garage, 
fence, garden stake or lawn. Responds to gentle 
zephyr or flies out a hurricane. Aluminum, 
brass and steel fittings throughout all moving 
parts. Absolutely rustproof. Supplied with post 
for lawn and strap for side mounting. 

only $9.95 ppd. 




bt^.^^^,1^ 



FICKER RECORDS 



223 ARCADIA ROAD 

Aioiiey-back Guarantee 



OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 

Immediate Delivery! 



289 



Facts and artifacts of Africa 



Bird Letter Opener 

Equally at home on a desk or mounted on a wall, this 
graceful letter opener with a bird handle was hand- 
carved of ebony by native carvers of Tanganyika. 
Each letter opener is about 10 inches long and 
polished a glossy black. 

.50 postpaid 





Masai Warrior 

Complete with metal necklace 
and earrings, this handcarved 
Masai warrior will be a welcome 
addition to a collection or quite 
possibly, the start of a new one. 
It stands about 9 inches high to 
the tip of its feathery headdress. 
They are handcarved of ebony 
by native carvers of Kenya and 
no two are exactly alike. Each 
piece has a slight variation in 
style and size. 

$2.25 postpaid 



African Tribal Map 

repared by Mr. Bruce Hunter, of the Public 

istruction Dept. of the American Museum of 

atural History, this map depicts the distribution 

of over 1000 different tribes. An explanatory 

booklet lists the tribal names and their numerical 

equivalents found on the map. The map is printed 

in red and black and measures 28 x 34 inches. 

$2.35 postpaid 




Members are entitled to a 10% 
discount. Please do not send cash. 
Send your check or money order to : 



5Lm 



^ noi 



ZJhe American HluSeum of I laturaU4islorij, I lew IJorli 24, H- IJ- 



Second in Natural History's series on environmental extrej 



"^^^^^*%i.. 




P 



^m^i 




MAN 
ASA 



By John Marshall 







i^^^r^^ 



X.. 









^^r'tl 



*■ •> 



i^Cf^i 



t'*\^ 



■4.t' 



■^0^ 



^ 



If 



-'1,'»- 



-V 







Hunting is mankind's oldest — and least 
rewarding —way of life. Among its last 
practitioners are the Kalahari Bushmen 



Part I 




A PEOPLE, small of stature, few 
in numbers, calling themselves 
"IKung," but who are called "Bush- 
men' by others, live today in a tre- 
mendous depression, half-a-continent 
wide and sunken in the southern 
African plateau— by name, the Kala- 
hari Desert Basin. They live on the 
huge floor of this Basin, near one of its 
imperceptible sides. It is an open land 
—large to the point of vagueness, 
under a limitless sky. There is a word 
used frequently by the other inhabit- 
ants of this Basin— mostly black- 
skinned peoples— to define the differ- 
ent cultural groups now living there. 
The word is "nation. ' One speaks of 
the Herero nation, the Chuana na- 
tions, the Okavango nations. To fol- 
low this usage, one would speak of 
the !Kung nation of Nyae Nyae— one 
among several Bushmen nations. [The 
prefix, ( ! I , indicates one of the so- 



called "clicks" that mark the speech 
of the Bushmen. Distinction is made 
between four classes of "click": the 
dental ( / ) , lateral ( // ) , palatal ( ^ ) , 
and alveolar ( ! )— Ed.] 

But "nation" is a new word, re- 
cently arisen in the vocabulary of a 
country whose people are struggling 
to define themselves in present times. 
The !Kung, who know who they are, 
do not yet need it. For, besides IKung, 
which they use rarely, they call them- 
selves Dzu/oassi. Dzu/oassi can be 
interpreted as "the people" in opposi- 
tion to "the animals," for example, or 
as "the perfect people," or, indeed, 
as "the only people." 

Unlike other nations, the Bushmen 
practice no agriculture, domesticate 
no animals. They are hunting and 
gathering peoples. But all the nations 
—Bushmen, Bantu and white alike— 
who live in the Kalahari Basin must 



!KuNC band's camp, left, is set up in 
shelter of overhanging trees. The thou- 
sand IKung in this area are divided 
into twenty-eight such nomadic bands. 



Worldly goods of a IKung family are 
arrayed, above, preparatory to moving 
camp. The number of belongings can- 
not exceed family's carrying capacity. 



293 



^ - --L S>^. iV' . 'i 



•^..<.,'iy^!/ 



gtmrn 






Trees and shrubs of campsite provide ronvenieiu lacks 
for family possessions, and even partial support for the 



sketchy skeruis (screens) huih in the dry winter, above, 
little more than bunches of grass caught on a few sticks. 




Collection of food, in contrast to hunting, is women's 
work among the !Kung. Almost every day, they leave camp 

294 



to gather veldkos (roots, berries, nuts and the smallest 
animals) in the wild bush. The basic tool is the digging 



face its exigencies, for this sand-filled 
dejiiession is distantly rimmed by 
niiiuntains, and the mountains catch 
most of the clouds that might other- 
wise bring rain. The rain that does 
fall is sucked into the sand, so that 
there is little surface water and much 
of the Kalahari Basin is true desert. 

ALTHOUGH true desert, the Kalahari 
is not a bare place: the face of the 
sand is hidden. Much of the desert is 
clothed with stalwart, similar bushes, 
most of them thorned. In places, dry 
forests grow slowly: the trees stand 
apart and the air between them is 
strangel)' still on days of wind. Grass 
covers the sand: in sweeps on the dry 
I plains, in glens in the bush; grass 
{ grows on dunes gathered long ago by 
1 patient wind, and in the silent valleys, 
1 called omurambas. In a younger, 
greener time that has come and gone 
since man first lived in southern 



Africa, these valleys once flowed— 
draining water from the high edges 
into the Basin. Now the sand has 
wandered into these valleys also. 

There are four seasons in the Kala- 
hari, two are brief. Winter begins in 
May and lasts through September. It 
is a healthful season. Of the foods 
available to gatherers in w inter, roots 
are the most abundant. The earth is 
dry: the days are warm and clear, but 
cold in the shade; the nights are chill. 
Temperatures sink to 20° F. and be- 
low when the night wind turns, blow- 
ing from the antarctic south. On some 
hazeless nights, when the empty air 
seems insufficient protection from the 
cold of space, the morning ground 
will be wet with heavy de^v. However, 
the smoke from a thousand African 
veld fires often thickens the skies of 
noon, reddens the setting sun and keeps 
the nights warmer and the earth dry. 

At the end of September, clouds be- 




2?^ 



For rainy season, the open 
grass shelters are more sub 



fronted 
stantial. 




jtiik. lujhiuaeil b) llie man of the la 

branch. Children soon learn, by watching, to identify more 



lliuii a hundred edible wild plant?, Abuie, four women, 
one with a voung child, set off across the veld for food. 



295 




V 

I t 



V 




Mosi KOOTS are dug up for food, liut 
the ones held out, above, are valued 



gin to tower in the afternoons. They 
wear over the desert from the east 
and are usually gone by morning. But 
should they encounter the right con- 
ditions, the local rains that fall from , 
these clouds— the "little rains"— bring 
the spring of the year. This is the sud- 
den season of thunderstorms. The 
storms are like gods walking in the 
desert, each attending to a narrow 
jiath with violence and rain. In the 
quiet, after their passing. man\ plants 
bloom— small flowers and edible greens. 



IKl'NC MOTHER, collecling near camp, 
cradles a suckling daughter in a fold 

296 



of her skin kaross, while her toddler 
son carries along a stick of his own. 



SPRING is 
Myriad 



also the season of heat. 
ads of flies, the year's crop, 
now hatch. The heat increases toward 








fc^vl' 



K"^-/ 



\->-Kt'?^^ 



^ 






for their bark. When it is powdered 
and rubbed on, it turns the skin red. 



Little escapes the women's eyes in 
their intense search for food, below. 



Even small animals — like turtles and 
grasshoppers — are carefully gathered. 



summer and, although clouds continue 
to form early in the afternoon, often 
no rain falls. November and December 
pass in heat and privation for the peo- 
ple. Temperatures rise above 100° F. 
not long after the brief dawn, as the 
sun mounts, close and huge, bringing 
the heat of day. Many of the blooms of 
the "little rains" wither in Novem- 
ber, as do many young greens. The 
roots have sent their substance into 
vines; now the loose skins of the roots 
lie collapsed around inedible fiber. 
Spring means blooming of plants, but 
spring is ardent and quickly over: 
many of the desert's flowers have only 
a few days in which to flourish. 





But ace comes soon: bracelets, beads and pendants that 
adorn this mature !Kung matron contrast with seamed face. 

298 



Despite desert rigors, the children's lives are relaxed 
ones, largely lacking in formal instruction and without 



,-.'>».l 






...V^^ 






i^V-" 











f«^ 



.; '-^'^tlii^t; 



^At^ 



fec 



,»*^*:f i 



«£ 






Drganized pressure on tlie young to assume an adult role. 
Eere, a gathering of children from one !Kung camp enjoy 



themselves in the shade of a tree— one swinging, others 
scampering, "follow-the-leader" fashion, in the branches. 

299 



LATE in December or early in Janu- 
j ary the rains of summer— the "big 
rains"— begin. This is the season of 
water. Water collects in the hollows 
of the land; it seeps into the pans, 
changing them into shallow lakes; it 
melts the baked clay in the omuramba 
bottoms, and turns the Kalahari green. 
This is the season when two nuts, 
the tsi and the inangetti— the most im- 
portant and abundant of the wild 
desert foods— begin to mature. By 
March, the niangetti forests sound with 
the falling nuts. Beside the summer 
storms— when water piles up uselessly 
on the reverberating earth— days on 
end are cloudy and, sometimes, a fine 
mist falls over parts of the north- 
ern Kalahari through the day and into 
the night. Now, the people eat many 
fruits. In the deeps of green thickets, 
ponderous flowers droop on slender 
vines. Spring and summer, the times of 
bounty, are also the seasons of disease. 
By the end of April, the afternoon 
skies begin to clear, the air dries, the 
wind seeks. It is autumn. In April, 
the tsi nuts ripen and the pods split, 
turning out their brown wealth. The 
many desert roots cease their activity 
and become firm and full, safe in 




Water is key to life in the Kalahari: 
in all the !Kung territory, there are 



only ten permanent waterholes. Above, 
a man fills his ostrich-egg "bottle." 




The summer R4ins, from January to 
April, bring water to the desert pans 



for a time and allow the IKung luxury, 
left. For the rest of the year, above. 



they fill their eggshells from perma- 
nent waterholes, dig for water roots. 



301 




■--r^?"^ 



Fewness of numbers in desert's vast 
expanse may help account for character- 



i.-lic IKung habit of huddling together 
in company, as in case of this group 



of children, above. Ittui- ui l,^r^onal 
adornment — eggshell disks, often in 




Huddling habit is noticeable again 
in this gathering of women and chil- 



dren at a !Kung!<'er/f. Well-ornamented 
child, foreground, Is still at breast. 



tliemselves for the winter and in a 
state most suitable for food. The desert 
pales. Day and night, water evapor- 
ates from the pans: first becoming a 
film, then less than a film, with only 
the damp clav glistening. One noon, 
the clay begins to wrinkle in the sun. 
By June, the earth is dry: the land is 
fast and quietly held by winter. 

Such would be a perfect romid of 
seasons. In the periods of drought 
that have come every few years in the 
recent past, however, there have been 
no such perfect seasons and all living 
things have, of necessity, fastened 
tenaciously to the drying earth and 
held on. Even in normal years, the 
weather is unbalanced: large areas of 
the Kalahari may be flooded, while 
others receive a sprinkling of rain in 
what amounts to drought conditions. 
In this land, and through these sea- 
sons, the IKung nation lives. 

THE .\RE.\ in which the IKung now 
live is called A'yae Nyae. How 
long they have lived there is not 



302 




known. At one time, Bushmen lived 
throughout Africa from as far north as 
Angola and Tanganyika to, southward, 
the Cape of Good Hope. This was 
a time when few peoples shared that 
part of the continent. In southern 
Africa, beside the many Bushmen 
nations, there were Hottentots and 
pre-Bantu Negroes— some of whom 
were hunters and some of whom prac- 
ticed agriculture. In the distances be- 
tween the nations grew years of peace. 
About five centuries ago, larger, 
stronger, Bantu-speaking peoples, who 
had cattle to pasture, entered southern 
Africa from the north. They came in 
two prongs, like the horns of a bull, 
prodding down the eastern and west- 
ern highlands. In search of grazing 
md, these Bantus were themselves 
driven south by defeat in wars then 
current on the plains of East Africa. 
The established peoples of the south— 
the Bushmen, the Hottentots and pre- 
Bantus— were dislocated by this push 
and began to move, themselves. This 
flux has yet to come completely to rest. 



Young couple stands, shyly smiling, the !Kung, as in the case here, often 
at outskirts of werft. Marriage among occurs before the girls reach puberty. 




Skin kaross, being stitched, above, 
i? the IKung's most important garment, 



vhile nuts from the tsi and tnangetti 

tree? (in pot. hdnir) are chief food. 





IiKKWot)!) K)K (AMI' is anotlier prize to 
be sought from the veld. Here, two 



In such disturbed times, the Bush- 
men fare ill. They are not. and prob- 
ably were not ever, a warlike people. 
Their society is not constructed for 
^var. their culture dampens war. Yet, 
now, wars and battles began to scat- 
ter across the land, as groups of peo- 
ple—large and small, Bantu armies, 
itinerant raiders, the remnants of tiny 
nations and the dispossessed — 
marched and wandered in their search 
of conquest or safe distant places. 

Some Bushmen nations were driven 
into pockets in the hills, where they 
died slowly. Some stayed on their land 
and were decimated and made slaves. 
Some resisted and. as one who spoke 
of his people told me: "We were 
soldiers in those days.'" Their armies 
changed into marauder bands that 
sometimes fought and often ran. Of 
these, the Heikum were an example— 
an embittered, scattered nation of 
travelers on the then uncertain grass- 
lands of South West Africa. When, at 






^f' 



T 



A 



»r-. 




fine logs are being carried back lo 
the werft for fuel. Besides fires for 



iff^: 



-«r«fcf''l««5E^i; 



cooking, tlif IKiing need them at night 
for warmth, since temperatures after 




sunset often fall well below 
Each family shelter has its 




last, white and black met,— raiding one 
another for cattle across the Fish 
River— and the time of the Zulu and 
the Voortrekker was near, the classic 
period of the Bushmen was over. 

THE AREA called A'yae Nyae lies on 
the border between South West 
Africa and Bechuanaland. It covers 
about 10,000 square miles, between 
18°5.5' and 21 °0' South latitude and 
19°50' to 21°25' East longitude. In 
the center of this area is a ring of kalk 
pans. Nyae Nyae is actually the name 
the !Kung gave to this ring of pans, 
although I have applied it to the whole 
area occupied by the !Kung nation. 
There is game round these pans 
and, in small groups, everywhere in 
Nyae Nyae. Wild roots grow in the 
bush that shrouds much of the terri- 
tory. There is tsi in the south, while 
mangetti forests crowd along the crests 
of white sand dunes in the south and 
east, and spread over the north. Their 



nuts drop abundantly to the ground 
every year. There are ten permanent 
waterholes— some clustered around the 
ring of the pans, the others set like 
infrequent jewels in a low limestone 
ridge along the eastern border. Dur- 
ing the rains, small pans and hollows 
hold embroidered pools. Hollow trees 
also catch water and keep it until it 
turns brown, while several kinds of 
water roots can be counted on all year. 
Until recently, few came and none 
but Bushmen stayed for long in Nyae 
Nyae, for there is not enough water 
to attract pastoral peoples, and the 
soils are not the best for crops. The 
!Kung say: "We have always been 
here, drinking the Nyae Nyae waters." 
Perhaps this "always" began at about 
the time when the western Bantu horn 
was moving southward through Ovam- 
boland. All one can say for sure is 
that they came, possibly seeking sanc- 
tuary in the empty spaces of the Kala- 
hari, found, in Nyae Nyae, a quiet 



place, and stayed. In Nyae Nyae, the 
IKung have since lived on unchanged 
—replacing only their bone arrow- 
points with metal ones, made from 
the nails and wire that filtered into the 
desert after the Europeans' entry into 
South West Africa. 

The !Kung nation cannot so live 
for much longer. Already their last 
lands are being occupied by the 
Herero nation — Bantu-speakers — who 
say: "The Bushmen are like our chil- 
dren. We feel obligated to care for 
them." It seems likely that, in a few- 
years, these lands will be farmed by 
white people. Then, if the past of other 
Bushmen is any omen, some IKung 
will become farm laborers, some will 
contract syphilis, some will die and 
some will breed. Few will marry. 

So MUCH for the little history and 
the brief geography. How do the 
IKung live in Nyae Nyae? Human 
ecology is the study of the relation- 




Yoi'NG MOTHER bows her head as orna- 
ment for ear lobe is twisted to shape. 



ship between man and his natural en- 
vironment. In such a relationship, two 
directions of cause and effect are im- 
plied. These two directions may be 
understood by two terms— adaption 
and control. Adaption means the effect 
wrought by the environment upon the 
body or the culture of man. Control is 
the effect wrought upon the environ- 
ment by man. his body and his culture. 
In the one case, man conforms to the 
environment. In the other, man con- 
forms the environment to his needs. 

THERE IS no ecological situation 
where either adaptation or con- 
trol prevails to the exclusion of the 
other, for the fact of man's presence 
changes an environment, and the most 
effective technology, the most devel- 
oped society, are— in part— responses 
to an environment. Every ecological 
relationship is a welter of compro- 
mise. Yet, there are extremes. If we 
take Western technological culture as 
one extreme— with control prevailing 
and America the exponent— the !Kung 
might be considered the opposite ex- 
treme, for the !Kung control their 
environment scarcely at all. 

To the !Kung, in their environment, 
there are available a certain number 
of natural resources, in a certain geo- 
graphical pattern. There are also avail- 
able a certain number of !Kung. They 
have a culture. Living within their 
culture, they are able to exploit their 
environment. The first aspect of this 
ecological relationship is the fairly 
obvious relationship between !Kung 
technology and environment. 



With considerable empirical knowl- 
edge, the !Kung have arrived at work- 
able solutions to the problems of sub- 
sistence. By means of their technology, 
they have managed to satisfy their 
basic needs and their many wants of 
life (at least, they satisfied them until 
they were exposed to the wealth of 
white men ) . The fact that their popu- 
lation is limited because of their 
technology is one result of this adapta- 
tion—of which infanticide is an occa- 
sional expression. That they live to 
all intents and purposes from day to 
day— having no real measure of sur- 
plus in the form of stored crops and 



beasts ready to slaughter— is another 
indication that the !Kung have largely 
adapted to their environment. But 
the contrasting fact that the !Kung 
live in Nyae Nyae as easily as they do 
also indicates some measure of en- 
vironmental control. 

THE more complex aspects of the 
!Kung ecological relationship ex- 
ist in areas other than their simple 
technology. That the !Kung are able to 
exploit their environment with a cer- 
tain degree of efficiency is due in some 
measure to the structure of their so- 
ciety. Thus, the second aspect of the 




Women of werft gatlier children and 
possessions in preparation for inarch 



to a new campsite. A band can travel 
about ten miles a day, gathering food 



306 



ecological relationship is this one: 
the relationship between a certain 
number of natural resources, arranged 
in a certain environment, and a society 
that has developed in the presence of 
these resources and whose members 
are dependent on them. 

Of course, their society did not 
come into being because the !Kung 
needed it to exploit their environment, 
nor is that society shaped only in ac- 
cordance with environmental dictates. 
Indeed, some elements of !Kung so- 
ciety seem to exist in spite of the en- 
vironment. There is reason to beHeve 
that their society has not basically 



changed through periods when there 
was more water, more game, and 
probably more veldkos— the wild vege- 
table products of the land, gathered by 
the women of the bands — in South 
Africa, although this point might be 
debated on grounds that the !Kung 
depended more on hunting in previous 
periods. But it is that aspect of !Kung 
social structure, the functioning of 
which clearly seems to facilitate ex- 
ploitation of their environment by 
means of their technology, that we 
shall discuss. These manifestations 
appear primarily adaptive in nature, 
although control is also discernible. 



W%t 








as it goes. The !Kung move in annual 
patterns: staying near waterholes in 



dry winter, visiting mangetti forests 
in moist summer, and tsi areas in fall. 



Delousing is a courtesy among kins- 
men: the salty -tasting lice are eaten. 



There are about 1,000 !Kung- 
gathered into 28 bands— who build 
their ephemeral camps, or iverffs, sep- 
arately in an area of 10,000 square 
miles. The houses in the werffs are of 
grass, pressed over a framework of 
sticks, making small quarter-shells, 
with their backs to the prevailing 
wind. Gossamer things, made of the 
same grass that sways and crowds 
against their doors, they are posi- 
tioned in a loose pattern according to 
their occupants' kinship, and all are 
held— finally— by the headman, who 
builds his shelter under the tallest tree. 

From a little distance, when the 
sound of voices is lost on the wind, 
one would not know a werft was near. 
The people never return to the same 
we//;- preferring to build anew and 
saying it would not be safe from the 
spirits of the dead, or sanitary, to do 
so. Perhaps, also, they find it sad to 
see the little houses toppling, day by 
day, into the grass of the new year. 

As A STARTING POINT, labor among 
^ the !Kung is divided between 
two basic subsistence activities— hunt- 
ing game and gathering veldkos. Men 
hunt, because their bodies are better 
suited to the chase. Women gather, 
because they could not leave their chil- 
dren for the long periods of hunting 
that men both enjoy and endure. 

Women's work— the technology of 
gathering— is simple and adaptable: 
the tools are easily acquired, the 
methods quickly learned. The constant 
necessity to provide and the almost 
daily edge of effort slowly bends the 



John Marshall is one of a family 
that has heen studying the Bushmen 
for nearly a decade, in expeditions 
to South Viest Africa hy the Peabody 
Museum. Harvard University. 



!Kung women, who are slender-armed 
and do this monotonous work to the 
end of their lives. All roots-a major 
food-are gathered in identical fash- 
ion. The implement for this is a dig- 
ging slick— made usually by a woman s 
husband from any of a number of 
hardwoods: the bark is peeled from a 
branch, a point is whittled sharp. 
Women, squatting, dig narrow holes 
in the earth with these sticks, and tug 
until the root they have reached comes 
free. Berries are picked— high ones 
jostled down with sticks and sought 
for carefully among the grass stems. 
Nuts are collected on the ground. 

SMALL ANIMALS, such as tortoises 
and even grasshoppers, are some- 
times captured by the women and 
brought home in the evening— such 
small creatures are also considered 
veldkos. The women, too. will kill 
snakes, even puff adders. When they 
see a puff adder, they gather around 
it in a little crowd, their high laughter 
tinkling while they drop large, heavy 
things on its flat head. 

Averaged over a year, women 
gather on four or five days of each 
week— the number of days depending 



on the season. Tn the long days of wilt- 
ing between the October spring and 
the January summer, food is scarce 
and the women may go out every day 
into the failing veld, leaving their 
nerft earlv in the morning and re- 
turning late in the afternoon. All 
that a woman gathers belongs to her 
alone, and of course is shared with her 
family. She feeds her husband, her 
children and often a visitor or two. at 
her own hearth. No formal instruction 
is practiced among the !Kung. with 
the possible exception of certain kinds 
of religious teaching and what might 
be called an occasional hunting school. 
Learning to gather comes from the 
children's observation of the more ex- 
perienced women. Girls soon learn to 
recognize more than a hundred kinds 
of edible plants that grow in A yae 
Nyae. as well as the seasons and places 
in which these plants grow. They learn 
to see tiny, shriveled root vines coiled 
around thorns in the thickets and. in 
the process, develop fine powers of 
observation. Possibly complementary 
to this lack of formal instruction, no 
formal pressure is exerted on young 
people to take up adult roles. Girls, 
if they wish, accompany their mothers 
on gathering trips. If they do not. they 
rarely feel guilty. A girl usually be- 
gins to feel responsible soon after 
she marries, which is often before 
puberty. But only when she has chil- 
dren of her own does a woman see the 
world through the eyes of a provider. 



^-\ 



Jj^ 



V-*^ 



"Man as a Hunter" « ill continue in the Augu^t-SeI)tenlber issue. 




m 



!K.im; woman, lejt, has gathered tsi 
nuts enough for several days" eating. 







^i.--< 



vir 




#-1ii 



l'^-*^ 



X 



Ir ^* -% 



T^V 



-.Jt*t' 



^Bv .^. 


V 


1 


B'S 


■ » 


*l 


r2^t*» 


. ^ 


^ 


r^ 


^ 


1 










v*^ 



'*$! 



W,x„ THE S.MMEK H.U.S, the nuts of almond- begin to n.ature^The !Ku..g collecting ^J^l^^^ :^^ 

the ma^getti forests - related to the arrive as soon as possible to start In winter, above, tney 

309 



Sky Reporter 



Capricornus 



The south portion of the night sky 
is shown, above, as it will look to an 



observer in the U.S. at about 9:00 p.m., 
(luring the last seven months of 1958. 



Constellations lying along the zone of 
the zodiac have been named. The three 



A selective celestial calendar 



JULY 

July 5. At 3 P.M. ( EDI ) , the earth 
is at aphelion, its farthest point 
from the sun this year, some 94.6 
million miles away (see p. 314} . 

July 22. In the evening twilight, 
the waxing moon and giant Jupiter 
will be seen in company, 
low in the western sky. 

July 26. Just after sunset. 
Mercury may be seen close to the 
horizon, almost due west. 

310 



AUGUST 

August 7. This evening, Mars- 
like a bright orange star- 
appears in the constellation 
of Aries, just south of the moon. 

August 11-13. Peak of the Perseid 
meteor shower: an average of fifty 
an hour, especially after midnight, 
will enter the earths atmosphere. 

August 26. A fine chance to locate 
Uranus with binoculars: it lies less 
than a quarter of the moons diameter 
distant from Venus in the east. 



SEPTEMBER 

September 9. About one hour before 
sunrise. Mercury may be observed 
rising, slightly north of east. 

September 23. At 8:10 p.m. (EDT), 
the sun stands directly over the 
equator at a point some 1.000 miles 
south of Dakar. French West Africa, 
on its journey into the southern sky, 
marking the start of Autumn. 



Dr. Franklin, of The American 
M L SEC m-Havden Planetarium, 
regularly prepare* tlii^ list oi events. 



1 






The night sky of June and July is presented on these pages 
in a chart especially designed for easy use by the amateur 



CELESTIAL SPHERE, an imaginary construction astrono 
for determining the positions of stars in the sky, present. __,._„ 
raphers with the same, fundamentally insoluble problem— in plot- 
ting spherical points on a flat surface without distortion— that is 
faced in making mops of the earth. On this page are examples of 
the main cartographic techniques, and evidence of the distortion 
that accompanies various projections. The "roll-around" map on the 
next pages, designed by Henry M. Neely, combines three projections. 




GREAT SQUARE OF PEGASUS, plotted in three different eve- 
ning positions, demonstrates distortion at all but center of polar 
projections. Eastern horizon is at left, above: circle at center is 
directly overhead. Great Square, and three stars that form a line 
leading from Pegasus through Andromeda to Perseus, are plotted in 
correct positions of altitude and azimuth. As they first clear the 
northeastern horizon, characteristic shape is air " 
to any but expert: polar projection shows squaic u..., .i=u, v=...=.. 



CYLINDRICAL PROJECTION is "true" only at equator— where the 
imaginary cylinder is tangent to the sphere. However, distortions 
are not excessive in the lower latitudes (to 25° north and south). 
As a result, cylindrical projections ore often used for equatorial 
regions. However, as the higher latitudes are plotted, the spacing 
between parallels and, worse, the nonconvergence of the meridians, 
cause severe distortion and exaggerated size of the areas depicted. 
Classic example is appearance of Greenland on a Mercotor projection. 




CONIC PROJECTION brings virtues of the cylindrical pro|ei 
to higher latituaes, by dint of placing point of tangency at 
point of mapped area (solid line). Lambert's "copfori 
a modification of the simple conic, imagines that the cone's p 
passes beneath the surface to be mapped fdoshed line): thus, 
points of tangency are achieved and small distortion is overt 

_ u„=r ...ron Mritt maps of large areas eithe 

. .solyconic") or utilize Lor 



A SUMMER 
STAR GUIDE 



w 



^ 



-v-,--^' 



By Henry M. Neely 



-^-'^:i 










. V , 









Tf^jCJfJ^ 



HIS MAP shows the entire horizon, and the user is thus 
free to face in any direction outdoors. To match the 
map with the horizon visible before him, he should rotate 
it until the printed compass direction (on the map's cir- 
cumference) that matches the direction of his view lies at 
the "bottom" of the mop. The stars lying along the selected 
"horizon" on the map will now be those he sees near- 
est the horizon he faces. As printed here, for example, 
the south horizon lies at the bottom. Facing south, the 
observer should easily locate the constellation Scorpius. 



SAGITTARIU 



■K''^^" 



^^s>:,''~^: 



TIMETABLE 

TO USE any map that shows stars in rela- 
tion to the horizon, one must use a time- 
table, since the stars rise and set about 
four minutes earlier each succeeding night. 
Thus, a star that is in one position rela- 
tive to the horizon at 10:00 p.m. on the 
first of any month will, by month's end, 
be in that some position at 8:00 p.m. For 
this map, the following table of equiv- 
olent times may be used {Daylight Savins): 



First week 

Second week 
Third week .... 
Fourth week . 



12:30 to 1:30 a.m. 

midnight to 1:00 a.m. 

11:30 p.m. to 12:30 a.m. 
...11:00 P.M. to midnight 



First week 
Second week 
Third week ... 
Fourth week . 
Fifth week 



10:30 to 11:30 p.m. 
..10:0C to 11:00 P.M. 

...9:30 to 10:30 P.M. 
...9:00 to 10:00 P.M. 
...8:30 to 9:30 p.m. 



SCALE OF MAGNITUDES 

THE MAGNITUDES of the stars, as shown 
on this map, are- what the astronomers call 
"apparent visual magnitudes." This system 
dates back to the early days of observation, 
when all stars were arranged in six groups. 
As finer measurements became possible, a 
reorganization took place, so that, while 
most stars remained in these six groups, 
"negative" categories were added for the 
brightest ones. Thus, Sirius, brightest 
of all stars in apparent visual magnitude, 
has a value of —1.58. The planets of our 
own system, from tim'- to time, shine with 
reflected light of even greater "negative" 
value than this: Jupiter, near the south- 
west horizon, leff, is now valued at —2. 
For comparison, the moon has an apparent 
visual magnitude of —12 and the sun, —27. 



-M -1.9 to -0.1 

.i|c 0.0 to 0.9 

-)jf?. 1 .0 to 1 .5 

->^e 1 .6 to 1 .9 

->iF 2.0 to 2.4 




Earth at summer solstice, left, is shown in contrast to an imaginary 
planet, right, with untilted axis. The increase in length of days 
during this season may be judged by comparing 9 a.m. sunrise in 



Tierra Del Fuego to 3 a.m. sunrise in Alaska. Sun's direct rays, 
parallel to the ecliptic (straight arrows), now hit Tropic of Cancer, 
rather than the equator, as in the case of the perpendicular planet. 




PARADOXICALLY, the heat of summer in our 
Northern Hemisphere is coincident with 
the time that the earth, in its annual revolu- 
tion around the sun. attains the greatest 
distance from that prime source of energy. 
This seeming paradox derives from the tilt 
of tka earth s axis {see above). 

The directness of the summer suns rays 
and the longer daylight hours, together, 
more than outweigh the effect of distance. 

AMONG THE PLANETS, for June and July, 
Jupiter and Saturn may be readily lo- 
cked in late evening hours, to the southwest 
ainl south, respectively {see pp. 312-13). A 
brilliant sight just before dawn is Venus, 
left, rising above the eastern horizon and 
shifting eastward among the constellations. 
The best time for observing this spectacle 
is about 4:30 a.m. {Daylight Time) during 
June, and a few minutes later during July. 



Mr. Neely, editor of Sky Reporter 
since its start in 1917. lias been active 
in popular astronomy for fifty years. 



314 




bright stars at center— Deneb, Altair 
and Vega— form the so-called '"summer 



triangle" (see p. 312-13). From left 
to right, the other bright stars to 



be noted are Fomalhaut (left of "tri- 
angle"), Antares, Arcturus and Spica. 



for the second half of 19S8 



By K. L. Franklin 



OCTOBER 

October 5. Mercury is once again 
at superior conjunction, 130 million 
miles away, on the opposite side of 
the sun, passing from the morning 
to the evening sky. 

October 12. The year's only total 
eclipse of the sun occurs today: 
however, it will be visible 
only in the South Pacific. 

October 26. Daylight Savings Time 
ends in many areas. Remember to 
set your clocks back one hour. 



NOVEMBER 

November 8. On this day. the red 
planet. Mars, is in its position 
closest to the earth for 1958— 
some 45.4 million miles away. 

November 11. Venus is now at 
superior conjunction. 159 million 
miles distant from the earth, 
on the opposite side of the sun. 

November 16. Mars has reached the 
point of opposition (exactly oppo- 
site the sun in the sky I . Thus, it 
stands directly south near midnight. 



DECEMBER 

December 9. Mercury, at inferior 
conjunction, is 63 million miles 
from the earth (see October 5) . 

December 12-14. The Geminid meteor 
shower, with a peak on Dec. 13, may 
best be seen during early morning 
hours (about forty meteors per hour). 

December 22. At 3 :40 a.m. (EST) , the 
sun reaches its most southerly point 
over the earth for 1958. standing 
overhead near Farafangana, 
Madagascar. The first day of Winter. 

3^5 




Part II 



H\KN ()\vr, s(HK\Ms wlifii lii'lil ill lianil. >li(i\\iiif; >i/,c ol 
strong beak. Feathers lorniing facial disk are evident. 



MARKSMAN 

OF THE 
DARKNESS 



Experiment shows how Tyto alba 
can locate its quarry in the night 

By Roger S. Payne 
and William H. Drury, Jr. 



ANY BIRD THAT SINGS, if we 
stop to think about it. should be 
abie to hear its song. Biologists have 
shown that this is true: not only can 
a bird hear its own song, but the 
tones that it hears best are those 
near the middle range of all the vari- 
ous notes it utters. This seems to be 
a general avian rule— but. like most 
rules, it has exceptions, and a notable 
exception is found in the ease of 
owls. J. Schwartzkopff has shown that 
the Long-eared Owl [Asio otiis), for 
example, can hear about the same 
tones that humans do: it is, however, 
most sensitive to tones high above 
the middle range of its own voice- 
even above the normal middle tone 
of most small songbirds songs. 

Why do owls have this strange 
specialization to best hear notes that 
are so much higher than their own 
calls? It seems that there must be 
some reason, important in the lives 
of owls, which has made it necessary 
for them to hear high-pitched sounds. 

We know, for example, that mice 
(which are important prey for many 
owls) squeak at about the same pitch 
at which owls hear best. Although 
mice probably do not squeak often 
enough to allow hunting owls to track 
them all down this way. they do 
make rustling and crackling sounds 
as they move through ground litter, 
and some of the component freijuen- 

316 



cies of these sounds are high-pitched. 
Can it be that owls, hunting in dark- 
ness, use their ears to locate mice? 
When the light is poor, even the best 
eyes would have difficulty seeing a 
mouse moving about in the leaves or 
grass. But what about the ears? 

If we examine an owl's ears, we 
find them quite different from the 
ears of other birds— for instance, a 
sparrows— and with many modifica- 
tions for sensitive hearing. Starting 
at the outside of a bird's head and 
working inward to the middle and 
inner ear. we find that the structure 
of these three parts differs from the 
parallel three-part mammalian struc- 
ture. In birds, the outer ear is a 
chamber that ends flush with the sur- 
face of the head, without any exter- 
nal, sound-concentrating device, such 
as the funnel-like external ear of 
mammals. In the middle ear of birds 
we do not find three bones (hammer, 
anvil and stirrup I; instead, there is 
one large bone called the columella. 
Finally, in place of the spiral, snail- 
shell-like cochlea of mammals' inner 
ears, the birds' cochlea is almost 
straight. Now, how do owl's ears 
differ from this general avian design? 

First, an owl's head is large and 
wide, so that its ears are set fairly far 
apart. In the case of the larger owls, 
this separation means that the' time 
difference betuecn the arrival of 



sound at one ear. and then the other, 
of an owl would be greater than in 
the case of a songbird— perhaps great 
enough to provide a clue concerning 
the sound's direction. Second, the 
ears of many owls are asymmetrical. 
In some, the size of the opening 
differs between right and left ears. 
In others, the external ear cavity is 
divided into two compartments; one 
a blind alley, the other going to the 
eardrum. The blind alley is a dif- 
ferent compartment on each side of 
the head. Owls which have no visible 
structural differences between their 
ears, may possibly use flaps of skin 
in front of their ears to change the 
effective sound path to each ear and 
make reception different for the two 
ears. It seems from theory ( which 
we will not discuss here) that such 
differential reception is necessary in 
determining distance to a sound 
source. The Barn Owl {Tyto alba) 
has symmetrical ears, but the highly- 
developed flaps of skin in front of 
the ears are asymmetrically placed. 
They are shown on page 319. 

Still a third contrast is found in 
the owl's eardrum. It is very large— 
proportionally, far larger than in 
other birds. With a larger area of 
sensitive surface exposed to sound 
waves, a larger amount of the waves' 
mechanical force is available to owls 
th-n to mi'st other birds. This means, 




Barn Owl strikes. All photographs were taken by David G. 
Allen in re-enactment at Cornell of original experiments, 



Windows were boarded to exclude the light and owl struck 
by ear as prey moved, rustling dry leaves strewn on floor. 




Owl's head is seen in three states, 
above: feathered, plucked to reveal 



Iiidilen skiii-flap, and bare skull. Below, 
ear is seen from two views: lejt, out- 



side and right, inside the skull. The 
drawing shows enlarged eardrum (ex- 



other things being equal, that an owl 
can hear a less intense sound than 
other birds can. As we look at the 
middle ear, we find that, while in 
most birds the columella is attached 
to the center of the eardrum, in owls, 
it is attached off-center. The center 
of the eardrum moves farther than 
the edge, because the edge of the ear- 
drum is attached to the skull and the 
eardrum bulges inward when a sound 
wave strikes it. If we consider just 
one radius of the eardrum, we see 
that it is acting as a lever with ful- 
crum at the outside edge of the ear- 
drum. The force that the moving 
eardrum can exert upon an off-center 
columella is multiplied, just as force 
is multiplied as we move closer to 
the fulcrum of a lever. Thus, although 
the columella moves a shorter dis- 
tance as a result of this off-center 
attachment, force is gained, and the 
owl has achieved what is probably 
another advantage over other birds 
in hearing soft sounds. 

The columella, itself, fits into the 
cochlea at a spot called the "oval 
window," acting somewhat as a pis- 
ton on the liquid inside. The motion 
of this liquid disturbs the nerve end- 



ings in the cochlea. The nerve end- 
ings transform mechanical impulses 
into electrical ones that travel to the 
bird's brain. Because the cochlea is 
a blind alley, the liquid inside it has 
no place to flow: but when the colum- 
ella pushes on the liquid, this pres- 
sure must be relieved. The "round 
window," a hole in the cochlea, cov- 
ered by a thin membrane, provides 
for this. As force is applied, the 
round-window membrane swells out. 
Within limits, the larger the round 
window, the less will be the resistance 
to liquid being moved by the colum- 
ella. By now, it should not be sur- 
prising that, in owls, this round 
window is proportionally larger than 
it is in other birds. 

In all birds, the eardrum is many 
times larger in area than the foot- 
plate of the columella (the end of the 



Mr. Payne, now engaged in graduate 
work at Cornell, and Dr. Drury, 
Director of the Massachusetts Audu- 
bon Society's Louise Ayer Hatlieway 
School of Conservation Education, 
were both trained in zoology at Har- 
vard. Mr. Payne is continuing the 
research here described at Cornell. 



columella that inserts in the oval 
window). This disproportion in size 
multiplies pressure on the liquid of 
the cochlea, and the amount of mul- 
tiplication is determined by the ratio 
between the area of the eardrum and 
the area of the footplate. As pres- 
sure is multiplied, sensitivity to slight 
sounds is increased. An example of 
the owl's advantage here is the fol- 
lowing: in the house sparrow (Passer 
domesticus) , this ratio is about 
twenty-two to one; in the Long-eared 
Owl. it is forty to one. 

Finally, a widely accepted theory 
(not yet proven experimentally) 
holds that the length of the cochlea 
is directly related to the ability of 
the ear to analyze complex sounds. 
Whether or not this theoretical func- 
tion of cochlea length is correct, the 
fact remains that owls have longer 
cochleas than would be expected in 
birds of their size. 

We are faced here with a great 
deal of evidence, all telling us that 
owls must have extremely exceptional 
hearing. The next question seems to 
be: "Why?" In September, 1956, 
while Pa)ne was at the Louise Ayer 
Hatheway School of Conservation 



318 




posing wide surface to sound waves), 
off-center columella that fits into 



cochlea at the "oval %s-indow'"— against 
which columella moves like a piston— 



and "round window," affording relief 
for fluid thus compressed in cochlea. 



Education, in Massachusetts, the au- 
thors decided that it would be ^^-orth- 
while to look into this question. The 
late James L. Peters, of Harvard's 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, had 
suggested to Drury in 1947 that the 
reason for specialized ear structure 
in owls be investigated. A Barn 
Owl [Tyto alba) was donated to us 
by Dr. Winthrop W. Harrington of 
Lexington, Massachusetts, who had 
raised it from the age of a few days. 
This exceptionally tame bird was 
known, with apologies to A. A. Milne, 
by the name of "WOL." 

WOL had the instincts to hunt and 
pounce, but being hand-raised, he 
did not know what to himt, or poimce 
upon. He would peer at a picture on 
a newspaper page, and glide dowTi 
and strike it with his talons. He 
seemed to be striking at any small 
object that differed from its back- 
ground. This well-developed hunting 
activity, before he "kneiv" ivhat to 
hunt, was an interesting aspect of 
animal behavior in itself. We set out 
to shoiv him prey. 

"WOL's House," as it was called, 
was in a kennel where the late Mrs. 
Hatheway, who left her estate and a 




FOOTPLATE OF EARDRUM 

COLUMELLA . 

COLUMELU 



ATTACHMENT 
OF COLUMELLA 




ROUND-WINDOW 
MEMBRANE 



EXTERNAL EAR 



EAR OPENING 



generous endowment to the Massa- 
chusetts Audubon Society, had for- 
merly bred and trained Welsh 
terriers. It was a room about twenty- 
five feet by t^venty feet, empty except 
for a seven-foot-high perch, a bathing 
trough and a table in one corner, 
^vhere we fed WOL -svhen experi- 
ments were not going on. 

The first time WOL saw a living 
mouse he flew down onto the floor 
near it. The mouse ran. WOL finally 
caught it. but only after a long chase— 
half-flying and half-running over the 
floor. The same pattern of chasing the 
mouse persisted for the next several 



trials until, one day, he flew from his 
perch and struck a mouse directly. 
This, a more normal hunting method, 
stayed with him, for he struck the 
mice directly thereafter. 

Having satisfied ourselves that 
WOL was capable of catching mice 
in true owl fashion, we set up the 
equipment for our hearing experi- 
ments. We spread dry oak leaves on 
the floor. This meant that anything 
moving through the leaves on the 
floor could be heard. We boarded up 
the windows, with painstaking pre- 
cautions, to make sure that the room 
was light-tisht. We checked ourselves 



319 




Grasping its prev. Barn Owl keeps 
wings and tail raised to spill the sup- 
by exposing hypersensiti\e film for 
an hour when the lights were turned 
out: the film was developed and 
showed no trace of exposure. \^'e thus 
felt safe in assuming that, no matter 
what animal we were working with. 
there was no light for it to see b\ . 

The preliminary to our next ex- 
periment was to make sure that WOL 
was "at home" in his quarters. It 
was very important for him to know 
the whole room "by heart." so that 
he would later fly round in the dark. 
We gave him about five weeks to 
"memorize"" his surroundings. Dur- 
ing this time, we left a small night 
light on in the room, turning it off 
occasionally. During the last week 
before we started our experiments, 
and off and on during them. WOL 
was left in complete darkness. 

01 R first experiment was to release 
a v\ ild-caught Deer Mouse I Per- 
omyscus leucopus ) on the leaf-strewn 
floor of the room, with the lights 
off. The mouse moved about, "ex- 
ploring" the room and rustling in 
the leaves. When the mouse stopped 
and was silent, we heard WOL leave 
his perch, fly down and strike in the 
leaves. Quickly we turned on the 

320 



porting air anil maintain balance, as 
talons are used to secure I)irdV catch. 

lights and found WOL. standing mo- 
tionless, holding the mouse in his 
talons. We tried this seventeen times. 
\^'hen the mouse stopped land, in 
our experience, only when it stopped) 
^ OL flew. In all but four of these 
trials (which invoKed misses bv no 
more than two inches 1. WOL suc- 
cessfully struck the mouse. 

With no light available. WOL ob- 
viously was not using his eyes to 
find the mouse. This left four other 
possibilities. I: He could be using 
his ears, and homing on the sounds 
the mouse made. II: He could be 
homing on the odor of the mouse. 
Ill: He could be making his own 
sounds, using the echoes to guide 
him ( echolocation I . as some bats are 
known to do. IV: He could be "see- 
ing" the mouse by means of radia- 
tion in wave lengths invisible to us— 
in other words, the infrared heat 
waves given off by the mouse. Al- 
though evidence suggests that owls 
are insensitive to infrared radiation, 
we could not ignore the possibility. 
To test the heat, odor and hom- 
ing-on-sound hypotheses, we proposed 
to see whether WOL could find an 
object that had no smell and gave 
<iff no heat greater than the heat of 



the leaves on the floor, but which 
made a sound like a mouse rustling 
through the leaves. 

A crumpled wad nf paper (mouse- 
size), dragged through the leaves on 
a thread, seemed just right. We 
turned out the lights and dragged 
the paper wad through the leaves. 
\^'e heard WOL leave his perch and 
strike. We snapped the lights on: he 
held the wad of paper in his talons. 

Since the paper wad had neither 
smell nor heat (above the heat of its 
surroundings I. we interpreted this to 
mean that he could only have been 
using his ears to direct him to our 
fake mouse. Fortunatelv. since W. E. 
Curtis 1 19.52 1 had shown that Barn 
Owls have no ability to echolocate. 
we could discount this possibilitv. 
Theory suggests that an owl would 




need both ears to determine distance 
to a sound source, but we wanted to 
make sure. We plugged one of WOL's 
ears with cotton, turned out the lights 
and released a mouse. We heard 
WOL leave his perch and strike in 
the leaves. We turned on the lights 
and saw both animals standing mo- 
tionless, WOL about eighteen inches 
short of the mouse, but on the right 
line from his perch. We removed the 
plug and tried him again. This time, 
WOL caught it. We repeated this 
experiment with the cotton plug in 
WOL's other ear, with the same result. 

WITH this array of evidence be- 
fore us. we now felt sure that 
WOL was using his hearing to guide 
him to the mice in the darkened room. 
L. R. Dice was the first worker to find 



that Barn Owls (and Long-eared and 
Barred Owls, as well ) could catch 
mice in total darkness. Dice's pri- 
mary interest, in his experiments, 
was to determine the value of protec- 
tive coloration in mice. To do this, he 
released two Deer Mice (Peroinyscus 
m.aniculatus) of different color strains 
on the floor of a room in dim light: 
one mouse matching the color of the 
background, and the other contrast- 
ing to it. Dice then released an owl 
and recorded which mouse the owl 
caught. After many such trials— using 
four species of owls, including a 
Barn Owl— protective coloration was 
definitely shown to possess advan- 
tages for survival in mice. 

Now, Dice used these species of 
owls as the predators in his experi- 
ments because he had previously 



found out just how much light these 
owls needed to see a mouse. Thus, 
when he adjusted the light in his 
coloration experiments, he knew 
^vhether or not the owl could see the 
mouse. Since he was interested in a 
selection of prey based on visual 
cues, Dice tried to minimize the ef- 
fect of what he correctly assumed to 
be the owls' ability to catch mice by 
hearing alone. In order to do this, 
he made what he called a mouse 
"jungle"— a lattice of sticks screwed 
together and held above the floor by 
uprights. The "jungle," he hoped, 
would keep the owls from catching 
the mice in total darkness, because 
the owls would not "dare" strike at 
them through this obstacle. 

Dice says that his "jungle" was 
also probably a closer approximation 



Wings are lowered, as owl grips mouse. To test theories 
of prey-detection through odor or heat, authors also used 



crumpled paper wad, dragged by thread, instead of mouse. 
Owl caught this, too, proving sound to be determining clue. 





I'n(iiiiN(. iiii[iY uiiH wiM.s. ,,\\l lii.l.U in.Mi-c ill laloiis. aloft, is necessary for balance— not, as had previously 

bends to kill it with bill. Propping, like holding wings been thought, to catch the prey by enfolding it in wings. 




Dead prey in bill, moiKinless owl 
hunches forward some thirty seconds. 



of natural conditions, where mice 
are moving about under shrubs and 
herbs, than a bare floor would be: a 
closer approximation of nature, be- 
cause when he had observed his owls 
catching mice on the bare floor, they 
had used their wings to enfold the 
mouse and pull it within reach of their 
talons. He assumed that the owls 
could not do this under natural con- 
ditions because the presence of 
shrubs and herbs on the ground 
would prevent such behavior. 

Our observations showed that 
WOL, striking his prey on the leaf- 
littered Hoor, held his wings over his 
back after he first struck. Only after 
he had caught and started to shift 
the mouse in his talons, did he lower 
his wings to the floor on both sides 
and "enfold" his prey. It appeared 
that WOL used his wings and tail 
as props when his talons were other- 
wise occupied and not to draw his 
prey within reach. WOL did this 



"enfolding" even when he struck a 
mouse near his feeding table, where 
table legs were in the way and his 
feathers disarranged in the process. 

The consistency of WOL's enfold- 
ing action led us to believe that such 
behavior occurs in nature, regard- 
less of obstructions, and that the real 
effect of Dice's "jungle" had been to 
give painful consequences to the 
owls' more "natural" hunting method 
—by hearing— when they came up 
against the unnaturally rigid stick- 
lattice in total darkness. 

In earlier experiments, testing the 
vision of owls under various levels 
of illumination, Dice had used dead 
mice as bait. They made no sound. 
He kept reducing the amount of light 
until the owls could no longer pounce 
on the dead mice. Then, by measur- 
ing that level of illumination. Dice 
knew how much light the owls needed 
to seize a mouse. He then measured 
the amount of light available to night- 



322 



hunting owls in nature and came to 
the conclusion that there must be 
many nights in which owls cannot 
see well enough to catch their prey, 
"though R. J. Pumphrey has esti- 
mated that an owl can probably see 
about as well by starlight as men can 
see by the full moon, we must remem- 
ber that clouds effect such available 
light, as do shadows cast by vegetation. 
Dice measured this light reduction. 
He found that, under heavy clouds, 
the reduction may be as great as one- 
tenth to one-sixteenth of the light 
from a clear sky, while under trees 
and shrubs it may fall to between 
a fiftieth and a 200th of the original 
light. These reductions may be mul- 
tiplied in such conditions as forest 
shadow on a cloudy night, when 
available light may be no more than 
a 500th to a 3200th of the normal in- 
tensity in the open on a clear night. 

WHAT does all this mean in the 
lives of owls? It means, first of 
all. that an owl. hunting by vision, goes 
hungry on cloudy, moonless nights, 
if he hunts his prey in the woods. 
Is it not possible that, under such 
circumstances, the owl will use his 
remarkable hearing to lead him to a 
mouse? It has often been suggested 
that owls do use their ears to locate 
the general position of their prey, 
and then switch over to their eyes 
for the final strike. But WOL's ability 
to locate mice by hearing alone leads 
us to suggest just the reverse. 

In our hypothesis, the owTs eyes 
would be used to avoid obstacles, 
such as branches and twigs, while its 
ears would lead it to the final strike. 
Field observation supports this. 
Watch an owl hunting through the 
woods: he flies down from a branch, 
swoops low, and then rises to a 
perch. This pattern is repeated over 
and over again. Is he not perhaps 
getting close to the ground while he 
flies, in order to see branches as sil- 
houettes against the relatively bright 
skv? On dark nights, he needs all the 
information his eyes can provide in 
order to avoid collisions with 
branches, while his hearing is value- 
less for this purpose. We do not 
mean to exclude the eyes completely 
from the owl's final "run in." Prob- 
ably, in nature, owls use either ears 
or eyes, or both, according to the 
opportunity afforded. But from our 
work with WOL it seems clear that 
I hearing, alone, will permit an owl to 
! strike accurately on the darkest night. 




Raid completed, owl turns to fly 
back to perch. Although owl usually 



holds prey in bill durin 
present instance he holds 



g flight, in 
it in talons. 



RECOLLECTIONS OF 
YOUNGER DAYS, BY THE 
OLDER DARWLN 



Chronicle Of A 



MISSPENT YOUTH 




LTiON is praised to Darwin by 
I medical student in Edinbureh. 



324 



Looking back at his school days, 
Darwin felt he had learned little 
then and, that little, on his own 



By Charles Darwin 

AS I was doing no good at school, my father wisely took 
_l\ me away at a rather earlier age than usual, and sent 
me (October, 18251 to Edinburgh University with my 
brother, where I stayed for two years or sessions. My 
brother was completing his medical studies, though I do 
not believe he ever really intended to practise, and I was 
sent there to commence them. 

The instruction at Edinburgh was altogether bv lectures, 
and these were intolerablv dull, with the exception of those 
on chemistry by Hope: but to my mind there are no advan- 
tages and many disadvantages in lectures compared with 
reading. Dr. Duncan's lectures on Materia Medica at eight 
o'clock on a winter's morning are something fearful to 
remember. Dr. Munro made his lectures on human anat- 
omy as dull as he was himself, and the subject disgusted 
me. I also attended on two occasions the operating theatre 
in the hospital at Edinburgh, and saw two very bad opera- 
tions, one on a child, but I rushed away before they were 
completed. Nor did I ever attend again, for hardly any 
inducement would have been strong enough to make me 
do so: this being before the blessed days of chloroform. 
My brother sta>ed only one year at the University, so 
that during the second year I was left to my own resources: 
and this was an advantage, for 1 became well acquainted 
with several young men fond of natural science. One of 
these was Ainsworth, who afterwards published his travels 
in Assyria; he was a Wernerian geologist, and knew a 
little about many subjects. Dr. Coldstream was a very 
different young man. prim, formal, highly religious, and 
most kind-hearted; he afterwards published some good 
zoological articles. A third young man was Hardie.^who 
would, I think, have made a good botanist, but died early 







■'At that time I should have thought myself mad to give 
up the first days of partridge-shooting for geology or 

in India. Lastly. Dr. Grant, my senior by several years. 
He had published some first-rate zoological papers, but 
after coming to London as Professor in University College, 
he did nothing more in science, a fact which has always 
been inexplicable to me. I knew him well; he was dry and 
formal in manner, with much enthusiasm beneath this 
outer crust. He. one day. when we were walking together, 
burst forth in high admiration of Lamarck and his views 
on evolution. I listened in silent astonishment, and as far 
as I can judge, without any effect on my mind. I had pre- 
viously read the Zoonomia of my grandfather, in which 
similar views are maintained, but without producing any 
effect on me. Nevertheless, it is probable that the hearing 
such views maintained may have favoured my upholding 
them under a different form in my Origin of Species. 

Dr. Grant took me occasionally to the meetings of the 
Wernerian Society, where various papers on natural his- 
tory were read, discussed, and afterwards published in 
the "Transactions." I heard Audubon deliver there some 
interesting discourses on the habits of N. American birds, 
sneering somewhat unjustly at Waterton. By the way, a 
negro lived in Edinburgh, who had travelled with Water- 
ton, and gained his livelihood by stuffing birds, which he 
did excellently : he gave nie lessons and I used to sit with 
him, for he was a very pleasant and intelligent man. 

DURING my second year at Edinburgh I attended Jame- 
son's lectures on Geology and Zoology, but they were 
incredibly dull. The sole effect they produced on me was 
the determination never as long as I lived to read a book 
on Geology, or in any way to study the science. Yet I feel 
sure that I was prepared for a philosophical treatment of 



any other science," wrote Darwin, who left a geology trip 
in Wales to return to Shropshire for the hunting season. 



the subject; for an old Mr. Cotton, in Shropshire, who 
knew a good deal about rocks, had pointed out to me two 
or three years previously a well-known large erratic boul- 
der in the town of Shrewsbury, called the "bell-stone"; 
he told me that there was no rock of the same kind nearer 
than Cumberland or Scotland, and he solemnly assured 
me that the world would come to an end before any one 
would be able to explain how this stone came where it 
now lay. This produced a deep impression on me, and I 
meditated over this wonderful stone. So that I felt the 
keenest delight when I first read of icebergs transporting 
boulders, and I gloried in the progress of Geology. 

After having spent two sessions in Edinburgh, my 
father perceived, or he heard from my sisters, that I did 
not like the thought of being a physician, so he proposed 
that I should become a clergyman. He was very properly 
vehement against my turning into an idle sporting man, 
which then seemed my probable destination. 

As [this] was decided, it was necessary that I should go 
to one of the English universities and take a degree; but as 
I had never opened a classical book since leaving school, I 
found to my dismay, that in the two intervening years, 
I had actually forgotten, incredible as it may appear, 
almost everything which 1 had learnt, even to some few 
of the Greek letters. I did not therefore proceed to Cam- 
bridge at the usual time in October, but worked with a 
private tutor in Shrewsbury, and went to Cambridge after 
the Christmas vacation, early in 1828. I soon recovered 
my school standard of knowledge, and could translate easy 
Greek books, such as Homer and the Greek Testament. 

During the three years which I spent at Cambridge my 
time was wasted, as far as the academical studies were 



concerned, as completely as at Edinburgh and at school. 
With respect to Classics I did nothing except attend a few 
compulsory college lectures, and the attendance was almost 
nominal. In my second year I had to work for a month or 
two to pass the Little-Go, which I did easily. Again, in 
my last year I worked with some earnestness for my final 
degree of B.A., and brushed up my Classics, together with 
a little Algebra and Euclid, which latter gave me much 
pleasure, as it did at school. ... In order to pass the B.A. 
examination, it was also necessary to get up Palev"s 
Evidences of Christianity, and his Moral Philosophr. This 
was done in a thorough manner, and I am convinced that 
1 could have written out the whole of the Evidences with 
perfect correctness, but not of course in the clear language 
of Paley. The logic of this book and. as I mav add. of his 
Natural Theology, gave me as much delight as did Euclid. 
The careful study of these works, without attempting to 
learn any part by rote, was the only part of the academical 
course which, as I then felt, and as I still believe, was of 
the least use to me in the education of mv mind. I did not 
at that time trouble myself about Paley's premises: and 
taking these on trust. I was charmed and convinced bv the 
long line of argumentation. By answering well the exami- 
nation questions in Paley, by doing Euclid well, and by 
not failing miserably in Classics. I gained a good place 
among the hoi polloi who do not go in for honours; but I 
cannot remember how high 1 stood, and my memory 
fluctuates between the fifth, tenth, and twelfth on the list. 
Public lectures on several branches were given in the 
University, attendance being quite voluntary; but I was 




Darwin learns to stuff birds in Edinburgh -one of the 
extracurricular studies that formed his actual education. 



326 



so sickened with lectures at Edinburgh that I did not even 
attend Sedgwick's eloquent and interesting lectures. Had 
I done so I should probably have become a geologist 
earlier than I did. I attended, however. Henslow's lectures 
on Botany, and liked them much for their extreme clear- 
ness, and the admirable illustrations: but I did not study 
botany. Henslow used to take his pupils, including several 
of the older members of the University, on field excursions, 
on foot or in coaches, to distant places, or in a barge dowTi 
the river, and lectured on the rarer plants and animals 
which were observed. These excursions were delightful. 

Although, as we shall presently see. there were some 
redeeming features in my life at Cambridge, my time was 
sadly wasted there, and worse than wasted. . . . 

BIT no pursuit at Cambridge was followed with nearly so 
nnich eagerness or gave me so much pleasure as col- 
lecting beetles. It was the mere passion for collecting, for 
1 did not dissect them, and rarely compared their external 
characters w ith published descriptions, but got them named 
anyhow. I will give a proof of my zeal: one day. on tear- 
ing off some old bark, I saw two rare beetles, and seized 
one in each hand; then I saw a third and new kind, which 
I could not bear to lose, so that I popped the one which I 
held in my right hand into my mouth. Alas! it ejected 
some intensely acrid fluid, which burnt my tongue so that 
I spat the beetle out. which was lost, as was the third one. 
I was very successful in collecting, and invented two 
new methods; I employed a labourer to scrape, during the 
winter, moss off old trees and place it in a large bag. and 
likewise to collect the rubbish at the bottom of the barges 
in which reeds are brought from the fens, and thus I got 
some very rare species. No poet ever felt more delighted 
at seeing his first poem published than I did at seeing, in 
Stephens' Illustrations of British Insects, the magic words, 
"captured by C. Darwin. Esq." I was introduced to ento- 
mology by my second cousin. W. Darwin Fox. a clever 
and most pleasant man, w'ho was then at Christ's College,! 
and with whom I became extremely intimate. Afterwards 
I became well acquainted, and went out collecting, with 
Albert Way of Trinity, who in after years became a well- 
known archaeologist; also with H. Thompson, of the same 
College, afterwards a leading agriculturist, chairman of a 
great railway, and Member of Parliament. It seems that a 
taste for collecting beetles indicates future success in life! 
I am surprised what an indelible impression many of 
the beetles which I caught at Cambridge have left on my 
mind. I can remember the exact appearance of certain 
posts, old trees and banks where I made a good capture. 
The pretty Panagaeus crux-major was a treasure in those 
days, and here at Down I saw a beetle running across a 
walk and on picking it up instantly perceived that it dif- 
fered slightly from P. crux-major, and it turned out to be 
P. quadripunctatus, which is only a variety or closely allied 
species, differing from it very slightly in outline. I had 
never seen in those old days Licinus alive, which to an 
uneducated eye hardly differs from many of the black 
Carabidous beetles; but my sons found here a specimen, 
and I instantly recognised that it was new to me; yet I had 
not looked at a British beetle for the last twenty years. 

I have not yet mentioned a circumstance which influ- 
enced my whole career more than any other. This was my 
friendship with Professor Henslow. ... I cannot resist 
mentioning a trifling incident, which showed his kind 




Enthusiastic Darwin, beetle in each hand, popped one 
into mouth to seize a third from tree, ended losing both. 



consideration. Whilst examining some pollen-grains on a 
damp surface, I saw the tubes exserted, and instantly 
rushed off to communicate my surprising discovery to him. 
Now I do not suppose any other professor of botany could 
have helped laughing at my coming in such a hurry to 
make such a communication. But he agreed how interest- 
ing the phenomenon was, and explained its meaning, but 
made me clearly understand how well it was known; so I 
left him not in the least mortified, but pleased at having 
discovered myself a remarkable fact, but determined not 
to hurry again to communicate my discoveries. 

Henslow then persuaded me to begin the study of geol- 
ogy. Therefore on my return to Shropshire I examined 
sections, and coloured a map of parts round Shrewsbury. 
Professor Sedgwick intended to visit North Wales in the be- 
ginning of August [1831] to pursue his famous geological 
investigations amongst the older rocks, and Henslow asked 
him to allow me to accompany him. Accordingly he came 
and slept at my father's house. 

A SHORT conversation with [Sedgwick] during this eve- 
ning produced a strong impression on my mind. Whilst 
examining an old gravel-pit near Shrewsbury, a labourer 
told me that he had found in it a large worn tropical Volute 
shell, such as may be seen on chimney-pieces of cottages; 
and as he would not sell the shell, I was convinced that he 
had really found it in the pit. I told Sedgwick of the fact, 
and he at once said (no doubt truly) that it must have been 
thrown away by some one into the pit ; but then added, if 
really embedded there it would be the greatest misfortune 
to geology, as it would overthrow all that we know about 
the superficial deposits of the Midland Counties. These 
gravel-beds belong in fact to the glacial period, and in 
after years I found in them broken arctic shells. But I was 



then utterly astonished at Sedgwick not being delighted 
at so wonderful a fact as a tropical shell being found near 
the surface in the middle of England. Nothing before had 
ever made me realise, though I had read various scientific 
books, that science consists in grouping facts so that gen- 
eral laws or conclusions may be drawn from them. 

Next morning we started for Llangollen, Conway, Ban- 
gor, and Capel Curig. This tour was of decided use in 
teaching me a little how to make out the geology of a 
country. Sedgwick often sent me on a line parallel to his, 
telling me to bring back specimens of the rocks and to 
mark the stratification on a map. I have little doubt that 
he did this for my good, as I was too ignorant to have 
aided him. On this tour I had a striking instance how easy 
it is to overlook phenomena, however conspicuous, before 
they have been observed by any one. We spent many hours 
in Cwm Idwal, examining all the rocks with extreme care, 
as Sedgwick was anxious to find fossils in them; but neither 
of us saw a trace of the wonderful glacial phenomena all 
around us; we did not notice the plainly scored rocks, the 
perched boulders, the lateral and terminal moraines. Yet 
these phenomena are so conspicuous that ... a house burnt 
down by fire did not tell its story more plainly than did 
this valley. If it had still been filled by a glacier, the phe- 
nomena would have been less distinct than they now are. 

At Capel Curig I left Sedgwick and went in a straight 
line by compass and map across the mountains to Bar- 
mouth, never following any track unless it coincided with 
my course. I thus came on some strange wild places, and 
enjoyed much this manner of travelling. I visited Barmouth 
to see some Cambridge friends who were reading there, 
and thence returned to Shrewsbury and to Maer for shoot- 




CoLLECTiNC ROCK SPECIMENS in North Wales, Darwin got 
first geological field experience on a tour with Sedgwick. 



ing; for at that time I should have thought myself mad to 
give up the first days of partridge-shooting for geology 
or any other science. 

On returning home from my short geological tour in 
North Wales, I found a letter from Henslow. informing me 
that Captain Fitz-Roy was willing to give up part of his 
own cabin to any young man who would volunteer to go 
with him without pay as naturalist to the voyage of the 
"Beagle.". . . I was eager to accept the offer, but my father 
strongly objected, adding the words, fortunate for me, "If 
you can find any man of commonsense who advises you 
to go I will give my consent." So I wrote that evening and 
refused the offer. On the next morning I went to Maer to 
be ready for September 1st. and whilst out shooting, my 
uncle sent for me, offering to drive me over to Shrewsbury 
and talk with my father, as my uncle thought it would be 
wise in me to accept the offer. My father always maintained 
that [my uncle] was one of the most sensible men in the 
world, and he at once consented in the kindest manner. I 
had been rather extravagant at Cambridge, and to console 
my father, said that. "1 should be deuced clever to spend 
more than my allowance whilst on board the 'Beagle'." He 
answered with a smile. "They tell me you are very clever." 

Next day I started for Cambridge to see Henslow, and 
thence to London to see Fitz-Roy, and all was soon ar- 
ranged. Afterwards, on becoming very intimate with 
Fitz-Roy, I heard that 1 had run a very narrow risk of 
being rejected on account of the shape of my nose! He 
was an ardent disciple of Lavater and was convinced that 
he could judge a man's character b) the outline of his 




Geological anomaly, a tropical shell found in England, 
taught Darwin value of grouping data into coherent whole. 

328 



These excerpts are from an autobiography 
Charles Darwin wrote for his children, at tlic 
age of sixty -seven, first published in the U.S. 
by Applelon. It is the first of several articles 
related to Darwin's life and work to appear in 
Natural History during the hundredth anniver- 
sary of the i)ublication of The Oriiiin of .S/xt/V.s. 



features; and he doubted whether any one with in\ nose Ij 
could possess sufficient energy and determination for the 
voyage. But 1 think he was afterwards well satisfied that 
my nose had spoken falsely. 

The voyage of the "Beagle" has been by far the most rni- 
portant event in my life, and has determined my whole 
career; yet it depended on so small a circumstance as my 
uncle offering to drive me thirty miles to Shrewsbury, 
which few uncles would have done, and on such a trifle 
as the shape of my nose. I have always felt that I owe to 
the voyage the first real training or education of my mind; 
I was led to attend closely to several branches of natural 
history, and thus my powers of observation were improved. 
Investigating the geology of all the places visited was far 
more important, as reasoning here comes into play. 

To return to the voyage. On September 11th [18311, I 
paid a flying visit with Fitz-Roy to the "Beagle" at Ply- 
mouth. Then to Shrewsbury to wish my father and sisters 
a long farewell. On October 24th I took up my residence 
at Plymouth, and remained there until December 27th, 
when the "Beagle" finally left the shores of England for 
her circumnavigation of the world. We made two earlier 
attempts to sail, but were driven back each time by heavy 
gales. These two months at Plymouth were the most mis- 
erable which I ever spent, though I exerted myself in 
various ways. I was out of spirits at the thought of leaving 
all my family and friends for so long a time, and the 
weather seemed to me inexpressibly gloomy. 1 was also 
troubled with palpitation and pain about the heart, and 
like many a young ignorant man, especially one with a 
smattering of medical knowledge, was convinced that I 
had heart disease. I did not consult any doctor, as I fully 
expected to hear the verdict that I was not fit for the voy- 
age, and I was resolved to go at all hazards. 

Looking backwards, I can now perceive how my love 
for science gradually preponderated over every other taste. 
During the first two years of the five-year voyage my old 
passion for shooting survived in nearly full force, and I 
shot myself all the birds and animals for my collection: 
but gradually I gave up my gun more and more, and finally 
altogether, to my servant, as shooting interfered with my 
work, more especially with making out the geological 
structure of a country. I discovered, though unconsciously 
and insensibly, that the pleasure of observing and reason- 
ing was a much higher one than that of skill and sport. 
That my mind became developed through my pursuits 
during the voyage is rendered probable by a remark made 
by my father, who was the most acute observer whom I 
ever saw. of a sceptical disposition, and far from being a 
believer in phrenology; for on first seeing me after the 
voyage, he turned round to my sisters, and exclaimed, 
"Why, the shape of his head is quite altered." 



I 




)arwin visits the "Beagle" at Plymouth in September, on December 27. The voyage was "by far the most important 

831. The vessel, kept in port by heavy seas, finally left event in my life," Darwin wrote to his children in 1876. 



329 



4RT OF ABORIGINAL 
AMERICA 



Vt the Brussels Fair, a U. S. show 
)resents a rich, native tradition 

Photographs by Charles Uht 



EUROPEAN VISITORS to the Brussels World's Fair— and 
many Americans who usually look upon Europe as 
he source of all their continent's culture— may be sur- 
irised by one of the exhibits in the L nited States Pavilion. 
Jrganized by the Museum of Primitive Art in New York 
-and drawing upon the collections of ten other museums, 
wo private persons and the U.S. government— the exhibit 
:onsists of thirty-five works that give a cross section of 
he aboriginal cultures of North America. Three great 
reographical areas are thoroughly represented. The high 
;ultures of the Pacific Northwest were, with respect to 
heir technology, no more advanced than other Indian 
iocieties: but an extremely favorable environment allowed 
hem. upon contact with Europeans, to acquire material 
yealth unequaled by other North American Indians. The 
ribes of the Southwest are also well represented, as are 
he mounted hunters of the Central Plains, whose special 
;ulture largely developed after their European contact, 
ivhen the horse— extinct in the New World since the Pleis- 
ocene— was reintroduced. But other cultures further to 
he East have not been neglected— a death mask from 
Fennessee (see next page) is not only one of the earliest 
Yorks in the Brussels exhibit (photo below) but one of 
he best-known from the whole of American prehistory. 




Leather mask, /e/f— a katcina, 
3r ancestral spirit— is the work of 
Xew Mexican Zuni. Katcinas 
jave names to entire clans. 




Walrus ivory was used by Eskimos 
for this figure of a pregnant woman, 
a monumental piece although it stands 
less than four inches high. 



331 



Funerary mask from eastern Tennessee, 
in shell, is from culture typified 
by log-vaulted, earthen burial mounds. 
It dates from a.d. 1000-1500. 




332 



Killer whale in steatite, from 
Chumash culture in JNIalibu Canyon area. 
Southern California, was intended 
for use as a smoke-blower. 




Kwakiutl Indians from Gwa Island 
British Columbia, fashioned 
striking bird mask, over 
three-feet long, from painted wood. 



Mask of the man in the moon, also made 

of painted wood, is an example 

of intricacy of much Eskimo work. 

This piece is from southwest Alaska. 






*^S^ 



'#"*' 

\J^ .,'^T*^ 




f^^^^^^^r 






^. 



\ ^yf:*Si^^^ 



Hide-painting figures buffalo 
hunt and hunting rites. It 
was produced by a Central Plains 
culture, Arapaho or Sioux. 



So-called "birdstones," 

loaned by Museum of Primitive Art 

in New York, were found in 

the northern Mississippi valley. 





Northwest Coast "copper" was used 
in potlatch ceremonies- 
ritual expressions of prestige 
typical of area's wealthy tribes. 



Mask of a dead man. Tlingit work 

from British Columbia, is in 

painted wood, has eyes of 

metal, painted leather headdress. 



Letters 




Ilumniingbird Feeders 

Sirs: 

Among the many interesting features 
of Natural History for May, 1957, I 
saw an illustration of a hummingbird- 
feeder developed by personnel at the 
American Museum's Southwestern Re- 
search Station. I should like to learn 
more about hummingbird-feeders: de- 
sign, food composition, bird attractants. 
preferred location, protection from ants, 
etc. I should appreciate any information 
you can provide. 

Claude E. ZoBell 
University of California 
La Jolla, California 

The Department of Birds replies: 

Neither the Department of Birds nor 
the staff at the Southwestern Research 
Station claims to have made a scientific 
study of the operation of hummingbird- 
feeders. The feeders were installed at 
the Research Station primarily to attract 
numbers of hummingbirds to the en- 
virons of the laboratory for all to observe 
and admire. No particular effort has 
been made, however, to pursue the poten- 
tialities that these feeders hold for study- 
ing the biology of hummingbirds. Such a 
project would be extremely interesting 
and worthwhile— an excellent example of 
how the amateur naturalist can make 
a substantial contribution to science. 

We visualize two features as essential 
for a successful hummingbird-feeder: a 
supply of sweetened water and a self- 
operating dispenser. 

For sweetened water, we use a simple 
solution of table sugar in water, roughly 
in a ratio of 1:1 or 1:2. Honey has been 
successfully substituted. The success of 
such homemade "nectar" in humming- 
bird feeding has led to a popular miscon- 



ception that the diet of these birds is 
principally, if not entirely, nectar. Such 
is not the case. There is good evidence 
that insects and tiny spiders, especially 
those varieties to be found on flowers and 
foliage, make up an important part of 
the normal diet. Aviculturists have long 
been aware that a restricted diet of 
sweetened water will not maintain cap- 
tive hummingbirds in good health. We 
do not mention this to discourage the 
continued use of sugar water, but to 
indicate something of the biology of 
these birds. What a hummingbird takes 
from a feeder is only a supplement to 
its natural diet: we know of no evidence 
that the health of free-living humming- 
birds has been impaired by the use of 
feeders. Tiiere may well be a "preferred" 
formula for nectar, however. An inter- 
ested amateur could readily determine 
this by designing a "choice" experiment 
and recording the "preferences" shown 
for each solution over a period of time. 

The simplest dispenser need be noth- 
ing more than a pop bottle (or other 
narrow-mouthed container), with a stoji- 
per penetrated by a short piece of small- 
bore glass tubing that will restrict flow 
through capillary acticm. The bottle is 
filled, inverted, and the tube adjusted lo 
a position where it can be reached con- 
veniently by a hummingbird in flight. 
The dispenser at right in the photograph, 
constructed by Dr. James Tanner of the 
University of Tennessee, is such a modi]. 

A more elaborate dispenser, designcil 
by Dr. Van Riper of the Denver Musiuni 
of Natural History, has also proved very 
effective at the Station (at left, in photo- 
graph). In tills model, the sugar solution 
flows into a plastic cup. A lid, bearing a 
number of tiny holes, covers this reser- 
voir and helps both to prevent wasps and 



other insects from monopolizing th 
feeder and to reduce tiie loss of flu 
through dripping (two factors that ar 
sometimes troublesome with the simple 
hummingbird-feeder). 

The perch on the Van Riper model f 
a welcome addition for an observer wh 
is interested in photography but canno 
afford the expensive equipment recpiire 
to "stop" a hummingbird in flight. Bird 
that visited the Van Riper feeder at th 
Research Station regularly rested on th 
perch while drinking, and could b 
readily photographed. With the simple 
model, the birds feed in flight. 

The "attractiveness" of the feeder cai 
often be enhanced by the use of brigh 
colors about the dispenser, simulatin 
the brightly-colored petals of the flower: 
the bird normally visits. In the simple 
model, this was accomplished by lea 
the feeding tube through a piece o 
bright-red cardboard: the lid of the Vai 
Riper feeder is also bright red. Here 
again, a variety of experiments sug 
themselves: what portions of the coloi 
spectrum are most attractive to hum 
mingbirds? Once the birds have becom 
conditioned to visiting feeders in a givei 
area, is there any evidence that feeder 
with color are "preferred" to undeco 
rated ones? Rather simple, but carefully 
controlled, backyard experiments r 
provide answers to these questions. 

This list details the photographer, artist.! 
or other source of ilustrations. by page. 



COVER-Peabody Museum, 
Harvard University. 

284-teonard Weisgard, 
courtesy Harper & 
Brotliers. 

285-Winifred Lube!!, 
courtesy Harper & 
Brothers. 

286-William D. Berry, 
courtesy Little, 
Brown & Co. 



AIVINH; star map by 
Henry M. Neely. 

316-23-David G. Allen; 
except p. 319(rigtit), 
by Lee Boltin and 
drawing on p. 319 by Dr. 
William C. Dilger. 

324-29-Enid Kotschnig 

330-337-Charles Uht; 
except p. 331 (bottom), 
Wide World; and p. 333 
(bottom), University of 
California. 



288-9-William D. Berry, 

(top), Elizabeth K. Cooper 

(bottom), courtesy Harcourt, 338~George Bradt. 

Brace & Company. ^^^^^^^ g^|,.„ 

291-309-Peabody Museum, 342 thru third cover 
Harvard University. ....,,, ,. , j 

AMNH photos; dravKings 
by Matthew Kalmenoff, 
AMNH. 



BUTTERFLY MOUNTING & COLLECTING KIT 

Finest and most complete kit. Contains 15 tropi- 
cal butterflies, 4x12 spreading board, 60 glass 
headed pins, 100 insect pins, I chemicolly 
treated relaxing jar for softening butterflies, 
2 glass strips, paper strips, 1 gloss top riker 
display mount, 1 pair brood point forceps, 
triangular collecting envelopes, a 16 page 
picture booklet with step by step instructions 
for mounting, dispatching, preserving butterfly 
collections plus other interesting information 
with nylon butterfly net for $4.95 post paid. 
Nylon net $1.95 post paid with instruction book. 
Free price list upon request. Many butterfly 
bargains. 

America's largest Dealer. 

BUTTERFLY ART JEWELRY, INC. 

291 East 98lh Street, Brooklyn 12, N Y^ 



*$T«OI(0*IICAl TEUSCOMJ 



s — FREE — for the asking! 

The UNITRON Catalog of 
JRONOMICAL TELESCOPES 

including the 

OBSERVERS GUIDE 



^ ^ 





OBSERVING the MCXDN 








OBS£P\INO Uk plane Tb 




iLTAZlMl/TH RtFRAOOR 



he sample pages shown here in miniature 
only begin to hint at the wealth of facts 
and figures included in UNITRON's color- 
ful, SS-page Catalog and Observer's Guide. 
The full-page illustrated articles on astron- 
omy are crammed with helpful information 
— not readily available elsewhere — on 
observing the heavens, telescopes and their 
mountings, accessories, amateur clubs, as- 
trophotography, and the like. There is even 
a glossary of telescope and observing 
terms. Whether you are a beginner or an 
advanced amateur you will certainly want 
a copy of this remarkable publication for 
your bookshelf. Use the handy coupon, a 
postcard, or letter to request your free 
copy of this valuable guide. 




8 4-Wi* EOUAfbHfAL REFRACTOR 



Those who are considering the purchase of 
a telescope will find it especially worth 
while to learn more about the distinguished 
line of UNITRON Refractors and Acces- 
sories which play so important a role in 
astronomy today. For only by a careful 
comparison of the features, quality, and 
performance of different instruments can 
the prospective buyer insure that his tele- 
scope will be worthy of his investment and 
of the time he will devote to observing, 
it's truly easy to own a UNITRON. A down 
payment of only 10% puts you at the con- 
trols and you have 12 months to pay the 
balance. Full information is included in the 
UNITRON Catalog. Send today for your 
free copy. 



SSSS3SSSI 



To help you choose a telescope 



1% 
J' 








HINTS for OBSERVER* =-=.T-i=~ 



"%^ 
•^.' 



UNITP^OI^ 



204-206 MILK ST • BOSTON 9, MASSACHUSETTS 



Please rush to me af no cost or obligation a copy of the 
ew UNITRON Catalog of Astronomical Telescopes 



' m<^'i^ 



' n 
I I including the Observers Guide. 



I Name . 
I Street. 



City.. 



•State. 



PI FA!;C DDIMT 




Farm families benefit from increased yield of land and livestock with aid of Monsanto chemicals. 



Creative chemistry combines many sciences, 
runs over 2500 tests a year to hike farm yields 



In labs, on farms, Monsanto scientists, 
technical specialists in every field of agri- 
ctilture, using latest modern equipment, 
search for new ways to increase farm 
yields and profits through chemistry. 
Some practical results of this constant 
search are displayed above: corn crop 
returns 6 times investment in Lion 



Brand Fertilizer; cattle gain up to 23^ 
lbs. a day on feed additives ; weed killers 
increase actual crop yields 10-30%. 
And the search goes on. Tomorrow, 
perhaps, fruits and vegetables will stay 
mold free indefinitely . . . and insect 
crop destroyers will not rob 10% of 
farm production. 



MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 
St. Louis 24. Missouri 




WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRy WORKS WONDERS 




TREES' TALES 

The American Museum opens new 
exhibit: North American Forests 



TEN YEARS IN PREPARATION, the Hall of North 
American Forests has opened at The American 
Museum. The exhibit's theme is the diversity of forest life, 
shown by means of twelve separate hfe-sized displays of 
North American forest types. But a tree's history is not 
easily read from its bark or leaves. It is best seen in the 
rings that not only mark each tree's annual growth, but 
record the hazards of growth, as well. This story, told in 
one of the new Hall's exhibits, is presented on these pages. 



EFFECT OF COMPETITION on tree's growth is seen 
from cross section of loblolly pine. Germinat- 
ing with hundreds of others in abandoned field, it 
grew at an average rate for seventeen years. Then, 
neighboring pines began to rob it of light at the top, 
water and minerals at roots. After sixty-four years 
of slower growth in the crowded stand, the pine was 
released from this competition by the felling of many 
of its neighbors. Thereafter, the tree grew rapidly. 




ANNUAL RINGS can also record such events as 
. landslides, windstorms and other disturbances 
that tip trees — for growth-rings of leaning trees 
are abnormally wide to one side. Here, a red spruce 
shows two such upheavals. The first, occurring at age 
twenty-four (recorded by normally-shaped rings in 
center ) , tipped tree toward upper right. The second, 
six years later, pushed it in opposite direction, and 
spruce kept leaning that way forty-three years more. 



CHRONICLE OF FIRES IS written in yearly rings 
of this ponderosa pine, which received a total 
of nine scars from fires during its 108-year life. 
Four scars cluster together at center of the cross 
section, one is isolated by sound wood to the left of 
center, still four others are visible on left side. 
Open wound along bottom of section is called a "cat 
face." Intervals between fires may be calculated by 
counting rings that have grown over charred wood. 




X TA.RIATIONS IN GROWTH 31 e seen in varying width 
of lings. Width decrease is sign of hindrance 
to\\atei-absoibing s\stem in roots or food-manufac- 
turing s>stem in leaves, through factors like drought 
or insect defoliation. Healthy for t^venty-four years, 
this eastem laich ^\as stripped of leaves by sawfly- 
cateipillai plague (fiist band of naiiow rings). End 
of epidemic bi ought twenty wider lings. Then, second 
plague struck. Tree was cut befoie plague had ended. 







2 c u 
"? o 



% 


I' 


:s 


o 


>^ 


V v 








613 


13 


^ '£ 


L. 


c 


^^ 


n 


c 


J5 ^ 




re 


- O 




^ 


C 






O «5 


o 




." u 




c 


" & 


J= 


■■■ 


5 ^ 




c 










'i 


=- 


C J= 



— CI, 



•2 S ti I 



344 









•<' 



■/ 




'iu 



:<i. 






'//% X 



I 



\ /.' 




/( Piikiilds hcaiitiliil Badlands. 



T.R.— the cowboy who rode herd on our natural glories 



Most Americans think of Teddy Roosevelt as part bull moose and part 
steam-engine. But mostly, T. R. was the Fourth of July r'ared back and walking 
on its hind legs. He was a man on fire for his country, and it was the natural 
glories of this land that lit the fuse. 

They've made a wonderful park of his Elkhorn Ranch and the Badlands 
where he worked as a cowboy and found health and strength. Here, you can 
see the open range that made him first appreciate his country's greatness. 
You can ride the trails that gave his imagination new directions. You can 
climb the ridges that lifted his eyes, and gave him the power to lead his 
Rough Riders up San Juan Hill in '98. 

This is the centennial of T.R.'s birth; if he were around today, he'd be 
"dee-lighted" that the conservation policies he fostered have been so wisely 
continued. He knew America would always need breathing space, open waters 
and green, growing forest — the heart lifting glories of Nature that men must 
have to grow strong and great. 

• • • 

FREE TOUR INFORMATION If you would like to visit Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial 
Park, or drive anywhere in the U.S.A., let us help plan your trip. Write: Tour Bureau, 
Sinclair Oil Corporation, 600 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y— also ask for our 
colorful National Parks map. 

ANOTHER IN SINCLAIR'S AMERICAN CONSERVATION SERIES 



SINCLAIR SALUTES THE THEODORE 
ROOSEVELT CENTENNIAL COMMISSION 

for its far-reaching educational cam- 
paign during 1958 to perpetuate the 
ideals of responsible citizenship as ex- 
emplified by the vigorous, many-sided 
life of our 26th President, Theodore 
Roosevelt. By giving new impetus to 
public interest in conservation of our 
natural resources, always of vital con- 
cern to T. R., the Commission reminds 
all Americans of the importance of 
refreshing the human spirit by visiting 
and appreciating the great outdoors. 




August - September 1958 • 50f 



Natural History 




CONTOUR GLOBE 




dislorii.nis. 

On the attraclUre pal,: blue aitrjacc yuu ciin 
draw or paint, outlining boundaries, coloring in 
climate zones, tracing sea and airlancs — then 
wash them off and put on new facU. 

Accurately formed in durable plasttc tins globe 
can be lifted off its base and handled freely. 

This twelve inch relief globe with a hand spun 
aluminum base and a large (36" X S2~j colorful 

map of the world is only f'i-»S 

add NOC for postage and handling in the United 
States, Sl.-^O for abroad. 



NEED AN EXTRA BRAIN? 



model of the brain 
you ran visualize the 
hrain and get a clear 
Idea of the parts 
which make it up- 

Can you locate the 
different 
the (halan 



the medulla 




for 



al dis- 



Our NEW 3-D mode) of the brain helps you 
do this. Special Price (postpaid) 55.98 

BILK KATES FOK SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES 
or l.MVEUSITY BOOK STORES. 



9^ fl 



WRIST RADIO 



Weight: 2.5 Oz. 



$2995 






tenna is required up to a 
distance nf 25 miles from a broadcast station of average 
power. Good consistent reception can be obtained over 
3.T miles wiih the use of a wire from 6 inches to 3 feet. 
The use of transistors niahes it a rugged device not 
subjected to tube breakage. Rugged high quality com- 
ponents are used throughout. Normally the transistor will 
not have to he replaced for the life of the insirumenl. 
Extreme ectinomy of operation is obtained through the 
use of special circuitr>- requiring very lo' 
prolonging the life of the 



iiakes It the ideal 

where it easily fits under the s1e< 

in a shirt pocket. 



cells. The i 






the 



of a jacket i 
$29.95 postpaid 



WATERPROOF STOP WATCHES 

These beautiful German addition 




oof. shock- 
proof, and dust pi-otected with 
unbreakable mainsprings. Meas- 
uring time in tenths of a second 
they are ideal for research, ath- 
letic events, or production tim- 
ing. Extremely light weight they 
are accurate far beyond their cost 
giving the value of much more 
expensive instruments, 
ted quantity available at $15*95 

pcstpaid 



WHICH GROUP ARE YOU IN? 




biy Ro 



[j ENGINEER OR RESEARCH WORKER who 

wonts to learn more about the appli- 
cation of computers to his problems. 
I I TEACHER in high school or college who 
needs laboratory or demonstration ma- 
terial on computers. 

□ SCIENTIFIC AMATEUR who wants to 
learn about computers but doesn't 
know how to begin. 

INVETERATE GADGETEER 

STUDENT impatient for teachers to begin. 
^ FAMILY MAN who wonts some fun with 
his kids. 



THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE FROM THESE GROUPS HAVE BOUGHT AND ENJOYED GENIAC®, 
THE ELECTRIC BRAIN CONSTRUCTION KIT. 

THE MANUALS ore a survey of the applications of symbolic logic in reducing various prob- 
lems to repetitive machine solution. We explain the theory and illustrate with complete 
wiring diagrams. 

THE 100 PAGE TEXT gives on overview of the whole computer field. 
THE KIT OF MATERIALS contoins over 400 ports, switches, all wire and tools necessary for 
building and designing over 50 different computing game playing, problem solving circuits. 
YOU benefit from the experience of thousands of users incorporated in the latest revised 
monuol. 

W/E GUARANTEE ABSOLUTELY thot unless you are completely satisfied with your GENIAC^ 
kit, you may ship it back to us within 7 days and we will return your money. 

SEND NOW! ONLY $19.95 POSTPAID 

COSMOTRON 

• MINIATURE ATOM 

SMASHER 

• PRODUCES 75,000 

VOLTS 

• ABSOLUTELY 

SAFE 



A 66-inch Slide-rule 
for your pocket 

G E Nl A r® Calculator 
66-incli" spiral scales 
■sures only ten inclies 
fully extendeti and six inches 
\Tlitii clo'^fi Four to five fig- 
ure accuracy can be relfed 
on. 1- !. ir ; -i.Liisable to the 
- irrli worker and 
■ A ; ; inistratiTC staff 
,-, ; I .,!,(-- II .■ri will find it 
nf trfiiiendoiis value for ft 
host of estimating and check- 
ing calculations. 

The GENIAC^ Slide Rule 
solves mulliplication. division, 
percentage calculation and 
gives ii place logarithms. 

You may use it for 30 days end if you 
ore not satisfied repack and mail it back. 

VVfiof our users say: 
"It does all you claim — four 
OP five figure accuracy with- 



in no sense of the word a toy or a gadget. The 
COSMOTRON is a scientific instrument capable of pro- 
ducing 75.000 volts— makes sparks up to 2" long — yet is 
absoluteb safe because the current is infinitesimal. The 
science teacher — science lover — or hobbyist can perform 
experiments to astound students — friends — famib'. Makes 
smoke disappear — defies gravity — turns propellers at a 
distance — transforms atomic energy into light— makes 
artificial lightning — smashes atoms — demonstrates ionic 
space ship drive — and mam' "ther experiments. Con- 
structed of the finest materials. Will do exacib'— for 
instruction purposes — what generators that cost 3 to 10 
times more will do. The perfect device to leach the 
secrets of atomic phisics and electricity. Will hold an 
audience spellbound as it performs trick after amazing 
trick. Includes an experiment kit and illustrated experi- 
ment manual. Manual explains the '"how" and "wliy." 
You will invent many new experimmis of your own. A 
fine research tool that will give years of benelicial 
service to the institution or individual who owns one. 
In kit form or assembled. 




Kit form 
Assembled 



$14.95 
$19.95 



For eifher, add 80c for posfoge and 

handling in U. S.; $1.00 abroad. 

Use coupon below to order. 




pie for its use." A.E.B. . . . 
-I use the GEMAC Cal- 
culator for all my slide rule 
.Tork and need the extra digit 
which normal slide rules can- 
not give. I had to get one of 
my customers a GENIAC 
Slide Knle last month, after 




Send for yours now — Only $19.95 postpaid. 

Oliver Garfield Co., Inc., 

126 lexinglon Ave., Nev^ York 16, N. Y. 

OLIVER GARFIELD Co., Inc., Dept. NH-88, 108 E. 16th St., New York 3, N. Y. 

Please send me: CNY.C. Residents odd 3% City Sales Tax) 

1 GENIAC Electric Brain Construction Kit ond Manual 



S20.95 (West of Miss.) 



$21.95 (Outside the U.S.) 



$19.95 (East of Miss.) 

1 GENIAC Slide Rule. S19.95 

1 WATERPROOF Stop Watch $15.95 1 3-Diniensional Brain $5.98 

1 ATOMOTRON Miniature Atom Smasher and Manual. 1 Wrist Rodio $29.95. 

S19.95 (Completely assembled) $14.95 (in kit form) Relief Globe 

(For Globe or Atomoiron, add 80c for posfage and handling in U.S.; $1.00 abroad.) 




Open Wider Windows 

On The Living World 



WITH THIS TIMELY OFFER FROM 



The Natural History Book Club 



ANY 



TWO 
FREE 



OF THESE BOOKS 

With Your First 
Membership Selection. 



•PROM THE MOMENT THE SPUTNIKS AND EXPLORER 
•'• sent out the space signals heard 'round the world, member- 
ship in the Natural History Book Club has risen at an extraor- 
dinary rate. A knowledge of Geophysics and the other Natural 
Sciences must — from now on — be the property of every 
informed American man and woman. 

That is exactly what membership in the Natural History Book 
Club gives you. Month by month, you will receive informative 
books of gripping interest, intensely readable and highly knowl- 
edgeable. Each such book is the work of an authority in his 
chosen subject, and every book will open a wider window on 
the universe around you. 

THROUGH MEMBERSHIP, you may project yourself into 
Space with Willy Ley — acknowledged as America's foremost ex- 
pert on the subject. Orbit about the Earth in his authoritative 
and definitive book. Rockets, Missiles and Space Travel. Or, in 
To Hidden Depths, live with Captain Philippe Tailliez amid the 
wonders of the underwater sea, equipped only with fins and 
aqualungs while you share this twilight zone with sharks, whales, 
giant morays and octopi. Delve into the mysteries of the 
"Abominable Snowman" as described by Dr. Maurice Burton, a 
phenomenon so intriguing that right now two expeditions — 
one Russian and one American — are seeking this rumored 
man-like monster in the mountains of Afghanistan and the 
wildest Himalayas. We sincerely believe that this Club makes a 
genuine contribution to a more informed Society. And — most 
especially — we offer it to those families who believe their 
children should be exposed to richer fare than comic strip 
learning. 




ROCKETS, MISSILES 
AND SPACE TRAVEL 

by Willy Ley 
Newly revised and 
enlarged edition 
brougiit thoroughly 
up to date. The defini- 
tive source book m 
Its field, by America's 
foremost authority 
Retail Price— S6. 75 



THE ATLANTIC: 
History of an Ocean 

by 
U-omird OulkKiiiu- 
Combining history, 
geography and ocean- 
ography, here is a 
continuously interest- 
ing book spanning 
the Atlantic story 
from earliest times 
to the present. 
Retail Price— $6.50 





EXPLORING 
AMERICAN CAVES 

by Franklin Folson, 
The history, geology, 
lore and location of 
the last "unexplored 
frontiers". An excit- 
ing account of the 
men and women who 
light their way be- 
neath the earth's 
crust. 
Retail Price— S5.00 




THE ANATOMY 
OF NATURE 

by Andreas Feininger 
Strikingly beautiful 
and revealing photo- 
graphs illuminate a 
brilliant text unveil- 
ing the facts of life 
within Nature's cycle. 
Retail Price— $5.95 



TO HIDDEN DEPTHS 

by Capl. 

Philippe Tailliez 
Fascinating, intimate 
account of under- 
water exploration, 
with 12 amazingly 
beautiful photo- 
graphs in full color, 
and almost 50 in 
monochrome. 

Retail Price— S5.00 





THE WILD HUNTERS 

by Gene Caesai 
Exciting and s 
penseful account of 
the wild predators of 
America, their intel- 
ligence and social or- 
ganization, with true 
narratives of almost 
unbelievable exploits. 

Retail Price— S3.75 




THE PURSUIT OF 

SCIENCE IN 

REVOLUTIONARY 

AMERICA 

by Brooke HincUe 
The little-known 
story of the first dar- 
ing men who intro- 
duced the knowledge 
of the sciences to the 
colonies. 
Retail Price— $7.50 



MAN 



Tni 



Ki?' 



MAN AND ENERGY 

by A. R. Ubbelohdt' 
A profound study, by 
a world-renowned 
scientist, of the use 
of energy through the 
aues, and the funda- 
mental changes 
brought to modern 
life by new methods 
for its release. 
Retail Price— $5.00 



THE WONDER 
OF SNOW 

by Corydoii Bell 
This fascinating book 
penetrates the mys- 
teries of nature's 
most spectacular 
phenomenon — and 
its influence 
kind throughout the I 
world. 

Retail Price— $5.00 i 



ANIMAL LEGENDS 

by Maurice Burton 
Amazing facts and 
some fancies about 
the acts of animals. 



ordii 



dents based on evi- 



treasury of Nature 
lore. 
Retail Price— $4.95 




FREE!... ANY 2 BOOKS IF YOU JOIN NOW 



As your introduction to the 
benefits of the Natural History 
Book Club, we urge you to se- 
lect any two of the excellent 
books on this page — FREE — - 
along with a third as your first 
Club selection. You pay only 
the special Membership price of 
$3.89 plus postage. And the 
total retail worth of the THREE 
BOOKS can be over $20.00. 

Membership entitles you to 
The Natural History Book Club 
News FREE. Each month, this 
publication describes the new 
selection, as well as other fine 
books which are available. If 
you do not desire the selection. 



you simply notify us on a form | 

which is always provided. Your j 

only obligation is to accept as i 

few as four selections in the first [ 

year. After that, with the pur- I 

chase of each additional four | 

selections, at special Member- j 

ship discounts — you will receive i 

a valuable bonus book FREE, j 

Selections are limited. We ask j 

that you make your choice early. I 

Check the TWO FREE books | 

you desire, and make your first | 

Membership Selection now. i 

Send no money. We will bill you j 
$3.89 for ALL THREE after 

you have received the books. I 



THE NATURAL HISTORY BOOK CLUB, Dept. C-9 
1 1 East 36th Street, New York 16, N. Y. 



THREE BOOKS 1 have 
checked. Two are my 
FREE GIFT for joininii 
and my third is my first 
Memt)ership seleclion. I 
will pay you S.1.89 plus 
ila^ie. 1 can accept as 



n Rockets. Missiles 
and Space 
Travel— 306 

n The Anatomy of 



Natu 



-1152 



few 



four 



Members' djs 



all 



□ To Hidden 
Depths— 1201 

□ The Atlantic: 
History of an 
Ocean— 1241 

□ Exploring 
American 
Caves— 1133 



□ Animal 
Legends— 1237 

□ The Wonder of 
Snow— 1184 

□ Man and 
Energy— 1077 

□ The Pursuit of 

Revolutionary 
America— 1085 

□ The Wild 
Hunters — 1238 



PLEASE NOTE: A "Double Selection"— or a set of books offered to 
members at a special combined price — is counted as a single book in 
reckoning Bonus Book credit, and in fulfilling the membership obligation. 



ADDRESS_ 
C1TY_ 



The Natural History Book Club is not affiliated with The Art 



of Natural History 



Vol. LXVII 



NATURAL HISTORY 

The Magazine of The American Museum of Natural History 



No. 7 



Ai.i:x\NDF.R M. White 
President 



Albert E. Parr 
Director 



Walter F. Meister 
Deputy Director 



John Pircell 
Editor 



Editorial Advisers 
Gerard Pi el 
Fritz Goro 
John Kieran 
Charles Tudor 



Scientific Advisers 
Franklyn Branlev John Saunders 

Edwin Colbert T. C. Schneirla 

Gordon Ekholm Richard Van Gelder 

Jack McCormick 



Editorial Staff 

Robert Williamson 

Jerrold Lanes 

Margaret Matthews 

Henry Neely 



August— September 1958 



ARTICLES 



The McGee Fire: 

Holocaust in California 

Symbiosis Part III 

A Case of Peculiar Parasitism 

Man as a Hunter Part II 
Huntsmen of Nyae ]\tae 

The Wakulla Cave 

A Camera Looks at Plants 

DEPARTMENTS 

Reviews 

The Nature of Extinction 

Sky Reporter 



Georse Ballis 356 



Asher E. Treat 366 



Joliii Marshall 376 



Stanley J. Olseii 396 



Rutiicrford Plait 404 



Dean Aiiiadon 348 
Henrv M. Neelv 374 



Publication Office: 

American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79tli St.. New York 24. N. Y. 

Please address correspondence concerning membership, change of address, or missing issues 

to the Circulation Manager, The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West 

at 79th Street. New York 24, \. Y. 



You will find Natural History Macazitie indexed in Reader's Guide t 
Published momhly, October through May; bimonthly, June to Septembe 
History, Central Park West at 79th Street. Subscription is S5.00 a yeai 
Canada. Newfoundland, and all foreign countries is SS.50. Entered 



Natl 



the Post Office 
al Hi< 



the 



) Periodical Literature in your library. 
■, by The American Museum of Natural 
, single copies fifty cents. Subscription 
9, 1936, 



nist 24, 1912. Copyright 1958, by The Americ 
tied to the editorial office will be handled 
*ponsibility for their safety. 



Mu 



ni of 
but 




1 HE FIRE SCENE, tibove. is at the junction 
of state highways 180 and b^ near Happy 
Gap. California, on the Sunday befor 
Labor Day. PJ.S.S. Crews had just enough 
time to wet down ibeir equipment as the 
McGee fire— so called because it is thought 
to have started near the McGee ranch by 
Kings Canyon National Park— pushed by 
an updraft, swept up a sleep slope and 
past the men. who were left unharmed. 
Before the blaze was trapped and stifled 
some t\\o weeks later, over 17.000 acres 
of timber bad been lost, for a total 
damage of close to a million dollars. 
.After this episode of destruction had 
ended, however, a new phase began. Aided 
by forestry programs, new growth is 
rising where the old timber stood. The 
first stages of this process, as well as 
the McGee fire, are shown on p. 356 S. 



The American Museum is open to the Public every day in the year without charge: 
Your support of the Museum makes this possible. 




THE PANTHER - ferocious 
and cunning — obtains its 
prey by springing from am- 
bush. {Lark photo from 
Western Ways) 




ANNOUNCING A SPECIAL PRE-PUBLICATION OFFER 

The American Museum of Natural History 

presents 

THE ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY 
OF THE NATURAL SCIENCES 

Four Handsome Boxed Volumes— Over One Million Words, 

More Than 3000 Pictures— Bring the World of Nature into Your 

Home... for Your Entire Family to Explore! 



PARTIAL TABLE OF CONTENTS 

(This is just a bare outh 
plete contents would fill th 



AFRICAN MAMMALS. 

Elephant, gorilla, etc. 

HOW LONG DO THEY 
LIVE? Life spans: May 
fly to elephant. 

ALPACA. The poodle-like 
animal resembUng "a 
partly animated couch". 

FLOATING GOLD. Facts 
about ambergris, pro- 
duced by sperm whale. 



DINOSAURS. Pictures 
and descriptions. 

RACES AND CULTURES. 

Human origins, what man 
will look like in a haU- 
million years. 

ANTARCTICA. Facts and 
photos on this continent. 

CHEMICAL 




NATURE'S 

WARFARE. History of 

antibiotics. Illustrated. 

ARCHAEOLOGIST AT 
WORK. How archaeolog- 
ist deciphers man's past. 

STONE AGE 
ARTISTS. Visit 
to Spanish cave 
Altamira. 
EXPLORING AT- 
MOSPHERE. 
ugh the 
' it- 



laye 



of 




losphere rock- 
ets penetrate. 
ASTRONAU- 
TICS. Up-to- 
the - minute il- 
lustrated report 
on space travel. 
MOUNTAINS ON RAM- 
PAGE. Worst avalanches 
in history, their causes. 
BARRACUDA. Profile of 
the tiger of the sea. 
HOW BATS FLY. Remark- 
able superspeed photos. 




COLOBUS MONKEY - 

Uves in the forested re- 
gions of Africa. 



ANACONDA - can 1( 
up as well as around. 
BEAVER. How nature's 
engineer builds hideout. 
CHARADE OF HONEY- 
BEE. How bee draws 
flight-map of where 
honey is. 

FEATHERED ARISTO- 
CRATS. World's spectac- 
ular birds. Pictures. 
PREDATORY PLANT. 
Preys on sea animals. 
BUTTERFLY. See caterpil- 
lar change into butterfly. 
COSMIC CLOCK. How to 
estimate age of fossils. 
PIGEON TELEGRAPH. 
Carrier pigeon service 
from Catalina to L. A. 



camera photos. 

COYOTE. His 

tricks at elud- 
ing attackers. 
100 ARISTO- 
CRATIC DOGS. 



YUCCA PLANT - is descriptions, 
polhnated by a tiny _„„,„„_ 
moth that lays its \^.fL|t^*^°^ 
eggs nowhere else. TAURUS. Larg- 
est flesh-eatmg 
animal that ever hved. 

EARTHQUAKES. Seismo- 
graphs; how they work. 



EVOLUTION OF THE 
HORSE. What the horse 
looked hke 50,000,000 
years ago. 

FISH. Species, habits, 
histories. Photographs. 

REACHING FOR THE 
MOON. A "Visit" to 
moon by space ship. 

GIANTS OF THE PAST. 

Heavy-weights among 
prehistoric monsters. 

LIVING GIANTS. Biggest 
creatures in the world. 



INDIANS OF NORTH 
AMERICA. Origins, cul- 
ture, language, etc. 



THE Illustrated Library of the 
Natural Sciences will soon be 
published under the sponsorship of 
the world-famous center of learning, 
The American Museum of Natural 
History. 

Each year, more than 2,000,000 
men, women, and children visit this 
Museum to marvel at, and learn from 
its exhibits — from dinosaurs to dia- 
monds, from Eskimo and Indian vil- 
lages to a full-size whale. Now, the 
excitement, authority, and immense 
variety of the Museum have been bril- 
liantly captured in four huge vol- 
umes, magnificently illustrated with 
more than 3000 pictures. 

Every field of the natural sciences 
is represented — from zoology and 
anthropology to botany and astro- 
physics. All is so vividly told, so 
splendidly illustrated, that you will 
find yourself coming back to these 
volumes again and again for enter- 
tainment as well as information. Your 
young people will find them an in- 
valuable aid in their studies — and 
even the very youngest members of 
the family will be fascinated by the 
wonderful pictures. 

From the Insect World 
to Outer Space! 

The thousands of astonishing pic- 
tures take you into the wilds of Africa, 



MIUIl^M^' 





into the wastelands 
of the Antarctic, 
to Indonesian isles. 
the deserts of Ara- 
bia. They show you 
Man as he has em- 
erged from the cave 
on his journey to the 
stars. You'll peer yxiNG i2-shoot- 

, 11-1 mg into space with 

through hlgh-pow- heavy load of re- 

ered microscopes to cording instru- 

, 1-1 ments. 

observe the incred- 
ible habits of tiny insects. And you'll 
view the contour of the Earth as it 
apears from a Viking rocket! 

Special Money-Saving Offer 

A work of this size and scope (over 
3,000 pages, with 3,000 pictures) -util- 
izing the finest printing, paper, and bind- 
ing — would ordinarily be priced at $50 
or more. However, an unusually large 
first printing may bring the price down 
to $25. But you can save even more if 
you reserve your set now. 

In return for helping us increase the 
size of the first printing by entering your 
reservation now, you will receive the 
complete set at a special pre-publication 
price of only $19.95 — a saving of at least 
$5.05. 

SEND NO MONEY. Simply mail 
Reservation Coupon. As soon as the set is 
off press, you will receive your copy (or 
copies) for three weeks' free examina- 
tion. If you are not absolutely sure that 
you and your family will treasure it for 
years to come, return it to us and owe 
nothing. Otherwise, we shall bill you at 
the special pre-publication price. Mail 
coupon to your bookseller, or: Simon 
AND Schuster, Publishers, Dept. 91, 630 
Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y. 



Offer Expii 



: No 



To vQuT bookseller, or 

Simon and Schuster, Publishers, Dept. 91 

630 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y. 

Send me. for free examination first-edition set(s) 

of The Illustratei 
sored by the Amei 






_ _. Natural Sciences, spon- 

n Museum of Natural History (4 vol- 

i.....,o. ......^-. w.w. million words, over 3000 illustrations). 

If after browsing through it at my leisure for three weeks. 
I am not completely delighted, I may return the books and 
owe nothing. Otherwise you will bill me at the special pre- 
publication price of only S19-95 per set (plus postage) - 
even if the final publication price is higher than the $25 now 
anticipated. (It is understood that I may pay the $19.95, 
if I choose, in four monthly installments.) 



.Zone. . . .State. 



Reviews 



THE NATURE OF EXTINCTION 



Reviewed by Dean Amadon 



Extinct and Vanishing Birds of the 
World, by James C. Greenway. Jr. 
American Committee for International 
W'iUllije Preservation, Special Publica- 
tion No. 13, 1958; $5.00, 513 pp.. illus. 

A; RFXARDS THE EXTINCTION OF BIRDS. 
North America has the worst record 
of any continent on earth. The Passenger 
Pigeon, the Carolina Parakeet, the 
Labrador Duel;, the Eskimo Curlew and 
the Great Auk are gone, while several 
others— the California Condor, the Ivory- 
])illed Woodpecker and the Whooping 
Crane— are seriously threatened. Yet. 
with the exception of two or three in 
Australia, not a single species of bird 



on any other continent has become ex- 
tinct. One wonders why.' 

The answer is not entirely clear. Cer- 
tainly, the almost barbaric destruction 
of Passenger Pigeons by sporting and 
market hunters swept them from Amer- 
ica. The social nesting habits of this 
species may have prevented the scat- 
tered stragglers from reproducing, as— 
instead— they wandered about in search 
of great nesting throngs that no longer 
existed. In other cases, destruction of 
the habitat has been the cause of extinc- 
tion. Drainage of marshes, as much as 
shooting, has driven the few remaining 
Whooping Cranes to the remotest north- 
ern limits of their range— the wilderness 




V" \ i'./T/V''" 



Emu of Kangaroo Isl.nnd. in B.nss 
Strait, had vanished by 1836. Only 
one specimen exists, in Paris. 



Dr. Amadon. wiio i^ Lament Curator 
of Birds at The A-Merican Musel'm, 
gre« familiar with the processes of 
insular extinction in the course of 
work with the land birds of Hawaii. 



of Canada's Wood Buffalo Park-to nest. 
Or. rather, to attempt to nest, for in this 
subniarginal habitat an inclement sea- 
son may prevent reproduction. 

Greenway. of the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology at Harvard, has docu- 
mented these and other case histories 
in the present volume, and the gifted 
artist. D. M. Reid-Henry, has depicted 
the rare creatures discussed by Mr. 
Greenway. some of which are now known 
only from a few specimens in museums 
and from early accounts. Lord Walter 
llothschild formed a great collection of 
-uch obliterated species and, in 1907, 
published a folio volume, "Extinct 
Birds." Before the appearance of Green- 
way's work. Rothschild's was the stand- 
ard reference on the subject. 

Yet. as Greenway's geographical 
summary makes evident, the continental 
losses are less, in numbers of species, 
than the insular ones. By far the majority 
of the one hundred or so species of ex- 
tinct birds formerly lived on isolated, 
small islands: the Dodo on Mauritius, 
the Cuban Macaw in the West Indies, 
the Golden Mamo. now gone along with 
King Kamehameha of Hawaii, whose 
feathered robes its plumage adorned. 
Indeed, nearly half of the original 
iwenty-hve or thirty species of Hawaiian 
land birds are extinct and others are 
threatened. Consideration of these cases 
makes it clearer why extinction occurs. 
What are the factors affecting the 
status of species in general? .'Ml species 
face stresses of two kinds: those imposed 
by the physical environment— heat and 
cold, floods and droughts; and those re- 
sulting from interactions with other 
species. Some of the latter are direct and 
dramatic— the ravages of enemies or 
liarasites. Others are more subtle— the 
disappearance of the eastern chestnut, 
Ml tiie II. S.. probably resulted in the ex- 
termination of specialized insects de- 
pendent upon this tree, and certainly 
adversely affected birds and mammals 
that fed upon beech mast. 

Viewed thus, the extinction of certain 



348 



THREE OF 
NORTH AMERICA'S 
LOST BIRDS 





In the 1800's. a single flock 

of Pa-senger Pigeons was estimated 

to number over two billion birds. 



Great Auk, extinct by 1844. was 
known on both coasts of the Atlantic 
during the seventeenth century. 




Labrador Dn(U w i» ne\er foiin 

in large number^ The la~t -pemncn 

was shot on Long Kland in 1875. 



Members may order any of the booJis mentioned from the Museum Shop and receive a 10J6 discount 



349 



IN THE FICKER MANNER 

MUSICAL WIZARDRY 

ON THE WING 




"The RecoTcitd 

Ettcyclopeiiia of Amcrkari Bhd So»:<^ 

BIRD SONGS 
of DOORYARD, FIELD & FOREST 

. . . retordeU in the field from Maine to Call 
fornia by the Stillwells. Vol. III. presented tor 
the first time, features 220 songs and calis of 
68 different Western species. Jorns Vol. I (13^ 
songs and calls of 49 Eastern species) and Vol. 
II {140 songs and calls of "iS Eauern species). 
53'/^ rpm 12" records. Each runs 44 minute^. 

EASTERN BIRD SONGS, Vols. I & II 
each vol. $7.95 ppd. 
WESTERN BIRD SONGS, Vol. Ill 

$7.95 ppd. 




SYMPHONY of the BIRDS 

. . . painstakingly 'played' by using actual bird 
songs (from the famous Stillwell collection ) 
at various speeds, just as a composer selects 
various instruments to play certain symphonic 
passages. Composed and ar^an^ed by Jim Fas- 
sett. Musical Director of CBS Radio. Side B. 
A Revelation in Birdsong, Pattern, another as- 
tonishing piece of 'musical' wizardry on the 
tving! Long Playing (35' s rpm i 12" record. 

only $5.95 ppd. 




WINDY CINDY 

Weothervane and Lawn Ornoment 

. . authentic model of a giant Tiger SwalUiw- 
tail with natural col.iring. 16 inch wingspread ! 
Points into the wind and moves its wings like 
a real butterfly. Mounts easily on garage, 
fence, garden stake or lawn. Responds to gentle 
zephyr or flies out a hurricane. Alummum, 
brass and steel fittings throughout all moving 
parts. Absolutely rustproof. Supplied with pi>st 
for lawn and strap for side mounting. 

only $9.95 ppd. 



FICKER RECORDS 

224 ARCADIA ROAD 
OLD GREENWICH • CONN. 






Science in Everyday Things 

by W . Vergara. 308 pp. An interesting, 
factual narrative which explains the 
wonders of science to the layman. An- 
swers hundreds of pelplexing whys and 
hows behind everyday experiences. 

$4.20 postpaid 

Snakes in Fact & Fiction 

by J. Oliver. 199 pp. This lively popular 
account of snakes shows that the truth 
about them can be as fascinating as the 
many fictitious stories of the wily 
serpent. $5.10 postpaid 

The Arctic Year 

by P. Freuchen and F. Sa-lomonsen. 438 
pp. A fascinating personal account of 
life in the Arctic. Vivid description of 
E>kini(i life and varied flora and fauna. 
$6.10 postpaid 

Evolution : 
tlie .4ges and Tomorrow 

by G. McKinley. 275 pp. A readable 
interpretation of the theory of evolution 
that gives a fresh understanding of 
man"s position in tlie world. 

$4.15 postpaid 

From Ape to Angel 

by H. Hays. 440 pp. An exciting ac- 
count of some of the great anthropolo- 
gists and their experiences among 
strange and primitive people. 

$7.75 postpaid 

Nature's \^'onders in Full Color 

by C. Siierman. 252 pp. Prepared with 
the cooperation of the National Audubon 
Society, this book contains over 450 full 
color photos of natures colorful and 
interesting world. $7.50 postpaid 

Members are entitled to a 10% discount. 
Please do not send cash. Send your 
check or money order to: 



species is as inevitable as the evolution 
of others. Tennyson, grieving for a 
friend, wrote that Nature is: "So care- 
less of the single life: so careful of the 
type . . . ." But the poet was only partly 
correct. Nature seems to be no more 
concerned with the species than with 
the individual, altliough the former may 
persist for millennia and the latter only 
for a few hours or years. Yet it is in- 
correct, geneticists believe, to conclude 
that species, like individuals, necessarily 
pass through a cycle of youth, maturity 
and senescence. Some species do become 
so specialized, so close'y dependent 
upon a limited or unusual environment, 
that they are in a vulnerable position. 
Others, remaining more adaptable and 
generalized, persist indefinitely. 

WH.\T. then, are the factors that make 
island birds so vulnerable to ex- 
tinction? The following may be cited: 

I. Small size of range. The Australian 
Emu is much persecuted, but it inhabits 
most of that continent and remains fairly 
plentiful in some areas. The Dwarf Emu 
of Kangaroo Island, however, could not 
flee beyond the confines of its home. It 
quickly became extinct: the sole re- 
maining mounted specimen reposes in 
the Paris Museum. 

II. Eniironmental limitations. Many 
insular environments are so limited, both 
physically and biologically, as to impair 
in time the adaptability and variability 
of the local species. Then, when aggres- 
sive, adaptable continental species reach 
the island— either under their own power 
or by human introduction— the hitherto 
isolated island species are immediately 
threatened (as were such isolated human 
populations as the Eskimo and the Poly- 
nesian when they were at last exposed 
to the diseases of civilization I . 

The ancestor of the Dodo doubtless 
was able to fly and reached Mauritius 
in that way. There, it found no predators, 
and waxed fat and clumsy. By the time 
man arrived, along with his dogs and 
pigs, the Dodo had evolved into a flight- 
less, goose-sized creature utterly unable 
to cope with these new enemies. 

It should be noted that, in the ebb 
and flow of evolutionary power-politics, 
islands may also become refuges where 
backward species can survive so long as 
advanced competitors, which have 
evolved elsewhere, do not reach them. 
The marsupial fauna of Australia is 
an example frequently cited. 

III. The deleterious genetic effects of 
small populations. In small populations 
—and many island populations will per- 
force be small— harmful mutations are 
more apt to become widespread, and 
beneficial mutations are less likely to 
become established by selection. A 



350 





AGRONOMIST J? BIOCHEMIST J ENTOMOLOGIST! 



PHYSlSlST^ NUTRITIONIST 





Modern agricultural research teams, like the men shown here, develop and test new chemicals that 
help protect farm investment and feed the nation. 




Farm families benefit fiom increased yield of land and livestock with aid of Monsanto chemicals. 

Creative chemistry combines many sciences, 
runs over 2500 tests a year to hike farm yields 



In labs, on farms, Monsanto scientists, 
technical specialists in every field of agri- 
culture, using latest modern equipment, 
search for new ways to increase farm 
jdelds and profits through chemistry. 
Some practical results of this constant 
search are displayed above: corn crop 
returns 6 times investment in Lion 



Brand Fertilizer; cattle gain up to 2J/^ 
lbs. a day on feed additives; weed killers 
increase actual crop yields 10-30%. 
And the search goes on. Tomorrow, 
perhaps, fruits and vegetables will stay 
mold free indefinitely . . . and insect 
crop destroyers will not rob 10% of 
farm production. 



MONSANTO CHEMICAL COMPANY 
St. Louis 24, Missouri 




WHERE CREATIVE CHEMISTRY WORKS WONDERS FOR YOU 



NOW-NEW DELUXE 4 DYNASCOPE Reflector 



with ADVANCED Precision Features Offers 
A Truly Professional Telescope COMPLETE 

7995 




FOR$' 
ONLY 



F.O.B. Hartford, Conn. 
Shipping Wl. 21 lbs. 
Express chorges 



Compare these advanced features with 
any telescope at double the price! 

■■ 4 inch Parabolic mirror— pyrex, finished to exacting specifications and guaran- 
teed to perform to the limit of resolution! Aluminized and zircon quartz overlaid 
to insure maximum protection and lasting use! (The 4-inch mirror gathers Va 
more light than any comparable 3'/2 inch mirror.) 

^^ NEW improved cost iron, true Equatorial and Alt-Azimuth mount with free 
moving Polar Axis Rod complete with friction adjustments for any latitude, 
declination, and ascension. Rugged, weighs approximately 12 pounds, both 
axes % inch steel supported on 4 bearing surfoces and guaranteed for vibra* 
tion free action and necessary smoothness. 

^J NEW T/i inch eyepiece mount with exclusive double draw focus and rack 
and pinion. Adjustable for 3 inches of travel to accommodate any eyepiece 
negative or positive! Built in diagonal mirror accurate to '/a wave tolerance. 

3 eyepieces— 18MM Huygens, 9MM achromatic Ramsden, 7MM achromatic 
Romsden for 65X, 130X and 167X. 

^•^ 4power achromatic finder-scope with crosshairs. Extra large field of view, 

^J NEW covers for eyepiece tube and open end! 

Q NEW bakelite tube beautifully finished in grey wrinkle enamel! 

NEW improved hordwood folding tripod legs In natural finish. Sturdy, 
balanced, perfect portability! 

THE ULTIMATE IN 4-INCH TELESCOPES Prove it yourself at NO RISK! 



Inquire for detoils of con- 
venient Time-Payment Plan. 



Here at last Is the scientific Instrument that serious astronomers have been 
woiting for— with a full warranty of highest accuracy at lowest cost! 

Now you neecJn't spend $150 onci up to be sure of high-precision observa- 
tion. Nor do you need go to the time and trouble of building your own 
telescope to get the most value for your money. For the dollar-and-cents 
focts about the new Deluxe 4-inch Dynascope ore these: The advanced 
precision features ore those you would want to se/ec( for yourself. But buying 
them singly, os on individuol, you could never beat our low price. Nor 
could you hope to surpass the technical co-ordination and stability that 
hove been engineered into this superb instrument to meet the most exacting 
standards of optical and mechanical superiority! 

Fully ochromotic, tested and proven by scientists in leading planetaria, 
the new Deluxe Dynascope comes to you complete with every port and fea- 
ture exoctly OS described and illustrated here. Eoch instrument is corefully 
triple-tested before shipment and is accompanied by the Inspector's per- 



formonce report. Specially packed, it is ready to be set up for observation 
within a few seconds. Shipment is F.O.B. Hartford, Conn., express charges 
collect (weight 21 pounds). There is nothing else to buy, no added charges, 
no extras of any kind. 

YOU WILL BE DELIGHTED-OR MONEY BACK! 

Prove to yourself — without risk — how good the new Deluxe Dynascope 
really is. Order it now. Try it at your own pleasure. Compare its performance 
with that of any other professional telescope at double the cost or more. 
It will delight you and exceed your every expectation— or simply return It 
within 30 days for a full refund. But don't delay. As you know, quality 
engineering of precision instruments does not permit mass production. 
Consequently the supply is limited. To assure yourself of immediote delivery, 
send your check or money order today! 



THE CRITERION MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

Manufacturers of Qualify Optical Instruments 
DEPT. NHD-33, 331 CHURCH ST., HARTFORD 1, CONN. TEL. CHAPEL 7-1696 -CABLE ADDRESS: CRICO 



species may survive a temporary period 
of drastic reduction in numbers, as did 
the American Buffalo. But if it remains 
at low ebb for a long time— as may 
prove to be the case with such species 
as the Whooping Crane— the entire 
population may in time become debili- 
tated. Reproduction will be even further 
curtailed, and extinction inevitable. 

ALTHOUGH extinction is thus often an 
. inevitable part of evolution, one 
need not conclude that naturalists and 
conservationists should give up their 
efforts to preserve the many surviving 
species— not only animals, but plants as 
well— that are increasingly threatened 
today. The majestic California Condor, 
in the North America of 15.000 or 20.000 
years ago. fed on the remains of masto- 
dons and giant ground sloths, sharing 
its repast with Sabre-toothed Tigers and 
Dire Wolves. Of these Pleistocene giants 
in North America, it alone survives, al- 
though now reduced to a remnant of 
sixty or so individuals. Yet. given proper 
protection and management, there is no 
reason why it should not delight the eye 
for several more millennia. 

How can such rare birds be preserved 
from extinction? Greenway shows that, 
although the answer varies from species 
to species, certain general principles are 
apparent. Killing must be reduced to 
the minimum. The Mallard can stand 
a great deal of hunting: the Redhead 
much less. The Labrador Duck couldn't 
stand any hunting at all, and had be- 
come extinct by 1875. 

Even more important is the preserva- 
tion of environment— important because 
it contributes to the welfare of other 
wildlife as well, and can be correlated 
with broader programs of conservation. 
And the programs must be based upon 
sound and thorough ecological studies, 
such as have been conducted in this 
country, under the sponsorship of the 
National Audubon Society, by Robert 
P. Allen, Karl Koford and James T. 
Tanner on the Roseate Spoonbill, 
Whooping Crane, Ivory-billed Wood- 
pecker and California Condor. 

Finally, there is the possibility of sav- 



BUTTERFLY MOUNTING & COLLECTING KIT 

Finest and most complete kit. Contains 15 tropi- 
cal butterflies, 4x12 spreading board, 60 glass 
headed pins, 100 insect pins, 1 chemically 
treoted relaxing jar for softening butterflies, 
2 glass strips, paper strips, 1 glass top riker 
display mount, 1 pair broad point forceps, 
triangular collecting envelopes, a 16 page 
picture booklet with step by step instructions 
for mounting, dispatching, preserving butterfly 
collections plus other interesting information 
with nylon butterfly net for $4.95 post paid. 
Nylon net $1.95 post paid with instruction book. 
Free price list upon request. Many butterfly 

America's largest Dealer. 

BUTTERFLY ART JEWELRY, INC. 

291 East 98th Street, Brooklyn 12, N. Y. 



TlojtV... SHARi THE ADVENTURE 
WITH YOUR CHILDREN 
OR YOUNG FRIENDS 

MANY OF THE Museum's Members have 
aslied flow they could best introduce 
their children or young friends to the won- 
derful world of nature on a level that they 
can enjoy. 

To meet this healthy interest, the 
Museum has formed a new membership 
group especially for children 8 to 14 years 
of age— the important years when minds 
in the formative stage acquire knowledge 
and interests that will enrich their entire 
life. It is called: 



The American JMuseuni 

EXPLORERS 



Why not enroll your children or young 
friends now. Each new Explorer will 
receive : 

I 12 issues a year of JUNIOR NATURAL 

I • HISTORY magazine. Published by the 
Museum, each issue is filled with absorbing 
pictures and stories about Nature; the 
earth, the skies, the seven seas, animals, 
birds, quizzes, puzzles and other fascinating 
features to stimulate the young and inquir- 



Member of The American Museum 



What a wonderful feeling of pride and 
accomplishment for a child to be asso- 
ciated with one of the world's great 
scientific institutions. The entire cost of 
Membership in the American Museum 
Explorers is only $2.50 a year — a tiny 
investment compared with the rich re- 
wards for the fortunate youngsters you 
sponsor. Fill in their names below now 
and return it today — you couldn't thrill 
them more. 



The American Museum of Natural Histor] 

Central Park West at 79fh Street 

New York 24, N. Y. JM-i 



Enroll the following children in the Amer- ' 

ican Museum Explorers at $2.50 each per I 

year, to receive all Membership benefits | 

described above. I enclose my remittance I 

S . (Please send check or money - 

order. Do not send cash by mail.) ' 



Wamo 




Arlrlr„i, 






1 




4rfrfr„tt 






Znno f^tatP 






Vo„r /Vflr„» 



Address— 
City 



for additionol nm 




A speUhinJhig account 
of serpent hoaxes \ 




IN FACT 
AND FICTION 

By James A. Oliver 

The Curator of Reptiles of 
the New York Zoological So- 
ciety has tracked down fanciful 
and superstitious tales of giant, 
poisonous, swift and crafty 
snakes... and stories of spoofers 
who boast of venturing safely 
into serpentdom armed merely 
with a flute and an incantation. 

Dealing with almost every 
kind of snake — from Pythons, 
Boa Constrictors and Rattlers 
to Garter Snakes — Dr. Oliver 
contrasts favorite conjectures 
with herpetological facts gath- 
ered by explorers and biologists 
around the world. Here are dis- 
cussions on techniques for han- 
dling and measuring snakes, jaw 
modifications for swallowing 
large objects, the toxicity and 
use of venoms, how and why 
snakes attack humans and ani- 
mals, adventures in exploring 
and collecting, and revelations 
of tricks used by snake charmers. 

A fascinating, authoritative 
volume for adults and young 
people proving that the truth 
about the wily serpent can be 
more exciting than the legends. 
Illustrated $4.95 

at all bookstores 



60 Fifth Ave., N.Y. U. N.Y. 



353 



Enjoy the splendot of 
H9i(l9 & ViH'it An... 




Haida Totem Poles 

These distinctive and authentic reproductions 
are certain to be admired and enjoyed by you 
and your friends. The originals were carved in 
black slate by the Haida Indians, probably in the 
late 19th century and are in the collections of the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Code #NH-1 Small 6 inch totem 

$4.50 jjostpnid 

Code #NH-2 Medium 11 inch totem 

$7.50 postpaid 

Code #NH-3 Large 19 inch totem 

$13.75 postpaid 



The reproductions on this page are done 
in Alvastone. 

Members are entitled to a UV'( discount. 
Please send your check or money order 
to: 

The Mi^sem Shop 





m 


1 




1 




1-. 


1 




1 


^^v- 


1 




I'v, 


Kl 

^^r 


1 




' ] ._. 




...■---i^l 


■ ■ 


^A 


J 





Bear Totem Book-ends 

These reproductions are of the lower portion of a 
black slate totem pole in the collections of the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History. The original was 
made by the Haida Indians in the late 19th century. 
This splendid example of Haida artistry is the perfect 
addition to any home or office. 

Code #NH-4 $13.75 postpaid 




Tlingit Feast Dish 

The original was carved of wood by the Tlingit 
Indians and is in the collections of the Buffalo Mu- 
seum of Science. It may be used as a flower or fruit 
bowl or merely as a decorative piece on a mantel or 
table. The handles represent the heads of a seal and 
man. It is 10y2" x 6y2" in size and black in color. 

Code #BS-1 $8.50 postpaid 



The Atnetic0n Museum of HstutsI Hhtoty, New Yotk 24, Hew Yotk 



fng threatened species by rearing them 
in captivity. This last resort is perhaps 
only feasible for prolific species that 
breed more or less readily in captivity 
and can then be successfully released 
in numbers into a wild or semiivild en- 
vironment. The Golden Pheasant and the 
Mandarin Duck are examples. The pos- 
sibility of really helping the Whooping 
Crane, still less the California Condor, 
by such means is more dubious. The 
Passenger Pigeon bred in captivity, but 
the caged population nonetheless died 
out. The last individual succumbed in 
1914. some fifteen years after the final 
record of a wild bird. 

In summary, this history of extinct 
birds, as Greenway graphically shows 
us. attains its significance when the 
melancholy stor\' of the past, abetted by 
recent research in genetics and manage- 
ment, is projected into effective pro- 
grams for preserving the rare species 
both in the U. S. and elsewhere that 
are threatened with extinction today. 




Feet down for ,i Knuljii-. ihi- 

of the sixty or so surviving Lalilornia 
Condors was photographed in 1952. 



This list details the photographer, artist, 
or other source of illustrations, by page. 
COVER-George Ballis. 372-3-Asher E. Treat. 



348-9-dra'.vings by D. M. 
Reid-Henry, courtesy of 
American Committee for 
International Wildlife 
Preservation. 

355-Carl B. Koford, 
National Audubon Society. 

356-65-George Ballis. 
366— Russell Francis 
Peterson. 



374-5— star map by Henry 
M. Neely: illustrations 
by Helmut Wimmer, AMNH. 



396-403-Garry Salsman 
and Andy Harrold: diagram 
by Robert Gartland, AMNH. 




FINEST BINOCULARS 
AND TELESCOPES 



Postpaid by 



Museum Curator, an a 
ced field ornithologist. 



ALL TYPES and PRICES 
LIBERAL TRADES • FREE TRIAL 

Bartktt Mcptdricks 

Binocular Headquarters 

PITTSFIELD 50-Y, MASS. 
Phone 9748 



CATCH THEM ALIVE AND UNHURT! 




Amazing HAVAHART irap captures raiding rats, ral.- 
Ijiis. squirrels, skunks, weasels, etc. Takes mink, coons 
without injuring them. Straying pets and poultn" are 
released unhurt. Easy to set — open ends give animal 
confidence. Fully guaranteed. No jaws or springs to 
break Ru.-ipr.-jf, Size? fir al! needs. Semi coupon for 
ralual.le FREE ::.:-pa=e l.o.klet ..n naptiin^- secrets 

HAVAHART, 158-T Water Street, Ossining, N. Y. 

Please send me free 36-pQ9e booklet and price list. 
Name 



AROUND THE WORLD AT 120 A MILE 

-I Diory of WILLIAM 

' off. beat ports. En- 

oir travel experience— sound 

;e who like low-cost world 

SI, ppd. SCHOOLCRAFT 

PUBLISHERS, 1528-B 

North Western Avenue, 

-^ Los Angeles 27, Calif. 



m 



^^L^r^ 




OUT OF THE PAST — 



pair. Obsidian black color. Match 
ing nechlace IS" ctiain, SI. 50. 
Bolo Tie: Lar^e arrowtiead. leath' 

1 making ins 



P.V1>T \yD BE II.APPY 

Learn Secrets of Oil Painting by Mail 

Exciting Home-Lessons Simplified & Illustrated 

$1.00 brings Trial Lesson, specify v/hich Course 

□ Landscape Z2 Still-Life C Portraiture Q Marine 

No salesmen. No contracts. No age limits 

PRICKETT and MONTAGUE 

Forestwind Studios, Monterey, Massachusetts 



SEA SHELLS 

For Collectors. Thousands of species from 
over fortj' countries of the world. A grand 
hobby and educational too. Send j-our name 
todai' for FREE illustrated lists. 

HERMAN W. HOLLINGSWORTH, Seffner, Flo. 



COMPREHENSIVE 
RELIEF MAP 



^.>- 



^ 



5 ft. 4 



: 3 it. 4 in. 9 colors durable Vii 



Handsome gift for home op office 

A three-dimensional relief map that gives 
you EVERYTHING ... not only moun- 
tains, lakes and valleys you can see and 
FEEL, but also 4000 geographical names 
including over 2000 cities, 600 rivers, 300 
national parks and monuments. Extra large, 
molded in sturdy plastic, lithographed in 
9 colors with WASHABLE plastic coating. 
You can mark map freely with soap crayons 
and wash off easily with damp cloth. Self- 
framed in sturdy Vinyl plastic, fitted with 
grommets for easy hanging. Built to last 
for years and years, light in weight. Scale 
1" equals 50 miles. You must be satisfied 
or your money returned without question. 
Freight prepaid anywhere in the U.S.A. 

Send check or money order $45.00 

Same with major highways in red....S47,S0 
Write for FREE catalog oi many other 
plastic relief maps made by Aero Service 
Corp., worldwide aerial mapping company, 

PANDA PRODUCTS 

1200 Niagara R110 Buffalo 13, New York 



Keep Sky Posted! 

The American Museum-Ha\ den Plane- 
tarium is showing "The Expanding 
L niverse" through August and Sep- 
tember. We suggest as background 
for this presentation — 

THE lAXER METAGALAXY. 

Harlow Shapley. 

Yale Univ. Press. $6.90 
THE U.MVERSE AND DR. EINSTEIN. 

Lincoln Barnett. 

William Sloans Assoc. S3.6.5 

.\eiv American Library. Paper Ed. $.45 
THE UNIVERSE AROUND US. 

Sir James Jeans. 

Cambridge Univ. Press. S5.15 
THE CHANGING UNIVERSE. 

John Pfeiffer. 

Random House. 84.90 
STAR EXPLORER. 

Dr. H. S. Rice. 

Revolving chart showing all northern 

constellations. Planet positions. S.50 

THE BOOK CORNER 

American Miiseum-Havden Planetarium 
81st Street & Central Park West 
Ne«- York 24. N. Y. 
TEL. TRafalgar 3-1300, Ext. 452 

Books and pamphlets on astronomy, star 
identification, navigation. meteorolog>'. 
Star charts and atlases; cards, prints 
and gadgets. 
Mail orders filled. Write for catalogue. 



355 



m ' 



- % 




M'^i 



4* ■»■■'* 



--^rsS-tf 




¥^5^^1kj^ 



THE McGEE FIRE; 

HOLOCAUST 

IN CALIFORNIA 



This forest disaster left scars that will 
need a century to heal; but the story it 
tells is of growth as well as destruction 

By Geokge Ballis 




Covered with soot, crewman takes 
a break after week of frantic efforts. 



THE MONTH OF SEPTEMBER, 
three years ago. will long be re- 
membered in California as a forester's 
nightmare. Searing, crackling heat 
conspired with electrical storms, winds 
and human carelessness to touch off 
436 separate fires in the eighteen days 
from August 27 through September 
13. Over 307,000 acres of timber and 
brush were devoured by flames— the 
equivalent of a two-mile-wide swath 
nearly 200 miles long. Timber dam- 
age, alone, totaled $100 million; prop- 
erty damage, another $3.8 million. 
Eight persons were killed; state and 
federal agencies spent over $3.5 mil- 
lion fighting the blazes. On one day- 
September 10— over fourteen thousand 
men were on the fire lines. That Sep- 
tember made 1955 the most disastrous 
year for forest fires of any of the 
previous thirty years. 

Each summer, cattlemen in the 
Sierra foothills burn off large acreages 
of brush in an effort to enlarge their 
animals' range. These are co-operative 
projects, and ranchers in each area 
organize "burning committees" for 
this special purpose. 

One particular "burn" had been 
conducted about ten days before 
Labor Day, close by the McGee ranch. 



which is in the vicinity of Kings 
Canyon National Park, some seventy 
miles west of Fresno. On the Friday 
afternoon before the holiday, the con- 
trolled brush-burn having been com- 
pleted, the local burning committee 
ceased its work. 

By nightfall, the same day, a new 
fire— possibly an escape from this burn 
—had skipped out of a wide valley in 
the Sierra Nevada, and was running 
wild. What follows is an account of 
that fire and its aftermath. 

THE hastily-summoned fire fighters 
found much against them. Unu- 
sual night breezes sucked the flames 
over a nearby ridge and pushed them 
into vast stands of valuable timber. 
With at least two other giant forest 
fires raging in the state and many 
people away for the long holiday week- 
end, men and equipment were almost 
impossible to find. Undermanned, 
overpowered and unlucky, the desper- 
ate fire crews waged a losina rear- 



A free-lance writer and photographer, 
working out of Fresno, Mr. Ballis 
spent five days on the McGee fire 
lines. His account was written with 
the help of tlie I'.S. Forest Service. 



guard action against what was first 
known as "the McGee fire," and, 
finally, "the McGee." 

In most places, the McGee moved 
slowly, but relentlessly, through brush 
and timber. It hopped and skipped 
froin tree to snag to brush to grass. It 
sneaked over narrow fire lines. Occa- 
sionally, a dead-dry tree "blew up," 
literally exploding into flames, but the 
fire, in general, was not spectacular. 
Rather, it was more like a stolid steam- 
roller of flame, methodically bent on 
destroying the entire Sierra. 

Once in a while, the McGee put on 
a grand display. Late Sunday after- 
noon, as one example, the usual up- 
canyon draft pushed the fire up a 
slope and managed to blow it over the 
junctions of Highways 180 and 65. 
Flames swept round the fire fighters, 
their water trucks and fire trucks. The 
men had just enough tiiue to wet down 
their equipment: neither trucks nor 
fire fighters were harmed, but the 
McGee roared on beyond thein— un- 
controlled. Again, on Labor Day, the 
afternoon updraft grabbed the McGee, 
bounced it over a narrow fire break 
and— in thirty-eight minutes— heaved 
it three miles through Cherry Gap. A 
giant sinoke pall rose over the Sierras. 

357 




General staff meets to chart plans. 
Map of fire area is tacked up on tree. 





- -^-«%ti 




J^tra!^ 


ui^:^ -i^-^—f ^•-^'r'^ 

1 .---" — T -'-■ 


L^ ' I 


k 




r X 


v^ -■, ,.-5 


\ 


1 


?fH 


I 


^K ^^ma.. J 



Crew refills lire umL at creek in 
Labor Day effort to stem the flames. 



THROUGH the following ten days. 
the McGee led a devastating and 
exliaiistiiig chase. It burned within a 
(|iiarler-niile of the famous General 
(irant Grove of "big trees"— one of the 
priceless relics of Kings Canyon Na- 
tional Park— and seared through many 
fine stands of second-growth pines, firs 
and redwoods. Over 1.300 men— crack 
Indian crews, specially-trained con- 
victs, loggers. Forest Service person- 
nel, students and migrant fruit-pickers 
—were hurled against the flames. Sup- 
ported by a twentv-four-hour-a-day 
field kitchen, as well as supply and 
first-aid centers, these fire fighters 
were directed by a general staff that 
pored over detailed, up-to-the-minute 
maps of the fire area and planned the 
defensive strategy. But it was not until 
two weeks after its start that the McGee 
was finally trapped— in the depths of 
the Kings River Canyon, behind a 
forty-five-mile-long fire break. Here, a 
light rain helped snuff it out. 

Mopping-up operations took several 
weeks more, and rangers kept a close 
watch all the next summer for possible 
flare-ups from embers that might have 
been nurtured in dead logs through 
the winter. A fifty-year-old pile of 
sawdust at Abbott Mill, as an example, 
smoldered for almost a year after the 
McGee was dead. 

When it was all over, the McGee 
had burned off 17,580 acres (12.180 
of them in Sequoia National Forest). 
Of these. 10.160 acres were high-grade 
connnercial forest lands: the McGee 
had destroyed about 120 million I)oard 
feet of commercial timber (enough to 
build twenty-four thousand average 



homes) . Fire suppression had cost the 
State of California $47,000; the Na- 
tional Park Service. $31,381; and the 
U.S. Forest Service. $775.900-a total 
of more than $850,000. 

Now. for the part of the McGee 
story less generally known. The 
L . S. Forest Service, as soon as the 
flames liad cooled down, let contracts 
to salvage the area's marketable tim- 
ber before decay and insects could take 
their inevitable toll. Much of the area 
of the McGee burn had been logged 
of its natural stand of pine, fir and 
sequoia between 1890 and 1910, while 
under private ownership. During the 
fifty years that followed, a vigorous 
stand of young conifers had become 
established. Protection from fire had 
allowed growth to proceed at an ac- 
celerated pace, promising early ma- 
turity of the well-stocked, well-regu- 
lated forest. Salvage work brought 
out some 35 million board feet of 
timber from the burnt-over area, and 
the Forest Service realized nearly 
$400,000 on this salvage. A quarter of 
this sum was set aside for replanting 
and. at the same time, reseeding was 
started in areas not likely to develop 
natural reproduction of conifers. 

Other postburn aspects were less 
encouraging. The soil of the burnt- 
over area, largely weathered granite, 
is subject to severe erosion. Following 
the fire, uncountable tons of precious 
topsoil were lost in the runoff. In addi- 
tion, many trees not killed outright by 
the flames had been severely weakened 
by the heat. In the ensuing years, these 
trees have been killed by the attacks 




Bi lldozer works vainly to clear tire break as flames move 
north. McGee was finally halted at Kings River Canyon. 



Partici'Larly danuerols hazard, snag is cleared away to 
slow flames' progress through tinder-like undergrowth. 



.; v-^m^f >3- ' ^ ■ ■ '^^flfl 


^ 


1 


r 






1 -. . in 


'<i'd^'J0^'Ji.. -*''*>.^^^^^^HH 


1^"^ 




1 

1 


- -^ 


m 




-'*W» ■''4^' J^^^^«»-««.-^ 








V^ 


"• 


^^^W ImH 




m 


1 








' ' J^^|H|L ' « '. . 


i.v^m>; 


^ 


9 

k 




1 


> 


1 


I^^I^^^^^H 




^ 


rs^r -^ 




k 


_^ 


w 




^^^K 


■'S, 




1 


TAi4^)s9 








^p 


i i 




El 


is '■■ 






f. ' ^^;rlfy 


K 


[ 1 




H 




/ 


.'■' 




^^H^' 

^^K' 


I ^ 




r . 


p^^, • 


■' 




■.. .V,|?l^;-, 


^ 






^^ 


. ^- 




• 


*■ . ^: 


^^' (V'^^ 






• 


^ 






' 5, ■ 



Near okigi> ok blaze and early in its course, crewman 
works on Sunday morning. Flames raged northwest from 



Kings Canyon, meeting with little initial opposition from 
fire fighters, busy at other fires or away for holiday weekend. 



359 









-^ 



Crucial spirt occurred on Sunday afternoon, when blaze 
blew over a highway within the i-onflagration area. Crews 

360 



had just time enougli to wet doun eiiuiiinient and were left 
unharmed as the flames swept over them and across the road. 








Grim aftermath of the McGee is seen above, at the same 
site as in the photo opposite. The front of flames moved so 



quickly, however, that much markelabh' tiinlxT remained 
within stricken fire area— some 35 million hoard feet in alL 

361 







Before and after fire"s pa--;ii:t'. 
Cherry Gap wears an entirely different 



liree miles 



ii|iilr;ill. tin' raced 
tliirtv-eitthl minutes. 



brush, intermingled with standing 
snags and a mass of fallen, rotten logs. 
For as long as twentv years, following 
a fire, these old burns— with their great 
potentials as fuel and the attendant 
difTiculty in fire-line-building— remain 
the bane of fire fighters. 

As the dead trees begin to decay and 
the dense brush develops, seeding-in 
of pine and fir from the exterior edges 
of the fire area takes place. These lit- 
tle seedlings have a hard fight for sur- 
vival—often thev do not grow to more 
than three or four feet in twenty years. 
But. as the quick-growing brush ages, 
it loses its vigor. The seeded-in coni- 
fers increase their rate of growth and. 
with time, their roots win the fight for 
water and minerals, and their tips 



of western pine beetle and mountain 
pine beetle. The beetle population built 
up alarmingly during this time: by 
the late summer of 1957. it had reached 
epidemic proportions. Infestations 
spread three to eight miles beyond the 
burn— into virgin timber. A S30.000 
beetle-control project bv the Forest 
Service and the National Park Service 
was undertaken to slow these attacks. 
Infested trees were cut and removed to 
sawmills in the San Joaquin Valley— 
where the beetles were drowned in the 
log ponds or burned with the slabs. 
Nearly four million board feet of tim- 
ber were removed by lumber opera- 
tors in the control project, and an ad- 
ditional two million board feet felled 
and treated with insecticide where log- 
ging was not practical. Additional con- 
trol work will probably be required 
in the course of this year. 

NORMALLY, areas as coniplelelv 
burned as the McGee take manv 
decades — even centuries — to revert 
back to coniferous cover. Following a 
burn, annual and perennial weeds be- 
come established— from seed remain- 
ing in the soil or from seed blown into 
the area. These constitute the bulk of 
new growth in the first postfire year. 
During the first and second years, 
sprouts develop from the burned 
stumps of manzanitas. oaks, chamiso 
and other sprouting plants. Ceanothus 
l)lants I particularly whitethorn and 
deer brush I and Ribes plants ( cur- 
rants, gooseberries, etc. I become 
established from seed which has been 
dormant for many years in the forest 
floor. Within five to ten years, the burn 
becomes an impenetrable field of 

362 




break through the brush cover into the 
sunlight. Then they have the oppor- 
tunity to grow much more rapidly: 
within a few years, they will overto\ver 
the brush, which eventually dies. At 
any time before this dead brush de- 
composes, however, another surface 
fire can wipe out all progress and force 
the slow cycle to start over again. 

The recapture of a burned area by 
conifers— as the remaining timber at 
the fire's edge seeds into the burned 
areas— may thus be a long, slow pro- 
cedure. Occasionally, two to four hun- 
dred years are needed to bring the 
cycle round to the point of a fully- 
stocked, mature forest. In nature, a 
short cut is only rarely provided. It 
may be that a fire comes during one of 




RAVA(.h> (tr I'liiK art- also ^au_ 
these two views of same locale. While 



siiinc trees were not (dnii)!etely burned, 
only stumps, ironically, seem the same. 




the forest's good seed years. If that 
happens, and the seed is mature at the 
time of the burn — early September, 
usually — the ripe seed ( of the thick- 
coned trees ) is usually undamaged, 
even though a crown fire may kill the 
seed tree. After burning, the cones 
open, the seeds fall into the ashes and, 
the following spring, they germinate. 
A brand-new forest is then on the way. 
Such seedling trees can keep ahead of 
the brush and, within as short a time 
as seventy years, the cycle to maturity 
may be completed. 

I> California, such a good seed year 
occurs, on the average, only once 
in five years. The year 1955 was not 
one of these. On the McGee burn, in 
consequence, sequoias are the only 
conifers that are seeding-in naturally 
and in large numbers. But other short 
ruts can be provided by man : not un- 
like efficient squirrels, the U. S. Forest 
Service collects tree seed in the good 
years and stores it for the lean ones. 
Each year, about five million trees 
are raised in the Forest Service's 
nursery at McCloud, California. These 
trees are grown primarily to replant 
burned areas. The deeper and more 
fertile forest soils are planted first, 
with about 680 trees per acre, equally 
spaced eight feet apart. These seedling 
trees are often planted in strips, cleared 
of competing vegetation by bulldozers, 
in order to shorten the time needed to 
return the area to its forested condi- 



Amonc first to re-form brush cover 
after fire are manzanita shoots, left. 



363 




Salvaged logs are brought out ol 
fire area after blaze. Government let 



iijiitraLt? to ^ave marketable timber, 
realized nearlv s KIO.UOO from salvage. 




^'iNniNC EGG GALLERIES of western 
pine beetle are seen on inner surface 



iif bark. Trees, weakened by beat, fel 
easy prey to epidemics of insect pests 




Reseeded ground is inspected two 
years after fire. Planting is done in 



strips previously cleared of competing 
growth. Right, strong Jeffery seedling. 



tion. On the McGee burn, about 1.201) 
acres— or less than ten per cent— have 
been replanted to date. Such a percent- 
age niav seem small, but tree-planting 
costs an average 850 an acre. It is a 
difficult, back-breaking job. Mechan- 
ical planting has not yet been perfected 
for the steep mountain slopes, so pres- 
ent work is all done by hand. Survival 
of the planted trees in the McGee area 
has. in general, been good. Some trees 
ha\e died because of poor planting or 
insufficient moisture during the long, 
drv summers: rodents and deer also 
take their toll. Vi here the mortalitv 
rate proves too high, second or fill-in 
plantings are made. 

Ni:arly three years have passed 
since the JNIcGee roared over 
these central Sierra slopes. This is only 
a moment in the life span of a forest, 
and the burn is still ugly and desolate: 
vistas of blackened tree skeletons — 
patched with white now and then, 
where the dark bark has fallen off. 
Most oppressi\e are the views to be 
found where the hot explosions blew 
through — along Highway 180 at 
Cherry Gap. and again near the junc- 
tion with Highway 65— where the saw- 
timber has been removed and the 
slopes are littered with logging slash. 
But a close inspection of the McGee 
is more heartening. The seedlings 
planted by the Forest Service— young, 
strong trees — are taking hold. Al- 
though many acres are not yet re- 
seeded, either naturally or by the For- 
est Service, the natural reproduction 
of conifers— especially redwoods— has 
been a pleasant surprise. Perhaps if 
nature is kind, man is careful and the 
Forest Service is lucky in its appropri- 
ations, the McGee burn will look like 
a forest again in seventy years or so. 



364 






'■|it*j^**^'^, .:^_w«i|';*- ^%Z'%'J^*-'^i:M 







^U .--# .-.-' 1^' 






:^-.' 






M=^'¥/ 



''"1^*'^ 



.Mc^^i.-^ 






^^i-^m?* 



SYMBIOSIS Pan III: 



Insfxtivorous bats, allraileil by the 
moths iiround collector's lamp, below, 
utter llieir ultrasonic cries. Certain 
moths— possessing tympanic organs, or 
"ears"— are apparently able to avoiil the 
bats' swoops. Common among these, 
paradoxically, is the army worm moth— 
which is infested by a parasitic mite 
that destroys one of the moth's ears. 



A Case of 

This common moth's "hearing*" is 




Peculiar Parasitism 

often impaired by mites, but their damage is confined to one ear only 

By AsHER E. Treat 



IN COUNTRY PLACES where arti- 
ficial illumination is not wide- 
spread, almost any summer night it is 
easy to attract moths with a collector's 
light. Bats learn to visit such lights, 
in search of the many flying insects. 
As they sweep the air, the bats utter 
their ultrasonic (and, to us, inaudible ) 
cries— by the echoes of which they not 
only avoid collision with other bats 
or with objects such as trees and 
houses, but also seem able to locate 
at least the larger insects on which 
they feed. Very often, at the approach 
of a bat, one may see a moth swerve 
sharply from its previous flight path— 
as though the moth had detected 
danger and was responding by some 
sort of "evasive action.'" 

This "evasive" behavior is observed 
only among those species of moths that 
possess tympanic organs, or "ears." It 
has been shown in the laboratory that 
these tympanic organs are actually 
capable of being stimulated by the 
bats' ultrasonic cries. It is therefore 
commonly inferred that what we shall 
call the "ears" of these insects, what- 
ever other function they may have, 
are of adaptive value in escaping such 
predators. The additional laboratory- 
established fact that flight movements 
of such moths ma)' be induced, in- 
hibited or altered bv artificial ultra- 
sonic stimulation, appears to support 
this inference. 

Among the "ear"-equipped moths, 
the army worm moth { Pseudaletia 
unipuncta ) is a common species. Even 
in normal years, its number in light- 
traps often exceeds those of any other 
species. It seems astonishing indeed 
that this very group of moths is often 
host to a group of parasitic mites that 
infest the moths' ears, and destroy 
tympanic membranes! Even more as- 
tonishing is the fact that these mites 
occupy only one of the moth's two 
ears, while the moth's other ear is 
left unoccupied and undamaged. 

These mites are of the species Myr- 
monYSSits phalaenodectes. They are 
only one of a number of primitive 



arachnids that are parasitic on in- 
sects. Among other insect-inhabiting 
mites, it is usual to find the animals 
distributed equally, and with great 
precision, on the two sides of the 
host's body. But Myrmonyssus— the 
only one that destroys the auditory 
organ in the course of its occupation- 
has colonies that are strictly uni- 
lateral. One might be tempted to say 
the Myrmonyssus "knew" that their 
own survival was linked with the life- 
expectancy of their host, and even that 
they went to some pains to avoid the 
total destruction of the unwitting 
moth's valuable auditory sense. 

Since we are unwilling to grant 
such intellectual powers to a creature 
only a quarter of a pinhead in size, 
we must suppose, instead, that selec- 
tive pressures have somehow estab- 
lished in the mites' inheritance a 
tendency to congregate in only one of 
the moth's ears, regardless of how 
many parasites are present. But it will 
not aid our understanding glibly to 
dismiss this inherited behavior as "in- 
stinctive." What are the sensory cues 
and the motor responses by which 
this behavior comes about? How have 
these responses been evolved? 



The study of animal behavior is full 
of such questions, few of which can 
be answered in full. In most instances, 
the experimental approach to such 
problems, in itself, requires removing 
the animal from its natural surround- 
ings and placing it under more or less 
controlled artificial conditions. In 
the case of the moth ear mites, fortu- 
nately, we are afforded an unusual 
( although by no means unique ) op- 
portunity to observe an animal, 
throughout its life cycle, in a natural 
environment of its own choosing. To 
be sure, the fact of such observation 
presupposes some modification of the 
natural environment, but less, perhaps, 
than is necessary in most such studies. 
For example, one must illuminate the 
moth in order to see the mites. In 
species that have eyes, this might be 
expected to alter normal behavior. But 
the moth ear mite is eyeless, and is 
apparently unaffected by light so long 
as it is protected from excessive heat. 

WE MAY start the life cycle of the 
moth ear mite at that stage in 
which a single, gravid female is 
about to begin egg-laying. Engorged 
with the juices of her host, she is at 




Gravid female Myrmonyssus, above, 
is'^ready to deposit her egg— visible 



as a faint oval at rear of the mite's 
half-niillimeter-Iong, translucent body. 



rest in the "inner room" of her "three- 
room apartment" (illustration oppo- 
site 1. This room is the tympanic air 
sac— a thin-walled enlargement of the 
moth's tracheal system, in the dorsal 
portion of the thorax, just beneath the 
base of the moth"s hind wing. She has 
previously forced her ^vay into this 
"inner room" by puncturing the tym- 
panic membrane, or eardrum, that 
separates the air sac from the moth s 
external tympanic recess. Tliis ex- 
ternal recess— "the porch of the ear," 
a depression that opens to the exterior 
and is bordered by long hairs and 
scales— is situated above the base of 
the moth's hind leg: in our analogy, 
it is the "outer room." 

THE "upper," or third, room open 
to the gravid mite is a transparent, 
eggshell-shaped structure known as the 
countertympanic cavity. This upper 
room lies just beneath the upper sur- 
face of the moth's first abdominal 
segment and has an external opening 
above the "roof" of the external tym- 
panic recess. Inwardly, this cavity 
faces the air sac. but is normally sepa- 
rated from it by a circular membrane. 
When the mite has perforated this 
membrane, as well as the true ear- 
drum, she can move about "indoors, ' 
as freely as her bulk will permit, from 
one to another of the three chambers. 
The nervous portion of the moth's ear 
—once draped across the air sac, with 
its outer end attached to the eardrum 
—has been destroyed by the mite's 
previous movements. The moth is thus 
deaf in one ear. 

Before laying her first egg. the 
gravid female mite prepares a site to 
receive it. Most often, this is a soft 
white area of the hind wing's lower 
articular membrane known as the con- 
i unctiva. that is most readily available 
from the outer room. The gravid mite 
attacks the soft cuticle of the conj unc- 
tiva with her mouthparts— pinching, 
kneading and scarifving it at the 
chosen site. The spot prepared, she 
withdraws to a deeper part of the ear 
and rests for a few minutes. Then she 
returns to the roughened place and. 
after some straining movements, pro- 
duces a large, pearly egg. almost half 
her own body size, from the genital 
aperture that is located in the middle 
of her ventral surface. 

Quickly, she passes the egg forward 
beneath her body, and deposits it on 
the prepared site with her forelegs and 
palpi. She rocks it back and forth, 

368 





1 



w 




Army worm moth's tympanic organs are found 
beneath the wings, at juncture of thorax and 
abdomen (tint, left). In cutaway view, above. 
"inner rooms"— tympanic air sacs— have been 
outlined in color. Oval "upper rooms"— pair of 
countertympanic cavities— lie above these air 
sacs. On inhabited side, left, cluster of mites' 
eggs marks "outer room"— the external tym- 



panic recess. Entrance to interior chambers on 
this side has been achieved by destruction of 
both tympanic and countertympanic membranes, 
but colony has left opposite "ear" untouched. 
Mites visible, left to right, are protonymph, 
in air sac; immature female, entering cavity; 
and male, within cavity, resting just forward 
of a plug of mites' consolidated fecal matter. 



369 




/ 



-# 





stroking it Avith her mouthparts as 
though smearing it with some secre- 
tion. This she may actually do. for 
the egg adheres to the conjunctiva as 
though cemented in place. 

If the weather is warm, the female 
mite may lay another egg about two 
hours later, then another and another 
at about the same interval until, at 
last, ninety or more have been depos- 
ited. Each time the procedure is much 
the same. A spot is prepared and then 
revisited for oviposition. As a rule, the 
eggs are placed side by side, so as to 
form a neat pavement upon the con- 
junctiva. As available space becomes 
limited, the eggs will be laid elsewhere 
—in the air sac ( near the entrance 
to the countertympanic cavity ) , or 
around the periphery of the external 
tympanic recess. 

From time to time, the egg-layer 
pauses to take nourishment from any 
point where the host's membranes are 
soft enough to permit her mouthparts 
to penetrate. The moth shows no sign 
of distress during the process. At this, 
as at other times, the moth tolerates 
its mites with no apparent recognition 
of their presence. By the same token, 
the mite appears undisturbed by the 
occasional strong vibrations of the 
moth's thorax caused by the activation 
(under restraint, of course, during ob- 
servation ) of the moth's flight muscles. 
In the visual blur created by such 
movements, the mite may be seen 
doing precisely what she was doing 
before the vibration commenced and 
what she will continue to do when the 
moth ceases its wing action. 

THE mite defecates only at one of 
two places in its "apartment'— so 
situated as to produce minimal fouling 
of the area. One of these spots is the 
extreme posterior end of the counter- 
tympanic cavity, where a waxy plug 
of brownish yellow fecal matter gradu- 
ally accumulates. The other is the 
ventral periphery of the "porch of the 
ear." Here, the shrinking fecal drop- 
lets adhere to the moth's hairs and 
gradually produce a mat, or thatch, 



Perspective view of mites' domain, 
left, shows first settler in position 
at ruptured eardrum, thereby blocking 
passage of new arrival into tympanic 
air sac. After an hour, newcomer will 
win entry. In mid-summer, females and 
offspring may overflow the inhabited 
ear. But only twice, in over thousand 
cases studied, was other ear occupied. 



Professor Treat, a native of Wis- 
consin who now teaches biology at 
CCNY, first encountered Myrmonys- 
sits in 1952 while doing research on 
the tympanic organs of Lepidoptera. 



ivhich eventually covers the tympanic 
recess and conceals it from external 
view, unless removed by the observer 
or detached accidentally by wing or 
leg movements of the moth. 

If, while this first female mite is 
producing her eggs, another female of 
the same species should enter the 
tympanic area, a sort of contest devel- 
ops between the two. The invading 
female persistently approaches the 
inner room's doorway— the perforated 
frame of the eardrum— while the occu- 
pant female just as persistently blocks 
the newcomer's entry. No matter from 
which direction the intruder advances, 
the firstcomer is there, blocking the 
entrance with her own body, fending 
with her mouthparts, and often exhib- 
iting a peculiar side-to-side jostling 
movement that seems effective in ex- 
cluding the intruder. Such a contest 
may go on for an hour or more but, 
at length, the blocking actions become 
feebler, and the newcomer gains access 
to the inner parts of the ear. 

It seems inevitable that this should 
be the eventual outcome, for— as we 
have noted— the external orifice of the 
countertympanic cavity (just above 
the porch roof) offers an alternate 
route for the intruder, and both routes 
cannot be defended simultaneously. 
That such defensive actions actually 
represent some sort of rudimentary 
territoriality is further suggested by 
the fact that the behavior may be in- 
duced in a brood female by artificial 
stimulation with any foreign object, 
such as a fine bristle. Yet this blocking 
behavior seems limited chiefly to the 
earlier stages of egg-laying and to sit- 
uations in which the egg clutch has 
been started by a single female, rather 
than by several simultaneously. Later, 
many gravid females may assemble 
in the ear and contribute continuously 
to the egg mass without exhibiting 
any mutual hostility. Even more 
noteworthy is the persistence of new 
arrivals in seeking entrance to the 
occupied ear chambers. In every in- 
stance, the newcomer would have but 
a short way to travel to find an unoc- 
cupied ear in which to found its own 
colony. Yet this does not happen. 

In mid-summer, when the mites are 
most abundant, the moth ear will com- 



monly harbor compound colonies- 
consisting of two to ten gravid females 
and their offspring. The mites become 
so closely packed that movement is 
difficult. Even though all three cham- 
bers of the chosen ear may be filled 
to overflowing, the ear of the opposite 
side remains deserted. Experimentally, 
bilateral colonies have been estab- 
lished—by transferring some females 
to the moth's opposite ear, or by 
placing females simultaneously in both 
ears of a previously mite-free moth. 
But in more than a thousand natural 
infestations, only two have been found 
in which both ears were occupied. 

To return to our life cycle, the eggs 
—once deposited— receive no spe- 
cial care or attention. During mid- 
summer, they hatch in about two days. 
From each egg there emerges, rear 
end first, a tiny, transparent, larval 
mite with three pairs of legs. Slowly, 
clumsily, guided by cues still unknown, 
the larvae make their way from the 
porch into the tympanic air sac. There 
they feed, penetrating the moth's deli- 
cate tracheal epithelium, until ready 
for their first molt— which transforms 
them into protonymphs, with four 
pairs of legs and a pair of external 
breathing pores. Soon the second molt 
occurs and they emerge as deuto- 
nymphs— much like the protonymphs 
in appearance, but larger. 

As the young mites develop, their 
feeding punctures blacken the walls of 
the air sac with the coagulated haemo- 
lymph of the host. Occasionally, a 
mold may invade a colony, destroy 
many of the mites, and even penetrate 
the damaged flight muscles adjacent 
to the tympanic air sac. Otherwise, in- 
jury to the host does not seem severe. 
A few of the deutonymphs trans- 
form into males— small but stout, 
thick-legged mites, with mouthparts 
specialized for the transfer of sperm 
packets to the females. These males 
typically assemble in the upper room, 
the countertympanic cavity, and 
thither the potential female deuto- 
nymphs also make their way. Some 
minutes before the final transforma- 
tion of the female deutonymph, the 
male has already embraced her. As the 
nymph's cuticle is shed, the female 
emerges rearward and the male shifts 
his position to her ventral side. By 
the time her forelegs are withdrawn 
from the old skin, he has transferred 
his sperm packet and impregnation 
has been accomplished. 



THE voiiiig. impregnated females 
may linger for a time about the 
moth's general tympanic area, but 
before long they leave the parent 
colony and push their way forward 
among the hairs of the host to the 
neck and collar region. Here, well 
concealed in the moth's hairy vesti- 
ture. thev feed intermittently, but not 
to a level of full engorgement that 
would hamper their movements. As 
more and more females assemble in 
this region, the host may fairly swarm 
with mites. Both sides of the moth's 
head, neck and shoulders are occu- 
pied, but its one functional ear is still 
left untenanted. 

At intervals— perhaps especially 
when the moth is nocturnallv active in 
feeding— the voung female mites con- 
gregate on the ventral side of the 
moth"s head and neck, especially be- 
tween the palpi. If we uncoil the 
moth's proboscis at such times, a num- 
ber of the mites may be seen at its 
base, always with one leader facing 
forward and waving its forelegs much 
as an insect does its antermae. If. at 
this stage, a foreign object (such as a 
fine needle I is presented, the leading 
mite and a few followers may abandon 
their host and board the object. If 



what is presented is a fresh flower, 
such as a milkweed blossom, a dozen 
or more of the mites may scramble on 
to it. Such mites, known as "'wan- 
derers," represent the infective stage 
of the parasite. 

The evidence so far available sug- 
gests that the transfer of mites from 
moth to moth, via the flowers upon 
which these insects feed, is the usual 
means of the parasites' dispersal. If 
allowed to feed upon a flower contain- 
ing wanderers, a mite-free moth of the 
genus Leucania (or of the closely re- 
lated genera Aletia and Pseudaletia ) 
is almost certain to become infested. 
Noctuid moths of other species are 
attacked more rarely. 

Once aboard a new host, a w anderer 
mite does not go immediatelv to the 
ear. Even if placed in an ear. the 
wanderer w ill not ahva\ s remain there. 
Instead, its first destination is the 
collar region on the top of the moth's 
prothorax. Although it is impossible 
to say w ith certainty how the w anderer 
is guided to this region, a reasonable 
surmise is that it is oriented by the 
direction or "lay" of the moth's hairs 
and scales. At any rate, the wanderer's 
path lies deep among the bases of these 
structures and, in its progress toward 



the moth's collar region, and after its 
arrival, the mite moves hesitantly, w ith 
repeated sharp jerks which seem to 
adjust its position with reference to 
the hairs that surround it. 

After an hour or more of rest and 
desultory feeding in the collar area, 
the wanderer shows a sudden increase 
in its activity. Coming to the midline 
at the forward border of the moth's 
thoracic disc, the mite parts the moth s 
long hairs, as one might push a wa\ 
through a forest of tall reeds. Proceed- 
ing in this manner, the mite moves 
quickly to the rear along the midline, 
leaving behind a furrow of parted 
hairs, until it reaches a point just mid- 
way between the moth's two ears. 
There, if the w anderer is the first mite 
to arrive, it hesitates for several min- 
utes, probing this way and that until, 
at last, it creeps one way or the other 
and enters the corresponding ear. 

The wanderer remains in this ear 
for only a few minutes, however, and 
then returns again to the midpoint 
—the "crossroads," where its first 
"choice" of ears was made. Again 
there is a period of probing, after 
which the mite returns to the ear first 
visited. During the next hour or more 
this retracing of steps from ear to 




"crossroads" and back is repeated 
eight or ten times— always with the 
same result. The opposite ear is not 
visited. At last, the mite— having "en- 
larged" its home by destroying the two 
membranes— settles down to the busi- 
ness of egg-laying, and the cycle is 
complete. The actual act of piercing the 
membranes, which must take place at 
this time, has never been observed. In 
warm weather onlv eight to ten davs 
have elapsed from egg to fertile adult. 

IF several mites board the same 
moth— all at once or in succes- 
sion—the procedure of each is like that 
already described and, until each has 
reached the "crossroads," there is no 
indication that its behavior has been 
influenced by the preceding wander- 
ers. At the crossroads, however, these 
latecomers seem to find a clue of some 
sort which guides them to the occu- 
pied ear. Is this a trail, left by the 
first arrival as she re-treads her path 
to the crossroads and back? If so, 
why does she resist latecomers when 
they try to enter? 

Many questions here remain unan- 
swered, but on some points the picture 
is clear. For example, we know that 
no mite is congenitally right- or left- 



handed. A mite removed from the 
right ear of one host may go to the 
left ear of another even when both ears 
of the new host are unoccupied. Right- 
ear and left-ear mite colonies, more- 
over, are of nearly equal occurrence 
both in the case of experiments, and in 
natural infestations. 

Although the mites regularly spare 
one ear of their hosts, their motives 
are surely not altruistic. It is unthink- 
able that a hundred mites could be 
nourished to maturity within eight or 
ten days without some injury to the 
host. Discernible damage to the flight 
muscles is relatively slight, \-et the 
moth must be in some degree less 
competent than its uninfested fellows 
in motor, as well as in sensory, capa- 
cities. Nevertheless, under laboratory 
conditions, infested moths live about 
as long as uninfested ones and sho^\' 
no obvious impairment in feeding, 
movement, or reproductive capacity. 
Evidently these parasitic mites ha\e 
"learned" to get along while doing 



Mites' development includes stages 
shown here. At top, left, are egg and 
embryo. Next, in ventral aspect, left 
to right: a mite larva: a protonymph; 
a deutonymph: thick-legged male; and. 



a minimum of damage to their hosts. 

What is the basic cause of uni- 
laterality ? It is unlikely that the attrac- 
tion of the latecomers to the occupied 
ear is the result of the activities of the 
first mite within the ear itself. Neither 
experimental perforation of the mem- 
branes nor the placing of mites' fecal 
matter— abundant under natural cir- 
cumstances—in one ear of an unin- 
fested moth will result in that ear 
being occupied by transplanted mites 
in preference to the other. 

\et. whatever the sign that is fol- 
lowed, it must be clear and unmis- 
takable, for mistakes virtually never 
occur. This sign remains unknown at 
the present, but it seems probable 
that, \vhen Ave know what it is that 
governs the reactions of latecomers at 
the "crossroads" we shall have the 
answer. Moreover, that answer should 
tell us the precise stage of behavior at 
which the evolutionary influences that 
have led to this remarkable condition 
of unilaterality have become effective. 



finally, engorged female. The females, 
impregnated at once, gather at host's 
head, whence some transfer to flowers 
when the moth feeds. Uninfested moths 
may then acquire mites when they feed. 





SKY REPORTER 

By Henry M. Neely 

SEPTEMBER brings us the Harvest 
Moon, as that full moon nearest 
the autumnal equinox is called. This 
year, the equinox falls on September 
23: the moon will be full at 5:43 p.m. 
(EDT) on September 27. But what is 
the Harvest Moon? The phrase dates 
back to early England, and derives 
from the fact that, in the harvest sea- 
son, when farmers may need to con- 
tinue their work past sunset, there 
occur several successive nights with 
bright moonlight through all the 
hours of darkness. 
As the illustration, above, shows, the light of the full moon, while far 
from dazzling, is some nine times greater than the illumination of the 
"half-moons" we see at the first and third quarters. Actually, an area of 
the day sky, equal in diameter to the full moon, gives twice as much 
light as the full moon, itself. But these consecutive nights of autumn 
moonlight helped the reapers get their crops in before the frost. 

How do these full nights of bright moonlight come about? The answer 
lies, primarily, in the angle that the moon's orbit makes with our horizon 
( illustration, below I . On an average, in the mid-latitudes of the U.S., the 
moon rises some fifty minutes later each night ( it is convenient to 
remember that a full moon always rises about sunset I . But the angle 
of the moon's orbit varies, in relation to our horizon, from an almost 
vertical intersection to an almost horizontal one. The variations in this 
angle, in turn, bring changes in the time it takes for the earth's rotation 
to expose the moon to view on each consecutive night. An added factor, 
of less importance, is the rate at which the moon crosses our field of 
view: when closest to the earth (perigee), it travels the fastest and, when 
farthest away ( apogee I , the slowest. 

In the example, below, the dotted line represents the moon's orbit, in 
March of this year, near the time of perigee. Then, the combination of 
angle and speed made moonrise come an hour and fourteen minutes later 
each night. The dashed line shows the moons orbit on the September, 
1958, dates shown, as it approaches apogee (September 29) . On each suc- 
cessive date, moonrise will be only half an hour later than the day before. 



T^^ *• »* 




AUGUST TIMETABLE 



First 


week 


1:30 to 2:30 


Secc 
Thir 
Lost 


>nd week 

d week 

week 


1:00 to 2:00 

12:30 to 1:30 

midnight to 1:00 



374 



uoz|Joq 















/ :v , . ; * 



\ DELPHINUS — 

. • « * * in 



^ s _ ' ^" ^QOOu 









• * O^" 



•^cip^^^^r 






"^-c^ 



PISCIS AUSTRINU5 



^^ ■^'T 



m^a.^^^m-. 



SEPTEMBER TIMETABLE 

eek 11:30 P.M. to 12:30 a.m. 

■ reek 1 1 :00 P.M. to midnight 

;ek 10:30 to 11 :30 p.m. 

__, jk 10:00 to 11 :00 p.m. 



south 
horizon 



Part II 



i 



HUNTSMEN OF 

NYAE NYAE 

The IKiing still practice man's oldest craft 

Bv John Marshall 



HLNTIXC; is the work of men. 
!Kung hunters range the land, 
seeking the agile game. The men walk 
rapidly, never lowering their eyes, 
making sure of the awkward ground 
w ith their dextrous feet. They glance 
swiftly over the distances of the 
country and. with their good vision 
and knowledge of what to look for, 
see any moving thing. As girls learn 
gathering, boys learn most of hunt- 
ing on their own. They hunt little 
birds in the grass around the iierjt 
houses. They impale beetles with tiny 
arrows shot from tov bows. Track- 
ing, which is the most difficult part 



of hunting, is learned last of all. 
Hunters must be able to recognize 
the spoor of one wounded wildebeest 
out of a herd of fifty, and follow that 
track across desert ground which is 
almost as hard as stone. 

The usual techniques of hunting 
are well adapted to the Kalahari ter- 
rain and. except on rare occasions, 
do not change— no matter what the 
animal may be. Tlie !Kung hunt an 
eland and a duiker in the same 
manner: the idea is to get to the ani- 
mal just as quickly as possible. The 
hunters feel that the longer they 
creep and w ait. the more time the 




(lUKK WKM'ONs OF !Kung are i)ow ant: 
poisoned arrows (in quiver, above) 



At end ot chase, vilh «|iiarry stricken, 
spears may be used on big game, right. 



It 



ilfl 



37(> 



animal will have to decide what to 
do. 1 have seen a man. using this 
principle, run crouched across a per- 
fectly open flat, with grass no higher 
than his knees, and come within 
twenty yards of a wildebeest who 
was watching him all tiie time. Of 
course the men use co\er when they 
can, but they use it quickly and 
deftly, keeping on their feet and run- 
ning bent and bunched so that their 
arms will not wave and attract un- 
necessary attention. Although their 
arrows are true and straight, they 
are unfeathered and therefore not 
very accurate. At fifty yards, a !Kung 
hunter can only feel sure of hitting 
a kudu somewhere. 

Among the less frequently used 
techniques of hunting are trapping, 
the use of blinds built near the pans 
(manned at night during the rains 1 
and a technique of running down fat 
elands in the dry season when, what 



Mr. Marshall has participated in 
all six expeditions to the Kalahari 
by Harvard's Peabody Museum. Two 
of the expeditions «ere in associa- 
tion with the Smithsonian Institution. 



with the heat and exertion, the portly 
animals suffer a kind of stroke and 
have to take to the shade to recover. 
There, puffing and dizzy, the ex- 
hausted elands can be butchered by 
the deep-breathing hunters. 

The trap is a spring-pole snare, 
of which exists a small version for 
birds and a larger version for small 
bucks. Such trapping is usually prac- 
ticed only by young boys, and even 
they seem to do it rarely, so that 
what could amount to an important 
food source is neglected by the 
!Kung. The men would rather be 
gone after the big game, absorbed 
in the heat and chance of hiniting. 



than to be squatting around the 
edges of the pans, making little guises 
with sticks and string into which 
guinea fowl invariably fall. 

The technology of hunting is the 
most complex in !Kung culture, and 
the most involved aspect of that 
technology is their amazing poison. 
Without it. the little unfeathered ar- 
rows, driven by a light bow. would 
be useless against big game. With 
the poison, a !Kung hunter could 
kill an elephant although, perhaps 
fortunately, for both, the two seldom 
encounter one another. 

THERE are four kinds of poison— a 
root (which is rarely used), two 
grubs and the pod of a tree. One of 
the two kinds of grub is the larva 
of an unidentified beetle that lives in 
a bush : the other is the larva of a 
beetle that lives in certain Murula 
trees, identified as Diamphidia sirn- 




Hunter's booiy. in addition to nit-at 
for the pot, includes much-needed raw 



materials for !Kung economy. Skins of 
smaller animals are cut into the breech- 



clouts worn by the men. and. above. 
are sometimes ingeniously peeled off, 



378 



plex. This identity, however, is com- 
plicated by the presence of still a 
third beetle, a parasitic one that ap- 
parently lives on the grubs of Diam- 
phidia simplex, so that it is not now 
clear ivhich is the poisonous grub. The 
Bushmen are aware of the parasite 
and feel that its grub does contain 
poison. They say it "runs around 
and runs away." They may he speak- 
ing of the beetle, for it is difficult to 
imagine a grub running, and the grub 
may be so similar to the voung Diani- 
phidia that the !Kung simply confuse 
the two. Lastly, still a fourth insect- 
smaller, and hairy— said to become 
easily inflamed, is occasionally en- 
countered among the grubs. It is 
possible that this is the insect that 
has a poisonous larva: in any case, 
somewhere in the community is a 
poisonous grub, and how the Bush- 
men found it we have no idea. 

Assuming Diamphidia to be the 






MMk 





almost in one piece, and turned into 
bags, with the legs serving as straps. 



Bags for food, above, like eggshells 
for water, give !Kung some freedom in 



poison-bearer, its cycle is somewhat 
as follows: the beetle lays its eggs 
in the Murula tree leaves. Hatching 
in the rains, the grubs migrate down 
the trunk, progressing through a num- 
ber of growth stages. Finally, they 
make their cocoons under the ground 
near the tree. In these cocoons, they 
struggle through metamorphosis and 
emerge as small, bravely-colored beetles 
in the New Year's rains, providing the 
Bushmen have not already dug them 
up. The hunters know the particular 
trees frequented by the beetles and 
make expeditions to them at least 
twice a year to replenish their supply. 
Then the grubs are dug up, and used 
on the spot or kept in their cocoons, 
depending on the man's needs. 

The poisoning of !Kung arrows is 
a long process, with a number of 
variations. The most common poison 
is a mixture of the grub and the 
previously mentioned tree-pod. The 
grubs are crushed and the pod is 
warmed until its contents melt slight- 
ly and can be crushed with the grubs. 
This mixture is thinned with the 
copious spit which results from chew- 
ing any of a variety of barks and is 
then smeared on the foreshaft of the 
arrow— but cleaned immaculately off 



moving. Food may be brought to water 
or water carried far into the desert. 



the point, for the slightest prick, the 
least bit of poison getting in such a 
wound, would cause death. 

Depending on where the poisoned 
arrow hits, a small buck can die in 
a morning, a man in a few hours, 
a giraffe in four to five days. There 
is nothing that can be done for a 
man, short of amputating a limb or 
immediately excising the wound and 
cutting the nearby flesh to let the 
blood drain. Yet, the poison has no 
effect upon the game's meat. One can 
even eat the mixture with relative 
impunity: it must enter the blood- 
stream directly to be deadly. 

AS subsistence activities, the men's 
and women's roles— hunting and 
gathering— are of unequal weight. Al- 
most eighty per cent of the people's 
food is veldkos. more abundant than 
game in Nyae Nyae, and far more 
easily acquired. If from one summer 
to the next, a man kills twelve ante- 
lope, he feels he has had a good year. 
But, despite its relatively minor 
subsistence value, hunting is extreme- 
ly important in !Kung culture. It has 
developed its body of technology, ac- 
quired a large tradition of beliefs, 
fostered a wealth of knowledge, and 



379 










Mi.Ai iKiiM iiii. I iu>K I.- .-li.mJ li\ .ill jiiiMiig till- haiiil. All 
old woman, beloiv, is skinning lier portion of an ostrich. 



Laui.i. ;ii[ii 1^ -I iki.ii III I. itlioit'. lo !>.■ i lUfd. This may be- 
come a cloak { kiiro.ss). the most important !Kung garment. 




become both the measure of a man's 
ability and a test of his readiness to 
marry. Part of the explanation may 
come from the passion in hunting. 
Like their fires, the tales of hunting 
burn brightlv for the !Kung in the 
night, warming their memories. Of 
equal or greater significance is the 
!Kung craving for meat and un- 
doubtedly for protein. Lnlike the 
sharing of veldkos, limited to the 
nuclear family, a complex system of 
distribution insures that everyone in 
the iierjt will get a share of all game 
killed. This is done, thev sav. simplv 
to prevent jealousv and the inevi- 
table renunciations that go with it. 
The !Kung declare "We are a jealous 
people" and they try to keep jealousy 
at a minimum, for they fear it. 

Still another aspect of hunting— 
perhaps the most important in terms 
of subsistence— is the by-products it 
provides. Sinew is used for thongs 



and bowstrings, horn makes spoons 
and small containers: most needed of 
all are the skins— converted int:> bags 
and nets for carrving. and into 
clothes. Men wear onlv a breech- 
clout. Women wear modestv aprons, 
often one in front and one behind, 
as well as a piece of soft skin, clasped 
between their buttocks and thighs, 
when menstruating. Both men and 
^vomen wear kaross^s. The kaross, 
or skin cloak, is the most important 
garment and everyone tries to have 
one. If a man has only one kaross, 
and he is a good man. he will give it 
to his wife and do without— for. to a 
woman, a kaross is essential. In it, 
she is modest. In it. she carries the 
roots she has gathered in the day 
and the baby ^vho must go wiiere she 
goes. Her kaross is her warmth at 
night, her softness on the cold 
ground. It breaks the blind wind and 
roofs awav the narrow rain. 




In annual ceremony, above, a girl is guided as she lifts 
a tsi nut from the fire. She is now free to eat tsi for a year. 



Fire is made, below, with a drill. Upright stick is rolled 
between palms, one end socketed in another piece of wood. 



TEX permanent waterholes. as we 
have seen, occur in two areas— 
around the ring of pans in the east 
center of Nyae Nyae. and along the 
eastern border. To the west, beyond 
the limit of the pans, there is no 
water in the long dry seasons. 
Around each permanent waterhole. 
the veldkos near enough to be gathered 
in a day are considered by the !Kung 
to be an integral part of that water- 
hole. This means that such a water- 
hole includes both the water itself 
and all the veldkos within a circle 
with a radius of some four miles. 
This area might be called a certain 
waterhole's "district." taking its 
name from the waterhole. When a 
man mentions a waterhole, he usually 
has such a district in mind. 

Yet neither the veldkos in these 
districts nor the veldkos scattered be- 
tween the districts, nor the game, 
ivhich wanders, constitute the main 








Wooden wands are whittled by pair of intent !Kung boys, 
in preparation for a children's game. Bounced off ground. 



the sticks sail through the air for yards. Woodworking 
and exercise from the game help to prepare future hunters. 




Poison is smeared on arrow's metal 
foreshaft. but carefully cleaned away 



from point. Commonest poison is made 
of tree pods mashed with beetle grubs. 



food resources of Nyae Nyae. In- 
stead, these are the mangetti and tsi 
nuts. Both are found only far from 
permanent water. Distance becomes 
more significant when one thinks not 
only of miles— but of time, footsteps, 
heat and carrying capacity. From the 
nearest western water, it is about 
twenty miles to a mangetti forest. The 
distance between tsi and the closest 
water is about seven miles. The 
people calculate their marching abil- 
ity at about ten miles a day. with 
women and children, although men 
can make forty if necessary. They 
gather food as they travel, for a day 
of traveling is just like any other 
dav. with children and old people to 
be provided for. 

IN order to exploit the environment 
successfully, with their limited 
technological equipment, the !Kung 
nmst move from place to place. The 
calendar of their movements is re- 
vealing. In winter, the people are 
forced to remain near tlie waterholes. 



382 




!KuNG ARROWS ARE SMALL and unfeathercd, and the bow is 
light. But the powerful poison will kill a small buck in 



half a day and a giraffe in less than a week. Hunters make 
their own points, above, and can recognize one another's. 




Hi Niii;'s iii\iMNc starts as childhood play, above, and 
IKuiiK youths will use anthills as targets and even stalk 



beetles a^ :i j;uiiif. Mtliough their arrows are featherless, 
adult hinilers. right, can hit their quarry at fifty yards. 



gathering in districts and making oc- 
casional trips to places where enough 
water-roots can be dug to support 
them for several days. When the 
'"little rains" of spring come to Nyae 
I\yae. the land usually relents some- 
what. Some of the small western and 
northern pans fill, and a hollow man- 
getti tree may have collected some 
water. The people, who keep track of 
conditions throughout A yae A roe 
from the reports of hunters and vis- 
itors, try to get to the mangetti for- 
ests as soon as possible, and bring 



back as manv nuts as thev can carry. 

THE "big rains" open the land. 
People travel to distant places and 
remove to the niangetti forests until 
autumn, when the tsi ripens. Then 
thev remain in the tsi areas till the 
tsi nuts are exhausted— which some- 
times happens before the small an- 
nual waters have evaporated — and 
finally make their way back to their 
permanent waterholes. 

In such a transient life, the im- 
portance of light belongings — and 



(if ostrich eggshells for carrying 
water and skin bags for food— is evi- 
dent. With carrying bags and ostrich 
eggshells, the people can bring water 
to food and food to water. Partly be- 
cause of their life of motion, the 
! Kung do not accumulate heavy wealth. 
Infanticide is uncommon among the 
!Kung. but one of the various reasons 
for the j)ractice is that a woman may 
feel she cannot carry another child 
when the band moves. Then, the baby 
is born into a tiny grave near the 
iierjt. and the grave is closed. 




>£!:-/& 




!Ki N(, Riii AL I. IFF. i> -|iar-i'. Iiut one 
means of reaching oul to tlie infinite 



is a state of trance that may come in 
the course of dancing. The man being 



sii|)|)orteil. above, is in siicli a state. 
The IKung believe that a man in trance 



THAT the IKung live in small bands, 
flexible in their composition 
and spread widely over their Kala- 
hari world, is owing in good part to 
their environment and to the tech- 
nological means by which they cope 
with it. But the effect of the environ- 
ment, carrying through the tech- 
nology, penetrates the structure of 
the bands themseKes and influences 
the way in which the IKung distrib- 
ute themselves around their resources. 

386 



The headman of each band is 
considered to "own a waterhnle. 
What he is considered to "own," is 
both the water and the veldkos of 
the district. The ground itself is de- 
scribed as chi dole, worthless. Head- 
manship is hereditary, the headman 
being the oldest son of the previous 
headman although, if the male line 
is cut off for a generation, headman- 
ship is passed through the eldest 
daughter to her eldest son. But head- 



iiianship is different from leadership, 
which is not hereditary. Leadership 
depends heavily on a man's character, 
his hunting prowess, and especially 
his abilitv to focus peoples opinions. 
Usually headman and leader are the 
same person but, should a headman 
be too young— perhaps still in his 
mother's womb— or very old. a band 
will have a separate leader. 

Theoretically, the right to refuse 
water to members of another band 




can take away a person's sickness ; 
throw it back at the god who sent it. 



belongs to the headman, although we 
never saw this done nor did we ever 
hear of such a thing. Neither leader- 
ship nor headmanship implies any 
overt coercive power over the other 
members of a band. Only as a sort of 
coagulation of group opinion can 
headman or leaders exert a control 
—which, even then, is not final. The 
leader, being the kind of person to 
whom others come when decisions 
must be made, is often an arbiter, in 




When they gather, the men are most exploits of memory, or plans for the 
likely to discuss hunting— the great future. For the chase is their passion. 




Oracle disks, bottom left, are made 
from eland hide, in sets of five. The 



!Kung often use them to determine the 
direction of their next hunting foray. 




Youth's play is not all purposive. Here, a young !Kung 
boy is happily engaged in nothing more important to his 



future than giving his sister a sled ride on the trampled 
floor of his band's werft, using a scrap of hide, hitched 



\»'IP'' 




to a thong. When lived upon, the veld earth soon turns to 
dust, as seen here. In the rains of the coming year, the 



rank veld grass will have grown again across the floor of 
the deserted iverft—lo toss in the passing, desert winds. 




SEATED YOUTH, above. enjovs a smoke 
as his companions make characteristic 



!Kung gesture — arm outstretched — to 
show they also wish a turn with the 



pipe. Because the !Kung crave tobacco, 
but grow none, they must trade for it- 



quarrels, a focal point in discussion 
of plans, a comfort to the bereaved 
and a strength for those in doubt. 

The functions of headman, as 
headman, are of a different nature. 
In order to take up residence with a 
band, a person must have certain ties 
of kin with members of the band. 
Such a person may live with his own 
parents or siblings, or with his wife's 
parents or siblings. It is a wide choice, 
providing for flexibility— but within 
limits. There are. of course, excep- 
tions, and visitors from other bands 
are never denied, but possession of 
some kinship tie seems to be a gen- 
eral requirement for residence which, 



if violated, would subject the violator 
to criticism by the band. 

SHORT of fighting, all the IKung can 
do to control the actions of in- 
dividuals is to criticize. But this is 
apparently enough. A man. expelled 
from his band, might be able to sur- 
vive alone in the desert— with luck, 
he might even manage for years. If 
he could persuade his family to come 
with him. they might survive together 
even more easily, for the family is 
the basic subsistence unit. But fresh- 
ly gone, he would be an outlaw and. 
in time, become a stranger to his peo- 
ple. This would be an unthinkable 



horror to a IKung! The worst dream 
might be to see the fires flickering in 
the uerft at midnight and be unable to 
go to them. All the people we knew 
could tell us of only one time when 
such a departure from the group oc- 
curred: and the man had gone insane, 
had murdered and then run raving 
into the veld. There he had lived for 
a little while in a hole, then died. 

It is in connection with the need 
to live widelv spread over the land 
that the IKung headman's functions 
are peculiar. There is one essential 
qualification to headmanship. in ad- 
dition to heredity. A headman cannot 
leave his waterhole to join another 




often disastrously — with the Bantu 
peoples on the borders of Nyae Nyae. 



band and still remain a headman, for 
he. in his person, does not possess 
headmanship. It is only when a person 
is born headman, and in association 
with his waterhole, that he assumes 
the full authority of headmanship. We 
have seen that headmen were con- 
sidered to "own" the water and veld- 
kos of a district. I believe this associa- 
tion is another way of expressing 
what the '.Kung mean by "own'': the 
headman is the symbol of a place. 

In the same manner that a head- 
man "owns" a district, he also 
"owns" other geographical features 
of the country. These include pans 
that fill during the rains, veldkos 




Before marriage, !Kung youths have 
f€w responsibilities. But the hunt is 



in their blood and it is a proud boy 
who kills his first buck early in life. 




!Kuii!! parents cherish the children to raise. A mother, above. 

their harr^h environment permits them mental headband to her small 



fits orna- 
daughter. 




1 ....... . ...i :..:.: .Ill .1 .:i,..ini; of hunting for ihi- l..Mi,i un. I m. iujiiy 

sons, to whom will pa-s iiolh the task skills and traditions of !Kung hunters. 



areas, baobab trees, and— most ini 
porlant — mangeiti trees that liol( 
water in their trunks, and tsi area' 
It is these "owned" features, 
the direction from the waterhnle i 
which they lie, that define a terri 
torv. Since, as we have seen, man 
getti's and tsi are the most importani 
!Kung resources, they are the mair 
determinants of a direction. 

But animals are not owned, \eatl5 
bounded sections of the countr\sid( 
are not owned. A territory, therefore 
can best be defined as the conibina 
tion of a permanent waterhole an( 
a direction: the !Kung so define i 
bv the word "side. ' One headman ; 
territory is said to be on this "side." 

J 1ST as the Kalahari's scant re 
sources of food and water are dis 
tributed in accordance with a 
graphical pattern, the !Kung band: 
are distributed in accordance will 
both a geographical and a social ]5at 
tern. Natural resources are the foca 
points in the geographical patten 
of band distribution: headmen are 
the focal points in the social pattern 
In a sense, headmen tie together tht 
two patterns, the concept of liead 
manship being the embodiment of a 
certain quantitv of resources 
person around whom a band can taki 
shape and operate. Because of their 
kin ties with a headman, the people 
living round him. clustering their 
skerms around his and moving with 
him over his territory, feel right in 
being where thev are. 

The headman receives no special 
privileges. He is no more wealthy 
than other men. If he is a leader, he 
mav assume responsibilitv and speak 
out. But. as headman, he need not 
speak, for headmanship is a silent 
office and while the headman lives— 
by his waterhole or out somewhere on 
his territory with his band— he serves 
his whole purpose. 

Most of the permanent waterholes 
have two !Kung bands associated 
with them, and the tsi areas are like- 
wise shared by bands from the same 
and different waterholes. Such shar- 
ing may come about because two 
brothers (only one of whom may be 
the true headman I live together and 
feel thev possess joint claims. It may 
come about through the passage of 
time, which confuses genealogies and 
lets claims, once tenuous, become 
firm through usage. The !Kung are 
a people of present tense, living— in 
their jninds as well as with their 



392 




The road from youth to age is a shorl one among these 
desert dwellers, as witness the father and daughter here. 



It is a sparse life, and the hunter wlio can count twelve 
antelope killed in a year feels he has had a good season. 

393 




Hmi ^ ini ..1 rhiMrrii in.lu.lr- -nrl 
iiioiiient* a> these: a lauiiiing game o 



bodies— from day to day. If the water- 
holes were not shared, some bands 
would be without permanent water. 

Not all !Kung territories are of 
equal value in terms of food and 
water. Some people have mangelti 
nuts, some have tsi. and some have 
both. There is mild wealth, and gentle 
po\erty in Nyae .\yae. Territories 
also change in value year by year. 
The rains may fail in some parts of 
A'rae Nyae. and fall in others. In 
normal years, man^ettis in the north 
may become available earlier in the 
season than those of the ^vestern 
forests. Because of the flexibilitv of 
band composition, the bands gather- 
ing mangeltfs in such a favored area 
are enlarged bv [leople who would 
otherwise have to wait. 

This is usually a temporary situa- 
tion, the newcomers having more the 
status of guests than members of the 
bands. Often, whole bands— headman 
and all— will visit kin in this manner. 
During years of dessication, the fact 
that a person has several choices of 
bands in which to live becomes vital 
to him— he can move from a hopeless 
place to perhaps a better one. 

Bv such means, balance works out 
between the desert's resources 
and the numbers and distribution of 
!Kung who exploit them. No one dis- 
trict or mangelti forest could support 
more than a limited number of 
people. Only certain people possess 
the necessary kinship qualifications to 
join a band. Tlie flexibility of their 



imll-away," above. : 
laborations of "rat'; 



composition enables bands to swell 
during lean years, while the concept 
of association, through a headman, 
to a district and a territory provides 
for the distribution of people through- 
out the barren land. 

If a band were confined strictly 
to one territory, or could use the re- 
sources of another territorv only over 
the bodies of the band that lived there, 
there would be many less Nyae Nyae 
!Kung— perhaps none at all. 

The !Kung give various reasons 
for their preference of the territory 
thev consider home. For some, it is 
where thev were born. For others, 
it is where thev spent their youth. 
And for some, it is where they are 
waiting in their old age. Hunters say 
thev must know their territories— 
every pan and stretch of bush, every 
unusual tree— and they say that to 
amass such knowledge takes years. An 
old man we met while he was visiting 
for a few days from the west, said that 
the weather was more gentle in 
Debera, the place where he lived, and 
that, moreover, "there are no stones 
in Debera ground." 

Early one autumn morning, blue 
and sweet, when dawn air was still 
fragile on our faces, a close I Rung 
friend stood beside me in , Gautcha 
Territorv. looking across a pan that 
still smiled with water despite the 
late season. It was the pan where he 
had come, as a young man, to live 
with his bride. We were quiet, wait- 
ing for the rising sun. "Gautcha is 
beautiful." he said. 





394 



f-':C;^ 




395 





Si NLiT WATERS of 'Wakulla Spring serve to silhouette the 
mouth of the great lave, at a depth of 130 feet, out of 



which issues the Spring's flow of 183 million gallons a 
(lay. Using a system of ropes and pulleys, divers Jenkins, 



THE WAKULLA CAVE 

Amateur paleontologists investigate an underwater site in Florida 

By Stanley J. Olsen 



3</' 





left, and Harrold are at work raising one of the cave's 
numerous fossil bones to the surface. Inverted bag above 



the massive find (a mastodon leg bone) has been inflated 
for buoyancy with air from the divers' breathing apparatus. 



THE IMMENSITY of the cosmos 
that astronomy and its allied scien- 
ces present to the general reader, to- 
gether with the lure of the "unknown" 
hidden in outer space, has brought a 
host of new followers to its study. Yet, 
many unanswered questions still lie 
locked in the depths of our old familiar 
planet, Earth. Geology and paleontol- 



ogy, earth-rooted as they are, are two 
fields that offer a comparable measure 
of "unknown" time to balance the 
"unknown" space that serves to attract 
the inquisitive student. 

In this day, moreover, few places 
on the earth's surface are available to 
the daring soul who wishes to do origi- 
nal investigation in an area never 



before visited by man. Yet. the student 
of the earth sciences need only turn to 
underwater exploration or to the dry 
caves of the "spelunker" in order to 
discover areas that remain as yet un- 
prospected and uncharted. 

Much of the earth's strata, and in 
particular that covered by water, has 
not been explored, sampled or mapped. 

397 



GET READY FOR THE SPACE ERA! SEE THE SATELLITES . . . THE MOON ROCKETS 



AND OTHER OPTICAL BARGAINS 



See the Stors, Moon, Planets Close Up! 

3" ASTRONOMICAL 
REFLECTING TELESCOPE 

(Famous Mt. Palomor Type) 

V 60 to 

160 Power 



An 

Unusual 

BUY! 



nbled— Heady to use! Youll see the Kings of Saturn. 
iScinalliiK planet Mars, huge iraters on the Moon. Star 
ers. Mucins of Jupiter in Uelail. Galaxies' l-'mrii.-, iil 
ith look on butl 
leter hlsh-speei 
viMilppeil with n COX eyepiece and 
giviny you CO to ICO power. An Optical FIimUi 1 ■ '■ ■ p 
always so essential. Is also included. Sturdy, hardwood. 
portable tripod. Free with scope: Valuable STAK OHAKT 
and 272-paKe "Hand Book of Hea\en5." 

Slock No. 85.050-E $29.50 f.o.b. 

(.^hippinK wt. Ill lbs.) Barrington. N. J. 

Order by Stock No.— Send Check or M.O. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed! 





ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE' 

MT. PALOMAR TYPE 

Up to 270 Power! 

\A'ith this scope you can see the 
craters on the Moon, the rinss 
of Saturn, double stars. Jlirror 
^uaninteed to sire theoretical 
limit of resolution. Hack and 
pillion focusing, removable mir- 
ror nioiint. couiiterweishl. Real 



INFRARED SNIPERSCOPE 

TELESCOPE 

& PARTS 

See in the dark — without he- 
Ins observed. War surplus 
Siiiperscope M-2 contains the 



.Mu 



. • il °^' -.'^^- Mirror f/n. Mirror corrected to better 
"."o3*„ """clcngth. Free with scope: Valuable star chart 
and 2i2 page Astronomy Book." Stock No. 8S.006-E 

S74.50 f.o.b. 
Order by Stock No. Barrington. N. i. 

Send Check or M.O.— Satisfaction Guaranteed! 

SALE! WAR SURPLUS BARGAIN! 



AERIAL 
CAMERA LENSES 




Take Telephoto Shots 

Thru 
7 X 50 MONOCULAR 

This is tine quality. American 
made Instrument — war surplus ! 
Actually fe of r.S. (5ovt. 
50 Binocular. I'sed for general observation both day 
and night and to take fascinating telephoto shots with your 
camera. Brand new, fn.i value. Due to Japanese competition 
we close these out at a bargain price. Directions and mount- 
ing hints included. 

Stock No. 50.003-E $15.00 Pstnil. 

Send Check or MO— S.itlsfactlon Guaranteed! 

INSTRUCTION BOOKLETS 

Rasy to follow — accurate S^ .\ 11 page size — many illustra- 
tions. Do-it-yourself — Save! and have fun! 

Stock No. Price Pstpd. 

How to Build Projectors 90I4.E 30c 

Homcbuiit Telescopes 9006-E 40c 

Homebuilt Hltlescopes 9018-E 40c 

All About Telephoto Lenses 9036- E GOc 



How to Condi 
with Lenses 
Time in ,\s(rononiy 



I ft 



3" Astronomical Refractor Telescope 

Up to 270 Power 

see in sharp detail 




Gov't. Cost $1218 
Now $39.50 Used-$S9.S0 Ne 



Made by B & L and K. IC— 24" F.L. f/6. in 23" Ion ■ 
Lens Cone. I se as long range. Big Bertha Telephoto lens 



4-eleiiici 

hoice). Easilv 

hided. Opens ajii 

■ rdy earn 



inch 
iV, I 



and 



Ord?r Stock No. 85.059- E 24". used. Price $39 50 

1-0. b. Utah 
Order Stock No. 85.060- E 24". new Price S59 50 

lob. Utah 
Send Check or .AIO.— .Moiicy-back Guarantee 



STEREO 
MICROSCOPE 

k.iii-.Made In 




LP 



-Ere 



3" 



Oil 

Working Di 

image — Wide 3 Dimenslonai 
Field. Used for inspections, 
examinations, counting, check- 
ing, assembling, dissecting. 2 
sets of objectives on rotating 
turret. Standard pair of wide 
Held lOX Kellner Eyepieces giie 
and 40 powi 



iiiey back. 

Order Stock No. 85.056-E 
$99.50 f.o.b. Barrington. N. J. 



■ Pack, in- 




Battery 

Stock No. 85.053-E $150.00 f.o 

approx. 12 lbs.) Barrington. N 

re money! Build your own Snlperscope! ^ 
including: Power Pacl 



{Shipping ' 



; FREE CATALOG "E" 



lllle 



del alii 




n ) Combination! Pocket-Size 

50 POWER MICROSCOPE 

and 10 POWER TELESCOPE 

L-3 



Tele; 



. Ill i'l 



Mi. 



Sharp ft 

ITamlv for sports, lookiii 

jiist pliiin snooping. 

Order Stock No. 30.059- E S4.50 PI 

Send Check or M.O. 

Satisfaction Guaranteed 



STAR AND SATELLITE PATHFINDER 



Koad Map' of the heavens! A roU 
Hi; chart— slums well over 500 St 
hip to each other at i 



constellations, planets, 
sliowers. etc. Included free wli 
—STAR PATHS Instruction BiH>k 
. . . shons how to use "Star 
Satellite PathtJnder" — contain? 6 
iilitied drawings of celestial sphi 
key points of meridian, time curi 

tlon tables, other valuable data. 

Stock No. 9227-E 50c Postpi 



DIRECT MEASURING \in 
POCKET MICROSCOPE 
- 50 POWER 





For direct reading tneasuremerit- -iiill j 

and dimensions under powerful !'i.<i; 

glass etched reticle calitiraied fi.r n ,. n . i i. i ■• i;ii m 1 1 
by .001" divisions. Estimates lo .ilou,'." can ea-iiy tit- m:i 
Chrome reflector at base of iiistrumeni reflects ]i::ht 
ohjeci examined or measured. Sturdy consimciioii. 
Stock No. 30.225-E S7.95 Postp; 




atlume in seconds. V 

. . . f.l H". 

Stock No. 70. 1 30- E . 



\mmvwi i m<i 



I 



the ceiling may be as low as a crowded 
five feet but rises in places to the pro- 
portions of an arena, with a height of 
over a hundred feet. The cavern at 
first extends in a southeast direction 
for a distance of some six hundred 
feet. There, it angles sharply toward 
the southwest, blotting out the feeble 
light that had linked the young divers 
with the outside world. 

For its first t\vo hundred feet the 
cave floor is sand, interrupted by an 
occasional limestone boulder from 
some ceiling breakdo^ni of a forgotten 
age. From a depth of one hundred feet 
at the cavern's mouth, the bottom 
slopes sharply downward, reaching 
one hundred and eighty feet before it 
levels off and the sand floor gives way 
to limestone rubble. Soon, the cave 
continues to deepen. 

Three hundred feet further, the 
depth reaches two hundred and twenty- 



Mr. Olsen, a paleontologist with 
the Florida Geological Survey since 
1956. spent the previous decade at 
the Harvard Museum of Comparative 
Zoology, collecting tertiary fossils. 



five feet. Here, the wall of the cave on 
one side makes a sharp right angle, 
while the opposite side opens into a de- 
pression, its bottom two hundred and 
forty feet below surface. Dubbed 
"Grand Canyon' by the divers because 
of the layers of clay exposed in bands 
along its sides, this depression— with 
chunks of the layered clay in a tumble 
at its bottom— appears to be a sink 
hole in the cave floor. 

Beyond "Grand Canvon' lies a glis- 
tening white sand bar which rises to 
a depth af two hundred and fifteen 
feet only to dip back to the natural 
cave floor. Eleven hundred feet inside 



the cavern, at a depth of two hundred 
and fifty feet, the passage continues to 
slope dowit out of sight. Able to spend 
only scant moments here, the divers 
pointed their lights ahead into the 
utter darkness, only to see an ever- 
deepening, ever-widening cavern that 
beckoned them onward. 

This, however, was the limit of the 
geographical reconnaissance— a limit 
imposed by physiology. At depths be- 
tween two and three hundred feet, 
only fifteen minutes is safely allowable 
for aqualung-equipped divers. At these 
depths, co-ordination is seriously re- 
duced by nitrogen narcosis. 

So much for the geography of the 
Wakulla cavern. But that was only one 
part of the young divers' work. Their 
first paleontological discovery came in 
November, 1955, when they found a 
large bone lying amid the limestone 
rubble at the two-hundred-foot level. 



Pair of divers, more than 500 feet inside Wakulla cave 
at a depth of 220 feet, examine tusk partially embedded 



in clay floor. Scene is illuminated by spotlight carried 
by third diver, who also used flash to take this picture. 



It was subsequently identified as the 
limb bone of a mastodon. This first 
discovery was followed bv others until, 
at a depth of two hundred and twenty 
feet, the floor was found to be literally 
strewn with the bones of mastodon, 
sloth and deer. A mastodon jaw was 
discovered, with the teeth still intact, 
embedded in a clay pocket. 

How these remains reached the 
depths at which they were found is a 
question not yet answered. Water ac- 
tion will transport such objects a good 
distance, particularly when helped by 
a sloping floor, but at Wakulla the 
flow is in the opposite direction. Some 
objects can be easily rolled but not. 
for example, a crescent-shaped tusk 
weighing hundreds of pounds. Yet, 
surely Wakulla cavern has never been 
dry at this depth, and thus had not 
been visited by these animals at the 
time when they were alive. 

Also among the finds were over six 
hundred bone spear points, similar in 
design to those found with Florida's 
prehistoric inhabitant, the Vero Man. 
But interpreting underwater finds in 
Florida is no easy occupation and the 
excitement of this juxtaposition of 
man and mastodon is quickly damp- 
ened by experience. In the Itchtucknee 
River, one of Florida's most produc- 
tive fossil localities, for example, it is 
possible to find the remains of masto- 
don and tapir in juxtaposition with 
pop bottles and beer cans. Until extinct 
animal bones are found with a spear 
point actually embedded in the bone— 
and preferably with the bone growing 
around the po//;/— positive, contempo- 
rary association of the two cannot be 
claimed in the case of a stream deposit. 

What. then, is the answer to the 
Wakulla Spring finds? At present, we 
can only speculate. Did these bones 
and artifacts find their way from some 
ancient surface into the depths of the 
spring by means of a sink hole or fis- 
sure through the ceiling of the cavern, 
now blocked and filled with rubble? 

WHAT is it like to be down in such 
a cavern, out of touch with the 
sun and the world of air? Following 
is the log of a typical fifteen-minute 
descent to photograph and remove a 
recently discovered mastodon bone. 

Donning their equipment, the divers 
step down a ladder from the diving 
pier into the air-clear water of the 
spring, and swim down to a limestone 
ledge thirty feet below the surface. 
Here, they pick up heavy weights and 
step off the ledge, descending effort- 



lessly to the sloping sand bottom of 
the pool, one hundred feet down. Re- 
linquishing their weights, they con- 
tinue to swim dovNTi. aided by the fins, 
until they pierce the shadow of the 
ponderous, overhanging ledge which 
will intercept their exhaled air bub- 
bles for the duration of the dive. 

Gliding down an ever-darkening 
corridor past the one-hundred-and- 
fiftv-foot level and on to the one-hun- 
dred-and-eighty-foot point, they turn 
on their flashlights and locate the 
white safety rope leading deeper into 
the cavern. The rope, running eleven 
hundred feet into the depths of this 
submarine river, is the established 
base line of the exploration. 

SIX minutes have elapsed before they 
find themselves nearing the bone 
—embedded in the clay at a depth of 
two hundred and twenty feet. The pho- 
tographer moves in first, careful not 
to stir up the bottom and destroy the 
visibility. One flash bulb, and then 
another, bursts the scene into bril- 
liance for a moment: now the other 
divers can move in to do their work. 
The distance from the base line is 
measured, the orientation of the bone 
is noted and its condition is checked 
for the best method of removal with- 
out breakage. Only a few minutes 
of deep-dive time remain. 

As the fifty-pound bone is freed of 



its clay matrix, a pillowcase— linei 
with plastic— is produced. The opei 
end of the sack is tied to the bone, ani 
the sack filled with air from a diver' 
mouthpiece until the whole become 
neutrally buoyant. Then, it is an eas 
task for the divers to push the weight 
less discovery ahead of them as the 
make their way back out of the cave 
Ascending, they find that the buove 
bone rises more rapidly as the air i 
the sack expands so that, periodicall) 
air must be spilled out to control th 
specimens rate of rise. 

Now. with the fifteen minutes "ru 
out.'" the team is clear of the caver 
mouth. But the ascent is slow, and 
thirtv -six-minute decompression sto 
must be made at a depth of ten feet, t 
eliminate the danger of "bends." No 
can too much emphasis be placed o: 
the need for extreme caution in wor 
of this kind. It is a tribute to the skil 
planning and care of these six voun 
divers, that in over a hundred descent 
to beyond the two-hundred-foot leve 
there was not one mishap or acciden 

Further exploration of greate 
depths is certain to come, as faste 
means of propulsion and safer m 
tures of breathing gases are deve 
oped. For the challenge remains, an 
all of us want to know what lies at th 
end of those passages— as at Wakull 
ca\ern— that disappear into the gloor 
beyond the range of our feeble lights 




Time limit near, diver removes his 
mouthpiece, letting air fill the sack, 
above, that will buoy specimen on its 



long journey to the surface, right. I 
few of the ^ akulla cave finds prove( 
to be too fragile to permit removal 



402 



'3mmm 



Naturalist's Notebook 






'^JT 



-mj. 









i;?,^.. 




...» J 



■\i 



I- \ .J 



'X 



['iir 



/Tf-^r:^.' 



Taken at the height of summer, this photograph is 
one of a series of seasonal shots. Piatt recommends that 
404 



the same scene be photographed at monthly intervals or al I 
the peak of each season, to bring out site's full interest!! 






Spirals at center are seen 
in niacrophotographic shot of 
this daisy— which Piatt took 
with close-up tube extension. 



A Camera 

Looks 
At Plants 




A veteran photographer comments on the secrets and pitfalls of his art 

By Rutherford Platt 



I HAVE SPENT twenty years pur- 
suing the Plant Kingdom with a 
camera. I sincerely believe that pho- 
tography of plant life offers a guaran- 
tee of exciting variety and sure 
rewards, including a satisfaction akin 
to that felt by a lover of poetry. 

Opportunities for different kinds 
of plant photography follow each 
other through the seasons of the year. 
However, the very abundance of the 
subject matter calls for caution and 
discipline. There is a time of year 
and a certain day for each category, 
and the photographer must be on the 
alert. For example, if you are taking 
smooth, silvery bark— such as that 
of the beech— for pictorial effect 
rather than identification, your pic- 
ture will be more interesting with 



the play of leaf-shadows on the bark. 
White birch trunks make a prettier 
picture in summertime, against a 
Ijackground of dark blue water. 
Lichens, mosses and some ferns, in 
contrast, are more colorful and vivid 
in winter. So are winter buds. 

Wildfiowers of early spring are 
the most exciting and the hardest to 
photograph because they are the 
smallest, weakest, and quickest to 
fade. These include jack-in-the-pulpit, 
violet, spring beauty, bloodroot. trout 
lily, and hepatica. It is topnotch ad- 
venture to photograph them. You 
have to work fast, for the time be- 
tween the thawing of the ground and 
the expansion of tree leaves is brief. 
Leaves on trees blot out the wild- 
flowers with their shadows. This time 



of special opportunity lasts for little 
more than two weeks in most places. 
Late spring flowers are less of a 
challenge because they are easier to 
find and to take. Dogwood is the out- 
standing subject for the camera at 
this time. Its flower is big, with a 
definite geometric pattern. More- 
over, the tree spreads its flowers in 
artistic horizontal planes. Try to find 
a way to point down on these spread- 
ing flowers to do them justice, or 
you will get the petals too much 
edgewise to show up well. The neat 
dogwood tree is easier to isolate 
than most trees, but close-up clusters 
of the flowers also make marvelous 
photographs. Fruit trees are in bloom 
at this time— apple, cherry, peach. 
Forsythia first, and later lilac, are 

405 




Unfolding milkweed floret is shown 
in niacrophotographif sequence, above. 



shrubs you may also want to photo- 
graph in late spring. 

Look in the open woods where 
there are patches of sunlight or along 
the edges of woods. Here are Dutch- 
man "s breeches, rue anemone, wild 
columbine and geraniums. On the 
floor of the woods— partridge berry, 
bunchberry and Canada mayflower 
are in their prime. Early buttercups 
and mustards turn fields to dazzling 
yellow. 1 have taken several color 
shots of these bright yellow spring 
fields. However, when pointing to 
them with pride later, I was told that 
the gorgeous displays of mustard are 
an insult to the farmer, for they be- 
token neglect of his fields! The wise 
photographer will not show his mus- 
tard pictures to the farmer. 

FLOWERS of early summer get a 
running start in late spring. This is 
the time to go after wild roses, es- 
pecially in the northern states and 
along the seashore. The light is fine 
and the flower photographer has no 
alibi. He might as well go fishing if 
he cannot get superb pictures of 
wild roses. I am inclined to think 
the same way about daisies, black- 
eyed Susans, evening primrose, and 
milkweed. They are all big enough 
for every lens, they come in early 
summer when the weather is sood. 



Piatt uses a 35 mm camera in his macro 
work, regulating size by means of ex- 



\^ ell-kno«n as a plant photographer 
and author. Mr. Platt was among the 
collaborators on the hook Hunting 
nith the Camera (Harper. 19)7 I. on 
which the pre^^ent article is based. 



and there are plenty to choose from. 

In late summer and fall, white and 
yellow sweet clovers are three to five 
feet tall. Goldenrod is in its prime. 
The light purple clouds of flowers 
that bank the roadsides and edges of 
fields are wild bergamot. one of the 
most common and hauntinglv beau- 
tiful. In a damp place you will find, 
come September, the famous joe-pye 
weed. I have never found who Joe 
Pye was— perhaps a farmer who stood 
in front of this great flower with a 
shotgun to keep it from being mowed 
down. It tow'ers six to eight feet, but 
do not look up to it when you shoot, 
in hope of glorifying this flower 
against blue sky. The niistv mauve 
of the giant flower-head blends with 
a blue or white overcast. For a joe- 
pye to show up well you must maneu- 
ver to have dark shadows behind it. 

Somewhere, a photographer is go- 
ing to take his camera out in the late 
fall— after the aster, thistles, and 
goldenrods have vanished and the 
days are short. He will catch sight 
of a shrub reflecting the rays of the 
low sun with a lovely golden gauze. 



tension tubes. The pictures here wen 
taken at life-size before enlargement 



That flowering shrub will be witch 
hazel, the most unorthodox of all our 
wildflowers. Because it is solitary and 
out of season, it is conspicuous. 
Witch hazel delights the eye and the 
spirit— but somehow it does not de- 
light the camera. If you can take a 
picture of this one and have it look 
anything like what you see. you are 
lucky indeed. Anybody with close-up 
equipment can get the interestin 
right-angle design of this flower, but 
taking it on the bush, in the wild, is 
a real challenge. The yellow of very 
narrow petals is lost in the play of 
light and shade that surrounds it. 

You have to get close to take a 
portrait of a flower, even the biggest, 
and that tends to magnify its least 
movement. This is one of the greatest 
problems in wildflower photography. 
The first disillusionment is that 
flowers seem never to be still. They 
quiver, sway, describe circles, nod, 
swing, and bounce up and down. 
However, it is my impression that 
there comes a time when a flower is 
perfectly still. That is just before you 
set up your tripod or point the cam- 
era in its direction. The moment you 
start to focus on the flower, it be- 
comes the plaything of every zephyr. 
On a fine fair day in summer, there 
are apt to be fleecy clouds in the sky. 
When a shadow passes over the 



406 




Opened bloom completes the sequence. 
Lighting on flower was provided by 



flower the air is slightly cooler: when 
the sun shines on it again, it is sud- 
denly warmer. This sets up local 
drafts. For the same reason, the edge 
of woods— where many flowers are 
found— always has a play of air cur- 
rents due to the mottled patches of 
sunlight and shade. If you set up your 
camera when the flower is under the 
shadow of clouds or vice versa, the 
moment you are ready to shoot, the 
condition is reversed and at that 
moment the flower begins to jiggle 
and shake. This is one of the myriad 
ways in which the photographer's 
patience will be tried. 

At last, the time comes to peer 
closely at the flower and choose the 
proper moment to snap. You lean 
forward tensely and unconsciously 
change your stance. Naturally, your 
foot touches a stick or weed stalk or 
grass that acts as a trigger to the 
intertwining "jungle" of surrounding 
growth and you are amazed to see 
the flower move. It dodges and shies 
away, even leaving the field of the 



pair of microscope lamps, with con- 
densers to narrow beam to dime-size. 



ground glass entirely. So you must 
learn not to stir your foot, and also 
to keep your elbows close-hauled. 

The second greatest problem for 
getting definition and clarity into 
photographs of plants concerns the 
skill with which all plants camou- 
flage their leaves and flowers on the 
negative. This is due to the contrast 
of brilliance in terms of what you 
see. For example, a common combi- 
nation is yellow against green— a vivid 
picture as you see it. But yellow pho- 
tographs dark, not light. Therefore 
countless flowers that you admire 
against green leaves or grass may be 
scarcely visible on the negative. One 
answer is to shoot from a low angle 
so as to silhouette the yellow flower 
against sky, not against green. An- 
other way is to maneuver so that 
shadows under a tree are behind the 
flower. A yellow filter (I use a K2) 
helps to build up the contrast under 
both methods. In fact, when taking 
black-and-white pictures outdoors I 
almost never take the filter off. It 



not only lightens yellow, but serves 
to darken the blue of the sky. 

Blue flowers offer opposite diffi- 
culties, for they photograph much 
lighter than the eye sees them. For 
this reason, the beautiful sky-blue 
chicory taken against the blue sky 
almost vanishes in a black-and-white 
negative. Little blue flowers on a 
stone wall are scarcely distinguish- 
able from reflections from the stones 
and leaves of grass. The yellow filter, 
which darkens blue, turns the blue 
flowers unnaturally dark. Thus, for 
blue flowers it is better to maneuver 
for a green background and no filter. 
This gives contrast, because green 
becomes darker and blue lighter on 
a black-and-white negative, and thus 
approximates what the eye sees. 

By the same token, to bring out 
the details of a white and yellow 
flower— such as a daisy, blackberry or 
apple blossom— it is better to shun 
the filter. The yellow filter, by light- 
ening the yellow center, will weaken 
contrast with the white petals. 

Authenticity of wildflower pictures 
_£\_ taken outdoors in their natural 
habitat does not necessarily depend on 
leaving the surroundings untouched. 
You are taking a picture of a plant, 
not of the debris which nature has 
left around it. or of capricious plants 
in the environment. So, to do good 
work, you may have to clear away 
some of the jungle of twigs, grass. 
and weeds that will make confusion 
on the negative. If it is a small flower 
and you are photographing the en- 
tire plant, the ground must be sim- 
plified, grass pulled away, stones that 
reflect light removed— often, just plain 
dark earth is best. 

Once, I had before my lens a fine 
combination of a wide-open wild iris 
and beside it on the same stalk, a 
handsome burgeoning bud. A flower 
and a bud together, as they appear in 
nature, make a better picture than 
does a solitary bloom. Therefore, I 
fussed with this opportunity, taking 
plenty of time to check stop, expo- 
sure, and background— I know of no 
satisfaction in photography greater 
than to have the opportunity for un- 
hurried study of the subject and to 
strive for greater perfection. Before I 
had ended this self-indulgence and was 
set to take the great picture, I rubbed 
my eyes with disbelief: the two irises 
were in full bloom. The bud had 
popped open. 

The phrase "time lapse" is bor- 



407 




Cricial moment in life cycle is 
caught, above, as cinnamon fern throws 



off spores, by which plants not having 
flowers or seeds reproduce themselves 



rowed from movie photography, but 
the still-picture photogra])her of plant 
life can use the same idea with tell- 
ing effect. The time interval is longer, 
and the result is a series of photo- 
graphs that can be exhibited side by 
side, or projected one after the other. 

AN interesting project is to stake out 
a spot that has year-round iden- 
tification—such as a road, stream, 
mountains, or tree trunks. Then take 
a picture from exactlv the same spot 
at intervals: for example, once a 
month, or just four times a year at 
the height of each season. 

I have photographs that portray 
a little pond with three birches, and 
it is exciting to compare the various 
seasons. I also have a sequence of a 
landscape where a brook tumbles out 
of the woods. In winter, it is utterly 
different from midsummer. Plants 
are always changing: leaves expand 
and fall, flowers open and then fall 
off when the fruit appears. You do 
nut have to leave all this excitement 
to the motion pictures. 

The recording of friendly life in 
beautiful color and design is a re- 
assuring occupation in our tense and 
worried world. There are manv ex- 
citing by-products of discovery. .\ 
spider catches a grasshopper before 
your e\es. You find a black-e\ed 
Susan, with deep red ravs. A bright 
bee plunges into a fringed gentian. 

A final word of advice: always take 
the picture when voii see it. You may 
ne\er have the chance aijain. 




Magic instant is caugiil as milkweed pod. left, .splits 
open, releasing seed to be borne aloft, right, by the air- 

408 



filled "collon" balloon. Photograph on opposite page is one 
indication of the rewards awaiting the patient photograplier. 




Visitors enjoy every lioiir in Wisconsin's Nicolct National Forest 



Nature— man^s first and finest playground 



Man has always loved the glories of Nature, for here is home-base; touching it, 

he feels safe. Standing in forested mountains, near tumbling waters, 

close to the wonder of living things, his heart is lifted and his hopes nurtured. 

Thoreau, who found all life's meanings beside Walden Pond, would 
have loved Wisconsin's wonderful parks and forests. And yon will, too, for 
wise conservation has kept the sylvan beauty that entranced Joliet and 
Marquette in 1673. You can study ancient Indian rock-carvings, or watch 
exciting Indian ceremonials, or perhaps find arrowheads to bring back home. 
There are eight lliotisaiul lakes for you to swim in, bass, pike and muskie 
to catch, and wild life to watch. There's camping, and hiking, and a million 
trees to sit under and watch the grass grow. 

All men hunger for peace. It is still to be found in Nature. In the 
inspiration of cloud and forest, blossom and. star, you will find testimony 
to the essential goodness of life — and the dignity of man. 



SINCLAIR SALUTES THE NATIONAL 
RECREATION ASSOCIATION 

for tiinlint; drives throughoiJl the na- 
lion to provide parks and playgrounds 
to help citizens of all ages make wise 
use of leisure time. As the foremost 
source of recreation information and 
guidance, the Association has enriched 
the nation by showing the community 
how to conserve mental and physical 
health, win the rewards of worth-while 
recreation indoors and out, and gain the 
values of creative living that uplift the 
spiritual well-being of all Americans. 



FREE TOUR INFORMATION If you would like to visit Wisconsin's parks and forests, or drive 
anywhere in the U.S.A., let us help plan your trip. Write: Tour Bureau, Sinclair Oil 
Corporation, 600 Fifth Avenue, New York 20, N. Y. 

ANOTHER IN SINCLAIR'S AMERICAN CONSERVATION SERIES 



SINCLAIR 

A Great Name in Oil 



October 1958 • 50^ 



Natural History 







ASTIONOMICtL TELESCOPES 



yours — FREE — for the askingi 

The UNITRON Catalog of 
ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPES 



including 

OBSERVERS 



the 

GUIDE 





e sample pages shown here in miniature 
only begin to hint at the wealth of facts 
and figures included in UNITRON's color- 
ful, 38-page Catalog and Observer's Guide. 
The full-page illustrated articles on astron- 
omy are crammed with helpful information 
— not readily available elsewhere — on 
observing the heavens, telescopes and their 
mountings, accessories, amateur clubs, as- 
trophotography, and the like. There is even 
a glossary of telescope and observing 
terms. Whether you are a beginner or an 
advanced amateur you will certainly want 
a copy of this remarkable publication for 
your bookshelf. Use the handy coupon, a 
postcard, or letter to request your free 
copy of this valuable guide. 



Those who are considering the purchase of 
a telescope will find it especially worth 
while to learn more about the distinguished 
line of UNITRON Refr